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August 24, 1948
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 CENTR/i I i -5 e Fiir 'Ohr?$ G~ AGtNC. REPORT ~PORT COUNTR!' China r SUBJECT Railways NO. OF PACES A I NO. OF ENCLS. CQU RED China (LISTED BELOW) OATE OF SUPPLEMENT TO %944 REPORT NO. STAT STAT 7016 00000000000A500 10000045100 001(1511.01x1 0A01000L DROno 00 106 1.01500 00*010 11501055 016 0010000 Or 100 111101000 ACT to " 0. F C.. 41 4100 U. 110 1000 0 0 0. 510 T0An011110 0 00 1500 101160.1100 OI 100 10111 10 10 A0T 0001-n 10 IN 004010041000 15003" 00 001, 0111000 of WW. 110000005100 OF 7010 0O00 1 /000101000. am- c. K1, IR0W141100 n41110 l0 0005 Or 100 0000 0550 00 1Toullo As 41180 406n111T K 001 /6041100 601101. THIS IS UNL4ALU.ATED INFORMATION FOR THE RESEA USE OF TRAINED INTELLIGENCE ANALYSTS SOURCE Chinese periodical, c xraEDL Vol IV, No 1/2, July 1944, China Institute of Geography, Pei-p'ei, Suechwan. (Translation specifically requested,) GOOGRAPHIOAL fruuY OP TEE PROP08ZD wis1-SIN$IA O t ILNAY Chung Yung-,fu Numerals in parentheses refer to the appended 11References1l The construction of a railway line from unina's great eeeLara seaports to T'a-ch'eng has been proposed, Thin line, starting in the east near Chien-t'eng-Ching Bay and extending westward to the 0-min As valley, will puns through seven provinces for a distance of about 5,000 km. The successful completion of this rail:-ay will not only open an important Chinese channel rsf cammunication between, the southeast and northwest, but. will act as a short cut between Europe and Asia as well. Even though the part of the proposed rail vay to go from Ch'ten-yang-ohtang to Ina-ohon in still in the plea- sing stage, the Lang-hat Railway, vbtoh to being continuously attended zlantward, Wight be utilized instead for the time being. Construction work on the proposed line from Kanau to Sinkiang Pan not yet started. This area, over 2,600 km long, is sparsely ,,opul-ted, cansiai:a of barren terrain, and has an and climate. Linking these frontier regions with China proper rill be invnlunble, both from n defensive and an econunic viewpoint. After the western regions had been sulr sugated by Wei-ch'ing and Huo Ch'u.-ping, in the time of the Hen dy- nasty, the area west of the Huang Ho (Yellow :Liver) became a natioral route (1). The route going west ;ron China proper started at Chia- yti-kuan,.and proceeded along the southern edge of toe T'a-li-nn (Tarim) Basin. This was the historically famous Silk Road, and had been established in this region because of its advantageous position with regard to nearby nations in Zeutlrwest Asia, the climate which was milder than that of northern Sinkiang, ann the pravelenen t sates created by the many streams that flowed along the foot of the X'un-lun STATE 10NAW AR5i1 400 CLASSIFICATION TRESInICTED N>R3 1 D13TRlau noR RESTRICTED Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 f RESTRICTED Shan and Tien Shan (2). 'Althougl. in ancient times northern Sinkiang out side ,corld, This region established its first close relationships theIpast, people travelling from Pei-p'ing to northern Sinkiang would across the K'u-hei-le Shan (Hurku Fanges), Ku-erh-pan-ch'a-han Shan (Curbun Saikhun Ranges), and the A-?tse-?Po-ko-to Shan (A.ji Bogr'o) in (fitter Songolia in order to arrive at, either Ch'i-t'ai or Char-hei:. Many people travelling to northern Sinkiang from the corridor west k'ou`.`_' Yi.'men Haien, and cross the ila-tsungshay, _urther north by way of the Ming-ahui mountain pass. Those going to either Chan-hsi or Ch'i-t'ai would proceed along the northern foot of the K'a-erh-lei-.k'o-t'a-ko Shan (Kalik Tagh), while those ing to Ha-mi would proceed along the southern foot of the range (h The above-mentioned route, linking China proper and northern, Sinkiang, was an important one during the Manchu Dynasty, greatly developed the northern route by widening this road and construct- ing additional way stations (5), The old route through Tun-huang and Lo-pu-p'o gradually fell into disuse. The present highway route be-' tween China and the DRSR goes through .Haing-baing-hata; and this le toe route that will be follc?'ed in the construction of the Kansu-Sinkiang Advantage of the Propose Tai The Kansu-Sinkiang Railway will be In n favorable position with regard to both comnunicatinnsand construction ;.ork in Europe and Asia, nazaway). rurtnermore, by connecting with the lurk-Sib and Trans- Siberian Railways in the west, it will be able to enter Euro pe, Thus , the Kaasu-,Sinkiang Railway will be the quickest and shortest line between Europe and Asia. "t present, there are two possible communication routes proceeding from Shang-haior Van-ching (flanking) to Europe. The land route via the Ch.anese astern Railway (Ch' ng-ch'un Railway) and the Trane-S.tberian Railway is one possibility; the set route via the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea is the other possibility. Howuverr it is clearly apparent that the distance ft'o Europe? will be much shorter via the Karen-Sinkiang Railway than it now is via either of these above- mentioned land and sea routes. (The distance by sea from Shang-hel to the Italian Peninsula is 3,300 nautical miles, or 7.5,360 km. However, this distance can be shortened to 9,000 km by utilizing the eastern seaports to T'-e-eh'erg Faiiway and on section of the Turk-Sub Railway and the Trans-Siberian hallway.) Furthermore; the fact that ships are much slower than trains should also be taken into consideratior. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 RESTRICTED RY:;TRC?r'.B Therefore, the cosiaunications between Europe and Kole will be cnrxider-- ably improved by the completion of the Kansu-Sinkiang Railway.. The shifting sands of the great Vongolien deserts located north of the Kansu-Sinkiang Railway would render the establishment of a railroad there extremely di.'.ficult< The great Tibetan Piateai :.o-? cated south of the liandu.Sink:lang : ailway forms an irupase.able mountain barrier. Hence, the prineige:. part of this prcposed'railway, with the exception'of theseciions in the +i..c]'iao-Jirg, Tien Shail.'Giiiu'?i- erh Shan (Jair Ranges), and t,ro or three mountain pas:seP, is to be constructed along the foot of ountai na where the terrain is pru;tioal1,r level. Examples ref level ti:rrain,? are found in ic?. rneying iro,e Lon-, chou to the river mouth at C;nu:nq;--:rani,5; ::.a-lng to C}iie-3u-kuan, Psi- tun-tzu to !la-lien-cling-tzu, Sh-a-ch'uan ?tzu to the M.-as-se u 9+a or 0-min Ho valleys in northern Sinkiang, etc. Matches of yuiccsaud that are scattered along the way may be avoided by making detours. lfter leaving northern Sinking;,, the greet pleins of Eurcpa are finally reached by crossing the Settipalctiask steppes and the passes of the Ural Mountains. The logger the railway line, the greater the ndv:'nteges; a.i t'ar, as coiasunications and economics are concerned (6); The geological, topographical, and climatic cenditi ns tha.i chirocterize the areas along a railway becorn: more varied in accordance ir.th the increase in the number of vil.;ages, towns; and cities that the railway passes. Consequently, the amvant of goods transported by such a railway inevi- tably increases since localities whoue products differ greatly deeper ately seek a :weans of communicatinf; with one anot!.or. Furthermare, the over 2,000-km-long Kr:nsu-Sinkiang J.allway will go through many Leeonord callg7 varied sectoru. For example: The Ka-fang to "u-lo-ho section will. traverse a narrow corridar where stock farming nd sF-iculture flourish: The Su?-lo"ho to tla-ni section will go along the -eat Gobi Desert, where water, erase,, and inhabitants are extrn:pmly scarce. The tla'?ni to Ti-hua section ,r_11 be located along both tie southern and northern slopes of the T'ier. :,wan where the population is dense because of the e.?istencs of many c?asee. One portion of the Ti-hua to Pa-ch'eng action till follo:; along the northern foot'of thr?i T'ien Shan, the other will thread its way through norths.aster*i Sinkiang, and creep over the Chia?-i-erh Sham The terrain charncteri stice of th i fror secttc's of the p--poled railway are as follows; 1. Lan'chou to An-hsi, Section The entire area west of lam-thou and exi.e.alang to Su-lc-ho, a distance of aboi.t 1,000 a, which is within :Canso Province inc.' west of the Huang No, man formerly called "Fa-R.il" eat of the rive. The section from 1u-kung to Ao-het, 3iioee topographical foaturea force a sort of corridar, ve:n onod znovn as the "go-hot Ca:.idor." Thin sactlt was formerly an important nooaomic. eoclsl, and cultural focal pointfor Central Aatatic. South eatern A-a attc, "a:3 Eurcpoan peoples. Th, r--- search cat?rt'4 out by S?ron Eodn lu the vicinity of Yu-men uneorared trance of the ancient Silk Road. vhtnh was about 10 feet vide. :orgies RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 RESTRICTED and parts utilized this route for thousands of years: The traces of this highvey are already buried 6 or 7 feet underground (7). The highest point Which it is necessary to pass along the Lan--thou to An-hei, section is located at ":u-.hsiao-ling, where it is 3,013 meters above sea level (8). The Chuang-lang flows into the Huang Ho oast of this range chile the Ku-lang flows past the city of Ku-long on the west of the pass. The second highest civide is locatec at Ting--e!'iang-miao, 2,600 meters above sea level (9). The third highest pass is located at Hui.-hu'.-pao, rest of Chia-A -kuan, 1,805 meters above sea level. '..ith the exception of these points it"will be very advantageous to build the railroad in this area since the terrain along the other sections is level. The Chnuang-lang mouth is located over 40 km from Lan-chou, northwest on the Huang Ho., Going north towards the source of the Chuang?-long, points passed are Ku'= ehui-pan, Yeh-hu-ch'eng, Ch'ing-seu?-pao, Taat'ung-pao and finally Yung tong. The Chuang-lang meanders through the 2-or 3-km-wide va1.'~'ay in which Yung--tong is si+".+.A . The Great V.11 .A the highw..'r,hnry proceed along the side of this valley. J.fter leaving Yung-tang and proceeding northward Zvi,, this highway) the terrain becomes even more constricted as Wu-aheng-i and Share-k'ov i are reached. After Chen- ob'iang-i has been passed, the ground becomes higher as Vu-hsiao- ling is approached. After erouG--ng the divide, An--lung-t, Luni;-kou?- p'u, and Hei-ehu-p'u are passed before finally arriving at Ku--lang. The terrain along the entire diat::nce from the mouth of the Chuang- lang to Ku-Tang is extremely precipitous and dangerous. The soil in this area consists of loess, clay, etc., and, consequently, whenever is reixw, the road becomes miry. In the Ku'lnng gorge sector of the valley, the nnture of the surface is varied. The road winds it; way along the side of the valley where there are tremendous rocks, precipitous and overhanging cliffs, terraces, boulders, mounds and patches of gravel. In the winter, a great amount of snow accueulatee re which tends to impede transportation; hence it will be advisable to construct this section of the railroad along the edge of the valley. The engineering task in this section will be formidable because of the large number of bridges, culverts, ditches, etc., that will have to be built here. Strictly from the standpoint of terrain, that section of the Eastern Seaports- T'a-eh'ong hailway which goes from Hsi--thing (Chuang- en) to Wu-Rai should not proceed by way of Puo-chi, Tien-ahui, I:an- thou, Yung-tang, and Ku-larg to ?ia?:.ei Instead, starting from Hei? thing, it should proceed northwestward following too Ching Ho, thre?.gh Chang-au, Ching-ch'uan, Chon?yusn, Ku-yuan, along the Shan-shui Ho pass, Chung-+wei, and across the Mongolian grasslands to Wu'-Nei. This latter route not only avoids steep and difficult mountai..ous areas such as the Liu-plan Shan, Lung Shan, Wu-hsiao-ling, etc., but it can utilise the natural thoroughfare of the Shaw-ehui No valley. The region west of Chung-asi,save for a few small sandy bectione, is all grassland plain with feu elevations. The route from Hsi-'thing via Chung V.ei to Btu Wei is very well suited for railway construction be- cause the distance is shorter end it avoids the, mountains (10j,. However, since this route does not peas by Lan-chou, it is not suitable from the political and economic standpoint. RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I RESTRICTED Rh:S1IICT'cD It has also been suggested that the passage of the difficult. Wu-heiao-ling could be avoided by proceeding fromLen.chou downstream along the Huang No to Ching?-t'ai bear Su-ch'ia27 and'thence to Wu-wet. However, the defect of this route lies in its comparative length. From the standpoint of Kansas, neither of these two suggested routes is as important as the existing route, which is the transportation link be- tween the eastern and western ends of the province. From the stand- point of national politics and economics, the two suggested routes arc also unsuitable. Sun Yat-sen. in selecting routes for China's railway construc- tion, always attached more importance to economic and political consid- erations than to the construction difficulties that might be encountered along the way.. The terrain from Wu-.wei to Chiu-ch'uan is unobstructed, except for Ting-oh'iang-miao, the second highest land in the f'ioS-hs7 Corridor. There is a considerable amount of cultivated land, and numerous towns and villageZ -~l t':1 s route Wu-wei . Change-ywh_ TIag-ash' eng, and Chin-ch''uan are all well-known sad well-populated agricultural, commer- cial, and administrative centers, and the people are well to do. Further- more, Wu-wei is the collecting point for sheep's wool sent from Tsinghai and the Ho-hsi Corridor, and is also the trading center for foreign goods. You-wei, during the War of Resistance /-against Japan engaged in commerce on a larger scale than did Lan-chou 11). A broad valley stretches from Wu-,wei westward in which are located Fong-lo??pao, Tung-ch'eng, Shui- rte.kuan, and Shui-ch'uare-tau. The valley is narrowest between Shui chuan-tau and Hats-k'ou--i, where it becomes less than one km wide. The terrain widens once again as Hain-ho and Shan-tan are passed; Chang-yuh is subsequently reached via Tung-lo, and Erh-shih-li-p'u. The waters of the Hei-ahui No are used for irrigation purposes in the vicinity of Chang-yeb. This area, with its network of rivers and canals, is known as the best irrigated sac ion cf Ho-hei. According to a map drawn by Sir Aural Stein, it was estimated that 670 eq km of land could be culti- vated in this area, which through its rice production had won a name for itself as the center of agriculture in Ho-hsi (12). Chang-yeh, which has about 150 temples, one temple in every ten buildings, has the most tomoles of any town or city in Ho-hsi (1i. The land from Changysh, going west via Sha-ho-pao and Litz-i, to Rao-t'ai, is an under cultiva- tion. However, the distance from Hei eh'uan-i, Ten-eh'ih-l, and Shuang- chine-i to Lin.- h'uan-i consists mostly of barren soil, sand deserts, withered plants, etc.- The only oasis beyond Lin-ch'usn-I is located at Chin-ch'uan, which is an important pass between Konen aid Sinkiang.. Chiu-ch'uan is the key to western 6cneu Province, the administrative cen- ter for Ho-hsi, and the exchange point for goods from Kansu, Hingaia, and Tsinghai Provinces Desert land predominetea from Chiu-ch'uan to Su--to-ho, becoaing more desert-like the farther one travels westward. The third highest lard in the LHo-hat Corridor is located between Chia-yu-kuan and Hui--hui?-pao. The Chia-yu-kuan valley is very narrow and it forms a strategic outpost in this area of boundless deserts. The importance of Chia-yes-kuan is shown in the following statement of Liar-ching: "f be route aastward from, the Pamir Plateau to China is completely level and indefensible. therefore, if we wish to defend China, we must first send troops to garrison our western frontier. When this has been' accomplished, we will be able to rest easily, since the ?acdr Plateau will than serve as our outer.defense, and Chia-yu-kuan as our inner defense" (14). he route want of Chia-yu-kuan proceeds along the edge of the desert area passing Hui-hui-pao, Ch'ih--chin-Usia, Yu-men, Sanrtau--kou, 5 , RESTRICTED RESTRICTED STAT.' Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I DGCTI?l(TFt STAT pu-luag_chj, and Mmsng-t'a-psis to An-hot. There are numerous river beds, such as the Chit-chin Ho in the vicinity of Ch?ih-chin-haia and the Liu-t'iao Ho which flows northward between Yu-men and San-,tao- loon, all of which join the Su-lo Ho. These rivers all originate in the Ch'i-lien-ahon mountains. When there is a dearth of melting anew, these rivers dwindle or dry up entirely; however, when a sudden moun- tain thaw occurs, they consequently overflow and flood. The soil here is very alkaline. Although the surface is frozen over hard in the wi .ring the -pins- nurser. andautum it be - cams da. y.oa .? ? ~.-~ ---a. camas muddy, and it is then-most inconvenient to travel tbm&gb th ftomaYu- area. T''ese difficulties could be avoidb : by proceeding men to Shilrorh-tu , heading northwest via the northern bank of th Su-10 Ho (the bank opposite An-h, then westward est~rdsto long-wane- p along the route of the present 2. An-hoi to Hs-mi Gobi Section This section starts at An-hat at its south and and proceeds north to Ha-mi. Its entire length is leas than 400 5,a. Beyond the Su-lo No, it enters the barren Gobi, which presents a vast and unchanging appearance. Two persons who travxllad through this area, H -Cable and Z. French, both declared that they saw only scattered, withered vegetation and not even one tree in the more than 300 km that they covered from An-hai to (15).will nix clearly shows that this section of the Banou-Sinkiang of vary little economic value. Provisions along this route are scarce. The climate is vicious, as there are frequent rinds and sandstones which cause dust to fly about in all directions. The exceedingly hot weather becomes especially unbearable for both man and animals during the summer, when most people travel at night and rest during the day in order to escape the host. it will not only be entremsly difficult for the span working on railway construction bare in the future to en- dure the climatic conditions, but securing an adequate water supply in this area will also become a serious problem. The terrain traversed becomes progressively higher as the road proceeds northward after leavind Su-lo-ho. M" highest point that it reaches is Hsiag-hsing-hate, after which the land gradually become lower once again. According to Stain's survey, this height of various areas shave sea l "I is as follewes mater matars; Hung-li~Juan, 1,560 motors; Ta-ch'uan, 1,568 tea, 1,640 meters; Haing-hsing-baia. 19695 meters; -ohlann tau, 1,244 meters; X'n shut-i, 1,004 meters (16). There are large amounts of coarse send, gravel, and rock fragments In this area, which are the result of the proeaes or rock weathering. The terrain near the Su-1o Ho is level, but considerably high ridges and weathered root fragments aptsar as the route con`dnues Iron Pai-tuts-t,Gs towards H ng-;.iu-yw-n. There are distributions of loess between Ts-eh'uan and 3Fs-lisr?abinB-t~? area between Me- lisa-cldng-tau and Hstng-halm-hda is crossed by several dried-up river beds.' Hd'g-heinj-hsia belongs to ::inkiang pr^viace and occupies an elevated strategically important position, Gravel is found everywtrra oloag is routs from Sba ch'uan-tau and Vu-shut to Ton-tun. There are dried-:AP river beds it the vicinity of Yen-t= that used to f!" f--- seat to west. The terrain levels off between Ten-tun en, Ch'asg-Uu- shut, but it begins to rise again further north of the latter point. -6- RES' TC1n1 RESTRICTED Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 J RESTRICTED After passing through a barren and deserted region, grasslands and oases finally reappear. It will be very difficult to r.ecure water and railway ties for the construction of this section. However, the roadbed is ex- cellent, and the abundance of gravel and coarse sand along the way will provide excellent material for read construction. 3. Man Shan Section This section starts at tia-mi, at its south (east) and, and proceeds northwards to Ti-hue through a completely mountainous region. There are towns established along both the southern and northern slopes of the ?'Ten Shan which depend on its melting snows for irrigation purposes. Examples of such towns are: a. Ti-hua, which has been called the heart of Central Asia b. Ha-.e-;.t-h. Strategic military point co Vu-lu-fan and Kan-te, located in the agricultural region do Chen-hsi, located in the stock farming region e. Ch'i-t'ai, an important center for communication with the outside. It In the mountain passes of the region that make it possible for transportation to link the northern and southern elopes of the T'ie: Shan. Ea:h of these passes in a marine of communication, and a key to military operations. There are in this region three possible routes for the passage of men, animals, and vehicles. They arcs a. Proceeding from ;la-mi to Chen-hsi via the Ps-erh-klu Pass (Harkui Pass), also know as the Tien-ahsn-miao Pace. b. Proceeding from Ha-mi to Ch?i-t'ai via Ch'i-ahiao-thing and the Psi-ahan-mlao-tzu Pass, (17). c. Proceeding from T'u-la-fan to Ti-bus via the Ta-fan-ch'eng Pass (Dabachin Pass). Since it is extremely important to investigate beforehand the mountain passes through which the Kaneu-Sinkiang Railway may proceed, the three mountain passes mentioned above are compared below, a. Pa-erh-Wu Pass Routc The Pa-erh-k'u rasa la comaoniy called Huan-t'aai-kou, and also known by the case Tien-eaan-miao ?ass (15). There were originally three mountain passes connecting Eb-ml :end the Chan-hel basin, namely, tbi E'u-la-pu ($ullub), the Chang-kang-po-la-k'o (0hagahalak) and the Pa-erh- k'u. IIovever, the Pa-erh?k'u is the only oze of these passes sa?,ted for the gessage of men, animals and vehtclee (19). According to Douglas Carruther, the Pe-erh-k'u Pass Is about ih0 meters wide, and 2,806 meters above sea level. According to Stein, the elevation of 1`'ieu-shau-wlao (?P: alternate some for the sate leas) In 2,8!2 metes. Stein's map t:itcatec that Cben-hal to 1,470 meters above sea level, while he-at to 752 motors above sea level. After leaving Ha-ml, this route proceeds by say of Hei-clung-fang, flaw, span-k?ow, T'ier.-shan-mice, Sung-shu-t'anE, K'uei-su, Ta-cb'uan, Caoa- hal, '-l.i-pa-ch'uzn, ;-t'o-thing-tsu, Hu-t'u-sbui, Chi-chi-t'si- tau, and Se-pi-k'ot. It continues alone the northern, foot of the Tien Shan, and heads west via 1'u-lei-ho, Ch'i-t'si. Pu-yuan, Pou-k'eng, and RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I RESTRICTED Kan-to before arriving at Ti.--hue:. The terrain along the southern pied mont of the T'ion than from Ha-mi to Nan-ahan?-k'ow is barren, and slopes only slightly. The Hai-?ching-Sang is but a pile of ruins. Han-snan?= k'ow itself is located in the mouth of the valley. A sector known as Huan-ts'ai-kou, where the valley is irregular, is passed on the ;journe3' north to Tien-.ahan-miao. The m-untain slopes become steeper as TTien, span-miao is approached. The T'icn-ahan-miao mountain peeks tower above the ?a-erh-k'u Pass. Sung--shu--t'"ang lies at the edge of the Chen-hsi basin at the valley mouth on the northern slope. The section from Ssnt,- ahu-t'ang to Hsiarlsi-pauch'uan is the lower part of the Chen-hai basin, and livestock are numerous since green grass grove luxuriously. This section is famous for its horses. The terrain is steep and barren at He1a-lei-pa-.ch'uan, Lo-t'o-?ching-t.zu, Vu-t'u-ahui and Ch-chit' ai-t.zu:. 7.aes- places are all about 2,000 meters above sea level. The terrain broadens out from Se-pi-k'ow to T'i-'hua; small oases appear along the way. Formerly the Pa-erh-k'u Pass was the one necessarily used when travelling between Ha-mi and Chen-shai, Ch'i-t'ai, Ti-hue, RRu-li-ya??su. t'ai, and K'o-pu-to. However, r:h+in the road via the Pei-shan-miao.-tzu Pass was opened up, providing the quickest route from Ha?'mi to Ti-hua, the Pa-erh-k'u Pass completel^ loet its former importance, and became no more than a local means of communication between Chen-hsi and Ha-.mi, As a consequence, Chen-hai experienced a commercial decline. The Kanau-Sinkiang Railway could shorten the distance it has to travel in this area by passing through the Pa-erh-k'u lass; furthermore, the crossing of tie grasslands area of the Chen-hsi Ue-? pression has more advantages than crossing the Gcbi part of the Ha-mi Depressions Another advantage is the proximity of Chen?-hsi to Wu?-li. yo-su-t'ai, the political and religious center of western Mongolia, Nave rtheleesi..thhe.Pic-erb~-k u pass is considerably higher than either the Pei-ahan-micro-tzu pass (1,617 meters above sea level) or the Ta fan-ch'ang ?ass (1,064 motors above sea level). Furthermore, the ter- rain is wholly unsatisfactory for railroad construction. Places such ac Asia-lei-pa-ch'uan, i+u-t'u-ahui, and Chi-chi-t'ai-tzu, which are located in the western part of the Chen-hsi bantn, are all steep and dangerous, and working eonditior.s are difficult. Furthermore, feu people live in this barren and economically unproductive region. b. Pei-eban-smiao .tzu Pass Route This route starts at Ha?mi, and proceeds in aorthwesterly direction along the southern foo4 of the T i en Shaw by way of T our- o Erh-pan, San-Pao, San-tao-Xing, Liao-.tun, I-ran-ch'uaxs, Qla-ku-la--- ch'uan, and Ch'i-chfao-ching and thus into the Tien Shan mountains. the route continues on to northern Sinkiang from that point via Poi-eh:un- siao-tsu, Ss?-pi-k'ou, and Ta-shih-t.'ou. While this route, which threads its way through the Pei-shan-ciao-?tau valley mouth opening into the ;'ion Shan, does not have as high an elevation as the Pa-erh-k'u ;'sass it does have sang considerably varying elevations. The terrain from Ha-mi to Erh-pao is still level and easy to traverse, but north of San-pao it rises and falls greatly, reaching its highest point at San-too-ling. It falls after passing San--tao?.ling, only to rise once again west of Liao-tan. Dried-up river beds, gravel,, and time sand predominate in thin vicinity. The terrain west of 1-wan- eh'uan becomes precipitous once again, as the highest elevation between Ha-mi and Ch'i.-chino-ehing is found at Ch1*-ku-?lu-?ch'uan,'1,362 meters above sea level. The terrcin falls west of Ch'e-ku-?lu-ch'uan to s, poise RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/0/6/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I DrUPI( c) RESIRICT3'.D, where it is only about 700 rooters above sea level at Ch'i-?chiao--cbing, which is situated in a depression bet,renn the mountains. Upon proceed- ing north into the Visa Shan valley area, it suddenly becomes centime oualy steeper, rising from an elevation of 800 motors to one of 1,616 motors at Poi-sham..miSO-tsu. This is the highest point in the valley. Me a t lying assathecvalle ~vio on a itdinto a sa i,hern and a northern section, acrocross the valley This south rn section is steep, while too northern section is Cccompara- tiaiisnpopsse at Psi-fie roue in he hastdropied ton 1,300 metersiby tthe he time it reaches Ta-shih-t'ou. It then gradually veers westward past mu-lei- ho and Ch'i-t'ei to Fu-yuan, whose elove$ion is only slightly more than 600 motors above sea level. The two weak points of this proposed route, are, first, that it is covered with ice and snow from Deoaaber to the following March and (20); ecnd, hence unfit for vehicular passage durinf.thoc 3 months "m cylan the stoop terrain, frequency or mountain ti,rreuta, and - ------ the section between Ha-mi and Ch'i-chub- htog of hit ridges across the valley which constitute serious obstacles to transportation. Still, this route is better than the one via P&a,%rla-k'u Pass in teat it presents the shortest anoa between Ha-ml. and T!?-hua. The climate throughout the Wien Sh bsaravalley is muoh milder their in such places as T'u-lu Pen where it is unbearably hot in summer. Thei* are many oasea in the sec- tion from Mu-la-ho to Ti-hues, and it is rich in agriculture and live:. stock. o. Ta-fan-ch'eng Pass Route Tigre are two possible routes which lead from Ha-mi to Vu-Iu-fan. on, route fol3nwe the eoather1l fast of the Tien Shan to Ch'i-chino-thing, and poses through Tung?/en'eh'ih, Hui-ehing-tea, Haj-yen-ch'ih, T'n.tun-tsu, Ch'i-k'o-t'saq-oat, and Shan-sham on its way to T'u-In-fan. The other route starts at Re--is go op to T'ou-pao, and then proceeds southeasterly in a straight lime elabg the edge of the Els rap Depression, past Ch'i-^k'o-tang-mu in tae Vu-lu-fan Depression and along the foot of the Tien Shan until it reaches Shaw-Than, and thus on to Vu-lu-fan. The first rants, if it vmre to be utilised, would require a great deal of bridge construction due to the preesnoe of ms ystteeeep mountain ravSnes. Moreover, the terrrin to very undalatory with the ex4eption of Sin-too-ling, situated in the section from Aa?mi to Ch'i-chile--Ching and Ch o-ku-lu-ahhtrn, the terrain further west, be- tween SunC-ysn-ah'ih and &..-aching-tau, is characterised by very steep gradso. Site high land between Heal-chii.g-tau and Hsi-y w%-ch' ih is 1,200 motors shove sea level, and is the divide between Ch'i-chiaa?ching and T'u-tun-tsa. The road is stoop and marrow, but this route also has its good points. It is comparatively easy to occurs water at the scattered daellirge along the, way. Furthermore, in the future it may most at C01 ehiao-thing the route which is pl.nno to connect Bu-fu and Chen-hei. The latter route was favc'ed by Dr Sun Tat??sen. It is 70 or 60 meters shorts,' than the first rcate, and contains gravel and fine send along the way. Alter leaving T'at-pso, it pose.. through the Vo- la-to-psi (gaps Dobs). Here, terrain els%ation falls to about 500 voters. We area is still known as an important oasis in the He--mi Depression. T h e route proceeds southwesterly past St-nu-no-errh ( S a m e Nor), a reg:an RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I RESTRICTED hESTRICTF.D of dried-up lake beds only 150 meters above sea level, which is lower than the adjacent Ha-mi Depression. Then the terrain rises to a height of 600 or 700 meters before falling once again as the route veers west- ward. This barren, gravelly terrain rises and falls by as such as 400 or 500 meters and marks the division between the Ma-mi and the T?u-lu- fam Depressions. The route, upon nearing Shan-shen, 200 =tars above sea level,'reaches the edge of the Vu-lu-fan Depression. The terrain further west levels out until it is 24 meters below sea level at T'u- lu-tan. Southeast of Shan-ahan, there are located famous and extensive sand hills which are known as the She-span (Kum Tagh). All lines of communication proceed west of these sand hills, nearer to the Tien Shan foothills. The proposed Kansu-Sinkiang Railway skirts the foot of the Tien Shan between Ch'i-k'o-t'eng-mu and Shan-shah, in order to join the highway that has already been established there. This second route w uld be the beet from the eta d~'.nt of both distance and construction. However, its major drawback is the ex- trams difficulty of obtaining water during the severely hot summers. The distance direct from T'ou-pas to Shan-span is only a little more than 200 Ica. The problems of heat and rater scarcity could be lessened by operating the railway at night over this section. The route from Shan-shan proceeds westward along a?narrow strip between the southern foothills of the Tien Shan and the She-shah to the city of T'u-lu-fan. The population becomes more dense and the water supply is ample. In order to reach Ti-hum, the route must yaks Its way through the Tv Lon Shan valley over the famous Ta-fan-ch'eng Pass. The over-all length of the section from T'u-lu-fan to Ti-hum is about 200 lea (21). This mountg n pass is longer and wider than the two others previously deaeribW. Furthermore, there are many villages in the valley, snap as T'uu-tao-ho, Pais-]rang'-ho, Ta-fan-ch'eng, Ch'ai-o-p o, eta., which are all well-known. T'u-lu-fen, situated at the southern ex trasity of the valley, is 24 asters below sea level. The altitude in- creases as the mute proceeds northward, reacting the highest point at Tafan-ch'eng, which is 1,064 meters above see level. The terrain consequently decl:nsa northward, and upon reaching Ti-hue has fallen to 660 meters. South of Tle-fs-oh'end the slope of the terrain is compare- tively steepy the desert reappears with a lack of water and grass and the presence of mach sand and gravel. Although there are tortuous streams fleeing southward, their beds only serve to increase the rough- ness of the terrain. North of Ta-fan-rh'eng, however, the terrain gray- ally beooras smoother. The route, after passing Ch?ai-o-pao, comes out upon clear, open terrain Ir which desert conditione are greatly reduced. Vehicular passage through the j a-fan-ch'eng7 mountain p.+as route will be -affected by the incidence of great winds throughout the year, and by the oppressive summer heat at T'u-la-fan. However, this moantein pass is the lowest one of the three that have been discussed, and the most favorable one from an economic standpoint. Because of its central position in the province, it would afford rapid transit between Ti-hue and southern Sinkiang, and have peguliar significance as the connec- ting link between communications in northern and Brut ern Sinkiang. - 10 RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 l '1k1CTED Ever sinco ancient t:z:oe its control has been the object of contending military forces; hence r2hi.3 pass is, of all tho,posses.,t~?rovgI the T'ien Shan, the one of greatest importance Ttda pass will be found to be the rost suitable one for trev. arming the Tien Shan section of the future Kano-Sinkiang Railway, 4~ Ti-hua to T's-ch'eng Section The last section of the Itanau.Sinkiang Railway that is to proceed from Ti-hua to T'a-ch'eng will undoubtedly constitute the most important trunk-line connection between the provincial capital. CTTi-hua and the cities in northern Sinkiang. The route from Ti-hua heads vest along the northern foot of the Tien Shan, passing such economically important oasis towns as Ch' ang-chi, Hu-t' u-pi, Sui??llai, Viz-au, etc. It then creeps over the Chia-i-erh Shan to Lao-feng-k'on, famous as the throat of the main thoroughfare of north Sinkiang, and important as the gateway between Ti.' hua and T' a..'cb' ong. Upon proceeding further, the route enters the 0-min Ho valley and reaches T'a-ch'eng. This route is known today as the Ti-ta (Ti-hua.. T'a-ch"eng) Highway. However, in accord with the plans of businessmen, the road might branch off northwest from Sui-lei, proceed northwestward along the tfa-na- ssu Ho, past She-wan-haien, enter the Chia-i-erh Shan, pass Leo-fang-k'ow, and decend the 0-min He valley. Few people trevorse this difficult route because it is passable only in winter, due to the sand banks which are encountered There is still another po,sibility. The line from Ti-hua to T'a-eh'e~nngg, instead of going through the Chia-i-erh-ehan-k'ou (or Lao- - feng-k'ou), might detour west of the Pai-yang-ho (also called the Wu-3..u set-ho) (22) and pass through lo-t'o-po-tzu, situated between the Cbia-i- irh Shan and the Om-erh-ha-'hsien Shan. The following paragraphs discus- each of the throe routes mentioned above. a. Ma-z*-ssu Ho to lao-fang-k'ou The source of the Ma-narssu Hr, is in the Tien Shen. It flows northward into a great dry plain area. This river forms a natural route from Ti-hua to either T'a-oh'eng or Ch'eng-hua. the road to Ch'eng-hua proceeds northwest from Sui-lei along the Me-s-a-asu Ho, and continues by way of.Sa-chow-lrs, Sha-msn-tzu, Hsing- into-k'ou, Hsiso-kuai, San-eh'a-k'ou, Ta-kuai, T'ang-ch'ao-ah'u, Huang- yang-eb'uen, Wu-lu-sail-ho, Ho-feng (Ho-ahili-tan-to-kai)s to Wu-lun-tto, aroamea the O-erh-ohs-sou Ho, and thus reaches Ch'eiig-hum? The road to T'a-ch'eng also follows along the Ma-na-emu Ho by way of Haang-lung .k'ou and Haiao-t,uai as for we Te-kuai, aad ebortl~ beyond there, besides the road that unman through Tang-ch'an-ch'u, situ-tAu-eh'uan-teu, Ch'eng-fa-tau, and Lo-.t'o-po-tau, there is a snail toad that enters the Chia-i-erh Shan area, crosses the T'o-li Depression, Venoms Lao-fang-k'ou and the city of 0-min, and Qua reaches T'a_ch'eng. The section west of the Me-na-sou ib as far an loo-feng-k'ou consists of barren wilderness. Consequently, the information presented here is quite brief since very little has been written about this area. Ito terrain becomes higher as one proceeds weetwar,ci, rising as it proceeds from a basin and plain. area less than 5L.7 motere above sea level to the Chia-?? erh Shan area, which is wore .hen 1,500 casters above sea level. From :hen on, the terrain drops as the route proceeds w atsard pest lac-fang-k'o:a and the 0-min Ho valley to about 500 maters abovw sea 1"0- - 11- S STitIc hD RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 ./ RESTRICTED b. Tu?wsu to Lao ?feng'-?k''o,. This route starts at ii.hua, and continues via Sui?la:., :,? au, T''ou??t'ai, Chia-p'ai??tzu, llsiaa?-ta"ao hu, lian?-sran-t ai, Miso?=orh.l:,u, Chia-i-?erh-Shan-kou, Ta-ma-t?u, Tlo-li, and lac-fang-k?ou in order to reach Va-chleng, which is further -rest. The low part of the basin area Is found in the section from Vlu-au to the Chic.-i-erh Shan foothills. i'o, the most part it is rather level going. There ore swamps in the v?ctrit of Neiao?ttl?ao-hu, concerning which Lin Chao, who personally inv,:vtl;,,,trd this area, said: "It would be difl.Ycult to constrict a road base in shin area because of the prevalence of salty swamps" (2;,): The section west card from Haiao-?ts'ao-hu to Chien-.liu lies on the edge of the bawl: ores; the mountainous section is encountered for the first time north or Coven, liu. From this point the route continues past Nan-san4t'ai and on to Mlao-erh-ko., an area which is more than l,6t4 meters above sea level. The mountainous valley area makes its appearanra between Miao.?erh?-tou and the Chas-i-erh Shan, which is also known as K?uei-t'un-ling or Shih- men-tau. The Chia-ir-orh Shan is the highest point reached along this section. According to a map published by the Shan Pao La Shang--hai newspapej7, it forms the -watershed between Wu?-eu and Vs-.ch'eng, ;,r:inr: about 1,810 maters above sea level. The terrain further north is bro6;en and steep and becomes a narrow valley in which fa-ma-t'u is situatod. By the time T'o-li is reached, the terrain has widened so as to form r~ small basin. T.ao?.fang-k'ou lies to the north, and the whole arsa nor??.l of Uo-tang-k'ou is characterised by severe winter cold, and mowsioru?, accompanied by violent winds which endanger the lives of travellers. Therefore, walled enclosures have been constructed to afford travsilern protection from blizzards, The climate in this area is the worst in the section between Wu-su and T'a-ch'eng (24). C. TA-t'o-Pc.tzu Paso According to a detailed nap of this area (25) @nd a riil*.ay mop drawn up by Li Chang-san (26), the following conclusions may 'se drawn.- There is an extensive valley Tires, lose than 1,000 mete,-3 bove was level, located northwest of the A-ya-noverh-?hu (lake), and sol:thwsst of the Pai-yang Ho (Wu-1u,-mu Ho). This area forma an open route -ext?and- ing to the Feu-lu-mu Depression and the 0"min Ho valley. There ao3 many high points in this valley which are between ;00 and GOD meters ao?7ve sea level. Its northeast corner Use on the edge of the r4u-?lu?tau Uepx?as lion, while its southwest portion extends into a part of the Q -.in lie valley. The terrain slopes somewhat towards the southwest. This relle,, which contains & wide and level plain, is the site for such crogratv~,l, large villages as Chin-Wang, f'ich-eh'ang-koa, and Ha-la^.wu-?su. Iir?t'; po-teu, located in its western portion, is the hl.ghost point in tn: valley (about 900 meters above awe level), From the standpoint of terrui>i, :re Kensu-.Sinkiang Railway should proceed along this route, which in f ca' parlor to that of the Chia-i-erh Shan mountain-pass route Thus, zt starts at Ts-kuai, proceeds north to T'sng-ch''ao-ch'u, and tollnw3 along the TI-bus to ?'e-oh'eng :iighnay through List-sh:'-eh'uan??tvu, Chia-cb'ang, T'leh-eh'aag kAx and Na-ls-wu-?su to T'a-ch'eng. The ua`.n road and the highway between T'la?-ch'exag and A-shin at the present time txxth proceed via this valley. All of the three abovee*aertiumeo routes have their good vid tad points. The good points of the Dir-?na-'scull to Lao-fang-ik'ou route art that it proceeds along the course of a river; consequently, it it easy to secure an adequate water supply; A rthermore, this route is the n'r,rtuat one, end part of it passes through a level plain area. Its weak x,ints . 12 RESTRKTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I RESTRICTED itES tRICTED are the steep slope of the terrain through which it.psesea, and the many swamps north of Sha-wan and near Ta-kuai that would make difficult the construction of a solid roadbed. The good point of the Wu-.s,.% to Lao-feng-ksou route is that it proceeds through land occupied by the nomads. The construction work needed along the 7ar.t'o-po'tmu Pass routs would be just like that needed along tha> iiu-au to 140-feng-k?ou route. However, it would pass through an economically more valuable area :tun the Ma-am-sou He to Lao-feng-k?ou route. The lo-t'o-po-tsu Pae route is superior to the other two lines as regards terrain advantages, but inferior to them as regards climate, since fierce winter winds and snow prevail along its route. Therefore,, it would appear most suitable for the proposed western section of the Kensu-Sinkiang Railway to follow along the Ma-ca-sou He route: After heaving followed the original proposals set forth by Dr Sun Tat-sen as far as Ta-kuai, the line should proceed to Tea--ch?eng by go- lag north to Toang_ch?ao-chlu and the Lo-t'o-po-tsu Pass. This line also forms a port of the trunk line connecting Ti-hue and A-span (Ch'eng..hua). There is, topograpbiually speaking, still another excellent through route from Ti-hua to T'a-cheeng. West of Wu-eu between Ai-pi-hu and A-la-k'u-erh-hu, the Chun-ka-srh-man (Dsungaria Gate) is located, The terrain in this area consists of a long, narrow valley which looks like a long alley. This is the tbaroughfare that has been travelled since ancient times by nomads entering or leaving northern Sinkiang and the southern Russian gress2ands. This might make an excellent through rail- way route. However. swamps occupy a vast area covering both extremities of the valley and the land adjacent to the lakes. Thus, it would be en- tirely impracticable to construct a roadbed in those sections. There are no large villages along this route, since the fierce windo that sudden- ly arise are injurious to both men and domesticated animals. Furthoraore, after going past the national lioundery line, this route has to pass through Feviet territory before it can re-enter Chinese territory and reach Tea- ohaeng. Although this route ceeda through favorable terrain, it is interior to the other routes ~aoribed above] with respect to national defense and eoencadc factors. II. AREAS DRPENDENT ON 'IRZ KANSU-,SINKIAFiG RAIIIAT Coa?uaicetions in the northwest are still undeveloped. If the pro- posed Gansu-Sirldiang Railway can be completed, cities and tonne along the railway- will bat.Iit by this development, while other new cities will spring up as a result. Goc.dn will flan Erich:; Sinkiang, inner Rcngolia, Ts, Kam, eta., will all be greatly etfaetod. The Hain Kansu- S Railway will be able to extend its influence to various cities through its branches (or feeders). T.hr, term ",curs daFsrwiant an the Kaaau- Sinkiawg Rai_" raters to those areas that will be affected by the cam- aamiaaticns network pratided by these branch railroads or feeders, lent, the area southwest of the proposed railway route will be ex- asined. This area includes such places situated along the upper rsscbss 13 ?+w 3TP_ICT~ RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 l RESTRICTED . etc., may likewise experience a prosperous fu.ure development; The Kansu-Sinkiang Railway will establish connections 5wherever poasibin7 with present communication lines, auxiliary lines to be cone ing or commercial centers upon completion of the Kansu-Sinkiang Railway. Ti-hua'e position will become one of even greater importance, while T'a- ch'eng may come to be known as an international city. Other cities, such as Ha--mi, Vu--lu-?fan, Chiu-ch'uan, C;iang-i, W "wei, Hai-ning, Ian-chou, . Shan from Ten-ch'i and Vu-ch'e as far as Pa-eb'u; Ching-ho and Polo, along the northern foot of the Tien Shan; I-ring and Sui-ting in the I-li valley, etc. The area northeast of the proposed railway route includes places along the Huang He such as Ching??t'a:i. Chung-aei and Ning-bsia; Ting- yuan-ying and Ch'u-yen-hai in Inner iongolia; Ming.ahui in the Ma=-tsung Shan; Piu-ii-ya-ssu-t'ai and K'o-pu-to in Outer Mongolia; Kan-te, Ch'i- t'ai, and Chen-hai along the northern foot of the Tien Shan; Ch'eng.hua. in the A-erh-t'ai Shan, etc. of the Huang Ho as Hsun-Hum, Kuei?-te, Ta-=ho.pa and Yu-shu, the latter being an important trading point near the Sikang-Tainghei boundary; Hei-ning, located in the Tainghai Basin; She area from Huang-yuan to Tu-lan; Ta-t'ung and Wei-yuan, located on the Ta-t'ung-ho; Min-lo, with- in the Ho-hai Corridor; the northern foot of the K'un-lun Shan from Erh- oh'iang, Yu-tien, and Ho-tiers to Su-fu; the southern foot of the Tien structed later, and all other types of communication. The areas adjacent to the railroad All. obviously benetit as a rueult. The vast distances that have to be travelled in the northwest will be further shortened when the Kaneu-Sinkiang Railway, which slants across this region, is used in connection with other local means of communication. These include the to Ningxia Highway (Lan-thou to Ning-hsia); the Hsi-ring, Ts.-t'ung, Wei-, yuan, and Chang-i line; the Tun-hnsdg to An-hel line; the Me-mi to Chen- hp! line; the T'u-lu-fan to Su-fu line; the Ti-hua to I-li line; the Ti--. Furthermore, there are other auxiliary or tributary routes such as the Kaneu-Tainghai Highway (Lan-chou to Yu-shu and Tu-lam in Tsinghai); Kansu-Sinkiang Highway (Lan-.thou to Ti-.';vi); ! ansu--Shcns Highway (Lail.. ehou to Hsi-anj; Kaneu-Szechwan Highway (Lan-thou to Ch'uan-psi); Kansu present caravan routes which only pass through desert areas, and the post transportation system via the old main roads which cover all areas. branches possessed by a railroad, the larger is profits. Construction of still other railways and highways, such as the following, will be needed: T'ie:a-ahui to Lan-thou; T'a-ch'eng to Sergiopol; the Lan-chou to Hai-rang line; a, pro;.-saed line from Le-se to Lan-chou which will be as branches of the Kansu-sin kang Railway. ihesn will convert the aboae railway into a systematic cmmunicst-;nr,s netw,,rk. The increased trans- purt activities that thus can be carried on will result in the expansion of hitherto undeveloped markets. The present lines of cciamunication arc completely inadequate to cope with the needs. The greater the number of as sheep's wool, drugs, etc.; to-wei, Chung-wei, Ku-yuan, Chen-yuan, and voting-ch'uen to Hsi-an, etc. Three highwaye that should be conatruetee in conjunct'-on with the Be-hel Corridor section Ore: RESThIC?ED RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 important as the starting point of the main road proceeding northward to Outer Mongolia, and as a barrier to penetration southward of the Ho-hai C y lated, and of minor economic value. A branch line of t}me railway should be constructed from Ha??mi via Ming-shut and Chu-?yen-hai torso-t''ou; Ming-shui (TN: not located on available maps) is an important mountain pass of the Ma-tsung Shan. According to Stein, it is about 2,000 meters above sea. level and is provided with abundant springs. ,Ming-shut is 3.nidang basins Will all be connected. The Au-hal to Ha-ml section, across the Gobi, does not require any auxiliary railroad branches, because the land is barren sparsel a a e western extremity of the Ho-hsi Corridor, on the edge of the South Sinkiang Basin..Thus, the Ch''ing-hai, Ch'ai-taamu, and South r RESTRICTED 1. A line from Wu-wei to Kin-ch'in and Ting-yuan-yang which, by going through the northern grasslands, would serve to link the Kanau-- Sinkiang Railway with the Poi-p'ing to Kuei--sui Railway. 2. A line from Chiu-chuan to Chu-ye -hai which would facilitate communication with Pao-t'ou on the cast, Ha-iai on the west, Ho=hei on the south and Outer Mongolia on the north. Its importance may easily be imagined. This line will in the future connect highways in Sinkiang and Suiyuan, 3. A line from Tainghai to Tu-1un and Tun-huang which would procoed by way of the Ch'ai-ta.mu basin and Pa-kvg-ch'ai-ta-mu to Tun-huang, which is loc t d t th orridor. From the standpoint of national defense, Ming-shui In as valuable as Chu-yen-hair The completion of this branch line will mean the linking of these two important wai:'itary points. The section from Chu-yen-hei to Pao-t'ou is very well travelled, due to the abundance of water along the way. the section from Chu.yen-hai to Ming-ehui on the , other hand, is rarely travelled since it proceeds along a desert area of insignificant economic value. However, this section presents the quick- est means of o i ti w ' c mmun ca on bet een Pao-t ou and Ha-mi, and serves as an artery for the future development of Inner Mongolia and the colonization of the northwest. It also plays an important role in China's national defense. Two highways should be constructed, one going from Chen-hai to Chu-yea-hai, and the other from Tun-huang to Erh'-oh'iang, The mountainous Tien Shan section should have many branch lines appended to, it, because of its strategic position in the communications. system. Important additions to the railway system would be a T'u=lu-fan to Ha-ad line, since the oasis towns in southern Sinkiang are all said to be prosperous in agriculture, livestock, im&.mstry, and commerce, and they should be connected. Wu-ahih, A-k'o--sou, Wan-au, etc., are also STAT tic= surely mist not-be omitted, via., from Ti-hua to 12d-t'ai, 4iu-su Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 0 The construction of the Kaneu-Sinkiang Railway has for Its objective the meetiuS of economic, political, and national-defense me-do. Its effect on a local economy might be somewhat as follove: Sinkiang, which is mow Furthermore it will be the most important transcontinental railway of Europe and Asia -- even more important than the Trans-Siberian Railway. Its future development may be awaited hopefully. The Kansu-Sinkiang Railway will start in an agricultural area and reach a stock raising area; it will extend from a densely populated area to sparsely settled areas. Through the colonization and development of be hard to get, and there are great distances with for people, There will be adearth of latorers. A railroad itself is most profitable whe,i will be mountains, mountain passes, deserts, winds; sand, rain and snow, times greater than its economic value. went will result in the political unification and strengthening of the Chinese nation. By extending for several thousztd li through the heart- lend of central Asia, i~ will bring about unity betweer the interior and frontier areas, and thus the railway'a defensive value will be a hundred populated frontier areas, and afford a means of cultural exchange with their caurtayNse already living there. This far-distant land of Sinkir.ig sines time immemorial has been the site of unceasing international con-, fliets duo to its being surrounded by strong and greedy neighbors. The in exchange for manufactured products; this is very important. Its con- etruction will also contribute to viral defensive requirements, by fury nishing the transportation for moving the excess population in the south the southeast and the northwost, cold be eichanged and distributed, and industry and commerce would flourish. This is the great need of our domestic economy. This railway will also be of considerable international value since China can use it to ship her surplus tea and silk to Europe one goods, tea, sugar, etc., that are producted in the southeast areas could. be producing areas. These, together with the agricultural, antaal husbandry, and mining areas. could use the Sansu-Sinkiang Railway to transport their prod- Sun Yat-sen as the."Argentina of China" M). The lands along tae conform foot of the Tien Shan, the I-Li No valley, the southern foot of the A.erh- t'al Shan and the 0-min Flo valley could expand agriculturally by utilizing the melting snows for irrigation. There are a greet many oil- and gold- its edvuntages. "171s. was the principle of railway economics proposed by Sun Yat-sen (29). The construction of this railway conforms to this principle. It also agrees with his four principles for the construction As few obstacles as possible (favorable terrain) LSanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80_00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 I RESTRICTED. RESTRICTM 3. Most the needs of the people develop the economy of the North- post, the exchange of animal husbandry products of the Northwest with the agricultural and industrial products of the interior and the manufactured articles of Europe) 4. Most advantageous location of the line (to solve international disputes and strengthen national defense) From this may be soon the farsightedness and perspicacity of Dr Sun Yet-sen in planning this railway. 8afoeanees 1~ Sven Hedin, Tie Silk Road 2, See 1 3. Chung Kung-ft. "The Dzungerie Basin of Sinkiang," Border Govern? meat Public Aiacussions, Vol 3, Na 4. Owen Lattimore, "Caravan Routes of Inner Asia," GeoU,af pal Journal 5. Pb An..hua, "Outline AMary of Northwest Communications," Renurc s of the Northwest, Vol 1, No 45 6. Tasnggching-heing-haiung, Introduction to Communications and Fson0ica, translated by Kuc Hsu'chung, China Commercial Affairs See 1 Ting We9g~ahiang V. K. Ting), Wang Wen-i,ao, and Tsang Shih-ying, New Me of the Ch less R~j+ublie, Shen-pao-kuan (The Shang-hai Press) Ko Ting-pang, Outline Symmerv of the ho?hsi Corridor, Kans' Science Institute 10. See l 11, Chlung-chming Ta?-kung-pao, The Four qhu ,of i3a'hei 15 September 1942 12. Aurel Stein, Chinese %gkesten and, Karin (Ltlae) 13. See l l4= Lin Ching, No hxest Diseussigps l5~ M. Cable and E. French, Thro .. tho .fade Gtto and Ceatrel Asia 160 See 1 17. Royal Geographical Society, Tibet and the Sur inrt n (leaps 1:3,8CG,OCZ ) 16. Chou Li-son, Written notes concerning his investigation of this area 19. Douglas Carruthers, U:::mg l2Dgolie RESTRICTED RESTRKIED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9 i?~CTDI(TI.:w RESTRICTED 20.. iisiah.pin, Nwtoe _on Sjn9tisna 21. See 20 22. Lt Col R.C.F.. Schonberg, "Prom the .'flee Shan to the Altai, 2mm dieal .i?nrna, Val 22, No 6 23. Lin-chao, RTcorded lectures concerning his investigation of northern SinI 24. Owen Lattimore, Hijh Tartarv 25. Atlas iC emend rNR~dt, USSR, 1938 liohsd b 1,hie institute l,ina a tuts of Geography, Pei-p ai, Sae ?lma~ 27. Dr Sun Yat-sen, "M tsriel Development," from Rwmnsetw-+.4.w DOW for itaticnal 28. 8es 27 - 38 RES R1CM RESTRICTED STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/29: CIA-RDP80-00809A000600200245-9