Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 15, 2011
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1.pdf2.37 MB
Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1 HUM os t>"XC o w ile ~,"v l X 'J Tlpg CENTRAL IFITEWGENCE AGENCY COUNTRY SUBJECT Transportation - Rail Econoaric - Industrial REPORT Co O. 50X1-HUM)N i NO. OF PAGES SUFPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. OF TNN VTT!M AfATA! M1TA N TNF 6GNINi OF AITTAIAtl ACT 601 N. ! C:. NI ANN At. AN ANANFN6. ITM TNA9A60NA:OM1 ON MA UTflATYL !64, OV 011 COSTANTT IN ART 6AOIAN .O AA NNanCTNOIIYN? mNNYON Is NIH170 6I AAA NA'LPACINON OF TOM IMMN 611 TNONI6.TCN. THIS IS UNF 1 ? I IATF) INFORPT 50X1-HUM a RAILROADS OF POLA J (909.- AO l2SQ ) Length of Railroed Net (When drawing conpa'ieoas between the statistical information from and postwar Poland, one fregnsatly mates erroneous judgments because of territorial charges which took place immediately after the war (incorpora of former German regioas, cession of =astern Poland to the U 56R, etc. Flu this reason, this resume gives both the 1938 figures for what was origins prewar Poland (1938 A) and the 1938 figures for the territories within pr day Poland's boundaries (1938 B). The 1955 figures are those of the revs Six-Year Plan.) - 1 - Co MM/M f7ICIAJA8 ce.2 t3~i?.~Ihlf T CLASSIFICATION - ` ` , - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 F'? Z 8tamda gauge Darrow gauge Electrified. Q satftp~ of Rol1i k 1938 A 1938 B 1949 1955 1938 A 1938 B 199 1955 1938 A 199 18,206 23, 520 about 24,000 about 26,200 2,100 2,500 about 4,000-5,000 about 5,850 109 unity T :awative8 Passenger care Fright cars 1938 A 6,114 1949 about 4,8oo 1955 about 5,240 1938 A 10,671 1949 about 3,000-9,000 1955 about 9,500 1938 A 159,934 1949 about 160,000 1955 about 193,600 Locomotives 1938 A 28 1949 267 1955 315 F&aaenger cars 1.938 A 12 1949 200 1955 63u Freight cars 1938 A 569 1949 14,200 1955 18,800 Volume of Passenger transport 1938 A 225,600,000 passengers 1949 4",300,000 1955 919,000,000 1938 A 7,512,0w,000 1949 20,978,000,000 1938 A 75,000,000 1949 131,900,000 1955 2145,000,000 1938 A 22,368,000,000 19149 32,680,000,000 yasseeger 3:ilaa atcr$ w w tons w ton-kilos>sters w w 50X1-HUM', Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/0 an investmmuts connected with the repair - A-The national leaders also understood well. that the Prvr4quisite for thethe t f the great reconstruction program was that o successful. acccmQplishsaen this had been :ccom rai3!?oad system be in serviceable condition. Only when s~lu the other branches of plished would the enphasir be shifted ato-Investments freight movement v?s by rains.. - - - connections. poi oz- qua, --- --- .-__.- - to bear transit traffic between Germany on the one hand and Fast Prussia, the Baltic countries, and., to a rather small extent, the USSR on the other, a job dint b' There was no great a -y. of considerable magnitude which was perfarmed ere * fin 4 a north-south direction, however. The last few n volume of transit .re c 'earn before the war, however, did see a certain change in these co iitiions, 'l its coal on the Oder River, shipper as Poland, instead of shipping a p- of its coal export directly from Slask (Silesia) to Gdynia on the so-called _-r+ _ _ "Coal 1lRgiatral" Line. This changed manner of traaspo:-at.-o was profitable for the coal exporters, .thConditions changed completely i after ltheewar rebates for shipments of this kind A look at the map of postwar Poland's railroads (Figure 1) immediately brings two points into vier-. one is the very dense railroad, network in the western part of the country (with the hub in the south) compared to that in the more easterly regions. The ether is the far greater n^.miber of north- south lines Poland has acquired through the incorporation of the -~;tcrn ens The concentration of railroads in the southwestern regions of the country (at this point it nua be mentioned that Figure 1 shows only the in lines; a map shoving all lines would emphasize even more the impression stated) has its natural explanation in the fact that this. part of the country, which first and foremost must be designated Poland's industrial and raw-materials center, has an especially great need for freight and passenger transportation. The latter circumstance in nernapa mere clearly brought out if a comparison is made between a Polish railroad map and a map indicating the population density. The two maps would show that the density is greatest toward the southwest and around Warsaw and Gdynia/Gdansk. Acquisition of the Regained Territories, territories ceded to Poland from Germany after World War II, has been of great importance to the development of the railroad net of postwar Poland. As a matter of fact, the north-south lines of the Regains lerrito:-;Les ;;awe been the object of the most rapid re- construction. The lines concerned have been assigned Polish transportation tasks, such as the shipment of export coal to Baltic Sea ports, transportation to and from the entire Silesian industrial area, and the forwarding of the rather great volume of transit traffic from Czechoslovakia and.' several of the other southeestern European countrigs to the Baltic Sea ports. The increased tension between the Bast and the West has contributed nolitttlle oethis bddevelop- ment. as it has meant that Szczecin would gradri1a held as a transshipment port for southern and eastern Europa during the period between World Wars For Szczecin Inasmuch as of shipping on the ore take place particularly by way -3- S-B-G-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T INTRODUCTION In connection with the postwar reconstruction of Poland, priority wn given to all work benefiting the country's transportation system and to all d sign of the railroad network. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Oder River ie still far from the 1938 level, the burdens imposed on the rail- roads have become all the greater. The most Important north-south lines are: Szczecin-Kostrzyri-Zieloma Gora-Wroclaw, Szezecinn-Krzyz-Pozanaa.-Ostrow/Wroclax- Katowice, Gdansk-Tczenr-Bydgoszcz-Zdunske Wold-Katowine (Coal Magietral Line), and Tcaew-!lelbork-haws-Warsav-Radon-Krakow. Several lines run south to the - The strategic importance of the lines would not diminish if the Russians were to withdraw from Past Germany, for they could quickly launch large forces of troops against the West from the large staging area immediately behind the Pollah?-USSR boundary, to the north and south of the Pripet Marsh, no long as they control the Polish railroado so important to them. Also to be remembered, in this connection, are the great tranaloading problems involved in the transfer of troops, material, and supplies from the USSR to Poland, and vice versa, due to the two different track gauges used in the to countries. The most impor-.4- -re?!Graniewo. Gierdavy, Kurnica, Brzesc, Dorohuak, tent i,Yei:?ivo 145 8., -.4- ..-....- ----- and Przemye,.e The Russian-gauged !Inc has been extended west from Brzesc to Terespol, where P. new transloading station is reported to be under construction. However, transloading is still taking place at Brzesc. Even if the traffic in an east-west direction, as reported by German sources, amounts only to 20 percent of the prewar volume, the lines hatraffic bo means lost their economic importance. A large part of the between Poland and the USSR and between Czechoslovak!a and the USSR passes over these; the same holds true to a lesser extent for the traffic between East Germany and the USSR, for the mayor portion of the commercial ?raffffic, in- eluding the shipment of reparations to the USSR, goes by way Baltic ports anC Szczecin directly to the USSR. lines are shown In Figure Z. 1 a the Polann haste Rai ro s - By far the greatest portion of the supplies and. of troop shipments to the Soviet' ws:~~ Rnar glho. most important p primarily of an economic nature, the east-west limes are of far grew tance militarily, which fact is emphasized by the presence of Soviet railroad troops stationed along the most important east-west sectors and by the fact that a certain number of Soviet railroad officials have been transferred to d to serve in the stations along the east-west lines. he emphasis on the north-south axis has In no wise meant that the east- west :onuections have lost their importance. While the tasks of the former are or ter im resulted In the establishment of the Czeenosbovag xrec ,pUi w - ----- One of the driving forces behind the expansion of the north-south lines has been the Polish-Czechoslovak Ct ications Cccasieeion. This'comniseio-& functions under the large commission set up in 1947 to effect economic cooper- I. DEWELOPWEW Of RAILROADS A. Before World War II During the period between World Wars I and R. the Polish railroads de- veloped from sheer chaos in 1919 - 1920 to a high level, from the international viewpoint, in the late 19308. This may be attributed primarily to a rigid adherence to schedules, effective utilization of equipment, great concern over safety measures, and a high level of cleanliness. S-B-C-R-S=T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Before World War XI, the rolling stock consisted of 6,114 locomotives, 10,671 passenger cars, pM 159,937 freight care. The network had a total length of 18,206 kilometers of etrandard-gi-nge track, besides about 2,100 kilo- meters of x ro -gauge track. The present area of Poland had 26,020 kilowters of track in 1938, tnclwding 2,500 kilometers of narrow-gauge track. The total voles of transport in 1938 was 225,600,000 passengers and 75 million tons of freight. The greater part of the Polish railroads van owned by the state. Only a part of the local lines were owned privately; among others, foreign interests had imveei,nents in these. R. Dn?1. World War II The German occupation of Poland in Septem er 1939 brought about far- reaching chasngees in the railroad system both technically and administratively. Central Poland bee the so-called "General Goureraement`" after the western territory was incorporated into ( rs r and the eastern territory, Want Ukraine, into the USSR. fable 1. The Railroad. Syutem of occupied Poland (as of 31 August 1939) TTotal- (km) Lines Le .h For 100 Per 1,000 Ia`.ebitants adig west Ukraine Poland, i.:c= ng West ;Tkraine exclud d 20,326 12,517 100 61.6 5.2 6.6 5.8 5.6 - , i?ol n Divided Into: Areas incorporatea into 10 8 9 39 8.8 7.7 r-aaa soavernement , 3 4,380 . 21.5 4.6 3.8 11 3 34 0.2 4.2 . Slovakia Source: Trarsport and Coseaunicetion Review, .;an - afar 1949? A special law of 9 September 1939 created a specially administered rail- road system called the East Line (Ostbahn) in the General Gourernement. The railroad, net of westert Poland was incorporated into the German Reichsbehn under a law of 27 Decenber 1939 issued by the Cersan Ministry of Transportation. Part of the rolling stock was turned orer to ..he Reicbsbebn and part to the Russian-occupied areas. The General Gouvernessat received mostly old equipment scraped together from the other German-occupied countries.' Only those lines of primary importance to the occupying power were kept up. According to an official Polish account, the total loss and destruction suffered by the os 00 zlotys system during World War II of sachange in 1948, asx++aated t to 1u,5991, ,0 ys ( about 105 million dollars). Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-R-C-R-g-T On the other hand, the damage to the railroad workshops and plant buildings f m e that the Gerns us did not fSad it worth while to take xi U. Germ troops, the rest being left behind because it was in such poor condition th th were destroyed, greatly hindering rail, highwa;f, and river ra :a Slask alone, a total of 249 bridges, viaducts, and tunnels were destroyed. in the Regained Territories, the destruction was greater in the cci- cations system than in iLdustry. With the exception of southern Slask, 70 percent of the railroads and. 55 percent of the bridges were blown up. For example, a total of 52 bridges over the Oder River between Iiozle and Szczecin t ?fic sma or kilometers of railroad bridges and viaducts were desti^Vye (Another source reports the destruction at about 70 kilometers of rallrord tridges and half of the trackage, that is, 9,000 kilometers of track.) The loss of rolling stock included 2,465 locomotives, 6,256 passenger care, and 83,636 freight cars. Almost 6,000 kilometers of trat:k and nearly 48 atled di d amounted to only 10-20 percent. But to make up for it, o5-95 percent o ir was i r repa inEentortes and machines were so thoroughly wrecked. that the C. After World War II The Polish railroads began to function a little, even in July 1944, as the Gcr r=.s retraatc-d; but only in August 1945 did the administration control the whole :-atlroad system, after which a special commission for the recon- struction of ^stiuuaicatici;a and transportation was set up. Investments in :;iie transportation system received top priority, as the reconstruction of the entire ecoromi- systen was dependent on the shipment of goods. in consegc:ence of the great destruction and shortages of roiling stock, the transportation system threatened to become the bottleneck in the recon- struction program. The reestablienment of lines of commnication between the industrial area in Slask and the Baltic Son ports played an especially great role in the development of coal export. Moreover, the great migration and evacuation of population in connection with the border changes made necessary an effective use of passenger transportation. Another important element in the re^onstructiaa was the incorporation of the Regained Territories in the west and northeast. The incorporation of the railroad net of these areas into the Polish system in 1945 was to h've increased the length of the prewar net by 33 percent, namely 11,218 kilometers of standard- gauge track and 2,773 kilometers of narrow-gauge track; however, as a result of Russian dismantling in these areas, the iucrease was considerably less. This dismantling, which took place only in the former German areas, was re. garded ae war booty. In Olsztyn Wojewodztvo along, 1,500 kilometers of track, especially branch lines, of the total of 2,500 kilometers, were dismantled. A second technique applied was the dismantling of one track of a double-tracked line. The railroad network was very dense in these areas compared to the rest of Poland (11 kilometers of track per 10,000 inhabitants, compared to 5.8 kilo- meters in Poland as a whole), and it was highly gighlynexpl_7ited,as 93 lionnttons e were transported there 'n 1938 compared same period. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S_E?C-R-R-T As previously menta.un+mcc, ~.y@~-? --- -- involved 70 percent of .he track1%ge, WA the reconstruction of this was made much more difficult because the Germans had removed everything which could be of value in the s , _ ?cs.truetion work. A 1946 decree provided for: the nationaliantio-% of the railroads of the fex small local lines. Regained Territories with the exception o a a D. Reconstruction and E pans.t,on The rc. onstruction and expansion of the Polish railroads is to take plece th 7+f4aiatry of Co unicationa. b 5 Pars kilometers of new lines in the third phase a tending over ~'- ,953 are to be ]aid. t ction it wus further intended that the u conttnuue, in the secord phase, extending over the following 3 years, 395 kilometers of new lines were to he built and the reconstruction of destroyed lines was to a eonatnactiou of only 85 kilometers of new lines The first phase, covering the years 1945 and 1946, was dedicated to the nd the reconstruction of 4 ?00 This plan divides the development into three p in accordae with a special plan prepared y haeus , 1r coanectlon with the re_ons r railroad system be coordinated with the systems in Czechoslovakia and thu other Danube caunt2iee. 1. First Phase, 19!45 - 1946 At the mime Poland took over the railroads, the rolling stock wR.A in exceedingly poor condition -- windows were amaahed and doors were missing, -11ected by severe' gear parts tipFiies were destroyed, the rolling stouts ma acid tear. etc. .-?? and it was necessary for Poland to make navy investments of money and materials to bring the railroads into condition again. Table 2. quantity of Rolling Stock 1939 1945 Serviceable Under jr spa Service !Lm ~air lpcomrtives 6, i14 5,114 2,864 2,640 2,570 Passenger ;are 10,671 8,000 14,8 Freight cars 159,937 111,000 18,500 111,000 47,336 Source: Transport and Cocaunication Review, Jan - Mar 1949. As is shown by the above table, a large part of the rolling stock from 1939 was unserviceable after the war. The rolling stock undergoing repair constituted a considerable port ica of the total park. Under normal conditions, only 4 percent of the stock is under rs undergoing repair inng oTer haul. This condition, needless to say, posud ravY airaora -7- S_E-C-R-E-T 50X1-HUMI Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T shcpe of which only three out of 23 could be used. Of the othere, four were burnt to the ground, eight were completely plundered of machinery and tools, and in eight others over 6o percent oi' the equipment had been removed. In order to repair this dhxage an rapidly as possible, the government pushed the restoration of ths,iepair shops. One of the largest was PA-Pa-Wag (Panstowa Fabryka Wagonow, State Railroad Car Factory) in Wroclaw. .Rven in 1945 this repair shop began to operate, although practically without equipment. Bever, right from the start it began to turn out 12 freight cars a mouth. Other reconstruction progressed rapidly. This was particularly true of bridges and railroad lines. According to the plan, 4,500 k lom,ta:s of destroyed lines were to be rebuilt and 85 kilometers of lines built anew in 1945 and 1946. In 1945, there were 17,263 kilometers of usable standard-gauge track; in 1946, thin figure reached 20,580 kilometers. Reconstructed 1945 1546 Lines (km') Bridges (km) 3,48o 2,143 Permanent 9.300 Temporary 6.7oo As may be seen, the plan for the reconstruction of 4,500 kilometers was exceeded ty barely 20 percent Lsic; actually 25 perceng, but it certainly must be asswaed that part of the trackage, like the restored bridges, was re- built more or less provisionally. Concerning the volume of transport on the Polish railroad net, no figures are available for 1945, as the chaotic conditions also characterized the checking and the statistics. For 1946, however, the following figures are available: 50X1-HUM 1938 1946 Freight (million tons) 75 67 Volume (million ton-kilosssters) 22,365 19,366 Millions of passengers 225.6 244.9 Volume (million passenger-kilometers) 7,512 15,620 Sources: Wiadomosci Statystycsne 1949 and Poland's Statistical yearbook 1948. S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 From the above table it is clear that Poland has =de a colossal effort, if the conditiota of the equipment and rolling stock is taken into consideration. The' high figures for passenger transportatiota vast be viewed against the background of the population moveteents within the country's bound- aries. While the average traveling distance in 1938 was 33 kilowaters, in 1946 it was 64 kilomters, which at be explained by the population oveunnte over rather great d'starlces. The vollwe of freight traffic in 3.946 coslpare to that in 1938 morn or less correspond to the relationship between the numbers of freight cars is service during those yesers. 2. Second Phase, 1947 - 1949 -- The Three-Year Plan of activity in rail transportation. An investment plan also was prepared with Ird"T --A 'Ikl t+ti Fixed installations, in- cluding track 6,500 20,200 7,100 Rolling stock 3,200 8,300 Source: Transport and Co ication Review, ,Fan - Mar 1949. The followiag pages will show, to the extent it has been possible to obtain data, the varic?as plans and the extent to which they have been execrted during the individual, yearn, Table 6 gives data for rolling stock. 0 Table 6. production of Roiling Stock (standard gauge) Freight cars 5.59 5,221 12,000 11,500 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 3-E-C-R-E-T 1948 1949 (planned) actual) (pl.anisedT 'Tactual) Locomotives 170 265 300 267 Passenger cars (starAard gauge) -- 232 -- 200 Freight cars 15,000 15,000 16,600 14,200 Sources: International Reference Service, May 1948. Poland'a Recovery. vi e. eci Statystyczne 1949. UN Statistical Yes book 1948. gCE industrial and Material Committee, Report of 25 February 1950 It will be seen from the table that the production of locomotives for the 3 years covered by the plan was up to expectations, while the production of freight cars was carried out to only 93 percent of the plan goal. In re- gard to the production of passenger care, it has not been possible to learn -whether any such production had been planned for the 3-year period. The low number could indicate that it had not. Also the reconstru.:tion of the rail- road lines and bridges progressed according to the Three-Year Plan. Table 7 shows the derel.opmert. Table 7. Reconstruction of Lines and Bridges aired R 1947 1948 1949 ep Track (inn) Bridges (lrm) 530 1,000 1,000 Permanent. 12.6 -- -- Temporary 1.8 -- -- Total bridges (km) 14.4 22 23 Sources: Statistical Yearbook of Poland 1948; Det nya Polen 5wedis7, NO 3/50. Starting with the combined length of the standard lines in 19447 to , 20,949 kilometers, it follows that the railroads at the and of 1949 have a total length of nearly 24,000 kilometers, compared with 2(,600 kilo- meters in 1938 within the present boundaries of Poland and 18,200 kilometers in prewar Poland. Thus, so far as trackage is concerned, the reconstruction is practically complete. This includes the new Trackage of 395 kilometers provided under the Tame-Year Plan. The new constructions include among others, the Slink-Ssesecin lisle, which is to handle part of the important coal transportation, and the ex- pansion cf the net in Szczecin itself, where, ascnng other things, a now freight yard has been built at the harbor. Further, the Three-Year Plan prcrided for the electrification of the network around WarsaW-and in Upper Sleek. S-it..r-R-le-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 s-9-C-R-a-T The voluss of traa'port +ader the Three fear ? len displayed a very fluctuating course, as ffollowsa Table 8. Volume of Transport on the Railroads rr~t~,aes1} Freight traaneNort (aillioo tons) ?t5 Freight transport (millton ton- kilometers) 22,368 Passenger transport i (mill on 216.9 331.2 passengers) 225.6 244.9 Passenger transport (million passenger- kilometers) 7,512 15,620 13,000 17,964 Average transport distance (kilo- meters per toe of freight) 290 Average traveling distance (kilo- mtters per passenger) 33 1 aactl) 19,368 1947 (p1 sue (actual) 58 54 194-8 =949 (plan (actual) (planned) (actual) Freight transport (million tons) 100 114.4 120 131.9 Freight transport (million ton- kilometers) 35,532 28,380 36,000 32,680 Passenger transport (aillion yassengerc) 230.7 387.6 240 ` Passea~ger, transport (aillion passenger- kilometers) 12,000 20,292 11,200 20,978 Average transport distance (kilometers per ton of freight) 355 248 300 255 Average traveling distance 45 5 48 (kilometers per passbnger) 52 51 Sources: Wisdososci Statystycane 1949. Rehabilitation of Polish Neoasoq, Transport dad Co^simication Review, Jan - Mer 1949. Wlrtsehafs- dienat, Aug 1949. - 11 - g~L-C-II?lt-! Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1-HUM'1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 r According to the table, freight transport since the war has steadily risen, both in toms and in ton-kilometers. If the volume of freight transporte4 in 1938 (75 million tons) equals l(0, the following index figures are obtained: 1946, 89; 1947, 118; 1948, 153; and 1949, 176. In tan-kilometers, still using 127; aM 95; 1948 46 1947 8 , , , 7; 1938 as the base year, the figures are. 19 1949, 146, In regard to the fulfilment of the plan, it is actin that the plan figures were exceeded for all 3 years for the absolute transport it tons, while the opposite is the ease for transportation expressed in ton-kilometers. Study of the average transport distance per ton of freight shows that on an average the sh`.ats vent over a shorter distance than envisaged in the plan. This is not to be blamed entirely on the plan's not having been followed, be- cauuse the planned shortening of the lines, resulting from the rerouting of econatruetion programs, also entered as a factor. r th d e r e certain lines un The lines were shortened in order to effect Savings in the consu pti-`O'n o` coal and fuel oil; this, too, was achieved. At the came time, operation was strea 6 kilo- d to 92 t 4 . e 7 amoun lined, so that the consumption of coal, which in 19 grams per 1, 0 tore-kilomaeters, was cast down to 69.8 kilograms in 1948 and to 59 kilograms in 1949, that is, a reduction of over one third in the course of 2 years. Passenger transportation vas a greater there shoTa volume ofitrans t rn 194 th i , a ever, it appears port expressed in passenger-kilosusters. Taking 1938 as a base year, the number of passengers transported was 108 in 1946, 147 in 1947, 172 in 1948, and 197 in 1949. For the volume of transport expressed in passenger-kilometers, the corresponding figures are 208 in 1946, 239 in 1947, 270 in 1948, and 279 in 1949. The plans were exceeded in all 3 years both in regard to the number of passengers transported and in the volume of transport expressed inpassenger- kilometers. The changes in the average distance traveled per passenger probably closely tied t3 the great population movements during this years right after the war. In general, it may be stated that the persons who prepared the plant in defiance of shortages of equipment and during chaotic conditions must have had a thorough iolCwieage f'.cl of work_ provided that the figures given are correct, which is doubtful. However, no information is available from other sources on these conditions. 3. Third Phase (Sea Part IV below) Poland's railroad network as of 1950 is enown 1n Figure 1. For the sake of r-l.arity, the lines of local interest, particularly the narrow-gauge lines, have not been entered on the rap. Figure 1 givers bath the single-track and the double-track stretches, The method of procedure followed in the preparation of the asp is described in "Notes on Figures," below. Figure 2 shows the most important east-west transit lines, and, finally, Figure 3 shove the frequency per day in 1949 of passenger trains al the most, important stretches. It is characteristic of the Polish rail networL that the greatest con- centration occurs in the former Gerwan areas, while the more sparsely settled in the east have relatively few railroad lines. As mentioned earlier, dismantling toc1, place in those areas received by Poland after the war, as S-E-C-R-N-T 50X1-HUMS Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 years, however, the traffic in an east-west direction has increased in consequence of the trade between the USSR and the Satellites. Furthermore, Seviet ship- ments of troops and material to East Germany have taken place since the end of the war. Firally, strategic considerations are of importance to the east-west railroads. Especially if the Russians were to withdraw their troops from East Ge.;meny and destra.l to maintain fast lines of communication to =,ast Germany from Fast Pruseia and the Ukraine. It should a_so be mentioned in this con- nection that the construction of the bridge across the River east of Glogow on the Glogow--$rotoszyn sector (see Figure 2) will upeu still ahothei fast ^.frtejectioa from Lod?, via Ostrow to Forst. is of importance to transit traffic. In contrast to the pre oainantly east- vest layout before the war, the north-south traffic has assumed growing Im- Moreover, the orientation of the line network in a north-south direction the Poznan Junction." connection with tLt capital, Warsaw, and (4) the high degree of development of very straight course of the Slask-Willa River mouth line, (3) the advantageous constitutes an excellent supplement for the traxsaportation and corm mications "Special mention is to be given to (1) the great .dvantages sGemming from to the economic requtremeats. lines forms a splendidly developed co'meunications system, excellently adapted themselves.' Since 1947, there has been no dismantling of any kind. Regarding the orientation and density of the railroad network, it is officially stated by the Poles that "the especially favorable layout of the the t.ussians regarded the railroads as war booty, As a rule, the min stretches, were retained, although at some places one track of a double-trkek line was re- moved. Mainly the local lines were dismantled. Within the boundaries of pre- war Poland there was little dismantling, and that was carried out by the Poles The Polish railroad network has developed as follows before and after Table 9. Length of the Polish Rail Network (kilometers) 1938 1945 1946 1997 Standard gauge * 18,206 -- -- -- Standard gauge** 23,520 17,263 20,580 20,949 Narrow gauge * 1 2,100 -- -- -- Narrow gauge*-* 2,500 3,012 3,280 3,589 Broad gauge * -- -- 530 466 Reconstructed during the course of the year 3,430 2,143 539 Standard gauge -- -- 2,984 Narrow gauge 4,305 4,305 4,270 Service, May 19lJ8. International Railway Statistics, 1946. f In pre-war Poland *mF within the area of postwar Poland S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T meters were under reconstruction;, when on that not all the lines had yet been reconstructed. If one adds 12,000 to the figxre for the length of the railroads existing in 1945, one finds that the standard-gauge trackage today is 24,000 kilometers and the narrow-gauge trackage is 4,00.0-5,000 kilometers. waters of trackage had been reconstructs . had been reconstructed and 7,254 kilo- given in Table 9 (in 1947 6,162 kilometers given it along with the report Thus, from 1945 to 1947, the combined standard and narrow-gauge track- age increased by 20 percent. The tendency in the reconstruction of the Polish railroad network appears to have been first rstototreconstruct rcstth nst standard-gauge lines lines and then gradually to step up the as the standardg+nuge lines became completed. This is certainly the explanation for the fact that no change took place in the f}.gures for the length of the r-mrrow-gauge lines during the reconstruction from 1945 to 1946, since no stretches were completed. The 466 kilometers of wide-gauge trackage in 1947 included the lines from the southern part of the boundary with the USSR to the industrial area around Sosnavice in Upper Slask. it was officially reported on 5 November 1947 ti," thasc 1:nes had loan converted to standard gauge. While all the standard-gauge lines are under state administration, about one thirb. of the narrow-gauge lines are under local or private management. For the years 1948 and 1949 there is no informmt9 on onothelrlengthleolo- the railroad. network except for a report that by early A This tallies closely with the figures Bridges The reconstruction of the railroad bridges took place side by side with the reconstruction of the railroad network itself, although a considerable number of these bridges, especially in the initial years, were restored only l ..y Yro: iaione,-.., Some of the bridges are for double track, but how many is not known, as double-track bridges have act been built along there are forlnarrow-gaugecrailrpoadsealone. It is also not knows h hoer many bridges The reconstruction of bridges has developed as follows: Table 10. Length of Reconstructed Bridges (meters) 1945 1946 1947 1948 9 Permanent bridges 1,150 9,300 1n.,600 -- "_ Temporary bridges 44,400 6,700 1,800 -- -- Total 45,550 16,000 14,400 22,000 23,000 Sources- Poland's Statistical Yearbook, 1948; Det nya Polen, No 3, 1950. 3. Electrification Electrification of the rail network is taking place only in the areas around cities, in the most highly populated industrial -.raters, and along individual main stretches. This is borne out by the following table: Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-R-T Table 11. Electrification of the Rai Network (kilometers) 1937 ?938 1745 1 e7 Electrified lines 85 109 23 28 Electrified local traffic 230.9 312.5 Including: 40.2 Warsaw district 80.9 Lodz district (narrow gauge) 168.9 71ask-Dabrowa basin 4.9 Bielsk district 17.6 ?clenia Gora district Soarcez Poland's Statistical Yearbook, 1948.. According to D_ot__na__Poleen, No 3, 1950, tae stretches Warsaw-Zyradow (about: 4 kilometers), W_arsaw-Ot_voclc (25 kilometers), and Warsaw-Minsk Mazoviecki (40 kilometers', have also been electrified, so that the Warsaw district has at least 150 kilometers of electrified lines. The supervision of this work has been in the hands of the Swedish firm ASEA. 4. Coaittion of Permanent Way. At moet places the permanent way is poorly maintained; only on the strategic cast-vest lines has an attempt been made to maintain the permanent vay =I nc ...,nation by; amnua other things, replacing the roils. But the results of this have not coincided with the plans, as it has turned out that rails have been in short supply. So far as is known, in 1948 and 1949 there was supposed to have been an accotnting on the number of rails laid. It has been figured than, for the first year damage to the rails amounted to a total of 600-800 million zlotys. For 1949, the amount has been at least the same, perhaps larger. The safety service, whose task it is to direct traffic on the Polish railroads, appears to have detected a number of irregularities in the rails. These irregularities are blamed on stru.ttural defects in he manufacture due to negligence and perhaps duce to direct sabotage. When rails break or other damage occurs so frequently, as is the case there, it may undoubtedly be attributed) besides the above reasons, to the fact that obsolete equipment (locomotives, cars, etc." in poor condition cause abnormally heavy wear en tae rails. B. Rolling Stock The rolling stock of the Polish railroads is old and in poor condition. Only the main lines have "era Polish passenger locomotives and new, well- enuipped passenger cars. 1Qa3y local trains, even so recently as late 1948, have used passenger cars converted from cattle cars and freight ccrs. On the whole, the car park must be replaced, but inasasch as part of the domestic pro- duction of rolling stock goes to the u48R, it will take a longer time to accomplish this than the production figures indicate. - 15 - S-g-C-R-S-T 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 * Nearly half of these are unserviceable. Sources, Poland's Statistical Yearbook, 1948; International Reference Service, May 1948; International Railway Statistics, 1946; Transport and Communication Review, an - Mar 1949. As is shown by the table, the number of locomotives apparently exceeded the prewar level, bat, as is indicated, the figures for 1946 and 1947 cover both serviceable and unserviceable locomotives. The locomotive park in 1949 was calculated to be 4,8)0, or a little more than 90 percent of the prewar figure, and these had to serve 33 percent larger network. Beyond this, there is no information as the locomotive park, but on the basis of knowledge of both the volume of transport in 1948 and 1949 and of the total roduntion and import of locomotives in those 2 years -- a total of at least 500, ?.me of which presumably were delivered to the USSR -- it must be assumed that the goal set has not been reached. Neitber car the number of narrow-gauge locomotives be appreciably higher today than in 1947; the annual production of these varies between 60 and 70 locomotives. So far as the rail motorcars are concerned, the number of electric rail motorcars has probably increased considerably in view of the ex- pansion of the electrified line network. Table 13. Rolling Stock of Passenger Cars 1937 1938 1945 1.945 1947 Standard-ga.ige passenger cars) 4,800 7,017 7,796 10,802 10,534 Narrow-gauge passenger cars ) 662 756 769 For electrified local traffic -- -- -- 243 343 For electrified long-distance traffic 132 152 -- 16 22 Sources: UN St.atiatical Yearbook, 1948; Poland's Statistical Yearbook, 19kb; Tnterratinnnl Rpilwav Statistics. 1946_ 16 - S-E-C-R-E-T Narrow-gauge rail motorcars I6&rrov-gauge locomotives Broad-gauge locomotives s-E-C-R-E-T Table 12. stock of Locomotives and Rail Motorcars Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1-HUM! Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 I S-E-C-R-E-T Standard-gauge freight cars to that in 1938, .despite the fact that the passenger-car park was only about 80 percent of the prewar figure, must be sought in a better utilization of Narrow-gauge freight cars Bread. gauge freight cars For electrified local traffic Service reports that only half were in use, while the Trans Port and Communication Review states that 110,000 were in use. The 138,326 cars were aivia-ij r?n 0ri ,,32 box cars, 85,662 open cars, and 12,132 special cars. The corresponding breakdown for the 13,420 narrow-gauge freight cars was 1,280 box carq and the rest open cars. The numerical goal for freight cars at the end of 1949 was 160,000. The volume of transport in ton-kilometers in 1949 exceeded that of 1938 by 46 per- cent. Even with increased utilization of capacity, tnis could have been achieved only if the above goal had been attained. The production under the Three-Year Plan amounted to about 40,000 freight cars. This figure seems to confirm the truth of a freight-car park of 160,000 today. Sources: UN Statistical Yearbook, 1948; International hailway Statistics, 1946; Poland's Statistical Yearbook, 1948; 't'ransport and Com- mimication Review, Jan - Mar 1949. Of the figure of 138,326 freight cars in 1946, the International Reference According to the International Reference Service, pay 1948, the number of passenger cars at the end of 1949 was to be 9,000. on the basis of the volume of transport in 1948 and 1949 and the production of passenger cars in those years, it must be assumed that this figure was not attained. The reason for the trebling of passenger transportation, measured in passenger-kilometers, compared As is shown in Table 8, the volume of transport has risen sharply after World War II. This developaent is especially noteworthy when it is borne in mind that the equipment is only 75-80 percent of the prewar iviventnry and that the length of the trackage has increased 33 percent in relation to that of 1938. It cannot be denied that Poland has made quite an achievement in this field. In spite of the favorable levelopment, however, certain difficulties have manifested themselves which it has not been possible to overcome. These difficulties arise right after fall, when the agricultural products are to be shipped in. In 1949, the quantity involved was 600,000 tons, which had to be shipped in a. period of time. To effect this shipment, 30,000 extra cars are required. Having been used once, these cars must be placed in reserve for the following year. An attempt has been made to solve the problem by planning transportation for the whole year it sucn a way that there is a level- ing out of the volume of transport for all 12 months. This attemlh failed in 1949, and the problem is still unsolved. In spite of an increase in the trans- portation of freight of about 15 percent from 1948 to 1949 as compared to only }~JE U ~e ? ?k +u .'.rp,p 4.rktceni{~r Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 1945 1946 ]:947 18,500 138,326 144,453, 13,005 13,420 13.646 6,346 - 83 84' 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 50X1 -HUM I S-E-C-R-E-T seven percent in the freight-car park, tr^nsportation as a vhole functionede thanks to increa-eed speed, better utilization of capacity, and a shortening of the lines. As pre=viously mentioned, Figure 3 shows the frequency of passenger trains ortant strasz.chss. In genera=l, the frequency of freight t im E th p s e per day on traffic is approximately the same as that of the passenger traffic, but certain lines are used for freight transport to a greater extent. A good example of s d C this is the Coal Hagistral Line, Katowice-Bytom-Adunska WolaBdgaz- on the which is traveled by fewer than ten passenger trains a day, but which other hand is used to a very great extent for coal transport from Slask to the Baltic Sea and ore transport in the opposite direction. Table 15. Volume of Transport on 'the Harrow-Garage Lines 1945 Passengers (millions) 12.0 Volume (million passenger-kilometers) 221 Freight. (million tons) 4.2 Volume ?'. million ton-kilometers) 81.6 1946. 19.1 351 357 7.2 6.7 128.6 109.9 There is no information after 1947 on the narrow-gauge lines; there develop- ment was on the verge of stagnating in that year. Passenger transportation rose insignificantly from 1946 to 1947, and freight traffic dropped. On the basis or the above figures, however, the cuuaiu&iou mesy riot be .uo... tmat ~,...o.. railroads are declining in importance, as the standstill in 1947 definitely can be attributed to the shortage of equipment (in the first few postwar years, the primary emphasis of reconstruction was placed on the standard-gauge lines); the shortage of equipment can gradually be overcome by the manufacture of new care and by repair of the old ones. The volume of transport on the broad-gauge lines was 2.9 million ton-kilo- meters in 1947. In 1947, 165.9 million passengers and 49,400 tons of freight were transported by electrified local traffic, as compared with 134.5 million passengers and 22,500 tone of freight in 1946. Before World War II, transit traffic was an important Polish railroad activity, primarily attributable to German trade with East Prussia and the Baltic Sea. It became clear after World War II that the transit traffic would disappear, as there was no east-west traffic except that of the Soviet occupation forces. However, as it proved difficult for Hungary and especially Ctechoslovekia to utilize the prewar connections with the West via the Gerson railroad and river network to Hamburg, these countries decided to make use of the Baltic Sea ports instead, and a new orientation of the transit traffic through Poland was the result. I Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-B-C-R-E-T As is shown by the following table, transit traffic has still not reached the prewar level, but with the planned development of Polish-Czechoslovak economic cooperation, it presusbly will assume proportions greater than before World War Il, provided that Poland's railroad system will be in a Table 16. Transit Traffic via the Polish Railroads 193 Total (1,000 tons) 6,127 Including: Ore 850 Iron and steel products 158 Timber 598 The figure was zero )r insignificant. Sources: Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1948; Wiadomosci Statystyczne, io4o. The most important commodities being transited through Poland are ore, which is being ii. rte into Czechoslovakia, and timber and iron and steel products, which are be?,ng exported from that country. It must also be noted that there is also considerable transit traffic by way of the Oder River, and inasmuch as this transportation route is to be expanded greatly, there is question as to the extent to which Czechoslovakia In the future will avail herself of the more costly railroad transportation. Examination of traveling times given in the official timetables indicates that apparently three types of trains are used: 1. Ordinary trains ("milk" trains), with a speed of 30-35 kilometers per hour between main stations 2. Passenger trains, with a speed of 40-45 kilometers per hour between main stations 3. Express trains, with a speed of 60-65 kilometers per hour between main stations. D. Stations The rail--road stations ar< modernly equipped with electrically operated switches and other safety equ.pment which can promote the rapid dispatch of traffic. In view of the steac,ily increasing volume of transport, new, large - 19 - ,S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T marsAhsalling yards are to be set up at Siedlee, Tereepol and 15 kilo=tern west" of Warsaw, and at other places. The marshalling yard at Terespol is, as previously mentioned, to be connected to Brzesc by means of a broad-gauge line in order that the transshipment yard at the latter may be relieved by the new transshipment yard at Terespol. For the most per, the stations appear to be adequately equipped. E. Supply of Emu aipment 1. Domestic Production Poland's prewar production of rolling stock, as shown by the following table, was minimal. So far as passenger cars are concerned., this is still the case, even though this type of production has been increasing. On the other hand, there has been a great upswing in the production of freight cars and locomotives. This will not be hown in full in Table 17 because, as will be brought-out later in the discussion of the individual factories, a large part of the production oes to the USSR and the Sateliitee, and is not entered in the official /Polish statistics. Table 17. Production of Rolling Stock 1237 1945 1S46 ' 1947 1948 1949 Locomotives 32 75 178 254 265 267 Passenger cars 108 232 200 Freight cars 295 80 5,221 11,458 15,000 14,200 sources: U1( Statistical Yearbook 1948; Wiadomosci Statystyczne 1949; E.E Industrial and Material Committee: Report 25 February 1950. In the above table the figures for the rolling stock include the btock for standard as well as narrow-gauge tracks. Up do 1948 the figures include broad-gauge stock also. 1 947 191.8 1 Jan949 0 Sep Locomotives 50 42 55 Freight cars 490 547 88 Source: Wiadomoaci StatysLyczne 1949. The table corresponds very closely to the figures for the reconstruction of the railway network itself. in that the narrow-gauge lines received attention quite late. - 20 - S-L-C-R-E-T Table 18. Production of !farrow-Gauge Rolling Stock Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 The figure for the first nine months of 1949 indicates that there have been irregularities in one form or another. As far as the above figure is concerned, it must, however, be remembered that a large number of these narrow- gauge cars go to the Soviet Union. Concerning the largest manufacturers of rolling stock and other railway This state-owred factory, the largest of its kind in Poland, employs 1.4,000 laborers. Production includes principally freight cars for coal to .ns port, most of which are sent to the USSR and the rest to the Eastern European The factory was already in operation in 1945 despite great destruction and lack of machines. In 1946 the production excee&ed 300 freight cars per month. At the end of 1947 this figure rose to 600 and in 1949 to 700. According to official sources, the production at the beginning of 1950 was to amount to 40 freight cars per day. Since World War II, the factory has pro- This factory, which has been nationalized and recently renamed the Stalin Workshops, officially produces locomotives. Locomotives are produced to a small extent here, but the principal production is cannons. The factory employs 10,000 workers and owns several installations around Poznan. The largest of these is in ::o=%eru Wilda, a suburb. The manufacture of locomotives, which are exclusively for the Soviet Uaivn, consists of a large heavy Russian type for use over long distances. Additionally, 8pecla2. tank cars are produced, presumably for transporting hydrogen peroxide. The production of these cars, which amounts to only about 20 units per year, is exclusively for the Soviet Union. Pierveza Fabryka Lokomotyw w Police S. A. (First Locomotive Plant in Poland) in Chrsanow West of Krakow Production at this plant includes locomotivee for tracks of all three gangrs. Oer half the production, principally the smaller types for narrow-gauge tracks, are exported to the USSR. The plant also manufactures spare parts or locomotives. About 7,000 workers are employed at the plant. According to unofficial sources, in 1949 not less than 130 loco- motives were produced at this plant (the official Polish production in the same year was 267 units). Fifty-five units of the express train type PT 47 (maximum speed 110 kilometers per hour) have been produced from the time the factory resumed operations after World War II until the middle of 1949. d. Wytwornia Parownwf v 7^k1RAti Ostrowleckie (Ostrow ec jo-eci-tive Construction Works) in Warsaw In 1949 this plant employed 3,500 workers. According to the Six- Year Plan, this figure is to be increased to 8,000. S-E-C-R-13-T Since the restoration of the factory, almost 6,000 locomotives and cars have .e.: repaired. 50X1-HUMS Z Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T Ps'oduction inclaades the manufacture of standard-gauge locomotives for Poland and. for export to the West. Locomotive boilers are also proCzced. Almost all of this pro- duction goes to the USSR. This plant, which produces signal and lighting apparatus for railways, is the only one of its kind Lu Poland. Up to 80 percent of its to be established to Warsaw. g, Stocznia Polnocna (Northern Shipyard) in Gdansk (previously Danziger Waggonfabrik) Besides ships, this shipyard builds special care for the W..Z east-vest 11ne within the urban railway district of Warsaw. This enterprise employs 2,000 workers. I According to'the Six-Year Plan, two large plants for the railway industry are t5 iae erected in the area between Warsaw and Krakow east of Wiela. Besides mauufactrring, repair work is carried out at all of the abore plants except in Poznan and Wytoraia Sygnalow. Repair work is performed also at the former shipyard in Elblag, at "Huta Andrzej" in Opole, at the shops in Pruszkow, Rzeszov, Bydgoszcz, Ostrava, and Karsznice, at Lodz and at Starogrod. Finally, there are a number of smaller factories for the production of rolling stock. The largest of these, located in 'Llelona Gora, produces Finally, there is a foundry in Nova Sol. 2. Imports Practically speaking, no information is available concerning Poland's import of railway equipment. It is known that a great deal of the equipment for the electrification of the network comes from Hungary. Furthermore, in 1949 Poland ordered 100 locomotives from the US, but it is not known vhether these have been delivered. Poland has imported railway cars (express train cars) of the same type as the Skandiapilen from Sweden. These are prnduced at Kockuw's machine 50X1-HUM S-E-C-R-K-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-B-C-R-9-T presumably the guard crews and the crews employed in reconstruction. Hven with this taken into consideration a general rise is still discernible. Table 19. Personnel in the Polish State Railways (in thousands) Total 183.8 299.9 341.9 351.2 180.3 295 336 340.7 lines 3.5 4.9 5.9 6.5 Source: Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 1948. As of 31 October 1948, the transportation trade unions included 103,000 workers from the transport industry and 381,000 frog the railways. G. Fuel Conttumption There is extremely little information on fuel consumption, but the following table will give an indication of the quantities used: Consusa,tion (kilograms per 1,000 ton/kilometers) 1947 1949 92.6 69.8 59.0 Freight transport (million for kilometers) ,21,360 Total consumption (1,000 tons) 1,9T8 28,500 32,600 1,989 1,923 Sources: Det nya Polen, No 3/1950, and Table 15. "International Railway Statistics 1946" gives the combined coal and oil consumption of the Polish railroads in 1946 as 5,305,00^ toss avd of electricity as l.?93,000 kilowatt-hours. H. Financing and Rates In 1946 and 1947 the railways had a deficit and had to have a state subsidy to keep in operation. As a result, rates were raised on 1 Jaxvary 194.8 for freight as passenger traffic. The in:reases, varying iron l4 par- cent to 60 percent, had already been considerably higher than before ;~ar1d -23- S-R-C-R-1-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 'tiaWA 1 5y. '-7:~ i. ct 4'c. a: r ".1 ~f liyS';i.W .a4M>s'.z+'d- f.,wS r,+ h S-K-C-R-R-T War II (24 times as high as in 1948 for passenger traffic and 13 tines for freight. In this connection, increases in wages and prices must be taken into are 20 bees higher dustr i y n consideration. The gages paid in the railway then before World War II. The proportional relationship between income from passenger traffic and freight traffic was, before World War II, 112; but in 1946 it was 1:1 and in 1947 1:0.73. Thus, there was a auistantial-increase in income from passenger ht Income. f1 fi - - I g n e III. oRGAIRIMIOH AND kiARACF P deputy and represents Soviet interests. He has a staff of k0-50 persons. Inc1>ed under the ministry are the.railvays, river traffic, bus traffic, and civil air transport. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 1 Ai]. in all, the organization of the Polish railways today can. be regarded as similar to that before World War II. Certa D changes can be detected, however, such as the existence of six railroad distric`3 (Okregi Kolejowe), with Soviet officers as chiefs and staffs ^zi.,nri-:tstfag for the most part of Soviet citizens. These railroad districts are sandwiched in between the ministry level and the ten railroad directorates (Dyrekcja Kole owe), partly for military and partly for transportation reasons, since it is one of their tasks to look after Soviet mtlttnry transportation. Attached to each railroad directorate is a military transportation section (Wydzial Trensportow Wojskcwych), which is directly subordinate to a railroad direct,rate. It has been confirmed that Soviet officers dressed in Polish uniforms serve. in these sections. 49 a Directorate General for State Railways (Dyrekcja f 1 ll 9 o In the fa Generaina Kole! "astwowych) was established under the Ministry of Communication . The Directorate General consi4ts of a director general and three directors and is directly under the minister, Rabanoweh'i. The Director General is General Rumyantsev. He has a Polish deputy. lu connection with the latest reorganization of the Polish railroads, several new divisions and sections hmve been set up. Some of these, located in various parts of the country, are intundeA for research work and scientific investigations. The following are examples: A scientific office is located at the locomotive shops in Karaznice near Lodz. It is under the supervision of engineer Alfred Fraszvzak. The office is experimenting with new methods for softening water for locomotives. A research section in Krakow under the supervision of Professor Czeczot, is seeking practical methodb for using coal of the lowest grade for fuel. -24 - S-9-C-R-S-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 I Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RD P80-00809A000600150021-1 S-B-C-R-L-T A "central constrvotion office" in Poznan under the supervision of engineer Wyalouch deals with all matters concerning inventions and proposals for railway Minister of Communications Rabanoweki in November 1949 spoke of the Six double the transport of freight and to provide better main lines between Slask end the Polish ports. In addition, there. is the task of a more cultural nature, By 1955, freight transportation is calculated to reach 24.5 million tons and passenger traffic is predicted to carry 910 million passengers. Economies and rationalization programs are to be carried out. The established goal for coal consumption in 1955 is 50 kilograms pe= 1,000 gross ton-kilometers as compared with 59 kilogrs+ss in 1949. Labor efficiency, which - 25 - S-B-C-R-S-T rail junctions, among them Szczecin, Warsaw, and Gorny Slask, will be modernized. Warsaw's electric rail system will be expanded with lines to Mcdlin, Bionic and Wolomin. Likewise the lines Warsaw-Czestochowa-Katowi^_e and the side line Ioluszki-Lodz, together with the line Pruszcz-WeJherrswo in the Gdynia/Gdansk district, are to be electrified. The above figures for the Six-Year Plan were later revised. According to the new figures, only 701 kilometers of new rail lines are to be constructed and 541 kilometers are to be electrified. Only 1,037 kilometers of track are to be restored The rest of the quoted plan concerning electrification still track lines were to to expanded to double track and a little less than 1,500 kilometers of dismantled or demolished lines were to be placed in working con- holds, with the addition, however, that the Junctions uciynid/vuOina,sk, Nova Huts., and, partially, Katowice are included in the electrification plans. Train speeds are to be increased by 23 percent in comparison with 1949 and the number of sleeping care and dining cars is to be augmented. The number of locomotives is to be increased by 9 percent, freight cars by 21 percent, and passenger cars by 5 ,trctnt. The annual.caomeetic production of rolling stock is to be increased to 315 locomotives, 18,800 freight cars, and 630 passenger cars by 1955. Minister Rabanovski reported in addition that tt}e state's investments in the railways during the period will be greater than for any other branch of industry. Wh".le all-wsnce is z de for a general investment index of 300 for the economy as a whole, it will be 654 for the railroads alone. These invest- ments will include, am mg others, the building of factories for railway equip- ment between Warsaw -,nd Krakow east of the Wibla, a plant for signal and light- ing equipment in Warsaw, and warehouses for agricultural products. The latter are to reduce the pressure on the transportation system during the harvest months. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 r Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 i S-E-C-as-$-T system. Finally, more railway peraonne.i. wi...L zee rxiawu. up to 1950 had been increased by 30 percent, is to be further increased by 22 percent by bringing more workers under the system of c?mpetitive output. Up The revision of the Six-year Plan has possibly entailed changes in certain . . __ s of Pi lolly been r&Ae no h a et POLISH-CZECHOSLOVAK C0OPERVION convention of 4 July 1947 concerning mutual cooperation in -cue ecvavm..' . ir.a., ar3 as follows (a more detailed discussion of the entire scope of the Polis}.- Czechcslavek: collaboration in the traffic field can, be found in Polish Harbors and Navigation, No 1, November 1950): ventio7 assumes that both countries, in qu.estiona regarding communication, ( the international e f n co-, statutes of 1921 regarding free transit). Communications disputes which affect these two -o-wctrias only will be dealt with negotiatio . "To increase the mutual transit traffic, common rates will be established and both countries will make an effort to put into effect as soon. as possible the agreements on common rates for railway transportation. "The agreement prohibits, mutually, any discrimination between citizens of the two countries. "Traunit goods passing through one of the countries will have the benefit of the other country's lower rates. This regulation concerns, in particular, freight transports in larger quantities which are unloaded in the ports or are uesf3red for further transport by sea. On the other hand, the mutual rate reductions do not include the lower rates which prevail in each country for transportation of workers, military personnel, or official consignments, for the requirements of the cosatunications system, cr for charity purposes. "The communications agreement will those principles which are to be follow-ed in calculating common rates, "The traffic authorities in both countries are obligates mutually to guarantee each other the best possible connections with each other's trans- por'tatirn facilities, in direct traffic as well as transit transport. They are to make efforts to r+-duce formalities and to guarantee the expeditious and normal transportation of goods as well as passengers. Transportation facilities employed to these ends are to be utilized in the manner most favor- able to the economies of both countries. Railway connections shall be laid through the most favorable boundary-crossing locations so that transit and direct traffic can proceed via the best route. "The communications agreement obliges both countries to conclude agree- ments for the speediest possible expediting of transit transport by water and by land. Passenger traffic by rail or by plane is to receive .gully expeditious treatment as freight transport." , or es?emp will adhere to the international conventions , of i93l regarding conveyance of passengers and bagga3e and the tio - 26 - S-E-C-R-x-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 S-E-C-R-E-T way equipment), so that a certain amount of division of labor occurs, is another phase of Poliab-Czechoslovak collabor'tion in the economic field. How far this much progress. The only krovo concrete Instances of Polish.-Czechoslovak cooperation in the field of transportation are the restoration of several tunnels in the border areas and a loan of Czechoslovak railway equipment to Poland to impJe- ment transit of Czechoslovak goods to the Soviet Union as well as to the ports restoration of the Polish railways has taken place, it must be admitted that up to now an impostag job has been accomplished.. This has brought the Polish railway system up to the same internationally high level as before World War II. Today the trains run with the same frequency and efficiency which, before World War IT, gave Poland an international reputation in this field. Whether this development will continue in the same way in the Cuture is, on the other hand, a big question, since many circumstances of considerable importance are involved. M Pi.thertc Poland has been using largely equipment which antedates World War II, but, with the present vigorous utilization of this material, it is presumably only a question of a short time until an extensive replacement of thia portion of the rolling stock will be necessary. Polish production of rolling stock has already attained considerable proportions. By virtue of this, it should be able to maintain a steady replacement of discarded equip- ment. of Polish iMuatrv and wens. nowever with the i:xi: P~?aaiuty :ia%. i_t v.. < ~nf of ----- ---- the consequent loss of a large part of the aggregate production, and therefore also of the rolling stock, it is a question whether the replacement of old stock by new can he carried on to the extent which the needs regrlre. The Six-Year Plan states that the number of freight cars in to be in- creased by 20 percent while the quantity of goods to be transported is to be dosbled. The corresponding figures for passenger traffic are 5 percent and more than doubling of the traffic. In reference to the above-mentioned re- placement of rolling stock and the previously cited freight transport problem in the harvest months, it cannot be anticipated that the planned volumes of transportation can be carried out, since exploitation of pseeent facilities is very hxavy and since there are limits to what economies can be achieved through rationalization. The following are some of the sources used in compiling this report: 1. Official Documents and Publications a. Polish Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 19e8 Wiados nci Statystycz..e, 15/9 and 1950 S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP8O-00809AO00600150021-1 - S-E-C-R-H-T Maly Atlas Polski (published by Polish i-eographic Society, etc.) Rehabilitation of Polish Economy 1948 (published by Polish 1tbassy in the US.) Polish Pacts and Figures, 22 October and 19 November, 1949 Bet says Poles, So 21, 22, 1949, 1, 3, 1950 The Polish Regained Provinces (published in England by a Polish professor of economics.) Poland's Recovery (published by the Polish Rabaesy in the US.) Infors tion Bulletin of the Polish Press Agency (PA!'), 18 October, 9 Hovenber, and 23 November 1950 International Railway Statistics 1946 Transport and Comounication Review, January - Nsrch 1949 UN Statistical Yearbook 1948 F,h Industrial and !Material Committee- Report of 25 February 1950 International Reference Service, Mey 3.948 0etw$rts der Oder and Aeisse, Wisseaschaftliche Verlagaanstalt, Hannover, 1949, pp 69 and 136 Wirtschaftsdienat, August 1949 (Hanbrrg Publishing House in collaboration with the University of Kiel) Svensk-Polska Randelskau rens l4eddelanden, 31 August 1950 Ostdeetschland, Holzner Verlag, Hitzingen, 1950, p 137 Figure i shave which sections of the Polish railway system are siral.e- tracked and those which are doutle-tracked. Persons who have traveled on Polish railways have reported that the lines below are doule track in their entirety: Szc zec in-C-oi.eniew, Szczecin-9carogrod-Slupsk-Gdansk-Tczew-Klblag-Kaliningrad. Szczecin-Krzyz-Poznan-Kutno-Warsaw-Siedlce-Lukov-Brzese, with the exception of the sections Krzyz-Wronki and Szaotuly-Rokietnica. Kostrxvn-Piln-Bydgoszcz-Torun-Ilawa. Fran urt-Poznan-Torun. Gdynia-Eydgoszcz-Torun-Kutno. Bydgoszcz-Inovroc,law. Poznan-Leszno-iiroclav-Opole-pytos-Krakow-PrzesWsl. Warsav-Radon-Krakav. Warsaw-Koluszki-Czestochcva-Katowice-Oswiecim. Opole-Kedzierzyn-Chelupski. Poznan-Ostroy-Kluczbork-Lublinitc-Katowice. S-3-C-R-S-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/0 50X1 -HUM I Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 f S-K-C-R-K-T 50X1-HUM The follo:ing lines, according to two Polish of:iciaa ti~stablas; are Portion Double-Traked Warsaw- lbork Warsaw-ielek 10 (55 kffi 9 (51 km) Jasielek-Dzialdovo 10 (88) 8 (72) Dzialdovo-1lawa 11 (60) 5 (28) Tlawa-Malbork 10 (62) 3 (16) Gniezno-Wrzeania near Poznan 5 (24) 2 (9) lawroclaw-Herby Stare 27 (255) 14 (152) Zeraj -Zagan 2 (13) 1 (8) Cho3new-Baleelawiec 4 (25) 1 (7) Czervi,nsk-Zielona Cora 2 (13) 1 (7) Runt Gvizrlanow.-Scinawa 3 (19) 2 (16) Wolow-Wroclaw 8 (40) 4 (18) Wroclaw-Jelenia Gora Wroclaw-Strzelin Walbrzych-JJdlina Keminlec-Krosnovice 7 (29) (24) Wroclaw-Olesnica-Kluczbork 17 (97) 1;:(3) WLchoti-Lcd z . Leezno-Krotoszyn 10 (71) 7 (43) Ostrow-Zdun ki Wola 14 (93) 8 (50) The remaining sections are all double track. Kedzierzyn-Wyss 13 (75) 9 (56) KitoriceDziedzice 10 (45) 8 (40) Zebrzydovice Dziedzice 5 (30) 4 (25) Dziodtice-Trzebina 10 (47) 6 (34) Osvlecia- kavina 11 (48) 6 (28) fstevice-C'helupski Katovice46%kosxovy Jledobcsyce-Riedavim 29 - U-t-0-R-B-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 w.~~....r~.~ .r..`...~, ~ _;,+ '?.,xp~ .:":.s .eta-n,,t "M r+?.'fi: ~irl~,.~ -'t:--''- Nr ,~.,.^-"_:~ `'?;~"~a ~Y4.},? '"E.~ ?.~wu~~~,; Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Krakow-Skawina Kalwaria-Sucha Tunel-Zabkovice Lodz-Grotniki Lodz-Tomas zclw Yobbo-Lublin-Chelm .Warsaw-Otwock Warsaw.-Lochow Lukov-Deblin Przevorsk-Rozwadow Rozwadoa-Sobow section: are double track. 7 (34): 5 (34) 18 (129) All sections are double tracer All s ctious are double track The Ryki-Leopoldow section is double track 2.(9) l f5):. 11 (75) 5 (32) 5 (24) 2 (9) All the above railway sections are indicated on Figure 1 as double track. This is not completely correct, cince exploitation of only two timetables is not sufficient to confirm with certainty whether all the sections are double track. Since those stretches about which nothing can be confirmed are, however, evenly di tr_buved over Uie lines rar-Dtionad t'.c - 1bil t r is at the vbo1 line is double track is act great that it is considered justifiable to regard the whole stretch as double track. However, this is not absolutely certain, As a detail in connection with Fig'ire 1, it can be pointed out that the junction of lines east of Kolo on the track between Poznan and Kutno occurs on a grade. Traffic from the north-south line which is to go in an east-west direction must first be brought into Kclo, where east-bound.cers especially must individually be turine1 by means of a turntable. The essential features of Figure 3 can be regarded as holding good for freight traffic also, since the volume of freight traffic is somewhat the sage as that of passenger traffic. All border stations can be used in transporting freight to the USSR as well as to Czechoslovakia and Bast Germany. In passenger traffic, there is this limitation, that in traveling to the Soviet Union a passenger can cross the border only at Brzesc (Brest) regardless of what par: of Poland he is coming from. Lgpp'ended figures follewj Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 , LEGEND -r-- Dnab/s-}rack /rues Pe,F/y de..ble-track Ise #e,1) S%nq/e-Frock %,nti -.. Qcu nd ei ry, Sspf rrnb 1944 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Figure 2. Trait Rail Lines in Pi1azad The Tf,c L E O F N D a....dary, '*Ptcmbsi 1919 % ,1 / Roden: -Lm*ow nc/tow rs; Ryk~ -Lrn~on/dew +Ire~~rA? - 32 - 3-E-C-R-Q-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600150021-1 5 P ID -4 Oeer 20 S-E-C-R-E-T