Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
December 21, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 16, 2008
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Publication Date: 
February 9, 1955
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Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-0081 OA005800120006-2 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY w? (FORMATION REPORT SUBJECT The North Korean Educational System This Document contains Information affecting the Na- tional Defense of the United States, within the mean- ing of Title 18, Sections 798 and 794, of the U.B. Code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of Its contents to or receipt by an unauthorised person is prohibited by law. The reproduction of this form is prohibited. REPORT DATE DISTR. 9 February 1955 25X1 NO. OF PAGES 3 THE SOURCE EVALUATIONS IN THIS REPORT ARE DEFINITIVE. THE APPRAISAL OF CONTENT IS TENTATIVE. (FOR KEY SEE REVERSE) 1. North Korean educational institutions are divided into the following categories: a. People's schools (four year course . b. Grammar schools (three year course . c. High schools (three year course). d. Junior college (three year course). e. Universities. (1 Cultural (three year course). (2) Normal (two year course). (3) Technical (four year course). 2. Children normally begin their education at the age of seven at a People's school. However, more than 90 percent of the 1954 entrants were from eight to ten years old, as many children did not enroll during the Korean War. After the People's schools they attend grammar school. Next they may choose either a high schooll where they prepare for a university2 or a junior college. Those attending the latter must serve for a period of time in their major fields after graduation. In rare instances an outstanding graduate of a junior college may enter a university.3 Post graduate work is done in laboratories. The "five points full" marking system is used, i.e., 5 is perfect, 4 is very good, etc. 3. The greater part of the maintenance funds for People's schools and grammar schools is contributed by local villagers."' High schools are financed by the Provincial People's Committee while junior colleges and universities are supported by the Ministry of Education. The funds are distributed monthly by the finance section of the gun where the school is located, the amount allotted depending upon the number of classes in the school. Expenses include teachers' salaries, which are usually paid promptly, and a stipulated amount for student field trips.5 Junior college and university students receive 500 won monthly from scholarship funds and are furnished uniforms. They usually live in dormitories attached to the institutions. School supplies such as pencils and pens are purchased from the Consumer's Guild or a government department store and paid for by checks issued to the school by the gun finance section. Teaching aids such as charts and STATE Y ARMY Y INAVY x JAIR x FBI AEC Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-0081 OA005800120006-2 Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00810A005800120006-2 CONFIDENTIAL - 2 - demonstration pictures must be prepared by the teacher. One set of world maps, printed in the USSR, is issued to each school. Few schools can afford to have telephones. It. School superintendents and heads of instruction and culture sections who must be Korean Labor Party (KLP) members are appointed by the provincial education section with the approval of provincial KLP authorities. Teachers are appointed by the gun educatio8 section after thorough checking of their qualifications and political leanings. There is a shortage of teachers in North Korea particularly in the fields of mathematics, physics and chemistry. At the beginning of each school day every teacher must submit a plan outlining the day's course of instruction. This is scrutinized by the KLP school cell chief and the chief of the Teachers Labor Union who appraise the teacher's mental attitude and his students' opinion of him. If a teacher fails to submit a daily plan he is regarded as absent and may not enter his classroom. There are secret KLP investigators in each school charged with ferreting out deviation- ist teachers. The information collected by all these party officials is sent to the gun education section and to the next superior KLP office. School superin- tendents are given instructions on management and thought which they must require teachers to follow. In institutions of higher education certain students are designated to report on the compliance of teachers with these instructions. Before beginning instruction in a new subject a teacher must explain at length how the course fits in with the Communist dialectic. This explanation, which is approved by the headmaster, must be repeated briefly in the daily lesson plan. 6. In September 1953 instruction in Russian and Chinese characters was added to the curriculum in all schools above primary level. Russian language teachers receive 15 percent additional pay. Korean language and history textbooks contain only stories of successful Communist struggles against capitalism. The following are excerpts from the Korean language textbook of the People's schools: "Generalis- simo Stalin is the sun over all mankind..... ." "Our great leader KIM Ii-song, who loves the people and always exhausts himself for the construction of our wealthy and strong democratic country..... ." 7. The history textbook states that "political power formed by the privileged few who exploit the holy blood of the people will be ruined without exception," and the geography textbook states that "the American imperialists have destroyed 70 percent of all factories in South Korea and have plundered all the precious raw materials for their own country." 8. Flags of the USSR, Communist China and North Korea hang above the doorway of each classroom along with a picture of the leader of each country and the following slogans: a. "Hurrah for the Premier of the USSR,,Wlenkov, the most intimate friend of Lenin and Stalin and the world's greatest leader of the working classes:" b. "Hurrah for the leader of the Chinese People's Republic, MAO Tse-tung, who rendered direct assistance to opt wat of liberation!" c. "Hurrah for the Supreme Commander, ger'issimo KIM I1-song, the great leader who brought the war of liberation of our fatherland to victory!" Comments 1. The majority of high school students were conscripted during the Korean War. 2. In 1954 college students were exempted from conscription for the first time since 1950. Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-00810A005800120006-2 Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-0081 OA005800120006-2 -3- 3. Children whose families display "reactionary tendencies" can never become honor students no matter what their ability. 4. In June 1954 the inhabitants of 8usong (N 41-49, E 129-44) (EB6130) and Sungam-ni (t) North Hamgyong Province, held a ri meeting and resolved to assess each family four or five bags of unhulled rice to raise funds for the construction of school buildings. 5. Only 400 w6n per month was provided for travel expenses at the Kyongsong People's School (EB5613), which has 19 classes and 21 teachers, and this sum usually had to be expended for maintenance. 6. The educational standard of teachers is declining, Of the 21 teachers at the Kyongsong People's School, two were graduates of Japanese normal Bch >~ 1s, a few were graduates of WK normal colleges The ma crj L 1 high school graduates 001 Approved For Release 2008/06/16: CIA-RDP80-0081 OA005800120006-2