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March 19, 1952
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 COUNTRY USSR SUB CLASSIFICATION S-E-C-R-E-T SECURITY INFORMATION CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY , ?t REPORT INFORMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCASTS CD NO. JECT Political - Party education HOW PUBLISHED Newspapers; periodicals WHERE PUBLISHED USSR DATE PUBLISHED 3 Jul 1950 - 14 Oct 1951 LANGUAGE Russian n1I. oown11t conuu uio1111Ano11 unrnu 1111 unom 1111I11U11 01 ml o11IT11o lions nm111 fry uu111N of uno11.u LOT to 11' c. o" n ?11" cc?,u ~11uo11o. m tu...... 11 T11c 11muno11 01 I , Cost,. l IS LIT 119111111 M q *tT11o Ul,o flit.. Ii P50* 1111R1o 111 IL lll0OIVlno11 4. 11111O TOll Il Ao111.ITIO. DATE OF INFORMATION 1950 - 1951 DATE DIST. 11 Mar 1952 NO. OF PAGES 17 SUPPLEMENT REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION Newspapers and periodicals as indicated. VIEW OF - 1951 SCHOOL YEAR IN THE USSR PARTY EDUCATION SYSTEM The fo_.loving study, based principally on information gathered from Soviet republic newspapers and the Moscow and Leningrad press, is a survey of the achievements and failures of the 1950 - 1951 school year in the USSR party education system. In conjunction with O0-W-17292, which dealt with the organization of the party education system and with the initial claims made for the 1950 - 1951 school year, it is designed to serve as a comprehensive review of a repre- sentative school year in the Soviet party education system. A short introductory section is devoted to an over-all consideration of the school year and to certain general features of the party education Ayatem it*elf, while the main body of the report is an examination of the concrete situation within the several union republics. The re- publics are arranged in the same order as in 0O-W.17292 to facilitate. comparison. Numbers in parentheses refer to appended sources. From both the quantitative and qualitative points of view the party educa- tion system in the Soviet Union is eaid to make significant progress with each successive school year. According to the latest available information, the to- tal number of persons embraced by the political education program in the 1950 - 1951 school year was "about 8 million.'(1) included in this total were "more than 2 million" nonparty people and 500,000 Komsomols.(2) The number of party members and candidates engaged in study came to 94.6 percent of the total per- sonnel in USSR party organizations and represented an increase of 320,000 over the 1949 - 1950 figure (3), which has been given as "about 5 million."(4) Therefore, Communist participation in party education in 1950 - 1951 may be es- timated as being in excess of 5yi millions. Due to the inadequacy of statistics for 1949 - 1950, it is not possible to ascertain the over-all increase in the scope of the party education system last year over the previous year. -1 SECRET STATE ARMY NAVY AIR 9, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 The breakdown of the over 2 million nonparty people engaged in political study in 1950 ?. 1951 is as follows about 900,000 in political schools and Lenin-Stalin biography circles; more than 660,000 in party history circles; 51,200 in rayon evening party schools and in evening universities of Marxism- Leninism; and more than 320,000 in independent study.(2) It will be observed that these figures total only 1,931,200 plus. However, the enumeration failed to take into account the nonparty people in such. sectors of the party education system as circles for the study of historical and dialectical materialism, circles for the study of political economy, philosophy circles, 2-year party schools under city, oblast, and kray party committees, and higher party schools under republic central committees. One of the factors adduced as evidence of the qualitative improvement of the 1950 - 1951 school year in the USSR party education system is the relative increase between 1950 - 1951 and 1949 - 1950 in the number of Communists study- ing at the more advanced levels of political training. Thus, although the num- ber of political schools increased by 11 percent in 1950 - 1951, Communists en- rolled in them decreased by 14 percent; on the other hand, Communist enrollment in party history circles increased by 25 percent.(5) While the number of Com- munists engaged in independent study, the most fundamental method of training in Marxism-Leninism," has almost doubled over the past 5 years, in 1950 - 1951 approximately 30 percent of the total USSR party membership studied independ- ently, vith the heaviest concentration of such students being in large Soviet ?.tiea.,6) This represented an increase of almost 13 percent over the 1949 - 1950 figure.(3) More than 40 percent of the total party membership st,,died either indepe;_.ertly, in advanced party history circles, in circles for the study of historical and dialectical materialism, in evening tarty schools, or it. evening universities.(7) Following standard Soviet practice, articles in the press on the progress and results of the 1950 - 1951 school year in the several union republics and In the Soviet Union as a 'hole invariably begin with favorable comments both cn the numbers of people engaged In study and on the students' mastery of their subjects. Then follow, an enumeration of shortcomings, which usually comprises the major portion of such reports. When certain shortcomings are repeatedly stressed, and when actual data are given to emphasize their seriousness, it may be considered that they no longer appear merely as conventional concessions to the Soviet practice of 'criticism and self-criticism" in reporting on any activ- ity in the Soviet Union, but can perhaps be used as the basis for appraising the real accomplishments of the party education system. For example, the number of people enrolled in ::rty education courses must be considered in relation to continual press refe*ences to students dropping out of study, to courses breaking down, to poor and irregular student attend- ance, and to numbers of independent students who. are students on registration lists only. In like manner, the achievements in study claimed for party educa- tion students must be considered against the background of frequent complaints ab"ut the lack of well-gt.elified propagandists and conavltants, the low ideo- logical level of instruction, and the nonfulfillment of study plans. From these considerations a number of observations may be made. Firstly, it appears that the party overreaches itself in demanding at the beginning of the school year that all Communists and an increasing number of nonparty per- sons enroll in party education courses, without has'ing an adequate number of instructors qualified to carry out the requirements of the study plans. The situation in regard to independent study last year, which bore the heaviest brunt of official criticism, illustrates that even in sheer numbers of consult- ants alone, party desires and capabilities could not be reconciled. With the emphasis being on Individual consultations, it is considered that one consult- ant should be in charge of from five to eight students.(8) However, with a Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 total of "sore than 130,000 consultants in the 1950 - 1951 school year to over 2 million independent students (9), the average number of student^ assigned to one consultant would be at least 15. Secondly, it is not unlikely that short- comings in the party education system which result from the lack of student co- operation may be unavoidable in a system in which students are obtained under pressure and in which the levels at which they ace to study are for the most part determined for them. lastly, the fact that political study is a responsi- bility in addition to the regular work of both the student and propagandist vculd tend to make the aspirations of the political education system difficult to achieve in actuality. Ninety-three percent of the members of the Moscow Oblast party organi- zations were engaged in politi-al $tu,,f in the 1950 - 1951 school year. Com- pared with the 1949 - 1050 school year, the number of Communists in political schools and elementary circles decreased, while the number of students in ad- vanced circles increased four to five times; a considerably larger number of Communists were engaged in independent study last year.(10) Thirty-five thou- sand Komsomols were in the party education network.(11) Total Communist enrollment in political schools was in excess of 50,000. Over 55,000 C"mmunists studied in 5,257 advanced circles, and more than 178,000 Communists studied independently. There were about 55,000 propagandists for the school system in 1950 - 1951; about 70 percent of the leaders of polit- ical schools and circler had a higher educ^tion and more than 3 years' experi- ence as propagandists. Directing independent study were 11,560 nonecaff con- sultants and 4,l60 seminar leaders.(12) Progress in the 1950 - 1951 school year in party education in Moscow Oblast was declared to be generally good. Shortcomings noted in the conduct of political schools included interruption cri total breakdown of study in some schools, poor attendance, and the incidence of students dropping out before the end of the school year. Some rayon party committees were criticized for not having trained their propagandists well and for not having controlled the work of political schools properly. Although a majority of circles completed the school year successfully, ~erious defi,:iencies were found in the work of elemen- tary history circles. Thirty elementary circles in Ramenskiy Rayon, for exam- ple, failed to fulfill their study plans. These shortcomings were partly the result of the insufficient training of propagandists and of errors in recruit- ing students for study in circles. Although the overwhelming majority of inde- pendent students fulfillc their study plans, many Communists did not fulfill their study programs, because of lack of control over their work by certain city and rayon party committees and defects in the organization of independent study -- individual consultations being subordinated to group consultations, which in effect transformed independent study into circle study. Unsatisfactory recruitment, ideologically poor lectures, and low student attendance were the shortcomings attributed to some evening universities of Marxism-Leninism and evening party schools in Moscow Oblast.(13) The 1950 - 1951 school year in party education in the city of Moscow embraced over hall a million persons.(14) This total included 387,000 Commun- ists, or 90 percent of the membership of the city party organization.(15) The number of persons in the evening university, in advanced histcry circles, and in independent study exceeded the 1949 - 1950 figure by 40,000.(14) S-E - C 3 R - E-T SECRET --- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 - SECRET led rode Of the Communists engaged it political rd,-.a-.:on, Deer 37 percent stud- ized. Pendently.(14) To aid these students 550 5.?r:e of lectures were organ- (16) Over 3,000 political schools were In operation in Moscow (16), with an enrollment which included 22,000 Communists.(15) Elementary history and bi- 14Pby circles, In which 132,000 Communists studied (15), numbered over ,000.(16) More than 40,000 persons completed the stud,' of the Short Course History of the V~(b) in advanced circles and independently.(17) The '-~ Party organized under the rayon party committees and larger enterprises of Moscow, trained over 8,000 persons, mainly secretaries of rayon: party Tom- mittees and primary party organizations, trade union readers, and Komsomol work- ers.(15) Rayon evening party schools graduated 3,500 persons at the eiu ci the school year.(l7) Toward the end of March 1951 the Moscow press reported that over 18,000 people were studying at the Moscow Evening University of Marxism-Leninism and its 25 affiliates.(15) Subsequtat refe-ences to the evening university, haw_ ever, gave the total enrollment as over 16,000; of whom there were more than 2,000 secretarier, deputy secretaries, and members of the bureaus of primary party organizations, over 6,000 leading workers of ministries and enterprises, and many" teachers, artists, scientists, and instructors et higher educational insti..rtic_a.(18, 19) About 6,500 persons graduated from the univer.,lty in the 1950 - 1951 school year.(17) The reason for the discrepancy between the early ana later figures for the enrollment at the Moscow Evening University may be that the later reports took into account the number or students -- a reported 12 percent of the total enrollment -- who dropped out during the school year. (19) Poor attendance at the university was also noted in the Moscow press, and the poor quality of many lectures sharply criticized. To help students pass their examinations, indi- vidual and group consultations were organized near the end of the school year and additional dayq allotted for taking examinations.(18, 19) A general statement on the 1950 . 1951 school year in the Moscow party education system pointed nut that more than 100 political schools and circ'_?,c had suspended operation during the year, and that 7 percent of all political schools and cir.:les did not fulfill their study plans. The low ideological- political level of study in various political schools and circles and the in- competence of many propagandists were termed the most basic of all shortcomings in these forms of study. The report went o to say, nowever, that there were probably more defects in the system of independent study than is any other form. (15) 3. Leningrad City and Oblast Almost 95 percent of th4e Communist Party membership and over 128,000 nonparty active workers (aktiviety) were engaged in political study in the city of Leningrad in 1950 - 1951.(17) No final figures are available for the over- all student enrollment in Leningrad Oblast or or the ,amber of persons on any but a few of the levels of the party education system in Leningrad City and Ob- last. While there were 639 political senools, 1.358 history circles -- in- cluding 300 of th= advanced type - - and 320 biography circles in Leningrad Ob- last during 1950 - 1951 (20), Leningrad City and Culast had a combined total of l,734 Political schools, 5,896 history circles ?- including 1,220 of the ad- vanced type -- and 2,505 biography circles. About -,Elf of the party personnel in Leningrad Oblast and City were engaged in independent study; 9,800 consult- ants were assigned to direct their study.(7) 4 SECREL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Over the past last Party 5 years the Evemn ; :nr.y It Committee ha3 trained and the Leningrad Ob_ 9-mon un'I`r th courses retratr:e: jr, / it, more th e an 3,000 party, sov;F. T gulir 2-year course and 1950 - 1951 sc}n~t veer there were 775 graduat orkers. 5 rrom the 9-r, In the gnu2 th e a cou 50 f 250 f _romrse, and 4rothe 2_ Kam- training propagandists. 76 from the one month courses designed for re- Whom were ra eere, 53 of yon anddaci++yopart worker ccuzse Included 160 part w ~~, and 4l newspaper i+orkee Y worker 23 soviet workero Y ork_ formal sandy, students of the workers, o whom 27 Were editors. , 26 to their xork. Party School Ie addition s lheir as cyaeork For etheple' more than Participated in 70 Persons in the Practical tart' and tantscen circler, pa y educatj system, 25 course worked and the S over, 50 helped the were propagandists for mmit the o mot ninakiy Rayon Party. Committee Le rad ning Students of the check on the work of y mmitts e in the conduct of Coif Party ng Party School also participated directly participated Period mass agitation work in the loan su,bscri of the elections to the Supreme Soviets USSR local soviets. The subscription campaign and in locals Part importance of the Evening Party and rder and to the s P r y Committee is demonstrated b School ider the Leningrad e 12 oblasia of the RSFSR and from y the fact that party and sc?r vian, and Estonian, reputlice were engaged he Karelo_ iet work- Lithuanian, Ist_ Lat- gtged ir. s ri3y 'here. "2.1.' More than 5,500 leading party, soviet, and Komsomol workers from the Evening roo n he University of Marxism-Le,jin,sm under the Leningrad City CCommittee e past 2 years.(7) In :750 'with 2,- Passing on from the first- con1 there ours 2 4 city and its affiliates and cornea to the second-year coure,~ ~ graduates, excess of is The 1 correspondence division had a The uent in 50 - new correspondence division9for the51 rchool ,year saw the establishment eony an rural intelligentale,(7) Lenin While the results of party education in the 1950 - 1951 City and Oblast were considered satisfactory on the 951 school shortcomings in the content and organization year of Political study were whole, note. Many ecltations, and lessons in schools end circles were deficient in profundity instances of an indifferent offaapproach. plande some tpa zatun were port to Ignored stud hetpat of organizations to torpo-ly tend seminars y? Criticism was directed against part to pa_ to increase their Political maturity. who failed k a, at- Lesogorskiy, Vyborgskiy, and Pashskly rayon apartyy, ttees were scored for, not having ensured the time YY cplaie In e cad olr ical schools. 1Y fulfillment of study plans in t- many schools re Pastycontrol over ernindependent stud coat,-n c lenin iism rcles in and q realiuaty dn no rook at iser Y continued inarelt ; reality Information on party education in other parts of the RSFSR is scattered and meager. Of interest, however, are the repcrts on the situation in regard to independent study in Saratov and Pskov Oblast in Bo1'shevik and in an editorial in Pravda, both ofiwhich dealt with the over- all situation in the system of independent stud Ppeared in an art'cle to em of in i article, UP to 30 Percent of the Communists ccording to dependent study in Saratov Oblast ommunists who were supposa dy erg91Bodid inin nei--by ch while the editorial on1Sephad tember t itori is ' "not less during the 1950 ? 1951 schooltyear,as independent students had not worked at all Armenian SSR In the 1950.- 1951 school year more than 34 00 litical , ? litical schools and circles in the Armenian SSR, n Communists studied in po po- and o engaged in independent study (24), 7,000 of themoverYerre en.Cp all party education system embraced ' 5) The 7,300 Komsomols and up (0) The ty over- to 10,000 nonparty -5- SECRET S_E_C_R_E_T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 ~R T SECRET people. Two hundred forty-four persons studied in the Higher Party School un- der the TeK KP(b) of the Armenian SSR, and 144 in its correspondence divi- sion.(24) The Higher Party School under the republic central committee gradu- ated 130 persons, bringing the total number of graduates over the past 5 years to 55C.(26) The Evening Universit f M y Co o arxism-Leninism under the Yerevan City -Party ~lttee, with five affiliates attached to rayon party committees and to large enterprises in the capital, had a total enrollment of 1,800, of which 570 were secretaries, assistant secretaries, and members of the bureaus of primary party 275 were propagandists, 250 were leading workers of ministries, soviets, and trade unions, and 520 were scientific workers and vuz (higher ed- ucational institution) instructors.(27) Toward the very end of the school year; the organization and conduct of classes at the Yerevan Evening Univei.iity were sharply criticized in an article in Kommunist (28) which stated that some lectures and seminars were not con- ducted on a sufficiently high ideological level and study lists and instructors were .frequently changed. The article went on to say that due to the ineffi- ciency of the university administration and to poor control on the part of pri- mary party organizations and rayon party committees, "a considerable number" of students abandoned study during the school year. It noted that in addition some students did not pass the examinations, ethers were not permitted to take them, and still others simply did not appear for them. The article emphasized that primary party organizations and rayon party committees played a vital role in ensuring that all students pass the examinations and that these party or- ganizations must create "suitable conditions" for university a*udents to en- able them to pass their examinations before ; July 1951. From the above arti- cle it appears that many students who did not take their examinations at the aesignatcd time and those who failed the first time were given another oppor- tunity in examinations held after the normal date of the end of the school year in urban areas, 30 June.(27) Azerbaydzhan SSR The 1950 - 1951 school year in party education embraced almost all Commu- nists in Azerbaydzhan SSR and more than 37,000 nonparty people.(29) A total of 6,850 propagandists conducted the studies, 2,077 of these propagandists had taken one-, 2-, and 3-month training and retraining courses in the summer of 1950 under city and oblast party committees and the TeK KP(b) of Azerbayd- zhan.(30) Of the total number of 24,516 persons who studied in the republic's 1,692 political schools, 18,121 were Communists. An estimated 1,615 political schools successfully completed their annual study programs. Some 2,145 elementary cir- cles and 625 advanced circles for tha study of party history trained 30,728 and 8,244 persons, respectively. A majority of these circles fulfilled their study plans. The 1,538 biography circles had a total enrollment of 26,611, about 9,00; persons of whom were nonparty people. Although no figures are available for the number of, or the total enrollment in, rayon evening party schools, all such schools were reported to have successfully completed their study plans.(30) Some 2,091 persons studied in the evening universities of Marxism-Leninism at Baku, Kirovabad, Nakhichevan, and Stepanakert. The 10 - 11 August 1951 Ple- num of the Azerbaydzhan Central Committee found "basic deficiencies" in the work of evening universities: ineffectual control by party organizations over the ideological content of lectures and seminars, poor student attendance, abandon- ment of study by a large number of persons, and nonfulfillment of the require- ments of the study program by many students. Specific criticism was directed -6- SECRET S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 SECRET Against conditions in the Nakhichevan Evening University, with the major share of the blame for the nonfulfillment of the study program falling on the Nak- hichevan Oblast Party Committee and, in particular, on its secretary, Aliyev, who has Of late handled questions of propaganda and agitation extremely Poorly, (30) A teadaAcreport the July 1951 on the Baku evening University pointed out that at-- 1951 school year cent of the totallenrrollment -- and that aomesstudents had dropped out7o,per- Pletely, others had not appeared for examinations, and a number had been dis- missed because of poor attendance and failure to pass examinations.(31) The Central Committee Plenum referred to above termed independent study "still one of the most backward sections" of party education, stating "Many rayon party committees and primary party organizations do not provide tLe nec- essary aiC to independent students of theory and do not practice daily control over their work. A considerable number of independent students of Bolshevist theory and history in reality do nothl.4 to raise their ideological-theoretical level." The plenum found that independent study was poorly organized in the Gorodskoy iayon of the city of Baku, where the rayon party committee did not ensure that o vufficient number of consultants were chosen to aid independent students and where a majority of such students had no individual study pro.. grams.(3o) The plenum determined that the most basic shortcoming in the 1950 -.1951 school year in the Azerbaydzhan party education system vas that in many in- stances political study in schools and circles was divorced from consideration of practical tasks and amounted to learning by rote one or another historical fact or theoretical proposition, thus violating the "most important Bolshevist principle" of uniting theory with practical experience.(30) Belorussian SSR Little information is available on russian SSR beyond that 0 - 1951 school year in the Belo- ancy between the "more , rigure cited in 0000-of note is the discrep- nuber of people engaged in political study in 1950 - 917nd for the total a re Belorussian press in July 1951 which gave that total as "about 200,00p "(3 the 32) A comparison of the statistics given for the number of political schools and cir- cles under the Minsk party rganization at the beginning of the school year and several months later may servo as an indication that many initial estimates were greatly exagerrated. Sovetskaya Belorussi that 298 political schools and 710 circles for the studypof party reported be set up in Minsk in 1950 - 1951; the same newspaper on 29 December 195 ,how- ever, stated that 173 political schools and 637 history circles were then op- erating in Minsk. The Higher Party School under the TsK KP(b) of Belorussia graduated 382 persons in 1950 - 1951, which brought the total number of graduates during the past 4 years to 1,500. A considerable number of last year's graduates received grades of "good" and "excellent" on the state examinations. Some 1,648 per- sons completed 9-month refresher courses at the Higher Party School. (33) The Gomel' Oblast and Minsk party organizations have been sharply censured in the republic press for poor work with intellectuals in the 1950 - 1951 school year. The indifference of the Gomel' Oblast Party Committee to the po- litical training of the intelligentsia was cited as the reason for the breakdown of study in many circles, especially those under the Oblast soviet Agricultural SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 SECRET Administration, Finance Division, and Public Health Division, in which, it ve.a reported, the majority of the oblast'a intellectuals are concentrated. Inde- pendent study by the intelligentsia of the city of Camel' was also considered highly unsatisfactory. Although approximately 2,000 persons, the majority of the city's intellec- tuals, were registered as independent students, only one third of that number fulfilled their individual study plans. In addition, it was found that a large number of students had dropped out of the Gomel' Evening University during the school year -- 180 for "various reasons," many others because "normal condi- tions had not been established" for their study. An example of the absence of "normal conditions" was provided by the deputy chief of the Oblast soviet Agri- cultural Administration, who reported that he was forced to abandon study be- cause if the frequency with which the Oblast party committee would call him out of claca to obtain information from him. last year, the Oblast party committee opened an affiliate of the evening university in Rechitsa, but because of the committee's failure to provide the affiliate with an adequate number of in- structors, classes frequently broke down.(34) A "considerable number" of Minsk intellectuals were not dravn nto Tarty education in 1950 - 1951, and many who were enrolled in the various sections of the system attended classes irregularly. The most serious shortcoming in the conduct of party education for the intelligentsia of Minsk was the low ideo- logical level of political studies.(35) A survey of the over-all situation in the party education system in Belo- russia in 1950 - 1951 pointed to independent study as the weakest of all the forms of political study. Not enough emphasis had been placed on the individual needs of the students, many persons having been assigned identical reading lists and given the same deadlines for completing their readings. Party organiza- tions had not properly supervised independent study, which led to the fact that many Communists registered as independent students did not read a single work on Marxism-Leninism. Specific censure for its poor supervision over independ- ent study was meted out to the Brest Oblast Party Committee.(36) Estonian SSR No total figures are available for persons engaged in political education in Estonia in 1950 - 1951. The Evening University of Marxism-Leninism under the Tallin City Party Com- mittee graduated 173 persons at the end of the last school year, and it was an- ticipated that, in addition, over 25 woul, complete their studies in the autumn of 1951. Seventy-four party members and candidates were among the graduates. Over the past 5 years about 900 people have completed courses at the univer- sity.(37) In the city of Tallin 1,028 Communists served in the political education system as lecturers, propagandists, seminar leaders, consultants, and special- ists in teaching methodology. Four lecture cycles were organized for students of Bolshevist theory on the history of the VKP(b), philosophy, political economy, foreign policy of the USSR, and contemporary International relations. Figures for the number of students engaged in political education in Tallin are avail- able only for those pursuing independent study, totaling 1,284.(38) In his report to the Seventh Tallin City Party Conference, held on 24 - 25 March 1951, A. F-yundel', secretary of the Tallin City Party Committee, pointed to "many basic shortcomings" in the conduct of party education last year. Among SECRE ' 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 SECRET them, he stated, were the weak control by purty orgi.nizationa over the ideologi- cal content of lectures, the low ideological level of study in a number of po- litical schools and circles, the pcor attendance, not exceeding 50 percent of total enrollment, in political schools and circles in many industrial enter- prises and institutions, and instance? of complete breakdown of study.(38) A unigcs phenomenon in the Soviet party education system was the appearance in the Estonian press in July 1951 of advertisements for students for the Eve- ning University under the Tallin City Party Committee (39) and for the Evening University under the Tallin Officers' Garrison Rouse.(40) Apparently, party organizations in Tallin are unable to carry out successfully their recruitment responsibilities, and this may be an indication of continuing organizational weakness of the Communist Party in Estonie.(41) Georgian SSR Statistics for party education in the Georgian SSE in 1950 - 1951 are lim- members and candidates or 1 sp rt ~y 9 percent of all Communists in n the city's party or- and about 5,000 nonparty f- ~ f' the poc people studied in the various forms e of the political al stud while 870 Y, political schools and circles trained 16,500 persons. The Eve- nin U g niversity, with its five affiliates, had an enrollment of 1,834.(42) terlalism were in operation for the first time last year. --Some Y 2,625 propagand- .:pendant students.(42) Party School under the TSK KP(b) of Georgia rece passed the examinations and received d iplomas. Thirty-Six persons graduated with "honors."(43) city, and rayon party committees in the Georgian SSR, held in the middle -of~Sep- tembe 1 nouns '.. _ _ r 95 that Karelo-Finnish SSR Information on party education in the Karelo-Finnish SSR last year is very meager. The republic press in May 1951 revealed that 269 political schools, 815 circles for the study of party history and theory, and 33 evening party echoole were in operation in 1950 - 1951. It was noted that in ibigozerskiy, Segozerakiy, Olonetskiy, and several other rayons, where study in political schools and circles had frequently broken down during the school year, instruc- tors were speeding up York in order to cover all the material on time. This procedure was sharply criticized, it being recommended that, instead of these disorganized speed-ups, courses should either be extended beyond the normal end of the school year or, in cases where study was greatly behind Schedule, some of the material should be absorbed into the program of the coming year. "Espe- cially serious shortcomings" were noted in the conduct of independent study.(45) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 I Kazakh SSR At the beginning of the 1950 - 1951 school year the Kazakh SSR press re- ported that 11,868 political schools and circles, 275 rayon party schools, and 17 evening universities had been set up, and that 95.5 percent of the repub- lic's Communists were engaged in political stud,.(46) The only subsequent sta- tistical information on the over-all party education system in the republic is that the 17 evening universities together had a total enrollment of more than 6,000.(47) About 19,000 Communists and 7,000 nonparty people studied last year in the city of Alma-Ata, 5,000 of the total number studying independently. More than 800 persons worked es propagandists for circles and political schoois.(48) Criticism of shortcomings in political study was focused, for the most part, on unqualified propagandists, poor supervision of indeperdent study, and poor attendance in political schools and circles. A considerable number of po- litical schools and circles in "many rayons of several oblasts" were found to be locking in well-trained propagandists, and seminars for propagandists were rarely held.(49) Party organizations in Gur'ye and Aktyubinsk oblasts, in par- ticular, were said to be remiss in obtaining qualified propagandists for their political schools and circles, and, as a result, courses were conducted on a low ideological level, and many students abandoned study.(50) As far as independent study was concerned, special lectures were poorly organized and consultants' aid to students inadequate. (51) Because of the lack of proper control over independent study, a number of Communists supposedly studying independently in reality did no work. This was true particularly in East Kazakhstan and Akmolinsk oblasts.(50) In preparing for the new (1951 - 1952) school year, party organizations ere warned against repeating the mistke, which many made in 1950 - 1951, of recruiting students on a mass, "mechanical" basis, without regard for the gen- eral educational and political background of each individual. This incorrect method of recruitment was given as one of the reasons for poor student attend- ance and unsatisfactory progress in many inst'nces.(51) Kirgiz SSR There were 1,011 circles for the ctudy of the biographies of Lenin and Stalin, with an enrollment of more than 13,000 Communists and nonparty people, and over 13,000 independent students. These are the only over-all figures pub- lished for the 1950 - 1951 party education system in the Kirgiz SSR.(52) Over the past 5 years 589 people have graduated from the Higher Party School under the republic central committee. In 1950 - 1951, 149 graduated (116 men and 33 women) and 39 completed the 9-nontb retraining course. Of the graduates, 68 percent were Kirgiz, the remainder being Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Tatars, Kazakhs, and others. The State Examining Commission announced that a majority of the students demonstrated a profound knowledge of their sub- jects on their examinations.(53) In Dzhalal-Abad Oblast in 1950 - 1951 there were three city and ten rayon evening party schools, 179 basic history circles, 16 advanced circles, 124 po- litical schools, and 168 biography circles.(54) In evaluating the progress of the school year, A. Kazanskiy, Deputy Chief of the Propaganda and Agitation Section of the TeX KP(b) of Kirgiz SSR, reported that courses in many circles and political schools were on a low ideological level and failed to keep up with the study programs. Some rayon party schools - 10 - SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 and a large number of circles and political schools had not fulfilled their pro- grams by the end of the school year. Also, many independent students did not meet the requirements of their study plans. Serious shortcomings in the direc- tion of party education were imputed to tie Talasa and Issyk-Kul' Oblast party committees, while the Osh and Dzhalal-Abad Oblast party committees were criti- cized for having sent many propagandists from their schools and circles on party assignments for prolonged periods of time.(52) More than 95 percent of the Communists in party organizations of the Lat- vian SSR were engaged in political study in 1950 - 1951, and more than 12,000 of them studied independently. The various forms of political study included 854 political schools, 1,322 circles of the basic and advanced type, 175 biog- raphy circles, 71, evening party schcole under rayon and city party committees, and 3 evening universities. The number of nonparty active wor'cers participating in political education was 41 times greater than in the previous year.(55) In the city of .liga the number of rayon evening party schools increased last year from nine to 13, and the number of students almost doubled. The num- ber of advanced history circles was "somewhat higher" and 14 circles devoted to dialectical and historical materialism, political economy, USSR foreign policy, and international relations were set up. About 3,800 persons studied independ- ently. The Riga Evening University and its affiliates had a total enrollment in excess of 3,000. Increasing numbers of nonparty workers, especially those belonging to the intelligentsia, participated it -arty education (the 15,440 of 1950 - 1951 represented an increase of 3,000 ove. the previous year's total).(56) The three evening universities under the Riga, Daigavpils, and Liyepaya city party committees together had a total enrollment of about 3,500 persons, among whom there were 1,844 party members and candidates. Considering that there were over 3,000 students in the Riga Evening University (3,200, according t:. Sovetskaya Latviya, 19 April 1951), enrollment at the other two universities was of necessity very smell. And it seems from the following that this small enrollment neither resulted from a careful selection of students nor proved to be advantageous for the work of these two universities: In Daugavpils Univer- sity 15 students had no secondary education and a "c-nsi.derable number" of stu- dents dropped out during the 1950 - 1951 school year; in Liyepaya University those who discontinued study for no valid reason or because of academic inep- titude" numbered 81. Some of the lectures in all three evening universities were reported to be on a low ideological level. An example of this "low ideo- logical level" was furnished by the criticism directed at a certain lecturer who failed to reveal the priority of Russian scientists in many of the most impor- tantc scientific discoveries.(57) According to 0. Strod, chief of the Propaganda and Agitation Section of the TeK KP(b) of Latvia, the main error made by party organizations in the 1950 - 1951 party education system was their underestimation of the essential role performed by the propagandist. Strod stated that rural party organizations, in particular, often assigned Communists with insufficient political training and teaching experience as propagandists. The value of seminars for propagandists was also underrated by rayon party committees, he said. Staffing the political education network with unqualified propagandists brought about the result that "students of political schools and circles were inadequately trained in the spirit of Bolshevist vigilance and irreconcilability with all manifestations of remnants of capitalism and bourgeois ideology." Independent study was termed by Strod the weakeet link in the party educa- tion system. In the city of Riga, he said, around 40 percent of the independent students failed to fulfill their individual study plans. Many. consultants 11 _ SECREI Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 SECRET substituted group consultations for individual interviews, and in Liyepaya all Communists were given the same reading lists and the same deadlines for cover- ing the prescribed material.(58) An over-all survey on party educatton in Riga showed that, while there was some improvement in the organization of political study in 1950 - 1951, the ideological level of courses was in general low, student attendance poor, and rayon seminars for propagandists poorly attended. The year's study plans were not fulfilled by 130 of the city's political schools and circles.(56) In the Stalinskiy Rayon of Riga the inadequate general education back- ground of a "great number of young Communists" was viewed as a serious obstacle to their mastery of Marxist-Leninist theory and to the raising of their pro- fessional qualifications. Many Communists and Komaomola lagged behind in their studies in the 1950 - 1951 school year in the party and Komsomol political edu- cation system bec"use of their poor academic preparation. "Dozens of members and candidates of the party" were found not to have even a seventh-grade educa- tion.(59) The various forms of party education in the Lithuanian SSR in 1950 - 1951 embraced 94 percent of the republic's Communists and a "considerable number" of nonparty people.(60) This is the only over-all figure reported for Lithuania. In Vil'nyus Oblast about 25,000 Communists and nonparty people engaged in party education, and 756 propagandists directed the studies. Improvement in party organizational and party political work and the more successful solution of economic tasks by many rayon party organizations were reported to be some of the resilts of the party education program. Some rayon party committees, how- ever, were accused of having directed study in political schools and circus in a superficial manner. The work of many circles was suspended last year because of the frequency with which propagandists were sent away on party missions. In Druskininkskiy, Anikshchyayskiy, Varenskiy, Eysbishkskiy, Nemenchinskiy, and Shal'chininkskiy rayons, the organization of study was completely unsatisfac- tory, and, consequently, the operation of many circles and schools brok down.(61) Moldavian SSR Statistics for party education in the Moldavian SSR provide one with the unique opportunity of estimating, however approximately, the number of people in a republic who unsuccessfully pursued the party education program in 1950 - 1951. In his report to the Third Congress of the Communist Party of Moldavia, 30 March 1951, L. I. Brezhnev, secretary of the TaK KP(b) of Moldavia, announced that more than 29,000 Communists, or 94 percent of the republic's total, and over 30,000 nonparty people were studying in the party education network dur- ing the 1950 - 1951 year.(62) An April press report confirmed these figures, placirg, incidentally, virtually all the nonparty people in political schools and circles.(63) On 6 May 1951, it was stated that more than 58,000 people were engaged in party education, an increase of 25,000 over the 1949 - 1950 total.(66) In August 1951, however, K. Chernenko, chief of the Propaganda and Agita- tion Section of the TsK KP(b) of Moldavia, reported that 53,000 persons, in- cluding 25,000 Communists, had completed the school year and successfully ful- filled their study programs.(64) Thus, it would appear that some 6,000-7,000 - 12 - SECREt S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 8ECR -- over 4,000 Communists, the rest nonparty people -- of those who enrolled in party education courses either dropped out of study, failed examinations, or failed in other ways to meet the requiremP,ts of the study plans. This number would be much greater, of course, if the claim made in September 1951 by A. Med- vedev, head of the Propaganda Sector of the TsK KP(b) of Moldavia, that more than 66,000 Communists and nonparty people studied in schools, circles, and in. dependently during the last school year is a more accurate estimate than the previous reports.(65) Evening universities of Marxism-Leninism were in operation in four large cities of the republic, a n_r one having been set up under the Bendery City Party Committee. (66) Student enrollment was more than doubled in 1950 - 1951. (6-8) Kishinev Evening University, with an enrollment of 2,000. graduated 550 per- sons, 300 of wL,m were party and soviet workers. Eighty percent of the gradu- ates received "excellent" or "good" on examinations; 130 received "excellent" for all subjects. More than a thousand were promoted to the second-year course, 80 percent of them receiving "good" or "excellent" on examinations.(67) The Moldavian SSR press has bet- very critical of the conduct of study at evening universities. Foremost among its grievances are the poor instruction, low attendance, and the dropping out of students at these schools. Of the Bel'- tsy Evening University it was reported that almost one third of the students abandoned study long before the end of the school year.(68) More than 300 stu- dents of Kishinev Jniversity had not passed their examinations by the designated dates; over 100 persons discontinued study and were dismissed from the univer- s11ty.(67) Up to 40 percent of the students failed to attend seminars.(681 Ser- ious shortcomings were noted in the ideological content of lectures and semi- nars, and party organizations of Kishinev were criticized for having overbur- dened some instructors with direct production work and other assignments.(67) The Republic Party School under the TsK KP(b) of Moldavia in 1951 cele- brated the fifth anniversary of its founding. More than 700 persons have grad- uated since its inception, last year's number totaling 139.(69) The Moldavian SSR press noted many deficiencies in the over-all situation in party education in 1950 - 1951. The lack of qualified propagandists for all schools and circles was held responsible for the fact that many courses of study were conducted on a low ideological level. Some instructors were found to be lacking in "political acuity and passion in exposing the "predatory character of American-English imperialism."(64) In a number of rayons study in political schools and circles frequently broke down, and, as a result, study plans re- mained unfulfilled. In April 1951, for example, it was reported that not one political school in Rezenskiy Rayon was meeting its requirements.(63) The conduct of independent study was found to be deficient also. Consult- ants were reprimanded for their "formalist approach" to the system, and party organizations were criticized for not controlling closely the work of consult- ants and students. Instances were pointed out in which persons registered as independent students were doing no work at all.(63, 64, 70) Tadzhik SSR. More than 45,000 Communists, nonparty people, end Komsumols studied in the 1950 - 1951 party education system in Tadzhik SSR. Approximately 5,000 Commu- nists studied independently, over 6,000 were in political schools, and 6,739 studied in history circles. "Thousands of persons" received instruction in bi- ography circles, while rayon party schools and evening universities of Marxism- Leninism accounted for 2,951 people.(71) The Higher Party School under the re- public central committee graduated 94 persons, among whom were 77 Tadzhiki and seven Uzbeks.(72) SECRQ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 In In Leninabad and Stalinabad bl S o asts many chools and circles were poorly attended, seminars for propagandists were held irregularly, and in- sufficient aid was given to independent students. Poor attendance was also noted for the Stalinabad Evening University.(72) Twenty-five percent of the Political schoole and circles of Leninabad Oblast did not complete their study Prograes_ lacka of1Con students party organizations was considered responsible out Schools and circles in Leninabad Oblast wereflackingninasufficientgtexts eandty visual aids for students.(73) Turkmen SSR About 35,000 persons were in the party education system in Turkmen SSR in 1950 - 1951.(74) All of the more advanced levels of training experienced increase in enrollment, an with 70 percent of the republic's Communists studying in the higher forms of the political education system. The number of persons engaged in independent study increased twofold in comparison with the 1949 - 1950 school yea.. An "overwhelming majority" of propagandists had a higher, incom- plete higher, or secondary education. Consolidation of kolkhozes was reported to have been an important factor in improving political study in rural areas. In former years rural political schools and circles i,.sd been set up mainly in territorial party organizations, whereas last year they were organized by the newly-formed Kolkhoz primary party organizations. (75) In the city of Ashkhabad 7,805 persons were enrolled in the various branches of the party education system. This total included over 2,000 non- party people and 269 Komsomols. Studying independently were 1,469 persons.(76) The Bureau of the T5K KP(b) of Turkmenistan attributed the most serious shortcomings in political study last year to the poor organization and direc- tion of independent study. A number of students did no reading at all during the school year, individual and group consultations were rarely held, and party organizations applied insufficient pressure on those who were not studying.(75) Other deficiencies in the school system noted in the press were the poor at- tendance in schools and circles, poor selection of propagandists, the incidence of students abandoning study, and the inadequate measures taken by party organ- izations to increase the theoretical knowledge of propagandists.(74, 76) Ukrainian SSR More than one million Communists and nonparty people were reported to be in the party education system in the Ukrainian SSR last year.(77) The number of propagandists almost reached 57,000.(78) No breakdown of these figures is avail- able except for Dnepropetrovsk Oblast and the city of Kiev. In Dnepropetrovsk Oblast over 53,000 Communists and about 40,000 nonparty people and Komsomols were enrolled in the various forms of party education.(79) More than 20,000 persons, of whom 8,700 belonged to the nonparty intelligentsia, studied independently.(80) Of the 29,000 people studying independently in Kiev, 24,000 were Commu- nists. Two thousand consultants were assigned to direct their study. During the postwar years the Kiev Evening University of Marxism-Leninism graduated 4,550 persons. Graduates of the 1950 - 1951 school year numbered 2,000, of whom 1,300 were Communists.(81) M. Sinitsa, secretary of the Kiev City Party Committee, stated that a ma- jority of the circles and political schools in operation in 1950 - 1951 ful- filled their study plans on time and improved the quality of study. However, he said, many schools, circles, lectures and consultations were conducted on a - 14 - 3ECR?4 S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 -L ij- SECRG low ideological level, and during the course of the year, 195 persons dropped out of the Kiev Evening University. Sinitsa was especially critical of the work of party organizations of artistic collectives -- the Union of Soviet Writers, the Union of Soviet Composers, and others. Sinitsa ascribed the inadequate re- flection of many aspects of Soviet life in the works of many Ukrainian intel- lectuals to the failure of the artists to increase their theoretical and ideo- logical knowledge.(81) Although the party education system in the Ukraine in 1950 - 1951 was re- ported to be the most successful thus far, many deficiencies in the conduct and organization of courses on all levels were pointed out in the presa.(77, 79, 81) Specific targets of criticism were Zaporozh'ye and Kharkov oblasts. Zaporozh'ye party organizations were accused of formalism in assigning students to various levels of study without regard for their educational background (77), while final studies in schools and circles of Khar'kov Oblast took the form of oral examinations inbtead of well-organized discussion.(82) Uzbek SSR Ninety-five percent of the Communists in the Uzbek SSR and 58,000 nonparty active workers were in the party educations system last year.(83) About 11,000 propagandists directed study in schools and circles.(84) More than 6,000 po- litical schools and history circles and 2,000 biography circles were in opera- tion throughout the republic.(85) Studying in the seven evening universities under the city party committees of Tashkent, Fergana, Andizhan, Bukhara, Koke-d, and Samarkand were approximately 4,000 "representatives of the Soviet intelli- gentsia," 3,000 of them Communists.(86) The Higher Party School under the re- public central committee graduated over 200 persons.(87) At the beginning of March 1951 party education in the Uzbek SSR was re- ported to be in a generally poor condition. Attendance in schools and circles was irregular, students were dropping out of study, and s,...Jy plans were not being fulfilled. Of the 236 first-year political schools in Tashkent Oblast, 105 had not satisfied their programs by 1 February, and 363 students had by this date abandoned study. Of the 249 first-year history circles in the Oblast, only 60 had fulfilled their programs. Only 31 out of 420 second-year political schools had fulfilled their plans; 55 second-year history circles were in real- ity covering first-year material. The situation in Fergana Oblast was scarcely better. Of the 714 political schools and circles set up there, 265 first-year and 361 second-year schools and circles had not satisfied their study ached- ules.(88) Again in April 1951 the Uzbek SSR press pointed to the poor attendance in the republic party education network, to the nonfulfillment of study plans, and to the poor quality of instruction. -t revealed that a majority of political schools and circles in Syr-Dar'inskiy Rayon, Tashkent Oblast, bad completely ceased functioning. In Namangan Oblast, especially in rural areas, study plans were not being followed, while the Andizhan City Committee was not conducting regular seminars for propagandists. The article also -cored party organizations for their lack of control over and lack of interest in students engaged in in- dependent study.(85) In connection with independent study, earlier in the year Bolshevik ha' reported that over half of the Communists in various Uzbek party organizations who were registered as independent students had not begun to study by 1 January 1951.(23) In August 1951, the Uzbek press announced that because of the irregular operation of a considerable number of political schools and circles in the city of Tashkent, the school year had been extended to permit them to cover their assigned material.(89) - 15 - SECRET S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 S_g_r_g_g_2 shortcomings in the work of the Tashkent Evening University of Marxism-Leninism and its 11 affiliates. Lectures and seminars were being conducted on a low ideological plane, visual aide and literature were inadequate. Rayon committees of Tashkent were held responsible for the fact that a large number of students they had sent to study at the university dropped out during the school year -- 29 percent of those from Kuybyshevskiy Rayon, 21 percent from Tsentral'nyy Rayon.(90) Five hundred twenty-four persons graduated from the university, and 955 passed the first-year examinations.(e9) The d1isatisfaction of the TaK KP(b) of Uzbekistan with the operation of all forme of the party education system was voiced through one of its secretar- ies, Kh. Tursunov, at a republic conference of party, government, and newspaper officials held on 29 - 30 June 1951 to discuss ideological questiona.(9l) The situation with regard to the lower forms of party education was highlighted by the report in Pravda, 11 September 1951, that half of the number of political schcols snd circles in the Uzbek SSR did not complete their study plans in 1950 - 1951 end that a considerable number of circles broke up. 1. Moscow, Bolshevik, No 19, Oct 51, p 9 2. Moscow, Partiynoye Prosveshcheniye, No 1, Jan 51, p 17 3. Ibid., p 16 4. Moscow, Pravda, 3 Jun 50 5. Ibid., p 16 6. Bol'ahevik, No 6, Mar 51, pp 41 - 42 7. Pravda, 11 Sep 51 8. Yerevan, Kommunist, 8 Oct 50 9. Bolshevik, No 6, Mar 51, p 46 10. Moscow, Moskovskiy Propagandist, No 8, Aug 51, pp 1 - 2 11. Moscow, Moskovskiy Komsomolets, 18 Aug 51 12. Moskovskiy Propagandist, No 8, Aug 51, pp 2 - 4 13. Ibid., pp 2 - 6 14. Moscow, Veehernyaya Moskva, 18 Aug 51 15. Moscow, Moskovskaya Pravda, 31 Mar 51 16. Ibid., 11 Apr 51 17. Moscow, Ogonek, No 41, Oct 51, p 1 18. Moskovskaya Pravda, 13 May 51 19. Vechernyaya Moskva, 19 Jun 51 20. Leningrad, Leningradskayn Pravda, 12 Apr 51 21. Ibid., 31 Jul 51 22. Ibid., 29 Jun 51 23. Bolshevik, No 6, Mar 51, p 48 24. Kommuniet, 21 Mar 51 25. Ibid., 20 Sep 51 26. Leningradekaya Pravds, 1 Aug 51 27. Kommunist, 20 Jun 51 28. Ibid., 28 Jun 51 29. Baku, Bakinskiy Rabochiy, 12 May 51 30. Ibid., 7 Sep 51 31. Ibid., 11 Jul 51 32. Minsk, Sovetskaya Belorussiya, 10 Jul 57. 33. Pravda, 1 Aug 51 34. Sovetskaya Belorussiya, 10 Oct 51 35. Ibid., 29 Jul 51 36. Ibid., 21 Sep 51 37. Tallin, Sovetskaya Estoniya, 6 Jul 51.- 38. Ibid., 27 Mar 51 SECRcL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7 39. Ibid., 17 J-l 51 40. Ibid., 27 Jul 51 41. See "Party Weakness in the Baltic Countryside" 42. Tbilisi, Zarya Vortoka, 14 Jan 51 43. Ibid., 29 Jul 51 44. Ibid., 16 Sep 51 45. Petrozavodak, Leninekoye Znamya, 13 May 51 46. Kamm nist, 4 Oct 50 47. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstanakaya Pravda, 21 Mar 51 48. Ibid., 7 Jul 51 49. Ibid., 15 Jun 51 50. Ibid., 25 Aug 51 51. Ibid., 22 Jun 51 52. Frunze, Sovetskaya Kirgiziya, 18 Aug 51 53. Ibid., 1 Aug 51 54. Ibid., 24 Mar 51 55. Riga, Sovetskaya Iatviya, 29 Mar 51 56. Ibid., 26 Jul 31 57. Ibid., 3 Aug 51 58. Ibid , 30 Sep 51 59. Ibid., 28 Jul 51 60. Vil'nyue, Sovetskaya Litva, 14 Jun 51 61. Ibid., 14 Oct 51 62. Kishinev, Sovetskaya Moldaviya, 5 Apr 51 63. Ibid., 20 Apr 51 64. Ibid., 22 Aug 51 65. Ibid., 23 Sep 51 66. Ibid., 6 Aay 51 67. Ibid., 15 Jul 51 68. Ibid., 1 Sep 51 69. Ibid., 27 Jul 51 70. Ibid., 16 May 51 71. Stalinabad, Kommuniet Tadzhikistan, 19 May 51 72. Ibid., 24 Mar 51 73. Ibid., 26 Jul 51 74. Ashkhabad, Turkmenekaya Iskra, 7 Sep 51 75. Ibid., 29 Sep 51 76. Ibid., 28 Sep 51 77. Kiev, Pravda Ukrainy, 12 Apr 51 78. Ibid., 14 Feb 51 79. Ibid., 23 May 51 80. Moscow, Kul'tura i Zhizn', 11 Jan 51 81. Pravda Ukrainy, 2 Oct 51 82. Ibid., 10 Jun 51 83. Tashkent, Pravda Vortoka, 3 Jul 51 84. Ibid., 24 Jul 51 85. Ibid., 10 Apr 51 86. Ibid., 13 Feb 51 87. Leningradskaya Pravda, 1 Aug 51 88. Pravda Vortoka, 1 Mar 51 89. Pravda Vortoka, 22 Aug 51 90. Ibid., 12 Jun 51 91. Ibid., 4 Jul 51 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050205-7