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Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 *Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Publication A.I.M. n?9/a Union Geodesique et Geophysique Internationale Association de Meteorologie Reunion de Bruxelles 1951 25X1 PROGRAMME RESUME DES COMMUNICATIONS et RAPPORTS NATIONAUX Bruxelles Juin 1951 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 25X1 b Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Publication A.I.M. n?9/a Union Geodesique et Geophysique Internationale Association de Meteorologie Reunion de Bruxelles 1951 PROGRAMME RESUME DES COMMUNICATIONS et RAPPORTS NATIONAUX Bruxelles Juin 1951 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. UNION GEODESIQUE ET GEOPHYSIQUE INTERNATIONALE ASSOCIATION DE METEOROLOGIE Pr?dent: Prof. J. BJERKNES Vice-presidents: Prof. K.R. RAMANATHAN Dr. F.W. REICHELDERFER Secretaire: Prof. J. VAN MIEGHEM Membres: Dr. W. MORIKOFER Sir Charles NORMAND Prof. V. VAISALA SECRETARIAT: Institut, Royal Meteorologique de Belgique 3, avenue Circulaire - UCCLE Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 PROGRAMME Lun. 20/VI: 14.30 Comite executif de l'U.G.G.I. (Universite de Bruxelles) 17.00 Consende l'U.G.G.I. II 20.00 Comite financier de l'U.G.G.I. Mar. 21: 10.30 Seance inaugurale et ler? Session Pleniere de l'U.G.G.I. (Palais des Beaux-Arts) 12.30 Lunch au Palais des Beaux-Arts, offert Par le Comite National Beige. 15.00 Lecture des Rapports Nationaux et du Memorandum du Comite meteorologique permanent du "Pacific Science Association". 17.30 Reception a l'H6tel de Ville de Bruxelles. Mer. 22: 10.00 Adresse presidentielle suivie dune seance de travail. 15.15 Election de la Commission chargee de presenter les candidatures suBureau, au Comite executif de l'Association et aux Commissions mixtes interne- tionales.- Examen des recommendations dela Commissimamixte de ]'Ionosphe- re: a) Projet d'organisation d'une Troisleme Armee Polaire en 1957-1958. b) 1-.emorandum surune nomenclaturedel'Atmosphere Superieure. Examen dune rcommandation de la. Commission mixte des stations de re- cherches d'altitude se rapportant a l'organisation de "Journees mondia- les de recherches aux nautes altitudes". Jeu. 23: 08.30 Symposium curia. Physique des Nuages, sous la presidence de M. le Pr.T.Bergerml 14.30 Rapport du Bureau.- Election du Bureau, du Comite executif, du Comite financier de l'Association et des delegues aux Commissions mixtes inter- nationales. 17.00 Visite de l'Institut Royal Meteorologique a Uccle Ven. 24: 09.00 Symposium sur la Physique de la Haute Atmosphere et de l'Ionosphere (en et collaboration avec l'Association de Magnetisme et d'Electricite terres- 14.00 tres), sous la presidence de M. le Prof. J. Kaplan. Sam. 25: 09.00 Excursion a Anvers: visite du port et reception a l'H6tel de Ville. Dim. 26: Journee libre. Lun. 27: 08.30 Rapport du Comite financier et vote. 09.00 Symposium sur la Circulation Generale des Oceans et de l'Atmosphere (en collaboration avec l'Association d'Oceanographie physique) sous la presi- dence de MM. les Prof. C.G. Rossby at H.U. Sverdrup. Mar. 28: 09.00 Symposium sur le Rayonnement, sous la presidence de M. le Dr. A. .Ingstrom. 14.00 Lecture et discussion du rapport de la Commission du Rayonnement. 16.00 Reception par S.M. la Reine Elisabeth des membres du Comite executif et du Conseil de l'U.G.G.I., et de leurs epouses. Mer. 29: 08.30 Symposium sur les Problames de Micrometeorologie, sous la presidence de M. le Prof. 0.0. Sutton. 14.30 Le Probleme des Microseismes (seance commune avec l'Association d'Ocea- nographie physique, organise par l'Association de Seismologle). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-44 -2- Jeu. 30: 09.00 Symposiumsurl,Ozone atmospherique,souslapresidence de M. le Prof. G.M.B. Dobson. 14.30 Suite du Symposium. Lecture et discussion du Rapport de la Commission de l'Ozone. Ven. 31: 09.30 Le Probleme de ',Evaporation A la surface du Globe (Seance commune or- anise par 1 'Association d Kydrologie ) . 14.00 Seance de travail (eVentuellement vote de resolutions ou de recommendations ) . 10.30 Dfner 211 Palate des Beaux -Arts, of fert per le Comite National 3elge. Sam. 1/IX: 10.30 Seance de 016ture et derniere Assemblee pleniere (Palais des Beaux-Arts). Dim., Fxcurs ions. Les seances de l'A.I.M. se tiendront dans an auditoire de l'Universit4 de Bruxelles,.. On trouvera des details complementaires sur les symposia A la fin du fascicule. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Memorandum for the &teorological Association International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics from the Standing Committee on Meteorology, Pacific Science Association On the occasion of the Ninth General Assembly of the IUGG at Brussels the Stan' ding Committee on Meteorology, Pacific Science Association, wishes to take this opportunity of conveying its best wishes for the success of the scientific mee- tings in Brussels. An important function of most international scientific assemblies is to report progress of research being carried on in various quarters of the globe and to coordinate future plans and efforts in the best interests of scientific progress through cooperation. With this view in mind it will be the further purpose of this memorandum to_PreSent a few pertinent facts about the Pacific Science Asso- ciation, its objectives and, more specifically, a progress report or the Meteo- rology Section on radiation studies In the Pacific Area., The Pacific Science Association was established in 1920. Its membership is comp. prised of all nation with territorial responsibilities or with strong scientific interests in the greater Pacific Area. The Association has no political sponsor,. ship nor affiliations, and participation is on a voluntary basis, without finan- cial obligation on the part of any participating member country. The objectives of this Association are to initiate and promote cooperation in the study of sci- entific problems relating to the Pacific, and to strengthen the hands of peace among Pacific peoples by promoting a feeling of brotherhood among scientists of Pacific countries. The Pacific Science Council, which is the administrative body of the Association is represented by a full time Secretariat with offices at the Bishop Museum, Ho- nolulu, Hawaii, This Secretatiat acts as a clearing house and disseminatingagen- cy for.scientific information on the Pacific and for coordination of the activi- ties of the Association with other scientific bodies. The various scientific interests of the Association are represented by a nuMber of Standing Committees of which there are 17 at present. It is the function of these Standing Committees to study the more important problems of common inte- rest and to report upon their work at Congresses of the Association. Once each two to five years a science congress is assembled to consider the present sta- tus and to reconsider the course of scientific research in the Pacific. Seven congresses have been held to date. The eighth will assemble in the Philippine Islands in 1953. The Standing Committee on Meteorology is concerned with the establishment of ap- propriate networks of observing stations for collection and free interchange of meteorological data over the Pacific. It iq interested in studies of radiation and heat balance, of energy exchanges between wind and sea, and the manner in which each of these relate to general circulation: of the atmosphere. The Standing Committee for Meteorology is composed of nine members as follows Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4, -4- A. F. Spilhaus, Chairman United States R. H. Simpson, Secretary Hawaii (U.S.) C.H.B. Priestly Australia M. A. F. Barnett New Zealand Andrew Thomson Canada Casimiro del Rosario Philippines H. Hatakeyama Japan T. S. Moorman.... ..... Supreme Command Allied H. P. Berlage......, IndoneSia Inasmuch as the IUGG has expressed an interest in radiation studies in the Pa- cific area, reports have been prepared by various standing committee members on progress of radiation projects in the Pacific. A resume of the reports follows : 1, Australia is currently engaged in the most extensive radiation experiments reported to the Committee. These include continuous measurements of a) intensity of solar radiation using a Linke-Fensner Panzeraktinometer; b) solarimetric measurements of sky radiation; c) photo cell measurements of solar radLation, including distributions in 8 spectral ranges between 0.35 and 0.75 microns; d) autographic solarimeter and actinometer measurements of intensity of both global radiation and of outgoing reflation. In connection with these experiments, all under the direction of Dr. Fritz Albrecht, the following new instruments have been developed; a) an Australian absolute pyrhellometer; b) a photo cell sky camera for measuring reflecting power of clouds in diffe- rent spectral ranges; c)a teleactinometer for recordingcmtgoingratAtian toward smallareas of the sky. Plans for expansion of the work now being done at Melbourne University in- cludes establishment of an Australian network of radiation stations equipped with autographic equipment for measuring global and solar radiation. Separate measurements are also planned by the CSIR at Melbourne in connection with studies of energy exchange between atmosphere and ground. 2. In New Zealand there is little active wcrk being done in the field of radia- tion. However, plans are being developed for measuring ozone content of the atmosphere in the near future, using a Dobson photoelectric spectrometer.. Also, plans call for later establishment of a network of total radiat'ion pyr- heliometer stations. 3. In Indonesia total radiation has been recorded at Bandung since August 1948. Plans for the future call for installation of a network of stations equipped with pyrheliometers, with thermopiles and solarimeters. 4. At Honolulu, Wake and Canton Islands the U. S. Weather Bureau has insualled Eppley pyrheliometers with Brown recorders, and plans are to obtain conti- nuous records for an indefinite period. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -5- 5. Canada has recently developed a new actinograph of the Robitzsch type and plans ultimately to place this instrument at a number of Pacific coast sta- tions. Its records agree with the standard Eppley instrument to within five per cent. Theoretical investigations are being pursued by Dr. W. L. Godson in the field of long wave radiation aimed at developing a means of computing from radio- sonde data radiative fluxes at any level in the atmosphere. It is hoped this brief summary will serve to ecquaAnt the Ninth Assembly dele- gates with such investigations of radiation in the Pacific as comes under the cognizance of the Pacific science Association. In closing, it should be noted that the more recent work of the Japanese and that being carried on in certain universities on the west coast of-the United Stats is not available at this writing. It is the desire of the Standing Committee on Meteorology to work as closely as possible with the IUGG to encourage and develop scientific programs in the Paci- fic area which will best serve the mutual objectives of our two organizations. R. H. Simpson, Secretary for A. F. Spilhaus, Chairman Standing Committee on Meteorology Pacific Science Association Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC UNIONS JOINT COMMISSION ON THE IONOSPHERE Proposal for an International Polar Year in 1957-8. RESOLUTION That, for the reasons attached, the 3rd International Polar Year be nominated for 1957-68 and .that, in view of the length of time necessary for adequate or of the complex Physical eauipment now Potentially available, an In- ternational Roller Commission be appointed in 1951 to supervise planning. This resolution is transmitted by the Joint Commission on the IOnosphere for the approval of the Unions affected and sponsoring this Commission, and for ac- tin by I.C.S.U. Some very fine studies of the earth's atmosphere were made during the First and Second International Polar Years in 1882-83 and 1'032-36 respectively. For example, during the first year FRITZ made a remarkable study of the geogrenhice,1 distribution of auroral but little hes been done to extend this work on the ne- cessary world scale in more recent times. Since the 3econd International Polar Year in 1,D32-33 there have been many col- tical developments tn the study of the earth's atmosphere from both the techni- cal and theoretical standpoints. In 1032-there were no panoramic or multifre- quency Ionospheric records. The separation between the E and the F regions had been recognised but -Aot that between T1id 3ubstantially no data were aval lable on which a world wile study of the ionosnnere could be based. High altttn- de rockets were notavailable, nor radiosondes capable Of ascending to a heir(nt of 20 kilometres. The interest in atmospheric e7,11oretion has now progressed to ? the point where the cooperation tact would be afforded by a third international polar year could go- far towards solving outstanling problems of ionospheric - structure, of movements in the high atmosphere, of 'magnetic and ionospheric storms and of aurorae. Because the last spot minimum, it would be beneficial if spot nurimum. This woUld be achieved if tween the second and third polar years, first and the second. It is in tams waj color year took nlace at a time of sun- the newt rne were associated with a sun- an interval of 25 years were placed be- one half -of the interval between the that the year 11.57-58 comes to be r,?.con- mended for adoption as the third international polar year. It should perhaps be explained that the expression "polar year" in the docu- ment imalies not only a Yeartnwhich special observations would be made in Polar regions, but also one tnwilich observationl in all latitudes would cooperate to the maximum extent no as to give as complete a picture as possible of world-wide Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -8- atmospheric phenomena. It is'alao assumed that the antartic,Would receive its full share of attention. Objectives of the Third International Polar Year The principal objectives or the third international polar year would be to provide information for understanding : (i) the physics of magnetic and ionospheric storms and other disturbances peculiar to polar regions(such as magnetic bays and giant pulsations). (ii) the physics of aurorae. (iii) the structure and circulation of the atmosphere in the polar regions, where absorption and radiation of the energy by the atmosphere play im- portant roles. Additional objectives will no doubt be designated by the I.A.U., the I.G,G.U., particulary by its Associations of Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology. There is a particular need for a complete morphology of the disturbances as- sociated with Particular storms from the ionospheric, magnetic and auroral standpoints. Really complete information about one particular disturbance from all standpoints would lead to more progress than quite a large amount of more or less random data from which only statistical conclusions could be drawn. Types of Observations to be Made during the Third International Polar Year A Preliminary survey suggests that the types of observations to be made shall include the following : (i) RADIO Ionospheric sounding by fast multifrequency or panoramic methods. Accurate height measurements (to,say.0.1 km) by special apparatus. Numerical measure- ments of radio wave absorPtkon, reflection and scattering. Tracking of moving irregularities in E5 and F2 regions. All aspects of storm_and other anomalous phenomena, auroral echoes, frequency spectrum of auroral noice (ii) MAGNETIC Measurement of magnetic field at great height by rockets. Estimation of width, intensity distribution and height of current systems. Development and decay of the current systems of storms over short periods of time. Observations of pul- sations and bays by equipment with sufficiently short time constants. (iii) AURORAE Cine and still photography of forms and movements. Total radiation and absolu- te intensity of lines. Height variation in intensity of selected lines-uting modern filters for isolation ofthe lines. Doppler shifts in selected lines. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Morphology of auroral disturbances both on the average and for particular storms from a large number Of stations providing highly objective data. (iv) ROCKETS Measurement of upper air winds using artificial meteor trails. Measurement of magnetic fields at high altitudes in the auroral zone during storms. Measure- ments of ion/electron ratios, particularly on the dark side of the earth. De- tection of "windows" in the high atmosphere at optical frequencies. (v) OZONE Effect of magnetic and meteorological storms on the spatial and height distri- bution of ozone. Observation by the Dobson method and direct observations by radiosondes. (vi) COSMIC RAYS Effect of solar flares and magnetic storms on the. intensity of cosmic rays. Variation with height and with latitude near and within the auroral zone. Recording of increases associated with solar flares especially associated with Polar high altitudes stations. (vii) TROPOSPHERE Observations of the zonal semi-diurnal pressure oscillation and any other fea- tures proposed by the Association of Meteorology of U.G.G.I. (viii) ASTRONOMICAL A highly organised programme of solar observations will be needed to provide all possible information on associated solar phenomena during the intensive Polar Year observations. Recommendations Great advances in our understanding of the physics of the earth's atmosphere are to be elPected by combining spacial observations in the north and south polar regions with observations of a similar ftattre'.carried out at lower lati- tudes. It is therefore recommended that : (i) The year 1957-58 be designatad an International Polar.Year. (ii). ,A Commission be set up by I.C.S.U.-similar to that established for pre- vious polar years to encourage, through the various tinions and their National Committees, the establishment of a proper network of observing stations. (iii) In view of the complexities of the apparatus needed. to exploit the po- tentialities of modern technique, the above Commission be .established in 1951, so as to give at least five full years of preparationand trial. (iv) A Permanent secretariat should be formed to operate during the most ac- tive period of the Commission's work, from about two years prior to the polar year until about three years after the polar year. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ?10? Proposal for an Upper Atmospheric Nomenclature RESOLUTION The Commission gives provisional Support to the suggestions on "Upper Atmosphe- ric Nomenclature" contained in the memorandum prepared by Professor 3. Chapman and refers the document for general consideration to I.G.G.U. Upper Atmospheric Nomenclature (by Sydney Chapman) ABSTRACT It is proposed that stratosphere shall signify solely the nearly isothermal region above the troposphere; that the layer between the stratosphere and the deep temperature minimum between 60 and 100 km. be called the mesosphere; that the layer of rising temperature above this minimum be called the thermosphere. On the basis of composition, it is proposed to divide the atmosphere into the homosphere (of substantially uniform culposition from the ground upwards) and the heterosphere (of different composition). On the basis of electron density, a correlative to ionosphere is Proposed, the neutrosphere. Using pause to si- gnify upper boundary, the stratopause, mesopause, homopause and neutropause - are difined. Peak is suggested as the name for a level of maximum, e.g., meso- peak, ozone peak, E or F peak. Incline and decline are names suggested for the Parts of a Peaked layer below and above the peak, e.g., mesodecline, E or F incline or decline. A "dip" in a peaked layer is called a syncline. (1) There seems scope for a few additional terms connected with the upper at- mosphere. (2) Various bases of characterization of different atmospheric regions and le- vels are in use, e.g., the presence of ozone layer (or ozonosphere) and ionof- sphere (due to Watson Watt); similary for the exosphere, These terms are mode- led on the names given by Teisserenc de Bort, troposphere and stratosphere, based on the thermal Stratification first revealed by his sounding devices (kites, balloons). (3) As used by de Bort, stratosphere signified the nearly isothermal region above the troposphere; in contrast to H. Flohn and R. Penndorf, I would prefer to restrict the term to this original meaning, despite its occasional use in recent years for any level above the troposphere. (4) Extending this thermal classification, I propose the name mesosphere for the layer between the top of the stratosphere and the major minimum of tempe- rature existing between 60 and 100 km. (the exact level is still uncertain) : and the name thermosphere for the layer of upward increasing temperature above that level. (5) Like Flohn and Penndorf, I would advocate Extended use (though in a manner different from theirs) of the term pause to signify upper boundary, as intro- duced by Sir Napier Shaw in the term tropopause. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -11- (6) Taking stratosphere to denote the nearly isothermal region above the tropo- spheres its upper boundary, where the temperature first begins to increase up- wards more rapidly than is common in the lower stratosphere, would be the stra- topause, and the mesosphere would extend from this level to the mesopause, at the level of the deep temperature minimum already mentioned. (7) It is uncertain whether this usage can advantageously be applied to the ozone or to the E and F ionospheric layers, because of the indefiniteness of their upper boundaries. (8) For these layers and the mesosphere, the defining characteristic (ozone density, electron density, temperature) first increases upwards and then de- creases. I suggest that in each case the level of maximum be called the peak, e.g., the E and F peaks, and the mesopeak (this word, though hybrid, seems mo- re acceptable than the fully Greek word mesoacme). It is a matter of specula- tion whether or not the thermosphere has a thermoteak. The ozone layer can be considered under VNO aspects, both important, namely, absolute concentration or density, and relative concentration (the ratio ozo- ne to air, by volume);, these have different levels of maximum, which I suggest should be called the absolute ozone peak and the relative ozone peak respecti- vely. (9) The parts of such flpeakedo layers which lie below and above the peak, whe- re the defining characteristic is respectively increasing and decreasing up- wards, may conveniently be called the incline and decline, e.g., mesoincline, mesodecline, ozone or E or F incline or decline; and the usage may also be tended to thermoincline, although we do not know whether or where there is a thermopeak. (18) If at some times and places layer has two peaks. (major and minor), the region between them, containing a minor minimum, may be called a syncline. So- me rocket flights have suggested the presence of an ozone syncline, and some rocket data on upper air temperatures have indicated a mesocline, though in both cases there is some doubt as to their reality. (11) It may be useful also to classify atmospheric levels on the basis of composition. The main causes tending to non-uniformity of composition are dif- fusion (countered by turbulence) and photodissociation (countered by recombi- nation). As long as they modify the composition only very slightly (e.g., in regard to rare constituents like ozone), the scale height of the atmosphere is simply proportional to the absolute temperature (if the variation of gravity with height is neglected). The temperature-scale-height relation becomes more cemplicated where the composing changes materially with height. The name homo- sphere is suggested about 100km) where the composition first begins to change materially; this level Would be called the homopause. The name heterosphere is proposed for the overlying region of different composition. The name homosphe- re may not need frequent mention, but for some years discussion is likely to remain active as to the level of the homopause, and as to the nature of hete- rospheric air (at higher levels), which means a very different gas from that' at ground level. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -12- (12) Similar a term correlative to ionosphere is proposed, to provide a comple- te characterization of the atmosphere on the basis of electronic presence or absence: the name neutrosphere is proposed for the regiOn below the ionosphere, where the concentration of electrons is insignificant (apart from thunderstorms or meteor trails), at least from the standpoint of the radio physicist; and where the air particles are almost all neutral, far more completely so than in the ionosphere. The transition level between the neutrosphere and the ionosphe- re is the neutropause, a word more likely than neutrosphere to be often needed, e.g.,"the neutropause is lowered during a solar flare". (13) The various layers or "sphere" are of course not arclUsive nor are they co-terminous: the Ozone layer includes the troposphere, stratosphere and at least part of the mesosphere; the D layer probably overlaps the mesodicline, the ionosphere probably includes the whole Of the thermosphere and heterosphere (which probably have different lower borders, the mesopause perhaps being below the homopause); in addition, the ionosphere probably overlaps the mesosphere and homosphere. (14) "Upper atmosphere" is a useful term, but its meaning depends on the context, and it is probably not convenient to limit its meaning too definitely; the wea- ther forecaster may use it to mean the stratosphere and perhaps part of the troposphere, whereas to the radio physicist it may signify a region above the stratosphere as here defined. (15) Precision may be gained while retaining brevity, in referring to different atmospheric levels, by using upper, middle or lower in conjunction with the specialized names of the layers or sub-layers; e.g., one may say that, only the middle Part of the mesosphere has a temperature above 0? C., or that the E de- cline may be in the lower heterosphere. (18) It seems premature to name definite heights in the case of several layers and levels (peaks and pauses).. As in the case of the tropopaUse, tual heights may vary with latitude, season, and from day to day. (17) The three Figures illustrate the nomenclature here proposed for the regions and levels classified according to temperature (T), composition and electron density (ne). The graphs of T and ne represent distributions such as are now generally supposed to exist, but are very tentative; the scales of height h are not same in the three diagrams, and all three scales (h,T,ne) may be non-uniform. (181 In conclusion I should like to support C.T. Elvey's proposal of the name airglow (suggested by O. Struve) to signify the light emitted by the atmosphere, other than the aurora (and lightning). Ordinarily airglow will signify the (hon- auroral) light of the night sky, but for further distinction one may call this the night airglow, in contrast to the twilight (sunset or dawn) airglow, and to the day airglow, which should now be observable from balloons and rockets that rise above the level at wich the down-scattered light is very faint. (19) I should like to acknowledge the privilege of discussions on this matter with D.A. Bates and M. Nicolet; and I have their authority for mentioning that they are in general sympathy with the proposals here made, though they are not responsible for them of the the ac- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Height h FIG. ( a ) Levels Thermosphere Thermo incline Mes ?pause ? Mesopeak Stratopause Tropopause ? ? ? ? Mesodecline Mesosphere Meso incline Stratosphere Troposphere Height h Levels F2 peak Fl pause Fl peak E pause -- ????? Temperature T ? ? FIG. ( c ) ? ? \F2 decline 4.0 ? Fl decline Fl incline %.-- E decline ? E peak ? ? ? ? ? ? ? E layer FIG. ( b ) He terosphere _ _ Homopause Homosphere F2 layer Fl 'layer D paus Neutropause ? E incline ?ffr------------ D layer Ionosphere Neutrosphere ne electron density Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -14- NOTES (1) H. Flohn and R, Penndorf, "The stratification of the atmosphere", Bull. Amer, Met. Soc., 31, 71-77, 126-130, 1950, (2) In reference (1) this is called the "upper tropopause", although the name "up- per troposphere" isnot given towhat is here (para.9) called the mesodecline, and although "stratosphere" is used for the layer extending up to this level Instead of mesodecline the name "upper mixing layer" is used, based on considerations ofcompo- sition, although the layer is defined on a thermal basis, and although Present evi- dence indicated that mixing is effective throughout the whole region from the ground to a level above the mesopeak (para.6); see ICF, Chackett, F.A.Paned and E.J. Wilson, "The chemical composition of the stratosphere at 70 km. height,Nature,164, 12..5? 1949, (It may be remarked that the samples referred to in this publication prU.- bably represent air typical of a level somewhat below 601tm. rather than 70 km.) (3) In reference (1) the mesopeak is called the "ozonopause", but it is doubt- flu i whether the rather indefinite upper boundery of the ozone layer should be Identified with the level of maximum temperature in the mesosphere, (4) C?T. Elvey, "Note On the spectrum of the airglow in the red region", Astrophys. J., 111, 432-433, 1950, JOINT COMMISSION ON HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH STATIONS Proposal for "World Days" in Upper Atmosphere Research RESOLUTION With increasing activity in upper atmosphere research, in many field, complete co-ordination orefforts becomes more and more difficult. Certain phases of the studies are on a routine continuous basis; others represent special activities designed to cover a limited period of time, Rocket observations are, perhaps, the most significant studies of the latter group. In order to obtain as high a concentration as possible of upper-air data, it is recommended that a set of special days be designated as "world days" or "inter- national days", These should consist of approximately two days per month, one near new and the other near full moon, In addition, certain special world days may be designeted, to coincide with such natural phenomena as total solar eclipses or major meteor showers. If some experiment of a non-routine character is envisaged, relative to condi- tions in the upper atmosphere or associated Phenomena, it is recommended that the experiment be performed on a world day if there is no specific reason for choosing another time. This programme will lead automatically to the securing Of concentrated atmospheric data at special times and will effect co-ordination with a minimum of trouble of the experimenters, Associated studies may include such fields as: Rocket firings, Plane and balloon flights, Night-sky brightness, Auroral measures, Solar activity, Ionospheric studies, Radio absorption, Solar radio noise, Upper-air meteorology, Cosmic-ray experiments, Super-refraction of sound by upper air, Magnetic disturbances, Ozone measurements, etc.,,. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -15- -Recommendation of the Joint Commission on the Ionospheric on World days in Upper atmosphere Research The Mixed Commission on the Ionosphere having learnt of the foregoing proposal, wishes to express its whole-hearted approval of the plan and recommends its ge- neral adoption. Only a few of the fields mentioned in the proposal are represented by a single Commission. This resolution should be referred to IU00, URSI, IAU, IUPAP and other Unions interested for general' consideration and ratification. It is fur- ther suggested that formal implementation and detailed drafting of the plan be referred to I.O.O.U. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 RESUMES DES COMMUNICATIONS Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS THE MAINTENANCE OF THE 'ZONAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE, by J, BJERKNES, Los Angeles, U.S.A. RESUMES DES COMMUNICATIONS The Annual Precipitation at Dublin, Ireland by F.E. DIXON Although precipitation has been measured in Ireland from about 1738, the ear? lier records are incomplete and unsatisfactory. It is possible, however, to produce homogeneous series of data for Dublin from 1792 to 1830 and 1836 to the present day. The data used and the derived homogeneous record are presented in tables I to V. The third part OT the paper presents some analysis of the figures, in particu? lar assessing the association of variations with the solar cycle, and a discus? sion of the wettest and driest Periods. Although periodogram analysis suggests some "real" periods, their amplitUdes are too small to be useful in forecasting. The Isopydnic Level and the Coupling of Tropopause and Surface Waves by M. DOPORTO BY computing the correlation coefficient between the pressure at the isopycnic level and the difference of pressures at the surface and the isopycnic level, staggering one of the series relative to the other, the period and difference of phase of simple Periodicities can be determined. There is evidence that both period and phase of any such periodicities are not constant. Ozone measurements during sudden ionospheric disturbances, by SIGMUND FRITZ In order to investigate the effect of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on total atmospheric ozone, Ozone observations have been made ducing sudden iono? spheric disturbances (S.I.D.). If one can assume that the ratIo of the extra? terrestrial intensity of sunlight at 3110A to that at 3300A (the wavelengths observed by the measuring instrument), remains unchanged during days with S.I.D.; it is found that ozone changes associated with S.I.D.'s are small or absent, in agreement with qualitative theoretical expectation. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -4- Recent Researches on Snow and Sea-Ice Distribution in the Eastern Canadian Arctic by F.K. Hare decent changes in our picture of sea-ice distribution in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait: climatological significance of the newly explored pack-ice cover of Hudson Bay. Present-day snowfall distribution and its relationship to the ori-' gin of the Wisconsin Laurentide glacier. Comments on the conflicting hypotheses of Flint and antevs The Average Reflection, Absorption and Transmission of Solar Radiation Through Clouds By S. Fritz, U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C. The available measurements shOw that the albedo of individual clouds is so va- riable that it is practically impossible from these measurements to determine an average value for the albedo of clouds. However, by using Danjon's measured visual albedo fOr the whole earth, the average albedo of clouds can be estima- ted to between .47 and .60 with the preferred value near .50. With this average albedo of clouds as a basis, the available measurements of absorption and transmission of solar energy by clouds are examined in order to determine the limits between which the average values for these quantities can lie. The air temperature at the French ice-cape station in Greenland and the temperature in the free air, by H.J. Jordt The expedition of Alfred Wegener to ice-cape of Greenland have recorded a rise in temperature in the winter 1930/31, and professor Kurt Wegener tries to ex- plain the rise in temperature as due to subsidence.+ ' Based on observations from expedition of Paul-Emile Victor monthly mean temperature have been ylotted in curves for station level (July 1949-January 1951) and for 600,500,400 and 300mb Pressure level (November 1949-March 1951); also the monthly mean temperature for 700mb Pressure level (November 1949-January 1951) are plotted in curves for Scoresbysund and Thule, and monthly mean charts for 700mb pressure level have been worked out. These curves and charts seems to indicate that the subsidence has less importance than expected, While the advection has a greater influence on the rise in temperature in winter, A-) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Grbnlands Expedition Alfred Wege- ners 1929 und 1930-31, Band VII, 1, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -5- Diminutive cold domes in upper air pressure levels, the weather and the number of radio-sounding stations by Leo Lysgaard It seems that moving cold domes in the upper air can become so small that they are difficult to detect on the 500mb chart if the distance between the radio- sonde stations is too great. The weather maps for October 23 and 24 1950 show a situation where a southeast moving diminutive cold dome is causing unstable weather conditions over southern Sweden and eastern Denmark, probably. Quantitative Analysis of Two Proposed Mechanisms for Vertical Ozone Transport in the Lower Stratosphere By Richard J. Reed and Anthony L. Julius - Massachusetts Institttef'Tedhnology An equation suitable for the study of changes in ozone density in the region of the stratosphere below approximately 25 km is derived and applied to the Problem of the observed increase in the ozone content of the layer between 10 and 20 km during the winter.. Under the assumption that first meridional circu- lation and then turbulent mass exchange is alone responsible for the observed changes, the required vertical Velocities and austausch coefficients are com- puted for various elevations and latitudes: It is concluded that the meridional circulation scheme provides a satisfactory explanation of the ozone rise only if the circuit ectends over both hemisphe- res. On the other hand, turbulent mixing is a sufficient explanation if stra- tospheric austausch coefficients attain values 'asJhigh.,.as 1 to eo gm cm sec-1 during the winter. Diurnal Variations of Precipitation Frequency in Canada by M.K. Thomas (Canada) The hourly occurence of precipitation has been studied at six locations in Ca- nada during a uniform period for January and July. In addition, a complete twelve months study was made at Toronto and Resolute. At Vancouver and Edmonton the periods of minimum precipitation frequency occur during the daytime in both January and July. At Winnipeg and Halifax there is small diurnal variation in July, but in January Halifax shows a late evening maximum and Winnipeg is irregular. At Resolute the warm season diurnal distribution appears irregular, but in the cold season there may be a daytime minimum. At Toronto in winter there is a morning maximum while In midsummer the maximum Occurs in late afternoon. Little diurnal variation is shown in spring and fall. Investigation of diurnal frequency of July thunderstorms shows maxima in late afternoon at Toront0^and late evening at Winnipeg and Edmonton. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -6- South Steering of Pressure Fluctuations A. D. 1850 - 1950 D. Justin Schove The climatic fluctuations of the past century can be interpreted in relation to belts of positive or negative pressure anomalies. These belts have moved south from the Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer. About 1875 (i.e. 1861/90) pressure was low in N.W. Europe, where it was verywet. About 1880 an area cf high pressure between Iceland and North Norway moved south, and the climate became colder, more continental and easterly. Dry anticyclonic conditions culminated about 1890 from the Faeroes to Sweden, about 1895 over much of North and Central Europe and about 1905 in Italy, and not until at least 1915 in the Azores. Meanwhile westerly oceanic conditions became much more pro- nounced in Europe until 1925. GRAPHS AND MAPS Main Reference: "The climatic fluctuation since AD. 1850 In Europe and the Atlantic" Q,J.R. Met. Soc. 56, April 1950, 147-165 also in Centenary proceedings of the R. Net Soc., 1950, 217-218 The Little Ice Age A. D. 1550- 1850 D. Justin Schove The Little Ice Age extends from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Exami- nation of the documentary evidence in Europe shows colder winters after 1540, colder springs after 1550 and colder summers after 1590. By 1600 the glacial advance was well-Marked, but 1651/80 marks the climax of the first phase or the Little be Age. The Upper Air temperature appears also to have been below the - modern normal, as thunder and hall were very frequent in the period 1641f70. After a warm interval, the second and shortest phase began dramatically about 1740. But by the 17701s summers were hot and the melting of the glaciers in Alaska and Europe divides this phase from the next. The third phase extends from 1801 to 1880 in North Europe and 1900 in the south. GRAPHS Main References: "European Temperatures A.D. 1500-1800" Q.J.R. Met. Soc. 7, 1949, 75, pp. 175-181 "Hail in History, A.D. 1650-1680" Weather, 1951,75, pp, 17-21 Past Rainfall & Future Temperatures D. Justin Schove The effect of a wet soil on subsequent temperature Is very slight. The varia- tions of the geological water-table do affect temperatures slightly, especially in Spring and Autumn. The maximum temperatures in a week of very hot weather in Spring or the minimum temperature of a week of very cold weather in Autums are less extreme after a series of wet years. The secular variations of these effects in Europe since A.D. 1800 show that an appreciable lag in the seasons occurred between 1800 and 1925. This lag was partly due to the increase of rainfall. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -7- Main Reference: D.J. Schove "Two Centuries of Spring & Autumn Weather in Relation to the Water-Table" Weather 6, 1951, 67-71 and errata P. Tree-Rings 8c Northern Summers D. Justin Schove Tree-rings near the Arctic Circle show close dependence upon Summer Temperature. North Scandinavian results can be tested back to 1760 and provide a scale that extends the Temperature curve back to at least 1500. Thirty-year means show some relation with the summer temperature curve in Central Rurope, as inferred from Wine-harvest and other data. A comparison with the three phases of the Little Ice Age can be made. North American series supplied by Hustich, Giddings, etc. indicate that similar standardized series may lead to a similar temperature curve Graphs or. Decadal Statistics Main Reference: "Tree Rings & Summer Temperatures, A.D. 1501-1930" Scott. Geog. Mag. 66, N? 1 (1950) pp. 37-42 The Measurement of Evaporation in Canada by Marie Sanderson (Canada) The report of evaporation in Canada outlines research conducted by the Ontario Research Foundation in the field of evapotranspiration or water loss from vege- tated surfaces, based on the climatic classification recently published by C.W. Thornthwaite, director of the Johns Hopkins Laboratory of Climatology. The clas- sification defined the important element of potential evapotranspiration or wa- ter need, and developed a formula for computing it fransimpleteteorologiCal data. Potential evapotranspiration has been measured experimentally at two "tidily-di- vergent localities in Canada: for three years at Latitude 44?N. in Southern On- tario, and for two years at Latitude 65?N. in the Northwest Territories. The apparatus used, the Thornthwaite-designed evapotranspirometer, provided an ac- curate and effective method of measuring water need. Experimental results indi- cated that the values of water need computed by the formula for geographic lo- cations in nothern and southern Canada are of the-right order of magnitude. Solar Radiation in Various Wavelength Ranges E.H. Gowan, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Total Solar radiation is being measured at four stations,'Aklavik, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Ottawa, ranging in latitude between 68 and 45 degrees. The poten- tials developed by disc pyrheliometers are d-awn by a recorder potentiometer. About two years results are available and show a range from 1 to 800 langley per day. Ultra-violet solar radiation is being measured at Edmonton in three ranges. The "long" (3500A) is measured by a 935 photocell with 1 cm, filter of red-pur- ple corex. The "medium" (3300A) is measured by a WL-773 photocell. The "short" (3050A) is measured by a WL-767 photocell. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4- Several methods of integrating the charge for a whole day are being tried. The- se include curve drawing ballistic potentiometer, electrometer and good conden- ser, gas diode discharge with pulse counter, and electrolysis (where a current of about 30 microamos is available). The results of the various methods are being compared in terms of finsen hours, based on the erythema curve, and also in terms of their own biological effects on the well-being of plants and animals. Aerological Analysis of a Mature Typhoon By H. Arakawa Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo. Aerological observations made in a mature typhoon on Aug. 31 and Sept. 1, 1949, by the Central Meteorological Observatory, Tokyo, are analysed and time cross sections are constructed showing the distribution of temperature, potential tem- perature, pressure and circulation acceleration. The vertical structure of the typhoon Is discussed and the results compared with those previously given by Palmen and by Simpson. The analysis of the tropopause and the stratospheric field of temperature of the said typhoon are also given. The tropopause is fairly high (about 16-17 km) in the storm area, and is locally reduced in the core of the typhoon. Relatively warm stratospheric air lies over the core; and colder air is situated over the storm region and the stratospheric temperatures deci- dedly increase all the way to its outskirts from the storm region of tIn typhoon. On the Solid Condensation Nucleus which is not Soluble in Water Sekiji Ogiwar? (.'11?Onhysical Institute, Tonoku University, Sendai). Solid nuclei whirr ,,re non-hygroscopic and insoluble in water have been treated In condensation processes as eaual as water drops of the same size, and it has been considered that such a nucleus cannot act as condensation nucleus in the atmosphere. However, when such a nucleus is wetted well by water, the adhesive force of water to the nucleus Is larger tnan the cohesive force, of water, hence the maximum water vapour pressure on the nucleus will be lower than that on the water drop of the same size. By thermodynamical considerations the author Ob- tained a new formula expressing the satured water vapour pressure an the-nucleus covered with the water film. Then, using the above formula a relation between the adhesive force of water and the relative humidity required to condensation on the nucleus was obtained. On Ice Crystals in the Air by Kyoji Ita (Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo) The author observed microphotographycally the ice crystals in the air at Hailer (North Manchuria). Their crystal forms are classified as follows. 1. Hexagonal twin prism. 3. Hexagonal plate. 2. Hexagonal prism (needle like). 4. The others. The growth of the ice crystals in the air is skeleton type. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 The mean value of the mass of a Particle of the ice crystals in the air is 0.14 x 10-6 gr. The axial ratio of hexagonal twin prism type is 1.60. On Skeleton- Shaped Depth Hoar by Kyoji 1t6 (Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo) The .author observed many particles of depth hoar. The fundamental form of the depth hoar is hexagonal skeleton twin prism. We observe occasionally the hexa- gonal skeletal single crystal, that is like cup crystal. On the Annual and Meridional Variation of the Atmospheric Ozone Y. Myake and K. Saruhashi (Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo). The mass distribution of atmospheric ozone on the earth was calculated assuming that distributions of ozone on the northern and southern hemispheres are appro- ximately the same only with a half year difference of phase. Results showed that the total mass of ozone is always constant. On the other hand, calculated amount of ozone by Our previoustheory decreases rapidly with increasing aaa_z. There- fore, meridional distribution of photochemically formed ozone and that observed are quite different, but the total mass is equal to the latter and it becomes also constant on the whole earth. We considered that initial distributions are decided photochemically and actual distributions are formed secondly by pole - ward transports of ozone in. the stratosphere The speed and direction of the transport and their seasonal variations were estimated by which the annual and 'meridional variation of ozone could be explained reasonably. An Approach to the Problem of EVaporation from a,Limited Area by D.R. Davies University of Sheffield A mathematical model of atmospheric turbulence, which allows for the transfer of smoke and vapour in both the vertical and lateral directions, is formulated briefly in terms of coefficients of diffusivity. An empirical method of deri- ving a lntern1 diffusivity power law is discussed; for vertical transfer the - power law used successfully in two dimensional work is adopted. By solving the ensuing diffusion equatin subject to conditions appropriate on a saturated evaporating area, such as a free liquid surface, the effect of limited width of area on rate of evaporation and on vapour distribution over the area may be evaluated. The theoretical results which have been obtained are discussed brief- ly in this paper; they are compared, in particular cases, with experimental results. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -10- Experiences de Modification des Nuages dans les Pyrenees par Henri Dessens Directeur de l'Observatoire du Puy de Dome, Clermont-Ferrand Une etude prdliminaire de la mdtdorologie d'dtd de la rdgion pyrdndenne a dtd effectude en 1949 et 1950 par H. Dessens et E.N. Fournier d'Albe. L'origine (noeuds hydrographiques), les niveaux (150C 512000 m.) et la marche (SW A NE en altitude) des nuages orageux ont 6t4 ddterminds par pnotogrammdtrie. Les expdriences de 1951 sont de deux types: 1? Des ins4m1nat1ons locales par noyaux hygroscopiques secs; ces particules sont apportdes et dispersdes dans is nuage au moyen de fuses lances de postes rdpartis, entre 2000 et 3000 in. ?d'altitude, le long de la moitid occidentale de la chains. 2? Dans d'autres circonstances, le courant has d'ENE des plaines subpyr4n4- ennes, les vents de valldes ascendants et is courant supdrieur d'WSW sont mis h profit pour insdminer prdventivement toute la region en noyaux ldgers d'iodure d'argent au moyen de brilleurs au sol. Analyse de quelques rdsultats. A Periodic Heat Transfer Analysis for an Atmosphere in which the EZUty Diffusivity Varies Sinusoidally with Time and Linearly with Height by H.F. Poppendiek (University of California, Los Angeles) This paper concerns itself with a mathematical study of periodic convectiveheat transfer in the lower layers of the atmosphere. A temperature solution is deve- loped for an ideal atmospheric system in which the boundary temperature varies sinusoidally with time and the eddy diffusivity (or eddy conductivity) varies linearly with height and sinusoidally with time. The Temperature of the Ozonosphere if the Main Absorption is from 4000 Degree Sun by E.H. Gowan The fundamental assumption used in previous papers (1928, 1930, 1947) is retai- ned, viz, that to a first approximation a radiation eaull'brium in the layers of the atmosphere from 10 to 55 kilometers is attained shout mid-day. New calculations have been completed using a normal amount and distribution of ozone, but using an effective solar curve for 4000?K at X3500 and shorter. These have been done for both winter and summer conditions at Latitude 50? and 65?. The results in each case give temperatures from 320 to 350 degrees K for the highest layer in which ozone has been measured, viz. 50 to 55 km. Thfte are wide variations of dT/dh below this. Atmospheric Ozone Measurement at Edmonton, Canada by E.H. Gowan A. Some progress has been made in modification of the old photographic type of Ozone Spectrophotometer to use multiplier photocells. A direct current reading system has been used for direct sunlight with clear sky. Complete calibration Is not yet available, but the observations can be taken in about 3 minutes with Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -11- practice. Further improvements are planned. B. A new type Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer #18, has been in limited use at Edmonton since October 1950. Some observations are available using full sunlight through a window, and a few with the instrument taken outside in the usual way. Further calibrationand observationare being carried out during the summer of 1951. The Vertical Distribution of Ozone to 70 KM R. Tousey, K. Watanabe, J.D. Purcell and F.S. Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington 25, D.C. The vertical distribution of ozone in the earth's atmosphere was determined from ultraviolet spectra of sunlight photographed on three rocket flights above New Mexico, U.S.A. The spectra extended from 3400A to a lower limit between 2100 and 2800A, depending on altitude and exposure conditions. The ozone was determined by comparing by means of photographic photometry each spectrum in its entirety with the average spectrum above all detectable ozone. The most complete data were obtained on June 14, 1949 when two spectrographs in one rocket were flown at sunset with a solar elevation of one degree. The ozone over the slant path was measured to an altitude of 70 km, and the vertical distribution was calcula- ted from these data. The maximum concentration was 0.11 mm/km at 26 km. Above the maximum the concentration decreased approximately exponentially with alti- tude and reached 2x 10-5 mm/km at 70 km. The data agree with a theoretical calculation in whichthe reaction 0 0 1 M--.02 11 was taken into account. The Intensity of Sunlight from 2000 to 3400A R. TouseY, F.S. Johnson, J.D. Purcell and K. Watanabe U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington 25, D.C. The solar intensity distribution to 2000A was determined from spectra photogra- phed from rockets at altitudes above the ozone layer. The spectrograph and film were calibrated and standardized with a carbon arc crater source and the results 1 depend on data on the carbon arc published by Mac Pherson. The flight of June 14, 1949 gave the best data. The intensity at 3300A was 9 watts-meter-2(100A)l in agreement with the data of Pettit2 and Stair3. Relative spectral curves mea- sured by Reiner4, by Hess5, and by ()Utz and Schtinmanne, if fitted to the Smith- sonian curve at 4700A, fall well below Pettit's curve in the ultraviolet and in none of our flights was a departure of this magnitude observed. The spectrum between 3000 and 2000A is very irregular. The average intensity at 3000A was appropriate to a 5500?K blackbody sun and from 2600 to 2200A was 5000?K. It is unlikely, however, that the solar continuum was observed because of intense Fraunhofer absorption. Below 2200A the data were less accurate but show that the intensity was below s 5000?K blackbody at 2000A. References: 1 B.G. Mac Pherson, J. Opt. Soc. An, 30, 189 (1940) ; 2 E. Pettit, Astrophys, Jour. 91, 159, (1941) ; 3 R. Stair, Jour. of Research of the Nat. Bur. of Standards 42, 145, (1949), 43, 209 (1950) ; 4 H. Reiner, Gerlands Beits. Geophys. 550 234 (1939) ; 5 P. Hess, Inaug.-Diss. Frankfurt a.m. (1938) ; Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. -12- 6 7 F.W.P. Gotz and E. Schonmann, Hely. Phys. Acta 21, 151, (1948) ; C.G. Abbot, F.E. Fowle and L.B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Miscel. Coll. Vol. 74, N? 7, 1923. Ice Nuclei for Rain Formation by Dr. A.W. Brewer (Oxford) The Present state of Imowledge regarding the supply of ice nuclei for precipi- tation processes will be discussed. be Sondage Horizontal et le Diagramme Synoptinue Spacio-Temporel par Dr. Jansh, Palma de Mallorca. On fait ressortir le gros avantage que comporte l'usage dun diagramme avec une coordonnde de temps en plus des coordonndes ordinaires de l'espace. Mais comme le diagramme oui en rdsulte est a quatre dimensions, nous dcartons la coordonnde yerticale de l'espace et nous la rempla9ons par cello du temps. Les configura- tions isobariques au sol (cyclones, anticyclones, etc.), deviennent, alors, des figures tridimensionnelles: leurs coupes horizontales redonnent les cartes sy- noptiques ordinaires; leurs coupes yerticales lindaires reprdsentent l'dyolution du temps atmosphdrioue sur place, et leurs coupes rectilignes obliques l'explo- ration h. longue portde par aylon. On peut amdllorer la prdvislon en faisantusa- ge de coupes yerticales, (c'est-h-dire passant Par l'axe des temps) sur lesquel- les les perturbations sont reprdsentdes oar des courbes facilement prolongeables. Quelques Applications du Nombre de ['hal dans quelques Formules de Dynaminue Atmospherique par Dr. Jansa, ?alma de Mallcrca. Bien que la vitesse de l'al- r'ane touq les ph4norOnes mdtdorologlques demeure trks loin de la vitesse du son, il y a avantage A introduire le nombre de Mach dans quelques formules de Dynamique atmosphdrique, telles que l'dquation de Ber- nouilli et d'autres. En outre le nombre de Mach ddtermine des rayons critiques dans les schdmas thdoriques des champs cindmatiques lindaires bidimensionels (source, tourbillon -et champ de ddformation). Enfin, on attire l'attention sur les effets mdtdorologiques des ondes he choc artificielles, et sur leurs appli- cations possibles au contr5le du temps. La Dynaminue Apparente de la Maeorologie Synoptique par Dr. Jansa, Palma de Mallorca. La reprdsentation cartographique introduit des ddformations dans l'allure du mouvement, he telle sorte que le point-image ne suit pas les lois he la Dynami- cue. On pout rdtablir la validitd he ces lois en introduisant des forces ficti- ves conyenables, reprdsentatives he la ddviation par rapport aux lois de l'iner? tie. Dans ce travail on passe en revile successiyement la ddformation apportde par la reprdsentation conforme (transformation plane), par la projection stdr4o- graph1que et cello de Mercator (transformations conformes de la sphbre sur un plan), et du systeme conique scant (reprdsentation non conforme). On calcule Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 la dilatation dilatation et l'angle de tournure pour chaque point, et, dans le cas de la Projection conique, le tenseur de deformation. On calcule aussi, un terme sup- plementaire? qui apparatt dans toutes les formules, et que nous appelOns tome d,inertie, fonction des parametres geometriques de la transformation. La M4thode d'Amortissement Applique a la M4t4orologie par Dr. Jansa, Palma de Mallorca . Nous proposons d'appeler valour amortie d'un element meteorologique la moyenne ponderee de toutes les valeurs de cet element multiplides par un coefficient de la forme e , dont t est leur date. La Mdteorologie amortie (fictive) qui en resulte pout 6tre soumise aux methodes de la Meteorologie synoptique, et obit peu pres aux me'me lois que cello-ci, quo ique bien plus lente dans leur deve- loppement. Elle devient la Meteorologie veritable pour 3=0 . Elle a des appli- cations immediates aussi bien k la prevision a longue echeance, en faisant usa- ge des elements amortis propres, qugh courte echdance, au moyen des differences entre les valeurs amorties et les effectives, ce qui permet d'isoler la pertur- bation. On propose aussi une troisieme application, come methode de recherche synoptique. La Afinidad en Procesos Termodinamecos de Interes Meteorologico par Dr. M. Azpiroz, San Sebastikn. Par la generalisation du concept de phase dans un systeme thermodynamique, on calcule la valour de l'affinite quand on evapore de l'eau dans le coin d'une at- mosphere humide a une temperature differente de cello du liquide. En consequen- ce, il en resulte la condition generale d'equilibre par rapport a l'evaporation. On obtient les equations differentielles d'evolution dans des systemes fermes formes d'air, d'eau et de vapour, definissant b. la fois des nouvelles tempera- tures dquivalentes et oquivalentes potentielles se passant dans les procbssus reels irreversibles. Le precede est indique pour integrer ces equations et cal- culer les temperatures definies. Finalement, on applique les resultats obtenus pour ameliorer l'interpretation claSsique-du fonctionnement du thermometre mouille, calculer le rayon des gouttes dans les brouillards d'evaporation et la chaleur latente d'evaporation irreversible. A Pressurized Shaft for the Study of Artificial Clouds and Precipitation Mechanics by Ross Gunn, Director, Physical Research,U.S.Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. With the object of bringing clouds into the laboratory for study and quantita- tive evaluation, a shaft 200x 2.5 x 2.5 meters has been prepared that permits the cooling of its air by sudden expension. Clouds more than 200 meters deep may be produced under controllable conditions and their behavior determined. The problems of cloud production, control and stability in the laboratory will be discussed. Basic new methods for measuring the evaporation and growth of droplets falling freely down the shaft willbe described and actual records shown. (Illustrated). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 -14- Gleichzeitige Messungen des Ozongehaltes bodennaher Luft an mehreren Stationen mit einem einfachen, absoluten Verfahren von A. Ehmert Unter BenUtzung der hohen Elektroaffinitgt von freiem Jod wurde em n Gert ent- wickelt, welches einen Ausschlag proportional der Konzentration des freien Jods in der eingesetzten Losung liefert. Damit kUnnen sehr kleine Jod- und Natrium- thiosulfatmengen in verhaltnismgssig grossen LOsungsmengen (Genauigkeit: 1/10 bis 1/1007 Jod in 10 ccm) rasch gemessen werden. Dabei werden ohne Normallosun- gen absolute Werte erhalten. Man kann damit den Ozongehalt von wenigen Litern Luft ranch und genau messen. Neben der Vorflihrung e!_nes solchen Gergtes werden einige Ergebnisse der seit lgngerer Zeit an mehreren Stationen laufend mit sol- chen Gergten durchgeffihrten Messungen gezeigt. The Chronology of Meteorological Phenomena by D. Justin Schove Many anomalous seasons such as the cold winter of 1947, the drought of 1921, the cold summer of 1816 are more or leas international. Peculiar conditions associ- ated with a volcanic eruption in 1783 or a (?) comet in 43 B.C. are likewise world-wide. Polar Aurorae are sometimes seen simultaneously in America and Eu- rope or Europe and Asia. A chronology of such phenomena is being compile from the meteorological annals of different parts of the world such as are being pu- blished by Bois, Britton, Mastrocinque, Rethly, Vanderlinden, Vujevic, etc. Translations into English have been made wherever possible. Further information Is required especially from the Near and Far East. Correlation with features of peculiar tree-rings or varved sediments will then be possible. See: " The Spectrum of Time m etc, Journ. Brit. Astr. Assn., London, 58,178-190and 202-204,1948,June and August 61, 22- 61, 126-128 1950, December 1951, April "Chronology of Natural Phenomena in East and West" ; Transactions of the Sixth International Congress of the History of Science (at Amsterdam 1950), 1951/2. The Preliminary Reduction of Early Barometric and Wind Data by D. Justin Schove At present h-7.ogeneous pressure series have been constructed back to A.D. 1820 or earlier only for Greenwich, Edinburgh and several Norwegian stations. The errors in the early records were so many that even the Dutch observations have not been reduced to modern standards. However, these errors (i.e. index-errors, temperature corrections) were often constant for several years. Each time the instrument was moved or changed, this "constant error" changed also. The dates and magnitudes of such changes can be determined by comparison with the mean of several surrounding records and by a judicious use of wind records. Wind fre- quency tables can be converted approximately into S- and W- vectorcomponents by a simple formula : 10 3 = [10 S + 7(SE+SW)] - [10 N + 7(NW+NE)] Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -15- Maps can be constructed showing wind and pressure deviations of a middle year e.g. 1752 from a three-year mean e.g. 1751-53. Impossible values are eliminated and replaced by interpolations. The date and magnitude of changes in the "cOns- tent errors', are determined. Corrected values are now being used for deviations from decade means (e.g. 1751-60). A series of pressure maps fsbbing'construuted' for the period A.D. 1720-1950. Early barometric and wind records are needed from all parts of the world. MAPS A new Radiosonde A. Hauer, J.L. Leistra, R.J. Ritsma, H.V. Suchtelen, M. van Tol,H.J.A. Vesseur. By the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute at De Silt and "N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabriekenu at Eindhoven in close cooperation, a radiosonde was deve- loped.- The new sonde contains almost no mechanically moving parts; this was reached by transmitting, the indications of pressure, temperature and humidity simultanously, this makes switching in the sonde superfluous. The thermometer is a small N.T.C.-resistance (aceramic resistance with negative temperature coefficient). It is placed outside the sonde without any screening. For the barometer a hypsometer filled with methylchloride is used. The boiling point is measured by a N.T.C.-resistance; exact dimensioning of the insulation of the boilingglass makes that at all possible ascent-velocities and lapse ra- tes, the liquid remains boiling, without too strong vapourising. The hygrometer is a strip of goldbeaterskin which tunes a condensator (trimmer type). Each measuring element is part of the network of a separate RC-oscilla- tor, in the construction of which special care has been taken for a small depen- dency on variations of temperature and tension. A FM-transmitter with a frequency of 27 kc/sec is modulated by the frequencies of the tree oscillators which are laying in different regions. After reception the three signals are separated by filters. tWber dieiBeziehungen des bodennahen Ozon zu atmosphEri schen Vorgangen von H. Ungeheuer Der Deutsche Wetterdienst in der US-Zone hat an seiner BiokUMAtISCheft Forschungs? stelle Bad T81z seit 1949 laufend in halbstdndigem Abstand Messungen des boden- nahen Ozon mit dem Gert von Curry-Dirnagl durchfUhren lessen. Diese Relativ- werte merden neuerdings mit einer nach der Ehmertischen Methode geeichten Skala aur Absolutwerte umgerechnet. Es ergab sich, dass die Versorgung der bodennahen Luft mit Ozon ausschliesslich ant' solche Wettervorggnge zurdckgefdhrt werden kann, welche einen vertikalen Austausch mit der ozonfUhrenden Schicht oberhalb der Grundschicht herstellen. Diese sind: a) thermischer Austausch (Konvektion); turbulenter Austausch (Turbulenz); c) Fdhn (zyklonal und antizyklonal); d) Bergwind. Die Reduktion des Ozons in Bodennghe geht rasch vor slob. Es erscheint kaummoglich,aus bodennahen. OzonmessungenaufdieOzonkonzentration oberlaalb der Grundschichtzu schliessen,jedonsinddie boderinahert Ozonwerte em Indicator far,die sonstnur schwermessbarenkomplexenAustauschvorggnge. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 -16- The Determination of the Radiation Balance of the Earth by H. ?':orikofer, Davos (Switzerland) According to the programme which has been drawn by the Radiation Commission and aPProvedtY the I.M.A. at their meetings in Oslo, 1946, the problem of the expe- rimental determination of the radiation balance of the earth has been studied thoroughly Pt the Observatory of Davos by two research fellows, P. Courvoisier and H. Wierzelewski. First of all the exact physical theory of all radiation and heat currents which affect the results of a radiation balance meter, has been developed by means of thermal resistances and equivalent circuits. It yielded (1) an exact formula for the connection between radiation balance and Instrument readings, (4;) means to co-moute the dependance of the latter of wind-velocity in agreement bet ween theory and wind channel experiments, (-3) formulas for the effect of air temperature changes. From an these investigatil ts results that the hi- therto described instruments are too simplified to give exact values of the actual radiation balance. A new model with a well de-fined ventilation of the receiving surfaces and with further improvements has been developed; it can be used also as an effective pyranometer. Development, Thickness Patterns and the Equivalent Barotropic Atmosphere by IC. McVittie Equations of motion, continuity, vorticity and heat-transfer transformed from coordinates (x,y,z) to coordinates (x,y,p; without use of hydrostatic eqUation in the vertical. Introduction of approximation based on empirical fact that the isobaric surfaces are slightly inclined to the vertical. Deduction of the hy- drostatic relation and simplification of the fundamental equations by means of this anproximation combined with the use of dimentioless variables. Definitions of certain types of geostroonic and non-geostrophic motions presumed to occur in the atmosphere. Different definitions lead to (a) C.-G. Rossby's potential vorticity equation; (b) the development and thickness-patterns theory of R.C. Sutcliffe; (c)J.G. Cnarney's treatment of the equivalent barotroplc atmosphere. Physical interpretation of the underlying definitions in the three cases. Drift Currents in an Enclosed Ocean Part 11 by Koji Hidaka, Tokyo, Geophysical Institute, Tokyo University, Tokyo. A theory of Wind-driven oceanic circulation in an enclosed ocean is given, ta- kingtle meridional variation of the Coriolis forces and the lateral mixing into account. The ocean is supposed to extend from 60?S to 60?N and from 110*q to 160?W, being approximately equal in -size to the Pacific Ocean. The meridional variation of wind system derived from the practical observations over the ocean has been furnished by Walter H. N'unTr. The problem has been solved on a rotating globe.Tbe coefficient of lateral mixing is taken equal to about 3 x 107c.g.s. as sucasted by Mun'T. Pnd Henry 3tommel. The circulation pattern is given by the mace transport stream lines and the result is very similar to hunk's. The two Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 `Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -17- pattern have been given, one for a zonal and another for an anticyclonic wind distribution. The mass transport of the Kuroshio is found to be about 80x 1012 g/s for a zonal wind system and about 44x 1012 g/s for an anticyclonic wind system. The mass transport of the Kuroshio derived from the observations is, according to H.U. Sverdrup, 65x 1012 g/s and falls between the two limits. Circulation in a Zonal Ocean induced by a Planetary Wind System by Koi Hidaka, Geophysical Institute, Tokyo University, Tokyo The movement of water in a zonal ocean bounded by two latitude circles on a ro- tating globe is treated on the assumption that it is induced by the superincum- bent planetary wind belts. Of course, such an ocean will not exist on the Earth, but it will not be impossible for us to find out some parts of the oceans actu- ally existing on the Earth, in which above condition can be regarded approxima- tely fulfilled. The current chertrl of One 6cePrp teach us that the part of the Pacific Ocean around the date mertd1pn hen the characteristics of such a zonal ocean to some extent. In the present research, relations are obtained between the wind stresses, mass transport and pressure distribution in such an ocean. The effect of lateral mixing process was considered and its coefficient was es- timated to be about 109 c.g.s. Oberwachung des Wasserhaushaltes des Bodens (lurch den Deutschen Wetterdienst in der US? Zone von Dr. Fritz Schnelle Zentralamt des Deutschen Wetterdienstes in der US-Zone - Bad Kiss ingen - Die Meteorologie kann sicn in Zukunft nicht nur mit der Feststellung der reinen Niederschlagsmenge begnagen, sie muss auch weiter verfolgen, was aus dem Nieder- schlag wird, wenn er den Boden erreicht hat. Es muss laufend festgestelltwerden, wie der .Niederschlag in den Boden eindringt und dort gespeichert wird, wie er in den Untergrund absickert und wie er zum Tell auch nach oben verdunstet. Der Deutsche Wetterdienst in der US-Zone hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht, den Verbleib des Regenwassers in Boden laufend zu verfolgen. Er aberwacht den Was- servorrat des Bodens in einem Nets von mehreren Beobachtungsstationen, die in verschiedenen Klimagebieten liegen. An diesen Stellen, Bei denen es sich voral- lem um die Agrarmeteorologischen Forschungsstellen handelt, werden regelmassig 'Bestimmungen der Bodenfeuchtigkeit bis zu im Tiefe in Stufen von 10 zu 10 cm durchgefahrt. Zweimal in der Woche erfolgt gleichzeitig an allen Beobachtungs- stellen die Probeentnahme auf unbewachsenem Boden, so dass damit der Wasservor- rat in allen Bodenschichten laufend Uberwacht wird. Zum Vergleich werden ent- sprechende Untersuchungen in Boden auch unter verschiedenen Kulturpflanzen durchgefahrt. tinter Benutzung ausgestochener Bodenzylinder von bekanntem Rauminhalt werden such die Volumenprozente errechnet,,Es wird also festgestellt,welche Wassermenge Om mm) t.atsNchlich ineiner Bodenschicht von .bestimmter Dicke enthalten 1st. In das Ausmass der Bodenverdunstung gewinnt man einen Einblick durch die Verwen- dung von Lysimetern. Alle Beobachtungsstationen, die der Uberwachung des Wassm? haushalts in Boden dienen, sind mit Klelnlys1metern nach Popoff ausgergstet,dle Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -18- an der Agrarmeteorologischen Forschungsstelle Giessen erprobt und verbessert wurden. Mit diesen Kleinlysimetern, die aus Blechzylindern von 25 cm line be- steften, werden die tgglichen Anderungen des Wassergehalts der ausgestochenen Bodenschicht durch die Bestimmung der Gewichtsunterschiede ermittelt. Bei dem elmen dieser P000ff'schen Gergte let der Blechzylinder unten verschlossen (Lysi- meter), so dass das durchsickernde Bodenwasser aufgefangem wird. Per andere Blechzylinder (Evaporimeter) 1st unten nicht verscblossen, sondern der darin enthaltene Boden let nun durch em n dfinnes Sieb von dem Untergrund getrennt, so dass das im Zulinder enthaltene Bodenwasser mit dem. Watser in Untergrund unge- hindert in Verbindung steht und le nach oben verdunstet. Bei dieser Methode 1st also rile MOglichkeit gegeben, die lurch Verdunstung bewirkte Vergnderung des Wasservorrats im gewachsenen Boden laufend zu verfolgen. Es kOnnen danit zwar keine Absolutwerte der tatsgchlichen Verdungstung der betreffenden BOden erhal, ten werden, ater nach den an den Lysimetern amgebrachten Verbesserungen kommt man den wirklichen Verhgltnissen schon sehr nahe, Vor ellen gewinnt man dmrch Vergleich der einzelnen Stationen einen Einblick in den zeitlichen Verlauf der Bodenverdunstung in verschiedenen Klimagebieten. Ein Vbrzug der Kleinlysimeter llegt darin, dass sie den Baden in natiltlicher Lagerung enthalten. Mit einer .Grosslysimeteranlage, die sichan der Agrarmeteorologischen Forschungs- stelle in Giessen befindet, werden laufend die Sickerwassermengen verschiedener BOden festgestellt. Piece Messergebnisse gewghren einen Einblick in das ver- schiedene Verhaaten einzelner Bodsnarten bei der Wasserabgabe an den Untergrund. An der Verbesserung dieser verschledenen Methode wird laufend gearbeitet,um den tatsgchlichen Verhgltnissen ire unberiihrten Baden moglichst nahe zu kommen. fiber diese verschiedenen Probleme des Wasserhaushalts des Bodens - Wasservorrat in Boden, Verdunstung, Versickerung - liegen bereits mehrlghrige, in einigen Klimagebieten Mittel- und SOddeutschlands gewonnene-Erbebnisse vor, die der Me- teorologie, besonders der Agrarmeteorologie, der WasserwirtsChaft sowie der Land- und Forstwirtschaft cur Beantwortung verschiedener Fragen dienen. Studies on Trade?Wind Circulation and Equatorial Westerlies by H. Flohn ( Bad Kissungen ) Climatological investigations of upper winds in regions of undisturbed trades led to the result, that the the ground layer is blowing above 1- 3kms, i.e. above the Heiaht in kms Swan Island mean meridional component towards the meteorological trade-wind inversion, 0 1 2 2. 17,4?N NSSS of wind on surface and, on equator, but at levels in an opposite direction. Marshall-Islands 8-11?N N N ? S ...NE Trades "Meteor" 5-20?N NNSS Belem 1.5? S N N S . Galapagos 0,5?S SSNN ...Equatorial Region "Meteor" 5?N-5?S WIN Fernando Noronha 3.8? S S S S N "Meteor" 5-20?S ...SE Trades SS N N . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -19- Meridional Component of Resultant Wind in the Tropics by H. Finn This meridional circulation-in a statistical sence - seems to be symmetrical to the intertropic convergence zone (ITC). The reversal of meridional components at the 1-3km level has nothing to do with the reversal of zonal components, which in equatorial regions occurs at nearly 10 kms. The so-called antitrade above the tropical easterlies can be considered as (quasigeostrophic) part of the extra- tropical westerlies. The magnitude of the (ageostrophic) meridional circulation across the isobars, caused by friction, averages 1-2 m/sec, while the zonal (geostrophic) velocity varies between 5 and 10 m/sec. If we examine the vertical wind shear from surface layer to 1-2 kms above the tropical Atlantic, in dependence of latitude, we find a shifting below 50 Lat. The amount of vertical shifting increases with decreasing latitudes until its maximum at the equator. From these observations we can derive in the equatorial zone below 50 Lat the existence of antitrlptic winds near the surface,of Euler winds in upper levels. Disregarding toe friction layer, the geostrophic relations can be considered as approximatively valid poleward 100 Lat. Inside the tropical easterlies ("Urpassat") we observe a relatively shallbw zone of equatorial westerlies, if the ITC splits into two branches, and if one of the- se branches is situated far enough - assumably more than 10 degrees of latitude - from the mathematical equator. When investigating the observations of more than 150 pilot stations in tropical latitudes the following results will be obtained: 1) Equatorial westerlies are observed, both in summer and winter, in a zOne from the western coast of Africa across the whole Indian Ocean and the Indo-Australian Archipel up to the western Pacific (30?W-180?E); on the surface we find also predominant westerly winds along the western coast of equatorial South America (75-90?W). In the remaining parts of the equatorial zone easterly winds seem to be predominant, but occasionally westerly winds are occurring, accompanied by large weather disturbances. 2) The mean vertical extension of westerlies varies from less than 1 km at some places in West Africa to 6-7 kms in Southern India during summer. 3) The horizontal ettension varies from 12 to 30-35 degrees latitude, the grea- test part being situated on the actual summer hemisphere. 4) The zone of equatorial westerlies extends, in all seasons, on both sides of the equator (Meinardus 1893); therefore the explanation by a trade overrunning the equator and deflected by the Coriolis force must be wrong. 5) The so-called monsoons of tropical latitudes are derived from the seasonal travelling and/or expending of equatorial westerlies and tropical easterlies. Both "monsoon rains" and "zenithal rains" of the tropics are caused by disturbances on the travelling branches of ITC. The interpretation of these facts, together with the observed horizontal de- crease of temperature towards the ITC, just above the trade-wind inversion, leads to the conclusion that the equatorial westerlies form a quasigeostrophic air current, the extension on both side of the equator being unexplained as yet. A more complete paper with references will appear soon in "Archly fur Meteoro- logle, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie"; cf. also H. Flohn, Ber. Dt. Wetterdienst US-Zone 18 (1950), and Erdkunde 4 (1950), 141-162. (H. Flohn - Bad Kissingen- ) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -20- Resultats provisoires dune methode d'analyse en altitude utilise en France par R. Pone La methode consiste a porter sur des cartes une figuration des sondages sur des diagrammes redults ayant pour coordonnees la pression et in temperature pseudo- adiabatique potentielle du thermometre mouille. Pratiquee quotidiennement depuis plus de six ans avec de legeres modifications, elle a donne des resultats interessants,en particulier sur les points suivants: - Structure des perturbations. Il est apparu que, pour tenir compte des rensei- gnements fournis par les sondages 11 fallait envisager des structures de per- turbations plus complexes. On dolt, entre autres, multiplier le nombre des mas- ses d'air entrant en jeu, faire intervenir des secteurs chauds emboitds, faire appel plus frequemment aux processus de secluSion etc. Cette complexitd, une fob s mise en evidence our les sondages peut etre retrouvee et son evolution suivie our les cartes synoptiques habituelles. - Circulation et evolution des masses d'air relativement aux centres d'action. On a constatd que les masses d'air revelees par l'examen synoptique des sonda- ges se groupent en types,facilement identifiables. Ces types de masses d.air se situent d'une manibre bien definie par rapport aux centres d'actions; leur cir- culation et leur evolution autour de coo centres s'explique simplement. - Relations entre les masses d'air dela troposphere et de la basse stratosphere. Les essais de trace detailld des cartes de tropopause et de coupes verticales haute altitude, compares aux cartes portant les sondages semblent montrer que, au moms dans certains can, la tropopause fait suite directement aux limites de masses d,air tropospheriques Il semble egalement que certaines masses d'air se trouvent en partie tropospheriques, en partie stratosphdriques sans que le pas- sage de l'une a l'autre de ces parties se marque par une discontinuite. Evolution des gouttes d'eau par M. Kivellovitch et J. Roulleau Etablissement d'Etudes et de Recherches Metdorologiques- Paris Ce travail a pour but d'etablir de facon aussi rigoureuse que possible les equa- tions de la thermodynamique des gouttes d'eau dans l'atmosphere. Les conditions d'utilisation des equations de diffusion (materielle et thermique) a l'etat d'equilibre sont tout d'abord precisees; on montre que l'etablissement du regime permanent est extrgmement rapide. On fait par ailleurs ressortir que le coefficient de diffusion moleculaire ne peut gtre employe que si Pon consi- dere in goutte comme entouree d'une couche limite. Il est alors possible dtetablirunbilan thermique de la goutte d'eau en tenant compte de la chaleurlatente d'evaporation et des dchanges par conduction. Ce bilan se traduit Par une equation differentielle du second brdre reliant le rayon de la goutte a sa dureed'evolution. L'integration de cette equation (nonlindaire) est effectuee. On obtient une relation f(s,t) qui coIncide avec cello qu'a donne Houghton pour in Pius grande partie de la duree de vie de la goutte. Main Houghton assimilait empiriquement la temperature de la goutte a celle du thermometre mouille: cette difficultd disparait, la temperature de in goutte pouvant -etre calculee. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -21- L?introduction de la couche limite conduit d'autre part a modifier le coeffi- cient num4rique de la formule d'Houghton. Les exp6riences de Dady montrent que cette modification siaccorde convenablement avec le r4sultat des observations. The cellulare structure of general circulation by R. Scherhag (Berlin) After the world aerological network has achieved the desirable degree of density and atmospheric occurences over the inner artic regions are being controlled by regular American weather reconnaissance flights, it has been shown that general circulation in the upper layers of the atmosphere posses a distinct cellular structure. The pronounced and more or less circularly shaped cold centers ori- ginate from adiabatic upward movements within artic cyclones. They persist for periods between several weeks and even several months, proceeding with the strongest stream within their area. The splitting-off during the winter into two seperate centers over the Canadian archipelago north of the Hudson-Bay and over northeastern Siberia north of Werchojansk as shown by the mean 500 nib maps is explained through the pattern of surface isothermes as governed by the dis- tribution of sea and land areasr, Radar Observations of Rain and Mechanism of Rain Formation by E. G. Bowen (Australia) The radar echoes obtained from rain may be divided into two broad classes, one of which shows a band of high echo intensity just below freezing level,the other a column structure. These echoes have been examined using both ground and airbor- ne radar and by making aircraft flights through t gest that the two types of radar echo correspond rain formation. The band of high echo intensity occurs when rain hem. The results obtained sug- to two distinct mechanisms of forms by the Bergeron process. Flight observations confirm that the band is due to the melting of ice particles as they fall past the 0? isotherm. Foi' this reason it is suggested that it should in future be called the "melting band". In addition, other radar bands have been observed to form at heights in the atmosphere where the temperature is in the vi- cinity of -16? Centigrade. The properties of these bands are such that they are probably due to the sudden appearance of ice crystals at that level. From a com- parison with the results of laboratory experiments it is concluded that the ap- pearance of the bands is due to the spontaneous freezing of relatively large droplets in the cloud. The column type echoes appear in convective clouds which might be entirely war- mer than 9? C. or which might extend some thousands of feet above freezing level. Flight. observations of conditions within these clouds show that ice and'snow par- ticles are not involved and the precipitation consists entirely of water drops. The characteristics of the precipitation are consistent with it having formed by the coalescence process. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 -22- Climatic Change in Australia, 1880 - 1940 by E. L. Deacon Section of Meteorological Physics, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation An appreciable climatic trend in recent years over much of the northern hemi- sphere has been demonstrated (Ahlmann 1948 has reviewed much of the evidence) and it appears that the transport of heat into high latitudes by the general circulation has increased during the last 40 or 50 years. To supplement the ra- ther meagre evidence of simultaneous changes in the southern hemisphere, an examination of some Australian data has been made. The search was started with the guiding idea that a change in the general cir- culation in this region would probably show up most strongly in the summer sta- tistics as there is at this season a very strong temperature contrast between central Australia and the Southern Ocean. A change in advective influences would be expected to affect inland summer temperatures. For this purpose mean monthly temperatures, which are averages of the mean monthly maxima and minima, are not very suitable, as factors such as wind strength, cloud and raifall (wetness of ground) often affect maximum temperatures inversely to minima. Maximum tempe- ratures have been taken to be more reliable than minima as the latter are very variable from point to Point, especially in a region where clear skies and light winds are frequent. Moving 10-year averages of mean summer (Dec., Jan., Feb.) maximum temperature of some typical Australian inland stations are shown in Fig. 1. There are some differences in character between the graphs but all shawa.marked falling trend over much of the period with a levelling off or reversal in the last 10 orl5years This suggested the coparison of mean values for the two thirty-year:periods 1881-1910 and 1911-1940, a choice which also seemed appropriate in the light of the northern hemisphere trends. Listed below are the inland localities in central, south and south east Australia which have sufficiently long and com- plete records, together with the difference in 30-year average mean summer maximum temperature, between 1881-1910 (called Tl ) and 1911-1940 (T2 ) (TI-T2)? F (E1- %)? F Alice 3prings (23,98;133.9E) 2.3 - Hay (34.58;144.9E) 3,1 Walgett (30.08;148.2E) 2.6 - Goulburn (34.88;149.7E) 05 Bourke (30.18;145.1E) 2.4 - Albury (36.13;146.9E) 0,8 Narrabri (30.38;149.8E) 3.0 - Echuca (36.23;144.7E) 1.6 Coonabarabran (31.38;149.3E) 2.9 Cooma (36.28;149.1E) 4.7 Dubbo (32.38;148.6E) 2.3 - Bendigo (36,88;1443E) 3.6 Bathurst (33.48;149 6E) 2.1 - Omeo (37,18;147.5E) 2,7 The magnitude and consistency of the change suggests the cause to be rather than changing observational technique or exposure. Rainfall data were examined for evidence supporting the apparent temperature trend and in Fig. 2 the percentage increase of 30-year mean summer rainfall for. 1911-40 Over that for 1881- 1910 is shown for south and south-east Australia climatic * Very few records back to 1880 are available for other parts of the continent, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 23- This shows some remarkable increases in summer rainfall in the second period with the greatest values on western slopes of high land in S. Australia and Vic- toria, The whole pattern is suggestive of a northerly shift of the mean position of the northerly margin of the westerlies between the two periods. This appears to apply only to the summer position of the westerlies as winter rainfall data mainly show little change in the 30-year means. Perhaps there is some signifi- cance in the fact that simultaneous seasons in the Vio hemispheres exhibit the most marked climatic trends, a result possibly due to the very unequal distri- bution of land between the hemispheres. Reference: Ahlmann, H.W. 1949. Geogr. J. 62, 165 SLIDES A Survey of the Stress between the Ocean and Atmosphere by C.H.B. Priestley Based on the formula -r=k p V2 between stress and.surface wind, a survey has been made of the mean distribution of stress between ocean and atmosphere, sea- son by season and latitude by latitude from 55?N to 55?S. The work has involved the analysis of some 4000 wind frequency roses, each rose applying to a 50 la- titude-longitude region in one of the four months January, April,July,October. The mean value of the eastward component of stress on the atmosphere was eva- luated from each rose, and the components then averaged over all longitudes for a given latitude and season. The constant value of K employed was 0.0013, the mean of all determinations to date, The formula, despite its limitations, is adequate to display the main comparative features of the stress distribution and its variation with latitude, season, and between oceans. The main results are shown in figurel. Sub-means have also been extracted for the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans individually. It is hoped to show these as slides at the Assembly for theit'po6-. sible interest in physical oceanography,- Variations in p have not been allo- wed for as their effect is small compared with the total uncertainties. The total torque T or source of eastward angular momentum to the atmosphere between latitudes Ti and cp2 is T = 27IR3 f t, cos2cpdco ; assuming the ocean torques to be representative, to a first approximation, for the atmosphere as a whole. The latitude scale in figure 1 is proportional to 2T+ sin 2cp, so that areas intercepted between the curve and the ordinate axes are proportional to the total torque. The value of these torques for the prin- cipal zones, separated for definitive purposes by the points of zero mean stress (or minimal stress between the two tropical zones) is given in the table. Zone Jan. April July Oct. Annual Mean TABLE MEAN TORQUE ABOUT EARTH'S AXIS N Temparate -2.6 -1.6 -0.6 -1.2 -1.4 N. Tropical +4.0 +3.5 +1.2 +2.0 +2.5 S. Tropical +3.2 +3.6 +4.1 +3.7 +3.7 S. Temperate -2.8 -3.1 -2.8 -3.2 -3.0 Unit =1026 gm cm2sec-2= 3.15x 1033 C.G.S. units of angular momentum per year. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -24- It is desirable to infer a first approximation to the distribution with latitu- de of angular momentum flux in the atmosphere, so providing a counterpart to the estimates by Simpson and others of the energy flux, To do this an approximate balance between source and sink, not present in the Table, must be struck. Des- pite the neglect of the land-sea differences, it is thought that a main source of error is due to the principle that the effective (statistical) K should be greater over an ocean where the wird is more variable in space and time than over one where it is relatively steady and uniform; for not only should the in- crease of roughness with increasing wind be allowed for, particularly the sudden increase at about 7 m/sec, but so also should the greater degree of adaptation of the wave form and surface current to a uniform and steady than to a variable wind, - Since the magnitude of this effect is not at present known, the semi-empirical adjustment made has been to increase all stresses in the temperate zone by 40 per cent, yielding exact balance for the year. This would include the proper, approximately 10 per .cent, adjustment for the variation of mean p with latitude. The flux distribution for the year, and for January and July, was then found by accumulating the totals algebraically. For October and April additional allo- wance was made for the changes in mean angular momentum occurring during those months, these being obtained from mean surface pressure charts and vertical cross-sections. The flux distributions are shown in figure 2. The seasonal fi- gures are in error towards the extremes due to the unbalanced residual source or sink and neglect of the polar caps, but these uncertainties are not large enough.to affect the main comparative features of the distributions. Reviewing the whole computation, the main absolute flux values are thought to be if any- thing underestimated, but not by more than 50 per cent of the values shown in figure 2. - It is hoped to give some discussion of the more striking features of the re- sults here Presented. SLIDES The measurement of the vertical transfer of beat, water vapour and momentum by eddies in the lower atmosphere by W.C. Swinbank (Section of Meteorological Physics, Commonwealth .Scienti- ic and Industrial Research Organization, Australia) The direct method of measuring tne vertical fluxes of properties such as heat in the lower atmosphere derive' from the recoznition of such transfer as being brought about by the comnlel, -ovement of eddies in the turbulent air stream. Provided we can record the detailed structure of the air Passing a point both in respect of the property under study and of the air movement itselftwn can derive from such records the rate of vertical transf2r of the particular property at the point considered.- Thus, if the value of the property is x per unit mass of air, the synchronous values of the vertical component of air velocity and of air density being w and p respectively, then (all values being instantaneous) the instantaneous vertical rate of transfer of the Tuantity is pwx If now we consider a period of time in which n such observations are made, the mean vertical flux is 12: pwx which may be written pwx Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -25- Provided the period chosen is long enough we can in this way derive a represen- tative value for the flux of any quantity. The practical problem, therefore, is to design apparatus capable of providing instantaneous values of the quantities pm and x. The major consideration in such design is the a- bility of the instrument to respond quickly enough to the variation of the par- ticular property it is to measure to ensure that no detail necessary to an ac- curate measurement of the flux is omitted. Now it is probable that the gamut of eddy sizes extends without break down to molecular movement, and any instrument must fail to record detail long before this stage is teached. Though molecular transfer itself is easily shown to be quite insignificant, there appears to be no method of determining a priori that size below which eddies make no substan- tial contribution to the flux. The limiting time response for the apparatus then becomes a matter of trial and error. With these considerations in mind apparatus has been design to provide conti- nuous,records of the fine structure of the temperature, vapour pressure, wind speed, wind inclination and azimuth of the air passing a fixed point. This is described in detail elsewhere (Journal of Meteorology, in the press), and only a brief description is necessary here. The wind structure (in reality momentum structure) as regards speed, inclination and azimuth is measured by a double 0.001 inch diameter platinum hot wire anemometer the temperature structure by means of 0.001 inch copper-constantan thermocouples, and the vapour pressure structure by,means of a composite system of 0.001 inch dry- and wet-bulb ther- mocouples incorporated in an electrical network designed on the psychrometric equation to yield an output linear in vapour pressure (Swinbank, W.C.: Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol.28,N?3, p.86-89,1951). Each of these elements has, for a suddenly applied change in the property it is designed to measure, a 90 per cent response time of less than one second. The output from each circuit is measured with a short period critically damped galvanometer, and all five currents are recorded synchronously on photographic paper carried on a rotating drum. A specimen record is shown in the attached figure. The analysis of such records to provide measures of the fluxes of heat, water vapour and momentum provides some points of interest. These are discilssed in detail elsewhere (loc cit.), but one in particular merits brief mention here. The expression pwx represents the total vertical flux of the property x, and may thus be composed In part of a vertical mass flux (non-horizontality of the mean flow may be due, for example, to sloping ground: it may easily be shown that flow quasi-parallel to ground of slope even too smallto'be measured would yet in- volve avertical mass transfer of properties such as heat sufficient to swamp the eddy flux); the remainder being due to the eddy flux we wish to measure. The two components must be separated, and this is achieved by referring the fluctuations in pw to the mean vertical flux of air mass, which we denote by pw. Thus pw'Y = [pW + (l)W )1] (x0+ x,) where x xo+ x', xo being some convenient stan- dard from which to measure the fluctuations x'. Then the eddy flux of x= (pw xl It is shown (loc.cit.) that this method of analysis (and it should be noted that separation in this way of the eddy flux from the mass flux is essential) yields a value of the flux whose accuracy is at least as good as that of the Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -26- measurement of ,Ow, which is estimated to be better than 5 per cent. In practice the calculation of the flux of any particular property involves the series multiplication of its record with that of (pw ) ', and this is carried out by means of a differential analyser specially designed for the purpose. Measurements of the vertical eddy fluxes of heat, water vapour and momentum ha- ve already been made with satisfactory results, and an intensive programme of investigation has been started. Fluxes of the various quantities are being mea- sured in a variety of synoptic situations. In clear weather they are being sup- plemented with measurements of all other factors involved in the heat balance at the earth's surface, namely, direct and diffuse solar radiation, long wave radiation from the ground and atmosphere, and heat transfer into the ground The synchronous measurement of all factors concerned in the heat balance serves, incidentally, as a check on the accuracy of the measurement of the fluxes of sensible heat and water vapour.- Results already obtained confirm the predic- tion (Priestley, C.H.B. and Swinbank, W.C. Proc. Roy. Soc., Vol. 189,p.543-561, 1947) that the laws of turbulent transfer for heat and for the other properties are different, the transfer coefficient for the former being greater in lapse conditions, and smaller otherwise. The present indications are that momentum transfer is, in turn, effected differently from that of water vapour. Up to the present flux measurements have been restricted to one level, but a duplicate apparatus has now been made to provide synchronous records at two le- vels. From these useful information will be obtained bearing on the variation of the various fluxes witn heizht. 3LIflE3 Sur la condensation de la vapeur d'eau danS l'atmosphere -,)ar L. Dufour (Bruxelles) L'objet de cette communication est de d4duire rationnellement, des principes de la thermodynamique, les fOrmules permettant de traiter les diff4rents problemes que pose 114tude d'une goutte de solution en suspension dans l'atmosphere. Afin de conserver au travail le plus deWndralltd possible, les hypotheses ne sont introduites ou'au fur et a mesure des besoins, ce qui permet de ddterminer le domaine d'applicabilitd des formules utilises dans les applications. Influence et Divergence par J. Bessemoulin1 (14.6t4Orologfe Nationale de France) On appelle difluence d'un courant (difl V), de vitesse V=V(x,y,z,t) la varia- tion relative de la section droite d'un tube de courant, variation mesurde le long d'une ligne de flux. Si n est le vecteur unitaire de la vitesse 1, la difluence est 4gale a la di- vergence du vecteur n. Il existe une relation simple entre div Vet difl V. Sur une carte synoptique, on peut aisdment mesurer ou au moms valuer la diflu- ence hori7ontale et en eldcluire La divergence horizontale. Applications m4t4orologiques. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDF'80-00926A004200010002-4 -27- Ondes atmospherioues associ4es aux discontinuites du tourbillon Application aux ondes planetaires et aux ondes de cyclone Par P. Queney, Universit4 de Paris, France (Cr. Comptes-rendus Ac. Sc. Paris, 1951) Pour un jet-stream simple iddal form 4 de 2 courant" -o-aaux tels que le tourbil- lon vertical absolu alt une valeur uniforme dans chacun d'eux male soit dis- continu sur l'axe, la th4orie des ondes horizontales conduit a. une formule de disperaion Tin4aire at a une longueur d'onde stationnaire?X=47-rU1/A (Ui= vi- tesse he be_sr sur liaxe, A = discontinuit4 he ), d'ot une th4orie des centres d'action. Si lyun les courants est l4form4 par une petite discontinuit4 supp14- mentaire he de signs contraire a la premiere et pas trop 4loign4e d'elle, on a des ondes instables he longueur d'onde voisine he Xo= 4-n-(Ui-U2) / At:, (U2= vi- tesse sur la seconde discontinuit4), dloa une th4orie simple des ondes he cy- clone he toute latitude la discontinuit4 suppl4mentaire serait le rdsultat d'un ralentiSsement local du jet-stream provoqu4 -par des mouvements convectifs he la troposphare. ou he l'Ozonosphare, donc les cyclones seraient ds a une instabi= lit4 thermique conjugu4e a une instabilit4 dynamique du jet-stream. L'acdord avec .1a r4alit4 est satisfaisant pour les cyclones naissants. Analysis of the development and maintenance of squall lines J.C. Freeman, J.l. Bailey, H.R. Byers, University of Chicago Several squall lines are shown to form, move and dissipate in a manner to be ex- pected from the motion and interaction of fluid layers. The least controversial definition of a squall line as a synoptically significant line marking one boun- dary of a region of convective precipitation is used. These squall lines are studied primarily as one-dimenSional phenomena in a time-space plane and it is shown that the squall lines and lines of large gradient of height of the stable layer in this plane are coincident. Two new models of squall lines, related to Tepper's pressure jump, are proposed. On temporary leave of absence from the U.S. Weather Bureau. Application of the statistical theory of turbulence to micrometeorology F.N. Frenkiel Applied Physics Laboratory The Johns Hopkins University - Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.A. Some elements of the statistical theory of turbulence are briefly reviewed and methods of describing the character of a turbulent field are summarized. The statistical theory of turbulent diffusion in a fluid flow in which the in- tensity of turbulence is of the order of magnitude encountered in the atmosphe- re is discussed. Several relations are given for the application to the measu- rement of correlation coefficients, intensity of turbulence and probability distributions of velocities with conventional meteorological anemometers. Va- rious experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence are presented and compared with the theoretical results. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 -28- Reference is made to the connection between the micrometeorological conditions and such problems as radiowave Propagation, air pollution, vaporization, air- plane stability, etc. The need for an extensive and regular program of experi- mental measurements of atmospheric turbulence is emphasized. Some Aspects of the Problem of Numerical Weather Prediction by J. Charney (Princeton) The results of some recent numerical integrations of tile barotropic equations for actual and for idealized initial states are presented. The baroclinic inte- gration problem is discussed and some preliminary computations involving a simplified baroclinic model are described. Les fluctuations saisonnieres de la rotation du Globe terrestre et la circulation atmospherioue enerale par F.M. Van den Dungen, J.F. Cox et J. Van Mieghem (Universitd de Bruxelles) La comparaison des meilleurs garde-temPs et de"1,horloge Terre" a permis de de- celer des fluctuations salsonnibres de la rotation de in Terre. Ces fluctua- tions peuvent e'tre expliqudes par la considdration des dchanges he quantitds de mouvement entre 1,atmosphere et le Globe terrestre. Ii sen suit que l'on peut ddduire des fluctuations he la rotation he la Terre des conclusions intdres- sant la M4t4orologie. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 RAPPORTS NATIONAUX Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 RAPPORTS NAT IONAUX IRELAND Meteorological Service In 1937 the DePartement of Industry and Commerce, Dublin, established the Meteo- rological Service and took over from the British Administration the meteorologi- cal stations in the country. At present the administration is directed from a headquaters office in Dublin at which is also situated the Climatological and Instruments Divisions. The main outstations are the forecasting centres at Du- blin and Shannon Airports and the Observatory at Cahirciveen(Valentia0bservatory). The forecasting centers at Shannon and Dublin Airports provide all the forecasts required at these centers-Shannon Airport being the main terminal for transa- tlantic air routes: Dublin Airport being the centre for short-distance flights. General forecasting for the public etc. is catered for at Dublin Airport. A network of synoptic reporting stations is operated in connection with the fo- recasting sections and certain merchant vessels are now being equiped for the making of meteorological observations at sea. At Valentia Observatory regular observations are made Of terrestrial magnetism. atmospheric nuclei, upper air pressure, temperature and humidity (by radiosonde). upper winds (by means of radar) etc. Full hourly routine of synoptic meteorolo- gical observations is also made. Details of these activities are: 'TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM Absolute observations of Declination. Horizontal Force and Inclination are made weekly. Details are given In the Report to the International Association of Ter- restrial Magnetism and Electricity. RADIO SONDE OBSERVATIONS Measurements of pressure, temperature and humidity in the upper atmosphere are made by means of the Kew pattern Radio Sonde, These Observations were begun in 1943 and have since then been made twice daily. The computation of the data which is based on the Vlistilg Aerological Diagram and. the result of the ascents are issued as a TEMP message for general distribution Each ascent is subsequen- ly completely recomputed. Up to December, 1948, the recomputations were based on Bjerknes, Aerological Tables (Oeopotential given in geodynamical metres). Since then special tables similar to Bjerknes' Tables using geopotential metre as unit have been prepared and used for the recomputation. The data obtained from these ascents is published monthly in Part V of the Monthly Weather Report of the Meteorological Service as from January, 1950. It has not yet been possi- ble to arrange for publication of the earlier data. RADIO WIND OBSERVATIONS From 1948 to 1948 upper wind observations were made by means of the American equipment S.C.R. 858. Observations were made twice daily in conjunction with the radio sonde observations. Since September, 1948, upper winds have been determi- ned by radar using the British G.L.ffl type Radar equipment of range.88,000 ft. k range trebler was incorporated into this equipment at the end of Mach, 1950, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. -4- enabling the measurement of upper winds to be determined up to a range of 96.000 ft. Up to the present, difficulties in hydrogen supply etc. have limited the radar wind observations to one ascent daily but it is hoped to overcome these diffi- culties at an early date. The radio wind data is computed graphically and tabulated results are published in Part V of the Monthly Weather Report of the Meteorological Service from Ja- nuary, 1950. NUCLEUS COUNTER OBSERVATIONS In July, 1950, routine observations with a photoelectric Nucleus Counter were 1ntituto,1:- The data obtained has not yet been published, NIGHT SKY RECORDER In June, 1949, a night sky recorder received on loan from the British Meteorolo- gical Office was installed and continues to be maintened at Valentia Observato- ry as part of a selected network of stations in Great Britain and Ireland. The records obtained are furnished to the British Meteorological Office. OZONE OBSERVATIONS From 1st nOvember, 1940, to 3rd February, 1941, and June, 1941, to February, 1942, observations were made with a Photo-electric spectrophotometer supplied on loan by Dr. Dobson, CLIMATOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTIC OBSERVATIONS Hourly valuea of the usual surface meteorological elements made at the Observa- tory are published in Part El of the Monthly Weather Report of the Meteor Service. CLIMATOLOGICAL DIVISION For a number otyears after the setting up of the Meteorological Service almost the entire resources of the Service had to be devoted to meet aeronautical re- quirements and it was possible to allocate but little staff for climatological work: the British Meteorological Office continued to publish data for the coun- try until the end of 1940. 111'1948 it became possible to compile and publish climatological statistics and as from that year a Monthly Weather Report comprising four parts as follows was instituted: Part I - General Weather Report? Part If - Rainfall (Monthly Rainfall Totals fOr.rqTavailabIe Stations). Part II- Hourly tabulations of the Main Meteorological Elements at the Principal Stations. Part Iv- Aeronautical Summary, As from January, 1950, a fifth part has been added, giving upper air data for Valentia Observatory. The data for the years 1941 to 1947 will be published when conditions pernift, Apart from compiling the data for publication in the various parts of the - Monthly Weather Reports, this Division supplies data and reports for public utility undertakings (water supply purposes, electricity generation, drainage Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -5- schemes), planning of industries, design of buildings (wind pressure) air con- ditioning plant, etc. HYDULS20' There is no separate hydrological service in the country. When the Meteorologi- cal Service took over in 1937 there were some networks of rainfall stations operated by different bodies, but, in the interests of economy and convenience, the networks were later unified under the Meteorological Service and the hydro- logical work operated by a section of the Climatological Division of this Service. In 1937 there were approximately 178 rainfall stations in the country. The pro- gramme of extension of this network to meet the 'needs of the country was ini- tiated and there are now (December, 1950) 760 such stations. Part II of the monthly Weather Report is devoted to giving the rainfall as mea- sured at these stations. Publications The technical publications of the METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE comprise the t o-seriedt' (a) Geophysical Publications (b) Technical Notes The publications 'issued to date are: GEOPHYSICAL PUBLICATIONS Vol. I. Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis Schedules for three to One Hundred Equidistant Values of Empiric Functions, by Prof. L.W. Pollak, Phil. Dr. (Prague) M.R.I.A. (1947). Vol. II, All Term Guide for Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis using to 24; 26, 28, 30, 34, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46,52, 60, 68, 76, 84, and 92 Equidistant Values, by Prof. L.W. Pollak, Phil. Dr. (Prague) M.R.I.A. (1949). Vol III. N? 1. Theory -and,description of a Gradient Wind Computer by M. Doporto. Doctor en Ciencias Fisicas (1950)(Printed version of mimeographed Technical Note N? 7). Vol. LU. N? 2. Smoke Sources and Visibility Forecasting in Great Britain and Ireland. by H.H. Lamb, B.A. (1951)(Printed version of mimeographed Technical Note N?3). Vol DI N? 3. The Developement of a method of Estimating and Forecasting Winds at 10,000 ft. over the North Atlantic. by H.H. Lamb B.A..(1951) (Printed version of mimeographed Technical Note N? 4). TECHNICAL NOTES N? 1. Doporto, M. The Computation of Atmospheric Pressure at the 8 km. level of Constant Air Density (1943). NI? 2. Doporto, M. Dynamical Aspects of the Constancy of Air Density at 8 km. (1943) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4- -6? N? 5.Bourke, P.M.A. Ice Accretion on Aircraft.(1944) N? 6. Doporto, M. Cell Motion in the Atmosphere (1944) N' DoT)orto; M: Construction of Isobaric Charts for the Isopycnic Level with A Statistical Analysis of the Comparative Accuracy of Estimates of Winds at L K.M. using Surface Charts and at 8 K.M. using Isopycnic Charts by W.A. Morgan N? 9. Granville, M.G. (1948) Meteorological Conditions favourable for the occurence of poor visibility and of low cloud at Shannon Airport, (1948) N? 10. Tierney, S.L. Note on the occurence of Non?Frontal fog or mist at Dublin Airport during the period October to February, (1949) Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies School of Cosmic Physics In 1947 a School of Cosmic Physics was set up in the Dublin Institute for Advan? ced Studies. The Meteorological and Geophysical Section has established a mete? orological observatory in Dublin City which, in addition to the recordings df the usual climatological elements, makes records of solar radiation and atmos? pheric nuclei. The Section has taken over and newly equipped the historic cli? matological station of Trinity College, Dublin, and is preparing a climatology of Dublin City. It also operates a mobile meteorological laboratory for micro? climatological studies. Theoretical studies in mathematical research cover statistical investigations and agricultural applications.? Research is carried on into development of new instruments for meteorological measurements. Publications 1. METEOROLOGICAL BULLETIN FOR DUBLIN CITY Monthly, with an annual summary since 1948, 2. GEOPHYSICAL MEMOIRS N? 1: L.W. Pollak and U,N. Egan, Eight?Place Supplement to Harmonic Analy? sis and Synthesis SchP'dULes.for three to one hundred equidistant values of empiric functions; Dublin 1949 Part 1: Register. Part 2: Index, N? 3: Part 1: P. Ryan Nolan and L.W. Pollak, On the Prediction of the Yield and Sugar Content of Sugar Beet in Ireland; Dublin 1950. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -7- In Course of Printing or in Prepartion N? 3. Part 2: L.W. Pollak, On the prediction of Sugar Beet Yield in Bohemia. Part 3: L.W. Pollak, Effect of Temperature during the Growing Season on the Yield and Sugar Content of Sugar Beet in Ireland. 3. GEOPHYSICAL BULLETINS In Course of Printing or in Preparation N? 3. L.W. Pollak, Frequency of the Centres of Closed Low Pressure Systems over the North Atlantic Ocean. 4. L.,? Pollak, Indirect Autocorrelation.Method of searching for Periodicities. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 52 A 11, 1949. P.J. Nollan and P.G. Tedde, Condensation Nuclei and Meteorological Elements in Dublin. Archly tiir Meteorologie, GeophySik und Bioklimatologie, Vol. II (1950), Heft 4. L.W. Pollak and P.G. Tedde, On the Frequency of Cyclones over the North ' Atlantic related to the Sunspot Cycle.Ibidem,1951. NEW-ZEALAND Meteorology in New Zealand and the Southwest Pacific - 1948-1950 By R.G. Simmers. ( Acting Director ). The provision of a meteorological service for the general public and for the specialized needs of agriculture, nydrological, aviation and maritime interests, whether civil or military, is the responsibility within New Zealand of the New Zealand Meteorological Service. This is a state institution, organized as a branch .of Air DePartement. By arrangement with toe United. Kingdom and Australian Governments the New Zealand Meteorological Service also provides the meteorolo- gical services at British territories in the South Pacific east of longitude 170?E. The Head Office of the Service is at Wellington. Branch offices primarily for aviation forecasting are maintained at Nandi (Fiji) and at Auckland, Paraparau- mu, Christchurch and Dunedin. One combined radiosonde-radar wind observing sta- tion is operated in Fiji and two others within New Zealand. One additional ra- diosonde station and one additional radar wind station are also operated in New Zealand The synoptic reporting network also includes about 130 surface 'reporting stations and 20 pilot balloon stations. The basic climatological network compri- ses about 100 stations within New Zealand and 30 in the 3outhwest Pacific, aug- mented by about 800 rainfall observing stations in New Zealand and. 130 in the Southwest Pacific. The 1948-1950 period has been largely one of considation within the Service af- ter the rapid expansion of the war years and the severe reduction in personnel immediately following. Shortages of experienced staff and pre-occupation with problems of current operations and training have limited research activities, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. but some some PrOgress has been made in extending the picture Of the general circu- lation in the Southern Hemisphere, Several officers of the Service contributed papers at the Seventh Pacific Science Congress in 1949 No university courses are available in meteorology in New Zealand, The Meteoro- logical Service has continued its practice of recruiting its professional staff from science graduates, principally of the University of New Zealand, and then providing the specialized meteorological training by instruction courses within the Service. AUSTRALIA National Report on Australian Meteorological Research, 1948-51 GENERAL The Period under review and the post-war years preceding it (for which no NatiO- nal Report is available) has been a notable one for Australian meteorological research. The Commonwealth Meteorological Branch, in addition to its normal functions and post-war readjustments, has established stations in the Southern Ocean at Heard and Macquarie Islands, and also embarked on an extensive pro- gramme of agricultural climatology. It has worked in close collaboration with the Departement of Meteorology, University of Melbourne, in the establishment of a small observatory for atmospheric radiation studies. Including the spectr6d composition of light from sun and sky, and has planned a network of radiation stations throughout the continent; also in collaboration the possibilities of seasonal forecasting are being investigated. In the Commorwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization the period has seen the creation crtthenSectiOn' of Meteorological Physics, whose programme now includes fundamental studies in problems of surface meteorologyodynamic meteorology and the general circulation. The Section has set up a field station near Melbourne for research in atmosphe- ric turbulence and energy exchanges. The Division of Radiophysics, has launched a programme of research into cloud and rain physics and the possi- bilities of artificial rain stimulation, During the period, Australian meteorologists took part in the cruises of the "Wyatt Earp" 1948,"Commandant Cheroot" 1950, and "Discoveryll" 1950, when mete- orological conditions and problems of the Antartic and Southern Ocean were studied, TROPICAL METEOROLOGY An innovation in this field during the period was the study of tropical hurri- canes by microseismic methods undertaken by Dr. A O. Jones of the University of Queenland- A one-to-one correspondence was observed between the existence of ocean hurricanes in the vicinity and the occurrence of group microseism, with the exception that the latter were sometimes observed from cold fronts with very steep gradients. The amplitudes increased rapiay as the hurrfcules approached the station Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -9- A comprehensive account of the meteorology of the Eastern Indian Ocean was pu- blished by Hogan (1948), The relationship between streamlines and pressure gradients over Australia and adjacent tropical areas is being investigated through analyses of 850 mb. con- tour and 5000 ft, streamline charts. On the theoretical side a study of cyclone structure by James (1951) included the development of a parameter for investigating tropical cyclone behaviour from autographic data at single stations. ANTARTIC AND SUB-ANTARTIC METEOROLOGY On the whole, however, emphasis fell away from tropical meteorology and the in- centive which this had received during the war years, and was replaced by a growing volume of work on conditions in southern latitudes, made possible by the manning of sub-Antartic Islands and Antartic voyages. At the time of pre- paration of this Report, a detailed analysis of the records for 1948 is about to be issued: meanwhile papers by Langford (1948, 1950), Gibbs (1949) and Got- ley (1950) have appeared. Observations of the turbulent fluctuations of air temperature and wind velocity and of the mean vertical gradients were made in the vinicity of the Antartic Convergence during a cruise of the R,R.S,"Disco- very II" (Deacon and Taylor, to be published). Studies of Foehn and katabatic winds in Antartica have been Published "(Loewe*? 1950 a.and It is planned to establish a base on the Antartic continent. Studies of upper atmospheric phenomena including ionospheric, ozone, aurural and cosmic ray observations at all these bases are either planned or already under way. DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY Some further work has been done on the control of pressure changes through the quadratic terms in the equation of motion, and the principle applied to the de- termination of limits to the size of pressure systems (Priestley, 1948 a.). Surface pressure changes due to departures from the gradient wind have been examined (Priestley, 1948 b.), with emphasis on the problem of anticyclogenesis. The control work rests on the concepts of system-movement and system-develop- ment which have been given rigorous formulation by James (1948). These concepts have been applied to the parametric representation of tropical cyclones (James, 1951) and extra-tropical vortices, the characteristics of the latter and the interaction between two vortices, cyclonic or anticyclonic, being studied by energy methods (James, 1950),, The development and movement of depressions aloft not associated with surface depressions are being investigated synoptically. Other synoptic-dynamic work includes upper wind studies with emphasis onithe jet stream and diurnal varia+ tions, and the connection between rainfall and humidity aloft? GENERAL CIRCULATION AND TEMPERATURE', etc., DISRIBUTIONS Mean aerological cross-sections for winter and summer of the Southern hemisphe- re, approximately along a meridional plane, have been constructed by Loewe and Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. ?10- Radok (1950), with a description of some anomalies between geostrophic and ob- served winds and of the double tropopause structure. A comprehensive survey of the free atmosphere conditions above Australia, based on about 6000 radiosonde flights is practically completed. Upper wind statistics from monthly constant pressure contours are accumulating. Work on the general circulation and global distribution of the physical ele- ments, through the method of inter-latitude flux determinations described at the Oslo Assembly, has continued. Emphasis has been Placed on the importanceof mean meridional circulations (Priestley, 1949) and on the fluxes across the high pressure belts. Evidence has been advanced for a slight mean drift, equa- torwards near the surface and polewards at jet stream levels, across these la- titude belts (Priestley, 1950) leading to a theory linking fluctuations of the surface zonal indices with those of the jet stream,. The flux due to mean meri- dional circulation, stronger in winter than in summer, contributes about half the total annual flux of energy and angular momentum between the principal cir- culation zones (Priestley, 1951). A survey has been made of the wind-stress distribution, over the oceans, with latitude and season, and the corresponding distributions of total angular mo- mentum flux inferred therefrom. SURFACE METEOROLOGY The programme of work on surface meteorology comprises the simultaneous measu- rement, at a single field site, of the vertical turbulent flux of heat, water vapour, and momentum, incoming and outgoing radiation, and neat flux into the ground. Measurements of the vertical temperature, humidity, and wind profile are taken at tne same time. It is noned to'give an -account of the work, with some early results, at the Assembly. During the preparatory stages papers have been Published dealing with specific aspects. These include methods of measu- ring and recording heat flux into the ground (Deacen,1050 a.), the fine struc- ture of temperature and vertical wind component (Swinbank, 1960) and of humi- dity (SwinbanK, 1961 a), leading to the first direct measurement over natural surfaces of any degree of roughness. A chart for the ready assessment of radi- ative heat changes from profiles in the surface layers, taking proper account of tne contribution from carbon dioxide, has been published (Deacon, 1950 b,). Analyses are being made of the micro-structure of temperature and wind fluctu- ations near the ground for tneIr evidence on the fundamental nature of atmo- spheric turbulence. Profiles of temperature and AumiOity in special areas are being explored in connection with micro-wave propagation. Experiments on the Protection of or- chards from frost have achieved some success by tne use of small (10 BHP) fans with axis vertical, the Performance being further improved by tilting the fan up to 600 (Angus, 1951). HUMIDITY STRUCTURE Four Dobson-Brewer frost point hygrometers are now available in Australia and flights are being made though subsidence inversions (Griffiths, 1950) and into Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 , Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -11- the stratosphere. Simultaneous stratosphere flights at Melbourne and Darwin are being arranged. VERTICAL MOTION, CONVECTION, etc. Gusts and vertical currents in the free atmosphere were investigated with the aid of pilot balloons (Treloar, 1948) and power and soaring planes(Radok,N48ia)., A case of spectacular downdraft in a thunderstorm cloud (Radok, 1949) caused extensive instrumental studies. Standing waves on the leeward side of mountain ranges were explored by research flights (Radok, 1950), and found to extend to many times the height of the quite low mountain barrier. The work is continuin& CLOUD AND RAIN PHYSICS Measurements are being made of cloud water content and cloud drop spectra, and also (Cooper, 1951) rain drop spectra and rainwater content by a telemetring instrument. A theoretical treatment of the drop spectra achieved by condensa- tion processes (Kraus and Smith, 1949) has been generalised (Squires, to berPu- blished) with suggestive results as to the distribution of nucleus sizes favou- ring the formation of large drops. The consequences of coalescence in a uniform rising current have been fully worked out (Bowen, 1950 a) and used to explain the bright band and occurence of rain in non-freezing clouds. Airborne and ground radar, and visual observations of rain from freezing and non-freezing clouds are described by Bowen (1950 b) and Smith (1950 and 1951). Results of seeding experiments, including very strong evidence for the successful artifi- cial stimulation of rain for clouds with tops colder than -7?C, are given by Squires and Smith (1949), and also by Smith (1949) with special reference to halos and other optical phenomena observed after the seeding. It is hoped to describe some aspects of the work more fully to the Assembly. UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND IONOSPHERE Measurement of ionospheric variables and their interpretation is included ititte research work of the Radio Research Board and of the Department of Physics,Uni- versity of Queensland. There appear to be several quite different phenomena in the F2 region which give the apPearance of a horizontal wind in that region: one such account has been published (Munro, 1950). A paper on the diurnal and sea- sonal variations of the sporadic E region is shortly to appear. Cellular waves in the ionosphere and tropOsPhere haVe been discussed by Martyn (1950). Statistical work is in hand on the correlation between day-to-day beha- viour of ionospheric and tropospheric variables. CLIMATOLOGY AND STATISTICAL METEOROLOGY Climatological research has been greatly expanded with the appointment of spe- cialist climatologists in each State. The emphasis is On climatic analysis, and applications to agriculture; work is in hand on measurement of drought (Hounam, 1948), definition and determination of the growing season, effective as opposed to actual rainfall, flood dangers and the time-frequency distribution of high rainfall intensities, the estimation of mean sunshine from mean cloud amounft The spatial homogeneity of wind over an area of a few square miles is also under examination. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. -12- The variability of different elements in the Southern hemisphere has been ap- proached from various angles (Loewe, 1948 and 1950 c). been made of Queensland rainfall, revealing an absence cities other than the annual variation (Radok, 1948 b) symmetry points has been tested with special reference Statistical studies have of significant periodi- The significance of to Melbourne pressure (Radok, 1948 c). Upper wind statistics are under analysis. The possibilities of seasonal forecasting are under investigation, mainly by correlation methods. The improvement of multiple over single correlations is found to be, in general, statistically meaningless. Climatic trends in Austra- lia are being studied. INSTRUMENTAL Apart from instrumental work reported above under specific headings,, develOpment' of simple radiation instruments, sky brightness recording equipment (of which it is proposed to establish a network), shielded rain and snow gauges and asto- rage type rain gauge is in progress. Angus, 0,2, Bowen, E.G. Cooper, B.F.C. Deacon, E.L. Deacon, E.L. and Gibbs, W.J, Griffiths, R.J. Gotley,A.V. Hogan, J. Hounam, C.E. James, R.W. Kraus, B.B. and Smith, Betty Langford, J.C. Loewe, F. Loewe, F. and Radok, U. Martyn, D.F. 1950 Munro, G.H. 1950 1951 1950 a 1950 b 1951 1950 a 1950 b Taylor, 1949 1950 1950 1948 1948 1948 1950 1951 Bibliography C.S.I.R?0., Sec. Net. Physics, Report N" 1. Austr. J. Sol? Res. A., V.3, P. 193. Jour. Atmos. and Terrestrial Physics (In press). Austr. Quart. Austr. R. J. J. App, Sci., V.2, N? 1. J. Roy, Met. Soc., V.76, p. 479 J. Sci. Res. A., V. 3, p, 274. To be published Weather Dev. and Res. Bull., C'w1th?liet ,Br., N?12, p,5 Weather Dev. Weather Dev. C,w1th. Met. Weather Dev. and Res. Bull., C,w1th.Met,Br.,N?16,p.41. and Res.Bull., C,w1th.Met.Br.,N?16,p.32. Br., Bulletin N?40. and Res.Bull., C,w1th.Met.Br.,N?10,p.5. Austr. J. Sci. Res. A., V.1, P. 412. Quart. J. Roy Met. Soc., V. 76, p. 255. Jour. of Net., V. 8. 1949 Austr, J. Sci. Res, A., V. 2, p, 376. 1948 and Res.Bull., C"w1th.Met.Br.,le1l,p.47. 1950 and Res.Bull., C,w1th.Met.Br.,N?16,p.5. 1948 C'w1th.Met.Br., Bulletin le 39. 1950 a Weather, V.5, p. 153. 1950 b Geofisica pura e applicata, V. 16, fasc. 3-4. 1950 c Ann. der Net., 5/6. Weather Bev. Weather Dev. 1950 Jour. of Net., V. 7, p. 58. Proc. Roy. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, V. 201, P. 216. Soc. A, V. 202, p, 208. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -13 Priestley, C.R.B. 1948 a Quart. J. Roy. Met, Soc., V. 74, p. 87. 1948 b Austr. J. Sci. Res. A., V. 1, p. 41. 1949 Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., V. 75, p. 28. 1950 Austr. J. Sci. Res. A., V. 3, p. 1. 1951 Quart. J. Roy. Net. Soc., V. 77. Radok, U. 1948 a C.S.I.R. Division of Aeronautics, Report SM110. 1948 b C'w1th. Net. hr.., Bulletin N?39. 1948 c Quart. J. Roy. Net. Soc., V. 74, P. 196. 1949 Austr. J. Sci. Res. A, V. 2, p. 550. 1950 Weather Dev. and Res. Bull., Ciwlth.met.Br.,N?15 p.28 Smith, E.J. 1949 Austr. J. Sci. Res. A, V. 2, P. 78. 1950 Austr. J. Sci. Res. A, V. 3, p. 214. 1951 Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., V. 77, P. 33. Squires, P. To be published. Squires, P. and 1949 Austr. J. Sci. Res. A, V. 2, p. 232. Smith, E.J. Swinbank, W.C. 1950 Austr. J. Inst. Tech., V.8, p. 21. 1951 a Jour. 8ci.-Instl,(1n press) 1951 b Jour. of Met. (in press) Treloar, H.M. 1948 Weather Dev. and Res. Bull., N?11, p. 37. PORTUGAL Le Service Meteorologique National et les Services Meteorologiques des territoires portugais, 1948-1950 Le Service Meteorologique National, cred en 1946, et destin a remplacer les Services qui existaient anterieurement dans le territoire metropolitain du Por- tugal, a poursuivi la mise en place des installations permettant de rdpondre aux besOins metdorologiques du pays, dans le cadre des Organisations Interns- tionales. Il a, notamment, installe en 1948-49 un centre metdorologique princi- pal b. l'aerodrome de Sal (Iles du Cap Vert), un centre meteorologique secondai- re a Funchal (Manre), et une station de radiosondage annexe a chacun de ces deux centres. Le recrutement et la formation professionnelle du personnel technique supdrieur constitue Par des diplons universitaires, ont fait l'objet de soins particu- liers. Des cours d'aPPlication, des stages de perfectionnement et des r4unions periodiques pour la discussion de questions scientifiques et techniques ont ete instaures pour maintenir ces professionnels au courant des progres de la meteo- rologie et de sea applications. Les Services Met4orologiques des territoires portugais d'outre-mer ont dtd r6- organ1sds en Juin 1950, et le Service Meteorologique National a ete charge de l'orientation scientifique et de la coordination technique de ces Services, dont les cadres de personnel et les moyens materiels ont 4t4 augments. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950. By H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SYTiNO. In the former part of this period, research activities in the scientir field in Japan were in its every branch considerably hindered by the difficult post- war conditions and the publications of the resutts of researches were also greatly delayed. Meteorology was no exception. With the lapse of time however, the conditions have been gradually improved, and in 1950, the re- search activities of various groups of meteorologists as well as the capacity of printing of the Meteorological Society of Japan and of other institutes have almost attained to the former level of the pre-w n? period. The considerable volume of papers published in this period contain those results of meteorolo- gical studies carried out during the war-time also. The publications of these results have been delayed by the shortage of the capacity of printing. Prior to this period, both the scientific and technical researches in meteo- rology in Japan had been carried out mainly 13?,? the meteorologists of the Central Meteorological Observatory (C. M. 0.) and of local observatories be- longing to it. But in this period the research activities of meteorological divisions of several universities and of the Meteorological Research Institute of C. M. a. were considerably expanded. Noteworthy events in the progress of Meteorology in Japan were the new issues of "Geophysical Notes" from the Geophysical Institute of Tokyo Uni- versity in 1948, of "Journal of Meteorological Research" from C. M. 0. in 1949, of " Geoyhysics, the Science Reports of th, TOhoku University, Fifth Series" from the Geophysical Institute of TOhokti University in 1949 and of "Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics" from the Meteorolo4ical Research Institute in 1950. Besides these publications, professional notes are issued by district central meteorological observatories, but they are not generally available. In the present report we shall attempt to present the current tendency of researches, which characterises meteorological studies in Japan in this period. Owing to the limited space, we shall not recite the reports on local weather characteristics, which may arouse no general interest. The present report is divided into the following 13 paragraphs for the convenience of descriptions. I. Dynamics of atmospheric motions and of disturbances. II. Typhoon and other disturbances, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ?Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SYatio III. Thunderstorm and convection phenomena. IV. Micrometeorology. V. Radiation and optical phenomena. VI. Eclipse meteorology. VII. Physics of precipitation. VIII. Snow and ice. IX. Short-range forecasting. X. Longe. range forecasting. XI. Climatological studies. XII. Instruments and observations. XIII. Meteorological calamities. List of publications: B. C. M. 0. J. Bulletin of the Central Meteorological Observatory in Japanese (Tyuo-Kisyodai IhO) B. T. A. 0. Bulletin of Tateno Aerological Observatory Geophys. GeOphysics G. M. Geophysical Magazine G. N. Geophysical Notes J. M. R. Journal of Meteorological Research (Kenkyu Zito) J. M. S. J. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan J. J. S.S.I. Journal of Japanese Society of Snow and Ice P. M. G. Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics The symbol " attached to the titles of papers referred to in the following pages indicates that they are written in Japanese. I. Dynamics of atmospheric motions and of disturbances. The motion in the earth's atmosphere is more or less of vortical nature. Since 1940 S. Sytino has been studing the motions in the atmosphere from the vortical point of view and has obtained several results of importance. The circulation theorem by Bjerknes was the theoretical ground upon which Syono's theory was based. Among other things, new concepts obtained are the vorticity effect and the region of negative vorticity around cyclones. His theory was also developed by his fellow workers. Complete comment of his theory has not yet been published but partial results may be seen in the following papers published in this period. Dynamics of amalgamation of cyclones. C. N. 1 No. 18, (1948). On the mechanism of generation of cold waves. G. N. 1, No. 23 (1948). Relation between the absolute vorticity and the absolute angular momentum and its application. G. N. 2, No. 3, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 Approximate solutions of non-linear differential equations of stationary wind in the lower stratum of symmetric cyclones and anti-cvolones and their applications. G.M. 20, 39, (1949). Generation of spouts. G. N. 2, No. 8, (1949). On the vortical rain. G. N. 3, No. 25, (1950). Forecasting of the wind at higher level (with T. HOshino). G. M. 20, No. 12, (1.949) On the structure of atmospheric vortices, to be publishei in J. M. April, 1951. Using the method which SyOno used in his study, K. Gambo solved the pro- blem of the wind in an elliptic cyclone. A. Kasahara applied the same method to the problem of filling in the typhoon and of the distribution of rainfall in the Kitty-typhoon. Kasahara further studied the generation of the 4,et stream using the theorem of conservation of f,bsolute vorticity. Y. Naka- gawa also applied the method above mentioned to the problem of the shield- ing layer in an anticyclone. K. Gambo : On the wind due to elliptic isobars. G. N. 1, No. 9 (1948). A. Kasahara: On the distribution of the intensity of rainfall and filling up of the Kitty-typhoon. G. N. 3, No. 30 (1950). A. Kasahara: On the filling up of typhoon. G. N. 2, No. 13 (1949). A. Kasahara: On the dynamical mechanism of the high tropospheric jet stream. G. N. 2, No. 31 (1950). Y. Nakagawa: On the effect of shielding layer. G. N. 2, No. 14 (1949). K. Kano and A. Takahashi solved the non-linear equations of motion in the frictional layer by the perturbation method. K. Kano: On an approximate solution of the wind near the surface of the earth. G. M. 20, 31 (1948). *A. Takahashi: On the wind in circular isobar near the earth surface. J. M. R. 2, 119 (1950). K. Gambo treated the same problem by using the momentum equation. K. Gambo : An approximate solution of non-linear differential equations of stationary wind in an axial symmetric cyclone. G. N. 1, No. 22 (1948). Y. Ogura and S. Matsumoto put forward theories of the isallobaric wind, by which they derived the vertical distributions of that wind and the "Relaxations-Zeit ". M. Ohta and R. Sawada treated similar problems. Y. Ogura: On the vertical distribution of the isallobaric wind. G. N. 1, No. 8 (1948). *S. Matsumoto: On the isallobaric wind. J. M. S. J. 26, Special Rep, 74 (1948). *R. Sawada : On the meaning of replacing the force of friction after Navier-Stokes by that of Guldberg-Mohn. J. M. S. J. 26, 69, (1948) *M. Ohta: On the nonstationary horizontal motion of the air near the centre of the typhoon. Sea and Sky. 28, 23, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200402/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SY6NO It has been a current tendency to treat the motion of a parcel of air by the Lagrangian method. Y. Sasaki Investigated exactly the inertial motion of a parcel projected on a smooth earth. This problem was first treated ap- proximately by Whipple in 1917. K. Gambo discussed the motion of an air parcel by the method of analytical dynamics. M. Magata treated similarly -the motions in a symmetric cyclone. Y. Sasaki: On the trajectory of the inertial motion of a parcel of air. G. N. 3, No. 32 (1950). K. Gambo: On the dynamics of the parcel of air on a rotating earth. G. N. 3, No. 28 (1950). *M. Magata: Stream lines in typhoon. J. M. R. 1, 31, (1949). Magata: Dynamics of the eye of storm. P.M. G. 1, 29, (195)). K. Gambo investigated the general stability of the zonal motion by the parcel method. Further he developed the theory on the stability of the baro- clinic zonal flow. K. Gambo: On the general stability of atmospheric disturbances. G. N. 2, No. 12, (1949). K. Gambo: The criteria for stability of the westerlies. G. N. 2, No. 29, (1950). The problem of the large-scale verticale motion was developed by N. Arizumi and Y. Masuda. They made nomograms for computating of verti- cal velocity and applied the method to discuss actual examples: *N. Arizurni : On the relation between the vertical velocity and intensity of precipita- tion and precipitation nomogram. J. M. R. 1, 177, (1949). N. Arizumi : A diagramatic msthod of computing vertical motion in the atmosphere and its applications. G. M. 22. 131, ? (1950). Y. Masuda : On the method of computing vertical motions in the atmosphere. P. M. G. 1, 1, 9, 20, (1950). Other pepers on miscellaneous problems on the subject are: *K. Takahashi: A New term in the equation of atmospheric motion. J. M. S. 289 206, (1948). H. Arakawa : The vorticity equations in the spherical and cylindrical coordinates. G. M. 16. 1, (1948). H. Arakawa : Transformation of the equations. of motion in dynamical meteorology to orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. P.M. G. 1, 45, (1950). S. Suzuki: The air current over the island. G. M. 20, 73, (1949). *T. Sato: The structure of stationary discontinuous surface. J. M. S. J. 28, 242, 373, 429, (1950). *T. Izawa : On the upper disturbances in the westerlies whose mean circulation have longitudinal wind grandient. J. M. S. J. 28, 323, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4. Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 *K. Takahashi: A note on the wave length in the westerlies. J. M. S. J. 28, 418. (1950). Y. Ishitnaru : The mechanism of the earth's atmosphere. G.M. 21, 269, 303, (1950). Y. Masuda : On the resonance of pressure waves and temperature waves. J. M. S. J. 28, 139, (1950). H. Arakawa and H. Matsuoka : The transformation of the fundamental equations of dynamical meteorology. G.M. 15, 33, (1948). S. SyOno : On cd-gram. G. N. 2, No. 9, (1949). II. Typhoon and other disturbances. -Typhoon: In Japan, typhoon is one of the most important phenomena in meteoro- logy. Prior to this period, the problems had been attacked by many Japa- nese meteorologists. In this period. Japan was attacked by several severe typhoons. List of typhoons which caused damages in Japan. 1948 1949 1950 Ione, September Della, June Doris, May Hester, July Elsie, June Judith, August Flossie. July Kitty, August Grace, July Patritia, October Jane, September Allen, November Kezia, Seraember The features of the typhoon were investigated in detail and reported by special reports from C. M. O. and district central meteorological observatories. Because the pure dynamical articles are contained in paragraph 1, we shall here in this paragraph recite only articles other than these. K. Takahasi gave a summary on the features of typhoon in Japan. Typhoon in Japan. G.M. 17, 1, (1948). D. Nishimura investigated the structure of the inner region of a typhoon semi-empiricallY. On the structure of typhoons. G.M. 21, 107, (1950). K. Uwai investigated the mechanism of heavy rainfall and front in Kwanto, Tyfibu and Tthoku districts and discussed the life history of a typhoon theoretically. Analysis of the typhoon " Kathleen " I. G.M. 21, 147, (1950). *Analysis of Kathleen typhoon II. J. M. R. 2, 152, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 "Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -19- H. HATAKEYAMA and.S. Sy5t90 H. Arakawa discus,ed the development of a typhoon' and the orographic rain caused by a typhoon from a kinematical point of view. *Cyclolysis versus frontogenesis. J. M. S. J. 26, 234, (1998). *Path of cyclones and orographic rainfall. J. M. S. J. 23, 234, (1950). The forecasting of the tracks of typhoons is an important problem from the practical point of view. This problem was attacked by several authors with statistical and synoptic methods. I. Kano: Forecasting of the direction of the tracks of typhoon. J.M.R. 1,67, (1949). *H. Wada: Prediction of typhoon-tracks by isentropic analysis. J. M. R. 1, 59, (1949) *E. Suzuki: Statistical studies on the tracks of typhoons. J.M.R. 1, 183, 189, 248, 255, (1949). *H. Matsuoka : A study on the movement of typhoon. J. M.R. 2, Suppl. Rep. 51, (1950) *K. Okubo and N. Nakamura: Cold stratosphere accompanying a typhoon. J. M. S. J. 28, 107, (1950). In the article above mentioned, K. Okubo and N. Nakamura suggested that the temperature and the height of the tropopause changed abnormally in front of the typhoons. The temiperature attained to ?70?C for the case of the Faye-typhoon on 14 June, 1948. Similar phenom-lon was observed for the Della-typhoon on 20 June, 1949. Basing on these facts, they derived some rules for forecasting of the tracks of typhoons. Other phenomena caused by a typhoon were investigated in the following papers: *S. Fujiwara and N. Yamada: Study of typhoon-rain. J. M S J. 26, 179, (1948). *K. Noguchi: On the heavy rain caused by typhoon in T5hoku district. J. M.R. 2, Suppl. Rep. 29, (1950). *K. Fukuda On the relation between' the path of typhoon and the heavy-rainfall in Tohoku district. J. M.R. 2, Suppl. Rep. 1, (1950). *M. Kabasawa : On the relation between typhoon and swell. J.M.R. 1, 198, (1949), I. Kimura: Relations between typhoon, swell and miCroseism. J.M.R. 1,343, (1949). S. Aoki recited some examples of miniature typhoonts. *On the miniature typhoon. J.M. R. 1, 434, (1949). Other disturbances: S. Tajim.a investigated statistically the mean position of the substropical anti-cyclone and suggested that it oscillates rneridionally with 9 and 2 year periods. On the meridional oscillation of an anticyclone of horse-latitudes in Japan and its effect on the weather. G.M. 22, 109, (1950). Other papers on the anticyclones are: Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 *S. Tajima : On the structure of subtropical anticyclone in East Asia and in the North Pacific Ocean. J.M.R. 2, 169, (1950). *K. Morita: On the Pacific anticyclone. J.M.R. 1, 83, (1949). *S. Miyamoto: On the mosaic structure of the lower atmosphere by the cellular anti- cyclones. J.M.S.J. 21', 14, (1999). Papers on cyclones are: *K. Kuzirai: Consideration on the development and filling of cyclones. J. M R. 1, 80, 094?. *K. Kimura: On the deformation of anticyclone and cyclone due to mountain range. J.M.R. 1, 110, (1949). A. Kurashima and Y. Arai investigated the structure of cold air. *On the structure of cold air. J.M.R. 1. 2229, (1949), 2, 209, (1950), H. Sekiya investigated statistically the generation of windspouts in Japan. *On the occurrence of waterspout in the neighbourhood of Japan. J.M.S.J. 2T, 88, (1949). R. Kitaoka investigated the diurnal variation of the free atmosphere by aerological observations. *On the diurnal variation of the upper atmosphere. 13. T.A.O. 4, 11, 91, (1949). *On the variation of inversion layer and the tropopause observed on 9 May, 1948. B. T . A. O. 4, 138, (1949). III Thunderstorm and convection phenomena. In 1940, the joint committee for thunderstorm named "Ninth Special Comittee for Prevention of Thunderstorm Disaster" was organized under the sponsorship of the Association for the Advancement of Science of Japan, in which late Prof. S. Fujiwara, Ex-director of the C. M. 0., participated as the chairman. The committee had three subcommittees. The purpose of the first subcommittee was to obtain a meteorological description of thunderstorms. That of the second subcommittee was to investigate the damage on electiric machines. That of the third subcommittee was to investigate the effect of atmospherics on the radio communication. In every summer from 1940 to 1947, observations were made in Gun-ma prefecture. The whole results obtained were published in 1950 as a monograph "Studies on Thunderstorm" in Japanese. The result obtained by the thermodynamical analysis was published by S. Sakuraba. *On the mechanism of variation of vertical stability in summer and thunderstorm forecasting. B.C. M. 0.J. 31, 1, (1948). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 H. HATAKEVANIA and S. SvON0 On the mechanism of the heat thunderstorm and same properties of cumulonimbus in Japan (abstract). G.M. 20, 81, (1949). S. SyOno put forward a unified theory of parcel method and slice method on the vertical stability. On the unification of "slice method" and " parcel method". G.N. 1, No. 18, (1948). M. Kaneko and H. H. Yagi investigated the forecasting of thunderstorm. *M Kaneko: Forecasting of the direction of thunderstorm tracks. J.M.R. 1, 24, (1948). *H. Yagi On the problem of thunderstorm forecasting. J.M.R. 2, Sapp. Rep. 150, (1950). T. Fujita analysed an example of thunderstorm on 24 August, 1947, in detail. Micro-analytical study of thundernose. G.M. 22, 71, (1950). *Y. Matsuoka and Ogino: Thunderstorm observation with selfrecording balloon sonde. B. T. A. O. 4, 49, (1949). IV. Micrometeorology. Atmospheric turbulence: G. Yamamoto and M. Shiotani obtained the vertical distribution of various statistical quantities related to turbulence, i. e., spatial and timely correlation coefficients and others, by the observations at various places with hot-wire anemometers. Further they made preliminary observations, of the vertical component of turbulence with two hot-wires combined perpendicularly with each other. *G. Yamamoto and M. Shiotani: Turbulence in the Free Atmosphere. J.M.S.J. 26, 149, (1948). *M. Shiotani and G. Yamamoto: Atmospheric turbulence in the lowest atmosphere. J.M.S.J. 27, 73, 219, (1949), 28, 181, (1950). *M. Shiotani: On the fluctuation of the vertical component of wind velocity in the air layer near the ground. J.M.S.J. 27, 293, (1949). They showed empirically that the values of various statistical quantities varied with the increase of statistical time-interval. Later this relation was derived theoretically by Y. Ogura. Y. Ogura: On the atmospheric turbulence (1). G. N. 3, No. 26, (1950). M. Yamazaki observed the turbulence with pibal. *Turbulence observation with pibal. B.T.A.O. 4, 25, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4, - Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 M. Shiotani observed the microvariation of air temperature with a resis- tance thermometer. M. Shiotani: Turbulence in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. J.M.S.J. 28, 167, (1950). E. Inoue derived the spectral distribution of the variations of wind velocity, atmospheric pressure and air temperature under the assumption, similar to that in the Weizsacker's theory of isotropic turbulence, that the turbulent field consists of "elementary turbuIons" which have characteristic velocities and scales corresponding to their ranks. Further he showed that the theoretical results on the atmospheric turbulence might be applied mutatis mutandis to the turbulence in the ocean. Some Remarks on the structure of wind. G.N. 1, No. 21, (1948). *On the structure of wind near the ground. J.M.S.J. 28, 219, 339, 367, (1950). On the pressure flactuations in a thrbulent fluid. G.N. 3, No. 33, (1950). Onthe temperature fluctuation in a heated turbulent fluid. G.N. 3, No. 34, (1950). Prandtl Number in a turbulent fluid. G.N. 3, No. 35, (1950). Interrelation between turbulent fluids in ocean and atmosphere. G.N. 3, No. 36, (1950). He obtained the Lagrangian correlation coefficient from the spectral dis- tribution by using the Fourier's transformation formula and discussed the diffusion in the atmosphere. On the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere. J.M.S.J. 28, 441, 1950. M. Ogawara applied the theory of time-series to the atmospheric turbulence and showed that the turbulence may be explained with vortex-models with vertical axes. On the form of turbulent vortex near the earth's surface. G. M. 21, 226, (1950). As to the criterion of the generation of turbulence, S. SyOno treated the problem with the slice method and compared with the Taylor's result on the- stability of superposed strata of fluid. K. Kano treated the same problem with the energy equation of turbulence. S. Sy-Ono: A note on Richardson's criterion. G.N. 2, No. 10, 1949. *K. Kano: On the Richardson's criterion concerning the increase of decrease of turbu- lent energy in the free atmosphere. J.M.S.J. 27, 311, (1949). K. Takeda showed experimentally that the logarithmic law on the distribu- tion of surface wind held for the distribution in the stable atmosphere, if the roughness parameter was assumed to change with the stability. *On the atmospheric turbulence. J.M.S.J. 27, 333, 367, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -..3- H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SYONo Diffusion phenomena: T. Sakagami solved the diffusion equation for the cases where the diffu- sion coefficient is constant and a linear function of the height and showed that the latter case fit better than the former to the observational results. *On the difference of diffusion phenomena when the diffusion coefficient is a constant and it is proportional to the height. J. M. S.J. 26, Special Rep. 81, (1948).. I. Ichie applied the theory of random walk to the diffusion from a point source. On the statistical theory of turbulent diffusion (1) Mem. Kobe Mar. Obs. 8, 9, (195)). M. Miyazaki generalized the Gebelein's statistical theory and obtained the formula for the wind distribution near the surface. Vertical wind distribution in the boundary layer close to the ground. Mem. Kobe Mar. 9, 35, (1950). T. Kavvahara discussed some problems in the lowest layer by the equa- tions of turbulent energy and of vorticity. *Some problems in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Bull. Fac. Agriculture, Mie Univ. No. 1, 45, (1950). Y. Ogura discussed the heat transfer in the lowest layer from the stand- point of diurnal variation in air temperature and the turbulent boundary layer which developed on the coast and put forward a physical basis on the quantitative prediction of the air temperature. On the relation between the wind velocity and the diurnal variation of the temperature. G.N. 2, No. 11, (1949). On the heat transfer in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. G. N. 3, No. 27, (1950). S. Akai solved a similar problem. *An example of heat conduction by microturbulence. J.M.R. 1, 375, (1949). S. Ogiwara treated the problem of the turbulent heat transfer, and gug- gested that the assumption that the air transfered with heat gave better result. Effect of turbulent mixing on the adiabatic change of the atmosphere. Geophys. 1, 19, (1949). The vertical transfer of heat and the change of air temperature by turbulence. Geophys. 2, 44, (1930). The flying sand on the coast and phenomena related to it were investi- gated by the laboratory of Kawada in the Science and Technical Institute of Tokyo University. The reports are generally unavailable. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 Evaporation: S. Ogiwara and M. Tsuji treated theoretically the evaporation from a water surface covered with laminar boundary layer. *S. Ogiwara: On the evaporation of water from a vessel of finite dimensions in the case of laminar boundary layer. J.M.S.J. 26, 232, (1948). *M. Tsuji: On the rate of evaporation from the plarte surface of water in the case of laminar boundary layer. J.M.S.J. 26, Special Rep. 71. (1948). G. Yamamoto and A. Miura investigated experimentally the evaporation y natural convection. Evaporation by natural convection. Geophys. 2, 48, (1950). G. Yamamoto and S. Vol investigated the evaporation from finite vessels. G. Yamamoto: Some experiments on evaporation from finite surfaces. j.M.S.J. 27, 318, (1949). S. Ooi: An experimental research of evaporation from a circular dish. P.M. G. 1, 81, (1950). T. Ueno and 1'. Kawahara investigated the evaporation from paddy field -114 salty field respectively. *T, Ueno: The amount of evaporation from a paddy field. J.M.R. 1, 37, (1949). *T, 1Cawahara: Research on evaporation. J. S. A.M.J. 2, 7, 37, (1949). Other papers on the subject are: H. Arakawa: On the minor oscillation on the top of Fuji. G.M. 15, 40, (1948). R. Saw ada :Temperature difference between mountain top and free air. G.M. 21, 190, (1950). I. Huzimura: On the relation between rainfall and altitude on Mt. Fuji and in the neighbourhood of it. G.M. 20, 113, (1949). *S. Hirose and T. Kogure. On the disturbance of ah current near U-shaped building. J. M. S. J. 26, 172, (1948). H. Hatakeyama: On the heat-loss through bed-clothe. J.M.S.J. 28, 172, (1948). H. Hatakeyama: On the humidity in wooden boxes. J.M.S.J. 20, 175, (1048). *Y. Daigo : The micro-climatic study on the crop-fencing culture. J.M.R. 2, 199, (1950). V. Radiation and Optical Phenomena. T. Sato published an article: Studies on the scattering of the sun's light by the earth atmosphere. Geophys. 2, 1, (1950). He calculated the intensity of the Rayleigh scattering to the secondary order by assuming that the atmosphere is spherically layered and its density Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ?g5? H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SYtiN0 . decreases expontially with the height from the earth surface as in the actual atmosphere. He obtained a satisfactory result on the distribution of skylight and direct ray for various solar altitudes. But since he considered only the scattering by air molecules, his result on the skylight near the sun does not fit to the observed values. Further in the following article, he calculated the intensity of the solar radiation on the horizontal plane, spherical surface and vertical planes with arbitrary azimuth. Researches on the mathematical insolation due to direct sun during any period. Geophys. 2, 86, (1950). Y. Miyake and K. Saruhashi published an article on the photochemical theory of the generation of ozone. A photochemical theory on the ozone layer in the atmosphere. G.M. 21, 99, (1950). They revised the Mecke's theory and calculated the vertical distribution of ozone and of absorbed quantity of ultra-violet part of the solar ray by ozone and oxygen. Further Y. Miyake constructed a portable ultra-violet actinometer. .A new chemical method for measuring the ultra-violet ray. G.M. 20, 95, (1949). Using this actinometer, Y. Miyake and K. Saruhashi observed the vertical distribution of the intensity of ultra-violet ray in the atmosphere. On the vertical variation of intensity of the ultra-violet solar radiation. G.M. 20, 1, (1948). Further they showed that the height a the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of the ultra-violet ray in the fog. The estimation of the height of fog by observing the ultra-violet solar radiation. G.M. 21, 12, (1930). K. Maeda discussed the vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere bY calculating the Urnkehr-effect in the zenith-scattered sun light discovered by Gotz. On the Umkehr-effect in zenith scattered sunlight. G.M. 21, 343, (1950). The serial researches of G. Yamamoto on the absorption of infra-red ray by water vapor is remarkable. G. Yamamoto and G. Onishi calculated theoretically the absorption coefficient in the infra-red region by water vapour using the absorption lines in the infra-red region determined by Randall, Denison, Ginsburg, Weber and Nielsen. Using the result, G. Yamamoto calculated the nocturnal radiation and obtained a satisfactory result which agree well with the observed results. He obtained the conclusion that his Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1943-1950 absorption coefficients were more reasonable than that of Elsasser to the medium absorption band (8p-2.5p), which plays an important role for the nocturnal radiation. G. Yamamoto and G. Onishi: Absorption coefficient of water vapour in the far infra- red region. Geophys. 1, 5, (1949). Absorption coefficient of water vapour in the near infra-red region. Geophy. 1, 71, (1949). G. Yamamoto: On nocturnal radiation. Geophys. 2, 27, (1950). T. Sato and H. Masaki observed the nocturnal radiation with thermopile of Gorzynski's type. *T. Sato: Studies of nocturnal radiation by selfrecordmg method. J.M.S.J. 28. 215, (1948). *H. Masaki: On the measurement of atmospheric radiation by using infra-red filters. J.M.S.J. 28. 38, 41, (1950). Y. Kawabata and N. Punta investigated the geographical distribution of monthly total insolation in Japan by using results obtained at various obser- vatories. This article gives important climatological data. Distribution of total horizontal insolation in Japan and its neighbourhood. G.M. 22, 143, (1950). Y. Kawabata and K. Yoshii measured the transmissivity of the heat radiation through various kinds of smoke and suggested that the smoke in the atmosphere may be the cause of the so-called Robinson's residual radia- tion. The authors hoped to make more precise investigations. Transmission of heat radiation through smoke and dust. G.M. 20. 7, (1948). R. Saito discussed the attenuation of Insolation in the deposited snow and diffuse reflection at its surface theoretically. The results obtained are not compared with experiment. Because experimental results are scanty, but the theory may be applied to the scattered reflection at the surface of ensembles of nearly transparent globular masses. *Decrease of radiation intensity in the diffusely reflecting medium. J.M.S.J. 29, 208, (1948). *Diffuse reflection due to multiple reflection with the scattering medium. 27, 1, (1947). *Surface reflection of a mat surface. 3. M. 93. 27, 140, 169, (1949). Y. Kawabata and his collaborators investigated the relation between visibility and some elements of meteorological optics, and that of polarization and visibility. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Kpproved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - V - H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SY5N0 *Y. Kawabata and G. Ishikawa : Visibility and some elements in meteorological optics. J.M.S.J. 26. 43, (1948). *Y. Kawabata and K. Kotani : Polarization and visibility. J.M.S.J. 27, 33, 214, (1948). Studies on the coefficient of turbidity. Geophys. 1, 15, (1930). H. Arakawa investigated the distribution of visibility in the North West Pacific statistically and gave visibility charts for each season. On the visibility in the NW-pacific. P.M.G. 1, 58, (1950). VI. Eclipse Meteorology. For the purpose of investigation of the eclipse on May 9, 1948, the Eclipse Committee was organized in National Research Council of Japan which con- sisted of many members from various branches of natural sciences. Meteo- rological observations were carried out at Wakkanai and Rebun Island, Hokkaido and at various weather stations by members of Tateno Aerological Observatory, Meteorological Institute and geophysical institutes of universities. The provisional reports of the observational results were published in the following pamphlet issued by the Eclipse Committee, National Research Council of Japan in 1948. The provisional reports of the observation of the annular eclipse on May 9, 1948. Final reports of works obtained by members of C. M. 0. were published in the following special issue of Geophsical Magazine. Report of solar eclipse observation May 9, 1948. G.M. 19, 59, (1949). Among other things, the most interesting result obtained by the Tateno- group was as follows: In the lower layer (below 200 m), the temperature fall was remarkable on the surface (4.4?C) and could be detected up to about 700m level. The air pressure seemed to become a minimum about at the maximum obscuration and this feature became more distinct with height. Convergent flow at 703m level and divergent flow above 1000 in level were detected. In the middle atmosphere (200 m-tropoause), no such pressure and temperature changes were found. In the stratosphere, the range of tempera- ture change increased rapidly above 15 km and became a maximum at 18-19 km beyond which they decreased. It is noteworthy that the temperature change during the eclipse was larger than 10?C in the stratosphere. Other papers on the subject are; G. Yamamoto, Yamamoto and B. Sato: The total solar radiation during the annular' eclipse on May 9, 1948. Geophys. 1, 1, (1949). Y. Miyake and K. Saruhashi: The variation of the ultra-violet solar radiation during the eclipse. G.M. 22, 29, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 *Y. Takahasi: On the rainfall accompanying the solar eclipse. B.C.M.O.J. 30, 29, (1949). *Y. Takahasi: On the change of strata-cumulus due to the solar eclipse. B.C.M.O.J. 30, 42, (1949). VII. Physics of precipitation and cloud. S. Ogiwara made serial researches on the fog and cloud particles. The problems investigated were the distribution of diameter of fog particles, the relation between the visibility and the amount of fog, the speed of evapora- tion of fog particles. *Evaporation of fog particles and the relation between the visibility and fog particles. J. M. S. J. 26, 184, (1948). Studies on the evaporation of small drops. Geophys. 1, 30, (1949) (with T. Nakanishi and M. Shiobara). On the temperature of the air and growth of cloud particles in convective clouds. Geophys. 1, 21, (1949). l'On the formation of fog due to advection. J.M.S.J. 27, 224, (1949) (with T. Naka- nishi and M. Shiobara). On the formation of rain drops in clouds which are composed of water. Geophys. 1, 283, (1949). *On the solid condensation nucleus which is not soluble in water. J.M.S.J. 28, 397, (1950). The rate of evaporation from small water drops was Investigated by several authors: Y. Ogura: On the evaporation of water drops. G. N. 1, No. 20, (1948), *G. Yamamoto and A. Miura: On the rate of evaporation of small water drops. J. M. S. J. 21, 257, (1949). M. Tsuji: On the rate of evaporation and condensation of falling drops. G.M. 22, 11, (1950). J. Kobayashi: On the evaporation of a moving small liquid particles. J.M.S.J. 28, 398. (1950). Y. Takahasi investigated the mechanism of the generation of sea fog on the south eastern sea of Hokkaido in detail and proposed a new explanation. *On the mechanism of generation of sea fog in the warm southery air current over the cold Oyashio current. B.C.M.O.J. 30, 1, (1949). He also treated graphically the formation of clouds ox r the frontal surface. *On the graphical method of cloud formation over frontal surface, taking into consid- eration mixing of warm and cold airs. J.M.S.J. 28, 59, (1948). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SYZNO Other paper on the subject are: *H. Matsui: Chemical studies of condensation and sublimation nuclei. J.M.S. J. ?it 169, (1948). *K. Terada : On the coefficient of resistance of a sphere and its falling velocity. J.M.S.J. 26. Special Rep. 70, (1948). *H. Masui : On the effect of rate, of condensation upon the saturated adiabatic process. J. M. S. J. 26, Special Rep. 7, (1948). *I. Fujimura : On the temperature in clouds. J.M.R. 1, 387, (1949). I. Imai: On the velocity of falling rain drops. G.M. 21, 244, (1950). *K. Kamiyarna : On the thickness of clouds. J.M.R. 1, Suppl. Rep. 77, (1950). *Observation of fog particles at Nitta. J.M.R. 1, Supp. Rep. 76, (1950). *H. Watanabe': Investigation of clouds by aerological observation. B.J.A. O. 4, 85, (1949). VIII. Snow and Ice. The study on snow and ice is one of the most important topics to be mentioned regarding meteorology in Japan. The life in more than half of Japan badly suffer from snow. In this period results of several elaborate works were published. U. Nakaya published the final report of his experimental researches on snow in a book form "Studies on Snow" frotn Iwanami-Company in 1949. The Japanese Society of Snow and Ice published a book "Seppyo Ju-nen" (review of recent progress in snow and ice research), which contained various results obtained in Japan during these ten years. Results of serial observations of rime and icing at the mountain weather stations on Mt. Fuji, Mt. Ibuki and Mt. Iwate from Oct. 1938 to May 1941 were published. *Reports on the investigation of nebelfrost (2nd report). J.M.R. 2, 259, (1950). R. S41,/to published an elaborate work on the physics of fallen snow. The main problems investigated are the life-history of snow particles, mechanical properties of snow mass and characteristics of snow layer. Physics of fallen snow. G.M. 19, 1, (1949). L Imai investigated the mechanism of icing and the structure of rime and glaze in detail. *On the incipient .stages of snow crystals. J.M.S J. 2, 78, (1949). *On the similarity law on the model experiment of drift snow. 3.3.S. S. 1. 11, 16, (1949). *On the capture of fog particles by a cylinder. tJ.M.S.J. 28, 149, (1959). *Physical research on icing. B.C.M.O. J. 31, 1, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in japan during 1948-1959 J. Yoshida and D. Kuroiwa proposed a number " Formzahl" for represent- ing the shapes of granules of fallen snow. *On the number which represents the shapes of granules of fallen snow. J.J.S.S.I. 11, 1, (1949). M. Kuroda published a classification of deposited snow investigated by the Deposited Snow Classification Committee. *Report of Fallen Snow Classification Committee. J.J.S.S.I. 11, 6, (1949). The development of frozen layer in water is solved theoretically by Y. Ogura with Pekeris' method, which has been one of the difficult problems in mathematical physics. The result obtained was satisfactory compared with observations. Problem of ice formation. G.N. 1, No. 23, (1948). Another paper on the subject is *T. Ishida, E. Tatara and M. Katsumata: Report of investigation of avalanche of Mt. Fuji on May, 1949. J.M.R. 2, 29, (1950). K. Ito investigated the shape, scale, mass and property of ice pellet. *On the shape of ice pellet. B.T.A.O. 4. 65, (1949). *Scale, number, mass and property of ice pellet. B.T.A.O. 4, 113, (1949). IX. Short-range forecasting and aerological analysis. S. Syono proposed a new method for numerical prediction of some geophysical phenomena especially of upper westerlies. On numerical prediction (I). J.M.S.J. 28, 77, (1950. Forecasting of precipitation and synoptic conditons of precipitation were investigated by many authors. *T. Ochi: Study on precipitation forecasting. J.M.R. 1, (1949). *S. Oki, T. Kawamoto and R. Yamagichi: On the precipitation caused by winter monsoon. J.M.R. 1, Suppl. Rep. 89, (1950. *S. Miyazawa: Studies on the monsoon snow storm by aerological analysis. J.M.R. 1, 287, (1949.) *M. Hanazawa: On the structure and activity of the Siberian Pc Air mass in winter season in the Far East Asia. J.M.S.J. 2, 44, (1949). *T. Hoshino : On the structure of West high, East low type of pressure pattern. J.M.R. 1, 1, 271, (1949). K. Uwai: On the movement of rainfall groups (I). J.M.R. 2, 217, (1950). H. Ueki: On the prediction of late frost. J.M.R. 2, 250, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 31- H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SvoNo X. Long-range forecasting. Though extended and long-range forecasting are at present most difficult and undeveloped fields in meteorology, the extended forecasting gives promise of development owing to the recent progress in the study of the general circulation. On the other hand, the development of long range forecasting is very slow. The reason is, in the writers' opinion, that the physical description of the process concerning the problem is yet obscure. The methods adopt- ed in Japan are mostly based on the periodicity or correlations. Recently, the problems on the year to year climatic change have been attracted atten- tion among Japanese meteorological circle. Extended forecasting: Y. Nakada proposed a method for the extended forecasting. The basic Idea of his method is that the pressure changes are composed of two groups of oscillations, the orie of short periods and the other of longer periods. By taking appropriate means of consecutive values, two groups may be separated. Long-range forecasting by periodicity extrapolation method (preliminary report). G.M. 22, 99, (1948). K. Uwai proposed a method of long-range forecasting by classifying the type of the mean pressure patterns. *A method of prediction of five days amount of snowfall. J.M S. J. 26, 119, (1943). Papers on the subject are: *H. Matsukura : An analysis of heavy rainfall by zonal index. J.M.R. 2. 54, (1950). *Y. Yamashita: Influence of easterly through in Japan. J.M.R. 2, 294, (1950). Seasonal foreshadowing: K. Takahashi suggested the possibility of the foreshadowing by periodgram analysis. *On the possibility of seasonal forecast based on periodgram analysis. J. M. S. J. 27, 370, (1949). Investigations on the subject are: *D. Yazawa : Study of the symmetry characters found on the pressure curves and application of its results to long-range forecasting. J. M. S. J. 26, 227, (1950). I. Fujimura : On the relation of temperature decrease and the height from maen sea level. J.M.R. 1, 397, (1949). S. Saito: Statistical studies of pressure and temperature change in the troposphere. J.M.R. 1, 287, (1948), J.M.S.j. 28, 206, (1950). S. Tojo : On the thermal structure of troposphere over Japan in 1947. G. M. 21, 116, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 J. Misawa : Statistical studies of pressure and temperature changes in the free atmo- sphere. J.M.R. 1, 281, (1949), 2, 226, (1960). XL Climatological studies T. Sekiguchi discussed the problem of representation of the climate and investigated the distribution in Japan of potential evapotranspiration defined by Thornthwaite. On the water balance problem as a method of representation of climate. G. M. 20, 87, (1949). Climatological water balance problem in Japan. G.M. 21, 177, (1950). Introduction of local climatology. G.M. 22. 29, (1950). T. Yamamoto made serial researches on the secular change in the climate of Japan. *On the problem of heat transfer in the neighbourhood of Japan. J.M.S.J. 28, 211, (1950). On the secular change of the climate of Japan. G.M. 21, 249, (1950), 22, 35, (1950). H. Arakawa and J. Tawara investigated statistically the frequency of air masses which appear in Japan. *Air mass calendar. J.M.S.J. 28, 201, (1948). T. Hoshino investigated the distribution of winter precipitation in Japan. *Amount of precipitation at various places in Japan caused by NW-monsoon. J.M.R. 1, 10, (1949). With the increase of upper air observations, climatological studies of the upper air were made by several authors. R. Sawada published elaborate aerological studies on the atmosphere over the Far East. *On the structure of lower atmosphere: B.C.M.O.J. 28, 1, (1948). Other papers on the subjects are: *S. Nakamura and N. Arizumi : Distribution of characteristic curves on the Rossby diagram and statistics of lapse rate in Japan. J.M.R. 1, 311, (1949). *K. Uwai: Weather Analysis of South Eastern Pacific in Winter. J.M.S.J. 26, Pe cial Rep. 12, (1948). *N. Arizumi: On the statistics of the height of the -40?C level. B.T.A.O. 4, 83, (1949). *T. Nagai and Y. Matsuoka : On the tropopause at Tateno. B. T.A.O. 4, 129, (1949). *N. Arizumi and S. Matsubashi: lsentropic analysis in Japan. J.M.R. 1, 318, (1949). *T. Noro: On the relation between the amount of winter precipitation and the harvest. J.M.R. 1, 52, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - 33- H. HATAKEYAMA and S. WIN? *S. Takahashi: The symmetrical variation of winter and summer air temperature. J.M.S.J. 26. 236, (1943). T. Noro : Seasonal foreshadowing of winter in Japan. J.M.R. 2, 80, (1950). *K. Hiyama and T. Tsuruoka : Relation between the total mass of air over northern hemisphere in spring and the air temperature in summer. J.M.R. 1, 102, (1949). *K. Sugiyama and K. Yamada: The trend of margins of Pacific, Okhotsk and conti- nental anticyclones. J.M.R. 1, 219, (1949). *K. Fukada : Studies of seasonal forecasting. B.C.M.O. 84, 111, (1950). *S. Kitazawa : On the mechanism of cool summer and warm winter. J.M.R. 2, 95, (1950). Yearly foreshadowing: Judging from the past experience on the relation between the sunspot activity and the famine, S. Fujiwara suggested that great famine may take place in coming 15 years. *AJlxjety about great famine in Japan accompanied by the great sunspot activity. J.M.S.J. 27, 350, (1949). T. Hasegawa treated the relation between the sunspot activity and the seasonal mean pressure. *Sunspot and pressure variations. J.M.R. 1, 52, (1949). Other papers on the subject are: *K. Uai On the prediction of the maximam snowfall amount (preliminary). J.M.S.J. 26, 5, (1950). *S. Kitazawa : The relation between the displacement of north pole and abnormally low air temperature. J.M.R. 2, 93, (1950). K. Fukuda : On the periodical appearance of abnormally low air temperature in Tohoku district and some particular path of typhoon. G.M. 21, 125, (1950). *T. Takei: Abnormality of upper air temperature in summer. J.M.R. 1, 302, (1949). 1. Nagase : Aerological consideration of the summer drought in 1947. B.T.A.O. 4, 88, (1949). *K. Sakata : A new classification of season. J.M.R. 2, 182, (1950). Besides above articles, technical reports on the long-range forecasting "Journal of Long-range Research Association" and "Studies on Seasonal Forecasting" are issued from the Sendai district meteorological observatory and the Laboratory of Long-Range Forecasting in C. M. 0. XII. Instruments and observation. For the purpose of remote observations of wind, the audiofrequency modulated robots were developed by K. Yakame, F. Kamamoto and S. Kimura. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - 3 4.- Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 *K. Yakams: On a new distant wind-meter. J.M.S.J. 27, 47, (1949). H. Kamamoto and S. Kimura: Wind-direction and speed robot. P. M.G. 1, 77, (1950). Both apparatuses are based on the same principle. The wind direction is measured by the change in frequency of modulated waves and the wind speed is measured by counting the number of signals sent every 100m range of wind course. The frequencies of cat:ier waves and modulated waves are as follows: Yakame's type Kamamoto's type Freq. of C. W. 70 MC 416 MC Freq. of M. W. 55--65 C 55-70 C The studies on wind vane and anemometer by M. Sanuki is one of the elaborathe works in this period.. Studies on biplane wind vanes, ventilator tubes and cup anemometer (1). P. M.G. 1, 81, (1950). His report consists of two parts. in part 1, mathematical treatment of the problems is presented for the two-dimensional case by the method of conformal transformation. In Part II, which is yet unpublished, experimental results based upon the mathematical principles will be described for various actual Instruments. K. Yakame and S. Tsuneoka designed an electric anemometer. *A new design of an electric anemometer. J.M.R. 1, 6, (1949). Prior to this period, aerological observations in Japan had been made with the radiosonde of variable frequency type. But this type had many weak points. K. Isono and his collaborators designed a so-called code type radio- sonde. The characteristics of this sonde are as follows: Frequency 400 MC. meteorological element range number of signals range of error temperature 40?C-- -89?C 120 1?C pressure 780 mmHg-0 mmHg 80 200-300m in height humidity 100 %---20 .% 35 2~3% Since 1950 this type has been adopted by C. M. 0. as the standard radiosonde. *K. Isono and Y. Huziwara : An improved radiosonde. G.M. 21, 127, (1950). G. Yamamoto and his collaborators designed an apparatus for measuring a small atmospheric pressure. *G. Yamamoto, M. Shiotani and M. Tuzawa : An apparatus measuring a small atmo- spheric pressure. J.M.S.J. 26, 190, (1948). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 H. HATAKEYAMA and S. SY?NO M. Ohta designed a nucleus-counter of Aitken type suitable for routine observations and observed the distribution of condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. *On the vertical distribution of condensation nuclei. J.M.S.J. 28, 200, (1950). *On a simple nucleus-counter. J.M.S.J. 28, 157, (1950). Investigation on condensation nuclei. G.M. 21, 208, (1950). J. Kuwana and S. Syono designed an electric height computor based on the principle of Wheatstone bridge for aerological observaitons. *Design of an electric height computor for radiosonde observation. J.M. S.J. 26, Special Rep. 45, (1948). Other reports published concerning meteorological instruments are as follows: *K. isoro : Hot-wire radiosonde (1). J.M.S.J. 28, Special Rep. 17, (1948). Bimetal thermometer for radiosonde. J.M. S.J. 28, Special Rep. 19, (1948). On the bimetal condensor for radiosonde. J.M.S.J. 26, Special Rep. 19, (1948). *K. Yuasa: On a new design of radiobarograph for radiosonde (1). J.M.S.J. 21, Special Rep. 47, (1948). *D. Sagara and K. Tsukamoto: Test of an automatic weather station. J.M.R. 3, 1, (1950). *R. Kitaoka, S. Arai, S. Ishihama and Y. Okoshi : On the joint aerological observation on July, 1947. B.T.A.O. 4, 56 (1949). *H. Tsubota : Relation between the inclination of a streamer and wind velocity. J.M.S.J. 28, 352, (1950). *G. Yamamoto and A. Yamamoto: Effect of wind velocity on the psychrometer con- stant. j.M.S.J. 26, Special Rep. 54, (1948). On the relation between the time-lag and the wind velocity. J.M.R. 1, 2, (1948). I. Inoguchi Nomogram for the calculation of wind velocity in a wind tunnel. J.M. S.J. 26, 21, (1948). *K. Kamiya and K. Shiraki : The observation of dust in Tokyo. J.M.S. J. 28, Special Rep. 23, (1948). *S. Ooi : A trial of production of a synchronising apparatus for automatic recorder. J.M.S.J. 26, Special Rep. 10, (1948). *T Kijima : On the wind velocity through the Assmann's aspirating thermometer. J. M.R. 1, 47, (1949). *S. Kamitoshi, K. Hashimoto, N. Tsude and Y. Uno : On the hot-wire Aanemometer for the strong wind. J.M.R. 1, 144, (1949). *S. Sakagishi and R. Koike Range-finder and its application. J.M.R. 1, 326, (1949). *S. Sakai and F. Maeda: On the ground effect on the rawin-observation. J.M.R. 1, 332, (1949). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002.-4 ?36- Meteorological Researches in Japan during 1948-1950 *S. Miura: Height computor and nomogram for computation of height. J.M.R. 1, 341, (1949). 41 Kimura: On the topographic effect on the pibal observation. J. M. R. 1, 406, (1949). *K. Katniyama A contribution to the vertical visibility observation. J.M.R. 1, Special Rep. 126, (1949). On the correction term of visibility observed by Wigand's visibility-meter. J.M.R. 1, Special Rep. 128, (1949). *T. Miura: On the correction of read values of self-recording anemometer. J. M. R. 1, Special Rep. 137, (1949). *T. Terada, M. Tsuji and M. Kulaaki : Design of inductance type hygrometer. J.M.R. 2, 36, (1950). *S. Kasahara : Nomogram for computation of density and its application. J.M.R. 1, Special Rep. 82, (1950). *K. Yanagiya : On the method of observation of earth temperature in cold but poor snow district. J.M.R. 2, 74, (1950). *M. Abe: Practical use of the whole-sky kinematograph. J.M.S.J. 28, (1950). XIII. Meteorological Calamities. Besides typhoons, various kinds of meteorological calamities often attack and cause considerable damages in Japan. Warning for these calamities have been issued from C. M. 0. Recently the investigations of meteorological calamities have been attracting the interest and attention among Japanese meteorologists. In 1949, C. M. 0. compiled chronological table of meteorological calamities in Japan. Papers on the subject are: On Conflagration: *T. Hoshino : Studies on the criterion of fire-warning. J.M.R. 1, 127, 132, 134, 136. (1949). *S. Daidoji and S. Murooka: Weather charts in case of big fires. J.M.R. 2, 119, (1950). On Flood: *S. Daidoji : On the forecasting Of flora. J.M.R. 1, 381, (1949). *Y. Daigo and E. Maruyarna : The remarks on the observation of precipitation for flood forecasting. J.M.R. 2, 191, (1950). On Crop Damage: *H. Sekiya: The briny wind damage ahd Mechanism. J.M.R. 2, 169, (1950). I. Kiinura : Ott the dainttge of rice-plant by foehn. J.M.R. 1, 152, 157, (1949), 2, 129, (1950). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -37- GRE CE Activit e Meteorologioue en Grece de 1939 1951 Par le Prof E. G. Mariolopoulos En Grece les Services et Institute Tui s'occupentde Meteorologic: scot les suivants: I? Service National Meteorologioue (Minist6re de la Defence 20 Institut Neteorologique de l'Observatoire National d'Athenes. 60 Institut heteorologioue de l'Universite d'Atnenes. 4? Institut Meteorologique de l'Universite de Thessaloniki. Le Service National Meteorologique sloccupe de la heteorologie Synoptique et d'Aerologie, de la Climatologie et de la Meteorologie Agricole, tandls que les trois autres Institute s'occupent de la Climatologie et des Recherches sur in Meteorologic. Dynamique. Malheureusement ',occupation du pays par les forces de l'Axe a suspendu pendant des annees-l'oeuvre des etablissements meteorologiques de la Grece, et c'estseu- lement apras la liberation qu'ils ont repris leur activite, qui peut kredecri- . te sommairement comp il suit: Meteorologie Synoptique et Aerologie. Aprh la liberation du pays, cette branche de la Science, dont s'occupe seul le Service National Metdorologique, a ete reconstituee sur des bases nouvelles avec du materiel nouveau. Actuellement cette Section comprend_un bureau du temps, un centre de reception des messages, et une Section de radiosondage a Hellenikon (Aeroport civil d'Athenes) effectuant deux radiosondages par lour. II Climatologie La Section Climatologique du Service Meteorologique National a reinstalle et re- eaulpe avec du materiel nouveau les. Postes Meteorologiques qui, pendant ',occu- pation du pays, ont ete detruits. Une collaboration etroite existe entre le Ser- vice Meteorologique et les Ministares de ',Agriculture et des Travaux Publics afin quill puisse repondre A leurs demandes. L'Institut Metdorologique de l'Observatoire National d'Athenes a continue les observations meteorologiques a l'Observatoire et aux Postes y annexes qui se trouvent dans la ville d'Athenes et en Attique. Le but principal de cet Institut pendant et apres l'occupation etait la preparation dune etude extensive sur la Climatologie d'Athenes, entreprise par le Directeur de ',Institut (Prof. MArio- lopoulos) et basee sur les donnees de la periode 1861 - 1940. En outre, l'etude du climat du pays en general, a fait l'objet de plusieurs me- moires publies par le Directeur de l'Institut et sea collaborateurs. Une seconde edition de l'oeuvre du Prof. Mariolopoulos 'Le Climat de la Grace", qui a servi comme base a l'oeuvre homonyme du Prof. A. Philippson, est en preparation. Les Institute Meteorologiques des Universites d'Athanes et de Thessaloniki, is -premier sous la direction du Prof. Mariolopoulos et le second du Prof. S. Syria- zopoulos, ont reprisces dernieres annees leur activite sur la Climatologie. A ',Institut de l'Universite d'Athenes une carte pluviometrique de la Grece,ba- see our la periode des .observatiens de 1901-1940, suivie d'une etude detainee Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -38- sur les oluies de la Grace, est sous presse. De mke. une serie d'autres 4tudes climatioues a ete publiees et d'autres sont en preparation Par le directeur et le personnel de l'Institut. A l'Universite de Thessaloniki, l'etude du climat de cette ville et de is Grace du Nord, commencee en 1928 par le Prof. Mariclopoulos lore de son stage a cette Universite, se poursuit avec succes oar le nouVeau ProTetsenr-de cette Universite M.B. Kyriazopoulos. El Meteorologie Agricole L'occupation a suspendu toute activite de cette Section du Service National Me- teorologioue. On compte prochainement recommencer a fournir les renseignements meteorologioues destines a l'Agriculture. IV Recherches sur la Meteorologie Dans cette branche s'occupent surtout l'Institut Feteorologioue de l'Observatoi- re et les deux Instituts Universitaires. Malheureusement, id i encore, l'occupa- tion a suspendu tout travail. L'Observatoire National d'Athanes vient d'etablir une Station de Rayonnement, afin de fournir les donneesessentielles cur le climatsolaire. Par ailleurs, a l'Institut de l'Universit4 de Thessaloniki, le Prof. Kyria7,o- poulos a continue ses recherches sur le phenomene de la ros4e. SUISSE F4riode 1948? 1951 LISTE DES INSTITUTS SUISSES TOCCUPANT DE METEOROLOGIE ET DE. SCIENCES CONNEKES (3C311.) Station Centrale Suisse de h4tdorologle. Zurich - Directeur: Jean Lua'eon Instituts dependants (PAP) Poste aerologioue de Payerne - Chef du Poste: P. Ackermann (OTL) Osservatorio Ticinese Locarno-Monti- Chef dela Station: Ch,Thams Aer000rt Zurich-Kloten - Chef du poste Meteorologloue: G. Gensler Aeraport Geneve-Cointrin - Chef du Poste meteoro'ogique: Ph. Tripet Instituts independants (PMOD) Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - Chef: W, Morikofer (LKOA) Lichtklimatisches Observatorium Arosa - Chef: F. Goetz (AMAB) Astronomisch-Meteorologische Anstalt der UniversitKt Basel Chef de la section meteorologique: M. Bider (SMV) Service meteorologique cantonal vaudois : P. Mercanton Instituts des sciences connexes (ENA) Institut federal pour l'etude de la neige et des avalanches Davos-Weissfluhjoch - Chef: M. de Quervain (SFL) Station federaled'essais viticoles et arboricoles.Lausanne-Directeur. R. Galley (EVW) EidgenOssische Versuchsanstalt fUr Obst-, Wein- und Gartenbau, WA-dehwiu Directeur: F. Kobel (EPF) Ecole Polytechnique Federale - Zurich. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -39- 'Llactivite scIentifioue des sus-dites institutions interesse les cnabitres sui- vents: manuels, sours, precis, traites et articles de vulgarisation, instrumPnts meteorologioues, procedes graphiques, monographes, etc., b 1'usaa de is meteo- rologic nratinue, aerologie, radio-meteorologte at electricite n.t.mospnerieue, composition at structure Is l'atmosphere et phenom6nes optioues, mecaninue et thermodynamieue le l'atmosphere en general, Perturbations, masses ''Jir et f-,:ats, etudes synoptioues, situations meteorologiques Particull6res, a is. synoptique et A is climatologie, biometlorologie at biocilmatologie, Y- Orologie agricole et nhenologie, radiation et temperature IS l'air, vnt,nuages, brouillard, vaneur d'eau, precipitations, orages, etude Is la nele, giaciolm2,1m, meteorologie -et climatologie aeronautique. Il a ete nubile 233 notices et livres entre les assemblees d'Oslo et Bruxelles. Les titres de ces tra.sux sont inseres dans la bibliographie des "Annalen der Schweizerischen Meteorologi.schen Zentralanstalt" 1948, 1949, 1950, Par ailleurs, un bulletin bibliographique contenant des analyses des travaux publies en Suisse ou concernant la meteorologic suisse, a 4'64 institue en 1948.. Ce bulletin est offert sur demands, gratuitement, par la Station Centrals Suisse de YeteorolOgle; On peu t 'so reporterP".c ?Our- compI4te31.. oi6m1:6 n Tces ant -ra.rolort ',;11tSsa. Lo 3tation .e.ntrale Alisse de Neteorologie, dont le siege est a Zuricr, a reu un nouveau b6.timent en 1949 et un parc instrumental,ot Is nouvelles rechPrcnes expe- rimentales sont entreprises, particulibrement en meteorologie agricole in 1050 eut lieu, S la Station Aerologique Is Payerne, une reunion imoortantegroupant les experts d'une dizaine de pays, pour la comparaisonmondiale des radiosondes. Les resultats de cette experience unique en son genre dans les annales Is la.meteorologie, ont Cod polycopies en deux volumes Is 450 pages, didtribues a tous les offices me- t4orologiques du monde, ainsi qu'aux specialistes interesses. LI activite de 1' Obse rva to ire physico-meteorologique de Davos se rapporte aux trois do- me Ines differents: recherche du rayonnement, clime tologie medicale et aropliquee,met onathologie. a) RECHERCHE DU RAYONNEMENT Les t-svau- de l'observatoire ant suivi partiellement le programme que la Com- mission du '),eyonnement de l'A.I.M. s'est pose dans sa s?ce d'Oslo. Plusieurs travau7 traitent des noints Is vue theoriques de la pyrheliometrie et notamment de la nyrheliometrie absolue; des dispositifs de construction ant contribue4ga- lement a 12 nyrhellometrie absolue, mais on n'a pas Pu vouer beaucound'activite a la construction (Pun nouveau pyrheliomtre standard. Selon les desirsexprimes a Oslo par l'A.I.M. et Par sa Commission du Rayonnement, MM, P. Courvoisieret H. Wier?,elewski se sont occupes du problme Is la mesure du bilan Is rayonnement de la terre; on a developpe la theorie d'un bilan-metre, on a fait des mesures systematiques sur is probleme de la transmission de chaleur sur des surfaces ventilees et on a fini par construire un tout nouveau modle ventile d'un bi- lanmetre de rayonnement. Le premier instrument de ce type se trouve depuis le commencement de 1950 a l'Antarctique, dans les mains d'une expedition norvego- suedo-britannique, une autre eerie est en construction. De nouveaux filtres Is verre de Schott ant ete etudies levant l'actinombtre, ce qui represente egale- ment un desir de la Commission du Rayonnement de l'A.I.M. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -40- La thdorie et la construction du Pyranomatre sph4rigue de Bellani ont dtd ddve- loppdes dans l'intention d'amdliorer l'exactitude de cet instrument int4grateur. Le probleme de la ddterminatton des composantes du trouble atmosphdrigue a etd 6tudid et employ a des sdries actinomdtrigues (W. SchuePP). b) Climatologie medicale et appligude La th4orie, la construction et l'emploi en climatologie du frigorimetre pour la mesure du degr6 de rdfrigdration ont dtd tralt6s dans plusienrs travaux (Ch. Henneberger, H. Wierzejewski). Des publications ont trait4 de la climatologie locale, la climatologie de stations do cure (W.Morikofer)etla climatologie de l'dtable. c) M4t4oropathologie La sensibilit4 pour la temps gui joue un role important dans le climat de la Suisse a fait l'objet de recherches tendues. Des points de vne thdoriques et physigiles, canine les oscillations de pression et leur enregistrement avec des variographes, les oscillations dlectrigues de haute frequence et le probleme de l'irruption des oh6nomenes extdrieurs h. l'interieur des maisons ont 4t4 dtudids fond (P. Courvoisier, W. SchuepP) et la ph4nomdnologie de la sensibilit4 pour le temps et sp4cialement pour le foehn alpestre a dt6 discutde (W. MOrikofer). LISTE DES PERSONNES AYANT PUBLIE DES TRAVAUX EN METEOROLOGIE OU SCIENCES CONNEXES ENTRE LES ASSEMBLEES D'OSLO Ackermann P. Ambilhl, E. Ambrosetti, Baatard, F. Bader, H. Bangs, S. Bener, P. Bider, M. Billwiller, R. Bohnenblust, M. Bois, Ch. Bossolasco, M. Bout, M. Brunner-Hagger, W. Bucher, E. Cannegieter, H. G. Cena, G. Courvoisier, P. Currey, N. S. Darbre, P. Drotschmann, H. Diftsch, H, Dyrenfurth, G. 0, Eichenberger, IA; Erztnger, FiCr..H von. Fleisch, A Flohn,H- Florin, a Frey, K. Fritzsche, E. Galley, R. Gensler, G. A. Gockel, P. Gatz, F. W. P. Groissmayr, B. Guyot, E, Hafelin, J. Henneberger, Ch. Hess, A. Hillischer, H. Hottinger, H. HUrlimann, H. John, J. F. Jost, W. Jucker, W. 3T DE BRUXELLES Kasser, P, Kaufmann.. P. A. Kiittner, J, Kuhn, W, Lammert, A. Lasch, H. R. Lautensach, H. Leemann, W. Lion, A LUdi, W. Lugeon, J. Mercanton, P. L. Ming, J. Moller, F, Morikofer, W. Muralt, A, von Nagel, J. L. Oechslin, L. Perl, 3. Quervain, N. de. Hegel, C. Renaud, A Roch, A. Rod, E. SN.nger, R. Schneider, R. Schilepp, M. Schliepp, W. Staub, H. Streiff, R. Studer, W. Sfisstrunk, A. Swoboda, G. Tetrode, P. Thams, J. C. Uttinger, H. Verzar, F, Waldmeier, M. Walthard, K. M. Weber, O. Wierzejewski, H Zenone, E. Zingg, Th Zoller, H. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -41- BELGIQUE L'Activit4 Meteorologique en Belgioue de 1948 a 1951 Tine grande part est laissde a l'initiative individuelle dans le domaine de la recherche mdtdorologique en Belgique. Chacun dtudiant seul, ou en collaboration, des r,roblemeslibrement choisis, l'activitd est orientde dans de nombreuses di- rections etilSt?aSsez'diffiblle,de'donnerune idde gdndrale d'ensemble des travaux effectuds.- Afin de ddgager les tendances qud se cont fait Jour, en Belgi- que, au cours des trols dernieres anndes, nous avons group d les travaux en un certain nombre de cat4gories choisies parmi les grandes subdivisions habituel- lement cons1d4rdes en mdtdorologie. 1) CLIMATOLOGIE GENERALE De Backer, S. Vest intdressd aux problemes de microclimatologie en rapport avec les phdnomenes biologiques et, en particulier, aux mdthodes modernes de mesure dans ce domaine (I.R.M., Misc,, n?32, 1948; Scientia, 43, 1949?pp.51-54; Colloque int, dcologie, Paris, 1950). Sneyers, R. a attird l'attention sur un principe gdndral qui contient une md- thode de rdsolution de toute une classe de problemes de climatologie (Bu111.8oc. Neuchateloise Sc. Nat., 71, 1948, Pp. 123-130; C. et T., 65, 1949, pp. 196-195). Poncelet, L, a montrd quo la pseudoaugmentation rdguliere des prdcipitations Bruxelles-Uccle dtait due aux changements des conditions de mesure (Ille Congres nat. sciences, Bruxelles 1950) ques notables se sont produits et Vandenplas, A., que des changements climati- a cette station au cours de la pdriode de 1833 a 1947 2) (I.R.M., Misc,, n? CLIMATOLOGIE LOCALE 35, 1948), a) BELGIQUE: Baes, L. et Joukoff A. ont publid un"Rapport sur la vitesse du vent en Belgique considdrde au point de vue du calcul des constructions" (Bru- xelles, 1949). Godart, 0, s'est occupd de certains aspects du climat belge (R.V.A., Bull. mens., juin-aofit, Pp; I-XXV1E1, 1950) et Quoil1n, M., du brouil- lardet du vent acertains adrodromes (Id., janv., pp, 1-9, fdvr., pp. 1-26,1950). b) CONGO BELGE: Vandenplas, A. a poursuivi 1,4tude systdmatique du climat de notre colonie et publid les donndes relatives a l'humiditd, 1,4vaporation, l'in- solatIon at 1r1 ndbulositd (Bull. agr. Congo belge, 39 1948, pp. 305-325; Mdm., n?33, 1949). Il cost dgalement intdressd de l'influence de la tempdrature et de l'humidit4 de lair sur les possibilitds d'adaptation de la race blanche au Congo belge (Inst. roy. col. belge, mdm., t.19, face. 1, 1950). Dec travaux sur la climatologie du sol ont 4t4 prdsentes a la Confdrence afri- caine des sols (Goma, 1948) par Bernard, E,. Goedert,R4 Portiere,R, Ringoet,A, Thomas,R et Vandenplas,A (Bull. agr, Congo belge, 40, mars et juin 1950). Citons 4galement des dtudes climatiques spdciales par Bernard, E. sur les don- rides dcoclimatologiques a Yangambi (Inst. roy. col. belge, Bull. Sdances, 19, 1948, pp. 165-209), par Fraselle, E. sur le probleme des cycles en climatologie congolaise 21, 1950, pp. 245-247), par Thomas, R. sur le classement des formations congolaises a vdgdtation arborescente (Bull. agr. Congo belge, 41, 1950, Pp. 373-.397) par Regnier, E. sur le rdgime pluviom4trique dans la provin- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/419 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ce de Costermansville (Id., 39, 1948, pp. 875-887) et par VandenDlas, A. sur la s r4partitIon verticale des pr4cipitations dans les r6gions montagneuses le Vest du Congo Beige (Id., 39, 1948/ po.77-100). Cette derniere auestion a 4t4 4gale- meat examin4e Dar Bultot, F. (I.N.E.A.C., Bur. Cl1m., COM7. n?1, 1950) qui a aussi 4tabli une carte des r4gions climatioues de notre l'aDres les criteres de K6ppen (Id., comm. n?2, 1050). 3) CLIMATOLOGIE MEDICALE Konings, L. et J. , Pastiels,R. et Poncelet,L. ont present4, a la Premiere Assem- bide Internationale d'41ectronique mddicale (Bruxelles, 1948) des communications se rapportant respectivement a l'ionisation atmosphdrlaue, au climat solaire ul- tra-violet et aux rapports entre la climatologIe et la m4decine. 4) CLIMATOLOGIE AGRICOLE De Backer,S. a fait un expos4 g4n4ral sur les applications de la m4t4orologie A l'agriculture (Journ. Soc. Agr. Belgique, M.S., t.3, 1947, pp. 6-32). One de ces applications, l'influence du temps sur la culture des betteraves, a 6t4 sp4cialement 4tudi4e au cours des trois dernieres annees. L'aspect agrono- mique de la question a 6t4 examin4 par Decoux,L. (Publ. :nst. beige am4lioration Se la betterave, 18, 1950, pp. 229-254) et Ernould,L. (Id , 18, 1950,pp.150-177), l'aspect m4tdorologique par Vandenplas,A (I.R.S., Misc., n?41, 1950). Lardinois,E, a pub114 les observations ph4nologiques faites h Uccle (C.et T. 66, 1950, pp. 45-47; 67, 1951, DP. 23-26). 5) THERMODYNAMIQUE ATMOSPHERIQUE Van Mieghem,J. et Dufour,L. oat fait un expos4 rationnel d'ensemble de la ther- modynamique de l'atmosphere. Get expos4 comprend une partie th4orliTue, dans la- auelle 11 a 6t6 tenu compte des travaux r6cents sur la thermodynamiaue des sys- temes ouverts et PolYthermes, et une partie r4servee aux applications oU les auteurs se sont efforc4s de montrer toute la souplesse de la thdorie. (I.R.S., Mem. n? 30, 1948). Defrise,P. s'est int4ress4 aux diagrammes adrologlaues en songeant aux exigen- ces essentiellesdeleur emploi dans le travail journaller (I.R.M.,Misc.,n?33,1948). 6) RAYONNEMENT Nicolet,M. a montr4 cue l'effet du rayonnement est pratiquement imm4diat sur le sol nu, si Men que la.temp4rature au niveau du sol nu peut gtre identifi6e a celle a 1 cm sous le sol (I.R.S., Misc., n?38, 1949). Il a 4galement d4fini le rayonnement re9u au niveau du sol par tree beau temps en Belgique en partant des formules classiqUes du rayonnement total (I.R.S., Mdm., n?32, 1949). En collaboration avec BOssy,L.,,11 a d4termin4, A l'aide de cette d4finition, l'ensoleillement en cal./min./cm sur divorces surfaces ori- entees (Id., n?38, 1950) et, en collaboration avec Dogniaux,R., 11 est parvenu, en tenant compte des dur4es d'Insolation fourn1es par un ft4liographe, A 6tablir de nouvelles formules fournissant les donnees du clImat solaire, lesquelles tiennent compte des conditions atmosph6riques (Id., n?40, 1950). 7) DYNAMIQUE ATMOSPHERIQUE Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -43- Van Mieghem,J, a 4tendu, au cas du mouvement permanent, horizontal et isobare Se l'air, la, mdthode dynamique qui a conduit au seuil de l'instabilitd du cou- rant gdostrophique (I.R.M., Mem., n?28, 1948). Il a applioud le critere d'ins- tabilit4 trouvd a la dynamique du "jet stream" (Arch. Net. Geoph. und Biokl., A,1, 1948, no. 143-148) at montrd que les dtats dynamiques simples de l'atmo- sphere obdissent a un principe d'extremum, qui est un minimum dams le cas de la stabilitd et un maximum dans le cas de l'instabi1it4 (Id., A,1,1948,pp.347-357). Van Miegnem,J. a dgalement dtudid les bilans dnergdtiques at de la quantitd de mouvement et montrd que le flux de Jeffreys de it quantit4 de mouvement est as7 socid a un flux de mine sens de l'energie cindtique (Journ. scient. mdt.,1,1949, PP. 53-67). Il a ddduit, des dquations de la dynamique et de la thermodynamique, prdalablement raises sous la forme de bilans, qua le flux de chaleur du a la tur- bulence suivant it verticale est compatible avec le second principe de in ther- modynamiqUe (I.R.M., Mdm?n?34, 1949). Il a aussi obtenu, A partir de ces dqua- tions mines sous is forme de bilans, les expressions du flux et du faux de pro- duction des bilans du moment cindtique absolu et de l'4nergie mdcanique et donn4 quelques applications de ces expressions (An. Geoph.,6,1950,pp.227-237). Citons encore, sur cette question, l'dtude de Vanderberghe,A. sur l'advection de la Ouantit4 de mouvement de lair a travers les lignes de courant etle'sisobares du- ne surface deniveauduchamdela pesanteur(Iae Congras nat. sciences, Bruxelles, 1950). Van MAeghem a aussi critiqud l'interprdtatiOn que l'on fait habituollement du thdoreme de is. circulation de Bjerknes at mis en dvidence les facteurs qui con- tribuent a la formation dune circulation transverSale (Tellus,2,1950,pp.52-55).. Ce thdoreme a 4t4 g4n4ralis4 par De Decker,P. en se basant sur les proPridtds des invariants intdgrauxde E,Cartan Congres nat. sciences, Bruxelles, 1950). Les 4quat1ons de la dynamique atmosphdrique ont fait l'objet de plusieurs tra- vaux. De Decker,P. a montrd la n4cessit4 de tenir compte, a 1,4chelle synopti- oue, de la courbure des surfaces de niveau du champ de it pesanteur (Arch. Net. Geoph. und Biokl, A,2,1950,pp,223-238). Van Mieghem,J. a dtudid le mouvement isobare a l'aide des 4quations exprim4es en variables horizontalesx,y et de la press ion p au lieu de la verticale z (Id, 2,1950,pp.65-72) at, en collaboration avec Vandenplas,A.,a dcrit les dquatlons Ondrales de la dynamique atmosphdrique sous forme eul4rienne et rotationnelle dans un systeme de coordonndes curvilignes mobiles qui se ddforme dans le temps, dquations quill ont aPPliquhs a la dyna- mique Tu tourbillon circulaire (I.R.S., 54m., n? 41, 1950). Lahaye,E, s'est int4ress4 aux 4quations du mouvement des flujdes parfaits et visqueux en s'attachant aux restrictions imposdes par les conditions auxlimites sur la surface avec laquelle le fluide est en contact. Il en a ddduit, pour le cas dun mouvement permanent, que le tourbillon est proportionnel a la vitesse (I.R.M., Mdm , n? 38, 1950). Van den Dungen,F, Cox,J. at Van Mieghem,J. ont montr4 que l'dtude de la varia- tion Moyenne annuelle de la rdoartition de pression a it surface du globe et celle des 4changes de quantitd de mouvement entre l'atmosphere et le globe permettent d'expliquer une partie importante des fluctuations saisonnieres de la rotation du globe (Ac. roy, Belgique. Bull. Cl. Sciences, Te sdr., t. XXXV, Pp.642-655, t. XXXVI, 1950, DP. 388-402), Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -44- Signalons encore que Bultot,F. a etabli la formule de Margules pour l'inclinal- son d'une surface de discontinulte par un nouveau procede Congres nat. sciences, Bruxelles, 1950) et Van Mieghem,J.,les equations approchees de la dy- namique des ondulations de grcnde loW;uqur l'onde du courant geostrophique zonal desquelles 11 a dedult que les nyflotnse7 simplificatrices habituellement admi- ses cant generalement inacceptables (i.a.m., Mem., n? 39, 1950). Ce dernier a egalement etabli le tenseur de Reynolds et le critere de la turbulence laterale en supposant que celle-ci est un mouvement d'agitation a deux dimensions dans les surfaces isentroPiques (Kon. Vi. Acad., Med. Kl. Wet., XII, n? 14, 1950). 8) CIRCULATION ATMOSPHERIQUE GENERALE ET PREVISION DU TEMPS De Backer,S. a donne des resultats 1'observa7;ions faites dans plusieurs regions de l'Afrique (I.R.H., Misc., n? 62, 1948); Defrise,P. a etudie le granhique donnant revolution de lignes caracteristiques de de l'atmosphere pendant un certain temps (IIIe Congres nat.sciences,Bruxelles,1950); Dufour,L.a fait une etude critique des differen-:es methodes qui ant eta:" proposees pour resoudre le problame de la Prevision a longue ecneance (I.R.M., Misc., n?39,1950); Poncelet,L. a montre que les variations de is vitesse ascentionnelle calculee lors du depouillement des radio-sondes ne neuvent que difficilement s'expliquer par des causes adrodynamiques et doivent "etre attribuees a des erreurs dans les donnees de la pression (IIIe Congres nat. sciences, Bruxelles, 1950); Van Mieghem,J. s'est interesse a certains aspects de la circulation atmospheri- que generale (I.R.M.,misc.,n? 34, 1948; C. et T., 66, 1950, pp, 12-22 ; Kon. Vi. Acad., Med. El. Wet., 11, n? 3, 1949). 9) DIVERS L'organisation de la meteorologie au Congo beige a fait l'ob3et de deux publi- cations; lune due A Bernard,E. et Van der E,st,N. (Bull. Agr. Congo beige, 39, 1948, pp. 77-100), l'autre a De Backer,S. (Inst. roy, col. beige. Bull. Sean- ces, 19, 1948, pp. 239-246). Quelques questions se rapPortant A la meteorologie aeronautic:me ant ete exami- nees par Godart,O.,Van den Dungen,F. et Van Mieghem,J. Le Premier s'est ?coupe du vol optimum isobarique et de l'altimetrie et la separation verticale des avions en vol dans la zone de contrele Bull- mens., mars 1950, pp. 3-11;avr. 1950, pp.1-12, le second, des travaux des foniqteprs le la tneorie du vol de navigation, n? 2, 1949), et Is troisieme iu vol optimum bulence de l'atmosonere (Id., n? 1, 1949; r? 6, 19-50). Signalons egalement nue l'Institut roya1 74teorologiqUe I publie, en 1950, un Vocabulaire meteorologinue francals-neerlInlais et neerlandals-framcals. optimum ( Centre beige et des zona le tur- 10) HISTOIRE DE LA MFTOROLOSIY Dufour,L. a nubile une "Csnuisse dune hlstoire de la meteorologie en Belgique" (I.R.M.,Hisc.,n?40, 1950) qui est une etude critique et comparative de Phistoire de la meteorologie en Belgique des origines a la fin de la guerre de 1939-1945. Il a egalement montre que les besoins d'ordre pratique ant dtd l'occasion, mais non la cause, des progras de cette science durant ces derniares annees (Arch. Int. hist. sciences, 1, 1948, pp. 286-290). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ?45? Signalons dgalement les dtudes spdciales national des sciences (Bruxelles, 1960): mat de la Belgique, par Dufour.L.; sur la cueillies h Bruxelles au 19e si?e, par rologie au Congo beige par Vandenplas,A. que beige au Congo (1890) par Letroye,A. 11) NECROLOGIE suivantes, prdsentdes au tie Congrbs Sur lee premieres descriptions du c:11 vtleur des donndes mdtdorologiques re? Sneyers,R.; sur l'histoire de la mdtdo- et sur la premiere mission scientifi? Le 28 janvier 1950 est mort h Uccle Emile Vanderlinden, ancien membre titulaire du Comitd national de gdoddsie et de gdophysique. Docteur en sciences naturelles de l'Universit4 libre de BrUxelles, 11 entra h l'Observatoire en 1891 et fut affect d an Service mdtdorologique. Ii sloccupa d'abord de synoptique et see premiers travaul, perm' lesquels 11 convient de ot? ter son "Etude sur]AlLmarche des cirrus dansies cyclones et lee ahticyclones"(An? nualre mdt. Obs. 1003, pp. 155-210; 1904, pp. 242-288), se rapportent k cette partie de in mdtdorologie. A partir de 1906, 11 se consacra uniquement h in climatologie. See travaux dans ce domains sont nombreux et traitent sUrtoUt de la phdnologie vdgdtale. Parmi ces travaux, les plus connus sent: "Etude sur les foUdroiements d'arbres eons? tats en Belgique" (Annales mdt. Obs.,t.XX, 1909) et "Etude sur les phdnombnes pdriodlques de la vdgdtation dans leurs raPpOrts aVec les variations climati? ques" (Recueils Inst. Bot. L. Errera, t.VII, 1010, pp. 247-324). En ce qui con? cerne la climatologie de notre pays, Vanderlinden avait prdpard un travail d'en? semble dont tine seule partie, celle relatiVe h la pluie, a iti publide (I.R.M., Mem., n? 2, 1927). Ce mitiorologiste est igalftint l'auteur d'une "Chron1que des dvenements mdtdorologiques en Belgique jusqU'en 1834" (Acad. roy. Belgique Mimoires in-4?, Cl. Sciences, 2e sir., t.V, 1924). Mai 1961, L. Dufour. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ?46? PROGRAMME DE LA JOURNEE DU JEUDI 25 AOUT Association Internationale de M4t4oro1ogie Symposium sur la Physique des Nuages President: Prof. T. Bergeron T. BERGERON, (Uppsala): Short general survey. Quantitative syncptic Studies of precipitation. S. OGIWARA,(Japan):On the said condensation nucleous which is not soluble in water. K. ITO, (Japan): On the Ice Crystals in the air. On skeleton shaped depth Hoar. H. DESSENS, (Observatoire du Puy?de?D6me): Experiences de modification de nua? ges dans les Pyrenees. F. H. LUDLAM, (imperial College, London): The natural and artificial production of showers. B. J. MASON, (Imperial College, London): A. W. BREWER, (Oxford): Ice nuclei of rain formation. Ross GUNN, (U.S. Weather Bureau): A pressurized shaft for the study of artifi? cial clouds and precipitation Mechanics. M. KIVEL/OVITCH et J. ROULLEAU, (Paris): Evolution des gouttes d'eau. E.G.BOWEN,(Australia):Radar observations of rain and mechanisms of rain formation. L.DUFOUFt,(Bruxeles):Surla condensation de la vapeur d'eau dans l'atmosphere. M.AZPIROZ,(San Sebastian): La afinidad &i procesos termodinamicos de interes me? teorologic?. A. VIAUT, (Paris): Projection eventuelle de photographies de nuages en couleur. Visite de l'Institut Royal M6teoro1ogique de Belgique Jeudi 2 mit A. 17h. Presentation d'une nouvelle radiosonde et lancer exparimental, par: A. HAUER, J.L. LEISTRA, R.J. RITSMA, H.v. SUCHTELEN, M.van TOL, et H.J.A. VESSEUR. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 , Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -47- PROGRAMME DE LA JOURNEE DU VENDREDI 24 AOUT Association Internationale de Magnetisme et d' Electricit4 Terrestres Association Internationale de Met4oro1ogie Symposium sur la Physique de la Haute Atmosphere et de l'Io3aosphere President: Prof. J. Kaplan AVANT-MIDI (10h) 1. F.L. Whipple, (Harvard College Observatory): Results of Rocket and Meteor Reseach. (50min.). 2. M. Nicolet, (Inst. Royal Meteorologique de Belgique): Interaction between Solar Radiation and the Earth's Atmosphere. (50 min.). APRES - MIDI (1411) 1. L. Vegard, (Oslo): Experimental Results of Auroral Research (30 min.) 2. S. Chapman, (Oxford): The Aurora (30 min.) 3. D.R. Bates, (University College, London): Basic Reactions in the Upper Atmo- sphere (50 min.) 4. H.G. Booker, (Cornell University): Motions in the High Atmosphere and Iono- sphere (30 min.) (*) 5. K. Weekes, (Cambridge): Notions in the High Atmosphere and ionosphere-(30m.)(*) Association Internationale de Met4oro1ogie SEANCES: L'AVANT - MIDI ET L'APRES - MIDI DU 24 Climatologie F.E. Dixon, (Eire): The annual precipitation at Dublin. F.K. Hare, (Canada): Recent researches on snow and sea-ice d%stribution in the Eastern Canadian Artie. H.J. Jordt, (Danemark): The air temperature at the French ice-cape station in Greenland and the free air. M.A. Thomas, (Canada): Diurnal variations or precipitation frequency in Canada. D.Justin Schove,(Grande-Bretagne): South Steering of pressure fluctuations A.D. 1850-1950 -The little ice age A.D.1550-1850 -Past Rainfall and future temperatures -Tree-rings and Northern Summers -The chronology of meteorological phenomena -The preliminary reduc- tion of early barometric and wind data. E.L. Deacon, (Australia): Climatic change in Australia, 1880-1940. 7477?sous reserve. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Communications diverses Jansh (Palma de Mallorca): Le sondage horizontal at le diagramme synoptique spacio-temporel -Quelques Applications du nombre de Mach dans oueloues formules he dynamique atmosphdrique -La dynamique apparente he la m4t4- orologie synoptique -La mdthodeVamortissetent appliqude ala m4t4oro1og?la. PROGRAMME DE LA JOURNEE DU LUNDI 27 AOUT Association Internationale d'Oceanog,raphie Physique Association Internationale de Meteorologie Symposium surla Circulation Generale des Oceans et de l'Atmosphere Prdsidents: Prof. C.G. ROSSBY, Prof. H.U. SVERDRUP M.DOPORTO, (Eire): The Isopycnic Level and the Coupling of Tropopause and Sur- face Waves. L.LYSGAARD, (Copenhagen): Diminutive cold domes in upper air pressure levels the weather and the number of radiosounding stations. M.A.ESTOQUE, (Philippines): Studies on Atmospheric Wave Motions. J.CHARNEY, (Princeton): The numerical forecast problem. C.H.B. RPIESTLEY, (Australia): A survey of the stress between the Ocean and Atmosphere. G.C. McVITTIE, (London): Development, Thickness Patterns and the Equivalent Barotropic Atmosphere. H.P. BERLAGg. lIndonesia): Solar avtivity and air Pressure fluctuations over the South Pacific Ocean. P. QUENEY, (Paris): Ondes atmosphdriques assocides aux discontinuitds du tour- billon; application aux ondes plandtairas et aux ondes de cyclones. R. SCHERHAG, (Berlin): The cellular structure of the General Circulation. H. FLOHN, (Bad Kissingen) :Studies on Trade-Wind Circulation and Equatoral Westerlies. KOJI HIDAKA, (Tokyo): Drift Currents in an Enclosed Ocean Fart Di. Circulation in a Zonal Ocean induced by a Planetary Wind System. H. ARAKAWA, (Tokyo): Aerological Analysis of a Mature Typhoon. R. PONE, (Paris): Rdsultats provisoires d'une mdthode d'analyse en altitude utilise en France. J. BESSEMOULIN. (Paris): Difluence et divergence. J.C. FREEMAN, J.F. BAILEY, H.R. BYERS, (Chicago): Analysis of the development and maintenance of squall lines. M. WEENINK: A Computation of surface current velocities in the central part of the Pacific from Wind data. BRITISH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY: Interaction between ocean and atmosphere. F.H. VAN DEN DUNGEN, J.F. COX et J. VAN MIEGHEM (Bruxelles): Les fluctuations saisonnihres he la rotation du Globe et la circula- tion atmosphdrique endrale. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -49- PROGRAMME DE LA JOURNEE DU MARDI 28 AOUT Association Internationale de Meteorologic Symposium sur le Rayonnement President: Dr. A. Ingstrft Secretaire: Dr. W. 116rikofer S. FRITZ, (U.S. Weather Bureau): The Average Reflection, Absorption and mission of Solar Energy by Clouds. Off. Poona): Studies on the Infra-red Radiation mosphere at Poona, India. F.W.P. GoTZ and F. VOLE, (Arose): The blue Sun of September 1950. G.D. ROBINSON, (Kew Observatory): The role' of radiation in the transfer of heat from ground to air, R,H. ELDRIDGE, (Kew Observatory): A laboratory comparison of substandard /ngstrft and Silver Disc Pyrheliometers. E.H. GOWAN, (University of Alberts, (Canada): Solar Radiation in Various Wave- length Ranges. R.TOUSEY, F.S. JOHNSON, J,D. PURCELLandK, WATANABE, (U.S. Naval Research Laborat.): The Intensity of sunlight from 2000 to 3400 1. W. M8RIKOFER,(Davos):The Deteininationof the Radiation Balance or the Earth. L A. RAMDAS, (Met. from Transr the At- PROGRAMME DE LA JOURNEE 'DU MERCREDI 29 AOUT Association Internationale de Meteorologie Symposium sur la Micrometeorologie President: Prof. 0.0. Sutton P.A. SHEPPARD, (Imperial College, London): ....... D.R. DAVIES, (University of Sheffield): An approach to the Problem of Evapora- tion from a limited area. N.C. SWINBANK, (Australia): The measurement of the vertical transfer of heat, water vapour and momentum by eddies in the lower atmosphere. B.F. POPPENDIEK, (Oak Ridge, Tenn.): A periodic heat transfer analysis for an atmosphere in which the Eddy Diffusivity varies sinusoidally with time and linearly with height, F. SCHNELLE, (Bad Kissingen): Ueberwachung des Wasserhaushaltes des Bodens durch den Deutschen Wetterdienst in der US-Zone. F.N. FRENKIEL, (Johns Homkins University): Application of the statistical Theory of Turbulence to Micrometeorology. O. BJORGUM, (Bergen): On the application of Kolmogoroff's Theory of local iso- tropy to the lower atmosphere Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4, -5n- Association Internationale de Mete4oro1ogie Symposium sur 1 OZONE Atmospherinue, du 30 aoilt au 1 septembre Organise avec le concours financier de l'UNESCO 'resident: Prof. G.M B Dobson ;,nretaire: Sir Charles Normanl PROQPANhE DE LA JOURNEE DU JEUDI '-2:; 0 AOUT ( 01) : ( Et((-D ()see. dr 5 ml nu tes ) (' Theory of ten onotochemical tormation of Ozone, by Prof. S. Chapman. Vcrtipal Distribution of Ozone, by Prof. F.W.P. 1F,tv ynooric Study of Ozone and leteorologinal :qndltian,. hr -Orcn-r1 - un in the Lower Troposphere, by Prof. . Pegenfr. on, in Hign Latitudes, by Tr. E. TInsberg. 00003-MIDI (14-50): (Exposes de lu minutes). US. Weather Bureau): Some Ozone measurenfpts during sudden 'ono- si)heric disturbances Heed and AL Julius, (Mass. Inst. of Techn.): A quantitative Analysis of r,u0 Proposed mechanisms fcr Vertical Ozone Transport 'a the Lower Stratosphere. 0. 'Iyake and K Saruhasti, (Meteorological Research Institute, Tokyo): On the 'onuel and Meridional Variation of the Atmospheric ozon-, ,-(tonabe.J.T') -11-cEd and 1.3. Johnson. (lava' Research Ltnrr tory, The Tqnticn1 Distribution of Ozone to 70 'cr, / rf Alberta, 'rladn): The temperature of the ' 7rnosptere If etn 41-=f-ntirrti- from 4000 Degree Sun ateerir (v,nc 1-eastrerant at Ironton, Parada 71t-ch, (Masa? Inst. of Tennn.): the photochemical theory of the Atmosohe- -lo (mnrn z a Tool for investigating turbulence 50C 0IroTation In One lower stratosnhere fbger,,,uer, (Deutscner wetterr(lenst, Bad TF,17): Ueber die Beziehungen lag podannahen uvon 7'1 ',t-'109Dr4r1hPrl VOro'grIgPil. V ,hmer-, (Weiqsenau): Gleichzeitige Vessungen des Czongehaltes bodennater left an mehreren Stationenmit einem einfachen,absoluten Verfahren. 'ao zoLd, (14---senau): Ueber die Inglichkeit her Benutzung von Mcndfinster- , --n zur krfassung der vertikalen Ozonvertellung in versohie- ,,reo .9reiten. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -51- azon in der Troposphhre von Prof. E. Regener. Die alte Jodkaliummethode let so verbessert worden, dass mit ihr der Ozongehalt der Luft in kurzen Zeitintervallen mit einer Genauigkeit bestimmt werden kann, die far die Erfassung des tgglichen Ganges des Ozongehaltes ausreicht. Die da- mit in Bodennghe und in Flugzeug vorgenommenen Messungen bestgtigen den grossen Einfluss der Turbulenz und der ozonzerstgrenden Faktoren auf die tgglichen Schwankungen des niederen Ozons. Am Erdboden 1st die ozonzerst6rende Wirkung der dart lesser vorhandenen oxydablen Substanzen so stark, dass in stagnierender Luft der Ozongehalt schnell auf Null absinkt. Bel Windstille verschwindet daher der Ozongehalt am Boden bald nach Sonnenuntergang, es eel denn, dass infolge lokaler absinkender Luftstrfte in bergigem Gelgnde ozonreichere Luft aus der Hohe herabgefahrt wird, in exponierter-HChenlage wird der durch die tggliche Thermik hervorgerufene Einfluss klein und die Schwankungen sind im wesentlichen. durch die Advektion von Luft verschiedenen Ozongehaltes bedingt. Dies bestEtigt sich auch bei Flugzeugaufstiegen his 9 km HOheo Hier kOnnen sich Luftmassen mit hoherem Ozongehalt unter und such zwischen ozonarme Luftschichten schie- .ben, In grOsserer HOhe? in welcher der desozonisierende Einfluss des Erdbodens verschwindet, kann eine grosse Mannigfaltigkeit der mbglichen Ozonverteilungen auftreten. In der Troposphgre kann such der Fall angetroffen werden, dass in einem HOhenintervall Ober mehrere Kilometer das Verhgltnis Ozon/Luft konstant ist..Hieraus muss auf eine starke vertikale Durchmischung in diesem HUhenin- tervall geschlossen werden. Per Ozongehalt 1st dann em n durch die sonstigen meteorOlogischen Vorgange nicht berthrtes Kennzeichen des Luftkdrpers. Der Ein- flues der desozonisierenden Wirkung lgngerwelligen Lichtes muss noch untersucht werden Ozone in High Latitudes by E. Tftsberg, The results of Dr, Dobsons extensive ozone measurements during the years 1925 to 1927 made it very desirable to extend the measurements to the highest Possi- ble latitudes. Even in the summer season of 1929 observations (sunlight) were made at Spitzgergen (78? NL.) by Dr. GOtz, and at the same place the British Polar-Year Expedition 3 years later obtained some polar-night values(starflght). Then in the summer of 1934 Dr, Dobson and Dr, Meetham'made observations at Troms0 (70? NL.,) in order to determine the vertical distribution of ozone. The following winter season observations (starlight) were undertaken at Abisko, North Sweden (68? N,L.) by Barbier, Chalonge and Vassy. Just ?the same winter we started the ozone observations at Troms0 With some moonlight observations, and followed up the next summer with slnlight observations by means of an "old" Dobson spectrograph, kindly lent out, Already the sporadic measurements summarized above pointed towards the charac- teristic figure in the annual variation of atmospheric ozone, with high spring- values decreasing through summer and autumn to minimum values at the end of the year. Only with very few exeptions all routine observations at Troms0 have been made by means of sunlight, direct sun or sky-light, and the instruments used were of the Dobson pattern, the spectrograph from 1935.to 1939, later on the spectro- photometer, which last summer was fitted out with photomultiplier, and thus be- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4, -52- came much more sensitive. Our efforts to obtain reliable starlight values have not been successful. It is difficult to avoid blacking on the plates (spectre) as a whole, and any auroral display will soon disturb the observation. As general results from 1935 to 1949 (1)we give below a table of monthly mean values in unit 0.001 cm., and their range of variation. The numbers In brackets are considered highly uncertain of two main reasons, too weak light for safe observations and great unaccuracy in evaluation of the values. Month. J. F. M. A. M. J. J. A. S. 0. N D. Monthly means (208) 288 304 304 286 255 229 219 210 204 178 (167) 1935 - 1949 Maximum values (282) 330 362 327 303 275 253 240 220 215 217 (218) Year 1940 42 42 40 42 41 40 40 42 41 39 1941 Minimum values (132) 245 270 263 249 237 216 201 196 182 151 (124) Year 1944 49 39 37 37 37 37 39 35 46 46 1043 The values in brackets for Jan. and Dec. are, as mentioned above, very doubtful, and I consider both of them to be somewhat too low.- As to the magnitude of individual values I do not think that we at 70? N.L. should calculate with lower values than say 0.100 cm. and not higher than 0,400 cm., an assumption which can be satisfactory tried after the great augmentation in sensitivity now. avai- lable in the instrument. It should be mentioned that the sudden increase in ozone content at Troms0 always has occured In the second half of January, usu- ally in connection with passages of deep cyclones. To get an idea of the variation in the ozone content from year to year we give a table of (annual) means of the ten monthly means Feb.- Nov. Unit 0.001 cm, Year: 1940 1941. 1942 1946 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 Means Feb.- Nov. 263 ,.:SEJ 286 240 244 240 238 245 242 How far the January and. December values would have influenced the means is dif- ficult to say, but probably the lowest- would have decreased more than the. highest. To get at least a year-series of ozone observations from Spitzbergen (78' N.L ) we have last September started measurements there with a Dobson spectrophotome- ter as capital instrument. Some preliminary results are available from observa- tions on direct sun and direct moon. It is not likely that additional values from sky-light and perhaps starlight observations will change the monthly means very much, For comparison we give the corresponding preliminary Troms0 values too. Unit 0.001 -cm. Month, lisp. 1950 Oct. Nov Dec, Jan Feb. Mar, Apr. 1951 Spitzbergen 78? N.L, 190 200 220 230 260 320 350 330 Troms0 70? N.L. 210 200 200 220 220 320 360 320 The values Spitzbergen -Troms0 are but slightly different frOMWM.th ta$,onth The December-values were abnormally high at Troms0. (1) Geofyslske Publikasloner, Oslo, Vol XIII N? 12. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -53- INTERNATIONAL UNION OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS Ozone Commission of the International Meteorological Association A Symposium on Ozone Distribution in the High Atmosphere will be held at Brus- sels from Thursday, 30th August to Saturday, Act September 1951. The meetings on 50th August will form part of the proceedings of the International Meteoro- logical Association (see enclosed programme for that date). The subsequent mee- tings of the Symposium are intended for fuller and more intimate discussion of ozone problems by scientists, who are or have been engaged in work on ozone. The following agenda is proposed for the discussions on the 31st August and 1st September: (1) Measurements and their Reduction:- Absorption Coefficients Log Io/II) Zenith Sky Readings Temperature Effects Zenith Cloud Readings Haze Effects (ii) Fuller discussion of Vertical Distribution. (iii) ValUe of Ozone Observations near Tropopause (iv) Observations at Night, (v) Instruments and their maintenance. (vi) Programme of Observations on Ozone for next three years. (vii) Exchange of Observations, Members wishing to raise other subjects are invited, to send in their suggestions to Prof. GMB _ DOBSON by mid-July. U..N.E.SC O. have recently promised a supplementary grant towards the Symposium, which, in special cases, will be used to defray a part of the cost of travel expenses. Unfortunately, in view of the short notice, the distribution of the grant is not likely to be decided until the Commission meets in Brussels. 25 May 1951 The President of the Ozone Commission, The Secretary of the Ozone Commission, Prof. 0.M B. Dobson Sir Charles Normand Watch Hill, The Ridings, 56 Holywell, Oxford (England). Shotover - Oxford (England). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? MGR:AY:24E DE LA JOURNEE DU VENDRED1 31 AOUT Association Internationale d'Hydrologie Association Internationale de Metorologie Le prohleme de l'Evalooration a la surface du Globe Brie Marie Sanderson (Canada): The measurement of Evaporation in Canada. F- Mbiler (Mains):,,..?. J,N, Lyshede (Denmark): Evaporation and transpirationln North-Seeland,Denmark W Langbein (U,S, Geological Survey): Research on evaporation from lakes and reservoirs, F Bergsten (Stockholm): Contribution to Study of evaporation in Sweden, Ostromecki (Poland): Evaporation from the surface of meadows on loam, F. Grundl (British East Africa): Some notes on -evaporation from water and Land surfaces, U L Penmsn,tGreat Britain): The water balance of Catchment Areas AVERTISSEMENT Impression des Procesf- Verbaux des S4ances de travail ED vertu sea statuts2 les proces-verbaux des s6ances de travail dolvent compor- ter ie r4sum4 des communications et des discussions auKquelles ceiles-ci don- nent _Lieu - Afin d'4viter tout malentendu, ie Bureau de l'AssoclatIon prie les participants de 'hien voutoir remetre au .Sect4taire,.apres chaque sdance, to texte (le ieurs communications et tie leurs intervenions dans les discussions NOTICE Printing of the working sessions transactions 9y virtue of the statutes, the transactions of the lecture sessions must Invol- ,ie the summaries of the contributions and or the disat,ssions to which they have given rise,- In order to avoid all misunderstandirgs, the Bureau of the Association begs the participants to be so kind as to delevering to the Secre- tarY9 after each meeting, the text of their contributns or Interventions In uhe discussions Pruxelles, le 6 juin 195i LeSeeretaire, J Van Mieghem Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -55- ADDENDA "Programme" Page 1 Programme du mercredi 22 aoHt; apres l'adresse prdsidentielle: Projet de crdation dun Institut Mdtdorologique International Exposd introductif par M. le Prof. C.G. Rossby. Rapports Nationaux" Page 45 Dr. A. lngstrom: Rapport National Suddois. Page 47 Programme du vendredi 24 ao6t; Communications diverses: Said-Ali Ankara (Universitgt Ankara): Ueber die Moglichkeit der Wettervorhersage auf Grund der Leitfghigkeitsmessung der Luft. Page 48 Programme du lundi 27 aoHt; Symposium sur la Circulation Gdndrale des Ocdans et de l'Atmosphere. Prof. 1.1,U. Sverdrup (Oslo): Hommage A V. Bjerknes. Prof. C.G. Rossby (Stockholm): A comparison between the General Cir- culations of the Ocean and the Atmosphere. Dr. Th. Hesselberg (Oslo): On the Role of the Water Vapour in the General Circulation. Le 25 juin 1951. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -58- TABLE DES MATIERES le Partie: "Programme" Page Programme 1 Memorandum of the Pacific Science Association 3 International Polar Year 1957-1958 7 Upper Atmospheric Nomenclature 10 World Days In Upper Atmosphere Research 14 2e Partie: "Resumes des Counnunications' i? 3e Partie: "Rapports Nationaux" Rapports Programme detaill4 Avertissement Addenda . . 3 a 45 46 a 54 54 55 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 A 4/1/4/eX Approved For Release 2004/02/19 :.CIA-M5P80-00926A 25X1 004200010002-4 Union Geodesique et Geophysique Internationale 25X1 IXeme Assemblee Generale Bruxelles 20 aat - I septembre 1951 LISTE DES DELEGUES ET DES INVITES Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 STJPPL77;171` ALLEMAGNE - QUEST PORTUGAL Mr. FERRARO Prof. Dr. A KOPFF Prof. Dr. Kurt SCHWIDEVSKY Directeur E;0, NESSTER Prof. Dr. R. SCHERTRAG Dr. H FLOHN Dr. H UNGEHEUER Prof. Dr. R. MUGGE EGYPTE 111 Sajyed Abdel MONEM ESPAGNE Sr. D. C. Saenez GRACIA Sr. D. NICANOR MENENDEZ GRACIA Sr. D. R. MONTEQUI FRANCE Mr. DUBIEF Mr. le Vice-Admiral NARES Mr. MEZIN Mr. BERKALOFF Mr. TIXERONT GRANDE-BRETAGNE Mr. DOUGLAS Mr. CORMACK TRUAEL Dr. Prof. L. EiHBEL Dr. N. SHALEM Dr. J. FAMILIAR ITA LIE Mr. Imbo GUISEPPE Yr. RONCALI MAROC Mr. THUILLE PAYS-BAS Dr. H. BOSCHMA: SUEDE Mr. OMHOLT Nils SUISSE Mr. Ed. GUYOT U.S.A. Mr. Major HENDRIKSX Dr. W.W. KELLOG Prof. S.A. KORFF Mr. G. von NEUMANN Dr. A. SPILHAUS Mr. C.J. WOODROW 111. LODEWIJK Mme BURROWS Mme BAKER Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 UNION GEODESIQUE ET GEOPHYSIQUE INTERNATIONALE Prdsident: Professor F.A. Vening Meinesz, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, Holland. Vice-Prdsidentq: Professor S. Chapman, 43 Nigh Street, Oxford, England, Dr, L. H. Adams, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1530 P Street, N. W, Washington 5, D.C., Secrdtaire Odndral: Dr, J.. IL Stagg, 34 King's Road, Richnond, Surrey, England. Association Internationale de Geodesie president: Mr. W.D,, Lambert, Box 687, Canaan, Connecticut, U.S.A. Vice-Prdsidents: Professor C,F. Baeschlin (Switzer/and). Dr. A. Letroye (Belgiun). Professor P. Tardi, 19 Rue Auber, Paris 9e, Prance. Secrdtaire: Association Internationale de Seismologie Prdsident: Dr. R. Stoneley, 16 Millington Road, Cambridge, England, Vice-Prdsidents: Mr, F. Yeumann (U.S.A.) Dr. C Char/ier (Belgium), Secrdtaire: Professor J Rothd, 38 Boulevard d'Anvers, Strasbourg, France, Association Internationale de Meteorologie President: Dr. J. Bjerknes, DePartment of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles 24, California, U.S.A. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 Vice-Presidents: Professor IC.R. Ramanathan (India), Dr. F.W. Reichelderfer (U.S.A.). gecretaire: Dr. J. Van Mieghem, Institut Royal Mdtdorologique de Belgique, 3 Avenue Circulaire, Uccle 3, Belgium Association Internationale de Magnetisme et d'Electricite Terrestres Pr?dent: Professor S. Chapman, 43 High Street, Oxford, England, Vice-Presidents: Professor J. Coulomb (France), Professor B F.J. Schonland (South Africa), Secretaire: Dr. J.W, Joyce, 6641 32nd Street, NW,, Washington 15, DX., U.S.A. Association Internationale d ?Oceanographie Pr?dent: Professor H,U. Sverdrup, Director, Norsk Polarinstitutt, Norges Svalbard og Ishavs-UndersOkelser Observatoriegt I, Oslo, Norway. Vice-Presidents: Professor J. Proudman (Great Britain). Dr. C. 0,D. Iselin (USA). Secretaire: Professor if. Mosby, Det Geophysiske Institutt, Bergen, Norway. Association Internationale de Vnlcanologie Pr?dent: Professor B.G. Escher, Rijksmuseum van Gdologie en Mindralogie, Dorpsstraat 15, Oegstgeest, Leiden, Holland Vice-Presidents: Professor H. Williams (U.S.A.). Professor L. Glangeaud (France). Dr. MacGregor (Great Britain). Professor Niels Nielsen (Denmark). Professor F. Signore, via fasso-Nc Secretaire: Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Association Internationale d'Hydrologie Prdsident: Mr. Merrill Bernard, t U.S. Weather Bureau, t 24 h and M Streets, N. W., Washington 25, D.C., U.S.A. V1ce-Pr4s1dents: Professor F. Frolow (France). Professor G. de Marchi (Italy). Secr4taire: Professor L.J. Tison, Rue des Ronces, 61, Gentbrugge, Belgium. Comite Mixte de la Physique Interne du Globe Pr4sident: Professor B. Gutenberg, Seismological Laboratory, 220 North San Rafael Avenue, Pasadena, California. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ALLEMAGNE - EST Del egue Prof. Dr. F. Muhling (H,G) AL LEMAGNE - QUEST Delegues Bartels, Mr. Julius Horn, Oberreg. Rat. ..............(H) (0) Jung, Prof. K. Jung, Prof. F.R. Kneissl, Prof. Dr. M. Kopff, Prof. Dr. A. ..............(G) Cloos, Prof. H. ............ (0) Menzel, Dr. W. Correns, Prof. C. Moller, Prof. F. Dieminger, Dr. W. Raethjen, Prof. P. Errulat, Prof. F. Regener, Prof. E. Friedrich, Dr. W. Rinsum, Reg.-Baudir. Dr. Ing. van Gigas, Dr. E. Schroder, Prof. Dr. cleldque. principal Tams, Prof. E. Berroth, Prof. A. Bocknecke, Dr. G. Burmeister, Dr. F. Cloos, Dr. Heinz, Mr 9 Menzel Heisenberg, Prof. W. Hiller, Mr. W. . Weickmann, Prof. L. Wolf, Dr. Ing. H. ..........(G) Invitees Mme Dieminger Mme Horn Mme Kneissl 0? Dwyer, Ing. D.G. Riggi Bower, Mr. Dr. E.G. Priestley, Mr. C.H.B. ARGENT INE Delegues Ozaran, Cor, Ing, Mil. D,A_R. d4legue principal AUSTRAL IE Delegues Rayner, Mr. ,LM, cloldgu4 principal Ross, Prof. A.D. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 AUTRICHE Delegues Barvir, Dr. A. Defant, Prof. Dr. A. NI. principal Ledersteger, Dr. K. Baird, Mr. P.D. Beals, Dr. C.S Currie, Dr. B.W Davies, Mr. F.T Loschner, Ing. Dr. F. Mader, Hofrat Prof. Dr. K. Chef de la d4legation CANADA Delegnes ........ ..... .....(H) Cowan, Dr. E.H. ....... ...... .....(M) (S) Legget, Mr. R.F. .................(H) (E) Fannie, Mr. J.L. ....... ..........(G) (E) Ross, Mr. J.E.R. ...... .....(G) Ford, Dr. W.L. ....... .......... ..(0) Garland, Dr. G.D. ................(G) Invitees Mhe Beals Mme Currie Mme Gowan Wilson, Dr. J.T, Deldgud principal Mme Fannie Mme Ross DANEMARK Delegues Andersen, 'Dr. E. ................(G) Bretting, Prof. A.E. ,...........(H) Ebert, Mr. F. (H) Egedal, Mr. J. ........ ........ (M) Lehmann, Mr. Nielsen, Prof. Nirlund, Prof. Ddlegue principal Petersen, Directeur H, ...........(M,E) Thomsen, Mr. H. ND flO0?00????00?000 (G) Directeur N.B. ((3) Invites Fristrup, Mr. B. Iaursen, Mr. V. ..,...............(M) Lysgaard, Mr. L. .................(H) Lyshede, Mr. J,M. ................(H) Mine Andersen Mme Egedal Mme Lysgaard Mme N6rlund Sestoft, Pr, IJ Simonsen, Dr, 0, ......?.........(G) Smed, Mr. J. Mme Petersen Mine Sect oft Mme Thomsen Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 EGYPTE Bey, Mr. M.R. Madwar dj/dgue principal Faris, Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Mme Kamel Delegues Hassanein, Dr. S.A.M. Kamel, Dr Mustafa Samaha, Mr. Abdel Hamid Invitee ESPAGNE - - Delegues Balen Garcia, Sr. D.F (0) Gil Montaner, Sr, D,P, Bonelli Rubio, Sr. D.J M (S,V) Rodriguez Navarro, Sr. D.J. ......(G,E) Cadarso Gonzalez, Sr. DL (G) Romana, R.P.A. S.J. ...(E,M,H) Campos ?Guereta y Martinez, Sr. D F. Sans Huelin, Sr. D.G. ............(G) cleldgue principal Torroja Menendez, Sr.'D.J.M. Cifuentes y Rodriguez, Sr. D.M. de (0) Oriol Cardus Mme Cadarso Mine Campos Guereta y Martinez Mme de Bonelli Invites Mine Montaner Mme Rodriguez Navarro Mine Sans Huelin Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Adams, Dr. L.H. ....... Aldrich, Mr, L.B. Austin, Mr. T.Ss .......... Baker, Mr. Donald M. Balsley, Mr:. James Jr. Barnett, Mr. Kenneth M. Beij, Mr. K. Hilding Birch, Dr. Francis Bramhall, Dr. E.H. Bucher, Prof. Walter H. Burrows, Dr. Charles R. Byerly, Dr. Perry Byers, Dr. Horace R. Charney, Dr. Jule Clarke, Dr. George L. ............( Dietz, Dr. Robert S. ETATS UNIS D'AMERIQUE Delegues .......,(G) Kaplan, Dr. Joseph Lambert, Mr. Walter D. ...(H) Landsberg, Dr. Helmut E. Langbein, Mr. Walter B. ...... ...(G) G) Leifson, Mr. Gunnar ...............(H) Lek, Dr. L. Lowdei-milk, Dr. Walter C. Lyman, Mr. John (H) Mason, Prof. Brian H. (G) Neumann, Mr. Frank (C) Newell, Dr. Homer E. Jr. Pettit, Miss Helen B. Phleger, Dr. Fred B. Jr. Rex, Lt. Comdr. Daniel F. Roach, Dr. Franklin E. Rumbaugh, Dr. Lynn H. Ruska, Mr. Walter E.A. Sayre, Dr. A. Nelson Schairer, Dr. J. Frank Schonstedt, Mr. E.O. Schumacher, Dr, J. Paul Singer, Dr. S.F. Schliehter, Dr. Louis B. (G) Smith, Mr. Waldo E. Snyder, Mr. Franklin F. Sollenberger, Mr. Paul Stoker, Prof. J.J. Tatel, Dr. Howard E. Tousey, Dr. Richard Veihmeyer, Dr. F.J. Vogt, Miss Mary Cameron Whipple, Dr. Fred L. Whitten, Mr. Chas, A. .... ...?7".(0) Worden, Mr. SP. .(M) Disney, Mr. L.P.. oone,sope0.0?000( Dix, Dr. C. Hewitt 0) G) (G) Duerksen, Mr. J.A. ...............(G) Ewing, Dr. Maurice ...............(G) Field, Dr. Richard Mo Frenkiel, Dr. Francois Fritz, Mr. Sigmund Gibson, Comdr. William M. ........(G) Gunn, Dr. Ross Gutenberg, Dr. Beno .......... .... (S) Hafstad, Mrs Katharine Clarke Harding, Prof. George Ms Herz, Dr. Norman ....,............,(G) Hough, Mr. Floyd W. Hulburt, Dr SO. , Jacobs; Dr. Woodrow C. Johnston, Mr. H. Freeborn Joyce, Dr. J.W. N. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4- Invites Bjerknes, Dr. J.A.B. ....... ..... ,(M) Bundgaard, Lt. Col. Robert C. Fultz, Mr. Dave ...... ..... (M) Gibson, Dr. Ralph E. Gordon, Dr, William E. Iselin, Dr. C. O'D .(0) Mme Adams Mme Austin Mme Barnett Mme Bjerknes Mlle Bjerknes Mme Clarke Mme Disney Mine Dix Mine Ewing Mine Gibson Mine Gutenberg Mme Herz Mme 1.:ulburt Mme Johnston Mme Kellog Mme Korff Jehle, Prof Herbert Ladd, Col. J.G. Liebermann, Dr, Leonard L, Srenrfler,,Mr. Kenneth. C. ..... Woollard, Dr. George P. ...... Mme Lowdermilk Mine Lyman Mme Ph3e.$1.er Mme Rex Mme Roach Mine Ruska Mme Sayre Mlle Sayre Mme Schumacher Mine Slichter Mlle Slichter Mme Tousey Mlle Tousey Nine Veihmeyer Mine von Neumann Mr. Bjerknes Jr, FINLANDE Delegues Heiskanen, Prof. Dr, VA Hirvonen, Prof. Dr. R.A. (G) ,.(G) Palren, Prof. Dr. E, Pesonen, Prof. Dr. U. .. (4) ....(G) Jurva, Prof. Dr. R. ..,...? ..(0) Renqvist, Prof. Dr. H. .. ......(H) Kergnen, Prof. Dr, J. ddlegud principa/ ..(M) Siren, Dr. A, ? Sucksdorff, Dr E. (H) ..(E) Kukkamgki, Dr, T.J, (G) VgisNlg, Prof. Dr. V. ...,...(M) Niskanen, Dr, F. . (G) Wahl, Prof. Dr. 1,4V Angervo, Dr- J.M. Lisitzin, Dr. E, Mine Heiskanen Mme Hirvonen Invites - Koroleff, Mr. N.H. Suchsdorff, Mr. Chr, Mine KukkamEki Mlle Lisitzin Dr. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 FRANCE Delegues Allard, M. Pierre .... .....(G) Aubert, M. Jean ..................(H) Baranov, M. Vladimir ........o.,(G,E) Barbier, M. D. Barrabe, M. D. ....o..............(V) Bazerque, M. Jean ,...............(G) Bernard, M. Pierre .............(S,E,O) Bernard, M. Rend ... Bricard, M. J. ..... ...(E) ...... (M,E) Brunel, M. Andre Bruzon, M. E. ....................(M) Bureau, M. Robert ...........?..,.(M,E) Cagniard, M. L. ...........,..(G,S,M,E) Cahierre, Mu Lob (G) Coron, Mlle Suzanne ..., .........(G) Coulomb, Mo Jean ...........(G,S,M,E,V) Danjon, M. Andre .................(G,M) Dauvillier, M. A. ...,...............(E) Decaux, M. Bernard Delhomme, M. Francois ......,?....(0) Dessens, Mo Henri ...........0..(S,M,E) Duclaux, Mine Frangoise ......,?(G,S,E) Dupuy, M. Michel Fage, M. Louis ...................(0) Francis ?Boeuf, M. Claude .........(0) Frolow, M. Vladimir ......... Genty, le Commandant R. ,.,.(M,H) ,.(E) Geze, M. Dernard .................(V) Glangeaud, M. L. .................(V) Goguel, Mo J. Gougenheim, M. Andre ...........((3,E,O) Grenet, M. G. ................(S,M,E,V) Hee, Mine A. Henin, M. St. ....................(H) Hurault, le General L. ...........(G) Jacquinet, M. Pierre .......?.....((3,E) Jeremine, Mme El. .?....... ...(V) Kunetz, M. G. Labrouste, Mme H. Laclavere, M. G. Lagrula, M. J. ..,. ........(S,M,E) ......(G) ....(G) Laurent, M. Jean Lef:ay, le R.P. P. ...,.........(G,M,E) Prdsident de la Dglggation Le Strat, M. Andre .,. ...(H) Levallois, M. J.J. .......(G) Martin, M. Jean .,. ...o(G,M) Migaux, M, L. ,(G,S,E) Noetzlin, M? J. Orcel, M. J, Pasteur, M. Edmond Perard, M. Albert Perlat, M. Andre ? ? . (H) ? (M) Peterschmitt, M. She ?.,?.....(S) Poivilliers, M, G ..,...(G) Queney, M. P, ..??.....?(M) Rothe, M. J, .?.?..?.?,.....,(S) Rouch, le Commandant Jules ......(0) Roulleau, M. Jean ....,.....,....(M) Barton du Jonchay, M. Y. ..(M) Schoeller, M. ....... Serra, M. Louis ..o. ..(H) Stoyko, M, Nicolas ..., Tardi, M. P. .........o, .?.,....(G,O) Membre du Conseil de Thellier, M. Emile .....,?......(E,V) Thellier, Mme Odette ......(E) Vassy, M. E. Vassy, Mme Arlette ........(M,E) Viaut, M. . Vibert, M, cno,.conoo ?(H) Vignal, M. ..?, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Ambrosi, Mme J, ........... Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Invites (H) .. .. ..(G) Lugiez Beaufils, Mlle (S) Paoli .. ........... .......(H) Bessemoulin ...... ...... .....(M) Pone (M) Braudeau ............ ... . .....(H) Remenieras (H) Cecchini .. ... Roche .,... ................(H) Godefroy ..... ..............(E) Serene ..............(0) Julien .(0) Tchelzoff ......... .,.....(0) Le Floch ......(0) Mine Allard Mine Jacquinet Mine Aubert Mlle Jacquinet C. Mine Baranov Mlle Jacquinet M. We Barbier Mine Laclav6re Mthe Bazerque Mlle Laclavbre Mine Bernard P. Mine Laurent Mine Bernard R. Mme Le Floch Nine Brunel We Migaux Nine Bureau we Pasteur Mine Cahibre Mine P4rard Mine Cecchini Nine Poivilliers Nine Coulomb Mine Queney Mine Dessens Mme Serra Mine Dupuy Mine Schoeller Mme Godefroid Mine Viaut Mine Gougenheim Mme Vignal Nine Grenet GRAND DUCHE DE LUXEMBOURG Invite: GLoden, A. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 GRANDE BRETAGNE Absalon, H.W.L. (E) Allard, W- .................o (H) Baxter, E.F. (S) Bomford, Brigadier G. .0 (G) Bowden, Brown, General R Ll. ..... (G) Director Ce2,12ra/ of Ordnance Survey Browne, B.0 (G) (H) (S,G) A.W. ....... ........ (M) Buchan, Dr. F. Bullard, Dr. E.0 Brewer, Delegues Bullerwell, W. (0) Carruthers, Dr J.N. (0) Chapman, Professor S, ........, (E) Charnock, H. Clark, Miss J.M. Cooper, Dr. L.H.N. ..............(0) Cooper, Dr. R.I.B. ..............(0) Corkan, M.R.H. ..................(0) Day, Rear Admiral A, ............(G,0) Hydrographer to the Navy Deacon, Dr. G.E.R. ....?.....,...(0) Director, National Institute of Ocean. Dixey, Dr. F. ..........,... .....(H) Dobson, Professor G.M.B. ..?.....(M) Doodson, Dr. A. T. ..........o.?(0) Ferraro, V.C.A. ................(E) Glennie, Brigadier E.A....o....(0) Goldsbrough, Professor G.R. .....(0) Goody, Dr. R.M. Graaff-Hunter, Dr. J. de ........(G) Hawkes, Professor L. ............(V) Hill, Dr. M.N. Hollingworth, Professor S.E. ,...(H) Hotine, Brigadier .Director of Colonial Surveys Hughes, J.S. ....................(S) Humphries, Lt, Col, G.J. ........(0) Jarman, CoA. ....................(E) Jeffreys, Prof. H, Johnson, Sir Nelson Director of the Meteorolog. Office Jones, Sir Harold Spencer .......(G,E) Astrononer Royal Lamb, H.H. ......,......,.........(M) Lapworth, C. ..... ........ ..... .(H) Lees, Dr. GoM. ...........?.,.....(S,G) Ludlam, F.H. ............,....0,..(M) Lumby, Lt. Commander J.R. ........(0) MacClean, W.N. MacGregor, Dr. A.G. ..............(V) MacVittie, Professor G.C. ..... (M) Manley, Professor G. .............(H) Mason, B.J. .............. ........(M) Normand, Sir Charles (M) Ovey, C.D (0) Mortimer, Dr. C.H. (0) Pasquill, F. ...... ......... , (M) Penman, Dr, H,L. .........., (H) Phemister, Dr. J. ...........? (G) Price, Ao.r.o.?, es000000nola000p000000(E) Rankine, Prof. A.O. goopono"odn000a(S) Redfearn, J.C.B. .................(0) Richards, B.D. ...................(H) Richey, Dr. J.E, .................(V) Robinson, Dr. G,D, ..............(M) Rowntree, N.A.F. ..,,.............(H) Runcorn, Dr. S.K, ................(E) Sewell, Dr. R.B.S. Sheppard, Assistant Professor P.A.(H,M) Shewell, Colonel H.A.L. ..........(0) Shotton, Professor F.W. Stagg, Dr. J.M. o.,......o........(E) Stamers -Smith, H. .....o..........(0) Sutcliffe, Dr. R.C. .....,........(M) Sutton, Professor 0.G. .........,.(M) Stoneley, Dr. R. ....,............(S) Taylor, Sir Geoffrey .,......,....(0) Ward, W.H. ............,..........(H) White, Dr. C.M. ..............o...(H) Willmore, Dr, P.L. ...............(S) Wilkes, M.V. ...............o.....(M,E) Willis, Brigadier J.C.T. .........(0) Director of Military Survey Wiseman, Dr. J D.H, ..............(0) Wilson, Dr. C.D.V. 0.0............(G) Wordie, J.M, ........,...,........(H) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4- Invites Bates, Dr. H.R. ... Chilton, D. Gilchrist, B Davies, DR, .(M,E) Schove, F/Lt D. Justin . ......(M) ,..(M,G,O,E) Scott, M.I. ..... (G) .(M) Starbruck, L ..... (M) Stride, A.H. ...(0) Edgell, Sir J, Thompson, K.H. ...(0) Garstang, R.H. .,.(S) Walton, G.F ..... ?.(M) Green, Dr. F.H.W ?(M,H2O) Westwater, Instructor Comm, F.L. (M) Grundy, F ,(H) Wormell, Dr. T. W. ..............(M5) Hide, R (G) Thcmpson, A.Beeby Hughes, H. ....... ........ ?. (G) Kay, R.H. Kennard, J, . Richard, J.J. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. (G) Towns, V.W.H. Lowes, F-J. (E) Fahim, M.F.M. MacFarlane, P.B. , (G) Hazzaa, I. Moore, A.F. ..... .(G) Orr, Dr, Palmer, H.P. Mme Brown Moe Browne Mine Bullard Mme Bullerwell Mme Carruthers Mine de Graaff-Hunter Mlle de Graaff -Hunter Mme Dilloway Mine Doodson Mme Hollingworth Mine Hotine Mlle Hot me Mme Hughes Mme Jarman Mine Jeffreys Mme Ludlam & fils Mine MacGregor Mme Mason Mme Palmer Mme Penman Mme P'aemister Able Price Mme Richey Mine Sheppard Mme Shotton Lady Spencer Jones Mme Stagg Mme Stoneley Mme Sutton Mme Towns Mme Wiseman Mme Wordie Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 *Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 GRECE Delegues Spiliotopoulos, Ge,n4ra1 G, Mariolopoulos, Prof. Dr. E. ...,??,?(M) Ddldgud principal Stassinopoulos, Cap, A. ............(H) Invite: Nine Mar iolopoulos Gulatee, M. Bl. Hart, Dr. C.A. Nanda, Dr. J.N......... ...... ...(E) Invitee: Mlle Gulatee INDES Delegues Ramdas, Dr. LA Wadia, Dr. D.N. INDO CHINE Delegue Laclavere, Col, G. (G) INDONESIE Delegues Berlage, Dr, H.P ..(M,G) Reesinck, Dr, J.J.M. IRLANDE Delegues Doporto, Dr. M. ?? ?.(M) Rev. Fat, Ingram Sr,L ddlegud principal Invitee: Nine Doporto ISRAEL Delegues .,.............(M) Goldschmidt, IL M. Neuman, M. J. delegue principal Pekeris, Dr, GOussinsky, M. B. Stern, Dr. W. Invitee: Mme Pekeris Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ITALIE Delegues Aliverti, Giuseppina ...(M,O) Medi, Enrico .(E,S,M) Bilancini, Raoul .(M) Morelli, Carlo .. ...(G,S) Boaga, Giovanni (G,S) Piccoli ........ ...(H) Bossolasco, Mario Rosini, Ezio ....................(N) Caloi, Pietro .(S) Roveda, Renato . . ... ...(M) Cassini Gino .. ,.(G) Rubino, Mario .. ..(G,H) cladgiud principal Signore, Francesco .... Cecchini, Gino .... ......... ...(G) Silva, Giovanni ...(G) De Marchi,Giulio (H) Solaini, Luig5 ........(G,S,E) Dore, Paolo .......... (G,S) Tenani, Mario ..., ..........(M,O,E) Frosini, Pietro (H) Tondni, Gherardelli, Luigi (H) Vercelli, Francesco ...........(0,E,S) Ghetti, Augusto ......... ..-(H) Viglieri, Alfredo .....?.?.,(G,M,E,0) Imbo, Guiseppe Visentini, Marco ..(H) Marussi, Antonio .. ... . (G) Mine Case mm Mlle Cecchini Mine De Marchi Mine Marussi Mine Rubino Invitees Mine Dr Signore Mme Silva Mine Solaini Mme Tonini Mine Viglieri JAPON Delegues Hasegawa, ,(E) Muto, Dr. K Hatakeyama, Dr. H. ...........,..(M,E) Tsuboi, Dr, Ch_ ........ Hidaka, Dr. K, derldgud princiPal Isuya, Dr. Hiromichi MAROC Nlegues Ambroggi, Ing, M. Bolelli, Mr. Debrach, Mr. J. ddleguo principal Gullet, Mr, G. Margat, Ing, J Merle, Mr, Moussu, Ing, Robaux, Ing. Roederer, Ing Invitee Mine Debrach (H) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 NORVEGE Delegues Eike, Prof. Dr. T. ..... Eliassen, Dr. A. Evjen, M. S 0,.....(0) Jelstrup, M. G. Jelstrup, M. H.S. ,,noeu.o?eooesuo0(0) Elaeboe, MQ H. sonua000geoonoocaosW(H) Kvifte, M. G. ....?.......?....?..(M,E) Fjeldstad, Prof dr. J.E. Mosby, Prof, DR. H. ....... .......(0) Fjirtoft, M. R. ........... .,....(M) Schive, Lt. Col, J. .... .........(G) Gleditsch, Directeur Er. .......(0) Solberg, Prof. Dr. H. ............(M) Godske, Prof. Dr. C.L (M) ddidgud princiPa/ Grinaker, Major P.A. ........ ....(0) Ugnen, M. J.R (H) 0r3rt6yr, M. E. (M) Spinnangr, Directeur F. ..... Harang, Dr. L. (M,E) Sverdrup, Prof. Dr, HAL J00000000(0) Hesselberg, Directeur Dr. Th. ...(M) Trovaag, H6iland, Dr. E., .......00.......,(M) Vegard, Prof. Dr. L. .............(M,E) Jakhelln, M. An Invit4s Bentung, Mae Hu .................(0) Bgrgum, M. O. oo?eam000000neona(M) Bjdrgum, Mine Braekken, Ing. H. Braekken, Mine K. Evjen, Mthe Gleditsch, Mine N. Grinaker, Mlle E.A. Hesselberg, Mae F. Holtedahl, M. H. Holtedahl, Nine Jelstrup, Mine R. Kjaer, Directeur R. ..... Sladden, M. EoPh ........(G) Ejaer, Mine Ejaer, Mlle U. Kvifte,Mhe R. Mosby, Mine Omholt, M. An ........... .......(M,E) Schieldrup Paulsen, M. H. .0.0...(M) Spinnangr, Mine J. Sverdrup, Mme G. Trovaag, Mme Ve.gard, Mthe I. Wasserfall, M. K.F. ...,.........(M,E) Wasserfall, Mine NOUVELLE ZELANDE Delegue Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Baars,Dro Bo Beltman, Berlage, Sleeker, Prof, J.H. Prof o Dr. H, Prof Dr. W. Brongersma ? Sanders, Mme Bruins, G.J., Clay, Prof Prof, Dr. J. Deij, Dr, L.JoL, Dorrestein, Dr. R, Edelman, Ir. T. Elzerman, Ir. JJ Escher, Prof. Dr, B.G, Groen, Dr. P. ...?. Koning, Dr, L.P,G. Kruidhof, Prof, A, Krul, Prof, W.F.J? Neuman van Padang, Dr. N. Postma, H. .,.. Ritsema, A.R. Reesinck, Prof. U.N. Roelofs, Prof, Ro iiosrers, van Dijk, M. Mine Mine Mme Mme Mme Mine Bleeker, Clay Deij Dorrestein Hauer Aart Roelofs PAYS BAS Del4gu4,5; Santing, Jr. G. ... (H) Schermerhorn, Prof. Dr, Sch.erpbier, Ir, D. Schijf, Jr. Schclte, Dr, J G, Schenfeld, Ir, J,C, Thijsse, Prof, Ir. Th. del4q10. brinc?al Umgr,o-e, Prof. Dr J.H.F. van Bemmelen, Dr, R. W. van der Beijl, W. ......., van der Weele, Jr A.J. van Riel, P,M. van Weelden, Jr. A. , (0) Veldkarr, Dr. J ,,o,,,,o , Venin Q" Meinesz, Prof, Dr, Jr. F.A, delOne en chef ..?(0) Verstelle, JoTh ,(G) Volker, Jr A, - (0) von Frijtag,Drabbe, C,A,J ..(G) ..(G) Woudenberg, Dr. JoP,Mo 0,(M) ?(G) Waalewijn, A. ,.(M) Weenink, Dr. M Mine Scholte Mine Thijse Mme van Bemmelen. van der B1j1 Veldkamo Mime Woudengerg Mire ? (0) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 'Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 PEROU Sr. Velando Jo, secrdtaire de /a Legation Dr, Hizon PHILIPPINES PORTUGAL Delegues Gongalves, Ing, C. Ribeiro A.A. Carvalho, Dr, Lemos, Prof. Dr. Victor Hugo de (0) Silva E. Conceiggo, Com, Prof, 0,(0) Martins, Ing. J. Manuel (0) Silveira, Dr. M. de Matos Mendes, Dr. F.J. ........, (M,S) Sitoes Mendes, Dr. A. ...(M) Paes,Clemente, Ing. Dir, Gen. A, (0) ddlegud principal Invitees Mine Lemon Mme Simoes Mendes Mme Martins SIAN Lt 04n. Phya Salvitannides ddldgud principal Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 SUEDE Delegues Ahlmann, Prof, H, ..(H) Jansa, Ing, V. ....:(H) Alfyen, Prof. H. ,...... ...(E) Jerlov, Dr. N G. ....,.. Ambolt, Dr. N. ..(E) Johansson, Dr V. (G) Angstr6m, Dir. A. .(M) Koczy, Dr. F.F% (0) ddlegue principal Miler, Prof. H. ....... (S,M) Asplumd, Prof. L. ? -(G) Kullenberg, Dr. B. (0) Bath, Dr, M. .......,..,.. .,(S) Lundquist, Ing. S. (E) Bergeron, Prof, T. .(M) Malmfors, Dr- K.G. (E) Berggren, B. Sc, R, .(M) Malmqvist, DR, D. :(E) Bergsten, Dr. F. Melin, Dr. Ragnar (H) Bergstramd,Dr. E........,.... (0) Meier, Dr. 0. ...., , (H) Bjerhammar, Dr. A. ?AG) Norinder, Prof, H. Brunberg, Ing, E.A. ............(H) Nyberg, Dr. A ......... (M) Gunnar, J.N. Pettersson, Prof. H. (0) Gustafsson, Prof, Y, .(H) Petersson, lug. S. (H) Hedstrom, Ing. H. .(E) Rossby, Prof. C.G, Hellgren, Ing. G. ?. .(E) Rune, Prof. A G. .(G) Hellstrom, Prof. B?...,.......(H) Wallen, Dr. C.Ch, (M) Herlofson, M. Sc. M. ...,.......(E) Werner, Ing, S, ....,(E) Hjulstr6m, Prof. F, ...........:IH,V) Mme AngstrOm Mme Bergeron Mme Bjerhammar Mme Gunnar Mme Gustfsson Wideland, Dr. B, Invitees Mme Johansson. Mme Melin Mlle Melin Mme Norinder Mme Rossby Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 SUISSE Bachmann, M. W,K, Baeschlin, Prof. Dr. CF? .ddlagud principa/ Birches*, PL, H. Gassmann, Prof. F. Gatz, Dr. P. Haefeli, Dr. R. Hoeck, Dr. E. Kobold, Prof. F. Lugeon, Prof. Dr. J Mme Bachmann Mme G8tz Mme Kobold Mme Lugeon Ankara, Prof, Dr. Said?Ali Aran, Ing. M. Ates, Ing. T. M. Duarte Bosanac, Ing, Dusan ddlegue principa/ Boskovic, G4n. M. le Directeur du Conseil de l'Acad4mie de Yougoslavie Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Delegues Mercanton, Prof, Dr, Morikofer, Dr. W Nanni, M. P. Oulianoff, Dr N. auervain, Dr. M. de Raemy, M. de Renaud, Dr. A. Rittmann, Prof. Dr A. Volet, M. Ch. Wanner, Dr. E. Invitees Mme M8rikofer Mme de Guervain Mme Valet TURQUIE Delegues Dura, Col,, I, deldgud principa/ Lahn, Dr. Ervin Pinan, Mlle Dr. Nuvije VENEZUELA YOUGOSLAVIE Delegues Keravica, M. Milan Marcic, M. Kane Mihailovich, Prof, Nikolie, Dr, Djordje Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Baetsle, Prof. Bertrand, Dr. J. Blockmans, Ing. J. Bonnet, Ing. L. Campus, Prof. L. Capart, Dr. A. Charlier, Dr. Ch. Cox, Prof. J. ddlegud principa/ de Magn4e, Prof. I. Devroey, Prof. E. Dufour, Dr. L. Fourmarier, Prof. P. Gilliard, Prof. A. Herbillo,, G4n. V. Hoge, Dr, E. Jones, Ing, Lo Koenigsfeld, Dr. L. Lahaye, Prof. E. Bourgeois, Dr, P. de Hemptinne, Prof. Marc Delmer, Ing. A. Desguin, Dr, Frerichs, M. Ch, Goche, Prof. 0. Grosjean, Dr. A. Heinrichs, N. G. BELGIQUE Delegues letroye, Prof., A. i,00dts, Ing, J. Marchant, Ing. B. Massart, Cdt A. Moreau, Dr, F. Nicolet, Dr, M, Pauwen, Prof. L. Poncelet, DT. L. Seligmann, G4h. H. Spronck, Prof. R. Tanieff, DR. H. Tison, Prof, L. van den Dungen, Prof. F. Vandenplas, Dr. A. Vanderstraeten, Dr. Van Mieghem, Prof. Jo Verbaandert, Dr. J. Verhoogen, Prof. J. Wiser, Prof. P. Iffvit4s Herrinck, M P. Legrand, Dr, R. Somville, Dr. 0. Stevens, Ing. Ch, Swings, Prof, P. Van den Abeele, M. Van Oils, M J Van Straelen, Dr, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Mine Bertrand Mme Blockmans Mine Bonnet Mme Campus ,yMe Capart Mme Charlier Mthe Cox Mme'de Magn4e Mme Devroey Mine Dufour Mlle Frbre Mme Gilliard Mme Heinrichs Mme Herbillon Mhe Hoge Mine Jones Mme Koenigsfeld Mme Lahaye Mthe Lamoen Mine Let roye Invitees Mme Loodts Mme Massart Mme Moreau Mme Nicolet Mine Pauwen Mme Ponce let Mine Spronck Mlle Spronck Mine Swings Nine Tison Mlle Tison Mlle van Biema Mine van den Dungen Mme Vandenplas Nine Van Gils Mme Van Mieghem Mine Verbaandert Mme Verhoogen Mine Wiser Auditenrs MM, Bechet, M. MM. Gustin, Bernard, E,A, Lambert, Ho Bossy, L. Lebegge, G. Bourlet, G. Ledoux, P. Bragard, L. Levgque Bultot, F. Lombard, Chevalier Malet Darimont Martin, H. De Backer, S. Melchior, P. De Decker, P. Mortelrans Defrise, P. Pastiels, R, De Knoop, A. Pien, A. Delmelle Piraux, Ph. Descamps, A. Quoilin, M. Devon Slootmaekers, Po Devuyst, A. Sneyers, R. Dogniaux, R. Vander Rijt, Doumont, G, Van Isacker, J. Godart, O. Veranneman, N. Grandjean, J. Verdin Grosjean, P. Verlaine Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 25X1 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS from August 20th to September 1st, 1951, 25X1 in Brussels As an introductory event to the meeting, an exhibit of geodetic and geophysical instruments was opened on August 20th. Among the specialized instruments exhibited, the follow- ing deserve particular mention: 1. The Worden gravimeter of the Houston Technical Labo- ratories/ (Special feature of this instrument is that it requires no thermostats so that no storage batteries to supply thermal current need be used with it on field surveys. It requires a temperature change of 20? Centigrade before the base state will show an average change by .1 mgal. It also gives very minute readings of the basic value. Measurements made with this type of instrument during practical problems have yielded good results, especially in terms of comparing distant principal gravity stations with one another, and helped con- siderably in linking up the world gravity network). Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 2. The magnetic instruments made by the firm of Ruska, of Houston, Texas. (Notably the small field balance for measuring magnetic vertical intensity merits attention because of its handy and light design. Of equal advantage in design is the recording device with the variometers of the three geomagnetic compo- nents.) The magnetic field balances made by Hilger & Watts, of London, although their design offers no major features by comparison with similar apparatus made by other firms. 4. The combined recording station of the Askania- Werke, AG, of Berlin-Friedenau. (Three variometers, for magnetic declination, horizontal intensity and vertical intensity are are mounted in a case together with a recording device. All that is necessary is to operate a few levers and dials to adjust the instrument to zero and make it ready for use. This apparatus is especially suited for recording geomagnetic variations where temporary recording stations are to be set up, because the operator does not have to go through the basic adjustment procedure. The meeting opened with ceremony in the Palais des Beaux- Arts on August 21st, with her Majesty Queen Elizabeth present for the occasion. The functional sessions of the associations began in the afternoon. The following is a report of the sessions of the Association for Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity. Approved For Release 2004/02/192 CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 The transactions divide into 1. Reports of national representatives on their activi- ties in the specialized fields 2. Reports of committees charged with furthering specific sub-areas of activity, 3. Motions and recommendations, 4. Presentations of papers on special problems 1. National reports were presented by Argentina Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Germany Great Britain India Italy Ireland Japan New Zeeland Switzerland South Africa United States 2. Reports were submitted by the Committee on Aurora Committee on Magnetic Secular Variation Stations Committee on Magnetic Charts Committee on Methods of Observatory Publications Committee on Promotion of International Comparisons of Magnetic Standards Committee on Observational Technique Committee on Characterization of Magnetic Disturbances Approved For Release 2004/02719 :3CIA7RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Committee on Centralization and Standardization of Records Committee to Promote Observations of Daily Varia- tions in the Horizontal Force between and near the Geographic and Magnetic Equators and near Aeromagnetic Surveys Committee on Liquidation of the International Polar Year 1932/1933 The following motions and recommendations were made: Change of name of the association Creation of an association of physics of the earthb interior Formation of a section on "high atmosphere" Improvement in the system of publishing the trans- actions of the association, and their distri- bution Activity of the association between meetings Establishment of a third International Polar Year in 1957/1958 Introduction of specific denotations and nomenclature for the upper atmosphere 4. The following papers and talks will be reported on: Address of S. Chapman, the president F. G. Lowes and S. K. Runcorn: A physical analysis of the geomagnetic secular change R. D. Hutchison: Investigation of magnetic secular change in Canada S. K. Pramanik: Secular variation of magnetic field in Colaba and Alibag E. Lahaye and E. Hoge: Secular variation in Belgium M. H. Johnson: A relation between diffusion and electrical currents 4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 W. Diemlnger: Echo soundings of the ionosphere under conditions of slanted incidence M. Ota: Geomagnetic activity, dharaterized by KTindices S. Fred Singer, E. Maple and W. A. Bowen: Evidence of ionospheric currentsnfrom rocket experiments near the geomagnetic equator S. K. Runcorn, A. C. Benson, A. F. Moore and D. H. Griffiths: Investigations concerning change of magnetic field with depth A. Lundbak: Airborne measurement of magnetic vertical intensity G. Shaw: Aeromagnetic surveys O. Schneider: Traces of a remanent lunar effect in connection with geomagnetic KTindices H. F. Johnston: New annual magnetic mean values at world-wide geomagnetic observatories J. W. Graham and H. E. Tatel: Residual magnetic moment in clays and sedimentary rocks N. Kumagai, N. Kawai and T. Nagata: Recent progress in paleomagnetism E. Hoge: Distribution of terrestrial magnetism in Eastern Belgium Japanese Geographic Institute: Magnetic surveys in Japan K. Kato and S. Utashiro: Investigation of magnetic disturbances by means of the induction magneto- graph A. Lundbak: Magnetic declination computed from vertical intensity S. L. Malurkar and A. S. Chaubal: Quick-run magnetic recordings in Alibag during the solar elipse over the North Pacific on September 12, 1950 Approved For Release 2004/U/195 Cla-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 and during magnetic disturbances in January, 1949, May, 1949 and December, 1950. T. Nagata, N. Fukushima and M. Sugitura: Electrodynamic behaviour of the ionosphere K. Maeda: On the electric) conductivity of the upper atmosphere H. Hughes: Electric conductivity of the earth's mantle R. Bock: Submission of the atlas/ of European magnetic declinations During the convention, a reception was held for the members at the Brussels city hall. Visits were made to the Meteorological Institute and to the Seismographic Station of the Observatory at Ucc16. On August 25th, all members attending the convention joined an excursion to Antwerp. On arrival in Antwerp, the members split up into six groups. Visits were made to the Museum of Fine Arts, the Plantin Museum, the Rubens house, the Zoological Gardens and to the Laboratory for Hydrological Studies. One group had the opportunity to make a thorough invection of the two survey ships of the British Navy which just happened to be in port. Following a tour of the principal sights of the city, an extansive harbor trip was arranged, affording an impressive view of installations and of the traffic4in the port. The party passed through the Schelde tunnel tAce on the way back to Brussels. On August 26th, four separate excursions were made - to the hydrological laboratories of the University of Lioge, into Lige province, to Ghent and Bruges, and one to Mons to visit a coal mine. 6 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 On August 30th, the Association f.Jr Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity visited the Geophysioal Center near Dourbes. This installation is still building, but gives promise of being a splendidly equipped and model plant, modern in every respect. The convention ended with a gala dinner. There is no doubt that all of the persons participating, upon departure, felt deep appreciation for what the Belgian Committee of Brussels had done for them. 1. National Reports Argentina: The three observatories of La Quiaca, Pilar and Orcadas are continuously in operation. Recordings are custianar_ ? -made essecormailivalborrof declination (D), horizontal intensity (H) and vertical intensity (Z) , and measurements taken of DI H and I approximately every six days, as usual. Hourly Aux mean values are collected in tables. With reference to the Dover-Kew Magnetometer, measurements made with quartz horizontal-intensity magnometers (QHM) 90, 91 and 92 showed corrections for horizontal intensity of + 3.2 gamma in Pilar and - 28.5 gamma in La Quiaca. 20 field stations were surveyed in 1948, 34 in 1949 and four in 1950. The isogonic chart, drawn up with reference to the epoch 1950.0, is ready for printing. K-indices are being determined since 1940 and Sorwarded to the central bureau. Micro-pulsations are being investigated for the first time in this part of the globe. Recordings taken on New Year Island over a period of 15 years are being processed by punch-card method. When weather is favorable, sunspots and solar faculae are being regularly observed from Pilar. - 7 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Australia: The observatories at Watheroo and Toolangi are regularly in operation. New observatories have been pladed in operation on Macquarie Island (54.5? S, 159.00 E) and on Heard Island (53.0? 8, 73.4? E). Their equipment is not yet completed. Observatories are planned for installation near Port Moresby and on the Antarctic mainland. A provisional isogonic chart has been prepared for the epoch 1950.5. Charts of the other components are in preparation. Two sets of equipment have been procured for aeromagnetic surveys. Test flights have been made. Measurements of vertical intensity by means of field balances have been made over large areas at close intervals. Pursuant to measurement with QHM 33, 51 and 52, horizontal intensity is subject to the following correction: Toolangi: - 21.5 gamma Watheroo: + 11.2 gamma Magnetic changes and conditions of the ionosphere have been the object of special investigations. Belgium: Manhay Observatory, which was heavily damaged, has been reconstructed. Near Dourbes, in the southern part of Namur province, a geophysical center is being built. The building which will house magnetic observations and measurements is already finished. It is constructed of wood; even nails, bolts and nuts are of hardwood. The primary instruments, according to the institute's reports, have been specially constructed. Many parts are made of glass, to avoid the difficulties with the use of metals when even tiny amounts of magnetically-susceptible substances are admixed. If these designs prove practicable, it will open up new guides for the construction of magnetic instruments, and these will merit the fullest attention. Plans have been completed for new surveys. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? 8 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 In the Belgian Congo, there is the observatory at Elisabeth- ville. An observatory near Leopoldville is being built. A total of 500 stations lying between 50 N and 12? S and between 22.5? E and 300 E have been surveyed. Canada: The observatories at Agincourt and Meanook, also the observatories temporarily set up at Baker Lake and Resolute Bay in the Arctic, have been in constant operation. There has been progress in the design of magnetometers, based on thedectric principle. These can be used on the ground as well as in aircraft. 162 stations between latitudes 45? and 83? N and longitudes 2310 and 3080 have been surveyed. Special mention should be made that three magnetic elements have been measured over a period of 26 to 48 hours each at sta- tions near the magnetic north pole, as follows: Site Lat. Long. D(E) H(T) I Date Pasley Bay 70.7? 264.10 334.3? 0.0105 + 89.0? Aug.5/6'48 Pell Inlet 75.9 257.8 164.7 0.0028 + 89.7 Aug.8/9'48 Ommaney Bay 73.3 259.7 46.5 0.0024 + 89.8 Aug.19/21 '48 (Pasley Bay is 80 kilometers distant from the point which Ross indicated to be the magnetic north pole in 1831. Pell Inlet is 13 kilometers distant from the point which is determined after analysing the geomagnetic field for the epoch 1945.0; Ommaney Bay is near the location of the magnetic pole as determined by recent Canadian calculations and observations). Denmark: The observatory in Rude Skov continues to function without interruption. The constants of a large number of QHM-type intruments have been determined. Al]. secular stations have been surveyed. Steps have also been initiated to add measurements in order to obtain a closer mesh in the network of field stations, which are very unevenly distributed (D-stations to be 8 kilometers, B and Z-stations to be 4 kilametowa-f ;wpm-yea ror meffiRib PC1026024trtt9a64-JRDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 In Greenland, the observatory in Godhavn has been in con- stant operation, and the one in Thule since 1947. Germany: It was a source of great satisfaction for the German participants that Germany had been readmitted to member- ship in the Union before the convention opened, with no distinction being made as between West- and East-Germany. Observatories at Wingst and at FUrstenfeldbruck, in Western Germany, are operating continuously. Induction magnetometers to measure horizontal an vertical intensity were installed in Atric.sf Wingst, and observations ofitterrbstrial currents -116.,,atmoi.Alitii110 at extremely short distances set up in nistenfeldbruck. Magnetic elements are being measured at some of the stations in Western Germany, to determine secular variations. The Geophysical Institute at Gottingen is chiefly working on statistical problems, as far as terrestrial magnetism is con- cerned. The Soil Research Bureau of Hanover hiWarements of vertical intensity made in some of the regions, as for instance in the Western part of the Harz mountains. Work reports from the Potsdam Geophysical Institute are available only up to April 1950. Subjects covered are: Atlas of European magnetic declinations; catalog of annual magnetic mean values of the observatories; geological relations of geo- magnetic anomalies in Europe; pan-European geomagnetic normal field; natural terrestrial current and stray currentnrktfflise, anelome other projects (uniform representation of anomalies of European magnetic vertical intensity, especially of a section of central Europe; transmission of unpublished survey data to European countries) is being carried on in Berlin, except where this has already been completed. Great Britain: The Abinger Observatory will have to move again, due to extension of electrification of the railroads. Only in 1924, it had to close down observations in Greenwich. A new site has been selected near Hartland. Approved For Release 2004/02/T9 : arA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Eskdalemuir and Lerwick are continuing their work unobstruct- ed. After measurement with QHM 90, 91 and 92, data on hori- zontal intensity must be corrected as follows in order to agree with the readings of the Schuster-Smith coil magnetometer: in Lerwick by + 2.8 gamma Eskdalemuir - 6.1 " Abinger + 5.4 " 54 stations which had figured in the previous survey in 1914-15 were resurveyed, India: Alibag and Kodaikanal Observatories are in opera- tion, the latter after having been out of service from 1923 to 1949. 15 repeat stations were surveyed. Observations and measurements of variation ire being made in the vincinity of the magnetic and geographic equator. In Colaba, also in Poona, the potential gradient of atmos- pheric electricity is being recorded. A station for iono- spheric reselisch is being installed in Kodeikanal. Ireland: The observatory at Valentia (Cahirciveen), which was turned over by the British Metevrological Service to the Irish government, continues operations. Declination, vertical and horizontal intensity has been determined for 44 of the stations covered by the former surveys in 1891 and in 1914-15. Italy.: The only observatory in operation as yet is in Genua (Castellacio). Several new observatories are however being projected, which would fill in the serious gaps, (parti- #44 cularlyAthe lack of a magnetic observatory in southern Italy, fsi. in Sicily has resulted in reductions being Unreliable). Work on terrestrial magnetism is being carried on by the National institute for Geophysics, with its central quarters in Rome and 43 institutes, sia4 a part of which are' still in the projection stage, the Institute of Military Geography in Florence, and the aA Approved t-or Kerease.tigwaamacIfkiElyuCt0146AIN4220.11190&2-gri est e ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ,Japan: There are seven observatories, of which Kakioka is operating as successor of Tokio since 1913. Surveys are carried on by Kakioka Observatory, the Geographic institute, - hydrographic division, the Institute for Seismographic Research, and the University of Kyoto. Investigations have been made on atmospheric electricity, conditions in the ionosphere, terestrial current and cosmic radiation. New Zeeland: Observatories at Amberly and at Apia (Samoa) are in operation. After measuremeit with QHM 21, 22, 33: 51 and 52, values of horizontal intensity at Amberly require a cor- rection by - 2.5 gamma. Plans call for the survey of 20 field stations annually Ionospheric investigations are carried on in Christohurch. Switzerland: Geomagnetic anomalies in the Canton of Ticino were measured. South Africa: The observatory at Hermanus continues in operation. United States: To cover the large volume of work being oarried on by the major organizations, such as the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Geological Survey, and the U. S. Navy Department will require a special report. No delegates had been sent to represent any of the Eastern- oriented countries, nor had any one appeared from Eastern Germany. No authentic report on activity and progress in this past field of science will be made as far as this part of the globe is concerned. Approved For Release 2004/02/79 : A-ROP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 2. Reports of Committees Committee on Aurora: A report *--;100* on observations of aurora in the south-east part of Norway in 1948, 1949 and 1950, on observations made with an infra-red telescope, on frequency of aurora over the British isles, on studies of polar aurora in red and infra-red, also on observations in Scotland and New Zeeland. Committee on Magnetic Secular-variation Stations: There was no need to add any new items to the recommendations al- ready made in Oslo in 1948 for the selection of sites for Secular-variation stations, transmission of data to two central stations of the Association, measurements on the ocean and on islands, affording security to the stations, taking measurement readings at several points of one parti- cular station, type of reduction, and use of portable recording devices. Completion of the British ship "Research", in which the use of magnetic materials has been avoided as much as possible, is described as urgent. Measurements of three components in a non-magnetic con- tainer towed by a vessel ware discussed. Sentiment in favor of extensive aeromagnetic surveys was expressed. Separate communications will be made on the work done by countries on collection of data on secular variation; the information in many cases coincides with that shown in the national reports. Committee ir Magnetic Charts: isxxismatfactkrachattxikat The previous recommendations are reiterated as regards rapid collection of the entire observation data at the Coast and Geodetic Survey and as regards completion of supporting chart data (particularly with respect to ocean regions and those carried on by aeromagnetic surveys). Your reporter was macappAoyArligpebystgivigocaivegs9P80-00926A004200010002-4 - 13 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Committee on Methods of Observatory Publications: In view of the fact that the Washington meeting of 1939 and the Oslo meeting of 1948 had laid down standards covering the type of data to appear in the yearbooks of observatories, the Committee felt that it should ask for replies on whether these standards were agreable. A questionnaire sent out in February of 1951 drew 43 replies, most of them indicating agreement with the recommendations. The proposed yearbook of the U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey, which is to contain hourly mean values and complete reproductions of magnetograms, has been described as an ideal pattern. Committee for the Promotion of International Comparisons of Magnetic Standards: Comparisons of basic values are made only with respect to horizontal intensity, since thif alone can be quickly and conveniently measured with the available suitable instrument, namely the QHM. The comparative measurements which have been made are shown in the national reports. Plans have been made to compare the basic values of hori- zontal intensity at Rude Skov, Amberly, Apia, Toolangi, Watheroo, Hermanus, Elisabethville and Manhay. Committee on Observational Techniques: The following sug- gestions have been made to supplement the thirteen recommendations submitted at Oslo in 1948: Thorough study of the action of QHMis; utilization of recording stations which are easily transportable; investigation of quartz- and platinum-itirldium filaments, employment of instantly visible recordings, and aeromagnetic surveys. Committee on Characterization of Magnetic Disturbances: The recommendation is made that in addition to the already established measurement characters for geomagnetic activity (Ci, K,K151), a character C be introduced by derivation from K and K for describing activity for daily intervals, whereas I and Kp cover - 14 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 intervals of three hours (K for individual observatories and K for the tiarth as a whole). The committee is proposing to initiate investigations into equatorial ring current (ERC) and solar wave radiation (W). Committee on Centralization and Standardization of Records: This committee was formed as a result of suggestions pre- sented at Oslo in 1948, namely, (a) to review the circumstances regarding existing observatories and to indicate a selection of those best adapted to process observatory data; and, (b) to arrange for the establishment of one or two central stations which would process the data and disseminate it. Questionnaires sent out to observatories brought a mixed pattern of replies but no constructive proposals. Since there are apparently great obstacles in the way of putting these sug- gestions into practice, the Committee recommends that it be discharged from this assignment and that the matter not be pursued any further. Committee to Promote Observations of Dail Variations in the Horizontal Force between and near the Geographic and Magnetic Equators and near Aeromagnetic Surveys: Observations with QHM's were run at Togo, in the Gulf of Guinea, in South America, in India and in the Philippine Islands. Observations will be started on stations stretching along a chain from the Belgian Congo to the Sudan, and in the Pacific region there where the geographic and magnetic equators intersect. Results are given for Togo, South America and India. (Mean diurnal amplitudes: 106 to 124 gamma). Committee on Aeromagnetic Surveys: Reports are submitted on progress in this new and important field in the various countries: Australia, (two series of observations, beginning at first with measurement of total intensity) 0 Canada, (testing of an instrument for declination, vertical and horizontal inten- Approved For Release 2004/02/193.1A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 sity, in anticipation of achieving accuracies within a few minutes and tenths of gamma); France, (financial difficulties); Great Britain, (smaller-scale undertakings; larger ones have not as yet materialized; instruments being supplied to Austra- lia and New Zeeland); New Zeeland, (total-intensity magnetometer, airborne operations over considerable areas, good results); United States, (seven firms; absolute values accurate within 100 gamma, variations within a few gamma; instruments for three components). Committee on Liquidation of the International Polar Year 1932/1933: The last items of business within the terms of reference of the International Polar Year 1932/1933 have been completed or are in process (publication/ of the data on Tatuoca and Magallanes, processing of the many quick-run abso- lute recordings, bibliography of all publications concerning the polar year, inventory of magnetic instruments). The issuance of the polar auroratatlas has been materially advanced. 3. Motions and Resolutions: The proposal was made to change the name of the Association, since atmospheric electricity and terrestrial electricity pro- perly belongs into meteorology. Tne Association however con- siders that the electric phenomena in the upper atmosphere and in the earth are within its province. Several suggestions, in- cluding some terminological monstrosities, met with little or no approval. The item of change in name was therefore put over to the next meeting. In reply to a proposal of the French committee to create an association of physics of the earth's interior, in the event a reform is necessary, it was decided to take no step which would not be in full harmony with the other Associations. A further proposal of the French committee to form a section or committee for the study of the upper atmosphere was adopted. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : igk-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Two committees were appointed, one to deal with the relationship between solar and terrestrial phenomena, the other with pheno- mena in the ionosphere. ? The Association approved the suggestion of the British committee to the effect that the transactions be published as quickly as possible, with only brief summaries of specialized topics, whereas the complete texts would be left to the perio- dical press to be published; also, that publications be centrally distributed through the national committees. It was emphasized that the Association functions continu- ously, which means also in the period between meetings. The Association declared that it had no authority as regards analyzing the terms of reference of the associations for seismology, vulcanology and physical oceanography, nor as regards the allocation of funds within the Union.. It was decided to establish a third international polar year during 1957 and 1958. Details of all types of mug: measurements which would have to be made were discussed. The Committe for the Study of the Ionosphere proposed a definite nomenclature for the specific atmospheric layers, (i.e. stratosphere, neutrosphere - stratopause, mesopause, homopause, neutropause -; ozonosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, troposphere). Anew committee on a thesaurus of annual mean observation values o?' magnetic elements was appointed. ON. ???? I. .0 17 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 I \ Approve 25X1 d For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS from 20 August - 1 September 1951 in Brussels 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/t9 :-CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 3) die magnetischen Feldwaagen dek Firma Hilger & Watts London, wenn auch die Konstruktion dieser Instrumente keine nennenswerten ?Beson- derheiten gegenUber den gleichartigen Ausfuhrungen anderer Firmen aufzuweisen hat. 4) die kombinierte Registrierstation der Firma Askania-Werke AG Berlin Friedenau (Drei Variometer fUr magnetische Deklination, Horizontalinten- sitt und Vertikalintensitat sind zusammen mit der Registrier- einrichtung in einem Kasten untergebracht. Lediglich die Bedie- nung einiger Handgriffe und Drehknopfe ist erforderlich, um das Gerat zu justieren und betriebsfertig zu machen. Die Appa- ratur ist besonders fur die Aufzeichnung der erdmagnetischen Variationen auf vorabergehend einzurichtenden Registrierstati- . onen geeignet, weil die grundlegende Justierung dem mit dem Gerat Arbeitenden abgenommen worden ist.) Am 21. August wurde im Aais des Beaux-Arts in Anwesenheit Ihrer Majestat der Konigin Elisabeth die Versammlung feierlich eroffnet. Am. Nachmittag begannen die Arbeitssitzungen der Assoziationen. Hier soil fiber die Sitzungen der Assoziation fUr Erdmagnetismus und Luftelektrizitat berichtet werden. Die Verhandlungen gliederten sich 1) in Berichte der Vertreter der Staeten aber die Tatigkeit auf dem Fachgebiet; 2) in Berichte der Kommissionen, deren Aufgabe die Forderung bestimm- ter Teilgebiete ist, 3) in Stellung von Antragen und Abgabe von Anregungen und 4) An Referaten tber spezielle Probleme. 1) Nationale Berichte wurden erstattet von Argent mien Australien Belgien Canada. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 z V Approved 25X1 For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF GEODhSY AND GEOPHYSICS from 20 August - 1 buptember 1951 in Brussels 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Die Versammlling wurde am 20. August durch die Erbffnung einer Ausstellung geodatischer und geophysikalischer Instrumente eingeleitet. Von den ausgestellten Instrumenten des speziellen Fachgebietes sind besonders hervorzuheben: 1) das Worden-Gravimeter der Houston Technical Laboratories. (Dieses Instrument zeichnet sich besonders dadurch aus, es keines Thermostaten bedErf und daher Akkumulatorenbatte- rien, die den Heizstrom liefern, bei den Feldmessungen nicht mitgefUhrt zu werden brauchen. Fret eine Temperaturanderung von 20? 0 ruft im Durchaihnitt eine ]-nderung des Basisstandes um 0.1 mGal hervor. Auch der Gang des Basiswertes wird ale auSerordentlich klein angegeben. Praktische Messungen, die mit diesen Instrumententypen durchgefUhrt wodden sind, haben besonders bei gegenseitigem Yergleich entfernt liegender. Hauptschwerestationen guts Fr- gebnisee und wertvolle Beitrage bei dem Zusammenschlu3 des Weltschwerenetzes geliefert.) die magnetischen Instrumente der Firma Ruska, Houston (Texas) (Besonders die kleine Feldwaage zar Messung der magnetischen Vertikalintensitat verdient Beachtung, weil sie handlich und jet. Auch die Registriereinrichfung mit den Variometern der drei erdmagnetischen Komponenten kann als eine gute Kon- struktion bezeichnet werden.) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200410209.; CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 3) die magnetischen Feldwaagen de? Firma Hilger & Watts London, wenn auch die Konstruktion dieser Instrumente keine nennenswerten Beson- derheiten gegenUber den gleichartigen Ausfubprungen anderer Firmen aufzuweisen hat. 4) die kombinierte Registrierstation der Firma Askania-Werke AG Berlin Friedenau (Brei Variometer fUr magnetische Deklination, ilorizontalinten- sitUt und Vertikalintensitat sind zusammen mit der Registrier- einrichtung in einem Kasten untergebracht. Lediglich die Bedie- nung einiger Handgriffe und Drehkndpfe ist erforderlich, um das Gerat zu justieren und betriebsfertig zu machen. Die Appa- ratur ist besonders fUr die Aufzeichnung der erdmagnetischen Variationen auf vorUbergehend einzurichtenden Registrierstati- onen geeignet, weil die grundlegende Justierung dem mit dem Gert Arbeitenden abgenommen warden ist,) Am 21. August wurde in Pais des Beaux-Arts Lm Anwesenheit Ihrer Majestidt der Kdnigin Elisabeth die Versammlung feierlich erbffnet. Am Nachmittag begannen die Arbeitssitzungen der Assoziationen. Hier soil Uber die Sitzungen der Assoziation fUr Erdmagnetismus und Luftelektrizitat berichtet werden. Die Verhandlungen gliederten sich 1) in Berichte der Vertreter der Staaten Uber die Tatigkeit auf dem Fachgebiet; 2) in Berichte der Kommissionen, deren Aufgabe die FOrderung bestimm- ter Teilgebiete ist, 3) in Stellung von Antragen und Abgabe von Anregungen und 4) in Referaten tiler spezielle Probleme. 1) Nationale Berichte vurden erstattet von Argentinien Australien Belgien Canada Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200470219-1 CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Danemark Deutschland Gra-Britannien Indien Italien Irland Japan Neu Seeland Schweiz . SUdafrika U.S.A. .2) Es berichteten die Kommissionenifiir Polaxlicht ----J magnetische Sakularstationen magnetische Karten Methoddn der Observatoriumsverdffentlichungen Forderung der internationalen Vergleiche der magnetischen Standardwerte Beobachtungstechnik Charakteristik ?der magnetischen St?rungen Zentralisation und Standardisierung der Hegistrierungen ? Forderung der Beobachtungen der taglichen Variation der magnetischen Horizontalintensitat zwischen dem geo- graphischen und magnetischen .fLquator und in der Nahe 4a,sa444-e-e4e Aeromagnetische Vermessungen ? die Liquidation des Internationalen Polarjahres 1932/1933 3) An Antragen und Anregungen wurden vorgelegt; Anderung des Namens der Assoziation, Schaffung einer Assoziation fUr die Geophysik des Erdin- nern, Bildung einer Sektion "Hohe Atmosphare" Yerbesserung der Organisation der Veroffentlichung der Assoziationsverhandlungen und ihrer Verteilung Aktivitat der Assoziation auch zwischen den Tagungen ? Einrichtung eines dritten Internationalen Polarjahres in den Jahren 1957/1958 Einfthrung beEtimmter Begriffe und Bezeichnungen fur das ? aebiet der hohen Atmosphare Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/014/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 4) tiler folgende Referate wird berichtet: Adresse des Prasidenten S.Chapman ? . .Lowes und S.K.Runkorn, Eine physikalische Analysis der erdmagnetischen-Sakularvariation . . R.D.Hutchison, Untersuchung Uber die Sdkularvariation in Kanada S.K.Pramanik, Sakularvariation des magnetischen Feldes in Colaba und Alibag F.Lahaye und F.Hoge, Die Sdkularvariation in Belgien M.H.Johnson, Fine Beziehung zwischen Diffusion und elek- trischen Strdmen W.Dieminger, Uber Echolotungen der Jonosphare bei schra- gem Einf all M.Ota, Erdmagnetische Aktivitat, charakterisiert durch K-Indices S.Fred Singer, E.Maple und W.A.Bowen, Nachweis von Jonoft- sparenstrdmen mit Raketen in der Nahe des magnetic. schen Aquators 2.K.Runcorn, A.C.Benson, A.F. Moore und D.H.Griffiths, Untersuchungen Uber die Anderung des magnetischen Feldes mit aer Tiefe A.Lundbak, Messungen der magnetischen Vertikalintensitdt im Flugzeug G.Shaw, Aetomagnetische Vermessungen 0.Schneider, Spuren eines restlichen Mondeinflusses bei den erdmagnetischen K-Indices H.F.Johnston, Neue Jahresmittel der erdmagnetischen Ob- servatorien J.W.Graham und H.E.Tatel,'Restliches magnetisches Moment? bei Tonen und Sedimentgesteinen N.Kumagai, N.Kawai und T.Nagata, Neuer Fortscb.ritt bei der Ableitung magnetischer Verhdltnisse frUherer Zeiten E.Hoge, Die Verteilung des Erdmagnetismus im ostlichen Belgien Japanisches Geographisches Institut, Magnetische Vermes- sung in Japan Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02f19^. CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 K.Kato und S.Utashiro, Untersuchungen magnetischer Std- ,- rungen mit dem Induktionsmagnetograph A.Lundbak, Berechnung der magnetischen Deklination aus ? der Vertikalintensitdt S.L.Malurkar und A.S.Chaubal, Magnetische Registrierungen mit schnellem Lauf in Alibag wahrend der Sonnenfin- sternis liter dem Nord-Pazifik am 12. September 1950 und wdhrend magnetischer Stdrungen im.Januar 1949, Mai 1949 und Dezember 1950 T.Nagatal N.Pukushima und M.Sugiura, Elektrodynamisches Verhalten der Jonospdre ?K.Maeda, liter die elektrische Leitfahigkeit der hohen Atmosphdre H.Hughes, Die elektrische Leitfdhigkeit der Erdkruste R.Bock, Vorlage des Atlasses der magnetischen Deklination von Europa. Wahrend der Tagung fand em n Empfang?im Rathaus der Stadt BrUssel statt. Das Yeteorologische Institut und die Erdbebenstatione des Obser- vatoriums Uccle wurden besichtigt. Am 25. August faad eine Exkursion aller Tagungsmitglieder nach Antwerpen statt..Nach der Ankunft in Antwerpen trennten sich die Teil- nehmer in sechs Gruppen. Das Museum der schonen Kfinste, das Museum Plantin, das Rubenshaus, der Zoologische Garten und das Laboratorium fur hydrologische Untersuchungen wurden besucht. Eine Gruppe hatte Ge- legenheit, die gerade im Hafen liegenden beiden Vermessungsschiffe der < englichen Kriegsmarine eingehend Ta besichtigen. Nach einem Rundgang durch die bedeutendaten SehenswUrdigkeiten der Stadt wurde eine ausgedehnte Hafenrundfahrt veranstaltet, die amen gun Eindruck der Finrichtungen und des Verkehrs/vermittelte.[imHafen Auf der RUckfahrt nach BrUssel wurde der Scheldetunnel zweimal durch- fahren. ? Am"26. August wurdeh vier verschiedene Fxkursionen unternommen, und zwar zu den Hydrologischen Laboratorien der Universitdt Lattich, in Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004701?.: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 die Provinz LUttich, ferner nach Gand und BrUgge und schlialich nach Mons mit Besichtigung eines Kohlenbergwerks. Am 30. August besuchte die Assoziation fUr Erdmagnetismus und Luft- elektrizitat die Geophysikalische Hauptstation bei Dourbes, die noch im Bau ist, aber eine groBzUgige, mustergUltige und in jeder Beziehung mo- derne Anlaee zu werden verspricht. Die Tagui4g wurde durch em n Festessen abgeschlosse,jn. Alle Teilnehmer werden it GefUhlen des Dankes und der Anerkennung fur die Leistungen und Darbietungen des Belgischen Komitees BrUssel ver- lassen haben. 1) Nationale Berichte: Argentinien: Die drei Observatorien La Quiaca, Pilar und Orcadas sind ununterbrochen in Betrieb. Deklination (D), Horizontalintensitat(H) und Vertikalintensitat (Z) werden registriert, D, H und die Inklination (I) etwa ails scabs Tage wie Ublich gemessen. Die Stunglenmittel werden in Tabellen zusammengestellt. Bezogen auf das Dover-Kew-Magnetometer .ergaben Messuneen mit den Quarz-Horizontalintensitatsmagnetometern (QHM) 90, 91 und 92 fUr die Horizontalintensitat eine Korrektion von + 3.28 in Pilar und von - 28.5" in La Quiaca "8 Im Jahre 1948 wurden 20, im Jahre 1949 34 und im Jahre 1950 4 Feld- stationen vermessen. Die Isotonenkarte, bezogen auf die Epoche 1950.0 ist druckfertig. K-Indices werden seit 1940 bestimmt und der Zentralstelle zugeleitet. Zum ersten Male wurden in diesem Teil der Welt Untersuchungen Uber Mi- kropulsationen eingeleitet. Mit dem Lochkartenverfc,hren wurden die Re- gistrierungen auf der Neujahrs-Insel fUr einen Zeitraum von 15 Jahren verarbeitet. In Pilar werden regelmaBig bei gUnstiger Witteru4g die Sonnenflecken und -fackeln beobacht et. -P - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200211?l2/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Australien: Die Observatorien Watheroo und Toolangi sind regelma- Big in Betrieb. Auf der Macquarie-Insel (54.5?S, 159.0?F) und der Heard- Insel (53.0?S, 73.4?F) sind neue Observatorien in Betrieb genommen wor- den. Die Einrichtung wird noch vervollstandigt. Nahe dem Port Moresby und auf dem antarktischen Kontinent werden Observatorien errichtet wer- den. ? Eine vorlaufige Isogonenkarte ist far die Epoche 1950.5 entworfen worden. Karten der Ubrigen Komponenten sind in Vorbereitung. FUr aeromagnetische Vermessungen sind zwei AusrUstungen beschafft worden. VersuchsflUge sind unternommen worden. Die Vertikalintensitat ist mit Feldwaagen in graen Gebieten dicht vermessen worden. Die Horizontalintensitat ist nach Messungen mit QHM 33, 51 und 52 mit folgenden Korrektionen zu versehen: 21.5-zr .Watheroo: + Spezielle Untersuchungen behandeln die magnetischen Variationen ?und Verhaltnisse der Jonosphare. Belgien; Das Observatorium Manhay, das stark beschadigt worden war, ist wiederhergerichtet worden. Bei Dourbes im aUden der Provinz Namur wird em n Geophysikalisches Zentralinstitut errichtet. Das Haus fUr magnetische Beobachtungen und Messungen ist bereits fertig. Es ist aus Holz gebaut; auch die Nagel, Bolzen und Muttern bestehen aus Hartholz. Die Hauptinstrumente sind nach den Angaben des Instituts besonders hergestellt. Um die Schwierigkeiten au vermeiden, die bei der Verwendung von Metallen auch durch geringe Beimengungen magnetisch wirksamer Stoffe auftraten, ist fUr viele Teile Glas gewahlt worden. Wenn sich diese Konstruktionen bewahren, dann werden damit neue Richtlinien fUr den Bau magnetischer Instrumente gegeben, die beachtet zu werden verdienen. FUr neue Vermessungen sind die Plane ausgearbeitet worden. In Belgisch-Kongo arbeitet das Observatorium Elisabethville. Fin Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 20047019-': CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Observatorium bei Leopoldville ist im Bau. 500 Stationen zwischen 5? N und 120 S und 22.50 E und 300 E sind vermessen worden. Canada: Die Observatorien Agincourt und Meanook, sowie die in der Arktis provisorisch eingerichteten Observatorien Baker Lake und Resolute Bay waren standig in Betrieb. Bortschritte sind bei der Konstruktion von Magnetometern erzielt worden, die auf dem elektrischen Prinzip beru- hen und sowohl auf der Erde ala auch im Flugzeug eingesetzt werden sol- len. .162 Stationen zwischen den Breiten 450 N und 83o N und den 'Arleen 231? und 3080 wurden vermessen. Besonders hervorzuheben ist, daB an Stationen in der Nahe des magne- tischen Pols der Nordhalbkugel je 26 bis 48 Stunden lang drei magneti- sche Flemente gemessen wurden,und zwar in N E D (F) H (Ti) I an Pasley Bay 70.70 264.1? 334.3? 0.0105 + 89.00 5/6.8.48 Pell Inlet 75;9 257.8 164.7 0.0028 + 89.7 8/9.8.48 Ommanney Bay 73.3 259.7 46.5 0.0024 \ + 89.8 19/21.8.48 (Pasley Bay ist 80 km von dem Punkt entfernt, den Ross im Jahre 1831 ala den nOrdlichen magnetischen Pol angegeben hatte, Pell Inlet 13 km von dem Punkt, der sich nach der Analysis des erdmagnetischen Feldes fiir die Epochs 1945.0 ergibt; Ommanney Bay liegt in der Nahe des magnetischen Poles, der aus neuen kanadischen Berechnungen und Beobachtungen folgt.) Danemark: Das Observatorium Rude Skov ist ununterbrochen weiter in Betrieb. Die Konstanten einer gro3en Zahl von Instrumenten des Tips QHM wurden bestimmt. Alle Sakularstationen wurden vermessen; ferner wurde begonnen, das Netz?der Feldstationen, deren Verteilung recht uneinheitlich ist,*durch zusatzliche Messungen zu verdichten (Stationen f?r D in 8, Stationen far H und Z in 4 km gegenseitiger Entfernung. In Grbnland_ arbeitetelohne Unterbrechung die Observatorien God- havn und seit 1947 Thule. Deutschland: Fir die deutschen Teilnehmer waf es eine groBe Genug- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/.8289-:.CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 _tuung, daB Deutschland vor Beginn der Tagung wieder als gleichberechtig- tes Mitglied in die Union aufgenommen worden war, wobei zwischen West und Oct nicht unterschieden wurde, Die im Westen liegenden Observatorien Wingst und Parstenfeldbruck sind ununterbrochen in Tatigkeit. In Wingst wurden Induktionsmagnetome- ter flir H und Z und in Farstenfeldbruck Erdstrombeobachtungen in zwei 1iichtungen mit sehr kurzen Entfernungen eingerichtet. An einigen Stationen des Westens wurden die magnetischen Elemente gemessen, um die SUkularvariation zu erfassen. Im Geophysikalischen Institut Gottingen werden auf erdmagnetischem Gebiet hauptsdchlich statistische Probleme bearbeitet. Das Amt fUr Boden- forschung in HannoVer lie2 in einigen Gebieten, z.B. im Westharz, rela- tive Messungen der VertikalintensitAt durchfUhren. Vom Geophysikalischen Institut Potsdam liegen Arbeitsberichte nur bis zum April 1950 vor. Es wurden bearbeitet: Atlas der magnetischen Deklination von Europa, Katalog der Jahresmittel der magnetischen Flemen- te.der Observatorien, die geologischen Beziehungen erdmagnetischer Ano- malien in Europa, paneuropaisches erdmagnetisches Normalfeld, naturlicher Erdstrom und vagabundierende ?Strome. Diese und'andere Arbeiten (einheit- liche Darstellung der Anomalien,der magnetischen Vertikalintensitht von Europa, speziell eines Teiles Mitteleuropas, Abgabe von unverbffentlich- ten Vermessungsergebnisse an europaischefi Staaten) werden, soweit sie noch nicht abgeschlossen sind, in Berlin fortgefUhrt. Grabritanien: Das Observatorium Abinger wird wegen der Ausdehnung des elektrischen Betriebes der Eisenbahnen wieder veriest werden mUssen, nachdem erst 1924vin Greenwich die Beobachtungen aufgegeben werden mu3- ten. Bin neuer Platz jet bei Hartland ausgewtihlt worden. Fskdalemuir und Larwick setzen ihre Arbeiten ungehindert fort. Die Angaben der Horizontalintensitt mUssen nach Messungen mit QHM 90, 91, 92 um mit den Messungsergebnissen des Schuster-Smith Spulenmagnetometers in Einklang zu sein, in um Lerwick + Eskdalemuir - 6.1s7 Abinger + verbessert worden. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004t02119 rCIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 54 Stationen der frUheren Vermessung 1914/15 wurden abermals ver- messen. Indien: Die Observatorien Alibag und Kodaikanal (dieses nachdem es 1923 seinen Betrieb eingestellt hatte, wieder seit 1949) sind in c w Betrieb. 15 Wiederholungsstationen wurden vermessen. In der Nahe des madnetisdhen und geographischen Aquators wurden Variationsbeobachtungen und Messungen durchgefUhrt. In Colaba und auBerdem in Poona wird der luftelektrische Potential- gradient registriert; in Kodeikanal wird eine Station fUr Jonospharen- forschung eingerichtet. Irland: Das Observatorium Valentia (Cahirciveen), das der Briti- scheMeteorologische Dienst der irischen Regierung Ubergeben hat, fUhrt seinen Betrieb fort. An 44 Stationen der alten Vermessung von 1891 und 1914/15 wurde D, H und I bestimmt. Italien: Bisher ist nur das Observatorium Genua (Castellacio) in Betrieb; es ist jedoch geplant, mehrere neue Observatorien einzurichten, hierdurch werden sehr fUhlbare Iacken ausgefUllt werden;(besonders das Fehlen ether magnetischen Beobachtungsstation in SUditalien, z.B. auf hatte Unsicherheiten bei Auktionen zur Folge) An erdmagnetischen Arbeiten sind beteiligt: Das Nationalinstitut fUr Geophysik mit seiner Zentrale in Rom und 43 Instituten, von denen em n Teil erst vorgesehen ist, das Militar-Geographische Institut in Mailand und Triest. Rer"vis, 6'" 4 -*P41-4-16-nicA4'-"rt '4t Japan: Es bestehen 7 Observatitien, von denen Kakioka ale Ngchfol- gestation von Tokio seit 1913 in Betrieb ist. Vermessungen unternehmen das Observatorium Kakioka, das Geographische Institut, die hydrographi- sche Abteilung, das Institut fUr Erdbebenforschung und die Universitat Kyoto. Untersuchungen fiber Luftelektrizitat, Verhaltnisse der Jonosphdre, Erdstrom und Hohenstrahlung werden durchgefUhrt. Approved For Release 2004102/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/0-2/1131: aA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Neuseeland: Die Observatorien Amberly und Apia (Samoa) sind in Betrieb. tach Nessungen mit QHN 21, 22, 33, 51, 52 mUssen die Horizon- talintensitatswerte in Amberly mit einer Korrektion von - 2.52( verse- hen werden. J?lich sollen 20 Beldstationen vermessen werden. Jonospharenuntersuchungen werden in Christchurch durchgefUhrt. SchweiG: Im Kanton Tessin wurden die erdmagnetischen Anomalien vermessen. Sadafrika: Das Observatorium Hermanus 1st weiter in Betrieb. U.S.A: Die umfangreicheh Arbeiten, die von den gro3en Organisati- onen, dem D T NI des 0 J W, dem Coast and Geodetic Survey, dem Geologi- cal Survey und dem U.S. Navy Department durchgefUhrt werden, Verlangen einen Sonderbericht. Von den dstlich inspirierten Staaten war kein Delegierter entsandt worden. Auch aus dem ostlichen Deutschland war niemand erschienen. Uber die Ta.tigkeit und die Fortschritte auf den Fachgebieten wurden fUr diesen Teil der Welt authentische Berichte nicht almegeben. 2) Kommissionsberichte: Kommission fur Polarlicht: Es wird berichtet Uber die Nordlicht- beobachtungen im sUddstlichen Norwegen in den Jaren 1948, 1949 und 1950, Uber die Beobachtungen mit einem Infrarot-Teleskop, Uber Nord- lichthaufigkeit auf den btitischen Inseln, Uber Polarlichtstudien in 40ten und im Infraroten, sowie fiber Beobachtungen in Schottland und Neuseeland. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/1t: gA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 kommission fUr magnetische Sakularstationen: Zu den auf der Ta- , gung in Oslo im Jahre 1948 gegehenen Mmpfehlungen tiler Anlage der Sa- kularstationen, der Abgabe der Ergebnisse an zwei Zentralstellen der Assoziation, Messungen auf See und au fli Inseln, Sicherung der Laze der Stationen, Messungen an mehreren Punkten einer Station, Art der Reduktion und Verwendung tragbarer Registriereinrichtungen brauchten neue Anregungen nicht hinzugeffigt zu werden. Die Fertigstellung des englischen Schiffes "Research", bei dem magnetisch wirksame Teile moglichst vermieden sind, wird ale dringend bezeichnet. Messungen dreier Komponenten in einem magnetisch unwirksamen Be- halter, der von einem Schiff geschleppt wird, wurden erOrtert und aus- gedehnte aeromagnetische Aufnahmen befUrwortet. 'Uber die Arbeiten der Lander zur Erfassung der Sdkularvariation werden einzelne Mitteilungen gegeben, die sich vielfach mit den Anga- ben der nationalen Berichte decken. Kommission fUr magnetische Karten: Die frUheren Empfehlungen Uber schnelle Sammlang des gesamten Beobachtungsmaterials bei der Coast and Geodetic Survey und Uber Vervollstandigung der Kartengrundlagen (beson- ders in Bereich der Ozeane und durch aeromagnetische Messungen) werden aufrechterhalten. Der Berichterstatter wurde in diese Kommission berufen. Kommission fUr Methoden de r Observatoriumsverbffentlichungen: Nachdem auf der Tagung in Washington (1939)und in Oslo (1948) fUr die Gestaltung der JahrbUcher der Observatorien Richtlinien angegeben war- den waren, wurde es ale Aufgabe der Kommission betrachtet, Uber die Annahmen der Richtlinien Erkundigungen einzuziehen. Auf em n in Februar 1951 abgesandtes Ruadschreiben gingen 43 Antworten em, die zum groBen Teil em n Eingehen auf die Anregungen meldeten. Al s em n idealer Typ eines Habrbuches wird das von U.S.Coast and Geodetic Survey geplante bezeichnet, das Stundenmittel und vollstandige Reproduktionen der Magnetogramme enthalten soil. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 700/1102T19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Kommission fiir die FOrderung der internationalen Ver_aeiche der magnetischen Standarawerte: Der Vergleich der Grundwerte beschrankt sich auf die Horizontalintensitat, da nur fUr ihre sehnelle und bequeme Mes- sung em n geeignetes Instrument, das QHM, vorhanddn ist, Die durchge- fUhrten Vergleichsmessungen sind in den nationalen Berichten angegeben. Es ist eplant, die Basiswerte der Horizontalintensitat in Rude Skov, Amberly , Apia, Toolangi, Watheroo Hermanus, Elisabethville und Manhay zu i2Teg1eichen. V,44414 ? 4 - * ? 0 4 41 4 4 .1 Die 13 Rmpfehlungen, die in Oslo im Jahre 1948 gegeben wurden, wurden durch folgende Anregungen er- ganzt: Eingehendes Stadium des Verhaltens der QHM, Verwendung von Re- gistrierstationen, die leicht transportiert werden kOdnen, Untersuchun- gen von Quarz- und Platin-Iridiumfdden, Gebrauch sogleich sichtbarer Registrierungen und aeromagnetische Vermessungen. Kommission fur Charakteristik der magnetischen Storung,en: Es wird angeregt, neben den bereits aingefUhrten MaaBangaben dr erdmagneti- schen Aktivitat (Ci, K, Kp) aus den K und Kp em n Cp abzuleiten, das die Aktivitat der Tage angibt, wahrend K und K einen Zeitraum von drei Stunden umfassen (K fur die einzelnen Observatorien K fUr die ganze Erde). Die Kommission will Untersuchungen einleiten, die sich mit ddm aquatorialen Ringstrom und der Wellenstrahlung der Sonne befassen. Kommission fUr Zentralisation und Standardisierung der Registrie- ranaen: Die Kommission warde gebildet, weil in Oslo im Jahre 1948 ange- regt warden war, a7 da em n Uberblick Uber die bestehenden Observatorien gewonnen und aus ihnen eine Auswahl derjenigen getroffen werden sollte, die besonders geeignet waren, das Beobachtungsmaterial sehr eingehend zu bearbeiten, und b) daB eine oder zwei Zentralstellen eingerichtet werden sollten, die die Ergeb4isse bearbeiten und verteilen. Randfragen, die an die Observatorien gerichtet wurden, ergaben emn uneinheitliches Bild, aber keine befruchtendes Vorschlage. Da offensicht. lich die Anregungen nur sthr schwer verwirklicht werden konnen, empfiehl' die Kommission, sie zu entlasten und die Angelegenheit nicht weiter au verfolgen. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/0//1197 CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Kommission fUr FOrderung der Beobachtungen der taglichen Variation der magnetischen Horizontalintensitdt zwischen dem geographpchen und magnetischet liquator und in der Mahe: Beobachtungen mit QHM wurden ein- gerichtet in Togo, im Golf von Guinea, in SUdamerika, in Indien und mai* den Philippinen. Beobachtungen werden eingeleitet an Stationen, die auf einer Kette liegen, die sich von Belgisch-Kongo bis zum Sudan er- streckt, und im Pazifik da, wo geographischer und magnetischer Aquator sich schneiden. FUr Togo, SUdamerika und Indien werden Ergebnisse mitgeteilt (Mittlere Tagesamplitude: 106r bis 1241- ) 'Commission fur aeromagnetische Vermessungen: Es wird Uber die Fortschritte auf diesem neuen und wichtigen Gebiet in den einzelnen Landern berichtet. Australien_ (2 Beobachtungssdtze, zundchst Messung der Totalintensitdt) Canada_ (Erprobung eines Instrumentes far DI H und Z; erhof& Genauigkeit wenige Minuten und wenige ia Zehner-t ) Frankreich Owls mow ???? NNW ???? (finanzielle Schwierigkeiten) Gro.B_Britannien (kleine Un- ternehmungen; grOBere sind noch nicht zugtande, ge?kommen; Instrumenten- e tus 44, va-ki lieferungen nach Australien und Neuseeldhailintensitatsmagneto- meter, groBere Gebiete Uberflogen, Ergebnisse gut) U.S.A._ (7 Firmen; bei absoltten Werten Genauigkeit um 100 ?rbei Variatic!nen wenige Gerate f?r drei Komponenten) Kommission fUr die Liquidation des Internationalen Polarjahres 19,32/1933: Die letzten Arbeiten, die unter die Aufgaben des Internatio- nalen Polarjahres 1932/33 fallen (Veroffentlichung der Ergebnisee von Tatuoca und Magallanes, Bearbeitung der zahlreichen Registrierungen mit schnellem Papiervorschub, Bibliographic aller dam Polarjahr betref- fenden Veroffentlichungen, Inventaraufnahme der magnetischen Instrumen- te) sind abgeschlossen oder im Gange. Die Herausgabe des Polarlichtat- lasses 1st weitgehend gefOrdert worden. 3) Antrage und Antragungen: Es wurde angeregt, den Namen der Assoziation zu dndern da Luft- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004%62/11 :-.CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 elektrizitat, Terrestrial Electricity, Electricite Terrestre im eigent- lichen ?Sinne zur Meteorologie gehbrt. Die Assoziation betrachtet aber wiederum die elektrischen.Vorgdnge in der hohen Atmosphdre und in der Erde als in ihre Aufgabengebiete fallend.nigme Einige Vorschldge, unter ihnen WortungetUmer, fanden keinen Anklang. Die Behandlung der Namens- anderung wurde daher auf die nachstea Tagung verschoben. Auf den Vorschlag des franzbsischen Komitees, in dem Fall, daB eine Reform notwendig sei, eine Assouiation der Physik des Erdinneren zu schaff en, wurde festgestellt, daB nichts unternommen werden wird, was nicht mit den anderen'Assoziationen voll im Einklang stUnde. Ein weiterer Vorschlag des franzOsischen Komitees, ?Sektionen oder Kommiesionen far das Studium der hohen Atmosphare zu bilden, wurde ge- billigt. Zwei Kommissionen, von denen die eine die Beziehungen der Vor- gange auf der Sonne mit denen auf der Erde pflegt und die andere sich den Vorgangen in der Jonosphdre widmet, wurden bestdtigt. Die Assoziation stimmt der Anregung des britischen Komitees zu, da die Ergebnisse der Verhandlungen so schnell wie mdglich verOffent- licht werden u4d von speziellen Abhandlungen nur eine kurze Zusammen- fassung gebracht, der vollstandige Text aber den Zeitsahriften Uberlas- sen wird, delB ferner die Publikationen zentral durch die nationalen Komitees verteilt werden. Es wird betant, daB die Assoziation stdndigsuch in dem Zeitraum zwischeh den Tagungen tdtig jet. FUr die Beurteilung ddr Aufgabe der Assoziationen fUr Seismologie, Vulkanologie und physikalische Ozeanographie sowie fUr die Verteilung finanzieller Mittel innerhalb der Union erkldrt sich die Assoziation als nicht fUr zustdndig. Es wird beschlossen, wahrend der Jahre 1957 und 1958 em n drittes Internationales Polarjahr einzurichten. Einzelheiten Uber alle anzu- stellenden Messungen werden erdrtert. Die Kommission fur das Studium der Jonosphdre schlagt fur bestimm- te Schichten der Atmosphare bestimmte YeZeiahnungen vor (z.B. Strato-' sphdre, NeutrOstihare - Stratopause, Mesopause, Homopause, Neutropause - Ozonosphare, Jonosphare, Exosphare, Troposphdre) Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200-4/a19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Um die Sammlung der Jahremittel der magnetischen Elemente der Ob- servatorien fortzusetzen, wird eine neue Kommission gebildet. 25X1 4) Spezielle Referate Adresse des Prasidenten S. Chapman: Nach einer kurzen Ubersicht Uber die Gesollichte und Uber die Ent- wicklung der internationalen Zusammenarbeit out dem Gebiet des Erdmagne- tismus werden besonders die Beziehungen zur Meteorologie erbrtert, wo- bei hervorgehoben wird, daB Luftelektrizitdt soweit sie in den erd- nahen Schichten der Atmosphare blaxxxls14-xurnini1mm beobachtet wird, zum Arbeitsbereich der Yeteorologie gehbrt. Wo sollen sich die Physiker, die sich mit den Problemen der hiich- sten Atmosphare befassen, anschlieBen? Diese Frage wird eingehend be- handelt. Einer Teilung der Assoziation wird grundsdtzlich widersprochen. Die Zusammenarbeit mit URSI (Union Radio Scientifique Internationale) wird befUrwortet; aber es wUrde begrUBt werden, wenn das Spezialgebiet, das sich mit den Zustdnden der hohen Atmosphare befaBt, bei der Asso- ziation verbliebe, da hierdurch die beste Verwendung der nicht sehr reichlichen Mittel gewahrleistet ware. Anschlieaend wird em. tberblick Uber die Arbeiten der Assoziation And ihrer Kommissionen gegeben. Die Vermessung der Ozeane 1st immer noch mm RUckstand, besonders seit- dem im Jahre 1929 in Samoa das Vermessungsschiff "Carnegie" durch Feu- er vernichtet worden ist. Wieder wird em n Appell an das englische Ko- mitee gerichtet, sich fUr die Fertigstellung des Schiffes "Research" x)Anmerkung des Berichterstatters: Die Deutsche Bezeichnung: Luftelek- trizitdt gibt,z.B. gegenUber dem Begriff: Erdelektrizitdt, an sich die Abgrenzung deutlich wieder. Die Moglichkeit kbnnte erwogen werdentdaB in der englischen und franzbaischen Sprach e analoge AusdrUcke gebildet werden. Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 20047b2179 7CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 einzusetzen. x) Der Prdsident kann aus seinen umfangreichen Erfahrungen entnehmen, daB manche ObServatorien, die unter schwierigen Verhdltnissen und mit geringen Mittein arbeiten, vorzagliche Ergebnisse.liefern, da2 aber wiederum die Ergebnisse mancher Obseryatorien trotz ganstiger Bedingun- gen weniger gut sind. Fr schldgt vor, besonders in den hehen Breiten far die Basiswertbestimmungen Methoden anzuwenden, die nur kurze Zeit beanspruchen (QHM, elektrische Verfahren), und ihrezeitlichen Zwischen- raum, der.im allgemeinen eine Woche betrdgt, zu verringern. Eine Ver- besserung wird ferner durch den Austausch der Mitarbeiter mdglich sein. Die Bearbeitung der Ergebnisse, ihre Veroffentlichung und Vertei- lung wird sich bessern, wenn die UN-Organisation wirksym wird und daher Mittel, die jetzt far militdrische BedUrfnisse aufgewendet werden mas- sen, fax konstruktive Zwecke verfugbar sind. Der wissenschaftlichen Untersucbung des groBen Materials, das sich inzwischen angesammelt hat, Solite mehr Bedeutung beigemessen werden. Ein Beispiel ist die durch die Assoziation oder UNESCO unterstatzte Ableitung des Mondeinflusses der magnetischen Variationen. Auf die gut organisierte Bestimmung der magnetischen Aktivitdt durch die C und die KlwimixlitimgEwitlismx auf die Herausgabe des Polar- lichtatlasses und (uf die Bedeutung der jtingst eingeleiteten Beobach- tungen am Aquator wird hingewiesen. Den Ursachen des Erdfeldes und ihrer Variationen, sowohl der sd- kularen ala auch der periodischen und unperiodischen, sind neue Unter- suchungengewidmet warden. sich Die zuktinftige gemwinsame Arbeit wird der Organisation des dritten Internationalen Polarjahres 1957/58 zuwenden. Mit dem Wunsch, dal3 sich Each RuBland, das sich trotz der ergan- genen Einladungen zurUckgehalten hat,- der Union anschlieBen mdge, schlieSt der Prdsident seine Adresse. Anmerkung: Fur die. "Research" fehlen noch magnetisch unwirksame AntriebE maschinen. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 200Z10/P197 CIA-RDP80-00926A0042000100024 F.J.Lowes und S.K.Runcorn Fine hIsikalische Analysis der .erdmagnetischen Sdkularvariation: Im AnschluD an frUhere Untersuchungen, nach denen sich die Sdku- larvariation des erdmagnetischen Feldes als Wirkung von elektrischen Stromen im Erdkern ergibt, wird daBgelegt, dal 12 rasiale Dipole in einer Tiefe von ti 900 km unter der Oberflache des Kerns den groBten Teil des Feldes der Sdkularvariation erkldren kftnen. Das Feld dieser Dipole ist Kreisstromen dquiv'alent, die an der Oberfldche des Kerns Die Ergebnisse stimmen mit der Ansicht ElsaBers Uberein, daB Strom- dnderungen im Kern in Tief en, die gro3er als 50 km sind, v011ig abge- , schirmt werden. R.D.Hutchison, Untersuchung uber die Sdkular- - variation in Kaneda: . Die magnetische Sdkularvariatione im canadischen Gebiet lUBt sich &arch Fouriersche Reihen darstellen, von denen die fUr Z eine besonders einf ache Form annimMt. Bei der Z-Sdkularvariation zeigt sich eine deut- liche Periode von fUnfzig Jahren. Die Koeffizienten der Fourierschen Reihen sind einfache Funktio- nen des Ortes. S.K.Pramanik, Sdkularvariation les magnetischen Feldes in Colaba und AlibaG: Die Sdkularvariation des erdmagnetischem Feldes in Coleba und Ali- bag wird, fUr die Zeit seit t: 1846 untersucht webei an die Studien Moose aus dem Jahre 1910 angeknUpft wird. H nimmt seit 1916 zu, D(E) nimmt seit 1879 ab. Z ist seit 1853 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2-00,4/2719 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 gestiegen und hat das Maximum im Jahre 1937 erreicht. E.Lahaye und F.Hoge, Die Sakularvariation in Belgient Das Program einer neuen magnetischen Vermessung Belgiens mit einer Stationszahl von 500 bis 600 wird entwickelt. Sie son ss_gleich nach der Errichtung und Finrichtung der geophysikalischen Zentrale in Dol&es begonnen werden. 11 gut verteilte Sakularstationen sind schon vermessen worden und werden regelmaBig aufgestcht werden. M.H.Johnson, Eine Beziehun zwischen Diffusion und elektrischen StrOmen: In einem Stromsystem, da a in einem teilweise ionisieren, gasnr- migen Medium auftritt, wenn es willkUrlich bewegt wird, jet die Strom- starke in dynamischem Gleichgewicht mit der Summe der Reibungskrafte, die bei der Bewegung der Ladungen durch das neutrale Gas erzeugt werden. Wenn negative Jonen und Flektronen vorhanden sind, hangt der.Diffusions- elektronenstrom von dem Ver#altnis der negativen Jonen ab, soda2 damit die anomale Phase der lunaren Gezeitenbewegung der E-Schicht erklart werden kann. W.Dieminger,-Uber Echolotungen der Jonosphare el sc ragem in Echolotungen der Jonosphare mit schragem Einf all bringen die Schwierigkeit mit sich, da3 Sender und Empfanger ortlich getrennt sind Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/0-2/4: EIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 und daher besondere Vorrichtungen fUr die Synchronisierung erforderlich werden. Die drahtlose Synchronisierung, die Synchronisierung fiber Lei- tungen und durch ortliche Schwingungserzeuger holier Konstanz, werden n?r betrachtet. Die Vorteile, die sich durch derartige Anlagen auch fUr den prak- tischen Funkverke#r ergeben, werden hervorgehoben. M.Ota:j Erdmagnetische AktiVitat, charakterisiert durch K-Indices: Die tagliche Variation der erdmagnetischen Aktivitat und die Natur der erdmagnetischen Stdrungen wird an Hand der IC-Indices diskutiert. Die Natur der St?rungen macht es erforderlich, daB fUr die ver- schiedenen Observatorien verschiedene K-Indices gewahlt werden, und zwar water der BerUcksichtigung sowohl der geomagnetischen Brelte ale auch der geomagnetisdhen Lange, weil die Polarlichtzone nicht durch einen Kreis abgegrenzt wird. S.Fred Sini3er, E.Maple und W.A.Bowen) Nachweis von Jonospharenstrdmen mit Raketen in der Ndhe des magnetischen Aluators:. Zwei Raketen, die im Marz 1949 bei -11?N und 271?E also-1? Eeo- magn. Breite,abgeschlossen wurden lieferten Etegistrierungen der Total- ! intensitUt. Es ergaben sich einerseits Abnahme de c Magnetfeldes zwischen 20 und 105 km Hdhe und andererseits Diskontinuitdten von 400s- zwischen 93 und 105 km line. Die Ergebnisse bestatigen nunmehr auch experimentell, die 2pixtmt Existenz eines Stromsystems in der E-Schicht der Jonosphare, wodurch die tdgliche Variation in Erdmdhe erklart werden kann, und die unter- stUtzen die Dynamotheorie Stewarts und Schusters. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/0271i ;1CTA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Es mu B angenommen werden, daB der Strom und damit die Leitfahig- keit der Jonosp3pre oberhalb einer Hbhe von 105 km schnell abnimmt. S.K.Runcorn A.C.Benson A.F.Moore und D.H.Griffiths Untersuchungen Uber die Anderung des magneti- c schen Feldes mit der Tiefe: Die Anderung der erdmagnetischen Horizontal- und Vertikalintensi- tat mit der Tiefe wurde in Kohlenbergwerken bis au Tiefen von 750 m mit QHM und BMZ gemessen, aadurch sollten die Theorien gepraft werden, die Uber den Ursprung des erdmagnetischen Feldes aufgestellt sind, nam- lich ob das Deld durch eine neue fundamentale Eigenschaft aller rotie- renden festen Korper hervorgerufen wird oder ob es auf elektrische Strome tief im Erdinnern zurUckzufuhren ist. Die Ergebnisse sprechen sehr fir die letzte Anschauung. A.Lundbak, Messungen der ma-netischen Vertikalintensitat im Flugzeug: Im Flugzeug wurde bei Kopenhagen Z mit BMZ Uber Land und See ge- messen. Werden gewisse, aber leicht zu erfUllende Bedingungen beachtet, kann eine Gehauigkeit von -1- 20T. erreicht werden. G.Shaw, Aeromagnetische Vermessungen: In Canada sind groBe. Flachen aeromagnetisch vermessen worden. Das verwendete Instrument miBt die.Totalintensitat mit ether Genauigkeit von 2r . Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/i12/ : IA-RDP80-00926A00420001 0002-4 Der Vergleich bekannter geologischer Verhaltnisse in typischen Gegenden mit den gewonnenen Frgebnissen zeigt den Wert der Methode. 0.Schneiddr, Spuren eines restlichen Mondwinflusses bei den erdma netischen K-Indices. Die K-Indices zeigen im stidlichen Sommer an ruhigen Tagen eine kleine halbmonatliche Variation, die Amplitude/ der Tagesmittel betr? in Filar wahrend eines halben Mondumlaufs 0.41 Einheiten der K. Die Variation wird auf MondeinfluL zurUckgefUhrt. H.F.Johnston, Neue Jahresmittel der erdmagnetischen Observatorien. Fine Zusammenstellang neuer JahresMittel der magnetischen Elements der Observatorien wird Vorgelegt. x) J.W.Graham und H.F.Tatel, Restliches magnetisches Moment bei Tonen und Sedimentg.esteinen. Unter Anlehnung an eine frii4ere Konstruktion, mit der durch Rota- tion das remanente Moment von Sedimenten bestimmt wird, wurde em n neues Instrument entwickelt, bei dem die Empfindlichkeit durch Erhbhung der Rotation der Probe gesteigert wurde, so daB ouch flach gelagerte Gestei- ne untersucht werden konnten. Die Meseungen ergaben, da 2 diese flach gela erten Gesteine , emn x) Der Berichterstatter hat vorgeschlagen, da der von ihm bearbeitete und herausgegebene Katalog der Jahresmittel (Abh. d. Geophys. Inst. Potsdam Nr.8-11, Berlih 1948, 498 Seiten) als Muster f#r die Zusammen- lassung der bisher gesammelten Werte gwwahlt wird, und er hat die Lie- ferung zusatzlicher und verbesserter Werte angeboten. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/W: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 restliches magnetisches 'Feld haben, dessen Haupt2ichtung mit derjenigen de a gegenwdrtigen Erdfeldes Ubereinstimmt. Devon- und Silurproen haben aber mannigfaltige Magnetisierungsrichtungen, die betrdchtlich von denen abweichen, die die Silurgesteine der Alleghanies aufweisen. Die Mannig- faltigkeit soil die Stabilitdt des remenentan Moments beweisen. An Proben wurde untersucht, welche Magnetisierungsrichtung bevor- zugt wird; es wurde erwartet, daB die Elementarmagnete eine umso grOBe- re Dimension hdtten je hbher ihre Magnetisierbarkeit ist. An langsam rotierenden Proben wUrdd der Grad der Magnetisierbarkeit gemessen. Bei vielen Proben wurde eine Anisotropie bis zu einigen Prozent ihrer Total- suszeptibilitdt gefungen. Bei den interessantesten Proben, die aus ether Silurfalte stammten, streute die Richtung der magnetischen Vektoren um 251 nachdem sie in die Lage des noch ungestOrten Sediments gebracht warden waren, obgleich die gegenwartige remanente Magnetisierung de.Gesteins sehr verschieden jet. Dieselben Ergebnispe bei der Suszeptibilitat beweisen, da B die Magnetisierung derjenigen entspricht, die aus der ursprUnglichen Lage resultiert. N.Kumagai, N.Kawai und T.Nagata, Neupr Fortschritt bei der Ableitung_ magnetischer Verhdltnisse frUherer Zeiten; Laven und horizontale Sedimentschichten aus verSchiedenen Gegenden Japans wUrden untersucht. Die ziemlich starke Magnetisierung der Eruptivgesteine wurd4 durch statische Magnetometer gemessen, wdhrend die schwache Magneti- sierung der Sedimentgesteine durch Instrumente spezieller.Konstruktion bestimmt wurde. Bei 5 bis 20 Proben jedes Lavastromes wurde die Magnetisierungs- richtung in situ gemessen. AuBerdem wurde eine groBe Anzahl yon Proben verschiedener Lagen und Tiefen entnommen. Es wurde festgestelltl.da die Richtung der thermoremanten Magneti- sierung der Laven den des Magnetfeldes in ihrer Nachbal:schaft entspricht Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - 24 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Daraus kann gefolgert werden, da 2 die Richtung der remanenten Magneti- sierung die des'magnetischen Feldes zur Zeit der AbkUhlung angibt. Die Eruptiva und Sedimentschichten des Tertidr weisen mit einigen Ausnahmen fur die eine der regenten Erdfeldrichtung elemi entsprechende Magnetisierungsrichtung auf, wdhrend die bei Osaka gesammelten Proben eine anomale Magnetisierungsrichtung haben. Die Magnetisierung der Sedimente nahe bei Tokio (Miozdu bis stozdu) entspricht fast dem gegenwUrtigtherrschenden Magnetfeld. Die Ursache entgegengerichteter Magnetisierung, die nur bei Terti- dr-, aber kaum bei Quartdrgesteinen vorgefunden wurde, konnte nicht srmittelt werden. Internationale Zusammenarbeit auf diesem Gebiet wird vorgeschlagen. E.Hoge, Die Verteiluhg des Erdmagnetismus im Ostlichen Belgien: Auf folgende Feststellungen, die aus dem Vergleich geologisc4er und geophysikalischer. Karten folgen, wird hingewiesen: 1) Pleistoseiste Gebiete fallen mit denen maximaler positiver magnetischer Stdrungen zusammen, 2) die meisten Hebungszonen neigen zu posititren magnetischen Ano- malien, 3) positive, magnetische Anomalien sind mit negativen Schwereano- malien gekoppelt, 4) aie Achsen der Antiklinalen sind durch positive magnetische Anomalien und die Achsen ,der Synklinalen durch negative magne- tische Anomalien gekennzeichnet. Die gegenseitige Beziehung dieser verschiedenen Phdnomenen scheint sehr eng zu sein. Die Frhohung der Stationszahl auf das Zehnfache im ostlichen Belgien wird das Problem weiter klaren und SchlUsse ziehen lassen, die sowohl fUr die Geologie ale fur die Geophysik wichtig sind. Die berechneten und tatsdchlichsten beobachtete Werte stimmen befriedi- gend Uberein. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - 26 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 S.L.Malurkar und A.S.Chaubal, Magnetische Registrie- run?en mit schnellem Lauf in Aliba: wahrend der Son- nenfinsternis Uber dem Nord-Pazifik am 12. SeatrlahlE 1950 und.wahrend magnetischer St?rungen im Januar 19492 Mai 1949 und Dezember 1950: Schnellregistrierungen wahrend der Sonnenfinsternis am 12. Septem- ber 1950, die von 2h 50.1m bis 4h 27.0m MGZ wahrte, ergaben eine Abnah- me von H um 63 zwischen 12h 16m und 12h 34m. - Bei gelegentlichen Schnellregistrierungen (180 mm je Stunde) wurden die magnetischen Sto- rungen im Januar und Mai 1949 und im Dezember 1950 erfat. T.Nagata, N.Fukushima und M.Sugtura,Elektro dynamisches Verhalten,der Ionospare: Ein einheitliches Bild des elektrischen und dynamischen Zustandes der lonosphare zu liefernlist der Zweck dieses Referates. Es wird da- rauf hingewiesen, dali die sonaagigen Variationen der erdmagnetischen Elemente each vongaggrtR4W4P Station abhangen, vermutlich well die geographischen und magnetischen Pole nicht zusammenfallen. Die Strome werden berechnet, die der Variation S Yaziatin (sannen- tagiger Gang an ruhigen Tagen) entsprechen. Weiter wird die Leitfahigkeit und dr Abschirmeffekt der tonosphd- re behandelt, FUr die Rechnung werden fUr die Dicke der ionosphare und die Art des Primarfeldes (periodisch oder aperiodieCh) bestimmte Annah- men gemacht. Bei schnellen Anderungen des primaren Feldes (z.B. bei Stdrungs- einsatzen) darf der Abschirmeffekt nicht auBer acht gelassen werden; als Leitfahigkeit ergibt sich in tbereinstimmung mit anderen Berechnun- gen 10-7 elektromagn. Einheiten. Die theoretische Behandlung der Erhbhung des sonnentagigen Ganges an gestorten Tagen (Sd) erfordert wegen der Sc#nelligkeit der VorOrge und der hohen Leitfahigkeit die BerUcksichtigung der Selbstinduktion der ionosphare. Es resultiert fUr die Leitfahigkeit 5.10-8 elektromagn. Einheiten. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? 27 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Aus den gewonnenen Ergebnissen kann gefolgert werden, daB das Sd- Stromsystem in dem oberen Teil der E-Schicht liegt, wahrend das Sg-Feld auf das resultierende Feld der beidan Stromsysteme in der D- und E- Schicht zurUcitzufthren jet. Das Sd- Stromsystem scheint bald nauh dem plbtzlichen Stbrungseinsatz zu entstehen. Die Dynamowirkung ist der fundamentale Proza zur Erzeugung der verschiedenen Systeme elektrischer Strome die verschiedenen fonisa- tionsbedingungen unterworden sind. K.Maeda, Uber die elektrisahe LeitgahiOceit der hohen Atmosphere: Es wird festgestellt, daB die Leitfahigkeit in den hbheren Atmos- phdrenschichten in den Tagesstunden von der lonendichte in ddn E- und F-Schichten anstatt von der Elektronendichte abhangt. Der Beitrag der E-Schicht jet grbBer ale der F-Schicht, in den Nachtstanden erheblich grbBer. Der tagliche Gang der Leitfahigke;t entspricht teilweise der Anderung der Elektronendichte in derE-Schicht, mit der die ionendichte der E-Schicht eng gekoppelt jet, und teilweise der Hbhe und der Andee rung der Elektronendichte in der F-Schicht. H. HaAes, Die elektrische Leitfahigkeit der Erdkruste: Es wird dargelegt, daB die schnella Zunahme der Leitfahigkeit der Erdkruste bis au einer Tiefe von 600 km nicht mit ionenleitfahigkeit erklart warden kann, daB vielmehr in diesen Tiefen Olivia wahrschein- lich em n Halbleiter jet. Methoden filr die experimentelle Bestimmung der Leitfahigkeit des Olivins und ahnlicher Gesteine warden erlautert. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 25X1 The Ninth General Meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (1.U.D.G.), which was also the second plenary meeting since 1945, was held in Brussels during the last two weeks of August 1951. The Joint Committee for Physics of the Earth's Interior had already been holding sessions beginning August 16th, as follows: a symposium on the thermal balance of the earth (radio- activity and thermal conductivity of the earth's mantle), on Thursday, August 16th, a symposium on the problem of continents and oceans, on Friday, August 17th, a general discussion of problems concerning the earth's mantle, on Saturday, August 18th. This reporter was unable to attend the sessions of the Executive Committee, of the Council and of the Finance Com- mittee, which took place on Monday. Approved For Release 2004/02119 lCIAERDP80-00926A004200010002-4 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 The plenary assembly of the IUGG was ushered in by opening exercises on Tuesday, August 21st, at the Palais des Beaux Arts, with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth present for the occasion. After welcoming speeches by representatives of the Belgian government and the City of Brussels, Professor P. A. Vening Meinesz, president of the Union, addressed the queen and the guests of honor in French. He then delivered a special lecture on the fundamental problems of the gravity field and its significance for the science of geophysics. Noteworthy among the other addresses during these opening ceremonies was the one by the secretary general of the IUGG, in which he discussed among other items the relations between the IUGG and UNESCO and the financial support extended by the United Nations organization. An outline of the IUGG's organizational and financial connections is given in Annex II (+). The meetings of the individual associations in the IUGG, specializing in their respective technical fields, began in the afternoon by reading the activity reports submitted by the various countries. This was done separately in different rooms of the academy for the individual IUGG subdivisions, namely, the Geodetic, Seismological, Meteorological, Geomagnetic, Oceanographic, Vulcanological and the Hydrological Associations. Your reporter was only able to take note of the reports on meteorological subjects. Those reports which were received on time are printed in Annex I, Part 3, pp. 1 - 45. In addi- tion, the meeting heard reports submitted by France, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands. Great Britain, India and Egypt are expected to file reports at some later time. A. noteworthy announcement was made by H. R.Byers concerning the report from the United States, to the effect tnat the great volume of meteoro- sob 2 ON, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 logical research projects completed or currently being worked on makes it impossible to have r?NfBiii which could be read specifically as such. Moreover, such a report would be super- fluous in view of the material currently being published in the "Meteorological Abstracts and Bibliography" put out 10 the American Meteorological Society". From Wednesday, August 25th, onward further sessions and discussions of all the divisions took place in various rooms of the Free University of Brussels. The report given in the following must on the whole confine itself to the sessions of the International keterological Association (IAM), since your reporter was only able to attend the meetings of this division. The official program of the Meterological Association followed in the main the schedule shown in Annex I (Part 1, p.1). Special mention should be made of the impressive tour of 7 the Metrological Observatory at Ucc14 (for details, see Part D of this report). The official excursion of the Z.U.G.G. to Antwerp afforded the members an opportunity to visit an American and a British research and survey vessel. In the course of the trip to Ghent on Sunday, August 26th, a.vi4trwas made to the Hydrological Institute of the Polytechnic University there. Other noteworthy items are the showings on several evenings of films of expeditions, among them particularly the French and Italian color films showing active volcanoes and liquid lava flows. Toward the close of the convention, the members of the Association were also invited to a reception by Her Majesty the Queen of the Belgians. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : SIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 ! CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 B) Participants Annex II contains the official list of members who had signified their attendance, and guests of the T3.-G-g-G--g-IUGG There was no sign of any scientists being present from the zones or countries under Soviet domination. This goes also for Prof. M ii. h I 1 g, of Potsdam who was listed as attending as representative of geodetic interests in the East-German republic.. From the West-German Federal Republic the following persons, active In fields with which this reporter is in contact, attended: Prof. J. Bartel s, of the Geophysical Institute of the University of attingen Dr. K. FeuBner, of the Meterological Institute of the Free University of Western Berlin Prof E. G g s, of the institute for Applied Geodesy in Frankfurt/Main Dr. H. W o 1 fl of the Institute for Applied Geodesy in Fralkfurt/Main Prof. Fr M ? 1 1 e r, of the Meteorological-Geophysical insti- tute of the University of Mainz Dr. W. Menzel, of the Meteorological-Geophysical Insti- tute of the University of Hamburg Dr. G. Boenecke, director of the Hydrographic Bureau in Hamburg Prof. F. Errulat, of the Hydrographic Bureau in Hamburg Prof. K. J u n g, of the Geophysical Institute of the Clausthal School of Mining Prof. W. H i 1 1 e r, of the Seismographic Observatory of the Stuttgart Polytechnic College Prof. E. Regenerof the Max-Planck Institute in Weissenau (Harz) Dr. W. Dieminger, of the Max-Planck Institute &d Lindau Approved For Release 2004/02419 :4IA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/125MA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 The German meteorological profession, as far as synoptics and weather science were concerned,was by comparison not very well represented. Of the German Weather Service in the U.S. zone, only Dr. H. Flohn was at the meeting for about a week and Dr. H. Ungeheuerfor two days. No one from the Weather Services in the British or French zones had been able to make the trip, due to a chain of unfortunate circumstances, both Prof. L. Weickmann of Bad Kissingen and Prof. P. Raethjen of Hamburg being ill at the same time. To make matters worse, the Weather Service, after having sent in the names of Prof. Scherhag, Dr. Flohn, Dr. Schnelle and Dr. Ungeheuer as attending the meeting, was unable to obtain from .the Federal Ministry of Transport an allocation of funds to cover their expenses. Dr. Flohn alone was able to participate, after much difficulty and by dint of other financial resources, and he managed also to have Dr. Ungeheuer come to Brussels for at least the two days. C) Synopsis of some of the resolutions adopted at the business meetings of the International Meteorological Association. One of the early general meetings of the IUGG, which took placecibefore this reporter was able to be present, voted to admit Israel and Western Germany as members of the International Union. The business meetings of the IAM dealt primarily with the following matters: a) Proposal for an international polar year in 1957-58 (cf. Annex I, Part 1, p. 10 et seq.) Approved For Release 2004/G-2/195. CIA4RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 b) Proposal to establish a new nomenclature for the upper atmosphere (of Annex I, Part 1, pp. 10 et seq. c) Recommendations for "world days for the study of the upper atmosphere (cf. Annex I, Part 1, pp. 14-15) d) Proposal for an international institute of meteorology. Ad a) With respect to the third polar year, which is to serve primarily the study of the upper atmosphere and there- fore would be handled under the lead of the IATME, a joint commission is to be constituted on which the International Associations for Meteorology, for Terrestrial Magnetism and Eleotriotty, for Physical Oceanography, and for Hydrography are represented. As delegates of the IAM to serve on this commission, Ch. Normand and E. Vassy were chosen. Their first task would be to review the project for a third polar year, described in Annex I. In discussing the project, the feeling was expressed that it would be both desirable and important not to neglect a continuing study of synoptic phenomena in the tropo- and stratosphere in favor of the upper .atmosphere. In con- nection therewith the congress of the WMO (World Meteor4O- gical Organization, of. Annex II) held in Paris in April of 1951 had already recommended a close cooperation between the WMO and IUGG. The WMO, furthermore, is in a position to organize the butizimumkta networks of stations and where- withals which are indispensable for holding a polar year. In addition, the "joint commission for the ionosphere" is desirous and hopeful of making worth-while improvements in its plans through this collaboration with meteorologists. It was therefore deemed essential that the IAM notify the . WMO officially of the plan through the IUGG. 6 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Ad b) Discussion of the proposal made by Chapman for a nomenclature for the upper atmosphere (cf. Annex I) brought out a great diversity of viewpoint, causing a delay in the actual business before the meeting, namely the selection of members of a commission to study this very matter. Some of the arguments and objections against the proposal were based on reasons of physics or measurement technique, others on lingui- stic and historical grounds. The question was also brought up again whether the WMO knit was in fgvor of this proposal, but this was vigorously denied by ... ? Prof. Th. Hesselber g, the WMO representative with the IAM. The Striking-thlng aDout this discussiOn 1.4-?1419I, thi$L,1 proposed nomenclature had been made 7 public already in three scientific periodficals without having aroused any adverse criticism or protest on the part of persons in the field. The result of this discussion was the selection of A. Vassy and 0, G. Sutton as members of the joint cogmission. The report of this commission was received at a subsequent business meeting without any further discussion. Ad c) The proposal for "world days for the study of the upper atmosphere" essentially is to have all research methods of the upper atmospheric strata concentrated at pre-arranged times (i.e. at periods of new moon, fu;11 moon, solar eclipse, etc.) The discussion therefore centeed chiefly on the technical difficulties in having such a concentrated program of dpecific experiments materialize at short notice. Here, too, the point is made that the WMO might be of considerable help. The particular question brought upvas whether tile WMO would be able to contribute tly AMY.- of radiosondes released in very much greater density. The WMO representative did not consider it necessary to intensify observations at all stations of the world network. The viewAfs expressed that rather than fixing so 7 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ,itwo1.1___d be better rigidly on specific datUF7TtoTmake sure that facilities are concentrated in order to be able to operate with them en masse. What seems particularly difficult is to fix specific dates on which rocket ascensions would be made. The outcome of the discussionwbs the selection of E. Rosch and J. Lugeon as members of the joint cm- mission (representing the IAM, IATME and LAB). This commission will study the proposal for world days. The report of this commission Wai received without discussion at a subsequent business meeting. Ad d) The proposal for an international institute, which is not mentioned in the enclosed Annex I, had already been made among other things at the VMO convention in Paris this past spring, and had been discussed there. At Brussels, this pro- posal was presented to the assembly in a rather lengthy expose by C. G. Rossby. According to this, such an institute would promote meteorological research by having, in particular)teams of more junior meteorologists work under the guidance of leading scientists. UNESCO had already promised its support. Rossby revealed that as an experiment, ten to twelve scientists from six countries would be invited already during the coming winter. The ensuing discussion afforded a very illuminating insight into certain factors of national and international scope, and a summary of this dis- cussion is therefore given below. Rossby's expose proposed the formation of an international meteorological institute with headquarters in Stockholm. It should be noted that such an institution already exists in the form of the Swedish Institute for cultural exchanges with foreign countries, through which scientists are invited by the government meteorological service in Stockholm for several weeks to hold discussions and lectures as guest professors. - 8 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 According to Rossbylthe IAM's president, Prof. J. Bjerknes has stressed the wide interest in the formation of an international institute in Stockholm. The IUGG unfortunately is so limited in funds that the INA could give the project only its moral support. Happily, other sources (UNESCO) have come forward with offers of aid, and IADA can do no better than welcome this project and would be very pleased to be kept posted on its development. He looked, forward to receiving valuable advice from some of the IAM members present who have had wide experience in the organization of research centers. Th. Hesselberg, in his capacity of WMO delegate, pointed out that the idea of an international meteorological institute is by no means anything new and that the WMO had on several occasions in the past looked into such a plan, parti- cularly c9e made ,py France. Heretofore, all such projects had AO -be abandoned_cc for lack of funds. All of the previous plans not only contemplated an international center for research but also emphasized the need for organizing the teachinglof meteorology. The congress of the WMO had instructed its executive committee to look into the desirability of forming such an institute. A special committee of four members was selected for this purpose, which is to report to the Executiv e Committee in October of 1951. The WMO is in any case interested in such a project and is anxious to have the consent and the "moral support" of the IAM. A. Viaut, head of the French Weather Service, after adding some comment to what Th. Hesselberg had said, timpommpresented the French Government's proposal for uc an establishing tk institute in France. He went into very tangible details at the blackboard, sketching a groundplan of the proposed buildings which would either be converted from their present use, or be built especially for this purpose. The president called for the views of the other members who do not belong to the WMO. Dufour then emphasized how Approved For Release 2004/e2/1g : Cf1k-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 important it was tofWlize such an institute for pure re- search and not only1151.actical research. Bjerknes once more cited the role of outstanding scientists in working together with younger researchers as teamt A. Angstr?m, director of the Swedish Weather Service, added something to the remarks of Th. Hessel - berg from another standpoint. He called attention to the fact that the countries of Eastern Europe had strenuously opposed creation of an international meteorological Insti- tut at the WMO Congress in Paris. They were quite averse to furnishing financial support, feeling that such an insti- tute would redound chiefly to the benefit of the Western nations. He indicated that some such obstacles would have to be expected also here, as there are some countries who believe that others would be taking advantage of their financial contributions. This reporter is of the opinion that such conflicts arise not so much from fear of unfair material burdens, but from petty jealousies 1i8 ng nations. At the request of the president, Mr. Rossby added some concluding remarks. He said that this was not a question of establishing the international meteorological institute, but one of them, by way of a beginning. Stockholm was merely to be an experiment, based on the offer made by the government. He was happy to note that the French Govern- ment had made a similar offer. He would like, however, to repeat that primary consideration should not be given to "buildings or floor plans" but to the creation of working teams of young researchers under the guidance of outstanding scientists. Debate on this project apparently went on privately among the membership. It then came up for discussion again at the last business meeting of the IAM, on August 31st. Rossby, however, had already departed. The advocates - 10 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ONE Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 of the Swedish plan had introduced a resolution which "noted with great pleasure the intention to found an international meteorological institute in Stockholm". Such a resolution thus would have embodied the moral support which the WMO had wished; however, it underwent first a number of amendments, due principally to French objections and then still failed of achieving a formulation which was satisfactory to all members of the assembly. ? Angstrrb m/0 who in view of Rossby' s absence took it upoillhims'elr.to:!ddfend -)2 the Stockholm project, explained at some length that the title "International Insti- tute in Stockholm" would be dropped in favor of "An institute in Stockholm with an international staff". In answer to Viaut he stated that this experiment would involve a national institute possessing an international staff. (This tallies with the personal experience of this reporter who had been himself invited during the preceding year to give several guest lectures at this institute at which the st4ff had been continuously replaced by the constant arrival of new guests from foreign countries). Angstr?m emphasized that there was nothing to prevent other countries from setting up a similar institution. When this new resolution likewise failed to win approval, he ilade no attempt to conceal his disappointment and freely indicated that Rossby could hardly be expected to be pleased about it. This reporter has no information about any other viewpoints on the subject of establishing an international institute. In addition to the four projects of an international scope which have been described in detail, the business meetings disposed of a number of elections and several matters of a general nature. One item was the appointment of a commission, consisting of E. Gold, 3. Lugeon, M. Nicolet, E. Palm b n and L. A. Ramses, which was to make nominations to the general assembly for candidates to hold Approved For Release 2004/02/19 :EA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 specific offices in the IAM. Nominations by this commission led to the following elections: 1). for president of the IAM - Prof. K. R. Ramanatan for vice-presidents - Prof. C. G. Rossby and Queney the terms of secretary and members of the secretariat were extended, with the following continuing in office: Secretary: Prof. J. van Miegham, of Belgium Members: Dr. W. Mdrikofer, of Switzerland Sir Ch. Normandy of Great Britain V. V. Vaisalii, of Finland 2). The assembly also approved the following nominations of the electoral commission: for members of the Finance Committee: H. L. Absalon H. Berlage H. P. Byers 3). for members of the Joint Commission for the Study of Solar-Terrestrial Relationships: Dir, L. M. Nicolet Prof. F. W. P. Gdtz Dr. O. R. Wulf for liaison officer with the members of other IUGG commissions Dir. L. M. Nicolet was selected 4). for members of the joint international commission for radio- meteorology: S. P. Venkiteshwaran Prof. H. Nor inder Prof. P. A. Sheppard A. Perlat, Sen. Engineer - 12 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 for members of the joint international commission for stations serving the study of higher altitudes: Prof. F. W. Gotz Dr. V. V. Sohoni (+) 5). H. Pristley was ohosen IAM delegate to the Advisory Committee for Arid Zones, with A. Perlat as his alternate to attend the meetifiebbout tb-DpehinPkrso -J? D) Report on Scientific Transactions The first functional meeting of the IAM on Wednesday, August 22, 1951 began with a ceremony honoring the, members who had passed away since 1948. Next, President Prof. J. Bjerknes, in his presidential address, presented a survey of the topic "Persistance of Atmospheric Interzonal Circulation". This lecture is given in synopsis form on p. 21 (Symposium on the topic "General Atmospheric Circulation"). The afternoon of August 22nd was taken up with business meetings, as reported on above. Then followed 1). on Thursday, August 23rd, the symposium on cloud physics opened TV an introductory survey given by its chairman, Tor Bergeron. In his presentation, the speaker divided cloud physics into three sections: a) Indirect cloud physics, developed by means of synop- tical or climatological material. This form of research on clouds is based on study of geographic and chronological ef- fects of cloud phenomena and on precipitation brought about both by weather and orographic conditions. With the aid of numerous diagrams, Bergeron dealt particularly with the significance of convergence along coastlines and mountain ranges and of the evenly mobile mass of converged atmosphere ? 13 ? Approved For Relea,ce 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 + Transl. Note. This very likely is supposed to be C. B. H. Priest- ley Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 along weather fronts. All three types manifest wave symptoms which in their fUndamental aspects are mlotee,sitailar than the Lee-waves of Lyra and other research at:elitists which form into currents above and beyond obstacles. b) Certain relationships exist between this indirect and uniformly synoptic system of cloud physics and the macrophysics of clouds which deals with visible currents in clouds, with the dependence of cloud stratification upon thermodynamics and with the distribution and size of rain drops on the ground. 6 A focus of interest is the modern science of microphysics of clouds which is chiefly concerned with condensation nuclei, with processes of condensation and coagulation and their attendant impact on droplet formation, as well as the product- ion and effectiveness of ice particles. Apart from the intro- ductory survey, the symposium on August 23rd consisted entirely of lectures on microphysical aspects. It developei from this that formation of precipitation elements and rain is by no means solely due to the so-called Bergeron-Findeisen effect which is based on ice particles formed in the upper atmospheric layers coming in contact with droplets in super-cooled clouds. Droplet size can be increased and heavy precipitation induced ' also by direct coagulation. This confirms previous observa- tions to the effect that larger drops or precipitation elements can be deposited by clouds even when they are everywhere warmer than 0? C. Coagulation takes place particularly in wet satura- ted clouds (in the tropics). Modern methods of radar incidence on clouds have yielded clear results which were discussed in a talk by E. G. Bowen of Australia on the basis of his own experiments (cf. Annex I, Part 2). His observation of radar echoes covered three types of cloud groups: (1) those which everywhere were warmer than 00 centigrade (2) those which were partly above and partly below 00 (3) those which were entirely, or nearly so, in the sub- zero range of temperature. Approved For Release 2004/02/191:4CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 In the case of (1), radar echoes take on a special form of structure, namely column structure, proving the existence of larger drops or precipitation elements which evidently could only have formed by coagulation. With experiments under (2) measurements have shown that the echoes (and the formative precipitation) begin mostly in the region above 0?, spreading upward in the dbuds into the temperature range below Sero down to temperatures of about Minus 40 to 60 centigrade,L . The Bergeron-Findeisen effect mentioned above appears to be essentially valid only for a cloud group comprising a tempe- rature zone which is less than 150 C. below zero (a type of cloud, to be sure, which is by far the most frequent source of precipitation in the temperate zone). Radar measurements here show a "rain band" which manifests itself first in an altitude, i.e. a temperature region of 150 below and then in the course of a few minutes ( apprx. 15 minutes) moves down and crosses the 00 line. Bowen observed in many such oasesarepe- tition of this process with the same cloud and explains this behaviour as a spontaneous freezing of the cloud elements in conformance with the results obtained by R. Heverl y. In clouds which thus consist of a mixture of water and ice particles the 00 C. isobar takes the form of a band of high echo intensity, which is due - on the basis of observations made from aircraft - to the melting of the ice particles as they fall past the 00 line (melting band). Next camealecture by J. Rou). leau (cf. Annex sought to establiSh, I, Part 2, p. 20), who _- -f1g1tIrela the formation of rain drops by theoretical Analysissof the diffusion and coagula4 tion processes affecting droplets in clouds. His calculations are based on the assumption of a stationary equilibrium plus allowances for latent evaporation heat and conductive proces- ses. - 15 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 A paper dealing with the change in size of droplets, by N. Frdssling, of Wpden, was read to the meeting by the chairman. Of major significance were two lectures by B. J. Mason and P. H. Ludlam, both of Great Britain. Based on stati- stical investigations of the temperature conditions at the upper edge of virga from stratiform clouds, these studies confirm that it is coalescence and not the process of ice nuclei which in such cases sets off precipitation. Mason made mathema- tical computations of the size of drops under various conditions of water content, updraft and layer thickness of the stratum, and then laid down the limits of the conditions, within which coale- scence could still be an effective factor in causing precipita- tion. P. H. Ludlam supplemented these observations by also tracing the deposit of light showers from billow clouds to coalescence. The precipitation particles could also grow suf- ficiently to overcome the updraft present in the billows, by tumbling from one cloud cell in coagulated form into a cell rising more vigorously from belowland thus have longer time in which to grow. This corresponds somewhat to the concept with which the formation of hail is normally explained, namely: a protracted presence in the cloud atmosphere by suitable geo- metric patterning of convection cells and as a result, increase In size in several stages. This concept of "coagulation showers" also was supported by calculations, using plausible quantities for updraft and for initial size of droplets. H. Dessens, of France, reported on his cloud-seeding tests in the Pyrenees (cf. Annex I, p. 10). Dessens attempted to produce artifiCial precipitation by introducing into the clouds large hygroscopic sal nuclei with the aid of rockets. As a further method, clouds were also seeded with nucLei of AgI, The .results, similar to what American tests have shown, are not as yet quite conclusive. It appears that certain natural wind conditions favor successful results, while others do not. ? 16 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 The first afternoon speaker was R os sisit u n n of the United States, who reported on a remarkable experimental deities for studying the behavibri-.of drops of water and artificial cloud components. The essential part of its design is a pressure- insulated shaft or channel, some 200 meters highlwili a cross- section ite 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 meters. At its upper terminus, water drops are atomized. The results of these investi:gations of artificially assimilated cloud conditions were demonstrated on a large number of diagrams. (cf. Annex I, Part 2, p. 13). L. Dufour, of Belgium, then discussed condensation of water vapor In the atmosphere in terms of theoretical calcu- lations, based on thermodynamic and physio-chemical premises. The symposium on cloud physics concluded with the showing of color photographs of clouds by A. Viaut , of France. The following lectures which had been listed in the pro- gram were canceled: S. Ogiwara, of Japan, on solid condensation nuclei which are insoluble in water;- K. Ito, of Japan, on ice ,t crystals in the atmosphere; and the lecture by M. Azpiroz,of Spain, on the affinity of thermo- dynamic processes in meteorology. For an account of the visit to the observatory at Ucc16, in the evening of August 23rd, see the end of the report on scientific transactions. 2). The symposium on physics of the upper atmosphere was held on Friday, August 24th, in a joint meeting with the international Association for Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity of the IUGG. This coincided with the time of holding the IAM's meeting on climatology which I therefore could not attend. For a program of the meeting on climatology, see Annex I, Part 2, p. 47* Mr. Newell readapaper by F. W. Whipple, of Great Britain, presenting a general introduction to the state of research on the upper atmosphere, especially as regards the use of rockets and observations of meteors. The pressure data Approved For Release 2004/02/19 19IA-RQP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 obtained from rockets discharged in high altitudes generally run/ loistkun4ltat had been assumed heretofore for-the so-ca;led_ 4tandard atMoipheie. It follows that in calculating the functional relationship of atmospheric pressure to altitude, the temperatures had been assumed too high. The accuracy of measurements achieved by means of rockets establishes with safety the occurrence of fluctuations in time around the factor 4, resulting in the existence of considerable altitude intervals when assigning a specific pressure or temperature value. The use of mass spectre- graphs with rockets to determine the composition of the atmos- phere at high altitudes so far has yielded no results. The rocket method has further been used to determine solar constant and ultraviolet radiation and for establishing certain other indi- vidual factors in solar radiation. R. E. Rooch, of the United States, reported concern- ing investigations of diurnal variations shown by the 5577, 6300 (02) and 5893 (sodium) spectral lines in the upper atmos- phere. These three lines belong to ionized oxygen and ionized sodium and were studied by observing night sky with respect to their distribution in space and time, by using a special night- sky spectrograph. Areas were shown of especially intense lumi- nescence which moves along the sky. Assuming their origin to be at an altitude of about 250 kilometers, this points to a strong easterly current at that level. This method of study- ing conditions of currents in the upper atmosphere thus paral- lels the familiar method of following up certain ribbons of luminescence. By means of rocket tests, S. F. Singer has attempted to prove the existence of ionospheric currents in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. This piece of research is described in Geophysical Research (+), giving explicit data. The essential (+) Transl. Note: Journal of Geophysical Research, Wash., DC , V. 56, pp. 265-281, June 1951. - 18 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 result is the conclusion that the magnetic field force at all levels of the upper atmosphere must exceed by a substantial and constant amount the value computed on the basis of the geomagnetic field at the earth's surface. These deviations point to the existence of electric currents in altitudes up to 100 kilometers. The two soundings taken so far, however, are insufficient to furnish detailed data as yet. In a lecture on experimental results of studies with aurora borealis, L. Vegard, of Norway underscored the significance of streams of particles bearing an electric positive or negative oharge. The decisive role among them is played by electron streams, since they feature high velo- city. Essential for modern research on aurora are specto- graphs with high wattage and great resolving power, permitting a thorough pattern arrangement of the spectrum in the manner of the line spectra of atomic oxygen and other elements. Where the lines show widening, this could be interpreted in terms of the independent motion of the atoms and thus of temperature distribution. F. Chapman, of Great Britain opened the after- noon meeting with a summary report on aurora. According to him, no conclusive theory on the origin of northern lights can be said to exist even today. To be sure, the most essential factor is the injection of hydrogen particles and electron streams into the space near the earth. The inbound particles are collected into a broad ring current at Intervals of two to three earth's diameters and this functions both as an electric cushion and reservoir for those particles which enter the terrestrial atmosphere nearer to the earth and produce aurora. (J. Bartels, of Germany has proved in a number of research papers what enormous tidal fluctua- tions this electric ring undergoes under the influence of the moon). According to Vegard, the incoming streams of particles are probably as a whole largely without either posi- tive or negative electric oharge. Of course, only the fastest Approved For Release 204)4/02199 :CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 particles among those entering the lower terrestrial,field,,the electrons, are effective in producing aurora-borealis. This was followed byalecture by D. R. Bates, of the United States, on basic photo-chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere. According to him, basic photo-chemical pro- cesses take place between the elements nitrogen, oxygen and one Other arbitrarily defined molecular partner, M-5. From these reactions can be computed the photo-chemical equilibrium of these components and their compounds (as, f.i. nitric oxide NO). The time required for this reaction, however, fluctuates between extremely wide limits. The speaker then followed this up with a detailed analysis of all possible reactions and an appraisal of their effectiveness. At the close of the afternoon session, Dieminger of Germany reported on his new measuring device for recording certain horizontal factors in homogeneities in the upper atmosphere. Using a measuring standard located between Pinne- berg and Lindau (Harz), he has succeeded in observing certain movements of ionospheric strata by means of precise synchroni- zation of the recordings. This method for controlling iono- spheric phenomena is to be extended to include an entire net- work of recording stations. t7, ?ro ram 41 3) Following week-end excursions, the second week of the convention began on Monday, August 27th, with a symposium on the general circulation of oceans and the atmosphere, jointly arranged by the International Associations of Meteorology, Physical Oceanography and Hydrography, of the IUGG. This symposium devoted most of its time by preference to atmospheric circulation, with emphasis on analysing the behavior of jet- streams and their meanderings, the meridiona1-transport:31f rotary effect in the atmosphere and considerations of exchange. - 20 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 In this connection reference must be made to the presidential address of J. Bjerknes, delivered the previclus Wednes- day, August 22nd, just as the functional meetings proper were about to begin. Bjerknes went back toalecture given at the IUGG meeting.in 'Oslo in 1948 which formulated the basic oncept that any 'study of the zonal atmospheric currents moving about the earth must proceed along the principles that there takes place an exchange which is perpendicular to such currents, that is, in a meridional direction. The specific inquiry here has to do with the meridional exchange of rotational effect. The zonal curyents everwhere carry with them a certain amount of rotational moment, depending on the geographic latitude in which they are moving. Irregularities in the current (such as appear, for example, in the region of a jet stream) give rise to convergencies or divergencies in the rotary moment, due to this meridional exchange. Friction must be taken into account as offsetting this effect. When it comes to the stable mean, the rotational convergencies and divergencies resulting from this exchange would have to cancel out the effects of friction. Such a state of equilibrium is clarified by an equation which had been worked out by Jeffries. Bjerknes applied this equation to make separate calculations of the friction and convergency components, using circumpolar charts for January 1949. The values came out equal, as would have to be expected under stable conditions. Bjerknes then carried this mathematical analysis through to conclusion in studying the flow of temperature taking place in.a meridional direction. Instead of the rotational effect, he found himself here face to face with the effects of radiation and other energy sources. Also related to these theories was the third lecture in the symposium, by E. P a 1 m 6 n, of Finland, who discussed the transport of rotational effect in the atmosphere as it is induced by the exchange process and by meridionally circulating currents over wide spaces. The speaker emphasized the import- ance of crosswind components for the maintenance of meridional Approved For Release 2004/02419 :2211A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 distribution of the rotational moment. For example, a sharp divergency in direction of the rotational moment in the jet stream region around 30 degrees latitude is offset by a meridional circulation component running squarely across the entire region of the tradewinds and amounting to 50 cm/sec. Palm?n then also attempted to include in his ana- lysis of the exchange effect on rotational moment the circula- tion of polar frigid air droplets. The lecture by C. G. Rossby,of the United States, impressed everyone, particularly by its great wealth of obser- vational data. The speaker drew a highly interesting analogy between the forms of atmospheric currents (including their meandering jet streams) and similar oceanic phenomena. For example, a well-defined jet stream had been remarked in the Atlantic Ocean, which, too, has the tendency to meander and which at many points splits into two separate parts. Ocean currents had a life approximately seven times as long as atmospheric ones, but their spatial extent is only about one-seventh as great. All these investigations would never have been possible without the synoptic charts of oceanic currents prepared by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. In Rossby's opinion the results of research on ocean currents are an important aid in studying the effects of fundamental dynamic processes. H. Flohn, of Germany, dealt in his lecture with the system of monsoons which, according to him, can be derived from a uniform zonal pattern of equatorial winds. He then proceeded to describe a region in the immediate vincinity of the equator which is conspicuous for its prevailing westerly winds of a speed of two to three miles/hour, something which had been noted already years ago by Meinardus when he made certain observations there. Such a zonal current at the equator is particularly remarkable because of the negli- gible coriolis force in that region, and cannot be easily explained. Approved For Release 2004/02119 :2aA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 A substantial contribution was the paper by Th. Hessel - bee r g, of Norway on the subject of the energy part played by wAttr vapor in the general circulation system. It must be ad- mitted that as a beginning he uses only two months' of observa- tiopal_data from the radiosonde station at As, Norway, to compute the meridional txansport of air masses and their tempera- ture content, and the quantities of vapor and their energy con- tent, as these pass over a fixed locality. Even for these north- ern latitudes the temperature content of the air turns out to be equal to the latent condensation temperature, although the series of observations is too short to permit any comprehensive con- clusions. For details of the theoretical lecture by P. Quene y, of France, which dealt with the formation of atmospheric waves at the limiting planes of vorticity, reference is made to Annex I, p. 27. Another theoretical problem was developed by I. Charneylof tie United States, who spoke on dynamic stabi- lity in the persistence of the zone of westerly winds. Lastly, the lecture by T. H. Pristleylof Australia deserves mention as being of great value. Details are printed in Annex I, Part 2, p. 23. 4). The lectures dealing with general circulation continued on Tuesday, August 28th, at the same time that the symposium on radiation was being held, so that only a part of the lectures from each of these symposia can be reported on here. Outstanding among the lectures on general circulation was the analysis by van Mieght,m, of Belgium, on seasonal fluctuations of the earth's rotation in connection with the general zonal atmospheric circulation (for details, see Annex I, Part 2, p. 28). Whereas the presidentail address of J. Bjerknes (described on p. 21)assumed that the stationary mean represented the compensa- tory effect between the rotary moment which either accelerated or retarded the globe, van Mieghlm explored the actual fluctuations in this factor. There are two methods for calcula- ting them mathematically, in one method, the aggregate rotary Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? 23 ? Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 spin of earth and atmosphere is taken to be a constant, the other operates with friction on the earth's surface. The lecturer used the second method because it is supported by the Tlarger amount of observational material in the form of measurements of ground winds. The fluctuations in the earth's rotation computed in this manner tally quite well with_obaaryationo. Thus it becomes possible to draw conclusions about the overall Circulation of the earth's atmosphere from direct observations of fluctuations in the earth's rotation as it proceeds along its orbit. Mc 1-tt For details of the lecture by G. C. le=t=lat=t=1=q5 ofL,Great Britain, on the "development ,ag thickness patterns and the equiva- lent barotropic atmosphere", reference is made to Annex I, Part 2, p. 16. H. R. Byers, of the United States, spoice about the so- called squall lines, the origin and persistence of which has been analysed over a.ger period of time. It could be gathered from this,lecture thatAphenomenon under discussion was the same which is known In Europe as "self-balancing altitude fronts". They are related to widely extended cloud systems of an unstable character and - during the warm season of the year - to gradually rising thunderstorms. This identAy was cleared up for the European listeners by the discussion comments of Palmbn and Rossb y. R. Ponelof France, contributed to the analysis of the weather chart by resorting to an aerology gicRepaclionHe proceeds by marking on weather charts a small scaleArepresenting the dif- ference between actual and equivalent-potential temperatures, as these were determined during an ascension. The speaker hopes to obtain from this a better delimitation of weather fronts. Inci- dentally, this was the only lecture during the entire convention, as farpas your reporter knows, which drew directly upon a practical aspect of weather service operation. 5). The Symposium on radiation (Tuesday, August 28th) began with a general survey by W. Mdrikofer,of Switzerland, coveriswprid P85FlelasttibaioliA%1 CIXADVfilbagAtb02900tbagErt on an - 24 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 improvement made in the Albrecht radiation conversion gauge, by which wind effect is eliminated through artificial ventilation of mt. radiation receiving mentrIn-tru. The "blue sun" phenomena during October 1950 was explained by G?tzlof Switzerland, and after him by Dessens, of France , as having been caused by scat- tering particles of the size of .7 to .8 mu. R. Touseylthi the United States, sported some inter- esting measurements ofeolar spectrum between 2000 and 3400 A0 (cf. Annex I, p. 11), using rockets. The int,msity of radiation in this range corresponds to a sun having approximately 5000 ? Kelvin temperature. K. Feussner, of Germany , presentedadetailed dis- cussion of the fundamentals of absolute pyrheliometry. 6)4 The symposium on microAmeteorology on Wednesday, August 29th, produced interesting contributions to techniques for determining exchange effect and friction in atmospheric layers negrthe ground. Swinbank, of Australia (Annex 1, p. 24) gaveadetailed description of an arrangement for tele-recording which simulta- neously measured the vertical turbulent wind components and the vertical gradients of wetter vapor and of temperature. By this tea 74, waP1/4.A... method the relationship between the exchange factors of teepererttwe, em vapor and mo-tie could be estEiblished to be rfird 4 to 1 to 2 at a height of .5 to 2 meters, although this ratio was subject time to very wideik fluctuations.r Whereas these?measurements took into account only the layers near the earth's surface, Sheppard analysed the friction conditions in the ground layer. On the basis of wind measurements on the Scilly Islands ?f Southwest England he proveA that the classical pattern of the Ekman spiral very seldom actually takes shape in the lowest 100 meters of the atmosphere. He points out se that the discrepancies between ground wind and pressure gradient are also reflected in the climatological wind and pressure charts of oceans, and are known to the meteorologist working in synoptics as part of his practical store of experience. The very striking Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CM-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - 25 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 fact that the angle between gradient wind and surface wind is smaller for Westwinds than for east winds stimulated a lengthy discussion. After that the speaker analyzed in some detail the climatology of the zone of trade winds and west winds, discussing the transmission of motive energies due to friction. Following this, D. R.Davislof Great Britain A developed by means of mathematics (cf. Annex I, p. 9) an approximate solutioa of the problem, based on evaporation data 4;;;witagfi in a The paper presented by H. F. P o p - pendick, of the United States, was also along the lines of pure theory (Annex I, p. 10), and computed the periodic in the atmosphere by assuming a sinecso/c( form for time fluctuations of exchange effect. F. N. Frenkle llof the United States (of. Annex I, A p. 27), by using improved sets of assumptions calculated the characteristics of turbulent currents and compared these with his own measurements. Then followed expositions by 0. Bj?grum, of Norway, on the distribution of velocity, temperature and humidity in stable currents over level sur- faces, and by J. Crabtree and F. Pasquill of Great Britain, on continuous observation of how trails of smoke are dissipated in the lowest 30-meter band of the atmosphere. A lecture scheduled by F. Schnel le, of Germany, had to be cancelled since the speaker was not present. The same afternoon of this day there was the joint meet ing of the subdivisions for seismology and physical oceano- graphy, which dealt with problems of microseismlcs, but this reporter was unfortunately not able to attend. 7). The symposium on atmospheric ozone held on Thursday, August 30th demonstrated graphically how important this field had become not only for physics of the upper atmosphere but also for the study of meteorological phenomena. Dobson, of Approved For Release 2004/02/19 :2b c1A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Great Britain, presented a lucid and comprehensive survey in which he told the assembly about the principal results and problems in present-day ozone research. According to this, the primary processes attending the formatio and disintegration of ozone are a matter of knowledge today, although less is known about the mechanics of the vertical load transfer. The principal task of future research will be to shed light upon any precise quantitative interrelationships. G?tztof Switzerland, as the next speaker, pointed out that the new direct rocket measurements of ozone distribution pretty well corroborate the results obtained by the older indirect step-by-step method with the use of the inversion.. effect. Apaper by Ch. Normand, of Great Britain, dealing with the interrelationship between ozone and weather, was read to the meeting by Dobson. The well-known close relationships between high- and low-pressure regions on one hand, and the distribution of ozone in the stratosphere on the other are explained on the basis of advection in the strato- sphere. During the very lively discussion which followed, it was particularly Palm4n, of Finland, who called attention to the fact that as regards these phenomena, much greater refer- ence should. be had to the vertical movements in the stratosphere, which permit a very ready explanation of the observed distri- bution of ozone. Next, E. Regener, of Germany, present asurvey of the present status of research work on vertical distribution of ozone. In line therewith, there is no ,:teason at all, vdlere .the'stratospheYe is'coh-certn4Wiltd:.think : in terms of a photo-chemical equilibrium in connection with the ozone-producing and -destroying cycle. According to the speaker, the,key factor in explaining the vertical distribution of ozone is turbulence, although it is very difficult to make a quantitative determina- tion of its effect. Thus, the entire ozone content in the troposphere is the result of a downward ozone stream caused by exchange action, the ozone being chemically destroyed as it gets near to clouds or to the ground. The speaker then Approved For Release 2004/02/19.: CIAIRDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ? revealed the results of further measurements of vertical ozone distribution obtained by means of balloon sounding devices. In a further talk he described a highly interesting and new technique for determining vertical ozone presence during lunar eclipses, which had been developed by Patzold, of Germany. This method is based on the peculiar greenish light of the moon at the edge of the earth's shadow, which is produced by light rays bypassing the earth through the high. stratosphere. Since E. T?nsberglof Sweden, was absent, his paper sread to the meeting 'as POI% Annex I, p. 51. R. Tousey,of the United Statestmade.areport of four very interesting rocket discharges. He stated that above a height of approximately 40 kilometers, the ozone content decreases in sharp exponential progression; the observed quanti- ties tally with computations made on the basis of the phJto- chemical equilibrium. Considerable fluctuation has been found at the level of this upper ozone limit, caused evidently by meteorological factors. Waltonlof Great Britain, who is of the school of Chapman presentleidetailed calculations on the impact of various vertical distributions of ozone upon the taversimv, effect. H. U. DUtsch, of Switzerland , went at some length into the perplexing problem of correlating the quanti- tative effect of turbulence occurring over a wide space with vertical and horizontal distributions of ozone. By making certain plausible assumptions about the exchange values and about divergency and convergency areas in atmospheric circula- tion, some of the phenomena of ozone distribution can be rationalized. DUtsch then read the paper contributed by R. J. Reed,of the United States, dealing with vertical 'avec.," ar ozone evfmantdue to exchange and circulation in the lower - 28 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 stratosphere (cf. Annex 1, p. 5). What appeared to be the most important result was that certain seasonaL changes in ozone distribution are caused not by vertical exchange of mass fiag=but by horizontal circulation over A. Brewer contributed an interesting paper on circulation processes near the tropopause which are affected by weather and which have potential significance for the distri- bution of ozone. His findings are supported by measurements taken from an airplane of the vertical distribution of water vapor, obtained by determining the dew point. He mentioned the peculiar fact that there is very frequently a small amount of water vapor above the tropopause, which would imply that most of the air mass in the stratosphere originates in southern latitudes. In Addition to two papers by E. Gowan, of the United StatesA(cf. Annex I, p. 10), gLving calculations of vertical temeprature distribution based on various assumptions for vertical ozone distribution and on more recent measurements of ozone at Edmonton, Canada, a lecture was contributed by S. Fritzlof the United States (cf. Annex 14 p. 3), who raised the question as to whether there is an increase in atmospheric ozone content when the sun erupts suddenly. No evidence of such an effect has been found. There was great interest in a new ozone-meter operating on chemical principles,' which was demonstrated by A. Ehmert , of Germany. He, and after him H. Ungeheuer, of Germany, discussed current measurements of ground ozone which were made with this instrument. 8). The following day, Friday August 31st, a concluding sympo- sium on evaporation was held jointly with the division of hydro- logy. One of the lectures given was by F. M? 1 ler, of Germany, who estimated by means of the excnange concept the amount of evaporation over large spatial extent on the earth. This reporter w4s unable to audit this symposium, since he was attend- Approved For Release 20044219 7CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 lUg some unofficial discussions among ozone experts, dealing with questions of Standardization, equipment of apparatus, and measurement techniques. The convention came to an end with this day. 9). The visit to the observatory at Ucc16 was a profoundly interesting experience. Among a wide range of instruments used in climatological observations,. a group of various types of rain gauges which were being tested attracted the particular attention of everybody. Among other features worth mentioning was the equipment for measuring radiation which is probably the only one of its kind in Europe and which includes continu- ous recording of global and solar radiation by means of several types of apparatus. In addition to recording the momentary values, the instruments perform an electric integration process so that continuous hourly totals of radiation are put on the graph. A new addition is also a special attachment which measures electric potential gradient as far as the stratosphere, and which is mounted bn the daily radio-sounding ascents. That the observatory has recently undergone a distinct expansion is evidenced by the newly-installed apparatus for measuring ozone (Dobson spectrograph) and for measuring night sky lumi- nescence (Vegard spectrograph). In conjunction with the Brussels meeting, there was an exhibit by firms of instrument makers; however, the various countries were very unevenly represented, due presumably to the fact that this exhibit had not always been sufficiently publicized. The following firms exhibited: Belgium: L'Accumulateur Etange - 1139 Rue du Dobbelenberg, Bruxelles capped nickel storage batteries portable instrument for measuring electrostatic charges (radiosonde Ucc16) Hilger & Wails, - 14 Rue Deweg, Namur . theodolites, flow meters, seismographs - 30 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Netherlands: Philips Ground-pressure measuring devices pH-gauges France: Chasselon, 3-5, Rue Am6d6e Picard, Cachau/Seine Theodolites St. APle Etablissments Jules Richard, Paris Meteorological instruments, photo eq*- ment, flow meters Ateliers L. Dorignon, 17 Rue Hoche, Malakoff/Seine Magnets, computing devices Larex, Chemin des Estinettes, Friel . Photographic recording devices, air conductivity Som, Paris Photogrammetric devices Great Britain: Nucleonic and Radiological Developments, 40.., Switzerland: Wild, Heerbrugg Haag-Streik, London Geiger counters, portable, with various attachments for ground use Theodolites Liebefeld-Bern Enlarging and drafttg apparatus Filotecnica A. Salmoiraghi, Milan Thmdolites with wind sprockets Precision compasses United States: Ruska Instruments Corporation, Houston, Tex., High-class magnetic devices Approved For Release 2004/02/11A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Germany: Askania Works, Berlin-Friedenau Geodetic and geomagnetic instruments A. Ott, Kempten, Bavaria - Pantographs, flow meters Zeiss-Opton, Munich - Theodolites, stereoplanigraphs R. Fuess, Berlin-Steglitz - all types of meteorological instruments Gunther & Tegetmeyer, Braunschweig - Photo cells Approved For Release 2004/02/19 1A-111DP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved 45r)le e se 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS from 20 August - 1 September 1951 in Brussels 25X1 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 ' 4.0000-? ? f ?1? Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Bericht aber- die 9.Genera1Versammlung der Inter- _ nationalen Union fUr Geodasie und Geoph.ysik. (U.G.G.T.) A) Aul3erer Verlauf. Teilnehmer, C) KUrzbericht'Uber die Geschaftssitzungen. D) Wissenschaftlicher Bericht. Dem Bericht sind in einfacher Ausfertigung beiceE,eben: Anla7ge I = Prog,ra.,.heft, ARlaee- Anlage A) laiLerer Verlauf. ? Die 9.Generalversa=aung der International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (U.G.q.I.), pleichzeitig die 2.Vollver- sammlung nach 1945, rand withrend der beiden letzten Wochen des ' Monats August 1951 in BrUssel statt. Das Joint-Comittee fUr ? Physik des Erdinnern hatte bcreits von 16.August an wissen- schaftliche Sitzun{,en veranstaltet, und zwar 41111 DonnerstaE, den 16.Aug-u_st, ein Uber den Wcirmehaus- halt des Erdkorilcrs (Radicaktiviti--it mad tlier,aische der Erdkruste) am Freitag, den 17.Auzust, ein. Symposium Uber das Problem der ;:,Kontinente und Czcane, am Samstag, den 18.AuFust, einen aligezieinen Gedankenaustaiisch : *tiber'dieProbleLe betreffend die Erdkruste. . 'Den an Montag statt7ehabten SitZungen des Exekutivkomittees, diS Council; f.es FinaillzkoMitteeS konnte der Beriehterstatter nicht beiwohnen. , . Die Vollv*ersalung des wurde am Dienstar, den ? 21:.Auzust, in Cegenwart Ihrer 7ajestg.t der 76nigin Elisabeth c:les reaux-Arts feierlich erbffnet. !lath den Pegra miedEtRble se2an& ten cer 7-eAY19Ce9AAPPTPAMWOWYX10gAng.soWle - Approved For Release 2004/02112: GIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 -Stadt ErUssel Tichtete der Prasident der Union, Professor , P.A. Vening Meinesz in franzosischer Sprache eine Adresse an die Kdnigin und die Ehrengste. Dann hielt er einen Festvortrag in 'englischer Sprache aber -die Grundprobleme des ,Schwerefeldes -mid seiner Bedeutang -far die Physik des Erdkdrpers. Unter den Ansprachen dieser Erdffnungsfeier 1st noch die Rede des- Generalsekretdrs der U.G.G.I. zu ?erwahnen, dke unter anderem die Beziehungen der U.G.G.I. zur nESCO and die finanzielle Unterstlitzung seitens der U.N.O. zam Gree:enstand hatte.- Einen ? Dberblick liber diese organisatorischen-bezw. finanziellen Din? dungen der U.G.G.I. gibt Anlage II. Am Nachmittag begannen die Fachsitzungen der einzeinen Assoziationen der mit einer Verlesung der von den einzel-7 nen Nationen?eingereichten Tatigkeitsberichte. Diese Verlesungen fanden fur die einzeinen Abteilungen der namlich far die geoddtische, die seismolOgische, die meteorologische, erdmag.e.H netische, ozeanographische, valkanologische und hydrologische - Gesellschaft bereits getrennt in verschiedenen Raumen des Akade- aiegebaudes statt.- Der Berichterstatter konnte nar von der Ver- lesung der meteorologischen Berichte Kenntnis nehmen. Die recht- zeitig eingegangenen Berichte sind in der Anlage I, Tell 3, S. 1-45,- abgedruckt. Verlesen.wurden ferner die Berichte von rankreich, Schweden, Finnland und den Niederlanden. Die natio- nalen Berichte von GroBbritannien, Indien und Aegypten sollen noch nachgereicntwerden. Bemerkenswert war die Mitteilung von :1,1A,. Evers beztiglich des amerikanischen Reports: er erkldr- te, dal: die groke Anzahl der abgeschlossenen and noch laufenden meteorologischen Arbeiten einen besonders zu Verlesenden natio- nalen Bericht unmolich mache und im Hinblick auf die .1aufenden Veroffentlichungen in den "Meteorological Abstracts of Associa- tion of American Meteorological,Bociety" auch tiberfliissig sei. AL Mittwoch, den 25.August, vollzogen sich die weiteren Sitzungen and Diskussionen aller Abteilungen in verschiedenen HdrsaIen,der Freien Universitat lrUssel. Der folgende Bericht kann sich in allge,aeinen nur auf die Sitzungen der Internatio- nalen Assoziation far Eeteorologie (I.A..) bescranken, da der Derichterstatter mu' an den Sitzungen dieser Abteilung teilneh- men konnte. Der aa13ere Zeitplan der Meteorologischen Assoziation wurde wurde im GroBen und Ganzen mach dem in dereAnlage I beigefUgten Q0/&/1 jet jet besonders Approved For Release 2004702119-: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 die eindrucksvoIle Fahrung durch das eteorologische Observa? torium Uccle .(Naheres siehe Teil D. dieses Berichts). Der offizielle Ausflug der naeh AAtwer-oen bot den Teilnehrnern Gelegenheit zur Desichtigung eines amerikanischen und eines englischen Forschungs? und Vermessungsschiffes. Auf der Fahrt nach Gent am Sonntag, den 26.August, wurde das dortige Hydrologische Institut der Technischen Universitdt besucht. Zu erwahnen sitd noch die an einigen Abenden vorgefahrten Expe? ditionsfilme, unter Aenen besonders franzosische und italienische Farbfilme mit Aufnahmen tdtiger Vulkane und flieBender Lavastrome hervorragten. Die ,itglieder der Gesellschaft wurden gegen Ende der ? Tagung nech zu einem Empfang bei ihrer Majestdt der Konigin von Belgien eingeladen. B) Teilnehmer. Aniage II enthdlt das offizielle Verzeichnis der angerlel? deten Yitrlieder sowie Gdste der U.G.G.I. Es wurde kein Wissen? ______ schaftler aus den Zonen oder Ldndern, die unter sowjetischer Kontrolle stehen, bemerkt. Dies gilt aue'l far den in der Liste uufgefahrten Professor fl a h 1 i? g ? Potsdam, der al s Vertreter der Geoddsie aus der Deatschen Demokratischen Republik anEe2el? det war. Aus der westdeutschen Bundesrepublik waren e demv0.em Be? ric'iterst2tter npbesteneraen Fachp;eneten foigende Herren anwese:(1JL Professor J. .I1 a.r t e 1 s Geophysikalisches'Institut der Universitdt Gdttingen, Dr. Y.FeuBner, Veteorologisches Institut Universitdt Berlin?West, Professor E.Gigas, Institut far angewandte Frankfurt a.M., ? Dr.H. W o 1 f , Institut far angewandte Geoddsie Frankfurt Professor Fr.Y7d1 ler, Yeteorologisch?Geophysikalisches Institut der Universitat Wainzl Dr. w. B e n-z e 1 ' Meteorologisch?Geophysikalisches Institut der Universitat Hamburg, Direktor Dr, G.BoenekeiHydrographisches Amt Hamburg, Professor F. E r r u 1-a t , Hydrographisches Amt Hamburg, Professor-K.Jung,Geophysikalisches Institut der nergakade? mie Clausthal, Professor W. i 1 1 e r WUrtterAer7ische Ereinennwarte der 80-00926A004200010002-4 -f2e e.APP EckYiqg ckr Eztplpg0-1PCW,02MPHRP. der Freien Geodsie ? Approved For Release 2004/021191: 01A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Professor E.Reener, Max-Planck-Institut WeiBenau, Dr. W.Die_minger Max-Planck-Institut Lindau (Harz), Dipl.Ing. N. C.enzel , Fernieldetechnisches Zentralamt, Darmstadt, Professor R.Yagge, Institut far I,eteorologie und Geophysik der Universitat Frankfurt Dr. C.Junge, Institut fUr Tetecrolorie und Geophysik der Universitat Frankfurt a.L? Die deutsche Meteorologie war, soweit e8 sich um die Gebiete Synoptik und Wetterkunde handelt, relativ schwach ver- treten. Von Deutschen.Wetterdienst in der US-Zone waren lediglich Dr. E.Flohn, far etwa eine Woche und Dr. 7J.Ungeheu- e r far. zwei Tage anwesend.-Vom Wetterdienst der britischen Zone Westdeutschlands und ebenso von den Wetterdiensten der franzbsischen Zone hatte niemand die Reise ermoglichen kbnnen. Dies lag am Zusamentreffen mehrerer unganstiger ?Mrstande: Eine Erkrankung von Professor L. Weickmann - Bad RAssingen uhd gleich- zeitig eine von Professor P. Raethjen - Hamburg. Au3erdem waren dem 'Wetterdienst, der die Herren Professor Scherhag, Dr.Flohn, Dr.Schnelle und Dr. Ungeheuer.angeneldet hatte, seitens des Bundesverkehrsministeriums die ?finanziellen Mittel zur Teil- nahme an der Tagung nicht bewilligt worden. Lediglich Dr. H. F-1 o? h n hatte, wenn auch unter?Schwierigkeiten und auf -Crund anderer Littel, die Teilnahme an der Ta7ung durchfahren kbnnen, wobei er each noch Dr. H. U-h g e h e_ u-e r den Aufent- halt in Brassel :far wenigstens zwei Tage-ermdglichen konnte. C) Eurzbericht aber einige Beschlasse die in den Geschafts- _____ sitzumi.,en dergetan warden. ------- - - - - In einer der ersten allpemeinen Sitzungen der U.q.G.I., an der der Berichterstatter noch nicht te lgenom/Gen hatte, sind die Lander Israel und Westdeutschlend als ritc-liedssteaten der internationalen Union aufgenom-en worden. Die ,Geschaftseitzungen der I.A.M. befaLten sich in wesent- lichen mitl a) dem Vorschlag far em n internationales Polarjahr 1957-1958 (siehe Ln1are T,Teil 1, 5.7 ff.), b) dem Vorschlag far eine neue Nomenklatur der hohen Atmosphare (siehe Anlage I, Teil 1, S.lo ff.), c)Apisiovieditielasiel0114/92/A 9 104A-RDE1*-0 Oft2c6X994Z(10.0 HMO der hohen Approved For Release 2004/02t195. GIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Atmosphare (siehe Anlage I,Teil 1 S.14-15) und dem Vorschlag eines internationalen Institutes far Lieteorologie. Zu a) Ilinsichtlich des 5.Polarjahres, das insbeSondere der Erforschung der hohen Atmosphaxe dienen soli und das daher federfahrend von der I.A.T.M.E. bearbeitet wird, ist eine ge- mischte Kommission der I.A. und der I.A.H. -zu? wU,hien: ? der der I.A.P.O. Es werden Ch. Normand und E.Vassy. alp Delegierte der far diese gemischte Kommission bestimt. Sie sollen zunachst das in der Anlage I aufgefahrte Projekt des 3.Polarjahres prafen, :Bei der Diskussion aber das Projekt wird ale wUnschens- wert-und wichtig bezeichnet daB sine laufende Erforschung auch der syndptischen Vorgange in der Tropo- und Stratosphdre aber die-der hohen Atmospare nicht vergessen wird. Inn Zusammen- hang daMit 1st bereits auf dem KongreB.der (World-pte- -orological Organisation, siehe Anlage II) in 'Paris im April 1951 sineehge Zusammenarbeit Zwischen W..0. und empfohlen worden. Auch kann nun' die W.-0, die far die Durch- fahrung eines. Polarjahres unentbehrlichen StationsnetZe and hIittel organisieren. Ferner erwanscht und erhofft sich die? -neffischte Kommission der Ionospharen Von .-der Zusammenarbeit Mit den Meteorologen eine Dereicherang der von ihr aufgestell- ten Plane. Es wird deshalb far notwendig erachtet, da B die I.A.M. durch die die offiziell von dem Plan Unterrichten mbge,. ZU b). Die Diskussion des von Chapman gemabhten Vor- schla:os far eine Nomenklatur der hohen Atmos-ehare (siehe Anlae I) bringt eine gro3e Menge sehr verschiedener Gesichts- punkte sutage, wodurch die eigentliche Aufgabe der GeSchafts- sitzung: .die WaUl7on Kandidaten far eine Kommission sur 'Ober- prafang dieser 7rage - verzogert wird. So warden tells physi- kalische bezw. me3technische aber auch sprachliche und histo- rise:he Ar7umente und EinwAnde :77e,7,en den Vorschlag vorgebracht. Ferner wurde wieder die Frage a.ufgeworfen, ob die .W..0. an - ? dem Vorschlag interessiert.spil was aber von dem Vertreter der bei der-I.A.., Professor M. 7Jesse1berg, AppmypO E9r. Ritl@P*14)qPtillWit:eq1AAPRAO-0913gOACKI4g0Oto 1,99.92 e erkenswert, Approved For Release 2004102/19: 61A-1RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 weil die ? vorgeechlagene Nomenklatur bereits in drei wiesenschaft- lichen Zeitechriften. veroffentlicht war, ohne .bisher in :Paoli,- kreisen?Reaktionen oder Widerspruch erregt-zu haben. Als Ergebnis dieser Diekussion werden A.Vassy und 0.G.Sutton zu Iliteliedenn der gethischten Kommission Lewahlt. In einer sn:.fteren Geschaftssitzun wird der Bericht dieser gemischten Koumission ohne weitere Diskussion ente-egen- genommen. ? Zu c) Der Vorschlag "Welttage 'far die Erforschung der. hohen Atmosph'elren empfiehlt'im.wesentlichenl. zu bestimmten?Zeit- Iyankten bei Nenmond, Vollmond, Sonnenfinsternis usw..) . alle UnterSuchangsmethoden der hohen atmosphAxischen Schichten zu konzentrieren. Die Dislcussion. dreht sich daher vor-allem , am die technischen Schwierigkeiten, em n solches kenzentriertes Programm, hestimmter ExperiMente kurzfristig zu verwirklichein. Auch hier wird wieder auf die Organisation der W.1.0. ale wesentliehe lilfe hingewiesen. Tnshesondere wird'erdrtert, ob die W.M.O. durch besonders verdichtete Radidsondenatfstiegen beitragen kann.Der Vertreter der hqlt es nicht far nOtig,. die Zahl der Deobachtungen an alien ?Stationen des Welt- netzes zu vermehren. Es wird die Ansicht vertreten, nicht so sehr bestimmte Tage festzulegen, ale eine Kenzentration der hillel sicherzustellen, urn sie geschlossen einsetzen zu kOnnen. Insbesondere-scheint die Pestlegung von Raketenaufstiegen auf bestimmte Tage technisch schwierig zu sein. Ale Ergebnis der Diskussion werden die Herren -E.Rosch und j.Lu geon zu fl.itliedern der gemisch-- ten Kommission. (I.A.M., T.ILT..M.E. and- I.A.H.) gewahlt. .Diese TiCoininission soil den Vorsohlag der Welttage nrafen. In?einer spateren Geschaftssitzung wird der Eericht.dieser Kommission ohne Diskassion entgegengenommen. Zu d) Der Vorschlag eines internationalen Institutes, der in der beigefagten Anlage ?I nicht erwahnt ist, war unter ande- __ rem schon auf der Taeung der W. .0. in Paris im Prahjahr dieses Jaeres ,nemacht und diskutiert warden. In Drassel wurde dieser WrgNieldig. 'eUlsVeWa0-i/11F'81k-iiDAd-W69AJAT60 P.RiblialgtiroWO von Approved For Release 2004/02/1-9 7C1A-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 C.G. R o ss b y unterbreitet.Danaoh sell em n soIches Insti- tut die meteorologische Forsehung insbesondere durch Team- Arbeiten jUngerer Meteorologen untet der FUhrung bedeutender wiseenschaftlicher Personlichkeiten pflegen. Eine UnterstUt- zung durch. UNESCO jet bereits zugesagt warden-. R o s s-b y teilt mit, daB versuchsweise schen in diesem Winter .lo bis 12 Wissenachaftler aus 6 Landern eingeladen Werden sollen. Die aeschlieBende Diskussion ergab einen aufschluBreichen Einblick in gewisse Geeebenheiten nationaler und internationaler Art. Es soll-daher auch hier sin Auszeug aus der Dislcussion wieder- ,eogeben werden. ? t Das Expos?Rossbys? schlug die Schaffung eines internationalen meteorologischen Institutes mit den Sitzin Stockholm vor. Uierzu ist-zu bemerken, da2 eine Einrichtung dieser Art durch das schwedische Tnetitut fur kulturellen Austausch mit dem Ausland bereits seit lanFerer Zeit besteht, indem Wissenschaftler fUr einiFe Wochen els Gastprofessoren von staatlichen meteorologischen Dienst in Stockholm zu Dis, 'kussionen -end Vortragen einFeladen wurden.. Nach-den AusfUhrungen Rossbys unterstreieht Jar Prasident der I.A.M.e Professor J.BjerknesIdas grol3e interesse, das die Schatfung sines internationaleh eInstitutes in Stockholm erweckt. Leider verfUge die u.(1,q.i. hur-aber geringe'Teittell so da.6 die den Plan nur mora-, lisch UnterstUtzen kOnne. Erfreulicherweise haben sich jedoch andere Hilfseuellen angebeten (UNESCO), so daB IA.M. den Erfolg dieses Projektesnax beerrU3en-kann und glUcklich sein wUrde, aber seine Entwicklung auf dem Laufenden zu bleiben. Er erhofft sich von einigen anwesenden Mitgliedern dbr die in _der Organisation von wissenschaftlichen Zentren groae Erfahrung haben, wertvolle Ratschlage. Th.Hess?elberg in seiner Eigenechaft ale Delegierter der W.ee0. weist daraaf hin, da L die Idee eines internationalen metenrologischen Institutes schen recht al4t ?ist,und daf3 die W.M.O. in der Vergangenheit.schon mehrfach einen solchen Plan geprUft hat, insbesondere einen franzosi schen Vorsehlag. Aus Panel an Geld muBten bisher alle solche .Plane scheitern. Alle frUher vorgelegten Plane sahen nicht nur sin internationales Forschungszentrum vor, sendern-haben. auch die NotwendigkeitHaetont, den Unterricht in der Meteorelo- IVIltoY0 51/c.cWeges2e2Pg11/92418.i. %-P.P.FP.9-?8WPt99."F., 93'9191%9M ein Exekutiv- homittee damit beauftragt, zu prUfen, ob die 8011R-feeling eines Approved For Release 2004/02/19-: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 solchen Institutes zu begraken let. Zu diesem Zweck wurde emn Komittee aus 4 Mitgliedern gewahlt, das dem Exekutivkomittee im Oktober 1951 Bericht erstatter soil. Auf jeden Fall habe die W.M.O. an einem.solchen Projekt Interesse und wansche die Zustimmung und die "Moralische Unterstatzung der A.Viaut(Ohef des Wetterdienstes in Frankreich) unterbreitet darauf nach einigen Erganzungen zu den Ausfahrun- gen von Th.Hesselberg den Torschlag der franzosi-' schen Regierung, das Institut in Frankreich zu errichten. Er gibt an der Tafel bereits sehr konkrete Einzelheiten (Zeichnung eines GrundrisSes der geplanten Gebdudeanlagen, die entweaer als alterer Gebaudekomelex zur Verfligung gestellt oder erst errichtet werden sollen). Der Priisident wanscht hierzu die le:einung der anderen, -nicht der W.;I.O. angehbrenden Nitglieder zu horen. D u - f o u r betont hierauf die Wichtigkeit, reine Forschung und nicht nur Zweckforschung an einem solchen Institut zu betreiben. Bjerknes weist erneut auf die Rolle starker wissen- schaftlicher Persbnlichkeiten hjn, welche zusamlier mit jangeren 2orschern Team-Arbeit leiten und durchfahren. A.Angstrd-m, Leiter des schwedischen Wetterdien- stes, erganzt die von. Th.Hesselberg gemachten Aus- fahrungen noch von einer anderen Seite. Er erinnert daran, dad anf dem Kongred der in Paris die Lander Osteuropas sich stark gefzen die Verwirklichung eines internationalen meteorolo- .gischen Institutes gewehrt haben. Sin zdgerten nit einer finan- eiellen Unterstatzung, di nach threr Ansicht dieses Tnetitut hauptschlich dem Westen zugute kOme. Er deutet an, dad er hier Schwierigkeiten i=flanlicher Art befarchte, indem einige tanddr glaubten, dad andere ant? ihre reilftlarti 7osten Vorteile- beWimen. Hach Ansicht des Berichterstatters heber die Gegenstze weniger ihren Grund in einer Angst vor materieller tbervortei- lung als in nationalen Eifersachteleien. Herr Rossby macht auf Wunsch des Pr4sidenten noch einige abseh1ie3ende Peelerkungen: Es hendelt sich ne64 'seinen Worten nicht um. die Schaffung des internationalen meteorologischen Institutes, sondern um zunti.clest einmal eines. In Stockholm.soll lediglich sin Experiment gestartet werden, vi?443Ir'o0eddeFdi-lieiaigritiO4/62/1 4 19- ebt-RIbP80-00826A04420001000214 !at mit Fr ends Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : Cyk-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 zur Kenntnis, dai3 auch die franzbsische Rejerang das gleiche etan hat. Aber Rossby wanscht zu wiederholen, daL es sich in erster Linie nicht "um 7daser oder einen 0-rundri-3" handel, sondern vielmehr urn die Schaffung von Arbeitsgrup-oen junger Porcher unter der Lei tung bedeutender wissenschaftli? cher Persbnlichkeiten. Das Projekt, das offenhar anschlieend in persbnlichen Aassprachen noch welter diskutiert war, wurde dann in der am Freitag, den 31 .August, stattfindenden-ietzter Geschgftssitzung der I.A.M. nochmals?verhandelt, allerdings schon in Abwesen? .heit?Rossbys, der abgereist?war. Es war von den Befar? wortern des schwedischen Projektes eine Resolution vorgeschia? en worden, weiche "mit gro3er Freude von 6..er Absicht, emn internationales mateorologisches Institut in Stockholm zu be? granden, Kenntnis nahO. Eine solChe Resolution hgtte also die von. der W.0. 7ewtinschte noralische Unterstatzarg? dargestellt. Diese Resolution wurde aber, namentlich irfolge der Einwgnde von franzZ3sischer Seite, zunqchst mehrfach abgeqndert. Trotzdem honnte keine alien Teilnehmern der Versammlung befriedigende Form' gefunden werden. In. lgngeren Ausfahrungen Angstrbmslder infolge der Abwesenheit.Rossbys das StockholMer Pro:ijekt sozu? sagen verteidigte, wurde dahn die Dezeichnung "Tnternationales -Institut in Stockholm" durch die andere "Fin Institut in S'Gockholm mit internationalem Stab" ersetZt. Angstrbm stellte in einer Erwiderung an Viaut fest, daL es sich bei dem Experiment in Stockholm um em n rationales Institut mit einem internationalen Stab handeln warde (naeh den Erfah? rungen-des Berichterstatters, der selbst in vergangenen Jahr zn einigen GastVortrggen an.dieses Institut eingeladen. war; -sind dart fortlaufend internationale Gi4.ste in der Form sines standig-sich erneuernden Stabes tatiF). A n g s t r_ 6 m betonte, daL as arderen Staaten unbenommen bleihe,.ghnliche- inrichtunp;en 711 schaffen. 7r verhehlte jedoch nicht sein -re? dauern und den zu erwartender Untut von ?Ro-s sby, als ouch. .die :eye Resolution nicht argenommen wurde. Weitere Gesichts? punkte zu. dem Projekt /4.4 SchaunF eines irternationalen Insti? tutes sind dem Derichterstatter nicht mehr lekgrnt geworden. into den vier besonders behandeTten Prolekten. internatio-- naler Art wurde in der Geschftssiturger noch eine ReJhe von WahlhanlunFen solle Approved For Release zuo4/0-zilu : um-rcuriou-u ulhwmOtclial1Mkiner Art -erledigt: Approved For Release 2004/012619-i CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 war zanaC:Ist eine Kommission, testehend aus den _!erren E.Goid, J.Lugeon, M. 'Ticole t, E.Pa1m?und L.A.Ramsas bestimIdt worden, die aLL4-eueinen Versa .mlunp lorschldge fdr die mit hesonderen ??iatern zu teauftrap.enden Kandidaten der I.A.F. Nachen solLten. irf 'Irund der Vorsc'ilage dieser Kommission wurden fir die Periode 1951/1954 P'ewahlt: 1.) ale Prasident der Professor 1IR. R am an a - t a n, ale Vizeprasidenten Professor C.G.- Ross' y und Lueney. Die , andate des Sekretars und der Yti1;r1ieder des 131iros wurden verlUinerti es bleiben SeLretar: Professor J. van T!iegham- Eelgier, lel:hers : Dr. W. ofer- Schweiz, Sir Ch.Yorman-Enrla-O, V. V.Vaisa1d- lAin,dand. ,.) Die Versammlung stimmte Wahnommission zu: ferner folJTenden Vorschiagen der Ale ilitdlieder des Finanzkomittees -.Absa1on, J. N cr1 age j.P. Ale L-it-lieder der renischten Kommission zur ErforschunE der 7,eziehunr, zwischen Sonne und Erde: irektor :ro,essor F.W.P. Dr. (,.R. i u 1 f iS Verl:Inklr-crarn zu den ,iit-liedern der andel'en -o 1, issionen der U.G.G.T. wurCe -,):11-,='-tor TJ.N. T-icolet 'oestisot. Air die !:e.iiisc]lte internationale fommission fur Radio- eteoroloi-Tie I.Venhiteshwaran froiessor L. Lorinder, Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 i000essor .kt. i e P Per d Approved For Release 2004/02L191:c19.-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 (Theflngeuieur A, Perlat. J-)ie 6:el..sehte international? Kommission fir die Stationen zur Erforschung grnerer.lidhen: Irofessor e . V.V. Sohoni. -Zum Delegierten der I.A.M. beim beratenden Komittee der ariden 2onen wtirde Prist 1 ey. --bestimmt. Sein?Vertreter bei der unmittelbar bevorstehen? den Tagung in Paris wurde .Perlat. D) Wissenachaftlicher Berioht. Die erste Arbeitasitzung der am eittwoc11_,,, den 22.Augast 1951, bearin pit einer Ehrung der seit 1948 ver? storbenen Mitlieder. AnsehlieEend gab der Prasident, Professor J. tjerknes, in einer prasidentiellen Adresse einen aerblick zum .The.ma "Die Aufrechterhaltung der zonalen Zirkula? tion der Atmosyhdre". Den Kurzhericht *titer diesen Vortrag ' siehe S. -q (Symposium uber daa TheMa "Allgemeine Zirkulation der AetuosiehUre"). Der achmitta des 22 August war nit Ge? schaftssitzunen ausefU1it, Uber deren Inhalt oben bench-bet ist. 72',s folgte Gann 1.) Cas Symposium iiber Wo1kenphysiksam Donnerstag,_ den 25.AaEust_, das mit einer einleitenden tbersicht durch den Voraitzenden, Tor Fergeron, erbffnet warde. Dieses ?Iferat tei1ta die Wolkenphysik in die drei folgenden Abschnitt a) Indirekte Wolkenphysik mit Eilfe von synoptisehem oder klimatologischem Latera1, Diese Art einer Wolken? iorschung beruht auf der Untersuchung.brt1icher und f]eitlicher lieeinflussungen der Wolkenvorange und des riederschlags durch die Wetterlage einerseits und durch.die Orographie andererseits. -;ergeron 1,ehandelte anhand zahlreicher Diaqratme insbesondere die redeutung des KUstenstaus, des Gebirgsstaus and Approved ForAeltase 200410Zila hRDP&04092:6A00,42(100141002* Atuosphre 1::.n7s den-i2ronten. FUr alle drei Arten errfaben sich Approved For Release 2004/e2/119 : eIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 b) WB1lenersc1ieinungen, die grundsatzlich wohl dhnlicher Art sind wie die von Lyra und anderen Forschern cehandelten Leewellen, die sich in Stromungen aber und hinter Hindernissen ausbilden, Gewisse Beziehungen zu dieser indirekten und gleich7 sam synoptischen Wolkenphysik hat noch die Makrophysik der Wolken, die sich mit den in. Wolken sichtbaren Strbmungsvorgangen, mit .der Abhthigigkeit der Wolkenv schinhtung von der Thermodynamdk sowie mit der Vertei- lung und GrdLe der Reentropfen am Boden befa3t. Im Brennpunkt des Interesses steht die moderne Mikro- physik der Wolken, die sich hauptstichlicindem Problem der Kondensationokerne, den Kondensations- und Koagula- tionsvorgUngen und der durch sie bedingten Eropfchen- bildung sowie der Erzeugung und der Wirksamkeit on Edsteilchen widmet. Das S.,ymposium von 23.August war - abesehen von der einleitenden Ubersicht - fast ganz von solche.n mikrophysikalisClen Vortittgen ausgefallt. Als wesentlichstes Ergenis ist hervorzuheben, da.2 die -iilclun,7 von Iiiderschlagselementen und Regen kedneswegs ausschlie3lich auf der sogenannten Dergeron-Findei- sen-Effekt beschrJnkt ist, bei dem die in den hohen 3chichten der Atmosphdre entstehenden Eisteilchen und ihre Ierii.h:fung mit unterkahlten WolkentroDfchen ent-' sch_eldend ist. Vielmehr kann auch die unmittelbare (Oa,-ulation grHere Tronfchen in den Wolken Und krf- igen Niederschlag erzeugen.Damit bestatigen sic 'i die schon fraher gemachten BeobachtunFen, daB grHere TrontenuncL iederschlaselemente auc', von Wolken, die ganz in Bereich von oberhalb a Crad sind, gelie- fert w erde ri. Namentlich bei wasserreichen Wolken Tronen) splelt die Koagulation eine Rolle. Tier hat -die xilodene .ethode des Radaranschnittes der Wolken klare Erebnisse geliefert, woraber E.G.nowe n- Australien - siehe auch Anlage I, Teil II - ant C.!rund eicz.ener Exnerimente vortrug. Er beobachtete Radar- so os an foigenden drei Wolkengrunnen: a) an Wolken, die durchweg im Temperaturbereich Approved For Release 29,94,/p2t1i9,:1 Ci4;RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19 :-CWRIDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Wolken, die sich -tells durch einen Tempera- tarbereich aber 0 Grad, teils auch durch einen tuterhalb 0 Grad erstTecken, an Wolken, die_rdumlieh ganz oder fast ganz im mperaturbereich anter 0 Grad lagen. In. Yalle a) erscheinen Radarechos von besonderer Struktur, IIaJaLLICII einer Sdulenstruktur. Sic beweisen das Vorhandensein grderer Trdpfchen oder NiederschlagseleMente, die offenbar.rur (urdh Koagulation entstanden Sein kOnnen. Im Falle b) setzen mach den Vessung:en die Reflexionen (und el:ens? die fiederschla7sbildung) meist ebenfalls im Dereich Uber 0 Grad em n und pflanzen *sich darn lr den Welker mach oben him in dem Tempera urbereich unter 0 Grad bis zu Werten von etwa -4? his -6? -ort. Der obenerwdhnte Bergeron-FindeisenEffekt seheintdso in wesentlichen nur ft" eine Wolkengruppe zazUtreffen, die einen Temperaturbereich tiefer Als -150 umfaLt (diese Art von Wolken in allerdings bed den Niederschlag liefernden Welken der, Fe- mOLigten Zone die weiteeas hdufigste). 7ier erscheint bei den, E.adarmessunger-eine "Reeenbarde", die zuniThhst in einer Kohe . _ . . . eezw, in einem TemperatUrbereich von. -15.-auftritt und damn dee. ilblaief -von einiger dinuten (ca. 15 inuten) abwdrts wandert emd die 0-Grenze passiert.? Bowen hat in solchen Fallen haufig* bei der gleichen Wolke 'nine Wiederholung dieses.Vorgargs beobehtet drid nii zur Erklrune. der Erscheinung ds stontAra 'iusfrieren der Wolkenelerente ger,5 den Ereebnisser von R. 7ever3 y an. In den ens Wasser- und Eisteilchen e- schten Walken bildet sich in der Reel die 06-Crenze zu einer Z.Andeibesonders krdftfLer Reflexionsintemsitdt aus,'welche mach _,e0bachtuneen Liit dem Flug:!,eufr dem Schmelz-orozeB der Esteilchen Leim Durchfallen der 0--Grenze zu verdanken ist (meltingband). _tee e, he folgte em n Vortrag von. J. R? o?u 1 1 eta u- (siehe Aniage 1Teil e, S.20), der die hildung der Regentropfen durch ?theore- tische i5etrachturgen Ubei die Diffusions- und 70a.gulationsvor ..range ah den Volkentropfehen z erfassen sucht. Din "Reehrung beruht auf der Arrahme eines stationdren GleiehrYewichts.unter Einbeziehung der latenten Verdunstungewarme und kOnduktiver rApprovetIcRor Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/1194: CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Ein Fieitrag von N.Frbssling Schweden fiber die i,nderung von TropfengroLen wurde vom Vorsitzenden verlesen. Sehr wesentlich waren dann die beiden Vortrage von s o .n und P.A. L u d 1 a. in , beide England. Sic besta- tigen auf Grund'statistischer Untersuchungan fiber die Temperaturverhaltnisse an der Obergrenze von nieselndem Schichtgewolk, dad die Koagalation und nicht der EiskeimprozeB hier aIs Nieder- schlagsauslbsung in Frage kommt. ason hat linter versc"-ie- denen Annahmen fiber Wassergeaalt, Aufwind und Schichtdicke des Stratus,. dis Tropfengrbf3en rechnerisch erMittelt und Crrenzbedin- Tungen aufgesteilt, bei d.enen die 17oaga1ation noch ale nieder- schlagsbildender Faktor wirksam sein kann. Er kommt zu plausib- len, mit_ der Erfahrung fibereinstimmenden Werten. P.H. L in d - 1 a in prgdnzte diese T3etrachtungen, indem?er die Koagulation auch in?Queliwolken ffir die Bildung leichterer Schauer heranzieht Ein genfigendes Anwachsen der Niederschlagsteilchen derart, daB sie den im Quellgewbik vorhanderen Aufwind fiberwinden kann auch dadurch erreicht werden, da3 die aus ether WolkenzelThe heraus- fallenden-Koagulationstrdpfchen in eine.neue,. von unten her strker aufsteigende Wolkenzelle geraten und so langere Zeit zum Anwachsen had en-. Es entspricht dies etwa der sonst ffir die Ell.- dung von Uagel herangezogenen Vorstellung: Lanes Verweilen in der Wolkenluft durcli g:-eignete geometrische Anordnung der ',con- vektionszellen und dabei Anwachsen in mehreren Raten. Auch diese Vorstellung der "Koagu1ation8schauer" wurde durch Rechnungen 'inter Annahme plausibler Werte des Aufwindes und der Anfangs- tropfengroke gestUtzt. H.Dessens- Frankreich beric!atet fiber seine Versu-- aae zur T3eeinf1Ussung der Wolken in den Pyrenaen (siehe Aniage 1, 2.1o).De ssens hat (lurch das Einbringen groBer hygrosko- pischer Salzkerne in die Wolken mit Hilfe von Raketengeschossen kfinstliche- Niederschlge zu erzeugen versucht. Als weitere Metho- de warde-daneben die Wolkeniuft mit Silberjodidkernen angerei- .chert. Ahnlich wie bei den.amerikanischen Versuehen sind die Er- [ebnise noon nicht ganz eindeutig. Es scheint, da3 bestimmte natfirliche Windverteilungen gfinstiger far einen Erfolg sind als and ere. Apt ? ac imittag berichtet zunchst R o se gunn- -USA inier eine beachtenswerte experimentelle Aniage, um das Verhalton von "dassertrdni:Cien Lezw. kiinstlicher Wolkerelerzente zu untersu- Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Approved For Release 2004/02/19-z QIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 chen. Es- handelt sich in wesentlichen um einen etwa 2oo m hohen druckfesten Schacht oder Kanal von 2 1/2 x 2-1/2 m- Querschnitt, an dessen oberen Ende Wassertropfen erstaubt werden,Die -tinter- suchUchungsergetnisse dieser tinter kUnstlichen hedingungen 7e- Sc.:laffenen Walken wurden an zahlreichen Diagrailmen gezeigt (siehe Anlage &-e2,S. id ). Die =ondersation Ces Wasserdapies in der Atmosphare wurde dann von L.Dufou helgien durcla theoretisehe Rechnuren? auf Grund allgemeiner thermodynauischer und physikochemischer Grundlagen erorer. Das Symposium tiber Wolkenphysik schloB mit der VorfUhrung farbiger Wolkenaufnahmen durch A. V i a ut- . . . . , _ . _ Frankreich. Eolgende, in Programm angekundigten-Vortrage fielen aus: Von S.Ogiwara- japan dber feste in Wasser unloaliche Kondensationskerne sowie von K. I t o - Japan hiDer EiskriStalle in der Luft.- Desgleichen wurde der Vortrag.von.M.Azpire Z - Spanden ilber die Atfiniti_ft bei thermodynamischen Prozessen in der Leteorologie nicht gehalten. Uber Cie am. Abend des 23.August stattfindende Besichti- garn7 des Observatoriums Uccle siehe SchluB des wissenschaftli- chen Berichts. 2.) Das Symposium aber die Physik der hohen AtmosTthare fand an 2reitaglden 24.August, in einer?Gemeinschaftssitzung mit der Abteilung der-U.G.17.1. statt. Die gleichzeitige Sitzang iiber Klimatologie der A.I.Y. fiel mit diesem Symposium - zusammen und konnte daher nicht besucht. werden. Das Progra= der d/211 klimatologischen Sitzung siehe Anlage .4.?-b.47. Eine einleitende libersicht aber die Erforschung der hohen Atmosphare, insbesondere mit Hilfe von Raketen und Eeteorbeobach- tangen wurden nach einem Lanuskript von F.W. W h i.p p 1 e England durch Herrn Newell vorgetragen. Die bei Raketenaufstie- gen gewonnenen Druckmessungen in groben Hohen flihren in allge- ;Jeinen zu geringeren Werten, als sie bisher fiir die sogenannte Einheitsatmosphare angenommen waren.-Hieraus folgt, daB die bei der.Berechnung der Funktion Luftdruckhe angesetzten Tempera- turen bisher zu_hoch angenonuaen waren. Die mit Hilfe der Raketen erreichte MeBgenauigkeit macht es sicher, daL zeitliche Schwan- AA;?,,v kungen' woraus sich far die Zuordnung eines bestimmten Druckes 947)icnre-laeoc RidelIa..'Atti/612/4FaiY-fibiab-6AA66.4'216o6f6b4 iche Hoheninter- walle ergeben. Der Einsatz von Ilassen-Spektrographen bei den Approved For Release 2004/012/A CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Raketen, um die Luftzusammensetzung in dee gro1ien-4-5hen zu bestimmen, blpieb bisher ohne Erfoig. Die haketenmethode wurde ferner angewendet zu Eestimmungen-der Solarkonstante, der UV-Strahlung, powie zur Festlegung einiger anderer Einzelhei- ten der Sonnenstranaung. F.E. Rooch- USA beriehtet tiber Untersucnungen der taglichen-Variationen, die die Spektrallinien 5577, 63oo (02) und 5893 (Natrium) in der hohen Atmosphare aufweisen. Die-genann- ten drei-Linien gendrentiem ionisierten Sauerstoff und dem ionisierten Natrium an und wurden durch Le6LachtunEen des Neht- himmels-hinsichtlich ihrer raumlichen und zeitlichen Verteilung - mit einem besonderen -f:achthimMels-SpektrograpLen untersucht. Es ergeben sich Gebiete besonders atarken Leuchtens, die an flimmel fortwandern. In der Annahme, dal; sie in etwa 25o km Hohe ihren Ursprung naben, bedeutet dies eine starke Oststro- ilrang in diesen Diese -Lethode zur entersuehung der Strd- mungsvernaltniE--:.se der hohen Atmosphare stelit sich somit der- bekannten Lethode der Verfolgung gewisser Leucntstreifen sn die Seita. -Singer ::.at durch.Raketenversucele in der hflie des E.,,omarnetischen Aquators Strdmungen in der Ionosphdre nachzu- weisen versucht. Die Arbeit 1st im Geophysical Research verof7 .fentlicht, wo ausfUhrlichere -Laten miteteilt sind. Das wesent- lichste Ergebnis besteh.t in ,der :eeststeliungl. daL die magneti- s.ene Feldstarke in alien ildhen der,otereh Atmosphare um einen wesentlichen und kenstantene_Detrag hoher sein mu13 als der allE deL:i erdmagnetiscAen .L.odenfel4 berechnete Wert. Aus diesen Abwei- chungen foigt das Vorandensein elektrischer Strdme in ddhen ij5-zu loo km. Die bisher vdrIi6genden jessun,sen reiehen jedoch zu genalle.i2en Ana'een- hock nicht aus. In einem ReZerat aber experime:htelle Ergebnisse von Nord- lichtuntersuchungen betont L. V e r d iTorween dip liedeu- tung der Partikelstrdme, die elektrisch nei;:ativ oder positiv eladen sind. Unter ihnen geeen, die Eiektronenstrdme infole ihrer hohen Geschwindigket den Auss&liag. Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 - Approved For Release 2004/02/19 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004200010002-4 Hcy..*(E.,:rue iut die Ausrustun 3.,ectrer).-.)nen noner LichtstLrke und ros'en JLiLU- 0uG eine ornaLe Js.s 6-pectruEls ILI:ion des z-z.,to..-,:ce-11 und LdIJC.-2 Eente. jle. Ve_L-u.l'elLutzuiu:, der hiflien 1L:sut Mckscalitsse L. ie Eic.Y.c.boweun der .toe und auf die Te[L.erLt-L.rve:Lteilun zt. , LAtu'6.1::H:tenfL*.sucinden bericht U'oe-r? ri U. F. C r Eit.1,-;rd die io iut iiber die Entsteirun ndobt ve-oh.aL.denw :,0L:rtiko:Lcuen undvoiLietrollen- 3- in 1AL.1 d-er -Erde C LJIOC dus wesentlichste. :LLciiei LLiL i. AbstanC:e von etwa c'LL.Lesucrn in -einem weiten Li ? JeisnuaL?. ein elektrischeu Poister ulu Yrj-ienn die h.d.hur ii. die Erde 11. in die 1::.2Ja.tm(JsbnLre eintruten and No:.'Clicliter erzuen.. a: 6 1 2', in ijenre)._L.ell HnorH_eil ,j,i-ezL:-itenusAwt-nkvalen dieues eletrichen. Jeu ?]lon6.es nen...