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COUNTRY SUBJECT PLACE ACQUIRED Appr t l ' p4eCO2001/11/21 LJUUSRQ 'ICIIAIS6ONLY SEOURI' 1 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT NO. INFORMATION REPORT CD NO. ph.'r. Work :t Lath. America SOU RCEPOCiNT.ARY L DATE DISTR. L4 APR 52 NO. OF PAGES _ NO. OF ENCLS. (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT-TO REPORT NO. Ava ,i able or.-:.ioa y from, the CIA Library is the first draft of a document (Geo r ix Work in L:atiu. America by Latin American Geographers, r I A : and Geog.aph c >o,.:ieties. Preliminary Edition issued. at Northwestern Univers -' `I by t -e Comm,it;te~"e of Latin American Geography, Division of Geology and =. og:(?spb, 3 e t1oaal Resegcch Co??ncil, Clarence F. Jones, Chairman of the Committee, July V?51. .i,3 fk n=+ r?ra;f", will be revised and published only if the National 'Res, arc? G uK ,ci l , cuffinient fu . ;rls to do so, which has not as yet been deterlmir~eL .. 3. The of this report were to make a survey.under the a,c?ac~,is.s tb . gecgrap?".if: work being done in Latin. America. ~.-r,s in Latin America and their research programs. Pt r D g':o&ruap xic work by Latin American government agencies, in,1:-?, ,:og geogrsph? mapping programs. History and. Philosophy of Geography in Mexico Mea:i sazn Geo;rapher, Geography in Goverment Agencies Crsograpb,i,.: Soeiet.Les Geogr?aphi . Edluoation R~sou ces for Geographic Research and Instruction The Caribbean Commission British Vest Indies Cuba 3) engr so=pieties in Lath. America and. their chief fields of i t; r t aid publications. The Table of C,.> ^,ten't;s is as follows: In.t,: ^nd.uw,tiox Iexino The Wet Ind , ies STATE NAW FRI NSRB DISTRIBUTION CLASSIFICATION CON6"I SIAL US OFFICIAL bNLI SECT_TRIM'.' 1u' FORMA z'TOII, ARMY AIR FBI CRR-'L~ _i.__.__.___... Approved For Release 2001/11/21: CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 col F L/U$ pF'F'ICTALS ONLY E43 ~" r 'O kTION , fie West Indies (Continued) iominican. Republic Dutch West Indies .Freak. West Indies Haiti Puerto Rico em,, El Salved 0uatala Ei Salvador Hondura. r. Honduras, and British Honduras British Honduras Costa Pica,, and l1Icaragua Colombia Geographers in Colombia Geographic Work in Government Agencies Geography in Education Geographi Societies Foreign Geographers Geographic. anal Cartographic Work in Venezuela Geography adividuals with Geographical Interests in Venezuela Governent Agencies Carrying on Geographical Studies or Sponsoring Publications of Geographical Interest Cox erendes Cnd.. Commissions Venezuelan? Institutions with Geographical interest l As?-hires and National Library ti ona Na The Development of Geographical Instruction in Venezuela Present Day"Geography in the Schools Re.ent Investigations by Foreigners Cartography Early Maps Travels of 'Von Humboldt and. Schomburgk CodazziIs Atlas The Piano Militar Development ofCartografia Nacional .. Cartographers in Government Institutions Cartographers in Private Agencies part-time Cartographers Mapping Activities of Government Agencies Activities of Petroleum Companies COfl tDE! TIAL/US OFFICIALS ONLT ;3E U$ITY INFOE TION ,ApprovedFor Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80=b0926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 CONFIDE.'~T' uS O 'ILIA S ONLY S1CUBITY INFORMATION Brazilian Geographers and their Specialties Agencies of the Brazilian Government which Carry on Geographic Research Studies The Conselho Nacional de Geografia List of Other Government Agencies which carry on Geographic Work The North The Noscheast The East The South The West Central The Federal District Geographical Societies The Teaching of Geography Material for Geographic Research in Brazil Foreign Geographers in Brazil Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay Argentina Geographers and Their Research Programs Government Agencies - Research Programs (Generalized) Geographic Societies and Other Private Organizations- Geography as an Academic Subject in Schools Uruguay Government Agencies - Research Programs Geographic Societies and Other Private Organizations Geography as an Academic Subject Geographic Publications and Materials for Geographic Research Paraguay Ecuador and Peru Ecuador Geographers and their Research Programs Geographical Societies Peru Geographers in Peru Government Agencies Geographical Societies - end - COIE'IDDENNTIAI/US OFFICIALS ONLY r _SECURII' .INFORMATION _ Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00'926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21' : CIA.RDP80-00926AO0490001 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 :,CJA;RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 G OGi APHIC 'VUAK IN LATIN AT aICA BY i,ATZtd A1vZiIC ,N G601tiPH, ia3, GUVtcdq%I T AGLNCILS AND GEOGRAPHIC dOCIETT J Preliminary Edition Issued at Northwestern University By THE; CUNIi.,ITTraE Ulu LATIiv A1u1!'ttlCAiti G.6UG:eAPHY DIVISION OF G:,ULUGY Aitlii GL'OGiAPHY NATIONAL #E CH COUNCIL Clarence F. Jones, Chairman of the Committee NATIONAL Ah6 CH COUNCIL 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington 25, D. C. July 1951 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/1.: Cljc-RDP8O-00926A004900010008-1 The Otatus of Geographic ~~ork in Latin America by Latin imerican Geog- raphers, Government agencies, and Geographic oocieties" is an outgrowth of the continuing interest of about a dozen North american geographers, who consider Latin America among their special fields of interest, and of the support of the Division of Geology and Geography, national research Council to tiie work of its Committee on Latin American Geography. The Committee has been in existence since 1946. None of the sections of the present report is to be considered as more than preliminary in nature, because each is incomplete. The report has been mimeographed at this stage and is being distributed to all persons who have contributed to it, and to the national members of the Commission on Geography of the Pan American Institute of Geography and History in the hope that these persons will send the Chairman constructive criticisms and additions. It is planned to issue a more complete version for the next annual meeting of the Division of Geology and Geography, National Research Council in April, 1952, and perhaps to distribute copies to members of the Pan American Consultation on Geography in Guashington in 1952. This preliminary edition is issued by the Department of Geography, north- western University with the financial assistance of the Division of Geology and Geography, National ,tesearch Council. The Chairman of the Cormiiittee expresses his sincere appreciation for the willingness with which each suboommittee chair- man took on a difficult assignment and for the quality of the reports presented. Northwestern University rvanston, Illinois July, 1951 Clarence F. Jones i Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 TABLE Gf COIiTEivTS Page Insroduction^ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? s Mexico. ? History and Philosophy of Geography in Mexico. Mexican Geographers. . ? : a . , . ? . . . . . Geography in Government Agencies .., ? 19 Geographic Societies ? . ? ? 30 Geographic Education . ? . .. ._ . . ? ,. ,_ ? a r ? 35 Resources for Geographic Research and Instruction. ? ? . a ? 43 The West Indies . ? ? . 49 The Caribbean Commission . . . . . . . , 49 British West Indies-,",-, , 51 Cuba ?? +? . ? ? ? ? a , ? ? ? ? ? ? a ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 52 Dominican Republic . . . . . . . r ? ? ? ? r ? . . . . . . . . ? . 54 Dutch West Indies. . . ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? . ? . ? ? ? r ? - . ? 55 French West Indies ? 56 Haiti. ? ? . . . . 57 Puerto Rico. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? r ? r ? . ? . ? r ? . ? ? ? 57 Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and British Honduras, ? ? . a a a a , 63 Guatemala', . ? ? ? ? ? ? r . . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? 63 El Salvador. . . . . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? . . . . . . 63 Honduras . 64 British Honduras ? . ? ? . ? ? . ? r 64 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 iv Page Panama, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua . . . . ? . . . . . . ? . . . . . 65 Costa Rica . . ? . . r ? . . . ? 65 Colombia . ? . ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? r ? ? ? ? ? r ? . ? ? 73 Geographers in Colombia. ? 73 Geographic Work in Government Agencies . 78 Geography in Education . . . . . . 79 Geographic. Societies . . . . . . . . , ? . . . . . . . . . 79 Foreign Geographers. . . ? 79 ,Geographic and Cartographic Work in Venezuela 81 Geography, . . . . . . . .- . ? ? . ? a, a . 81 Individuals with Geographical Interests in Venezuela. . . 81 Government Agencies Carrying on Geographical Studies or Sponsoring Publications of Geographical Interest, . . . . 84 Conferences and Commissions . . 85 Venezuelan Institutions %with Geographical Interest. . . . 86 National Archives and National Library. . . , . . . . ? ? 87 The Development of Geographical Instruction in Venezuela. 87 Present-Day Geography in the Schools . . . a . . ? ? , a ? . . 94 Recent Investigations by Foreigners . 98 Cartography, . . ? . . 100 Early Maps. . . . . 100 Travels of Von Humboldt and Schomburgk. . . . . . . . . . 100 C odazzi l s Atlas ? ? ? ? . ? . ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100 The Plano Nli1 i.tar . . . . . . . . 101 Development of Cartografia National ? 101 Other Cartographic Projects . 102 Cartographers in Government Institutions . . . . . . . . 103 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA=RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 v Page Cartographers in Private Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Part-time Cartographers . 105 Mapping Activities of Government Agencies,... . . . . . . . ? 106 Mapping Activities of Petroleum Companies. . . 111 Brazil. . . 115 Brazilian Geographers and their Specialties. 115 Agencies of the Brazilian Government which Carry on Geographic Research-Studies . , . . . a . , ? . . . a . . . a a , . , ? . 125 The Conseiho Nacional de Geografia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 List of Other Government Agencies which carry on Geographic Work . 127 The North . a . ? . . . a . . . . . . ? . ? ? a . . . ? . 127 The Northeast . . 127 The East, . . . . . a 128 The ? South . ? ? 129 The West Central. ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 The Federal District. ? , . 130 Geographical Societies . . . ? . . . . ? . ? . ? . . . . . . ? . . 131 The Teaching of Geography. ? . . . . ? 132 Material for Geographic Research in Brazil ? . 134 Foreign Geographers in Brazil ? 135 Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay ? . , 137 Argentina, . . . ? . . . 137 Geographers and Their Research Programs. ? 137 Government Agencies - Research Programs (Generalized). . . . . . . 150 Geographic Societies and Other Private Organizations . . . . . . . 153 Geography as an Academic Subject in Schools. . . . . . . . . . . ? 156 Uruguay. . . ? . . . ? . a . . . . ? . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Page Government Agencies - research Programs. , 164 'Geographic societies and Other Private Organizations . . . . . 168 Geography as an Academic subject ? . . . . . , . . . . . . . 170 Geographic Publications and Materials for Geographic tesearch. 171 Paraguay 172 Ecuador and Peru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? . . . . 173 Ecuador . , . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 173 Geographers and their Research Programs, 173 Geographical Societies 174 Peru . 174 Geographers in Peru , . 174 Government Agencies, 176 Geographical Societies . 176 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 m ru tIC" BY LAT11Y til'LL11~ C u'. GLu + ~~Si t1~11 J, G chi'.W1Y1 AG ~I CI1 JJ Ai~J GEOGuiPhIC oUCIbTIEa Late in 1947 and early in 1948, the Committee on Latin American Geography of the Division of Geology and Geography of the ihational .,esearch Council set up several working Bubconmiittees to invest:.gate the status of geographic work in Latin America. The Committee on Latin American Geography consists of the following: Clarence F. Jones, Chairman of the Caiiittee, Chairman, Department of Geography, ivorthwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Donald D. Brand, Chairman of the dubccmmi.ttee on ihiexico, Head, i,epartnient of Geography, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Rafael Pico, Chairman of the bubcom-i6ttee on the Vest Indies, Chairman, Puerto ~tican Planning Board, uarturce, Puerto Aico. Daniel atanislawski, Chairman of the Bubcommittee on Guatemala, British Honduras, it oalvador, and Honduras, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Paul C. ii~orrison, Chairman of the subcommittee on Nicaragua, Costa pica, and Panama, Professor of Geography, Lichigan state College, Last Lansing, Michigan. Pobert G. Long, Chairman of the subcommittee on Colombia, Associate iro- fessor of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. Charles B. Hitchcock, Chairman of the ubconunittee on Venezuela, j.xecutive .secretary, American Geographical society, Broadway at 156 dt., ivew York, 32, New York. Preston E. James, Chariman of the oubcarnmittee on brazil, Professor of Geography, ayracuse University, 6y-'acuse, P;ew York. .iirthur P. Biggs, Chairman of the Jubcommittee on Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Attache (Geographer) American ..,nibessy, Buenos Aires, Argentina. F. ~debster 1icdryde, Chairman of the subcommittee on Ecuador and Peru, Consultant, Office of the Coordinator, International statistics, ioureau of the Census, c/o American nbassy, -luito, Ecuador. ii'rank L. Keller, Chairman of the jubconilittee on Bolivia and Chile, Pro- fessor of Geography, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.l Chairmen of the aubconmiittees wire assisted by other ieorth American and Latin American geographers. Credit is given them in the respective sections. The aubcoirunittees had as their chief objectives a survey under the follow- ing headings of the geographic work being done in Latin America: (1) Geographers in Latin .unerica and their research programs. 1. The iections on Bolivia and Chile have not been completed. Approved For Release 2001/11/24J.-CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 (2) 1-rograius of geographic work by Latin Lieracan government a=;ericies, including geographic raap,,ing programs. (3) Geographic societies in #atiri America and their chief fields of interest and publications. Come of the subcommittees adhered closely to these objectives; others expanded on them, adding geography in Univrsities and other schools, and Lor- cign geographers who have worked in Latin iitierica; still others omitted o e or more of the objectives. The sections vary greatly in scope and detail. 'ome include geographers and other persons in related fields doing geographic work in a given country; others include only those persons known as geographers. The status of geographic work in Latin American countries varies greatly. In some countries there are ew geographers or other persons engaged in geog- rapizic work, vith trained personi_el, active societies and strong government agencies, Brazil, 1exico and Argentina lead all other Latin . nerican countries ir_ geographical activities. However, significant geographic work is being done in several other countries by mapping agencies, such as Instituto Geografico i..ilitar, various government agencies, and by professors in university faculties. 2. or some countries additional inforr,atiori is contained in (1) Jorge tarur, Geography and Carto;zraphy for Census rurposes, Committee on the 1950 Census of the Americas'. Office of the Coordinator, International Statistics, Bureau of the Census, 'Lraehington 1947, 57 pages. himeographed, (2) George 3. Cressey, "Geographiy in Latin America", Bulletin of the International Geog- raphic4.1 Union, Vol. I, June 1950, pp. 6 - 12, 3)'11.iepertorio de Geografos de La hrgentina", .)ocicdad tirgentina de Lstudios Geograficos, GAEA, Boletin No. 27, 1950, 1950, pp. 27 - 42, and (4) "Informe ivacional de Lctividades", Comisiones de Cartografia, Geografia, e Historia, aeccion r,acional del Instit- uto Panamericano de Geografoa e Historia, Buenos Aires, 1950, 105 pages. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80=00926A004900010008-1 xiGxxc01 The discussion of geographic work in P'iexico deals with the history and phil- osophy of geography in Mexico, liexican geographers, geography in governnent agencies, geographic socie ies, geographic education, and resources for geographic research and instruction. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF GEOGRAPHY IN MEXICO Golonia Period. The Spanish crown was greatly interested in information con- cerning its newly acquired possessions in the New World -- both to aid in administra- tion and for the intrinsic value of the information. Positions were established (in several grades) of cosmographer, chronicler, protom 'dico, geographer, etc., whose duties included the acquiring and summarizing of large bodies of information much of which was geographic. The men who held these posts were commonly lawyers, physicians, priests, astronomers and engineers. Although some of these men traveled widely in New Spain (a larger entity than modern Nexico), most of them resided in ?lexic? City or in Spain and they acquired most of their data by questionnaires which had to be answered by all of the religious and political administrators among whom they were circulated. Although official requests for information were circulated in New apain as early as 1525, it was not until the 135-point interrogatory of 1569/71, the 50--point questionnaire of 1579/82, and the chorographic study of 1570/81 by the rotom 'dio Hernandez and the royal geographer Dominguez, that detailed information frequently accompanied by sketch maps) was available on the physical and human geography of Mexico. The relaciones geogrgfjcas which resulted from the survey of 1579/82 constituted the basis for most geographic descriptions of Mexico until the eighteenth century. The information so acquired was supplemented by charts of the coasts (made for military and naval purposes), periodic censuses (such as the many lists of tributary Indians, the census-estimate of families made by the cosmographer Villaserior y Sanchez in 1742, and the 1792/94 censuses made during the viceroyalty of Reviila Gigedo and utilized by Humboldt in his classic work on Mexico), regional- economic studies made preliminary to the congregation of Indians at various times but especially 1593 - 1605, a series of studies 1765/86 in connection with reforms of the administration of New Spain, various special scientific expeditions in the 1780's and 1790's (such as that of 1`ialaspina, and the royal botanical expedition), geologic and mining studies carried out by the Real Cuerpo de Aineria under r'austo de Elhuyar 1. This report was written by Donald D. Brand, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Mexico. The following persons in the United States assisted in the preparation of the report on Mexico: Prof. Carl 0. Sauer, Chairman, Dept. of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, California; Prof. Daniel Stanislawski, Dept. of Geography, University of Texas, Austin, Texas; and Prof. Henry S. Sterling, Dept. of Geography, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Also, considerable assistance was re- ceived from Prof. vita Lopez de Llergo y Seoane, Director of the Institute of Geog- raphy of the Universidad Nacional de Mexico. In the early phases of the study, Dr. Jorge A. Vivo, Professor of Geography in the Universidad Nacional de Liexico, was help- ful.through providing various pertinent catalogs. More recently, some corrections were received from Sr. Ing. Ricardo Lancaster-Jones, Secretario General of the Junta Auxiliar de la Sociedad iMiexicana de Geografia y Estadistica en el Estado de Jalisco. 2. The report is to be considered a preliminary one as information is incom- plete on all the above topics. -3- Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -4r- 1788 -1821, reports on trade and resources by such groups as the Consulado de Vera Cruz and the City of Mexico, and by astronomic determination of positions and by sketch maps and compiled maps made by private individuals and by officials (espec- ially military men and engineers). Although enormous quantities of "geographic" statistics were accumulated during the Spanish colonial period, there was little at- tempt at synthesis or compilation and practically none at analysis or interpretation. However, the first good (in terms of available information) map of Mexico was com- piled in the seventeenth century by the great Mexican polymath Carlos Siguenza y G6ngora (1645 - 1700), and this map was copied in the eighteenth century by the greatest Mexican scientist of that century Josh Antonio Alzate y Ramirez (1737 - 1799). The only real attempt at a geographic compendium was that made by Alexander von Hum- boldt on the basis of his trip to Mexico 1803/04 and the maps and statistical mater- ials made available to him. In summary, geography in Mexico during the colonial per- iod was limited essentially to (1) the accumulation of political and economic statis- tics, and to (2) the improvement of cartographic materials, So far as we know no geography as such was taught. in the schools of Mexico, although there was some in- struction in cosmography. Neither were there any geographers in the modern sense, and the individuals with such titles as geographer and cosmographer were primarily mathematicians, astronomers, and engineers. Early National Period. During the first part of independent national life (from the War for Independence 1810/21 to the end of the French Intervention 1862/67) the almost continuous disturbance of civil and foreign wars nearly nullified the in- vigorating effect of independence and the stimulus of contact with the rapidly ex- panding sciences of the early nineteenth century. The polished Mexican diplomat and scholar Jose Maria Justo Gomez, Conde de la Cortina (1799 - 1860), had been exposed to the embryonic modern science of geography while he had served as a Spanish diplo- mat in some of the European countries,,and upon his return to Mexico in 1832 he es- tablished a free course in geography which was probably the first course in geography ever offered in Mexico. However, this course was of brief duration and we hear little more of academic geography for the next 30 years although Joaquin de Mier y Terri (1829 - 1868) was professor of geography in the Colegio de Ingenieros in 1853, and Corozco y Berra (mentioned later) was professor of geography in the Colegio Militar 1861 - 1862. In 1833 Gomez de la Cortina helped found and was the first president of the Instituto National de Geografia y Estadistica which was the precursor of the present Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica (1850/51 - ), of which he was also a founder and the first vice president. An examination of the publications of this organization (Bole in, first epoch 1839/66) shows that the colonial emphases on statistics and mapping continued to be paramount. Such a trend was only natural in a young nation which wished to evaluate its resources, plan their utilization and administration, and provide for the.defense of the nation. The emphasis on statistics is brought out further by the fact that the first congress of the independent nation called for statistical studies to be made of each of the constituent entities. Un- fortunately, at the time only one such study was made, that by Martinez Lejarza on the province of Michoacan which was published in 1824. This monograph remained the best regional study in Mexico for nearly half a century. The stress on mapping is indicated by the fact that the newly formed (1822) Cuerpo de Ingenieros.Militares was immediately assigned the task of preparing the national and military map of Mexico. During this period individuals with the title of geographer (Ingeniero Reografo) began to come out of the Colegio Militar and the Colegio de Mineria (the successor of the colonial Escuela y Tribunal de Minas, later to become the Escuela National de Ingenieros). While the colonial geographers were self-styled or so termed by cour- tesy and commonly were astronomers and mathematicians, the ingenieros ge6grafos of Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 -5- the 18501s and thereafter had earned titles and were a combination of mathematician, astronomer, geodesist and topographer (surveyor and draftsman), Most of the so- called geographic work of the nineteenth century in 11iexico was performed by men with training in the indicated fields The earliest and among the greatest of the geog- raphic engineers were Jose Salazar Ilarre gui (1823-1892). Francisco Jimenez (1824 - 1881), and Francisco Diaz Covarrubias (1833 - 1889) who are best known for their work in surveying international boundaries, planning drainage enterprises, determining positiona astronomically, and the like. Two other men, more truly geographers in the modern sense, appeared in this period although they produced important work after 1867, These were the topographic en ireer Manuel Crozco y Berra (1.816 -, 1881) and the geographic engineer Antonio Gar 1a Cubas (18332 - 1912), Crnn;,cco y Be:, ra is so wide? k:.noin as an historian, philologist, editor, bibliographer, encyclopedist, and lawy>er, that his work as a bureaucrats surveyor and geographer is often overlooked. It is of interest that most of his geographic work had to do with mapping distribu- tions (such as Indian languages) and with the history of mapping in Mexico. Also, it is indicative of the attitude of his time that his x untes Para la histtoria de lay goo ca.f. a en Mexico is little more than a history of exploration in Mexico and devel- opments in the mapping of Mexico. Garcia Cubas began as a topographic artist for the newly formed (1854).Ministerio de Fomento, and concentrated on preparing first a map of all Mexico and then an atlas composed of maps of the individual entities. Later Garcia Cubas turned to writing regional geographic texts and compiling a great his- torical-geographical dictionary or gAzeteer of Mexico. The discussion of this period might well be terminated by mentioning the French Commission Scientifique du Plexique 1864/67 which included plans for geographic work in its original organization but which accomplished nothing in geography, but little in geology, somewhat more in botany and archaeology, and most of all in zoology. Scientific Renaissance. The next period, approximately 1868 - 1910, might well be termed the period of the Mexican Scientific Renaissance, In 1867 the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria was formed on the basis of earlier existing schools and shortly thereafter a course in geography was introdu,,ed. Elsewhere in Mexico chairs or courses in geography were established in various golf 'os (approximately of senior high school or junior college grade) such as the chair of F;sica y GeografIa founded in 1869 in the Colegio de San Nicolas de Hidalgo (now the preparatory school of the University of Michoac6n), Although these courses in geography were a far cry fm m modern geog- raphy, at least they were an improvement over the, purely physical coy o graphic courses; and apparently geography courses were tow available for the first time to students other than those in military and engineering schools. Little real progress, however, was made in the teaching of geography until mat?tXo Miguel E. Schulz (1851 - 1922) began to teach in the Escuela Nacional reparatoria in 1882. Durizg the period 1882 - 1922 Schulz, as professor of geography and history and as directc,r of the school for a time, converted geography from a dull combination of coomog,-a by and place geography into a subject which was made real and attractive through :he blend- ing of physical and cultural geography,, In a very literal sense &:bulz was the founder of modern geography in 1e1exico; and he also was the teacher of most of the Mexican geographers who developed and directed the discipline in J exico 1zatil some ten years ago. The turmoil in Mexico between the death of Jugrez and the coming to power of Porfiri_o Diaz in 1876 precluded much governmental activity ire geography until fiat date, Through the sympathetic interest of the scholar-general Vicente Riva Palar;a, while he was secretary of development (Fomento), there were initiated: Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/41/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -6- 1876 The Comision de Cartograffa, under Ing. Agustin Diaz, which was to care for and edit the official maps of the nation. 1877/78 The Comision Geogrsfico-Exploradora de la Republica rlexicana, also under Ing. Agustin Diaz and jointly sponsored by the ministries of Fomento and Guerra. This commission was supposed to investigate the geography and natural history of Mexico and to prepare the national map. By the time it became defunct (about 1911/14) it had surveyed and issued maps (198 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000) which covered about one-fifth of Mexico. 1877 The Observatorio Meteorol6giGo y.Magnetico Central, under the Jaliscan scholar and statesman Ing. Mariano B4rcena who remained as director until his death in 1899. By 1898/99 a fairly extensive network of thermo-pluviometric stations attended by federal telegraphers made possible the issuance of weather charts, and thus the Servicio Meteorol6gico Nacional'came into being about 1900. This event was celebrated by holding in 1900 the first Mexican meteorological con- gress. 1877/80 The Observatorio Astron6mico Central, which was under the direction of Ing. Angel Anguiano 1880 - 1899. A later director was the geographic engineer Valentin Gama (1868 - 1943). 1882 The Direction General de Estadistica, which during most of its formative years was under the scholar-statistician Antonio Periafiel. Schools, societies, institutes, congresses, laboratories and other organisms in many branches of knowledge wore established during the remaining years of the 'ax Porfiriana. Among the more important of these with some geographic bearing wore: The Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio slzate" 1884/85 - which began its Memorias y Revista in 1887, and which was to become the national scientific academy in 1930; The Com- ision Geol6gica de la Republica 1886/88 - which began its Boletin in 1895, and which later became the Instituto de Geolog{a attached to the national university in 1929; the XI meeting of the International Congress of Americanists which met in Mexico City in 1895; the Comision Geodesica MIexicana formed in 1899 under Ing. Angel Anguiano, which in 1916 (when under the direction of. Pedro C. Sanchez) was fused into the Direction de Estudios Geograficos; the X International Geological Congress which met in Nexico in 1906; the Sociedad Michoacana de Geografia y Estadistica which functioned actively from 1905 to 1912 in Morelia and issued eight volumes of its Boletln: and the welding together of various higher schools in Mexico City in 1910 to form the Universidad National de Mexico. Throughout the Pax Porfiriana the earlier stresses on map making and on collect- ing and publishing statistics continued, but the influence of maestro Schulz set the foundations for modern geography. The Modern Period. Towards the end of the devolution (1910 - 1917) most of the governmental agencies which carried on geographic work were fused 1915/16 into the Comision (soon termed Direction) de Estudios Geograficos.y ClimatoJ gicos under Ing. Pedro C. Sanchez and within the Secretarla de Fomento whose head at the time was the eminent engineer and geographer Pastor Rouaix'. In 1934 this geographic office be- came known as the Direction de Geograffa, 1eteorologIa.e Hidrologia, which title it bore until the cabinet changes of 1946/47 when hydrology was lost to the newly founded Secretarla de Recursos hidraulicos. The mapping, geodetic and other work of Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80=00926A004900010008-1 -7- this geographic bureau is outlined elsewhere. In 1921 the first Congreso National de Geograffa was held in Tacubaya; and from 1921 can be dated the revision in the Escuela National Preparatoria of the system of teaching geography. This revision was initiated chiefly by Elpidio L6pez; was inspired by contemporary French geog- raphers such as Brunhes, Vidal de la Blache and de Martonne; consisted principally of an organization into Physical Geography, Bio-geography, and Human Geography; and within a few years this organization prevailed in most of the secondary and prepara- tory schools of Mexico. Beginning with the establishment of the Comisi6n National de Irrigation in 1926, there developed a very strong movement towards the forming of various governmental agencies primarily to study, plan and exploit various natural resources. These agencies have required base maps and various types of economic-geographic reports, and consequently the bulk of geographic work in Mexico is now being done by engineers, lawyers and economists in government service. In order to meet the challenge the national university has made several attempts in the 1930's and 1940's to train pro- fessional geographers for other than teaching positions, but so far only a few trained geographers have been developed. Geography as a science or discipline in Mexico so far holds no generally ac- cepted form, position, content or definition. A certain amount of physical and cul- tural geography (both general and regional) is taught in the primary, secondary, vocational, preparatory and normal schools but the preparation of the teachers in these various schools is not commonly that of a professional geographer. There is no group, association, society or other organization of geographers -- either of geog- raphy teachers or of researchers in geography. There is no satisfactory list of Mexican geographers. There is no society or association of professional geographers or of teachers of geography. Although there is a geographical society the membership includes many professions from lawyer and physician to soldier and politician, and probably not one member in twenty would call himself a geographer. The various biographies or directories of living Mexicans stress literary figures and individuals in the higher levels of state and federal government. Consequently few scientists and educators are listed. Apparently there are not a dozen living Mexicans who are listed as geographers. It is indicated that biograph- ical and bibliographical organizations in Mexico might well devote attention to pro- ducing volumes on "Mexican Scientists", "Mexican Scholars", "Mexican Educators", and the like. Persons who teach geography often are geographers, but there are many difficul- ties in following this approach. There is no national organization of geography teachers on any level or grade. Teachers in primary and secondary schools (the first nine years of schooling) commonly do not specialize, and a teacher of geography is equally a teacher of history or government or some other subject. In the vocational, normal and preparatory schools a person may teach only geography and be known as a professor of geography. Probably this group of teachers (roughly equivalent to high school teachers in the United States) contains the greatest number of people who are known as geographers, who call themselves geographers, and who write geography (usually textbooks). However, most of such teachers of geography have a very elemen- tary command of geography and have not earned a higher degree in geography. This is not surprising since there are only two institutions in all Mexico which have depart-- Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -8- ments of geography in which geography is taught on a university level and in which master's and doctor's degrees can be earned. Higher degrees in geography (other than the engineering degree, which is essentially that of a civil engineer) were not earned until the 1930's, and the total number to date is so small that the posses- sors of such degrees cannot be considered as constituting the core of Mexican geog- raphy. Even in the Escuela llacional ~'reparatoria, and the various federal, state and private universities and schools of university rank there are few adequately pre- pared teachers of geography, and there are no full-time professional geographers. Not only are there no full-time positions as professors of geography, there are practically no full time professors (urofesores je planta Q c era) in any in- stitution of higher education. Salaries are usually so low that a person must teach in two or three different institutions and in addition practice medicine or law, or write for several newspapers, or hold some, government or other position, in order to make a living. It is not uncommon fora person to teach geography at one institution, history at another, perhaps French or English at yet a third school, hold some edito- rial position with a newspaper or magazine, and carry on a legal or medical practice in addition. I-i the case of such individuals it is difficult to determine either their profession or their business address. Furthermore, even when finances are not an important consideration, a geographer may teach in a number of institutions be- cause there are not enough trained geographers to go around. Since there are no full-time professional geographers in Mexico we must use a number of criteria in the determination of who should be included in a list of r4exi.- can geographers. These criteria can be summarized as follows: (1) Mere membership in the Sociedad Mexicana de Geografla y Lstadistica is not suf- ficient; one must be assigned to the secci6n de aeografla. The same is true for the few other "geographic" societies in the republic. (2) A person listed as "profesor de geograffa" is considered to be a geographer un- less it is evident that teaching geography is a minor avocation. (3) All masters and doctors of geography are considered to be geographers, wherever such information is available. However, the majority of Mexican geographers do not possess such degrees. (4) Persons in allied fields (such as geology, economics, bio-geography) are listed as geographers if they frequently participate in congresses of geography, geog- raphic sections of congresses of the social sciences, and the like. (5) Writers of textbooks in geography (both general and special). The following list of Mexican Geographers has been compiled from various sources (chiefly printed) which differ greatly as to reliability, and completeness. It should be thought of as a preliminary list to which many names will be added and from which a number of names perhaps should be removed. The people who are listed fulfil one or more parts of the following definition: A geographer is a. person who has a higher degree in geography, or who teaches geography, or writes geography, or carries out geographic research. An attempt was made to obtain information on the following points: Title of address, full name, where and when born, higher education and de- grees, principal past occupations, present employments, principal topical and regional fields of research and writing, best professional address, home address. Some Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 -9- comments on these items of information are: TITLE OF ADDRESS -- Senor or sef_ Arita presumably means that there is no earned title or de Fee such as engineer (Ing.). lawyer or attorney (Lie. or Abog.), eta. Infrequently encountered titles are given in full. FULL NAt,LE .... to eliminate confusion an attempt has been made to obtain both matronymic and patronymic, and the full surname has been capi- talized. WHERE AND WHEN BORN -- information not commonly found, and when found it is often erroneous. The birthplace often is given as the nearest large city to the community of actual birth. HIGM- A EDUCATION r&ND .DEGREES - the information usually is incomplete, confused, and unreliable. Many schools have changed name and status during the past years, and the same is true for titles, degrees, licenses, diplomas and the like. PRINCIPAL PAST OCCUPATIONS from the point of view of geography. PRESENT EMPLOYI' ;NTS __ this information becomes out of date very rapidly especially for those in government service. At least every six years with the change in the national presidency there is much change in governmental organization and also in personnel. Since some of our published sources appeared prior to December 1946 - January 1947 (when most of the recent changes took place) there may be numerous errors of this type. PRINCIPAL TOPICAL AND REGIONAL FIELDS OF R:ESEtirtCH Ai'4D r4RITING - most teachers of geography have no time for research since handling four or five jobs does not leave much leisure time, most of the geographic research in Mexico is being done in the fringes or peripheries of geography by civil engineers, geologists, rural economists, geodesists, etc, About all that the teacher or professor of geography can manage is library or laboratory "research" of the 11scissors and paste" type which results in a "new" regional or topical textbook. BEST PROFESSIONAL ADDRESS -_ that business address where the person is most likely to receive his mail. HOME ADDRESS -- where known this is the only sure way of reaching a person by mail within a reasonable period of time. -ihere no address is given, the person lives in the Valley of Mexico, unless he is the author of a regional text. NOTE: ABBREVIATIONS, ENA Escuela Nacional de Agricultura ENI -- Escuela tacional de Ingenieros or Fac. de Ing. UNM. ENP -- , Escuela Nacional Preparatoria ENS -- Escuela Normal Superior UNM Universidad 1eacional de Mexico Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001111/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -10- DG-UNM -- Departamento de Geografia, Univeraidad Nacional de Mexico. DGMH..SAF- Direcci6n de Geografia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia do la Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento. DGM-SAG - Direcci6n de Geografia y Meteorologia de la Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia. Profsa. Maria Consuelo AGUILAR, Viuda de Galvin. Tialnepantla, hex., 1892 -. High School geography. *Ing. nilio ALANIS PATINA. Ciudad Hidalgo, Mich., 1905-. Ingeniero agr6nomo ENA 1930; doctor en estadistica, Univ. Roma, 1932. Studied agricultural-econom- ic-geographic divisions of Mexico 1933 - 1937. Professor of statistics and of economic geography in the E.N.A., since 1933. Economic agricultural stat- istics, economic regions of exico. Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, Chapingo, Mexico. Ing. Adolfo ALAR.GON M NDI BAL. Economics of highway location. -~Profesor Aam6n ALCORTA GUE1t?ER0. Guerrero, S. L. P., 1912 - . At present professor of geography in the DG-UNM, the ENS, and the ENP, where he teaches human geography, historical.and political geography, and physical geography. He has edited various geographic publications and at present is secretary of the Comision de Geografla within the Sociedad 1Liexicana de Geografia within the Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica. Probably Hlcorta should be listed as primarily a cultural geographer, and as one of the few professional geographers in Mexico. Gctaviano ANDdADE GONZALEZ. Maestro en Ciencias Geograficas, UNM 1941. Thesis on: Elementos de Cosmografia y de Geografia Fisica. Ing. Agustin ARAGON Y LFCN. Jonacatepec, Mor., 1870 -. Ingeniero gebgrafo, r.NI. Ing. Ignacio Leon de la BAAtA. Ingeniero geografo, Colegio Militar. *Prof. Carlos BENITEZ DEL01ME. Former professor of geography in the ENP. Wrote Geo r afia Humana, Social y Eeonomle_a, 5th ed., Mexico, 1943. Ing. Jose R. BENITEZ. Director of the Instituto de geografia, Universidad de Guadalajara; Author of various works in historical geography. decently en- gaged on historical maps of Nueva Galicia. Instituto do Geografia. Univer- sidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Home address: Parro- quia 578, Guadalajara. Ing. Carlos R. BEB,ZUNZA DE LA VICTORIA. Teniente eoronal. Professor of military geography in the Escuela Superior de Guerra, Villa Obregon. Ing. Luis BLAZQULL LUP&. 1900 -. Physical geography; economic geology. *Prof. Dr. Pedro CARRASCO. Badajoz, Spain, 1883 D. Sc., Univ. Madrid, 1905. Former professor and dean of school of sciences, Univ. Madrid. Astrophys- ics, geo-physics, astronomy, meteorology. Professor of mathematics, cosmo- graphy, physical geography, geophysics, and meteorology and climatology in the DG-UNM and in the ENS. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -11- Luis CASTELLANo. Geografia General, 'exico, 1939 (3rd grade text). *Ing. Alfonso CONTii,,AAS ARIAS, ideteorologist and climatologist in the DCZi-SAG. Probably the outstanding climatologist in Mexico, Research on relationships of wild and cultivated plants to climate; application of the Thornthwaite system of climatic classification to riexico. Prof. Aureliano COR3AL DELGADO. Professor of geography in the preparatory school and normal school of the Universidad de Sonora in Hermosillo, Sonora. Ing. Jorge A. CUEVAS. Town planning. Prof. Roberto DAVILA LEON. Saltillo, 1897 Teacher in mexico City. Author of an atlas of Mexico,. Ing. Alfonso DE A 0 CAR EEO. Ingeniero topografo, Chief geologist (Ingeniero en jefe de geologla), Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos. Professor of geo- physical methods of exploration, ENI. Research in Mexican geophysics. Prof. Daniel DELGADILLO. Cuauntitlan 1872 -. Former professor in the ENP. Numer- ous texts such as La Tierra 1940. El Distrito Federal 14th ed. 1944, Atlas Geografico 1910, La Republica Mew; Geo a Elemental in 30th ed. 1947, Presbitero Severo DIAZ. Sayula, Jal., 1876 -. Religious orders and training in physics and mathematics in Seminario de Ciudad Guzman. Past professor of as- tronomy, physics, mathematics, and cognate subjects in schools and universi- ties of Guadalajara. At present chief of the Jaliscan meteorologic service. Numerous paperp on tectonics of south western i'iexico, recent vulcanism, clim- atology, Address: Garibaldi 440, Guadalajara, Jalisco. Coronel de In5s. Francisco DIAZ BABIO, Former director of the Servicio Geografico del Ejercito 14exicano. Cartography. Profa. Margarita DILLLNER. Instructor of regional and physical geography in the DG-UNM, Sara ENiUQLJEL CASTANEDA. Maestra en ciencias geograficas. *Ing. Alberto Escalona Ramos. Mexico City, 1908 -. Ingeniero Civil, ENI 1933. Professor of geography in the ENP and other schools of the UNM since 1927. Research in astronomical or mathematical geography, and in Mayan chronology. Felipe FHANCO. Geografia de Puebla. ,A4exico, 1941. Dr. Ing. Joaquin GALLO MONTj RUBI0. Mexico City, 1882 -.- Ingeniero, ENI, 1908; D. Sc., UNM, 1932. Director of the Observatorio Astronomico de 14exico since 1916. Former professor of mathematics, astronomy, and cosmography in ENP, ENI, DG-UNM, etc. Some research in meteorology, Prof. Ramon GARCIA RUIZ. Guadalajara, Jal., 1908-. G.aduate of ENS in Mexico City. Federal education administration. The teaching of geography in primary schools. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Margarita GARDUIO NAVARRO. Maestra en Ciencias, F'isicas, UNM, 1939. The thesis subject was: La Ge raf a F a qa eI 1iLo ED nza Secundaria. Prof. Jose C, GOMEZ. Chief -,of the Servicio Meteorologico Mexi.cano, of the DGri- SAG, and professor of meteorology and climatology in the DG-UNM. Meteor- ologic tabulations and maps. Prof. Amado GON! ALEZ DAVILA. Geoarafia de Nayarit, Mexico, 1942. Prof. Luis GONZALEZ TREVINO. Professor in the ENP. Prof. Joaquin GUTIERREZ HERMOSILLO. Professor of physical geography in the ENP. *Profa. Maria Teresa GUTIER-ILZ VEZCCUEZ. Instructor in meteorology and climatology in the DG-UNM. Timoteo L. HErtNANDEZ. Geograf a del : ado de Nuevo Leon. 3rd Ed. Monterrey, 1943. Prof. Gilberto HEFUNANDEZ CORZO. Instructor in statistics and demography in the DG- UNM. *Ing. Horatio HERA. Ingeniero Civil. Chief of cartography in the DGEt-SAG. nap- ping of Mexico. Regional geography of the Rio Hondo basin. Prof. Cayetano HIDALGO. Ing. Ricardo LANCASTER--JONES. Secretary of the JAJ-SMGE, and great-great-great grandson of the English educator Joseph Lancaster. Working on a bibliography of Jaliscan geography. Office, Aptdo 675, Guadalajara, Jalisco. *Dr. Luis LANZ MARGALLI. Hda. San Joaquin, Tam., 1907 -. Maestro en Ciencias Geograficas 1939 in the UNM with thesis: Ensaya geofisico del Estado de, Tabasco. Licenciado en Eeonomia 1941, UNM with thesis: Ge raf a ecoomica del do de Tabasco. Doctor en ciencas geograficas, UNM 1942. Formerly professor of Economic Geography and Geography of Mexico in the DGbUNM, and economist in various governmental departments, Presbitero Jose Trinidad LARIS. Guadalajara, Jal., 1884 -. Priestly orders in Guadalajara. Articles on historical-geography of Jalisco. Address: Reforma 573, Guadalajara, Jalisco. Arquitecto Carlos LAZO JR. Mexico City, 1914 -. Arquitecto, UNM, 1939. Town planning; rural settlements. Ing. Aurelio LEAL TALVINO. Villa de Mendez, Tam., 1890 -. Ingeniero geografo, Colegio Miilitar. Former professor, ENP. Albino LOPE J. Geograffa All Es ado Al Yuca a , Mexico, 1931. Text for the third grade. Prof. Elpidio LOPEZ LOPEZ. Astronomer, meteorologist and climatologist in Puebla and the Federal District. Later, professor of geography in the ENP and the ENS. In 1920's revised system of geographic instruction in ENP which soon spread over all Mexico. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -33- #Profa. Rita LpPEZ DE LLF.RGO Y SLOANE. Wrote a thesis in 1928 on, an aspect of the geography of the state of Tlaxcala. Professor of physical geography and car- tography in the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia a Historia and the ENS. Director of the Instituto de Geografia. of the ` UNIvi since 1944. One of the chief cartographic draftsmen in government service in Mexico. Instituto de Geografla de la UNM., Palma No. 9, sexto piso, Mexico, D. F. Home address: Calle 3, Numero 49, San Pedro de los Pinos, 1116xico, D. F. Prof. Diego G. LOPEZ ROSADO. Merida, Yuc., 1918 -. Atlas hist6rico Reografico de Mexico. 1940. Manuel LOP3Z Y LOPEL. Maestro, 1938. Thesis on: Los elementos del clima. Prof. Jose A. LOZANO.' Professor of geography in the preparatory school of the Inst. Tee. y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Prof. Manuel #1ALDONAD0 KOJ+:RDELL. Mazatlan, Sin., 1908 -. UNM; Univ. Washington, California, Kansas. One of the leading bio-geographers in Mexico. Colegio de iiiexico and E. S. de Ciencias Biologicas, Inst. Pol. Nac., Et?hnobiology; history of biological sciences in Mexico. Home address; Culiacan 74, LL:exico, D. F. Prof. V. M. MARTINEZ H. Hunan geography of Yucatan. *Ing. Manuel it DINA PERALTA. Ingeniero topografo. Chief of the Oficina de Geografla of the DGM-SAG. One of the leading cartographers and geodesists in Mexico. Home address: 3a. Miery Pesado 236, Colonia del Valle, Mexico, D. F. Prof.-Angel MIRANDA BASURTO. Professor of educational geography in the ENS. Prof. Mariano MIRANDA FONSECA. Mono raaffiaa de la Republica Mexicana. Secondary text. 3rd ed. Mexico 1946. Profa. Maria de los Angeles i'IOCTEZUi'A. Professor of physical geography in the ENP; Gabriel MOLIN V. Maestro en Ciencias Geograficas in 1939 in the UNM with thesis on: El Mediterraneo interamericano. ?Capitan de corbeta Pedro MONTEJO SIERRA. Geopolitics. Dr. Friedrich Karl Gustav MUL RIED. L891 -. Professor of palaeobiology (Facul- tad de Ciencias) and of pre-history (Facultad de Filosofia y Letras) in the UNM. Palaeogeography and physical geography; regional studies in Chiapas, Guerrero, Coahuila, San Luis Potosi, etc. Home address: Avenida Mazatlan 208, Mexico, D. F. "Ing. Manuel MUNOZ LUr1BIER. Chihuahua, Chi., 1896 -. Ingeniero ge6logo. Formerly seismologist, vulcanologist, petroleum inspector, inspector of mines, economic geographer. New chief of the Departamento de Estudios Econ6micos in the Secretarla de Economia Aacional (changed in 1947 to D$recci6n General-de Es- tudios Econ6micos of the Secretaria de Eeonomia). Vocabulary of the earth sciences; regional economic geography. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Prof. Jose Vicente NEGRETE. Geogra.f a del Estado de Jalisco. Mexico, 1926; new edition, 1947. Home address; Lieeo 496, Guadalajara, Jalisco. Ing. Ezequiel ORDONEZ. Lerma, Mex. 1871 -. Ingeniero de Minas, ENI, 1892. One of the last of Mexico's field geologists of the nineteenth century. Home ad- dress: Abraham Gonzalez 79, M6xico, D. F, Ing, Isidro G. OROZCO. Employed in the DGK-SAG. Ing. Pascual ORTIZ RUBIO. Morelia, i'iich., 1877 -. Educated ingeniero top6grafo, ENT. Past president of Mexico and governor of Nii_choaca.n, Constructed the best map of Michoacan up to 1910, and has written numerous articles on the geography and history of liichoacan. Home address: Ontario 505, Lomas de Chapultepec, i?6exico, D. F. Ing. Gabriel ORTIZ SANTOS. Former director Insituto de Geograffa, Universidad de Guadalajara. Topographer and geodesist. Mapping of the Lerma-Santiago strip. 'KDr. Bibiano F. QEORIO T.bFALL. Doctor en Ciencias Biol6gicas, UNM. Teaches a course on Conservation of Natural Resources in DG-UNM. Marine biology, oceanography, fishing industry. Escuela National de Ciencias Biol6gicas, I.P.N. (Labora- torio de Hidrobiologia). another address; Venustiano Carranza 25, 60 Pisco, Mexico, D, F. Ing, Felipe N. de PARR ES. ChiefSeecion de Gravimetria, DGM-SAG. Geodesy, mapping. Ing. Lorenzo R. PATINO. Director of the bureau for Conservaci6n del Suelo y ,~gua in thq Com s-:.("'n Nacional de Irrigaci6n 1942-19it(, and since 1946 in the same r post within the Seca ,aria de Agricultura y Gar,ath ria, Ing. Federico PE. AGUirRE. Director DGM-SAG since 1946f Ing, P ,11.11A RUDUGU Z. Director of the DG IH..SAF until 1946. Topographic gJ.reec, er, Agronomo. A, Ii)EO? Diroctor, Instituto Tecnico .gricola Henequenero de Yucatan. Climate of Yucatan:. Profesora Tulia WUL OZ LMAD(h. sic. Jose Maria de los `-'EYES. Professor of human geography in the ENP. Geografia hum?na, i4exico, 1946 (M. Porrua), Profa. Dolores RIQITEL VERTIZ. Pasante en ciencias geograficas in 1945; teacher of cartography and Map Making and of Geography of Mexico in DG-UNM. Prof. Jorge RIVERA ACEVES. Maestro en ciencias geograficas. Professor of Geology and Soils in DG-UNM. *Ing.. Ramiro ROtiLES- iWM0S. Ingeniero petrolero. Professor of Geology, Physiography and Soils in D.G.-UNitii and professor of General and Mexican Geology in the ENS. Professor of Geology in the Facultad de Ingenieria, UNM, and in the Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Also geologist for the Secretarla de Recursos Hidraul- icos (Jefe del Departamento de Coordination y Cooperaci6n, Jefatura de Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -15.- Geologia). Address: Gelati 4, Tacubaya, D. F, Jose RODrtIGUEZ G0NZ Lr;Z. Geooar~ fia del Es tado ce, Coahuila. Mexico, 1926. Prof. Jesus R0MER0 FLOR?S. La Piedad, Mich., 1885 -. Univ. llichoacana 1905. 'Edu- cator, librarian, bibliographer, politician, historian. Wrote Geo raffia de Michoacan,, 1931. Ing. Pastor ROUAIX. Tehuacan, Pbla., 1870 -. Ingeniero topografo ENI 1898. Governor of Durango; Secretary te; ry of Development (Fomento) 1914-20, during which time the DGMH was organized under Pedro Sanchez, Contracting engineer. Geografia del Estado de Durango, Mexico, 1926. Gen. Leobardo C. RUIZ. Pinos, Zac., 1892 -. Colegio Militar. assistant director Colegio Militar; chief of aeronautics; minister to Japan and Spain; brig- adier general. Military geography. Ing. Manuel SALAZAR Y ARCE. Instructor in economic geography and in topography and cartography in the DG-UNM,' *Ing. Pedro Celestino SANCHEZ, r Hda. San Nicolas Obispo, Poanas, Our., 1871 -, Ingeniero de minas y metalurgista, ENI 1897. Formerly director Ccmi.sion Geodesica, Direccibn de Estudios Geograficos y Climatologicos 1915/18 - 1934, DGMH-SAF, Director of the Instituto Panamericano de Geografla e Historia 1928/30 to date. Physical geography, geodesy, vulcanology and seismology of southern Mexico and Central America. Gral. Manuel SANCHEZ LAMEGO, Servicio Geografico del Ejercito. Prof. Antonio SANCHEZ MOLINA. Senior Guillermo SANCHEZ PATINO. Lie. Francisco J. SANTAMAR?A. Cacaos, Tam., 1889 -. Geography of Tabasco, Prof. Mario SANTOS DEL PRADO. Maestro en ciencias geograficas, Profa. Sara SANTOS DE 3AVI16N. Maestra en Geogz+afia. *Ing. Enrique E. SCHULZ Y RICOY. Mexico City, 1875 -. Son of Maestro Miguel Schulz. Taught geography in most of the institutions of higher learning in the Valley of Mexico, e. g., ENP 1905-1916, 1921 -; Escuela Normal para Maestros 1905- 1916; Escuela Militar 1911-1914, 1921-27; Escuela Superior de Comercio 1919-; Facultad de Comercio 1931 -; etc. The date at which he became inactive is not known to us. He colaborated in the writing and edited many editions of his father's famous text Curso General de Geo of a. *Ing. Jorge L. TAkAYO. 1912 -. Ingeniero Civil. Has worked as an irrigation engin- eer for the government. Tamayo. has written the best hydrography of Mexico to date, and also a good physical geography of Mexico. Heriberto Frias 613, Mexico, D. F. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -16- Profa. Maria Elodia TERiE.S VILL ENOR. Born Mexico City. Maestra en Ciencias Geograficas 1938 with thesis on: Origen Y Desarrollo de la Ciudad de M6xice. Recently issued Geografia Fisica, Mexico, 1947.. Ing. Arturo de la TORRE. Professor of physical geography in the ENP and of the Geog- raphy of Mexico in the summer school of the UNM since 1945, succeeding Osorio Mondragon. *Ing. Ricardo TOSCANO. Guadalajara, Jal., 1876 -. Ingeniero topografo. Professor of topography in such schools as the Facultad de Ingenieria of the UNM, the Instituto Polit6cnico Nacional, and the DG-UNM. Topographer in the DGM-SAG. History of cartography in Mexico. Ing. Alfonso VACA ALAT0tRE. Engineer in the Servicio Geografico del Ejereito, Dir- eccion de Ingenieros, Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. Lie. Francisco VLLENCIA R. Professor of'Mexican Geography in the ENP. Prof. Fulgencio VM.GJ,S. Jaral del Progreso, Guato., 1875 -. Various articles on regional geography and history of Guanajuato. Luis VARGAS PINERA. Chihuahua. Geografia Escolar. Mexico, 1930. *Dr. Jorge Abilio VIVO. Habana, Cuba, 1906 -. Doctor in derecho civil y publico, Univ. Habana, 1924; Maestro de Etnologia, Escuela Nacional de yntropologia e Historia, 1942; Naturalized Mexican, 1943? Professor of geography in such schools as ENS 1937 -, Escuela Aacional de Antropologia 1939 -, DG-UNM 1940-, Mexico City College 1947 -, etc. Vivo is chief of the department of Ethnology in the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia, and is the executive officer in a number of the geography departments in which he teaches. He is the author of numerous texts, and has edited several geographic publications, Probably Vivo is the leading anthropo-geographer in Mexico. Ing. Isidro VIZCAYA. Professor of geography in the Instituto Tec.,y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Nuevo Le6n. Ing. Paul WALTZ. 1876 -. Consulting geologist, Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos. Profa. Esperanza YARZA CARE 0N. Maestra en geografia. Instructor in geography and meteorology DG-UNM. Gral. Fernando ZARATE MENESES. Ingeniero Civil. Chief of the O'ervicio Geografico Militar in 1947. *Prof. Tomas ZEFEDA RINCON. Doctor en ciencias-histbricas; maestro en ciencias de la educaci6n. La Republica Mexicana. Geo raffia Atlas. Mexico, 1934, Second edition, 1941. Prof. Juan ZILLI. Geograf a del Estado de Veracruz. Mvfexico, 1943. The foregoing list is subject to much correction and analysis.. Only a few of the teachers of geography in secondary and preparatory schools have been listed, and only a few of the authors of texts used in elementary and secondary schools have Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -17- been named. Either there should be a much larger representation from these two groups, or they should be eliminated completely. Military and civil engineers including surveyors, geologists, geodesists, astronomers, meteorologists, et al.) are much more apt to consider themselves geographers -- or at least to attend meet- ings of geographers -- than are individuals from the social sciences such as econo- mists, historians, anthropologists, et al. This is because of the great stress that has been placed on mapping. Actually, there are a number of other engineers who probably merit mention as some of those included on the above list. In addi- tion, there are many social scientists (especially statisticians and economists) who could be listed as properly as the various geologists and surveyors. Since it is difficult to locate information as to the leading figures in the geographical sciences in Mexico it seems advisable to present here three special lists: Inactive, Active, Specialties. The first list includes men who have contri- buted importantly to geography in Mexico during the past forty years but who are now dead, retired, or only nominally active. Retired'. Semi-Active, Deceased Rafael AGUILAR Y SANTILLAN 1863-1940 Jose Guadaloupe AGUIL -A SERRANO 1852-1941 Angel ANGUTANO 1840-1921 Agustin ARAGON Y LEON 1870- Ignacio L. de la BARRA Manuel URIOSA Y CANDIANI 1859- Octavio BUSTA ANTE 1872-1939 Ezequiel A. CHAVEZ 1868-1946 Daniel DELGADILLO 1872- Severn DIAZ 1876- Rosa FILATTI 1891-1943 Jesus GALINDO Y VILLA 1867-1937 Valentin GAMA 1868-1943 Antonio GARCIA CUBAS 1832-1912 Pedro GONZALEZ GASCA 1853-1912 Elpidio LOPEZ LOPEZ Joaquin de MENDIZABAL TAMBORHELL ? '.:1926 Miguel Otho'n de NENDIZABAL Y ROMANI 1890.>1946 Josh Vicente NEGRETE Eduardo NORIEGA GA,LINDO 1853-1914 Ezequiel ORDOIEZ 1871-1949 Pascual ORTIZ RUBIO 1877- Luis R. RUIZ ? ..1948 Jose Luis OSORIO MONDRAGON 18-85-1944 Antonio PEVAFIEL Y BARRANCO 1839-1922 Rafael RkAOS PEDRUEZA 1897-1943 Gonzalo de REPARA.Z 1860-1939 Pastor ROUAIX 1870- Pedro SANCHEZ 1871- Enrique E.. SCHULZ Y RICOY 1875- ? Miguel E. SCHULZ 1851-1922 Juan Manuel TORREA 1874- Ricardo TOSCANO 1876- Fulgencio VARGAS 1875- Paul WAITZ 1876- Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 In the second list are included those individuals who are most often men- tioned w nou r geographers or geography in Mexico is being discussed. Several of the individuals are not active at present, and at least half of the number are not primarily gt:~ographers. However, this is the nearest thing that we have to a list of the active professional or semi-professional geographers of university or equivalent rank. Ac ive Geographers and elated Scientists Emilio JJ NIS PATINO, agricultural economist Ramon ALCORTA GULitt;RO, human geographer Carlos B ENITEZ DELO&i?, human geographer Pedro CAE SCO, astronomer and meteorologist Alfonso CONTRERAS ARIAS, climatologist and ecologist Alberto LSCnLONA iUMOS, mathematical geographer Ma. Teresa GUTIERR:r;G VKZw.UEZ, physical geographer Horacio HERkL, cartographer Luis LA'NJZ MARGALLI, economic geographer vita LOPEZ DE LLERGO, cartographer Manuel iviEDINA, cartographer and geodesist Manuel MUNOZ LUivIBIEct, seismologist, economic geologist and geographer Bibiano F. OSORIO TkFALL, bio-geographer, conservationist Ramiro ROt3 RAMOS, geologist Pedro C. SANCHEZ, geodesist Jorge L. T AYO, hydrographer, physical geographer Arturo de la TORRE, physical geographer Aicardo TUSGtiNU, topographer, historical geographer Jorge A.-VIVO, anthropo-geographer Tomas ZEPEDA iW CQN, human geographer since most of the geographic research is sponsored by the governmont and since there are frequent shifts in employment and assignments, there arc: not many individuals who have been able to pursue one line of research consistently. The following list is very incomplete but it does give some indication of indi- viduals from whom further information may be obtained. Rasear Specialties GEODESY, CHRTOGR.';PHY, CUSMUGi HY P. Carrasco, A. de la 0 Carron"o, A. Es- c:alona Aamos, J. Gallo, H. Herrera, R. Lopez de Llergo, N. iviedina, G. Ortiz Santos, F. N. de Parres, R. Robles Ramos, P. 36nchez, R. Toscane, h. Vaca Alatorre. G Oi'iORPHOLOGY __ VULCaNQLOGY, SEISHOLOGY -_ L. 13lazquez Lopez, A. de la 0 Carreio, F. K, G. Miillerried, M. Munoz Lumbier, J. Rivera f+ceves, R. Robles ii.amos, P. Sanchez, J. L. Tamayo, P. Waitz. HYDROGH.APHY, QCi NOG&. HY - L. Blazquez L., In, F. Osorio Tafall, J. L, Tamayo, P. Waltz. BIOGLOG&,"PHY, CONSERVATION of NATUR", fL; 6uUAGLS -- ,:, Contreras Arias, M, Mal- donado K., B. F. Osorio Tafall, L. R. Pati&. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 -19- METEOROLOGY, CLIMATOLOGY - P. Carrasco, A. Contreras Arias S. Diaz J. C. Gomez, M. T. Gutierrez V., E. Lopez,J. A. Vivo. BIBLIOGRAPHY _- R. 1,1corta Guerrero, R. Lancaster-Jones, J. nomero Flores, R. Toscano, J. A. Vivo. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY E. Alanfs Patino, G. Hernandez Corzo, R. Davila Leon, L. Lanz Margalli, M. MuAoz Lumbier, J. L. Tamayo. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY -- R. AlcortarGuerrero, J. H. Benitez, C. Benitez Delorme, J. M. de los Reyes, J. A. Vivo. PEDAGOGIC GILGAAPHY --- R. Garcia Ruiz, A. Miranda Basurto, S. Santos de E., T. Zepeda Rincon, REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY -_ Nearly all geographers employed by the government are carrying out regional studies. Infrequently the academic geographers are able to get into the field. A few examples of regional interests are given here: BAJA CALIFORNIA and PACIFIC ISLANDS - Alcorta Guerrero, Osorio Tafall; DURANGO - Rouaix; QUINTANA ROO - Herrera; LERNNiA_CHAPALA - Escalona Ramos, Gonzalez Trevino; and SIERRA X DRE URIE1vTAL - Millerreid, Robles Ramos. GEOGRAPHY IN GUVERM,,aNT AGENCIES In this section are discussed all pertinent government agencies excepting governmentally supported schools and societies which are considered elsewhere. The Mexican government has supported geographic work chiefly along four lines: Mapping, statistics, field survey, and planning. Mapping. Historically and consistently the greatest stress has been on mapping Mexico -- for military and for economic reasons. Although the first attempt to map independent Mexico was made by the army in the 1820's, the bulk of mapping has been accomplished by non-military groups -- mainly within the state department or ministry which has gone by such names as Fomento, Agri- cultura y Fomento, and at present Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia (SAG). In Mexico, as in most other countries, map making and map publishing agencies developed in many branches of the government. This naturally resulted in some duplication of effort, waste of money, and mapping of differing quality, scale, projection, etc. In 1925 an attempt was made to coordinate all official mapping in Mexico through the Consejo Directivo de los.Levantamientos Topograficos de la Republica Mexicana, but very little was accomplished. Another attempt was made beginning in 1945 (under the auspices of the Comisi6n Irpulsora y Coor- dinadora de la Investigacion Cientifica), at which time was established the Comite Coordinador del Levantamiento de la Carta de la Republica. This coor- dinating committee consisted of representatives from the following governmen- tal units: Direcci6n de Geografia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia of the Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento Comision Geografica Militar, Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional Direccion General de la Armada, Secretaria de la Marina Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 -2C- Comision National de Irrigacivn Departamento de :?xploraciones, Petroleos .exicanos Oficina de Cartograffa, DibujC y l4lodelado of the Secretaria de Cowuni- caciones y Obras Publicas Direccion de minas y Petroleo, Secretaria de la iconomia national Direccion de Educaeion Aural of the Aural of the oecretarfa de zducacion Publica Seccion de Limit9s y Aguas of the Secretaria de ~elaciones ';xteriores Comision Impulsora y Coordinadora de la Investigacion Cientifiea I.nstituto de Geografia of the 'jniversidad Nacional Autonoma de liexico Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia The coordinating committee continues after a fashion, but very little real coordination or planning has been accomplished. The Institute of Geography of the National University of Mexico (which is strictly a research and technical institute, and which does no teaching) is the nearest approach to a coordina- ting center. Here a small group of cartographic draughtsmen, under the direc- tion of the director of the institute -- kiss Aita Lopez de Llergo, have collaborated with various governmental agencies. The main purpose of the in- stitute is to provide maps superior to those now existing which can be used as adequate bases for distributional studeis. The chief mapping agencies (field survey and/or manufacture and publica- tion) in Mexico at present are: Mexican Government: Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia Direccion de Geografia y Meteorologla Departamento Agrario (semi-autonomous) Secretaria de la Defensa National Servicio Geografico del Ejercito Secretaria de Aecursos Hidraulicos Jefatura de Irragacion y Control de Aios Jefatura de Geologia Direccion General de Aproveehamientos Hidraulicos Comision del Rio Papaloapan (semi-autonomous) Comision del Tepalcatepec (semi-autonomous) Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Obras Publicas Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico Direccion National de Caminos Oficina de Cartografia, Fotografia y l4odelado Direccion General de marina, Puertos y Faros Secretaria de Sconomfa Direccion General de Industrias cxtractivas Direccion de Estudios Lconomicos Direccion General de Estadistica Secretarla de kelaciones hxteriores Section Mexicans de Limites y Aguas (Com. Internat. de Limites y Aguas entre Mexico y los E. U.) Secretarf a de la Marina National Direcci6n General de la Armada Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -21- Secretaria de Educaci6n?Publica Instituto Nacional de Antrooologia e Historic Direcci6n de Educaci6n Rural Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia Secretaria de Governaci6n Direccion General de Poblacion Uni.versidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico Instituto de Geograffa Instituto de Geologia Petr6leos Mexicanos Departamento de Exploraciones Non-governmental: Instituto Panamericano de Geograffa e Historia Asociacion Mexican Automovilfstica Com-oania Mexicana de Luz y Fuerza Motriz Companfa i'exieana Aerofoto, S. A. Arzobispado de Mexico Most of the actual survey and mapping in the field is done by engineers (civil, military, construction, hydraulic, topogranhic, geographic, geologic) mining, petroleum, and other titles) working for branches of the ministries of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (SAG), National Defense'(SDN) Hydraulic Resources (SRH), and Communications and Public Works (SCOP) -- and especially the first two. Tonographic engineers and geodesists from one or another of these ministries do most of the actual field mapping for the other governmen- tal departments, e. g., the SCOP and the SRH provide the technicians for the Seccio'n Mexicana de Lfmites y Aguas of the Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores in connection with surveys of boundaries and study of water resources. The Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia (SAG) is by law the governmental depart- ment which is entrusted with making geographic explorations, and most of the maps manufactured and published in Mexico are drafted, reproduced, printed, and published by the SAG -- chiefly in its Direcci6n de Geografia y ~ieteorologia. In addition, the Oficina de Cartografia y Talleres (Talleres de Fotozincografia, Avenida Observatorio 192, Tacubaya, D. F.) of the DGM-SAG does the reproduction and printing of most of the maps published by other federal agencies. An ex- ample of distribution of work is the CARTA GEOLOGICA DE LA REPUBLICA MEXICANA 1:5,000,000, published in 1942 by the Instituto de Geologia of the National University, edited (compiled, traced, corrected) by the Comisi6n Nacional de Irrigaci6n (now the Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos), and printed in the Talleres de Foto-zincograffa of the DGMG-SAF. Another government plant which prints many maps is the Talleres Graficos de la Naci6n (the main government printing plant). As mentioned previously, the earliest governmental mapping of Mexico was that carried out by army engineers for the military map of the republic. About 1854/56 there was added the compilation of civil maps of the republic and its constituent parts by Garcia Cubas and other draftsmen in the Secretaria de Fomento. The maps and mapping programs of the Mexican government were in a most imperfect and Confused 'state until a Comisi6n or Secci6n de Cartografia was established in 1876 in the Secretaria de Fomento to care for and to edit maps. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 In the next 30 years numerous governmenta-1 bodies were established to carry on exploration, mapping, and research in the various earth-sciences. These organizations (Comision de Cartografia, Comisi6n Geografico-Exploradora de Republica Mexicana, Observatorio i? leteorol6g:;,co, Comision Geode"sica Aexicana, etc) were fused into one body (1915/16) which was known for many years as the Direction de Estudios Geograficos y ClimatolSgicos, and later as the DGMH of the SAF and the DGM of the SAG. The ambitious program to map all of Mexico on a scale of 1:100,000 (carried out by engineers from the Secretarfa de Guerra and from the Secretaria de Fomento between 1878 and 1914) resulted in the publication of some 199 maps by the Comision Geografico-Exploradora which covered about fifteen percent of Mexico. No attempt has been made to complete this map of Mexico. In 1915 a Series of state maps was begun and periodically these have been bound into atlases which constitute the last word in official cartography of Mexico. The most recent edition of the ATLAS GEOGRAFICO DE LA REPUBLICA MEXI- CANA is the 25th, issued in 1946, which has several maps of each state ( in varying scales; 1:1,000,000 predominates), and which shows a total of 16,600 places. Also, special maps have been prepared of some entities (such as Zaca- tecas, Morelos, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Yucatan, Tabasco, Chihuahua, Durango, Baja California, Tamaulipas, Puebla, Coahuila, Sonora, etc.) on scales varying from 1:50,000 (Morelos) to 1:500,000 (the most common:.. Zacatecas, etc.) and a few 1:600,000. Because of the earlier lack of sufficient geodetic controls, only the more recently completed maps can be considered to be good. There are three modern map series which attempt to cover all of Mexico consistently. In 1924 there was projected a Carta Geogr'afica de la Republica Mexicana on a scale of 1:500,000 which would cover Mexico in sheets of three degrees longitude by two degrees latitude. Work was started on this map in 1927 and it was completed in 52 sheets in 1942.. These sheets are available bound together in an atlas. Unfortunately this map (which utilizes a polyconic projection as do most Mexi- can maps) is not based on accurate surveys. Since 1943/44 the Dir.ecci6n de Geo7raffa and the Instituto de Geografia have been working on an improved 1:500,000 map (also the same map 1:1,000,000) based on the trimetrogon photos taken by the United States Amy Air Force, the Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, and other organizations (1942/43 principally) which cover all of Mexico. To date about l~% of I1exico has been maDoed from the trimetrogon photos. The Servicio Geog- rafico del Ejcreito (the successor of the Comision Geografica Militar in 1946), which is entrusted with making the Carta i"lilitar de la Republica Mexicana, has utilized the trimetrogon photos somewhat but is at present stressing vertical photographs and has now mapped some 5% of Mexico with the latest aerial photo- grametric methods. The official wall map of Mexico is the Carta General de la Republica Mexicana 1:2,000,000, the first edition of which was issued in 1923, and which was in its 12th edition in 1948. The mapping status of Mexico can be summarized as follows. Civil and military engineers do and have done the bulk of the mapping. This mapping has been and is oriented towards military and economic ends. The civil economic ends are principally: base maps for charting distributions, and maps which facilitate planning and utilization (maps of drainage basins, soil maps, com- munications maps, etc.). Until the last few years most maps lacked adequate geodetic control. There is no coverage of Mexico by mans having a scale larger than 1:500,000, nor by maps having contour lines. Although the DGM-SAG is in charge of national lands, there is no General Land Office nor Surveyor-General, and there is no rectangular system of surveying, marking and describing lands. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 e23- A system of metes and bounds is used throughout most of Mexico. The coasts and coastal waters have not been adequately surveyed and charted, And United States Hydrographic Office and British Admiralty charts are widely used and copied. Most Mexican academic geographers have not the mathematical and mech- anical instruction necessary for either the construction or the appreciation of projections and maps. Consequently, maps (the most characteristic tool and "sign manual" of a geographer) in Mexico belong more to the engineer than to the geographer. Statistics. The Mexican government has shown its interest in statistics since its formative years, and there has been a central statistical organiza- tion since the 188Ots, At the present time most of the ministries have their own specialized units for statistical studies such as the Direccion de Estud- ios Financieros of the Secretari;a de Hacienda y Credito Publico, Although courses in economic geography, statistics, and demography are sometimes taught by geographers, more commonly they are handled by economists, engineers, socio- logists and physicians. Mexico at present has several distinguished statis- ticians (among whom might be mentioned Lie. Gilberto Loyo, Dr, Josue Saenz, and Dr. Emilio Alanis Patifo), but not one is primarily a geographer. Field rve and Plate. Each presidential period of six years serves as a, unit of time within which there are made certain field surveys preliminary to planning for various specified objectives. Although the general objectives ever since 1915/17 have been the improvement of the personal dignity and stan- dard of living of the entire population through improvements in education, sani- tation, communication and economic resources, there have been differences in topical and regional stress from one administration to another. Since the basic Mexican economy is agriculture, the greatest amount of attention has been given to surveys which would indicate the most pressing or desirable areas in which to develop irrigation projects, build roads, introduce electricity, drain swamps, etc. Nearly every governmental ministry, in addition to the Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia and the Eecrotaria de Recursos Hidraulicos, has one or more units which carry out field surveys, and other units which analyze the results of the surveys and prepare plans for presentation to the legislative and executive branches of government. In the various stages of field survey, analysis, and planning there are employed some geographers. Apparently to date most of these geographers have been assigned jobs of compiling and editing re- ports on economic regions or on specific commmoditiee or industries. To the best of our knowledge at present only the $3cretaria de Hacienda y Credito Pizblico employs persons under the official professional category of "geograph- er", within which category there are six grades. In the following paragraphs is given an outline of the principal govern- mental agencies which carry on geographic research or sponsor geographic pub- lications. "Geographic" has been used in a broad sense since it was considered better to include too much rather than too little. The order of consideration of governmental agencies is not particularly significant, although there is some attempt to list them according to the amount of geographic work accomp- lished. Wherever possible the latest titles or names of governmental units have been used, but there are some errors where we were unable to get a detailed statement of the post 1946/47 reorganization. SECRETAR1A DE AGRICULTURA Y GANADERIA. Entrusted by law with oversight of national lands, and the making of geographic surveys and explora- tion. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926A004900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 ' I n E CrON DE GEOGRAFI . Y lIETEOROLOGIA. The principal gpv%srn- ment agency for research and work in cartography, geodesy= meteorology and climatology. DE?ARTPMiENTO GEOGRAFICO. Through various subordinate of- fices (oficina inst~tuto, seccion carries out field surveying both topographic and geodetic) and compiles, prints, and publishes maps. Together with branches of the Universidad Nacional and the Secretarla de Recursos Hidrtulicos, looks after most of the leveling and trian- gulation, and .studies of magnetism,, gravity, earth- quakes, and volcanoes. By 1946 some 200 positions had been astronomically determined, for the improvement of Mexican cartography. SEHVICIO METEOROL6GICO MEXICANO. Administers a network of more than 1,300 stations; compiles daily weather fore- casts and report; issues various maps, charts, tables, atlases, and monographs with meteorologic, climatologic, and ecologip content. Has abandoned De Martonne and Koeopen climatic classifications in favor of Thorn- thwaite's scheme. Among the outstanding workers in the DGM are the engineers M, Medina, F. N. Parres, A. Contrer's Arias, J. C. G&nez, and I. G. Orozco. DIRECCION GENERAL DE ECONa IA RURAL. Issues a valuable Bo1~etin Mensual and sporadic monographs. Among the latter of out- stan ing geographic interest are a ponderous tome on the econ- omic-agricultural regions of }':exico issued in 1934 and the four volume work by Foglio `'iiramontes on the QCggrafj~ o- mico A rf cola del Estado de M_ic ?oaca_n Published in 1936. DIRE CI N RRE,OS NACIONALE. DIRECCION GENERAL FOR{,GTAL Y DE -CAZA. DIRECC16N GENERAL DE CONSERV\CION DE SUELOS Y AGUA. Began stu of soil conservation 1942 under CNI. DIRECCJhN GENERAL DE AGRICULTURA. COMISION NACIONAL DE COLONIZACI6N. DIRECCION DE DISTRITOS DE RIEGO. ESCUELA NACIONAL DE AGRICULTURA, Chapingo, Mexico, Mexico. BANCO NACIONAL DE CREDITO AGRICOLA Y GANADERO, S. A. (Semi-auto- nomous). Has subsidized considerable research and nublica- tion including a commodity. series of which the six volumes on EL TRIGO EN MEXICO 1938-41 probably is the best. DEPARTAM +ITO AGRARIO (Semi-autonomous). Surveys, maps, and studies pro- posed ejidal areas. Probably the manuscript and blueprint maps of this department constitute the largest collection of detailed maps of Mexico since most of the maps are on scales of 1:20,000 and 1:3?,900. SECRETARIA DE LA DEPENSA NACIONAL. Concerned with making and maintain- ing the military (strategic and tactical) map of Mexico. SERVICIO,GEOGRAFICO DEL EJERCITO. Reformed in 1946 from Comisian Geografico Militar which derived its personnel chiefly from Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 the Corps of Engineers; now the SGE is a separate branch oT the army on a par with the other services or armas. works with the DG de Ingenieros in tooograohy and with the D de Aeronautica (through the Escuadr6n de Fotografia Aerea) in aerial photography. The SGE ranks second only to the DGti:- SAG in making original surveys and maps. Field surveys are made by gad as de geografos (who determine astronomic posi- tions and make geodetic surveys), brigadas de torso rafos (who carry out trigonometric surveying and leveling), and member, of the section aerofotogrametria (who work with air ohotcs), The sec_ ci n de dibu,jo Drenares the maps (chiefly on scal=ls of 1:50,000 and 1:20,000) which are reproduced in the Taller Heliografico. However, the seccion trabajos fotogrametrza prepares maps (usually 1:100,000, except for some 1:500,000 of MMchoac`an, Colima and Mexico) based on the air photos:. DIRECCION DE ARCHIVO MILITAR. Includes valuable Library of the Army with numerous itineraries, sketch maps, and theses out- lining geographic factors in utilization and defense of var- ious terrains. ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE GUERRA. COLEGIO MILITAR. ESCUE~A MILITAR DE METEOROLOGfA and SERVICIO METEOROLOGICO DE EJERCITO. SECRETARIA DE RECURSOS HIDRAULICOS. Formed in 1946/47 by /47 b,j expansion of the Comis16n Nacional de Irrigaci&n which was organized in 1j926 as an autonomous department headed by the secretary of agriculture In the past the CNI has done the best work in general surveying, h.,r- drography, geology, and mapping of soils in ivMexico. JEF~TURA DE IRRIGACION Y CONTROL DE RIOS. DIR. GIN. DE ESTUDIOS Y PROYECTOS DE IRRIGACION Y CONTROL DE RIOS. DIRECCION GENERAL DE HIDROLOGIA. DIR. GEN. DE PEQUENA IRRIGACION. JE^ATURA DE INGENIERIA SANITARIA. DIR. GEN. DE ESTUDIOS Y DROYECTOS. JEFATURA DE GEOLOGIA. DEPTO. DE GEOLOGIA GENERAL. DEPTO. DE GEOHIDROLOGIA. DEPTO. DE GEOFISICA.,- DEPTO. DE COORDINACION Y COOPER4CIGN. DIR. GEN. DE APROVECHAMIENTOE HIDRAULICOS. DEPTO. DE AGUAS NACIONALES. DEPTO. DE ESTUDIOS DE SUELOS. A large number of excellent studies of Mexican geomorphology, geology, soils, vegetation and other aspects of the natural lands.ape are to be found in the periodical IRRIGACION EN MEXICO, which was replaced January of 1947 by INGENIERIR HIDRAULICA EI' MEXICO. Many special reports have been issued on the meteorology, climatology, hydrography, geology, soils, etc., of various pro- posed irrigation or reclamation districts. Among geographically minded persons associated with the SRH are P. Waltz, A. De La 0 Carrefio, and R. Robles Ramos. Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 Approved For Release 2001/11/21 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO04900010008-1 -26- COMISION DEL RIO P%PALOAPAN and COMISION DEL RIO TE?ALCATEPEC. These two regional (drainage basin) commissions are semi-autonomous govern- mental organizations patterned somewhat after the Northamerican Tennessee Valley Authority. However, although persons from many gov- ernmental organizations participate in the work of study and plan- ning, the majority of the work and responsibility rests with the SRH since the major jobs of reclamation in these two basins are respec- tively draining and irrigating. SECRETARIA DE EJCONOMIA. This ministry, along with SAG and SRH, con+rois most of the natural resources of Mexico, studies the best means for their exploitation, and maintains a statistical accounting of th.L! status of the various resource's and economies. Research and publi- cations of geographic value aoDear from time to time in nearly all of the branches of this ministry. DIR. GEN. DE ESTUDIOS ECONO1ICOS. This direccion studies natural resources and plans their use -- esoecially in the Sector or Oficina de Geografia Econo'mica. This Office of Economic Creeg- raphy was founded by Dr. Rosa Filatti (died in 1943) who ha.i studied under French economic geographers at the Sorbonn