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December 22, 2016
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August 31, 2011
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January 21, 1955
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 CLASSIFICATION C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-p_~ CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY RE INFORMATION FROM OREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCAS'-fS CD - 1 - CLASSIFICATION C-O-N-F-I-D_E-N-T-I_A_L 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 PUBLISHED Ju11953 LANGUAGE Chinese DATE WHERE PUBLISHED Monograph HOW SUBJECT Economic - Forestry ~I.aL COUNTRY china DATE OF INFORMATION 1953 DATE DfST. al Jan 1955 NO. OF PAGES 6. SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION Hsin Chun -kuo-ti Lin- eh Chien-she Fore~t~r"dustry , published b (Reconstrict~on of Neu China's RECONSTRUCTION OF FOREST INDUSTRY IN CHI1~1 [S'wmarY: A forestry rehabilitation and developme~6 incluaes u;forestatlon, reforestation, and conservat up in China. Forestr Program that,. Y operations are bein ion I~ae been set ing In increased efficiency and economy, g ~chanizee3 rapidly, result_ The national timber supply for the next 0 from the Northeast, but after that the souther,iyareas~of~tiiemcount~yly will, it is estimated, be able to supply an anmuil cut of 1 8 cubic meters, which with the timber available from other areas should make China self-Sufficient in timber,] 9 million Forestr__ y=~ g 1 forestry p~oeramin o950 withotwo'mau,public of China set up-.4 national ob,Jectlves . First, to preserve carefully the present forestry reso ,w rapid afforestation on n grand scale, to provide and to u`ces and promote Promote agriculturhl eater conservation, protection _rom calamities, Second, to promote reasonable logging, reasonable utilicet3on of forestry resources, and assurance of ample timber supplies for ratio and industrial uses. na_.I construction Among the numerrn~r destructive f?rces that harm forests ent the most destructive During the last 3 years fire ha 97.69 percent of the , fire is at prea- percent of the total dal forest damage, In 1 O' s accounted for durinu the 1RSt ge to forests. Of the9total areare t~atasge was 99.08 3 years, 91.5k percent was the Northeast andde~ra8ed by fire t=he Inner Mongolia Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L Autonomous Region, and in 1950, 98.75 percent. In these s loss occurs in the spring. Since practically all forest fires are persons, thro yeas the chief fire masses in fire~out the area prodigious efforts toward the caused by prevention and forest-patrol measures are education of the In 1952, air Progress. covering Opp patrols made 122 flights amounting to 440 fl in and the Mu_tan~ square kilometers of the Greater and Leaser Khing hours and Chiang forest area. As a result of these Ean Ranges practically no fire loss in the Inner Mongolia of 1952. In the measures, there seas involved seas onl Northeast, the timber loss i,,asAutonomous Region in the spring a whole the Y 4.46 percent of that ?~Y one percent sad the area , spring fire loss lass off,. involved in 1950. For the country as .~ 5.09 percent of the 1 During 1950, there sass 950 loss. inside the Great Wail indiscriminate timber cuttin general ~ by the military, by lumberin E all ?ver the area tral People'sgGover~ the name of relief. A E interests, and by the nment of all unauthorized ~imberlcuttingcbion by the Cen- Eans, both military and civilian, did much to reduce indiscr Y government or- During 1951, increased re lminate cutting, in keen competition for t quirements of timber for ture. amber supplies and a dislocationdoftthel uses resulted on austerity~ntthe5l, the Government Administration Council price atruc- indiscriminate euttln eaof timber. The result saes the virtuslasued a directive seas made in national E nd highly competitive biddin cessation of unified timber cuttin E for timber. A beginnin Afforestation Activit E and distribution control. E In the matter of afforestation, antisand-drift forest in IJorth China and the Northeast, antltyphoon forest belts alon of East China Protection belts Y~Etze River have beuen~s~onon of commercial timber 8 the coasts Ely promoted. grossing south of the The area afforested ~ 1950 sass over L9,000 hectares 440,000 hectares. The goal for 1952 is 832,0,00 hectares. sealed off for forest Hurt ' aIId ~ 1951 over hectares in 1 ure amounted to 24 +~ountain areas 951. The 1952 goal is 2 4'4 7,000 lectares in 1950 and o ,000 hectares. 903,000 During the last 3 years, the afforested area amounts tares and mountain areas sealed off to 3,610,Op0 hectares, dude 1952 estimates, tO 1,350,000 hec- mountains in the countr In COQ~rison with the 300 mi__i~~ Both figures in_ the source of our Y~ these figures are ver hectares of barren ence has strength, namely, the aroused 8811, but sae have discovered revealed that afforestation coo nd organized tlves, are the secret of rapid peratives masses. ExPeri- taina for forest Progress. In the matter agricultural coopera_ for nurture, experience has to of sealing off moun_ promotion of the program results not fret that sR?ntaneous understanding by the masses of the im ?J? orders from above organization the sa?tersheds. portancc to a , but from Ericulture of forests oa Increased Efficienc Last Year, the forestry industry, Which Includes to milling, plyyo~ manufacture, and the wood-products chemical industr promoted in the timbered areas EEing, transport, still far behind that Within the Great Wa11, but the y' vas Region. of the Northeast and the Znner Mongolia Autonotm~ouss .. r. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 ~ with an 0 '-""`? ~ aorestry Industry Control Bureau was organized perations Offir_e in charge of logging and water transport, a Forestry Railway Office in charge of rail transport, and a Materials Office in charge of materials supply, In comparison with the beat year of the Manchukuo regime (1943), in 1952 timber production was increased by 33 percent, required manpower ryas onl 42.5 percent (including both temporary and permanent), and required animal power was only 5C percent. Y Self-controlled labor unions have displaced the old labor contractor system, and a multitude of comforts and social and educationa~ arorrerits are being supplied in the logging areas. ~r~g the Manchukuo regime, the timber resources on 2 million hectares were spoiled and 100 million cubic meters of timber lost by wasteful logging practices. ?lie efficiency of tirnher utilisation has been increased under the people's government from 55 percent in 1949 to 70 percent, or an increased utiliation of 15 cubic meters fcr each 100 cubic meters of timber worked. ~ the Northeast, mechanization of lumbering Ss proceedin rarilwacutting is still largely done by trend, handlin g rapidly. Y is done largely by tractor. Power hoists are from woods to stream or and:for pulling logs out of streams after raftin used for loadi down inclined rail lines out of the hillo 8? Laded to ~ trains without need for locomotive re drifted Logging and transport labor gangs hsve been ?? power. standardized with a 50 percent s~vs~?matized and operations on streams have been or anize irr*rease in efficiency, Rafti defined division of labor amongithe cdrevslofseaga on a ~ ?Perations the timber keeps moving with a m1r_1m,rm del railwayj, with a vell- h division to ensure that to 1.4 percent, as compared with lU Y or damage' Loss has been percent during the Manchukuo reg~educed Forest_ gur~evg of timberlendh(includingethe~estimateshfor leer made of 4.5 million hectares land easy to afforest. From 1950 [hreu, 95`) and 2'420'00? hectares of ated from regular university srh ~ July 1952, 299 students xere With t}re addition of Dols of forestry and yUl from s gradu- with acme degree of Sorestrystrsininni short-course forestr Peclal courses. of training forestr g ~Y total 10,000_~ersonetudents, those sents a real challengeadres fast enough to keep up t}re national Tire problem Program pre- A basic requirement for the development of a comprehensive forest is.surveying of forestry areas in existence and of areas available' for afforestation. ~' Plan and suitable During the past 3 years, the following survey. work 2ias been lone. In 1950, 952,642 hectares of timherland was surveyed {plus a cursory estation amounted4toliectAres). Areas surveyed and found suitable for affor- hectares). 3o9,2t,1 }rectares {plus a cursory survey of 6 ,928,767 In 1951, 1,279,704 Hectares of timberland was surveyed (plus a cursory survey of 5,347,606 hectares), band surveyed and found suitable for affor_ estation Amounted to 4og,353 hectares (plus a cursory survey of 7,660,600 hectares). C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 ~ G-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-Tar_p_L surveyed. In 1952, 1,923;794 hectares of land suitable for afforestatio n xas The total forested area surveyed during the 2,422,428 hectares, 3 Years was 4,156,138 hec- tares, and area of land surveyed and found suitable for afforestation vas and in~lin2,1951, a forestry management survey vas made of 95 1,060,363 hectares. Management serve in 336,400 hectares dividing up a forest area int? areas of cne square kilometerSwithta view to future exploitation of the resourc method of s'u'`~ey is made of the timber es_. Along the divining lines a careful the soil, to set u s reor oes, growrth Possibilities, acid nature'of labor, instrumentsP Prohram f Perations, the Northeast f?restsra;nkGl 9y Crese methods ?theoti~ necessAryato stiir~vey wary school graduate, wlti: 2 ~?=,d i.ied from 20 years to 5 Years. gi with the siaplest of special survey trainin 6her Pri- inet: ;~.,.n ; : g can do the fob There has br_An gre+t ;-::..:.....- nurseries.. With 1y50 ~~ _ "' Mount o. in 1952 it was 521 t, ? =`. -7.;asres ~ land devoted to seedling -_ ~ r index in 1951 vas 237.4 and vas 19,053 }:ectsres A ~rrn:.. - ~' "sI i?~voted to seedling nurseries b the part played by the cr,;~A, ~ f,Sn,.tewo;?thy feature of this increase1983 are cared fcr by the rAasce,; ... .an?-ur1n, three fourtkrs of the nurseries In the astter cf p"ogre~sive uffore,tatioa kn 1 three administrative areas wail illustrate the 950-1952, fi progress. Bux?es for Administra- tive Area Area Afforested iha) -- 1=' 1 1952 East Chins G,05o -~ Central-South 8,290 190,076 21,22 Southwest '-G9'01t2 398,805 2,'iU 53, 6211 In 1953, there were 2; 95,667 in the }lortheast. 0 afforestation stations and 3U9 seedling nurseries Timber Production and B -Products In 1952, the timber cut }n t1;e Northeast was 64 percent of the total national cut: Whe^ timber 1: shippeck raw, a railway car can carr~? only 25 cubic meters of it, whereas if t..~ timber cut up the s cubic meters. Hence x?evival of t}ie timbe has been ame car can carry 40 given high priority by the r mi~ling industry in the ~?Ple's government. Northeast and 1952, With 33,9 ThCin949rdallyl?utputl~r sawin9S0 index was 253; 1951, 231; 1950, 77 cubic meters; in 1951, 91 cubic meters unit ~s 30 cubic meters; in lumber obtained from the rav timber was as follows (in 1950, 80.8; 1 The Percentage of commercial lumber. Since5l~ 9'-?3; and 1952' 93.7. These fi Percent): in 1949, 70; xood, formerly lac0e great progress has been made~ethe utitization of slab g ly wasted. ~'~-=J-F..Z-D-E-N-T-I-A-L Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 C-O-N-~'-I-D-E-N-T-Z-A-L The chemical products of the forestry industry are highly important. In China, pitch is produced in Kiaangtung, Kwangsi, Chekiang, Fukien, Anhwei, Kiangsi, and SyeB~wan provinces. The most productive provinces yield up to 10,000 tone a in preliberation days, the methods of production of turpentine and rosin were very backward. Tire pitch-producing life of a pine tree was only 3-5 , years, representing a great caste of ping timber. The product was inferior. The preliberstion e_~tirual import of good-grade turpentine at Shanghai alone was 5,000 tons. After the liberation, dome=tic turpentine production increased. The estimated production fcr 1953 is 320 percent of the 1950 production and Trill be more than ample for national needs. ins quality, however, still is below Crade N (third grade). Hith the aasistarce of Soviet advisers, the quality is being grey*.ly improved in s row factory. Soviet advisers have taught the use of concrete vats instea3 of metal ones, resulting in appreciable savings. For the production. of tarsrin China hns, in addition to galls (Wu-psi-tzu) n dozen or more types of trees t.'rst ;fold an appreciable amount of tannin, Nevertheleee, before the 11bPration China Smnorted most of its supply from capitalist ^ountries. Sinc~? the l3beratlon, a neu program of production has been started vhirh will soon lead to self-sufficiency, China hns a large p:teztial In raw materials for the production of chemicals from Sorest products. pi.opor Pxploitation will promote the welfare of the nation's industt;: ami of the rgsaes. Customs figures for 1951 rcvcaled tint imports o: forestry chemical products were five tires the exports The chief import items in order of Importance were raw rubber, tarnln. and drv dlstillat.r_s. The need for these things will certainly in,rnnse IMvelopmrnt of domestic production is therefore r ostler of h:g.,_,? yr:prit: Future Prospects Chinn has 300 million hectares cf lund sulteble for afforestation, but accordSng to Kuoalntaug statisl:r,---, only 5 per;:ent of the national area is afforested. Surveys nov revn9l thKt, oven of t,1;ls, n grent deal hns been lost by fire and wnste.ul exp.oanttun. China is vallnntly striving tc correct this sit.uatlon and on the basis of chat hus been accomplished ir, the first 3 yoars, n 30.year pro,Jection of the program should result ir. afferestnt/on of 1;8 million hectares. Of this, protective forest belts and special cvpn; of eccnomte forests cannot be used to-meet the needs of industr;:, mining, comm,inica*.ions, and construction.. Our chief reliance for the .^.ext i0 year:. will be lire natural reserves of the North- east. By the end of that penc;i these reserves will be largely depleted. Be_ cause a" the F10w growth c:' red and dectdu6us pines, which are the chief tim- ber trees of the Northeast, 7J-100 years will be needed to reforest the area. Bence, after 30 years It will be necessary to shift to Central-South China, tho Southwest, and East Chinn for the main timber supply. Can these three areas prel,are to meet this demand? Because of the rapid ?rnwth rate of timber in these areas, a good afforestation program should produce 317 cubic meters per hectare in 30 years. Taking off 20 percent for poor survival. and 15 percent for ether adverse factors, liners should be a reliable yield of 165 cubic meters per hectare available in 30 years. - 5 - C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2 C-O-N-F-I-D-E_N_T_I-A-L ~ We should plan on an annual increase of affo hectares. If this i rested area of 2 s done, after 31 years a ^_uttin hectares a year should be feasible million and East in the Central-SouthoChi~of 1,200,000 165 cubicCh~B administrative areas. On the basis of an avers southwest, meters per hectare, an annual cut of 198 million cubic yield of Rated shouldre4uirementeatnthatet areas' This should be 7p meters ime (equivalent of the Percent of the esti- andtaelfAsufficienc the production of the other present Soviet re Y should be Brest timber- quire- . possible. Producing areas After 30 years all sawmills will be in the production areas, pl furniture, door and window frames, and flooring x111 all be near the forests. Wood will be used for Ywood, Northeast, modern alcohol factories x Blucose and ~ufactured for cotton ~ Particularly in the silk, and xool ill be built. Wood x311 be substituted. sal-lu-ko ~ the manufacture of rayon, synthetic wools, insulators. Wood wp}fie' electric-line poles, photo ra steel for weavin ill also be used to maY.e B Phic film, .and plyxood. 6 shuttles, gear xheels, airnlaneials ae hard as iron and will also be used as a substitute for iron P rivetsn and starch. Wood the great locks on the Yangtze and yellox rlversoncrete .or the ? piping in This Ss the future of the tlmber industry in China and the fmrstry workers. goal of Chinas Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/08/31 :CIA-RDP80-00809A000700200285-2