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December 9, 2016
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December 29, 2000
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August 14, 1972
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]A August 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-b160 STATINTL The Urban -Guerrillas. w Speculation on "international con- ',, spiracies"-conspiracies of any pgliti cal coloration-fell into disfavor in the 1950s, but the pendulum now may have swung back, and. rightly so. Re- cent events, and intelligence estimates leaked by the CIA, indicate that at least one red-hot international con- spiracy is flourishing wildly-that of the urban guerrilla. The world abounds with leftist-, Marxist-, and Communist-oriented urban guerrilla groups, from the Tupamaros of Uruguay to the Red Army ? of Japan, from tho Palestinian Liberation . Front in the Mid-East to the Provisional wing of the Irish ' Re-. t publican Army. These groups con- i sistently make nauseating headlines with their hijackings, kidnappings, as- i sassinations, and terrorist bombings.. bystanders at Tel Aviv's Lod Airport. That act represents the most concrete example to date of the kind of co-op- eration being established among urban guerrilla groups.- At his trial, the sole surviving Japanese gunman confessed that the. Lod massacre had been re- quested by the Palestinian Liberation Front, which preferred not- to do its own dirty work. It is one thing to kill and to kidnap for your own cause, activities which out, own ' OAS engaged in with a high degree of skill; it is quite another to blast. and butcher without reserva- tion--for a cause that seeks not peace, but destruction. For in the end, all the urban guerrilla groups have only one goal: to preside over the ash heap that they create. Small wonder, then, that the CIA and other' Western J By any reasonable moral code, theirr intelligence organizations are dis- members are.- without souls, un- hesitatingly willing to gun down a man just to see him bleed. No better example of the breed could be provided than the three members of the Japanese Red Army who recently wiped out 26 innocent By Godfrey Sperling, The Chri.stiari Science Monitor "From an interview with Senator McGovern and from conversations with some of his top consultants on foreign policy it becomes abundantly clear that the Senator is bent on lead- ing this country into a kind of nei isolationism, where our global role will be as minimal as possible much less, for example, than that envis- ioned by President Nixon as the re- sult *of his Guam doctrine of -dis- engagement." covering-and leaking-more in- formation about an international tirbah guerrilla network. Americans must hope that the net- work has not yet spread to include the bomb-and-burn types here. But if it has, our home-grown iburderers will need time to criank up their bloody campaign, .and by then the ex- perience of other governments may provide a satisfactory method of han- dling urban guerrillas. In fact, that is why the current conflict in Northern Ireland is so significant for the Free World. . Nowhere else has the urban terrorist come so close to destroying a nation; nowhere else . has a govern- ment tried so hard to.-destroy the de- stroyers. Even if no formal in- ternational conspiracy exists, the odds are that the outcome of the battle for Nat?thern Ireland will determine the outcome of the next battle for Berke- lev ' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000300310001-7 Ts t?e-; x'-STATINT Approved For Release 2001 /0 0+ Ld'AZRDP80-01 raithough well-publicized in f rhn Guerrillas ` t. f `,J -,,Vest. were infrequent. One of these, the scent Mate i was killed in Bolivia, urban, ands the commitment of Fed- By DREW MIDDLETON ;Incident in May, 1970, deinon- rather than g errilla warfare l il I , itary forces as a dras- The United States Army andlstra.ted an sbsenee of fire con- ora m rural guerrilla warfare, is ap- tic last resort" and says that armies in Western Europe and trot by National Guard troops parently becoming accepted as their role "should never that Latin America are devoting that the Department of D the primary anti-Establishment greater than uldolutely ne be more and more time and ef? fence has been working hard to strategy. Mr. Marighella wrote: greater fort to the operational tech- correct. -The field manual cm- "The principal task of the niques,of urban guerrilla war- phasizes restraint in the use It notes that Federal 'forces urban guerrilla is to divert, are to be used only after the fare. of deadly weapons and close wealken and demoralize the National Guard and the ve Military concentration on control of that use if they be- military, the military dictator have used all their own police such warfare and the exchange conic necessary. Ship and their repressive forces, able forces "and are unable to of data were incraesed b re- The National Guard is the first' . ~re ports from the Central Intel- resort in civil disturbance. All rat addition to launching dev control the situation," ligence Agency and foreign Guard units assigned to such astating attacks and looting op The trend in Army training orations against American, for-'and theor discoura es the in- intelligence services of connec- duty rectivc ICI hours of train- y g eoisie interests d bour di i " . g gn an e scriminate use of ps. in I y These included the Japanese end of their basic combat train Such tactics allow the ere force." It is authorized only ation and survival. of urban after lesser means have beep "Red Army" terrorists, the mg cycle. I guerrilla forces which are des-'exhausted or 'are unavailable, Popular Front for the Lit)era- Iv'atianal Guard units are re-'tined to play a decisive role when the risk of death or se- t.ion of Palestine and other quired to carry o,ut a unit re-i revolutionary war. The ur- rious injury guerrillas in the Middle fresher training program of up' in ry to The innocent is East, the People's Liberation to 16 hours annually and eight ban guerrilla does not hesitate not significantly increased by Army in Turkey, and Italy's hours of junior leadership: to disrupt and destroy the pros- its use, and when it meets four "Red Brigade." training. Regular Army units ent economic and social sys- requirements. There are unconfirmed re- receive 33 hours of civil dis-fems." These are self-defense to ports that the Provisional wing turbance training annually. The Army field manual rec- avoid death or serious wounds; of the Irish Republican Army This involves exercises in ognizes varying types of civil prevention of crime that in- has received alms from Japa- platoon and company forma- disturbances. These range from1volves a risk of death or nese terrorists. tions, basically the "V", or "mass demonstrations" through wounds, such as sniping or set- wedge-shaped movement, with civil disobedience,", idealis- ting fire to ail inhabited dwell- Contacts With Tuparnaros the point of the wedge directedltic protests" and "dispersed ing; prevention of the desuuc. The Turkish guerrillas are ,it the riot. Army officers sayjriots" to "political terrorism-Rion of public utilities or prop believed to have contacts) such operations are useful for involving extremely violent, of city vital to health and safety, with the Tupamaros of Urn-! riot control but are "only part Iten nihilistic or even anarchis- and detention or prevention of 1 d i i o e ng an p hav ) the escape of persons wh guay, the oldest and best-or-? of the story" ' in urban guer-; tic tactics, such as sn -jipte ganized urban guerrilla group rilla warfare. -hombing attacks, which snake erations s lice o ffens i l h f p po ona in Latin America. The Tupa- The, current fighting between, convent mares, who have exploited the British Arley and the Provi-;'probably. ineffective and cer- Uruguay's chronic economic sionals of the I.R.A. in Northern tainly dangerous." unrest for eight years, accept Ireland offers a prime example, Minimum Force Urged ,the Marxist doctrine that the of urban guerrilla warfare. Generally, Western armies h warfare is more pro- "are wedded to the concept of revolution will emerge after a S uc period of "armed-stru;gle" and' longed and intense than op 'minimum force in dealing with) to establish observation posts have initiated a series of petit-I orations to quell a riot, but 1urban warfare. on rooftops and in windows of ical 'kidnappings, bank robber-I less deadly than regular mill- The American field manual high buildings when seeking ies and assassinations. tary action against another says, "The use of force must out snipers. This urban ver- In the United States, the army in a city. be restricted to the minimum sion of the battlefield adage, Army has not yet been in- degree consistent with mission "take the high ground," has volved with true urban goer- Reports Excharr ed British in Northern; r g a CCOmPIishrncut," It also warns enabled the rills warfare. Contingency Western armies exchange. excessive or unnecessary Ireland toy restrict street pa- training and -planning relates reports, on the techniques of force may subject those re- trots to six or seven men when to such warfare abroad ini coping with urban guerrilla sponsible to civil or criminal hunting snipers. countries where there is a firm warfare. Past . performancesllliability "and may serve to in? The Amerrcaus regard the American commitment for as are constantly reviewed. crease public sympathy for the armored car as "well suited" sistance --? for example, a' The Russians, it is 'held, Iidemonstrators. in street fighting because of its Communist uprising in Naples, erred in bringing tanks, which, Brig. C.N. Barclay, now re- capacity to "engage and over- Italy - or in long-range plan have limited visibility,- into tired from the British Army !cone violent resistance with a ping within the continental Budapest in 1956. The Drench and a leading authority on ur- n)inimum degree of force." United States. in Algeria,. it is alleged, used ban guerilla warfare, said in other armies are not as san- belief, for Army in. torture f the nineteen-fiftint Military Review, the Command guine. They contend that mines . The terest rationale serest is the belief, in the mints- to get information to the poin and General Staff school pub- and bombs, especially the eas- fon and in the-defense minis- of alienating friendly or lieu, lication, that while the object lily made Molotov cocktail, have tries of foreign countries, that tral Arabs. of war is to cause the maxi- proved effective against ar- the guerrilla is moving from his While field manuals pmlif- mum number of casualties, in rp~ored vehicles in Budapest, Al- classic environment of moon- crate in regular force, most internal security "the rule is Biers and Belfast. tries snd forests to the asphalt urban guerrillas study The use the minimum force con- The and Boll sus of French and jungles of modern cries:, riipimantt of the Urban Guer- Ito with the attainment of British officers is that there is the object - the restoration no substitute for the infantry American planning concert- i11a" by Carlos L. Ma arighella, crates on what its field manual a Brazilian guerrilla killed in of law and order on the spot." patrol in urban fighting. calls "assistance to civil au- Sao Paulo in 1969, and Regis Students of Soviet tactics "The basic techniques in thornier in civil disturbance Debray's "Revolution in the that were used in crushing up- which the Itegular Army is control operations. Planning Revolution? Armed . Struggle risings in Eastern Europe say trained apply to civil disturb- and training for such opera- and Political Struggle in Latin the Russians believe that law ante control as much as to tions began after the Detroit America. and order are restored fastest fighting in a major war," Col. riot in 1967. Urban Warfare Stressed by the application of maximum James Ewing said in a recent t In contrast to the teachings force. Pentagon interview. "Getting a Since then, the National he A and, to a lesser degreE, the Army has been involved! of Mao Tse-tung, chairman of Five divisions were used in sniper is essentially the same t.hE Chinese Communist party, the 1968 invasion n of of Czecho- fob in each case. The difference civil' 4n civil disturbances. and Ernesto (Cho) Guevara, ;slovakia. Resistance incidents, job when _to use, fot'ce it Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-'RDP80-01601 R000300310001-7 ? Conti Z'n . e ese o t to commit one o Field training instructions emphasize lessons learned by the United States Army and other armies. ViT.S'_ IT uT.Cf1 D LILY EFi 12 APR 1972 Approved For Release 20 1/03tO4 : CIA-R1317 -H6101 RO Chile prepares for attack Battle brews of OAS meeting By VIRGINIA 'PREWETT BATTLE lines of a sort are already drawn for the Organi- zation of American States As- sembly, which began a ten- day session here yesterday. Chile has told the U n i t e d S t a t e s it "cannot ignore" Washington's (alleged) schem- ing in 1970 to prevent the elec- tion of Dr. Salvador Allende to its presidency, as tenuously revealed in the Anderson-I'I'I scandal. . The U.S. delegation to the OAS Assembly is prepared to assume a " "statesman-like, digni- fied attitude," but if attacked hard will "reply in kind."' The Nixon Administration, from the highest level,. has signaled-to Dr. Allende what weap- ons it has. But it is also clear the White House wants to avoid a knock-down-and-drag-out fight at the OAS with Chile. Our side has had good success getting complaining Latinos .down to work in committees and may do this again at the Assembly, where such meetings are closed. . Our Secretary of State, William Rogers, ob- viously does not want to become involved. Af- ter entertaining the visiting delegation heads at a luncheon today he will leave for a visit to Canada tomorrow. LOUD, CLEAR SIGNALS The signals launched by the Nixon team to Chile on the Assembly eve have been'loud and clear. They tell Santiago that Washington has detailed proof that President Allende is har- boring a Cuban embassy now trying to upset governments in both Bolivia and Uruguay.. On Friday, April 7, the New York Times' roving columnist on foreign affairs published leaked information aimed at both Castro and Allende. it revealed that Bolivian exiles in Chile now marshaling to "communize Bolivia" are directed by a Cuban mission in Santiago. Dr. Allende is pointedly tied into the affair by the revelation that the Cuban who heads the mission is a Castro intelligence officer named ;Luis Fernandez Ona, "married to Allende's favorite daughter, Beatrice." AID TO GUERRILLAS Earlier, an even more detailed leak of CIA Information to Jack Anderson on March 30 had given chapter and verse on the way the Cu- -bans in Castro's Santiago embassy and, the 'Allendista Chileans are working to help guer- rillas trying to overturn governments in Boliv-. is and Uruguay. Latin American sources had long since re- :_vealed this to me and it comes as no surprise to the well-informed. But the timing of the leaks, especially the one to columnist Sulzber- .ger,. indicates the White House holds a strong hand and wishes it to be known. But this same White House, at the n oment, ' fs in a bind on the issue, one it will note free of until after President Nixon visits Moscow in 'May, if then. The Nixon-Kissinger team wishes to keep its options wide, if possible. Depending on how Moscow is willing to deal, ? the team .might later want to make a 180 degree turn, specifically on Castro's Cuba. Other complaints against the United States besides Chile's, will be heard at the OAS as- I sembly, echoing those sure to be voiced at this (weeks' Santiago meeting of the United Nations `Conference on Trade and Development (UNC- TAD). And these complaints may become deeply involved in our domestic, election-year politics. For none other than the longtime Nix- on critic, the Senate Foreign Relations Com- inittee Chairman, Sen. J. William Fulbright, is meeting with the Latinos on April 14.'_ . Li STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000300310001-7