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December 22, 2016
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August 1, 2011
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August 30, 1952
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 CLASSIFICATION SECRET/SECtRITY IN~a IoT CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT 25X1 25X1 I 25X1 THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION - Sky name of 'Stankoatroi" after the plant edeen Machine Tool Plant" was the correct put tnto operation. Soviet Regime, was assigned to the plant,esinceothat3procedurecwad followed with the all cases for enl.ero i r the name "r:ramat ses of that kind. or the Kramatorsky the construction of the plant was begun Harld gar II ~~ approximately in of th was comp eted and out into , only preliminary construction the plant started its work, with an only pree. The liminary caPPdroxitnoidesigning division the of beginning of 1939. The plant started ately from the production in :9110. It was a new plant. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 the plant operated under the AIinlsty Machine Toe.:. Building IL6ML 1.1 M /K IX I '65 1 1 ]7[~~T1 a Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 25X1 In the autumn of 1911 the pent was evacuated to the city of Novosibirsk. it- last echelon left in the middle of October 19111. lant was returned to its original site after the end of World war II. a uart of it remained in Novosibirsk where a new plant has been built on the base of this part. there was no used e4uipment at the plant at that time. at least before evacuation, the plant was partly engaged in manufacturine of military proiuction the total number of people employed at the plant before evacuation were only 2000-2500?. Designing and manufacturing of large metal-cutting machine tools was a task of the plant. The following machine tools were included in the number of machine ools produced by the plant: roll lathes, lathes, and, oring machines. plant trade mark should be on machine tools produced by the plant. 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 25X1 e following were some of the leading personalities lant: (a) Nikolai Henrikhovich Tevs, higbly-qualified engineer- designer who, before World war II, was chief of the lathes division of "P10s (Projecting - Designing Department) of the machine tool plant. (b) Platon Feoktistovich Balyunov, the sasee type as Mr Ters, but a somewhat younger man the head of a researc group at KO of the machine tool plant. was Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 SECR:T;/SECURITY IriGR ;AT10N The pl. n'. before e_oc,ration had four manufacturing shops: machine shop, assembly shop, pattern shop, and foundry of non-ferrous and small cast iron castings. Moreover, the machine tool plant had a plant laboratory, and had to have a repair-machine shop and ap rentice shop or apprent'ce workshop. The plant got forgings and large cast iron castings from "N%MZ" (Novo-Kramatorsky Machine Building Plant). 't the same time, ?atterns which the machine tool plant Submitted for this purpose to Jere used for molding the molds. "NKMZ" was situated at a distance of some at -:ore than one kilometer from the Kramators TI.e The machiky Heavy tool Tool t.heantinrrailroad eline railroad plant line. line of "NKMZ". the definition of the category of rietal-cutting machine tools in the technical lit.~:rature of the USSR is approximately as follows: "Machine tools for the machining of metals through the cutting off of shavings from me by arty method are called metal-cutting machine tools." A. The situation with the shortage of metal-cutting machine tools in the USSR has chanced - -rest deal at the present time in comparison with the period before World ?iar II. Since the end of viorld War II, the USSR has imported a large quantity of metal-cutting machine tools from dismantled enterprises in the Soviet Zone of Germany. The USSR also got a rather large quantity of machine tool-- from Germany in the form cf iniustrial supplies as reparations. Large German machine tool plants were considerably destroyed by bombardments during world ear II and for sore time completely discontinued production. Some machine tool firms -f East Germany had a considerable number of finished and partly finished machine tool parts. Besides that, a large quantity of machine tools damaged by bombardments, burnt machine tools in particular, were at machine tool plants an(' at many other machine enterprises. Some machine tool plants of cast Germany, after their partial restoration, started to produce new machine tools (chiefly on the base of old finished and partly finished parts of machine tools) and to repair damaged machine tools in ld 7-1,ug. The following firms are included ir the above-mentioned firms: the "Niles" fiom and series of ;mall firms in the city of Chemnitz; the "Pfauter" firm in the city of Leipzig, and others. A part of a plant of the "Reinecker" firm in Chennitz has been recon- structed. The majority of the ncst valuable macnine tools manufactured in the Soviet Zone of Germany, has been sent to the U5bR as reparations which, in total, amounts to a considerable nu.ber 'f machine tools. ;_ number of machine building plants in the USSR began to receive dismantled eii:ipment including dismantled machine tools, from Germany in. lar a .uantities shortly after th< end of world vlar II. these dismantled German metal cutting aachine tools, together with German machine tools delivc-ad as reparations, have relieved the acute shortage of machine tools which exis several postwar years. In the spring of 1949 ]there a USSR fsr large quantity of machine tools, scheduled for the was still a railroad transfer base in Brest-Litovsk a Pgraduullyly at por L_ I in These ha~re.been gradually transp7-ted to plants in the USSR. noed for most types of w.tal-cutting mac ine9toools at orking planno an tsoooffe"MTN"acute (Ministry of Heavy Machine-Building) of the USSR and it is obvious that the output of machine tools by Soviet plants has alleviated the shortage to a certain degree. A very important circumstance should be pointed out here, however, and that is that a considerable number of machine tools belonging to enterprises which were evacuated during World war II, especially large heavy mac-ine tools which were dismantled for transportation, sere damaged considerably by careless handling. Furthermore, the conditions under which they were used in new places during the war were, as a rule, wo,?se than they had been before the evacuation. The SECRET/SECMM INFUMTI1N Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 SECRET/SECURITY rNFGRJ?:ATION -14- following factors were the causes of this: worse shop"; large numbers of Pocrly q aliried machine tool cperators; low shop temperature; shortage of lubricants and wiping materials; shortage of spare parts, necessary tools and devices; bad maintenance. ani of bad quality. All this was~ag. ra?ticuiar, repairs which were untimely and ex- haustion of the majority of machine tool workers eandeadministrative-technical personnel of the plants. In particular, at NKMZ in Electrostal, abnormally high wear, breakdowr_s of machine tools during cperation, and the exploitation of Machine tools which urgently needed overhauling became quite habitual during World War II. The -ajority of machine tool! was very badly worn out by the end of the war. Tie following machine tools are included among the metal-cutting machine tools for which a great need has been felt in the USSR since world War II: gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on Gear wheels and on pinions with large modules by the rolling ethod; gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on bevel gears with helical teeth for }igh speed gearings (Gleason, Klingelnberg); precision Pear-milling machines for cutting teeth on gears for high-speed gear reducers; large slot-broaching rachines; some types of boring machines, and many very large machine tools and special machine tools. Machine shop mechanics and technolorists made ma+al _ ..a a, __ _ tnl i tha.tle a _. metal cu tj .,, mechlre tools were ones. gorse * ??.v the u erman ban American, English gnu German insufficient preciseness and quick wearability are the main defects owness of the nomQuien et-male machine tools, from the view point of shop engineers. Narr of clature of types of manufactured machine tools is also a great defect of the machine tool industry of the USSR as such. at machine tool plants of the USSR, the intraplant normalif.ation embraces a large n?mber of used machine parts and such members as threads; profiles or sections of machine parts; diameters; and also tolerances and,fite used in machine tool building; materials of machine-parts and recommended and obligatory heat treatrent, normal technological processes of manufacturing of machine parts and so on. For all this, plants of the Ministry of Machine Tool Building have intraministry standards. Plants worked out normal types of machine tools and have standardized units of machine tools. the following bottlenecks are the most neticeabie in the Soviet machine tool building: Unsatisfactory supply of materials; the absence of a sufficiently wide network of cooperating enterprises; lack of qualified workers and specialists; low quality of production; general weakness of research work, lack of means for experimental work; and insufficient and weak perspective Planning. SECRET/SRCURnT DM&HATICK Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 SECRET/SECURITY INFC&i1ATI0N each Soviet plant has so-called "Shtatnoye raspisaniye" staff schedule). A staff schedule is worked out by the ministry for each year for each plant of the ministry on the base of norms. Norms take into accounts technical data of the plant, the nomenclature of articles manufactured by the plant, and the yearly plan of industrial production in tonnage and in terms of price. The staff schedule points out to the plant a total staff of workers and employees necessary to the plant. and gives its division as to the number of workers and employees separately, showing their categories and functional wages. Limits for wages approved by the ministry are assigned in conformity with the staff schedule. These limits also take into account the so-called "tariff zone" of the enterprise, determining the degree of tariff rates of workers and employees of the plant in accordance with its geographic location. Plants have no right to violate the staff schedule and pass over limits of wages. Assuming, that the number of forking hours per month is 200 on the average, that a yearly recreation leave is 100 hours, and that the total sick leave is also 100 hours per year, and not taking into account hours of overtime Bork and state holidays, we have approximately, 2200 hours working hours per year for the average productive worker. The chief mechanic's department of N24Z in Kramntorsk did mort of the repairing of non-Soviet-made machine tools and manufactured a considerable number of spare parts for them. The chief mechanic of the plant had a large chief mechanic's department" a large and veil-e;uipped machine-repair shop, and mechanic's divisions at shops at his disposal. Supervision and carirq for equipment of the sho,,, maintenance work and planned-preventive repair of equip- ment were performed by mechanic s divisions of shops. Each manufacturing shop of the plant had this division. Overhauls of machine tools would be made by the repair machine shop. L:1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 SECRET/SECURITY IN. G J?.,iTION to fill skilled to the number required number machine trained corresponds approximately the e needs workers of the being not enough engineers and technicians are being trained. The level of qualifica- tion of trained workers, engineers and technicians, however, is undoubtedly lower than the level necessary for the industry. Trade schools of the Ministry of Labor Re-arvea e -on tor the Reserve Board at "SNK", Soviet People's Commissars Of the USSR),are tYebor principal type of schools training skilled manpower for the machine-building machine tool building indust . Trainin at trade schools of the machine- building industry lasts for only two years. This term is too short, particularly in view of the general low level of culture and the low degree of preparedness for study of people trained at trade schools. There- fore,trade schools are not able and do not train highly-skilled and universal machine tool workers. Trade schools prepare machine tool workers of narrow specialty, of average and lower than average qualifications. On completion of a trade school, workers are usually placed in the fourth or fifth class of the eight-class working tariff table (wage scale), and their basic specialty is shown on the certificates which they receive on completion of the trade school, e g, a fourth-class turner on metal, or a fifth-class milling machine operator, or a fourth-class boring machine operator, and so on. Thus, after completion of a trade school, the worker has a qualifi;ation permitting him to operate only machine tools of certain kind in conformity with the training which he received. These machine tool workers do not repair and control machine tools. They do not have the necessary qualification for ttis, and it is not their duty. Trade schools train so-called fitters-mechanics or, more correctly, repair fitters, to supervise equip".nt and perform bench and assembly repair work. On completion of trade schools, repair fitters are also limited in specialty on the level of the qualifications of machine tool operators but in their own field, i e as repair fitters. Mact:ine Tool Plant had started to o crate shortly before~therentry rof then SU SR into World War II. all machine tools made by this plant had cast iron main housings, and I did not hear that they were replaced by designs made of rolled -steel shapes. The USSR did not have a single rolling mill of "Gray" - type (for rolling wide flange bearas) before World War II and thus could not have available homemade wide flange bears 25X1 SBCRST/ECURITY I" MbTIN Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8 On manufacturing herringbone gears and pinions, the presence or absence of a groove for relief of a cutting tool is determined by the type of machine tool on which f teeth is performed. At the machine building the USSR the majority of plants of c under Y gear-cutting machines for cutting teeth on Y gear wheels were made as -' ear-milling machines for cutting with gear cutters. Thus, only gears with a groove for relief of a gear cutter could be cut on them. In machine building plants of the USSR, however, there are also such gear cutting machines, as gear planers of the "Sykes" type, and gear milling machines for cutting teeth with milling cutters--end mills. Herringbone gears of the continuous tooth type, having no grooves, are cut on these machines. SECRET/SECURITY IN"r U'U9,:TION Speed in metal cutt machine tools of the USSR has been obtained mechanically in all cases At the same time, depending on the machine tool, the process of shifting has been realized either by hand or electrically. Vthe controls nave been electrical. were not used in the macthinemtoolebouiltdiing ofOtheaUSSRBeand$inctho andelinectronicthose machine tools of foreign firms S1 1T/:~CURIT! 1-TIOsr Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600030019-8