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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 12, 2011
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Publication Date: 
April 11, 1955
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 STAT OF A CZECROSLOVAK UNIFIED AGRICUL Ulull TURAL COOPERATIVE [Comment: This report, on the establishment and operation of a tive) i(Jednotne Lovesice,, iseank exploitation Unified of Radio Free Europe CItemra- No 7557/54, dated 9 September 1954. The source of the information is a 59-year-old farmer who defected to Austria on 27 May 1954. The defector reports his own experiences and observations as .a member of the JZD and a permanent resident of Lovesice.) The Type I JZD in Lovesice was established in the spring of 1951, fol- lowing preliminary meetings between local Communists and the agricultural referent attached to the ONV (Okresni narodai vybor, Okres National Commit- tee) in Prerov. A commission appointed by and led by Kroupa (fnu), ONV a,p'icultural referent, included Engineer Palacek, the okres agronomist; Granych (fnu); arts Cross (fnta. They were welcomed in Lovesice by Adolf Zich g dBirman `f t e NW Nistni ne oird ,ribor, Local National Committee), and various Communist functionaries led by Josef Karasek Sr. This was the founding , group of the JZD, together with 50 charter members who were not farmers and did not own land. Adolf Zich Sr was a landowner but he did not turn his ].and over to JZD management. Instead he permitted his son, Adolf Zich Jr, who is not a Communist, to farm the land independently. Kroupa promptly designated the largest landowner, Josef Brazda, as kulak and confiscated his 20 hectares of land with its newly built and a carefully kept buildings, 8 dairy cows, 4 heifers, 3 sows, 16 young pigs, 2 teams of horses, a threshing machine, a tractor, and all other equipment and machinery. The JZD then confiscated the 10 hectares of land and the buildings owned by Doctor (of laws) Kubik (fnu) and also appropriated 6 hectares of public land (obecni pole). This was the nucleus of the JZD, since its 50 members were landless Co and pensioners. mmunists, mostly railroad workers For the first year, the JZD was operated under the direction of Adolf Zich Sr and was supported by the ONV in various ways. The ONV gave the JZD extraordinary amounts of animal feeds and fertilizers, com- pared with the allotments made to small and medium independent farmers. The JZD members, who farmed and operated the property of. others and divided up the crop among themselves; were. having a fine time and were happy with the JZD. The work became tiresome in the fall and none of the JZD members wanted to be tied down to care of the stock, the usual excuse being that each member had enough to do on his own job. The cows stopped giving milk. The horses were unfit for heavy work; they were uncared-for and were left uncurried, since each day a different member cleaned the barn and used the teams, Unquestionably, the JZD needed people who would take responsibility, were stable, and had the proper technical knowledge. The second phase of the JZD came when an attempt was made to persuade the JJZD-reVmaainder of the meetings iandglectures werelorganizeddand ttheeONV to loin the referent from Prerov was there constantly. All efforts were useless asural none of the farmers joined. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 In the spring of 1952, the Communists changed their tactics and raised the delivery quotas of the independent farmers so high that they were im- possible to meet. During the spring work and harvest time of 1952, the in- dividual farmers were sabotaged constantly. The MTS worked only on JZD fields, and despite considerable effort, the independents could not fulfill their impossible quotas. The ONV then levied fines as high as 40,000 crowns for nonfulfillment of the quotas. Milos Janda was fined 25,000 crowns; Frantisek Janda, 35,000; Albin Zavadil, 40,000; Frantisek Bartocha, 40,000; Josef Vaculik, 15,000; and Frantisek Vaculik, 10,000. These men refused to pay the fines and the Communists retaliated by withholding money due them for their sugar-beet crops. In addition, they were refused permits to butcher their own stock at home, so that they were forced to buy meat on the free market at exorbitant prices. Rationing was still in effect at this time. After the sugar-beet harvest was in, Communists Ludvik Kubik, Cyril Mucha, and Karel Sk_lenar went from door to door propagandizing the JZD. The farmers were told that if they joined the JZD, their delivery quotas would be much lower, allotments of animal feeds and fertilizers would be much greater, their fines would be remitted, and permission to butcher would be granted immediately The farmers yielded and joined the JZD; their fines were abo]iched and they were granted permits to butcher one hog each [per year]. The J7.D was changed from Type I to Type II by Christmas [1952]. In the spring of 1953, when plans and allotments were being set up, the JZD was changed to Type III, as that type offered more advantageous quotas [for the members?]. Adolf Zich Sr objected to the change and left the JZD, Josef Karasek became chairman. The JZD officials at that time consisted of the following: Josef Karasek, chairman; Ludvik Obadalek, treasurer; Marie Matherova, book- keeper; I?IirnsLav Hradil, agronomist; and Josef Vaculik, manager and zootechnician.. Members included Frantisek Janda, Albin Zavadil, and Milos Janda, farmers; Vilem Valek and Frantisek Vaculik, small farmers; Florian Frgal, Karel Charek, Marie Knotkova, Svojanovsky (fnu), Karel Sklenar, Eduard Bartocha, Josef Zacha, Josef Kubik, Bohuslav Skacel, Kvetoslav Frgal, Josef Vilimek, Josef Svoboda, Marie Salkova, Stanislav Vejlim, Frantisek Zvonek, Frantiska Pavlikova, Martin Pytlicke Frantisek Slovacek, Drabek (fnu), Rudolf Kubik, Jan Pospisil, Demis (fnuj, Cyril Mucha, Tomecek (fnu) and-Anna Kourikova, all landless Communists. There were approximately 60 members. Ludvik Obadalek, the Lovesice JZD treasurer, is 57 years old, is married, and has a round face and bald head. He is a fanatical Commu- nist and an even greater profiteer. His attitude toward the [JZD?] farmers is hostile and he sabotages them whenever and wherever he can. One of his sons is a railroad employee and another son is a member of the SNB (Shor narodni hespecnosti, National Security Corps). Marie Matherova, bookkeeper for the Lovesice JZD, is 45 years old, married, and about 155 centimeters tall; she is a fanatical Communist. The entire village lives in dread of her. Prior to the establishment of the JZD, she was a saleswoman in the local branch of "Pramen." She is an avowed enemy of the farmers; she records the wrong work units for them and tries to sabotage them as much as she can. She is having an affair with Miroslav Hradil, the agrohomist. Daily quarrels.,. with her husband, sometimes in public, as a result of this affair keep the entire village amused. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 STAT Miroslav Hradil, the JZD agronomist, is 24 years old, single, a dangerous Communist, and an oppressor of the farmers. He is paid by the MTS in Prerov, which is the patron of the Lovesice JLD. Hradil is an extremely arrogant, conceited youth who understands nothing but carries on everything politically. He is having an affair with the bookkeeper, Matherova, who is 20 years his senior. Josef Vaculik, zootechnician and manager of the JZD, is 34 years old, single, a farmer, and has become a slave of the regime and subservient to the Communists. The farmers ignore him and the Communists themselves call him a "stinker" behind his back. Frantiska Kourilova, the milkmaid, is 58 years old, a widow, and a Communist figurehead in the village. She calls the farmers names and acts as a stool pigeon by reporting them to the police. The J7D in Lovesice contains a total of 104 hectares, obtained prin- cipally through confiscation, although some land was brought in by various members. The JLD has 41 milk cows, 18 heifers, 12 bulls, and 7 teams of horses. It also owns 9 sows, 17 young pigs, 20 young hogs (under 40 kilo- grams in weight), 8 hogs for fattening, and one boar. The JLD built a new poultry house in the fall of 1953 at a cost of 35,000 crowns. It purchased 150 white Leghorns (hens), 42 of which were later found dead from poisoning. The JZD bought 300 baby chicks in the spring of 1954 from the Prerov poultry plant and also keeps eight geese and eight goslinga in the poultry house. The TLD holds meetings monthly. Usually present at the meetings are Engineer Pulace'k (ohres; Hrava, 0NV agricultural referent; and Frantiseb Kindl, JZD referent at the agricultural office of the ONV. The non-Communist members of the J7.D usually ignore the meetings and send one or perhaps two people to act as observers. The JZD meetings are becoming more stormy and violent. The farmers in Lovesice and throughout Prerov Okres are beginning to oppose the Com- munists, end so many are leaving the JZDs that some JZDs have been dis- banded completely. This opposition succeeds in places where the farmers have agreed among themselves beforehand and leave in a body. In such cases, the Communists are forced to return their land, livestock, and machinery. But where an individual farmer leaves the JZD, he is left to the mercy of the Communists and receives the worst and most distant fields, the poorest stock, and the worst machinery. In addition, he has to sign for various obligations, such as tax on the land, sickness insurance, grain already seeded, manure and fertilizers, care and feed- ing of the stock he receives, and personal debts, in such amounts that he is completely ruined and unable to make a start. In the May meeting of the Lovesice JZD, there was a sharp exchange between Engineer Palacek, the agronomist, and JZD members who demanded one cow each (for personal use), to which they are entitled according to the laws establishing the JZDs. Palacek at first would not listen but finally agreed that each one would receive a weanling heifer. The JZD members objected, stating they would have to feed the animal 2 years and then someone would confiscate it. A bitter quarrel ensued. Josef Vaculik, former farmer and now manager and zootechnician for the JZD, who sided with the Communists, was accused of stealing. It was finally agreed that after the harvest, each JZD member would receive a cow; the members threatened to quit the JZD in a body if this did not happen. I Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 STAT Since last fall, the following JZDs in Prerov Okres have been disbanded: Type II in Horni Mostenice, Type II in Ujezd, Type III in Rokytnice, Type III in Troubky, and Type II in Vlkos. The Type III JZD?in Bochor is in debt 4 million crowns and is in complete discord; its members think it will disband this year after the harvest. The Type III JZD in Kyselovice has been highly praised, but was in debt 7 million crowns and has been taken over by the state farms. The Type II JZDs in Brest and Hulin, Kromeriz Okres, have disbanded. According to the JZD statutes, each member-farmer of the JZD is entitled to one cow and a 50-ares homestead. For each work unit, all members of the Lovesice JZD were entitled to the following in 1953: 3 kilograms of hard grain (wheat or rye), 1 kilogram of feed grain (oats or barley), 3 kilograms of potatoes, 5 kilograms of dry fodder, 5 kilograms of straw, 2 kilograms of stock-feed beets or carrots, 0.10 kilogram of legumes, and .50 liter of milk (for those without cows). The members received only some of the above items. No dry fodder, straw, or legumes, and only 1 kilogram of stock-feed beets or straw were allotted to them. The homestead of 50 ares was also.a source of trouble because every member who had previously been a farmer had an orchard around his house; because of the shade, it was impossible to grow vegetables or enough grass for the cow. Thus, the JZD member had to depend on the allot- ment of one-half liter of milk for each work unit. At the very best,. he was able to keep a goat. Those JZD members without property were happy, since they were allotted a piece of clear ground for their gardens. The Lovesice JZD members were divided politically into the following three groups: 1. The so-called Communist elite, which includes the chairman, the agronomist, the zootechnician and manager, the bookkeeper, and the treas- urer. Without doing much work, they have an income of one work unit each day, 7 days a week. They also receive credit for manual labor, the same as working members, in addition to their regular pay. Furthermore, they receive 500 crowns monthly frgm the ONV reserve fund. While drinking, the zootechnician admitted they also receive regu- lar bonuses. 2. Other Communist members and their friends. They do the easier and better-paid work, and the kind of work of which it is impossible to verify the amount done. They record whatever number of work units they wish, and the "management" not only condones but openly supports such acts. 3. JZD farmers who do most of the work and are enslaved by the Com- munists. The following is the amount of work needed to earn one work unit by members of the third group: Deep plowing 50 ares with a team of horses (an impossible quota, as the horses are poorly fed and not capable of plowing more than 30 area under favorable conditions); or cutting one hectare of hay with a horse-drawn mower; or hauling and turning under 8 loads of barn manure; or harrowing 6 hectares of land; or Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 STAT seeding,3:hectares of-land,. uoinga 19-row machine; or weeding13 hectares of. beets; or hauling 10 loads-of bundles of grain; or. loading and unloading 4 loads of bay;'or hauling 100 quintals of sacked grain to the JZD warehouse; or hauling and spreading commercial fertilizer on 5 hectares; or loading hay on driers (sticks) in the field all day; or., milking`8 cows for one day; or - feeding and barn care of 20 young hogs for one day. (Feeding and currying one team of horses will earn 1/4 work unit.) For so-called supervisory work, the 'wage was set at 2 crowns (in new currency) per hour. This work was-almost always asgigned to the select group of Communists. It was impossible to verify-the amount of work done;, consequently each person listed. 10 hours of work performed although only 2 hours were actually worked. The wage per work unit was set at 16 crowns after the euprency reform. One half. of this was paid each month; the balance on 12 Feb- ruary 1954. [Balance since the currency reform, or for January 19547] This was later increased to 17.20 crowns, as the JZD had a large beet prop. The.JZD members' average pay per month was from 300 to 400 crowns. Before the currency reform, JZD members in Lovesice'wese paid twice. a. year,. Since, no one had money after. the reform, they were paid every month, although payment was irregular, occurring between the .5th and 15th of the month. Each JZD.member keeps a record of the amount, of wor4 he does. This "work #nvoice" (pracovni vykaz) is certified weekly by the manager and given to the bookkeeper, who enters the kind of work and work units in a so-called work book (Kniha prate). The nameeof.the members are in alphabetical order and at time of payment,eath member, signs oppo Bite his name. The day and hour of payment is announced over the local loudspeaker system. Matherova, the bookkeeper, and Obadalek, the treas- urer, are present,. JZD members in a majority of the JZDs in Prerov Okres-never received the second payment,, as the JZD5 are heavily in debt. The.JZD in Lovesice has no capital advances (investice) to pay back because the farm it con- fiscated was modern az}d fully equipped.; hence it is finatwialy better. off than most cooperatives. The.Lovesice JZD took over management of the (at one time, exemplary) Kyselovice JZD and the Bochor JZD. Later, the Kyseltovice JZD had a 7-million-crown ebeorbed by the state farms. The Bochor JZD is in poor condition, but the fear of indi- vidual debts holds the members together. The,Bochor JZDbought.some.building,material, in 1952, wbiah.the;`.;, Communists promptly appropriated for their own use or sold to their friends. In September 1952, the setting aftee of a large field which had been "mixtures" was finally. attributed to-the local Commu- nists, who had wanted to ease their work. Originally, "Western agents' were charged_.w1, h-sabotaging the. field.,.;Ia; connection with bad moassmiart Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3 and embezzlement in the Bochor JZD, Kroupa,.okres agricultural referent, and Frantisek Kundl, deputy chairman of the JZD, were arrested and are now in Jachymov. The chairman escaped punishment because he had been injured by a tractor and died of internal hemorrhage. Since the embezzlement in Bochor, no JZD is permitted to keep money. Money from the proceeds of every sale must be deposited in the bank, and the bank pays all claims. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/07/14: CIA-RDP80-00809A000700230092-3