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December 20, 1972
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Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0j*AVWP500030001-6 MIAMI, FLA. MEWS E - 93,538 .DEC_2Ol3& Cubans surrender t o ships The Cuban government has handed over to Panama two Miami-based ships seized a year ago on condi- tion that the vessels are not returned to their Cuban exile owners here. The Panama-registered ships, the Johnny Express and the Layla Express, were captured in December, 1971, off the northern coast of Cuba. Most of the crew members were returned. Still being held are Jose Villa, captain of the Johnny Express, and Augustin Torrres, a member of the Layla Express crew. Both have families in Miami. A third crew member, Ovidio Avila, of the Layla Express, is believed to have died in a Cuban prison. The Castro government 4 has claimed that the ships, captured by Cuban gunboats within 10 days of each other, were used by the U.S. Central Intelligence Asrency or n piracy against Cuba. The ships are ?owncd by the Babun family, Cuban ex- iles living in Miami, a ho op- erate the Bahamas Line. An- other ship of the company, the Lincoln Express, sank last Thursday off San Juan. The ships were handed over to Panama following signing of an agreement in Havana yesterday under which Pana- ma pledged not to turn the vessels over to their former owners. The agreement was signed by Dr. Romulo Escobar Be- tancourt, rector of Panama University, and Dr. Rene Anillo, Cuban first deputy foreign minister. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8O-01601 R000500030001-6 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 BEST COPY Available THROUGHOUT FOLDER Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL J Approved For Release 20. RDP areg1~~Q p - 2 4 NOV 4272 Helms at Canlp David It's Time to Look At the CIA By Stephen S. Rosenfeld MR. HELMS, director of the Central Intel- ligence Agency, was publicly summoned to Camp David this week to participate in what the White House terms its "major" reassess- ment of the American foreign policy struc- ture. If his summons indicates that the United States' large secret intelligence es- tablishment is to undergo the same Execu- tive scrutiny being accorded the agencies which operate more in the public eye; then this is welcome and important news. Before saying more, I should perhaps state that I am not one of those journalists with a close discreet working relationship with the CIA; for purposes of this article I requested an on-the-record interview with Helms.or his chosen representative and (lid not receive one. It would seem self-evident, however, that as the United States moves from an era of confrontation to an era of negotiation, from a time when Russia and Communism- were widely perceived as terribly menacing to a time when both the country and the ideol- ogy are increasingly re;arded as adequately neighborly, then the role of the CIA has got to be reviewed. Now, obviously a great nation must have a professional intelligence service. The imper- atives of defense, not to say elementary pru?- dence, demand it. A case can even be made that a certain kind of technological intelli- gence is more essential in a period of in- cipient detente-in order to supply policy makers and their publics with the assurance they need in order to enter into new agree- ments with old adversaries. THE SALT-I agreement apparently is uni- que in granting explicitly each side's right to lob intelligence satellites over the other's territory to count missiles, tests and so on. Presumably satellites would be similarly useful in verifying and in nourishing public confidence in any shifts made as a result of the forthcoming European force reduction talks. In all cease-fire situations, Mideast, Indochina or what-have-you, intelligence can be vital. In at least two areas, however, intelli- gence needs review: for "dirty tricks" and for its secrecy. - The act of 1947 setting tip the CIA speci- fied that, in addition to intelligence duties, it was to perform '-such other functions" as the National Security Council might direct. A "plans division" was set up in 1931. host CIA directors, including helms. have cone up through Plans. The group seems to have been active, and conspicuously so, through the 1950s, toppling uncooperative govern- ments, harassing wayward Communists, elc The whole atmosphere was permissive: deputy directof for Plans, 'an-" old Helms nian, operates on a much tighter leas (doing no more, it is said, than the Republi cans are alleged to have done to th Democrats); that the old problems of polic control and separation of intelligence fro operations are in hand; that the small an weak countries which once were the CIA' playgrounds are no longer so vulnerable to its deeds. At the same time, one hears that the Pres- ident's old anti-Communist juices have not altogether stopped fermenting and that he receives and is responsive to reports that the.Russians still play some pretty rotten tricks and, by golly, we ought to show them - they can't do that to us and get away with it. WHATEVER TIIE .T.RUTH, I would sub- mi.t that the time is ripe for the Congress to' review the dirty-tricks mandate it gave to the CIA a quarter-century ago as the cold war was beginning to dominate the Ameri- can outlook on the world. It is inconsistent, at the least, that the. State . Department should now be zeroing in on measures to combat "international terrorism" while the CIA retains a capacity to practice certain forms of it. Cuba's continuing lack of love for the CIA, restated in its bid for hijacking talks last week, underscores the point. Secrecy is something else. No one who ac- cepts the need for intelligence would argue. that the whole process and products should be made public. But no one concerned with the health of democracy can accept that con- dition with equanimity. The general sense of being at war with communism since World War 11 has produced a far more secretive government than we would want or tolerate in other times. With that sense of being at war danger fading, the rationale or spur for secrecy diminishes accordingly. There is fur- ther the claim that the secrecy surrounding the CIA may have undermined the larger job of conducting a?wise policy, i.e., one well discussed and debated. This is the principal basis on which Sena- tor Cooper earlier this year proposed that the relevant act be amended to give the for- eign relations and. defense committees of both houses access to the information and analysis obtained by the CIA--exactly as the. Atomic Energy Commission has given such secret material for decades to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Predictably, the President objected. The Foreign Rela- tions Committee approved the proposed amendment; the Armed Services Committee, otherwise preoccupied, did not act on it. Cooper is retiring but Senator Symington, who has his own sense of the need to assert the Congress' foreign policy responsibilities -and his own record of concern for improving congressional oversight of the CIA, may be prepared to receive the torch. He's No. 2on Armed Services, too. The CIA is out of, the news these days. It usually gels into the news only when it fouls up. But a lot more about its place in the new bureaucratic and international scheme of things ought to be known. Whether the CIA's activities are all essential and whether they are all organizedefficiently are ques-- it was a President who ate up the .lames tions which a responsible Congress should Bond hooks who let the Plans Division or- not want to leave to a Chief Executive hud- mvet-:For-.Rele e1-20ai/03/04(oiG-;lATRDPWO-16-Off OO590080001-6 to invade at the Bay of Pigs. David. Approved For Release ,0. 1,/ } rJQ4 ti;Q -RDP80-01601 17 NOV ?372 this one (hijacking) problem," "Such an unlawful climate T Bray said. of unpunished piracy and vio- 'rS ~ff t said that although It lation of the most elementary) He `' ?? norms of civilized life escala-I STATINTL t o specu- would be premature Direct TAMS late on the course negotiations to the serious problem of might take, "our view is that plane hijackings and other ter- O ( this process should address it- roristic acts to their present W17.7 t~ 1I.J itfS self basically to the future,". disquieting proportions, which rather than restating past po- now affect the entire interna- tional community," the Cuban By H. D. S. Greenway sitions. government said. rose 3',ff'T"ter But the basic obstacle in the If th ited State r - U r e n s we e, The State Department past has always been that the, willing to ease the posture e moved decisively yesterday to Cubans have sought a "broad willingy ease i fi reinforce the budding spirit of agreement" while the Uniteed formed sources suggested, the Cuban-American c?ooperat;on, States has wanted to deal Cubans omight unce esuggested, the on the hijacking issue, saying "specifically and narrowly" into a hijacking agreement. that. the United States would with hijacking. ? ter that would not cover the sim; be willing to enter into direct Wednesday's Cuban state- ple refugee who exits Cuba negotiations if the Cubans de- ment reiterates past Cuban without violence, theft or the sire. policy by saying that any diversion of ships or aircraft. State Department spokes agreement should be based on Mrion ile, the 1{r assured man Charles W. Bray said See-! their 1969 law-which covers the Air Line Pilots Association retary William P. Rogers meti not only aerial hijackings, but ;that the bureau intends to' with Swiss Ambassador Felix a number of crimes including; comply with a long-standing Schnyder yesterday and asked stealing boats and illegal de-' agreement to honor the. air- him to inform the Cuban gov-, partures from Cuba. plane captain's command role ernm-nt that the United The U.S. objection to this during hijacking crises. States "Nvelcomed" Cuba's ex- was stated by .Assistant Secre- In the first of a series of pressed desire -to reach a hi-1 tary of State Charles Meyer in meetines with, rerponsibi of jacking agreement and thatlitestimony at Senate Foreign) federal officials th, ALPA prase the United States wants "to' lielations Committee hijack-j move ahead toward some ing hearings in 1971, dent John J. O'Donnell met agreement on this issue in the "Obviously, the U.S. govern- for several hours yesterday most expeditious and effective Ynent could not agree to re- with Robert Gehhardt, assist- manner." turn refugees to Cuba simply ant FBI director in charge of A Cuban government an- 'because they left that country) its General Investigative Divi- nouneement 11'cdnesda> ex- without the consent of the lion, to express the pilots' con- pressed v: iliin.'ness to seek a Cuban authorities," Meyer cern about the events of last "broad agreement" with the said. weekend and their preferences United States on the hijacking State Department legal ad- 'for future policy. problem. riser Mark Feidman also testi- Both the FBI and ALFA de- That the Secretary of State lied that beyond the simple clined to discuss the session, should personally respond to refugee problem, which could pending further developments. Cuba's overture was seen as be covered by both countries 11 ir~itteetrtciitt Silent SSilent an unusual move to stress U.S. i?c?,ervIng the right of political willingness to negotiate a hi- asylum, the United States also Ott Financial Problem jacking agreement. objected to a blanket agree- The United States and Cuba nirnt that could cover the Southern Airways declined "theft. of small boats, collusion to comment yesterday on a re- h no annd dthe e uCubabans s n a rre ae thhooughught t to relations with the pilot of a plane, a vol- port that a Civil Aeronautics a prefer the present arras: e. r=otary arre nnement for diver- Board spokesman said the air- ment of dealing through the Sion of an aircraft not involy- line faces financial collapse as Swiss. But State Department big force...." a result of the reported $2 mil- spokesman Bray said that the lion ransom paid three men He said the United States who hijacked one of their jets "United States would have no wanted to limit an agreement to Cuba last weekend. objection to direct negotia to the "serious problem of div- The chairman of the CAB, tions ersion by force of ships or air- Secor D. Browne, however, Both the State Department craft...." said here yesterday that and the White House, how-' The Cubans. however, made Southern Ail-ways was faced ever, discouraged speculation 1 it clear in their statement with a serious financial prob- that any hijacking agreement l Wednesday that a broader lam. would lead to improved over. agreement was necessary. It The airline had earned $1.3 all relations with Cuba. accused the United States of million in profits between White House press secretary j "inventing the economic January and September, he Ronald L. Ziegler said lie blockade, mercenary aggres- said, and unless Cuba returned would "caution against" any lions and piratical attacks the money to Southern, the broader. implications that,; from CIA boats disguised as airline's financial future could might arise from hijacking merchant vessels from bases be undermined.. talks. Ile referred to a recent located in territory of Central interview in w?hiclt Pres;dent'I American countries and in the Nixon said there would he n o ' ' United States itself." change in policy towards Cuba,; Cuba accused the United until Fidel Castro changed his ! States of encouraging illegal revolutionary attitude towards, entries from Cuba' into the the Americas. United States and vice versa 4e are dealing here verv sci ippn ved NRel4 t 'O Wt -RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- DAILY WORLD 5 OCT 1972 r-5 f1 `t4~~ ~ ~ ems' O ~4 4~ By ERIK BERT The principal document of the latest united front of anti-Soviet "liberals," Trotskyites, revision- ists and others is the recent "openi letter" of Jiri Pelikan, a Czech revisionist now located in Italy. His letter, published in the "lib- eral" New York Review of Books on August 31, and in the Trotsky- ite "Militant" on September 8 is framed in phrases about freedom of speech, democracy and the like. It is Soviet. This is evident in its dealing with the Vietnam war, socialism in Czechoslovakia, and the trade union and youth movements. Pelikan seeks to ensnare ene- mies of U.S. imperialism by "agreeing" that "there is a big difference between American mil- itary aggression in Vietnam and the Soviet intervention in Czecho- slovakia." What the "big dif- ference" is, he does not say. What he does say is that "the substance of the two interven- tions is the same; to prevent people from deciding their own destiny." Why is Pelikan so shy about indicting U.S. imperialism? Whatever one may think about the Czechoslovak events of 1908. one thing is evident: Pelikan cov- ers up for U.S. aggression in Viet- nam in 1972 by making its bloody devastation, in "substance," the same as the entry of the Warsaw pact troops in Czechoslovakia in 19G8. One thing is certain: the liber- ation forces of Vietnam don't think so. Pelikan does demand the "im- mediate withdrawal of American lrobps from Vietnam" - but in the same double-dealing fashion. For Pcli::an, "the immediate -withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam" is the same in "substance" as the withdrawal of "Soviet troops from Czechoslo- vakia." lie thus offers the Nixon ad- ministration an argument for not ending U.S: military aggression in Indochina until the Soviet Union has withdrawn its forces from Czechoslovakia. That's i.z , it 3 :.emu v~/c.~ mand" for the immediate with- drav:als from Vietnam and Czech- oslovakia is that the Soviet Union, like the U.S., is imperialist. The Trotskyite, say it openly; he says it obliquely. But the Trotskyites know what he means. That's why they hail him as a "prominent figure in the struggle for proletarian democ- racy " in Czechoslovakia in 1960. Czechoslovak revisionists and their "liberal" friends in the blest declare that there was no threat of counter-revolution in Czecho- slovakia in 1968. Let's leave that aside, and consider the revision- ists' program today. Pelikan today offers the planks for counter-revolution. The main plank is that there is no socialism in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia, Pelikan says, is a "country that calls itself 'social- ist'." It is a "so-called 'working- class' state." His platform like the platform of those who were tried and found guilty of actions against the soc- ialist state, is that Czechoslo- vakia is not a socialist country. He declares: "...the working class. ,,of Czechoslovakia has made it clear that it does not con- sider the present regime socialist." What he would have said, if he were honest is: "I, Jiri Pelikan, and my political associates do not consider the present regime soc- ialist." What does that imply? Overthrow "the present re- gime." That's Pelikan's political platform. That's why the Trotsky- ites embrace him though he rep- resents right opportunism. Pelikan complains that the so- called "Workers Councils, formed in 1968 and dissolved in 1969. have been defined as 'instruments of counter-revolution'." But that is precisely what they were. They were organized by the anti-socialist revisionists in order to extend their base. from journal- ists and intellectuals and students. into the working class. They succeeded, in some de- gree. in penetrating the working class, arousing rear-hvsteria. threatening general strikes if Josef Smrkovsky, a leading revi- sionist, were not named chairman STATINTL tJ 4: rs W vc7J ~J LuO~1JL i V Pelikan's un-class. anti-class approach disguises itself in liberal concern for "political prisoners." Thus, he wants the "release of all political prisoners in the world, in Greece. Spain, Portugal, Brazil, Iran, the United States, and also in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union." For him a "political prisoner" is a "political prisoner." A "poli- tical prisoner" of a socialist coun- try is just as worthy of support as a "political prisoner" of a cap- italist country. What matter to him that in Cuba, let us say, the "political prisoners" are CIA agents who would restore capitalism and exploitation and subjection to U.S. imperialism? What matter- to him that in Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union the "political prisoners" have incited anti-socialist actions? Pelikan says "the Student Union has been dissolved," and the "New York Review of Books," and the "Militant" pass it on as legitimate. The truth is that today almost every fifth person under 30 years of age is a member of the Social- ist Union of Youth in Czechoslo- vakia. The SUY was constituted in November 1970. after Czechoslo- vakia's unified youth movement had been disrupted and fragment- ed by the revisionist upsurge in 1968 and 1969. In the less than two years since its founding convention the SUY has doubled-in membership: its basic organizations have in- creased two and a half times in number. At present there are SUY or- ganizations in all important fac- tories. plants and shops; at all universities, secondary schools. apprentice training centers, units of the armed forces and in more than 60 percent of all villages. Young workers account for al- most one fourth of the member- ship. `'re soul !e dca ~r }we'd Foro(RM 1e3 P1r1O3/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R00050003ggQj.lfhucd The ''substance' of his "de- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL MIAMI, FLA. NEWS E - 93,538 -OCT .3 I= 7 Panama is planning to seize fre'?d vessels Teofilo Babun, owner of duct "anti-Castro activities ders from the U.S. ~ Central X_-',-=as Line, a shipping from those ships under or- Intelligence Agency." here, is keeping ooout Panama's an- nouncement that it will con- fiscate two of his cargo ships, if they are released by Cuba. The cargo shins Johnny Express and Layla Express were seized by Cuban gun- boats in December, and have been held by Cuba ever since. Both bear Panamanian registry. Cuban Premier Fidel Cas- tro said early last month the ships would be released to a Panamanian crew this week. Panama then announced it would confiscate the ships, use them in Panama, and not remunerate the owners, as punishment to them for their troubles with Cuba. Romulo Escobar Betan- court, rector of the Universi- ty of Panama and the man who negotiated the ships' ex- pected release, charged the ships' owners had misused the Panamanian flag to con- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 Approved For Release 20Q.V- : f4 4? A R--QI?,$0-0160 2 r SEP 1972 ;ILL JU i '' .x.10 By JOHN P. WALLACH News American Washington Bureau These may range from clean- Then my guide chimed in, ,ing streets (the most effective "The only people afraid of the CDR campaign) to making CFR are the ones who should be thousands of Vietnamese hats to afraid." honoring Mrs. Nguyen Thi Binh, "In Cuba, you have to be a! And you can't become al Vietcong delegate to the Paris TWELVE YEARS after the member of something. Of: member of. the highly selectivei peace talks, during her recent, revolution. Cuba is still scared, course, it's not compulsory," my Communist party unless you'vei visit. 1 klY.#tiide told the story of Major official Guide explained. "But if been chosen a "Vanguard-" t Rolando Cubelas, who had a The CDR mono: "All those' you're not a member of high post in the Cuban army Y tvGrkcr? who believe in the revoluticn~ anything, it means you're not; "Of course, if you're a good but, according to my informant, ." helps should be ready to defend the "carme under the influence of with th?~ ^ goveronent CDR worker it helyou obtain revolution." In practice, it! the CIA." He added: very i television sets, refrigerators,, sometimes works out that the! ! "At the .least you can' electric mixers and so on, defenders become overzealous. Cub,-]as hatched a plot to belong to the CDR." Rodriquez said. Not surpris-I assassinate Castro, the guide The CDR - Commitee for the; ingly, the largest number of; -FOR EXAMPLE, a Cuban! recounted, but Fidel found out, Defense of the : Revolution. is! prized consumer goods belong to! was quietly describing conditonst about it and sent for him. Put! Cuba's largest 'mass organiza-! the 250,000 members of the of life to me when an old woman! Cubelas didn't heed the advice; tion, a network of neighborhood! Communist party. who lived upstairs suddenly and eventualy was condemned! I vigilantes whose chief job is to~ The first step in the competi- burst into the apartment. to 30 years in prison. I watch out for "enemies" of the! Lion for scarce material goods orj 'S S S H H H H ," ' the Cuban "Most people in Cuba believe; revolution. I a new apartment is to be chosen] cautioned me, w h i s p e r i n g this guy should have been shot; "You should consider us anan "exemplary" worker by your' "Chiva! Chiva!" Chiva means! but Fidel himself sent a letter to! organization that is dedicated toi fellow factory or farmhands. I "stool pigeon" or spy - in this! the cpurt asking for clemency," the education and persuasion of i I case, she was head of the he said. the masses," Huge Rodriquez, 1 "AT A ]MASS meeting," mti ; block's CDR. "There were a lot of counter CDR chief, explained. This guide explained, "someone `tens revolutionaries and acts of, up and proposes George. Some-1 The old woman said she had' sabotage at factories. That's ( citizen's army }vith more than 4 done else will get up and say come to borrow some sugar and , i why we had to create the mill-) million members has 6S,000~ 'No, he's left his wife andi soon left. After the disappeared, doesn't give a damn about !nisi my friend explained that she! Ina,? he said. posts - ae Rodriquez explained,! f' i wuld report to the! I "one on -each block, between! children, probably ALL MALE, healthy Cubans the arguments go back andregional CDR Coordinator" between ages 18 and 45 about even} four of five houses."' !? forth and then they vote on it. If, that he had been -seen talking to regardless of their previous THE CDR is the center of a; accepted, he's got his foot on the a foreigner. military experience - are re- web of interlocking groups! bottom rung of a ladder, quite a At the end of the month, when! quired to spend one day a week, designed to have up-to-the-; long ladder that can end up in; the coordinator may have some one Sunday a month and two. minute information on all! the Communist party and; extra potatoes to distribute for! weeks every summer in "corn- aspects of an- individual's! beyond,"he explained. I the best CDR "street cleaner," bat- preparedness" drills. personal and public life and' "Once somebody's proposed, the old woman would get the ;! "We have wiped out several! prepared to share that iniorma-ii he went on, "they start a minute! potatoes despite the fact she' tion on a moment's notice with' investi coup attempts and counter- cation into every aspect, never cleaned a street An her revolutionary behavior but that! the "proper" authorities. of his character. I remember a' life. If you get into trouble with them chap who was wounded in the': doesn't mean they don't exist on law, or even pinch a neighbor's! defense against the Bay of Pigs! I RAISED this incident with won't start up again if we backside when she's g! Rodriquez, the CDR chief. He dismiss these popular forces,. not looking, anythinn my said. "This country is invasion but never did expressed amazement that such gude l the justices of the "people's"! else patriotic, constantly under attack, courts will conduct a thorough Once it s thrown open a thing could be going on, deny- Y first ", g from the Yankee im erialists? investigation into back-I there's absolutely no holds bar-;ing that CDR legions e your received extra potatoes orl and then from, c o u n ter -i ground, with the generous red. They delve into ver] P revolutionaries." everything." anything else to distribute to help of the CDR. To advance in f - good workers. Organized dissent is prat-i Cuban society, membership is He didn't make ,. it. tically nonexistent. Up to three( piacticaly indispensable. OFFICIALLY, the 'CDR has; , "The CDR is not a orpaniza? years ago, security police in! You can't become al other tasks beside collecting and1; tion tht tries to intimidatei Cuba,reserved? the right to break! "Vanguard" worker unless you! furnishing information ? as re-'Cubans from speaking to into anyone s home and search; belong to the CDR. "It helps if quired. It organizes monthly! also gners, he said. "But one it without a warrant. You can you are a faithful CDR member` "study circles" where speeches! also has to cn r those people still be shot for sabotage, our-1 because it means you are 'in-1 by Fidel Castro, Cuban historywho receive foreigners in their der, serious sex crimes or! tegrated' with the revolution,"i, or domestic problems are! homes. simply accumulating many! my guide explained. !discussed. It organizes mass! "if you had made that visit to criminal offenses. i demonstrations and, r a l I i e si a true revolutionary household IN ADDITION to other, whenever a visiting Communist! there Would have been' But pro-on. benefits such as free. homes and! di"Hilary is in town and, ac food, "Vanguard" w o r k e r s, viously if you visit someone with ,r? ?s .~ II cording to Rodriquez, carries. rnnnter-revnh,tionary tenden? salaries after ica ea~`br"R'eIe a ZAOr4$03JO4c5',oP 'iAbP dl%UTR000500030001-6 while on sick I,tinnal holidays. t d.'.?oA STATINTL Approved For Release WJlv1Q? :tq&RDP80-01601 R 2 6 SEP 1972 HHHijacakers Vlarifto Qtht experience in socialism" said a number of airplane hijackers were negotiating their return to the United States. Les Cooper, 49, a beard- ed lay preacher who works in a Key West, Fla., boatyard, sailed his 20-foot cabin cruiser to the Com- munist island Aug. ' 29, hoping for a temporary stay and further passage to Algeria and the Middle East- But he said in an inter- view he was greeted with extreme suspicion, investi- / gated as a possible CIA' agent, thrown into dun- geon-like cells and a men- tal hospital. He said he was; finally refused furth- er assistance and sent back where he came from in his ill-equipped and da- maged boat. Saved by Freighter- He was rescued by a passing German freighter In the Florida Strait Sept. 20 and brought into Miami by the Coast Guard. While b e i n g shuttled from intelligence agency jails to the mental hospital and other detention quar- ters In Havana,' . Cooper said, he spent some time at 'H i j a c k- House," where most of the airplane hi- jackers who sought asy- lum in Cuba live. - 'Most are fed. up with conditions there," Cooper said. 'They want to leave, even if It means taking their punishment in the United States. They are vi- olently dissatisfied with their lives there: Some are a r i.e s from t h e United. -States," have jobs paying them about 590 a month. They are fed and housed in dormitory-like rooms. He said the blacks ap- peared -to be "more com- fortably adjusted, 'and there is a girl there who has given 'birth to two babies since she's been there . `; . So you know they've been there for some time." Cooper said the hijack- ers included a young Puer- to Rican from New York named Jainie and a 55- year-old man -who told him he had been a bridge tender in New York City until "all of a sudden he just jumped into a plane and without any weapons hijacked it." Also among the hijack. ers were a Canadian who used to be a pilot for the 'Free Quebec Movement" and a woman from Califor- nia named Dorothy John- son, who 'went to Cuba from Nicaragua. Expects to Return Havana Radio an- nounced April 12 that_the ransom money .,was taken from Jose Luis Lugo Rod- riguec, charged. by the FBI in San Juan with kid- n a p i n g bank executive Jose Luis; Carrion. The small plane was allowed to return to Puerto Rico with the two pilots and the bank executive. Lugo Rod- riguez remained behind in Cuba. He said the woman told him she had been shot in the head and had been in and out of hospitals for a number of years. She ex- pects to return to the Unit- ed States soon after nego- tiating with the Swiss Em- bassy,--which represents the United States in Cuba, Cooper said. Also among the hijack ers he, talked with, Cooper said, were two Americans who forced a small plane to'fly to. Cuba from Jamai- ca and a man who kid- naped a Puerto Rican b i f us nessmen or $290,000 neg tiating thro h e Approved For Releag@s2EO1/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 Some Are Negotiating Through Swiss -. for Return- to U.S., Lay Preacher Says MIAMI t4 -A self-styled Swiss Embassy their re- American missionary who turn to this country." took a lone sea Voyage to Cooper said most of the hijackers, including a Cuba seeking "practical group of black revolution- BALTIMORE HEM'S AHERICAI3 Approved For Release 2001 10 0 -C1*RDP80-016 I'M 49 a 7-1 .1 0 Lt. LY1,G)LN, At 6 1 the prison. "Toll: 20 dead, Including three Cuban policemen; 70 wounded. 0 The suicides. Name: Hank Baron.' ioeers . By JOHN WALLAW1 ? ' uems u1 tiusLrcaunem uwcuveicu uy uiia Eastern Airlines 727 jet on July 29, 1969. s? ,' News American correspondent, are not attributed to them Jumped off Hotel Naional in Havana on Wachlnofnn n?rPau individually. By no means has such 4 1071 fArnllortinnc of n hiiacker : Sweaty black hoods and numbing injec-' ""IJcU? AULL,Lcu Uy a? 14ijaa.n110 who was with Hank the day before he died: .lions, midnight terror rides, guards empty- residing in Cuba. ing their pistols into occupied cells, a prison This is the story as told by the hijackers "He was very unhappy. He wrote letters riot in which 20 people are killed and suicide themselves, to his mother but never received any attempts - one successful, the son of a 0 The welcome. It is always the same. answer. He said he was sure his mother and Chicago television producer - and a near- "Many hijackers think they'll put the gun father loved him but couldn't understand miss while I was in Havana. back in your pocket, slap you on the back why they hadn't answered his letters. }Ie '. This is the nightmare- world that may and say 'Come on, friends. Let's go see Ha- tried to be a revolutionary but this revolu- await the-next American hijacker of a plane vana'." lion was entirely different from what he d It would be li b . e eve to Cuba. It is not the rule. If he is lucky the Instead, the reception committee is com- hijacker will spend only a few weeks or posed of Soviet-built armored cars and jeeps "He couldn't eat his food. He was (nonths behind bars before being moved to restricted from visiting his friends bhis permanent home, a light-blue, two-story Fanned by dozens of Cuban soldiers aiming he was told they were not true because aus revolu- Editor's Note: What has happened to AK 47s at the plane. tionaries. Ile had to keep his mouth shut the Americans who hijacked planes to , ' . "They took me to a prison, threw me in a when he felt like saying somethingto the Havana? During a month in Cuba, corre- spondent Wallach met secretly with some tell and for three days I didn't see anyone. Cuban officials because he knew that if he of the hijackers. They tell their story ' They took everything from me, from my told them what he really thought he would in their own words in this, the first of 12 tomb to my underpants. In return, they go back to the security prison. exclusive articles. gave me overails that were three times too big and linen slippers. "Ile was not afraid of the guards. Afraid . Is house in suburban Siboney, the "'Casa de not the word for Hank. Hank never was in h house ins" b -hijackers house"The first few weeks were the hardest prison in his life and he was only 17 years because they always said -tomorrow or a old. All his life he lived good. He came to It is kept under round-the-clock guard by couple of more days and you'll be free. This Cuba because he had that sensitive feeling .Cuban Army lieutenants. Twenty or about couple of days became a couple of weeks. for humanity. I told him your place is not one-third of the American hijackers are This couple of weeks became a couple of here in Cuba. Your place is In the Peace -there. They are not permitted to get work. months and I became nervous and more and Corps. Instead, they are given monthly allowances more depressed. of 40 pesos (about $40), and two-hour "He said, 'But I love Che Guevarra.' I "passes" when they want to go out. "When I found out there were other said, 'But maybe Che Guevarra had dif- The story of the skyjackers plight was Americans who were there for eight months; ferent ideas from those people now running revealed to this correspondent in a series of nine months, a year and a half, I really got Cuba.' He said, 'Now I know for sure that high-secret and potentially dangerous mid- scared. I said, 'Man, you really asked for' Che Guevarra and these people represent night meetings in a Havana park. Those who ittwo entirely different ideals." risked their lives, to relate this tale of "TheY took us first to the airport police "Nobody was allowed to leave prison hardship were men who said they had suf- fered terrible torment'and travail while in- ' department and from there the secret ser- with a pass for the funeral. We were told. vice took its .to the G2 department where I they were expecting some big-wig visitors terned in Cast Cuba. was interrogated for six months. After those ? from national immigration. A few days later A handful ro of s deeply motivated hijackers -six months they took me for eight months to we found out what the reason was. Hank had have adjusted to the hardships of life* in Principe prison. After those eight months, committed suicide." Cuba and are completely free. One of them they took me to the Isle of Pines for hard is teaching at the University of Havana. -labor. John Peabody tried seven times to com- Six are in mental hospitals and the re- ? mit suicide, all of them unsuccessful, one of maining twenty-five are in prison.. ' "After seven months of hard labor, they the hijackers disclosed. He tried by dropping Almost all of them would come home if took me back to Havana to the G2 security out of his prison bunk, head first onto the glyenthe chance. Several of the hijackers prison for five months. After those five cement floor. "Oh, he got a couple of con. told this correspondent they would gladly months they tried to dump me off a cussions and fractured his skull once but he exchange life sentences in the United States freighter in Europe but no socialist country never died. 'You think they will kill us?,' he for their lives in Cuba. in the United States, would accept me. Three months lat. .r, they used to ask me. 'Just once more, I'd like to they said, there always is the possibility of brought me back to Cuba. For almost two eat chocolate cake'." Years and two months after that, I was in a . parole. he police jail." Total: four years and seven While this correspondent was In Havana, They would then never story be were anoth toerld hijack- tace':months. another hijacker - a 30-year-old black states there said if ing to Cuba. But for its own reasons the Cu- 0 The prison riot. October 10, 1968. jAmerican off a with a nervous disorder jumped mpe a six-story building after an ban government won't let them go. The hi-' Principe prison. "Guards started beating up argument with his wife. He lived, paralyzed jackers are instructed not to talk to foreign eight, ten, twelve-year-old children in the from the neck down, was operated on and correspondents. ? main yard. They were using machetes. That swiftly moved back to his original prison Four Americans went back to prison while was too much. I got fed up and yelled, "You cell. His name is being withheld because of I was in Havana: Luis Fresco, Lester homosexuals." That's what started it. For uncertainty about whether his family .has ,Perry, ,Tom Davis and Raymond Johnson. three days we were in complete control of been informed. To protect their lives, the following quotes, regarding ,thg,artfpotvLAT Fool T 1kelease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000566fl$QQQ~~S Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R00 CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA PRESS FALL BOOKS 1972 The Rise and Decline of Fidel Castro Maurice Halperin The author of this unusual book was twice forced out of teaching positions at American universities because of his political beliefs. He spent three years on the faculty of the USSR Academy of Sciences and five years, from i96i to 1968, at the University of Havana. He went to Cuba in 1962 on the invitation of Che Guevara, who had visited him in Mos- cow, and there gathered the materials for this intimate portrait of the Castro regime. Mr. Halperin concentrates his attention on Castro's foreign policy, placing it in the con- text of domestic policy and conditions. Ob- viously skilled in reading the new socialist rhetoric, Professor Halperin guides the reader through the maze of documents, speeches, and propaganda which constitute the record of the Castro regime during the sensational events.involving Kennedy, Khrushchev, mis- siles, aid the CIA. Although the main narra- ti e is.conc- erncgA.with the years 1959-1964- primarily the period of the rise of Fidel Castro -it, contains. digressions into events of the following years when, according to the auth- STATINTL or, Castro's great utopian dreams turned into nightmares. A second volume, carrying the story down to the present, is in preparation.' Maurice Halperin is Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University, Van- couver, B.C. "A brilliant contribution to the literature on contemporary Cuba- and perhaps even more a remarkable series of insights into the new politics of mass society." -Woodrow Borah October LC 77-182794 ISBN 0-320-02182-7 323 pages 6 x 9? LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES/ POLITICAL SCIENCE/ HISTORY World ? 4.95 $10.95 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL Approved For Release 2 5'O : E7&-RDP80-0 1 MAY 1972 t -C s a s t rO. A n . S. rs Pr~t~cti BY ]1SER114N R. SIGALE Panamanian Line ? , specigi to 'ree star Iuty in international waters "We are not providing protec- - of a vessel under charter to 'near Cuba are giving special tion to any one specific line." the Bahamas Line was said to protection to several Pana- He also said that policy state- have followed the old route manian-flag cargo vessels of ments by the State and De- along the western Bahamas a shipping line run by anti- fense Departments last De- chain despite warnings from Castro Cuban exiles. . cember still prevail. chagrined Navy commanders. The situation stems from in- At that time, a State Depart- U.S. Citizen Aboard .strucitons issued in December ment spokesman said the gov- The sources said that since and February to U.S. naval ernment would "take all mea- the U.S. policy was announced commanders in the Caribbean sures under international law patrol to protect merchant ships of to protect U.S. citizens and the December, Cuban menacing friendly nations, by force if freedom of the seas against necessary, against attack or these attacks in this area." forays and have seldom ven- seizure by the Cuban navy. The Pentagon ordered air tured far from home. H igh -1 e v el sources said and sea patrols and followed Castro, in a speech Dec. 22, Navy warships assigned to up in February with orders for said Cuba guarantees safe carry out the Pentagon's or- U.S. warships to interpose passage for all ships in inter- ders have mounted a special themsevies between Cuban at- national waters but reserves watch on ships of the Baha-, tackers and merchant ships the right to pursue any "pi- ~mas Line, owner of two cargo threatened with seizure. rate" ship that' has taken part vessels seized by Cuban sub- Regarding implementation in actions against Cuba. ? chasers Dec. 5 and 15 in the of the policy, however, sources dower Bahamas, about 12(1 in a position to know said that Cuba is still holding the cap- miles northeast of Cuba. U.S. warships patrol intermit- tured vessels, along with the Only Bahamas Line tently, with foreknowledge of captain of the Johnny Ex- the itineries of Bahamas Line/press, Jose Villa of Hialeah,. The orders, first revealed in ships. Fla., and three crew mem- press reports last month, call The patrols operate mainly bers. There has been. no an- for U.S. protection of a threat- in the Windward Passage, a nouncement of a trial or sen-; ened m e r c h a n t m a n of a channel about 55 miles wide tencing. The 24 other crewmen friendly country, under specs- between Cuba and Haiti, and . tied conditions. in waters just north and south- were repatriated. But in practice, .the sources west of the passage. Bahamas Villa was the only American. disclosed, close surveillance is Line vessels often transit the . citizen in the group, and- his maintained only for Bahamas passage on cargo runs be- plight was a factor in the U.S. Line vessels, with U.S. ships tween Miami and the Domini- government's decision to act. going out to keep a watch on can Republic and Haiti. Sources verified that one of them as they pass through A 165-foot patrol gunboat the conditions for a U.S. war- sensitive areas near Cuba, based at Little Creek, Va., is ? ship to move against any fu- sometimes keeping them in currently on surveillance duty, ture seizure attempt is that sight for. hours. operating from the U.S. Naval the American commander at that those vessels s it is assumed - Omar Ex- Base at Guantanamo Bay, the scene must have reason to Press William Express, Jose sage. A near fu, A futhelltime Windward dPas- pa- believe a U.S. citizen is aboard, destroyer troye Express and Lincoln Express trol announced Dec. 28 by At- the threatened vessel. _; - would be prime targets if lantic Fleet headquarters in Whether U.S. citizens are. Premier Fidel Castro chose to Norfolk has been quietly ter- actually aboard the Bahamas ` go after-another ship. minated. Now, a source said, Line ships is unclear. Castro charged that the cap- destroyers training at Quan- The other conditions for U.S. tured ships, the Layla Express tanamo are assigned to patrol and the Johnny Express, had as' needed. I action are that the threatened served the U.S. CIA on pre- ship, must be in international vious voyages by landing guer- More Easterly Route I waters-at least three miles i'illas and arms in Cuba. The operation is directed by from Cuba-and that the U.S. The Bahamas Line is a Pan- the commander -of the Navy's ; commander have no knowl- amanian corporation, and its Caribbean Sea Frontier in San edge that the endangered ves- ships fly the flag of Panama. Juan, Puerto Rico. He report- sel is engaged in illegal activi The firm has an operations edly acts on information on ties against Cuba. office in Miami, headed by the whereabouts of Bahamas Teofilo Babun, one'of a family Line ships obtained from the known for support of anti- Coast Guard in Miami and Castro exile movements. U.S. military attaches in Santo Freedom of the Seas Domingo and Port-au-Prince. Babun? said he did not ask dents Since the the December inci- the Navy for special protec- 'vessels remainingBahamas tion. "They patrol the waters oeasterly have taken a aerly route around generally, not especially for the lower Bahamas, farther' us," he said. away from Cuba. In one in- . A Pentagon kesman asked about the raxp?aF8r 11 1h 2 63/04: CIA-RDP80-01601?R000500030001-6 NORF9pr&ed For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 PILOT Mlz7 204;"Z' S - 174,257 For Cuban Linguist, A. Path to Norfolk By ETHEL A. STEADMAN Virginian-Pilot Staff writer. :.NORFOLK-Juan Gonzalez, at one time the youngest officer in the Cuban navy,'a man forced to quit a flourishing private law practice in Havana to work for the state, now teaches Spanish in Murfreesboro, N.C. .He fled Communist Cuba by way of Spain in 1968, eight years after first seeking permission to leave his homeland.-Not quite two years 'ago, he migrated to this cou0try to end an odyssey that took him to Portugal. Cana- da, Mexico, and Puerto Rico en route. Gonzalez hopes his long jour- ney will end in Norfolk. He plans to open a language school and translation service here this sum- mer. Once, for three months in the summer of 1943, a Cuban navy vessel to which Gonzalez was at- tached stopped over in Hampton Roads, he recalled recently. Gonzalez brought his wife and four children out of Cuba with him..(They now have six youngs- ters, two boys and four girls.) His mother and other relatives were left behind. He has heard nothing from his mother in two years, and repeated attempts to telephone her have met with fail- ure, he said.. Gonzalez' experience as a refu- gee is no worse than that of thou- sands of his countrymen, no doubt. He was a well-to-do man of stature in his community who, now 46, must begin again. He .looks forward to becoming an American citizen in about a year. "The only country free in the world is the United States," Gon- zalez declared. Communist sympathizers dis- ?turb him.* He remembers a night during which 285 people were liquidated. He described life in Havana, even for a man of his standing - personal acquaintance of Fidel Castro, naval officer, and lawyer - as oneof harassmentand con- stant surveillance. 'In the Communist system, you don't have friends," Gonza- lez said. Neighbors are spies, and the state is omnipotent. He once was accused of being an agent for the Central Intellig- ence Agency simply because e- ham legal work for an American sailor stationed at Guantanamo Bay, who married a Cuban, Gonzalez said. He chuc- kled at the thought. Gonzalez was forced to leave with the Cuban government all his possessions, even the rings he and his wife wore, when they fled. At the height of his law prac- tice, Gonzalez was earning the equivalent of between S4,000 and $5,000 a month, he said, and had a bank balance. of nearly $125,000. He and Castro we're in law school together in the late 40s, Gonzalez said. He recalled Castro as a poor student. In 1959, soon after the Castro takeover in Cuba, Castro called Gonzalez and asked shim to join the new government, the refugee said. When he was less than en- thusiastic, it became apparent that he wasn' being asked, but told, said Gonzalez. The year he left-1968-steak was selling for $12 a cut and cof- fee was rationed at one-half ounce per person weekly. Cubans were Gonzalez permitted two boxes of ciga- rettes, 16 to the box, and one pound of butter a month. Children from I to 7 years old got one can of milk a week, as did Cubans 65 and over, Gonzalez said. Government workers were al- lotted one pair of shoes a year and eight gallons of gasoline a month -of they were lucky enough to have a car. Few were, he added. Gonzalez, who claims to hold three master's degrees and three doctorates, taught himself Eng- lish after arriving in Boone, N.C., to attend a language instiute at Appalachian State University, he said. Gonzales was teaching school in Puerto Rico when he saw an advertisement in a newspaper for teaching positions in North Caro- lina, he said. That's how he hap- pened onto Murfreesboro. He plans to t e a c h Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian at the Norfolk Academy of Languages to open June 1 in the Monticello Arcade. He also will provide a transla- tion service, private tutoring, and courses in English for the foreign-born. Another teacher will give classes. in French and "You learn only when the com- munists are in your country," he said, and then often it is too late. Youths between 15 and 27 years of age aren't allowed to leave Cuba under the Castro regime, Gonzalez said. They, and younger Cubans, axe the tar et {~ ar s- sive braiff#)~~rO Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 wkSHIN TO:+ POSt Approved For Release 2 11/ O1 72CIA-RDP80-016 . h, Htth:Spends:'3 ]Vl~pA By Teri Shave '1"'?*"" in Uuban Jail Washlncton Poet Staff writer tempted Invasions f the is- "The bumps n~ ed 40 to 60 minutes every on the cement ',:Last Christmas Day, Cuban authorities arrested land, are presently in jail in other day, were all McDon- made the shadows look like Cuba. There are also six aid had to look forward to- a mountain range, so I / Frank McDonald, a 30-year. old American writer who North Americans convicted f narcotics offenses and an had spent the previous o hijack- seven months as a guest lec- turer at the University of He added that efforts had Havana, and charged him been made, through the with spying. McDonald was Swiss embassy, which han- told that-he faced a possible dles U.S. affairs in Cuba, to 30-year prison sentence. locate McDonald while he A Caribbean specialist, was in prison. The efforts McDonald had spent two were fruitless until the day months in Cuba the pre- after McDonald was re- ?vious year and written arti- ers in Cuban jails, he said. cles about the country leased, when the Ministry of under a fellowship. During Foreign Affairs told the em- that earlier stay. 'he had in- bassy that he had been held terviewed many Cubans for questioning. with the aim of writing a McDonald said his captors book contrasting Cuba with used "no physical intimida. the rest of the Caribbean tion." and assessing U.S. influence "The only time anyone in the region. touched me," he added, "was McDonald said he believes the day my interrogator told that he was detained be- me I would be freed. He led cause the Cuban. Department me out the door of the inter- of State 'Security became rogation room and patted me suspicious of his lnforma- on the back. tion-gathering activities, and ??I suspected that there that he was eventually re- - was a regulation against leased-after three months touching the prisoners, and In solitary confinement-be- before I left I asked my in- cause investigations turned terrogator about that,. and up no evidence that he was he confirmed it," McDonald la spy. said. During his months In pris- Th worst aspect of his im- 'on, he said, "I had to be- prisonment, McDonald said, lieve the truth would free.' was the fear that he would .me- I really believed the not be released. revolution would make a "My Interrogator told me . fair judgment. I think I was that they knew I was a spy -dealt with in a just way." and could prove it," McDon- `dropped before his release, fessed, the revolution would McDonald said, but he was make it easy for me. I would deported and his notes were go to a penal farm, maybe ..::..a-Fea t,e,..,-e s- ,,, J'nr is ooare instead of 30 "the highlight of the week." imagined that it was the Aside from the session of Sierra Nevada in Califor. "close, hard questioning," nia," he said. - life in prison was monoto- No Reading .or Talking nous, McDonald said. I, He had no reading matter, His day began at 5 a.m. and was not allowed to com- when a light above the door municate with anyone on the went on. Soon, guards outside. He kept track of brought brooms,- mops and the passage-of days by mak- disinfectant, and McDonald ing marks on the stucco wall cleaned the floor of his 8- with a spoon. by-10-foot cell. During the first three There was a spigot with weeks of his detention, Mc- drinking water in the cell, Donald said, he was "closely a hole in the floor in a cor- questioned about my activ- ner for use as A toilet and, ities in Cuba and past as- In the ceiling above it, a sociations." For A he next waterspout for showgrs. He 22 days he did not see his slept on a "typical prison interrogator. bunk' attached to the wall "I think that 22-day period with chains. was critical," he said. "I ? think they were trying to Prison Meals - At 7 a.m. breakfast-two determine whether I was rolls-was brought .to the telling the truth. I was afraid that somehow they prisoners. might make a mistake and' The two other meals of decide I was guilty. But I the day, served at 11 a.m. knew they didn't have any and 5 p.m., were served in proof. They had all my trays with three sections. notes. I had bidden' noth- One section always con- ing." tained rice prepared in dif- On the 50th day of his im- ferent ways-"fried, boiled, prisonment, McDonald was mixed with beans, cooked taken to is interrogator. with batter." Another sec- "First he asked, as always, third thin contained contained 'soup. either The how I was. Then he asked, thi ?' ng you miss any some- Do egg or fish dish or some- "I answered, 'the street,' thing sweet, like rice pud- meaning freedom. ding or fruit preserve. "On the very best' days Asked.for Yogurt we'd get a whole fried fish,' ' "He asked if there was McDonald said. anything else. For some ,,It was pretty much what reason I thought of yogurt. the average Cuban ate, al- "'With or without sugar?' though not quite as good," he asked. wia, ne nan vioiatea a oan years in p,iouu. on "socio-political studies." McDonald spent the days From that day on twice a 'Typical Police' Move walking up and down his day I got a big jug of Yo A State Department offi- "I knew it was typical Po- cell. He calculate that he gurt with that good, brown .cial familiar with the cases lice procedure," McDonald walked 10 miles a day from cane sugar. of Americans who have got- added. "He was frightening ' 5 am. to 5:30 p.m., when he From then on I felt they 'ten into trouble In Cuba the hell out of me to get me didn't think I was a spy. I said he knew of no other to tell the truth." went to bed. was moved to a better cell ease like McDonald's-that McDonald said the Inter- "My program was 12 hours 12 hours down," he said. with two beds pushed to- is, of a person who entered 'rogator, a 26-year-old lieu- up, gether and a chair. A guard 'with a Cuban visa and who tenant, became very impor- While lying in bed, the gave me a book. The whole later was arrested, tant to him - "he was prisoner watched the chang- tone of the questioning The official said that nine responsible for my life." ing patterns of sun and shad- changed. He didn't call me ,U.S. citizens convicted of po- The Spanish-language inter- ow on a cement overhang that blocked the view from Elitical crimes, such as at- rogation sessions, which last the one window in his cell.. 002]e Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601-R000500030001-6 The charge of spying was ald said. "He said if I con- STATINTL ii~Md STATINTL Approved For Relea'(60/04s: CIA-RDP80-01 16 APR 1972 U.S. and Cuba: Nixon Cuban seizure of the Johnny Ex- press, 100 miles from Cuban waters in the Bahamas, involved the wounding of the skipper, Capt. Jose Villa, a Cu- ban exile and a naturalized American citizen. The White House condemned Secretary of State William P. Rogers said as much In time-hallowed phrases to the Foreign Ministers last week. Cuba is still a "menace" to hemi- sphere security; Cuba is still "export- ing" revolution; Cuba is still "subvert- ing" its neighbors; Cuba is still main- taining "close and active" military ties with the Soviet Union. If Premier Castro changed his poli- cies, Mr. Rogers told the meeting, the United States would act to lift sanc- tions-but only in concert with "all" the O.A.S. members. His aim clearly was to block individual Latin states from re-establishing bilateral relations with Cuba, as have Mexico, Chile and, lately, Jamaica. -BENJAMIN WELLES Pursues A Tough Policy WASHINGTON-"This is the police- man-of-the-world concept," Represen- tative Dante B. Fascell said last week. "I don't know of any third countries that have asked for our naval protec- tion in the Caribbean." Mr. Fascell, a Florida Democrat, is chairman of the House Foreign Affairs subcommittee on Latin America. What he was referring to was a recent secret order from President Nixon that the United States Navy was to "interpose" its ships, at the risk of fighting, be- tween Cuban warships and merchant vesae,s of friendly countries in danger of being apprehended. The new order, disclosed on Wednes- day by The Wall Street Journal in a dispatch from Puerto Rico, United States naval headquarters in the Carib- bean, stemmed from a shadowy inci- dent last October when the Aquarius II, a merchantman of Panamanian reg. istry, took part in the shelling of the Cuban coastal town of Sama. The ves- sel, based in Miami, is owned by Jose de la Torriente, a Cuban exile. Cuba claimed that several civilians had been wounded, and on its return to Florida, the Aquarius II was "seized" by United States authorities. During the incident, Cuban jets had photographed the Aquarius II. And in December, Cuban gunboats went into the Caribbean and forced back to Cuba two more Panamanian-flag merchant- men: the Lyla Express on Dec. 5 and the Johnny Express on Dec. 15. Both also were Miami-based vessels of Pana- manian registry, owned this time by four brothers named Babun, Cuban exiles of Lebanese origin. Whether Cuban authorities compared the photographs and confused the Aquarius II with the Express ships, or whether they had proof, as they claimed, that the Express ships had landed and removed agents for the Central Intelligence Agency, is un- clear. The Babun brothers and the State Department both denied C.I.A. Involvement. Cuba's "unconscionable" behavior. The tension continued to mount. Cuba said she would have no com- punction about attacking vessels under "any flag or camouflage" working for the C.I.A. and carrying out "counter revolutionary" activities in Cuban wa- ters. The State Department announced that henceforth the Nixon Administra- tion would take "all measures under international law" to protect not only American but other ships in the Carib- bean from Cuban interference. Since then there have been no further Cuban seizures. Congress has now begun to demand more information. Apparently the new Nixon rules permit a United States Navy skipper to risk a fight with a Cuban warship menacing a "friendly" merchantman if the skipper has "no knowledge" that the merchantman has been involved in C.I.A.-type activities around Cuba, or if he believes there are American citizens aboard. He must "take the word" of the merchant captain-even though the latter may turn out to be a Cuban exile or other national anxious to involve the United States in a gunfight with Premier Fidel Castro's regime. If, however, a Soviet warship hoves in sight ready to aid its Cuban ally, the' American skipper must radio At- lantic Fleet headquarters in Norfolk, Va.. and await instructions. The new Nixon rules of engage. ment. issued without consultation with Congress, seemed to leave many things unclear except for their ob- vious political impact. ' The Foreign Ministers of the Organ- ization of American States met here last week and the United States plainly was daunting Premier Castro and his sympathizers and heartening its own hemisphere supporters. The Admin- istration was obviously tolerating no "nonsense" from Cuba, 90 miles from Florida geographically but, this being an election year, much closer politi- cally. President Nixon's aggressiveness was presumably not being lost on the 600,000 anti-Castro Cuban exiles living in the United States, of whom nearly 100,000 have become voters. Representative Fascell, whose con- stituency includes many Cuban exiles, said that "this is the sort of issue we should be taking up here with the O.A.S. Foreign Ministers." But there seemed little likelihood the Adminis- tration would show anything but hos- tility toward Cuba-at least until after the November elections. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 NEW XORK LIMES Approved For Releay62RPO/934: CIA-RDP8 American Is Home , After Being Jailed In Cuba as a Spy A freelance journalist who went to Cuba last year under the auspices of the Institute of Current World Affairs has re- turned to New York after being held in solitary confinement for 92 days as a suspected spy. On Christmas Day, after hav- ing spent seven months in Cuba lecturing at the University of Havana and gathering notes for a book, the journalist, Frank McDonald, was arrested and charged with being an agent for the Central Intelligence Agency. He spent the next three months in solitary confinement, broken up only by what he called several sessions of "close questioning." He was not mis- treated, he says, although he lost about 30 pounds. . "I was put through a pretty intensive investigation, and when it was finished they knew pretty much all about me," he said. Still, the guards and authori- ties "were not antagonistic-. toward me and it was probably better than some of the prisons we have here," he said. Mr. McDonald, 30 years old, has been a fellow of the insti- tute, at 535 Fifth Avenue, for four years specializing in the Caribbean. During that time he has written a number of arti- cles on the Caribbean; has con- tributed to the institute a news- letter on the area, and has co- author of a book. In 1970, at the invitation of the University of Havana, he spent two months in Cuba, and had no trouble with the, authorities. "This time, I guess they were worried about the notes I was taking," he said. "I in- terviewed some officials and a lot of people I met." After he was released from jail he was flown to Spain. He then went to London for a week before returning here on STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 DAILY E_. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001104 : CIA-RDP80-01 1 5 APR 1972 Programming war on Cuba The Nixon administration issued secret orders to the U.S. Navy in February to protect Central Intelligence Agency privateers raiding Cuba. If necessary, the Navy was to provoke an armed attack on Cuban vessels protect- ing the socialist island from invasion. That is the essence of the revelations published by the Wall Street Journal on Thursday and by the New York Times yesterday. The revelations disclose that orders went from the White House to Defense Secretary Melvin-Laird to the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Admiral Charles Duncan, Norfolk, Va., to the Caribbean commands of the U.S. Navy. The plans call for joint naval and air action in support of counter-revolutionary vessels flying third country flags. These orders were issued following the seizure of the Lyla Express on Dec 5, and the Johnny Express after an armed clash on Dec. 15. Both ships, operating under Pan- amanian- registry out of Miami, have been conducting armed reconnaisance for the Central Intelligence Agency. The "Special Rules of Engagement for the Caribbean," spell out the steps to be undertaken to provoke an armed clash. The U.S. commanders are ordered to "interpose" their ships between the Cuban government vessels and the CIA pirate craft flying third country flags. U.S. Air Force jets are to threaten the Cuban vessels. The U.S. vessels would then attack in the name of "self-defense." As revealed by the Wall Street Journal. they would "continue interposing until further Cuban ag- gression creates a situation of self-defense for U.S. forces." The programming of armed U.S. attack on Cuban ves- sels has been undertaken without even the excuse of a re- quest from any third country, Rep. Dante Fascell, con- servative chairman of the House Foreign Affairs subcom- mittee on Latin America. has revealed. "I, know of no pending request for such protection by any third country." he said. U.S. warlike actions would be taken on the grounds that there was an American on board the third country vessel; but in.the -absence of any proof, the U.S. com- mander would take the word of the captain of the CIA pirate ship that there was an American on board and in danger. The "Special Rules of Engagement for the Caribbean" provide, in short, for acts of war by U.S. forces without even seeking congressional approval. - The secret plans for attack point to the urgency of compelling the Nixon administration to recognize Cuba. to end the blockade and to open full trade and cultural rela- tions. Meanwhile: Hands off Cuba and Cuban ships! Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL Approved For WWRK 15 Apr@~$TR p~80- A ! The Nixon AdministratioW"'ag- the context of the oral briefings which are also the Kennedy and Johnson 1)~fAS Administrations before it, is actually helping Fidel Castro and his henchmen perpetuate the Communist rule in Cuba-even while, on the other hand, spending billions of dollars, mainly through the C.I.A., on activities purportedly aimed at undermining Cas- tro's power and inducing the Cuban people to turn on him and overthrow him. It all happens as Washington pursues simul- taneously two policies that in practice cancel each other out: i -Roll back Communist inroads in the Western Hemisphere; -"Stabilize" the situation elsewhere by helping the Soviet Government maintain its grip both on the Russian people and on the countries of Eastern and Central Europe gobbled up by Stalin or other- wise occupied by the Red Army. . This second policy involves helping the Soviets control their personnel abroad-including in Ger- many,.in Egypt and in Cuba. Nixon Administration spokesmen have striven to create the impression that the case of Sirrias Kudirka, the Lithuanian radio operator who was delivered by the U.S. Coast Guard to the Soviets, after a merciless beating, when he leaped for freedom from the' Soviet trawler where he was employed on the deck of a U.S. vessel, was a unique,.unfortunate case of this sort, due to "bad judgment" on the part of some officers. Actually, however, there have been more than a hundred similar cases under the Kennedy, John- son and Nixon Administrations, WO has learned from an unimpeachable source. And the only really unique thing about the case of Simas Ku- dirka is that the U.S. Government was not able to keep it secret from the public. Most of those other "Kudirka" cases have oc- curred, and are still occurring, in the waters around Cuba. There, Coast Guard and CIA units of every type are largely concerned with the mission to induce and assist defections from Fidel Castro-but not from the Soviet forces, some 20,000 in number, which ' are helping Castro keep his grip on the lush Caribbean island. Officially, in confidential guidelines which the Nixon Administration still strives to keep secret from the American people-even though they are not secret to the Soviets who have been called to assist in their framing-the Coast Guard officers and the CIA operatives are told merely "not to encourage" defections of members of the Soviet personnel abroad, especially of military and naval personnel. In practice, however, and especially in given to key U.S. personnel, this .means that the U.S. Forces and the other agents of the U.S. Gov- ernment must see to it that no such defections do occur, and to use "positive persuasion"-of the kind that was meted out to Kudirka, if needs be-to that no attempted defection of this sort does succeed. This is how the Nixon Administration, following the Kennedy-Johnson pattern down to the letter, winds up helping the. Soviets help Castro keep Cuba in subjection to Communist rule. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 Approved For Relealez200' 3/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R00@-$AQQlqQ1.01-6 6 APR 1972 Bombing work of CIA, Fidel says HAVANA-Cuban Premier Fidel Castro charged yesterday that the bombing of the Cuban Trade Commission in Montreal early on Tuesday morning was the work of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agen- cy. Fidel also accused the Montreal police of "brutal, fascist meth- ods" and said the police had beaten up Cuban personnel who surviv- ed the bomb blast, in which one Cuban security guard was killed and seven wounded. Fidel spoke at the close of the Second Congress of the Young Communist League of Cuba. His speech was repeatedly interrupted by roars of approval from the YCL delegates. Ile said: "We have shown a great deal of patience in one day: first the bombing attack and on top of that, aggression by the police. After the bombing, the police used brutal, fascist-methods." Fidel said the Montreal police used axes to smash their way into the Cuban offices, violated the Cuban personnel's diplomatic immunity by arresting them, and charg- ed that "our comrades were beaten by the Canadian police at the po- lice station." The Cuban Premier said: "We have received reports on these se- rious and disgraceful events." He stressed that Canadian diplomatic personnel in Cuba were guaranteed safety by the Cuban people and government, and that Cuba "knows how to respect international laws and agreements." Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01 CONNELLSVILLE, PA. COURIE 'EB 16 197Z E - 14,113 on Cuba ye U.S. Warns Anti-Castro Exiles By THEODORE A. EDIGER Copley News Service, MIAMI - Plotting against Cuban Premier Fidel Castro is 1 going underground in Miami, the Cuban exile capital which has been a caldron of revolu- t bnary intrigue. -The U. S; governilehl- is cracking down. The Sate De- partment's Cuban affairs office in Miami warned anti-Castro militants that plotters might be prosecuted for conspiracy to violate the U.S. neutrality act. The . warning came two - months, after two Miami-based, exile-operated freighters, legitimately plying the Carib- bean, at least at the time, were ?caotured by Cuban gunboats in international waters. Cuban die- t tatar Castro claimed the vessels were in the service of the U.S. F Central intelligence A?ency. What triggered Castro' s piracy was, an exile hit-and-run f raid on Boca de Sama, a north- east Cuban coast village, last October. Such -forays against Cuba used to be ccmmonplace, but that was the only one made, so far as known, during all of 1971. Miamian Jose de la Torriente announced that commandos of an anti-Castro orga-'ization he heads made the attack. He !,claimed casualties i n f i i c# e d were ' greater than acknowl- edged by Cuba. Havana radio said two were killed and four wounded. It demanded that something be done about Tor- riente. Torriente said his expedition left from outside U.S. territory. Such disclaimers have been used for years by exile raiders seeking to evade the neutrality law. Many would hatch their plot in Miami, then proceed to some Caribh?an islet to launch their attack. The official Cuban radio, L spouting tirades after the Boca de Sama affair, called Torriente a CIA agent. A State Department official that piddling exile action can't then summoned heads of some topple Castro; but could damage of the dwindling anti-Castro . U.S. diplomacy. groups-t'iere used to be Exiles feel the United States hundreds-and literally l a i d should not interfere with their : dawn the law. ..'.own anti-Castro efforts. They "It has come' to my attention that certain Cuban exile groups pretend to have the support of the U.S. government in their projected actions against the Cuban resime . . . I deny categorically, that this is true.", The spokesman reminded the exiles about -the neutrality law and said. it will be 'enforced to the hilt. % He said that even .if ?a third country is * used as a launching base for attack on Red China, exiles face prosecution if plans for the mission were made in the United States. The spokesman recalled a similar warning issued-in 1970. After that order, exile ex,)edi- tions into Cuba fell off appre- ciably. So did refugee contribu- tions to .activist organizations. Same of the newly summoned. militant leaders said privately they would continue anti-Castro activity clandestinely. Comment from Torriente, whose "Torriente Plan" to overthrow Castro has been shrouded in secrecy from the start, was not forthcoming. A ship named Aquarius, said to have been used in the Boca de Sama foray, was seized by U.S. authorities after Castro's' navy shanghaied the two freighters, similar to it in appearance. Among those summoned on the State D,uart.ment carpet was Andres Nazario, head of the militant Alpha 66 group, which repeatedly has infiltrated guerrillas into Cuba only to recall that President John F. Kennedy, who had the CIA train them for the Bay of Figs, then dropped support of their inva- sion, promised veterans of that fracas in 1962 that their battle flag "will be restored to you in free Havana." Yet U.S. authorities have stopped more than 50 exile raiding parties since 1963, con- fiscating arms and boats. There used to be a plotting den on nearly every corner of West >Flagler Street in Miami. Occa- sionally police would find an anti-Castro arsenal. In the nearby Everglades, guerrilla training proceeded daily. Some anti-Castro organiza- tions still remain, but offices -Of most have closed. One group, Realist Nationalism, continues weekly training for exiles at its Flagler Street headquarters. Most of the once numerous full- ? time anti-Castro leaders in Miami have found. jobs ranging from selling used cars to running fruit stands. Although Castro claims -re- peatedly that the United States permits exiles to war against him with impunity, this is not quite true. Two are serving time in federal prison. Rolando Masferrer, known as "the Tiger" in pre-Castro Cuba, is completing a four-year term. He tried to lead a ragtag army from the Florida Kevs to Haiti to overthrow the late dictator Francois Duvalier. Haiti was to have been a springboard for a Cuba invasion. have them wiped out. Nazario Orlando Bosch, one of the sighed: "They told me that even . most militant exiles of all, Is if we think anti-Castro thoughts, serving 10 years for firing a we might be violating the neu- bazooka at a Polish ship in trality law." , Miami harbor. He was waging The government position Is war against shipping to Cuba. 'Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 NATIONAL GUARDIAN Approved For Release 20 01100$4 ,04IA-RDP80-016 STATINTL By Renee Blakkan Guardian staff correspondent Last of two artides Havana, Cuba .who had not gone to college must go. "Imperialism has not lost its This includes Juventud Rebelde's aggressive nature," be pointed out, several reporters in each of the six noting the continual attacks against provinces. Every Saturday all must fly Cuba by mercenaries, the October to Havana to attend classes at the crisis and the Bay of Pigs invasion. university from 1 to 7 p.m. along with "The CIA continues its plots; knows we other Havana-based- reporters who are for a revolution in all of Latin must also complete a four-year course. America and is always looking for Round-trip fare and meals are paid by ways to attack Cuba. That is why we do the paper (which is financed by the not criticize the revolution in the state). papers." Guerra emphasized the Cuban press Outdated equipment . .is an instrument of the dictatorship of Major technical problems of the the'l roletariat, is anti-imperialist and Cuban papers are a- lack of paper "especially anti-Yankee." Cuba's (Granma and Juventud Rebelde print a press. he said, systematically and combined total of 700.000 issues a day, deliberately denounces "all that is not enough for a population of 8,500,000) rotten in the U " and covers S . . - 'and the daily battle to keep the out- movements of radicals including . A month-long conference between 22 U.S. radical reporters and Cuban journalists concluded here recently on a note of mutual cooperation. The meeting was sponsored by .Juventud Rebelde (Rebel Youth), organ of the Cuban Communist Youth (UJC) and the country's national af- ternoon paper. On a practical level, the U.S. reporters recognized the importance of sending their papers regularly and quickly to Cuba (where Time, Life and Newsweek nearly always arrive on schedule) and the Cubans agreed to send their papers and magazines to .radical papers in the U.S. The Americans also learned, from touring and discussions in different parts of the country, of Cuba's militant anti-imperialist stand: its dedication to revolution in all of Latin America; its concern about the lack of unity in the U.S. movement; its tremendous struggle against cultural and economic underdevelopment. The Americans also studied the Cuban press and the role of a revolutionary press in power. The major task of the Cuban papers today, said Vergara, sub-director of Juventud Rebelde, is to raise the cultural level of the reporters. Many skilled journalists left Cuba after the revolution and many others who stayed could not identify with the revolution. Therefore comrades who represented the people and who supported the revolution, but whose cultural level was not necessarily very high, had to take on the task of reporting. In the last three years the two dated, American typewriters and especially oppressed minorities in the linotypes in working order. "It is war," U.S, said Vergara, to continue functioning The Americans met several times on' American equipment for which no ? toward the end of the trip to draw up a spare parts have been available for the statement on the importance of the last 13 years. Supplementing the two conference. On a 16th-floor suite of a national papers are a daily paper for hotel overlooking the Malecon highway each province, many regional papers in Havana where Fidel, Che and and many technical periodicals and Camilo first entered the city in magazines - for different mass January 1959, the underground organizations. journalists declared their press must Distribution is another problem, also become "a press of combat," a "press made more difficult by the U.S. of truth" and a force for unity. In a blockade. Spare parts are not available statement to be sent to radical jour- and must be invented often for trucks nalists around the U.S.. the 22 which carry the papers every day into Americans -urges: "We believe it is rural and other areas. Planes, horses, possible and necessary for us to agree mules, motorcycles and people also on one central task: building an anti- help in delivery. Supplementing the imperialist consciousness. We call to papers are a radio station that carries everyone in the radical and un- only news and music stations that derground press and to all broadcast bulletins every half hour. revolutionary. journalists to join with us There are also sound systems in fac- in a renewed and deepened offensive tories through which the entire papers against the common enemy." are read to workers on a regular basis Radical journalists must fight as they work. military, economic and cultural im- Cuba's main problem with respect to perialism around the world including the news is not getting the people to within the U.S., the statement said. "It read, said Vergara.- It is producing must combat cultural chauvinism, enough for them to read.. The bulk of unconscious racism and . general the country's paper is imported from arrogance that has been pumped into China. North Americans. ? That arrogance," The Cuban press. explained Angel the statement went on. "often takes the Guerra, director of Bohemia, is still a form of failure to understand the in- "combat press," at war with im- credibly difficult struggle against perialism "even though no bombs are underdevelopment." dropping." Since the triumph of the The statement emphasized the need revolution, he said, the Cuban press to recognize the right of "all our has had to follow all the rules of papers peoples" to. self-determination. "A representing countries at war. This combat press knows the struggle is means, he said, that the Cuban press international," it said. does not criticize the revolution. Blasting "se-called 'objective Channels for this are the trade unions, re ' 1. a ti "b " i h por ng s a ourgeo s myt , national had made enough Papers the mass organizations and the party. the statement called for reportage' eportage that progress to be able to require that all To criticize the revolution in the press is " objective but not impartial," for a reporters who lacked a high school would be to give a handle to the education raise themselves to that enemi o t out a sa d level by takinggpprced Thort lease ~0 /0 'f0 Gi '-RDP86-01601 R00050GO 9' 1-6 STATINTL Approved For Releaset? 1JJ3 9 -RDP80-016 12 JAN 1972 LATEV AMERICA /_^",~/ CUBA I Nearly all mass organizations in Cuba have issued statements condemning U.S. threats against Cuba after the Cuban navy captured the "-Johnny Express" and accused its owner, Jose,/ Villa, of engaging in counterrevolutionary ac- tivities. Villa later confessed to being a CIA agent. A statement by the Cuban Central Union of Workers said: "The Cuban working class will never be cowed by the Nixon government's threats and pressures of blackmail. In the face of the danger of aggression, we are ready to crush it." The Cuban Communist Youth Organization said: 'We firmly support the lofty principle of not giving any guarantee to the pirate ships of the maggots who have opened fire against and wounded our people."....Former Sen. Eugene McCarthy (D-Minn.), considered to be a presi- dential candidate, last week said the U.S. should re-open ties with Cuba. (The U.S. broke relations with Cuba in 1961, less than two years after the completion of the revolution.) Said McCarthy: "It seems to me that no good has been served by our pretending that Cuba isn't there, at least for the past five years."....Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticos left the Soviet Union last week after talks on trade agreements between Cuba and the U.S.S.R. through 1975. Renee Blakkan Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL DAILY MLD Approved For Release 2p0yR3i1 : CIA-RDP8O-016 By Joseph North Only fools, the saying goes, make the of them teenage children. One of them same mistake twice. One may re- had to have her leg amputated to survive. gard President Nixon as many things, This is the pattern. There is never a knave perhaps, but fool? Yet he is about peep out of our State Department. But to repeat an error, considering some kind when the Cubans defend themselves by of a major foray against Cuba. He has not getting two of the ships that lower the learned the lesson his predecessor John motorboats into action, we suddenly hear F. Kennedy did a decade ago when he the cries of a shocked anguish out of Fog- said he wished he had never heard of the gy Bottom. "Freedom of the seas," Central Intelligence Agency and hoped "international law" are the stock phrases it would be shattered into a thousand the State Department's Robert McClos- pieces. That was in the immediate after- kev uttered as he told the world the U.S. math of the abortive Bay of Pigs, the military is "prepared to take all meas- invasion of Cuba by the CIA. ures"... . The military alert Nixon called after Raul Castro characteristically kept the Cuban Navy captured the piratical his Cuban cool when he replied: Cuba, he "Johnny Express" is still on as we go to told his armies, had taken "necessary and press. That command has put all Latin just measures, when it impounded the h 'tted mi America on the political alert, not to speak of the democratic forces in every part of the globe. Gus Hall, general sec- retary of the Communist Party USA, calls the alert a cover under which further mil- itary atrocities against Cuba are being planned. He said it gave the green light to thousands of trigger happy captains of US naval craft and war planes operating in the Caribbean. He called for protests throughout the land. The alert caused Major Raul Castro to address his armed forces, but instead two pirate snips whic com atrocities under the pretense of being peaceful merchant ships. The Cubans have not been silent about the reason President Nixon put a fatherly arm around the wife of the captured "Johnny Express" captain, Jose Villa. The Chief 'Executive of the USA had in- vited the pirate's wife to the White House and, posing for the cameras, "vowed" to free Villa. Lest anybody mistake this posture as Ecuador on his way home where ne was feted by the authorities and cheered by the people. Little wonder the New York Times of November 10 gloomily observed that "an era had ended," that Castro's tour of Chile had broken the cordon of isolation the United States had tried to set up around Cuba. Salt was poured on the State Depart-. ment-Pentagon wounds when Peru and Ecuador feted the Cuban statesman. Add' to that the epoch changing votes in the Organization of American States and we see the reason for Washington's jumpy policies. The warm bond of friendship between Chile and Cuba has chilled the sensitive nervous system of. the CIA. Fidel's en- dorsement of the direction the Allende government is taking was a blow to the design of the CIA-Pentagon conspirators to heighten antagonisms within Chile and other Latin lands. Reaction and ultra-left adventurers in Chile, seeking to embarrass government policy by taking extreme measures in the countryside and elsewhere got a body blow. A proper tempo and a unifying tac- tic is needed to buttress the power of the of, indicating consternation, the Cuban should examine what has been happening bonds of friendship with the Chilean coali- leader expressed "serene" confidence. in the Latin American countries in re- tion government strengthens the latter "Everything has been done to meet any cent months. - especially. in the eyes of the youth of contingency" he told the Army of the Events there are the reason Nixon is the hemisphere, Chile's first of all. Province of Havana, a military subdivi- moving this way, for not since the revolu- Washington is well aware of all this Sion set up to prepare for just such con-` tion in 1959 has there been such a hemis- and has moved to take every measure its tingencies. The comandante congratu- pheric groundswell for the resumption of imperialistic think tanks bring up to stem lated the armed forces for their mastery peaceful relations with Cuba. This has the pro-Cuba, pro-Chile tide. Washington of all the weaponry of defense. been expressed one way or another by was also given a bad case of jitters by A word about the "Johnny Express" virtually every country except the two developments in the recent Uruguayan and its sister ship, "Lyla Express," cap- howling dictatorships of Paraguay and elections where a political tactic similar tured a week earlier. Both have been Brazil. to Chile's was adopted and resulted in ."mother ships" of the armed speedboats At the last meeting of the Organiza- large popular gains at the polls. which carry out murder-raids on small tion of American States in December we The peoples of many Latin American coastal villages. saw this movement at its apex. The countries are considering the same strat- Such raids have been going on for a Peruvian Government officially entered egies as Uruguay. Any wonder Nixon is dozen years, with relatively little atten- a resolution asking the OAS to end the convulsively reaching for the panic button' tion in the U.S. press. Braintrusted by the dip'_omatic blockade imposed against So he sounded an alert against Cuba. CIA desperadoes, recruited from the Cuba in 1964. And more big gray warships begin to counter-revolutionary refugees in Miami, The way things are going can be seen roam the Caribbean waters. And more the raiders swoop down in the dark of when the representative of tiny El Sal- bombers fly overhead. night and indiscriminately pepper towns vador favored the anti-U.S. resolution, And gusanos, the counter-revolution- with machine-gun bullets. Then they arguing that isolation of Cuba has brought aries, march shouting "guerra, guerra" speed away, hoping to make it over the no results. - `"war-war" through the streets of Miami. horizon before the Cuban Coast Guard Anybody following events in South And the strong-arm men among them gets after them. America can see how true that is. Fidel sign,up for the terror raids. And counter- . A month ago a raid on Boca de Sama Castro's triumphal tour of Chile showed revolutionary killers like Rolando Mas- in Oriente, a fishing town of 90 souls, how archaic U.S. isolationist policy is. ferrer talk of "coming back" on other took the lives o~jQ ~j 'ii a "F~1 ~f4~0' (3 1 AP 'dfWT b0500030001-6 and Lfravely wounded our cwilians,' t1aT~ ans Castro stooved g eru an o ollt in'106 STATINTL Approved For Released 1???M4 : CIA-RDP80- -6 6 JAN 1972 `Anti-communism'-poison! Senator J.W. Fulbright's statement that President Truman's anti-communist doctrine has polluted our na- tional foreign policy since World War II is of great signifi- cance. It. was confirmed in the Pentagon Papers which showed how anti-communism was used to cover military aggression against the peoples of Indochina., . The doctrine of "anti-communism" has been the bat- tle cry of the cold war, the call to arms for eventual war against the socialist Soviet Union, the justification for the NATO war-alliance, the cloak for military aggression, putschism, support of militarist regimes, and for espio- nage in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Within weeks it has been simultaneously the demagog- ic cover for CIA-instigated forays against Cuba, and for ordering a U.S. war-flotilla into the Bay of Bengal. On the home front anti-communism was pressed by McCarthyism toward its fascistic implications. ? At home and abroad it has been used by monopoly cap- ital to drug the American people, while imperialism moved to dominate the world, and to destroy the democratic in- stitutions of our nation. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL DAILY 1?01-Y Approved For Release 001 03/ 4 : CIA-RDP80-0 JA 1972 NEW YORK, Jana 3 - A political storm is raging throughout Latin America over the fact that the U.S. Government is maintaining a military alert against Cuba despite incontrovertible proof that the Nixon regime is dead wrong on the question of the two ships Premier Castro's Navy impounded two weeks ago. The Panamnaian Government, piractical action and was the bors. needless to say not a single whose flags the ships were flying, vessel responsible for the deaths word of this drama is being admitted publicly this weekend of two Cuban militamen and grave missed by members of the Organ- that the vessels in question were injury to two children last month. ization of American States, which guilty of acting as "mother ships" One child had to suffer amputa- voted only a fortnight ago on the that released armed speedboats to tion of a leg. question of hemispheric recogni- shoot up towns on the Cuban coast. The Panamanian Cabinet was tion of Cuba. The ballots showed The Cubans had adopted protec- convened this weekend ? to dis- that more OAS members than tive measures by taking the ships cuss what action to take to get ever in its history wanted re- in tow. President Nixon thereupon the ships returned. According to sumption of normal relations with personally took the perilous action the UPI, action was postponed the first socialist country in this of declaring a'inilitary alert, call- until the inquiry regarding the hemisphere. - ing on the U.S. Navy and airforce Aquarius is completed. This is what is eating Nixon. - to open up on Cuban craft when- Piratical alert continues ever they deem it necessary. It Meanwhile the piratical Nixon. gave any trigger-happy military military alert continues ' with.' man the greenlight to provoke an more warships, and warplanes incident with the gravest interna- than ever in Cuban environs. tional percussions. , Nixon was asked an embar- This gunboat diplomacy roused rasing question when he appeared instant anger in Latin countries before the nation in a CBS inter- that have themselves suffered view last night. His interrogator, from such. high-handed acts of Dan Rather, asked why it was piracy. The script is familiar, but "necessary" to establish a 1971 is not 1871. "diplomatic dialog with Com- Panama sends commission munist China and continue to ig- The Panamanian Government nore a Communistcountry in our was invited by Cuba to send an of- own back yard, Cuba." ficial commission to Havana to Nixon had the gall to respond see for itself. It did, and the com- that "Cuba is engaged in a con- mission of three returned to Pan- stant program of belligerence to- ward the U.S. and also toward its ama last weekend. Jorge Illuega, neighbors in the inner-American its head, told a press conference community." in the Foreign Office that the This despite the fact that these Cuban charges were found to be anti-Cuban murder raids are j correct. A member of the com- known to be organized by the CIA. mission, Carlos Gonzalez de la In this latest instance, Jose Villa, Lastra, of Panama's Merchant the captured captain of the Johnny Marine ministry, told newsmen a Express, confessed that he was scrutiny of the ships logs - the working for the CIA- since 1964. "Johnny Express' and the "Layla Villa, Cuban-born, who abandoned Express" - showed that they Cuba in early 1954, told a brother engaged in the actions on Oct. 22, of his, a militiaman and long-time 1968, Nov. 18, 1968, and May 2 revolutionist, Castro said, that he 1969. had been recruited by a Mr. The Cuban government, the Smith of the CIA when he arrived Panamanians said, agreed to re- in Miami. lease the two ships- after certain The Panamanian commission additional acts were ascertained. `of .inquiry itself confirmed that The Cubans charged that a third the confession had been made. ship of Panamanian register, the As to Nixon's charge of Cuban Aquarius, was 6PV - - FOr Re e2eeeeW4dG3/O4noiCIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL Approved For Release 20Q f 3(4i CIA-RDP80-01601 3 1 DEC 1971 Cuba releases 26 spy-ship crewmen PANAMA CITY. Panama - Twenty-six of the crewmen of the spy ships Lyla Express and Johnny Express were released by the Cuban Government and flown to Panama on Tuesday night aboard at Panam- anian Air Force plane. The captain of the Johnny Express. Jose Villa Diaz. a Cuban gusano and admitted agent of the U.S. Central Intelli- gence Agency. is being held in Havana for trial before a Cuban revolu- tionary court. Court Premier Fidel Castro earlier had offered to release any of the ordinary. non-CIA-type seamen found on board the two spy ships. which were registered as vessels in Panama but" owned by Bahama Lines of Miami. Florida. Castro invited a Panamanian delegation to Havana to arrange for the men's release. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 DAILY V'O? L-D Approved For Relea"2l/cb/b4 : CIA-RDP80 ',STATI NTL ?r, ccn4 or By JOSEPH NORTH NEW YORK. Dec. 27-The captain of the pirate ship the "Johnny Express" cap tured by the Cuban Navy Dec. 15, has confessed that he has been in the service of the CIA since 1954, Prime Minister Fidel Castro informed his nation at the weekend via television. The impounding of this ship had led to President Nixon's declara- tion of a military alert against Cuba, an act giving the go-ahead signal to trigger-happy captains of U.S. naval and air war craft circling the socialist island. The confession was made in Havana after the captured cap- tain, a former Cuban citizen, had extensive talks with his own bro- ther, "a revolutionary and mem- ber of the Cuban militia," Cas- tro said. Castro read sections of the con- fession over the air. Villa's admission Villa, 55, in his own words ad- mitted he fled Cuba in 1350 for Miami, where he was recruited by a "Mr. Jones" to become an agent of the CIA. He was assign- ed to the captaincy of the Johnny Express, which with its sister ship, the Layla Express, both under the Panama flag, served as "mother ships" that carried the armed speedboats raiding the Cuban coastline and shooting up peaceful hamlets and towns in the dead of night. The speed- boats carry heavy '.calibre ma- chine guns. This has been going on since the Cuban revolution of 1959. The the Cuban revolution of 1959. U.S. State Department is mum about these atrocities, but as soon as the Cubans defend them- selves, outraged cries come from Washington in this instance lead- ing to the declaration of a mili- tary alarm against the neighbor- ing land. Both "mother ships" are own- ed by Cuban counter-revolutionists living in Miami who formed a shipping company under the name of Babun Brothers. Landed secret agents Villa also confessed that both ships disembarked secret agents in the dead of night on the Cu- ban coastline. Villa was born in Cuba and has allegedly adopted U.S. citizen- ship. He is the only one of the captured 28 members of both crews to claim U.S. papers. Washington has demanded the return of Villa: the Cuban govern- ment has refused. Castro announced Villa will be tried under Cuban law, as will all members of the both crews. Those found innocent of espio- nage will be repatriated, the United Press International quot- ed Castro as saying. Many Americans became ac- quainted with this episode through a front page photograph in the New York Times and other papers showing Nixon with a consoling arm around the wife of the cap- tured captain of the Johnny Ex- press. Nixon had invited the wife to his Florida quarters while he was vacationing there, and he vowed that he would get her hus- band back. The entire episode, observers point out, follows on the heels of a votein the Organization of American States showing a ground- swell for hemispheric diplomatic recognition of Cuba. It also fol- lows the triumphal tour of Cas- tro in Chile, Ecuador and Peru, breaking the cordon of isolation the U.S. tried to erect around the first socialist country in the western hemisphere. "The end of an era," the New York Times said disconsolately, Nov. 10. Meanwhile the dangerous alert is still in effect. Gus flail, gene- ral secretary of The Communist Party, has urged nationwide de- monstrations of protest. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL Approved For Release 4ftWftffi&bClA-RDP80-01 26 DEc. 1971 eliable Sources ' I Link Jose Villa , CIA During '60s CIA STANDS FOR WHAT? How about "Castro Is Accurate," or at least partly so? Fidel claimed that Jose Villa, captain of the freighter seized by a Cuban gunboat Dec. 15, confessed to being a U.S. Central In- telligence agent. Neither the CIA nor the captain's boss of record would comment, but highly reliable sources say Villa was intermittently linked with the CIA from 1960 to 1964 and again from 1965 to early 1967, but has had no CIA connections since then. Castro 's- detailed recitations of exile raids on Cuba seem to give considerable weight to the state- ments of one of his defected diplomats, Orlando Cas- tro Hidalgo. In a just-published book, he discloses the systematic infiltration of Fideli'sta agents into Latin Villa Goldberg America, Africa and the United States - particularly into Miami-based exile organizations, which could ex- plain why so many forays from Florida to Cuba have been thwarted across the straits. Those who believe Fidel is telling the truth about CIA support for these raids point to the quiet downgrading of charges every time an above-board law enforcement agency catches an exile boat carrying an arsenal. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8O-01601 R000500030001-6 HEW YORK TIM45 Approved For Release jff e03 } : CIA-RDP80-016 One-upmanship It seemed like a dangerous game of diplomatic one-upmanship, and Fidel Castro went one up last week. Eleven days ago, a Cuban gunboat 120 miles off the Cuban coast seized the freighter Johnny Express, skip- pered by Jose Villa, a Cuban-born nat- uralized American citizen. The Cubans claimed that the vessel, which flies th,3 :Panamanian flag but is owned by Cuban exiles who live in Miami, was fronting for the Central Intelligence Agency. President Nixon promised Mr. Vil- la's wife that he would do all in his power to have her husband released. And the State Department issued a statement that "the Government is pre- pared to take all measures under inter. national' law to protect U.S. citizens and the freedom of the seas." But last week Premier Castro, in a television and radio news conference, said that Mr. Villa had confessed to being a C.I.A. agent and would be tried by a revolutionary tribunal. He said Mr. Nixon had acted "precipitately" and "forcibly" without having all the information relating to the case. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 Approved For Rele T'&' A L: CIA-RDP80-0160 STATINTL VL4% r ? tll u?0 i'v ~,J P-d'aE7 y 'L ,>3y Lewis H. Dinguid The decision to deny Ex- not to intervene in Cuban Cuba. A month later, in Washington Post Foreign Service port-Import Bank financing fiUENOS AIRES-The for Chilean purchase of affairs. July, came the next step in last; American ambassador Boeing jets is considered by Soviet-Cuban Sugar Deal the attempt to closeout Cas- to;Cuba has just written a' some observes to have As late as January, 1960, tro - suspension of the all- bon c on the collapse of U.S. driven Chile to the Russians President Eisenhower made important Cuban quota for relations with Fidel Castro, in the same way that, Bonsai just a public pledge. The export of sugar to the and the present ambassador shows, the 1960 oil decision next month, Soviet Vice Pre- to.Chile has asked the State did the Cubans. micr Anastas Mikoyan, visit- United States at preferen- Deiartment to send him a More militant Commu- ing Havana, signed a deal tial prices. copy forthwith. nists and Socialists backing for Cuban sugar. According Congress authorized the Retired Ambassador Allende assume that the to Bonsai, the agreement, suspension, Bonsai recalls, Philip W. Bonsai argues, in other key decision-making did not endanger the tradi- after 'secret hearings, on the "Cuba, Castro and the center outside the Treasury tional U.S.-Cuban sugar basis that the step was "a as Bonasl im?Jtrade. necessary weapon to over- United States," that Castro's is the CIA , ear~y provocations trigg*ered Then Cuban agreed to throw Castro and defeat STATINTL untustifiably harsh U.S. re- plies was the case in 1960. take Soviet oil in part pay- Communist penetration of prisals, beginning with a Nixon 's Role ment for the sugar-enrag- the territory of American's crucial decision imple- Of course, today the ulti- ing traditional suppliers former staunch friend and merited by the Secretary of mate decisions lie with Pres- Texaco and Esso, whose ally." The ambassador says the-Treasury. 'dent Nixon. By his own ac- profit remittances Castro he saw no basis fur such a The decision was that the count, then Vice President had already frozen. contention. twb' American oil companies Nixon was the prime advo- Bonsai says that the com- Bonsai later learned that operating in Cuba should re- cate of the 1960 decision to panics had decided to refine the decision to do in Castro, ~ to t d fusq to refine Soviet crude oil~.that the Castro govern- meijt imported, and Bonsai says that the American gov- ernment informed him of thin critical turn in policy only by way of an oil coin- pauy excutive. This reprisal against Cas? tro's dealing with the Soviet Tlninn was the first ncnrt art arm Cuban exiles .or their the Soviet oil un er pro s - had been made in March, eventual invasion which was Then an oil executive vis- and the CIA had been au- out, in April, 1961, ited him, at the request of thori7ed to start recruiting carried under President Kennedy. Assistant Secretary of State and training the exile army. While Bonsai's spare, 225- Roy Rubottom. Bonsai re- "It became common knowl- page chronicle makes it calls: edge in Havana that sum- clear that Cuba and Castro "My visitor went on to tell mer that the CIA was help- were far different from Al- ing the anti-Castro guerrilla lende and Chile, the main me that on the previous day fighters who appeared spor- events are worth recalling representatives of the two adically in a number of rur- for their possible perti- American companies , al areas." in-"an unannounced policy nence-the more so since that climaxed with the Bay theme is mounting pressure of figs invasion. in the hemisphere to end " - . We in the Havana against Cuba. embassy became aware only Bonsai was named Ambas- sador to Cuba in January, gradually and imperfectly, 1959. to replace Earl E. T. and without real opportu- Smith, who had been deeply nity for comment and dis- committed to the Batista cussion, of the new policy of dietatorshop that Castro overthrew e a r l i e r that our government," says Bon- month. sal. Davis was named early in Eerie Similarities Allende's term to replace Although the career diplo- Edward M. Korry, whose mat makes no comparisons, analysis of Allende's elec- there are some eerie similar- toral victory supported hies between the events of those in Washington who 11 years ago and the uneasy consider Chile to be "lost." state of present U.S. rela- Korry stayed at his post tions with Chile's socialist through the first year of ne- government. f t f e o a it is gener- gotiations over the For instance , ally assumed in Santiago nationalized American cop- that U.S. policies unfavora- per investments. ble to President Salvador By Bonsai's account, his Allende's government are counsel against what he saw generated by Treasury Sec- as Castro; efforts to use the retary John Connally rather United States as a whipping than by the State Depart- boy was to negotiate quietly ment. and to reassert U.S. pledges had been summoned to the Approved For Release 2190M 3M: CIA-RDP80-01 WASHINGTON, Nov. C-Some of ray best friers s are spies. I was talking to one the Other clay who 'Was complaining that most Ameri- cans'seam to thin'.: that we don't n,,-:;,d any undercover altho it is all right for the other such [sides] to have plenty of them. There is a little bit cf truth in what /t11F spy says. Everybody knows lhat,we have the Central Jiitelligerce Agency because. it gets blamed for everything that goes wrong in the spy business. The spy-in-the-sk:y case in v: hich Gary Powers got Shot cloven in his high-flying J U-2 airplane is perhaps the hest known case, but the CIA also tool: the rap for the ill-fated invasion of Cuba which was -But the CIA is not really all that big and its jab gets compounded because many, if not roost, of the ether govern- ment hnr.eiios which do business over- seas like to take indivic'.ual shots at spying. This includes . he i e lei'cci Bi:? , rC?.ll Of Il)`-?b:'t~aliOG with .gents. piFcilt- ed everyv,hore--from among re;'olution- ary groups to Earth Day rallies. At the last demonstration 'against the White House policies oil Viet Nsrn, a rather smolt affair as demonstrations go, it was noticed by this reporter that an awful lot of the people mingling with the demonstrators didn't really look the part. Investi gallon disclosed they were from the Customs Office, S:=east Service, Internal Iievomie Service, United States marshal's Office, or the Bureau of Nar- cotics, t:) name a few. - Not too n:,^ny years ago, we lcarued of a diplomatic trip to l?ussia by an American [who shall not be named] who took along a group loaded with more gadgets to detect radiation than they could carry at oat time. One of the gadgets was shaped like a slightly oversize fountain pen. After we gave up the U-2 flights over Russia [but not China] Ilia military de- veloped cameras for space satellites that today are launched in secrecy from Van- cnnberg Air Force Bose, Cal., to' circle far above foreign nations. The detail from these piefurea is atmazinb - and helpful. But this sort of thing is never talked about in more conventional places of American ;overrrlent, especially not at the State D llartinent. There is a cer- talll disdain sho'.?ll towat(1 spies and spying at state, a trait shared by diplo- mats Of many Western nations. So it was v'ith interest that I listened when another spy-told me bow 1 illianl .Itogers, secretary of state, had played a key role An helping Egypt purge .its nation of Ceinnluiiist spies. The story the spy told its was that Jiegers had been ec;nipped with a wrist watch that could detect electronic eavesdropping equipment. This males sense because More arc any number Of minute eleeetronic devices that could be detected by a watch of this kind. It is also on public record that East Europeans had indeed been e~:pelle-d from Egypt for planting listening de- vices in a vi piety of official meeting places. In any event, Rogers'-watch was sup-' posed to have sounded a signal ciarhig a private ,meting with President Anwar Sadat that they were finder electronic survelliiallee. Saciet, of course, heard the buzzing. I asked Eogers the other night if ti13 story was true. The secretary grinned and said he had lienrci the sane story. "hilt," she hisisted, "it.. Just isn't true." It's getting so you can't even] trust SpIcs any more. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ?: CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500030001-6 STATINTL '?'' I v 4'; G L 1) Approved For Release ?2UU1/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016 5 N0 19171 :i L L F1 0'. i`J) JU JJ y '~~.s ~~ r-~;R ~? n :' - peace and friendship, especially with that nation with lad i._ 926 t CYVil whom we have the most reason to be peaceful and friend- t For conflict between the USSR and the USA can only s an 'e ise `: hose life s `a .s four v rar' apd who esult in a 'i ai holocaust, and most Klima?] beings today IY_- t the rest o o: us, aspires for a world at peace, al- nave become , aware of that. President Nixon himself low me e to make a few observations on.this 54th anniver- "S sary of the Soviet Union, the first workers' and farmers' said so a few days ago when he announced his "mission state- to A!oscow, accident of history. The invitation was the logical level relatives who died in it. Jn I?,? I covered the star that opmert oI 'raditiora 1 Soviet policy, re (finned at its 2 tii defended democracy in Spain as war correspcndcrt far a ?r ~., _, Congress of the Communist Party e USSR. tills neiYS72per'S p2'e. eC2S Or :":e : J : , : y v: ?. ~t + ~~ o I did so again in V'orld \%1ar II, tilat conflict Peaces:u, co exis.e-'c. has r :viet policy since the world's anti-fascists and the Internatioral Brigades its begin ' .The very f first deed of i;evrly born wort: ers' and farmers' got'ernnent led by Lenin was a call to had none i to avert by making ' the fa s- O Madr. n tomb of fn cism." the peoples of all warring powers to one the bloodshed. I stood in the concentration camp of Dachau May Throughout the years the USSR has been the persis- 7 y li tent protagonist of orsarmametit negotiations, proposals , I 5, to report its capture by the al d trco, s the day which always shocked the capitalist powers, bringing the war ended. I was at Playa Giron in Cuba when the y J CIA launched its mercenaries against the revolutionary republic. 'Four fierce conflicts in one r:an's life - enough for an etcraty. On this occasion, the 54th anniversary of the USSR's birth, I contend that the first workers' state is the world's firmest guarantee against World Win- Ill. That can be demonstrated ii one will think obje:ctively. I once wrote that no greater love hat h a man for his country than to lay down his prejudices for it. I would wish all Americans could do So and assess the facts of this half- .-Century's history. The centrality of the Soviet Union in mankind's will for peace is being accepted by the majority of the world's war-weary peoples. It accounts for the warm response the Soviet leaders receive as they rat e the continents g with their proposals to negotiate all differences in order 'to achieve detente - and more - in this world. Consider the nations the leading Soviet statesmen have flown to, or wit b whom they have had negotiations curses trar. ranged from cries of "Utopian" to "Red p er- fidyt" invective inspired 'by such media as the Hearst press here. But the fine hand V. the armaments lobbies could ail?way's be traced writing the backroorn script for the journalists of jingoism. Yet the Soviet Union persisted, undismayed. And the world can be thankful, ? During the Thirties it tried to get the Western pow- ers together in a collective secarity peace pact. As 11'q ler , s policies lunged toward World War II, the USSR worked tirelessly to create an anti-fascist coalition. The name of Litvinoff became kno:?rn, and his formula, "Peace is indivisible," resounded across the hem-is here. Tragically, the time had not yet come for the idea to tri- umph and World War II engulfed us all. That war was won primarily because, as General Douglas MacArthur put it on Feb- 23, iS 2: "The hopes of civilization rest on the worthy banners of the courageous Russian Arm Y." Let us not forget that, for the war too?: 20 million Soviet lives, a third-of its toti