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December 9, 2016
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January 26, 2001
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November 11, 1972
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VIRGINIA SUN Approved For Release 2001-100/04-MA-RDP80-0160 Victor illeseirmaumasto t4' U."z.c0 -442 - - So ?Tuner, the open mouth Maoist was hired at $2-6,000 _ year by the Office of Minority . 'Tuner Had Business Enterprise as a section chief and program ? officer. His speciality was ,?- , Kaex Arrest / working with minority groups , in economic development. He ? set up firms. Thus., he was ??.? responsible for considerable Passage of government money f ? This, too, was "critical- .?sensitive." Some Commerce twommemagammommemeom insule Labor Dept off ic a 1 s having learned that Ate was "dangerous," sermonizing. - Wh3' was he fought him. wanted }Mini hired? Who approved this? ousted. But someone Whose signatures are on his protected the revolutionist, Civil Service Commission known in his many neigh- forms? e Why- did ? Ramsey - .-Clark borhoods as a self-declared lark ignore the record? enemy of 'the system, the This leads to issues of past regional state, and a devotee of notional - and elections. Certainly soviet Castro's Cuba. Who then, covered for Communists have not ceased Puller? Investigators of the infiltrating the government as Hoose Internal Security did those of bygone eras. C mmittee now 'are probing Certainly there are records le 'fuller case., This sort of in the FBI arid CIA proving /1,01 has become UI)- Washington--No , one could rreally predict that Charles Tuller, who had a $26,000-a- year "critical-sensitive" classified executive post in the Commerce Dept., would turn killer and kidnapper. BM the record, which -was ignored when he was hired in 1967 by Ramsey Clark's Dept. .of justiceedid rev&II that Puller was a neurotic, erotic., erratic, self-avowed, free-spouting Maoist ranging the asphalt jungles of Newark and New No one could predict teliat while on the Commerce Dept.'s payroll Puller would try to rob a bank kill two rnen ? in this Leninist-type hold up and then murder one Eastern Airlines ramp employee and shoot another. ? e But the record, ignored by the then Attorney General Ramsey Clark and many of his aides reyeals Tuller was, arrested in New York fdr in- decent expUure, ran with wild homosextuds, , was 'white racist much In the .f.inger:of .black and militint social workers, was anti- Semitic. and jliven.1o.wc1rd . that Peking China has at- tempted to infiltrate fashionable in Congress. The ' caveat ise that any .such probe American political industrial is evil or witch-hunting. . and governmental ? Certainly not if the rights of all ' organizations. Therefore is, are protected. Cerlaialy not if Puller merely one th? there is .the .realization.of ,the thousands who seeped into sensitive postilions? Or is he nature of foreign intelligence.' systeras. Their agents dory, symptomatic? iust read James Bond. This. is so very charac- They infiltrate. st?e are teristic - of Communist amateurs such as Puller techniques. Infiltrate a few, who surfaced when he turned move in others. Move up, -eye killer. But some are miolity UI) the others. Promote each other and plot against the professional. Some have been there for decades and are deep government executives whose in the bureaucratic wood- 'clesks"are needed for further infiltration. work.... ? If Puller could mahe ? ? ' his way in. there is instant Puller fits the pattern. Ile evidencedf carelessness and a used his FBI field report search in ay ferret out acceptance by the Justice I 1 Tt . s . Org les . . .. I.Dept. officials circa 1957 to get ..,. there are thousan6 such . This record is in the full field.- job in the Equal sensitive jobs. There are tens investigation made in 1967 by EmploymentOpportunity of thousands of Soviet and the FBI at the request of. Commission (EEOC)in 1970. . Peking sympathizers around Clark's - aides?standard procedure for appointments for sensitive jobs. Despite this "derogatory information"--as it is technically called-Toiler was hired on Oct. 2, 1967. Though he had been earning some $6,000 in civilian work he got a $13,000-a-year position as . a ?Community Relations Specialist in the Office of Community Action, Com- munity Relations Service of the Justice Dept. ? There were those in Justice e ? la re.ni-, the land who have sub- Justice June 30 1039. Then into surfaced. How many have the roast spare rib business in seeped into the government? Texas. Failure. Then to the EEOC. ? It will be intriguing to learn what the Internal Security There he served with the Commit:lee investigators technical assistance unit. No ? one bothered updating his field cheek. Then to the Dept. of Commerce in January, 1972. Here, too, they just took . his old unexamined derogatory FBI report as evidence of security. It was five years old, but. 110 one thought of updating it. Or of who knew,o_f.Tullen'sejwird examining it. If it was f;00d pild illoPEPyqmir str Release02001/03/0401CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 civilian life, hnew of his enough for Commerce. STATI NTL Maoist and Clic Guevara THE yEw YORK TIMES MAGAZINE 22 Oct 1912 cs, Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP81Y-Uit8l 9 ' ? 7 7 - jr 77" r ?? ? ; ;? 4 I 4 .....111.11.?????????? r7171t tri ? ; Li ! Lead:ail:ea 771 g r g (17:1, n ? ,?, e?-a ta. Cad f Leaa-#3 t,?,? raaa Tee vr rteq C.,CD .17.37 17,2 cnadi g. Ecz:ii.a)owspArat WASHINGTON: The Constitution requires that the President of the United States be at least 35 years old, a resident of the country for 14 years and a "natural-born citizen." It says nothing about the state of his coronary arteries, his physical en- durance and the slow, silent tides that wash his mind. A lot of people wish it did. The recent abortive candidacy of Senator Thomas Eagleton has again focused attention on the issue of Presidential physical and mental fitness. This time the debate has centered on the fitness of a man nominated and not elected, but it takes no great historian to remember the crises ?preciPitated by the illnesses in office of Wilson, Roosevelt and Eisenhower, and .John Kennedy's constant burden of pain. Spurred by the tragedy in Dallas, Congress in 1966 passed the 25th Amendment, which for the first time provided a mechanism whereby an in- capacitated President could be so declared and de- posed while in office. But this, in a sense, is ex post facto legislation. The important thing, say some observers, is not to elect men or women who be prone to disability once in office. One articulate proponent of some kind of screen- ing before nomination is James Reston of The Times, who wrote 'about the problem in his column last summer. Reston pointed out that physical and mental checkups are required before ?a man /can be appointed to a high position in the V C.I.A. or Atomic Energy Commission, but that no ' medical examination at all is required of the man .who has ultimate responsibility for nuclear warfare ?the President. Reston's suggestion was clear-cut: Men with the power of peace and war should be checked objectively before they are nominated and elected?and checked regularly thereafter. Fur- thermore, such checkups should be done "not by the officials' own doctors, but by medical boards representing the national interest." Even before the Eagieton affair, two Washington .specialists in health testing, internist William Ayers - and engineer James Aller, had suggested that all candidates from the Presidential level through Con- gress and the state legislatures be required to com- plete a health questionnaire end undergo a battery of health tests (without psychologic testing). Ayers and Aller suggested that 'once such data was collected it could either be released voluntarily and re- viewed by Congressional committees, as is now done with the financial records of some nominees to high office, or made public as the result of specific legislation. 'These ideas have an Instant .appeal. As Reston wrote, "NoMmitvezlifottoRerease 20011 sionaf footliff !Team could afford to tolerate" the .',1'7N tern reansei,a tta STATI NTL present system in which ab- arteries, which affected his 'solutely no medical data at .heart and led to a stroke. From all are required of candidates for high office. The old joke about the man in the Con- gressional race who had years ago served some time in a state mental institution and got elected on the basis that he was the only candidate who had a piece of paper proving his sanity rings a bit hollow when one considers the risks of instability in of- fice. Indeed, it is true that many large corporations give their executives yearly phys- ical examinations, and that the results are sometimes made available to higher-ups in the company, helping them to . identify men with heart or drinking problems and to de- cide promotions. Politicians- and state;anen, no less than corporate execu- tives, are frail vessels like the rest of us, and the history of incapacity in office is lugubrie ous reading indeed. Hugh L'Etang's fascinating hook, "The Pathology of Leader- ship," is an 'account of the physical and mental illnesses of national leaders during the 20th century. It makes 'a valu- able grace note to the stan- dard histories of our time, for even as the usual texts focus on the complicated maneu- vers of great statesmen and mighty nations, L'Etang re- minds us that the statesmen involved were suffering from cancer, hardening of the arteries, depression and a host of other debilitating diseases. Dr. Howard Brae"' a home or the Mayo Clinic, is young Navy physician who Da. Pruenn's notes and clin- ical data (including electro- cardiograms), it is clear that Roosevelt was a sick man 'during his final year. Perhaps not a dying man, as some have claimed; perhaps not a man whose mind was failing, as many have said; but cer- tainly a man who better be- longed on the sandy beaches of some retirement commu- nity than as chief of state of the world's most powerful na- tion. - Those who blame whatever concessions were made at Yalta on Roosevelt's illness rather than on the Real polit ih of the moment must keep in mind that neither Churchill nor Stalin 'were models of fit- ness in 1045. Churchill, .who was 70 and suffering from an intestinal upset, had for a year been so fatigued ? or ar- teriosclerotic that he had dif- ficulty concentrating on a sin- gle subject for any length of time. Stalin's medical history, of course, went with him to his grave (or to the graves of the physicians executed after the "doctors' plot" of 1953), but even in 1944 intimates noted that he lacked his usual vitality. .There is little reason to doubt that Stalin suffered from suspicion bordering on paranoia most of his life. In statesmen, of course, partic- ularly those at the head of to- talitarian states, a little para- noia is a protective trait. While Yalta might have bet- ter been held at an old men's served as consulting cardi- ologist to Franklin Roosevelt between March, 1914, and April, 1945, has given a care- 03104cvLetIALRDPOOL04604R GO GO4 000 Riles there any reason to believe that younger or healthier men would have made a better peace? L'Etang writes: "The exaltnatici of &tate papers, final illness hardening of the 1, (.4 , men amied sa should ea y a , continued HOUSTON POST Approved For Release AA/031/6212: CIA-RDP80-01601R00020 . . pies in sky keep two By DONALD R. l%TORRIS Post News Analyst iowers in balance .referred to as SAMOS (for 'satellite and missile-observation system"); the Soviet satellites are referred to as COSMOS, and while neither country will discuss their .details, they do, as the re-: All that has kept the world from .self_ sult of a 1962 destructing this last quarter of a century launch and its has been the precarious nuclear balance the UN. between the United Stales and the Soviet The programs give both countries a. -Union. positive check on the nuclear activities For a few short years America had an of the other. Neither nation can test .or overwhelming preponderance of power. deploy a major new weapons system We were certain we would never resort to without timely?and highly detailed? it, but our mere possession of such night- warning accruing to the other. marish power drove the Russians to dis- "search-and-find" SAMOS missiles an- The United States launches four or five traction. Then they in their turn achieved - an edge?and regained a measure of sta.- nually from Vandenburg Air Force Base bility?ahd it was our turn to taste the in California. They remain in orbit about 'fear in the phrase "missile gap." a month, covering the entire surface of A decade ago the balance was regained the globe twice a day, once at night and has since been maintained. The num- (when infra-red photography, sensitive to ber of missiles, their megatonnage and heat emissions, gives almost as much in- their guidance systems are largely irrele- formation as daytime passes) and once vant; what counts is that neither power during the day. can launch a preemptive strike with any The photographic results are radioed hope of survival, and on this balance back, and despite the loss in resolution, hangs the peace of the world, construction work of any description is at once apparent when photos taken a few days apart are superimposed. Each search-and-find satellite is follow- ed a month or two later by a "close-look" satellite, which photographs the specific areas of interest its predecessor has spotted. These photographs are not transmitted electronically. Instead the satellite ejects the film capsule itself, which is recovered in mid-air by special- ly equipped planes based in Hawaii. agreement, report each orbital characteristic to ?' Tiger ?Twer by the tail . . .The balance, however, is far from stat- ic. Both powers hold a fearsome tiger by the tail. Research and development must continue lest one side or the other achieve a breakthrough in delivery or de- fense, which might destroy the balance. The expense of such a break- through?indeed the expense of maintain- ing the current balance?is so hideous that both powers would like to avoid it. They are committed to a continuing arms race not by the need to achieve a breakthrough but only by the imperative of not permitting the other to do so. Both sides recognize the need for a mu- tual effort to scale down their arsenals. In the past, negotiations over dis- armament foundered on a single ele- ment?trust. The issues at stake were so overriding that neither the U.S. nor the Soviet -Union could- afford to accept the other's word that an agreement would be adhered to. ? The recent SALT talks, however, have achieved initial and encouraging suc- cesses, and the key to the progress can be found in an innocuous euphemism the treaties employ: `'National technical .means of verification". The phrase refers to a program which supplies an accept- able substitute for the missing ingredient of trust, and on that program rests all hope of reversike the arm,: race,. Amecica's most closely guarded secret, The -nationagtppromedaFor Relelasec2001I03104 irC MIRO P80-01601 R0002001.30001 -8. What photos show The pictures are analyzed at the Na- tional Photographic Interpretation Center (known as "En-pick" to the in community), a little-known joint project located in W-ashington under the aegis of, the Central Intelligence Agency. The sophisticated interpretation of these photographs provides the vast bulk of what America knows about the Soviet Union, the Eastern bloc countries and the People's Republic of China. The photos reveal not only major con- struction ? from transportation nets through shipyard activity to all manner of missile facilities ? but an astonishing wealth of technical detail as well. While the U.S. will not talk about the SAMOS program any more than the So- viet Union will discuss the details of COSMOS,, the general details of both programs are mom or less open secrets. STATINTL organization won't gel: you.pas-t. -the front'. door) The first generation of satellite cam-- eras a decade ago were lucky to pick up objects six feet across. The third gener- ation in current use will pick up objects less than two feet across, and the resolu-.: tion may some day be measured in inches. In terms of analysis, this means that not only can new missile.: Sites, or changes in old ones, be recorded, but the precise technical construction of the mis- sile can be reconstructed in fair detail as well. The Soviets launch perhaps four times as many satellites as America does, par- tially because Theirs do not lastas long, and also because the Soviets are given to "tactical" missions ? sending a satellite for a special "look-see" when something of interest is going on. The U.S. prefers to waif for its regu- larly scheduled shots, and hassent only one tactical satellite aloft ? to check Is- raeli claims-that the Soviets were violat- ing the truce by installing missile sites on the banks of the Suez Canal. Soviet photography is good enough to allay their fears that the U.S. is installing new weapons systems, although the resolu- tion of their cameras is not nearly as good as ours. . High-altitude coverage of the Soviet Union started in the early 1950s when bal- loon - mounted cameras were launched. in Europe to drift across Eurasia before being recovered in the Pacific. From such crude beginnings we ad- vanced to the U-2 aircraft, which worked like a charm until the Soviets finally de- veloped a missile that could bring it clown ? with disastrous results for American diplomacy. President Eisenhower had ap- proved the U-2 program only after Pre- mier Nikita Khrushchev had rejected his suggestion of . "open skies" inspections. The gap- between the U-2 flights and the inception of the SAMOS program was for- tunately a short one. photographic systems employed by fication" are the photo reconnaissance SAMOS. (N.P.I.C., in fact, maintains its satellites employed by both America and own security classification system, and a STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001.10104:,CIATRRP80-01601 G SEP 1-97Z Now It Can Be Told Declassifying-Secrets, An Enormous Project, ,Turns Up Little So Far: Design for .Wartime 81ingsbot And Report on Taxi Service In Malaya in '43 Now Public Some Scholars Ask for More ? By ELLIOT CARLSON ? t-ciff Reporter of Tilt WASI:I, STREET JOURtiA14 . ? WASHINGTON ? John Simmons has a se- Oct. ? In fact, he has 4,000 cubic feet of them. Shel- tered in windowless cranny deep inside .the , National Archives, secure behind a steel door ?With a combination lock, Mr. Simmons pre- 'sides over great mounds of government se-. Crets, military and otherwise. Near at hand arc? certain-- unpublished 'Warren Commission pa- pers on President ,Kennedy's assassination and: thousands of other highly classified documents. . For years, Mr. Simmons, a professional ar- chivist, has worked in peace, indexing the ma- terial. But now the world is threatening to dis- turb his quiet and take away huge chunks of his .secrets. .? ? "It's got to be done," concedes the graying, soft-spoken Mr. Simmons,. who likes being, alone in his "ckiinly lighted cubbyhole. "I won't mind as long as they don't make too much What's happening is that the National Ar- 'chives, the country's chief depository for his- torical records, is mounting an enormous proj- ect: declassification of 172 million pages of se- cret documents from World War It and earlier. It's all the result of the furor over "the Penta-. zon Papers," which, among other things,. stirred controversy over excessive classifies-. Hon.. The Archives, it turned out, has secrets' going back to 1913. So last March President Ilixon issued an Executive Order aimed at' 'Opening up old classified files and easing ac- -cess to more recent ones. -Gee Whiz! So far, most papers unlOcked hardly seem worth the prolonged-secrecy. Samples: A tele- gram reporting. the loss of the battleship Ali- :wins. at Pearl Harbor. A design for a sling-shot device for harmlessly detonating German rock- eta during World War H. An analysis of Argen- .Una!s? mothods of selecting officers. And a bulky report on the railroad route S of the Bal- kan Peninsula. ^ Partly because the disclosures are so unsen- sational, the declassification project is kicking -up controversy. Some 'researches, including Williams College historian James MacGregor Uerpiresikr4tta,1 order 4,1g.eanit,g ';e2tik. WreAgarSkr Mittazse ZUM1340 /04 ,headache for archivists: how to speedily whit- Ale down all the secrets without imperiling as.- eves rt esm cab. fro^ ? Ahem. Until now, their main 37o14 been sin-1- ply to preserve. 30 billion pages of federal rec- ords and a smattering of objects ranging from 'Ethiopian ceremonial swords to a couple of .preserved human fingers (lest. by Americans to -.Mexican bandits). Inside the 'Archives' imposing classical- Creek building hero, most documents are open to the public. They're either on display, like the Declaration of Independence, or easily accessi- ..-ble4,Iike millions of Civil War paper. But the ArchiVes also contain about 470 mil- lion pages of classified documents, and these :are the targets of the presidential order; it pro- vides, with sortie exceptions, for the automatic 'declassification of all documents 80 years of "age or older. The goal is th open up nearly all World War II records by 1975, leaving only the ?early postwar and Korean Wm: documents to declassify later. (The Archives' secret war ma- Aerial stops at 1954. More recent material is :-Icept hi the departments where it originates.) A Depth of Detail ?? When finished, the project will have materi- ally enriched knowledge of recent American 'history, experts say. "The new data probably won't change any interpretations,'' .says Edwin Thompson, head of the rchives' declassifies- , :tion program. ''But it will give us nuances and a depth of detail we've never had before." - To begin the work, the Archives this June .got a ' $1,2 million . appropriation to hire. 100 ?.extra people, and in recent weeks declassifies- ,ion teams have begun penetrating the Ar- 'chives' dozen tight-security rooms, entrance to which is restricted even for archivists. Typical of these is Mr. Simmons' cramped .cubicle, cluttered with numbered boxes. Rarely Interrupted, Mr. Simmons blinks in surprise as the door clanks open and a visitor' strolls in, es- corted by a senior archivist (one cif three per- sons who knows the combination to Mr. Sim- mons' door). Bemused, Mr. Simmons puts ? .aside the task he has been hard at for years: Indexing the Warren Commission records. Nearby, in containers, are Lee Harvey Os- wald's rifle and personal articles of the Ken- nedy brothers that re related to their assassi- nations. Always on guard, M17. Simmons permits no casual visitor to see these items. Only nine years old, the stilbrestricted -Warren Commis- ,sion records won't be subject to 'automatic de- classification for another 21 years. And the Hennedys' personal' effects aren't subject to the declassification project at all; they're kept locked up .under a separate policy. But onei 'aisle away begin rows of State Department pa- pers dating back to World War IT that will 'shortly he scrutinized by the declassifiers. How- the Declassifiers Work How the declassifiers work' can be glimpsed, at the Federal Records Center in nearby Suit- land, Md., where the spillover from the Ar- chives'', main building is kept. In two large vaults, protected by combination locks changed 'every three weeks, archivists and special Army teams are making the first inroads on the Army's 30,000. cubic feet .of. World War II 'secrets. ? In one vault, "where the more routine secrets are kept, the teams are engaged in "bulk de- : G A-IRDFISW.04601 .ciaissification." The archivists take samples civoi-8 tents to indicate the sensittn.Pg2b.o..qop -gories of clots:. If the papers plucked out seem STATI NTL bOntihunri Luiza Approvedfor Release 20021003/041941A-RDP80-0,160.1 The Eagleton Tragedy ? By JAMES RESTON The Eagleton Case dramatizes once more the need for a coherent policy of checking the medical records of men and women who are being considered for positions of great power. Senator Eagleton is not the cause but only the latest example and victim of a much more serious national problem. At the critical levels of government below the Presidency, Vice-Presidency .and the Cabinet, for example, it is rec- ., ognized that high officers of the armed V services and key officials of the Cen- tral Intelligence, Atomic Energy, Space and other sensitive agencies must be carefully checked out physically and mentally before they are given access to "top secret" information. And also, human frailty and temp- tation being what they are these days, it is recognized that these checks, not by the officials' own doctors but by medical boards representing the na- tional interest, should continue regu- larly during a man's service, lest his health and stability deteriorate under the savage physical and mental pres- .sures .of high office. . Yet there is no such mandatory proc- ess for the people at the very pin- ,nacie of executive power. - On the published records, Senator Eagleton ,probably could not pass the tests if they were given. For the scientists who Work on atomic weapons, there is such a (Clear and hard test, but for the Presi- dent or Vice President, who have the ultimate power of using atomic weap- ons, there is none.. It is easy to be sympathetic to Eagleton, but he is in trouble because of a recklessly irresponsible system, which no sensible corporation or even. professional football team could ? af- ford to tolerate. ? The interesting thing about this is: ? Why do we forget the elemental les- sons . of the past? Why rely in such Important matters on the valuable but accidental and often imprecise dis- closures of newspaper reponters, or the reassurances of Eagleton and Mc- ? Govern, who are obviously more con- cerned with the political than with the .11MOSIMIIMMINI946.1n160109148..ITOW:ry?temzs.11 WASHINGTON STATINTL ?. 'the United States was a major world ? Maybe the Republic , can bear this Power with Presidential and Vice-Presi- human compassion in the Supreme dentin! control over weapons that Court and the Congress--4-though even could determine the destiny of the there it is highly questionable?but at human race. . the level of the Presidency and the The irony of this problem of health, Vice-Presidency in this age of atomic politics and.power is that it has been weapons abroad and human violences so obvious for so long without any and political assassination at home, effective remedy or defense. Woodrow the present system is wildly out of Wilson was paralyzed in his bed in date. the White, House and deceived the Senators who came to check on his condition by keeping the paralyzed side of his body under the bedcovers. Franklin . Roosevelr.s health was a vague underground issue in 'the 1944 Presidential campaign, but the issue was left to his personal doctor. He reassured everybody that everything was all right with Mr. Roosevelt, who' died a few months after taking his fourth term in the White House. Henry Wallace was dumped by Roosevelt as his third-term Vice Pres- ident on vague charges that he was an ideological and psychological prob- lem?though most of Wallace's eco- nomic and foreign-policy ideas have now been adopted by President Nixon "?and the whole tragic history of the last World War, including the genocide of the Jews in Germany and the ex- termination of millions of human beings in the Soviet Union, is now being ,blamed in large part on the' psychological derangements of Hitler and Stalin: ' ? No analogy with Eagleton is in-, tended here; only the clear and un- avoidable fact that men with the power of peace or war should be checked objectively before they are nominated and elected?and checked regularly thereafter. There is no such system now. If there' had been, Eagleton would have known that he would have had to sub-' mit to an objectiVe report of his medical record, and might not even be able to pass the test of a general Army officer for "top secret" clearance, But this. is the fault of the system, Medical facts; or even, why rely on a system that is very compassionate Eagleton's doctors, who are now put to human beings whose age and health in the awkward position of being interfere with the efficient execution dragged before the press to pass judg- of their work. It tolerates Supreme meat on Eagleton's health without be- Court justices who are in serious ill ing able to disclose, at Eagleton's re- health or who are even almost blind, quest, their original, objective reports elders of .the House and Senate who of the facts? preside over the powerful committees This is obviously an absurd situation, of the Congress when,. by hard work.' but it is not primarily the fault of and too many years, they have stag- ? Eagleton or McGovern. It is the fault gered down into senility and lost their of a process which is clearly out of date and was irresponsible long before "a." _ . . . Eagleton and McGovern therefore. are not really to blame for the present mess, which nobody, including Pres': ? dent Nixon, would defend as sensible or responsible. And the question-now, after this latest dramatic evidence of the realities, is whether the system will be changed or forgotten, as it was after all the serious questions raised by the illnesses of Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt epd Lyndon John- son. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 ASH 1 Nt;?VULN 18 JUL 1972 -gifF64,1d-61 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-Ruig 7 dr .)eirLaP By Sanford J; Ungar Washington Past Staff Writer ? LOS ANGELES, ? July 17? The defense - in the Pentagon Papers case, fighting to ex- clude from the jury all people, Who have ever held security clearances, filed affidavits in federal court here today con tending that such people could - not judge the case fairly. "Cleared employees of de- fense contractors are defi- nitely afraid of. losing their se- curity elearances if they do not accept and demonstrate support for eacji procedural rule pertaining to the han- dling of material bearing clas- sification 41-larking," said Wil- liam G. Florence, a retired Air Force security expert, in his affidavit. ? As jury selection in the con- spiracy, espionage and theft trial of .Daniel Ellsberg and ?Anthony Russo entered its sec- ond week today, defense law- yers continued to insist that -persons with security .clear- imees might- be afraid to vote. 'for acquittal, lest their liveli- hoods be threatened. . ? ? The . charges arise out of - Ellsberg's .and Ru.sso's. sure of the Pentagon Papers, a history of U.S. inVolvement in ,SOutheast Asia, which., were stamped "top secret-sensitive" at the time and still. will be when seen by the jury. Refusal by judge U.S. District Court Judge W. Matt Byrne Jr. has repeatedly refused. to quiz prospective ju- rors on how they would react to the secrecy stamps or whether they feel they might endanger their jobs with a verdict that renounces the se- curity classification system. Today's affidavits were part of a defense effort to change the judge's mind. Florence, who is serving as an Ellsberg consultant for the ease, said that those who. un- dergo "security indoctrina- tion" by the Air Force "have exceptionally strong ? convic- tions about the sanctity of a classification marking on a document."_ ? ((NIT .11 ? b I Bernard Brodie, a former staff member at the Penta- gon-oriented Rand Corporad tion - in Santa Monica?where Ellsberg was working when he and Russo photocopied the papers ? said in his affidavit that -"those who hold high se- curity clearances form a vir- tual. priesthood, from which common people are excluded." Morton H. Halperin, a for- mer National Security Council and Defense Department aide also serving as a consultant to Ellsberg here, observed in an- other affidavit that "a juror with a clearance will be under great pressure not to condone a violation of the procedures which he has been trained .to follow." - One prospective juror, Ter- rance 0. Meadows Jr.., an engineering manager at a North American Rockwell plant, dramatized the defense argument when he told the court today that he could not describe a military project. on which be once had a top- secret clearance because "it's still top-secret." . The defense will contend during the trial that the Pen- tagon Papers were not prop- erly' classified and that once a copy of them was deposited with the Rand Corporation, they were subject to "special security arrangements" more lenient than in most instances. Continues Questioning Byrne continued' his individ- ual inteerogation of prospec- tive jurors in the case today and was told by Andrew L. Gram, 'a retired _Los Angeles city official, that "there are a lot of things that are awfully dull that I don't like to read." That was a rely to I3yrne's standard question- . about I whether the potential jurors are willing to read substantial parts of the Pentagon Papers. when they are put into cvi-? denee. Grainy when asked for his views about the war in Viet- nam, gave a five-minute talk about why. he had originally been "vehemently against it" ;but was now "reconcilted" to His willingness to talk at length 'about the war took the courtroom by surprise, since many prospective jurors have been reluctant to do so. More characteristic was Paul Clearwater, who was also. questioned ? today and said I about the Vietnam war, "I' think it's an unfortunate set of circumstances that gote us in- volved: That's about it." Today's examination of one person, Richard D. Duenekel, who formerly served as an in- telligence officer in the Army security agency, took over an hour. Duenckel said that he occa- sionally consults a 00-page" security manual in the course of his job at the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and that he has a distaste ?for the United States' "non-win philo- sophy" in Vietnam. Another member of.the jury panel, Minnie B. Overland, NS dismissed today after she complained to ByllIC that it was too far for her to travel to downtown Los. Angeles every day frem her home in San Bernardino, about 70. miles to the east. STATI NTL Approved For Rellease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 STATINTL Approved For Release 96K6494i,Mfkg0??PrtLa0200130001-8 17 June 1972 Mr, Philip L. Geyelin Editorial Page Editor THE WASHINGTON POST Washington, D. C. 20005 Dear Mr. Geyelin: On 16 June 1972 you published an article by Mr. Alan. Barth, entitled "Free Speech, Security and the CIA", which discusses the case of Victor L. Marchetti. This is a case in which the Government has Obtained an .injunction requiring Mr. Marchetti to comply with his contractual undertaking that he would submit any material having to do with intelligence for. review by the Central Intelligence Agency as to whether it con- tained classified information relating to the national security. Mr, Barth cites the injunction order in part, but by omitting certain parts he distorts the impact of the order and thereby also distorts the nature of the case. In enjoining Mr. Marchetti from further breaching the terms and conditions of his secrecy agreement, the order has two provisos: Provided, however, that this Injunction shall not apply to any information, the release of which has been authorized in accordance with the terms and conditions of the aforesaid contract, and Provided, further, that this Injunction shall apply only with respect to information obtained by said defendant by reason of his employment under the aforesaid secrecy agreement and which has not been placed in the public domain by the United States. The Order then continues: FURTIER ORDERED: That the defendant shall submit to the Central Intelligence Agency, for examination 30 days in advance of release to any person or corporation, any manuscript, article, or essay, or other writing, factual, fictional or otherwise, elease 200110304: CIA-Rpf80-01601R000200130001-8 ",'*77177,ti91, ,r01-5:FgW). ' ./ TIE CialISTIAN CENTURY Approved For Release 2ddliti31134"! diA2RDP1E0-9160-91-R0 i he Feclera 7:Jove nmeoi;-: ? . r T. 1 0 i He 3nocr ? In the name of 'national:security,' thousands of employees and app icants . are probed annually in regard to the most intimate details of their lives. SOLVEIG tiGGERZ STATINTL 4' DO YOU BELIEVE. in God? Do you love your other? How frequently do you urinate? Do you Have satisfactory sex relations? 'Fhose are questions that most people consider highly personal and private, questions strangers have no business asking. But they are precisely the kind of questions that will be put to you if you happen to work for the federal government, and answering them is part of the price you pay. for a job that promises security and regular promotions. It is not generally known that Washington hires thousands of psychologists to investigate every nook and cranny of the employee's thoughts and atti- tudes. The assumption is that his answers to ques- tions regarding attitudes on sex, religion and family life reveal whether the individual is "normal" or "deviate" and determine his "suitability for em- ployment." Hence, in the name of "national secu- rity," thousands or employees and applicants are .probed annually on the most intimate details of their lives. They are asked to "be truthful with the government" about ? things they would not disclose to their best friends. But, to ensure truthfulness, they are strapped to lie detectors and subjectedto a whole battery of psychological tests. Not only is such a psyche probe humiliating. Since it strips the person of all his secrets, it shatters his dignity. 'Harnessed to a Polygraph Recently, a young college graduate applying for a job with the National Security Agency (NSA) was ,asked, while harnessed to a polygraph, to answer the following among other qUestions: ? When was the first time you had sexual relations. with a ? woman? Have you ever engaged in sexual activity with an animal? When was-the first time you had sexual intercourse with your wife? Did you have sexual intercourse with her before mar- ? riage? How many times? And .an 18-year-Old college sophomore applying for a summer job as secretary was questioned. on the details ,of her relationship with her boyfriend. For example: "Did he abuse you? Did he do anything unnatural to you? You didn't get pregnant, did you? There's kissing, and petting, and intercourse; and after that, did he force you to do anything to him or did he do anything to you?" Approximately 20,000 lie-detector tests are given annnally in I q federal agencies. The defense depart- ment alone administers some. 12,000 such tests per year. The NSA and the CIA are exempt ? from furnishing statistics, but they are rumored to give about 9,000. Presumably, the results of the tests remain confidential. But there is much evidence to the contrary. A woman employee of the defense department, already cleared to handle .military se- crets, was due for a promotion. But rather than take a lie-detector test she passed up the chance, because she had .heard that the polygraph operators were notorious gossips about their subjects' reactions to questions on intimate sexual matters. It seems in- deed that an applicant's or employee's results follow him for the rest of his career. For instance, a. young Vietnam veteran, seeking a job in federal law enforcement, was asked in the course of his test to describe his life in Vietnam, including the names of all of the girls with whom he had had sexual relations. He did not take the job. Later on, how- ever, he applied for work with the Washington metropolitan police force ? and was turned down. Among the reasons given by an official was the lie- detector test he had taken earlier. He then applied to the interior departinent's park service, which tested him extensively. But again the original test caught up with hint; he was asked questions based on it. In the end he was refused a job. The department, he was told, had "too much informa- tion on him." Polygraph tests in the federal government are generally ?administered by .polygraph technicians rather than by trained psychologists. Not v,ithout cause, it is widely believed that these technicians enjoy a high degree of professional rapport and share confidences with each other. As for strictly psychological tests, the Civil Service ,Commission forbids inquiries into the intimate life of employees. But a loophole in the commission's directive permits Approved Fo.r Release 2001/03/04 CPAckljPetrj016011R00010013000148a medical Ms. Eggcrz, a native of Iceland, is a Washington-based free- examination. It is rumored ? that government agen- lance writer. - ? cies frequently send employees they intend to retire ? . STATINTL Approved For Release nounroti :PCIA-RDP80-01601R 8 JUN 1972 Als er rt to Leak FAX sks ? ? Rtiko. "were singled out for praccUtion according to a principle of selection which is invidious, discriminatory and cmiltitutionally imperrnissable." Shbmitting an advance "of- fer-of proof" as required by the ',judge, Nesson and Goodell fildd an affidavit with the couit.:indicating for the first time :The number of witnesses and; the nature .of their po- s T. affidavit also included exanwles of the testimony that won40 be given: veteran Washington car- resP"ondent: "The government regqids information ala classi- fied. nature as ammunition to be iired, not as secrets to be guarded. . . . I see documents ' classified secret- or top secret i: 4t regular basis. Often I dona, even know the source of the- documents myself. They are. made available through Intermediaries." ? A former. government of- ficial: "Everybody takes top secret papers home. I did it constantly even though the regulations said it shouldn't be done." S. A Washington correspoti- dent: "I don't think there is anything particularly illegal or illegitimate about it, butt let's face it, most of the time gov:.>.rnment uses the press for their own purposes. Usually the system of which they are now complaining is the system they use." . ? A former White House aide: "I was one of thos whose function it was to brief newspaPermen. It was one of my jobs at the White House to leak classified information. ? ?? By Sanford J. Ungar Washington Post Staff Writer (j.i()S ANGELES, June 7 ? ? Ldwyers for Daniel Ellsberg and . Anthony Russo, charged with 'violating the law by dis- closing the top secret Pentagon . ? . Papers last year, today offered to provide 17 expert witnesses who would, testify in federal . court here that such alleged yiolations of the law routinely . occur in Washington every day. ' The witnesses include a cur- rent Member of Congress, three .former White House staff mem- "bers,', one former presidential "confidante," a former member of the CIA, four'otiker ex-gov- ernment officials, five working _) journalists, a ' diplomatic his- torian and a former official of ? the 'National Archives. Pressing U.S. District Court Judge. W. Matt Byrne Jr. to hold a full evidentiary hearing ? on their motion to dismiss the ? ? indictment against Ellsberg - and Russo, attorneys Charles ? NessOn and Charles Goodell, a former Republican senator from:New York, said their wit- nesses. could detail regular ? traffic in secret documents. The witnesses' names were kept.. secret, pending Byrne's decision whether to hold the ' hearing, which government . prosecutors contend is inap- proPriate at this .stage of the case. ??Onices close to the. case Batt:however, that the con- grOsthan is Rep. William S. Moqrhead (D-Pa.), and that the otliers include Arthur Schles- ingr, a former aide to Presi- deDt Kennedy; Morton H. HalDerin, a former Defense DelNulment and White House ofKial; Robert Manning, a ? fof*ner assistant secretary of stat, and now editor of The Atlantic Monthly, and William GAlorence, a retired security , elal`sification expert for the ? Alt:Force. tfile dcAourcnicstis Ftlyit tho.te?stimorvivouia-bz? relev- anttto show that Ellsberg and We did it all the time. ? A diplomatic historian: blelffstglfatg4iblA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 was given c r sonal papers of Dean Ache- If son. Those papers consisted Of approximately two file draw- ers of higialy classified and exceedingly sensitive docu- ments taken from the State Department by Dean Acheson and stored by him in his (law office). .I was given full access to these voluminous paps ? without any condition of re- oeiving a security clearance.' ? A former foreign corres- pondent: "For a. period of time I was given access to the daily CIA bulletin, which iS classi- fied top secret- They knew that I had access and they found out who it was in CIA giving it to me. Eventually, they transferred that person. He was never prosecuted." The points made in the Nes- son-Goodell affidavit were similar to those advanced last summer by The New York Times, The Washington Post and other newspapers sued by the Justice Department for publishing articles based on the Pentagon Papers, a his- tory of American involvement in Southeast Asia. The Supreme Court even- tually ruled that the newspap- ers were entitled to print the articles, since the disclosures did not endanger 'national se- curity. Byrne withheld a ruling on ' the defense request for an evidentiary hearing, pending a government response to the affidavit which is due on Fri- day. In courtroom argument to: day, the defense insisted that in order to convict Ellsberg and Russo of violating the espionage act, as charged, the government must prove that the defendants had the "in- tent" to harm the United States and to help a foreign nation, ? But the prosecutors in the case claim that the specific sections of the act under which Ellsberg and Russo are charged do not require proof of that in- tent. In another development to- day the judge denied two de- fense motions. One sought dismissal Of the entire indictment because it as not signed by Robert leyer, the U.S. attorney here at the time it was issued. The other sought dismissal of those counts in t h e indictment charging Ellsberg and Russo with theft of government prop- la?LT NUM 1;2-NS 'AMERICAN Approved For Release 2Qp1figgi0142: CIA-RDP80-01601R Secrecy Curtailment Seen ost Ineffective CHICAGO DAILY NEWS WASHINGTON L President Nixon's executive order design- ed to limit secrecy in govern- ment is now in effect. However, correspondents and congressmen who have been fighting ap uphill battle against the problem are pessimistic about the results it will achieve. The order, signed last March and .put into effect slime 1, reduces the numbet of bureau- crats who can wield the top se- cret, secret and confidential stamps. ? In theory, all 10-year-old top secret papers, all 8-year-old se- cret documents and all 6-year- old confidential material are now available for public perusal. In practice, you must know which secret you want to see before you can ask for it Your next_ step is to ask the depart- ment involVed to let you see it. The person who classified it can decide whether to release it or not. If he rules against you, you can appeal to a departmental committee. If it turns you down, you can go to .the newly created Inter-Agency Classification Re? view Committee. And if it says no, you can cary you case to the federal courts ?.- if you have the money and time. ? The presidential order was ?put forward to placate Congress af- ter the furor stirred up by the Pentagon papers. But Rep, William S. Moorhead (d-Pa.) charges that the order will make little diflerence ? be- cause it is "unworkable, un- manageable and filled with technical defects and massive loopholes." AT IN Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDF'80-01601R000200130001-8 STATI NTL Approved For Release 299MAIS4:elaciRDP80-0160 5 JIM 1.972 AAP Files Amicus Brief firEx-CIA Agent estrakieii frim Writin Boik tn Agency The Association of American Pub- lishers last week filed a friend of the court brief on behalf of a former Central Intelligence Agency agent who has been restrained by a Federal Court order from publishing a nonfiction b.:Sok based on his experiences with the CIA. Victor L. Marchetti, who resigned in 1969 after 14 years with the CIA, is the author of the novel "The Rope Dancer" (Grosse! & Dunlap), published last fall, a fictionalized account of an agent who became disenchanted with his organiza- tion because he felt it was out of step with the times. Ernest Tidyman, who won an Oscar for his screenplay "The French Connection," has an option to make "The Rbpe Dancer" into a movie. But the target of the Justice Depart- ? ? mcnt restraining order, which was grant- ed by Judge Albert V. Bryan Jr. in the U.S. District Court at Alexandria, Va., is a still-to-be-written book based on fact for which Marchetti has a contract with Alfred A. Knopf. The government maintains that Marchetti is bound by a secrecy agreement he signed both on joining and leaving the CIA. The Justice Department contends that the case does not involve Marchetti's protection under the First Amendment to disseminate his writings free of prior restraint by the government. The AAP, however, argues that "neither Marchetti's prior government employment nor any contract signed by him can be considered as a waiver of his?or rights." Contending that Judge Bryan went far beyond what the government requested in the injunction, the AAP brief states: "... Virtually since its founding, the role of the CIA in American foreign pol- icy has been the subject of considerable public interest and controversy. Obvi- ously, Mr. Marchetti could be in a posi- tion to make public material which could be of immense help in clarifying and sharpening these issues of legitimate public concern..." In granting the government's perma- nent injunction, Judge Bryan wrote that "in the opinion of the court, the contract (with the CIA) takes the case out of the scope of the first.amendment..." the public's?Constitutional Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 YI12 NEW YORKER STATINTL Approved For Release 2001M4190A-RDP80-01601R0 Idt , p - - : ? OF IL LTHOUGH John Service, a retired diplomat of .six- ty-two, usually enjoys ? good health and good spirits, he has been forced to think, periodically dur- ing the past twenty-sev- en years, about how his newspaper obituaries will begin. They will say that he was accused of espio- nage in the celebrated Amerasia case toward the end of the Second World War, and they will also contain a middle name, Stewart, which he almost never uses. Ser- vice, who has been ab- ,? solved:countless times of espionage or any other crime by various bodies, including the Supreme Court.? of the United . States (though not including the China Lobby), recently told a friend in Berkeley, California, where he lives? with, considering all he has gone through, remarkable equanimity?that he has had three lives. For most of the first life, between his birth, in 1909, and 1945, he Was in China, engaged in studies on his own behalf and on his country's. For one recent, heady six- and-a-half-week stretch of the third life, which began in 1962 and has also been dedicated to China studiq, Ser- vice was back in China. During the greater part of the seventeen years that .:intervened, owing to the unremitting harassment of Senator Joseph R. Mc- Carthy and like-minded bullies Service lived in limbo. Both before and after his banishment from responsible gov- ernmental affairs, Service talked ex- tensively with the highest Communist Chinese leaders, and during the Sec- ond World War he was one of a very few American diplomats whom Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai knew well. The fact that this man, whom the fu- ture rulers of Peking grew to like and trust, was quiet, dignified, candid, com- passionate, and that he represented the very best in America, could have been most helpful to our country. Indeed, history might have taken a different turn if anybody in power in Washing- ton had JAW ISQMeds FR& tRe I efa his 1944- and 1945 conversations with the Communist chiefs, and some of his John Service saying then that, no matter what hopes anybody entertained about China's fu- ture, and no matter how much any- one might wish to :see Chiang Kai- slick retain control of a unified China, in the struggle between Chiang and the Communists Chiang was certain to lose. That Service was correct his later detractors considered irrelevant; they could not perceive the difference be- tween predicting an eventuality and preferring it. Among some of the cru- eller jabs at Service, in his years of limbo, was the allegation that he was somehow personally responsible for the deaths of American boys in the Korean war.. The fact is that if he had been listened to, and the United States had taken a realistic view. of China and its Communists, there might not have been any Korean war. Moreover, Service, though he rarely dwells on his stressful past, has suggested that if anyone in .a position of authority roughly a quarter of a century ago had reflected on what he and other knowledgeable China hands were reporting, there might not have been any Taiwan problem, either. "Mao's China, having come to power in a different way and not thrust into isolation by a hostile West, might be quite a different place," he wrote not long 'ago.. "It might be one for in- stance where Chinese-American aing- enaCiA033/44QO instead of being a world-shaking event." A couple of months ago, a .Japanese to summarize his feelings about the whole tangled course of relations, be- tween the United States and contemporary China, and he replied, simply, "I think we missed a great opportunity." SER VICE, known to most McCarthyites exclu- sively as John Stewart but to most of his friends as Jack, was born in Cheng- tu, in the southwestern province of Szechwan, on August 3, 1909. His par- ents, Robert Roy and ? Grace Boggs Service, had gone to China four years earlier to work for the Young Men's Christian Association. At the begin- ning of the century, the Y.M.C.A. had something of the ap- peal to young people that the Peace Corps was to have sixty years later. Robert and Grace had met as under- graduates at the Berkeley branch of the University of California, and for ? much of their long stay in China they were supported by the college .Y, which was then an extracurricular institution of substance. There is? no Y on the Berkeley campus today?and none. in China, either?but when Jack Service was a bay the ?Y.M.C.A. was very big over there. In 1912, Robert Roy Service had his picture taken at the Nanking Y with Sun Yat-sen. The missionaries not only tried to teach the Chinese about the Western world. and, sometimes no more than incl..' dentally, about Christianity but, with much greater success, taught them. ping-pong. Robert Roy Service established the first Y.M.C.A. in Chengtu. The city,' which was laid. out like Peking, with. a sacrosanct inner city and stout exterior waits, and which was the capital of a province of some seventy million people and bOasted a resident viceroy of the Emperor, an arsenal, and a mint, had never been designated a treaty port, so it harbored almost no Western busi- nessmen. Of its population of half a million there were only about a 1OR0041200y1190,94r? and of these, one-third of whom were Ameri- can, nearly all belonged to missionary,,COntlat WALL ST.T.771 JG1'2ZITAL STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/133V041E784-RDP80-01601R00020 - , , -- ? , = . - ? , . - . . istrators say they have nowhere near the re- court, for example, required them to reinstat .. If You T/T7 ant to Work sources to make security checks on the nearly , one million persons who each year bid for U.S. a, Socialist as a mailman. ? The government had fired the mailman o jobs. (The government now makes such checks only after appointment for the roughly 300,000 persons hired annually for routine, or "nonsen- sitive," posts.) . But federal officials argue that something subversive nature hadn't been proven. Not onl, must be ,done. Only seven U.S. employes have did the man get his job back but also othe been fired for disloyalty since 1956; and none ? members of the party have since become lette sine 1966?and officials insist the figures don't carriers, too?a development that clearly up Of Pranksters, Subversives; tell the facts. The officials say post-appoint- sets government men. ? IS Your Mailman a Socialist? . ment loyalty checks have deteriorated into , So the Nixon administration is moving n For the Got)ernment, Hide That Dart Board * * *. Bureaucrats Try to Curb Hiring the ground he was a member of the Sedan:: Workers Party, included on the Attorney Ger eral's 24-year-old list of allegedly subversiv organizations. The court ruled that the party' By ELLIoT CARLSON staff Reporter of THE 1VALr. STREET JOURNAL acts or other specific kinds of misconduct, The ity from the beginning, since the Attorney Gen WASHINGTON?Whatever fate awaits Dan.. courts no longer recognize past or present eral was both prosecutor and judge in deter lel Ellsberg, one thing seems sure: He'll never membership in "stbversive" groups as suffi- mining which groups should be listed. To rem edy this, President Nixon recently transferrec greater responsibility for the list to the Subver, sive Activities Control Board, which' is outsich the executive branch. The administration my, seeks legislation ,to give the board subpoena, ? c9 mere formalities because recent court, rulings have held that federal jobholders may 'be fired upgradehe legal standing of the subversive roup list. Courts have questioned its crectibii on security grounds only for actual criminal F wangle another federal job. cient, grounds for separation from nonsensitive And, partly because of Mr. Ellsberg, a lot of jobs. federal job applicants may find the obstacles.: "Some Close Calls" higher before long. Stung by such celebrated "Radical. groups are actively urging their leaks as the Pentagon Papers (for whose members to enter industry and government," lease Mr. Ellsberg has been indicted) anti dis- , frets Kimbell Johnson, director of the Civil Ser. contempt and judicial-review powers. It would mayed by assorted lesser acts of employe ef- vice Conimission bureau of personnel investi_ then use them to investigate groups for possi- frontery (using President Nixon's picture as a gations. "We've had some close calls." ble listing. dart, beard, for instance), the bureaucracy is Meanwhile, federal personnel men are circling up the wagons. weighing administrative changes that would "We're faced with an unprecedented prob- submit candidates for supervisory, managerial lem," says Robert Mardian, assistant Attorney or fiduciary jobs to a "full field investigation," General. Not only are "revolutionary terror- including interviews with neighbors and em.. ists" finding it easier. to infiltrate the bureau- ployers and inquiries into past associations. cracy, he maintains, but "we're getting more These intensive investigations now are limited people in government who feel they should be to the relatively few persbns seeking highly ruled by a sense of conscience" rather than by sensitive jobs. ? More ? controversial, the contemplated changes would require all. new emplo-yes to meet an "affirmative" standard requiring that their continued employment ."will promote-the efficiency of the service." This. means bureau- crats could be removed at the end of a proba- tionary period for failing to exhibit Certain per- sonal qualities?respect for authority, for ex- 'an-Tie-41ot now considered in firing workers. And 'presumably, past and present political as- sociations could be weighted in, too. ? "We'Ve got to do a better job of predicting the future behavior of our employes," says the Civil Service Commission's Mr. Johnson. He maintains that persons removed under the pro- posed changes "wouldn't be stigmatized as dis- loyal, since we.'d simply be making employabil- ity judgments." And he says the beauty of the changes is that "we'd be freed from having to come up with enormous .evidence of wrongdo- ing." To critics, that's exactly the danger. The trouble, says Lawrence Speiser, a Washington civil liberties lawyer, is that the investigations will wind up being done by bureaucrats who can't "distinguish between disloyalty and dis. retaliation from superiors for their political sent." That "would inhibit the free expression views. of government employes?and future govern- But some administration officials fervently? ment employes,' he says. "You'd end up with believe that even persons who engage in ern- a mediocre civil service." barrasing antics must be viewed as potential Thomas Emerson, a Yale law professor, threats to the nation's security. Some indepen- argues that the government should worry more dent observers concur. "In today's climate, about finding competent people to do the job ticularly obnoxious. "Patriotic- breastbeating , there is no government position.which is net and less about loyalty and security. Perfect se- will always be offensive to your more thought- sensitive," declares Charles B. Rice, a law curity will always be unattainable, he says, ful persons," contends James Heller, chairinan professor at Notre Dame. "Who, but the janitor "Look how gung ho Daniel Ellsberg was ? of the Washington office of the American Civil would know better the location of air-condition- when he first entered the government," he Liberties Union: "They (the -"oaths) don't en- ing? ducts in which to place explosives?" muses. "Ellsberg would have passed any by- courage loyalty, just resentment. Nor would U.S. security men. squelched the appoint- ,alty test with flying colors." they catch anyone who's intent on being a ment of the SDS woman on the ground that her problem.',' ? ? ? Nixon adrAppromediFor166 Rateaso,,,,, -? 1-16nit4th?g146PCIPAtMed R000200130001-8 are cool.to the Ichord-Preyer bill. Government lucky. A decision last fall of a U$.. district lawyers doubt its constitutionality, and admin-1 For example, he says, one California. stu- dent seemed headed for a high-paying job as a government mathematician. But shortly* before her job became official, she.was. arrested for allegedly swerving a car into the path of a Dow Chemical Co. truck, causing it to overturn. Only then did the goyernment.discover she was a member of the Students for a Democratic So- ciety, a radical group whose members the gov- whit the bureaucracy expects of them. - ernment would prefer not to employ. It also Of course, not everyone is as worried as Mr. learned the details of an earlier arrest. In that Mardian. Nor would everyone call an employe case, the government alleged she confronted who persists in following his conscience a Gen. Maxwell Taylor at a speech and shot red- ,"problem." But liberal critics and the courts ink at him from a squirt gun: (The truck case ,willing, the Nixon administration and some never came to an ultimate verdict in the conservative Congressmen aim to drastically coil rts but in the squirt gun incident -the, girl revise security procedures, thus screening out : r..- ? ' was fined Po for disorderly conduct.) all but the most "reliable" applicants. Some current developments: . So far, U.S. officials report no rise in activi- -U.S. personnel men are considering a plan ties actually treasonable, but they do see a i that would subject some prospective civil ser-1 steady increase in "embarrassing" antics. Vants to much more probing, investigations be-i Some civil servants were recently caught using fore hiring anci. make certain ethers more vul, pictures of President Nixon in their offices as : nerable to firisg later. : dart boards, for example. Also cited are the r' ?The Nixon administration wants to give many "anti-establishment and anti-Nixon" the controversial Subversive Activities Control posters in government offices. Particularle. Board powers that could damage the prospects galling was the young but high-level civil ser- . . rof applicants with radical, backgrounds. vant who organized a training seminar for goy- -And two Democratic Congressmen,- Rich- ernment interns; it consisted of various slides, ., . ,-ard Ichord of Missouri and Richardsen Preyer many stamped "---- Nixon." of North Carolina, are proposing that all U.S. Many persons argue that , such deviltry is job applicants be subject to security checks and swear an oath to support the Constitution. relatively harmless, at Aeast as long as it is confined to .persons in "nonsensitive" posts. 1/4.13atrlotic Breastbeating" They make the further point that one function 1 Congressional hearings on both the adminis- of Civil Service is to insulate bureaucrats from tration proposal and the Ichord-Preyer mea- sure concluded thisoweek. All three proposals have aroused strong opposition. Critics Say the moves -would discourage in- dependent-minded persons from seeking jobs ' and might revive the "witChl.lunts" of the Joe McCarthy era. Some find the idea of oaths par- L WASHITIoTON STIR ? Approved For Release 2001/0i/de 874-kono-mo1R (D;call Spotiliggat hter. r ec (s .14 ,;g:t4.4," AV-2?jsa., 7,44' 1: kl",t?it ' t ? ? J? By PIIILIP SHANDLER Star Stiff Writer ? ? The Civil *Service Commis- pion, on request of the Justice Departnient, has asked federal . agencies to tighten up pre- hiring investigations of appli- eants for top-security jobs. A letter from CBS Chairman !lobed E. Hampton to agency beads'on the matter was dis-. Closed yesterday as, commis- Sion officials testified before a pouse Internal Security sub- committee. ?t The _subcommittee chair- man, .Rep: Richardson Preyer, D-N.C., and the chairman of the parent committee, Rep. Ridhard Ichord, D-Mo., have been taking testimony on a bill they.sponsor that would create a new loyalty-monitoring com- mission in place of the presi- dentially appointed Subversive Activities Control Board, which they believe has been ineffectual in rooting out sub- versives. The letter, sent last week, said "a number of agencies" have been putting people into critical-sensitive jobs before security 'checks have been completed. And Hampton said he had been told by Robert. C. Mar- dian, assistant attorney gen- eral for internal security, that Mardian is ."particularly dis- turbed that such a practice is, being utilized on a fairly wide- spread basis." . ? . While neither Justice nor the CSC told agencies not to hire uruess the so-called full-field Investigations had been done first Hampton quoted_ Mar- , _ STATINTL dian as' saying' that .: Justice "considers it 'extremely im- portant" that such checks be made before a2cointment: More than 4G,hoo such. inves- tigations are made annually, according to Kimball Johnson, director of the CSC's Bureau of Personnel Investigations. They take at . least several weeks. Agencies that hive delayed the investigations have told ? the CSC that they are ."im- practical . . . because applir. cants are unwilling to wait for the completion of the investi- gations before they are placed on the rolls," Hampton noted. The agencies' rationale has been .that those hired aren't given access to classified in- formation until getting securi- ty clearances, anyway. But Mardian said that "deals with only one aspect of the problem." - "A person in such a position may very well be in a position to make or effect policy de- cisions of the utmost impor- tance," he said. In relaying the Justice posi- tion, Hampton commented that the time needed for in- vestigation "is, an- important consideration but not an over- riding one." Agencies that rigorously have been using the investiga- tions have found they serve a function broader than security, he said?"to develop informa- tion about abilities and attri- butes essential to success in positions of responsibility." ? Disclosure of the Hampton, letter was made by Johnson and .CSC General Counsel An- thony L. Mondello in testimony before the House Internal Se- curity loyalty subcommittee. Mondello said the CSC, while favoring extensive pre- hiring investigations, believes the proposed legislation to be unnecessary. It would create "unwarranted administrative ? difficulties," he Said. At the same time, Mondello denied allegations that the subcommittee said had been made by some agencies that the CSC had advised them not to fire people on loyalty and security grounds. It is true, he said, "we know of no security removals" in recent years. But this is because both CSC and Justice have urged that ? agencies use other grounds to "separate" em- ployes, "so as to avoid stigma- tizing them." "It is usually ? ehsier to prove the existence of these other grounds than it is to prove a want of security or reasonable doubt as to loyal- ty," Mondelo said. ., Approved For Release 2001103/04.: CIA-RDP80-01601-R000200130001.-8 WASHINGTON STAR Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ? CIAADP80- 1 1 JAN lurz !JAMES J. KILPA TRICK Leak STATI NTL of Papers to Anderson a Grave reach .We are ,in the midst of an- other of those great ruffled flaps involving the press, the government, and the ethics of public and private conduct. This one is serious. The story goes back to the /first week in December, when the Washington Special Action Group met at the White House to discuss the suddenly flam- ing war launched by India against East Pakistan. The WSAG, in effect, is the super- National Security Council of this administration ? a top- level coordinating body intend- ed to serve the President with the .best advice and intelli- gence that can be pulled to- gether by skilled and experi- enced men. The three WSAG meetings of Dec. 3, 4 and 6 were held in confidence, of course, behind locked doors, but written min- ides were prepared. These ?minutes were stamped "se- cret-sensitive," which is the 'classification level just be- low "top secret," and then were distributed among an es- timated 50 to 75 persons in the ? Pentagon, State Department, CIA,' and the White House. A, person or persons un- known made copies of the memoranda and gave them to columnist Jack Anderson. He excerpted them ior use in his column, and a few days later supplied the texts for use by newspapers generally. In one view?it is the view of anti- Nixon liberals?Anderson per- formed a great public service, and his anonymous informant was a man of noble character who risked his job in the name of truth and honesty in govern- ment. There is another view. The importance of this disquieting affair does not lie in the mem- oranda themselves. The im- portance lies in the leak. Make no mistake: This leak must be found, and it must he stopped. This is a breach of trust, and a breach of securi- ty, of the most profound im- plications. The memoranda are embar- rassing, no more. For the most part, the minutes reflect the discussion of men trying to find out what is going on, and seeking to decide what best to do about it. The President, they are advised, is angry at India for its aggressive ac- tion; he wants "a tilt toward Pakistan." There is much talk of the futility of the United Nations. One detects sympathy for the plight of the emerging nation of Bangla- desh; it promises to become "an international -I) a ske t case." The conferees come to no particular decisions. They agree to prepare certain pa- pers for the President. Their discussion is candid, sponta- neous, unreserved. Subsequent to these private meetings, the White House was publicly to assert its neu- trality in the India-Pakistan war. Obviously the White House was not neutral. This was self-evident to every edi- tor and critic in the country. It is a fair surmise that every government in history has taken public positions in- consistent with its private wishes. Diplomats know this. What matters, to repeat, is the. leak itself. This is not to be compared with the action. of the Washington Post last. month in blowing Henry Kis-: singer's cover as the source of a recent backgrounder; that. was no more than an ill-man- nered breach of professional rules. Neither is it to be com? pared with Daniel Ellsberg's clandestine distribution last spring of the aging "Penta- gon Papers.." Ellsberg was. then out of the government. ' We must infer, in this lit:- stance, that someone still em- ployed at the very highest lev- els of confidence?some one j holding top secret clearance,. with access to other memoran-, da of immense importance ? has wantonly violated the. trust reposed in him. This: goes beyond disloyalty; it sails close to the windward edge of treason. What other docu-, ments one must wonder, has this person secretly copied? Where will he peddle them next? This is the alarming as- pect. Anderson thinks it "fun. ny," but then Anderson would, It is not funny at all. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 WASHINGTON. ?Os I) Approved For Release 204190g641:91A-RDP8OVIA1lJORM A ? L F.1 ilo 11? i '7171 ? LJL LLLic:1 ....." ,-...; ii i L fl i,,,,,iL, by Fred Blumenthal WASHINGTON, D.C. one Peking landing under his belt, hay; PEKING PROBLEMS?The routes over r7lhe most elaborate security precau- ing flown Presidential adviser Henry which President Nixon will travel from i,f tions ever devised for a Chief of Kissinger to the Chinese capital last the airport and to and from his various -- State will surround President Nixon Oct: 20th. The President's 707, which official meetings and receptions in the :! * when he arrives in Peking for his has a range of 7000 miles, an 11-man Chinese capital are still secret and may historic meeting with the mainland crew, and room for 59 passengers, will not be divulged until the last minute? Chinese leaders. fly from Guam to Shanghai, where it if at all. But Secret Service agents, in And this may come as something of will pick up an English-speaking Chi- cooperation with their Chinese oppo- a surprise to many Americans: the nese navigator for the final leg. - site numbers, will go over the ground 'United States Secret Service, traditional Navigator knows many, many times before his arrival to . guardian of the President's safety, is familiarize themselves with every inch leaning heavily on its Communist Chi- Col. Albertazzie has no qualms about of the way. Every manhole the Presi- nese counterpart to make certain that the professional ability of the navigator, dential party will pass over while driy- Mr. Nixon's visit, however sensational the same officer who guided him into ing through the streets of Peking will its diplomatic implications may be, is Peking on the Kissinger flight. be, inspected and the cover sealed to absolutely uneventful from the stand- "I was delighted with him; he's an make sure that no one has planted an ,point of his personal security, excellent navigator," the American explosive device in his path (a routine "No matter how you slice it," a top pilot told PARADE. "And the Peking Secret Service precaution taken on U.S. security official told PARADE, "we International Airport has all the neces- Presidential trips in the United States), must depend on the host country to sary facilities, including electronic and even the utility poles lining the assume the major burden of protecting equipment. They have been handling streets will be examined at the very our President. And the Chinese have Air France and Pakistani 707's on a last moment, just in case someone been cooperating magnificently." regular basis, and they know what might decide to saw three-quarters of Many of the details of the protective they're doing." the way through a pole with a view to measures arranged between the Secret Other American aircraft will precede toppling it into the street, thus block- Service and Peking's ?security forces and follow "The Spirit of '76" into the ing the cavalcade and "setting up" a are wrapped in secrecy, but this much Peking Airport, including a still-un- dangerous opportunity for an attack. ..can be told: known number of press planes and a More routinely, Chinese security agents The advance security preparations cargo jet carrying four White House will keep an eye on rooftops and win- are not confined to the streets along automobiles?one of them the armored dows along the way. Lincoln limousine in which the Presi- . which Mr. Nixon's party will travel Elevator feared through the Chinese capital or the dent rides wherever he goes, at home quarters in which he will stay?they ex- or abroad. If plans call for Mr. Nixon to enter an elevator at any time, the Secret Service tend around the world. Gasoline tested -Ever since the dramatic announce- wants the Chinese to check not only the ment of the American President's forth- On the ground, the Presidential mechanical equipment, but the oper- coming journey burst upon the world plane will be guarded around the clock ator, too. last August, U.S. and Chinese security by U.S. Air Force police and Chinese "There can be nothing more hair- experts behind the scenes have been military detachments, as will the jet raising," says one veteran security checking and cross-checking every- fuel for all the U.S. aircraft and the agent, "than to have the President of thing and everyone he is likely to come gasoline for the White House cars. The the United States stalled in the narrow in contact with, from his drinking water Chinese will supply a full load of 24,- confines of an elevator, especially if to the elevator operator in his Peking 000 gallons of fuel for the return flight, the operator might turn out to be un- guest house. but every drop will be tested and fil- friendly." These are the key areas of security tered before it goes?under guard? During its stay in Peking, the en- concern: into the tanks. This is crucial to the tire American delegation, including TRANSPORTATION?Mr. Nixon will President's safety in the air, but it is no the President, will have its own drink- fly from Washington to Guam aboard slap at his Chinese hosts: the same pre- ing water supply, not because they ?loted ipr -oiprce veteran Col. efrA "The Spirit of '745"VedYrktirFRtgi a ne), pi ' . cautions are taken every lime "The have reason to suspect the quality of 0 2004/0ato4 OfclAIRDP80-611601R00020041100014-eason Ralph D. Albertazzie, who already has Force bases in the United States. that all experienced travelers are wary of unfamiliar water. STATI NTL STATINTL Approved For Release 2001103/04)--UOTA-RDP80,01601R00020 nov. 1911 I 1%_\ .1 1 \SLI A.LL ,f - .1 - 4 J * 71 13 /11-Z ney Here is, a story, my friends. One night a man dreamt that a monster was on his chest, choking him, trying to kill him. The man woke up in terror and saw the monster above him. "What is ,going to happen to me," the man ;cried. "Don't ask me," replied the -,monster, "it's your dream." Take your society, your law's Integrity, and your country back from the experts. I have been an "expert" and I Can tell you that .experts gone wild ? and they have .7- are like cancer. They know only one thing: more', more, more of ;the same. Nothing is more expert ;than cancer, nothing a better example of power 'without ipurpose. Cancer is ignorant, but, ,oh, it works, it grows. ? I have been an expert, have ,lived among them in their Anti-communities ? could have rested among them. I hope I have cleft them well behind me. An ,expert sees his small piece of reality and little else. He confuses . understanding with control and makes of the latter his single -virtue. One of our leading social ? scientists has said that the chief I - Accomplishment of this age is to i'l?ma"ve changed so many political ,yroblerns into technical ones. We ...see in Vietnam, as at Auschwitz, the result of technical solutions to ppolitical problems, ? So I have been an expert, ,and I'm not bragging 'about it. I .4 accepted the necessity of working 1 rwithin the s'ystem, believed that it i.vias possible in' that way both to affect the 'system itself _ constructively and to accomplish m-, something. Only in the late sixties ) did I come to understand that .. vgavernment, business, and .what is correctly called "the Establishment," were too inert,, ,too committed to the shape of 'things as they have been to inaugurate human policies, that- ,. 'Tor change the people had to take 'government back to themselvea. ,Only the people awakened and -.grasping for power from 'these ;mindless mkgainstitutiona, can effect changtMJ proved For Fr , ? ? . t 1Y LJ in 3.1.jCi4 I sat in disbelieve in a Washington think tank, listening to a very well-financed Army proposal to develop computerized electronic warning system to alert the Pentagon when a Latin American country was likely to go "red," and ? the system having been perfected on paper 7: to rent a whole Latia American coountry and army to test it out. This stupid and Unbelievably naive project was the product of Ph.D.'s, men who -call themselves and ore called the. scientists, When this project was discovered by Chileans who observed some strangely behaving researchers, it hit the press and was investigated by Congress. When,' from the beginning, I criticized' Project Camelot, I was asked, - annoyedly, why I was always being so "negative." This is a particularly apt, yet typical, example of the allegedly scientific thinking that likes behind Vietnam and all the horrors it has brought to roost in this country and all over the world. I could give many more examples, but I don't want to lake up time with horror stories. Suffice it to say that over the last generation, especially the last fifteen years, the United States at home and abroad -- has been preoccupied not with human life and its purposes, but with ignorant power and control ? that is to say with death ? -and has become, along with the Soviet Union., as a colleague in mindless adversity, the planet's greatest polluter, an agent, of potentially total repression, and the greatest threat to continued human life of expertise'incl. secrecy do.':uesi to prevent the people 0(- 'Ills country from determinhom ttamir. own destinies is basically- a fake.. Owl the last twenty years I have; had a . continuous Top Secret, ).learances from the. Army, State, of CIA, Defense, ACDA -V sometimes from more than one.. I. never learned one thing of value. Everything valuable that 'I have learned, known, said, perceived, or written has come from an ?open, scholarly unclassified source or from newspapers, journals, or may own . obserations. All those sources are open to you. ' There is, no silent' majority. Man is a speaking animal. There is nly a silenced majority, a ; e.pressed, - clamped-down, ' and frightened majority. You. You have been frightened and you have been silenced. Look, thee war rooms paneled in walnut,' those massive files, those contracts for millions of dollars worth of death and death-research, those fancy desks and chairs, all the paraphernalia of power, bases, -buildings, bombs,. and all the rest, they are all yours. They belong to you. Take them hack, make a human use of them, make this your society, as it is your life, Everything you do, everything you can do, to please yourself and build your life is more beautiful and more real than the fakery, abstraction, obsession, and desire for death that rules this country 'today. That's the only secret worth knowing. Once you know it you can take back this nation -- with difficulty. Researcfl Analysis Corporation. Slan?ich. was senior scientist and then Director of the ?Arins Control and Disarmament Study Group at Cal Tech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, immersed n studies- for NASA and ACDA on Leta! inspect:on and proliferation issues. Re has also studied 'educational policy and counseled foreign got/am/imp ts in urban affairs for the Stanford Research Institute. For 16 years, the world has ever faced. I do not Once you know it you will. like to say these timings, but one And then we'll speak not of the must speak plainly. There is a American Nightmare, but the monster on our chest. American Dm'eam. . . But it is our dream, and what (Sidney 'Slomich, author of The happens next is .up to us, to no Anmealcan- Nightmare, has done one else. I can speak so P1ain13. research for the Army on because I think this nation can Czechoslovakia, spent a number throw the monster off its chest. of years as an officer or the CIA, The hope of this nation, that and '14!S .wo.riced on tr'ategu; likW100411MPAes; s 046-6185 jp 130001-8 ,Slonzich worked exclusively within the established foreign policy and governmental system, .in public and private organizations, usually in circumstances involving heavy, or nearly exclusive use of classified, secret materials.) ? 7) BOSTON, MASS* GL01-31;e'i?' pprovect Fo? Releases2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP8070160 i INIVV eo 3. I M 237,967 tj 4:5 S - 566,377 ) 'T - )11 locth arakillymai . , - () 671' .[TO k'C'pI 11 t (cL, STATI NTL -By Jean Dietz, Globe Staff A year ago this fall at the annual orientation session offered by the Harvard Health Service to freshmen, ? Dr. Preston K. Munter found himself talking to. an atiditerium, marked by Plenty of empty seats. Three pairs 'of ? bare, unwashed feet protruded from a balcony in the mo'st direct line of . vision te the speakers' platform. ? This September, the same -hall o - . 0 Ti LJI roTlb . . about the increasing acceptance and -Psycholog,icaf -pressures within' . availability. of such services here each university Community and the ? was jammed to capacity by a respon- sive freshman class. On the surface, ?their appearance was. considerably 1.ess scruffy, "much more like the stu- .dentS- -we. used to see 'before all the trouble," according to the universie ty's chief psychiatrist, .? The same changing mood, is re- fleetYed on every campus this year. The end of the age of affluence and the period of revolt is driving stu- dents back to their books. . Ironically, they are flocking to' the psychiatrists' offices in droves to share their hew concerns in an era Of introspection and quiet. AVAILAMLITY ? . ? "If you went to see the shrink about a job problem, they might send you to the dean's office or some- .where," explains a student at Massa- ? chusetts Institute of Technology. "But engineering jobs are- getting scarce, and if you. Were considering .haying to,go into your father's busi- ness, you might convince them that ? the problem of how to get along with your father is a legitimate emotional concern," . ? ? ' ? The inerewniiritivectirrispl- psychiatric COfiWeling sa??s ;than about 'incidence of mental ill- or mental health. ? Even with eight senior psychiat- rists, three training fellows, and a number. of, part-time affiliate; there is now a two-week wait for a routine .al5pointment at Harvard. ? DEPRESSION. , This gives a single academic corn- ' . ' ? munity ;access to far more highly At Doston University, Dr. Alan S. trained specialists than. the state of .Katz reports a 50 percent increase in Montana which has 14 Psychiatrists the number of students seeking help to see the entire population. . at. the university's mental health. ,- clinic last year, ? waif, the upward. From the view of their psychiat- trend continuing this fall. He senses rists, however, college youth of 1971 a "massive depression" 'among stile; Is coming closer to what their mid- dents. '. . .. dleaged parents regard as "normal.". - ' . . Whereas the students with the , e "It's healthy for people to _worry. usual anxieties over inability to about money unless the situation be- study, how to separate from parents comes extreme," says Dr. Dana Yarn-. or love problems used to average ( sworth, who retired- as chief of the threCor four visits to the DU clinic; ? Harvard Health Service in June. the staff now secs many individuals. "You seldom find people becoming -eight or -.nine times before referral mentally ill over ordinary realistic elsewhere for long-term treatment. . problems.". . . . :- ?. "We're seeing a big increase in . . . . ? - Although students al'e still. con- passive ? dependent . perSonalitim -caned about war, hypocrisy, civil among students whose family .prob-, . liberties and racial discrimination, lems have undoubtedly. been con- the economic picture has 'made a sig- pounded by drug-taking during 'their.' nificent difference in their attitudes, school years," says the therapist.. ., nature of the individual student ob-, viously vary, from campus to camptui;' as well as the 'subjective reactions of, psychiatrists to young people and so- cial change. It's very expensive te be a radical Dr. Katz suspects that frequent, i activist," a former revolutionary told complaints about mpotence. from ' Dr. Munter this fall. "This year i young males are often allied with the can't afford to be involved." effects of drug-taking. "Social awareneSS seems to be "This is the first year we are see-. somewhat watered down," says Dr. ing students who have voluntarily: Vernon Patch clinical director at the stopped using' all drugs, including: ; College Mental Health Center of Bos- marijuana, ? because they feei ton which -provides psychiatric ser- wrecked,"- says the 13.U. psychiatrist, vices for 1 colleges, universities .and nursing schools. "All the school's re- DRUGS USE OFF - 7 port less interest in volunteer com- munity work. Students who would The off-campus location of the have?been activists a few years ago College Mental.11ealth Center on the are now on their way to pick up law ,le'dfloor of the Prudential Tower 'of- degrees and try to work through the. fers anonyinity, a quality highly etase200 1 /03/04 : IA-R D P80404604R00020?430 WM4 :opt inuod LOS ANGELES,. CAL? TIMES vluip2r-_)-, qprprslcp!..r ?Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8O- I ISTAT I NTL M ? 966, 293 ? S 11246,870 ? . , . -Ai -PCM 1 ..I. it Cd -I.,11..v_ 1._./ lc:, ?f--61 11y come dONVII. There is nomystery abou? except- the mystery of human natur- ? ?itand personal dignity. . n r Congress may not have rouch-stema.eli fel; - it, but it is in a. fundamental fight, See.r&C." '111 one branch of government is essentiiiiiy, ?repugnant to tie. exercise of constitutiona 0 r Y:.?-?" rt, authority by other branches which have le-I gitimate, defined, roles in policy, and opera BY D. J. R. BistUCKNER ? _ _ .,. . . , . ......, lions. Congress coUld help it:self considerably:1. 1 NEwYOliK----.There may be nothing more Some in Congress suggest non. that the setting up a general staff to coordinat; :.. .? .-... . .:... behind the Administration's mania for se- pre.ssure of hearings should be kept up and overall understanding and oversight of 11-..,H creey than the; President's love of surprises. the Administration should be allowed to executive. But, in the loric, -1:in-i, it w fli You Can hold control in politics by keeping build public support for Congress' case. It is have to force open a lot of docirs and )iiSh the audienc,e in suspense, and the White time that fairly well. The Defense Depart?Way intO secret places where decisions a ? ? pe ,..,onr; re s,s to modV,(e'. House Is a tem rn pting stage, . ent's wide cn-ickdw n n se o ocurity cle.a.cie. One.never c-,:,.: ,. cks r , .. In light or \vh,-?t has happene.d th the last anccs after the Pentagon Fa P c r s ft11,10,?011:;teaghglif!:rur;i1olleiclicliit:).h.vail..Ltii.,cilltoia\bri.c.yi:.ezsluirt.11)it.rnijssLeelis;:iir,.Eveloietaxtiiceli:lt,iiii year it is not entirely unfair to call the con- produced dissension within thc?,ItC 'cern over secrecy a iminia, A confrontation and in the defense industries. The s.urprise 'between President and Congress over public trip of presidential adviser Henry Krssing;-:.-!ring surprised.-- inforination Wils blinding up long before the to Peking is not a public relations coup in . newspapers printed the Pentagon papers. the Senate Foreign Relation: Committee, w Would those. papers have been published at which has never been able to persuade Kis- all, if they had been sent up to Congress singer to testify about anything, and. which when they were rdquested a year ago? cannot now persuade him to testify about But now, when the 10.111 runs around giving his trip or about Mr. Nixon's proposed trip lie detector tests . throughout- the govern- to China. Committee members are not even meat, and sacuruy clearances for defense being given much substantive information contractors 'are canceled wholesalb fcllov,?- privately. lag publication of the Pentagon papers, you ? Last month, the 17B1 ranged ,through. the sene something like panic at the. top. - government with polygraphs trying to trace (As Congress resumes work, the Senate has the source of a news leak about arms talks in committee a number of bills to require proposals that had been outlined in secret disclosure of information by the executive. papers the Administration's own security branch and: .congressional participation in system did not protect; ? they were. passed .' foreign policy decisions. There are four pro- around in duplicate and triplicate in two de- StATINTL posed bills to limit presidential war-making partments. So, why the FM probe? .Secreta- powers, all Involving full disclosure of es- ry of State Rogers on Sept. 3 called the news sential information. Just before the August leak a. kind of "tioze" of information, adding: recess began, GOP leaders-of House and Sen- 'Now, we want to stop that, you see. Anel. at 'endorsed the general thinking in these think the fact. that this investigation has proposals, which should have .alerted the been conducted all over the government, not White House to thetemper of Congress. just in the State Department, will have that ? effect." That is why: intimidation. ? Sen. Cooper. Sponsoring-Bill-. ?to Require Regular CIA. Reports . . ...,,,,,,,,,,,?.. a. Secret Military' Aid.Plau i Also, Sen. Sam E7vin (D-NC.) is holding . . hearings on it proposal to limit the, use of ex- Then, too, the Foreign BelatiOns Commit-, -ccutive? privilege ? as a means of avoiding tee asked to see a secret five-year. military 'questioning or _disclosure. And Sen. 'John aid' plan, preliminary to its approval of a ',Sherman ?Cooper (11-.Ky.) has a bill to re- two-year military aid bill. Defense Secretary quire regular reports to Congress by the Laird said there was nd such plan. But at Central Intelligende Agency. in the odd least ,one member of the committee knew ways of politics, the CIA bill could eventual- there was, and knew it in some detail. Final- - .1.y be the hardest for the 'White House to ly the .President invoked executive privilege - -handle; it is simple, but it touches on many against its disclosure. To the Senate, it must / areas of secret, government operations. One semi that the principle operating here is 'lie NI recalls that former President' Harry S Tru- first, defy later." There -is a se.n--5e, of injury man wrote a plea on the front page of the and insult in the Senate, and it is spreading Washington Post eight years ago for stricter to the House. ? . - . . . 'discipline over .the CIA and a Curtailing of It Is a safe 'guess that unauthorized disclo- its functions. lt was published a month after sure of secrets will increase now; no matter the murder of President John F. Kennedy,. what Congress does. The internal security Iand thushad little attention; but it is being efforts of the Administration amount to a 'onicinbered Apprbve'diForReleatl? novoato4latC1A-ROP801003,01R000200130001=8 ;treated the CIA. - ' -, - man. ' Once stt.ch a principle is clearly un- . . . - derstood in a large government, the security Committee Asked to See VA:5.11INGTOli POST Approved For Release 2003160App9)31A-RDS81Mllt6IMR You kixer a Trob., lie? can , (L Ifr, , , 1;6 .1;1406.1 . ' DURING the Dog Days of August, a lec,i gion of officers in the U.S. armed forces ant.l.) a phalanx of unknown civilians were given the news: if they held top secret clearances, they :were advised that unless they currently are working with top secret material, the clear- anC,9 is being automatically cancelled by the U.S. government. What do these tidings mean to them? At `Over the years this resin?. gcnee Of red tape will engage tbe services of the FBI, the CIA and countless clerks. and bureau hawkshaws at the cost, of millions of dollars to the taNpayer.' present, rractically nothing. But should they ever return to some job that requires such a clearance, they will have to repeat the whole "clearing" process. They will be fingerprinted; though their prints have not changed. Then they will 'spend hours filling out forms relating their travels abroad, identifying their ancestors and making note of their associations and affiliations, present and past. They Will be quizzed by security officers as to -whether they ever belonged to the KKK, the Know-Nothing Party, the Wob? blies, the Knights of the Mystic. Sea or other organizations on the current taboo list, Then they will sit and wait while that Rube Gold- berg invention, called the review process, grinds out a decision. r Over the years this resurgence of rod tape will engage the 'services of the FBI, the CIA and countless clerks and bureau hawkshaws ? By 8. A. Mai...dual ?. . . ,at the cost. of millions of dollars to the tax- payer. In my own case I have heard from two s.)- ? called Washington think tanks about their latest. thoughts. The message was that I was still cleared for top secret, but since I was no longer ac- tively requiring that clearance, would I fill out the enclosed form acknowledging My discharge from the awesome responsibility? My knowledge of anything that might bring down the pillars of the temple being less than would fill a thimble punctured by a shell from Big Realm, I was happy to com- ply. But it did take time oven as it made work for the mailman and no doubt the guardians of our security awaited the reply atremble, worrying about the possibility that another jackass would bolt and bedevil the system. And what is .this ridiculous convulsion all. . about? ' Here is simply another wholesale mischief brought about directly by the capers of Dan- iel Ellsberg and his pal, Russo. These joker's from the world of science may stay stead- fastly loyal to one another, but they seem not to give a hoot about how much trouble they give. others. ' To begin, there was a minor tremble at Rand Corporation in Washington where the two had worked after a fashion and the se- curity of which they proceeded to scuttle, A new set of security hardhats was rushed to the scene to lock the stable after the horse was gone. Then out of California, rumbling was heard all the way to the banks of the Poto- mac. The security beagles dashed to the seeming breaches in the tumbling walls, thereby tq save America from total .catas- trophe. ? Hero we have what might be called the ca- . . pricious compounding of a felony. It is an. utterly senseless way to manage a bores ac racy, this penalizing of thousands or'person, and millions of taxpayers, because of the ac- tions of two or more misfits who alle!2edly betrayed their trust. But that is {,orernment- for you. What we have is but arlotl!ct? hor- rible example of the ill-conclitiorecl that provided Ellsberg with his lame eX,:n.ise. Years ago I knew Ellsberg, when he 'mac quiet, soft-spoken and had no hint of that glint in his eye. He was working in the 1-a7?..n- talon studying the nature of internationat elise.s and had his own theory to expound. The gist was that what is called an interna- tional crisis comes. about when two sets c.) men in power feel theirpersonal Positions challenged and likely to become forfeited unless they act boldly or at least stand firm. Out of selfishness, they move ever closer to the collision coal-se. None but a simpleton would reject this idea outright. That I play with it now is not because I can interested in what makes Ellsberg tick: . ? . out of California, rum. bling was beard all time way to the banks of the Polo:mu.. The security beagles cla,hed to the seerniug breaches in the nun- Ming walls, thereby to save America front total catas- trophe.' What made the security. managers behave like waterbugs is the question. ? It is hero suggested that they were. more concerned about their: jobs than with the. exercise of cammon sense and that is the general fault in the system.. ? ? :7: ; 0).1.9(1, Lfin:Angoe, en,thcs :- / Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 Approved 14.61,1 124 2 6 iq Li 13 1M R?W149:1144014li g (*gal:AD 4011 01R i ' SpcNal to TM NeW York l'iroca ? .: H.- WASHINGTON, Aug. 25 --Rand 'employes and consultants', The nation's military and 'de- with - access to top-secret Ma-i fense ? Contractors, at the re- terials from 1,300 to 450 had -quest of the Defense Depart- been recommended to the De- incnt, ?report that they are tense Department. ? J quietly. making substantial re- Another major defense 'con.; . . ductions in Thenumber of their tractor, the Loeing Company of - employes Who hold top-secret -Seattle, said that its review was. Government security clear- still in progress, but reported .a..1-1COS. that at one Midwest facility em- The move, part of an Ad- ploying 4,000 people the num-:: . . 'ministration plan aimed at ulti- ber holding top-secret clear- mately reducing the number of ances had already been reduced .security '61-earances. both in and from 100 to 34. . .out. - of- ? Government, ? - was Most of those' who have lost prompted by a . dispute last their clearances were 'people :June. between the Government who at one time needed the and the press over the publica- top-secret clearances to per- tion of a secret Pentagon -stOdy form their jobs, biat who now on -the Vietnam war. -- . for whatever reason no longer ? Dr, Daniel Ellsberg, a for?"'? .need it, ace ording to Lowell '' P. Pilickelwait, Boening, s vice employe of the Rand Corpora- president for industrial iela- tion,? a privte consulting firm. tions. . engaged . in defense .work, has Won't Impair Ability , said , that he had made the ?.'lr. Mickelwait added that study available to the press. the reduction in the numberof While an employe of Rand, Dr.. Doeing personnel cleared . to Ellsberg? hold - a top-secret' work; on top-secret projects clearance.. would "absolutely" not impair , Most of the defense con_ his cempany's ability to bid tractors- who have been asked successfully for defense con- by the Defense Department to tracts.? submit -their recommendations The reason, he said, is that on which. employes no longer the Defense DePartment p'er- 'need top-secret clearances are nutted contractors to reinstate still reviewing their personnel the top-secret classification any rosters: The Defense Depart-. time witivi a year after down- ment . 'said 'it would use the grading if a valid need arises." recommendations chiefly for He said he believed that the guidance, and will retain the ability to bid for a top-secret right .to make the final deter- c;on= ii1,v,oduld be considered mination on classification - 'O'il'.,:i7r.'irca-tc!?:.defense con- changes. . ? from companies . tractors ,' were making or had made' indicated that they Indications that have _already . completed their reviews are that the num- ber of personnel with top-secret similar reductions in the num- !her of top-secret Defense De- .. partment clearances outside the clearances, but were reluctant. ?' Government will eventually he to quote - exact figures for. considerably smaller. - - security reasons. - ? _ ? The General Dynamics Cor- ---- pOration, the nation's second Ellsbelrg Is Commended largest military supplier and a ? ? Special to Tao New Yak Times 1 - major builder of submarines, ? COLUMBIA, S. C.,.Aug. 25? reported that 1,528 employes, 'ME; Association for Education Or about 2,7 per cent of its in Journalism today narrowly. Work . force, held top-secret approved a resolution corn- internal review. - "valuable contribution to .the for a clearances before - it began its mending Dr' rilsberg 'After the screenin,Y process, people's right to know." the list has been pared to 638, - Di-- Ellsberg,' who said he la .-..according to ,fricials at the eke'd the .Pentagon papers to coMpany's headquarters in St. new has been arraigned spapers, - on charges of : unauthorized: Louis Security measures at the Oessessi?11 of secret' Govern- Rand ' -Corporation, where D,.. fluent documents. _ Ellsberg worked, have been the In a related resolution, the: association applauded "the target of particular attention. ,, courage and - public service :: All ? secret documents 'Rand 's offices in Washin,Yto"n' spirit of The New York 'limes r ?f and Washington Post. and othei' Approved Fsalft00.444064/03/1) el ( pe.7,7t.clAAPP81&61t61,R000200130001-8 supervision of the Air Torce. A T----'''' -- ' - ? '-'. ? ......? .. -. 4. ? ' ? company- spokesman said that a rnriiirtinn In thn nomber of - STATI NTL yo K.TL3 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/G3/04 ..CIA-RDP80-01.60 3 AUG 1971 j",,,,,c,? r A v.,,) A I View )1),-i?c ,a &silica/101m .Spec!al to The Ne rt Yoe,: Times WASHINGTON, Aug. 12 -- President Nixon has ordered 'early declassification of secret Government documents on the Korean war, the 1958 interven- tion by American troops in /Lebanon, the abortive invasion V of Cuba in 1961 and-the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, the White TIouSe announced today. John D. Ehrlichman,. assist- ant to the President for Domestic Affairs, said that Mr. Nixon. felt that the four mili- tary actions were "of uch his- torical. importance" that schol- ars should not have to wait the customary 25 years before the bulk of the documents were made public. Mr. Ehrlichman said that the decision to speed the removal of the "secret" classification from the documents had grown out of an interagency study of the Government's security sys- tem. The study was ordered in ;January by the President. 'Classifying Them Better' --In what lie termed a "prog- ress report" on the study, Mr. EhrlichmEm said that it was aimed at devising a method for "classifying fewer documents In the future; but classifying them better." The President feels strongly, Mr. Ehrlichman said, that "Gov- ernment has a duty to make disclosure of what is going on in the Government." But he as- serted that Mr. Nixon's attempt to initiate an "era of negotia- tion" between the United States and other world powers ? re- quired that the Government be? able to demonstrate its ability to maintain confidentiality. For that reason, Mr. Ehrlich.. man said in response to ques- tions at a White House brief- ing; the Administration sought to block publication of the Pen- tagon's secret history . of the Vietnam .war in June. Parts of the study were published by The New York. Times, The Washington Post and other newspapers. He said it was. unquestion- able that "probably the large majority" of the Pentagon papers were "needlessly" held under restriction at the time of their disclosure in the news- papers. Effect on Negotiations But, he went on, the "massive compromise" of the Vietnam documents by the newspapers "demonstrably has raised ques- tions in the nyt The ?low York Times John D. Ehrliclirrian 11JThere. should he new roles that individuals who have a ? specific security clearance, such ? as "top secret," would have access to documents only on ?a strict "need-to-know" basis, CNew restrictions would be !developed to curtail individuals' rights to duplicate classified matter or to disseminate it. Uecret documents should be released automatically after a specified period of time unless their publication would "jeop- ardize current intelligence sources," imperil relations with other governments or "need- lessly embarass individuals" in other nations. As a general rule, the study group is tending toward re- versing the established practice of keeping documents secret unless it can he demonstrated they are no longer sensitive, Mr. Ehrlichman said. "The President believes past practice has re.sulteci in classi- fication of a number of docu- comments about reporters 'in-. nocently" gathe tinge news,1 whether the journalists who . participated in the Pentagon disclosures were innocent. He said he could not com- ment because the matter might be subject .to litigation. The question was put by a repre- sentative of one of the news- papers involved, and Mr. Ehrlichman told him: "Deep in the questioner'si heart must lie the answer toI that question." whom we will be negotiating or meats that need not have been :. have been in the past" as to classified" for national security whether the United States se. reasons, 'lie added. curity system is effective. Restricted Circulation Mr. Ehrlichman declined to At the same time, he empha- relate the Adthinistration's con. sized that Mr. Nixon had fob cern about the disclosure of the lowed a "set of principles" in Pentagon papers to President his personal dealing with diplo- Nixon's diplomatic initiative matic and domestic issues that toward China. , included highly restricted cir- The White House asked Con.. culation of documents and ex- press last week to authorize al tremely limited sharing of in- $636,000 expenditure this year formation with staff members. The "cornerstone of an era of negotiations" is confiden- tiality, Mr. Ehrlichman stated. "You pe.ople do and should dig for every piece of informs- 'a-million. tion you can get," he told the Declassification of the docu- journalists at the White House. merits on the Korean. war and But he said reporters could the Lebanon and Cuba actions publish information "innocent- would require additional funds, ly'? that might have a bearing but the amount was not re- on events that the journalist-'s vealed today. This effort also were not aware of and could? will require a longer period of thus "create a climate of doubt" time and could take consider- about Government . confiden- ably more than five years, tiality. officials said. . Mr. Ehrlichinan was asked if Mr. Ehrlichman said that it the Government's unsuccessful also was possible that Govern- international incidents would 1 mblication of the Pentagon tions to stop newspaper meat secrets related to other court ac - be given the -same accelerated , study were undertaken to declassification. The ' list is demonstrate to other n.ations said, but he did not identify ? ? the good faith of the Nixon "open-ended as .of now," he other possible subjects for early l'..Annustration. - Criteria Outlined -"Yes," he replied. re-lease. . According to Mr. Ehrlichman, ? A Federal grand jury in the study group, which is Boston has been. examining, the headed by William H. Reim- disclosure of the Pentagon General, had tentatively estab- papers and considering whether some reporters might be liable ouist, an Assistant Attorney - ? lished some criteria to follow, to prosecution. Mr. Ehrhehman, jie mentioned the following was asked if the Government' . . . . pob requirements: to begin a five-year process of declassifying some 160 million pages of documents on World War II that are still secret. The entire effort is expected to cost STATI NTL b5V6cf r Release 2001/03/04 had es.tablisphe8d,oi-nollig6hot o1fRhOls00200130001-8 NEW. YORK TIKES RAJUE 11 Approved1For Release 2001/03/ 2 _ . I ,16DP80-01601R00 , ' ? ? , There were indications that no The last category was: "coin- manciers and deputy or vice commanders and chiefs of staLl of major, field and fleet con).- mands, forces or activities, as designated by the chiefs of the military services or the com- manders of the unified and spe- cified comniands concerned. On Capitol Hill, William. B. Macomber Jr., deputy Under' Secretary of State for Adminis- tration, told :a House Govern-- ment Operations subcommittee that the State Department now classified as secret 200,000 doc- uments a year. He said the av- ? erage over the last 20 years had been about 100,000 a year. Mr. Macomber conceded, un- der questioning, that too many documents were -classified, and remained classified for exces- sive periods. Asked if the State Depart- ment had requested that the Justice Department seek in- junctions against The New York Times and other newspapers to halt publication of the Penta- gon study, Mr. Macomber said it had not. But said that. the State Department -concurred with the Justice Department be- cause of "deep concern" over disclosure of sonre of the ma- terial. Asked if a substantial por- tion of the Pentagon study could be declassified without harming national security, he replied:- "Some of it." -He said that only about 10 to 15 per cent of the material in the 47-volume study should re: main classified on the ground of national security. ? ? \NEE ESE AES SEES SECRETS ? .: ? , Calls for Names Of All Those With Authority to Handle , Classified DbOurnents- , ? BY JOHN HERDERS SpecIal to Tie New York Thr.es ? SAN, CLEMENTE, Calif., July 7----The White House said tos :day that it :had 'ordered : the. :compilation of a: list of all persons who, have authority to see top-secret documents. Gerald L. Warren, assistant White ? House 'press secretary, said in response to questions that a' confidential memoran- dum signed by Brig. Gen. Alex- ander M. Haig Jr., Deputy As- sistant to the President for Na- tional Security, had gone to departments and agencies di- recting them to compile lists of those having top-secret clear- Mr. Warren said the memo- randum, issued June 30, was part of a review of the process of classification and declassi- fication ordered by President Nikon on Jan. 15. - He was vague about the dez. tails of the memorandum, whose eXistence was diSclosed today in The Washington Post. But other officials said it was part of an Administration effort to reduce the number of se- curity aclearanees both in and out of GovernMent.., .. Pentagon Is Complying ? In Wahington, a spokesman said. that the Department ' of Defense was compiling its list. The ?spokesman said Secretary -of Defense Melvin R Laird had ordered the step about three days ago,- ? ,. -The memorandum set this coming Sunday as a deadline for compilation of the lists, but it avaS considered doubtful' that 'the departments . could comply that quickly. Because of unclear regulations about secu- rity clearances, there was some doubt about the ability of the .agencies to compile compre-: jlensive lists at all. " -1 One in the Government knows how many persons have security Clearance. arid that Mr. Nixon is trying to put the entire dis- puted matter of classified docu- ments under central control :for the first-time., - ? Various laws and regulations apply in- departments and agen- cies dealing with sensitive mat- ters. Estimates of the nurnher of those' with ? some authority to see top-secret documents run as high as many thousands. , Members of the armed forces the Central Intelligence Agency, the White House, the State De: partment, the Justice Depart- ment, defense contractors and consultants are heavily involved In security matters. About the time the White House memorandum was drafted,.Mr. Laird ordered tightene security at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., which conducts defense research on a contract basis. Daniei Ellsberg, a former Rand employe and Pentagon official, is under indictment for alleged misuse of top-secret documents and has said publicly he passed copies of a study of the Vietnam war to news- papers. Documents pulalished by The , New York ? Times and other papers carried top-secret clas- --:?k7' ? 'As 'Immediate Reductions' The Haig memorandum saas in part that "each responsible department and agency" must inititate at once "a review and screening of each top-secret and compartmented clearance, presently held by individuals with a view to effecting imme- diate reductions of all clear- ances which cannot be demon- strated to meet the requirement of strict need to know." . Mr. Nixon arrived at the summer White House here last night for a two-week stay, ac- companied by Secretary of State ,William P. Rogers; the Erector. of Central Intelligence, Richard Helms; General Haig and other; officials. . He con-. (erred at length with Mr. Helms about the latter's recent trip to the Middle East. The Pentagon spokesman, Brig. Gen. Daniel James Jr., said that as of April, 1971 803 in the defense establishment had authority to classify material as top secret. But the department Was unable to say how many had access to top-secret mate: The list of 803 began with the Secretary of Defense and went through 12 categories of de- scending ranica, _ STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8 SZ? :frOUIS C.11. Approved For Release 2001/0i/610 64-RDP80-01601 I cc- ? D)'To r(rD4-(') `Q?,, By WILLIAM K. NtVYAINT jR.. - A. Warillington. ?Coi,respoodelit of the Post-Dispatelt WASHINGTQN,,Aug. 7 MANY AMERICANS do not know where Laos is, much less that the United States is spenjing close to $500,000,000 annually in support of the clandestine war there. Like a dentist digging at a wisdom. tooth, S en at or Stuart Symington (Dern.), Missouri, has been trying to bring the facts to light. The cat was pretty well out of the bag this week?not fully, but the head and shoulders at least?with the publication of two documents in which the E,xecutive Branch allowed mention of the Central Intelligence Agency's heavy involvement in Laos. - One of the documents was a 23-page report prepared for Symingto.a's foreign relations subcommittee on United States security agreements and commitments abroad. It was prepared by two staff members, James 0. Lowenstein and Richard M. Moose. A "sanitized" ver- sion of it was made public Tuesday. The other document was the exnur- Lated, declassified transcript ofthe Sen- ate's closed session of June 7, a. session that had been requested by Symington to discuss Laos and make the then top- secret Lowenstein-Moose report avail- able to other Senators. It was published Wedne,sday in the Congressional renrcl. '? Lowenstein and Moose visited Laos from April 21 to May 4, in the aftermath of last spring's drive into Laos by United States - supported South V i e tna me s e troops. The two presented their report, classified top secret, to Symington's panel May 21. BEFORE THE REPORT was made public this week, it was reviewed in de- tail with representatives of departments of State and Defense and the CIA. This ? procOdure took five weeks. Many dele- tions . Were ' made for security reasons, but the CIA permitted itself to bc men- , Coned. 'The CIA's roles-long .reported? now is official. Late in 1539 Symington's subcommittee held hearings on Laos as part of a comprehensive inquiry on American corn- mituients ?abroad. A heavily censored report of the hearings was made public in April 1970. One can scrutinize its 603 pages without finding mention of the. CIA. . . . STATINTL -71-c r/ Qtty 71) ? 0 /FIN C/O' ') ?ii07-)itl- r'tser.-1 1.1 ) Q.o.,-/ . (7_, LI 1"t JLA o ciy In Contrast, the Lowenstein-Moose re- ' port released this week- puts the CIA firmly in the picture, as in the sentence: "The United States continues to train, arrrir and feed the Lao .army and air force and to train, advise, pay, support and, to a great extent, organize the irregular military forces underthe. direc- tion of the CIA." IN ASSESSING the new revisit on Laos, ii is necessary to differentiate between what it contained that was news to the Senate and Congress generally and what it contained that was news to the Amer- ican public. Members ol Congress are often privy to information that is classi- fied and not available to the citi.,-,;enry; As S y min gt on noted inn statement Tu es d a y, there were several areas in which the subcomm;:ttee Lild its staff re- port squeezed inforreation from the Exec- utive Branch that previously had been kept. secret. - (1) Since, early 1970 the United States has been conducting 11-52 raids in north- ern La0S.011 a regular basis. This was dist closed to Congress May 3 while the staff men were in Laos. President Richard M. Nixon admitted in March 1970 that the United States was flying tactical missions. in northern Laos. It is easy to relate American air aetivi-. ty against the Ho Chi Minh Trail in south- ern Laos to the: war in Vietnam, because trail is an enemy supply route to Scuifn Vietnam. In the case of the war in northern Laos, the relationship to Viet- nam is less obvious. (2) The American-supported irregular forces in Laos, about 30,000 Laotian troops and about 4000 Thais, are deployed generally throughout the country's mili- etary regions, .except around the capital, Vientiane.. It had bean thought that the ir- regular forces were concentrated in Mili- tary Regionli under Gen. Yang Pao, (3) United States operations in Laos are costing much more than had been sup., posed. Symington said the only official ex- penditure publicly announced previously for Laos for fiscal 1971, just ended, was. about $50,000,000 in economic assistance. He said the actual outlay for 3971, exclu- sive of bomb in g. costs, was about 000,000. In addition the report by Lowenstein and Moose indicated an over-all intensity of American involvement in Laos that undoubtedly c.aroe as a surprise to many in Congress and .to citizens at large, even the sophisticated. ' he figures that were' inadi, public didS.TATINTL :not include specific outlays by the CIA.. Those figures were deleted. It could be -deduced, however, that the CIA spent 8100,600,000 to $120,000,000 in 1971 for sup- port of the irregulars, including the re- cruits from Thailand. ? IN ADDITION to training, paying and otherwise supportingthe CIA's irregulars, the United States trains, arms and feeds.: the Royal Laotian Army and Air Force. It was made clear that the government of Laos had about exhausted its manpower from internal sources --- hence, the troops - from 'Ilailand. ?The irregular forces in Laos are doing most of the fighting against enemy Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese units. From 1908 through last April, i;020 irregulars were killed in action and 3664 royal army troops. A private in the royal army receives the equivalent of $5 zo month, ill addition to allowances for dependents. Lowenstein ,and Moose were told that the Laotian government was having difficolty finding soldiers. About 30 per cent of new re- cruits reportedly desert. The population of. Laos, an impover- ished agricultural country we.st cif Viet- nam and south of China, is only 2,800,0000: Nearly two thirds of Laos is not under government control. The military situa- tion lies steadily worsened, The income of-, ;the approximately 2,000,000 Laos tinder -oovcrnment control averages $08 a year, based on the corm- tiy's gross national product. A partial to- tal of United States outlays for Laos in 1971, it was said, would amount to. $141 for each Laotian.. ? A BONE of contention b e t we. en Mr. Nixon's Administration and some Mora- hers of Congress is whether the United States Government, in its support for the Thai irregulars, violated a law enacted by Congress last year. The Government says it has not, At the behest of Senator J. William Ful- bright (Dem), Arkansas, an amendment was put into the defense authorization bill barring the use of funds "to support Viet.- namese or other free-world forces in-ac- tions desioned to provide military support a n d assistance to the governments of Cambodia. or Laos." If defense funds were spent to support the troops from Thailand in Laos, the con- travention of Congress's will would be fairly obvious. What about CIA funds? The State Department has taken the,posi- Con that the Thai irregulars sent into Laos by the United States are "local Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601RD002001.30001,8. Approved For Release 2001c04&41001A-RDP80-01 - ? is further directed thata .1 One official said he believed ... L., each responsible department about 10,000 Foreign Service and -agency initiate at once a Officers have .top secret clear- review and screening of each ance as did, presumably, tech- top-secret and compartmented Meal specialists. But he said '1,1"- ,eeChirn -clearance presently held by in, the State Department ha dividuals in the above employ- many outside consultants wh ment categories with a view to are called on only rarely wh ' effecting .immediate reduc- presumably also have top so- tions- of all clearances which ? cret clearances. ? cannot be demonstrated to All agents of the Federal meet .the requirement of strict Bureau of Investigation have . ? need to know. . . _ . ... top secret clearances by virtue 'List "Particular consideration is of their jobs, although the . to be given to the screening of need-to:know- application ac- Of Clearances employees in the consultant f- .ua..y limits the number of and contracted categories;" persons who see classified doe- Secret the Haig memo said. uments. ?For Top The memo, written on White . It is understood that other . ! House stationery, was dated federal intelligence agents By Ken W. Clawson ; June 30, two days before De- also must pass a top secret se- Washington Post Staff Writer fense Secretary Melvin R. curity investigation as a pre-. ? President Nixon has Laird ordered Air Force seen- condition to employment. ? ' (iovernment rity men to take custody of all The Justice Department, ! or all classified documents held by which is prosecuting Ellsberg agencies .to compile lists Of the Rand Corp., the leading for a security breach, also persons., in and out of goy.. private "think tank" engaged could not indicate yesterday in defense research. Laird al- the number or the names of .ernment, who have top- leged earlier that there were its personnel who are cleared secret clearances with the "security compromises" at for top secret documents. A aim of sharply reducing the Rand.,spokesman said that a "wild Laird's direct action an guess" would place the figure number of security clear- ? . President Nixon pledge to at a "few hundred." ances.? ? tighten up security clearances A White House official said ' In a memo labeled "admin- across the board followed dis- a similar survey was being e' closures June 28 by Daniel "didn't have any idea" how istratively. confidential," th Ellsberg, a former Rand re- 1 taken in the Executive Office -White House also ordered fed- searcher and Pentagon offi- of the President, but that he -,eral agencies to immediately. cial, that it was he who many top secret clearances initiate a review of outside leaked secret Pentagon pap- were held there. 'Individuals and organizations ers to the press. Directives in the new Nixon ?. The White House memo memo appeared to grow ? di- holding classified materials made it clear that Mr. Nixon rectly out of disclosures from . . with the aim of drasti- means to get a handle on secu- the secret Pentagon papers cally reducing such nong,ov- rity clearances, estimated var- and were not related to a Jan. ernment holdings." iously at between thousands 15 memo in which the Presi- . and hundreds of thousands, dent called for broader and The memo, signed by Brig, and to pare the list considera? speedier declassification pro- ' Gen?Alexander M. Haig Jr., bly. The top-seeret clearances cedures and for a continuing Deputy Assistant to the Presi- are awarded by individual goy- review of that process. dent for National Security Af- ernment agencies and The January directive was fairs, said that "the President branches and there currently also confidential, but it was has directed that the following is no central repository in the made public by the White 'actions be taken ? . ? .government. House June 22, at the height By noon Saturday, each fed, A check yesterday of key of government efforts to stop eral agency, including ? the government agencies where publication of the top-secret . White House itself, must sub- top secret clearances are most Pentagon papers. mit a list of the number of prevalent also revealed that . . _ government employees, out- the agencies themselves do -side consultants and private not know who?or how many ? contractors who hold clear- ?hold top security clearances. ances for access to top-secret The Pentagon, for example, information and "the various said the figures are "not read- categories of compartmented ily available" nor are the iden- Intelligence data." tifications of those . holding - ? ie By the .end of July, the fed- clearances compiled. ? ;eral agencies are ordered to Officials at the State Dc- turn over to the White House partment said they don't have the names of the holders of Sc- the information sought by the ?Cret clearances broken down President and said they would; to indicate government and be surprised if it could be nongovernment employment, compiled by. noon Saturday,. Lthe presidential deadline. ? eV): STATI NTL STATINTL Approved ForRelease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160.1 R000200130001-8 STATI NTL STATINTL Los ANGELIEs TrEs elease 2001.108/04-aQ1k-RDIVpA011R81 A rA0 haVe. been in and out r documents are : RAND SA i L."6 L "kg' u " ( ? - ,of the Pentagon and other used. He goes literally .no- d elens e agencies a n d where alone. C L r D SAICI found you can walk up to? If a vis.itor goes to the restroom, his escort Stands outside the door. Even new employes Whose. security: clearances have not yet been ap- proved are confined to a so-called "clear area" out of reach of classified infor- mation. The clear area is on the first floor near the main .entratice. ' If the visitor is going to dis?CuSs classified informa- tion, a clearance authoriz- ing. it must have been sub- mitted and approved be- forehand. If he is not Cleared, his hot must take ailclassi- ? ?the very office, of Laird ? THAN E WAGON - Witi7OLICanybody checking ? ? ? ? you out,? he said. BY GEORGE REAatl'iS . "The only one who stops , - ,., l'Ims SM tf Writer . - , ? :-_, you is his female secretary ., Daniel Ellsberg who ..says in in the outer office. There leaked. the top secret Pentagon pa- ?are classified documents pars to the press would have found in every room?and the ?access to them easier at the Penta- safes are open," he said. -gpii. . than at Rand Corp.; a former "The only rule . is that Ran'd scientist said Friday. .. ? someone must be present ., "Rand security is tighter than se- in the room if the safe is _ curity at the-Pentagon," Dr. Bernard open, but it can be only ' Brodie said. "And you can quote the female secretary." me". .. ? He said security at the . . . . ' ? .Brodie, who worked at the Santa S t a t e Department w a s .. Monica "think tank" for 15 years about as lax. and also on national sec.urity 'pro- "There is an entrance for jects at the Perrialgon, eccused.Se.cre- diplomats who can enter tary of Defense Melvin R. Laird Of without an appointment . unjustly "punishing" Rand by tak. and another working en- lied ducumPnt ' 1 *- s_ip...,..ilip._pos-_ fiHs out a transrer form trance at which vors. . .,e.--sion a:Id-place t tem in noting lt.clian.Efed handsing ? security custody of all s&fTek documents 'away from the agenclf'.% must have an appointment 'usalspecia safe and lock it. . A copy of the form g0C5 the re- lose . procedures . .are to the control room. \ Laird said Rand security was "iax" which i.'; verified bY. and could not he tolera.ted coptionist. ? required. even though Vitzi- Except for a dozen re- . .. His action came in the wake of . .,t , a i?..,, m In.ch ?lors frequ'ently are offi- . searchers who are work- scandal surrounding the Pentai .tho. I I.5 '5' ti :rre. ncL,., t t he ctals,f t,orn such agencies as /ing on crash studies, top l. o papers. Rand had custody of t ,.vo guard when you enter and the Central Intelligence" secret documents must be AT e n c y, A i r Force or returned to the .control sets wane Eitsberg was ? then the visitor is on his . - ? employed there in 1.969. . ow S t a t e Department a n d room at night. n' to wander around. No The two Rand sets were one knows whether - he .1'?1d top secret security ? Those who retain pos- : clearances. ? s e s s i o n keep the doe- closed after Ellsbc.,rg dis-. works there or not." timents in ? a special tani- At Rand, the controls are If ' the visitor, leaves closed that it was he who per-proof file "safe" with a much tighter, the two for- Rand for lunch, he surren- .1eaRed them: . mer researchers said. They ders his badge at the door combination lock. L e s s Brodie said Laird's ac- ?tion in clamping a security outlined the system this and his departure is noted sensitive ?documents may be kept by any researcher way: . ' ? ? .-,?? - ? ? in the log. When he re- lid on Rand ? was "unrea- l There are guards on all . turns, 'he must pin the in his locked file cabinet. sonable and y pett a Only the researcher and . three doors. .The arrival badge back on. - - ? grandstand pay.. ?, ? one other person knows "Laird is acting sore, : a n d departure of .eni- : To check out a to P secret the combination. It must ' ployes, who , must show document, ?a: Rand staff that's all." - :. . be . Ile said Laird 'should their pass, is recordedmemorized. To write it on a member must have the ap- down is a security viola- look to . his own org,aniza- tape recorder.. - , ,- . propriate . security clear7. tion: - - - - tion for comparisOn.. ? , .. ?VisitorS mustnave 111'. ance and must justify his T h e combination is "Anyone Can go in the appointment to be admit- request at the top secret cha.nged every year. ,Pe?ntagon and walk ted. Their arrival is record- control room by supplying 'Pentagon Safes . ' around' w it h o ut being ed on a log on -which is the number of the project challenged except in a few :noted their, names, Whom on which he. is working (According to Brodie, sections such as the offices they are calling on, 'Whom which attests to his "need there are safes all over the of the Joint Chiefs of they represent, ? whether to know." Pentagon in which top. se- Staff,'! said.Brodie, a . they are American eh i',:ens He cannot check out top cret ccuments are kept. U C L A. political science-and whether they will be. secret documents unrelat- He said there is no require- professor who stilt serves discussing classified. infor- ed to his project. He must ment for top secret doe- as 'consultant to Rand. mation. . ... sign for his . document on uments to be returned to .. "Every Pentagon office Waits. for Escort and IBM card which re- the control' rem, at the has classified material in After verifying that he cords the document's ion:. end of the clay.) . . At," he said. "It's handled has an aPpointment, the tion. . Every six months at -. - carefully but anyone can -guard issues the visitor a He is resi5Onsible for the Rand, the top secret con- go In," . . red badge bearing his document until he returns trot room Makes a periodic Another ?Agrees , ? -entrance until an escort Researchers must f011ov ument to verify theft lo- name and holds him at the he .;' s .it to t control room. check of outstanding doc- Another former Rand . arrives. He can . take his strict procedures I f' cation. researcher, who declined briefeQse but must leave gttard documents in their Removal of classified to be identified, backed ? camera and tape recorderposse.s.sion. Guards perio- n.late.rial from the pre.mi- Brodie's remark i s about behind. - ? dically patr ses 61 the offices, ; is forbidden but Brodie comparative ? . s e c u r i t y . . . No outsider without an note infractions and re- admitted guards do not check the brief cases of dation both AlizkprilA -lwr DarilL t- c in the? based on 10 Rears of as.o- vm.For Rele4 ikkbalms4 ri Ci IR . ger-01601R00020010041015,8when they A' bib -----tagon_and -Rand ? . _ leave. Too many violations anc the offender is fired or de rooted to work not involv ing classified information. :No one can leave this Of- fice unless all top secret documents are locked in his safe. Those whose Offices are on the first floor with win- dows facing the street are ? forbidden Ii' o in leaving ? the room with classified information on their desks. Neither can they leave their safes open. A top se.cret document canna leave the office of the man who checked it out. Tie cannot' give it to a colleague until he estab- lishes that he has the pro- per security clearance and Lai'd 213:11ZS ..1.11 LI ? Approved For Release 200i/.63rim : um-RDP80-01601R0 STATINTL ff-IMMITChr. The".Government.says.,,it keeps ..:..Clbse 'tabs on the top secret Ma- ::: tei?iat outside .its purview' (al- thou'gh it admitted. that it had temporarily' lost track'. 'of 'some of its .own copies of the .Penta- gon report). ? -.Everyone who has acceSs to ?classifled. ,material; whether in- side, outside the Government, ?' ithout.a ? W4?1:3INGTON?TO readerS:of" .suy" novels. the Words "Top 'cret" ;conjure . up a number of -Vision's:?of windowless rooms .far :beneath" the Pentagon where?be-:-. specta.cIed Men spend days and nights under heavy guard read- ing 'coded messages; of armed couriers and impenetrable vaults wnere reams of sensitive doCu- milts ere forever shielded from the eyes of all a very few. Recent events seem to show that this picture, like most pop- ular concepts of how the Gov- ernment operates, is at least partly myth. It came as a sur- prise to many, for example, that 'until last week no fewer than four copies of the Pentagon's secret study of the Vietnam war :.were stored beyond the Govern- ment's immediate grasp. (One is in a safe in the Washington law- ? offices of former Defense Secre- tary Clark M. Clifford. Two have 'been recalled from , the Rand 'Corporation, a private research institute, and another is in the basement of the L.B.J. Library on the University of Texas cam- pus. In , ? ?-must have received . an..-.appro-. -.'priate security clearance: ? ? 'The clearances are not hand- ':'cd out like nickel, cigars .at a --County - fair. Restricted doeu- mentS are classified 'either Top Secret,. Secret or Confidential, ;and an individual, 'Whose job in- volves a "need tO know". only -'"Confidential" material does not . receive a higher clearance: ....When someone with a security. Clearancei: whether . a Govern- ment or private employe, retires or resigns, he is "debriefed"---- reminded of whatever sensitive information he has had access to, then told to forget it: The documents themselves are' ? supposed to go through a pain- fully slow :declassification pro- cedure. Executive Order 10501, issued in 1953, instructs all Gov- .crnment agencies to downgrade classified information automat- ically every three years. . Thus, a report marked Top.- Secret in 1959 should have been down- graded to Secret in 1962/and to Confidential in 1965, .By 1971- 12 years later?it should have then' been declassified and made available to anyone -Who wants to see it. ? But-there are a number or ex- ceptions and exemptions to this rule that senior Government of- ficials. may ''and --,do ;arbitrarily use to keep information out. of ? the, public domain for as long as they, think necessar, :Seine. Secret materials' -.dating.from - World War 11 .have not yet. been declassified. - This is -the way' it is all sup- posed to work, but -theory. and. practice in Washington ?often differ. There are. hundreds of. examples 'of secret- information. /going astray, whether by clum-. V siness or design, dating back to the -infamous 1941 "leak" of the "Rainbow Papers"--r-this coun- try's secret war plans for Ger- many, Japan and Italy?to The Chicago. Tribune. , "Without the use of 'Secrets,"wrote Max Frankel; The Mlles's- Washington correspondent, in a' court affidavit last week, "there could be no adequate diplomatic, Military and political ?reporting Of the -kind our' people take- for granted." Morebver,? he said:: 'Presidents Make 'secret' deci- sions only to -reveal -them for the purposes of frightening -an' ad- versary nation, wooing a?friend,7- ly electorate [or] protecting their: reputations." Government officials who par- ticipate in the "informal but...cus- tomary traffic in secret informa- tion" that Mr. Fra.nkel described as an everyday-eiement of Wash- ington journalism normally don't run afoul of the espionage laws, which stipulate that the Govern- meat' must prove an individual's intent to "injure". the interests 'of the United States before. he, can be found guilty. . ? . . . CRENVDS0111 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000200.1301M-B Approved For l*ibigW120111-1013/0440A-RDP8 15 june. 19Y1. Recently the Senate Judiciary ?" ILA IA- t2,) Committee held public bearings .))0 on the nomination of Otto Otepka for reappointment to be member of the Subversive Activities . Control )30ard?a nomination which President Nixon had ...sent to the Senate in early March. The President had previously sent the nomination of Mr. Otepka to the Senate last fall during the 91st Congress which had neglected to do anything about it, . although the nominee has served on the board, filling an unexpired term. ? ? The most eloquent spokesmen of the most pow- erful left-wing organizations ganged up as wit- nesses to present a united front in a scurrilous as- sault against the courageous patriot, Otto Ote.pka, who has been under continuous Leftist fire for ten , long years! Another chapter can now be added ? to the revealing.book, The Ordeal of Otto Otepka, by William J.. Gill. Historically, the Otepka Case ? ranks with the famed Dreyfus Case of France. Actually Mr. Otepka's troubles began in late 1960?immediately after the Presidential election, ? when be was. Chief Security Evaluator of the State Department. In December, 1960, Attorney General- designate Robert F. Kennedy and Secretary of State-designate . Dean Rusk personally asked. Otepka to grant security waivers for the appoint- / ,i3nents of Walt W. Rostow and Archibald MacLeish V to high posts in the State Department. Mr. Otepka explained that before Dr. Rostow could be appointed to a highly sensitive position in the State Department that the Department had to comply with the provisions of an Executive Order requiring a current preappointment investi- i:gation for such a position because a prior investi- gation of Rostow was incomplete. He stated be would make no evaluation of Rostow's security re- liability except on the basis of a current FBI in- \s/ vestigation. (Rostow had been previously rejected for appointments in the CIA and the Pentagon be- cause, investigations disclosed that be was a secur- ity risk). Otepka stated that be had no authority to. make an exception for Dr. MaeLeish, who re- fused to fill ont government security forms in connection with his proposed appointment. His appointment was rejected by the State Depart- ment Personnel Office for failure to comply with personnel regulations. Bobby Kennedy flew into a rage and berated Mr. Otepka. STATI NTL The aforegoing is a concise, factual account of ! what actually happened in the famous "confronta- tion" between Bobby Kennedy and Mr. Otepka, ! but it :is not the story told by Leftists and the , Bobby Kennedy gang of hucksters?they claim that Otepka was "biased" or "prejudiced" or worse! All Washington knows that Bobby Kennedy was a very vindictive man and the name. of Otepka: was ? placed high on his personal "Hate List." As soon as the Kennedy team took office, secur- ity clearance was waived, and Walt W. Rostow was appointed Deputy Special Assistant to the President for, National Security Affairs directly un- cle.r McGeorge Bundy, and later succeeded him as the top security officer of the U.S. Government.' His successor is now Henry Kissinger, who, iron- ically, was granted a "90-day" waiver on his own 'security clearance?he was allowed to become en- .denched for three months in his important White 4-10use job before the FBI could start checking up --on his background. Knowing the fate of Otepka no : One in the Federal government 'bad the moral courageto turn in an adverse report on Kissinger. ? As soon as Dean Rusk took his oath of office as Secretary of State, Bobby Kennedy henchmen seized control of the security setup at State. The Kennedy hatchetmen launched a campaign of ? harassment .against Otepka; State Department em- ployees who knew him were terrorized in an ef- fort to make them bring incriminating charges against him. The hatehetmen did not just want .to abolish his job or transfer him or fire him?they wanted to ,frame him On trumped-up charges pur- suant to the whims of the vengeful Bobby and his Leftist cohorts. Otepka was a menace. that Must be destroyed, But Otepka turned out to be an astute fellow who did not yield under pressure and resign, as a lesser man ,vould have done. ? Finally, in desperation, in November, 1963, Sec- retary Rusk dismissed Mr. Otepka .from his: posi- tion as chief of the evaluations section of the secur- ity office. He Was charged with disclosing class- ified information while testifying before the Sen- ate. Internal Security Subcommittee. Actually, Otepka's superiors had instructed him to truthfully ? respond to all questions asked him during the Senate inquiry. Later, two Kennedy hatehetmen assigned .to "get" Otepka confessed under oath before the Senate internal Security Subcommittee that they Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000200130001-8, ? uvrft ? Approved For Releas0tifio-Mi4TD6AAbi5804)160 30 May 1?9'il ? _ ? --? -:----, STATINTL \-11117rts . n .ri ? ' ii 11 n ' h i i*-1(.: )17 :3 i-, !!'-.',.1 711.(TiN1 r . 7 r7,1(7:). t.:,-'77 r,-),!. ,,...),ri, ? ( , ili i,,'-li'l 1; if.V I., \ . lii.: I.!, i , ? r ;, f,:! , h il? ? AU 1..j1?-;',:_1(.1 '.....j'i.,J LLA..:..-.: 11',..'Ll..F.A../L._ 1,_-....1.21.1-,.....A....-.. h . - n(7' r1n --;:\ "dwin Muck, a free - Writer, 'i t I H \>>, ; 11 1i vint three months investigating the w-edit bv.rcau i',Ifinstry in Chicago. 'A'iti3 ; Pit t ! t - 2, the first of his two_part series. C.) L : L -J 137 Ldv4a Dkcf, C-LiEPEI CunErv.--chis,ago so'l.esman with a wife and child, two-bedroom home, one car, a dog and a color TV?decided it w.,:ts thue to move up to a better paying kils. So Joe applied to a new cealp,,,nly, was intaviewed and hired. Wend-arta, right? wouderfol, wrong. Because now, ace, is washing day after day with a lyir who knows how long it tal:.es him to pay bills, and what bills he didn't pay last :month, from whom sad how often he borrows- money,whom Irl;3 close friends are, what MS neighbors think of him?and v,v.rst of all, that he was sved ? by his former wife five years ago for nonpayment of ?aliniony. Shocking? Not to the boss, who ohacks into the personal life of possible - employes every day. It's routine, and CO easy as picl:iug up the phone and dialing the number of the credit bureau. Every transaction you make, cosh or credit, is a possible entry into your own ?credit history. Since you reached 21, your life has been cap,sulized on computer tope and index cards and filed with the credit bureau. . And that information is available, not iztuly to employers and creditors, but to detective agencies, the federal govern-, Meat, and even your next door neighbors. -It amounts to a giant credit shadow, lurking behind you every step of the J. C. Penney didn't mind spending over out of state. million last -ye,or to Lp07.1 To illustrate how accessible these ?cliorg,e and reVOIVing Charge ? accounts co-lifidential reports are, I obtained a frill elf.TartInCilt. ? report on a business fricnd thru five To minimize the idol risk Gr oranon, different beaus. C. B. C. C. releaszd crodit,, an elKire industry ha's. bc,c,:l the Information to a doctor friend of created?the credit bureau industry. In mine registered with the 131.1teal.l. TRW chieaso, creditors vtillze thre.e Credit Data released the information to co.,1,3mner c1u7it reportina.:: Ltri?e:?..u.s._ a clerk worl7Ing in a small clothing shop. cr )3u edit rean of c,ar...7.: cony4,- c-Ltlea,,.:0:Chicngo Credit Bureau blindly co; Credit Bureau and TMV Credit a operated with used c s-d2-71',11 And Credit Bureau of (.3?c17' Ir`rE:" 'car, two other minor bureaus co-operated A" with me r in the world, .f.to afte I first pretentled to -verify Eacci f 1 elipiles information c;i the cod, numhur of a large deimrtmea ? five million Chicago -area individun17,.: titore, .and then carted ac.ain using that contaiDS adCire:".;3 toc1,3 numb . rz -employment history, a complete lLt cf Tiff Credit Ii it is a national sex vice? existing credit accounts or purchases, that stores all its recoras in an expansive ora the length of tiro:o it took to pay the computer complex in California. TRW has information on four million Chicago area residents along with millions of in- dividuals in ether cities, but limits its reports strictly to consumer credit reports [no character ? reports]. It mah,tains a unique "protest code" to, bills, any existing unpaid bills, any financial lawsuits mcluuuig full docket details, any liens, any bank accounts, iy lc,ans, any inquiries from any other creditors and anything else of surface .1.,-.e.rest to any business concern con- templathig any credit of ?any the, on any torMs. indicate vitmther a consumer disputes an unpaid bill and will not deliver in- Altho most of this data is now stored formation to any seekers except those manually in long rows of metal files, who grant credit. This at least excludes C. B. C. C. by July 1, - will convert detective agencies and kindred snoops. totally. to CIIIIONUS, a gigantic corn- Chicago Credit Bureau, the city's first Puter system that retrieves complete credit bureau, is as yet uncomputerized. files hi less than a second. For under $2, It follows a credit cheek philosophy. this ?information is available to any. similar to TRW's, but ears an extra registered C. B. C. C. subscriber. service to its lomarads of Chicagolmd - ?- clients: confidential character reports ? way. . ( ?1 which am written evaluations of a ? defined is si.,..nply tryst, from. the Latin word credo, which means "I believe." A retail store or mail-oider house will trust you iith mei ekindise or services on your promise to pay. Without this in a gic a 1 American phenomenon, large deportitlent stores would lose CO per cent of their business, chain stores 49 per cent, and the economy in general would shrivel. consumer's "personal history, char- Viho can subscribe? nott-lii establish- actor, integrity, credit record and mento, oil companies, airlines, ban%s, h,aalth.,, to on.,