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December 14, 2016
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June 28, 2002
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May 28, 1953
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Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION- REPORT SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION COUNTRY East Gexir/USSR SUBJECT Activities at the Zeiss Plante Je 25X1 C DATE OF 'INFO. . PLACE ACQUIRED 25X1X STATE X ARMY 28 25X1A 25X1 X 1953 EVENTS AT ZEISS PLANT, JENA, FROM THE TIME OF OCCUPATION BY SOVIET C ML 1,918 To TM TIME ? F I .COSTRUCTION IN 19 1, The ocoupation of the Zeiss plant by Soviet occupation farces resulted in increased activities in.- all departments. The rSovi.ett, ordered the reconstruction of drawings, the manufacture of blueprints and the assembly of samples of various' types of equipment formerly produced for the German army, Most 'blueprints for this type of equipment had 'been, confiscated by the tSdForces on their arrival. Production of binoculars 'I a_. ,resumed and large-quantities of them were delivered to. the Russians, The plant also initiated the produotion of the "Contax" camera, formerly produced at Zeiss-Ikon in Dresden, Soviet- Zone, and an adsembly line was installed for this purposed Production began on a portable sound film projector, but it is um1 own to the where plans and design for thiE pro- jeotor;, ca2n f ?o o nufaoture of former Zeiss products such as micro- seopes and accessories for scientific, medical and industrial research, micrometric equipment, and geodetic and. medical instruments was also resumed. .I have no further inEox ati.on on these products, 25X1 25X1 SECRET This Document contains information affecting the Na- tional Defense of the United States, within the mean- ing of Title 18, Sections 793 and 794, of the U.S. Code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of Its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. The reproduction of this form is prohibited. REPORT NO. DATE DISTR. NO. OF PAGES REQUIREMENT NO. REFERENCES THE SOURCE EVALUATIONS IN THIS REPORT ARE DEFINITIVE. THE APPRAISAL OF CONTENT IS TENTATIVE. (FOR KEY SEE REVERSE) NAVY X lAIR FI AEC I I (Note: Washington Distribution Indicated By "X"! Hold Distribution Rv "4", 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 V\ 25X18 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 ~2DP80-00810A001100320003-1 25X1 -2- 25X1 25X1 2. Dismantling of the plant began on 22 October 1946, by order of the Soviet occupation authorities. Approximately 300 scientists, engineers and specialists and their families were deported to various places in the USSR. Sixty specialists E_: Frazevo km. northwest of Moscow) ( e la ,g, s =ver.; `mac, iorra-?A (100 km. south of Moscow) ; eight to Zag,(;~s k (35 km. northeast of Moscow); 15 to Prisma in Moscow; and the remainder to Leningrad and Kiev. I am not familiar with the disposition of the Leningrad and Kiev groups. I do not know what criteria were used by the Soviets in their selection of specialists for. deportation. I observed that all personnel specializing in design or construction of military equipment weredeported, i.e., the entire group,NGE specializing in antiaircraft data computers went to Krasnogorsk and another you under krthur z l , a xs X5 in range finders and suwmarlne poxxs.cjap,es. went to Lening?ad. Approximately 90 per cent of all machinery,including pipes and sanitary installation was removed. I have no information as to the dis- position of dismantled equipment. RECONSTRUCTION OF PLANT 25X1 3. Following is an account of events at Zeiss detained at the plant by the Soviets. Reconstruction began in the spring and summer of 1947. Dr. Hugo SCHRADE was appointed plant manager after the departure of US Forces. Machines avail- able anywhere in the Soviet Zone were brought to the plant>axd work began immediately on improving and repairing this par-~ially old and defect machinery. I do not know if the Soviets assisted with the procurement of machinery. Several months passed before the plant was re-equipped sufficiently to start production again. PRODUCTION' AS OF 4.I the 25X1 following equipment was in production at'the plant,: microscopes and microscopic equipment for scientific, medical` and indu.stri- al;research, lenses for spectacles, ophthalmic instruments, medical and surgical instruments such as cystoecopes and surgical lighting equipment, machine stand probing gauges and profilimeters, micrometer gauge screws, measuring microscopes, and geodetic instruments from sextants to theodolites of different types. Production also included an electron micro= scope, binoculars of varying power, opera glasses, photo lenses, projectors for miniatuxe and large size negatives called diaacopes, .. opaque picture projection devices called apt.aoopes and a port- able sound film projector which permitted the lecturer to project his own sketches as he drew them,p i reading apparatus c alle da do cumatora and a .a:ro am- copying apparatus. A new telescope for use in schools and small observatories had been developed and the Zeiss planetarium had been rebuilt. The plant prodiced an a.r craft gunner training device known as "apparatus A 1" (Geraet A 1) for the Soviet Military. Pro- duction of-the Contax camera was discontinued and returned to SECRET Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-00810A001100320003-1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 SECRET Zeiss-Ikon in Dresden...Many other products were manufactured at Zeiss,--Jena but I can not enumerate them nor am I able to give specific information on any item mentioned above, NAME OF PLANT 5. , Today the "plant _. i s called "OPTIK CARL ZEIS S , JENA, VEB" , and after nationalization was placed under the Ministry for Machine Construction. BUILDINGS 25X1A 6. All buildings, whi Ah were destroyed or damaged during World War II, have been- t teoonotruutedA or are in the prone i of reconstruction. Many buildings seem more modern in appearance and layout, INTERNAL CHANGES AFTER JUNE 1952 74 scientific departments, design offices and laboratories grew proportionally. The development group "Bildmess" (photo- grammetry) became-an independent designing office.. Engineer Rem=7 SCHRUP E'F.7who formerly headed the design offices of Zavod 393 at Krasnogorsk, USSR, was appointed chief. Besides the " A 1 apparatus a device for meas?3_r. i r,sr hpi &hts from a pair of stereoscopic pictures called ' ;a7a:a,'~A,2ry~at ozo, and a new mirror stereoscope were developed. A large new picture distortion device for aerial photographs was.being developed, as well as different types of autographs used for making maps from stereographic air photographs (comparable to the apparatus built by Wildq Zzw c . , Switzerland). Improvements in the design of the " A 1 apparatus" were made. A new designing and development office was established under the are,, weer Arthur .1 who had returned from Lenin- grad (see paragraph 2 of this report). Judging from the personnel assigned to this office, it seems possible that the design and development-of range finders are being planned. ource was also queried as to whether he thought this cf fine might also wore on this diai n of periscopes used in a bmarines. He stated that he did not know but that personnel in this section were well qualified to provide such designs if called upon.? The scientific management of the lant With the return of large numbers of specialists from the USSR, the development potential at Zeiss increased crid erabl d Dr i s#former chief of the photocell laboratories d at Zavod. 393. He received as aseietants Karl PAPELLO and Dr, Kar1 =-~~ In the .personnel section. the politically reliable SED member Hans BRAUNE replaced the former chief of personnel SCHNEIDER, PRODUCTION 9. I am not familiar with produc tivn figures, quality of finished products rejects," raw materials, shortages, ef- ficiency of machines and types used. RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS 10. llesearch at the plant was performed by three groups: SECRET Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-00810A001100320003-1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 SE~RET scientific research ~bj design planning c production planning I have no knowledge of activities of scientific research labo- ratories and heard of no new experiments in the design or pro- duction shops. The production planning grow (c) comprises two experimental shops and works for both (a) and (b)_above LTee Organization Chart of Zeiss, Jena, Enclosure (A COOPERATION AMONG VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 25X1A 11. A general opinion prevails among designers that cooperation among scientific departments and designing offices is unsatis- factory. Members of the scientific staff were formerly located. . in ,a designing office and now work in offices of their own. This separation prevents the neces- sary close contact and frequently leads to delays and mis- understandings. Scientific leadership is 'considered equally unsatisfactory as shown by the fact that the scientif. a staff is incapable of high quality guidance to the designing staff. WORKERS AND PAY SCALE 12. The plant employs""about'10, 000 workers, of which 35 per cent are women. Perhaps 50 Der cent of the workers are skilled, 25 per cent ...semiskilled., and- 25 per cent unskilled. The workweek is Monday through Saturday, 8 1/2 hours on weekdays, and 5 1/2 hours on Saturday. Overtime is necessary in some departments, and other 'departments work in three shifts of eight hours. Skilled workers receive about two ao.~.t _;>> per hour; d-raftsmen 300-500 ':. per month; layout men 500-800 and construction engineers 800 to a maximum of 1,045 asrkm' per month. KEY PERSONNEL 13. I have made an or anization-chart of the Zeiss Works-,. Jena ee Enclosure (A ".. I belie ve that the.. the organizational breakdown on the c hart is correct and complete as far as the scientific and design sections are concerned, It is possible that departments other than those indicated on chart exist., but I have no knowledge of them. Reference lines drawn from personnel management , ti administrative section of each depart- ment indicate the.preselnce of an SED member acting as personnel consultant to each department.' Most of the key personnel atthe 25X1 plant are returnees from Zavod 393, Krasnogorsk. +ro' b .,o ra hio information on these returnees see Report No. 25X1 LT. In additionI can furnish information on the following persons who are not returnees: SECRET 25X1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081OA001100320003-1 SECRET -5- HUM 25X1 A 25X1, 25 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 SECRET 25X12 14. I have no knowledge of Soviet personnel rks in Jena. that 25X1 a Soviet ce exists at the plant and that this office is, charged with the aoceptanc a of the aircraft gunner training device "apparatus A 1"0 SECURITY 15. The past permitting entry ,into the plant was the same for all personi el, i.e.,. teehnioians, 'scientists and workers. It was pink in odlor and'had no time limit. If the pass. was lost, a duplicate pass stamped' "Du Mt . was 3s sued. I estimate that there were about 1OO-5O guards, 15 per cent of them women, 'and ranging in age from 2C-30 ,years, at the plant. All are members of the People's Police... and wear the regulation uniform. An cf fice of the People's Police was located in-the plant and operated independently 'of. the management of plant. Plant. and gates were under 24-,hour . guards and male guards carried pistols, I noticed no'special security precautions such as alarm systems, earohight :r etc-. EJGZOSURE (A): Organization Chart of Zeiss Works, Jena,SovZone4 SECRET Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-0081 OA001100320003-1 Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-00810A001100320003-1 'Enckfure (A ) O wWWDW Gr.Rr rust Koms, 7svv nor rocs) Approved For Release 2002/07/15 : CIA-RDP80-00810A001100320003-1