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Document Creation Date: 
December 27, 2016
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February 25, 2013
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May 13, 1953
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26 : CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 U.S. Officials Only 11110 CONFIDSI!IAL SECURITY INFORMATION CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT SUBJECT Conditio ar t die jjWbjLj.UrjM plant, /Starts or, Z9dgwt/p]>e s, Nor= arc Iacentiwe1 /Workers' Henfits 3Aabw Discipline This CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE D STATES. RITHIN THEMEANING OF TITLE 1!. SECTIONS 792 THE U.S. CODE. AS WENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR RZYE. S CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS THE R PR N OF THI REPORT P DI ED THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION DATE DISTR.elJMay 1953 1 50X1-HUM NO. OF PAGES 7 SUPP. TO REPORT NO. moment "Sarkanais I4etalurgs be'louge ostensildy- to the Latvian Ministry for Local Industry. Since June 1952, however, two departments a the Martin furnaces and the foundry,) have been subordluatedLdirectly to Moscowd. "T'he director of the factory is Peterija U.S. Officials Only C ONFXEMIAL STATE IARMY NAVY 17 -ims report is Ior the use within the USA of the Intelligence components of the Departments or Agencies indicated above. It is not to be transmitted overseas without the concurrence of the originating office through the Assistant Director of the Office of Collection and Dissemination, CIA. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 COUNTRY USSR (Latvia) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP8O-00926AO06300040001-9 # - -_ 50X1-HUM SECURITY INFORMATION Production for Export "Most of the output of Sarkanais Metalur?gs is exported to the'USSR; almost all of the .pig,-iron is exported. Only third-rate products and rejects are-sold to Latvian enter- prises, although these enterprises may have purchasing permits which entitle them to good quality material. "There is a continual shortage of rew materials. That portion of the Sarkanaals Metalurgs pig iron production which is not carried off to the USSR is sold to the large Latvian factories only. When a asma3rll factory wants to buy some pig iron, it mast deliver up some scrap iron in addition to the cash price. There is a continual scrap iron drive in Latvia; schools and 'house collectives' win red banners if they collect enough. Under the prevalent vatchwo d of 'economy' there 'is also a campaign against rejects. Since 1951 the varkers at Sarkaaanais Metalurgs haatve had to pay for the rejects they roduce 50X1-HUM even if these are due to defective' raw-materials rath ? irh,ano r rgannnl rwrerT,o S&rkanais Metalurgs does not produce over 20% rejects. However, nobody takes an interest in such things except the worker concerned. Great notices listing workers' names entages of rejects produced hung at the entrance of the plant The purpose of these notices was to shame the workers into improving their ways, but nobody oar so mach as glanced at them. Bq uIpment "Most of the machinery at Sarkanai,a Metalurgs is very old. The rolling mill dates from Tsarist times, Some new machines have, been i*w,orted during the Soviet era, eg a macb?ne for rolling sheet iron. The Martin furnace department has, been enlargea. .But that is all. "This old wetc may- often breaks down. The 14arttn furnaces frequently have explosions because the old iron with whi-;h they are charged often includes old guns and tanks with ammunition still in them. The bottoms of the furnac=?s sometimes give way. The accident rate is high became of the terrible state r~ this .achinery and the furious work tempo. In the rolling mill there -is at least one major accident a week. Workers are getting burns from the molten iron. On New Years night 1951, two workers were killed when two cranes collapsed on them. The cranes had been 'rattling and trembling for a long time' but no one had thought of repairing them. WS OFFICIALS ONLY COMPIDENTILL SECURITY IINFORRMN Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP8O-00926AO06300040001-9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 US C I ? LS ONLY 33T,' VRTTY INFORMATION 8. "Every factory has ,stated in its plan the amount rf time, money and material it may spend on repairs., These eblloeatioms are J;!,-j?oue'.y hoarded for the repair of machinery that has a direct bearing on the ftal fiiisw;nt of the production plan. The renaire fund is not sufficient to keep , vfnn the, vital machlnrzy in running order. Nothing is ever thoroughly overhauled; tll, repai:r-z ire but makernifte to get product i~::.jr. :started again. How long the machine will stay .?Wring before, another break:d n is not considered. 9. The work pace in Latvian :'actories is either :a slaw -down because of lack of raw materials, defective mdhinery -etc, or a ma~d rush to make up for lost time when the materials are-delivered ; the pleiny muo be fulfilled in any case: Sarkanais Metalurgs usually mmnagees somehow to fulfill its plan, but everybody says this is largely the doing of Manager Zv iigzne who is f"ci endly with all sorts of planning men and knows all the tricks from his time in sauce USER. 10. "Most of the production ; ? ,hr featured in the newspapers are imaginative idealism. Nothing runs so smoothly in -. soviet-controlled plant. When there is no shortage of. material, a machine will have broken down The smooth curves in the graphs are at ieast for SarkenaaiG i~S t ,t.tixi g ; y So -much propaganda. Labor 11. rkanais Metalurgs has abowu -, J.POQ vorkere. They are divided into seven categories with wages ranging from to 1000 rubles per mc"nth.. An electrician in the Martin furnace department, for example, belongs to the second highest category; his wages (1951) averaged 9`0J rubles per month, fluctuating with the percentage of plan fulfill- ment and percertage of rejects produced. Although he has no fixed norms to meet since his Job depends on current repairs ) his wages fluctuated with the department's rate of achievement,. 12. "The number of female workers at the plant is not large; a few hundred perhaps. The wo- men, L1wtzys get the worc t paid, unskilled jobs. The lowest wages in the plant are earned by the women who carry the bricks for the furnaces. The female bricklayers earn a bit more, about 450 rubles a month 13.. "Until 1950 about 300-4O0 German POWs were ,working at Sarkanais Metalurgs, both as ordinary laborers, and as The plant; did not employ slave labor. Plans, Norms and Incentives 14.. "The length of a workers day is fixed by law at eight hours. There is little legal overtime work for extra pay. In early 1951, for example, the Martin furnace department of Sarkanaia Metalurgs had the right to let workers do paid overtime only four hours a week. There is, actually, a considerable amount of overtime work, the worker being credited with free times to draw on when the work is slack. At the end of each plant period there is a frightful, rush to fill the plan; almost everybody will work overtime. At the start of a new plan period work is slack, and the workers get their free days An electrical repair man for eels, by' virtue of his Job1 ias not bound by norms or plans. But whenever anything breaks down in his department he way have to work two or three days or nights in succession without overtinE compensation only the equiv- alent number of ` frer_ ? hours. 15.. "The norms .keep changing from one w.ek to the next in Latvian industries-. Sometimes a department gill be told that its norm has been raised 50%,P .chile other persona working, in the same branch of industry will retain their old nor s ~ The reason perhaps will be that the plan has provided for the delivery to the department of new machines producing a larger output.. Though' the arcs ?.v . of the new machines may be delayed by non-fulfillment of plan in another factory, transportation difficulties etc, the 1,;S OFFICIALS ONLY ~, 0NFI NTIAL SECURITY IN1'()TION Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926A006300040001-9 go OJL OOKPI>~lT iaac ased eu put- expected frem these aaa .axee will be ineorpo t d in t! ' artment s s plan and. ha- to be fulfilled so t -oldd machines. 16 0 "When a persi at his Me'beel ee . may, he. gets a S alarq- increase based ca the fit. god'' his sae (double y for a 2C%, p ?odnetiom ace) 0 But if he keeps thia up for his ae is iMaeeged, ate.thav of other workers . in his departumt. Althseqh the Sever ss write that a- eert4in worker has exceeded hi norms to such an extent that he is now doing his work for 1960,this is pure props, a0 Nobody is allow" to o lfill his norm. to such an extent. IT. "Pbr. the. worhetae~;-at i:e Met alargr, SUddukasy1sm exists sanetalnothing y ea ''r; .it brings. to the worker except an hiaorable. aematiaa, :praise= in the Se t press and. pups a . red banner, Beeause It brings . f`]. it .'i e:.not seriously coveted There ne 2baldm.erii~ts in the Martir AL daps, qt, ftZkanals Yfetalurgs title is allotted, a]aa+sst in 50X1-HUM s TAO the mere porvUr and .politi oniiy . prominent workers of an enterprise. $rery emte^~isea mist be able to boast some Stakhanoyitea 0 In the BOlsheyik Fang Ko].khoa the ? the Mawt s 18. "The wo"mTv? attitude towards the premia for f%dfi.lled or onerfuitilled norms is quite a diftvre ...w&t*r; these in. M=W sad everybody is,. balm ice tem. There is co>aaiderab .e- -abuse im the allotment of such premia.o 'may us ly go to workers who belong. t,q the OP or Xonsoasl. An-oraliaury 'worlaer? rare-1. Y .dam s a p ua unless he d?es something rea1Iy spM tc iar0 An ?u liablea person (,eg a eleg~a ry who fb light against the iiaviete in World War II, even if' he has served hi.s sentence) tape of earning a premiums no aaettar. how hard be, array :work 0 Theme. i;s . no to fart these- ?, ? It is tear way daugormv to question the de0gsiMs Of omea s enpertl iora., and the. "v~ culation is so complicated , that nobody under- ffituds It depends. on such factor aa.the morns g which keep, changing-.9-and the fulfillment car the overall plan 190 "W ? r+ati.onsUzin& ossleo Most workers are pretty exhortations to ? rati -. ise?? ; then rewards ar ll . e ems has. .o nou&'ti'ara to Mead W orb h ,s job. and nobody 200 "golist ? ihemr- ~u~ "~: merialy on pmmr ollr]aoses All types of3t get iaav~l `im ~t3~ra8' t1ehing ko].kh 's, separ&be -fishing bomta, fames, departments of factories, indtvidtni, workers. Often the co ition is forgot ,. once the paper in mod; in re e? -to an order- f cz the awtharit?ee...em yes are sent up as ms's, arteaar: selected at- rumba. O io 1iy the authoritie attach especial importance to a mertain cavgwtitixoa, a ad f sh better Vials, or su, for its duration. Then everybody does try to work harder, because there. might be money preaia at the ends us QP?1CIAIA ORLY CONrIDIWrIAL AITY IWORMATIOJ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 45 O?ICIA.LS ONLY CONFIDENTIAL SNGHR1Y INFORMATION ~lo "One more pressure technique to increase production involves a 'premise to Stalin's such as t . se to complete a certain job of work by a- certain date or to fulfil a -plan before the time- limit set. Such prrmrdteee- are- entered into the ssm.. way. as the Socialist competitions: a meeting is called;- the workers are asked if anyone opposes. the promise; nobody ever does so it is signed then and there.. The workers. get no more excited about these promises tkan,.sheet the competitions-, for no material gnin is attached. Re ,ever cons ider bi pobitcity- attars them~, and the manapapmt calls a meeting if a promise is not fulfilled in due time. Culprits who have 'retarded' fulfillmen ere ound among the lower employees. They are not aiahed9 only blamed; a now date for fulfillment is set; and when the promise is at last fulfilled there. is a new meeting at which special premia are awarded to certain CP and Komsamgl workers not for work done but for Ior izingI fuifilasnto - Workers' Benefits 220 "Workers are entitled to a yearly holiday with pay. This pay 'is not based on their actual earnings but on the base daily wage of the category to'which they bslloug, which usually is- considerably lesso Nvamerous? small abuses arise-in connection with holidays. Everybody is asked in the spring when he wants his holiday; he usually gets it thotigh when it suits the maaageaento Sometimes a worker may get no holiday at all, and no extra:dompensation , if it is in the interest of the factory to keep hiss at work. Carry-over of leave from or* year to the next is rarely possible; a special certifl- cats fram'the, aster is needed 23. -The much publicized rest houses- and sanitoria for workers are- fly a fiction. if a factory has a 1000 workers,, it may receive one or two journey orders for a sanitorium in the Crimea., or other resort area; such orders go to Party or Komsomol -bosses, The workers spend their holidays at how. Few people in-L.epaj go to the country as they did before Wor 4. War IIo The countryside is starving; there is more food in the-towns. Some workers-have ill garden plots where they putter about; -others just. sit in the sun. Som - take their .haliday..?n single days, so as to trans- act the bureaucratic formlities of daily living. 24 o "Workers receive no benefits- if they acre- Injured- at workq Under Soviet law there aFe no. accidents at works only c ayelessnese. If an accide happens, either the worker himself or his superiors are to blamo Every worker enter tug a job- is informeed of the 'labor protection' devices goveuiring that -,job. For example, an electrician is told t#at' he' say' never work without-- rubber gloves and must 'Unrar^e of electric current' etc) - for pages and pages o The rules are quite impossible to reaeaber and follow completely. an electrician cannot work in rubber-gloves and fulfil his norm, and even if -he does follow all the rules and get an electric shock,, he has neglected to 'beware of the current'. If the blame cannot be fixed on the` worker in any way, then his.1mme'diate superior is guilty: Thus,-if a worker has an assistant and the latter has an accident notVcaused by hitnelfV, the worker pays the assistant's hospi- tal fees and other expenses; if the worker has no assistants and receives an injury his foreman pays for him. If it is actually proved that ncr but the mpanageecent is guilty,, and the injured worker has worked in the factory over..ei g -t yeergs he gets threw months of hospital treatment free of charge plus- hi.s full pay. Accidents are treated like simple illnesses; the-benefits are the see for both. 25- "It is not much use to take out accident insurance. The moment an insured person - is involved in an accident, the ? insura a enterprise- sum him in court for having caused the-.accident himself. The.worker only Sets his insurance if he manages to win the case. Thies sold m ham. Kolkhoz cows,, fore le are insured, also When one dies the attendant. comes ully has to pay its price, no 50X1-HUM kolkhuz..?e has- yet been . able to. prove in court that the- cow ea-trusted to him has not died t .ugh his own negligence, US OFFICIALS ONLY COJFI IAL EMCURITT INFORMATION Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926AO06300040001-9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926A006300040001-9 AS MFFICILS OLY C0N IDMIAL nFO 26. "A person who is ta'tal disabled by a work accident usually gets a saaaatll: pension, depe g. on hiar, w a Only if the accident was plainly the fault of the ma us ,at does be . get, aiW mere o At Sa i s . 4 fur 'is 1950 a man vhn operated a mnehi-for cuttisg_serap iron for the. ohargee of the Thin furnaces vas killPA when a .gimm e. exploded, ia- the tank. be was cutting. liantget Zvaiga. tried t persuade its -wife not to sue., promising . bar good work a Others persuaded bar to-sue the plan -, a The court granted her a pension equal to her husband's wage 27 The factory club is one of those ?voluatae'-c sary" institutions frequent in the -'moo The workers have to contribute epe percent of their wages towards-its upkeep. At .Sar- ' - kwaals Metal tm an effort seems to be made to keep the club. as- =dox'table at ac - tive as possible, as it is the primer exa ple in a factory of t the propagpsndists claim. Actually the clubs are avoided, except' by young workers who, go Vim to dance an iaturday-nightso People have no time to sit'aroundo When they are not working they-.have to scrounge the shape for food.- Club dues-are collected at the sale time as trade union dues, io not deducted anat. tk* payroll a P in a tide union is not couspalsory, but is useful in case of illness o The" are usually two trade union officials to represent 1000 workers. One of their 4y}ties is to hear workers' roan assts, but there is no poiect' >'to- this because-, no Asproeements will. result a Offi ci c, for .,example, the workers-. and ire m?w t eater. into a collaativ+e' bargain which .stipulatites that wages will be pa .d an time o . Thisy. never are,, and though it is the plain daty. of the trade uarion' borers to goaabat this. ate, the..ouiy thing they c=do' is- -rxm "abuat .and- pacify or coo 'workers tit silence o Pa,litical Indoctrination 28 o "ire is no regalar political instruction' for the workers at the ].after Latvian ;f for o Occasionally a meeting is organised for-tom workers to make a promise to -Stalin. or to enter into a socialist case vtition. ' ,T re are also s meetings on May 1 and the 'an l y of the 'Octolaerx"Revn11wti4ao The arftuary-'arotings are mmudly- earllad 'twee - shifts to get a.. lard etta e o The at locks sap the nmaber plater o then oextgolaQg Shift se tbpy won?t -be ab-1e to leave 'tbe growzds; the workeroL have- to produce such plates on, exit o Them ' acre Amr , so that p claw productinu?? time Will not be ' tedo W* ,.nth _also,_ ad it hard to make the workers- attend -the parades on. Caafrms -st hali&Ws o :The deem qf factory s. marcir. to a men, as- do the- workers who are, scared- of r ehals o But br real .:gstw pamris for absence a Labor Dis line 29. "Labor? di ipline 'is strict according to law, but the actual entercenno de ends considerabl.y on the solidarity of the workers within a given-.factor-. The first tine acme is lat., nothing nmuobh happens- > the fvreza n Just makes a row abe t' 'endanger- ing the plan' o If latesss occurs, aagsd+a, a o cis' court tries the case o Such a court, consists- of three workers from the ms's department or,faoctory, one of whom mat be a CP oa r o To them the offender accounts for .his latexess o If they con- Oider the- ,a uae valid, the mm, is excused. If he is late a third time, and not l+ear f " the ' co rades' court ? , his case is tined over, to the ordinary i eople' a ribawla 'heir sentence is usually three- to five years of forced labor o It is for a case to go- so far be-cause theirs, is a certadm solidarity b m -the workers in. a factory, can -be late, even the- - ges. !a vase is referred to the, tribaausl without first being tried In a ? commdeall a Tribal sentrnces are sere For starting a brawl in a public glace, or ford zat s duly bahavi&r, US OP"ICIALS ONLY CO IA7, Svifr I OWIQh Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926A006300040001-9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926A006300040001-9 us OMM Qi LY CO Y]J TIA NEGUSLTI ~M -7- 50X1-HUM ~, osm yew yf forced labor. Fomwr4- the .. for, disti:31i bootleg, 50X1-HUM li?r "esa- eaw -ywr- air it is ems at over two F ''s "t be .,served. in. 50X1-HUM Vie a o At, swkamiw, , a~aba = a work -samte eat- the Beet t aa. red Ucrad ,,,era ,bat at ttw ' sh srda in Liepaja 50X1-HUM persons working at reduced was Per` periods of six micull a or a year. har'i no of La Mse. MW t(P m a trip three 22MM1 Attttides 31. "The general spix ..amvag the -workers. in a Sovimt-cerntro]lad factOZ7 :in IatTia.i4 one of sarIien but tacit discontent . Evoroaft k a -then the mean : -a i.y go.- an rising wad that . them:-is ,. h' Hof iupr+rr~!er sfo The. ,old workers ree r .th...9 old times f but &art _ lreep.~n ~' 8 _lua .adapt. a of dev .i Amy-care mac .t ;y -drink -a 1mt, - tryr . ?.:and have fun and mover ink of the future. At 18, they are con- scripted, wb? . mans three -to five years. =ray fram -how . On, return9 it will be the bard work. for .little psy and-, rerybody yo= g or old, fuels.. in his '.leart? that this cannot continue; and that there will s to be & ,war." US OFFICIALS ONLY DIAL SBCNRT" tvian t*cbnIct= or r : to - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/02/26: CIA-RDP80-00926A006300040001-9 50X1-HUM