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April 16, 1952
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 ~ CLASSIFICATION CONFIDENTIAL SECURITY INFORMATION CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCASTS COUNTRY ussR SUBJECT Economic - Food industry PUBLISHED Daily newspapers WHERE PUBLISHED USSR DATE PUBLISHED 2 Oct -27 Dec 1951 LANGUAGE Russian till roCU.IUT CO.IAl111 nrol..nC? AIIICn11 nl ..110.A. 11,.111 oI 111 outs InfI .,tt. NI .4au or l1 no.AOl ACT 1. 1. S. C.. 11 AND 51.11 ..11010. In nNY.UNO. 0. 111 A--. or ITS .."M n 111 .....1 n A. Iu.naun. ru1o. a rro .Intl II LAW. p-I0.UC110. 01110 101. 11 rroalln. REPORT CD NO. DATE OF DATE DIST. /d Apr 1952 NO. OF PAGES 7 SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION SOME DATA ON THE USSR FOOD INDUST1T, AS OF FOURTH QUARTER. 195] umbers in parentheses refer to appended source::. Lithuanian SSR In 1951, the Vil'nyus Fats and Oils Plant produced two times more oil than in 1950. The plant has been outfitted with new equipment, manufactured in the Urals, Leningrad, and Rostov-on-Don, resulting in a sharp rise in labor produc- tivity and a reduction of production costs.(l) Belorussian SSR Millions of rubles were spent during the postwar Five-Year Plan on resto- ration and reconstruction of enterprises of the republic bread-baking industry. The following bakeries were practically rebuilt: Novo-Belitskiy, Bobruysk, Gomel', Vitebsk, Minsk, Polotsk, Effid Rogachev. Much attention was given to increased mechanization of bakeries The semimechanized bakeries in Rechits and Brest were converted into large-scale mechanized enterprises. Obsolete equipment is being replaced with new machines, such as high-productive conveyer ovens, each with a capacity of 15 to 20 metric tons, sifters, dough-kneading machines, dough separators, etc Production processes such as flour weighing and greasing of bread molds are being mechanized. The most labor-consuming processes in bagel (baranka) and gingerbread production are to be mechanized further in 1952. Port of the new equipment is manufactured by machine shops in Minsk. The Belarus machine, which automatically greases molds will find wide application in the Belorussian SSR and other republics. Large-scale bakeries are to be constructed in Minsk, Lid, Pinsk, Vitebsk, and other cities and mechanized bakeries in Osipovichi, Orsha, Borisov, Mstislavi', and Kobrin.(2) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621 Ukrainian SSR Sugar plants of the Voronezh Sugar Beet Trust have announced preterm ful- fillment of the third-quarter 1951 plan, and have produced tens of thousands of pud of sugar above plan. The Ertil'skiy, Gribanovskiy, Sadovskiy, and Borin- skiy sugar plants of this trust have consistently exceeded sugar production norma.(3) Construction of a new sugar-beet-processing plant has been cos,pleted in Kursk Oblast. The new plant, which will go into operation in the next few days, is to be called the Ksh-*a'skiy Sugar Plant Other sugar plants which have been completed and will go into operation in October 1951 include the Bol'shevik Sugar Plant in Kursk Oblast, the Second Gorodokskiy Sugar Plant in Kamenets-Podol'sk Oblast, the Lanovskiy Sugar Plant in Poltava Oblast, and the Cherkasskiy Sugar-Refining Plant in Kiev Oblast The new plants have been out- fitted with the latest equipment, which insures maximum utilization of raw me- terials.(4) In the Sumy Krasnaya Zvezda Refinery experiments have been completed on a new highly productive method of sugar refining Up to this time refined sugar was poured into blocks weighing 2 kilograms each Then the blocks were made into cakes by six sawing machines, which were handled by 18 men. Moreover, 20 percent of the refined sugar was conver'ed into sugar dust and scrap, which was again processed Using the new process, blocks are formed immediately in a mold into which special bands of galvanized plates have been inserted, The crystallized sugary mass (utfil') poured into such molds is quickly cooled and more easily compressed in centrifugal machines Sugar drying in such molds is cut 6 hours, and mois- ture content is reduced 10 percent Introduction of the new method of refined sugar production will have a def- inite economic effect. The sawing shop is being eliminated, and electric power and fuel expenses are being reduced considerably As the result of reducing refined sugar loss in sawing, the plant will produce 112,000 more quintals of prime-quality sugar during the current season Total saving for the season from introduction of the new method will amount to nearly I million rubles.(5) A new refining machine for production of cute sugar has been tested success fully at the Gorodishchenskiy Sugar Plant in Kiev Oblast. The machine performs all complicated technological processing operations in sugar production, from pouring of crystallized liquid sugar mass to cooling of refined cake. Prepa- ration of refined.sugar by the machine takes only 8 hours instead of 70 hours by the old method. Use of this machine in sugar plants will release 25 percent of the workers occupied in cube sugar production, and will greatly increase ef- ficient utilization of floor space.(b) The Ukrainian SSR liquor industry fulfilled the 1950 annual plan and the plan for the first half of 1951 Liquor production in 1950 was 2,5 times that of 1946. During 1950 and the first half of 1.951 the industry produced 177,000 decaliters of liquor above plan (7) There are managers in the republic who are trying to fulfill plans easily by reducing production norms For example, the 1952 production plan for dried fruits which was introduced by Korneyev, chairman of the Moldpromsovet (Mol- davian Industrial Council), called for 1,000 metric tons, as compared with 2,260 metric tons actually produced this year. The Ministry of Meat and Dairy STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621 Industry Moldavian SSR has planned to produce almost the same quantity of ani- mal fats in 1952 as was produced during the first 10 months of 1951. Lowered production norms have become habitual in the Ministry of Food Industry Moldavian SSR, the top personnel of which have repeatedly asserted before Gosplan the im- possibility of fulfilling additional assignments in wine products and vegetable oil production, and then exceeded the norm several times. Even now, in making up the 1952 )uoduction plan, they have attempted to lower production of food products by 10 million rubles.(8) Of the various waste materials obtained in processing grapes, the hard parts of the grape cluster make up nearly 50 percent, alcohol 2 to 4 percent, and tartaric acid nearly .2 percent The husk is used for distillation of alcohol and derivation of calcium tartrate. The remaining waste products, which consist of grape peeling, crowns (greber.'), and seeds (12 to 17 percent), are often used for fuel, fodder, or fertilizer, but more often thrown away, However, grape seeds contain oils and tannic acid which are valuable in- dustrially. Oil content of seeds varies from 9,9 to 17.7 percent, depending on the grape variety., Seeds of hybrid grapes, which are grown in 60 to 90 percent of all vineyards in Moldavia, vary in oil content from 13-3 percent for the Ku- derk grape variety to .L6.6 percent for the Zaybel' grape variety. The European varieties with largest oil content are Aligote (16.5 percent) and Granuar (17,7 percent). The content of tannic acid in grape seeds (2 to 8 percent) compares with that of oak wood pulp (3 to 7 percent) Grape oil has a pleasant taste and can be used as a nutritive, for prepa- ration of toilet soap, and in oil paint production. Tannic acid is suitable for the tanning, chemical, and industries, and also for tannin derivation. The 1951 gross grape harvest in Moldavia will total hundreds of thousands of metric tons. Grape seeds will account for 3 to 4 percent of this harvest, and will amount to 12,000-15,000 metric tons, from which 1,500-2,000 metric tons of grape oil can be processed.(g) Moldavian canners have fulfilled the 1951 plan for canned goods production dread of time. The Moldavian Canning Trust produced 10.6 million jars of canned goods above the plan. Annual production is double the prewar level. Along with rapid growth of production, the assortment has been enlarged considerably. The Moldavian canning industry is now producing more than 80 Items of meat, tomato, vegetable, and fruit canned goods. The quality of canned goods has been improved greatly., in 1949, the proportion of prime-quality canned vegetable production was 36.7 percent of total production. In 1950, it constituted 60.4 percent, and In the first 9 months of 1951, 74.6 percent. Because of economical consumption of raw materials and materials, Moldavian canners achieved a sharp decrease in production costs During the first 9 months of 1951, 6,800,000 rubles were saved as the result of above-plan reduction of production costs The republic canning plants are not yet operating at full capacity. Tomato and fruit plants stand idle during the winter period. The Canning Plant imeni Mikoyan was shut down for winter quite inefficiently last year and spoilage oc- curred. By no means all the possibilities for more economical consumption of raw materials, fuel, and electric power have been exploited. In the second postwar Five-Year Plan, production capacities of the Canning Plants imeni 1 May, imeni fkachenko, and imeni Mikoyan will be doubled. In the Benderskiy Plant construction of a new vegetable shop and an increase in the capacity of the fruit shop are planned, The capacity of the Kalarashskiy Canning Plant will be Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 ing of fruits. The Tiraspol' Fruit Combine lissbeing iremodeled stouproduce rprrime- quality fruit and grape juices. A fruit and vegetable marinades shop will also be constructed here and a pickling shop will be restored. The construction of new canning plants in Kishinev, Grigoriopol', and Rybnits is planned. In connection with the large growth in production capacities of Tiraspol' canning plants, the local raw materials base and power station will be enlarged considerably. Construction of a plant for production of glass packaging ma- terials in Tiraspol' will solve one of the most important problems -- the im- provement of packing of canned production. plan production ofncannedrgoodsito double adtional production postwar Five Year capacities Plan e and will quadruple the prewar level. To eliminate the seasonal operation of canning plants, pro- duction of semiproceFaed fruits and vegetables will be increased three to four times. In 1952, proauction of canned goods will be increased by 15 to 20 mil- 1!on jars as compared with 1951 and quality of packing greatly will be improved. The Tiraspol' Fruit Combine fulfilled the 1951 production plan ahead of time and produced more than 1.5 million jars of canned goods above plan. Pro- duction in 1951 increased 53 percent over 1950.(10) On 1 December, the Ministry of Food Industry Georgian SSR fulfilled the 1951 gross-production plan 102.7 percent. During the first 11 months of 1951 production increased over the corresponding period of 1950 by 11.8 percent. Various branches of the food industry fulfilled the gross-production plan by 1 December as follows: tea industry 108 2 percent, wine-making industry 101.2 percent, beer and nonalcoholic beverages industry 104.4 percent, and mineral waters industry 100.8 percent.(11) The Starch Plant of Akhaltsikhskiy Rayon Industrial Combine has been put into operation after the completion of capital repair work. During the current season the plant will process 500 metric tons more potatoes than last year.(12) During the first 10 months of 1951, the canning factories of the republic produced 7 million more jars of food than in the same period of 1950. The 1951 plans for production of canned vegetables, compotes, and jams have been con- siderably exceeded..(13) In Khorsha (village on the boundary which separates the mountainous Kol- khida area from. the Kolkhidskiy Plain) a volatile oil crop sovkhoz and an "ef iro- pe.egonnyy" fr4_!ther distilling plant of the Georgian Volatile Oil Tru t are located. The plant has been equipped with powerful distilling apparatus. It processes daily 50 metric tons of different volatile oil crops. The area sown to basil in the sovkhoz is being expanded from year to year. In 1952, the area planted to this crop will be increased to 60 hectares. The sovkhoz has been cultivating the damask rose (rose damascene) for more than 10 years. The area sown to this crop is 10 hectares totaling 160,000 damask rose plants. Part of them are used for seeding purposes, and the remainder a"s desig- nated for shipment to kolkhozes of eastern Georgia and Armenia. Of the area planted to basil, 2 hectares are used for seed; the annual yield is 200 kilograms of seeds. A large part of the seed is shipped to kol- khozes in Krasnodar Kray. Bitter oranges are being cultivated on one h,etare. STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 CONFIDENTIAL In the next 2 to 3 years the area sown to this crop will be increased to 6 hec- tares. The oil of the bitter orange is used in the perfume -cosmetic industry and in the liqueur-vodka industry. On the sovkhoz 20 hectares are sown to mountain lavender. Lavender oil is used in the food and perfume-cosmetic in- dustries, and also in medicine, especially for kidney ailments. The aovkhoz has 150,000 grafts of lavender.(14) New branches of the chemical industry nave been developing in Georgia. Tartaric acid production has expanded because of this development and is in considerable demand by the food, dye, and pharmaceutical industries. Prime_ quality tartaric acid, which is used as a substitute for citric acid, is pre- pared sediment,, wasteeproductssoffcognac industrial plants, dried astartratehusks, tartar, and liquid yeast.(15) The plants attached to the Armenian Canning Trust have announced preterm fulfillment of the 1951 plan. During the first 11 months of 1951 enterprises of the trust produced 5 million more jars of fruits than during all of 1950.(16) On 1 October 1951, Armenian SSR fulfilled 45 percent of the 1951 grape procurement plan.(17) Azerbaydzhan SSR Bread-baking, confectionery, beer and nonalcoholic beverage, tobacco, maca- roni, and wine-making enterprises of the republic have fulfilled the 1951 plan ahead of time. Since the of 1951, 31,476,000 jars of various canned goods have been produced. Product variety he. been increase'. Plants of the Azkonserv- treat (Azerbaydzhan Canning Trust) are producing 14 kinds of preserves, ten kinds of vegetable canned goods, eight kinds of stewed fruit, seven kinds of jam, etc. At the Khachmas plant the production of fruit juice has been mechanized and equipped with new devices. In 1951, 2 million jars more tomato products, including sauce, paste, and juice, were produced than in 1950. In the summer and fall of 1951 the plant processed 300 metric tons of tomatoes. Azerbaydzhan canned goods are becoming famous throughout the country. They are sold in stores in Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, and Rostov-on-Don. The canned goods are shipped to the Far North and the Far East.(19) In Omsk Oblast vine large fats and oils plants and oils have fulfilled the 1951 plan ahead of time. The Lukerinskiy, Knyazivskiy, and Novo-Karasukskiy fats plants have assumed. additional production obligations which are to be completed by the end of the year.(20) A retail store of the Moscow Food Combine imeni Mikoyan has been opened 15 Maroseyk Ulitsa in Moscd%?. Up to 70 items produced by the combine will be sold, among them delicatessen sauces, various canned goods, coffee, condiments, etc. A tasting room has been opened where all kinds of dishes are prepared in the presence of the customers. The store is open for business from 0900 to 2100 hours.(21) CONFIDENTIAL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Enterprises of the Ministry of Food Industry Kazakh SSR have considerably exceeded the plan for the first 10 months of 1951? been supplied with 41,000 metric tons of flour, 1, Workers of the republic have 380metric - ery goods, 500 metric tons of macaroni, and 261,000 decaliterts ofonsbofeeconr ifnecextciesons of planned production so far this year During the first 10 months of 1951, production of flour increased 1.5 times over the same period in 1950, tea 27 percent, and confectionery goods 26 percent. (22) However, the Ministry of Food Industry Kazakh SSR considerably underful- filled the 1950 year plan in the production of a number of food products. This story has been repeated in 1951. For the first 10 months of 1951, although th" andgrosvegetables products iwere lnot fulfilled. This nonfulfillment is due to the inefficiency of the minister and his depu- ties.(23) In 1951, the republic produced almost twice as much meat and vegetable oil as in 1948. Production of canned and confectionery goods increased more than two times during the same period.(24) As a result of reduction of losses, Kazakh sugar enterprises have produced tens of thousands of pud of sugar above plan since the beginning of the sea- son.(25) aboveIthen , the sugar beet trust enterprises produced 1,214 quintals . The percent.(26) ?g Yul'skiy Sugar Plant fulfilled the month plan by 200 Reconstruction work is under way on the Ashkhabad Brewery. An annex is being built on the underground fermentation room. The volume of the room will be increased by 5,400 cubic meters. New equipment will be installed shortly: eight new malt-mixers (solodovoroshiteliy), two compressors, and 40 metal tanks with a capacity of 12,000 liters each. After the reconstruction work is com- pleted the plant is to increase its output from 20 to 30 percent. The cost of the reconstruction work will total about 3 million rubles.(27) Tadzhik SSR The Tadzhik food industry has fulfilled the 1951 plan ahead of time. Dur- 1n9 the first 11 months and 10 days of 1951, the industry increased production of wine over 1950 by 91,000 liters, confectionery goods by 298 metric tons, bread and bakery products by 5,434 metric tons, dried fruits by 946 metric tons, vegetable oil by 3,611 metric tons, etc. The Regarskiy Fats and Oils Plant produced twice as much vegetable oil in 1951 as the entire Tadzhik SSR fats and oils industry did in 1945.(28) Cotton-ginning plants are giving food enterprises an ever-increasing quan- tity of seed. The republic fats and oils industry, in spite of its tremendous growth, is not handling the reprocessing of the available supply of cotton seed.(29) STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5 A short time ago the Stalinabad Wine-Making Plant installed a conveyer to accelerate the. feeding of empty bottles to the filling machine and from the fill- ing machine to the warehouse. Conveyer output is 900 decaliters a shift, while output by the old method was at best 450 to 500 decaliters a shift. A second such conveyer will be installed in the plant in the near future. (30) Construction work has been completed on the largest industrial enterprise in Leninabad -- a mechanized bakery located on Shark Ulitsa.(31) Kirgiz SSR During the first 10 months of 1951, production in enterprises of the Mini- stry of Food Industry Kirgiz SSR rose as follows over the same period in 1950: 112 million cigarettes, 224,000 decaliters of beer, and 540 quintals of fish products.(32) 1. Moscow, Pravda, 19 Dec 51 2. Minsk, Sovetskaya Belorussiya, 16 Nov 51 3. Moscow, Izvestiya, 9 Oct 51 4. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstanskaya Pravda, 5 Oct 51 5. Tbilisi, Zarya Vostoka, 23 Nov 51 6. Petrozavodsk, Leninskoye Znamya, 17 Nov 51 7. Kiev, Pravda Ukrainy, 9 Oct 51 8. Kishinev, Sovetskaya Moldaviya, 2 Dec 51 9. Ibid., 4 Oct 51 10. Ibid?, 16 Nov 51 11. Zarya Vostoka, 7 Dec 51 12. Ibid., 18 Nov 51 13. Ibid., 14 Oct 51 14. Ibid ? 12 Dec 51 15. Ibid., 2 Dec 51 16. Izvestiya, 30.Nov 51 17. Yerevan, Kommunist, 2 Oct 51 18. Baku, Bakinskiy Rabochiy, 27 Dec 51 19. Ibid., 9 Dec 51 20. Moscow, Trud, 7 Oct 51 21. Moscow, Vechernyaya Moskva, 1 Nov 51 22. Kazakhstanskaya Pravda, 24 Nov 51 23. Ibid., 9 Dec 51 24. Ibid., 15 Dec 51 25. Kommunist, 1 Nov 51 26. Tashkent, Pravda Vostoka, 4 Oct 51 27. Ashkhabad, Turkmenskaya Iskra, 9 Oct 51 28. Stalinabad, Kommunist Tadzhikistana, 19 Dec 51 29. Ibid., 2 Dec 51 30. Ibid., 27 Dec 51 31. Izvestiya, 24 Nov 51 32. Frunze, Sovetskaya Kirgiziya, 10 Nov 51 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/23: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700050621-5