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December 16, 1970
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Approved For Release 2000/0[81r6l CC JRpPt86i#0.161O" D04 .-. 15 Nov 1970 William Worthy, correspondent of The Baltimore Afro- American and a former Nieman Fellow, was in Vietnam the year before and the year after bienpliu. Seven French defeat at Dien- ?he,prc clrc ieci riz sasier for thscount rif in Viet-12a1).1. `We must recognize 11rat Cuban revolution will go as the you,arl in many areas the world totley are in the midst of a revolution against the status quo . . . They will prevail. They will achieve their idealistic goals 0720 way or another. If theti have to p21ll. gove1'7rn2CI2ts turnblincg don n, over their lze(i.ds, they zalill do it . Robert F. ICeniicdy, 1064 "The future comes with the sa'rne degree of violence which is used against it." - Barroc:,s Du.n.hain in "Heroes and Ileretics" /.~ .J i.~ decade a.go, in the tense period leading up to the Bay of Figs invasion of Cuba, reporter 1,Fur'a Ber'quist of Look magazine was inter- viewing Clio Guevara in I-Ja- varina. Despite Washington's tightening of the economic noose, Fidel Castro had not yet taken his country into the Soviet camp, and he was still. making speeches critical of corniriulli Sm. Miss Berquist. wanted to know how far to the left the Cuban revolution was going to go. . ' Che's reply was direct: That ciuestioll should be dl- reeted."to your own goveril- I11C3)1t in Washington. The far' to the left as it is pushed." In the minis of Middle Americans bajhil)g Oil (11c, thousand new FBI agents, the National Guard and stiff new laws to repress campus upheavals, the history of rev- olutionary Cuba since Che's remark should give pause. Bard-nose counter rev- olutionary solutions seen) to have dubious long-term ef- fectiveness in this final third of the twentieth century. For another six or seven years the Cuban government field open the door for normalization of relations with the United States. But around 1967, as a result of the war in Vietnalll, Castro finally decided there could he no reconciliation with the colossus to the North until, as he put it,.ihere is a complete change in our syystelll. Ji 1M J implying that rebel- lious college youth; at some point. in the 1970s, will in large 1111ii1bers give lip entii'e'- ly on the land of their birth disruptive a 1)Cl )'eC'Oi'cts- destl'oying actions. Most recently, eight per- SOnS not only d '.atl'0ye_1 all 1-t. dIar . ~. files in New York, but also invaded, at night, the hitb.erto st.cr_o- s net offices of the FBI end. the US Attorney. (Five years ago; i,'rla t frriL:ric2)_l, ynuri#: or old, would hav ever, thouaht,of a political raid on l'+iT. 1i00ve)''S "a1J250iZ7en pre- cincts?The fact that the unthinkable is now frequent- ly, happeI)ing is perceptively analyzed in a. brilliant piece on the nevi youth culture ana conSCiouSI1cSS in the S'epte)n- ber 26 issue of The New Yorker.) The raiders, who were caught by the m erest chance when a cop on the beat happened to pass the Federal. Building, obtained lists of informers and infor- mation on FBI procedures against the Black Panther Party and other revelutionery groups. ' IOR to the September 23 4.a ~P release of the report of the President's Commission on Campii.s Unrest, Chairman Witiialn Scranton met Nritll a limited group) of cori:espan- dents and revealed that the a(.colc111i; to ti)c l).eepartlnent Of Justice. Camplisholnbings numbered 25, with an addi- tional eleven near a- ca lupus Or in a college tov:,?'i. The fig- ures do not include' arson (by which many 110TCand other campus military iluildings have been destroyed), or at- tempted arson or attempted bombings. 111 July, the chicfeleputy at- torney general Of California told a Senate sulxiolrintittee that the rate of bombings in his state alone1nd risen, since June, to neal'Jy twenty a week. Leftists, he said,- lla.d stolen five tons of explosives froili a California dam coil- struction site overaperiodof years vritrnut. the contractors while xi ;ht- being aware of it, wing Minutemen lad stolen 1400 pounds of,dynanaitc from a constructive site in 1965. , Last spring, when students firehornbed a 13 arlt o f Ameri- ca branch near tole Santa Barbara campus ? ? the Uni- versity of Califoi:itha, police- men siezed 94 you cls of rnili- Lary C-4 plastic explosives and 39 gl'enladcs from resi- dents in the area. E a DING. October,, 1967, '1-32 Any thoughtful ansvrer re War protestors he .x a.ctmitt(I of seven nlillioil students on quires a sober bael:Fvarcl look responsibility forT2 separate the country's cal,ipuses, a at the e traorc in :xy, cumuli draft board raids in which Million are c' c:3;_ianstration- % tive and accalefotin t record over 03.10. IliU'l oY-1 Il0e ,nlillded, and tllf'.t the is n f. iS Of passionate. violence and c pl c?_tcd draft files have to "Ste dy growth" in the f b en destroyed. ~t?]'i11? the Ili?Tih)C1 of'dissenters. The turb f cam- u'lonce on and ott puses, ill three years: same period, a. grisving inlet CO7?1r711 S70Ji Cnli)pl iJledt in r bc:r. Of top c'ira .r. co z S its 1 o t to Mr. Ni co,) til_t s year, from Janu- Just tri [ ''itil rmiit< 1 ' COr tf 1L'ts, ' all il- ing number (of cl*em' coal m csion believes that out . , Approved For Relec-me 20OOIO '1fi) ; kAaFWPl80-t'1'-gp(lp X440@ '~J R ;xl 'students), not tcf'i?ori :t,: 333 bombing- incidents oc- J'I'&T, , Sa0lild not turn con-cd ?7l the United have b :m it t w,tl1 CJC'l) c tso-'lets and honl? .s NEW YORK TIAME.S Approved For Release 2000/08/16 Cl -~C ,O}Qj(?01 R0 A C MBODIAN DID II'T L AOS REPORTED Troops Would Cet U.S. Arms There for Operations By HENRY KAMM frEOla1 to TM New Yerk Times SAIGON, South Vietnam, 'Nov. 8-According to informed sources, Cambodian officers are discussing with members of the entourage of Prince Boun Oum, the feudal chief of southern) Laos, the possibility of sending Sizable numbers of Cambodian ,t-tops to Laos to be equipped with United States arms. ? - These arms, it is said, would be in addition to the limited program of American military aid now granted to Cambodia. At this stage, the sources said, the United States has not; been brought= into ? the discus-' ions, which were initiated by the Cainbodfans. However, the impetus 'for the talks arose from the fact that about 1,500 Can bodian soldiers are being tr ned under the auspices of) ,the United States Central Intel- ligence Agency in southern Laos. The Cambodian Idea is sim- ply that Cambodia has more troops than arms, and Laos needs soldiers but has found it easy to get weapons and equipment from the United States. Prince Operates Independently; The Cambodians evidently see no need to raise the issue, with the Government of Pre- mier Souvanna Phouma, of hav- ing their troops equipped, trained and operating in the panhandle of Laos. Not only is Prince noun Oum's authority in southern Laos almost independent of the central Governrneiit, but also, perhaps of more importance, his dealings with the Central Intel- ligence Agency on military op- erations- run by the agency in the Ho Chi Minh Trail re- Although an additional ap- propriation is expectcvl by early next year, it would still be. easier to escape budgetary re- strictions strictions by supplying Cam-~ hodian troops through funds for' Laos. 5 Battalions Considered No specific proposals have been made, but Cambodian offi- cers are thinking in terms of five battalions, each of about 600 men. They feel that such a force would be of equal value to Laos and Cambodia endli could operate in either coun- try. At -the' moment, the Viet- namese Communists control roughly the eastern half of the Laotian panhandle as well as the adjoining Cambodian prov- inces of Ratanakiri and Stung- treng to the south. The Laotian Government is worried about Communist at- tempts to widen the Ho Chi, Minh Trail network westward to supply their forces in Cam- bodia. Cambodian authorities con- sider it imperative to introduce at least small military units into the occupied provinces to give the civilian population arallying point and to counter Communist political influence in the regions they have held since April. Greater Containment Needed Intelligence reports of a growing Communist build-up in southern Laos have added ur- gency to the need. for troops to contain the Communists, keep their flow of men and supplies under surveillance and call in American air strikes. Most of American bombing is , ,gion are direct and do _ not up has already caused an in- .pass through Vientiane. crease in raids across the bor- The C.I.A. supplies, a mer-i der into Laos by South Viet- cenary army in Laos through namcse irregulars led by V funding that apparently has American Special Forces, escaped strict Congressional! troops. It has also led to Th; 'I! control,'while American aid to! troop reinforcement of Laotian! Cambodia is a limited program! . Government forces in Champa,-' with a spending ceiling for the! sak Province, between the Thai r Ri . ve sent .fiscal year. of S40 mil bordeand the Mekong pr For Release-.2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01 X01 R000400210001-7 now concentrated on southern Laos. According to informed the Communist build- sources Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-8+R80-01601 R000400 2 0 OCT 1970 STATINTL FROM PEKING Cambodia's deposed Prince says why he thinks U.S. policy helps spread Communism in Asia, In February, 1968, 1 visited Prince Norodom Sihanouk in Cambodia. Dur Ing a long interview that later ap peered in LOOK, he spoke to me frankly-as a neutralist - about his fears of Chinese expansionism as well as American intervention in Southeast Asia. After he was deposed as Chief of State last spring, I wrote him in Pe- king-where he has been living ever since - suggesting we have another talk. He replied that he had made it a rule not to give interviews but would answer my questions by mail as soon as he had time. Then he cabled, say- ing he would receive me in Peking after.all and suggested I apply for a visa at the Chinese Embassy in Paris. When the Chinese turned me down, Sihanouk promptly cabled from Pe- king saying he would send me his answers via the French Diplomatic Pouch. Here they are. William Attwood Editor in Chief South Vietnam and Thailand between t% he years 195G.-when Cambodia started diplomatic relations with the Peoples' Republic of China, and 1965, when, as a consequence of too many murderous aerial bombardments of our national territory by the U.S. Air Force, we had to sever diplomatic re- lations with Washington. All these plots failed, thanks to the loyalty of the army and the police and their Commander in Chief, Gen. Lon Nol, the same man who committed treason against me in 1970. If, in connection with these plots, I have mentioned the names of the CIA, the government of Saigon and the government of Bangkok, it is be- tation" in Cambodia (which meant my overthrow) and the invasion of my country by American forces in order to "destroy the Vietcong sanctu- aries." These reports emphasized that unless this was done, the war could not be won by the United States in South Vietnam. President Johnson did not dare adopt this "extreme solution," but now we see both "the change of po- litical orientation" and the invasion by American and satellite forces. All e arguments advanced earlier by the "hawks" in Saigon were repeated in the televised speeches made by President Nixon, in particular those of April 30 and June 30, 1970. . cause material proof regarding them . President Nixon himself has de- and the identity of their agents was clared that his Government had nbth- gathered by the secret police, then ing to do with my being forced out of under Gen. Lon Nol himself. The CIA and the governments of 'p?wer in Pnompenh. Without ques- Saigon and of Bangkok have openly boning the political honesty of the maintained the "army" of Khmers- American Chief of State, I must ex- press my thought astonishment that Mr. Nix- Serial and in Thailand. This army- he had to do all this- Vietnam "Free Cubans" trained in intervention by the American, South like the Vietnamese to be hurled from time to time mese and Thai armies; inten- Florida against Fidel Castro-was often sive air bombardments of Cambodia ag ; without limitation of time or space; hurled against me, but was each time official appeal to all countries friendly American Gov- defeated by the royal army aided by to the U.S.A. to come militarily to the ernment was in any way implicated the militia. aid of the regime of Lon Nol; and In the action that deposed you- Certain, American newspapers. offers of very important military and and If so, in what way and by what have revealed the existence of re- financial aid so that Lon Not and his agencieik OKigdY%i l a 120001 4 refs n11 ~T040 i2t},p0i11?survive "at any cost." were merous lots fomented tart' chie s in Saigon to t-e Pentagon, nu Do you believe the p - against me by the CIA in cooperation in which the authors specifically re ,_ ?._ _ _e n iaatarl "n rhgnna nF nnlihirnl nripn- Approved For Release 2000/08/161: 14400 1-01601 RO I. The Violence ~'tl decade ago, in the tense period lead-. J '!jig to the Bay of pigs invasion of Cuba, >reporter Laura Bcrquist of Look maga- :2irie was interviewing Che Guevara in .Havana. Despite Washington's tightening ol.the economic noose, Fidel Castro had -iiot yet taken his country into the Soviet ;camp and he was still making speeches }=Miss Berqulst wanted to know how far #o the left the Cuban revolution was going o go. ;,;Che's reply was direct: That question 'should be directed "to your own govern- ,rhent in Washington. The Cuban revolu- "tion will go as far to the left as it is pushed." In the minds of Middle Americans -banking on the thousand new FBI agents, National Guard and stiff new laws to .repress campus upheavals, the history of .revolutionary Cuba since Che's remark :-should give pause. Hard-nosed counter- revolutionary solutions seem to have du- bious long-term effectiveness in this final third of the Twentieth Century. For an- ,other. six or seven years the Cuban gov- ernment held open the door for normali- 'zation of relations with the United States. ;$ut around 1967, as a result of the Viet- '.nam war,- Mr. Castro finally decided there could be no reconciliation with the 'bolossus to the North until, as he put it, tthere is a complete change in our sys- it Am I implying that rebellious college 'youth, at some point in the 1970's, will in Marge numbers give up entirely on the gland of their birth? Any thoughtful an- -sv,er requires a sober backward look at the extraordinary, cumulative and accel- lerating record of passionate violence and turbulence on and off campuses, in the short space of three years: 16, with another dozen near a campus or their raids. b a college town. The figures do not in- nearly 20 a week. Leftists, he said; had stolen 5 tons'of_explosives from a Cali- fornia dam construction site over a pe- riod of years without the contractors being aware of it, while righting Min- utemen had stolen 1,400 pouiids`of dyna- mite from a construction site *ff1965. 3. Last spring, when studeits fire- bombed a Banl: of America branch near the Santa Barbara campus of the'Univer- ,sity of California, policemen seized 94 pounds of military C-4 plastic cplosives and 39 grenades from area residents. 4. Since October, 1957, 432 war protes- tors have admitted responsibility for 22 separate draft board raids in which more than a million nonduplicated draft files Have been destroyed. During the same period, a growing number of top-drawer corporations with military contracts, in- .cluding Dow Chemical, General Electric, .International Telephone & Telegraph and Standard Oil of New Jersey, have been .hit with disruptive and records-destroy- ing actions. 5. Most recently, eight persons not only destroyed all 1-A draft files in Rochester, N.Y., but also invaded at night the hith- erto sacrosanct offices of the FBI and the :United States Attorney. (Five years ago, :what American, young or old, would have 'even thought of a political raid on' J. Edgar Hoover's "awesome" precincts? The fact that the unthinkable is frequent- ly now happening is perceptively ana- lyzed in a brilliant article on the new youth culture and consciousness in the September 26 issue of The New Yorker.) The raiders, who were caught by the merest chance when a beat patrolman happened to pass the federal building, obtained lists of informers and informa- tion on FBI procedures against the Black Panther party and other revolutionary _ This year, - there have been nearly each, the eight are being rushed to trial $44 .bombing incidep is in the . United this month. The government obviously States, according to the Justice Depart- 'does 'not want the defendants touring nlent. Campus'bombings have numbered campuses and discussing the fruits of 'tate,a]one had risen, since June, to Ihe-country's campuses, a million are rf[?'in`CZ1rFttirf-iihe `itf'?fi /1ehe7e+liii Officers Training Corps and other cam- -d a fi pus military buildings have been de- - Prior to the September 26 release of `stroy'ed), or attempzcd arson or attempt- the report of the President's Commission ed bombings. - on Campus Unrest, Chairman William 4 2. In July, the California chief deputy Scranton met with a group of correspond- tlucle arson (by - ? - _ many Eeserve II. The Students xiemonstration-minded, -and that the trend is to "steady growth" in the nurn- ber of dissenters. The commission com- plained in its report to President Nixon that "an increasing number' [of stu- dents), not terrorists themselves, would not turn even arsonists and b?nibers over to law enforcement officials." !To the dismay of many middle-class Mr.1W'orthy, a correspondent of the Balti- more Afro-American and a former Nie- man Fellow, is a free-lance journalist tirho has been published in Esquire, Ebony, Ramparts, Christian Century, Midstream and Life magazb>es - . '1')1e future eoilles) ith the same degree of vio- )eiicc which is used against Barrows Dunham in "Heroes and Heretics." parents, their sheltered children can leap from a generally conservative position to bomb-throwing activism during one short academic year. Not all students or others being hotly pursued by the police and FBI know the route into, or avail themselves of, under- ground escape channels. Revolutionary violent acts are "decentralized," locally planned and autonomous; there is no national directorate or national coordi- nating apparatus. But there does exist an effective North American - network for hiding and protecting revolutionaries and for getting them out of this hemisphere to countries "where the FBI can't go," as Pete Seeger put it in his 1962 song about Robert 'Williams's flight from North Car- olina to Cuba. In the case of revolutionaries, including Weathermen, who are opposed to going into exile, the FBI has a poor track record; their "wanted" pictures remain on Post Office walls month after month,, certainly a strong encouragement, to oth- ers inclined toward revolutionary vio- lence. The country is so large, youth and student disaffection is so vast that, after dramatic and well-publicized bombings, one has the distinct impression in most cases that the FBI doesn't know for i. o look' The three White Panthers t be tried for the 1968 bombing of a Central Intelligence Agency office in Ann J TAP 1--l T.l011 STATINTL Approved For Release. 240 0 6Wi I J C = R P80-01601 R000 The South Vietnamese and the Americans ale in the-.process of adding about three divisions to the Na- The efforts of Senator Fulbright and other critics of the tional Khmer Army. These forces are being recruited, Administration to block further American involvement equipped and trained in South Vietnam--naturally at in Southeast .Asia deserve the utmost commendation, but American expense. success semis unlikely. It is difficult to see how Congress Vice President Agnew announced on August 23 that can really curb a President who is determined to wage ,`we are going to do everything we can to help the Lon undeclared war. Nol government." For once Mr. Agnew was being candid. The excuse for the invasion of Cambodia by U.S. In fact, he was understating our purpose. As he spoke, 'troops was that it had become necessary to protect our we were already doing everything possible to shore up 'troops in South Vietnam, and to bring them back to the Lon Nol regime. Nor does the Administration rule the States as the South Vietnamese took over the burden out the possibility that American ground troops may re- 'of the ground war. Under popular pressure, led by turn to Cambodia, should that be deemed necessary to student activists, Mr. Nixon set a deadline for the with- protect American troops in Vietnam. The script is com- drawal of American ground forces from Cambodia. Sub- plet'ely elastic in its provisions sequently, under a smoke screen of clumsy semantics and From a moral standpoint, the "war by proxy" is even what The Was/rirnglon Post calls "creeping rationale," more obnoxious than direct action by American _ powers, we are in effect deepening the American involvement but of course Nixon, Agnew, et al., .have no interest in in Cambodia in precisely the way that critics predicted. A that aspect. From their standpoint, the war-by proxy has child can read the deceptions embodied in the script the supreme advantage of keeping American casualties thjtt is offered as justification for Administration policy. at a level which will avoid a public revulsion of the As many as fifty U.S. planes daily are flying close kind that caused President Johnson's political downfall. ,support missions in aid of the, Cambodian army, which That this scheme has so far been successful is partly has yet to win a major action in the field. The talk the fault of the press. For the most part, the editors about planes being used only to "interdict" enemy suP- and publishers cooperate with the Administration. There lplies has reached a new high in dishonesty. As Senator are some fine reporters on the scene-T. D. Allman Mansfield notes, some of the targets are "one hell of a. for-instance (he was expelled from Cambodia for that way from the Ho Chi Minh Trail." As all of us must very reason)--and they supply the facts, but the papers do who expect even occasional sidelights on the Ex- tend to play down their findings. Altman quotes a neu- ecutive decision-making process, he deplores the failure tralist ambassador in Pnom Penh: "From the very be- of the Nixon Administration to "call things as they are:" ginning, Lon Nol and Sirisk Matak were absolutely con- These air strikes are increasing. Military authorities fident that the United States would rescue them." But refuse to disclose the number of sorties, but correspond- the ordinary American never hears such things. cuts report twenty-five a day in July, forty-nine a (lay if he did, the struggle in the Senate to control the during the first few days in August, and toward the end war makers might gain popular support. Of all the Sen- of August, sixty-five a day. Recent reports leave no ate moves, the most realistic is the Hatfield-McGovern doubt that the President has given the Air Force authority end-the-war amendment. It provides for a systematic, to strike North Vietnamese and Vietcong troops and planned military withdrawal by a fixed date. It also is supplies anywhere in Cambodia. the safest way to get the troops out. But the Administra- We are fighting the war by proxy on the ground, as tion still hopes to win the war, as. Mr. Agnew said with well as giving unstinting support by air. The following only slight disguise in one of his jingoistic speeches. The examples of what Senator Young of Ohio calls the only remedy at hand would seem to be to roll up im- "Nixon Rent-a-Troop Doctrine" can be counted: pressive anti-Administration majorities in November. (1) Tammy Arbuckle describes in the Washington Star Severe setbacks =would alarm Mr. Nixon and,.' his co- (August 21) how the United States is "stepping up adjutors, and 'tli'eir fears for 1972 might. make them secret operations in Cambodia with guerrilla teams di- more amenable to Senate control. rected by the Central Intelligence Agency. . ." Earlier stages of American intervention in South Vietnam and Laos are being repeated in Cambodia. (2) There are sonic 20,000 South Vietnamese troops in Cambodia, fighting in support of the Cambodian army which by itself, and without American air power, would he helpless to resist the North Vietnamese and the Viet- cong. We pay for the South Vietnamese forces indirectly. (3) Thai "volunteers" are in Laos and arrangements are under way for 5,000 "volunteers" to be sent to Cam- bodia. We will pay for these troops, or they will not be sent. Let it be noted that under the SEATO treaty we are pledged to cone to the aid of Thailand, if that country's efforts on behalf of the.: Lon Nol government should i.Alr rq{q F1pK.Release 2600/08/16 : C `-RDP80-01601R000400210001-7 STATINTL Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIA-RDP80-01601 R00040021000 Au just .81, .1970 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE Evidence that the largest American corporation, such as Lockheed, the Penn Central Railroad, General Dynamics, and LTV are susceptible to failure under certain circumstances has surfaced re- cently. This fact, in my opinion, makes highly questionable the wisdom of plac- ing too large a percentage of our defense dollars in the hands of a single corpor- ate entity. The country's economy has taken a serious downswing vvhicli makes it more important than before to balance our de- fense spending geographically. The Nixon administration's Blue Rib- bon Defense Panel, headed by Mr. Fitz- hugh, has within weeks recommended that huge defense contracts he divided where possible to avoid overconcen?? tration and to maintain a reasonable mobilization base. If the report of this team of experts had been made 6 weeks earlier and if the Department of De- fense had heeded the advice of this com- mittee, it is probable that the Navy would have divided the DD-963 con- tract. And the contract should be di- vided now. I yield to my distinguished colleague from Maine, Senator SMITH. Mrs. SRTITH of. Maine. Mr. President, I 'listened with interest to the distin- guished Senator from Mississippi tivhen he stated that the Navy had told him that the increased cost would be $225 million. I think this is somewhat suspect, since Admiral Sonensliein increased that from $225 million to $600 million in about 6 weeks' time. ASIENDMENT NO, .862 Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a quorum. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. The assistant legislative clerk pro- ceeded to call the roll. Mr. BYRD of West Virginia. Mr. Pres- ident, I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded,' The- PRESIDING OFFICER (Mxii EAGLETON). Without .objection, it is so ordered. Under the previous order, the Chair now lays before the Senate amendment No. 862 which the clerk will state. The assistant legislative clerk read as follows: - - - SEC. . (a) In accordance with public statements of policy by the President, no tirnds authorized by this or any other Act may be obligated or expended to maintain a troop level of more than two hundred and eighty thousand armed forces of the United States in Vietnam after April 30, 1971. (b) After April 30, 1071, funds herein au- thorized or hereafter appropriated may be ex- pended in connection with activities of Amer- ican armed forces in and over Indochina only to accomplish the following objectives: (1) the orderly termination of military operations there and the safe and systematic withdrawal of remaining Armed Forces by December 31, 1071; (2) to secure the release of prisoners of war; (3) the provision of asylum for Vietnamese 'who might be physically endangered by withdrawal of American forces; and (4) to provide assistance to the republic of Vietnam consistent with the foregoing objectives. Provided, however, 'S'hat If the President, while giving effect to the foregoing para- graphs of this section, finds in meeting the termination date that members of the Amer- ican Arnied Forces are exposed to Unanticl. pated clear and present danger, he may sus- pend the application of paragraph b(l) for a period of not to exceed sixty clays and shall inform the Congress forthwith of his find- ings; and within ten days following applica- tion of the suspension the President may submit rec-onimendations, including (if nec- essary) a new date applicable to subsection (b) (1) for congressional approval. Mr. HATFIELD. Mr. President, I yield 30 minutes to the Senator from Iowa (Mr: HuGIIES), one of the cosponsors of this amendment. Mr. HUGHES. Mr. President, I thank the distinguished Senator from Oregon for-yielding me this time. Mr. President, as we move to consider the end the war amendment, we get to the target center of what is the over- riding Issue before the t'Amerlcan people today. Shall we, at long last, take the deci- sive steps to end American military in- volvenicnt in Southeast Asia? Or, shall we continue present policies, which, whatever their merits may be, give no real assurance of total military disengagement? Whatever else we are accomplishing by this debate, we are keeping faith with the American people by bringing this central. issue to a vote. The debate on our military policies has been long and impassioned between re- sponsible elected Representatives of the people, Representatives who are alike in their devotion to the national inter- ests but deeply divided on exactly what our national interests are and on the policies that will most effectively imple- ment those Interests. I am deeply grateful to the distin- guished chairman of the Armed Services Committee, the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIs), and his colleagues of both parties, who have carried the adminis- tration's side of this issue, for the fair- ahd high-minded plane on which they have conducted the debate. To question the motives of the dedi- cated men in this Chamber, who have fought the uphill battle against tradi- tional public attitudes to bring about this vote on a definite plan to end the war, would be an incalculable disservice to a free people. We disagree in matters of judgment- not in fundamental objectives nor in de- votion to our country. . I have never met more devoutly pa- triotic men than the Senator from South Dakota (Mr. McGovERN), the Senator from Oregon (Mr. HATFIELD), and the other sponsors of the amendment to end the war. If I am convinced of anything about the American people, it would be that every responsible American wants to sup- port his President, in time of war, re- gardless of party differences. The optimum solution for ending our involvement in Indochina would be for the President to take the necessary moves to get all of our troops out and to create the necessary preconditions for 'giving peace negotiations a credible chance of success. I do not question that this is what the President wants. But one after another of the current news reports tell us the familiar story of increasing involveriient, as the dis- patch of yesterday that said: Fresh evidence that American planes are carrying out direct bombing missions in sup- port of the Cambodians came through a Cambodian radio at a government strong- point near Phuoni Penh yesterday. We are repeatedly told that the only way we can safely withdraw our troops is by extending our engagement. The pronouncements of the Vice Presi- dept in his recent trip to Southeast Asia give little solace to those who believe we should get out of Southeast Asia as soon as it can be safely and systemtically done. Although Mr. Nixon acknowledges that the settlement in Indochina must be political, not military, our policies, in point of fact, continue in hot pursuit of a military victory. The President continues to refer to peace negotiations, and his appointment of Ambassador Bruce to the Paris peace talks was a commendable and statesman- like move. But at the same time, Mr. Nixon pledges our country to the perpet- uation of the Thieu-ley regime in Sai- gon. Flatly, this objective and the ob- jective of realistic peace negotiations in Paris are mutually incompatible. In this country, the pendulum of pub- lic opinion about the Indochina war has swung back and forth between deep con- cern and apathy-or despair. For a number of months, following last No- vember, an almost unbelievable amnesia enveloped the Nation-a lapse of mem- ory about the on-going horror of the kill- ing, maiming, and destruction in Viet- nan1. Then, for a time, the fog lifted. The revelations of My Lai shocked us into awareness of how this war is brutal- izing our own people. The discovery by news correspondents of the extent of our Government's involvement in Laos aroused new doubts and apprehensions. The invasion of Cambodia was the straw that broke the camel's back. In the heat of the national concern over the Cambodia invasion, I believe that the passage of the amendment to end the war would have been assured.. Now the cutting edge of the public protest has somewhat dulled, although I a1n convinced that the deep-lying senti- ment is as strong as ever. In my own State, the untold story, as I see it, is of the peace movement that has emerged in the small communites of middle America-not among the youth, who were already with it, but among the calm and established adult citizens of these communities. The on-going story of the Indochina war is one of abstract comparatives. There were "fewer casualties" this week than the week before-or than 6 months before. We tend to lose sight of the fact that the men killed are flesh-and-blood people, not statistics, and that for each One killed there are many others horribly maimed or otherwise incapacitated. But, I am convinced that an increasing Approved For, Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 .0 I/?,4 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 :~;~PR1601 R0004002 A French Expert's View: STATINTL G~ J'3 ~~'.~ F~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~y ~~ t~r 1}.~7r ~ rr'.-zi F?~~ (~ ILI BY PHILIPPE DEVILLERS PRESIDENT NIXON'S decision to east Asia. He is the director of At the sarn,e time, in Cambodia, mop up the Cambodian sanctuary Southeast Asian Studies at the Prince Norodom Sihanouk maneu- will have long-term results that the Center for the Study of Interna- vered on his own to defeat the American people do not expect. tional Relations in Paris and pro- "protracted war" plan, He agreed Rather than shortening the war, the fessor at the Institute for Political with Prime Minister Lon No[ that move will extend it and make it Studies there. He was a corro- something had to be done to press even more dangerous. spondent for Le Monde in Indo- the Vietcong out of Cambodia, and "It was the drop which made the china in 1945-46 and in charge of was going to Moscow and Peking bottle pour out," Chou En-lai, the the Foreign Relations Desk in the to ask thorn to request from Hanoi premier of China, has said. "Fol- Prime Minister's Office in'1950-52: more discretion and realism. Both lowing the sudden overthrow of a He is the author of four books on Le Duan and Sihanouk wore thus royal, neutral and even pro-West- Asia and has been a visiting pro- moving in a direction that could ern prince [Norodom Sihanouk] by lessor at CornellUniversity, have brought a resumption of seri- just a group of ambitious politi- the Maoist group in Hanoi , led by ous negotiations in Paris-the clans and generals supported by Truong Chinh, increased its influ- cheapest way to end the war. the CIA, no government in the ence. Convinced that the White Nixon's Cambodian decision world can now. feel secure. Now is House did not want to negotiate wrecked, for ,a long time, any dip- the time for action," seriously, except on the basis of lomatic possibility of a settlement American intervention in Cam- North Vietnam's Political surron_ and Polarized forces in Indochina bodia has indeed given China a der, the Maoist group won a shift in such a way that the United valuable opportunity. For years, it to the strategy of "protracted war" States now can expect years more has been waiting to take over the -protracted until 19%2 and the next of fighting there-if the Paris nego- leadership of Asian nationalism U.S. President. tiations fade out. This can only and anti-imperialist resistance. The - raise -serious doubts about the decision has facilitated the work of ATHER THAN respond to valu quality of information supplied by the Chinese political strategists. :_.`U able overtures from President the American intelligence services Secretary of State William Rog- Nixon, Secretary Rogers and oth- orWashington'scapacitytoassess, ers indicated recently that he rec- ers, Hanoi and the Provisional Rev- any situation in Asia. ognized this, when he told an in- olutionary Government (PRG) in The President apparently made terviewer: "They [the Chinese] South Vietnam preferred to use the his decision on purely military have increased their influence with Pretext of U.S. insistence on "nmu- grounds: prevent the Vietcong Hanoi as the result of the Cambo-' tual withdrawal" and "the legality from preparing or launching im- dian incursions, We think the So- of the Saigon government" and to portant offensives while the Amer- viet' Union's influence has de- remain immobile in Paris. This re- ican withdrawals are proceeding; creased at the expense of Com flected, perhaps, a stalemate in the deprive them of sanctuaries and munist China. Whether the Com- political struggle in Hanoi. resources; support Lon Nol's gov- munist Chinese have any reason There are hints that in the Com- ernment in its struggle against the to want -to bring an end to the war monist camp other voices wore VC; accelerate the "Vietnamiza- or not, we do not know. We rather saying that this tactic could not tion" in South Vietnam and save doubt it. We think it serves their achieve results and could even American lives. Indeed, the moti- purposes to have the war con- lead to uncontrolled developments. vation for the decision was only tinue, because, in effect, they use It would be wiser, they reasoned, local and military, linked to the be- Hanoi as their instrumentality for not to let opportunities pass.. lief in the "necessity" of reinforc- causing trouble." There was significance, in this ing the Saigon regime and main- When He Chi Minh died on Sep- respect, to the trips made by Le taining in Paris a political position tember 3 of last year-about a week Duan, Ho Chi Minh's real heir, to that Washington knows well to be after having written to President Moscow in January, and by Le Due unacceptable for the other side. Nixon that a bit of goodwill could The, the chief adviser to the dele- Surprisingly, the decision ne- permit a settlement to take place- gation at the peace talks, to Paris glected vital political considera- r lea~e'26d anu , i622 0 1~l was not Sihanouk F hil 4vr ors rs recognize owngra ng o the Paris con- as man or leader but Cambodian es one of the world's best informed ference by Washington certainly neutrality. On March 18, Paris, scholars on the oolitic; of Sn rth- did not heir). Mnscnw anti Pc,l ;nn cnnnnc-i - 22 AU, G JST 1q 0 S~ATINTL The f pp 0/&'dt reF 1(6aL 2600/08/1 6{F dk . diary containing a record of recent events it] ',~ r 1 t i ;j j L witnesses on the scene. Guardian staff `_? correspondent Wilfred Burchett has trans- lated the diary, adding explanatory notes indicated by brackets. April 1-3: Attacks against small mili- tary posts in Svay Rieng province. . ? April 4: On the night of April 3-4, attack against a post at, Chipou [Svay Rieng, where the famous "Parrot's Beak" area is located], with 377 rifles, 30 light: machine-guns, three U.S. carbines, one .mortar, three heavy machine-guns and large quantities of munitions seized from the government garrison. This is the first big attack in this province. April 5: Anti-"Vietcong" and anti- Vietnamese campaign starts in Phnom Penh accompanied by pasting up of crude slogans. The racist character of the cam- paign is early evident. Vietnamese are removed from responsible posts in public and private organizations. In some ad- ministrative branches all Vietnamese are fired. Cambodians of Vietnamese origin are not permitted to take part in military training. Armed patrols start to circulate in Phnom Penh after dark.. April 6: Lon Nol asks for foreign military aid. Some journalists, including- two Americans, three French and three Japanese who went to Chipou are captur- ed by the g ierrillas. - April 7: The village of Chipou falls to the guerrillas. Cambodian MIG's bomb the region and strafe a pagoda. Govern- ment troops fall back. on Prasaut. Ameri- can helicopters and :.artillery are used against; the partisans. All. Vietnamese in Svay Rieng province ;are herded into camps.. They have to buy their own food. Government troops start to loot Vietnam- ese homes. Chou En Lai announces in Pyongyang that "The Chinese govern- ment and people are behind Sihanouk." This is the first official Chinese reaction since March 18. 2100-IT s 17:lrhe Cambodian army shoots and massacres with bayonets 100 to I50 Vietnamese-men, women and children at Takeo. [Capital of the province of the same name southeast of Phnom Penh.] April 18: Railway bridge on the -Phnom Penh-Sihanou'cvile line blown up. .The railway line is cut at three points. April 19: The town of Saang-20 miles from Phnom Penh-is occupied by parti- sans. April 21: At Saan,, about 100 Viet- namese: hostages are pushed -ahead of government troops towards the partisan lines -[Lon Nol's idea according, to Gen. Sosthenne Fernandez, who commanded the action]. The scene is filmed by TV cameramen. [The Cambodian Army cut the hostages down from behind when they refused to advance.] April 22: Sihanouk again appeals to the people to take to arms. Caribou transport planes land at Pochentong [Phnom Penh airport], bringing weapons of Chinese origin captured by the Saigon army. -- April 23: Saang is recaptured after three hours of intense air and artillery bombardment. The only person remain- ing in the town is air old Buddhist bonze. Government troops loot the town. April 23-30: Massive intervention by Saigon troops and by 2000 "Khmer Krom" Special Forces, as well as "Khmer ~Serci'-' bandits, in-Svay Rieng and Takeo provinces respectively. ["Khmer Krom" are South Vietnamese "Green Berets," of Cambodian ethnic origin. The "Khmer Serei"-Free Cambodians-are traitor groups originally based in South Vietnam, but after their bases were destroyed by the NLF, they were transferred to Thai-: land. They were used as sabotage and' espionage commandos to try and over- throw the Sihanouk regime. Both "Khmer Krom" and "Khmer Serei" are entirely armed, financed, trained and controlled by the CIA. They are the, CIA's forces used to attempt to prop up the Lon Nol regime.] The government is also sending young people into battle after 2 . to 4 days training; hundreds of them were killed [for instance in a clash with partisans at Kbal Po, 4 miles from Takeo]. National highways Phnom Penh-S',ay Rion? Phnom Penh-Takeo and Phnom Penh-Kampot are cut or partially occupi- ed by the partisans. The partisans are extending their activities to the East and the South. [Battles of Takeo, Angtassom, Elephant mountains, Kep, Kampot and in Kompong Cham province where they have occupied Chlong on the banks of the Mekong and the, Memot. The Elephant mountains in the southern coastal areas are a traditional resistance base, Kep is a seaside resort about 100 miles south of Phnom Penh. Lon Nol's troops tried thing with part of the Cambodian de- monstrators arrested at the Japanese bridge at the end of March. [Chrui C1langvoar is a fishing village across the Tonle Sap river from Phnom Penh at the junction- of the Tonle Sap and Mekong rivers.] April 12-18: Numerous massacres of, Vietnamese take place elsewhere with public display of the corpses [for instance at the Kompopg-Kantout pagoda]. The police arrest Vietnamese in the streets. Organization - of concentration camps, called "regroupntent centers." One, on the Ta'kmau road [Takinau is a village 5 miles southeast of 1'Iutom Penh], in an abandoned factory contains all male Viet- namese from Samrong-Tom district. The women who remained in their villages were systematically raped by government troops In the days'and weeks that follow- ed. Camps are organized elsewhere, each containing 6 000 to 8000 Vietnamese. Almost all provinces follow the same example. At Kompong Chnang, At Takeo, Kompong Chain-in the stadium -at Kraichntor-concentrated on an island in the Mekong. Many of these Vietnamese a,e executed on the spot or at a place near Kompong Spell [about 20 miles south of Phnom Penh] by execu- tion squads. April 14: Guerrillas attack Krek in Kompong Cham province. Americans launch a lightning attack in this region, employing 40 helicopters. the Phnom Penh station. A curfew is April 15: The army proposes that introduced for all Vietnamese in Phnom peasants should undergo training courses Penh, and set up self-defense groups. Actually April 10: The Prasaut "affair,'. when the courses are finished, the Army Government troops massacre between conscripts the peasants and sends them to 100 and 150 Vietnamese civilians. , the front, resulting in widespread deser- April 11: Anti-Vietnamese. rally at the tions of the.peasants who know that the Phnom Penh' stadium. Only seven partisans are mainly fellow-Cambodians. ambassadors attend. Those from socialist April 15-16: Journalists contact countries, France and Great Britain stay "Khmer Rouges." [Literally Red Cam- away. bodians, groups,of left-wing Cambodians April. 12: First big round-tip of Viet- who took to the jungle for survival after namese in Phnom Penh carried out by the the repression of progressives from 1967. police and the Navy. The Navy removes In part 'of Kompong Cham province the all males over 14 years of age from tits partisans are mainly "Khmer Rouges" village of Chrui Changvoar-between 600 and 800-and iassacres them on the and Cambodian peasants.] First discovery banks of the Mekong, throwing the of corpses in the Mekong. Considerable corpses into the river. They do the same' international reaction from the 16th on- April 9: A locomotive, is blown up at V Approved For Release 2000/08PI6s: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 :;~ = Approved For Release 2000/08/10: CIP ~1601 10040021000 STATINTL offs S Skir" La'os i 21 (AP)--"No, no, my men h we never gone into Laos," giggled the South Vietnamese ! of "possi colonel. Then he commander and turned to said: affirmed namese reconnaissance that South uth Viet- my battalion. Maybe sometimes operate in Laos, ob bit" allied thrusts into Laos Not our battalion?" serving enemy movements were carefully limited yester- "Not mine," the American day to what spokesman Robert eial The State claim. American Ilaid: Approved For Release 2000/08ILC,1gk'5 0160040021 LED 'GUERRILLAS AGAINST SIHANOUIC By DONALD' KIRK stex staff writer SAIGON-Cambodia's most celebrated rebel is still fighting for the "nationist cause" even though he is no ,longer in revolt against his government. The name Son Ngoc Thanh means little outside the Indo- chinese peninsula, but for a generation he posed what many observers regarded as the most serious threat to the government of the then Cam- bodian chief of state, Prince Norodom Sihanouk. Thanh, prime minister un- der the Japanese in the closing days of World War IT,, fought Sihanouk incessantly, both militarily and politically, until the Prince was overthrown on March 18 by rightist elements in his own government. "On that day," said 'T'hank, "I turned over my troops to the government of Gen. Lon Nol," the Cambodian Prime minis- ter who helped engineer the coup. Free Cambodians Thanh's "troops" were some 4,500 Khmer Sere!, or free Cambodians. He led them for 12 years on the South Viet- nam side of the Cambodian frontier. Trained since 1964 by U.S. Special Forces advisers, the Khmer Serei have fought with the Cambodian army in practi- cally every major battle against the Vietnamese Com- munists since May. Thanh maintained his troops during their rebel days with funds supplied by the Central Intelligence Agency. "I no longer command them. They are part of the Cambodian army," he said. Remain Loyal But the Khmer Sere!, still profess loyalty to their legend- ary leader. They. stand out from the rest of the Cambodian forces in almost any engage- meat in which they're involved. For one thing, they wear American-style fatigues and boots and carry American- made rifles, radios and other equipment. And then, according to those who have covered the off- again, on-again war in Cambo- dia, the Khmer Serei are con- siderably more effective mili- tarily than most of their un- dertrained, under-equipped Cambodian army comrades. "At least they seem to know how to handle themselves," remarked one seasoned ob- server. "They're not complete- ly inexperienecd and they don't look for somewhere to hide as soon as they hear some shots fired in the dis- tance." Future Elite Some Americans describe the Khmer Serei as the future elite of the Cambodian army. "By elite I mean in compari- son with the rest of them," said an American officer. "They may make the differ- ence if anything does, in some big battles we're anticipating this winter." The praise of the Khmer Serel does not surprise Son Ngoc Thank, who formed his first guerrilla forces in the jungles of western Cambodia after fleeing from Phnom Penh in 1952 after an argu- ment with Sihanouk over his policy of conciliation with the French colonial rulers. "They have had constant ex- perience along the Cambodian border," said Thanh, a short, wiry man who, at 62 still looks physically capable of leading a guerrilla army in the. field. Ambushed Viet Cong "T"hey were recruited from among Cambodians living in South Vietnam. Many had fled from Cambodia. Knowledgeable sources here say- Thanh's army "crossed the frontier all the time on secret 1n ssions to ambush North Vietnamese and Viet Cong units. Thanh insists the Khmer Serei are now under Cambodi- an government control "in ev- ery sense." But. some sources arriving here of a new buildup of north Vietnamese troops within several miles of the capital of Pehnom Penh. He said the Communists will never occupy Phnom Penh Downfall "Inevitable" believe they still receive mon- / "Sihanouk cared for bin self ey, indirectly, from the CIA.\( and not his country," said Thank, would not discuss how much his men were-or are-paid or where the Khmer Screi had obtained their funds. He preferred instead to talk about the prospects of the Cambodian government, on which he now serves officially as a "councillor" to Prime Minister Nol. "The government will sur- vivs," he said as reports were Thanh. "His downfall was in- evitable in view of his policy of favoring the Vietnamese Communists." Thank feels vindicated now that Sihanouk has fallen. "But I'm still fighting for my country," he said, "even though I no longer lead my men in battle: We are closer to true freedom than ever be- fore." Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000400210001-7 STATINTL Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R00040021 .1391 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE August 21, 1070 ings Institution to the. Committee for resentatives In the Congress on legisla- ports that the capital city, Phnoin Penh, peace Through Law, a blood kin of the tion and issues of importance. is under attack by the Vietcong forces Amendment To Extend the War Coin- At the same time, however, if the in- within 6 miles of the Emperor's palace. mittee? tegrity of the legislative function is to be In addition, Mr. President, leaders of Can a' nonprofit foundation retain its maintained and preserved, identification our Armed Forces are also going all out tax exemption if it participates in only should be required of parties seeking to with our foreign aid indney and our mili- one side of all Ise? Influence the passage or defeat of leg- tary and military advisers to equip more su Are research and spcechwriting serv- islation by direct appeals to the Congress and more Thais to fight as our allies and, ices provided for lobbying groups by a or by stimulation of the public intended in fact, as mercenaries. nonprofit founidation regarded as gifts or to produce direct communication with We Americans would do well to remem- political donations? the Congress. ber that those patriots who fought and These, too, are questions that must be The legislation I propose specifically won our war for independence despised answered. Imposes the full requirements of lobbying the mercenaries from Hesse-Cassel and LODI:YISTS AND THE COURTS, disclosure on Members of Congress who other German archdukes who rented Mr. President, the Supreme Court's ci'i- engage in these activities. troops to Kin- George III. Gen. George Thera is more at stake here than Washington captured 2,000 of these mer- teria for applying the lobbying law are merely the loss of the peace amendment. cenaries in his surprise attack on Tren- these: First, the lobbyist must have so- At stake is whether the Senate is going ton after crossing the Delaware on Belted, collected, or received contribu- to remain a deliberative body. Christmas night..This great victory was Lions; second, one of the main purposes The text of the bill I_introduce provides regarded as the turning point in our of such contributions must be to infiu- as follows: Revolutionary War. Later, in General once the passage or defeat of legislation Bc it enacted by the Senate and, House Burgoyne's invasion from Canada, rosily by Congress; and third, the intended of Representatii'cs of the United. States of more Hessians were captured in the szlr- method of accomplishing this purpose America in Congress assembled, That section render at Saratoga. must have been through direct communi- 307 (2 the Federal Regulation Lobbying Pentagon officials report that the cation with Members of Congress. Act 2 U.S.C. 266) is amended by adding at Now first installment of officials 20th century It Is a fact that Senators involved in the end thereof the following new paragraph: numbers 5,ury the Amendment To End the War Com- ? "The provisions of this title also shall Hessiana fighting force this mittee have solicited and collected con- apply to any Member of Congress who di- troops, secured by agreement with the tributions. It is a fact that the main pur- redly or indirectly solicits, collects, or re- Government of Thailand. This 5,000 is poses of the contributions has been to in- ceives money or any other thing of value to the first contingent of so-called volun- fluence the vote on the McGovern-Hat- be 'used principally to solicit or aid in the teers who will invade Cambodia. Un- solicitation of communications to be matte fortunately for our generals, at the pros- field amendment. by members of the public to one or more out time all Cambodia, except a small That leaves only one question. Has the other Members of Congress for any of such round the ccity of Phnozn method been through direct communica- purposes. area around area, controlled capital i forces opposed to Pon den Members of the Congress? Mr. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. NFL the present rulers of that country. The has used used i of the To soN). The bill will be received and appro- fact is, Cambodia Is not tinder the con- End the War the Committee Amendment rect comm uni cations and members thehe priately referred. trol of the government we are support- committee committee have used direct communica- The bill (S. 4274) to amend the Fed- ing. tions to lobby for the end the war amend- - oral Regulation of Lobbying Act with The Prime Minister of Thailand has merit. respect to certain activities of Members annouliced: There are. the TV and newspaper ads of Congress, was received, read twice by we have reached an agreement that the asking the American people to pressure its title, and referred to the Committee United States will help finance Thai troops Senators, and members of the committee, on Rules and Administration, to be sent to Cambodia. Also, we have reached when they discuss the issue, are, in of- an agreement that the Cambodian soldiers undergoing military training in Thailand feet, lobbyists. ORDER OF BUSINESS. Will also be financed by the United States. The question then is, should members of the committee, who are also Members The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under Here is a demonstration that Presi- of the Senate, be required to register as the previous order, the Chair recognizes. dent Nixon has expanded and escalated lobbyists? Have they done so. Do they in- the Senator from Ohio (Mr. YOUNG) for our involvement' in Southeast Asia in- tclad to do so? 20 minutes. stead of bringing our boys home. NEW GROUND It is also well known that the United Mr. President, regardless of the merits States is recruiting more" Koreans to , We THE NIXON RENT-A-TP~OOP DOC- add to those already in Vietnam. if any, of the war amendment, there i ,,,r,rz.I>a ? TWENTIETH CENTURY _._ _,.aa ,..., ~..,,-..... We and I believe, however, that it Is more a Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, been in Vietnam since late 1965, and quicksand than solid ground. I believe American people should know that ofl'i- now we are expanding that force. they have inaugurated a practice that is dais of our Central Intelligence Agency, _ Mr. President, we are becoming more fraught with danger to this body. ate spending many millions of dollars of and more involved in waging war in I believe that in their eagerness they do American taxpayers' money to enlist, Southeast Asia. Buying more and more a disservice to the Senate and the Con- arm, maintain, and train thousands of mercenaries. Engaging in continual gress by lobbying their colleagues and by Thai "volunteers," so-called, In a contin- bombing ih Laos, Cambodia, and Viet- soliciting money in order to bring pros- uing effort to maintain the Lou Nol gov- nam. And the same generals and policy- slu'es against those colleagues. ernment in power in Cambodia. In addi- makers who send our own boys to death NEWALECISLATION tion, generals of our Armed Forces in in a senseless Asian struggle, now spend These activities are in a relatively un- Vietnam with the assistance of Ambassa- your money and mine to buy merce- tested and murky legal realm, and one dor Ellsworth Bunker and his staff are naries to continue their folly. cannot say with any firm authority that continuing all-out efforts to support the The American people want to get our statutory provisions have been violated. Korean forces in Cambodia, Not only boys and our money out of this endless However, today I am. proposing legisla- CIA officials but AID officials and of leers Asian struggle. The Nixon rent-a-troop tion to clarify this area. The public in- of our Armed Forces are enrolling, equip- doctrine will not accomplish this goal. terest demands that firm lines of demar_ ping, and trying to mold into a fighting It is v;ith a feeling of sadness I report this cation be drawn and currently existing force thousands of Cambodians. This, situation. loopholes be closed, despite the fact that Cambodians histori- Mr. HHANSEN. Mr. President, the able Our deinocracy affords a free and uul- cally have been a placid peace-loving and distinguished senior Senator from obstructed opportunity for citizens to people. It is expensive business forAiner- New York (Mr. JAVSTS) in his remarks petition the Government for redress of ican taxpayers to try to make good fight- on the trade bill now penclin~ is the their grievances as well as the right to Ing men of them, other body made a number of references expre I l "dkJ0b > ~U1DU`~ bU450V210()64Q7oi1 import quota system and the lJ ry 191 Approved F. of Release -2000/08/16CIA-RDP80-01 601R0004P0 n-, I C2 irfl .1 By TAMMY ARBUCKLE Special to The Star VIENTIANE-The United States is drifting towards a secret .war in Cambodia. Central Intelligence Agency operatives based in Southern Laos are running Laotian intelligence gathering and com- mando teams into Northern Cambodia, well informed military sources here say. air support for the Cambodian Military puts U.S.-Cambodian operations on a similar footing as secret operations in Laos, though perhaps not on quite so large a scale on the ground. S ,, -'A th CIA F*ronn-nd au e the Seesa River area of Cam- bodia's northern "Green Triangle" of Labansiek, Bokcd and Lumphat. Teams are sup- plied by air drops made by , operation into Cambodia is run Continental Airlines' aircraft by the agency's substation in flown by American pilots. Con- the Mekong River town of tinental carries out similar Pakse in Southern Laos. Laos missions in Laos for the agen- troops from the 2.nd Special cy Guerrilla Unit based on Bolov- Sources said these Lao s { ens Plateau in Southern Laos vial gurr errilla units operatipe- are used in their operations. from light airstrips era n to led the agency. ex-U.S. militia lovens plateau now are respon- on They hire are gency. sible for surveillance of Ila- A smaller group of Kha Lave tribesmen is based in Laos at poi's traffic all the way from a location which cannot be dis- closed for reasons of military Ran Rae on the Sekhong river security. 'They operate into to Rovieng in Cambodia. northeast Cambodia against These American operations parts of a Communist base are "vital," according to well oper- area known as 609. Most open- informed sources, to achieve ations toys date Stung have T._enbeen in Prov- some success in interdictioc, g a Cambodia ince where the loc2, Carnhocli- the reinforcement and resup- an population speaks Lao as ply routes Hanoi has pushed their primary language. through Southern Laos to Stung Trelig was part of Northern Cambodia in recent Laos before French rulers-in months. 1904 shifted it under the ad- These Communist supply minist;;atioii of Phnom Penh. Iroutes support Communist at- Coinirion language plus Lao tacks against hard-pressed and local populace feeling that eastern Cambodia into South Stung Treng belongs in Laos Cambodian defenders at Kom- anyiay has helped Laotians in pon; Thom and Sich Reap and their military o p e r a t i o ns convoys moving across North- there. eastern Cambodia into South Teams of eight or ten nien, Vietnam. s o m c t i in e s including two Reds are expected to further Americans, survey new Com- improve these routes and per- munist infiltration routes into hips launch new attacks 1 Northern Cambodia leading against Laos to do this. The from Southern Laos toward secrecy policy, however, is not Communist headquarters near carried out on military the Cambodian town of Rov- grounds. Sources admit that leng, sources said. the Reds already know the lo- Teams have a t t a r 1: e d cations of Lao guerrilla air- trucks, ammunition and rice strips and have clashed with caches by calling in U.S. air cares inside Cambodia. _._ _ strikes. Protects Laos Stance These air strikes are part of t h e interdiction operations which. President Nixon al- ready has admitted. K1IA tribal teams operate in This, combined with denials of what is obviously close U.S. Secrecy in part protects the fficial Laos stance of neutral- ty and partly avoids public, pressure :in the United States against U.S. involvement in Laos and Cambodia. Also because the Central In- telligence Agency, and not the military, is carrying out the operation, secrecy is naturally excessive. Sources believe that if dov- ish senators and other seg- ments of the U.S. public un- derstood how necessary these operations are to relieve pres- sure on Cambodians and South Vietnam, there would be less problems in both funding and secrecy. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 tlMytiY `. 3.-N ,TM1t (U M:72 :72 MGM-L) 21 ! U;"T 10-0 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-R6P80-01601 R0004002100 --. t l o O 0 f Gxj S fill, lots.. Con- military, the increased activ- flown by American pi ity puts U.S.-Cambodia opera- tinental carries out similar tions on a similar footing as missions in Laos for the agen- secret operations in Laos, cy. though perhaps not cu quite `Sources said these Lao spe- j so large a scale on the ground. cial guerrilla units operating Sources said the CIA ground from light airstrips in the Bo- p l ` `.... .. - - - ` - By '1'Al1l1Y ARPVJCIU,E , Special to The Star VIENTIANE-The United States is stepping up secret / operations in Cambodia with guerrilla teams directed by the ,v/ Central Intelligence Agency, well-informed sources here say. The teams move into northern Cambodia on intelligence gathering and commando raids from a base in southern Laos, the sources say. Combined with denials of what is obviously close U.S. air support for the Cambodian ' Continental Airlines' aircraft' 1 operation into Cambodia is run Si We eyf for by the agency's substation in traffic, a all hthe Ie way from the Mekong River tocrn of Ban ac on the Sek}o- river U Paese in Southern Laos. Laos tc li.ovieng in Cambodia. troops from the 2nd Special These American -operations Guerrilla Unit based oil Toby- a are used in their operations. re "vital " accordinwt to well ens Plateau. In Southern Laos informed sources' to achieve some success in interdicting They are led by ex-U.S. militia the reinforcement and resup- on hire to the agency. ply routes Hanoi has pushed A smaller grout, of I:ha Lave through Southern Laos to tribesmen is based in Laos at Northern Cambodia in recent a location which cannot be dls- months. closed for reasons of military These Communist supply security. Thay oper:;te iota routes support Communist at- Northesst Carilhadia against tacks against hard-pressed parts of a Coinrnur)st base eastern Cambodia into South at ea kno; 1 as "-lost oper- Cambodian defenders at Iionl- ations to date have been in pond Thom and Sieh Reap and Camko''aa+s ,~ S'ic.l,gYren^-I'LO - ~n., ?coiwo5S moving across North- ince where the local Canlbodi- eastern Cambodia into South an population speaks Lao as Vietnam. their primary language. Reds are expected to further Stung Treng was part of improve these routes and per Laos before French rulers in hags launch new attacks 190-4 shifted it under the ad-. against Laos to do this. The ministration of Phnom Penh. secrecy policy, ho-,sever, is not Common language plus Lao carried out on military and local populace feeling that grounds. Sources admit that Stung Trend belongs in Laos the Reds already know the lo- anyway has helped Laotians in cations of Lao guerrilla air- their military o p e r a t i o 11 S strips and have clashed with there. teams inside Cambodia. Teams of eight or ten men, -s o.m e t i m e s including two Protects Laos Stance `Americans, survey new Corn- Secrecy in part protects the munist infiltration routes into official Laos stance of neutral- Northern Cambodia leading art] a~ aids alit from Southern Laos toward pressure upart]), in } the United public Communist headquarters near ai U .S. involvement in the Cambadiar_ town of Rev- Laos and Cambodia. i iengsources said. LTeams have a It t a c k e d Also because the Central In- trucks ammunition and rice telligence Agency, and not the caches by calling in U.S. air military, is carrying out the operation, secrecy is naturally strikes. These air strikes are part of SOUL excessive. believe that t h e interdiction operations ish Sth r sCt2f President Nixon al- meats senators of the U.Sand. publi,.c un- ments ready has admitted. ted. how necessary these Approved For f g I l) Q 1 C -R (P:I 1 ~ ,~ro001-7 'If bcdia's ,1 o r t h e r n "Crean sure on am )oalans Ln Vietnam there would be less I'iallgle" of Laba115i;k, Bo.iod problems in both funding and -l I'f n^c ern ?,fr_ THE WASl i NGTON S ]'AR 16 Au g 1970 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 ROO - 44 0 "c/ i+l By HENRY S. BRADSTTER Star Staff Writer HONG KONG -- While the military situation in Cambodia remains uncertain, and the po- litical stability of the Lon Nol government is still of en to doubt, Prince Norodom Snhau- ouli is having problems. The exiled Cambodian lead- er has failed to win wide- Spread acceptance for his con- tention that he was unconstitu- tionally ousted from the post of chief of state. His efforts to secure accept- ance of his Pekma-based "roy- al government of national un- ion of Cambodia" as the lc-giti- rnate regime have bogged down. Only 17 Communist and left-leaning countries have recognized it in preference to the government in Phnom Penh. And lie is running out of places to visit, of crowds ready to feed his love of popu- lar acclaim. These problems do not mean that Sihanouk's cause is neces- sarily doing poorly and his fu- ture prospects are dim. The situation inside Cambodia re- mains fluid enough to offer him hope of outlasting Pre- mier Lon Nol. The hope is dependent upon continued ' military support from Hanoi and conditioned by ed the throne" of uaniooula. He "participated by your side" in the 1955 Afro-Asian conference in Bandung and, "still by your side," in the 1961 Belgrade non-aligned summit conference. News Selected With Care This persona.l touch ignored the fact that only Ethiopia's Ilaile Selassie among present non-aligned leaders was in power in 1941, and few were even in 1.1,61. _ The letter used a careful selection of. Western news re- ports on events in Cambodia since Sihanouk's ouster March 18 to depict conditions support- ing his case. There was partic- ularly heavy reliance on French writers who saw the CIA behind every anti=) Sihanouk move --- a charge that no one has documented and many independent observ- ers have rejected. Sihanouk argued at length that the Cambodian constitu- tion did not make it possible for him to he removed as chief of state. Ile also contended that the adoption of a republi- can form of government under Lon Nol would violate the 1947 constitution and would lack the approval of a genuinely free referendum. Claims Popular Foots "uncertainty over North Viet- nam's ultimate intentions. With a touch of desperation, Sihanouk has issued an open letter to "the kings, heads of state and heads of government of non-aligned countries" ap- pealing for support. Took Week to Print It is so long -- more than '12,000 words -that the New China News Agency made it public in installments from Aug. 8,. the day Sihanouk re- leased it, over a week that ended Friday. "Your majesties and your excellencies," Sihanouk asked, in effect, how can you(turn your backs on me -- me,; your old friend? Switching to third person, he wrote that "Norodom Sihan- ouk has had the honor to he your humble `colleague' since the year 1941 when he ascend- INTERPRETIVE RE .FLT 3 11 1 ^` ( Ss V C 1 i 3 a "has its `roots' among the poe- pie and possesses all the at- tributes of a legal govern- ment." The government was ap- pointed "after having been elected by the general con- gress of adherents of the na- tional united front of Kampu- chea," Sihanouk's political' party formed in exile. f The front was originally known, from - initials of the French version, as FUNK, but i K7 f'M' It \ Ji ~._ xfl ~'Sai l o;i apparently some Cambodian or Chinese public relations man thought better of that and switched to the English initials NUFK. . The letter did not mention that the NUFK congress was held in Peking and not attend- ed by the three ministers whom he described as its "principal rnernbers." Sihan- ouk denied reports that he had once had ? the three murdered, before he switched to their leftist side. His government has so far been recognized by Albania, Algeria, China, Central Afri- can Republic, Congo (Brazza- ville), Cuba, Guinea, Iraq, Li- bya, ]Mauretania, North Ko- rea, North Vietnam, Romania, Sudan, Syria, South Yemen and Yugoslavia. Noticably missing from the list are the Soviet Union and its most loyal followers. The exile government's minister of finance, Thiounu L%Tumm, re- cently visited Moscow and some ,;cast European capitals seeking support. Intensive lobbying also has been under way in non-aligned countries. Special efforts have been made, so far without suc- cess, to gain admission to the non-aligned summit confer- ence of 74 nations scheduled to begin Sept. 8 in Lusaka, Zam- bia. If-I'D ___-STA,TUx4T. Most non-aligned .nations seem inclined to try to avoid having to make a decision on which Cambodian government to recognize. Neither is likely to he seated at Lusaka, al though Phnom Penh also has been trying to gain admission. Picks Up Some Support Sihanouk continues to pick up support from Cambodians abroad. His government is- sued a statement Friday wel- coming the adlicrence of Cam- bodian students and a diplo- mat in Czechoslovakia. Last month an official sent on a mission to the Worlrl Beak by Lon Nol defected on the way home and went to Peking. On Aug. 1 the "Voice of the NUFK" radio began broad- casting. Sihanouk's open letter claimed that the station is "in the liberated zone" of Cambo- dia, but this seemed unlikely for logistical reasons. There is precedent for it to be in southern China. The "Voice of the Malayan Revolu- tion" and the "Voice of the People of Thailand," both Chinese-controlled Communist insurgent stations, are located there. A news agency, the "Agency Khmere D'Inforin ati en (AKI)," was established Mon- clay to distribute material on the exile movement. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 V BLUEFIFLD, W.VA. Approved For Ref E2b 81t?3 P8O-01601 RO0040021 E--5,552 8 1970 AN moves fo.reouc(; American ,troop commitments iii Soiith' east Asia, certain ilisttirliii7g aspects of the situation have not been satisfactorily explained. The reference is to what . as ,going on in Laos. and Canbodia, which 4 tonds to undermine heartening action elsewhere. Troop withdrawals are steadily iuiidW way in South ~Vie'tnain and can be expected to continiie; the admit ~istratioh has toiiiiiiitted itself to deadlines. In South loiea; the announced pullout of troops, appears likely o be. iiiacle, even in the face of objections by the Seacil ;government. A diMii'bing situation continues, however; in both, `Laos, and Cambodia. In the former, there is no longer much of arl attempt to hide the-CIA's ac.ttpities through its Air Aiiierica operations. Television network news=' tilen havve filmed Ait. America planes supplying Amer=' lcan-paid troops. Support for an army of perhaps as' many as 10,OOti is reportedly being ,financed by the CIA. rfhere seeuiis little doubt that the Central Intel- ligence Agency not only is functions ig in Laos, but enjoys behind-the-scenes administration suppokt. In Cambodia, it now is clear that United States air- craft are aiding the Cambodian army. Though the D?=l ense Department offers half-hearted cleriiais of tl . newsiness: on the scelid report that U. S. planes are ca - 'tying bUt more than their officially sanctioned mission : to cut supply lines. Most such 'interdiction missions' seem to occur close to where Cambodian troops happen. to be in tIOllble. Thei-e is nothing new about contradictions between .0 - fficial policy positions and .what is reported by news tiien. ,In the past, such discrepancies have far the uriost` tart Svorked to the disadvantage of long-larige Ameri- can interests. The benefit of troop withdrawals from' South Vi:tnat1' and South Korea mdy be nullified, oi? at' 4ny rate made less significant, by continued involve= merit in Laos and Caiiibodia: in spite of tie administration's t'v611 publicized Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP8O-01601ROO0400210001-7 . DAYTdN, ' OHHTO Approved For Release 2000/0811* ,e M_-- 111,867 010004002 -Ia e Uh W-) By Richard Thomas W.ti51I1NG0'ON -- A resoluti;in Whalen -cited last year's un- to keep clandestine intelligence -successful' attempt to include operations in line with national CIA funding in a military appro. policy and eliminate duplication, priations bill as an example o' and competition among U. S. contusion that the committee spy agencies is to be introduced could prevent, today by Rep. Charles W. Whalen Jr., R-Dayton. In that ittstanee X200 million of a $500 million request for the The nl e a s u r e eatablislr^s a M a n it e d Orbiting Laboratory joint committee on intelligence,, (;%,MOL,) was in fact earmarked having jurisdiction over the Cen for the CIA..'lla two items Were tral Intelligence Agency, De= s F p a r a t e d when Congress fense Intefli ence--Agency, Na- learned of the ploy. tional S e c it r i t y Agency, the- State Department's bureau of `intelligence and research, and 'the intelligence departments of.. the armed services. SPONSORING fT :vith-Whalen / are Sens. Euge-re J. McCarthy, D-Minn., and Mark 0. Hatfield, R-Ore., and Rep. Dranald H; Fraser, D-Minn. ' W h a I e n said the resolution ,spring's chiefly from cnnceiii that intelligence operations, in` the absence of coordinated con- gressional oversight, sometimes contradict policies of Congress and the executive branch. "Who knows if the overthrow of the Cambodian government ? (the coup which ousted Prince Sihanouk) was a CIA. opera- tion?". he asked. "I'm not say- Ong it was, it's just that it may have. been a covert operation" that members of Congress were not told about. TILE PURPOSE of the corr_- mittees, but the existing setup release security matters," he `said, but rather to provide an ;oversight panel to consider intel- ligence ventures in the light of ,national policies. Many intelligence endeavors now ' are reviewed by one of several congressional com- mittes, but the existing setup fails to coordinate diverse and sometimes conflicting o p e r a- tions, he said. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 rA KNEW YOI? TDM 1,11%GAZ j'E 2 Al I-U3`P 1970 Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIA-RDP80-01601 RO Ry.1. LETI U H PNOMPENH, CAMBODIA AUGUST, 1970 f1.9 STATINTL MONOROMYt Hozr:L PRINCE NORODOM SIHANOUK C/O PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC PEKING, CHINA DEAR PRINCE SIHANOUK: FOUND your photograph the other day, torn by shrapnel and lying in the dust near a bombed-out pa- goda at Oudong. A monk either hadn't heard the directive of last March that your image was henceforth banned throughout Cambodia or had ignored it. This old laminated photo had been tacked to the wall of his but until the morning a rocket caved in its thatched roof and sent it flying. You were younger in the picture, thinner, holding a bouquet of yellow flowers and smiling with that expression of, vague discomfort I see so often on the faces of your countrymen. In Cambodia, a furtive, grateful smile A. J. LANGGUTH, a former Times Correspondent, is on a freelance report- tour of Sou6east Asia. seems to be the best defense against Ill fortune. Riding back from Oudong, we stopped to let pass a battalion of Cambodian soldiers, untested and exuberant boys who cheered and ap- plauded themselves, all the while showing their teeth in that same self- conscious way. They were traveling to war in civilian buses painted bright green and gypsy blue because their allies hadn't yet provided enough military trucks. A few miles to our right, almost lost in gray clouds, rose Pnom Oudong, the hill where Cam- bodia's capital once stood. The Communist tortes--call them Vietminh or Vietcong or the North Vietnamese Army or the Khmer Rouge-had taken the hill for strate- lgic as well as symbolic reasons, and they could watch our car racing down .Route 5 and could count the Govern- ment buses as they moved toward Kompong Cham. The Communists that clay were also holding Angkor, and according to other rcAW~C`( IOWFl el'a$~ there and pr laim your government Inside the sacred ruins. You had done something like that once before, In 1953, when the French treated you like a 30-year-old adolescent and tried to distract you from your demands for Cambodian independence with another round of Paris nightclubs. You exiled yourself in Bangkok and at Battambang until the French gave way. Now you wait in Peking for a wave of history that will restore you again to power. Given the American appetite for absolutes and quick solutions, we have often found your political style bizarre if not immoral. For a decade one newsmagazine referred to you as "Snooky" for your crime of rais- ing doubts about the Pax Americana. But less chauvinistic observers have been just as distressed by your con- trariness. What to make, for exam- ple, of your relationship with Lon Nol, the general who deposed you? For years you have alternated praise for him with denunciations. You re-. moved him as Premier in 1957, then insisted last August that he accept the job again. On a dozen occasions you've predicted that he and Prince Sirik Matak would try to unseat you and yet, it now appears, you never really believed your own warnings. Intrigue, compromise, tendentious neutrality--the dodges and twists to your policy have been hard to follow, so that when I returned to Cambodia after six years away from it I set myself only four questions and tried to keep them simple: Why were you deposed? Did the United States take part in removing you? Can the pres- ent Cambodian Government survive? Would the people. of Cambodia be better served with you back in Pnorn- penh or as a permanent guest of Peking? 5 NEVITADLY the answers proved more convoluted than the questions, more subjective, and often clumsy with parenthetical qualifications and disclaimers. But looking down at your photograph on the ground, I decided I would share my conclusions with you. Given the avidity with whim population. "One American _ repre- you have conducted state business sentative of a peace group was in in the world's press, I doubted that pnolnpenh last week, and he told the public nature of my letter would Nol has been paid 2d{}h0~b1.u6 : CIA-RDP80-01601 ROOI~~snce 1958:" A Cabinet When I heard last March 18 that minister looked at me half-hopefully the Cambodian National Assembly had voted to remove you as chief of state, I drew the same conclusion that's occurred to much of the world. I assumed that the Government of the United States, acting through the most-publicized secret agency in the history of espionage, had a hand in pushing you from office. From Paris you made that accusation. And the North Vietnamese, who had seen their embassy sacked in Pnompenh one week earlier, seemed to believe it. Over the next days when Lon Nol tried to bargain with Hanoi and Peking he should not have been sur- prised that they rebuffed him. Why deal with a puppet of the Americans? Lon Nol was ready to make certain concessions to protect Cambodia's neutrality, including the continued -passage through the eastern prov- inces of medical supplies for the Vietcong. But how could a govern- ment with so strong an anti-Commu- nist bias be trusted? That suspicion of American in- volvement is not going to die. It is too useful a propaganda tool. And the nature of intelligence work makes it impossible to say flatly that no secret understanding was reached. With some justice, you have always been convinced that American agents were implicated in the attempt to do away with you in the late fifties. You even produced a movie about it -"Shadow on Angkor"-though I haven't seen the picture and theaters in Pnompenh are now booking -the American Westerns you had pro- scribed for so long. Officials of Lon Nol's Government deny categorically that they had dealings with the C.I.A., but the accusation doesn't anger them. They are well-disposed toward the United States and many of them would have been delighted to have had guaran- tees from American agents before embarking on a step so traumatic as the banishment of the man who is still God-lung to a sizable part of the RAMPARTS P80-016010AM0 Approved For Release 2000/0 (>txa~~!~ 77-7 7, 7, 3 ~`T, ' fE j Yltik.1`I~ttij`f/~ a'^^~f:~f ~ ~4t\'~ + ~ 1 ~'.. :'. r ~? ;'?;~ ~% -fir'++eilr~iL' . : _~uias..+~K..e~:.fyc~4.~ ::s~C:tr: The Road to Phnom Penh: CambodiaTakes up the Gun 0 N MARCH 18, AN AMERICAN-backed military coup overthrew the neutralist government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, forcing the Cambo- dian I eft into all-out insurgency and providing American counterinsurgents with yet another Vietnam. First South Vietnam; then Laos; now Cambodia-American power has finally toppled the last domino in Indochina into communist revolution. For over a decade, the United States had tried to unseat Sihanouk and replace him with a right-wing regime. Though a conservative in domestic policies, Sihanouk jealously guarded his country's independence, knowing that entan- gling alliances could only lead Cambodia straight into the Indochina war, and from there into a full-scale revolution of her own. He also knew that if Cambodia ever became a junior partner in America's Asian alliances, she would open herself to the territorial expansion of her traditional ene- mies, the Thais and the South Vietnamese. He was right. General Lon Nol, Cambodia's new ruler, has abandoned neutrality. South Vietnam's General Thieu has agreed to occupy Cambodia, defending Lon Nol from the Cambodian people, at least until a successful Cambodianiza- tion of the war permits the withdrawal of South Vietnam- ese combat troops. The Thais have volunteered military aid and their own combat troops. And the Americans, striking from air and land, are turning Cambodia into the newest battlefield in an unending war. Sihanouk, meanwhile, is now chief of his country's revo- lutionary movement. "America attracts communism," the former neutralist once explained, "like sugar attracts ants." Sihanouk first became King of Cambodia in 1941, ap- pointed by the Vichy. French, who from the outset of World War II administered the country on behalf of the Japanese. In early 1945, after Vichy fell to the Allies, the Japanese seized direct control of Indochina, made the right- wing collaborator- Son Ngoc Thanh premier, and pushed Sihanouk to declare Cambodia independent of French rule. Following the defeat of Japan in World War 11, the French returned, jailing Son Ngoc Thanh and forcing Sihanouk to make Cambodia "an autonomous state within the French by Itm Union." This effectively reestablished French military and economic control, and gave the French the use of Cambo-' dia and Cambodian troops in their campaign to regain con- trol of Vietnam from the Viet Minh. In reaction to the French takeover, many of Son Ngoc Thanh's followers fled to Thailand, where they organized a Cambodian independence movement. The new group, the Khmer Issarak, covered the political spectrum from right- wing nationalists to communists, and included ethnic Viet- namese' living in Cambodia. By 1953, the anti-French Khmer Issarak, working closely with the Viet Minh, con- trolled three-fifths of Cambodia.. S IHANOUK, HIS NATIONALIST credentials now in ques- tion, began his own "royal crusade for indepen- dence." Capitalizing on French fear of the Khmer Serai and the Viet Minh, he skillfully maneuvered the French to back his crusade and, in October 1953, declared the independence of Cambodia. Sihanouk's success undermined the nationalist position of the Khmer Issarak. Son Ngoc Thanh and a few of his right- wing followers went into exile in Bangkok; the great major- ity of the Khmer Issarak, including the left, accepted Siha- nouk's offer of amnesty and laid -down their arms. Sihanouk then set out to govern Cambodia in classic fash- ion: balancing right against left, class against class, while maintaining his own position, as the indispensable man-in- the-middle. He permitted the communist Pracheachon Party to operate openly. But, stepping down from the ; throne, he actively campaigned for his own "Buddhist' Socialist" Party, the Sangkum, helping it establish exclusive, control of the National Assembly. He surrounded himself, both in the Sangkum and in his cabinets, with representa- tives of the entire span of Cambodian political life, includ- ing veterans of the Khmer Issarak. Yet he ran the govern- ment as a one-man show, single-handedly making decisions, on even the most trivial matters. ' Economically, Sihanouk practiced a kind of top-down socialism.. But, rather than promoting growth, the profits of r v d r CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 ~~% Photograph by Robert Scheu/Photon Wast C, d July 21AOZQed For Releasef'6~z 'i- D 8 ~'1bD1R~QU4 gether income taxes for families with in- comes under $3,600. Adoption of my bill would be a mean- ingful first step toward fairness and mod- ernization of our revenue laws. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tern- pore (Mr. ALLEN). The bill will be re- ceived and appropriately referred. The bill (S. 4102) to amend the In- ternal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide for an increase in the amount of the per- sonal exemption, introduced by Mr. YouNC of Ohio, was received, read twice by its title, and referred to the Conunit- tee on Finance. OUR MAN IN NORTH VIETNAM Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, Robert S. Boyd, chief of the Akron Beacon-Journal Washington Bureau, re cently returned.from 2 weeks' traveling in North Vietnam. Mr. Boyd is one of the foremost investigative reporters in the Nation. I ask unanimous consent that his re- port which was published in the Akron Beacon-Journal of June 7, 1970, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the report was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, As follows: HANOI Bsr,IEvEs NIXON INVENTED VIET WAR (By Robert S. Boyd) In North Vietnamese eyes, Richard Nixon is even worse than Lyndon Johnson was. Although it was L13J who bombed the day- lights out of their country, Nixon is consid- ered even more treacherous, stubborn and cruel than his predecessor. They believe Nixon Invented the Vietnam War. In the Museum of the Revolution In Hanoi, which covers the 40-year struggle against French and then American Intervention, there is an interesting exhibit devoted to Nixon. It Is dated 1953, and it shows him smiling and chatting with the former French puppet emperor, Bao Dal. The caption asserts that this was when Nixon-then a freshman vice president- conceived his policy of "Using Vietnamese to fight Vietnamese." Another display shows Nixon visiting Hanoi. In the Spring of 1954, before the French defeat. He toured Dien Bien Phu on that trip. The exhibit recalls Nixon's April 1954 speech suggesting American aid to the French-a project which President Eisen- hower rejected. In other words, Hanoi elates Nixon's "Viet- namization" plan of 1970 back 17 years- even before the French collapse. That's how long they say the President has been trying to make South Vietnam into an American "colony" by means of Vietnamese troops. As a general rule, American presidents are not among North Vietnam's favorite people. The last good one, in their eyes, was Abra- ham Lincoln, whom He Chi Minh admired in his youth. It Is the North Vietnam view: Woodrow Wilson fouled up by ignoring the young He's plea for Vietnamese self-deter- m?Ination at the end of World War I. Franklin Roosevelt showed promise, but he died before he could be of much help. Harry Truman sold out to the French in 1946 and supported their campaign to hang on to their old colony. - Dwight Eisenhower -refused to hold the 'promised elections to reunite Vietnam In 1956. Instead he created a tyrant, Ngo Dinh Diem, and put him in Saigon. 'John Kennedy beefed up the American "advisers" and launched a "special war" of counter-insurgency against "liberation forces" in South Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson "Americanized" the war with half a million GIs, and expanded it to North Vietnam. And now, at the bottom of the barrel, comes Richard Nixon. Nixon's "Vietna:mization" plan is crueler than LBJ's "Americanization" of -the war, said Lutt Quy Ky, secretary general of the North Vietnamese Journalists Association. "The cruelty Iles In the fact that if Nixon uses the blood of other people, he will not be as economical with it as with American blood," Ky said. Nixon Is also mere deceptive than LBJ, according to the North Vietnamese. Vietnami- zation Is only'a ruse to lull the American public, they argue. While cutting down U.S. casualties and costs, Nixon is actually pro- lcuging and extending the war, they say. The harshest Indictment of Nixon I heard in' my two weeks in North Vietnam came from H:ang Tung, a smiling, deceptively mild-mannered intellectual who is editor in chief of the official communist party news- paper, Nhan Dan (The People). "Nixon has accelerated his own defeat his political defeat at home and the defeat of his policies in Indochina," Tung said. "Why? Because he has done things con- trary to common sense. Things that even those who us:d to agree with him now dissent from. Things that even President Johnson dared not do." Tung cited what he called Nixon's "escala- tion" of the war in Laos, the overthrow of Prince Sihanouk in Cambodia (which IranolN claims was a CIA plot) and now the inva- sion of Cambodia. ` Nixon even succeeded In making a Commu- nist ally out of Cambodia's pleasure-loving Prince Sihanouk, Thing scoffed. "We couldn't do that," he said, "but your Nixon did." The editor noted sarcastically that Nixon undertook the Cambodian operation only days after his Secretary of State told Con- gress it wouldn't be done, and after a Senate committee voted against helping the Lon Nol government of Cambodia. "Nixon acted in defiance of the Legisla- ture," Tung said. "His acts bring much dis- sent. He is more unpopular than Kennedy or Johnson. "Nixon claims his 'silent majority' supports him. But that is' self-deception. The votes cast for Nixon in your last election were not meant for him to expand the war, but 'to end Many Americans may find it poor taste for an official, of a Communist dictatorship- to criticize the President for falling to consult public opinion. A number of American bomb casings that have fallen on Vietnamese soil have been de- risively painted with his name. Billboards, slogans and cartoons mock him. And one day, in the southern part of the country, while American planes were roaring overhead cn a bombing mission, a 23-year-old girl looked up and said quietly: "Nixon's airplanes." ORDER OF BUSINESS The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- pore. In accordance with the previous order, the Senator from South Carolina is recognized for not to exceed 20 minutes. Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, there can be no doubt that there is an urgent the alarming rate of crime that is flour- ishing in our Nation. This is particularly true in the District of Columbia. S. 2601, the District of Columbia crime bill, pro- vides these additional measures, and will, in my judgment, be instrumental in ef- fecting a reduction in the number of crimes committed. However, it is unfor- tunate that certain provisions of this bill have been, and still are, the subject of gross misunderstanding by responsible critics and inaccurate reporting by the news media. Mr. President, the provisions of this bill have been exhaustively studied in com- mittee by the House and the Senate, debated on the floor and again studied by the House-Senate conference. All pro- visions which were deemed unconstitu- tional or unwise were eliminated. How- ever, there is still controversy surround- ing pretrial detention and no-knock pro- visions of this bill. Critics of these meas- ures have argued that such provisions are unconstitutional and will be misused by the courts and law enforcement offi- cials. It seems to me that a careful read- ing of this bill and a study of its legisla- tive history, should dispel any doubts one could possibly have regarding its con- stitutionality or the fact that many safe- guards were included in order that the possibility of misuse would be eliminated. Let us first consider pretrial detention. t must be remembered that the concept eluded in the American Law Institute's model code of criminal procedure. In the mid-1960's pretrial detention was considered by the Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights and by the House Judiciary Committee. In 1966, the President's Commission on Crime in the District of Columbia recommended legis- lation to authorize the pretrial detention of those defendants who present "a truly high risk to the safety of the commu- nity." Since that time, other studies have been undertaken by the District of Col- umbia Metropolitan Police Department, the U.S. Attorney's Office, and the Judi- cial Council Committee To Study the Op- eration of the Bail Reform Act in the Dis- trict of Columbia. All of these studies confirmed the fact that a system of pre- trial detention was necessary to prevent dangerous criminals from committing additional. crimes after being released on bail. . These studies, showing the serious problem" of recidivism during bail, prompted the measure we now have be- fore us. However, some critics argue that pretrial detention is repressive and that ruler. _ Section 23-1322 of the act provides in part that: (a) Subject to the provisions of this sec- tion, a judicial officer may order pretrial de- tention of- (1) a person charged with a dangerous crime . If the Government certifies by motion that based on such person's pat- tern of behavior consisting of his past and present conduct, and on the other factors set out in Section 23-1321(b), there is no con- dition or combination of conditions which Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-016018000400210001-7 THE WASHINGTON Approved For Release 2000/08/16 :l@lg 1 0400210 by Lloyd Shearer I n 1961 when President John Kennedy, cursion was locally grown and sold to on the Khmers, subsequently chippingl ordered the first of 10,000 U.S., the North Vietnamese by Cambodian away large chunks of Cambodian ter- troops to Vietnam, most Americans farmers and government officials. Only) ritory. Basically, this is why the Cam- knew nothing about that country-its recently have they turned against the odians fear and hate their traditional location, its people, its history. Communists. Our central Intelligence enemies, the Thais and the Vietnamese, Nine years later, after more than 50, Agency maintains a list of such double who now play the anomalous role of 000 young Americans had died and. dealing Cambodians. protecting from the Communists a peo-. anotber 300,000 had been wounded in., Rice and rubber are the 'two tradi ple and territory they once sought to war-ravaged Vietnam to prevent a Com-, tional Cambodian money crops. The plunder. - munist takeover there, President Nixon land,suffers from a lack of minerals, and There are several minority groups in. ordered 40,000 U.S. troops into Cam- practically all manufactured goods are Cambodia: about 500,000 Chinese who. bodia. imported. The average Cambodian has own and run most of the shops; 500,000 Again-most Americans know pre- ' an income of about $103 per year. Vietnamese who are merchants, arti cious little about Cambodia, except per- Cambodia covers an area of 67,500 sans and fishermen and are now being haps what their President has told them, square miles, which makes it approxi- repatriated to South Vietnam; 50,000' which is: "We take this action not for, mately the size of Missouri. Khmer Loeu (hill tribesmen); 80,000 the purpose of expanding the war into! Its population is approaching 7 mil- Cham-Malays. (Moslems descended' Cambodia but for the purpose of end-! lion, and its climate is typical of other, from the ancient kingdom of Champa); C.. ing the war in Vietnam and winning the; Asian monsoon-belt countries. The dry 25,000 Thais and Laotians, and 5000 just peace we all desire." ' season extends from December to May. Europeans, most of them French. Whether our incursion into Cam-', Monsoons then flood the land, making; Thailand grab bodia-described by the President as, the roads impassable. Like Vietnam,, "the most successful operation of this. Cambodia is for Americans a climatical-; . It was France which saved Cambodia long and difficult war"-with our sub- ly difficult country in which to. fight a' from annihilation by its neighbors in sequent capture of enemy supplies in war. _ 1863 when it made Cambodia a French : tremendous numbers will end the war The annual rainfall in Phnom Penh, protectorate. In 1942. when Thailand instead of expanding it, whether it will the capital city, is 60 inches, with the joined Japan in declaring war against ` aid the Vietnamization program and rainy season, from mid-May to mid- the U.S. and its Allies, it had already an- speed the withdrawal of American November, accounting for 51 inches. nexed part of northwestern Cambodia. troops instead of delaying it-only the The humidity is consistently high and, After the war, however, the French months ahead will tell. ,,j'strength-sapping, and there are only.: compelled the Thais to return the ter- s ' Cambodia meanwhile remains in'the, two relatively comfortable months, De- rito(y. forefront of the news. Under the cir , cember and January. Cambodia in For the past 30 years, Cambodia has cumstances it would be well for. the' diplomatic circles Is considered a hard been dominated off and on by Prince American public to learn something ship country. Duty there calls for higher , Norodom Sihanouk who was displaced: about that "land of the white parasol;' pay. in March by a coup d'etat. { for no matter who does the fighting Sihanouk used to be King. He as-''. there in our crusade to stop the march Americans welcomed tended the throne of Cambodia in .of communism in Indochina-whether' The Cambodians are a small, slen- '1941 at the age of 19 and insisted at the it is the Thai army, the South Vietnam der, copper-faced, easygoing, peaceful, end of World War II that France grant. ese army, or the Cambodian army of. friendly people who'welcomed Ameri- his country independence. The French Gen. Lon Nol-it is the American peo- can soldiers with open arms. Most of stalled as they did in Vietnam. Sihanouk ple who have paid, are paying, and will ~ them are Khmers, descendan'ts' of an thereupon began a public campaign I continue to pay for the war, which has ; Asian people whose civilization reached against French rule. In June, 1953, he 'already cost us more than $120 billionits height from the ninth through the entered voluntary exile, refused to re- and whose end is nowhere" in sight. 14th centuries. Traces of that splendor" turn to Phnom Penh until France, her can be seen in' the ruined city of hands full in Vietnam fighting Ho Chi Dealers in rice Angkor Wat,'visited by Jacqueline Ken- Minh and his guerrillas, finally granted Cambodia is a land of tropical hard- nedy amidst much fanfare in 1967, independence to Cambodia on Nov. 9, wood forests and incredibly fertile rice ! ' At the end of the 14th century, the 1953. paddies. MoAtp - ir8ft*iw( oWwhb *;Aa1WO6/ftem, (MA.IROP&6cb11wvRodo4Oo 111 Osl J er Sihanouk abdicated American troops In the Cambodian in-. namese from the east-began moving in '.1 the throne in favor of his father. He re- oorjt~a,to3 Approved For Release 2000/08/1 &&P80-01601 R00040021 00 U July 70 Another great book of reportage, responding :. to the urgent need to understand the now stage of the war opened by Nixon's Invasion Out of his rich knowledge gained as an 6n-the-spot'.. reporter for Over 25 years, 'Burchett shows how the CIA 'maneuvered the coup which overthrew Sihanouk, and then provided. its own Special Forces to sustain the . u et i C p pp n regimeamubodii. nv wa3 mere wnen [ne summit meeting Ot the ?-!. . Indochinese Peoples (Vietnamese, Laotians. and Cam-:. bodians) setup a program and a new strategy of unity in ; :the war; and when the new Government of National "` Unity_ for Cambodia ' was ' formed. He" shows wily Approved For Release 2000/08/16 CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 continued C By PHILLIP BONOSKY to Cambodia scarcely a week be- 'dinaryv documents (published respondents. As Elizabeth Pond recently) to come out of the was to remark: "Personally I .present war are the joint work had been deeply dismayed by the of three American correspon- American decision to send troops dents who were captured in to Cambodia." Cambodia May 7 and held In fact, she was to make a prisoner by the guerrillas for point. of what was already six weeks before being re- certainly an unusual atti- leased. - tude with which the three of Richard Dudman, of the St. them worked in Cambodia., Louis Post-Dispatch; Michael that they "never quite accepted Morrow, of the Dispatch News the premise of an adversary Service International, and Eliz- relationship, even at the mo- t, P d s ecial correspond- ments when we were most a p .a. . on , ent for The Christian Science. frightened." had learned to subordinate Monitor were intercepted on .. And, in the beginning of their their, own 'private fates to the Route 1, "the main highway from ordeal, they were often fright- fate of their country. "To live Saigon to Phnom Penh," down. ened. Their first captors took without freedom and independ- which they rode in an Interna- them for CIA spies, : and itence," Dudman quotes one of tional Scout cart that May day was nip and tuck (they felt) his captors as saying, "is in an effort to discover where whether they would "survive as good as being dead." And A he war had gone to. Instead, they long enough to prove their iden- another one: "We miss our found themselves suddenly taken tities as newspaper corres- families, but we have an obli- :prisoner, and for 40 days ondents. In the first.?villages gation to oppose American lived behind the "enemy lines" they came to, the villagers aggression. When ' we have .sharing the, food. and way of denounced them as CIA spies won we will go home in peace." life of their captors, getting and there were demands for Their sincerity, their single to know many of them as in- their immediate execution. But, -minded devotion to the free- dividuals, and in general, dis- then, after once being beaten dom of their homeland, their covering, in the words of Rich- (that is, the men), they. were willingness to s u b o r d i n a t e and Dudmhn, that "We saw a rescued finally by a lieutenant then' own personal aims and well organized movement of of the guerrilla army, who assur- ambitions to the common aim of Cambodians and Vietnamese ed them that if it was established liberating their country - this guerrillas in a determined war that they were 'bona-fide the Americans did not dare against . American tanks and newspaper correspondents no question. Practically, they planes." And learned "what harm would come to them. kind of people they are as we And his word proved to be traveled with them on-foot, by good as gold. For, soon after, STATI NTL . my" soliders, who, in time, broke down into individuals as they got to know them better. . They were far from the face- less, ignorant "puppets" of the wily Communists, the men they came to know. They were men with a common background of active resistance, which for some extended over 20 years, and included fighting the French; they were. men who stood in a strange relationship to these men and women, whose determination to fight was unambiguous and exist- and from ed on a moral level infinitely ed an cl t t g , l a us s er.It was a remarkable ex- "enemy agent" they gradu superior to the moral level of perience, unmatched by any ated into a kinder classifica- their opponents, including, at other American journalists. Lion. In fact, no guard was least formally, themselves. But what is even more re- placed on them at all after The three Americans were - markable than. the details of they were cleared. But, Eliz- not unaware of this. . They their imprisonment is' the tes- abeth Pond reported: "An. es- made no attempt at any time to timony which each brought cape attempt was the, last defend or even explain the posi- back, in his own terms, adding thing that any of the three of tion of -their own government..In his own Insights, of the kind us would have tried, and this fact, as Miss Pond explain- of man (and woman) who is appeared to be understood. As ed, they were themselves op- our "enemy", against whom time went on, weapons were posed to it.. Asa result, their we are counseled by Nixon to freely left in our presence, even reports of life among the Cam- send fire and disease and in the absence of soldiers." bodian and Vietnamese guer- bombs to kill in ever-mounting Strange enemy! But their re- rillas testify' to a people for genocidal numbers as repre- lationship with their captors whom they could barely hide senting the greatest of dan- deepened even more as time their admiration, even in a ger to our "way of life". wore. on. They became an inte- certain sense, their envy. Nixon had sent American troops. gral part of the company, run- It's obvious to the reader, ning . for shelter from the ma- though the idea is never ex- rauding American helicopters, pressed overtly, that, as s Ai8Y~A',6 d s ~y ,of to know their captors Approved For ReleaseA0-4YOOIAWQ(A4Q92AQQ9nW ideas with a roof, or none at all. But all this in common with the "ene- truck from one village to anoth- DAILY WORLD .0 Jul~r 70 Approved For Release-200.0/08/1 : CIA-RDP81904160-1000404 ' . con tini.10a: THE T PA AKI NMI - ALAI D DAILY ITEM Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIS-~, 8Q-9'7?01 R00040021000 I~il0-1).0 ft Anerii 0 9~ ~ cI e-,every action of the 1'nitvd States C'ntral Intelli- Sin gence Agency is top secret it is hard to ferret out the facts, but over the years fragments emerge which throw some light on its activities. Its. budget is split among a 100 items in the United States' multi-billion dollar defence appropriations. Only two . . or tnree 17C11awU115 alil.t UV11F~! C7J111C111 111C11ivul a vt CL tvawaa~w~ -. 52rvico committee. are privy to its size. _ dill!IIH'llfllii(illlll"11111JI1 "'II!Ilil!Ili9!IlII!131IIIIIli9'19"CI!il'I!911111'Ln'IiGICg11191fiUi'lllll!il'a dti is ~? "'` i- The CIA itself reports to . Despite its protestations are who were charged with enforcement background, another super-secret body. at being only an external the murder of a Vietnamese as opposed to the more the National Defence Coun- agency, CIA agents t3 ere ac- national, said to be a double free-wheeling Ivy League ,the which for the record sags tive in bliami, Florida, re- agent. I college graduates who virtually nothing. Even its cruising Cuban refugees to Another agency, little- used to make up the core membership is secret. fight. known outside of the of their key people. But it can be said that The agency's advice to the Uni;eel States that plays a One problem is that men rivals that of Pentagon and White House key role in supporting CIA resigning from the CIA the on the degree of support (activity is the National often find that employment many Y medium-sized riva-sized nations, Prime Minister Fidel Castro S ,..._,~.. inc,4) at Langley offers rear- y f - and It employs w?' had in his own country thousands of agents through- not to be confused with obstacles to getting a new bly proved compettely erroneous. N NSA the space agency. job. out more the than world - Russia. prob. Many liberal Senators claim " Headquartered a A well-publicised case that the agency is 50 occurred in Washington re- The CIA is quick to po?nt paranoid about Communists Security cently when a . CIA em- `out that it operates only and Communism that its ;outside the limits . of the collective judgements are ployee resigned to return continental United States. often seriously distorted. (sprawling complex Fort to university teaching. He Meade, -Maryland, nd, at. 30 was on the short list for a Its work internally being Certainly the record in- h miles from Langley, the plum appointment, but done by the FBI. Each dicates that the CIA is more NSA's security arrange- when it became known he foreign post has a "Pesi- ' likely to be friendly to right- ments are, if possible. even , had' been a researcher for dent" who controls the ac? .tivities of his men in the field. Often the Resident operates out of the United States Embassy in. the nation concerned, much to .the disgust of regular dip- lomats who call CIA men "spooks," sometimes to their faces. Control Controlling and co-ordin- ating these world-wide op. 'erations is a huge staff in CIA headquarters at Lang- 'ley, Virginia - a massive concrete building tucked ,away behind a grove of trees just off a super-high- ;way a few miles from Wash- tngton, DC. A coy direction sign announces It as the Public ;Works Department for the .District of Columbia. CIA critics say this piece of cloak-and-dagger non- ' sense which deceives nobody They have been accusea, Marine guards and any- dropped from considera- often with convincing evi- body walking around the Lion, dence. of interfering on the building without conspic- Defenders of the agency side of the generals in sev uously displaying his iden- argue that every major eral Latin American and tity will instantly have a s not_ power must be in tha int31- - nt i Caribbe cou r e '~I!1!II!Illlil;IIIII!I!HIIIIIIIIIIII!iii!II!iiill'II!URIHHIIillllllll!iIIIIII!I!Ii1111911H!I!I!iH1111i!iilill!IIIHHI!IHlllliviil!!lilill!iGill~ Alniost without exception, military coups I around the world In recent years hnvo bought charges of involvement by America's Ccntrnl Intelligence Agency. Recently Icing Iussni:s hag hinted at CIA int,~rferenco in Jordon. What ib EN this shadowy organisaton and how does it v7c:'i? Cocking investigates for Gemini ?'Yew iE R W gun oarrei at Ills ueau. Argentina, and Brazil. NSA's principal task is matter of self-protection. 4o crack the dipiematic and On the charge of ama- Mainstay military codes of every teurism, one CIA man told. other nation on earth. It me: "Sure we make a lot The agency has been a employs some of. the most , of mistakes, After all, the mainstay of President Ky's i sophisticated computer United States has been military regime in South , equipment ever assembled. running the world for only Vietnam, and' there Is no The results of this work a little more than 23 yearn. doubt that it had a big hand are useful to the CIA and Before us, the British were In toppling the neutralist i the National Security doing it for nearly 300, government of Prince Sih- Council. But several, allied which gave them plenty of Perhaps its most sicken- exercise. big intervention was in The growing criticism is Greece, where the colonels making it more difficult for oligarchy boasts of the sup- the CIA to recruit suitable port of the United States personnel. It is said that - Government as It imprisons ; they are more and more and tortures its democratic turning to men with a law opponents: ? - - - - As typical of the theatrical The evidence indicates amateurism of_ the entire that the CIA uses all classic CIA operation. tools of a spy organisation The CIA's most. spectacu- assassination, murder, lar failure was, of course, bribery and blackmail of - ,the Bay of P' s invasio Y Cuba proved ort e pp(#Aoj y CA-RDP80-016018000400210001-7 ? Green Beret troops in Viet- DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 200/68W 1 T -RDP80-01601 R000400210 ~~.~.~. m rc narle's infest Cambodia By TOM FOLEY -Cambodia: May. 1979.' is a slim. 15-page report prepared for the use of the Senate For- eign Relations Committee b} two of its staff members. James G: Lowenstein and' Richard M. Moose. The two committee staf- ters went to South Vietnam and Cambodia during the U.S.-Saigon invasion. were briefed by top- ranking U.S. Saigon and Cam- bodian civil and military offi- '.:ial,. and returned to Washing- ton to prepare a mall package .,t political dynamite which is this repor: One of the most shocking parts it the report deals with the 'ethnic Cambodian" troops from South Vietnam's Mekong Delta These Khmer Krom ? 'Lower Cambt dians were organized. / trained and equipped by the J U.S. Central Intelligence Agency to form the mainstay of the CIA ? Civilian Irregular Defense Groups ,CIDG, . in South Viet- nam. The CIDG are the mer- venaries who man Special Forces camps along the South Vietna. mese border. They seem to have performed other functions too. It was publicly known that sometime in late April. the U.S. began airlifting thousands of Khmer Krom troops into -he Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh to help defend the Lon Not regime. The Senate staffers' inquiries about the precise date when the Khmer Krum had in- tervened in Cambodia were all rebuffed by U.S. military and civilian officials in Phnom Penh and Saigon. But an American newsman in Phnom Penh told Lowenstein and Moose "that he had talked to one of the Khmer soldiers who had told him that he 1-ad been in Phnom Penh for four to six weeks. which would mean that he had arrived there during the month of March." i Empha- ,;is mine-T.F. This is a crucially important admission. Prince Norodom Si- hanouk was ousted by the Lon Not clique on March 18. but the country was supposed to have remained at least theoretically neutral until near the end of April. The new Lon Nol regime made quite a point of the as- `Viet Cong" sertion that. the " and "North Vietnamese" were the only foreign troops in Cam- bodia. Now we find that CIA- trained ethnic Cambodian troops were in the Cambodian capital in March. perhaps during or even before the Lon Nol coup. This may go a long way to- ward explaining many of the be- wildering events of March in I STATINTL Phnom Penh.".which were so un- characteristic of the Cambodians and baffled people who had liv- ed and worked with them for years. No one would have thought that Cambodians could have been organized to attack and plunder the embassies of the Provisional Revolutionary Gov- ernment of South Vietnam or the Democratic Republic of Viet- nam. Almost no one would have thought it possible for the easy- going, tolerant Cambodians to launch real pogroms against the peaceful: Roman Catholic fisher- men of Vietnamese descent who live in a separate quarter of Phnom Penh. 'Yet. these things happened. and Cambodians were seen waving banners inscribed: --Kill the Viet Cong! ' If it were to be assumed that the leaders of these activities and the bru- massacres which followed tal were Khmer Krom, 'trained CIA killers who have been fighting 'in South Vietnam for years against the National Liberation Front. then many people would feel that things begin to fall into place. Even if none of these assump- tions are made, however, the fact that the CIA's Khmer. Krom troops were in Phnom Penh in March is enough to rule out the possibility that the Lon Nol coup was a home-made affair. Approved For Release 2000/08/16`: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 Approved For Release 2pp4~0p/pg/1fi 01 10 July 7, 1 TO S10654 CONGR~S~109~f ~~ - M,-PERIENCES AND OBSERVATIONS Driving clown highway I, the main route npeaking Cambodian rtudent yet into the IN CAMI30DIA-ARTICLES BY from Saigon to Phnom Penh, we were waved spirit of thoj apture, and his friendly manner on at a checkpoint manned by friendly disappeared. RICHARD DUDMAN Cambodian forces. The sentry gave us no Each time the truck slowed, he leaned out b art about "the three Americans" inside. 0 f t t , is Post- fields were deserted. No peasant trudged along correspondent of the St. Lou field Dispatch, has written a fascinating series the highway. of articles describing his experiences and When we reached a blowri-up bridge with observations during the 5 weeks he was no warning Sign, we knew the worst. We had held in enemy hands in Cambodia. I be- unwittingly entered the no man's land be- troops lieve that the articles speak most elo- eenrAllied Norodom Sihhe guei ilia ousted quently for themselves and, without fur- tCambrting ng Nord o stSih the ther comment, ask unanimous consent . Swiftly we turned our International Scout that the six articles which appeared in and headed back along the destored road to- the St. Louis Post-Dispatch be printed ward 8vay Rieng. We had gone only 100 yards in the RECORD at this point. or so when a Vietnamese with an automatic There being no objection, the articles 'rifle stopped us. In a moment a Cambodian were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, joined him. I ,, ?? as follows: With rifles trained on us, they ordered us to empty our pockets on the pavement.and (From the St. Louis Poet-Dispatch, then motioned to us to start walking. Hands June 22, 19701 raised, we clambered down a collapsed bridge r PERISNCES AND ODSERVATIONS IN CAMBODIA span and up the rubble on the other side. The rice paddles stretched emptily on both ' We t d e . sides of us. The countryside was deser were frighteningly alone. Suddenly a Vietnamese in a sports shirt and carrying a Chinese-made automatic rifle slid from behind a big tree. We stopped our car and scrambled out, hands up. o o Mr. P'UIBRIGIIT, Mr. President, warning. but suddenly about a moo wes In the Parrot's Beak area of I suppose the villagers thought we were avnv Ricog f the American 0 alarmed our captors. "Di, dl, di (hurry, hurry. hurry)"-they ordered us to run. There was no cover except an occasional tree. Some of the trees had been felled and lay across the highway as makeshift roadblocks. When Beth lagged behind, a man on a'bi- downed flyers from ono planes that had been bombing Cambodia since Slhanouk'a overthrow. STATINi At the last stop-at a sizable village- hatred reached a critical level. In twoo and threes boys and young men climbed the cab and tailgate of our truck to glare down at us. They shook their fists. Several made ob- scene gestures. At one point an older man clambered to the cab roof and berated us. There was a respite when a young Vlet- nameso soldier arrived and ordered the villag- era off the truck. He asked a few questions and then he, too, assured us we would not be shot. He and others tied strips of toweling tightly around our heads, blindfolding us. Someone took me by the hand. Linking hands with Mike and he with Beth, we climbed over the tailgate to the ground. A slip knot of. binder twine went over my right wrist, and the other end was tied to a motorbike. Mike's wrist was tied the same way. "Di, dl, di" came the command. Blind- folded, stumbling, fearful of breaking an ankle, we ran as fast as we could to keep up with the bike. Several hundred villagers had gathered, and .the motorbike pulled up through their gantlet. Fists and hands hit and shoved W from both sides. "Beat the Americans to death," the people shouted angrily. Eventually the voices faded. The motorbike kept going, and we kept running. We must have run half a mile. I could feel under foot' the path trailing off Into heavy dust or sand. All Z could think of were the mass graves I had seen outside Hue for civilians killed there by Communist forces during the Tet journalists." , running about two miles, we were led down That was the beginning of my 40 days with a side path. In a thatched-roof hut, Mike and the guerrillas. We were prisoners in Cam- I had to take off our pants and shoes. They bodia. were returned to s after a thorough search It was the start of an extraordinary ex- and we were given cups of tea, perience in the new war that America is Our first interrogation began a few minutes fighting In Cambodia. Of 23 correspondents later in an other hut. A young man wearing d there by the enemy, a pistol did the questioning. Mike explained t ure ve been cap In Vietnamese we were who ha we three are the only ones held for any length that International He said that he and Beth are lists of time who have been released. TIMES OF TERROR In nearly six weeks of hiding in jungle and paddyland there were times of terror when our lives were at stake. There also were much boredom and occasional happy times playing chess with our captors and making a feast of roast dog. We lost weight, but except for some ant bites, minor infections and dysen- tery, we came out in reasonably good health. It also was a newspaperman's, once-in-a- lifetime opportunity to see life on the other side in the chaotic new conflict that has spilled over from the war in Vietnam. We saw a well-organized movement of Cambodian and Vietnamese guerrillas in a determined war against American tanks and planes. We gradually learned about their hatred of America, their tactics, their rela- tionship with the Cambodian peasants and what kind of people they are, as we traveled with them on foot, bicycle and occasionally by truck from one village to another. we feel an first to be released th , e Being obligation to the 20 correspondents still mess- three kilometers and then came to a big h we made no deal for our re- Czech-made truck. Camouflaged with tree Alth oug tag. lease, we decided to withhold a few details, branches, it stood at the aide of the road In such as the exact place of our release, for . what appeared the vehicle large h village. about were fear of jeopardizing our colleagues. TAKEN FOR SPIES bodlan soldiers. One carried a Chinese AK-47 Our captors suspected us of being spies automatic rifle; another, a light machine for the Central Intelligence Agency, and we gu. are determined to avoid doing anything that Their mood was getting more dangerous. would feed their suspicion of other cor- The Cambodians watched us intently but im- respondents they have captured. passively. We offered a smile; no response. It was May 7 when it all started. Just a The soldier with the automatic .rifle kept it week earlier President Richard M. Nixon had pointed at my chest. When I motioned po- litely to him to point It to one side, he waved opened a new dfinennion of the war in South- it angrily at me and put the gun to my head. wrist bind:.:,-a. I must have imagined those east Asia et announcing that American and ? He kept it there all the while the trunk . screams; she had not been harmed. She Couch Vltnnmeae troops were invading bounced along jungle roads. Cambodia.. satd.a Cambodian soldier had make ahalf- At noon Miss Elizabeth Pond of the ANGRY CROWDS hearted effort to rape her. Quick-witted, she Christian Science Monitor, Michael Morrow The danger mounted at each village an an- had told him that he (the soldier) was her of Dispatch News Service International and'I gry-faced crowd of men and women gathered bro'.t..-'r and she his sister and he stopped. set out from Saigon to see how for the Inva- and climbed the tailgate of 'the truck for a Six long hours had passed since our cap- slon had penetrated. look. at the hated Westerners, The French- ture at noon; it was early evening and dark. Approved For Release 2000%08/16 :?CIA-RDP80-016'018000400210001-7 Invasion of South Vietnam In 1968. . journa i was sure we were being taken out of Canadians, and I was an American. town to be shot. An older man with one eye, who had been At last the motorbike stopped. We were listening skeptically, took over the question- + cut loose. Then our hands were lashed Ing. He accused us of being CIA agents. It/ tightly behind our backs. was the first of many such accusations that We were led into a darkened building with would be made against us in the next five a dirt floor. I heard a muttered conversa- weeks. tier, then a sharp crack and a moan. It . . A young man who spoke French arrived ' was Mike. I felt him slump. to the floor. I and took a friendlier tone. He said he was a ? thought he had been shot. I knew I was Cambodian student from Phnom Penh and next. was working the Cambodians and Vetnamese Someone struck me on the back of the head revolutionary forces fighting the Americans dropped to the and South Vietnamese. He told us we would with floor. a Mike wooden was club and I unconscious for a few mo not be shot in any event. If we were what we meats, but I was not. I lay there expecting - said we were, he promised, we would be set to be kicked and beaten. Instead, I was free. yanked to a sitting position and ordered to But the friendly tone vanished when a spread my legs. gray-haired man with - a stern manner ar- Our captors barked questions at Mike ac- rived. He didn't believe a word of our story. cueing us of being American spies. Then - ' Over and over Mike told him how we had set they were quiet. In the distance I thought out from Saigon that morning to see and ' I heard a woman's voice shrieking in pain. report what was happening In Cambodia. I was sure Beth, who had been separated After more questions we were taken from from us when Mike and I were tied to the the hamlet on bicycles. We pedaled two or motorbike, was being tortured. The first kindly voice we heard was that of a man who said he was a lieutenant. He - asked if we were frightened. We said we were. He said, "You are not going to be shot." In a moment he brought a metal bowl of water and held it to our lips. He loosened Mike's bindings, wl,ieh were so tight they had impaired his circulation. - - Another period of silence-then we were told to get to our feet. We were led to an- other building, this One with a concrete floor. Beth was already there. She helped CHICAGO TRIBUNE Approved For Release 2000/0J1$rj lAq flP80-01601 R000400 LOSS JL fl TU STATINTL "' - Own SO .By SAMUEL JAAlES0N bargaining power in Moscow staged in Svay Riong Province In an election for the Na- i Chief of Tokyo Iturenu 1 and Peking and to demonstrate on March 8 was announced tional Assembly held Sept. 11, (Chicao Tribune r,ni Urvic0l publicly that he had a right wing b the official news 1966, Sihanouk for the first time who wished' to P11N.OM OM PENII, Caffibodia, opposition that had , to be agency. Y allowed anyone July i France''in1CLtlhe e ~monthl1Cof placated." Shan k S 's o m e b o d y among supporters certainly seek office to run under the A transcri t of that briefin banner of his Sangkum political February Prince Norodomp g would h a v e ' informed the There were 415 can- the p uk.remier .and Lt. of Gen. the Lon prince'Not,s was made available here. mince,, who inevitably. would ? party. The Nol government has have known as a result that' didates entered in the race.for the p insisted since March that trouble w a s brewin Yat 92 seats. The results produced government in Cambodia, met Sihanouk was ousted as chief f o of g' an assembly which was restive rwh Sihanouk was r had to make their final plans for a state because he refused" to Sihanouk took no action. In them only diplomatic thrust against North support' "popular manifesta- I 3. The bulletin of the coup- lassigned it previously: Viet Sianon , tions. of the p e o p 1 e's in. tergovernment, an. institution rubber-stamping Sihanouk de- Shanouk, who had been ,~ against North Viet- created by Sihanouk to criticize visions, dignance the of the a actions sowever, s e v e r a l factors rial official mounting a campaign against namese and Viet Cong in dit on o an e governmem, ran the North Vietnamese and Viet Cambodia. That claim appears M_nrn6 12 nrlicina the Attacks kept this ,restiveness ?dden Cong bases in his country for more than 16 months, already had wangled invitations from Moscow and Peking to visit both capitals. He accepted the invitation to visit Peking on Feb. 2. ' The purpose of these visits, as Sihanouk announced publicly, was to bring pressure on both Communist giants to persuade the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong to restrict their activities in Cambodia. Attack Planned . A lwo-pronged - attack was planned:" 1. Sihanouk would demand a total- withdrawal ? of all North anti-Sihanouk members of the Vietnamese and Viet Cong National Assembly. troops. . Many diplomats in Phnom , Insiders insist the selection of 2. Cambodians in P h n o m Penh who believed at the time the date was made 'without Penh would be incited to stage that Sihanouk planned the reference to the past. But it demonstrations against the March 11 demonstrations was on March it, 1964, that the North Vietnamese and Viet changed their minds. after his American a n d British em- .Cong embassies to add an air 1 ouster March 18. They now bassies were sacked. And it ' ' of urgency to Sihanouk s dip- think Sihanouk s e n e m i e s' was on March 11, 1967, that lomatic move. ~ ' originated the idea, and they. Sihanouk-sponsored demon- "Go and give them a lesson," insist that Sihanouk must have Orations were staged in Phnom Sihanouk told Nol. known that such a move would Penh to demand the overthrow Thus, t h e demonstrations be dangerous. that eventually led 'to Chain of Evidence Sihanouk's downfall were A chain of circumstantial ordered by Sihanouk himself. This story was revealed by a evidence indicates that this source in. a position to know. reporter's source was 'correst: His identity cannot be disclosed I. Despite Sihanouk 's dwin- immediately because to do so dling p o l i t i c a l fortunes, the might endanger his life. prince still had many followers, particularly in the police. On Tit s. Officials Know the night of March 16 the police 711gh American officials ap- parently : know of Sihanouk's role in 'the March 11 dem- onstrations. A White House official told newsmen in a not-for-attribution briefing on May 16: "At least part of the revo- lution against him [Sihanouk] was, iy~d'r ctly, ci6~ncer'd b hirr;se~` r~i ~t 'to be one of the -reasons the government has not revealed Sihanouk's' role in planning the demonstrations. . Don't Sponsor Riots Another reason for keeping it secret is that governments do not sponsor demonstrations and burn embassies as a diplomatic tactic. Sihanouk did nbt order the embassies sacked, the source close to the prince said. Nor is there any evidence Nol gave such an order. Just who added that finale to the staged suspicion points to certain coup on 'Sihanouk's behalf., Since the police intentionally, stepped aside March 11 to' permit the demonstrations to occur, they must have known of the plans in advance-and approved of them. 2. The fact that other dem- on t tons nst the Viet. a on the embassies. Sigmticantiy, Penh. the editorial appeared before One was the state-controled Sihanouk sent a cable con- 'press. Another was the fear of' demning the Nol government. imprisonment-or even death Obviously, the countergovern- -among Cambodians who may ment, filled entirely with Siha- have wished to. speak their nouk "yes men," must have minds. had some reason to believe immense Popularity prove of the Sihanouk would a p demonstrations. March 11 Chosen , Sihanouk.had told Nol, who returned to Phnom Penh Feb. 18, only to stage the demon- strations before the prince left for M o s c o w, the informed source said. That departure date was set later for. March 13, and March 11. was chosen of the Cambodian cabinet in office at that time. That cabinet was headed by Nol, and Nol ultimately was forced to resign on April 29, 1967. To understand what went wrong with the orchestrated crisis of Mprch, 1970 (which will' be revealed in d later article], a look at what had been happening in Cambodia since 1967 is necessary. Support Dwindles Unknown to t he . outside world, Sihanouk's support from Cambodian politicians, busi- nessmen,' army and intellectu- als had begun to dwindle, even -j0A GOIR000400210001-7 The t h'i r d -and most im- portant cloak under which the decline of Sihanouk's power was hidden-was his immense popularity among the masses in, Cambodia. A man of boundless energy, Sihanouk would drive to ex- haustion diplomats who traveled with him in the countryside. He would strip down to. his shorts and join villagers digging a canal. He composed music. He produced, directed, 'and starred in movies: He wrote articles con- stantly and personally edited three magazines. He was a superb orator in three languages. He had a keen sense of humor and often laughed at himself-altho never at jokes others told about him. He,kept his country at peace as war ravaged Cambodia's, neighbors. He built schools and roads. He beautified the cities. , He made himself felt, seen and heard thruout Cambodia. King to People Most of all, he was the king to the common people, even tho he had abdicated the throne in 1955 to take a more active role in politics. He called his people "infants" or "my little Bud- dhas"-and ' the people adored it. The. educated elite did not. ooii ~inuo Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA RlE f62 0040021 h 02 U OSSTAT , 1NT--L'-- ED orr~~bow~ 0U ~003 Daily World Foreign Department The National United. Front of Cambodia accused the United States WednesdaA of bombing Cambodia's Oudong temples near Phnom Penh on June 26. The NUFC statement, issued in of Takeo. Large-size`Saigon pup- (Hong Kong) in Cambodia found Hanoi, characterized as "barbaric" pet armored forces are , r, ving to how some of this "Communist the bombing and strafing by U.S. ' keep open the Phnom Penf -Sihan- , rice supply" was liberated by Sai- Air Force planes of the historic oukville highway to the country's gon puppet troops in the Parrot's temples, , which caused wide only port and the western highway Beak (Svay Rieng) region of Cam- spread destruction of the Cam- to the Thai border. bodia. The Saigon soldiers "were bodian people's national monu-. Capture by guesswork dragging huge bags of rice out of ments and art treasures. It called A Nixon Administration spokes- warehouses and were loading the air raid a "grave crime" in San Clemente, Calif., brief-. them on ARVN (Saigon army) against the 'entire Cambodian man trucks 'for transshipment back to people. ing newsmen on the result of the. Vietnam," the reporter stated. A second temple attack took Cambodian invasion, claimed that "Were they seizing, Viet Cong Wednesda U.S. troops had seized about 60' , place y near the ancient percent of the weapons and sup- , 'No,' stocks, they were asked. temple city of Angkor Wat. A Lon plies "Communist forces" had N,' they replied. 'This is killed all Nol government spokesman in hidden in their alleged Cambodian where the Cambodians killed all Phnom Penh claimed that "Al- the Vietnamese. lied" planes had attacked "the sanctuaries. He also claimed that ? The reporter noted that the Viet Cong" there. Another air at- .100 percent of the communist rice whole area had been pillaged and supply and 70 percent of their am- then was razed to the ground, and tack was made on Phnom Krom, . ' munition had been taken too. another temple complex 10 miles..:' The official then went on to say commented that "it was a thor- south of Siem Reap. ough job. that estimates of how much sup- U.S. mercenaries - Liberated Scotch The Nixon Administration mean- plies Communists had supposedly The Saigon troops, though, had while was sending thousands more hidden in Cambodia were guesses rather humble ideas about what to of its Khmer Krom .("Lower Cam- . at best. The "percentage" figures, take:- U.S. troops, according to bodian" ) mercenaries into Phnom he said, were based on an assume- American news sources,. spent Penh to defend the crumbling Lon ly tion keep that on the hand a 14- Communists month normasupply l their time liberating such "Com- of regime. The Khmer Krom of everything. No basis was given munist supplies" as Scotch whis- troops, trained by the U.S. Central . key and motorscooters. There Intelligence Agency to fight in,? was no indication of whether or South Vietnam, were reported to for this assumption. Spoils of war not the Communists had laid in a be arriving in the Cambodian cap- A reporter for the conservative` 14-month supply of Scotch in Cam- ital by air and road. Far, Eastern Economic Review , bodia. U.S. newsmen spotted a 40- truck - convoy, carrying at least 1,000 of the Khmer Krom troops, as it neared Phnom Penh. At least' 4,000 CIA.'trained Khmer Krom soldiers" are already in Cambodia, spread through the ranks of Lon Nol's army, where some reports indicate they occupy all command positions from the lowest unit up. Saigon puppet troops, who still number at least 40,000 in Cam- bodia, are still engaged in mili- tary operations around the out- skirts of Phnom Penh, and near- the, southern provincial capital. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 Cambodia, is one of the states of the National Assemblymen, who a %o see w a ar ,Indochinese peninsula which fares gone to the town of Kompongcham troops drilling in the night with best or, if one prefers it, which has on the Mekong to explain to the brand-new Soviet-designed AK47 the least problems in this first quay- people why the God King was gone, automatic rifles. The Major said they ter of 1970." . were torn limb from limb by an an- were part of a shipment destined for Prince Norodom Sihanouk wrote gry mob. It was reported that Prime'. the Viet Cong which the Cambodian h d' h d X f r their own 0 d .L _ . _..i.i .. i,,.,..,at,f. on Tt wait .:a time of uncertainty, for nam, and they are now in Pnompcnh THE ATLANTIC Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-1 8111%01R000400210001- CAMBODIA by the surrounding war-liKC conui- no one Knew IL JIL1 IIuUn 1 o some anxieties return and those who plotted against army. s d . espite a bons ... ,of a domestic order .. ; my country, him were jittery and nervous. Two Omar and the Major took us out h d h t Om said were KKK The government encouraged ancient that he had killed a lot more than ,of Pnompen move on to e racial hatreds, and shortly, rafts of that, and he drove us out to the jor's favorite bar. There wasn't any- bloated corpses were floating down bridge at night to show us the blood body else there, so the bar girls made the Mekong River. Security in the stains in the road. Coming back a big fuss over the Major while Omar border regions vanished once the across the bridge he showed us where sat with his back to the wall making fragile truce with the Viet Cong was i other victims had been tied up in a big thing out of watching the ,broken. The first quarter of 1970 rice sacks and thrown into the water. doors. Next we ended up in Omar's :ended with burning villages, roads With a colleague, Burton Pines, I favorite nightclub; this time the clogged with refugees, and the full- met the Major in a French sidewalk boys in the Land Rover were in- scale destruction of invading South caf for a beer. He told us of his vited in for a drink. Omar, .45 bulg- Vietnamese and American armor background with the Vietnamese ing in his armpit and all, grabbed Lion e the beasts were out of their cages. the major who opened fire confided Our nighttime tour of the defenses h d th Ma- army a sip one o those words-now so ironic-in an ar- Minister Lon Nol s own brother ha ticle for the April edition of Pacific also been killed, his liver torn from use. We drove in the Major's Peugeot Community. They were true when his body and cooked and eaten on while a Land Rover full of troops he wrote them. But before the print- the street in the time-honored Cam- followed at a discreet distance. Omar er's ink was dry, the Prince was de- bodian manner. wore his sport shirt with one but. :posed, and along with him went the And on the bridge leading into 'ton undone, to allow easy access to a delicate diplomatic and political bal- Pnompcnh across the Tonle Sap .45 automatic under his arm, which ance which had so successfully kept another angry crowd had been he pulled out to impress us. He won Cambodia out of the Vietnam holo- turned back with considerable loss of dered if we could get him a light- caust. life by a fusillade from the govern-_ weight .38, the kind the CIA meal Once those restraints were gone, ? ment troops sent, out to meet them. wear. But what he real y wante was ,how quickly the Cambodian sitiia- The government announced a figure for us to get him twenty "talky-walk -, d terioratedl Within weeks all for the number of people killed, but ies" from Hong Kong. .sending up rooster tails of dust across paratroopers during the French war, the mike and crooned while the band d b na'iveti; of a lovely, peaceful country With him was a sleek, slim, hand- ese bar girl muttered. about to plunge itself into war. Old some man with curly black hair, a it was as if the movie If ...had French tanks stood in the streets, clipped mustache, and a swashbuck- conic true: the schoolboys had their crews asleep underneath them ling air. He could have been a stand- locked the headmaster out and they in the sticky afternoons of the South- in for Omar Sharif. He had been an were playing with guns; funny, cx- -cast Asian hot season. Students, organizer of the mob that sacked the cept that the guns were real, and all clutching their belongings in card- North Vietnamese and Provisional the time one knew this wasn't an board suitcases and bundles done up Revolutionary Government embas- isolated banana republic rebellion. with bits of string, paraded in the sics, and he said he was a leader Those who knew something about streets on their way to join the army. of the Khmer ? Kampuchea Krom real war-the North Vietnamese and, ,They laughed and waved and sang (K.K.K.), the ethnic Cambodians;as it turned out, the South Vietnam- o- s in accompanied him and the Cam the paddies and dry tapioca fields of at Dienbienphu, and afterwar Cambodia. the Viet prison camps. He said he than troops shuffled about the dance In Pnompcnh, in the weeks im- had a photograph of himself with floor in their baggy fatigues. "Look mediately following the coup, there the legendary French Para, Colonel at those Cambodian pigs dancing .was a pathetic air of unreality and Bigcard, but I never saw it. with their hats on," a chic Vietnam- 'brave songs as they climbed onto the, who live in the regions of South Viet- ese and the Americans too-would !trucks. It was 1914. It was "We don't nam that were once part of the great soon come in and take the game. !want to lose you/But we think you Khmer empire. The K.K.K. troops away from theta. hill it'd over over Lucrei7- ; ; . Yorces as mouuc sit Appr.qv9d,For'Relea-se'2000108/16 : CIA-RDP80=01601 R000400210001-7; 1WdffAuVd Approved For Release 2000/08/1 6~%-TA4& $0-01601 R00040021000 (. ortarr l neatzofis c rtd C'or rrt~iF Gip taCvl' i `G~s Fifth Co1wnil S l`I,VERAI., areas in Asia, Africa and Latin America have been the scene of reactionary plots in the first half of 1970. One of them, in Cambodia, , culminated in a coup d'etat. Information filtering into the press suggests that all the plots can be traced to the US Central Intelligence Agency headquarters at Langley. Of course, the State Department consistently denies American complicity, and CIA guilt cannot always be pinpointed. In fact,' it may well be that not all these conspiracies were directly instigated and organised by imperialist secret services--in some cases they may have joined at a later stage. But this much is certain: everywhere the cloak-and-dagger operators have been at work. J Behind the Cambodian Cot Thousands of kilorrtcters separate Phnom Penh from Khartoum and Beirut, but in Cambodia too, the aim was to sujipoirt the aggressive forces. It was to be achieved by use of the CIA technique. Bogged down in Vietnam, US imperialism has long been encroaching' on Cambodia's independence and sovereignty, trying to bring it under its influence and dragoon it into its Indochina gamble. One pressure technique was constant harass- ment by US forces operating from neighbouring South Vietnam. They bombed and shelled Cambodian border regions and several times CIA agents tried to overthrow prince. Sihanouk Supporting Israeli aggression and set up a reactionary regime that would abandon the country's traditional neutrality and its solidarity with the Vietna- The first three months of 9970 saw plots in Iraq, Sudan, mcse in their fight to repel the aggressor. Lebanon and Cyprus. Some of the details have come to light. with the US army facing increasing difficulties in Vietnam, The Lebanese Interior Minister, for instance, announced that US the Pentagon decided to step up its activities in Cambodia. The Intelligence had a hand in provoking armed clashes between the plan, according to press reports, was to use. Cambodian territory ultra-Right Kataeb party and the Palestinian commandos. The for operations against the South Vietnam National Liberation Lebanese army and security forces were involved in the fighting. Front in what was conceived as a gigantic pincer mana.uvre. 'I he Sudanese press points to t}. !ink li n the CIA and the Apparently, the US military command began to press for actio latest unsuccessful coup of the Ansar re reGg::::a sect and the in Cambodia when it found that the Victnamisation plan was not M-Umnla party, which speaks for Sudan's capitalist and landed working out the way it had expected. And apparently Sihanouk'. interests. In Cyprus, the pro-fascist National front which, the diplomatic tour abroad was chosen as the opportune moment press says, operates with the encouragement of the Greek and US secret services, engineered an attempt on the life of Presi-for the CIA's "quiet Americans" to put through the plan. dent Makarios. The Iraqi authorities arrested a group of army. Power in Phnom Penh is now in the hands of men who have officers and civilians charged with preparing a coup d'ctat. Thejorned forces with the imperialists to halt the country's pro- press says they had the assistance of CIA and Zionist agents. gressive development and suppress the Indochina liberation Each of these attempted coups had its own distinctive features, movement. The first steps in that direction were made immedi- .But all of them had one and the same political aim--to install ately after the coup. General Lon Nol's conservative regime has pro-imperialist regimes and thereby strengthen the imperialist agreed to co-operate with the US and accept military "aid" positions in the Middle East and, more specifically, in the from it. With the consent and approval of that regime, Saigon Eastern- Mediterranean. forces, supported by. American aircraft, have invaded Cambodia That aim, doubtlessly, follows from the alignment of forces in an attempt to outflank the NLF forces and suppress popular in this strategic area. The imperialists banked on the Israeli support for Prince Sihanouk, whose followers are fighting to Blitzkrieg. They thought it would write faits to the progressive overthrow the conservative government and keep Cambodia a regimes in the United Arab Republic and Syria. That hope did peaceful and neutral state. not materialise. Nor have Israel's subsequent aggressive actions The world was shocked by the news of America's outright produced the desired results. They have not weakened the pro- intervention in Cambodia where, as in South Vietnam and Laos, gressive regimes of these two countries. On the contrary, both US troops are applying scorched earth tactics against the peace- .in the UAR and Syria the government has been strengthened by ful population. This fresh aggression by Washington brings out even more saliently th clink between the coup d'Ctat in Phnom assistance of the Soviet Union the patriotism of the people, the and other socialist countries and the support of the world Penh and imperialism's far-reaching neo-colonialist plans in Communist, workers' and national liberation movements. South east Asia. To all practical purposes, Cambodia is being turned into a "third Vietnam", the second being Laos, where White giving the Israeli aggressors every assistance-modern armaments, generous loans-the US and other imperialists are more than 12,000 American military "advisors" are involved in relying more and more on their espionage and subversion the war against the patriotic forces. machi:.a. The events in Iraq, Sudan and Lebanon show that It can be safely. said that neither the Saigon puppets nor the they are using it to hamper the growing unity of the Arab states Laos and Cambodian reactionaries provide America with any- in the fight to liquidate the consequences of the Israeli aggres- thing like it firm support -base for its reactionary war in Indo- sion. The idea, obviously, is to generate more friction, distrust china. And certainly they cannot fight that war with their own and antagonism. That was the purpose of the CIA in Lebanon: armies, even if given the latest American weapons. Conse- arnled conflicts were to provoke a major political crisis that quently, the neo-colonialists will have to rely mainly on their .would isolate the country from the progressive Arab states own troops and extend their operations to the whole of Indo- place it under a police regime and impede, if not halt altogether, china. But the experience of heroic Vietnam has shown that Palestinian commando action. half-a million interventionist troops, armed to the teeth, cannot The aim was very much the same in Iraq and Sudan. But the impose imperialism's will on a people determined to uphold its imperialists were also out to undermine the rear areas of the independence, sovereignty and freedom; a people, moreover, Arab states directly confronting Israel. Coups in Baghdad and that enjoys wide international support. Khartoum would greatly complicate the UAR's and Syria's New tactical elements strategic and political position. To a certain extent the same aim was pursued in the Nicosia plot. There have been many Has anything substantially new been added to the technology press reports that the imperialists are anxious to overthrow the of imperialist plots and their political orientation, compared with, Makari ppmveidc6orsF ieaSe}2OUIQ/r(Ji d6is,ZL4hE2DMQ-04fi,Q1tRDOO-UD 9r1 O167not enough information-the bulk of and turn it into a NATO war base spearheaded against the it, naturally, is kept secret--for a categorical affirmative answer. Arab states and serving the Israeli aggressor. We can only judge by the tip of the. imperialist subversion ice- CIP4 S Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7STATI NTL 2 9 JUN 1970 Three Come Back "It was an experience we'll never for- get," said Richard Dudman, "and it was a journalistic opportunity like nothing we've ever had before." The veteran cor- respondent for the St. Louis Post-Dis- patch grinned, then added: "Now that it's over we can say that." Elizabeth Pond of the Christian Science Monitor expressed a universal sentiment: "I hope this proves to be a precedent for the treatment of other journalists who may now be in Cambodia." Dudman, Miss Pond and Michael Morrow of Dispatch News Service were back in Saigon after 51 weeks in the J hands of soldiers who identified them- selves as members of the "pro-Siha- nouk Cambodian United National Front." In a carefully worded joint state- ment they reported that their only rough treatment occurred on the day of their capture, along Highway One about two miles west of Svay Rieng in the Par- rot's Beak area of Cambodia. Suspected of being CIA agents, they were taken at gunpoint in a truck to sev- eral Cambodian villages and displayed as American captives. At their last stop they were blindfolded and marched through a gauntlet of jeering villagers. The two men next were tied behind a mo- torbike and forced to run half a mile, blindfolds still on. Then they were knocked to the ground with blows on the head and left in a darkened room with their hands tied behind them. In Ten Homes. But once their cre- dentials as correspondents were estab- lished, they were treated with "kindness and consideration" as they traveled about 200 miles, staying in ten dif- ferent village homes. At one point they were asked to tape-record, apparently for the Liberation Radio or Hanoi, state- ments about their experiences, "but none that conflicted with our own views." Eventually, the trio were honored guests at a meeting of 1,000 villagers at which speakers "expressed the grat- itude of the Cambodian people toward those Americans who oppose aggression by the Nixon Administration in Indo china." They were also given an in-. terview with a military commander of the Cambodian United National Front. The joint statement did not provide de- tails of the interview. Obviously, the three correspondents were holding back some facts for first-person stories. Buts they did report asking for informations on the 20 other newsmen still missing in Cambodia. They got no reply. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 STATINTL NEWSWEEl( Approved For Release 2000/08/1 2: CIA-Rf0-01601 R000400210001- 9 Dudman, Pond and Morrow in Saigon:'Accredited as `good people' Forty Days the correspondents traveled some 200 miles and stayed in the homes of ten dif- The telephone rang late one night fercnt Cambodian villagers during less last week in the offices of the Reuters than six weeks behind enemy lines. And bureau in Saigon. It was The Christian their request to visit areas bombed by 1 Science Monitor's foreign-news desk in allied planes to estimate civilian casual- Boston calling to ask the Reuters night ties was turned down by an enemy of- man to expedite transmission of some fiver who said it would be too dangerous upcoming news stories by the paper's for them to do so. corre5 --dent Elizabeth Pond And that On their last day in captivity, the they were able to publish this week, none of the three journalists released last week would choose to tour Cambo- dia again in quite the same way. "What normal person would want to go wander. ing about in Cambodia, anyway?" asks LLMorrow. "Yon re likely to get shot at.'- was how the Saigon press corps discov- three journalists were given a sort of _ ered that Miss Pond, together with Rich- farewell party. "[We] left the liberated '?' (" and Dudman, Washington bureau chief zone of Cambodia as honored guests at -? of The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and Mike a meeting of 1,000 villagers," Dudman I Morrow of Dispatch News Service In- wrote. "Speakers expressed the grati- ternational had returned safely from tude of the Cambodian people toward Cambodia 40 days after they were cap- those American people who oppose ag- tured by enemy troops near the town gression by the Nixon Administration in , h Of Svay Rieng. The three-the first captured corre-. spondents to return from the Cambodian war zone where eighteen other news- men have vanished-were thin but in good health and high spirits after their adventure. They were determined to keep many of the details of their experi- ences behind enemy lines a secret, at least until they could write their own stories about the ordeal. But what they did reveal still made a fascinating tale. Harrowing: Seized by two enemy sol- diers near a bombed-out bridge on Route 1, the hazardous road from Saigon to Phnom Penh, the three reporters were taken in a truck through several villages and displayed as American pris- oners of war. At first, their captors be- lieved they were U.S. Covernment offi- cials or CIA agents, and the three had to endure a harrowing day. In one town, they were taken from the truck, blind- folded and marched through a gauntlet of jeering Cambodian villagers. Then. Indochina. They asked [us] to write t e truth about the situation in the Front- held areas ..:' Anh Ba: Dudman's allusion to the "Front" and his stilted prose were appar- ently no accidents. Almost certainly in order to make things easier for other cor- respondents still - held in Cambodia, all three reporters were careful to specify that they had been captured by the "Cambodian United National Front." (North Vietnamese and Viet Cong offi- cials steadfastly deny they have any. troops in the area, contending that only Cambodians are fighting against Premier Lon Nol's government.) "I am convinced that the Front exists," said Miss Pond, "although what it con- sists of I don't know, because of our lim- ited exposure."' But Morrow, who speaks Vietnamese, recalls in one of a series of reports published by Dispatch News' this week that the Vietnamese officer in charge of the three journalists, Anh Ba, "was nearly 6 feet [and] spoke Vietnam-. to"a. motorbike, forced to run a half a Morrow added that Anh Ba "was un- knocked to ' der orders to protect us at all costs-even ile while still blindfolded , m the ground with a blow on the head, and his own life." And such concern over the left in a darkened room." safety of Morrow and his colleagues, The harsh treatment abruptly ceased, even if it was motivated at least as much however, after an in of icer ex b ropy anda as by humane considera- iced thFL n Rf r.e t 0/4 h 6 h kldR fill96fltHRgQOd60f210001-7 From that point on, they were treated as newsmen still missing in Cambodia might "good people" and friends by their cup- ` 'also turn up alive and well. But despite wr...... 1...1....-. .b-.7. ......, -.,C.,,.. -hnjr nnfn rnturn and the exclusive stories THE MEDIA GUARDIAN Approved For Release 2000/08/1 6~7C1 ~ga-%1601 R000400210 By Carl Davidson The next morning, following votes on a series of procedural Guardian Staff Correspondent motions during the agenda debate, the voting power behind the ? I Cleveland different political tendencies present became clear and remained After a tumultuous, three-day meeting here June 19-21, the practically unchanged throughout the conference. The Socialist "National m e rgenc altendcd Conference the Casbt dhe Workers party and Young Socialist Alliance held "together a bloc a by 1e00 antiwar ivis of about 1000 votes, most of which were independent antiwar time and place for the next series of mass mobilizations against activists rather than members of either organization. PL-SDS ha4 the Indochina war, a bloc of about 350; the Worker's League, 80; and the Spartacus The first round will be local actions on August 6-9, the days League and Labor Committees had about 20 each. will be srithe actions bfor the Chicano Moratorium's mass Because of the large number of people in the main meeting, support .along with frequent parliamentary hassles, some of the more mobilization of the Chicano people against the war Aug. 29 in interesting discussions and arguments occurred in small clusters of Los Angeles. Finally, there will be a day of nationally ' 10 or 20 scattered around the campus. coordinated demonstrations Oct. 31 in major urban and regional centers across the country. The conference differed from many in the past by the Student-worker discussion participation of a number of trade union officials, including One group of about eight students were talking with three officers from Meatcutters, Teamster and UE locals officially trade unionists: Williams from the Teamsters; Carlos Valdez, a representing their membership. About 100 of those attending the rank-and-file Teamster truck driver and wildcat leader; and Sam 'conference registered as members of trade unions. Pollock, president of the Meatcutters District 427 in Cleveland. The meeting signified a deepening split in the antiwar "My problem," said Pollock, "is that within my Local I'm movement. There were no representatives from the New considered a liberal. Then I come here and everyone thinks I'm a Mobilization Committee-the major antiwar coalition. Nor any reactionary sellout." Williams added, "I came here for one from the Communist party, Women's Strike for Peace or purpose-to expose the fallacy that workers are supposed to traditional antiwar groups. All of the organized political benefit from this war." tendencies present, except the Progressive Labor party, had their One of the students offered that while he could see that all toots in the Trotskyist movement, workers weren't like the "hardhats" in New York, they had to The New Mobe is holding a conference of its own next week, learn that most students weren't Yippies and Weathermen. Valdez But the presence of a large number of independent antiwar suggested that they were both "in the middle of the road," which activists at the Cleveland meeting signified that the SWP's made some of the students uncomfortable. emphasis on mass mobilizations on the single issue of the war Then he said, "You have to understand. A worker is like a may prevail over the Mobe's as yet ambivalence on this question. horse. If you want to put a bit c-n him and ride him, you don't In addition, there is a definite tendency within the New Mobe to charge at him, but ease up on rim and slip it on gently," The place a greater emphasis on the tactic of civil disobedience than students politely grimaced and the session quietly broke up. on the traditional mass marches. While most in the. antiwar In another group, a Student Mobilization Committee staffer movement support the New Mobe's multi-issue approach of from Detroit was being soundly criticized for not rallying support supporting struggles against. racism and repression, this tactical for local struggles of black students and the League of confusion has helped lead to the current situation. -Revolutionary. Black Workers. "The best way to help them is to The tone of last week's sessions-held at Cuyahoga County build the antiwar movement," was the answer. In several places, Community College near downtown Cleveland-was set the first PL-SDS people were soundly criticized for calling the. NLF evening in a heated debate over whether Progressive Labor party leadership "revisionist sellouts" and calling Cambodia's Norodom and SDS Worker-Student Alliance should be represented among Sihanouk a "CIA agent." the opening speakers. :More "Maoist" than Mao "Selloutr "That must make Mao a CIA -agent too," someone said. "No, When one of those speakers, John T. Williams, vice president we just think Mao is making an opportunist mistake by of Teamster Local 208 in Los Angeles and a leader of a recent supporting him," said the "Maoist" PL member. "You know, wildcat strike, tried-paradoxically and incorrectly-to compare they have liberal politicians in Vietnam just like we have here and U.S. aggression in Vietnam to a "brazen unauthorized wildcat we have to oppose them," strike," the house was brought down by a chorus of booes and Meanwhile, inside the conference hall, the first major political chants of "sellout." ' fight was shaping up. The issue centered on the political character Williams tried to get his foot out of his mouth by explaining of a demonstration planned for that evening outside a hotel he wasn't against wildcats and that he was only taking the charges where Vice President Spiro Agnew was speaking at a Republican the government had thrown at him and thrown them back. It fundraising dinner. didn't workyq" ,,4 J, ~ ~d ~R~r!l~ *?p8d(b1 Wfl J Opa pjtl,Oat the action should be centered strike by the working class to end NO war, no get a proTooge , on the single demand for the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. rounV of applause and cheers. troops from Indochina. PL-SDS, on the other hand, said since the GUARDIAN Approved For Release 2000/08/1 F CW-WD AW01601 R00040021 00 S O UPHA N0 f'70 N '3 ; .,. 1; O 'S ANGST LOGIC STATINTL Civil was has raged for 20 years in Laos, situated west of Vietnam, north of Cambodia, east of Thailand, south of China. Progressive forces, led by prince Sou- phanouvong, chairman of the central committee of the Laotian Patriotic Front, now occupy virtually two-thirds of the country. The remaining third, along the west- ern border with Thailand, is in the hands of a coalition "neutralist" and rightist regime supported by the U.S. (more than $50 million a year) which sits in Vientiane, the administrative capital. In the last months, the Laotian Patriotic Front has registered victory after throughout Laos. On June 9, patriotic forces captured the strategic town of Sar- evane. In recent weeks, the liberation army has gone on the offensive in dozens of areas, including battles with troops from Thailand sent into Laos by the cor- rupt Bangkok military government to bolster the shakey Vientiane regime. During his recent swing through Southeast Asia Guardian staff correspondent Wilfred Burchett submitted four questions to prince Souphanouvong. Following are his answers, received last week. What is the present military situation in Laos? The Western press mentions that in capturing towns like Attopeu and Saravane, the Pathet Lao forces have for the first time violated the 1962 cease-fire line. What is your comment? .The present military situation in Laos shows that on the one hand the American escalation of "special war" has been redoubled and on the other that the deeper they plunge in such escalation the greater will be the defeat of the U.S. and its puppets. From a strategic viewpoint they were severely defeated in the Plain of Jars. Indeed, this was the first serious defeat in Laos for President Nixon's theory of using puppet troops with maximum American firepower. Despite such escalation the U.S. and puppet forces were not able to change the situation in their favor. On the contrary, they have been driven onto the defensive from a military point of view and politically they are more isolated than ever. As for the Laotian patriotic forces they have retained and constantly developed their position of active initiative. After having kicked the enemy out of the Plain of Jars and completely, recaptured the whole area, the patriotic forces direc- ted their attack against the hideout of the "special forces" at Sam Thong-Long Cheng. They liberated Attopeu and other places near the Bolovens plateu. That is to say they have punished the enemy in the jumping off points and bases for their criminal attacks. Right from the start the Laotian patriotic forces have serupulously respected the letter of the 1962 Geneva agreements. But as the U.S. and puppet forces have undertaken a most criminal war of aggression against the the rest of the country. in fact they have completely Laotian people, our armed forces have been forced to liquidated what the Western press refers to as the 1962 fight back, making use of their sacred rights of self "cease fire line." Just as they have torn up the whole defense. 1962 Geneva agreements on Laos. The patriotic forces must expel the enemy from those Those who sow the wind reap the whirlwind. If they areas which it has illegally occupied, punish them in the don't want to reap another whirlwind the Americans and bases from which they launched their attacks and their valets in Vientiane, Bangkok and Saigon had better perpetrated their crimes. In so doing we are safeguarding not sow any more wind. If they charge ahead, heads the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial down, in new criminal adventures against the Laotian integrity of Laos and effectively defending the 1962 people they will have to bear the'entire responsibility for Geneva agreements. It is in basing ourselves on these the disastrous consequences. agreements and on the concrete reality of the present The official explanation for the American bombings situation in Laos and our desire for peace that we have of Laos and the presence of U.S. troops there is the put forward our five-point proposal for a political existence of a Ho Chi Mini trail and the presence of settlement of the Laotian problem (Guardian, April 11, North Vietnamese troops. What is the extent of U.S. and 1970). Although there has been no responsible reply Thailand troops in Laos and how serious are the US. from the other side, we will nonetheless persevere in bombings? seeking a political solution based on our five points. ? With a view to turning Laos into a neo-colony, the The U.S. puppet forces have never respected their Americans have never ceased their interference and reements signed. aggression against Laos nor their trampling underfoot its Intl a the g than thAp eL F 9*e4W'~` N8tW' -Ra }1 QUO ; 1 cements.'They have controlled by the patriotic orces, a launching terrorist "pacification" operations throughout introduced thousands of U.S, advisors, CIA personnel ' nonti'>;iued and U.S. "special forces" to carry out "special war" and reply by the peoples of Indochina to these adventurous to take part in attacks against those regions controlled activities by the United States. It was a severe blow to by the Pat pl &va 6- PUff.AL Nd8lit heCIJ p P8OkOsl6O1Rc OO4QO2 s13O IL71nd "Indochinese population. The U.S. air force has bombed and machine-gunned our Laotian territory for six years on end, sowing death and destruction over the whole country and using their r"N, air power as tactical support for puppet troops in their Lam' attacks into the regions held by our side. It is clear that without air support the puppet troops would be incapable of carrying out any actions of any importance., But U.S. air superiority has in no way weakened the combativity of the patriotic forces of the Laotian; people. On the contrary, this has brought about well, deserved return blows resulting in defeat for 'the aggressors. _ . ' The U.S. has not only used Thailand as a springboard for its aggression against Laos, as a logistic base for its "special war" and as a base for aerial bombardments of Laos, it has also introduced Thai combat units in support of the puppet troops. In giving a hand to. the Americans and in pursuing at the same time their own expansionist aims in Laos, the reactionary authorities in Bangkok are guilty of complicity with the American aggressors. Ever since Nixon came into power he has intensified the war of aggression against Lao?. For example, by the attack against the Meng Khoung region in the Plain of Jars; the intensification of air attacks at the end of 1969 ,and the beginning of 1970 to a degree and ferocity never before known, including B-52 raids in south and north Laos. Still more serious, the Americans have introduced ,thousands of Thai infantry and artillery troops and Saigon puppet commander troops to take part in combat operations. This state of affairs has doubled the anxiety of certain political. circles in the United States and among the U.S. people, who feel that one escalation will lead to another and that Laos will become a second Vietnam. Nixon has advanced all sorts of slanderous arguments and fallacious pretexts to justify U.S. aggression against Laos. In using such pretexts as the "presence and aggression by North Vietnam troops" while it is precisely Vietnam that is the victim of U.S. aggression, Nixon is only reviving old slanders exposed long ago and condemned by public opinion. Nixon has even advanced, "protection of American lives in South Vietnam" to justify the bombing and military activities in Laos. He used the same argument to invade Cambodia with over 100,000 U.S. and Saigon troops. This is gangster logic, making mockery of the rights of peoples and elementary rules governing relations between nations. . It is not a question of discussing the various pretexts advanced by the U.S. aggressors. The real question is that this "international gendarme" has absolutely, no right to threaten with destruction any people in any country at all. - The U.S. has no right to carry out its criminal aggression against Laos, a country situated half way around the globe from the U.S. If the U.S. halts its air attacks and all other acts of military escalation and ends its interference and aggression against Laos to enable the Laotian people to settle their own affairs, the situation in Laos woula immediately return to normal. All Laotian problems would be satisfactorily solved and lives and dollars of the American people would cease to be uselessly squandered in Laos. This is the true way to safeguard American lives as well as the dignity and authentic interests of the United States. How do you evaluate the recent Summit conference in which you recently took part ,with Prime Minister Pham Van Dong of tare DRV, Nguyen Huu Tho of the fight Indochinese." The success of the conference highlighted new progress in the anti-U.S. struggle for the national salvation of the three countries of Indochina and marked an important contribution to the struggle for national independence and peace in Southeast Asia and in the world in general. That is why it was widely acclaimed and warmly supported by a very large section of international public opinion. The joint declaration of the conference (Guardian, May 30, 1970) is one of unity and struggle against the common enemy and will serve to reinforce and extend the relations of support, mutual help and long term cooperation. between the peoples of, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The program will still further and intensify the coordination and unity of efforts deployed by the three countries in their fight against U.S. imperialist aggres-, sion. It will lead the struggle of the Lao, Khmer and Vietnamese people to new heights and will lead to complete victory over U.S. interference and aggression, transforming Indochina into an authentic area of independence and peace. ' - How do you see developments and the final results of the second war in Indochina? In sending their troops to commit direct cession against Cambodia, the U.S. imperialists ':. thus extended their war of aggression to the whole i-.Jochina -fin sending their troops to commit direct aggression against Cambodia, the U.S. imperialists have thus extended their war of aggression to the whole Indochina peninsula. In doing this the Nixon administration has thrown 'out an excellent challenge 'to the 50 million people of Indochina as well as to all thinking people in the United States and the world in general. This is nothing but a most adventurous act committed at a moment when American troops are in a defensive, .passive posture. A mortal blow has been dealt to the "Vietnamizatiort" concept in South Vietnam. The American forces have got themselves further bogged down in Cambodia. The development of this large-scale attack with over 100,000 GIs and South Vietnamese puppet troops proves the U.S. has not attained its strategic objectives there. The development of the situation in Cambodia, after the U.S.-dirccted overthrow of the Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk has also not turned out as the Americans expected. Responding to the five-point declaration of prince Sihanouk (Guardian, April 11, 1970), the political program of the National United Front (Guardian, June 20, 1970) and the manifesto of the Royal Government of National Union, the Cambod- ian people's struggle has developed very rapidly on a national level, taking over vast areas of the countryside including many towns and dealing heavy blows at the U.S.-Saigon forces, shaking to its very foundations the Lon Nol-Sirik Matak regime recently installed in Phnom Penh. In extending the war of aggression to the whole of Indochina the Americans have got further bogged down and are in a critical impasse. This military adventure of the Nixon administration has only caused further indignation and swelled the movement of opposition to the war within the U.S.. itself. From- Congress to the university, from the lawmakers to GIs in numerous military bases in the U.S., from towns in the East to those in the West, the struggle of the American people has developed in increasingly powerful waves of protest. The Nixon administration is attacked on two sides- bogged down in Indochina and in the U.S. itself. The lesson of defeat in Indochina was once the PRG and Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodian head of state? monopoly of the French followed by the Johnson While the U.S. imperialists'intensified and e anded administration. It will be the same for the Nixon the war ofAI j QM 4 FMr 2QQf0 Mi?ii CIAOaWBQ,060AROQOAOO i'bg0ktnTnistration which conference of the peoples of Indochina was a scathing plows into the same rut. Pont tuo U.S. imperialism, has never experienced such a defeat, such an embarrassment, such difficulties and isolation as is the case today. The present situation is more than ever favorable for the struggles of the three peoples of Indochina against U.S. imperialism and for their national salvation. In the light of the joidt declaration of the Summit Conference of the peoples of Indochina, the 50 .million Cambodian, Laotian and Vietnamese peoples, fortified by the'powerful support of people-throughout the world, will- further consolidate the active and victorious position already acquired and will-stcp.up their struggle to win final and complete victory. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 K A Nftprtvjeiclt Fo Felease; 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400 STAR STATINTL JUN 2 6 1970 E - 325,351 S - 396,682 0 a )l..aYS3' - .. By Robert Pearman (National-World Editor'of The Star) ' Phnom Penh-If the Lon Nol government-the t . "Government of Salvation"-should fall tomorrow it will.-have outlived by more than a?,mon'th its pre-,. dieted life span. For late in April along embassy row in: the Cambodian capital there was none who would go so for as to predict the "salvation government" would have ? another month in power. 4 "The Viet Cong will be in Phnom Penh in six days," a;' OThe incursions of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamesei smiling European diplomat said, making it obvious that he grew. The Vietnamese for many months used Cambodian found the prospect not at all displeasing, territory as unobstrusively as possible. But in the last year In May they were saying the military situation was even they radically changed their policy. They: planted them- t more hopeless and as the Cambodians gave up large areas selves, built homes,. took over -border areas. of their country to the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese they ? Cambodia had grave economic problems. Last Decem- began to refer to Lon Nol as the "mayor of Phnom Penh." .ber Sirik Matak, now the No. 2 man in the regime, overrode' But the monsoons of April have turned into the daily tor- Sihanouk's wishes and pushed through economic reforms rents of June and the Viet Cong are not in Phnom Penh and that devalued the roil, liberalized trade and banking and put, the Lon Nol government, though battered. militarily and eco- Cambodia back into the international banking institutions nomically stands. from which she had withdrawn. For the Cambodians the military situation Is probably So Norodom Sihanouk's problems did not suddenly occur worse than it was a month ago mostly because the North one morning in March-nor, as fantasy has it,. of some CIA. ' Vietnamese and Viet Cong, chased out of the border sanctu- plot-they had been long abuilding. cries, have planted new base areas deep in Cambodia. They * * * * * :~ now control nearly one-half the country and have gone on ON JANUARY 6 SIIIANOUI{. LEFT Phnom Penh for the attack at scattered points even in the "safe" western France to undergo treatment at a clinic. provinces. Early in February seven cases of medical supplies for. Otherwise things look brighter for the three strong men the Viet Cong were seized at Phnom Penh, airport. They in the Palace of Government: had been addressed to Oum Mannorine, minister for sur-' 0 The regime is still united, and there is no significant face defense, brother-in-law of Sihanouk. Trinh Hoanh, now opposition among the Khmer people. the minister of information, called for an investigation in. 0 The accommodation with the South Vietnamese is the National Assembly. complete. South Vietnamese forces will continue to operate On March 8 there were demonstrations in the eastern pro- in Cambodia able to respond quickly in emergency situa- vinces against the presence of the North. Vietnamese and tions. The Thais promise 20,000 troops of Kilmer blood and the Viet Cong. On March 11 there were mass demonstra- have air support to give. Weapons have been forthcoming tions in Phnom Penh. and the North Vietnamese and Viet from several sources including the United States. Cong embassies were sacked. O The Cambodian army, 35,000, strong when Sihanouk There is sonic indication that these early demonstrations went out on March 18, is today about 150,000. The new were Sihanouk sponsored. The rationale is that Sihanouk, forces are green, untrained, underequipped. But they are 'ready to go to Moscow and ask the Chinese and willing to fight and the regulars have gained battle exper- Russians to persuade North Vietnam to step easier in Cam- fence and have performed much better than anyone expected. bodia, wanted to have something to bargain with. What 0 Most significant, Lon Not and company are still in better arguments would there be than mass demonstrations? control in Phnom Penh and Norodom Sihanouk has been re- Two facts support .the theory. The Viet Cong embassy duced to a kind of floating guest artist, performing alter- was coolly entered and' sacked' by 45 soldiers in civilian nately on Radio Peking, Radio Hanoi. and. the . Viet Cong clothing. And it is hard to imagine that 10,000 students and Liberation Radio. As it was with Sukarno in Indonesia, time civil servants would have spontaneously taken to the streets is on the side of the man holding the power; not on the against, an absolute despot unless they 'had been given side of the one who wants to gain it back. ? the green light. * * * * * The next day, whether he had organized the demon-; THE STORY OF THE CHECKMATE of the white king, strations or not, there came some typical Sihanouk rhetoric. Norodom Sihanouk, a virtual god-leader, possessor of total from Paris in a telegram to the Queen Mother denounc' 'powers, charisma and the love of his people, is a complex the eemonstrations. I story. A second theory is, that.' Sihanouk in Paris' obtained'. For nearly three decades, from 1941, when he was pro- from the i Inch assurances of financial support that would 'claimed king as an 18-year-oldschool boy, until March 18, case his economic pressures at 'home. This theory makes' 1970, Sihanouk ruled Cambodia's 7-million people. Lon Nol and Matak the villains. When they learned that For the last 10 years as chief of state-ho preferred to -Sihanouk had won his money. game, and that the sword leave the only symbols of monarchy'in the hands of his ag- they had held over him for months might be removed, they. ing mother-he had guided the government and foreign pol- plotted a kind of quasi-legal coup; this theory has it. .Icy singly. ; ., Lon Nol and Sirik Matak ?oifered to meet Sihanouk in'. There developed three problems: '' '? " Moscow. He told them not to come. He'was planning to. 't? Corruption festered and grew, alienating the intellec! rreturn to Phra,n Penh ?'on March, 18 and the government -^..+4 .., r. ~. .. r. : ::;, .. ?.. j. .:...'L..; w:.. . '.. s,.....' ?. ~. ' .:' Y/Ltit'ip. ~E'J~ii.iM}H a.)i i~.r ...,..?.r.i~. _ _ _~'..a. Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIA-RDP80-01601 R0004015`'1~ 7' .. oontiriued Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : ltRQP^~8Q9Qd601 A_bb~N11140001 r"r ffn)tors ~nvfle - iL -hree' g o 0~ rnalists io 1110 0 C 1970, Dispatch News Service "?" ??" " and I hardly talked as the spent much of his time wait- InternRtlonel, inc. mander was still involved in .Srcorrd of a series the case. I began to have time passed. We were think- Ing for the. beginning oc the t doubts that we could con. Ing the some thing. t lnnHy rainy sea on, the time. for ' ?S I N G A P 0 It E-hlny 19 wince them we were Indc? We heard Reth's voice nut-1pio.wing, by drinking tea and' Was an awesome (late in In- pendent -minded journalists, side. smoking a rural type of mar-, dochina this year because it free of strings to the U.S. ef- , "We shouldn't let our.ljuana. marked the birthday of Bud- fort in Vietnam and Cam- imaginations get away from "Do you know what (lay it. dha and also that of "Bac bodia. us," said Dudman. "Beth is today?" asked Anh Tu Ho" (Uncle Ho). For Richard ' Our interrogators were was gone so long I began to (Third Brother), a 32-year- Dudman of the St. Louis conspiratorial. and sinister think ..." old Vietnamese. His wife, - Post-Dispatch, E 1 i z a b e t h men-or at least led us to Our treatment, grew no he told us earlier, had been Pond of The Christian Sci- believe they were-quite un- ? worse but I could not re- killed a few weeks before in 'ence Monitor and myself it like the commander; Their cover 'confidence we would the massacre of Vietnamese brought the first unqualified main concern seemed to be be released soon as news- by Cambodian government men. I tried to prepare my- troops at Prasaut. assurance we would not be the U.S. government's atti- self for a long stay with The day had not been dif-? killed. tude toward us. yborse conditions, even. for i ferent up. until then, There week and a .hail made me clothes, and was gone much; banana orchard. Here the asked us to join him for a my" (American personnel)? Minh's birthday we were "Today is the birthday of Cup of tea. Why were the Americans . moved to a new house, much Uncle Ho," he said. "Do you i!,"You know there is. noth- broadcasting from' helicop-' larger than others where we know who 'Bac Ho' is?" ing to be sad about, ",,he ters about us, asking the had stayed. We were told I was taken very much by said. "Once we take a per- People to bring us or any this was because It was in a surprise. I felt guilty more son prisoner we never kill word to them? If we were secret liberated zone where than anything else, - like him. War is not to kill peo- really so independent and the people had had the ben-' forgetting the Passover in ple but to win a cause. We critical as we said we were, efits of the revolution for the house of a Jewish believe. bad people are just why'was the American gov- several years. . friend. misled. Bad Americans just ernment paying so much at- - Despite the house's size, it ,Of course I know- 'Bac don't understand. tention to us? initially had several short- Ho.' You mean Chairman "We don't like to kill I did, not know,. if the comings from our point of Ho." . Americans, not even At I neri- American government was view. The house for the. "Ho Chi Minh," he said, can soldiers. We know they doing these. things..I could, most part was one big room.' 'We 'all wanted to' bring don't understand our situa- imagine it was doing much There was one corner parti- tUncle Ho to Saigon while he tion. Everyone can be edu- more. I suspected it would tioned off, and to our dis-, was still living. We were not cated. When we capture not help our cause. may it was given to us, prob- able' to, and we feel very someone, that is the end of The depths of my depres? ably with the good intention' bad about that. We struggle our difference with him." sion came' May 14, two of protecting our privacy, harder now to make it up to After our arrest by guer- weeks after capture, when a There was no window, few -Uncle Ho. We commenkdrate After troops on Highway One thin, middle-aged man In a air currents and almost no 'his birthday by fighting bar- eastern Cambodia on May gray-brown uniform interro? contact with other people in 'der for the freedom and in- in 7, we had been treated gated us for the second the house: .', dependence of our country time. His North Vietnamese We were less appreciative ;and against' the American fairly. The one exception was "z" harsh abuse at the hands of accent, with its harsh than we might have been if' aggression.' some villagers and low-rank- and "v" sounds, accentuated we had been -living with oth-, ' Anh Tu had shown very 'ing soldiers on the first day. the steeliness of-his manner.. ers in the cool'open space of. little emotion before. He This was brought to an end "We are considering you, the rest of the house. rarely let anything beyond a quickly by army officers. as American personnel,",he Black Beetles neutral expression creep said. onto his rather long, hollow-. Haunting Fears "What does that mean?"-I . Moreover, we encountered' checked face. Now he was Still there was the haunt- asked. a difficulty we had not had; 'suddenly very profound. He' ing fear that suspicions we "You're U.S. government before-black beetles that. ,took a small red book from were spies would win out personnel. We're- not sure ell onus -from the roof. his pocket and showed it to over our claims to being yet whether you' are CIA, In our first full day in. us. journalists. We stayed in military or refugee, but we the house it had not dawn- Ilio's Biography ' are treating you as Ameri- ed on us that it was Ho's fiiomes and were treated birthday, although we a1V The pages of the tiny more like guests than pris- can personnel. I took his book were very thick and visit to mean we were now normally would have beeni kept , but those in charge aware of it. We had slept slightly brown. The type most aloof, so we were iso- looked upon as prisoners of most of the time, I;se food was tall and archaic. The lated from them. Loneliness war, possibly classified as, title page had in large Viet. brought on fear. spies. i was ample, and hearty, but. na-nese letters, "A Short Bl bur spirits had been low. . The commander who told 'Our Imagination' ,%-After dinner we were, in ography of Ho Chi Minh." A', )is the first night of eaptiv- After dark each evening '.vise tn' come out to the: plastic covered picture of 4y that we would be kept in we we o e ~~i? t~p~ y~fq Ho was inside the flap of, gafe ctAp roy iFtpgfie a ~b th~Cb~h Clio i1'si ~h~t' ?s"iYl1~ 1rrWnt cover. and honest. But three inter- "We all have these ^, said. first. She had decided 'to large window, which looked. Tu "We' read them from Yogations during the first. wash her hair and some out On! the palm, man and ? oonti:nuoa }k~t+riuiLa;v'Ur'i w'ad' Approved For Release 2000/08/16 C31A-DP1?01601066OT4bkT2-1 Richard Dudruan, chief 1T/asliington correspondent for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, was in Indochina in 1959 and reported from South Victmmt in 1962, 1965, 1966 and 1969. He was visiting Cambodia when he and two other reporters i.r,ere captured by Communist troops last mouth. They were released June 15. Thisl is the second in a series of articles. By RICHARD DUDMAN of supplies for our littre group uniform as it was possible to captors began to ease a few peel off a few riels to pay forget. days after we were captured. I Star Special writer For more than two weeks we fled a chicken. The interrogation sessions sensed a change when the westward in the midst of a massive our guards often lived under 'were frightening. Questions guerrilla beside me in the the bamboo-slatted floors of were barked at us and thel Land Rover, before getting out bodian a pe a guerrilla troops and Cam- the houses, which were raised strain was intense, especially to ask the way one night, odiNi peasants. on stilts. They stayed with the :for Mike. Speaking Vietnam-, slipped off his pistol and car- o yd Rover' farm implements and pigs, :ese, he bore the brunt and; tridge belt and laid them in overtook long nes our ovegg lines o shadowy fionres, chickens and ducks while we translated into English for my lap. walking in on single file o or sprawled on the always had the best place in Beth and me. Once I had to Often Beth, Mik hand nw were where a suenL seuUy ?........~ b.?. '.unworried at leaving tneir brief signal with a flashlight, we usually One o our questioners It never occurred to us to were directed to shield our faces with families and homes at the dis stern-faced soldier whom I make a break. The guard armed and ers. the cotton batik sarongs that had been posal the late afternoons and ,fudged to a a North Vietnam- i iven us for a change He was in uniform and surely would have shot us if we g ga of clothing. 'ese. evenings, by fading daylight 'e a r r i e d an official-looking had tried. And if we had es- But sometimes, by moonlight or the or the tiny flames of a guerril- khaki pouch. lie ordered us to taped them, we still would frequent phosphorus flares protecting la's kerosene lamp, those of ,write statements giving de- have been caught in a strange allied outposts a few miles away, we our guards who spoke Viet- tails leading up to our co by among a totally hos- could make out that the troops carried namese sat around with the capture-whether we had ever t e population without even r kne e protection of our team of mostly repeating rifles or carbines. Cambodian villagers taking reported to the CIA o ? Some bore the small haversack that we the' first step in friendship- ;anyone connected with the guerrillas. came to know as standard guerrilla learning each others language. -agency, the dates on which we GRADUALLY WE CAME to equipment. n political discussions, our '.had visited Paris, Vientiane, It was impossible to judge the na- : guards told us repeatedly of Hanoi and Saigon and a sum- think of the five guerrillas who tionality of the troops we saw. We "the solidarity of the peoples mary of. all stories we had had us in kt,>w as ascorts rath- thought it would be unwise to ask di- of Vietnam, Cambodia and written, 'as'well as a list of er than guards. Before we rectly where a man or woman came .Laos and of their unified' personal references in those wribinel a as the not were de J 'from. Even later, the five guerrillas, struggle that will continue un- cities and elsewhere, and "in- scribing prisoners J who held us-Elizabeth Pond of the til all Americans are driven '.ternational journalists" whom , of war but travelers who lost Christian Science Monitor, Michael out and all of Indochina is free we knew personally. their way." Morrow of Dispatch News Service Inter and independent." Our life began to have its -.; ~ little pleasures. Sometimes pational and me-prisoner in Cambodia They represented Norodom LATER III, SAID our re- our two meals a day, of main- for 40 days gave us only limited infor- Sihanouk, the deposed ruler of Orts were not neat enough ly rice, were augmented with motion about themselves. Cambodia, as a key figure in nor complete enough. He a snack of sweetened con- The fleeing peasants had with them this partnership.' 'thought they contained errors densed milk, or a glass of tea all the household goods they could car-,, and told us to rewrite them. with three heaping spoons of ry -mostly pots, dishware and a little ' ' WE NOTICED that when Mike was convinced that it coarse sugar. Twice we had food. Several women whom we picked our guards passed a pagoda' was the old CliinCSe technique pastry similar to Boston crull- up with babies in their arms, as well as 'they unobtrusively removed of asking a prisoner to rewrite ers. Once we had fresh pineap- lugging bundles and chickens, spoke ,their hats. It was a gesture of a statement time after time as plc. On May 19, the guerrillas only Cambodian. Occasionally they respect for local religious be- a form of torture or punish- gave us one of the blocks of shouted greetings to acquaintances licfs-all the more marked, ment, wear him down and sweetened popped rice that among the troops that had passed them because, as we learned later, catch discrepancies. were a special treat in their earlier and whom our car overtook. 'they were atheists. The second statement, how- celebration of Ho Chi Minh's We saw hundreds, both civilian and In the first few days of our ever, proved to be the last, birthday. It was something military. One night alone, I counted 200. :capture we had three tough except for a later addendum like candied popcorn. In this massive migration we felt sessions of up. to two hours when they wanted us to state . At the big house where we that we were watching the terrorization 'each with harsh investigators that everything we had written had been staying, Friday, May of the peasants of Cambodia. We felt we from a higher headquarters. was true. 22, was a day of rest and prep- were observing the welding together of They accused us of being CIA, A n o t h e r interrogator-a aration, but Saturday began as the local population with the guerrillas. spies. They said the first an-. shifty-eyed, French-speaking a day of action that was the The peasants were turning to the fight-, nouncement of our capture de- ? man whom I took to be Viet longest and hardest yet. :ers as their best friends. We felt that scribed us as American per- namese-told Beth in French, We had driven much of this held the most serious significance ;'sonncl, not as journalists. '"We notice you have very Pc- Thursday night. On Friday for American policy. ? Fortunately, neither Beth culiar cameras. They don't, morning everyone seemed to Pond, Mike nor I was wearin look like press cameras." be getting ready for some- AT EACH HOUSE where we stopp- military style clothing. All one of tie most unpleasant thing. One of the soldiers was ed the villagers appeared to offer will- three of us customarily avoid- C1.s?ns we encountered, he al- using a needle and thread to ing cooperation and friendship to the ?cd such attire to be sure N' ways spoke with his hand hold repair his shirt. A nurse was guerrillas. Our guards told us our rice were not mistawen for military over his mouth, covering his filling her little kerosene i get a Ajapr afv dr PrRRle 440f~0f0~/ ;eFl~? 6K1~~1~C~A*400210g i ~~-s7 lamp. ncy that doesn't exist. white lio s rt, w But the interro o end-, Superior Court Judge James O'Kcefo about from a military and our relations with our` no claimant could be the sole bencfici ,dritinuoa A dirty rear curtain was kept down Ulu ""u 1 "` 'houses went to work each day utcs to to help him relax after- car with a a ozen L~mnebu __a A...^,;nnn rmpatino, rifles. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIJ-%D PQJ601R00066~Ed-7 Red Officer Saved Writers from Mob By Michael Morrow ?' ' soldiers on Iiighivay 1, a Cambodian were not bent! namese peered in however; 1, r;1070. Dh. ,ntch News Scrvke short distance west of Svay on murdering us at all. They and told me to sit up. I mis- . ?; I itcrnatlodnl. Inc. understood his Vietnamese Meng, had been fair. We got-Elizabeth a bicyc}c when First of a Series had approached ?a blown she could no longer keep up'to he "lie down" and did so. SINGAPORE, June 21- bridge, realized we couldn't and served us tea when we Ile became furious, as did Quick action by a pro-Com? go on and started back. Two arrived at the site of their the formerly docile Student.' ?/ii:' lniunist guerrilla officer men stepped out from be. unit's headquarters. interpretor. The student probably saved the lives of hind a tree and motioned to! We soon were out of 'the began shouting' at me as ,this reporter and two other us to stop. They moved back jurisdiction of our original though I were a dog, stamp 'correspondents while we behind the tree again 'for' captors, however, and were Ing hard on the floor and c., kvere in the hands of an .cover, with promise Qf a hall taken by bicycle to, the next thrashing his arms about. ,8ngry mob the first day of of bullets should we try to level of command-perhaps Three Blindfolded ,our capture by the Khmer continue.. 'a battalion. The commander. I tried to ignore the blind- (Cambodian) United Na- We got out of the car:im-'was a bitter-faced Vietnam-folds put on us before we: `tional Front in Cambodia on mediately and pushed bur ese IV his late 30s, with only were led out of the truck as; I'day 7th. hands high in the air on the'one eye. There were Viet- just a security precaution: The command of the Vietnam- namese and Cambodians in .ethnic officer, a Vietnamese 34-year from old ese, who had come forward the command unit1 One sot. Elizabeth w a taking it quite :ethn rightly in a more serious Phnom Penh who has with his AK-47 pointed to. dier wore a brush hat with view. We stood holding fought more than 10 years ward us, .the Initials "FUNK" (Front hands. "Thanks for ever = (n both Indochinese wars, He told -us to drop all our .United National Khmer) thing, it's been swell," she ? arrived on the scene with belongings to the pavement ball-pointed in on a bent up said. three of his men as a rabid, and to turn around.- brim. It was my first intro- "Well, I don't think k i'anti-American crowd was Memories raced through.ductlon to FUNK. come to that," I replied. thit's ' .running Richard Dudman of "We'll have to have a re- the St. Louis Post-Dispatch my mind of the execution of union when this is all over," were walked together for and me blindfolded through.a .friend, Reuters corre- said Dudman with charac- some distance. Most voices to village, pulled along by a spondent Bruce 'Pigott, teristic optimism, ".. and were Cambodian. Some - motorbike. when the car in which he get them to give us some were Vietnamese, however, D IC otticer came too late and several other journalists paper and pencils. We've got and these began to frighten to save' Dudman and me were traveling had been am- to start writing." - me. I thought I heard dis- from a. hearty clout on the bushed in May 1068 during ?tinctly one angry voice say, head and an uncomfortable the fighting in Saigon. Hostile Air "Phat ha to binh." (One few minutes on the ground, George Syvertson of CBS, There was an air of hostii- must kill prisoners of war.) still blindfolded, with our his camera crew and I had ity at this post, much "Start talking to them hands bound painfully be. been the first to find Pigott stronger than' at the pre. again, Beth," I said, trying hind our backs. and the others. The memory vious one, but I was relieved not to let on I had heard The officer posted one of had stuck. when a man with a card what I thought I had. his men with 'Elizabeth Pond "Turn around," the soldier marked "Presse" organized She did, but the words, of the ? ' Christian Science said. As the only Vietnam- another move, to a small vii- "International press" had lit. Monitor, the third member ese speaker In our group, I )age. tie impact on the deteriorat-- of our party, and the other responded. We boarded a large truck Ing situation. two between the crowd and "I'm afraid you're going to with bc" ghs plastered over I began speaking to the 1 Dudman and me. Meanwhile shoot us when we turn the top of it for camouflage Vietnamese speakers, telling he went himself for help around," I said. and started on a journey of them that I knew a certain from higher authorities. "Don't worry, I'm not about an hour. (man In the North Vietnam. By doing so,: the officer- going to shoot you. Turn The only one from the ese delegation in Paris and. who. we later - learned was around." .. second post to join us was a -he could' surely vouch for called Anh Ba (Second I had told, him - immedi- Cambodian student who my identity. This had even ately when we got out of the spoke French. Two other' less effect. Brother)-sated ,Elizabeth from molestation, and Dud- car we were International Cambodian soldiers who. Forced to Run man and me from death, the journalists=-and it was writ- spoke only Cambodian Were My left hand was soon deeming aim of the crowd. ten all over the car In both also picked up. All were pried from Elizabeth's and We lived with Anh Ba for Vietnamese and 'French.' young, They began bragging and lashed by a length of +onc month and two days be. There was nothing else -to over the tail gate to villag- rope at the wrist to a motor (fore he recounted how he do except deny we were ers as the trip pressed on. bike that I, still blindfolded, .had acted, beyond the yen Americans-which we did. The student, particularly, could hear just ahead of me.; 'of our blindfolds, to save Into Ravine changed from , a polite Dick 'was caught by the; Gui;lives,.gn the first day of We were led down and up schoolboy to soldier over- right wrist; we had grasped; our captivity. the small ravine left by the lord. each other's free hand. "The people wanted to blown bridge and farther BY the time we reached The motor bike soo beat you to .,death. Sonic; along the road. I 'was still our destination, the student started up, pulling us, lurch wanted to do harm to 'Chi' 'very shaken. was no longer an Interpreter'ingly, forward. People prod .(elder sister-Elizabeth)",! "Are you going to shoot. who could be counted on to Ided us In the back to run! the officer said. It would not us?" I asked. . pass the word that we were 'faster. I began feeling close have been right 'for them to' "There's nothing to worry journalists. to death. .1 1 .kill you,' not knowing about" he replied. ' The truck ground' to a Dick kept saying 'he 'whether you were' good or' : I learned later the Viet-stop, People crowded In .cou4dn'krun any farther., . t; bad people." - 1 namese was a five'year vet- around the tailgate and win- '.) Before the mob incident,eran, originally from the dow-like openings near the Eaur.t:capt e' by lib. do Mekong. Delta. Re- And the cab. Most were Cambod ppro\eclFor elease 2000/08/16 : CIA 9t1iWQ 10001-7 ? ~DGIIt iJ't}e' Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CLA2RQP~g~1601 R0004DOZIT~UI~T 7 JUN chi 0 0 Do92, G 3 a2, ,j- " " ~E Mai EC""" " By RICHARD DUDMAN starspeewwriter Driving down Route.,1, the main prnom Penh and was working with the The rice paddies stretched emptily we highway wfrom Saigon to Phnom aved on at a checkpoint and ary forces Camband odians Vietnamese Americans and on both sides of us. The countryside was by friendly Cambodian forces. . South Vietnamese. ,deserted. We were frighteningly alone. The sentry gave us no warning, but ? He told us we would not be shot in Suddenly a Vietnamese in a sports, suddenly about a mile west of Svay any event, If we were what we said we shirt and carrying a Chinese-made autos Rieng in the Parrot's. Beak area of were, he promised, we would be set matic rifle slid from behind a big tree: Cambodia, we realized we were alone, free, naturally. We stopped our car and scrambled out, The rice fields were deserted. No peas-. . But the friendly tone vanished when hands up. "Don't shoot," called Mike. "We ant trudged along the highvJay. No dog, stern gray-haired, crew-cut man with a are journalists:' barked. Not a chicken squawked. smanner arrived. He did not be- That was the beginning of my 40 When we reached a blown-up bridge, lieve a word of our story. Over and days with the guerrillas. We were pris- with no warning sign, we knew the.. over, Mike told him how we had set out oners in Cambodia. -worst. We had -unwittingly entered the.: from Saigon that morning to see and enemy, we three are the only ones held ' no-mans land between allied forces and: report what was happening in Cambo- for any length of time who have been the guerilla troops supporting Prince dia. released. - Norodom Sihanouk,. the ousted Cambo- After more questions we were taken. In nearly six weeks of hiding in' dian head of state. from the hamlet on bicycles. We pe- jungle and paddyland there were times, Swiftly we turned our International, daled two or three kilometers and then of terror when our lives were at stake.' Scout and headed back along the desert- came to a big, Czech-made truck cam- There also was much boredom and ed road toward Svay Rieng. We had ouflaged with tree branches in what- occasional happy times playing cress gone only 100 yards or so when the -appeared to be a large village. with our captors and making a feast of Vietnamese- with the automatic rifle' We were herded into the truck with roastodog. stopped us. In a,moment, a Cambodian about 10 Cambodian soldiers. One car- ? We lost. weight and suffered some joined him. ried a Chinese AK 47 automatic rifle, ant bites, minor infections and dysen- With rifles trained on us they or- another a light machinegun. :try, but we came out in reasonably good ?dered us to empty our pockets on the The Cambodians watched us intent- health-and with a good look at the :pavement and then motioned to us to ly but impassively. We offered a smile; "other side." start walking. Hands raised, we clam- no response. We saw a well-organized movement bered down a collapsed bridge span and The soldier with the automatic rifle Hand Vietnamese veme t up the rubble on the other side. . kept it pointed at my chest. When r guerril. of Cambodian drmined war against ;U.S. The sudden throb of a helicopter, motioned politely to him to point it to Jas tanks a and planes. engine alarmed our captors. "Di, di, one side, he waved it angrily at me and We gradually learned about their di!" hurry, hurry, hurry! they ordered put the gun to my head. He kept it there hatred of the United States, their tac us to run. There was no cover except an, all the while the truck bounced along tics, their relationship with the Cambo- 'occasional tree. Some of the trees had jungle roads. dian peasants and what kind of people, been felled across the highway as make they aFe as we traveled with them on shift roadblocks. THE DANGER MOUNTED. At each' foot, by bicycle and occasionally by When Elizabeth lagged behind, a village an angry faced crowd of men. truck from one village to another. man on a bicycle who had joined us, and women gathered and climbed the Being the first to be released we gave her a lift. After running about two tailgate of the truck for a look at the feel an obligation to the 20 other cor- miles, we were loci down a side path. hated Westerners. respondents still missing. Although we, In a thatched roof hut, Mike and I The French-speaking Cambodian; made no deals for our release, we de-:'had to take off our pants and shoes. (student got into the spirit of the capture cided to withhold a few details, such ; They were returned to us after a thor-'and his friendly manner disappeared. as the exact place of our release, for ough search and we were given a cup of Each time the truck slowed, he would 'fear of jeopardizing our colleagues. tea. lean out to boast about the "three . Our captors suspected us of being - OUR FIRST INTERROGATION be- Americans" inside. spies for the Central Intelligence Agen- gan a few minutes later in another hut. I suppose the villagers thought we cy and we are determined to avoid A young man wearing a pistol did the were downed fliers from one of the 'doing , anything that would feed their questioning. American planes that had been bombing suspicions of other correspondents they Mike explained, in Vietnamese, that Cambodia since Sihanouk's overthrow. have captured. we were international journalists. He At the last stop - at a sizable; IT WAS MAY 7 when it all started. said that he and Beth were Canadians, village - hatred reached a critical 1ev- Just a week earlier, President Nixon and I an Americpn: ? el. In twos and threes. boys and young had opened a new dimension of the war An older man with one eye, who had men climbed the cab and tailgate of our in Southeast Asia by announcing that been listening skeptically, took over the truck and glared down at us. They Several invading and South Vietnamese troops wcrq queIlenaccused us of being CIA agents. shook threateningly. point, an made obscene gestures. At inv ading Cambodia. It was the first of man such accusa- At noon, Elizabeth Pond of the y ;older man clambered to the cab roof tions which would be made against us in and berated us furiously. Christian Science Monitor, Michael the next five weeks.. Morrow of Dispatch News Service Inter- There was a respite when a young national and I sot out from Saigon to arriveA dyandgtookta friendlier spoke tone. Iilo 'the villagers so off the iruckAlle asked a ace how for the invasion had ponotrat-, ed said. ho was a Cambodian student from few questions and then ho, too, assured , ,us wo would not be shot,..... * Igeo~a lets ,r weaved ' . Approve or elease 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000400210001-7 pont;nued Approved For Release 2000/08/16 CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 FORT WORTH, TEX. STAR-TELEGRAM M - 102,470 S - 218,306 JUN 2 0 1970 Soviet Propaganda Mill Works Overtime on China' When friends fall out, the eroded loyalty can produce some nasty invec- tive. In their parting of ways, Russian 'certainly has not been sparing of its feelings about Red China. But so unexpected are the nature of the denouncements that they stag- ger the mind. In an issue of a Soviet foreign affairs weekly these charges are made: Peking promoted the 1965 war be- tween India and Pakistan, tried to control Pakistan, invaded India, Istirred up trouble in'Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal, tried to overthrow the government of Burma and caused a "'terrible tragedy" to its supporters in flndonesia., where about 50,000 Com- munists were killed after the army !put down a-left wing coup attempt. Then comes the "good" part. aoist agents, helped by Chinese.resi- dents of Cambodia, claims the publi- cation, violated order there so "rude .ly" that even Prince Sihanouk was moved to protest. "And this Chinese: interference in Cambodian affairs,". claims the weekly with nary an illu- sion to the CIA, "was one of the fac- tors that instigated the right wing forces of Cambodia to stage a coup d'etat and cooperate with the Ameri- earl imperialists." Rather than chortle over the cred- ibility gap these disclosures create in the Soviet propaganda mill by revers- ing' previous contentions, we should hope now for a snap, in friendship be- tween Hanoi and Moscow. With it-. night come confirmation of what we've been trying to tell the world all along: North Vietnam is trying to Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 CtTCIS.TIA;1 5CI4 Cil b,O.1IT0;i Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIA-11f$Q1+9MR000400ROT~ ' He did not comment on questions about the f The result was said to have been tho e ,effect of the fighting in Cambodia on a pos- sands of civilian deaths including China Front chi v Bible peace settlement in Indo-China or on,Vietnamesa, and french immigrant! the peace terms of the Cambodian front with If'; Prime Minister Lon Fvof.- . ! 1 ?1',, V '"a #; J .,,.i... oa... Beyond affirming "solidarity" between' Special correspondent of vehicles destroyed. The Christian Science Monitor The Cambodian people were presented as Snigoni united against "foreign aggression" under Prince Norodom Sihanouk "under the direr- A military commander of the Cambodian tion of the Communist Party In Cambodia." O National United Front has stressed to Amer- It was asserted that Central Intelligence lean journalists the determination of his side " Agency CIA - x? to win "final victory" against attacking, ( ) secret agents in the diplo- American and South Vietnamese forces in matte corps of France. Australia, Japan, Cambodia. Saigon,' and Formosa" had instigated the ' ' ' ' ? Cambodian captor pro-Communists) in Cambod h prior to and after the_ coup. The discussion of the fighting in Cambodia Monitor correspondent Elizabeth Pond is was very general, with no analysis beyond one of three United States correspondents saying the front was winning and opposing released this week after 40 days' captivity forces were totally Ineffective. He claimed In Cambodia. Miss Pond in recent months more than 40,000 enemy troops had been has'betn on a leave of absence while work- put out of action, including 3,000 American, ing as an Alicia Patterson Fund lelloto in 20,000 South Vietnamese, and 20,000 cam- $vuth,Vietnam. bodian troops. More than 10,000 rifles were said to have been captured, more than 100' of Vietnamese front troops to Cambodia." Reporters interview Nor did he respond to the question about. 'the role of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian and Vietnam, he did not define me[nods or, PetS,. 'cooperation this might entail. He had been specifically asked 'if' .cooperation between, TU p the fronts might involye sending of Cam- ~.. bodian front troops to-Vietnam or sending Thal, and Cambodian "puppet forces." The front controlled, he said, three prov. inces totally, including the capitals-Kratie, The person interviewed, identified as theStung Treng, and Monculkirl-plus 40 district Cambodian commander of military region capitals, and more than 2 million people. 203, gave the interview a few days before;phnom Penh was said to be encircled within. they were freed to the first Western jour-11 three to five kilometers. nalists to have been released by front forces. The other provinces wer!` said to be con' The correspondents were representatives of trolled by the front in the countryside outside, Christian Science Monitor, the St. Louis tr tr the province thcapital: Post-Dispatch, and Dispatch News Service International. Patriotism cited The person interviewed was not identified by name, for reasons of security, the jour. The patriotism of the Cambodian people nalists were told. This was the only inter- and their solidarity with other peoples of view given to these. reporters In their 5% Indo-China against, aggression was stressed weeks in Cambodia. first In the statement. Gratitude was ex- Written question submitted pressed to the people of Indo-China for their The interview was a formal one. Written total defeat.of French colonialism, and this questions were submitted in advance, and a victory . was compared with the present-day, prepared statement was' then read to the fight against American imperialism. journalists in Cambodian and translated Into The distinction was made between the French. There was no time to pose follow-up American people and. "aggression" by the uestions " . q utterly savage imperialistic regime" of the . No Information was offered in response to United States Government. This govern- about other toreign estion li t ' o h " s qu s urna s t e j jment, the commander said, is more fascist correspondents missing in Cambodia orthan the Hitler regime." The result, he said,- about prisoners of war of any nationality oriis that "the American government is savage- about policy on their treatment. The report-ily massacring innocent villagers without ,era had 1942 cf0 d~fg~g~p 41P 001-7 .: kok: Men atI ne, 'I mar Saral.. oc~ Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400 THE NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS 18 June 1970 Aft Cambodia: %7Thy't .e Generals Wo - - ' helped ' to facilitate, an escalation to escalate hastily in Cambodia recalls Peter Dale Scott the pressure on Kennedy to escalate in of the US military effort which the overthrown regime would not have 1 1962 and on Johnson to escalate in President Nixon's ground operations in tolerated. As my colleagues and I tried 1964, first in response to Laos and Cambodia troops ? will like30, ly to demonstrate in our book, The later in response to the alleged Tonkin STATI N1 be over, as he promises, b by e by Politics of Escalation in Vietnam, the' Gulf "incident" of August 1964. In all strategy June 19 970. The he long-range (if not the intention) of every one cases, including the present one, a key role was played by our intelligence:' which the Cambodian adventure was of these escalations was to nullify a real, undertaken almost certainly will not agencies, who first helped ~v induce be. For though the invasion itself was or apparent threat of peace at the time.' a(I would now add that we failed suffi- a crisis which they subsequently mis' unprecedented, all of the prior ele- ciently to emphasize the role of our ci- reported to the President. ments in the scenario were often vilian and military intelligence services Furthermore, all but the most rudi- repeated cliches, from the initial by in bringing about all of the crises in !. mentary forms of civilian review within tary overthrow of a popular leader by question, as well as the present one.) ' the executive branch were suppressed. a right-wing pro-American clique, to i The second cliche of the When the first US arms shipment to the announced response to an enemy scenario was Lon Nol's deliberate breach of the Cambodia was announced on April 22 1. "invasion" at a time when the pros- by White House press secretary Ronald pects for ending the war seemed to be accommodation hitherto established between the NLF troops in Cambodia Ziegler, his counterpart Robert McClos-. increasing. Most characteristic of all is and the troops of Pnompenh, fol- key at the State Department admitted .-:the likelihood that Nixon was Ares- that he "knew nothing about it" (New cured by the Joint Chiefs to authorize lowed by a precipitous retreat, in the York Times, April 24,. 1970, p. 3). On the Cambodian adventure in great face of what seem to have been only light enemy probes, back' to the out- April 23, the very day that "emer- haste, and in such a way as to bypass enc "meetings of the Special Action or overrule most of his civilian ad- skirts of Pnompenh itself- This gratu-. g Y .. ++ itous . provocation of a much stronger Group began to consider the Fishhook ulcers, as a response to an emergency invasion, Secretary of State Rogers for which US intelligence agencies and enemy hag been treated as irrational by several will-established American ana- told a House Appropriations subcom- perhaps the Joint Chiefs themselves mittee that 'if US troops went into were largely responsible. ' lysts, but it will be seen to have its own Machiavellian logic when'` I;8ih- Cambodia "our whole (Viet namization) I Even if terminated by June 30, the " ," and that we Cambodian adventure has confirmed pared to similar events in the Second program is defeated," have no incentive to escalate into 1 yet again what some of us have been Indochina War. By the same combina- 1. Cambodia" (Washington Post, May 6. saying for years: that at present the lion of absurd provocation and pre- 1970. Al). In the wake of the Fish-_1 US military apparatus in Southeast .cipitous withdrawal in previous springs, f1 hook decision ("Operation Pro. ',,Asia will work to reject a new policy Laotian troops (and/or their American advisers) secured the first commitment metheus") it was suggested that the of de-escalation as certainly as the Joint?Chiefs of Staff had human orgagism will work to reject a of. US combat troops to Thailand-the first in Southeast Asia, for that matter- pulled an end run in their transplanted heart. The formula to It effort to the attack against neutralize this rejection process has in. May 1962, and the first bombings , get g nst the unfortunately not yet been discovered. of Laos-which Aviation Week cor- . border areas approved.... Some . rectly reported to be "the' first ?US ._ believed Mr. Laird found himself In other words one cannot under- i _in offensive military action since Korea"- the?final stages of planning for the invasion without being fully stand what has happened recently in May 1964.2 { consulted and informed during the Cambodia without understanding the Thus Lon Nol's actions, far from whole history of the Second Indochina being irrational, followed ' a recipe preliminary planning stages (Chris- ? 1 for US support which by now has Nan Science Monitor, May 14, # War. One cannot for example appreci- been tested many times and never 1970).' ate Lon -Nol's expectations in over- known to fail. The .exigent realities of! Perhaps the most embarrassing plight, throwing Prince Sihanouk on M4rch 18 1 the monsoon season and the US budg- was that of Senate kepublican recalling the anti-neutralist 1 epublican leader '- military coups of late 1960 and April I.etary process encourage an annual t Hugh Scott, who .was 1964 in Laos, or of. January 1964 and C cycle of escalation which by now can ... cut adrift with White House- U5 personnel f be not only analyzed but predicted. inspired statements that renewed on Sai 6'5 i . g n 3une 19 was a rem bombing of the North e very were involved in (or at the very least, these" remote contingency at th one of J cognizant o4' every r .,:...?:~? The third and most frightening clich6 1 time a hundred American planes ~gpuPS- . were dropping is the phenomenon of the artificially it bomb3 across the induced "crisis" used as a pretext , demilitarized zone a for hasty executive actions which J Constitutional procedures under Nix Approved For Release 2000diI$-k *A-1411 0'19 b~ pQ4801 W ssediy a "strict construe declare wars and advise on ore gn, tionist," have clearly deteriorated a long way since, 1954, when Dulles had, Approved For Release 20011/D01601R000400 17 JUN 1970 4fter Cambodian detention correspondents freed Monitor correspondent Elizabeth Pond, who Er captured in Cambodia Ma 7, has been released. Firs well ana unnarmea. A ;otnt story, written oy Mtss Yona (who in recent months has been on a leave of absence''' while working as an Alicia Patterson Fund fellow in South Vietntzm), and the other two correspondent ' captured with her, follows. In a subsequent edition' the Monitor will carry further, details on Miss Pond's detention. s os - sp c row of Dispatch News Service Into na- aaa.a.a...a...a, the reporters . told . a.a, were taken away from 41-1 WAR enurt.mnrtinled for hnndlinar thpmmeil aa_sive im 1ool and bi~kthe l1w ? __.D (walked through a gauntlet of jeering vii- Invasion on the civilian population In Saigon lagers. The men were tied to a motor-the region. Three American journalists have been bike and forced to run a halt mile while Without realizing it, they had crossed released safe and in good health after still blindfolded, then were hit on the into a front-held zone and found their more than five weeks' detention by pro-'head and held in a room with their way blocked by a blown-up bridge. As Sihanouk forces in Cambodia: Miss hands tied behind them. they-tried to return to Svay Rieng, they Elizabeth Pond of The Christian Science A superior officer Intervened, ? how. were halted by two front soldiers who Monitor, Richard Dudman of the St. ever, and these actions were halted, steppedl.from behind a tree and mo- h and Michael Mnr- The soldier responsible for the roughtioned the reporters to leave the ear: Tom P t Di at On June 15 they were driven by jeep harshly when their identity had not and motorbike to a section of Highway been established. 1 that is controlled at night by the Cam. The correspondents left Cambodia as bodian United National Front. From the honored guests, at a mass meeting there they hitched rides to Saigon on a of about 1,000 villagers. The theme of :convoy of South Vietnamese trucks re? the meeting was gratitude of the Cam4 turpina from Phnom Penh. bodian people for those American, peo- They are the first of 23-foreign cor? ple who oppose aggression by the Nixon respondents who have disappeared in administt'ation in Indo-China. The jour. Cambodia so far to have been released nalists were asked to write the truth of by the front. They were arrested May 7: the situation in front-held areas for their In the 5% weeks between their arrest American and world readers. and their release the correspondents At the end of their stay the three were were well cared for by a small unit of given an Interview with a Cambodian' front soldiers. They traveled a total of Identified as the commander of the about 200 miles and stayed In 10 homes military region. of villagers. They were well fed and The reporters asked to visit areas' protected against American and South where there had been B-52 bombing or Vietnamese air and ground attacks. strafing of civilian populations or areas They were asked to make statements where many civilians had been killed, about their'experience, presumably for by American or South Vietnamese later broadcast, but none conflicting ground troops. This request was denied,' with their views. ' reportcfaZnathowever, onthe grounds that there was the, the length of their stay was the time re-front could fighting stili not in guarantee places these the' and security, or quired for the front to verify their asser;of the journalists there. tions that they were journalists. The The correspondents made inquiries original suspicion, which was pursued inbut were given no Information about several sessions of questioning, was thatother reporters missing in Cambodia on cy were "American government per-about American prisoners of war. sonnel," possibly Central Intelligence Agency agents. Once it was ascertalnedClearing operation to the satisfaction of the front that they The reporters had inadvertently' really were journalists-and "good peo-. ple"-they were treated as friends: - lentered an area controlled by the front at about noon on May 7 on Highway (- Captives displayed 1 about three kilometers west of Svay. 'Rieng In the Parrot's Beak area. The only exception to the good treat-' They had driven from Saigon that ment occurred on the day of their arrest morning to observe American and when they were transported at gunpoint South Vietnamese forces then mount-; in a truck through several villages and Ing a clearing operation on the main displayed sA IsWIRrAektdhtf)tlOf!Otlf p6SaQil tailPigNvOIt610fl ni$400210001-7 . 'last_villaee Oiev were-blindfolde4 and also were reporting on the effects, of the' V R11% Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80- 00400210001-7 . { '; 17 JUN 1~~0 1,the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in of Kampuchea (Cambodia). about 200 miles and stayed in, (Washington, Elizabeth Pond of Dudman reported that he ten homes of villagers. They ,the Christian Science Monitor 'and his companions were ,Were well fed and protected American and patch and News Michael Service Morrow of Dia Interna? captured by Front f o r c e s. South against several Vietnamese air and S t(ons). 1 The Front was launched by They reported that they had,, Prince Norodom Sihanouk ground attacks. been well treated by their cap- soon after his ouster March 18 They were asked to make tors. "Frankly I felt safer most, as Cambodia's ruler when he statements about their experi- of the time we were captured cast' his lot with the Commu? ence, presumably for later than f do in the streets of Sal- nist forces in Indochina to try broadcast by the Liberation gon," Dudman?said. . , to overthrow the men who Radio or Hanoi, but none that The three correspondents deposed him. conflicted with their own said they are hopeful that a, [North Vietnam and the Viet. views. number of other newsmen. cap-, tong never have admitted of. Several . Interrogators told ?tured during the past two Ificially that their forces oper- the reporters after their arrest months are. alive and may also'?ated In Cambodia for years. that they were suspected of be returned. Two Americans This omission, Western offs- being "American government are confirmed to be dead, cials have noted, compounds personnel" or possibly agents George Syvertsen and Gerald the release of any captured of the Central Intelligence Miller, bot '.of CBS. prisoners unless, as In the cur, Agency. Dudman said they were -m--_ rent case, the release is made Once their credentials as treated briefly on May 7, the in the name of the Cambodian bona fide newspaper corre- day of their capture by local Front. spondents was established and villagers near Svay Rieng in, Front.. filed the following they came to be considered the Parrot's Beak of Cam. "good - people" they were boils, account of the captives, ' re' I treated as friends and their re "They forced Mike and melease to The St. Louis Post. lease was arranged. to run behind a motorcycle to Dispatch which made it avail. The only exception to gener- which they tied us. At one able to The Washington Post. ally good treatment was on point they also beat us to the SAIGON, June 1-Three the day of their' arrest, they ground. They were assumed to American newspaper corre- were taken at gunpoint in a be resentful about bombings. spondehts hitch hiked Into Sal? truck through several villages "But then an officer inter-, gon after being released last and displayed as American vened and from that point on night in Cambodia by the pro. prisoners of war. we were well treated," Dud'l Sihanouk forces that had ar- At the last of these stops, man related. . rested them last May 7. - ''they were blindfolded and The missing correspondents The reporters, Richard Dud- marched through a gauntlet of declined to go Into details of man of the Post-Dispatch, Mi- jeering villagers. The two men their captivity until they had, chael Morrow of Dispatch were tied to a motorbike and completed their own accounts' News Service International forced to run a half mile while of the extraordinary five and Elizabeth Pond of the still blindfolded. Then both weeks of captivity. Christian Science Monitor, were knocked to the ground "They are Impressive were freed safe and in good with a blow on the head and people," one of the three said health at 11 p.m. on a stretch left in a darkened room with( of their captors. of Highwfy I that is controlled their hands tied behind themy They were released on High- at night by the Cambodian 'A superior officer inter- way 1 in Cambodia Monday United National Front. livened however and the re-I ' iue .inhthirec, wer nv ,wncu WELL. currently pro-Sihanouk forces weeks of tneir cietentuon, tnei Dud- In Cambodia are now gath- three were well cared for by they, althou lgeft, are nn than Richard when they, hef correspondent of ered under the banner of five soldiers assigned to them the National United Front by the Front. The traveled more than five weeks in Cam- ated Press reported. ceived no reply. hndia. rAll n..,.,,.,...,It ....a r,. +ht. fivo nnA nna half, ,missing American correspond- Vietnamese or Vietcong Penh. tents reappeared In $algon troops in Cambodia, apparent- They asked authorities of the today after being released by, ly in hopes that this might im-' Front for news about 20 other prove the chances of the other foreign correspondents still their captors who held them captive newsmen, the Assoc(- missing In Cambodia but re- 1 Weehlntrton Poet rsre)rn service 'I [Their statement carefully'Iese convoy of military trucks) SAIGON, June, 16-Three, avoided any mention of North, II returning empty from Phom i . , night and hitch-hiked into Sal- They had been driven there porters were treated from' gon on a truck convoy. They J by jeep and a relay of motor- then on with kindness andj rive hire unUl'TuerdaYa tern _..-. _- ..,,, ._ _.., 9alIIen with-'a Snath.VYetnam llhar^ted .euw et Camhedla as Hpprow=r,@ 4*e4eas@r3rwYrutYtTb-: I.1 '-F(LT"U-U-I bU? I,t UUU4UUZTUUUT-7 "' ' f 40 Days As Red Captives.. .' 11 Fh .` orrespo~zc~ents~ Tell tole c a}anrC- ' nvnral s t 1 o MIT si.u WY ter sprung him, e t {'ere freed Ins! n G I they we personnel al 11 o'clock in Cambodia on a . U S government Mrs. Helen Dudman didn't' cr? 1" between entg of the Central believe it at first ~ %r lien the . Mrs. Dudman said she was stretch of highway possibly ag .. al A .. r lark this convinced the "commtmtty of Saigon and P~inom Penh. Intelligence Agency. cre. "Wo didn't niscuss will .n. the trio llliln "" 1 them alLC1 "11" .. ?? said howev- pareci by 11 i 1 t nt about' re sii?:pl?cle of being B i1ARR11'T (;ftil'riT11S It I speak to him," MTS. uuumall Antioch College student now to, were [reea: ere - ??? care, prcz,.~"?"?, bout the back- t b Radio llanot, but none - t urc y their release The Dudmans, married 33, said ? The' three reporters sold Cambodia on May 7. ond "I thought the operator"- Years, have a daughter Janet, Miss P, she didn't know If their release (I make _ ._, /.. 20. working in Washington, ..p mhv they they were asst their exverl- -iaxoa sTA4 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CiqRIU~?'6`0;1 R00040021000 ~6j STATI NTL REDS RELEASE REPORTERS L'Ri hard __ -. _. .. - t Oo p udman was one of three the release 01 the -1, , . of motorb}kcs reed r, d he c it would help It and set free. ed "from then on with kind- D c morning ana inc vpcrawl ,.. ? ??--- 'an undisclosed location on m? denlials were verulw, +w her husband, e f omd Dud- i had a usefu nalona y' highway "by jeeps and a relay man said, they were consid- hbt.ainntn ' . tom a rear " m was calling from Saigon. had been useful in d eonle" and treat- ,area American correspondents capp-- express d b Communist forces in the others stil being held. "Don't Know Anything" ncss and consideration an arranged. t ing t e wa 'T ? those released were Elizabc t ve Y y for their h l Pond of the Christian Science ? Cambodia for more than five , od a I~' ' '??/`ti 45 Monitor and Atichacl D. rifer weeks were released and r the full stor ublications. hey w .. _-_ ..__..1_.. .._"aa in caienn today aDpar - p __..r..annnn tomorrow. t Cain the St. Louis PostDispatc h can hr Piet Cons! troops In' details abou first nted to tie about e 1 t a eetlin~ SAIGON I, The trio eve on y let%, I Washington bureau chic u bodla as honored meats ee ondents held ca th I,- ordeal SO . a i have a bath. The a said they Besides Dudman, 52-year-old old THE CAPTOR their releases 1 sketchy ;- read by Dudm f AP)--Three Amer- , the liberated sore of [ anything a cos Y said. And Paris - Where her tether ea The operator giggled. ground of lit." that con[licted with their awfl Dick Dudman came on the line pgemts to see her on his way grDudman said "there's no flews." to assure his elated had lost hoe to ~iewark St. N..W 1 f deal" between the trip and , They did not elaborate on was "in great shape, their former captors on what whether they made any state- nor was any I 's;ments to their captors. ; a little weight, and had yet to TRIO DESCRIBES they wilt write, condition to ,i tatement to newsmen Dudman in Saigon as saying we e' p " tr.aivcl throe h 10 vlllagcs, be- be had asked their captors and we ro In good she e, p d about theta lc of some 2l other said Richard Dudman of the an when they etraycd Into re- j Post dispatch about i it bout a , . s ory newsmen captured by Commu- St. Lou enemy-held terr Itlerif nlst troops in Cambodia and leased with Elizabeth Pond of two miles west of Svay missing since April 3. the Christian Science Monitor '1'4-two the Parrots Beak area o He said we received no re- and Michael D. Morrow of , Cambodia. Their statement Inc. `r Dispatch this account: , ave ply," and that neither he, Miss Dudman said the trio re-..1 g They drove there "to ob- Pond nor Morrow saw any of celved rough treatment at 01 serve the depth of penetration the missing newsmen while first when their interrogators Into Cambodia by the Amcri- ected that they were .. _ _ _ _ Cambodia .,__,.._ _ c.. vietnamese usp h ??e???r--- Mrs. Dudman, who expects net v But, " he said,, they were 1'? forces that main TOutc ( t en gh 'her husband home in about treated "with kindness andi'.~wav 1) to Phnom Penh." - four days, had been optimistic consideration" (Mee their cre? ,hhey also were reporting on -about him all along and "just denlials as correspondents , i the effects of the Invasion on 'hd i the plenty of experience covering hiking in .from the ourucl ? who . stepped. from Deninu a -. wars - about a dozen of them , They were captured last tree as the reporters tried to In the last 15 years. ;month at the eastern edge of ~'. drive back to Svay Rieng. At.. ..rnvinrial cnnital 01 Svay A ,,...o ?nra ordered to leave knew he would be all right." bad been estaul9 c -, ? the civilian population n I region. "He Is so cautious, and a weThese ref ascd pint Cambodia 7 vary sensible man," she said. ,,,,,e night anti arrived in Sal- .1-.The atrIio a hi awn uo bridge. When she had the first In- kling of the capture, Mrs. Dud- man said, "it didn't even oc- cur to me that anything had happened to him - I just as- sumed he had a good story- p s proovePd For Release' woe mom out any ?--?---11C1Na aper. owe t? ire hi suing w .? --- - capture and release for his nftrr calling his - - ialc"b, . .. ._ LIICLL col m... .. --- -- Phnom Penh, In a car they l an outpost, from which they had driven from Saigon. . a,..ra fakpn by bicycle to a Dudman said the only excep- whighwdy. . and ort[erea mw a lion to the decent treatme AL- , nt ;t truck. accordca inem v"ela" CIA "auspccaa. I day of their capture, bli d They v; ere.taken eat gunpoint, al .A 9& ce es ? -_ folded, . villa half. a mile behind a motor- the ast of these stops, they Mimi th tllelr halide ....' ' wi 106/08/16 , CIA-RDP80-01 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 STATINTL AUGUSTA, ME. KENNEBEC JOURNAL M - 15,952 JUN 1 b 1910- Moscow's foreign affairs experts. are having difficulty deciding whether Indo-_ china is- menaced more by U.S. or Red Chinese "imperialism:" Criticism of the American-South Viet- namese incursion into ? Cambodia has given way to warnings to alnoutheast Asian states to beware C h i n e s e meddling in their .. internal affairs. Cambodia' itself was singled out for a s worry attribute Sihanouk's overthrow to! machinations of the Q. Not so, this. time. Peking is held responsible for meddling so clumsily that "rightist' Cambodian forces" were driven to Moscow's concern is appreciable. Understandably so. Red China has sublimated its internal squabbles to new and bolder ventures abroad. The New i oft ff.. .. "vr r.1~a11II15y Ltlnjn1SL' Moscow might have been gxpected to or Muscovite - and the fount. is Peking. Approved For Release 2000/08'16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 ht I N N F A Tq; e0 Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R00040021 0 TRIBUNE 14t - 240,275 S - 674,302 tI4 WO By RONALD ROSS Minneapolis Tribune Far East Correspondent SAIGON, South Viet- nam-The fate of tiny Cambodia totters in the balance of international power politics. Well over half of this once-tranquil land, from Sihanoukville to S n u o 1, has been opened to all the horrors of the Vietnamese civil war. Hundreds of,Khill ers have been k ill e d --and w o u tt d e d; thousands of Khmer homes have been ,destroyed, towns flat- tened, plantations and%rice -fields laid waste. e ? tic-5, 013 2n 0 nn b, China is the ideological the ILU" The' Japanese, emerging d U the Viet tnamese ond h " his"h e reporte t as at t great power, seeking a new role in Asian and ', been the most successful . Conk. In the wake of Si- world affairs. operation of this long and ' ?hanouk's arrival in I'e-"1 very difficult war." king, China, where he is The Indonesians, 100- ; He said that "all of our now living in exile, China million strong, staggering major military objectives !-.has become the driving'`' force behind the creation f hack from the chaos o have ? been achieved'' and '.Sukarno's rule and anx-. that "the June 30 deadline t ions to find ways to bring { I set for withdrawal of all peace to Southeast Asia. A m e r i c a n forces from The Laotians, no strong- Cambodia will he met." ,:Cr 'to violence, are victims j At . 'the ' time he` was ';.like the Khmers of forces :speaking, there were 14,- beyond their control 000 American troops still. A n d the Malaysians, 'operating in Cambodia. Singaporeans, Filipinos, I . Other Americans were. + the Nationalist Chinese on serving as advisers with ,.Taiwan, the Burmese, the South Vietnamese forces And now the war Koreans, North and South, and providing them with 'knocks at the gates of the the West Germans, and artillery and air support. great Khmer temples of'. , the Warsaw , Pact coon- The Nixon 'administra- Angkor. tries of Eastern Europe, rtion has announced that This is Cambodia 1970. i' In ways both large and all advisory and support These are the contending ; small the fate of all is in- 'activities - with the ex- -forces: volved in what happens to , ception of American air of a united front of revo- j lutionary parties in Viet-' narn, Laos and Cambodia. Neither the Soviet Un- ion nor China, as far as is ?,~ known, has contributed military personpel to their allies in Cambodia. South Vietnam: Of the Iwo major nearby ,powers, the South Viet- namese are the most dt:ep- ly committed in Cambod- In his June 3 speech, President Nixon said that' 43,000 South Vietnamese took part in the operations in Cambodia. ' ?e tilt ue "`"J"` from Cambodia bthe end Powers, the United States, Here's a closer look at y. About 35,000 of them China, and the Soviet the roles of the great 'pow- of June. _ are still in Cambodia, and Union. ers: The Soviet UnThe the S a i g o n government' j. Russians are the principal has announced that it is " The two major nearby p4t`The , United Sates. In supplier to the North Viet- not limited in its activities and the Thais. ana-ciestroy mission of the ["4cated military equipment' 30 deadline the American war, 31,000 American I as surface-to-air missiles President has set for his' I for political control of ` Cambodia's eastern border bombersv and large-scale -1 t Ml* d l Thailand: Cambodia s I mullion peo- . to cap ore mt tons o o - - economic aid. - pie-the forces backing ;Mars worth of North Viet- The introduction of Thai , the North ' Viet Also- - the government of Prime ,.namese weapons, ammuni- ! namese, but in lesser troops is expected at any Minister Lon Nol versus V,'.tion and other military! :.wa ll weapons, med- I moment. the forces hacking exiled supplies. y's ~'stn > Ay assi ice my plans for m acr heack. But from and no economic assistance whatever to Cambodia." enemy Rihardson briefing, Mr. Fish reports, He did not explain that Sihanouk threw out our mill g, "It was dear tary mission because he said it had been trying to that the present military thrust Into Cambodia hinged turn his armed forces against him, and gave up eco- largely on the reportedly surprise overthrow of Prince nomic aid, too, rather than have it used as a cover fora Sihanouk." Nixon said in his April 30 speech that for U.S. agents trying to overthrow him. This was not a"' five years "neither the U.S. nor Souzth Vietnam moved figment of Sihanouk's imagination. against those enemy sanctuaries because we did not' ? As far back as 1958, in a police raid .1 'the villa wislu to violate the territory of a neutral nation." But s: pf ono f hi I 'h k If- d I in Cambodian affairs. . on was deceitful when he said in the April 30 speech, Bu't thanks to the indiscretion of one congressman, that our policy since the Geneva conference of 1954 1: "has been to scrupulously respect the neutrality of we now have the private-and more candid=version the Cambodian people" and adding-as proof of our ? ; given members of Congress at special State Depart- virtue-that since last August we have had a diplo- ment briefings. This puts the origins and purpose of, tnatic mission in Phnom Penh "of fewer than 15" and the Cambodian action in a very different light. The. That for the previous four years "we did not have any ~ congressman is Rep. Hamilton Fish (R-N.Y.), a diplomatic, mission whatever." The truth is that ,a right-winger who has 'long questioned the logic of our Sihanouk ousted our mission and broke relations in heavy commitment in so peripheral. an area as"South- 1065 because he claimed The CIA had been plotting east Asia. In a letter to constituents released May against him for years and o Tarr' lied twice to kill 13, Mr. Fish summarizes a private briefing by Under:, him. Secretary of State Elliot Richardson for selected "For the past five years," Nixon said with bland members of Congress. h orris we hav o id d 'I't ' t snose or ,zioutn vietnam." it was aescrmea as a swi1~t Sihanouk was trying to maintain a precarious preventive which was action f not from part of which we any bwouldroader isoonriteaventionwithdraw. an neutrality by,playing one side against the other. Nix-,,O' artment?'r". der as a preemptive exercise to hit an "enemy build-, ~t axon or Sta,teA tatittra Approved For Release 2000/08/'1RI}:J"RCRDP80-01601 R00040021 000 27 May 1970 wrote and starred. It has been ~e t T 1~` ? tt'~?r?Ij' screened at various festivals, in- ~j JL ', y chiding Atoscoty in 1969 and the African-Asian festival in Tashkent, ,T ? i ? (~ Uzbekistan, In October, 1908. F. f ~x , 1? , f..~. .r~+ ? + i "'F'r'^ "$i ad ' Over Angkor" is re- ow STATI NTL (sri 6 6';i:Ll!i +L' Z WEB markable?and totally unique as the film document of a nation regard. j't Ing Its foreign policy and Its fears of take-over by a neighboring power, aided by the C. I. A. It is a lty GORDON IiITCIIENS - strange film to have been created 0 1) by anyone, particularly this versa- (Author is a U: S. flit buff and Asian avid producer of films as file Prince,' dramatizing the na- frequent Jestirai trotter-Ed.) %vcll as head of state, Prince Siha-'ti predicament of Cambodia. The recent American-South 11011k set up an international Mini festival In Phnom Penh. The Mini- Some lines from this unpre. Vietnamese Invasion of Cambodia i;ter of Public Education and Fine cedented film illustrate Its political has a curious and little-known Arts, Vann Molyvann. was presi- lone. The Prince, playing a naval', i consequence so far as international dent of the festival, which held its commodore, Is wary of an Impend- tival ing coup among his officers: "The i eecond, and presumably last, fes- ci>enia is concerned: the tcrml>a- in December. Prizes were American and Saigon Imperialists i tion, at least for the present, of the riven' for 35m features and shorts, have been threatening our terri- `f,lmmaking career of prince Noro- with 16m documentaries handled tory and islands , .. We must find itlom Sihanouk. The ch;'rming? dap- by a side event. The festival's high- the root of evil. in order to save per "Little Prince"- the title of I est honor, the Golden Aspara our country.. . Fight against the I One of 10 feature films he has di- Award for Best Picture, went to neocolonialism of the United Teetcd, starring himself-was re- the Prince as producer and actor States and their satellites.". The iccntly deposed In absentia by his In his own "Twilight." (Should chief conspirator tells his mistress: own military, a coup predicted in have been called the Golden "Agents of the American Central i Another film he made, "Shadow raised Eyebrow-- Ed.). A gala ball Intelligence Agency always have 1 Over Angkor," shown .t Pic- Mos- In the royal palace, hosted by the' enough money. The United States; 'Cow fiyn festival In July, 1969. Prince, closed the festival. ills is an exceedingly rich country. Our Prince "Little Prince" had won at the pre- troops will have ultra-modern ? oSihanouk had walked a 'tightrope of neutrality for years rs In vfous Phnom Penh festival and ;was weapons and the officers will have Cambbdia,but he was ousted from. cxportcd to the' Gr.viet l:nicn and villas, cars and more. You will own office by his own army officers other nation`' s luxurious Cadillac and you will Princess Cost. rs have no reasons to blush with while Abroad -six tvnkti ago. Since Princess Monique, the wife of shame even when compared with ? then, he he has been In the lay Day prince Sihanouk, shared his inter- the Queen of Siam." An effeminate People's Republic and on May Day est In filnuak:ng, In "Lose of western diplomat stooging for the ih was feted by Mao Tsc-lung Xiolcor," she appears as it Canibo-, ~tumdricans greets the conspirators. (Time, 'flay 11, 1970). Later he than girl who falls In love with with ninny gifts: "On behalf of the formed a Cambodian government= Japanese Colonel ]Ia ,egaaa, play- free world, which Is ready to clasp i' exile in Peking it "may be l ed by the Prince, during the Japa- Cambodia to Its bosom, and on be- tempted to, install t somewhere in' nose occupation of Cambodia in half of the United States of liberated Cambodia. ,1'^-t could re-World War II. The film was his America, whose representative at- tha in force the formation up of a Cambo- eighth, made last year, and was tailed to Your Excellency I am, I the take of Pi against based on historical incidents. Dur- convey to'you our warm congratu- the government vernm ment of remier Lon Nei." (The New York Times, May ing the Japanese occupation, the InUons and Invite you into the 10, 1970). Prince was King of Cambodia. J ssed the King to re-' r apan p e Like most other ' nations of pounce its treaty tics to France. Southeast Asia, Cambodia has been Cambodia did so and proclaimed making films for many years that, Independence. After Japan's sur- I indndepce, French After was re- 'are little known beyond their area. a-end The films are, heavily Influenced l lslrcd for a time. But Cam- tatylisticallyyby the foreign cinemas' bodia was totally independent by , . ? even when they employ regional! 'themes, 1953, and its King became Prince The Khmer (the principal ethnic I Sihanouk. The film reflects a Cc':, "And linguistic group of Cambodia) fain gratitude toward the Japa- cinema emphasizing Cambodian die; ?' nationalism began with Prince Si- twilight is A tragic love story, hanouk. who became directly and The Prince . acts the role of ? a ;personally involved by writing, di-' middle-aged, sickly aristocrat in 'recting and performing In his own retirement, deserted by his Avife 'full-length dramatic films. His who had run off with a film actor. "The Enchanted Forest" won a The melancholy noble Is drawn Tloscow prize In 1967, and he was a from his introspection by the Love dashing figure at festivals. The of a comely Indian widow. Separa- films were popular within Cam- . Lion and suicide bring the, film to sad conclusion. Twilight' was A . bodia, as was the Prince, and they T played for weeks on end. Some 20 among the. features seen in 'few theaters In Phnom Penh, the caps- Delhi In December,' at the Indian 'tal, and 00 within the remainder of Festival, the country, serve the film-going ? , "Shadow Over Angkor" was rieeds of Cambodia's population of based on actual events, an Abortive 4,500,000. All income from the anti-Prince conspiracy In . 1950, Prince's films was returned to the - Princess Monique again Appears, as natlonaJq, q r {@i~1ege pose that rf c I'nnce s films arc now suppressed, with the prints possibly destroyed, under the pies- e.,, . complete ea received a ii a~ ~ ~ Qc 18000400210001-7 ti 1f t1tII 3S; pTa'ylhd "ih'/ 1S ' Ats usual,.- the- Prince_produccd, PILOT Approved For Rel bi - 127,079 8 -M)79 22? 1970 . - -. -- B Don ?1iill Sihanouk from 1960 built a wide base of, Y political support. At the time of his ,de=b Vlrflnhn?Fllof Washtnpton Bureau posal, he was the last truly, popular non-i communist leader in Indochina. 0 WASHINGTON. "CAMBODIA, a small country of sev- I Kahin wrote, "It is to be hoped that they 1: United States was not party to the over-) en million people, has been a neutral na- throw of Sihanouk, but it is understanble' tion since the Geneva agreement of 1954 1,t-an agreement, incidentally, which was i, why the many years of American clan-1 ' signed b the government of North.Viet destine activity in Cambodia makes Si-( by hanouk think otherwise." nam. j Students in the Cornell Southeast Asia r "American policy since then has been Program prepared a c h~ r o n o 1 o g y of to scrupulously respect the neutrality of events in Cambodia. They included these. the Cambodian people..."' ' . I entries: 1 } i 1' ,~~ji ~~F~~ 1 vaue l.amoowa Doraer areas. lamooala 1 f 'Lk' tL ; anneals to United States to restrain Sal-~ [? i r j l ' gon but United States refuses. Cambodia-, proposes dip I o m a tic relations with i So said President Richard Nixon in a', China. United States cbrisidel cutting`' television address to the nation April 30,' off aid Lis anti-Shihanouk move. Khmer# in which he announced the U.S.-South Serai movement organized, reportedly Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. ,with Central Intelligence Agency, Than ' and Vietnamese ai . -'-~-?+? - A scholar at Cornell University has :prepared a point by point paper showing 1959: Bangkok plot exposed. Plot. that-since 1958 at least-what President called for anti-Sihanouk invasion froml Nixon said just isn't so. Thailand by foreign-support Khmer Ser The United, States has repeatedly, al- ai forces and creation of. ew oppositions ;? most casually violated Cambodia's neu-1. political party. U.S., Thailand, and South: i-trality. T Vietnam implicated in plot. Eisenhowe The paper was put together by Profes- denies U.S. involvement. .sor George McT.. Kahin,' professor of government at. Cornell University and 1963: Anti-Sihanouk activity by Khmer, Serai resumes at new intensity; includest' director of Cornell's Southeast AsiaPro- i virulent propaganda from CIA furnished gram. It was made public in a press /transmitters in Thailand and South Viet-. release earlier this month by the offices Sihanouk cancels U.S. aid agree?,, of Senator George McGovern, Mark 0., nam. Hatfield, Charles E. Goodell, and Har= .ments. Pentagon reacts by calling for`' intervention in Cambodia. old E. Hughes. i -~ Almost nobody noticed. 1964: Continuing b or d e r violations; The Kahin? study was mentioned in from South Vietnam, including at least' passing in The Washington Post and in one: attack mid-March by South' Viet-' namese unit with American adviser. The Evening Star. It was ignored in The' 1865:.'Cambodia severs di lomatic re- New York Times, whose own 'reports p-, in the, past document most of Kahin s., ' points. ase 2000/08/16.: CIA-RDP80-01601 R00046T1 W_ One almost continuous arm of U.S. in cursions in Cambodia was the Khmer, Serai, an organization which this column has-erroneously referred to in the past asp I a secret so~c oe e~' t a o. t `t,/08/16; CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 ~ political m emn ? overthrow of Prince Norodom Sihanouk:,,; Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R00040021 1v discounted" by Am6ricari and neutral sources, and now it is reported from Phnom Penh that The possibility of CIA participation was prompt. There were never more than suspicions, gen- patterns of the past, that the United States Central Intelligence Agency had any- thing to do with the deposing of Prince No. rodom Sihanouk of -Cambodia last March 18. ST. LOUIS, MO. POST ,P 24H 1970 E - 333,224 S - 558,018 "Tice World's Nightmare the subject: This is gratifying, but why should the CIA be so automatically suspect throughout t h e world? A recent commentary by the eminent British historian, Arnold J. Toynbee, bears on concluded the CIA played no part in the coup. Communist East Bloc Intelligence agents have, tive leadership of which lhv `are'capable? 9Iy thinks the fate of the world will be pro- oundly affected by whether America manages to, deal with them. Isn't it about time that Americans assumed the responsibilities that go with pre-eminent world power, and start exercising the construc- now quick to suspect the CIA has a hand in it. Our phobia about the CIA is, no doubt, as fantastically excessive as America's phobia about world Communism; but: in this case, too, there is just enough convincing evidence to make the phobia genuine. In fact, the roles of Russia and America have been reversed in the world's eyes. Today America has be- come the world's nightmare. Is that what has happened to the American f dream? This may be only one man's opinion !rbut it is the opinion of a leading world citizen 'whose profession is the evaluation and analy- sis of historic events. Professor Toynbee, who has lived in America, in the Middle West, and who has n good understanding of America, be- lioves't h a t "the most terrifying feature" of American life today is America's failure to deal with its domestic problems, and he right- For the world as a whole, the CIA has now become the bogey that Communism has been for America. Wherever there is trouble, vio- lence, suffering, tragedy, the rest of us are Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 n y f~, Approved For Release 21 fl 1WR CSIW~-1 $-Uk00040021 2 1 MAY 1970 STATINTL ron on A look at American tar .;,, ~ .,?,. from French -intellectual peak By David Holmstrom is as deep in France as it is in the United i' ' Staff correspondent of , States. Of course, the French economy is' 1.. The Christian Science Monitor not as brilliant or efficient as the American from several main problems: Vietnam, ur- Raymond Aron describes himself play- ban problems, the blacks, and the refusal' i fully as a "nonconformist conservative," ?~' to accept traditional values by your young; l less gentle names for him. ',,?' f ` icnn student who came to you out of fruslm. { en r`u"'c l s ""'t t public enduraable social c critic the great . , weigher of the advantages and disadvan-? lion and said he was becoming convinced "I do not believe in paradise on earth,".--m- I would start like any old man by telling, he says in a kind of final summation. ?':. him that during the 1930's I was young and The author of at least a dozen books, a?, .frustrated because world war II was com- ' former colleague of existentialist Jean-Paul ?'', ing. So ^I would know his `feelings ; But I' meet ddress St t t ?,?v ...,.,., .,. ...o __ - o a , a es 4American Jewish Committee. y'' he will not improve the lot of the blacks, he 1. 1 Dressed in a double-breasted suit and con- will not improve the situation, in the cities, servative tie, Mr. Aron was interviewed for ,, and if he wants to create civil war in Amer. ore than an hour Throughout he was al- ica to stop the war in Vietnam, it would be. m ac, specific, , ..... enthusiastic, ., andr---bored?-??,Ta?he----follow --? We know by the 'experience of the, 20th' ?,~' Ing remarks are edited from the interview: , century that modern society is extrmely now ao most t' f the U",nc?itefd c States today? ma-fin problems n t ??? thorny. If you destroy society because you' .. .. mixtu e of diffe a ar ,..... ~- -- - ? of authority which is normally worse than rnvf"r of inditrrenCP_ and half-satisfaction t no that the United a,atuo was ,,,,,,,w?c If the student believes modern society is' the troubles which affect almost every na*;:' '. t bad in itself because it is competitive he , tion in the world. - ~..___ _f A__1.4 ha.` ..,' should go into the desert. If the student says - ____ 1,_ ome s avow mere ,s vu,C uerz ee u, .??~.,?.? - .?, ? to me, 'I hate everything so much that I d f or conscious that the minimum o er provement,' then I will tell him he is crazy. ? exists In the. world today has as its condi- But "" tithing "r` in h r--r- tion not only a powerful United States, but ' .:-in~2 snmethina new in history. Before I left to come here I was asked to ?: ` A __,_-__ _L_... t United .'?:?' r_ .._.. ___ _ victor h __ _ d f f he y e or t e eat States's ability to avoid complete disinte-: ' :. United States in the Vietnam War? gration. The question is: Is America about;, .`,? The the American discussions to get an Internal revolution? 1 ,don't have..-.,o. about victory and defeat comes from the; an answer, but I am optimistic." fact that you have the tendency to confuse the results; of military battles with thepo. ;volt of May, 19G8, In France to the student . ; victory is military victory, which has noth-' unrest in America? ing to do with the political concept of vie., I the French was to have everything at the After all in World War II. Roosevelt want same time in one strike! We had a sort of;; ycd to have a military'victory over Germany... ,general revolt everywhere on everything.' "? He did not ask himself very clearly what And ina certain way It serves as an im? +d,' would be the political result of this total So Pig NO swolfd!-Ul7/0fg . MR tf3F et ~ J ~}gjAOftj-result of all' t But I Idon't believe that the moral crisla the, batt)"s against North Vistna,n_era pure., Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 STATINTL PHtt.AT *-' ^.l Ira, PA. INQUIRER 1~ - 505, L73 s - 913,045 2 f7 g U er Now We're a `Pa r Mao Tse-tung's latest oratorical namese and Vietcong intruders c `outburst, in addition to asking the from the home country, even when people of the world to "unite and they used it. for years as a base. !:defeat" the United States in its in- Cambodia was, if we remember, ternational endeavors, also instruc- noted for its "neutrality." tively points.. out that this nation Now Sihanouk, in Peking eyes, constitutes a "paper tiger." has become a real tiger with a real The purpose of the Red Chinese "union" government and the United leader's address, broadcast in ling- States is a "paper" tiger. Those :lish, presumably was to arouse sup- troops rooting out confused and flee- port fox Norodom Sihanouk, de- ing Red Viets must be shooting posed leader of Cambodia. paper bullets. Sihanouk has obligingly set up an It is noteworthy that at the same exile government in Peking, which time. Mao was broadcasting his ill ,'.makes him Mao's protege and,. no informed message in Peking, Corr I doubt, puppet, if and when he re- munist sources elsewhere were re- [.turns to Phnom Penh. ported to have cleared the U. S So Mao undoubtedly felt obliged even the CIA-of any complicity inl to say a few kind words for the the ciJttp"Lh"er - verthrew Sihanouk.1 ! strange royal bird he found on his We never would have. believed doorstep and now the words have any Communist high command paid) been delivered. that much attention to the simple t The "fighting spirit" of the regal facts of a matter, however. Mao's playboy and jazz buff is "warmly response to the situation seems far-' supported" by the ancient Mao-a more typical-and his accusations: spirit never before noticed. of "aggression" and "imperialism That spirit left his little 40,000:"- are comfortably routine and old hat man army so pathetically under- But he IS expert on, papers manned and underequipped it, was tigers (ask the man who owns one).: never able to clear. NNorth,. Viet- That worries us, Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 TROY, N.Y. TIMES RECORD MAY 2 1970 E - 42,181 We're Cleared r? The anti-war element that enjoyed a field day condemning the United States role in the ouster of Prince Sihanouk as ruler of Cambodia must find a new arrow for its bow. The United States has been ,,cleared of participation in that coup by no less than the Communists themselves. When vindication comes from the people who .i stand to lose most because of the coup, it must be factual. It, probably is disconcerting to the anti-war ,element which seems to prefer the accusations from the outside. The anti-war element has endeavored to bolster its position by airing the charges the CIA instigated the coup. While the "at home" element' was thus en- gaged it has been significant that foreign countries i were strangely silent. Soviet Russia had little, to say, indicating the possession of pertinent infor- mation that Red China either did not have' ? or .chose to disregard. S It is possible that Communist vindication was not intended for general distribution but rather for ' .a restricted circle. It.also may be the case where Cambodian Communists refuse to follow the lines established at Peking. What does, count heavily is that the United states has been cleared. . Those. who have used the? `accusation to'support their, action must. cast about Kfohing n~ewy. s z ,i. Approved For Release 2000/08/1'6 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001 sS 7494 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE May 20, 1970 this debate as between Democrats and stitutional authority of Congress in for- before me that when President Nixon Republicans. sign policy and waging war. ordered American forces into Cambodia Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, If the Sen- At the same time the Senate can move on May 1, he told the American people ator will permit, I would be very anxious to introduce an element of sanity to the mission was to destroy the central of- to see made clear in the debate-perhaps U.S. policy in Indochina. This dual op- flee for South Vietnam-COSUN-that is the language makes clear-that in the portunity is presented to us in the pond- the Communist's jungle pentagon. Pres- STA~WTL process of withdrawal from Cambodia, Ing amendment sponsored by the distin- - Ident Nixon, in his demagogic television the President does have the presidential guished senior Senator from Kentucky address to the American people announc. power to protect those troops as they are (Mr. COOPER) and the distinguished sen- ing that the Invasion of Cambodia had going out. We all want that. That Is one !or Senator from Idaho (Mr. CHURCH), taken place said U.S. troops were wiping of the other things that I see is perfectly who spoke just this morning in this out the Cambodian sanctuaries and that feasible. I am sure we can work it out: Chamber and who has all along been tak- the main objective was to destroy the ment about that. sanity in our policy in Southeast Asia. military operation m South Vietnam Mr. SCOTT. I do not see why. The Cooper-Church amendment is the located in Cambodia" and that our troops CHURCH. The President is Com- ? first of -several which will at long last give would penetrate not to exceed 21 miles Mr . mander in Chief. We do not question It. Senators and Congressmen, as represen- into Cambodia and that this entry into But Congress has powers, too, and it is tatives of the American people, the Cambodia and the operation would be time for Congress to exercise them. If we chance to declare whether they favor completed by July 1. are going to come out of this war, there continuation, extension, and expansion That headquarters, known as COSVN, is only one way to do it, and that is for of the Indochina war, or whether they has not, in fact, been attacked by Ameri- Congress and the President, standing to- wish to bring an end to our involvement can or South Vietnamese forces, though gether, to assume a joint responsibility in an Immoral, undeclared war in South- that was the purpose, it was said, of this for a plan which will bring us out. This east Asia within the next 13 months. Be- adventure across the border of a nation, amendment is drawn in that spirit and cause I favor the latter course, I shall Cambodia, whose neutrality we had with that Intention. However it may be vote for the cooper-Church amendment. guaranteed. construed in the course of the debate, This is not only an ,immoral and un- But it appears now, that this head- that is the spirit and intention of the declared war, but it Is the most unpopu- quarters has not been found and de- amendment. lar war and longest war the United strayed, and that American military In- The ACTING PRESIDENT pro ten States has ever fought. It has cost a tre- telligence and the CIA are guilty of the nnre. The Senator from Ohio' (Mr. mendous toll of killed in action. and most serious blunder since the time they der the previous order. Many lives of the wounded have been invaded North Korea the Chinese would saved, but a tremendous number of the not cross the Yalu and enter the Korean wounded have been maimed for life. An' conflict. General MacArthur disregarded THE COUNTRY below the knee and the other lea off above . advanced into North Korea close to its "i for the fine statement made this morn , most of that time in combat overseas and . back into South Korea with great Ing by the distinguished majority leader ..,I know that in World War II, or in any slaughter. This was an equally hor- (Mr. MANSFIELD) and the statement ? previous war, that would have been a . rendous blunder. Our CIA and military the distinguished Senator from . mortal wound and he would have died 'intelligence were again proven wrong. A. b y Idaho (Mr. CHURCH), and also the state- within a matter of minutes. Now hell- Now the public relations men at the ;.., ment made by the distinguished minority copters evacuate the wounded from the . Pentagon-and they have 300 or more leader, the Senator from Pennsylvania battlefield and, with the great advance in personnel doing nothing but that-and (Mr. SCOTT), and the other Senators who surgery, such lives are saved. We are , Defense Secretary Laird glibly say that spoke here. going to have problems for years and . COSVN or the military headquarters di- Mr. President, very definitely it is my years with those who have been pitifully recting the Vietcong and North Viet- intention to vote in favor of the Cooper- maimed for life. .. namese forces is mobile and has beefi Church . moved somewhere in Cambodia. the Cooper- President M , r. Church amendment. Mr. President, when President Eisen- amendment simply binds President Nixon We did not hear about this mobile -_-__,__ believe h i t d t?' . headquarters until we suddently inva And -,., hi We e n en s any 20, 1961, we Americans had 685 mill- ' keep his promise, but we in the Senate and then it eluded our forces. On that saA have the right to speak out on this issue. ' As a result of, our invasion of Cam- Vi t a i e n m n i t t nal1m and hie par t, VA 1~~t-.v+-..r,.s~.-mac .: -.-, .-.:. ~..+.r...~....._..-. ~.. ..-.-....-... Churchmen Ur A 3 If war is ever to be outlawed and replaced by - ter b seer r' h 11 i any escalation Hof ,military effort.' W Mk 's ~~ "y.. nt head- rather t Vr $Jrfy"e$ @i cMft IV'g7~~ai~n~c'Tiec1 a , strong 1 + :4- +1 w more hanurn.e and enlightened institutions to reg- y g a o y new approach to withdrawal and settlement by international elate conflict between nations,, institutions rooted agreement." in the universal common good, it will be because the citizens of this and other nations have reject- ed the tetiets of exaggerated nationalism and in- A STATEMENT issued under the aus- sisted oil principles of nonviolent political and ;spices of the 'International Affairs Commis- civic action in both the domestic and internation- 1 sion of the U.S. Catholic Conference, raised al spheres." - American Catholics bishops' pas- the questiori' 'of whether. the Cambodia inva toral letter, November, 1968. -sion "does not "risk defining the role of this' -t'' nation increasingly in terms of the use, of Pope Paul VI has added his voice to the violent power." rising chorus of protest by Church leaders throughout the world deploring recent mili- "How else," the statement asked, "can tary actions by the United States and North one judge the use of government power to Vietnam that have widened the official bat- marshall the human, technological, financial tiefield in Southeast; Asia to, include' Cam- ,and raw materials of a nation in a concert- bodia and Laos. 'td and massive effort to kill persons and As spiritual leader of tjie world's 600 ddstroy property of another nation?" million Catholics, the Pope joined forces THE DOMINANT note of criticism em- with an anti-war statement issued from: pha.sizes the fundamental error of relying Oslo a' few days earlier by leaders of the World Council of Churches, repre'seriting Eon military methods to" solve conflicts thati e 235 Protestant and Orthodox Churches. are essentially ideological and political. The I criticism is aimed at a policy that proclaims THE POPE said the world was threat- :that "we are seeking peace, but will not ened by conflicting ideologies, by ana "in.fat- . pursue it by peaceful means." uation" with war, and by `"the lack of al The Cambodian crisis, which eventually firm reference to superior moral principles." drew. U.S. troops across the border of the The Pontiffs words endorsed, - in effect,, the , avowedly neutral country, is a clear lesson in- WCC statement, which deplored "all ' talk of. the futility of force to achieve peace in victory and all appeals to ideology as justifi- Southeast Asia. cation for this increase of slaughter. We On April 20, in a televised speech, Presi- condemn all actions which make a just dent Nixon told the nation he was "confi- peace harder to negotiate." dent" his Vietnamization, program was The WCC statement, which urged' its %, strpgg enqugh to permitr,,tlle withdrawal of members throughout the world to appeal to an additional 150,000 U.S. troops. Ten days their governmental leaders fbt? "a negotiated later, he again took to television to explain peace," criticized President Nixon for ap- 'the. sucldep appearance of, at, military crisis proving the military invasion of Cambodia which ,caused him to,, grdcy, thousands 'of and for displaying "a callousness toward '.American soldiers into Camklgdia. Indo-China lives as lie claims to be protect- What happened? ing the lives of American troops." On the homefront, reaction by religious, -TWO MONTHS AGO,~'Cambodia's lead- leaders to the Presideiit's command decision Cr, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, was -over- was equally cool: 'In New York, the Nation- thrown by an unexpected, military coup: al Council of Churches, representing 80, Sihanouk, a critic of U. $. involvement in Christian denominations, declared its moral', South 'Yiertnam, had mgint ined , an official indignation:' Military measures are self-de-', policy of neutrality in tfig war; his poorly feating-when iolitical solutions are impera- equipped 'army posed no hreat to Vie't- ,tive," the NCC statement said. We oppose namese ' Communists n Goa bodin ' Deter r, a -- .TTn;fprl Nai.ions'char- , ~C1'1L's to pec.eJ anti-Communist military campaign. , In ligl t of Sihanouk s Dick of coo}~~e'ra- - ton w ill roy.e o s rciqQ 0 alb? ~i~1 ~41~~4i 1~i9 A~104R o c~ea1 evi- l avid anti-Coil monism, there were even dente of a recent build-up. Shortly after the Nol rertook over, lateral invasion of a professedly neutral Cambodian troops began battling the Viet I nation. Cong. The Cambodians suffered heavy cas- ? The "reasonable expectation of success" ualties, forcing General Nol last month to ;of the invasion - which was aimed at de- call for help from the U. S. - in the form t stroying Viet Cong supply lines - involved of arms and supplies, but not soldiers. In- - an obvious retaliation from Hanoi., It came I -terviewed after the U, S. invasion, the Gen- .J immediately, in the form' of frantic Viet eral said he. had not been consulted on the Cong thrusts through Laos in an attempt to use of American troops. build new lines of sup,hly and communica- `l'he chain of events is a case in point: A Lions to the imperiled Communist troops. changed political climate creating the de- mand for additional military involvement. THE EFFECT of the President's 10-day- turnabout - from his promise of troop withdrawal and the expected slow-down of fighting to his sudden. decision to send a massive strike-force into Cambodia - has drawn heated and widespread criticism, which the President, himself predicted would follow his decisive action. - At the time of his announcement, he cit- ed the hazards to his political future, but he appeared confident nonetheless that the Majority of Americans would come around to his support. Indeed, a Gallup poll, con-ducted immediately after the Cambodian announcement, showed 51 per cent of those who heard the President approved his ac- tion. BUT PERHAPS these recent events - a nd the strident protests they stirred around the world - will help refocus na- tional attention on questions of morality and honesty, rather than on the; "success" of military strategies. Will Amerioa?'s leaders begin to listen to these voices of protest? Will the tragic-stu- dent uprisings help them see that the pri- mary role of a peacemaker is to remain open, to try to hear and understand what' the opposition is saying, no matter how "wrong" they may appear to be? Will the American people soon awaken to the dangers of relying on the "invincible" military machinery to give them security and "peace" in a world torn by suffering and strife? The world's religious leaders, galvanized. into action by well-founded fear of global war, have suggested the 'abandonment of military security in favor of Christian risk- taking. The times, they say, demand new approaches, new resolve, new hopes. Judged from the viewpoint of military expediency, it was without doubt sound strategy. But the protesters among religious leaders argue that, from a moral viewpoint, it is indefensible. The American bishops, for [example, cite the "just war" theory in their 1966 peace statement. The just-war princi- ple (which traces its venerable beginnings' back-to St. Ambrose and St. Augustine in I the 4th and "5th Centuries) states that a war is justifiable only if it 'meets certain - basic conditions, among which are: The war must be declared by just authority, it 'must. be entered for a just cause, it must employ ; just means, and it must have reasonable expectation - of success. the Cambodian situa- tion in light of the just-war theory: 0 The military action was not author- ized by the Cambodian government or by a, 1 consensus of the American people or by their elected representatives.' i ? The just cause was professed. to be the i. protection of American fighting men from a suspected enemy build-up in Cambodia. Subsequent news reports from U, S. troops AND SO WE JOIN our voice with churchmen who have called upon govern- ments to risk a new venture - withdrawal. of troops and ending the war through "set- tlement by international arrangement." An opportunity - perhaps the last - has been presented to the United States by the Unit- ed Nations Secretary General U Thant. Thant, urging "the parties involved" to take "urgent, decisive measures toward peace," warned of new threats "not only for, the peoples of Indo-China but for the whole of mankind." He called for an international' conference, suggesting that a neW, unspeci-' fied search for a solution such as those held in 1954 and 1962 should be undertaken immediately, "whatever their form." We appeal to the, nation's Catholics - bishops, clergy, Religious and ' laity, who. now comprise nearly . a quarter of the total U. S. population - to lend their strong support to this hopeful, - peacemaking Yen- Approved For Release 2000/08/1-6 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000400210001-7 con 6. frrb'Q4 tune. We urge you to communicate to your Presiden6,1 J 9Mp0 Fl@EtP*I @sN?Wl l6rt CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 government and to your fellow Americans the urgency of this appeal. This is precisely the path to peace indi- cated by the Second Vatican Council's Con- stitution on the Church in the Modern World: "... unless enmities and hatred are put away, and firm, honest agreements con-, cerning world peace reached ... humanity) will perhaps be brought to that dismal hour in which it will experience no peace , other than the dreadful.peace of death." Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 STATI NTL Approved For Release 2000/08/1.6 :' -RDF8A1601 R00.040Q 16 MAY 1970 [ands off Cuba! is insatiable. Unsatisfied with the havoc it brought; Like a vampire, the appetite of the CIA for blood 1 by that CIA creature Alpha 66, is the latest outrage. Cambodia and Southeast Asia, the CIA has its eyes on. Cuba again. The kidnapping of eleven Cuban fishermen Capping crime with gall, the CIA'stooges demand that Cuba exchange' eight bandits the republican forces. captured during the latest foray for the kidnapped fish- step up its criminal attacks against Cuba in an effort to ( Several weeks ago we warned that the CIA would That campaign is clearly underway.' Americans should be forewarned. We cannot afford' Who can forget the *Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961? The. thundering defeat U.S. imperialism justly suffered Socialist land. k the past decade when the CIA tried to murder the new to forget the almost fatal events' that resulted twice in the overhanging pall of another Caribbean crisis. Now we see the menace of a third criminal effort, the brink during the missile-crisis. Scarcely a year later the entire world trembled on bloody program for Latin America was smashed. Lechoed around the world. It was also the first time its I It is not at all accidental that the CIA's claws are' brave socialist nation, is not only.strong in its own right' cut off each time they reach out for Cuba. For that, progressive humanity, and' of most. governments the,., it has the support of the entire socialist world, of a11? `world over. TL :`. `.i ifi t th ., ,... ff 6018000400210 13 MAY 1970 ~. 1K(Z)ZY!Ogn wires -`Symp'(MMY :and SU OF2? S? Vhanauk Daily World Foreign Department Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin gave the full "sympathy and support" of the Soviet Union to Prince Norodom Sihanouk. the Cambodian chief of state, and Sihanouk's re-' cently-formed Cambodian government-in-exile, in a lelegram made public yesterday in Moscow. Kosygin said in his telegram to Sihanouk: "The Soviet Union greets the formation of the Unit- ed National Front of Cambodia, the strengthening of the United National Front of Cambodia, the strengthening of the united anti- imperialist front of the peoples of Indochina, and the measures taken to organize the struggle.of the patriotic forces of Cambodia against American aggression. "The Soviet people'. are pro- foundly indignant at the U.S, ag- gression in Cambodia, which is a cynical flouting of the Geneva Agreements. This struggle you are waging, together with the patriotic forces of the country against the aggressor, for the freedom, independence and neu- trality of Cambodia, will cdn- tinue to enlist sympathy ? and ? support in the Soviet Union." The' Kosygin telegram. was En-Lai of People's China. hanouk uprisings in March after The Soviet Union yesterday re- the Lon Nol regime seized pow. jected as "ludicrous" the Brit- er. ish move to reconvene the 1954 The U.S. has insisted that its Geneva Conference. The Soviet so-called "advisers," who are news agency. Tass, said the ? directing the operation. remained British proposal was "cnly a at Neak Luong, 21 miles inside screen covering actual support Cambodia, at the "limit of pene- of the American aggression and tration" proclaimed by Nixon, refusal of Britain to dissociate while. the Saigon puppet navy from it." went alone up the remaining 45 "It is ludicrous to propose the miles to Phnom Penh. convocation of a new, conference' But yesterday the U.S. mili- after the U.S. has arrogantly vi- olated the 1954 Geneva Agree- ment that serves as the basis of Cambodia's status," Tass said. tary command innocently report- ed that "some" U.S. Military and naval personnel might have hidden in the holds of the Sai- The puppet Saigon regime yes- gon naval craft for a kind of joy- terday announced a blockade of ride up to Phnom Penh. the Cambodian coast. in the Gulf " Meanwhile, the new Saigon '.of Thailand. along a' 75-mile puppet envoy to Phnom Penh', stretch between Sihanoukville ' lodged a protest. with the Lon, (Kompong Som i and the South Not regime after Cambodian stu-. Vietnam border. dents beat to death a Saigon nav- The blockade was announced al officer and badly injured two seen as a move possibly preced-+ from the Mekong River town of others Monday night, ing full diplomatic ?. recognition.-- Neak Luong in Cambodia by Sai- In Washington, a bill passed Kosygin had said last week gon Vice-President Nguyen Cao'? the Senate Foreign Relations ? that the Soviet Union recognizes Ky. Ky said that Saigon navy Committee which would: 1 I bar .-"only that tCambodiani govern- vessels would stop and search U.S. forces from Cambodia after ment which practices neutral- all foreign ships trying to enter July 1: 2) prohibit use of U.S. " ity. Cambodia's territorial waters, Also significant was the impli The U.S. command in Saigon re- cit Soviet approval for the April' luctantly admitted there were 24-25 "Indochina summit" meet- U.S. Seventh Fleet units operat- ing attended by Premier Chou ing --in the same area;" but de-' vied that the U.S. was partici- pating in the blockade. The Saigon naval armada which drove up the Mekong River. to'. the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh, pushed on' yesterday to . a vote to repeal the 1964 Tonkin \Kompong Cham. 50. miles north. Gulf resolution. ' . . . _ _. _ ___._._ ___: ___ advisers in Cambodia: 3) prohib- it use of CIA mercenaries (KKK V troopsi and other U.S.-paid agents: 4) prohibit U.S. air or naval support for the Lon Nol regime. Senate Democratic' leader Mike Mansfield i D-Montt said the bill, to be debated today or . tomorrow, would be followed by Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/16: CIA-RDP8 May 11, 1970 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE year ago into reports high Pentagon offs- . the joint resolution? sideration and passage of the joint res- clals had suppressed information on the M HOLLAND M1? President will the elution. , Hamer Budge demanding an immediate 'warmly for his explanation. I certainly report on an investigation asked fora The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there. objection to the present consideration of have no objection to the immediate con- .inCongress assembled, That, effective April schools' eligibility for assistance for con- 13, 1970, clause (A) in clause (1) of sec- struction funds may be drawn into ques- SEC DRAGGING FEET 1 YEAR ON : tion 5(c) of the Act of September 23, 1950 tion because of this error. LOCKHEED INVESTIGATION (Public Law 815, Eighty-first Congress) is - Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, will Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. Ptoday amended by striking out "at least 10 per- the Senator yield further? M I M have . PROXMIRE. a letter to E. M SEC President, ntma centum" and Inserting In lieu thereof "at Mr. PELL. I yield. least 8 percentum". Mr. HOLLAND. I thank the Senator ,.-- .,,., --'- r_-- '~---- --.- ' Resolved by the Senate and House of. Rep- _ - - - Justice Department acts? ntative of the United Stags of Amertca resolution immediately because many e n a o -law with impunity when it suits their first time by title, and the second time mem ers o e omm e o nurnoses. _ ,_ .., -- e..n.,...~. `Public Welfare and the leadership on permit persons in high places to break the resolution (S.J. Res. 199) was read the lie law. It has been cleared with the r and L b b f th C itt its double standard which appears to- objection? There being no objection the joint .corrects a typograhical error in the pub- ciflc Air Force approval-that there was . JOINT RESOLUTION TO CORRECT partment of Health, Education, and Wel- a $2-billion overrun on the C-5A, he was A TYPOGRAPHICAL ERROR IN fare would acknowledge that this change . in turn ostracized, lied about, investi- PUBLIC LAW 91-230 TO FURTHER in eligibility for Public Law 815 is only a gated, and fired. AMEND THE ELEMENTARY AND typographical error and would continue Such action under the code is a prima SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT to administer Public Law 815 as if the facie case that a witness has been in- Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I introduce printed law is 6 rather than 10 percent jured because of his testimony. - a joint resolution for the purpose of cor- .1 have requested that the General Coun- When will the Justice Department in- recting a typographical error in a re- sel's office at HEW review the printed elude the Pentagon in its crusade for cently enacted public law, and ask unan-. public law for the purpose of finding all law and order? ? imous consent for its Immediate con- of the errors so that we may enact an- When will the Justice Department be- alderation. other joint resolution to rectify other less gin to enforce the law equally? The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there urgent errors. ' When will the Justice Department end This resolution now before us simply ago-have served only to postpone the I urge you to report immediately to Con- page 37 of the printed public law, the enforcement of the criminal laws. gress your findings on the Lockheed invest!- figure in that same clause (1) (A) is 10 It is a crime to threaten, influence, in- Batton. I am sure you would not want to timidate, or impede any witness in con- undermine confidence in the SEC by sup- percent. This is a change In the basic of Pu nection with a congressional investiga- report The Congress needs theifacts ongthe gressilofy the United States never in- tion. It is a crime to injure a witness on Lockheed contract and in my view, we have tended to make that change; that 10- account of his testimony to a committee been overly patient in waiting for the SEC to percent figure was never before the Con- of the Congress. oomplete its Investigation, gress. This is simply an error on the part After A. E. Fitzgerald testified before of the Government Printing Office. my Subcommittee on Economy in Gov- Prior to the enactment of the joint ernment-at our request and with spe- SENATE JOINT RESOLUTION 199- resolution I would hope that the De- was on February 18, almost 3 months grass should have. However, in Public Law 91-230, on US THE J that the results of the investigation would be ENFORCE LAW AND ORDER IN THE made available to the Commission within a Senate amendment was designed to add FITZGERALD CASE "the next week or ten days" and to the Con- an alternate to the 6-percent minimum Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, 169 grass within a week or two after that. The eligibility under Public Law 815 of the days have passed since I first wrote to the latest possible date for reporting to Congress 81st Congress, which provides for school Justice Department on November 22, is thus May 10 as Indicated in your testi- construction In federally affected areas. mony. This date has come and gone with The conference report, Report No. 91- 1969, requesting an immediate investi- still no report. 237, on page 41, clearly shows that eligi- gation of possible violation of the Crim- I realize that an investigation of this sort bility under clause (1) (A) of subsection anal Code in the firing of A. E. Fitzgerald is complicated and requires time. Nonethe- (e) of section 5 of Public Law 815 is 6 by the Air Force. less, the commission has had over a year to ercent. That is the same minimum eli- Commission have received no substantative reply study the case, I would hate to think the p At best the routine Commission is dragging Its feet on the in. gibility as it is under present law. There to my request. acknowledgments-the latest of which vestigation or is concealing Information was no intention to change the present about the Lockheed situation which the Con- 6-percent eligibility. AFTER 169 DAYS, NO ACTION FROM During hearings before the Senate Bank- which has become law. connection TICE DEPARTMENT TO ing Committee last April 16, you promised with the amendments to Public Law 815 Lockheed C-5A overruns to protect Lock- r? I Senator yield? Mr. PELL. I thank the Senator from R ~(? heed's position in the stock market - . _ The full text of the letter to Chairman Mr. PELL. I yield. Florida. I h FCR unfavorable financial Information In connec- olution to right? olution was considered, ordered to be en- tion with the Lockheed C-5A contract. A year Mr. PELL. I will be delighted to ex- grossed for a third reading, read the s . ere Budge follows: Mr. HOLLAND. Will the Senator ex- . inc PRESIDING OF On May 1, 100D I requested the SEC to de- , plain briefly what is the nature of the objection to the present consideration termine whether Government employees mistake in the original resolution passed of the joint resolution? violated our securltie.i laws be withholding which it is desired by the present res- . There being no objection, the joint res- 'iporoved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP.80-01601 R0004002100011-.7 tt-sir stock In the company. ? cause of a serious typographical error.' deepened our involvement, widened the . aenentures to investors, loony, ;nose aonen- ---------- ----- ------- -- --- - --- ---- tures have a market value of lees than $44 Sion. Once again we have lost our way in the million. At the same time, high onclals to The gravity of this situation has just jungles and swamps of Southeast Asia. Lockheed were selling siseablo nn&ntities'of now been brought to my attention be. The action taken in the last 2 weeks has hearing that high Pentagon officials had sup- ql { V?14R, Y ,1..Ra wo,.,,, SENATE 1-dl! SVLUTIV14 IUD-aUtsmia- pressed Information on the Lockheed C-5A 1969, which was signed into law on April SION OF SENATE RESOLUTION- 1I ~nV sA- Approved For Release 2000/08/16 :'t1RDF80-01601 R00040021 I I MAY 1970 op, ' ... BUT U.S. PRESENCE GROWS Continental Air Services, a subsidiary of Con- Airlines and, like Air America (News tinental WEEK, April 6), a CIA contractor, is setting up a charter service to fly U.S. military equipment into Cambodia. And an American contracting firm is installing a new million-watt radio station in Phnom Penh so the Lon Nol government can counter powerful stations in Peking and Hanoi which have been broadcasting statements by. the ousted Prince Sihanouk. Approved For Release 2000/08/16 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000400210001-7 c- Approved For Release 20"W/T1G'iatA?4i@QIk0004002100 r y MAY 1970 SU hs r~q tial, UO&, a t e. for ces forecasj By George W . _. c 9 . Ashworth " uncertain. Certainly ..., 'the ? "'~ . '.- ~. Staff correspondent Vietnamese could h oj elp inli some sght wa.. The Christian Science Monitor However the mutual ys anti mat.. _r p "la would ;t Washington' drance, aswoulditheestill freshlyeremem., If the Lon Nol bored killings of?'the Vietnamese in Cam-i government survives In bodia. Cambodia, indications here are that Ameri can su ort pp of that govertill ' Sii nmen w buildtuaton assessed to substantial i proport ons . Perhaps the best hoe at Some sources here are predicting the, vir- . p present is that tual "Laoization" of the war in Ca the Indonesians will be b di bl m a o a e to pidd. ..,U.S. irrove a-.. U.S. involvement without massive ground visors and some combat troops as a la resort. . st In his April 30 speech to this nation, Pres. As sources here 'assess the Indonesian.' , ;!dent Nixon said, "With other nations ! situation, the multinatio ? e nparley o C , ,nam. shall do our best to provide the small arms' bodia (expected to be held in Jakarta May4, 'and other equipment which the Cambodian ,16.17) will possibly-Tif not probably--fail I Army of 40,000 needs and can use for Its 'to yield any solutions. Subsequently, the j defense." stand of Indonesian Minister Adam Malik; The President continued, "But the aid' will be weakened, and the way will be we will provide will be limited for the pur-: opened for the Indonesian military, nowt pose of enabling Cambodia to defend its champing at the bit, to blossom forth with neutrality and not for the purpose of making their. aid proposals for Cambodia. , s it an active belligerent on one side or the Another possibility would be Malay police other." -or or some other small form of aid. The Thais `Trick of the decade' .possibly would be willing to help, but they beset b a steadil o i y y gr w Making the easygoing, ng insurgency , predominantly in their northeastern 'frontiers ? that shows; .Buddhist Cambodians belligerents on one signs of growing rather than diminishing j, side or the other would be the trick of the' , now, as the Chinese demonstrate the moral t, decade. The Americans, most sources be. willingness to keep the pressure on and the 1, leave, will be doing extremely well indeed physical readiness to push their road ' across`, if they can enable. the Cambodians to Laos toward Thailand. develop even a moderate ability to defend'. r themselves against the highly motivated and U.S. in prime role ;trained North Vietnamese. `?