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December 11, 1953
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 ' CLASSIFICATION CONFIDENTIAL CENTRAL NT LLIGENCEOAGENCY INFORMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCASTS COUNTRY USSR SUBJECT Scientific -Engineering, industrial processes HOVJ PUBLISHED Month7,y periodical WHERE PUBLISHED Moscox DATE PUBLISHED Feb 1952 LANGUAGE Russian TF 11 DD[u[1[T [ T.1[[ II,IOI,Ili10y ?IIIOTIYD TI 0I TM[ 0[IT[D IT{ll t, IITMIM TI[ [IIYIYO 01 TITI[ 11?I IlCTI0Y 1[)1) [YO )I t, DI Tnl U.I. L00[, ? 1u1V0[0. ITI T I~111101 0 IlY[. l[T10~ OI IT[ C[V i1xI1 TO 0[I[[[IIIT [ F DYIYTFI[I IfO II[IOM 11 IID,L,......._ _ , . Za Ekonomivu Materlalov, No 2, pp g-17 REPORT CD NO. DATE OF DATE DIST. // Dec 1953 N0. OF PAGES 7 SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT N0. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION MATERIALS CONSERVATION BY USSR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS ~omment; The followSng is taken from an article by A, Vovk, Chairman of the Council of Experts, Gossnab (Main Administration of State Supply) USSR. In this article, the author not only con- tributes information on existing conditions but appears to be free to criticize the activity of various organizations. More- over, because of his official position, he has certain authority to direct this activity. Therefore, despite its sketchiness, the information presented is of considerable interest as regards Soviet trends and efforts in the field of mate:^ie's conservation) The rational utilization of material resources is one of the essential tasks of scientific research activity in the USSR. Scientific research insti- tutes of the Academy of Sciences C6SR and the ministries, and also design bureaus and laboratories of industrial establishments and building organiza- tions have successfully developed a number of substantial pro,jecta in the econorgy and application of sound substitutes for expensive materials, For instan:e, a process was developed at the design-technological bureau of an agricultural machine building plant for obtaining sheet metal directly out of liquid cast iron. This work, supervised by Engineer Ye. F. Nikolayenko, gave rise to the possibility of replacing sheet steel with cast-iron sheet in construction works and in machine building. One of the Moscow plants adopted a new technology for manufacturing machine parts in a forge shop, This technology xas developed according to suggestions and designs of the Giproavtotraktoroprom (State Planning Institute for Machine-Building Plants of the Automobile and Tractor Industry) and of the NAW AIR NSRB FBI DISTRIBUTION _..__ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 scientific research institute supervised by Prof V, p, Vologdin, In the new ~h~ocess, steam hammers were replaced with mechanized forging presses, and witha tomaticgtem ingots is carried out in high-frequency induction furnaces tive capacit of Aerators control. The new practice increased tY produc- required y eyuipment and reduced by 1496 the amount oP rolled clock per set of forgings for a passenger car. The A1?.-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Machine Building lpID~Ott) conducted a number of works oa the conservation of steel rolled stock in agricultural machine building. In particular, the institute worked out a method for repairing and reconditioning ploy shares by welding. The method was used in 1951 for repairing over 200,000 shares, saving more than 1,000 tons of steel. Wide application of this method would result in conservation rf 20,000-2j,000 tons of steel annually, The same institute established new standard designs for bearing bushings of agricultural machines. The application of these bushings in production on a lsrge scale will save an amount of bronze equal to over 20 tons per 1,000 sets of bushings, Effective work; on the conservation of nonferrous metals have been con- ducted at the Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Institute of the Ministry of the Automobile and Tractor Industry (NpMI), For example, a cast aluminum alloy manufactured out of inexpensive and abundant secondary alloys uas developed at NAMI, and its use at the Gor'kiy Automobile Plant for the heads of GAZ-51 cylinder block has been releasing hundreds of tons of primary aluminum annually, and at the same time has been simplifying the fabrication of heads and reducing the consumption of electric power by over 300,000 kw-h per year, Automobile plants manufactured sad tested experimental radiators xith steel plates, gslvaaized or zinc-coated by hot dipping, soldered to braes tubes with zinc, This practice saves 5-6 kg of brass and nearly one kg of tin solder per car, A number of works on conservatio^ were conducted by the Central Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Reavy Machine Building 1,TsNIITMASh), Ear_ier turbine blades were made entirely of stainless steel. la the process of constructing the blades for *?urbines of the Tsimlyanskaya power station, the institute has developed a nethod for facing blades made of carbor. ate^1 with plates cf stainlless steel. TsNIITMASh also completed testing of a new grade of economical steel, which replaces various steels in making cutting tools, and investigated the optimum conditions of metal cutting and the rational geometry of cutters with mineral-ceramic +,ips, which may substitute for tips made of hard alloys. A number of scientific works aimed at the conservation of metal, timber, and structural materials were carried out at scientific research construction organizations? Thus, the Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry for Construction of Machine-Building Enterprises developed a number of new economical profiles for reinforcing rods and new designs for beams and trusses. The application in construction works of a new type of cold-flattened reinforcing rods of periodic profile provided for a saving of steel of up to 20~. The introduc- tion into construction works of prestressed beams permitted a considerable decrease in the weight of metal constructions, Zf steel consumption in an ordinary 18-meter truss amounts to 18-20 kg per sq m, it does not exceed 6-7 kg per sq m in the case of using prestressed beams. - 2 - CONFIDEt~'f IAL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 The same institute worked out a new design fora rod truss with crossed braces, considerably reducing the weight of a truss, and also new prefabri- cated large-panel constructions of roofing and walls. Of great significance are scientific research works in the Pield of fuel conservation. A number of institutes found successful solutions for many essential problems. Some of these solutions are as follows; designs of auto- mobiles with steam plants, operating on wood, peat and coal; improvement. in design of gas generator automobiles operating on raw wood and local fuels; designs of highly efficient diesel engines for automobiles and tractors; con- version of diesel engines from liquid to gas fuel; development of automobile gas containers, etc. A considerable conservation of petroleum products has been achieved by the Central Scientific Research Institute of Railroad Transport ('tsNIIZhD) in its worts on conversion of oil engine locomotives and electric power sta- tions to generator gas.. The All-Unio_^. Rest Engineering Institute (VTI) has developed a new method for feed-water deaeration without preheating. Application of this method at two Moscow plants reduced metal consumption *.o half of that for a thermal-type denerator, improved protection of the equipment against corrosion, and decreased fuel consumption by ~~, In testing high-pressure turbines of a hydroe:ectric power station, t ,.institute found it possible to utilize the heat of exhaust steam for preheating boiler feed water, This measure alone has been saving up to 2,000 tons oP fue'_ per year, A number of scientific research works also have been carried out in the field of nonferrous metals conservation and substitutes for these metals, con- servation of timber materials, certain chemicals, electric power, etc. Numer- ous works on the conservation of material resources were recognized as out- standing, and their authors were awarded Stalin prizes. I^ spiie of certain achievements of Soviet scientific thought in the field of materials conservation, it should be concLaded that scientific research institutes, design bureaus, and laboratories could and, consequently, should achieve still sore in the s?ruggle for the rational and economical utilization of raw materials, fuels; and electric pover. The problems of materials conservation are s-ill occupying an insignifi- cant place in the thematic plans of institutes and other scientific research organizations. For instance, only a single theme directly related to conservation prob- lems was inciudcd in 1951 ir. the activity program of the Scientific Research Institute of Construction and Road tdachine Building, which is the only insti- tute of the Ministry ~of Construction and Road Machine Building, In a working plan oP the VIS%hGM, one of the largest machine-bui'_ding institutes, only 11 out of 14G themes des'a wiih the problems of materials conservation. Also, there are few themes on this subiect in the vorking plans of such institutes as TsNIITMASh, TsNIIZhD, NAMI and others. In particular, scientific research institutes nay litt'-e attention to such nrobiems as rat;onalization of cutting metals out of ingots, conversion of roll- ing machine parts :o casting, utilization of low-alloy steels, increase in ,yield of sound products in forge and stamping ;hops, and utilization of substi- tutes and new materials ,. The problems of regulating the consumption of materials and development of new progressive norms are worked out or. a very small scale in scientific research institutes, Profound study and generalization of the advanced expe- rience of industrial innovators in the field of m aerials conservation does noL occupy the proper plnre in the activity of scientific research institutes. -3- CONFIDEi~'PIAL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 The underestima*, ion of the problems of rational utilization of materials must be urgently eLminatei, from the practice of scientific research organiza- tioas, and their attitude toward these problems must be radically changed. However, the activity of various organizations should not cease after the solution of a certain scientific technical problem is found. Scientific research works should be considered completed orly when they are introduces: ir.'~.o produc- tion and give practical results. Meanwhile, there are many cases of slew and tificpresearchmorgaaizationsndustrial prat*ice, of the worRS completed by scien- Thus, for example, a member of the institutes of machine-building ministries have lately developed a procedure for casting steel, cast-iron and nonferrous parts by the investment casting process. Castings obtained by this method need almost no ma~hining,possess high properties, and require less metal~thsn ordinary castings oi? Yorgings. rrecision casting is especially effective in fabricating intricately shaped articles requiring a considerable amount of machining which involves enormous less of metal in chips. The application of the investment casting method for fabrication of 11 parts at the Noginsk Plant of Fuel Equipment has decreased the amcunt of metal orequired by 4T~iss~eleasedd with Porging~ and reduced processing time is 63 potations. 5G machine tocls and 118 opera ;ors with a correspond- ing reduction. in op~aryf~,area; simultaneously the net cost of products was reduced by $,3~,, Despise these advantages, however, the industrial implantation of the investment casting method has been realized very slowly; and at present, the new method is used on an absolutely inadequate scale even at such mass-production plants as the Moscow Automobile Plant! Stalin, the Gor'kiy Automobile Plant imeni Dlolotov, and the First Bearings Plant imeni Kaganovich. The Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Institute completed its work on increasing the a?rength of automobile springs by preloading them to the yield point. This so-called method of plastic deformation increases the life of springs several times and saves a noticeable amcunt of metal. The laboratory and field tests of s?rengthened front springs of the ZIS-150 automobile showed that i6-leaf springs of this automobile may be successfully replaced by 12-leaf springs. Thos? works, although completed ir: '950, have no*. yet received due practical nppli:?a?icn, - Certain machin;?-building ministries and en*_erprises are delaying indus- trial tests and utilization of new, more economical grades of steel. The intro- duction of oxygen blowing into blast-furnace and open-hearth practice is devel- oping slowly. Numerous construction organizations are extremely cautious in using new structural materials. The indusr?rial ^ppllcatlon of the furnace with rabbling strip, designed at the All-tlnion Heat Engineering Institute shows little progress, although this furnace pro?rides for a 5-~ saving in fuel with a simultaneous 3ecrease in the number of personnel.. The drying installn_ticn, deve'oped by the same institute in 1950 for drying coals with high moisture can:ent, has not been used in indus- try in spite of the fact that the application of.this device increases the pro- ductive capacity of boiler installations and reduces fuel consumption, All the examples here mentioned Indicate that certain worY.ers of ministries and industrial c-stablishmerts do not display the proper interest and persistence in the promotion of completed scientific research works, This factor can be considered only as ?a >ranifestation of technical conservatism and stagnation. Improvement in the field of materials conservation is u2?gent. -, _ ,~ ~~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 General problems in the field of the rational utilization of material resources in the Soviet rational econos~y may be presented as follows: 1. Perfection of the designs of structures and products for reducing the consumption oP materials required for their fabrication. 2, Improvements in the production technology and increase in the appli- cation of high-productive equipment to attain ?he maximum coefficient of mate- rials utilization. 3. Raising the efficiency factor of power and transport installations and the wider application of local fuels for better utilization and maximum decrease in the consumption of petroleum products, high-quality coals, and electric power. ~+. Rational organization of production and its supply system in order to reduce excessive supply stoc:: and decrease losses of vaterials, fuels, and elec- tric power. These general problems determine a Brest number of individual subjects in the field of conservation of metals, fuels, electric power, and structural materials, which must be included in the thematic plans of scientific research works for 1953. To these suhjeata~+baiong, first of all, the projects connected with expe- dient decrease Sn the weight of structures, machines, and metalware. Particu- lar attention must be paid to marimum decrease in the consumption of nonferrous and high-alloy metals, and to replacing rolled stock with castings and metals with nonmetallic materials. Obviously, all these changes must be combined with systematic improvement in the operating properties of structures, machines, and parts and with prolongation of their service life. Design and calculateo^ methods must be improved on the basis oP progress attnined by the workers of science and oroductio^ in studying the properties of materials and their behavior under various operating conditions. On the basis of results obtained, safer,y factors, which are frequently increased without substantiation, must be reduced, decreasing the calculated dimensions of an object under design or permitting replacement of expensive materials with those less expensive. The works indicates: shoula be carried out taking into consideration all the methods now widely used for strengthening metal articles, such as shot peening, surface rolling, prestressing, surface or selective induction heat treatment, etc. AL the same time, scientific research works must be conducted in the field of developing new structural materials, for erample, low-alloy steels, ceramic and chemical substitutes for metals, ,;roducts obtained by wood processing, and others . An essential part in metals conservation belongs to rolling methods for obtaining rolled stock of so-called improved nrofile, such as periodical or hollow profiles, or profiles with negative allowances. The C^?.uicil of Experts of Gossnab Ik:SR has estimated that it is oossible to save, even during the next e-3 years, hundreds of thousands of tons of fer- rous rolled oroducts by improving the design and decreasing the weight of machires.? Tens of thousands of sons of metal may be saved annually in capital construction corks by using rolled stock of improved profiles. The next essential group of subjects, wi~ich mus*_ occupy an important place in the plans of scientific research and experimental design works for 1953 end the following years, deals with improvements in the utilization of materials Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 used in production. In particular, this refers to metals, and especially to nonferrous rolled products, since their utilization in production is still on a low level. In the machine-building industry, for instance, the coefficient of roJ.led stock utilization amounts on an average to 0.75-0.80; this means that 2J-2596 of the rolled metal consumed by this industry is lost in the form oP wastes and chips. According to the data for 1949-195'-, a particularly low coefficient of rolled stock utilization was maintained st Lhe establishments of the following ministries; Construction and Road Machine Building, Automobile and Tractor Industry, Machine and Instrument Building, and Machine Tool Building. In individual productions, this coefficient happened to be still lower. For exam- ple, in the fabrication oP roller bits at plants of the Ministry of the Petro- leum Industry, only 20-48b of hot-rolled metal was utilized; in the production of couplings for drilling pipes, 41-4596. At the p'_ants of the Ministry of the Cosl Industry, only 40-5G~ of the rolled stock consumed was actually_utilized in the manufacture of coal-cutting machines, The basic and most effective measures for increasing the coefficient of metal utilization are as follows; -? Improvements in the layout of metal with utilization of cuttings. 2. Cenver5lgn,~rom_open forging to die forging and use of forging presses instead of hammers; this practice reduces the weight of blanks and decreases allowances for machining. 3? Application of improved casting methods in foundry practice, such as precision and die casting, which permit obtaining castings with minimum allow- ances for machining. All these measures, as was established by the direct study of technologi- cal processes in 1950 and 1951, ruay result in saving hundreds of thousands of tons of metal per year. This amoun*_ can and should be increased on the basis of scientific works.. Great problems must be solved in the field of rational consumption and conservation of fuels and electric power. There nre still considerable posei- billties for improvement in their utilization. Further wide expansio^ of district heating systems is of great signiPi- cance for fuel conservation, However, in this field, there is still a number of large technical and economical problems which require scientific technical solution. Increase in the efficiency of electric power stations may be promoted by using steam of high parameters. Rowever, the application oP such steam is con- nected with a number of exploitation difficulties, such as breakdowns of pre- heaters, economizers, and steam superhenters; adaptation complexity of high- presaure feeding pumps; steam .losses due to the imperfection of high-pressure fittings, etc,. Analysis of these difficulties and dAvelopment of ways and methods for their elimination are the urgent tasks of the responsible research and design organizations. An increase in the effectiveness of utilization oP local low-grade fuels. involves cous.aerahle improvements in furnace processes and firing technique. It is necessary to simplify and make less expensive the preparation of fuel for combustion.. A number of steam-electric power plants have been using simple and compact driers and air- or steam-type coal mills, requiring considerably less metal. for their manufacture than ordinarily used This experience must lie studied, generalized, and widely introduced into practice. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0 Scientific research organizations should also study more deeply and gen- eralize scientific and practical experience in the field of decreasing heat losses with exhaust gases by design improvements of air preheaters, economizers, etc. Serious scientific research problems must be so'_ved is the field of fur- ther mechanizat:on and automatization of difficult and labor-consuming works in large boiler plants of electric power stations. Particular attenti~ must be paid to the problems of complex mechanization and automatization. It is also necessary to develop, more widely than heretofore, methods for the utilization of fuels as raw materials is the technological processes for obtaining high-quality fuel simultaneously with valuable chemical products (Power-chemical utilization of fuels and processing of low-grade solid fuel into a high quality synthetic liquid fue1J, Large and diverse problems are posed before the scientific research insti- *.utes active in the field of studying structural materials and construction practice. Thus, intensive wort, must be carried out on improvements in the pro- duction technology of cements in order to provide for the stability of their quality. The development of methods for testing cement in the process of its manufacture is of scientific and practical interest. The activi.ty,,.nlaas,of such scientific research organizations as Orgtrans- mash (State Trust Eon the Organization of Production in Transport-Machine Building), Orgavtoprom (State Trust for the Organization of Production in the Automobile Industry), and the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences [SSR must include works on the ;c:entific development of methods for the calcu- lation of required production supply stock. Despite the great economical signii'icar,ce of such calculations, the over- whelming majority of scientific organizations have not heretofore paid nay attention to this problem. The considerations presented here are L-y no means an exhaustive study of the subject. They outline only certain trends in the field of rational utili- zation and conservatlan of materiel resources and emphasize the urgency of including corresponding works in the activity programs of scientific research organizations fcr 1953? Rfany problems cannot be so1vE? by a single institute or laboratory and require the unified efforts of several scientific research organizations. In particular, it is important thst the numerous wor};s of industrial scientific research institutes and leboratories be supported by participation of the insti- tutes incorporated in the Academy of Sciences ir'SR and in the Academies of Sciences of the Union Republics, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/09/13: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700150319-0