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October 25, 1972
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STATI NTL Octob e r 25, ApilroveeMstitatchitatle2.0ertaii044-0:6VROPs80104 In conclusion, a fairer interpretetien of present laws is inreotle neeried. Tne limited 7:1`..0.11:CC.5 of the Ainevieen nedPie Ph-d:cd In the hands of F.D.A. shoold be applied in the real problem ai-e..s?we,-ee problems mani- feSt themselves. Many ie' Ion newer effee- tiveeess requireenceos for newer drres eince. 1902, but pi-erne:es on tite morket prier to 19C2 vetch neve ehown no toxicity, er health problems should remain free of the new tale. If this takes n new Jew to protect the 0re- 1952 drugs, I ureently request it. The free enterprise syetere is being unneceesainly challenged and burdened Wfal CY.CeSS etate control. I have briefly brought to lieht many prob- lem,: arid would be happy to provide doeu- mrntation and grea-er depth of discussion on any one or ell of these problems. Respectfully sribmitted. floss A, Demmormr, PresC:C71t. (---- GREECE. or TIIE JOURNALISTS: A REVIEW OE TWO BOOKS --- LION. PATSY "f. MINK OF HAWAII IN THE 110USE OF REPRLSF,NTATIVES Wednesday, October 18, 1972 Mrs. MINK. Mr. Speaker, Dr. George Anastaplo, a distinguished scholar who Is both a lecturer in ltberal arts at the Univereity of Chicago and a profe.r,scr of political science at Rosary College, has, written an article I would like to share with my colleagues. Dr. Anastaplo's article first appeared in the Saturday Review in. February, 197/, as a book review and as an analysis of the political turmoil Cf Greece in 1967. The article follows: (Norte?The review was published, in a somewhat edited form, In the Saturday Re- view, February 12. 1972, pp. ? (The reviewer, George Ansetaplo, who was born In St. Louis and 110w lives in Chicago. Is Lecturer in the TAberel Arts, The Univer- sity of Chicago, slICI Professor of Political Science, Rosary College. Ile is the author of .The Constitutionalist: Notes on the First Amendment, published in 1971 by the South- ern Methodist Ueiversity (Dr. Anaztoplo has been declared persona n072 grata by the Greek government because of his articles about American policy In Greece. Citations to those articles may be found in the Ccnr7ressional Record, vol. 117, p. E6129 (June 17, 1971). See, also, Con- gressional Recant. vol. 118. p. S333 (Jan. 24, 1972),'p. S11500 (July 24, 2972).) GREECE OF THE JOURNALIITS: A REVIEW OF Two BOOKS (By George Anastaplo) The two books reviewed on this occasion are John -A. liatrie's 12;,,ewitness in Greece: The Colonels Come to Po:rer (St. Louis: E. P. Dutton Co., 1971: 317 penes, 59.95), and Bayard Stockton's Phoenix With a Bayonet: A Journalist's Interim Report on the Creek Revolution (Ann Arbor, Georgetown Publications, 1971; 306 pa.:,es, $7.95). Both of these exceSsively partisan hooks can be useful for the discerning American reader. Bayard Stockton, an American free- lance journalist liviee, In Geecce, attempts to make a ease for the Greek colonels who seized power in Athens hi Aril 1967. John A. KR- tris, a Greek journalist with a very good reputation (who now lives iii l'Oinneapolls), Etittes the case egainst the United States . which v.111 probably be accepted SOMO day by most Greeks, a case which sees the colonels as little more than American agents. Per- haps, indeed, that day has already come. The Stue'eton hook, derpire Its eeert to say all that can be said for the colonels?and, even more :ignifieant, dc-Cite willingness to ignore much of what crinhe real against them?lies not been received altogether entrinicsIly in Athens. Mr. Stockton re- mains enough cf a journelkt to reveal, here and there (often almost. inedvertent)y) marked deficiencies in the regime he defends. in adnition, ono can deduce ltie colonels' shortereniees by noticing the subject skirted by their apolotist. Mostereveninre may be the manner in which. the longetancling torture charges are nandted by Mr. Stockton. He will not say outrielit thet there has not been widespread deliberaSc' recourse to torittre es of1c151 gov- ernment policy. Rather, he areues that such charges crinnot be "totally proved or dis- proved" end then proceed.: to treat'thern as frivolous, it not even fraudulent. P. 141. The colonels themselves have been oblieed to ad- mit, both by the vitupereeive denials they Issue and by the reprehensible deeds they conceal, that neither their program nor their country's plight has justified reliance on the torture which is alleged by their critics. Had Mr. Stockton been in assess- ing the torture charges, to apply the stand- ards and accept the kind of evidence he relies upon to condemn the misdeeds of the colonels' predecessors, he would have been obliged to recognize the eXibItLet., since 1967 of systematic torture unknown in any West European O01.1iHry today and uripreeedented In peacetime Greece. Had he been willing to conduct the In- quiries which foreign journalists can still make in Greece, he could easily have con- firmed dozens (if not hundreds) of cases of savage torture, cases which have been docu- mented in even greater number in James Docket's Berberiser in Greece (New York: Walker and Co., 1970) and in the thousand- page report (issued In 1970) of the Commis- sion on Human Rights of the Council of Europe. For anyone to attempt by equivoca- tion and sophistry to dismiss so much avail- able evidence is to raise serious doubts about his reliability. The reader should be reminded of the kind of perverse self-deception, if not even dishonesty, which permitted intellioent men to ignore for so ninny years Stalin's barbarities, Recourse liras been had to torture and to continued repreesion because the colonels have not been able, in their ftve years in power, to secure more than the sullen RC- quiescence of the Greek people. Tile United States has been gulled into its unseemly support of' the regime by repeated assur- ances of a speedy return to constitutional government and free elections. It should be evident that the colonels have neither the Intention of ever giving up power voluntarily nor the ability to retain it constitutionally. Certainly, one docs not need much personal exposure to these. un- faithful army officers to realize they are crude opportunists who are ruthless, self- righteous and daneerous. "We have all learnt, we all know," George Seferis (the Nobel Laureate poet) observed in Athens in March 1969, "that in dictatorial reeimes the beginning may seem easy, yet tragedy waits at the end, inet,capably.. , . The longer this abnormal situation lasts, the gre.ner the evil." The colonels were able to seize power in 1967 because of the imprudent and irrespon- sible, feuding among the recognized politi- cians in Greece during the preeediag dec- ade. This fetich/1g, which was inagnined with the aid of an excitable press into a, prolonged constitutional crisis in 1965, Is exhibited in the Inatris hook. Mr. Katrie's disregard of the practical consequences of what he writes is en instructive sample of the public folly in which Greek politicians and jonenalists indulged before the colonels struck. His intemperate denonciations of the Greek monarchy can only- impede the forging of an effective alliance emong the many honorable men, royalists and repnbli- cans alike, who now find themselves in cp- p-zisition to the eolmiels. Now unrealistic his program is Incy be seen Iii the conditions be lays down for the re- plocement of the colonels by an acceptable regime: there is shout such pronouncements considerable fantasy. as if the colonels' op- ponents are now able to decide who will govern Greece. it :lees not seem, to he reel- iced, that is, that the colonels ore likely to remain in power for a generation, barring chance developments or a serious interna- tional crisis. Mr. Eiatris's insistence that the American C.I.A. is really behind the colonels dees not recognize that such control need not be poeited in order for one to understand what. happened in Greece in April 1967. To insist upon the C.I.A. as decisive is to underesri- mate the shortcomines of Greeks of el/ par- ties. It is to be a prisoner of that taste yor the conspiratorial and the dramatic (with its depreciation of the role of chance in human airnirs) which can make Greeks both so en- gaging and so exasperating. It ignores, fur- thermore, the growing realization among Greeks of all persnasions (at least among those who have remained in Greece) that something was seriously wrong with the old way of doing things, that leaders of all par- ties contributed to the suicidal irresponsi- bility and posturing which permitted bar- barians in khaki to install themselves as the saviours of their troubled country. The most obvious feature of the Stockton book for Americans should be its display of how barbarians can be prettied up as patient. well-meaning and determined protectors or law and order. It is to the credit of Greek Politicians and journalists that no one or stature among them can be recruited by the dictatorship to serve as its apologist. Thus. however irresponsibly passionate they have been, they do retain the sense of honor which often accompanied such paseion. Would a similar regime among us remain tillable for five years to attract any serious support from established leaders and writers? The colonels and theft associates. usually the most diereputable elements in the army and out, realize they face imprisonment or eiteeution if they should surrender power. That is, they realize that propaganda bar- rages have not secured for them genuine popular support. It Is significant, for instance, that the newspapers which are described by Mr. Stockton as roost closely identified with the colonels are found (elsewhere in his book) at the bottom of the list of circulation figures for Athens the concern of the colonels them- selves that their regime not be identified publicly with eaecutions. There would be much more violent resistance to the colonels among disaffected Greeks today but for the tacit agreement on all sides that the fero- cious vendettas of the 194Os should not be revived. The only prospect for dislodging the col- onels. once entrenched, depended upon judictous seaport by the United States of the Greek people in their desire to rid them- selves of their tyrants. But the influence of the United States has been fading, and with this the colonels have dared become more open in their contempt for the free world, its Institutions and its concerns. I have, since 1937, seen at close range all the prin- cipal Greek political figures who are alive today as well as all the principal members of the colonels' conspiracy. I myeelf would much prefer to have any one of the former (e.g., King Constantine, P. Rianellopoulos, C. Kareimanlis, (1. Mavros. C. MItsotakis, A. Papandreou, G. Rallis, 0. Walls, H. Viaehou) as my governor than Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 eitoto Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 BEST COPY Available THROUGHOUT FOLDER 6/24/98 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ApproWRIlikelease 2NUM/t4: EP 372 eview PATERN L1STIC CAPITA LISM , by Andreas G. Papandreou. Minneap- . olis: University of Minnesota Press, 1972:$7.50. - SOME BOOKS ARE noteworthy for their contents, others because of who wrote them. This one is more the lat- ter than . the former; there is little strikingly new. in it. However, some people (perhaps some economists es- pecially) may 'pay attention to Papan- dreou, wilb have ignored the same points made earlier by all those who have made them?Marx, Veblen, Bar- an and Sweezy, Magdoff, O'Connor, Oglesby, Horowitz, to name?a few. Everyone must have heard of Pap- andreou by now. He was the cabinet Minister who, in the elections of 1967,? expected to lead a new government?a liberal one. Instead, he was thrbwn in jail by ,the military junta that seized' power, and that still holds it in Greece. One can only guess about' others' thought processes, but in this case it seems reasonable to believe that Pap- andreou worked back from that coup, to the CIA, to American imperialism, to what he calls "paternalistic capital- ism." What he means by that term, in- cidentally, is not much different from what is meant by monopoly capitalism, state capitalism, or simply imperialism, by others. That he uses the term pater- nalism to identify a system that, as he any implication that it may. be ben- evolent" (p. 6), tells more of the hes- itancy of his new stance, than of the stance itself. ? . Papandreou has nothing pleasant to say either about American capitalism or about mainstream economics, both of which he once proudly hailed. He was chairman of the Economies De- partment at Berkeley in the late '50s, and wittingly or not helped grease the skids toward more and more of what he now rejects. The book starts off with a hard, dry, but polite attack on the main elements of economic theory, as ? she is written and taught. Except for those steeped in the stuff, what he has to say will be barely intdlligible; he is speaking essentially to those who have - a lot to unlearn. Papandreou's heart, and his most di- rect language, are. found in the chap- ter entitled "Peaceful Coexistence and Counter-Revolution," where Greece moves on and off the stage regularly. He rejects the notion that the "cold war" was "cold"?"it actually almost e'er was" .(p. 121). More to the point, he argue,s, "it seems rather clear on the basis of. available evidence that in the era of confrontation [1946 to 1963, by his dating] .the action was American and the response Russian" (p. 123; his emphasis). And for him, the central point: ". . . in the. case -of Greece there was no danger of Rus- sian intervention or involvement. . . . Notwithstanding ? the rhetoric about democracy, the U.S.. intervention in Greece represented above all a coun- ter-revolutionary action in the service of the strategic and economic interests of the United States in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East" (p. 128). The American intervention referred 'to began in 1947, with the Truman Doctrine. From that point on, a line goes directly (if also crookedly, in both senses of the term) through the Mar- shall Plan, NATO, SEATO, CENTO, and, to among other places, the savage war against Indochina. His comment ? on NATO is characteristic: The NATO directorate, a vast military and economic complex un- der the direct control of the Penta- gon, exerciies decisive influence over the establishments of the par- himself Atiti entirgvo stgicl of ticipating Western European coun- . r vea r ease 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R00050049.991-5? tries?and is in? eed itself a not in- significant component of these es- tablishments. Its .network of power extends from the military elites and the top echelons of the national se- curity bureaucracies in general, to the economic and political elites of the member nations. And the War- saw Pact directorate, controlled by Moscow, has become by now a far more reliable instrument of control over the Soviet Union's European satellites than the local conununist parties (p. 135). Papandreou has quarrels with Baran and Sweezy's Monopoly Capital, and ? with Galbr.aith's New Industrial State; but it is gratifying to note that, Where- as he rejects Galbraith's optimism.' about the present structure and uses of power as being foolish (pp. 72-89), his major cavil with Baran and Sweezy boils down to the kind of, argument that Marxists have with each Other (i.e., the controversy between Fitch/ ; Oppenheimer and Sweezy! O'Connor over "Who Rules the Corporations,' in Socialist RevolutiOn, in 1970-71). It is an argument not about whether the economy is run by a small limber pf corporate giants, but the sectoral identification or those giants. Papan- dreou is an eclectic himself, and he leans toward some combination of Sweezy, and C. Wright Mills as mod- ified by Domhoff : Thus, the focus of power in the: contemporary. American Establish- ment rests with the corporate man- agerial-capitalist elite, the civilian nonbureaucratic component of the national security managerial group,-, the top echelons of the bureaucracy charged with the management of na- tional security, and especially, of course, the military bureaucracy. Of these components of the Establish- ment, the most senior, in a' truly pervasive sense, is the corporate elite.. The corporate elite underlies, and is, in the last analysis, identi- ? fied with all of them. The American dominant class now rules by having occupied the "core" of the Estab- . lishment in an effectively compre- . hensive, all-enveloping way (p. 119). Something of a far cry, that, frOm the Marshallian representative firm and the minimal state- that still sit at the center of economic theory. ritZed Approved For Wew49031i/I04: CIA-RDP80-0 'JAMES '.1.-KILPATRICk 10 AUG 1972 . On Greece: Some Amends and Amplifriotioils STATI NTL Let me come back, if I may, to the matter of George Mc- Govern and Greece. ? I dealt with the story in a column 10 ? days ago'. Certain amends and amplifications need to be made. Standing squarely ? in the center of this affair is the handsome, enigmatic figure . of ,one of WasnIngton's Most polished and effective lobby- ists, Elias P. Demetracopou- los. Among the Greeks in 'exile who hunger. for the ous- ter of the present military ?regime, actress Melina Mer- , couri 'makes the biggest ? splash, and Prof. Andreas Papandreou, up in Canada, rings the most violent alarms. But the exile who gets the most accomplished is, as Mc- ? Govern addressed hfm on July ? 17, "Dear Elias." ? He is a very remarkable fellow. In my recent column, described him as (1) a minor . journalist in Athens, who (2) ? turned up at a journalists' meeting in Communist Poland when he fled Greece in 1967; and I said he was (3) remem- bered in Athens as the author of a newspaper story in 1965, based upon a forged letter that gave currency to vicious anti-American propaganda. As to (1): The "minor" was unfair, and I apologize for it. The conservative weekly, Hu- man Events, has described Demetracopoulos as "the fore- most political editor in Greece," and Herman Kahn, of the Hudson Institute, has identified him. as "the distin- guished political editor in exile." As to (2): He did indeed turn up at a journalists' meet- ing in Warsaw when he es- caped from Greece, but the meeting was the sixth in a series sponsored by the United Nations. He had been officially invited .to attend. As to (3): In August of 1965, when Demetracopoulos was working in Athens for the newspaper Ethnos, its pub-, usher received a photocopy of a letter purporting to have been written by Col. Oliver K. Marshall, then Army attache at the American Embassy. The letter appeared to ac- knowledge CIA responsibility for an explosion at Gorgopo- tames the preceding Novem- ber that killed 13 persons. Demetracopoulos says that when he was called in on the story, he suspected a forgery. His suspicions were confirmed by the embassy, which de- nounced the document as "clearly a fabrication." Other newspapers in Athens were understood to have received the purported letter also. In an effort to beat the com- petition, Ethnos on Aug. 1 backed into the story through- a lead paragraph quoting, the embassy as denying the valid- ity of the forged letter, which Ethnos then splashed all over its front .page. Dernetraco- poulos says the decision thus to publicize the letter, while denying its authenticity, was not his own, but his publish- er's. In any event, the Story created a sensation, and was s 'zed upon the next day by c Communist paper Alegi for anti-American exploitation. Following his escape. Deme- tracopoulos settled in Wash- ington. He became a consul- tant for Brimberg & Co., members of the New York ? Stock Exchange. He continued to work as a journalist, but, mostly he set out to win friends and to influence people on Capitol Hill. lie cultivated . such diverse senators as Byrd of Virginia and Javits of New York. A -personable bachelor, he became an extra man for dinner. Strom Thurmond gave him a warmly. inscribed photo- graph. In the annals of high- level lobbying, he holds a re- spected place. His labors against the junta were rewarded a year ago, when the House approved an amendment urging a halt to , American aid to Greece. But his greatest successes came last month in Miami, when he first persuaded key Demo- crats to include an anti-junta plank in the Democratic plat- form, and then received the "Dear Elais" letter from Mc- Govern. It was in this letter that ? McGovern gratuitously spelled out what he would do - about Greece "in January of next year." t -What is puzzling in all this is the aparent willingness of so many key political figures to iSivallow, hook, bait and sink- er, ? the line Demetracopoulos is feeding them. He himself is t,staunchly anti-Communist, but :eiverthrow of the present re-. 'gime would invite the insiabi- JIy and political chaos the !Ckimmunists most desire. Mc- rOovern hasn't thought this ging through ? and MeGov- Inn- alas, is not alone. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 0131i1STILN Approved For Release 2411412210497CIA-RDP80 STATINTL ?rf-. bi Greece: The Preoent, IncIde the Colonel's Greece, by "Athenian.". - New York: Norton. $6.95. ? By John K. Cooley In May the noted Greek economist, John ,Pcsmazoglu, known in the United States as chairman of the Greek Committee of the Eisenhower Foundation, joined hundreds of other prominent Greeks of all political con- victions who have been deported to remote villages. Ills special crime was to have held a news conference warning that the Greek colonels' economic policies were unsound, .and that Greece could not hope to become 'a full member of the European Economic Community as long as it is ruled by the 'military dictatorship which seized power on April 21,1937. A few days later, editor 'minis Horn of the English-language newspaper "Athens News" went to jail for having published a headline observing that bomb explosions, as well as "schoolchildren summoned for the occa- sion," had greeted the visit to Athens of U.S. Vice-President Spiro Agnew, a friend of he regime, last October. These are merely two of the innumerable occurrences under- a system which Prime 'Minister George Papadopoulos, the former Intelligence officer who led the successful conspiracy of April,. 1967 against parlia- mentary government, describes as "the Greece of Christian Greeks." Nearly 45 books have appeared in English and various other European languages about this Greece. "In- side the Colonels' Greece" is the best this reviewer has seen. ? The anonymous author is apparently. well- known to many Greek political emigres and Probably to the Athens authorities as well. The facts and analyses he marshals and documents in his closely reasoned, unemo- tional text, show 'clearly that he has lived in Greece, not outside it, for most if not all of his life.. Is an anti-Communist, scornful of the u'ay the Greek Communist Party and the Soviet Union acted in the past and are now exploiting the present situation without tak- ing any political risks. 'But he is also without Illusions about the Greek royal family or the Rightist politicians who now oppose the officers' dictatorship. Ile does appear to have considerable respect for former Prime Minister Constantine Kara- mantis, living in silent exile in Paris, and for ousted Prime Minister Panayotis Kanell- opoulos, who despite several periods of house arrest and close surveillance in Athens continues to issue statements and manifestos demanding a return to democracy. He refutes the colonels' arguments about "chaos" and "anarchy" before the coup, or the "Communist takeover" it was supposed to prevent. .The ? booli's main headings disclose its argument: Part I, The Past, Or How It All Caine About; Part II, The Present, Or What It is Like and Part 111, The Future, Or How To Get Rid Of Them. After explaining Greece's development from the departure of the Turks a century ago until thc.. Metaxas dictatorship of 1936, he dispassionately an- alyzes the events and effects of World Wa.r.11 (including some embarrassing, details about the activities of some of the present rulers, including Mr. Papadopoulos, during that period).. 'Next he deals with the "liberty in tute- lage" of the parliamentary regime of 1950- 1963 and what he calls the (relative) "com- plete liberty" of 1963-1955, which ended when the inexperienced and ill-advised young King Constantine forced resignation of the late Centrist Prime Minister, George Pa- pandreou. Papandreou 's withdrawal helped. prepare the ? ground for the conspiracy of "unknown and undistinguished officers" who were to shove Constantine aside and into exile when his clumsy attempt to unseat the junta failed in December, 1567. The author describes in detail and in moderate language how the present regime works: who-suffers and who benefits from it; the effects of its policies on education, the Information media, culture, Greece's stand- ing abroad, and the stultifying effect on Greek life in general of the regime's anti- intellectualism, censorship and military law under which a man can (and often does) go to prison for a year for a single sentence uttered STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R00050022000105tirmcd Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01g&allb16500220001-5 KEESPORT, PA. )J EWS APR 29 1972 E - 37,827 Greek 'Anniversary \ THE OBSERVANCE SLIPPED by almost I unnoticed in the public press ? the fifth anniversary of the Greek military regime's seizure of political power. The past five years have been ones of heavy-handedness, political imprisonment, torture, suspension of Parliament and elec- tions, and press intimidation. Yet there ap- parently is no real ground swell of popular antagonism against. the regime, outside of a relatively small circle of Athenian in- tellectuals. To many outsiders, the question might be, why? And the answers range from the abun- dance of employment and ? television sets, *washing machines, beer and cars to the stocky figure of Prime Minister George Papadopoulos. For the past five years the former colonel has -maneuvered shrewdly, making himself the undisputed strongman of Greece. The regime maintains its control through a large police force and the 150,000-man army, both of which have been upgraded In pay, perquisites and. status to form a new privileged class in Greece. The army symbolizes law and order, and this deeply appeals to many in the .small towns and rural areas of the nation. One wonders why military rule has been so successful, but a look at the nation's economy may supply the answer. Give a pence a well-paying job and plenty of corn; forts and it's unlikely that he'll complain 'too miich about other conditions. Per capita income has risen 33 per cent since the colonels took over in 1967., Stores are crammed with TV sets, refrigerators and a multitude of other appliances. Cars also are becoming easier to acquire even though the . price is still high. However, unemployment is non-existent. In fact, Greece exports 300,000 workers to Western Europe. !Greece's major growth industry is tourism with some three million visitors expected this year, AO per cent more than last year and projections envision a steady increase of 25 per cent annually for the next several years. , Although there is some complaint of a I lack of freedom, there are many who say , there is, more freedom in Greece today- than.: there was prior to the military takeover. Restrictions on the press have eased in the past year and the number of political prisoners continues to decrease. Of course. as in any nation, there are those who will fight the ruling power and Greece is no exception. The intellectuals are battling the military leadership and in keeping with the fashion of the day they blame most of the nation's ills on the United States. The_01.4, is, alleged, had a hand in the colonel's coup of 1967 and still is responsible for keeping the regime in power. But some opposition leaders who have spent time in jail believe the Athenian "outs" have made the U.S. the whipping boy be- cause of their own lack of will or ability to undermine the military government. \in It seems that you have a difficult time preaching revolt when the people have plenty f work, see foreigners flocking. to their ountry for visits, have money to spen d a variety of consumer items to ma it a little more camfortable. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 NATIONAL GII:03 TO Approved For Release plogvantil : CIA-RDP8 ii,, . , 1.--,,,, . . S':1,.,..10 r -,i7-,...i. ? i ,?;1:,?i? ii ,..!-1 -, i 7 .'' a I . 1 ' . , ? ! - : i (II , !' ; ' 1 Hr-iir,,:, IF .. ...I.,. , ...., ...i t..,,f, .,,li. , 7, E41 j t: I 1 ' ,.ia, t....5;..:1) -- .,L... .:::,...?; ii?i,...:?,,, i -i ":'.4.--1 . -,/ ..4( , By Dan Georgakas been the main benificiary of the coup: Stavros Niarchos Since its seizure of power in April 1967; the military and Aristotle Onassis have received huge tax concessions dictatorship in Greece has followed a path seeking to to get them to invest in Greece. Less well known figures transform that country into a virtual colony of U.S. im- from the group have gotten similar privileges. perialism. One of the latest junta giveaways has been to place all At the same time the junta has sought, with much less publicly owned land in Greece up for auction. This ? success, to crush the Greek resistance movement, amounts to millions of acres and thousands of islands and U.S. aid to the !unitary regime has continued without islets. Most of this land will end up in the hands of the interruption in spite of congressional acts to delay extpatriate millionaires and their friends. . Another shipment of certain heavy weapons. The U.S. govern- example of junta financing is the blinding of tourist- ment's enthusiasm for the regime was reinforced when complexes at public expense and then leasing them to ? Spiro Agnew visited Greece in the summer of 1971 amid private parties for management and profit. Thus the! great fanfare. junta's vaunted drive against corruption has amounted to Agnew's visit was followed by an agreement that Athens little less than the replacement of the royalist cliques by would become a new official home port for the U.S. the colonels' own coterie of rural gentry, nouveau riche Mediterranean 'fleet. This will mean tens of millions of and international capitalists. dollars annually for the troubled Greek economy. In No popular support . ?? - ? . February, President Nixon released all frozen' aid to Popular support for the regime has remained nil. Not a Greece, including the shipment of new jets, single prominent political figure of pre-junta Greece, 1 he brazen Nixon blessing of the fascist junta is the final whether rightist, leftist, or centcrist, has been won over. ffilsser of long-standing U.S. policy. The first overt in- Less than ten deputies from the last legal parliament have terference came in 1948 when Truman ordered massive collaborated. Recently two archbishops and sixty bishops military assistance to the royalist government. This aid, took public positions against the regime. ? - . which included the experimental use of napalm, coupled Such conservative and somewhat "safe" protests reflect with conflict within the socialist world over Tito's struggle the general mood of the nation. The funeral of George with Stalin led to the defeat of the Greek left in the civil Papandreou, the last legal premier, was turned into a huge war. Tens of thousands of patriots went into exile and an anti-governmant rally when hundreds of thousands equal number were jailed. shouted the slogans which had terrorized the Greek The 1950s were dominated by the governments of establishment in the early and middle 1960s. Every such' Costas Karamanlis who.ruled With a tough hand and full gathering is a tinderbox carefully guarded by the police U.S. support. Even during this period, however, officers and army. Even a film as innocuous as Woodstock had to within the Greek military developed clandestine groups be banned because peace slogans and wild cheering took with ties to U.S. intelligence. These men were trained in place in the theater when Erni Hendrix rendered his Ithe U.S. By the early 1960s when the Greek masses were parody of the American National Anthem. Only constant again in motion, the CIA contact man in Greece was surveillance, arrests, beatings and torture keep the George Papadopoulos who would emerge as the junta superficial impression of tranquility. strong man. . While worldwide pressure has brought the release of many prisoners and an abatement in torture, the resistance .. CIA line wins out ? has not very effectively taken advantage of the junta's For a time U.S. policy was undecided between the State massive unpopularity. There has been no significant Department's trust that George and Andreas Papandreou clandestine organization of workers, no rural guerrillas, could keep Greece dependable while retaining the form of only limited urban warfare and no large-scale participation parliamentary democracy and the CIA's desire to insure of youth who were the spearhead,of the mOvement in the dependency with its colonels. The debate was won by the 1960s. ? - CIA when it became clear that the general elections Much of this failure can be traced to the disillusionment scheduled for May 1967 would bring the center and left felt by the masses toward all pre-junta figures and sane 80 percent of the vote with great expectation from organizations. The king, his clique and the right wing are the masses of fundamental changes. The colonels were blamed for setting the conditions of the junta in the first given the go-ahead to use NATO weapons and a NATO place. The center is thought to be mainly a movement of contigency plan to take over the government, only rhetorical struggle. The greatest disillusionment, The colonels moved swiftly to crush opposition through however, is with the organized left. Almost all cadres of .a policy of torture, exile and imprisonment. Every public the Communist party and the United Democratic Left and private organization was purged of persons with any were completely unprepared for the coup, despite prior connection to the mildest progressive forces in Greece. warning signs. This ruthless disregard of national interest was masked by The collapse of the left can be traced to a large extent to I psuedo-nationalist jargon about "Greek Orthodox the ineffective popular front tactics of the left. Un- Christian purity" which not even the colonels took seriously. , prepared to seek power in their own name, their resistance activities have been primarily verbal, emphasizing the A key man during these events was Tom Pappas, the political prisoner issue and sentimental feelings about Boston ' industrialist who raised over $1 million from Greece rather than engaging in class politics with im- Greek shipowners for the Nixon-Agnew election cam- mediate socialist goals. paign. Pappas has the Standard Oil franchise in Greece and his foundationAMdllkgifKcb!pot The United Democratic Left now has no viable:' VD ifotsimapcm-ftwebslovilo fRadidOtiMooi -5 duits. The expatriatemillionaire group e ea s s _ ` STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/08MY: CIARDP80-01601 1 APR 1972 Greek democracy fights on ? One of the reasons given in the White House's why-we- are-in-the-Vietnam-war catechism is that the people of South Vietnam should have the right, freely and democrat- ically, to determine their own destiny. One need but turn to Greece to see what Nixon has in mind, even when there is no war. Five years ago today. a fascist-militarist junta seized power in Athens. It established a concentration camp re- gime; torture became the medium of justice; democratic and trade union rights were 'crushed. The junta putsch was inspired, encouraged; and paid for by the White House through the CIA and the Pentagon agencies. The colonels have paid off, opening the doors to the U.S. monopolies. The big payoff, however is the trans- formation of Greece into a base for the U.S. Sixth Fleet, a forward base against the Soviet Union and the other social- ist countries, and against the Middle East. Greece's en- slavement by U.S. imperialism is thus a threat to world peace, a time-bomb against detente in Europe. The inter- ests of the American people demand Greece's liberation. On this fifth anniversary of the junta's seizure of pow- er we urge our readers to demand of the White House that it get all U.S. military and espionage forces out of Greece; and to demand of the Greek Government (Embassy, 2221 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D.C.): Cessation of torture, freedom of all political prisoners, and a general political amnesty. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 DLELY 173PID Approved For Release 2001/03/PVCIWDP80- By WILLIAM J. POMEROY LONDON. April 20?Tomorrow (Friday) is the fifth anniversary of the 1967 coup in Greece that brought to power a fascist junta of army colonels who had CIA backing.. Despite the ruthless dic- tatorship they have fashioned, featured by concentration camps, torture and the extinguishing of political, trade union and other human rights, the popular strug- gle against the fascist regime has continued to grow, both inside Greece and on an international scale. This year a joint call has been -made by the various Greek resis- tance movements for April 21 to be made an International Day of support for the Greek freedom Struggle and of aid to the victims of 'the fascist junta. An appeal is made to Americans in particular. The 1967 coup was nurtured by the CIA and in the NATO military agencies of the U.S. government, and today the Nixon Administra- tion is seeking to reap the harvest of those fascist seeds by acquiring Greek naval bases for the U.S. Sixth Fleet. ? World conference The appeal was comprised in the main resolution of the Second International Conference against dictatorship and for the restora- tion of democracy in Greece, held in Paris on March 17-19. It was the broadest and most successful con- ference that has occurred to date on the struggle to abolish the. junta regime. Present, were delegations and observers from 21 countries be- sides a wide spectrum of Greek organizations themselves. The French Committee for a Demo- cratic Greece, the British League for. Democracy in Greece, the Swedish Committee for Dem- ocracy in Greece, the Norwegian Committee for Greek Democracy, British and Irish trade unionists were among them. In the Soviet delegation were the composer Aram Ka tchaturian, and Galina ? Ulanova, the ballerina. Greek delegates Greek organizations that sent delegates or from which invited leaders came included: Demo- cratic Defense (the Center Party's resistanceAorm the Communist NW/ It (KKE), the Pan-Hellenic Libera- tion Movement (PAK, which is headed by Andreas Papandreau),. the Patriotic Anti-Dictatorship Front, the Central Council of Anti- Dicta torship Committees, the Agrarian Party and Cooperatives, the Committee of Political Refu- gees, the United Anti-Dictatorship Movement of Greek Seamen (EASKEN). One of the main problems in the struggle to abolish the dictator- ship has been the difficulty in bringing about unity, both inside and outside Greece, of the varied left, center and conservative re- sistance groups, which' have tend- ed to follow the pattern of the pol- itical parties and organizations that existed in Greece prior to the fascist coup. The Second Interna- tional Conference showed an en- couraging growth of unity and co- ordination, as well as a broaden- ing of international support. United by oppression This trend has been fostered by experiences within Greece, where the fist of the junta has been brought down on all opponents of the regime, regardless of their political affiliation or belief. Com- munists, Center Unionists and rightist Radicals fir.d themselves in the same jails and concentra- tion camps for resistance activi- ties and are compelled to work together. Most important of the unity pres- sures is the simple fact of general, unreconciled ep,aion to the junta by tho overwhelming ma- jority of the Greek people. Mass trials are a continual feature of the country's life, as new resis- tance workers come forward to replace those arrested. Pres- sures and maneuvers to compel or attract leaders of all parties to recognize the regime or to collab- orate with it have changed noth- ing and have left the junta as iso- lated as it was at the beginning of the dictatorship. The unity trend has had its most impressive manifestation in the response within Greece to the appeal for General Poi' Freit3ReleasszaZI - lease of all political prisoners ? without exception and the procla- mation of a general amnesty. Cir- culated in the latter part of 1971, it was signed first by 470 person- alities from all political trends and from all sectors of Greek society ? academics, lawyers, judges, writers, clergymen, trade unionists, even military men. Although the fascist regime Tortures exposed hounded the signatories, depriv- ing many of their livelihood, bSn-' ning them from employment, and arresting them in some cases, 430 of them maintained their sup- port for the appeal and, more sig- nificantly, were joined by hun- dreds more, bringing well-known signatories now to over 1,000. The General Political Amnesty Cam- paign continues, and its success permeated the Paris Conference. The fight for the freedom of pol- itical prisoners has brought the most glaring spotlight of exposure on the fascist junta, which has tried .to squirm away from it by releasing a number of the prison- ers in December, 1971, and in January, 1972. In doing so, it has pretended that political prisoners no longer exist in Greece. Ur.der pressure from foreign journalists, however, the junta's Minister of Justice admitted on Feb. 10, 1972 that there were in fact 334, of whom 270 had been sentenced and 64 were awaiting trial. Since then it has been as- certained, as of March 13, that there are 323 sentenced political prisoners and 72 others awaiting trial, with more being arrested all the time, including some of those who had been released. Conditions of political prisoners have, in fact, worsened. In Nov. 1970 the junta terminated visits and assistance to the prisoners by the International Committee of the Red Cross, to whom ac- counts of torture and maltreat- ment had been given in the past. Torture and confinement in dark, damp and insanitary cells has, been resumed, attested to by let- ters smuggled from the prisons.- STATINTL STATI NTL : CIA-RDP8t1:C46611R000500220001-5 WKSHINGTUN kOSt Approved For Release 2090/M497r1A-RsCREig9fIL601 Greek tile Never Stro ger Papadocracy" Is Hallmark ? ? by William Toulti, that Papadopoulos' military umslueesrunes rule has never been stronger. ? ' ATHENS?On a recent As one opposition politi- overcast day in the freshly clan summed it up: "There scrubbed main square of is no effective force today to Messolonghi in western challenge the regime, nei- Greece, Prime Minister ther inside nor outside George Papadopoulos told Greece." the assembled throng in his strident, stilted accent: To many outsiders, the gnawing question is why, "Our progress and that of after five years of heavy. our children will be halted handedness, political impri- only over my dead body." sonmcnt, torturing, suspen- No one In the applauding sion of parliament and elec- provincial audience or tions, and press intimida- among the dozens of secu- tion, there real ground rity agents on duty doubted . swell of popular antagonism - the determination of the ? against the regime outside a ' stocky, scowling 52-year-old relatively small circle of former colonel, though Athenian intellectuals. there may, have been a few There are several reasons: In Messolonghi, and many Partly, it is because the re- others in Athens, who ques- gime maintains its control tioned his concept of prog- through a large police force reis. and the 150,000-man army, On April 21, the military both of which have been up. regime marks the fifth anni- graded in pay and g tatus to versary of seizing political form the new privileged power from a fractious and class of Greece. .? fragile Greek parliament, thus ending democratic gov- ernment here. Since then, Papadopoulos has maneuvered shrewdly. The army symbolizes law and order, and this deeply, appeals to 'many in the small towns and rural areas of Greece. making' himself the undis- ? Further, the powerful Greek Orthodox Church has tacitly backed the regime, one of whose slogans is "a Greece of Christian Greeks." The wealthy busi- ness community also sup- ports the government, which advocates free enterprise and generous tax exemp- tions. The regime does not have to worry much about the op- position, since it is disorgan- ized, almost chaotic, and has failed to unite around a sin- gle leader or political nu- cleus. But perhaps the most im- portant underlying reason for the success of the re- gime is the great consumer boom. that has only belat- edly arrived in Greece. Per capita income has risen to more than 51.200, up puted strongman of Greece, )nd, _in the process, he has undeniably solidified the po- sition of his regime. Greece's political masters used to be referred to collec- tively as "the colonels," but the phrase is now passe. Pa- padopoulos is the su- . preme: prime minister, de- fense minister, foreign min- ister, minister of govern- ment agencies, and most re- cently, he has taken over as regent for self-exiled. King Constantine. The official symbol of the regime is a Phoenix rising from flames guarded by an armed soldier. But cynics today tend to describe the government rather as "papa- docracy," and anything re- sembling parliamentary de- mocracy based on free elec- one-third since the colonels tions is not yet in sight. took over in 1967. An extended trip through Stores in provincial towns Greece today produces the are crammed with television Inescapable ccApte,VESCI-sF aerReleas ev200g1/ drawn from both pro- and machines, and other appli- anti-government elements in ances. Greece, although still this nation of 83 million as Regime Enters Fifth Year an underdeveloped country, has more than a half million sets. Beer-drinking is on the Increase, since it is consid- ered a status symbol in a na- tion whose cheapest esink is wine. But the biggest status- symbol of all is the automo- bile. Over the Easter holi- days, fully 200.000 cars left the Athens-Piraeus metro- politan area for the country- side with 600,000 people? out of a total population of 2.5 million. Unemployment is nonex- istent in Greece. The Coun- try, in fact, sends 300,000 workers to Western Europe, and the remittances from them and Greek seamen abroad are expeeted to bring in $500 million this year. Greece's major growth in- dustry is tourism. The na- tion expects 3 million visi- tors this year, 40 per cent more than last year, and a steady increase of 25 per cent annually is expected for the next several years. New hotels are sprouting up throughout the mainland and on Crete, Rhodes, Corfu, and smaller islands. Economists predict a 7 to 8 per cent increase In real growth. The economic danger spots, however, are rising prices and a large trade def- icit. But as one Western economist said: "A developing country like Greece needs to run a deficit to import the materi- In some book stores, cop- als needed to industrialize. ies of Guevara, Marcuse, and Brecht are sometimes available, though in the provinces a nod from a gov- ernment agent is enough to discourage a bookseller from stocking anything con- sidered controversial. Opposition sources esti- pate that there are at least 100.000 paid government in- formers in Greece?doormen, concierges, taxi drivers, waiters, news vendors?and some 30.000 in Athens alone. In villages, a platoon of local militia also acts EtS tile tives," says a widely trav- elled professional man. "They remember the civil war that killed 350.000 peo- ple from a population base of 7 million. Few Greeks want to undergo another bloodbath for the sake of an emigre king or some old pol- iticians. "Thus, most Greeks are content with their lot today. For those who decide to op- pose the regime, the going is tougher. I would not say that they live in fear, but rather in the shadow of fear." Most opposition figures agree that Papadopoulos has eased the restrictions on personal liberties during the past year. ? These opposition sources say there are now only 343 political prisoners in jail, 25 of whom have been paroled because ' of poor health. There are 30 or more in jail who have not yet been charged. . Thus, even the opposition admits that the military re- gime may be correct when it claims that there are fewer political prisoners in jail today than at any time since the civil war of 1947-49. Restrictions on the press have also eased. Technically, censorship has been abol- ished, but Greek papers op- erate under a tough press law. Newspapers recently car- ried an anti-regime state- ment signed by 130 former deputies. And Greece has a good line of credit to Western na- tions," Critics of the regime charge that the economic takeoff was set in motion before the military take- over. Whatever the case, the Papadopoulos government is clearly reaping the benefits of the consumer boom. How do Greeks thrive in other ways under what amounts to the dictatorship of Papadolpoulos? Oadit;leOfiregtiMalaiMROGO5G00201301.-5 and islands are conserve, continued Approved For ReleasiszinnOtO4n1Q1A-ROR6'01-101101 16 APR 1972 Greece Today: Military Rule Never Stronger BY WILLIAM TUOHY Times Stall Writer . ATHENS ? The Greek military regime next Fri- day marks the fifth an- niversary of seizing politi- cal, power from a fractious ? a n d fragile parliament, thus ending democratic government. They have been five years of heavy - handed- ness, political imprison- ?nient, 'torture, suspension of -.Parliament and elec- tions, and press intimida- tion. Yet there is no real ground swell of popular antagonism against the re- gime, outside of a relative- ly small circle of Athenian Intellectuals. .: To many outsiders, the gnawing question is, why? And the answers range from the abundance of em- ployment and television sets, washing machines, beer and automobiles to the stocky, scowling fig- tire of Prime Minister George Papadopoulos. Shrewd Tactician . Since April 21, 1967, the 52-year-old former colonel has maneuvered shrewd- ly, making himself the un- disputed. strongman of Greece, and, in the pro- cess, undeniably solidified the position of his regime. Greece's political mas- ters used to be referred to collectively as "the colon- els" but the phrase. is passe. Papadopoulos is su- preme. He is prime minis- ter, defense minister, foreign minister, minister of government agencies, and most recently, he has taken over as regent for self-exiled King Constans tine. - But Cynics today tend to describe the government rather as "Papadocracy," and anything resembling parliamentary democracy based on free elections is not yet in sight. - :Never Stronger An 'extended trip through Greece today pro- duces the inescapable con- clusion, drawn from both pro-government arid anti- government elements in this nation of 8.5 million, that the military rule of George Papadopoulos has never been stronger. The regime maintains its control through a large po- lice force and the 150,000 ? man army, both of which have been upgrad- ed in pay, perquisites, and status tci form a new '.privileged class in Greece. The army symbolizes law and order, and this deeply appeals to many in the small towns and rural areas of Greece. - Fu rth ermor e, ? the powerful Greek Orthodox Church has tacitly backed the regime, one of whose slogans is "a Greece of Christian Gr eek s." The wealthy business commu- nity, also, supports the government, which advo- cates free enterprise and generous tax exemptions. Opposition Disorganized The regime does not have to worry much about the opposition, since it is disorganized, almost cha- otic, and has failed to unite around a single lead- er or political nucleus. As one opposition politi- cian summed it up: "There Is no effective force today to challenge the regime, either inside or outside Greece." But perhaps the most Important underlying rea- son for the success of the regime is the great consu- mer boom that has only belatedly arrived in. Greece. Per-capita income has risen to more than $1,200, up one-third since the col- onels took over in 1967. ? The official symbol of- S to r e s:itt provincial the regime is a r6ektvpscottroiketn4d 4 - rising from flam rift , ed by an armed soldier, washing machines, a n d O4O-11 ? other. appliances. A devel- oping country, Greece nevert heless has more than half a million.. TV sets . . Beer-drinking, for in- stance, is on the increase, sinceit is considered a sta- tus symbol in a nation whose cheapest drink is wine. But the biggest status symbol of all is the auto- mobile. Over the Easter holidays, fully 200,000 cars left the Athens?Piraeus metropolitan area for the countryside with 600.000 people?out of a total pop- ulation of 2.5 million. ? Car 'and Gasoline Greeks will pay up to one-third of their yearly Incomes to purchase, and maintain a car. And though gasoline costs more than 90 cents a gallon, con- sumption rose 14% last year. The new gambling casino on Mt. Parnis 20 miles out- side Athens is jammed on weekends --L. with middle- class businessmen ? and the line of parked cars ex- tends so far down the road that mini-buses ferry cus- tomers to gaming tables manned by mini-skirted dealers, g i rls imported from Britain. - "We are not ready to fight for democracy," ex- plains one left-wing writer sourly. "We are too busy paying for our cars and our TV sets." ? ? 'Workers Exported ' Unemployment is nonexistent in Gr e ec e: The country, in fact, ex- ports 300.000 workers to Western Europe, and the :remittances from the m and Greek seamen?abroad are expected to bring in $500 million this year. Greece's Major growth Industry is tourism: The nation expects 3 million Visitors this year, 40% more than last year. And pr o j ections envision a steady increase of 25% an- nually for the next several years. New hotels are sprout- ing up throughout the .WA-WM11-0 sites are jammed. On the road to the Temple of Del- phi, the driver likes to point out the crossroad where, he says, Oedipus killed his father. ? Inflation, Deficit Economists predict a 7% to 8% increase in real g r o v t h. The economic danger spots, however; are rising prices and a large trade deficit. But, as one Western economist adds: "A developing country like Greece needs to run a deficit to import the materials needed to indus- trialize. And Greece has a good line ofcredit to Western ndt4ons." Critics of the regime charge that the elements of the economic takeoff were set in motion before the militaty take - over. Whatever the ease, the Pa, -padopoulos government iS clearly reaping the bene- fits of the cnsumer boom.. How do Greeks thrive in other ways under. ivfia amounts to ? the dictator- ship of George Papado- poulos? Recall Civil War "You intist remeMber that most Greeks in the provinces and islands are conservatives," says 'a widely traveled proles.: sional man. "They remem- ber the civil war that killed 350,000 people from a population base of 7 mil- lion. Few Greeks want to undergo another blood bath for the .sake of an emigre king or some old politicians. Melina Mer- couri, after all, is not Greece. "Thus, most Greeks are content with their lot to- day. For those who decide to oppose the regime, the going is tougher. I would not say that they live in fear,- but rather in the sha- dow of fear." ? Another Greek, a young businessman, adds: "Many Europeans and Americans who complain about the ? lack of freedom in Greece today never really know what Greece was like cun- 16041r90501:124,Ot 1-5 emocr regimes. out- smaller islands. Tourist STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601RIAW0M0001-5 AUGUSTA, ME. KENNEBEC JOURNAL - 15,952 APR1 ii8le Five years of Greek colonels Greece, the birthplace of democracy, has now endtired the longest lasting Military dictatorship in its history. When the army colonels, headed by George Papadopoulos, took over on April 21, 1967, they pledged it was "only to secure the conditions that will allow democracy to function in Greece." Five years have now passed and the pros- pects for national elections look dim. Material prosperity, the absence of strikes and the curbing of inflation have all tended to numb the political consciousness of the people. An elaborate police and-informer net- "work has spread throughout the land. Mario Modiano writes from Athens that, "The regime's greatest achievement - has been the discovery of the 'golden mean' of repression. To discourage active opposition, Prime Minis t e r Papadopoulos has left the dividing line between what is and is not permitted deliberately vague." Arbitrary action by the army has strengthened this uncertainty. For ex- ample, when a girl is caught distribut- ing leaflets calling for elections there is no need to arrest her, reports Le Monde. It is simply arranged "to have her raped by four or five far from' ? reluctant paratroopers". C. M. Woodhouse, a British authority on Greece, wrote in the Observer, "Nothing will shake the conviction that the Colonels were brought to power by the CIA." Greeks, said Woodhouse, talk of America's "hermaphrodite policy" of supporting an oppressive dictatorship in order to prevent the loss of a strate- gically vital ally. Vice President Spiro Agnew's visit last October to his native village ? accompanied by Papadopou- los ? confirmed the image. Everyone in Greece? says that the colonels "can't go on forever." But the prospect of any alternative authority grows steadily more remote. Former political leaders like Andreas Papan- dreou are fading from public conscious- ness. Organized labor has become a tool of the colonels. And after five years, the western world has become accustomed to Greece's dictatorship. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 NORFOLK, VA. PILOT Approved Fo MAR 1 9 197a m - 127,079 S ? 174,257 By Don Hill., The Virginian-Pilot Washington Bureau WASHINGTON. T H E CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY?The CIA, dreaded, accused, and. abused on seven continents?has joined the college PR lecture circuit. But unlike its fellow campus crawlers among government agencies and spe- cial pleaders, the CI,A wants its public relations program keptslitin-hush. Secret publicity? This tricky exercise was attempted last month at Hollins College, Roanoke, Va., at a weekend conference entitled?honest?"Freedom and Thought Control in America." ? A senior CIA official made a speech to More than 100 students, at least one newspaper reporter, and a girl with a tape recorder. The handsome, gray-haired speaker ?who had been identified in advance publicity only as "John Maury, federal employe"?was introduced to the open audience as a spokesman for the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency. ?i Maury actually is a high CIA official, In charge among other duties of the agency's congressional liaison. His remarks, Maury told the mixed- bag group confidentially, should ,be ."kept in the family." The girl with the tape recorder said afterwards she planned to make tran- scriptions for anyone who wanted them. Maury subs9quently proie,?:?-:d that news reports of his foray would require . the , CIA to "review its effort s" at "trying to maintain some sort of com- munication with the academic commun- ity." Queried for this report, he said last 'week, "Well, we wouldn't want to be ac- cused of going around propagandizing on college campuses." It's hard to see what else the CIA was doing. According to Dr. Henry Nash, chairman of Hollins' department of po- litical science, Maury told him the Hol- I image. In his talk, Maury painted a glowing picture of CIA operations. The agency, he said, is "the eyes and ears of the policy makers and it is our job to collect enough informadon so that they will not blunder into dangerous sit- uations." Later over cocktails, Nicholas Von Hoffman, the Washington Post's impas- :sinned leftist columnist, who was a fel. conference participant, twitt ed !aury about that. Von Hoffman unkindly mentioned the 73, cf Pigs, as "one of the agency's ? agency, Maury responded, only -s information; it doesn't make ? The spnl?ler had some titillating tid- bits for t: le au ::ence. It is little known, he said, but the s2rior Russian intelli- gence officer cn citiLs.y the day Francis Gary Powers via:, hot down, May 1960, was working, American intel- ligence. The officer 7.-as later caught and executed. a Despite the criticism to which it is subjected, Maury said in his speech, the CIA's activities are-directed and scruti- nized by a number of federal organiza- tions and the Congress. ? How about the CIA's subsidizing of, the National Student Association, an in ternational scandal when the story broke, Von Hoffman asked Maury over drinks. There was no other way to provide the money for those students to get to international conferences, Maury said. But, Von Hoffman asked innocently, hadn't congressional committees al- ready decided not to appropriate funds for this purpose? Didn't the CIA thus thwart the will of Congress? "You don't understand," Von Hoff- man says Maury replied. It's not really a secret that the CIA long has attempted to maintain contdct /With college campuses. That, after all is Iv where it must recruit the bright young minds that will don the cloaks and wield the daggers of the future. That also is where the scholarly studies and overt 'information gathering that are the basis for 90 per cent of intelligence are cen- tered. STATI NTL Von Hoffman apparently di'n't take time to note that some circles don't con- sider the 1960 U2 incident an American intelligence triumph either. The CIA, however, Maury said was able with accuracy to determine the ex- tent of the Russian long-range missile threat and this information helped President Kennedy triumph in the Cu- _ ban missile crisis. There was some heckling from Mau- ry's audience, according to people who were there. A woman told .Maury she'd lived in Athens a year and was appalled at the CIA's role in supporting the mili- tary "colonels coup" in that country. Mau* shot back that he'd been in Greece for six years and had been Ath- ens agent at the time of the coup. Some of her statements were inaccurate, he told the woman. After the speech sessio n, Maury, Von Hoffman and others retired to the lins visit was home of iiii7633,4tima OtWeti IF6flatiteasei20 :c see whether the can speaK to stu- heckling. dent groups to try to sort of refurbish its _Maury had noted in his speech that the CIA reaps some of its criticism because it's a facet of American morality "that we feel that anything done in secret must be a little naughty." Like secret publicity maybe? Maury also had said that intelligence workers "learn from mistakes and fail- ures." There may have been a lesson at Hol- lins. The newspaper reporter was -drawn to the Maury speech because of advance publicity sent out by the col- lege. It said that a "federal government employe" would discuss intelligence ac- tivities. CIA agents often describe them- selves to acquaintances simply as "fed- eral employes." "That just meant CIA to me," the reporter said. "I know," said Jane White, the stu- dent chairman who arranged the confer- orkl e0c1R01101500122000 45that way," ? LOS MGM'S Approved For Release 2001/13/M: CIA-RDP80-01601 5 Wig Mood in Greece Today-- STATINTL Helplessness and Fear ? C. DI. WOODHOUSE . ? that their power-base lay gets hogged down in tech- tempt for foreign opinion. In the CIA's. Greek equi-. nicalities that ought to be "The army will not toter- valent. the KYP. . left to experts, like price ate foreign intervention," Consequently, the oppo- control. Businessmen corn- sition is bitterly critical of plaining about the level of declares the government the Americans. At the rents for commercial prop- press. It knows very well, ? same time supporters of ertv are surprised to be that every visit to Athens the government despise? , tola that "only the prime by a NATO official a the Americans for yielding minister" can settle the French MiniSter. a British' to ' blackmail. Their her- matter. And Dep. Prime general,. an American vice maphrcxlite policy" was Minister Pattakos' preoc- P resident, is foreign inter. one of the :ssss- unkind de- vention?on the. side .of the cupation with trivialities scriptions 'I.-heard. Is a standing joke: government. But although the. This floundering in the . . .. s. ..* ' ? government is securely in lownr reaches of adminis- . . . po'...;:r so long as the tration contrasts strangely These ambivalent atti- ,Americans regard Greece with the gr-andiose tucles towards the West ? 'as indispensable, the col- phraseology of go y ex n- are part of the Greek heri-' onels show signs of being mem propaganda. But if tage. They passionately uncertain what to do With ceems that the. Propagan- want to be accepted as Eu- their power. They too suf- da no longer attracts any ropeans,- without becom- ter from stenokhoria. ? attention, nor . "does the ing a European dependen- They regard their revo- ? government .care wheth cy.. ? If the present mood of the Greeks had to be summed up in a single word, the most accurate would be their own word, stenokhoria. Its literal meaning of being cramped in a narrow space has giv- en way to a wide meta- phorical connotation. Distressed, embarrassed. humiliated, bored, frus- trated, annoyed, disillu- sioned, helpless, bitter, fed up: all these feelings, se- parately or in combina- tion, are included in sten- okhoria. In one or other of ? these senses it applies to the government, to its op- ponents. and to the pas- sive majority. The resentment of the opposition needs no ex- planation. In the pr o- vinces it is less articulate . The author of "The Story. of Modern Greece," C. M. Woodhouse began his asso- ciation with.Greece in 1943 when he tookcommand of the Allied military mission .to the guerrillas the Nazi-occupied country; his 'article is from the London Observer. lution as continuous and permanent. They have even tried to devise an ideology, their two chief theorists (Georgalas and Papakonstantinou) b o t being ex-Communists. The prime minister's boasted' aim is a? total psychologi- cal transformation of the Greek people. ? * ? , ? The translation of this aim into practice is so far unimpressive. In terms of security and prosperity .the revolution is said to be it does so or not. A characteristic cri du The blue-and-white slo- ? cue ur appeared in tlic; gans all over the country- press at the time of the side are in many places death of the poet George Sepheris. A young ? grad- battered a ft d tarnished and neglected. uate wrote a letter deplor-? Both sides, however, are 'Mg Greek subservience to intensely conscious of the-?foreign judgments. Sep.he- impact on foreigners. E\-- ris, he said, was rated ery Western reaction?par above Palamas only be-. ticularly British?is care- fully monitored. ',why do cause he was awarded a you so dislike the Nobel Prize: "The eagle Greeks?" asked one of my was 'slighted, the sparrow took the prize." He actri,,cautances. with reached out for a general reference partly to the Cy- moral. "We must throw than in Athens, but not well advanced. Papado- prus dispute and partly to away the rotten relics of less deep. It is a minority, p present criticisms. o.0 1 0 s has now n r o- the bad old days," he but a growing minority. clamed aneducational Contrary symptoms wrote. Native worth must n administrative. 'Many who acquiesced in and an re- cause ? great joy to the be properly appreciated, and foreign intervention rejected. "Is it not time to change our .character?',We aru not Orientals, we are the revolution at first. now volution. The first corn- government and sorrow to see no further use for ? it, prises. plans for selective its opponents. Best of all and even doubt secondary education and a . . was the reception in Lon- -was ever necessary. At the reorganization of urns ersi- don last autumn by Sir same time they see no ty curriculum. The second . Nlec Douglas-Home of the ? Greeks." A perennial dilemma is prospect of getting rid of inclttsies an enlargedcon- Givek foreign undersecre- it: hence the feeling of sultative assembly, elected tary. For days beforehand helplessness, on a system of corporative fear. representation as under we were told in the press ? that it would happen, and - Mussolini's fascism. and a By common consent; the only prospect of changing decentralization of for days afterward we - the government lies, with go from were told-that it had hap- the,- Americans. Nothing o far ernment. . . pened. There was virtual- -f carrying nut lv no interest in what had a gran( i design.. t. e will shake the general con- been discussed: The meet- were that the colonels 'srovernment gives the im- ing was the message. pression of feeling its way were brought-to power by At the same time theie is une:!sily from problem to _ s the CIA the . Only reason '. a trongly expressed con- implicit in his anguished phrases. Greece does not belong either to the Mid- dle East or to Europe. To be Greek is better than either. But Greece must be assimilated to Europe be- fore Europeans will recog- nize it. The old .systern .failed in the task. Can the military dictatorship suc- being the undoubilt*RISV16 eTease 2t001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80Sefilb01R0220011e1220001-5 12 STATINTL Approved For Releas0/2341f03Z0.4 . 3 MAR 1972 ? rpoEl Von)cilaz Cyprus un ma7 By WILLIAM J. POMEROY LONDON, (By airmail) ? Close on the heels of the an- nouncement of U.S. plans to estab- ? lish a permanent base for the Med- iterranean 6th Fleet at Piraeus in Greece have come demands from the Greek fascist regime for President Makarios in Cyprus to submit to conditions that would place Cyprus under NATO control. These developmepts are part of U.S. military strategy affecting both the Middle East and the south- ern rim of the socialist countries. ? On Feb. 11 the Greek military junta served a note on Makarios demanding not only that he sur- render allegedly imported arms to the UN peace-keeping forees on CypritS, but also that he dismiss cabinet members considered "hos- "tile to the Greek government" and bring in representatives of the "enosis" movement associated with the right-wing Gen. George Grivas. - On agenda for years These demands would destroy the independence of Cyprus and pave the way for Cyprus to be dragged into the NAT-0 structure. This has been on the NATO agen- da for ,years, and there have been successive plots to overthrow or to murder Makarios, and parti- tion ? the island between Greece and Turkey (both NATO mem- bers). At present there are two British bases on Cyprus, at Akrotiri and Dhekelia in the western Greek Cypriot area. These are air and ground troops bases. The U.S. is reportedly seeking to establish another naval base for the 6th Fleet on Cyprus and to be the chief stirrer of the present plot to subvert Cyprus' independence. . Last August Gen. Grivas, with the complicity of the Greek junta and with the CIA not far in the background, returned secretly to Cyprus from exile in Athens and began to organize underground forces for the overthrow. of Ma- karios. ? Grivas raises the slogan of "eno- sis" or union of Cyprus with Greece. His intrigues have had the backing of the 1,500 Greek officer detachment which heads the Cy- prus National Guard. The Briusn Guardian reported on Feb. 13 that he is hiding in pAipipis03/611* Greek army on Cyprus. Freedom from British colonial rule, won by Cyprus in struggle and hard bargaining in 1959, left a Greek band in the National Guard, the two British bases (for which rent is not even paid), and strife incited between the Greek and Turkish communities. Communal strife in MI, fanned by NATO intrigue, brought in a UN peace- keeping force and also resulted in the stationing of a Turkish army contingent ot 600 in the eastern part of the island. Popular front In all this time Makarios has been supported by a form of popu- lar front of Cypriot nationalists and the AKEL, the Cyprus Pro- gressive Working People's Party or Communist Party of Cyprus. AKEL's representation .in Makarios parliament is kept to a minimum in the interests of unity, but the party enjoys mass support and is easily the strongest politi- tal force in the country. It is the mass backing for Makarios that has checke4 imperialist intrigues, as shown in ?the demonstration of 10,03 in Nicosia Feb. "15 who de- nounced Greek-NATO interven- tion. The Greek note of Feb: 11 char- ged that AXEL was about .to be brought into Makarios' cabinet and that AKEL was creating its own armed forces. On Feb. 15 the general secretary of AKEL, Eze- kiel Papaioannu, denied both of these allegations, declaring that while AKEL fully supported Pres- ident Makarios it had no wish to join the government. . Greek Cypriot attitude -. Grivas and his backers have counted on the affinity of Greek Cypriots with the Greek people to try to promote their subversion against the Makarios government. The true nature of that affinity was shown, however, in a demon- stration of thousands of Greek Cypriot students outside the Pres- idential palace in Nicosia Feb. 16. They chanted: "We want union with free Greece, not with a dic- tatorship" and "Down with fas- cism!" Independent Cyprus has its strongest supporters in the Soviet Union and in the socialist coun- tries of East Europe. Last June 1413rslitestegmteri2001/03i0* visit to the Soviet Union and re- : CIA-RDP80-016 f? (## ruila STATINTL ceived a pledge of strong backing against imperialist intrigues. It was the reported delivery of 278 tons of arms from Czecho- slovakia ? 15;000 automatic rifles and other weapons and 7.500?cases of ammunition ? to the. Makarios government on Jan. 21 that gave Cyprus the means to resist the Grivas subversion and other. in- trigues, and brought the Greek fascist junta's note of frustrated outrage. Statement by Greek CP The Communist Party of Greece, in a statement issued by its Political Bureau on Feb. 11, said: "The Republic of Cyprus is in immediate danger. The events of the past few days in Cyprus, the rumors and threats accompanying them, confirm past and recent revelations that a coup is being prepared to bring down the legal government of Cyprus. ELDYK ? the Greek Armed Forces sta- tioned on Cyprus ? and the junta officers in command of the Cypr- iot National Guard and the armed conspirators under General Griv- as, have been given the job of car- rying it out. ? . . "This coup is led by the U.S. imperialists, the CIA and NATO, and is the first phase of the plan agreed to at Lisbon and Brussels for the imposition of a NATO solu- tion on the Cyprus question. "Confirmation of the conspirator- ial plans against Cyprus and of the direct and active participation in them of the dictatorship, are given by .the junta's ultimatum to Pres- ident Makarios, and the top level meeting to discuss Cyprus, held in Athens under the chairmanship of General Zoitakis, in which the dictators George Papadopoulos and two Deputy Premiers of the Junta Government, General An- gelis, Foreign Minister Xantho- poulos-Palamas, the former Jun- ta Ambassador to Cyprus, Pana- yotakos, and chiefs of the National Guard and ELDYK, who had been specially called to the Greek capi- tal, took pert. "The conspiracy, which is being intensively pressed, is part of the permanent attempt of the U.S. to strengthen its military and politi- for spring oar d bases for aggres-i Sive adventuriim, which they are preparing against the socialist and Arab countries. The junta agree- ment with the U.S. for the estab- lishment of permanent bases in Greece for the U.S. 6th Fleet is part of this plan." ftiViteetWAM MO500220001-5 LI Approved For ReleasHOM63 or 19.?. pm FEB 72 glom _ cOuld do much to topp e ltf? any ureeks View U.S junta. In the days of democ- States could perhaps have one racy, he explained, the United Greek government replaced by As Barrier to Democracy another, but he said he doubted By HENRY ICA1VIIVI !pedal to The New York Ttm? : ATHENS, Jan. 29 ? After 'nearly five years of authori- tarian rule by the junta, many 'Greeks rank the United States, Alongside Premier George Pa- padopoulos as a principal bar- tier to the .restoration of de- mocracy. ' This view emerged as a con- sensus of scores of interview's . In the course of an 18-day visit, 'Including trips to two provin- cial centers. While persons formerly ac- tive in public expressed their disllusion with America most explicitly, conversations with people In all walks of life disclosed a high degree of iden- Aity of views between the '.former leaders of Greek politi- cal life and ordinary citizens. 'Politicians were less fearful, -however, about allowing their opinions to be quoted. The conversations covered the spectrum of political leaders, from Panayotis Canel- lopoulos, the conservative Pre- mier whom Mr. Pavad000ulos Overthrew, to Ilias Iliou, leader of the legal substitute of the Communist party, outlawed! since the Greek civil war. (All party activities are ? outlawed now.) Among those interviewed were left-wing activists, right- wing generals cashiered by the Junta, intellectuals of many po- litical persuations, former and .present officials and urban workers. While conversations did not Include peasants because most do not feel free to talk politics with strangers, people in regu- lar touch with rural areas as- serted that the same views on -the Government and the United States prevailed there. In the Most extreme ? and most commonly held form, the view is that the United States sponsored the military coup d'etat of April 21, 1967, or had advance knowledge, but. failed to warn the Canellopou-, los Government. "J don't believe the Unitedj States was responsible for the coup," said Mr. Canellopoulos.i "but 99 per cent of Greeks do." However, the former Premier, Who represents the most moder- ate attitude toward the United States, shares 6P-gitkOgt American pone}, primarily by military consider- ations and that the Americans that it could do so to what he will therefore give their friend. called a "police regime." ship to any government in had contributed through what Greece that lives up to ? at-. h rangements allowing them am- e called "stupid errors" to create the impression that it pie military facilities. The current negotiations for not only accepted the coup for the granting of "home port" American national reasons but facilities to the Sixth Fleet, also actually supported Mr. Pa- which would allow thousands padopoulos and that it believed of dependents of sailors to take his occasional assertions early up residence in Greece, wor. in his regime that he planned ries and angers many Greeks. to return representative govern- They see such a move as an- m . ent to Greece. ships, had not been heard from, other sign of friendly recogni- Among the errors charged by l he said. tion conferred upon the junta Mr. Averoff was the coupling "I should not be surprised," to satisfy American military de- i o n. 1970 of the full resumption the general said bitterly. "The sires at the expense of the military aid, reduced after mother of the junta is the Pen- po- r litical wishes of most Greeks. the coup, with an assertion that tagon, the C.I.A. and the Amer; it was being resumed because jean arms manufacturers." Strategic Value Seen progress toward democracy Bitterness at the United The talks are adding fuel to , was being made. States is reflected in the at- the widely voiced complaint that "They should have coupled titude of Greeks who once had the United States considers it with a statement that Amer- extensive relations with the Greece essentially as a piece lca hoped it would lead to such of real estate of strategic value progress," the former Minister In the event of a renewed out- said. break of fighting in the Middle Mr. Averoff differs from East. sterner critics of the United John Zigdis, a political mod- States in. not favoring an im- He said that the United State 'release and bot were pu e but his disappointment has grown so deep that he has with- drawn them. A Saddened General On the other side of the poli- tical fence, a former general of conservative and strongly royalist tendencies returned from exile last year saddened to learn that in his absence his wife had received tokens of continuing friendship only from the European officers with whom he had served in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Americans, with whom he had also formed many friend- American Embassy and social relations with its members. In- dividual accounts can be sum- marized in an accusation that in the first years after the coup the United States Embassy os- crate and highly respected for- mediate halt in militry aid. But named those who had been mer Cabinet minister, was in. he agrees with the generally its friends. Since then, accord- terviewed in a hospital the day held opinion that such signs of ing, to the accounts, American after his temporary release be- cause of illness from the four- and-a-half-vear prison term lie is serving for having expressed opposition views, "I hope the American Government will soon understand that it is more im- portant to have the traditional friendship of the Greek people than only the free use of Greek territory." he said. The official United States po- sition, as expressed here, lends weight to the argument: "The national security Of the United States has top priority here and will continue to have.'" The friendship for the United States, which in the past was almost palpable in this hospita- ble country, appears to have teacher, Miss Freddi Kalogerx- eroded astonishingly. In the On this subject, as well as . ..s io interviewed by telephone, consensus of Greek and diplo- on many others, differences that . said she was "100 per cent matic observers including Americans, this is the result of a view expressed by the strongly pro-American former Foreign Minister, Evangelos Av- err.!,f-Tossizza. "In the minds of the Greeks, the regime is American, cre- junta. ated by the Americans and sup- Among those who have dras- ported by the Americans," he tically revised their views of said. "Everybody tells me that America is Michael Papacon- the Americans have only to lift a finger to bring them down." Minister Notes a Change However, the former Minis- American esteem as the visit by Vice President Agnew last au- tumn and earlier visits by Sec- retary of Defense Melvin R. Laird and the Seretary of Com- embarrassed by a practice, be- merce, Maurice L. Stans, were gan in 1969, of having children unnecessary gestures used by from the American community the junta to bolster their 'stand- school sing Christmas carols for ing in Greec and abroad. Premier Papadopoulos. The mi- nor event is treated by state Giving the Green Light television and the pro-Govern- "Agnew was the first impor- ment prees with elaborate at- tant Western personality to tention, enraging opponents of conic here since the coup," Mr. the junta. Averoff said. "He will give the Embassy officials tell inquir- green light to many others." ing newsmen that the idea orig- Many former close friends of mated with a Greek on the the United States are more hufaculty at the grade school at rt and disappointed than Mr. Av'et, the Athens air base and that off, who described himself as the embasy had no control over a man "without illusions." the school. However, the officials have sought to renew old friendships ? often to find that the Greeks were unwilling. The embassy has also been formerly divided 'not only t.flCAmerican," from Chicago. She principal parties, the liberal expressed admiration for the Center Union and the conser- junta's achievements. Her pu- but also groups within each vative National Radical Union, pits are American airmen's chil- dren whose school fees are paid party have faded in the face of common opposition to the by the Defense Department. Greeks Bitter About Issue The caroling controversy, dis- missed as insignificant by American officials, was brought stantinou, a former Deputy De- up with bitterness by most of fense Minister and Center Un- the Greeks interviewed, from ion deputy. He felt so strongly former Cabinet ministers to that Greece heeded to remain workers. close to the United States, even The deposed politicians, re- ter, who, while hostile to the after the coup, that he used his presented by Mr. Canellopou- Papadopoulos Government, has time in prison, where the junta los, George Mavros, leader of been the leading proponent of had put him with many other the Center Union, and Dome- withyo unpopulaktics/ of te resentatives, said he did not He completed. them after _his believe that the United States OE tease ON kg .tititi Taro trios Papas rou, president of ? 4 4 ? . / 7tPl 60t1R00 00e1 -03at r.,11 el STAT] TL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8M16gARgb0220001-5 NEW YORK, N.Y. POST EVENING - 623,245 WEEKEND - 354,797 JAN 26 1972 'Concerning Greece ? It Is a mark of nobility that The Post comes forward ? with editorials concerning the gunmen of Athens. The harsh dictatorship in Greece , is just one more little un- ? pleasant fact in our lives. , Your editorial of January 20 reminds the American people that their apathy reen- forces the cordiality that ' exists between Nixon, the Pentagon and their puppet.S. In Athens. Visits by Agnew, Lai rd and an unending . parade of American brass . have armed the junta with a degree of defiance of the ". feeling of the Greek people and the international corn- . munity. -American foreign policy has Mimed Greece into a nuclear base. Most Greeks understand that America never intended to and cannot now defend Greece. Never- theless, it uses its territory as headquarters for the entire CIA operation. Greeks haveAmple ground to believe that the Greek army and security forces are under direct American command. 6.4,S1 R.G42:2EM?...E.21.2Ssiso Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For RelegqititliibiYa : CIA-RDP8 16 NOV 1971 The ViraglAingtom neri.7.1130..ntotmil STATI NTL Greek IT ui e,a arad Taint of -the By Jack Anderson r Sen. Lee Metcalf (D-Mont.), 'it combat soldier against the avis in World War II, has (ids- overed a Nazi taint in the U.S.-supported Greek military junta. The outraged Metcalf has evidence that George Papa- dopoulos, the junta strongman, personally helped rehabilitate Greek officers who betrayed their Country by fighting be- ide the Nazis Some of Metcalf's data indi- cates that Papadopoulos ac- tually collaborated with the Nazis in World War II. The Greek Embassy told us this ? was "malicious and untrue." ? In fact, an 'affidavit. in our bands reports a -statement by Phillips Talbot., who was U.S. Ambassador to Greece at the time of the 1967 junta coup, that "we were aware that some of them were collabora- tors." Talbot now tells us he doubts he said it. We have also learned that the veteran CIA station chief In Athens, James Potts, has had Many reports of the jun- ta's dark Nazi past. Metcalf dug out part of the story from a dissertation by Howard University political scientist, Dr. Nikalaos Stay- : TOIL The Nazis trained, financed and directed Greek "security battalions" to hunt down the gallant Greeks who were arrying on the resistance. kliZtS , !cording to Stavrou? the Greek iWar II would count toward tion to have the necessarY government "stipulated that government pensions. ? valve modifications Made 'those who betrayed Greece 1 This is a little like giving The scalding steam deaths, :during the war would be pun- lAxis Sally and Tokyo Rose so- the wire indicated, were ished." ' lelal security rights for the caused by faulty design, faulty ? But some extremist right- time they spent broadcasting installation or both. A court ig inquiry in Norfolk has been sifting evidence to determine the exact cause. wing officers returning'. from exile hated the Communists more than the Nazis. Their view, Stavrou said, was that The tragedy is that the the traitors were "good nation- of other prominent junta per- Navy, in the past, actually alist officers." The Nazi collab- ?sonalities to see what role fired a pipe inspector, Oscar .orators and the returning 'they played in World War II. Hoffman, for demonstrating extremist exiles joined in a These include H. Demerou- the kind of diligence that "Holy Bond of Greek Offi- tis, a militia commandant on would have turned up- such faults. Meanwhile, we havd heard disquieting reports that for the Nazis and Japanese. We have learned that Met- calf not only is searching out the e)ast of Papadopoulos, but cers" from which many of the the Aegean island of Euboia; Greek junta military men of Koukoulagos, who reportedly today have come, has r e t 1 r ed from his posh the Navy did not learn from . . bank job; former Central Jr.- fhe Hoffman fiasco, but has Nazi Collaborator? ,..telligence head, General Alex- (also covered up warnings l'a Another Metcalf document ander Natsmas for whom Pa- is a confidential "discussion padopoulos worked and Gen- other pipe inspectors. ? Even as the Navy. tried Id paper" published by the HUd. eral Nigolaos Gog,oussis, a. find out whose goof killed the' right-wing militarist. " Trenton sailors, . we have ob.' tained a copy of a confidenttal son Institute "think tank" and written by Greek resistance leader Elias Demetracopoulos. It cites reports in Le Monde Diplomatique, an influential French paper, that Papadopou- los served the Nazis in World War II under "Major Kottkou- lacos, commander of a secu.- rity battalion armed and equipped by the Germans." Dernetracopoulos reports for the eyes of top command- that Papadopoulos, after seiz- ers, said "hundreds of these ing power in Greece, rewarded valves have been in service for his old commander by making years with no known eata- him head of the nation's gi- strophic failures" except in gentle Agriculture Bank. the Trenton case. Steam Dead's The Navy is inspecting hundreds of steam valves in the Wake. of an explosion which killed or injured a dozen sailors on the USS Trenton. . ? A Navy Message to the fleet around the world, meant only report on another fire aboard the USS Roark. We told of the fire on the destroyer eat-Her this year. Now, the restricted report has .verified our find, ? ings. es. The document declares that on Jan 19, 1971, lubrication oil from a strainer caught fir& and burned insulation, belch- ing up "a large volume of black syirlke and six toxic- or irritating 'gasses." Most damningly, the NAVY- report found that the strainer Incredibly, . Papadoptilos Neverthelesss, "it is impar. and its shields had been fei:. also issued a brazeh decree tant that means for preventing ported "unsatisfactory" during that the time served by over pressurization be imple. sea trials before the Navy a? Greeks in the Nazi-trained se- mented promptly. . . For the cepted .the ship?but nothing curity battalions and other active fleet, it is recommended was done about it. . When the war was o during ver, ac- quisling units World that . . . commanders take a . ? ?? ... ? ? ? ? e c- jfiell-McClure SynclIcata Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIAIRDP80-01601R000500220001-5 FASEINGUN STAR Approved For Release 4,0iiimmemi: CIA-RDP80 ? tL 'Zee Fll Ili' I H. S.6 ? By JEREMIAH O'LEARY Star Staff Writa A House Foreign Affairs sub- committee staff study on Greece describes the U.S. Embassy in Athens as having "very low morale" because political re- porting of embassy officers is subordinated to rescuing Ambas- sador Henry J. Tasca and his ca- reer from errors. The document, prepared by staff consultant Clifford P. Hackett after a one-month as- signment there in August, was furnished to newsmen yesterday by Elias P. Demetracopoulos, an exiled Greek journalist. ? Committee, staff administra- tor Roy J. Bullock confirmed the authenticity of the study, but said it was only an internal memorandum that has no status with the subcommittee on Eu- rope. ' Identification Deleted "The subcommittee won't be very happy that you have this document," Bullock said. De:no- tracopoulos declined to say how he obtained the study from which he said he made copies, deleting only the number identi- fying to whom it was issued. -- Since U.S. aid was resumed to Greece in September 170, Hack- ett's study said, "The'morale of the embassy seems to have de- clined in direct proportion to the falsity of the perceived trend (toward restoration of constitu- tional government by the Greek military dictatorship). "It is not exaggerated to state 'that there is general dismay in both the embassy and in the State Department in response to both this 'trend' winch has now views of both the government proved illusory and to the politi-, and the opposition on the future cal reporting from the embassy of American assistance. which served to reinforce what Hackett's study said he talked LS now recognized as a false per- with about 20 opposition leaders, ception." ranging from far right to Hackett continued: "The polit- leftist-liberal but that he spoke porting would be subordinated to the 'exigencies of rescuing that ambassador and his career from those errors." The study said it was clear that the CIA _and U.S. military I aid mission in Greece continue ' to share a "sharply different view from that of the political section" on the political reali- ties. Amid this "general dismay," Hackett's study added, "Over this divided embassy presides an ambassador now disabused of his earlier optimism concerning the regime's democratic inten- tions but sharing the political section's pessimism about any prospect bf chane:ng the sturdy Greek dictatorship even if Wash- ington were to direct such a change." The prospect of a change from Washington, he deeIared, seems remote since the an- nouncement of the visit of Vice President -Spiro Agnew. (The study Was written before Ag- new's recent visit to Greece.). Bullock said Hackett is a for- mer USIA employe with Europe- an experience and was an em- ploye in the office of Rep. Benja- min S. Rosenthal, D-N.Y., chair- man of the subcommittee on Eu- rope. - ? : ? Demetracop,oulos, the exiled journalist, criticized the paeseat Athens government and U.S. military aid to Greece in testi- mony last July before Rosen- thal's kubcommittee. Rosenthal initiated Hackett's trip to Greece on July 22. The assignment was to obtain infor- mation on effects of American policy, military relations and the STATI NTL American. Embassy political section was distressed at what was called the "steady develop- ment of the military government and the apparent American Ina- lity to make clear our unhappi-* ess with the junta. The unhap- piness seems to focus on events since Ambassador Tasca arrived 20 months ago." ? ? Hackett reported to the sub- committee that Tasca's initial assignment was to "justify" full resumption of American aid. He said it was difficult to assess how much embassy staff pessi- mism is due to the realization that "nothing can change truly in American policy so long as the ambassador remains" and: how much to the evident invul- nerability of the military gov-. ernment.. ?? ? - ? Views in Opposition . Hackett found a paradox in that Greek opposition leaders believe the United States could exert a nearly decisive influence on the longevity of the regime while embassy staffers believe Washington couldn't prompt a change even if ordered to do so. Tasca, a 58-year-old career diplomat and former ambassa- dor to Morocco, assumed his post in January 1970. A native of Providence, R.I., he has been a deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs and has served in Bonn, Rome and with NATO. A similarly critical report about U.S. foreign policy toward the Greek military government was issued by the Senate For-. eign Relations Committee in a staff report in March. The re- port said the State Department and the embassy in Athens %aye too much credence to junta statements that parliamentary government would be restored and gave away leverage when the U.S. embargo on arms for Greece was lifted last year. ' leal reporting has, in the judg- with only one representative of ? Meat Of several embassy off i- the government, a middle - level .cers, been tailored to fit the civil servant in the foreign min- Istry. This man, who Hackett said was suggested to him as appro- priate for making a courtesy call, told the committee staffer that Greek politics were 'not a proper American concern. The study found that .the present ambassador's (Tasca's) preconceptions of what he hoped would be a trend toward consti- tutional government. "Athens is seen as a very un- desirable post, despite its ameni- ties, where assignment means service under an ambassador who has seriously erred in his perceptions of political develop- ? ments and where political re- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Releas940f)(1103/Qk: CIA- 25 Charchaz. leCA- 17.7110.GRitCY AlCLINPO:NT By Andress Papandreou. Deutsch. 3:71 pooes. This is Andreas Papapdreou's persanal :apologia for the part he' played in. Greek; politics between 1960 mit-1'4957; :exposition Of his Prein;seAlrat it was the. Americans who overthrew ?parliamentary government in Greece. It thus fits into his present strategy for establishing himself as the accepted and undisputed leader of the left-wing factions lin exile and in Greece. Mr Papandreou's interpretations of the discreditable and tragic develop- ment of Greek political life both before and after the coup d'6tat on April 21, 1967, and the remedies he proposes .are certainly not held by all the opponents of the present dicta- torial regime. This is evidenced by .the failure of ethe active resistance groups both abroad and in Greece to .coneert their actions and their policies. Mr Papandreou remains as controver- sial and divisive a figure in exile as he did during the seven years he was politically active in Greece. 'Andreas Papandreou, the son of the late George Papandreou' first Caine pito conflict with a Greek government :When as a student, he was arrested in .1939 for underground activities against .the Metaxas government. On release 'he 'eft for the United States where he h?d various university posts until -1959.:-.When he returned to Greece. ;When his father became prime mini- ster in, 1964 he took. his son into his cabinet. He quickly made his mark as an advocate .of radical economic and 'administrative reform (ironically, many of his ideas have been put into effect the present Military regime), as an .opponent of any compromise on.'the ,Cyprus issue and as a declamd enemy ,of the Greek establishment. He made enemies, too, among lead ;int, personalities of his father's politi- .caf' party, the Centre Union, who. :feared both his, radicalism and his fambition to I take over the party ieadership. Mr Papandreou does' not .'give the relationship between himself. and, other Centre Union personalities ithe, weight. it .deserves, nor, of course, .does he see his admitted courting of ? the militant democratic orgamsa_ . dons" be.tween 1965 and 1967 as ; i gving reasonable 'grounds for suspi .cion ?that lie envisaged leading a popular .,front government. ;? There is no doubt that the attempt :to discredit him and ruin his political 'future by charging .that he was the Political leader of a group of army oflicers'?plottingeto- set up a left-wing 'dictatorship wag 'pure fabrication, 'and On this Mr Papandreou successfully defends hithself. What he fails to. establish is that this plot against him, the 'subsequent -dismissal of' his father, by the king, ,the coup on April 2 1St. 'and.even..the abortive counter-coup by King Constantine in Deceinber,-196, were dl part and parcel of. a ' plan devised by the American CIA. Mr Papandreou clearly, believes that If something is stated often enough and with enough conviction it will be believed. his book is threaded :with countless assertions that Colonel Papa- dopoulos was the CIA's chief agent in Greece, that the Creek Central Intelli- gence Agency (kYP) was -but an extension of its American counterpart, that the Greek. armed forces were under the dire.ct Control of the Ameri- can Pentagon and that , the king, the queen mother and the leadership of the riglytLwing party, the. National Radical .Union, were. likewise :playing the, game of the ,American. Thus, he. concludes. that in fact . Greece is America's Czechoslovakia. It has now become the vaSsal. of :the American military-industrial power complex. , : This is lively; heady stuff . and will come as manna .to those who see the fingers .of the CIA in' every troubled pie, but unfortunately Mr Papan- dreou's 'documentation is less .thin impeecable. It . rests On report 'allegedly submitted to in 1968 by an. unnamed " disaffected member of .PapadoPoulos's, .junta'. 'noW.Jtvmng abroad.":. This is not good entitigh:.':. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- LAKEWOOD,. N.J. OCEAN CO. TIMES ? E 5gTo 17 197i (-) JSLILL By TOM CULLEN Onfl .11 r .? ATHENS ---"(NBA) -- "Greece's military govern- ment has few visible ear- marks of the fascist dictator- ships of the past. ? -? You will cOme across no one getting his arm twisted in broad -daylight, as was the case in Hitler's Ger- many. Nor is an re- quired to wear a yellow ? badge, as Jews were under Nazism. Whatever else they may be, the Greek colonels do not appear to be racists. ? Reliable sources say that whatever torture the Greek police practiced on political prisoners in the .past has now heel-1 stopped, largely thanks to the pressure of in- ternational opinion. It is perfectly possible for an Ame-rican tourist to enjoy a holiday here without ever :meeting up with anything more menacing than a traf- fic cop. The overseas visitor can revel in the glory that was the Acropolis or sample the delights of ouzo in a taverna without ever being aware that anything is amiss beneath the surface. Yet many Greeks are Un- happy and find the Military -regime headed by Premier Papadopoulos oppressive it not ? stifling. This is pailicu- larly true of the intellectual and, professional classes.. Iliad not been in Athens since lc;63, and Greek friends I had looked up then were delighted to learn that was back in town. They were less so when I told them that I was not on holi- day, but On a reporting as- signment. Premier *George Papadopoulos A regime slie)t .through with contradictions. nervous fr ccnver- sation might be overheard. I did not blame these ? ?Greek friends for not want- ing to .talk to a reporter whom they hal not seen in marK in print that could be traced to its source might cost them their jobs and 'there were wives and kids' to think of. ? The Papadopoulos regiinc2 is shot through with contra- dictions, every positive pro- ducing a corresponding neg- ative. A few days after I ar- rived here the government released 234 Communists being held prisoner on the island of Leros, announced that the prison camp was . being shut down_ One made excuses not to But Chastos Sartzetakis, see me: His mother-hi-law the 'courageous judge. inthe had turned up unexpectedly, Lambrakis murder case who and he was going to be busy was portrayed in the fiction- showing her the sights. An- zlized film "Z," is still beim., LD other whom W- walk:. _cafe . wa other r e a s o n, apparently, ' - The third Greek friend than that he refuses to bow whem I looked up in Athens to the colonels. is Spyros,. whom I first met Opponents of the regime .when . he was a psychology like Stefanos Stefanopoulos major at London University. and Panayotis Kanelopoulos, Since then he has done bril- both former prime ministers, liant work in the field of are allowed to see foreign child psychology, has read reporters, but elections in papers at scientific confer- Greece are no nearer than ences in America, where he they were four years ago has made many friends. This when the c ol on el s took made Spyros' present mood Power. ? of anti-American bitterness Precensorship of articles all the more shocking to me. before they ppear . ' Constitution Square the "I was driving - through a in the, press has been abolished, but editors live ? in fear of 'o t h e r day w h e n I was what they can print. F stopped by a traffic light, ample, the publishers and For stopped glancing over, I saw an staff members of the anti- A me r i cc n Air Force ser- government newspaper Iltli geant in the next traffic nos were gi v en sentences lane,!' he told me. "lie WaS; ranging up ? to? five years for a big, beefy guy with a Cigar p ub ii s h i n g an interview stuck in his mouth at a which refei red to the' need jamit' angle. Suddenly I had for a "national government ? an almost i im ram' his car. nsane pulse' to " to deal with the C y pr u s ? . .? ? ? "I am a peaceful man, as miTd1iReieds'en2001103/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601ROOdg dtdObloT:'5' mY friend crisis. OARS. snincli?ll.a,DApipfrigved For.Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0gehrligi3500220001-5 STATE JOURNAL `SED if) 371 '!, * ' S ? 70,067 he Turriligence GoTite i? i , ...._,... , I, , 1! ',, I i ,) ) i \ , , , , , . ,, ,, / i I I-, -c---,,-, ,.------r---,k - ._,. - --,-,(71-,--1 If. /, ? ,i - k.....i.N A . t ine/9' IA. C'e?-?._1., V a rt_ i 1 til .cii \? .,-... ,....? ',....< `,....., i ? .........77.-",,,,,... _ - k . ? .-1 ..,?????-:-.? ---.?-?-r-,....7.,?, n_.....; . ' --,, .110,)i ti li. 11./..,..;n1 i .. ?, !I 1)?,,.il 7 i . --r/.1 .;:.7/3 (-17, 'Cl./7\":?-v'') I 1 j i t) ) ' r ' ?1 Ai H 1 1 k", II ?,,, s .' - -- ?-?,- .,,-;,-%--?-t-,.'-.,,,..5- J. ' p y , ; , .z.,.. .).:-.... 0?.-,..:?:,-..-; ,..... ..,........, ,.,. .1 .. I! - By I,EW SCAM:. ? ? Copley News Service ' , ?,? Perhaps no area of our gov- ernment having a direct bear- ing on our attitude in ;fie cold war has been more controver-1 sial, yet less understood than: :our intelligence network. It is partly that we don't ? know what the Central Intelli- ? gence Agency does, but if it: does what we think it does, it goes against our sense of fair 'play and that is had. The popqlar notion is that the . CIA is a law unto itself. It is be-. ' lieved that' it freely interferes! in the interna.1 affairs of saver- cign nations, And that it throws anti-American goveni- ni n t s, even democratically elected ones, to install anti- Communist governments. Some writers have capital- ized on these beliefs, shadowed Thein with a cloak and fastened Before World War II, fly., armecl services had ..relled got it ,wasn't until 19-17 that ? c rs created the. CIA. 1 heavily .upon civilian specialists ,es.t in wars and, when fighting fashioned- after OSS and was born durirg the year that WaS ov6r, they sent. the special-_ 0,01 war was &dared. ists home and forgot all about ' the need for intelligence. Actually,- Congress in 'setting ? vo, CIA deleaated it a single Gen. George C. "Alarshall i_onrction, I tc pce, and noth- once described tin-, Army's for- .1 Mg more. That it does much cign i'ltelligence as "little more more is without question, WI than what a military atiache could learn at a dinner, more or less, over the coffee cups." 'Five months before the Japa- nese attack on Pearl Harbor, Harry Howe ?Ransom reports in "the intelligence establish- jiost what a.nd. whcl'e it does it is I, harcl to say. There Is a theoey among in- i tolligence agents, the good o Ics, that there should ??alpiost l?vays."" be no failures. If is better, so thc theory goes,- to m President Hoosevelt leave a problem unsolved than summoned Co]. (late. Maj. to risk failure or discovery. Gen.) William J. Donovan to Still, there have been draft a plan for a new urcs.?:_ the. Bay of Pigs, the t'2 gence service. designed for the incident. ? requirements Of a global war ? Taking into account CIA's and patterned in thc main after poliey toward supereaution, it ? the. ?Lritish, 'would seem reasonable to as- . Donovan Was a successful smile that for every failure lawyer who had svon the Medal there must have been, oh, ten of Honor in World War I. . pr more successes. "He was an imaginative, ag- The fa i lures have be 211 pinned, on the CIA while successes almost never are. Not (,,finitely. Some have suspected the CIA but in the American tradition of of having brought on th2 down- public- service he seemed quail- fall of Nkrumah in Ghana and ficd to 'assemble what. was to .then% with a dagger and ?vritten .gressive man," Ransom writes, books to support them. Fortu- "who had traveled abroad ex- nately, most were.credely %via- 1.en5ive1y. So far as intelligence ten and rudely received. 1 work went, he was an amateur, Still, many congressmen and: some journalists continue to ? ask, why have an intelligence community at all? IVIbstly the questioners are those to Nvhom "intelligence" connotes saboteurs and political acti- vists. ThOK living in tile inteBi:. gence community consider the question absurd. But it de- serves an answer. Any president of a large cor- poration, and, indeed, any chief of state, must have "intelli- gence" if he is to fulfill his re- sponsibilities. lielimy get _it from newspa- pers, 'from briefings by his sub- ordinates or from ruorts from consdltants. Wherever, hc must have intelligence, Approve ses of the word, or he will not survive long. Sukarno, in Indonesia, of having become the f ore -r unner of, installed the military junta in CIA." Greece and of having thrown Sillotik out of Cambodia. But these redits, if they are, do nothing more than support During World War H the. clo- csi approach to a central bite, ligence system was the Iddely nns publicized Office of Strategic] the otio of observers who Services ? the almost legen. See the CIA as a molder of tcm- clary OSS. porary geog,raphy?and a shaper It is difficult to of tentative history. ? assess ? worth of OSS because its offlol -It is the smc attitude which cial history still re Miles ?Copcland who once main s classn. ? d . ? ? ?, worked. for the State Depart- ? ? raditional de- credit, .despite ment and the.clA, writes of in tractors, in\ t f ?Iueole his "The Game of Nations:" . ? ,o butions to allied victory, espe- "In the intelligence game, cintly in Burma and in defeat- competitors seek to 'gain the ing the axis in North Africa and greatest possible advantage) in aiding the French resistance short ofgoing to wa.r*" 1ForRelease22001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATI NTL STATI NTL 4..1Y innua. Approved For ReleaAeiiialf1/037/b4 : %Th-T;ttiO.o t. . py C. I. SULZBERGEll ATHENS?The American dilemma In Greeccois in a sense whether to he liked by the Government and disliked by the people in .order-to shore up sagging Mediterranean Strategic posi- tion, or whether to jeopardize 'lability to Stand by NATO and Middle East.. commitments in order to affirm -preference for democratic rule.. ...- James C;. Locenstein and Richard M. Moose, special investigators for the Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- tions, aptly stated this by writing: "U.S. policy has had two declared ob- jectives: to maintain Greek military cooperation ? with the United States and NATO, and to bring about the restoration of democratic institutions in Greece. Both objectives became en- meshed in the matter of the embargo on heavy arms." . . 'This has developed into a boiling Issue here since the House of Rep- -resentatives voted in Washington to suspend such help unless the Presi- dent invokes a special "national se- curity" escape clause. And, mixed with the matter . of the American legislative restriction is that of - American popularity. ? The United States is getting the 'worst of both worlds. The Govern- ment is furious that any restrictions should be placed upon pledged aid to a loyal NA-.TO ally that maintains the longest military service period and is perhaps in the most exposed position. At the same time the opposition com- plains .that Washington supports the "colonels'" regime and introduced it in the first place.- Part of this complaint arises from . the fact that prior to the Lowenstein- Moose visit the American Embassy apparently minimized contacts- with political leaders of the previous re- gime, -virtually all of whom are in .opposition, and 'seemed to seek un- necessarily cozy relations with the Colonels. ?' Moreover, too many U.S. 'officials. including military and naval commanders, permitted themselves to ? be photographed in posed .pletures here. ? All this encouraged organized prop- aganda on the extreme left to fan flames against the U.S.A. The Greeks have- an unfortunate habit of blaming others 'for their own mistakes, -per- haps because they' refuse to tarnish their ,excessive pride. known as phi/otimo.. With an ambasSador who, on State Department instructions, avoided call- ing - King Constantine for 'eighteen months after comingo here,. . . ? Policy t; G .FOREIGN AFFAIRS although .accredited to the sovereign, and withcontinual displays of grouped American and Greek officials, an im- pression was inculcated that this re- gime was of our making and we liked it. Furthermore, the local press has recently been publishing anti-regime testimony culled from the U.S. Con- gressional Record and emphasizing criticism of the American Embassy. -A compendium of opposition opin- ions, largely anti-U.S., has been printed in London representing the views of exiled leaders. This claims (to cite Markos Dragoumia, -a former deputy) that "if U.S. support were withdrawn for just 24 - hours the junta would collapse." It also says (quoting John Katris, a journalist) the 1967 coup was "positively supported by NATO and agencies of the American Government." Similar opinions are widely held in Greece itself. But the evidence is wholly unconvincing. The United States for long withheld various kinds of mili- tary aid and even when former Pre- mier Karamanlis, the most prominent political emigre, called for a Greek Army revolt-----nothing happened. As for U.S. connivance in the coup, nei- ther the Embassy nor the C.I.A. knew of it in advance and, in fact, ex-' peeled an entirely different group-- royalist generals?to attempt a similar exercise. At this instant the United States is unpopular with .both the regime and the masses for contrasting reasons. But -there is no need to react to this situation with emotional extremism. It is a Greek, not an American, habit to touch the stars with One hand and the mud with the other. The. United States neither produced the coup nor keeps these ,coup-makers in power. One has but. to recall that only one Man was killed when it occurred (and that was accidental) and when King Constantine summoned a counter-coup with his generals not a single Greek fought for the colonels' overthrow. . There is only one sensible policy for Washington to follow now. It Should continue' in every possible way to Press the Athens Government to re- store freedom and it should maintain full contacts with the opposition while enjoining U.S. officials from foolish endorsement of -an ideology we -don't admire. . )7' r P 1F-A ... ? ? . ? But, at. the same time, it should recognize that Greece as a NATO ally is entitled to modern armament. We'. don't have to love this regime any more than we have loved past Portu- guese or Turkish regimes while ful- filling our NATO obligations. And we require Greek air and naval bases to Implement U.S. commitments in an area otherwiselarwly hostile. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601RIN0A5N2L0.001-5 YORK, PA. RECORD M ? 33,894 111,1 16 1971 ?,.t AL R- A new effort to ban arms aid to Greece and its dictatorial junta was defeated narrowly in the House Foreign Affairs CommiLtt e Wednesday after a State Department official testified that the strategic importance of Greece to NATO outweighed her suspension of constitutional govern- ment and civil rights. Greece has been ruled by a junta of army colonels since a 1967 coup. A three-year American embargo on heavy arms shipments was lifted last fall despite opposition in this country and from ousted Greek democratic elements new in exile. The Nixon ad- ministration seeks to allot Greece $118. millions in military aid during this fiscal year. . Opposition to this aid was led by Rep. Wayne Hays, Democrat of Ohio, whose amendment would prohibit all military aid to the Athens regime unless the President found the assistance "vitally required" in the national security interests of the United States. Hays said Wednesday he would carry his fight to the Hoose floor. After the House committee's vote, its subcommittee on Europe heard testimony from witnesses denouncing the Greek Government as a "fascist dictatorship based, On torture and in- timidation." Mrs. Margaret -C. Papandreou, American-born wife of Andreas Papandreou, who is the son of the t, iLs-1 st4 Vs' Li vj former Greek premier, George Papandreou, testified that the coup had been engineered by the Contral_Ins telligence. Agency and the State Department and implemented by the National Security Council in February, 1t67, because of the opposition of her husband and his Center Union party to a proposed partition of Cyprus between Greece and Turkey. Mrs. Papandreou's testimony and other objections to U.S. support of the junta voiced during pre-vote hearings, echoed those of a former premier, Panayotis Kanellopoulos, last month in' an interview in Athens with Baltimore Sun correspondent Oswald Johnston. Kantillopoulos said that the American argument that military considerations compel Washington to support the regime is "the greatest error Washington has made." 'The United States should give first place to democracy & human rights. The geographical position of this country is nothing if the people living there are not ready to do wholeheart- edly what is asked of them in a critical hour." - We're afraid the Nixon ad- ministration, like its predecessors, is goofing in Greece. just like Nixon and his predecessors goofed in South Vietnam. There, too, support of the people will be necessary to accomplish. our aims in Indochina. But will we have. this support any more than we have it in Greece? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 eir?ri Approved For Relea OblY011`04): cigkargpco16o1 j JUL 1071 pri )'f 71p op, Oki.J.A ItiaZi TO Ii House Unit Defeats Measure ?Floor Fight Planned By FELIX BELAIR . Special to The 'Now York rite,s WASHINGTON, July 14?A ? proposal to ban arms aid to Greece was narrowly defeated today in the House Foreign Af- fairs Committee. The commitee rejected by a 14-to-12 vote an amendmesnt to the Administration's 83.3- billion foreign aid authorization bill. The amendment had been proposed by Representative Wayne Hays, Democrat of Ohio, who said he would carry his fight to the House floor when the measure came up for action .there. The committe's 'action came as Rodger p. Davies, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, told a Senate Appeopri- ations subcommittee. that the strategic importance of Greece on the southern flank of North Atlantic alliance outweighed her suspension of constitution- al government and civil rights. ? After the House committee's vote, its subcommittee on Eu- rope heard testimony from four witnesses denooncing, the Greek military Government. It was termed a "fascist dictatorship based on torture and intimida- tion" that "will .weaken the moral foundations of the NATO alliance." No Economic Aid The 'Hays amendment would prohibit all military aid to the Athens Government unless the President found the assistance "vitally required" in the na- tional security interests of the United States. No economic aid for Greece is planned in the current fiscal year. Recently, declassified fignres on the military aid allocations planned by the Nixon Admin- istration for the fiscal year that began July 1 include 8118-roil- lion for Greece. This total would include the sale of million in in new weapons on credit. Twenty Million dollars would be in the form, of a grant and the remaining S38 million in the form of "excess" equipment no longer required for United States defense pur- poses. , Approved For .Mr. Davies told the Senate Appropriations Committee that "we snared the concern of many members of Congress over the question. of constitutional gov- ernment and attendant issues, such as civil rights." "Since the coup in April ci* 1967, we saw some tangible signs of a return to more nor- mal democratic forms and pro- cedures and we hoped that these would continue at a pace which would result in a restora- tion of full constitutional gov- ernment at an early time," he said. ? ? "Some progress has been made, but . our relations with Greece have been made dif- ficult by . the failure of the Greek authorities to move more rapidly in that direction," Mr. Davies said. "We have had to weigh this situation against Greece's dedication to NATO and her steadfast 'sup- port of that organizatioe in a geographic situation which places her against Warsaw Pact borders." Mrs. Papandreou Testifies Criticism of United States policy toward Greece was given before the House foreign vi- le irs subcommittee by rs. Mar- garet C. Papandreou, the Amer- ican-born wife of Andiees Pap- andreou, who is the son of the former Greek Premier, George Papandreou, and leader of the Pan-Hellenic Liberation Move- ment. Mrs. Papandreou, who now. lives with her husband in Toronto, asserted that the "coup of the colonels" had been engineered by the Central Intelligence Agency and the State Department and hnple- wilted by the National Security Council in February, -1967, because of the opposition of her husband and his Center Union party to a proposed partition of Cyprus between Greece and Turkey. "The Americans could have foreclosed a military take- over," the witness said. 'If they had made a clear declaration that any attempt to impose totalitarian rule in Greece would Mean immediate withdrawal of all economic and military aid, the severing of diplomatic relations an serious problems with the NATO alliance, no coup would have been possible." "The failure to say no was the green light to go ahead," Mrs. Papandreou said. "IL con- sidered that because of Greece's critical geopolitical position, military considerations were more important than the fatal ? Mrs. Papandreou asked Representative Benjamin S. Rosenthal, Democrat of Queens and chairman of the subcom- mittee, to demand from the State Department copies of the report of the Human Rights Commission of the Council of Europe with its charges of torture of Greek men and women who "had their teeth smashed out." She said the ? report had been "classified" by the department. "Is this another service to the Greek junta?'' she asked. "Is this to hide from ? the Americans that we support, government by torture?" ; e1feeAenkol1'idiO4 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For ReleasA0.91/.9/0411:RCIATRalli V.01 JUN ? :,-INTE.RPRETIVE REPORT- - 0 . I. ? irf?riLi 11J fi VV. :rill s By ANDREW BOHOWIE,C Strain Affecting Ties Star Staff WtHer Despite lissurances by many ATHENS ? Slowly but 1111- Greek officials that "all is Mistakably, the United States well" and "we are friends," is losing its ability to influence the strain of the situation is ,the course of events in Greece. 'increasingly creeping into On the surface, all signs of Greek-American relations. In American presence are still, the long run, it may cause here. Heavy American arms greater complications. are again arriving in Greek At a recent meeting of the 'ports after a three-year em- Council of Europe in StraS.- bargo. The U.S. 6th Fleet oper- bonrg, U.S. Asst. Secretary of -atina in the ? Mediterranean State for European Affairs 'tan ?drop anchor in almost any Martin J. Hildebrand report- Greek port. and American edly expressed the view that ,misssiles pointing at the Soviet the army-backed regime en- -Union are deployed in the joys the "broad support" country. the Greek people. Although a number or ob- ? Greece continues to be an servers agree with Hs assess- Atlantic Treaty Organization meta, it was not a popular 'and despite its own policy of statement in Western Europa friendship a n d coVeration which generally remains crit i- _ tries, with Soviet bloc co cal of the junta and its inter- takesun a cautious appoach to Ilal policies. any idea of reduction of mill- Despite the fact that politi- tary forces. cal persecution in Greece now The major factor causing is no greater than under the setbacks for the American pol-- PreVi"S parliamentary re- icy here centers on the nature gimes, Europe remains op- of the regime ? a basically posed to the junta which stems right wing military junta re- from the bloodless coup of fusing, for the sake of its sur- April 21, 1967. vival, to return the country to Charges Involve CIA traditional parliamentary de- mocracy. Charges have been made by - some reputable West Europe. U.S. Public Opinion . an politicians that the US/felt the amount was insuffi- _ - - _ portance of a return to parlia- -mental.), democracy. . A full application of the con- stitution, the release of all po- litical prisoners and general . elections would "clear the air" and eliminate Greece's ostra- cism, is Tasca's view. But the 'colonels" have to consider the problem of their own survival. Although in the past four years they have scored a remarkable economic success, politically they are still basically insecure. That is why all American arguments in favor of general elections and at least some form of transition have carried little weight. .. ? T h e ? reestablishment of heavy American arms ship- ments ? to the tune of $56 million?was viewed as an ? essential measure aimed at permitting Greece to function as a full-fledged NATO mem- ber in the insecure Mediterra- nean. Tile opposition ? vocal mainly in exile ? attacked the shipments as a proof of Ameri- ca's collusion and support for the colonels. Some junta- members were not elated simply because they A large segment of Amen- Central Intelligence Agency cient for the needs of the ? , can public opinion remains "runs Greece." highly critical of the junta. In reality, while there is While the regime in Greece some obvious cooperation be- tween the American military resents this criticism, its oppo- and intelligence services and nents ? feel it is not strong o gh. the Greek army, the United Former politicians now in ,States has little influence The United States has less opposition and a sizeable. part 'ere. and less to say in Greece. As of the Greek population feel Stability in Greece in the time goes by, American influ- American is the regime's generally unstable and explo- main backer. This, many dip- sive Mediterranean area is lomats believe, ruin -s tht viewed as crucial by Amen- chances of America's leverage can diplomats. Yet the same here if and when the regime diplomats stress they do not changes. -. desire "stability at any price." It is. a difficult situation in The United States, they insist, which few elearent answers "is not committed to the colo nels at all cost."- and decisions ate possible. It complicates America's role in Because no other possibility this strategic -Mediterranean has loomed on the Greek polit- enough. ical horizon, the United States country, damages its populati- has little choice. - ty and exposes American dip- In his contacts with mem- lomat in Greec to consider- bus' of the ruling junta, U.S. able strain. Ambassador Henry J. Tasca has tried to insist on the ha-, Greek army. In the viscious circle of ar- guments and. counter- arguments, one thing appears certain: ? ence is bound to decrease. And if one .day the Greek colonels decide to relinquish their grip on the country, the United States would be even 'in a weaker position. e Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 $vN Approved For Release;potyRif6f : ciA_KftzTJY_Dt6 e 01 0? 1(1a IA A ear4 f v 0 ? .1!..40 t....., . Rightists, Conscrvativc,?Center Politicians ? ? ? Junta Weak And Unpopular By OSWiLD JOITSSTON Sun Stqf CcirresponAnt . ? AthellS?AbOilt two weeks ago, from prison last year, or Andre- ono of the clandestine 1-"xler? as Papandreou, the highly vocal ground organizations tlmt occa- sea of a former eenter.leit prime minister The left. ring is ? . . ? efforts the recognize sionally ruffle the serenity of the colonels' regime in Greece cir- culated an unusually strongly worded anti-regime pamphlet among the tiny foreign press corps here. ? The flyero called on all local officials put in office by the re- gime to reslgn. or face eventual punishment as "traitors." It threatened .the colonels them- selves . with the firing squad. And it. scoffed at the regime's frequent claim that only its Army-backed coup in April, 1667, prevented a Communist takeover then.. ? Gang Of Perjurers - The coup, declared the pam- phlet; was not carriezt eat by the Army, but by a gam= of perjur- ers, traitors and unworthy colonels who had been absent ?from all battlefields. I The blast, despite its ve- hemencei did net come from the 'once - unruly and vocal, now largely expatriate, Greek intel- lectual left. Under the rubric "Greek Anti-Dictatorial Youth Movement," the flyei' was signed with a rubber stamp "Colonel iPorfyris"?pseudonymous leader !of a para-military ultra-con- servative opposition movement. :To knowledgeable observers .f Greek politics today, the '001,011a POI' [yriS" flyer only emphasized a trend that has become more and more, pro- nounced as the colonels now hi' their fifth year in power, have become more and more en- trenched. - "!?1 Right Wing Criticism. .Most criticism of the regime ! nowadays ia coming from the!.. right, except for occasional blasts from expatriate leftists; such as Nikis. TheodifrA4,..1U, Communist compo...M:NVf 3 Main Arguments ' The regime is ''utterly ? un- In talks with . opposition lead- popular" he declared recently. It ers, three main arguments is unstable, too unsure of itself emerge: . to lift martial law, allow demo- 1. The regime is weak-, unpo- cratic elections or implement. pular and unsure of itself, the constitution it:promulgated 2. The Army, supposed under- pinning of what strength the re- and with much fanfare caused gime has is demoralized, fa.c- to be approved by an overhelm- .tion-ridden and weakened by the ing majority in a referendum 'nearly three years ago. . ! :upheaval - that put a clique of "The regime has failed to in- middle-ranking officers in com- . troduce. even a' single institu-? ;wand of the nation.. . ? ? itional reform in Greece in the : 3, The main hope for a return :last four years, he explained, . ito democracy in Greece is a ' ? Both oppo-silionists attribute to I push' against the colonels from this weakness Prime Minister :within the Army, mainly by ?fri- . George Papadopoulos's current jeers loyal -More to the nation, efforts to open contacts . witha and to the exiled Ring Constan- some of their Pre-coup col- tine than to the regime. . leagues in the political field. Underlining the argument is a And while both men deride ? ? t f disappointment and , almost entirely silent. . , disillusion that the United States these ? Y . ; : as a matter of considered mili- .that the move has seriously up- But the criticism that is heard is ? set many of the tougher, more tory and diplomatic policy, is not limited to the bravado of ,giving the regime political and puritanical middle-rank officers linderground shock troops. Much? upon whom the colonels relied of it comes from responsible moral support. leaders of the political parties ? Mr. Kanellopoulos, in a recent for their primary support four interview, made the point this years ago. This, too, they see as that \vere in power before the way: _ , _ _ _ _ . . a sign of Weakness. colonels took over. Unable to I The American argument Mall The key. aiturnent wed in participace in politics, they aro ;military considerations, espep-' favor of the continuing' large- nevertheless an important fac- tally the position of Greece as a. scale American 'military aid to tor today if only because the.; NATO menfoar occupying' a Greece has been that NATO's regime s unwilling strategically vital place in the them. outright. ? ? Eastern Mediterranean compel They include such men as Washington to support the re- "the greatest error Panayotis Kanellopoulos, leader gime of the conservative Radical Un-. Washington has made." however,' that the stability, ion party, and prime minister of ? Instead, strength and preparedness of "the _United States - Greece when the coup fell four I should give first place to democ- the Greek armed forces aremn- years and two months ago, and racy and human rights. The geo- known quantities. ? graphical position of a country, even if it is a keY position, is nothing if the people living there are not ready to do wholeheart- edly what is asked of them in a critical hour. "I don't think the Americans whole southern flank depends on a stable, militarily reliable Greek ally. ? A visitor here will soon find, George ?i.avros, head of the ri- val Union of the Center party, the political vehicle of the late George Papandreou. ?Together, both ? parties represented by these men totaled 30. per cent of It. vote in the last national elec- In the view-of the opposition here the answer is -- that the Army is. not worth the invest- ment the United States has put in it. The government, unsui?pris- tions to be held here in 1964. should interfere to change the . ingly, -does not agree, hod nei- Colonels Upset regime. But it should stop inter- ? ther do NATO and American of- According to seasoned observ- fering to ? support such ?a re- ficials. - ; . gime." - ? . Combat readiness is classified - .- ers here, the persistence ?-of - m ? ? "A Very 'Weak Regime" . 'as ".super h," and Greek mill- centrist and Conservative oppo - armed tory men are highly praised for . sition to their undemocratic re:- . As for the Greek policy: .. professionalism. and a 1.1011011- gime is upsetting to the colonels fOrces; the key to U.S. ?i only because . ?. hard;`?The value of the Greek mill- sense willingness .to co:operate . with the complex NATO chain of. dismiss as Communist-inspired. . tory forces is -much lower than Partly for the same reason, ? before 1907. Morale is low, main- command. ? ly because there is now a cora , An important factor . in the the "responsible".opposition has. , anti-regime contention that the ! ti aat between he armedforces fueled some of the sharpest den-Army has suffered since the ! unciations of Aindican policy and the Greek people. April, 1967, coup has been the ; "I believe it is a very weak towards the regime. In the eyes fact that some 3,000 to 1,000 of fi-; regime. R has no organized po- of. many, such criticism is tell, cers, many seniors included, I litical base among the people. ing precisely because it is have been retired in the past: The only base is the armed stripped of the once-fashionable four years. forces-?-and even now I believe fantasy that the! colonels' coup a ?? ? he Greek officers would not be This has broken the back of ? was really an American plot engiaeered by the CIA. . willing to suppori such a re- , the officer corps, it is contend. - gime" the 68-year-old former ed, leaving behind men who are As. Mr. Kanellopoulos, a strict prime minister said. either super-loyal to the regime conserVative, put . it recently ? Mr. Mavros, as inheritor of "I camsut believe that myself? duForRekidse2??4/Q3Um.04- ''ikiSIO8Pfirtet401 ..1' 4d66.idtidiltt"' ? i i r rue less vehement in his judgment. - to the detriment of the Army as - Greek today that t s n _ _ pautinned 140 YORK B02.;'J Approved For Release 091/FC),471: CIA-RDP8 STATINTL .. (1 1:72 9r,L.1 - vio!ence nd harsh discipline. "Your 1 U c 'rods are only for pissing," he warned .his Men, and if any of his followers. Les Kapetanios: . country; instead these men were . hounded down and imprisoned and molested women or stole peasant pro-.: La guerre civil:, grecque l94 1949 . by Dominique Endes. ... shot. This, and much more, remains He. :duce they establish were summarily executed. Fayard (Paris), 493 pp., 30 Fr. largely unknown outside Greece,. be- rity did unprecedented secu- in his domain, but in the process ? DeMocracy at Gunpoint: cause no revisionist historian has so far became the object of fear and vilifica- refuted the cold war mythology about tion on the part of the old politicians the.Greek Front . ? , by Andrea Greece. s Papandreou. . and intellectuals of Athens. ;Doubleday, 365 pp., 57.95 LI- iAim., great the need for a reappralsai,A-res's success in organizing resist.- of Inc history of the Greek resistance ance bands accentuated ?h is differences I'dan's Freedom and how useful such a reappraisal with George Siantos, Secretary of the ?by 'Andreas Papandreou. . Conununist Central Committee which -Carnegie-Mellon (distributed b-y would be are evident in Les Kapet- controlled the mass resistance organi-? Columbia University Press), onios, the pioneering study by the zation, the EAM or National Libera- . 72 pp., $4.00 French journalist Dominique Endes. tion Front. Siantos was determined to Nightmare in Athens Based on extensive personal interviews -follow to the letter the current Soviet 1-; Margaret Papandreou. as well as published sources, Eudes's line of national and international unity i ondice-Hail, 390 pp.,. $8.95 !;, work contains ' much- hitherto unpub- against the. Axis. He summoned Ares a. lished information. Certainly it should to Athens and lectured him on the. Write sur Is C.1?Zee' be translated into Many 'other lan-. need to cooperate with the old prewar by Anonymous. gu ages. - political leaders, with Zervas and his La C Lausann ite (eY, 252 pp., 21 Fr. . . The hero of Les Kapetanios is Ares "nationalist" guerrilla. bands, and with elouchiotes, who might be described , Greece: February 1971 ' V ? the British agents led by Christopher as a Greek Tito who failed. Like his i A Staff Report Prepared for the Use . Woodhouse. Ares protested that the of the 'Committee on Foreign Relations, Yugoslav counterpart, Ares was a Corn- ' Central Committee was unaware of munist leader who, during the Occupa- deliberate and coordinated intrigues United States Senate. . tion, sought to ensure Partisan hcge- U. S. Government .Printing Office, -against the. Partisans by Zervas and -16 pp. molly against both native oligarchs and Woodhouse, and he urged the Central _ foreign powers. But Ares was a in Committee to move from occupied L. S. Stavrianos !figure, doomed both by flaws ;n his: Athens to the liberated areas of Free ONVI1 personality and by S t Imagine what would be the common - n -ta?lini s- Greece in order to build an UnC0111- elief today General Westmoreland party leadership -slavishly committed to promised resistance movement. b if the Kremlin line. Against this leader- had won the war in Vietnam several Siantos'S firm refusal even to ship Arcs had no chance because he years ago. Ho Chi Mush would be 'consider such a move reflected another remembered as a -bloodthirsty corn- lacked Tito's ability to formulate a. serious disagreement: the gross. under- munist traitor, while Emperor Bao Dai, , nationalist communist doctrine, and to.. estimation of the Partisan bands by the Diem, Ky, and Thieu would be hailed organize and lead a nationalist coin- Party leaders. Many Party officials i - ? - - . as the ,Aaviors of their country. We munist party. Rather Ares was a typical guerrilla were graduates of the KU7V-7-the .wouleknow nothing of My Lai, and chieftain?a fearless, commanding fir,_ Cominter'n's Communist University of .we would have "forgotten about ,na- ure, a brilliant tactician in mountarn the Toilers of the East. These "Kut- Palm, defoliants, "free fire zones," and fighting, but far too impetuous and vistes," as they were called in Greece, ? mass "relocation" of peasants. Instead- undisciplined to work were thoroughly indoctrinated in Party we would be treated to tales (which with the plod- ding mediocrities of the Communist.' orthodoxy and blindly loyal to Stalin- ' ultimately we would accept as the full Party hierarchy. Accordingly he was. 1st Russia. AS a consequence, they story) of whoiesal -atrocities in POW always an outsider. This was especially adhered rigidly to the traditional Marx- camps and of mass graves which would - so after he signed under mysterious ist belief in the primacy of the urban be: exposed and publicized, as they proletariat in revolutionary struggle, were when the My Lai story ___... _first circumstances a "declaration of repent- : and, conversely, to the assumption thatP , . . . . . . . ance" which freed him from incarcera- . broke. the peasant Partisan bands were mere: ? ? tion during the Metaxas dictatorship. of Such transformation of fact into auxiliaries to the crucial urban conflict. the late 1930s. But unlike other signa-- myth,- and myth into fact, has hap-of Greece. Unlike In view- of conditions in .occupied pened in the case . tories, Ares promptly resumed the . strug,nle against the dictatorship after assumption, this ,was a critically erroneous Westmoreland, who failed in Vietnam, which was to end in release. the ,British General Scobie and the his r . With the Axis occupation of Greece catastrophe. By contrast, the partisans American General Van Fleet won their . ,,.. few people in 1941, Ares finally came . into his. : in Yugoslavia . and China grew in . wars m Greece. As a result, ? Strength, for Tito and Mao had the now realize that Greece entered the . Own. In the mountains of Roumele he: resources and independence of mind to postwar period with a state apparatus . became a folk hero?thea leding resist- ! resist the Kremlin. Siantos and .., his pervad 4 ed from top to bot n tom gith 'ace fiohter in all Greece, a glamorous, quislings.' .Few peo . p pirpygt qlsw Rolease 2001 /08/04,*telAQRDIV2141%ciltwuby,pyppyPI?Tp . nin. Greece no resistance fighter ever guard in their black be became 1 b? I urceoninn Partisan forces. To Siantos, --received a medal for his services to his legencary. True, he was feared for his Pn 1415:rins 'were from an entirely * t?. i; 1.; Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R DAILY WORLD 8 3122 1971 ? STATI NTL -am, f artrrr?? I,,,rmiormt.n.......,07........4,J26.9.4......,..,...1 a .....,,....tialaz........awap. ?-..,.-e.r.,, .....r.7,-..,....... t.,...C.A.-=',..?^1X..,,,,C.747., I 171-ft", 47/7,7,4 @I\ hltellectuals defend Cuba SANTIAGO DE CHILE?Eighty prominent Chilean intellectuals issued a statement in Santiago on Saturday condemning those who tent their names and talents to an imperialist-inspired slander cam- ' Paign_against Cuba. The statement was in direct reference to the so- Cillled "Padilla case" in Cuba, and pointed out that poet Fleberto ? Padilla had admitted he slandered the Cuban revolution and had con- . facts With CIA agents. The Chilean intellectuals sharply attacked a statement issued under the name of French novelist Jean-Paul Sartre ? /Ind several others protesting Cuba's handling of the "Padilla case." The Chileans said: "We think the time is ripe for every worker in the Cultural field to determine his place and his position in the Construction of a new society. There is no room for hesitation on this question. We believe every progressive writer must. be a revo- lutionary and support the people." We completely agree With Fidel?Castro's remarks that it is no- .tessary to intensify the struggle against imperialist ideology and oionialism in culture. We believe national cultural v.alues must be- iong to the entire people and not to unrepresentative groups of indi- tiduals..We support the Cuban's. efforts to build a new socialist so- CietY." The statement was signed by Chilean National Literary Award winners Juvencio Valle and Carlos Droguett, writers Gunter- hid Atias. Antonio Scarmeta? Gonzalo Rojas, painters Jose Balmes, :Guillermo Nunez and 73 other Chilean intellectuals. New U. .S,.i.c.,,d1o.stailon C recce ? ?M..0Ni1c1, Greece?The U.S. and the Greek fascist junta last Weekend Signed a new agreement extending the broadcast rights of Ell.e Voice of America radio station for another 14 months and pro- Viding for the Cstz:blisnment of a new VOA station at Ravalla, in hoi-thwestern Greece. The new station is very powerful (2,590 kilo- Waits) and Will be backed up by a "Radio Free Europe" station Which is to be set up nearby. Radio Free Europe, is a branch of the 1}.5, 'Central Intelligence Agency. Reasons for the moves closer to the i'ugoslay border were not disclosed. . Ap koved ForRelewat-e-20-01/03/Cr4-: CIA---RlaP80-04601R000500220001-5 2 Approved For IR`MeaStcri001/03/0g-rAglekrripP8 X4/1 ?r. p fiC-) Juric.o! This spring is a double anniversary for Greece. One-hundred-fifty years flea Greeks began their nine-year ?, ggle for independence from Turkey. our years ago, with what many Greek democrats believe Was the complicity of the CIA and the U.S. military mis- sion, a group of Greek army officers seized power. They still have it, thanks in part to a U.S.. foreign policy which is still based on fighting ths- Cold War against Communism. To stay alive, what the present fas- cist government in Athens needs most is %%that only Washington can?and docs?provide: the prestige of approv- al. With no free press, the average Greek may believe that actively oppos- ing the junta is useless because it has American backing. He sees and reads about the open friendliness of U.S. diplomatic and military missions -laseard the Colonels, whose best e (sof" that they arc the legitimate defenders of the "free world's eastern flank" is the continued American mil- itary aid to Athens. Particularly galling for anti-fascist AmerLeans should be the mendacity of some State Department officials who work hard at selling to Congress the Pentagon's line on the junta. One of these officials told a Senate subcom- mittee last August that the anti-junta leadership in Greece favored unre- stricted resumption of U.S. military aid. That testimony came less than a month after my return from Athens, where I had found the opposite to be true. In a committee hearing, moreover, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Roger Davies reportedly told Senator J. W. Fulbright that the Colonels were making progress toward the restora- tion of democracy. Such an outright lie would have doubled-up with laughter the Greeks I had met. Fulbright's acerbic skepticism did not daunt the Approm9d1Flott'R junta-apologists. In later testimony, they clahnstl that anti??junta leaders wished. the resumption of U.S. arms aid for patriotic., nationalssecuaity rea- sons.. That claim turned the trick-----for the time it succeeded in silencing Ful?? bright and other critical Senators. How could they argue against the pura ported wishes of the very Greek dem- ocrats they wished to help in restoring democracy? The incident raises a familiar clues- tio?: how can the American people's elected representatives evaluate for- eign policy matters which concern far- away places? Ideally, of course, Sen- ators and Representatives, no loss than Cabinet members and the President himself, should be able to rely on the honesty and accuracy of U.S. intelli- gence agencies, the Pentagon, and the State Department. Yet, Fulbright was sandbagged into silence because he had not been in Greece and therefore could not know first-hand that the genuine anti-junta leaders opposed and still oppose 'U.S. military aid to the. Greek dictatorship. The answer to the credibility 'ques- tion was met in part earlier this year. In February, Fulbright's Foreign Re- lations Committee sent to Greece two staff experts whose findings, released two months ago, contradicted a State Department paper issued in iJanuary. elease dOIVIOCITCy whon you taoc:14" Piarotti in the Now York. Po?,t. Fulbriglit's aides, James C. Lowenstein and Richard M. Moose, reported that although "all institutional laws neces- sary to put into force the constitution were prornulgted by the end of 1570 tts promised by the Greek government . . . , the constitution is by no means yet in.cffect. . . ." To Americans who have long ago.. nized over the coddling by successive U.S. Administrations of fascism in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, as well as in Vietnam and Thailand, the staff report's conclusion was no surprise: ? "The policy of friendly persuasion has clearly failed. The regime has ac- cepted the friendship and the military assistance but has ignored the persua- sion. Indeed, the regime seems to have been able to exert more leverage on us with regard to military assistance than. we have been willing to exert on ,the -regime with regard to political reform. We see 110 evidence that this will not continue to be the case." Senator Fulbright is. not, of course, the only representative of time Amer- ican people to have raised critical questions about the efficacy, if not the morality, of this nation's defending "freedom" (and markets) against Cornmunism by sponsoring right-wing governments which suppress the drive of foreign peoples for genuine self- determination. But. in getting facts, Fulbright and others must obviously do it with a little help from their friends?who apparently can be found neither in the State Department nor in the White House. Oddly enough, it may be from the Commerce Department that the 'truth will out. At a luncheon in Athens at- tended by several junta ministers a few weeks ago, Secretary of Commerce Maurice H. Stans uttered some public words which may yet win him the Martha Mitchell Blabber-Mouth of the Year award. Stans thanked the nice Colonels for the "sense of security that the Government of Greece is impart- ing" to U.S. business firms. ; ?R.ALPir. Z. HALLOW (Mr. Hallow, an editorial writer for the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, has dis- cussed the Greek situation with demo- 200410,3104epOM-RDP80-0460tRo00500t200010vern- ment officials in Athens.) . 'S 7846 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04? CIA,7RDP8.0-0 C'4 CONGRESSIONAL RECOR'D A.1 la of a supra-eantrol agency Could alter the situation in a short time and provide an improved capability for the development of subversive direction of civil disturbances. Meaningful degrees of subversive influence and organized control arc distinct future possibilities in the United States civil dis- turbance problem. (2) Anti-Vietnam/Anti-Draft Movements Anti-Vietnam and 'anti-draft movements have increased in scope and number in the past two years. Protests against war have been common for many years and have generally followed the pattern of marching, picketing, and, distributing literature by individual group's-. The first nation-wide attempt to co- ordinate these peace movements was effec- tively made in the spring of 1966 by the Spring Mobilisation Committee to End the War in Vietnam (SMC). In 1966 the SMC coordinated and staged anti-w-ar rallies in San Francisco, New York City, and a num- ber of minor demonstrations in other cities. Because of the success of the SMC's initial endeavor, the anti-war movement established the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (NMC) to act as a permanent coordinating committee for dem- onstrations. Originally distinct from, but aligned with the NMC in ideology, were the anti-war/anti-draft groups. At the present time, even though the anti-war/anti-draft groups profess Individuality and separation, from other groups, their similarity of aims and actions operate to have almost the force and effect of an interlocking directorate simi- lar to the Nal?. Very strong support to the anti-war movement is also forthcoming from such "left" groups as the Communist Party, USA (CPUSA), the CMUSA youth front group, the W. E. B. Du Dais Clubs of America (DCA), the Students for a Democratic Society (SI)S), Youth Against War and Fascism, the Progres- sive Labor Party and a veritable host of small- er organizations. Tactics of the various orga- nizations have- undergone a change from pas- sive actions to more militant actions, with "direct confrontations" now the main objec- tive. Although the majority of anti-war pro- testers appear reluctant, for moral, practical, or legal reasons, to engage in public demon- strations of a nature which violate existing laws, there is a significant minority of pro- fessional agitators and young students who advocate either violent action or so-ealled disobedience of such a nature that viclence Is almost sure to ensue. Although many of the more articulate voices in the peace move- ment counsel against illegal actiores; it ap- pears that they have slight influence on those persons already committed to such action. (3) Subversive Conspiratorial Aspects a. Peace movement Although it cannot be substantiated that the anti-war and the anti--draft movements are acting in response to foreign direction, it must be pointed out that by their activities they are supporting the stated objectives of foreign elements which are detrimental to the USA. Many leaders of the anti-war and anti-draft movement have traveled to for- eign countries, including Cuba, East Europe and North Vietnam to meet with Communist leaders. Therefore, the possibility exists that these individuals may be either heavily in- raleliCed V 01.1trisht dominated by their for- eign contacts. They May, in turn, influence their followers, the majority of whom have no sympathy for the Communist cause, but are unaware of their leaders' affiliations. Groups, such as The Resistance and the Stu- dents for Democratic Society (SDS), have openly announced their continuing inten- tion to violate the lase by aiding and abetting Individuals desiring to criminally evade the draft. Both these groups have become in- creasingly more militant and are co-sponsors of illegal demonstrations against the draft, the military, and civilian and government re- cruiters -on college campuses. . Civil rights movement The Frogreasive Labor Party ? (PLP), Marxist-Leninist group, was able to capital- ize on an incident in order to spur Negroes to violence in Harlem and Dedford-Stuyvesant, Nev., York City in 1914. Another Communist? oriented, Marxist Leninist group, the Revo- lutionary Action Movement (RAM) has been shown to be conspiring to commit murder and wanton acts of vandalism, The Student? Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and in particular its chairman, H. Rap Pro-an, has been instrumental in aggravating tense situations in ghetto areas and in pro- longing civil disorder. While most civil rights leaders are moderates and the majority of the Negro population abhors violence, a suf- ficient number of individuals seem suscep- tible to the violent rallying cries of the mili- tants to make these individuals dangerous to society. c. Friendly forces USCONARC and CONUS Armies, and the U.S. Army Intelligence Command support the Department of the Army by continuing current reporting of information on civil disturbances. . . 2. (C) ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS .01" INFORMATION (EEC) All CONUS-based major Army commands and subordinate commands will report In- formation as obtained to satisfy Deportment of the Army EEI relative to: a. Plans, operations, deployment, tactics, techniques, and capabilities of individuals, groups or organizations whose efforts are to reduce U.S. military capabilities through espionage, sabotage, subversion, treason, propaganda and other disruptive operations. b. Patterns, techniques, and capabilities of subversive elements in cover and deception efforts in civil disturbance situations. c. Civil ciieturbance incidents or disorders which involve CONES military installations or personnel. d. Theits of significant quantities of weap- ons and ammunition from civilian companies or industries. Thefts of significant quantities of government weapons and ammunition from Active Army, Reserve, National Guard, or ROTC installations and facilities. e. Strikes, civil disturbances, and labor disturbances which affect military installa- tions, or other strikes or labor end civil dis- turbances of sufficient magnitude to indicate a probable employment of federal troops to preserve or restore order. f. Information concerning opposition that may be expected by military forces if called upon to maintain or restore order. Specific- ally, possible courses of action, methods and capabilities, weapons. and support. g. Impact or significance of changes in federal, state, or municipal laws, court de- cisions, referenduma, amendments, executive orders, or other directives which affect mi- nority groups. h. Cause of civil disturbance and names of instigators and group participants. 1. Indicators of potential violence: (1) High unemployment rate among mi- nority groups. (2) Noticeably heightened crime rates among minority groups. (3) Dissatisfaction and complaints arising front disparity di average income between the whites and the non-whites. (4) Declining rapport between law enforce- ment officials and minority groups. (5) Migration of large numbers of a mi- nority group into a city slum area. (C) Protests of the minority community relative to conditions in slum areas, such as de facto segregation in housing and schools, lack -of jobs, lack of recreational facilities, police brutality, and overcharging, of goods and services by local merchants. j. Indicators of imminent violence: (1) Presence or participation in local ac- tivities by militant agitators. (2) Increase in thefts and sales of weapons and ammunition. (3) Increase in efforts of extremist, inte- grationist, and segregationist croups to in- stigatMviolence, e.g., increase in numbers of handbills, pamphlets, and posters urging acts of violence. (4) Increase in number of incidents of window breaking, false fire alarms, thefts, and other harassments of damaging nature to the community. - (5) Reports and rumors of planned vio- lence. (6) Presence of known instigators of vio- lence. . . 3. (Cl ORDERS AND REQUESTS Fon INFORMATION a. Supporting plans of USCONARC and CONUS Armies, and the U.S. Army Intelli- gence Command will include provisions for rapid reporting and dissemination of re- sponses to the above FlEI in the following pri- ority consistent with appropriate' security regulations: (1) Task Force Commander (2) Army Operations Center (AOC), DA . (3) MOW or CONUS Army wherein the dis- turbance is imminent or in progress. ? (4) USCONARC/USARSTRIKE (5) CINCSTRIKE b. Comanders will insure that units and personnel are familiar with announced. EEI. c. Local liaison with federal and civilian agencies by the military intelligence operat- ing elements of the USAINTC is encouraged. 4. (C) INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERINTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS a. Information required to accomplish the misison of the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, will be obtained through all resources available to the commanders, to include intelligence reports, estimates, studies, and special studies prepared by the commands. b. OACSI, DA, will prepare and dissem- inate reports, estimates, studies, and special studies, as appropriate, from information obtained or received at the national, level. c. The primary organization for direct support of the Department of the Army in the coverage end reporting of information on civil disturbances is the U.S. Army intel- ligence Command. The Command's opera- tional planning will include provisions for providing civil disturbance information to the task Force Commander upon announce- ment of his appointment anml thereafter. d. Upon dispatch of Personal Liaison Officer by the Chief of Staff, 'U.S. Army, to the area of anticipated trouble, ACSI, DA, viii, In turn, designate an ACSI point-of-contact (ACSI-POC) who will respond to satisfy the requirement of the Chief of Staff, Army (CofSA) Personal Liaison Officer. 5. (U) MAPS?apropriate maps for the objective area will be provided by the Army Map Service, 6. (U) Counterintelligence summary (See ? Section 4 of the Civil Disturbance Planning Packet pertaining to the objective area and ...gcrjprent SPIREP). GREECE ? Mr. KENNEDY. Mr. President, the situation in Greece is a matter of con- tinuing concern to Americans and people throughout the world. On April 21, Mr. Elias P. Demetracopoulos delivered an informative address to students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I feel' the address will be of interest to Senators, and ask unanimous consent that it be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the address was ordered to be printed in the REcolu), as follows:- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160W11500220001-5 DAILY WORLD 18 MAY 19T1 Cyprus press hails Itilakarios' plan to visit Soviet Union .! force of 10,000 troops to "restore order." Undoubtedly, this West . German NATO force would have remained on Cyprus permanent- ly. Plenty of incidents could have been provoked between Greeks and Turks to create a pretext for keeping the troops there. With a West German military garrison, British air bases, and the U.S. Sixth Fleet centered on Cyprus, imperialism could have tried a real come-back in the Middle East. Fortunately this project failed. ? 2) The Greek fascist military junta which seiled power in Ath- ens in 1967, strongly supported / if not directed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and the Pen-. ? ? Daily World Foreign Department . . The announcement that President Makarios of Cyprus will visit the Soviet Union on June 2-4 has once more foc- used world attention on this island republic in the eastern' Mediterranean. There is likely to be considerable specula-1 tion in the capitalist news media about why Makarios is' I going to the USSR at this particular time. . ' The Cypriot press, whicb hie ? From ancient times, a majority come out unanimously in favor of of the people of Cyprus consid- the trip, has stressed the imPor" ered themselves Greek. But from i tant point that In a time of ex- 1571 to 1878 the island was under ' treme tension in the Middle East, attornzn Turtle: r..1e and nn !m- Makarios' Soviet visit can help to portant Turkish minority com- I tagon. The Atheni junta tried to underline how the USSR has al- munity developed on Cyprus. The ? use Cypriot feeling for -"enosis" is still boycotting the government, ? I , 3) The threat of intervention 1. up by anti-Greek incitement and ? PEO, affiliated to the World ?bst)uiniaToitielgi:weeyi with rigninG rneecetheen past, s. t:to Turkish estab- lishuurpkipos: for placing the island under the opposition of AKE and LPEO, its fascist rule over the island.' The so-called "National Front" on Cyprus campaigned rule of the Athens junta, estab- lished secret arms dumps, and in March, 1970, tried to assassinate was largely due to the determined Communist Party of Cyprus) and PEO is the All-Cyprus Labor Fed- eration whose leadership is al- Federation of . Trade-Unions, Makarios. AKEL is the Cypriot Progressive People's Party (formerly the to gain any popular support, it, 72,000 organized tradeunionists governments have used mainly most entirely from AKEL. on the island. , takes in more than 40,000 of the their claims to . Cyprus, backed If the National Front plot failed . . _ ____ 1 4 i thiteY,IsbelanaddedThbye TurkiDr. Fsallzie?1 Kmniuchukun., ' although 15 out of 50 legislative . . seats are reserved for them by the Constitution. ways defended Cyprus independ- present population is roughly ence. . 600,000, of whom 82 percent are Cyprus, an island ar 3,572 square Greek and 18 percent Turkish. miles, is about as big as Delaware Greeks and Turks on Cyprus and Rhode Island put together and lived together about as well as Is located at au eatremalY Wale' .could be expected until the inde- pendence struggle against the. British colonialists began- in earnest in 1955, with Archbiship Makarios of Cyprus' Greek Ortho- dox Church becoming the symbol of that struggle. Divide and rule policy Britain took advantage of the division in the island's population the way it did in Ireland, India, Palestine and elsewhere. When Cyprus became independent in 1931, with Makarios as President, I deep hatreds had been created.. * between Greeks and Turks. These! hatreds erupted into something! like civil war in the 1960's. and asi a result a United-Nations peace-1 keeping force is stilt on duty on 1: PRESIDENT MAKARIOS ? gic spot in the eastern Mediter- ranean 40 miles south of Tur- key, 60 Miles west of Syria. In 1956, Cyprus became the 'staging area for the British- , French attack on Egypt, about 150 ' miles to the south. Britain stili onretryl;n1ISM/M r% Pi . appeal&to help the Turkish min- There is every indication that ority on Cyprus. At-the moment, other forces would like to use ? the danger froi.n. Ty_ r_k_ex.w..sil the ancient . policy of creating mond of all.._ ?? . .2.:...; division in order to rule Cyprus. ' In all the crises which widcb?c.379/.1 . Major threats . has. -in. Independence come from: The major threats to Cyprus' .; been forced to undergo : the past decade, the Soviet Union 1) The U.S., through NATO. 1 has steadfastly supported Cyprus ? independence. During the March, When Greek-Turkish fighting ! 1970, incidents, the USSR had to broke out on Cyprus in 1963-64, . the U.S.opposed sending UN make that. support unmistakably' ? !plain '. peacekeeping forces, ? and backed ?? to the U.S. The Cypriot !, public therefore welcomeir news dualanotray t G rman Dommismiya 500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP DENVER, COLO. POST E ? 252,198 s - 344,155 77-"41 'Id hi - 4 Z. AKIDilir:AS alup_../.corppoter! program." ff /T1 i{,!'s. ? Cs:a./ 0 - STATI NTL By Irt:ENA 1,1:,Dia.EWS DnVcr Post Staff Writer ( i'' ,,,-:???!.?., r7 rl r "My wedding is coming up' ',?---., i !''' ; ( ' i i 1 / \.,,,:,, 1, -..; soon, ItIr. Prime Mister. I! :. - j ' - - 1-i 4/ would like Cyprus as a gilt." )!. The quote is attributed to the my talk and the ambassador "arrogant, ill-mannered, uneclu- condemned me in a public catea, spoiled brat" King Con- statement for my criticisms. stantine of Greece NV1-10 is in "I met with him and pointed , exile in Italy by another Crock out that my remarks were ! political figure, also in exile, nmeh milder than anything Sen. Papandreou was in Dem!er to c h a r g e d . His an swer W as, 1We'll just have to keen trying." . - - --..? Dr. Andreas Papandreou. W i I 1 i a m J. Fuibright ever I speak: at the University ofra-I,nat's true. But Fulbright is , j Denver Tuesday night in the !,!,:t !iin,e.rican and yo!a're a ,re,...!.. DU "Focus" lecture series. -!!,7 ii' Ii Does he see any hope for the grim picture of Greece hp paints? "As a good, proud Greek, I have to answer yes to this. But don't ask me when this will be, Jaw Papandreou, considered by Papandreou said he was many as one of the world's !imprisoned in Greece for eight, 'leading economists, in an inter- .nonths by Inc military junta. ! -x-ir5V.-at Tim Denver Post Build- He no'.; lives in Toronto, log wedncsday pot most or the Canada, where he teaches, and blame for the existence of also travels throughout Europe Greece's military junta onthe where a skeletal underground royal family, notablyQueen !group (of about 1,00 persons) Mother Freclerika. is organizing under the name . Panhollenic Liberation Move- CALLED FOP. HELP meat. The group collects money :.."She served as the avenue and support and considers its for CFA virtual control of mission "a long, uphill, slow -charged. "She strgugle to bring democracy C alled President (Lyildcal) hack to Greece." Johnson after Kim>. Paul died .;Am.0-0.1(3. E02J4-t?s and asked for his help in run- Asked if he is the leader, he ning the country because her !replied: "Let's say I'm first son was tco inexperieaced." ;amonE, equals." l??PaPamiretal also said it was -1 He said the worst thing in the U.S. government that mas- !Greece today ? and the reason lerminded the military cup iwhy another uprising is unlikely AM. At that time, his father, in the immediate future ? is the late Prime Minister Georg: ,,:the suspicion "of even brother Papandretat, and Andreas! v,!er-i against brother." imprisoned at Averoff, a prisoni He doesn't foresee immediate normally used to inearcerate!public elections and cites the criminals in Greece, lexistence of martial law as an !..The Harvard-trained econo- C x a in p 1 c of "the situation mist said the coup was blood- !there." He also said that Greek ! less because it was ."a truly ;Prime Minister Papacinpoulos is modern one in that it was corn-i "an extremely heavily guarded' puter programmed." man, whose home is surrounded "Before the coup, I was giv-i by tanks and well-placed ma- .ing a talk to the foreign Jr: ? ? chine guns." C! - nalist club at the Grande Bret-. He said the U.S. wants King taq,ne Hotel in Athens in Fcbru- Constantine back in Greece . ary 1937 titled 'The Cards Are even though the military junta Stacked in Greece,' " he ye- would rather not have him back calls. -"I spoke against Ameri- because "for the U.S. the king can intervention in my country is the cne permanent conveyor ; and criticized American PHU of American influence. Junta APPr if4trArrgqigg' 001103104Y;dClAdRDP60a01601R000500220001-5 Atli- row and tne U.S. wants more resentatives waled out during than th- TM Approved For RereasGU DAVID TONGE in Athens .takes up the story of the :investigating Magistrate in the film. "Z,". who. has. just, been charged ..--;OvitiVplapiling dgaiiiie the _regime. Ian who, unmasked Greece People throughout the world who have seen the film "Z will remember .its hero, the nollapPable investigating magistrate who eventually un- masks the gendarmerie general and others who .arranged the murder of the deputy. This story Is based on the political murder which occurred in Greece in 1963 of the Left-wing deputy, Mr Lam- jnakis. The magistrate whose difficulties are portrayed in the film, Mr Christos Sartsetakis, is In prison and has just been charged with planning bomb explosions against the regime. It is difficult to find people in Greece who believe he is guilty, or that these charges are what he is really held for. To most people the point is that eight years ago it was Mr Sartsetakis who in his investigations of Mr Lambrakis's death brought out for the first time the real power of the secret services in Greece ? It was bey who were probably responsible for the death, and to this extent the Lambrakis affair is a harbinger of the 1967 coup. This coup was planned by Mr. Paoadopouloi and others from the secret services. . Today it Is- those services which, with the army, rule Greece, and at least two other members4of the present Cabi- net are known to have figured in the Lambrakis affair. How many more of them were work- ing behind the scenes? The trial proved far frdni moment of truth. After 67 days and hearing 200 witnesses the court acquitted the officers and sentenced the driver and the passenger who had bludgeoned Mr Larriblakis to sentence; totalling less than 20 years. Both are now free. Mr Sartsetakis is not., To understand this one has to remember that in the mean- time the King had dismissed Mr Papandreou's Centre Govern- ?ment and that the secret ser- vices had been drawn back into power. If they also protected those who had scrved them would this be surprising? ? For Mr Sartsetakis to have Indicted these services he would have had to have attacked the main bastions of 'Greece's power. structure ? the Palace, the Government, and the Army. The Palace's rOle seems the most mysterious. One former Centre Union deputy has told how he received a leak of a secret list of proscribed names from the royal palace on Corfu. His name was on it, as was that of Mr Lambrakis This was two? months before the death of Mr Lambrakis And in the mean- time Mr Lambrakis had particu- larly angered Queen Frederika by the part he played In arrang- ing the demonstrations which greeted her on her .visit to London. ? As with the murder of Presi- dent Kennedy, investigations Into Mr ,Lambrakis's death never really cleared up the' mystery Of who had ordered the assassination. Mr Sartsetakis was able to indict _those who 'tarried it out, the car driver, .Kotsamanis, and his passenger, . Emmanoulidls. He also had Imprisoned the gendarmerie controller of Northern Greece_ General Mitsou, and three other . officers, including the local ? security chief. . But these.' four Were only Indicted on lesser charges. ? Their role in giving the orders ? ,for Mr Lambrakis's death was never settled, nor was it ever found out who had , ordered .them to act. ? ? - Few people failed to notice that Emmanoulidis, who struck the blow, had been the Queen's personal bodyguard in 1962 ? and this, In spite of having a - ? - ? - ? long criminal reeord. The iinpli- cations of this have never been clarified, but what was brought out fully was the growing power of a series ofNazi-type organisations which had grown up in the 1950s. The book, "The Lambrakis Affair," now forbidden' in Greece, claims - that these .organisations were set up by the private office of Mr Karamanlis, then , Prime Minister, working in collabo- ration with the information services of the Ministry to the Prime Minister. The present Government spokesman, Mr George secre6 servle Georgalas, an ex-Communist with training in Agitprop, the Communist propaganda school, played a leading role in these services, according to the book He had been greeted by KYP. the Greek equivalent . of the CIA, on his return from .Hungary, personally having dealings with Mr Papado- Another figure of today to poulos, who was then in KYP. appear on the scene was Mr Dmitri Kapsaskis, now the Mr 'Georgalas then became a founding member of a group Colonels' faithful coroner, who which in 1958 violently,broke up a meeting of the -Friends of down. The Secretary of Northern Greece at the time. Mr Ioannis Holevas, now the Colonels' Minister of Mer- cant Marine, tried to make p for what he may possibly ave known about before and been unable to prevent. Peace in Piraeus. All of which may explain why he has wasted no time in criticising Mr Sartse takis. . Since the latter's arrest- he has accused him of political adventuring and partiality in his judgments. Mr Sartsetakis cannot answer nick. and point denies all torture allegations and claims that 'Mrs Niarchos died of barbiturates three hours after taking them, which doctors generally find most improbable. He arrived in Salonika with no apparent professional excuse and quickly wroti repbrt saying that death was by impact of the pavement. The other coroners refused to sign out that ? he was three times Those ho It described by his superiors as W went against all one 'of th country's best this have suffered. Mr Sartze- e takis was one, a gentle cul- judges, and that the Minister of ? Justice in 1962 praised him in tivated man with a puckish Parliament for nis investi- sense of humour, and a bril- gations. hant. reputation. But he was - - ? first dismissed from his post, These.. organisations which then forbidden from working: were set up by the extreme For !him the wheel has swung Right were well known to the full circle, as it has for ethers. , security authorities. They were The journalist, Mr : George frequently used is a sort of Romalos, who in 1963 published unofficial police force. On May documents proving the secret. 19, 1963,. they collected 3,000 services, support for the members of three Salonika' groups to protect General de extremist groups, was arrested . Gal 1e who was visiting the town. Three days later it was the same groups who attacked. Mr Lambrakis. General Mitsou, it is claimed, used .to support them financially. Mr Karamanlis's reaction to the news of the death was to shout: Who in God's 'name is ruling Greece," and probably no one in the Government wanted so extreme a step. But the Frankenstein's monsters they had created to deal with com- munism had outgrown their political masters. Four years later various parallel organisa- tions set_up in the army were to replace the, politicians altogether. Once the murder had occurred, all that the Govern- ment could do was try to play it in February arid like Mr Sart- zetakis disappeared into the hands of the military police. Their trial, if and when it hap- pens, will show just how far the Lambrakis affair is continuing today. There is every indica- tion that to Greece's rulers it is as important now as then. The gendarmerie officer who arranged Mr Sartzetakis's arrest was the son of the general whom Mr Sartzetakis had had arrested seven years earlier. C David Tonge Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATINTL ? i ? : UNION M - 77,427 t 6 A Cs 71. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R! SPRINGFIELD, MASS. IIIII .1 .LtAy?z,? 7) )1 ? [73 " 'LI. 04 :11. ? c; . .. .., ,. . . ,................... ...?... ....,.. . ' . , . . ..-. %. . . . . -- , . ' , ' ,-? ? . ,.-..,... -- -.,-..---,.... : ?, , . ,.. .... -, ..,--...-.,....,?,:, - ?,................ . ...?... ... . ? ............. .?... ... . ... .. ,... --:::-...i.:i'???.:':'....'.'..1..!:::::-f-_,--. .--".l..- --.. . ........ ?........ ,..,-, ............ ... ., ,. . ? ......... ? , . ... - . ......... .. ............-.... ...... - .. ... ., .:.? .. - . -:;-?,::::::?-.:.--'..,!--`?4.... --....., . - '::::-..----!: ':.'-: --- -- :' GEOIZGE GEOIZGAI,AS Poy?'er Behind the Junta? -? !' By TOM CULLEN ' Special to The Union ATHENS ? Secretary of State George Georgalas holds one of the highest positions - in the military junta which governs Greece. George :Georgalas is a former Communist who for many .years was a paid Moscow agent. Brain Trust Many responsible Greeks' whp are opposed to the ."colonels' government" of George Papadopoulos con- sider Georgalas, the brains behind the dictatorship. .Whether he is in fact the unta's mastermind is an ipen 'question but he. cer- :ainly enjoys the confidence Papadopoulos to whom he s directly responsible and Inything can happen in the :ooking-glass world of ?resent Greek politics. There can be no question, however, concerning Seorgalas' Communist past, though the government does its best to hush it up. For many... years the minister operated in Eastern Europe as a sort of Kremlin Version Of James Bond. Actually Georgalas injects a dash of color into the otherwise olive-drab world of the military junta. On the one hand, leftists accuse him of being a CIA egent;.on the other; -many of the Army officers who surround Papadopoulos have no love for him, being suspicions of his Communist past. He is a favorite target for an-. tigovernment newspapers which use him to snipe at- he regime. Tall, dark-haired, blue-. eyed and handsome, Georgalas was born in Cairo of Greek parents and was already a Communist when - - - he arrived in Athens at the age of 18. "Educated in Greece and abroad" reads t h e official government biography of Georgalas. What the government han- dout does not mention is that Georgalas was arrested as a student agitator at. the University of Athens and UL to continue his studies In Paris he was . selected by the Reds for guerrilla. warfare training, smuggled back into northern Greece for the tail end of .the Communist-inspired civil war. Georgalas arrived too ?late for the ---aCtiTal fighting and managed to avoid arrest when the Reds 'were later rounded up. In 1949 Georgalas was sent to Moscow to a school for political commissars, where he proved to be one of the most promising pupils. It was in Moscow that he met his wife, who was a Greek. refugee-from the civil war. ?; Changes Sides Georgalas' first assign-- ment after, graduating,. with; honors as -a Kremlin agent was in Budapest, where in, 1954 he was put in charge, of the "Voice of _ Communist broadeasig beamed to Greece. He was , in Hungary during the 1956 and:Communist . uprising. . Whether this had anything to do with his.decision to defect to the West the following " ApproVedaFor Release 2001/63f014? A 6-1) ? lj r- 1./67 0 Qj Vi L. ? The opportunity ocourred- e when he attended an In- ternatidnal Youth Congress held in East Berlin. He simply crossed into West Berlin, was picked up by the CIA and was de-briefed. Afterwards Georgalas worked for the KYR, the . - - -.- Greek Intelligerice Servjce ; ?=RDP,80-01.601R000500220001-5 / STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160 E 337-1 C01\-TGRESS:Cr?TAL 13..7.CCRD ? l'Exleils7w:s of Remarks Ice opportunitits will be available on an equitable basis among signidcant segments of the population of unemployed persona, giving consideration to the reletive Lumbar> of unemployed persons in each such sag- ment. Section 9. Treining and nzan;;olver services This section provides for training and manpower services related to the public service jobs, allowing 20 percent of the funds under the legislation to be used for such purposes. Section 10. Special rcsponsibiLties of Ms Secretery Subsection (a) of this section provides that the Secretary shall establish procedures for periodic reviewa by an appeopriate agency of the status of each peraon employed in a public. service job under the legislation to assure that (1) in the event that any parson employed in a public service job under the legislation and the reviewing agency find that such job will not provide suMcient pros- pects for advancement or suitable continued employment,. maeirnum efforts shall be made to locate employment or training oppor- tunities providing such proenects, and such person shall ba offered ap.peopriate assist- ance in securing placement in the oppor- tunity which ha cheeses after appropriate counseling, and (2) as the rate of unemploy- ment approaches the objective of section. 4(c) of the bill?when the authority for further funding under this leeislatian would be detriggered bacanae the overall unem- ployment rate is falling below .1!:, percent? or financial assistance will otherwise no longer be available under the legislation, maximum efforts 0,all be made to locate em- ployment or training opportunities not sup- ported under this legislation, and persons who have been employed in. public service Jobs under the legislation shall be oiTered appropriate assistance in securing placement In the opportunity which he chooses after appropriate counseling. Subsection (b) peovides that the Secretary shell review the implementation of the pro- cedures established under subsection in) at Intervals six months afte.r funds are first ob- ligated under this legislation -and at six month intervals thereafter. Subsection (c) provides for the Secretary to reserve such amounts as he may deem nec- essary to provide for a continuing evaluation of programs assisted under this legislation and their impact on related programs. Section 11. Special provisions This section contains general and adminis- trative provisions. Section 12. Spacial report This section provides that the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress at least an- nually a detailed report setting forth the ac- tivities conducted under this legislation, in- cluding information on the extent to which participants in such?activitles subsequently secure and retain public or private employ- ment or participate in training or employ- ability development programs, and the extent to which segments of the population of un- employed persons are provided public service opportunities in accordance with the pur- poses of the 1e3islation. Section 13. Deftnitions This section contains definitions of terms used in the legislation. The term "public service" 13 defined as in- cluding but not limited to work in such fields as environmental quality, health care, public safety, education, transportation, recreation, maintenance of parks, streets, and other pub- lic facilities, solid waste removal, pollution control, housing and neighborhood Improve- ments. rural development, conservation, beautification, and other fields of human betterment and community lenprovement. The. teens "unemployed parsons" ineens (Al peetons who ere witlioet jobs and who anti are available for work., ene (B) adults :"..":10 or trivet e; farainea receivo welfare asslatence benedzs who arc deiermined by the Secretary of Labor (in consultation. with the Secretary of Ilealth, Education, and Welfare) to be evalleble for work, and who me either p21:30115 without Ins or parsons at work in Ins proelding insure:dent income TO enC:Dle such peraons and their families to be selfssopporting without welfare atsist- anc6. The deteretination of whether persons are "without Jobs" shall be reene in accord- ance with the criteria used by the Bureau of Labe: StTISTiCS ol the Department of Labor In denning persons as unemployed. This definition of "unemployed persons" is not applicable to the term. "rate of national un- employmont (seaaonally adjusted)" used in the trieeering provisions of section 4, which term ref-era to the sceaonelly adjusted unem- ployment statistics announced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on a monthly basis. Section 14. Effective date This section provides that the legislation shall be effective upon enactment and makes clear that the determinations with respect to the triggering provisions of section 4(b) shell take into account the rate of unemployment for a period of three consecutive months even though all or part of such peeled may have occurred prior to such enactment. CTREEIi. REE.IISTANCE LIVES 1;01i. DO:I ED-,",',7117),3 "O catteoaxta IN THE: HOUSE OF ISEPRESENTATIVZS Monday, May 3, 1971 Mr. EDWARDS of California. Mr. Speaker, for the many millions of the people of the world who loves Greece and who pray for that great country's return to representative government, the voice of Melina Mercouri is one of courage and hope. Indefalible in her efforts to rally world opinion against the military Junta that has now been in power in Greece for 4 years, Miss Morcouri has written for the New York Times of April 21, 1271, the following article that de- scribes precisely the spirit of resistance that still resides in that unhappy land: GREEK RESISTANCE LITITS (By Melina alercouri) Paess.?We once had an unwelcome guest in our house. It was during the wartime oc- cupation of Greece by the Germans. Nati of- ficers were *billeted in people's homes. We drew Gunther. Gunther had a constant need to prove that he was of the "master race." He did so by brandishing an enormous revolv- er and commanding us to watch him urinate on the living room floor. Then he would wave to us with the revolver and say: "If you don't like it, why don't you do something about it?" I am reminded of Gunther when frienc:s, or pretended friends, ask: "If the Greek peo- ple detest the colonels' regime so much, why don't they do something about it?" Any fairLy impartial observer of the Greek scene will tell you that at least. I repeat, at least 90 per cant of the Greek people op- pose the regime, which took power in a coup four years ago today. Yet to date there has been no large manifestation of resist- ance. Can one then deduce that the Greek is a coward? Let anyone tempted to think so study the record of Greek resistance against the Nazis. Their courage was an inspiration to all el" Eerope. Their einciency was ap- plauded by Churchill. Hitler, in what he con- sleeved praise for the Greek fighter, spcke of his "contemet for claaelt." No, we Greeks llOTO no death 'a lain We equate love of liberty with love of life. The cheek is only too. v.-cll ewers that the colo- nels' reeime subsists only by force of arms, by conrt-roarilal and by torture. No knows that Mr. Papodepoulos, who was the coord- inator of the C.I.A. With the Greek intelli- gence service, was an able studene. He has created a vart spy system in Greece. Spies are present in ovary office, in ever3 teats of eeeey schcol, in spores clubs, in municipal aemloistratione, in public places. The toerist, seduced by the sun and beauty of Greece, may net know that the waiter who serves him an euro, or tha taxi driver who tekes hint to the :tampons, could be on the spy payroll. But the *Greek knows it. Yee if active resistenee is slow and cau- tious in forming, the Greek has used another weapon, the weapon of isolation. The col- onels are isolated. They have only their tanks and their spies. Not one single politician of any stature has in any way joined or given support to the regime. Who supports them? Sed to say, their bul- wark is the American State Department and the American Pentagon. Spokesmen for the State Department, In justification of heavy arms shipments to Greece, have stated that the Greek regime -was. moving toward democracy. Permit me to say that not only is tends not true, but also the State Department knows it's not true. Of course it would prefer that the colonels' erect a more presentable facade, but so far the results have been pitiful. There are many Americans who deplore and militate egainse their Government's support of the Greek junta. We know them and cherish them. There are others who say: "Of course we hate dictatorships, but there are military considerations. Greece occupies a strategic position. It is the southeastern flank of NATO." Let us then forget human considerations, or moral considerations. La this foolish age when peoplea assign their destiniee to Penta- gon determination, let us have a look. at military considerations. In time of crisis, what kind of ally could the present Greek regime be? The junta, to stay alive, had to purge 2,000 officers from the Greek Army. These included the very best of the NATO-trained forces. Does not military consideration compel an examination of uhat this means to the effi- ciency of the Greek Army? To name all the officers purged or impris- oned by the junta would make a very long list, but it is a list of men whose hostility will one day explode. They resent bitterly that the junta, to maintain power, has re- sorted to bribe and purchase. Those who were not purged saw their salaries tripled. 'Does a mercenary army melte a reliable ally? I submit that for military consideration. But there is a longer list. It numbers eight minion. These are the Greek people. They, who once admired the Americans, now see them as the main support of their oppres- sors. Admiration has turned to rancor. If in rime Of crisis the American Pentagon be- lieves that she Greek people would support a hated regime, or would forgive the country that armed them, they are making a historic blunder, a blunder of monumental propor- tions. If the moment comes in which the junta has to divert its rigid surveillance of the Greek people because its army is needed elsewhere, then as surely as night follows day the Greek people will rise up and crush them. On that day the question will no longer be asked: where is the Greek resist- ance? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For ReleaseineMni4;SIA-RDP8 21 APR iS71 {') ter--1 , eta' ? ? / C,...i ; This drawing drawing is by a 6-year-old Greclagirl whose father is a political prisoner in that country 4-e,air a kdi,a- Resistance By hIELINA alERCOURI PARIS?We once had an unwelcome guest in our house. It was during the wartime occupation of Greece by the Germans. Nazi officers were billeted in people's homes. We drew Gunther. Gunther had a constant need to prove that he was of the "master race." He did so by brandishing an enormous revolver and commanding us to watch him urinate on the living room floor. Then he would wave to us with the revolver and say: "If you don't like it, why don't you do something about it?" I am reminded of Gunther when friends, or pretended friends, ask: "If the Greek people detest the colonels' regime so much, why don't they do Something about it?" Any fairly impartial observer of the Greek scene will tell you that at least, I Twat, at least 90 per cent of the Greek people oppose the regime, which took power in a coup four years age today. Yet to date there has been no large manifestation of resistance. Car. one then deduce that the Greek is a coward? Let anyone tempted to think so study the record Of Greek resiatanc- against the Nazis. Their courage was an.inspiration to all of Europe. Their efficiency was applauded by Churchill. Hitler, in what he considered praise for the Greek fighter, spoke of his Lives No, We. Greeks have no death wish. We equate love of liberty with love of life. The Greek is only too well aware that the colonels' regime subsists only by force of arms, by court-martial and by torture. He knows that Mr. Papa- STATINTL Department knows it's not true. Of course it would prefer that the colonels erect a more presentable facade, but so far the results have been pitiful. There are many Americans who de- plore and militate against their Gov- ernment's support of the Greek junta.' We know them and cherish them. There are others who say: "Of course we hate dictatorships, but there are military considerations. Greece occupies a strategic position. It is the southeastern flank of NATO." Let us then forget human considera- tions, or moral considerations. In this foolish age when peoples asaign their destinies to Pentagon determination, let us have a look at military consid- erations. In time of crisis, what kind of ally could the present Greek regime be? The junta, to stay alive, had to purge 2,000 officers from the Greek Army. These included the very best of the NATO-trained forces. Dees not mili- tary consideration compel' an examina- tion of what this means to the effi- ciency of the Greek Army? To name all the officers purged or imprisoned by the junta would make a very long list, but it is a list of men whose hostility will one day explode, They reseet bitterly that the junta, to maintain power, has resorted to bribe' and purchase. Those who were not purged saw their salaries tripled. Does a mercenary army make a reliable ally? I submit that for militaryconsideration. But there is a longer list. It numbers eight million. These are the Greek peo- ple. They, who once admired the Ameri- dopoulos, who was the coordinator of cans, 'now see them as the main sup- the C.I.A. \vide the Greek intelligence /port of their oppressors. Admiration service, la.Y.P., was an able student, has turned to ,rancor. If in time of crisis He has created a vast spy system in the American Pentagon believes that Greece. Spies are ? present in every office, in every class of every school, in sports clubs, in municipal adminis- trations, in public places. The tourist, seduced by the sun and beauty of Greece, may not know that the waiter who serves him an ouzo, or the taxi' driver who takes him to the Acropolis, could be on the spy payroll. But the Greek knows it. Yet if active resistance is slow and cautious in forming, the Greek hts used another weapon, the weapon f,-,f isolation. The colonels are isolate l. They have only their tanks and their spies. Not one single politician of atte stature has in any way joined or givea support to the regime. Who supports them? Sad to say, their bulwark is the American State Department and the American Penta- gon. Spokesmen for the State Department, . in justification of heavy arms ship- ments to Greece, have stated that the Greek regime was moving totvera de- mocracy. Permit me to say teat not the Greek people would support a hated regime, or would forgive the country that armed them, they are making a historic blunder, a blunder of monu- mental p rope rtio ns. If the moment comes in which the junta has to divert its rigid surveillance of the Greek people because, it army LI' needed elsewhere, then as surely as night follows day the Greek people will rise up and crush tieeia. On that day the question will no longer be asked: whereas the Greek resistance.? Melina afercoura the actr'ess, lost her Greek citizenship and property because of her outspoken opposition to the present Government. "OnternPANitiVed For- Re I eas6Y2OrilifitY04 budA-RM0-01601R000500220001-5 - ? Approved For Relearsre_2001/93.104 : CIA-RDP80-01 2 Ity )OS ANTE:5101,.-.3.3 ATHENS---I spent this Nev., Year's Eve plantiro bombs at th,rece Alnar!can targets in Athens. I would leve called anyone a lunatic. who would have. predicted this back in .1f237 before the colonels backed by Americans tool: over our country. As otir 17CiA)1.1 5 n!tf:d, we. receivc word that the booth at the American mili- ? tary canteen at Omonia Seinte went off as did the one at the Congo Palace 'Hotel occupied by American military personnel. Our contact who passed near the third target at the .set time reported back that there had been no explosion. We had to make a dl:ficult decision. ? This was the first time that one of our ? bombs had not gone?orf and we could not risk the police finding the mecha- nism intact. Someot.e h.oci to go ban.. ? The youngest volunteered. We waited ? in the small hours of the morning, fear- ful that he might:blow himself up as two others of anotlr Organization did outside the U.S. Endy,t?sy in ,c_o,ptn-do:,r, ? or that he might be caught and tor- tured, as hundreds have been, until ho reveale, everything. At dawn we heard his footsteps on the stairs. As . he entered, he took from under his coat the detonator and the plastic ,explosive. The day I was first approached by a menfoer ofiE.M.A. (Greek Militant Re- sistance) and asked to hide explosives was the day I had to face myself and - could no longer sect: refuge at the leo:el of words. Lefore th7-t day I had resisted my consa:nce with arguments of cold reason: -"How 't Ca I fight a well- . . ? . ? OrSarl!",:(1 311C army, how can I fight the junta which has behind it the whole power o: the United States, how can I hide onythinL; from the, connip- otonce of the C.I.A.? It is absolotelyll illo2,1cal that a few men iniproolsing ? primifte arms should dare to try to lift this dead weight of and con- crete! which has fallen on cur coontry. 0: court,: it tov7.e,:cotr.t,lo to live under this ei,::L'Atorship, to live v.-ithout the basic free doms, the basic respect for human beings, hut I an.: iMpotent? and one mast face reality." I tried another more clever argu- ment: "V.'hy Lot concentrate on my career, becoma first A success without altogether denying my principles, and then I?nreal my ideas in the proper time rind? place? If all young people did the same, then a time would crime v.'11C!I the jnatan would fnil.undec the pressure of the new geoeration." The result of this "reasone.blethink- ing" was that I soon. cl::spieed reason and despised myself.' The truth was that I did not want to rich my persooal, well-being and security. Vhen I de- cided to hide the bombs, I felt a sense of enormous relief, of liberation, for the decision to join the struggle was the natural consequence of may beliefs, of my whole life. I might have remained passive if wa. did not have our Greek pest, so many killed, so much pain, SO many ..times - having to build up from nothing. Per- naps a would have reacted differently if we had not so often been disillu- sioned by the powerful of the world trampling ea our ideals. I felt a ter- rible pc,:t.zoal responsibility toward the STATI NTL People who believed in ideals and suffered for them, both to these inothe past and to those 17.110 today fill Circe% prisoits. I had the feeling 1 had be- trayed them. ? low did such a change occur in me, a person wino had no inclination to- ward violence, and in others? That is relly for. the powerful of the world It' answer, the Nixons and in,. revs, the generals and the diplomats, who pie), a separate game fTom..the people of the world. They have alien- ated themselves from the real basis of human life which is the happiness peOple. I have studied American history and admired its great men from Lincoln to Roosevelt. I cried at Kennedy's death. We are :;brrt.? for what will fall on the American people, it is not their leaders who do the fighting in Vietnam nor who will suffer for what their leaders have gotten them into in Greece. Though our strength is small, we will go on, contributing to the larger in the world where the will of the people opposes the leaders. can command, power can rule, hut t1i soul of a people has a different kind of power which cannot be suppressed for- ever. The pOwer machine of the Penta- gon cannot understand this as it is not In-its technological dictionaries. Our history shows that freedom is born in pain. A price must bco set on tyranny and the tyrants must pay the price. Elefilteros Anthror,'as. is ? liOnt de plume of a young mcmbor of the Greet: unde Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ? STAT! NTL Approved For Release 20011031.04: CIA-RDP80- DENVER, COLO. ROCKY LIT. NEWS M ? 192,279 S ? 209,887 1.11\R 197j, On senaTors and Greeks 1 - THE SENATE FOREIGN RELA- TIONS Committee, has published an at- tack on the military junta ruling Greece, and our colleagues of the East- ern Establishment press are .giving it favorable coverage. They are billing it respectfully as "a Senate staff report." its thrust is that the American embassy in Athens is too cozy with - the regime, which is mildly dictatorial, and that the State Depart- ment isn't doing enough to pressure Greece back on the democratic path. It turns out that the report is the -work of two former foreign service offi- cers, employed by the committee, who spent a week in Greece. It's possible they know more than the 86 State De- partment people, 47 information offi- cials, 7 military attaches and lord knows how many CIA agents stationed in Greece?many ortinTirfor years?but we wouldn't bet on it. The embassy is denounced for being "quick to praise . . slow to criticize", the ruling Colonels. (Is this bad diplo- macy?) and the U.S. ambassador, Hen- ry Tasca, is painted as an apologist for the. junta. Imagine! An ambassador hasn't provoked a row with the govern- ment to which he's accredited. Natural- ly, the committee is thinking of sum- moning Tasca for testimony. Throughout the report runs the idea that it is up to the United States to do something about the junta, and -to see that Greece again has free elections and parliamentary rule. . This activism is strange ? coming from the committee. We fail VI under- stand how. Chairman J. William Ful- bright can be so negative and isolation- ist about Southeast Asia and so gung ho about making Greece shape up. None of this, we hope, will be taken as a defense of the Greek colonels. It's true that they overthrew an elected gov- ermnent (albeit an inept, thaotic and corrupt one) and use heavyhanded po- lice tactics when challenged. But it's not the business of the United States to re- verse every- dictatorial regime. (If it were, there would be more flagrant ex- amples than Greece to start with.) The Nixon Administration sends arms to Greece not because it approves of the junta; but because it wants to bolster the southern, flank of NATO. Also, it is in Washington's interest to have, good relations with Greece in ease the A-fiddle East blows up. - Ther'Irtr-nmething arrogant in the committee's view that the United States knows what. is best for Greece. The res- toration of Greek democracy is up to the Greeks. After all, they developed that form of government and had an ad- vanced civilization when the ancestors .of . most Americans were painting them- selves blue or skulking in caves.. ` Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 20011q3Aq4,4-ppiZ&A61-15 ir VI,C,' I ': ; i", C IT, t; r c--.1,?--,r?--'7 h ? Stockton views the colonels es proud and ------- .'''.----------- -- sensitive hldepandent nationarsts,- who are /7 the tools of no outshle interests. He notes YTI: P-IT, ? 1-,Th.) .7e. j k' --1.., i [ .??' I. 'i,. f: i;: , C,..i. V: Y i', !...t I,'.. ' tile econonlic Fogress being in the? ( .;...if V :..".U.:t ;?:..1.; LEL/ ;:;. (!,.,16. ;01 .j. ? country .ancl -sc'es the celon'els are guiding ?,,1 ."(l" l'ej.. -. the country toward a ? western type of . ? . - ? 0. f! N ? MIT) OCr aCY, ? altho the American liberal .s.-, -r- 4-, . )!i...; 0 , t . . establishment will not concede it fd. a BY WALTER TRONAN minute. -' , . .,. . ASHINGTON, March ? 7--,- Books this praise is mixed with v . . ? ?i-t, which oil the rg--!.er of both the criticism. he details the blunders of ? ? vur a * J \, left and the right can be ossumcd the 9ele'413,..i.nel9diPg the i17::111.-erit6rPeell"' to contain a ge:r3ly measure of the truth. liar to many. of the military and' suspicion Such a volume: is the recently published i 9f the press- He warns thai:the regime "Phoenix With a Bayonet," an Ambrican 1Shcluld not: be driven :to seek closer ties journalist's interim report of the Greek with Communism. He is critical of the r 6 velut!on, :i5s112d slow pace of reform,? especially of the by G e o r g e town1Greek burocracy. ? Publications of Ann -l? ' .:::::: ,?-?.-'''??:.-..... i Stockton, -V..-ho lives hi Greece with-his Arbor, Mich. . .-,:::--..-':.-::.?.. ? '''??,.7',, 1German wife and three children, is con- Already the au_ i?'?-: ?,...?.:.?.?.?:?:.:,.......... - . Ivinced that if an? election were held to: thor, B a y a r.d ,'.',.._.:- . ..?-:.::,._?"..:?.:"?i .., ' !rnorcow Premier PopadopcIous would be Stockton, is -iv- C.,..?,.....:...--...1:::.-? .,. : ..1 I Ireturned to power because he has brought . jag the silen t --;:::',i-''? :-;-!?? .?-?.:T.ii:.. ;.'? . :.?1 !. increased prosperity without runaway in- treatment. The king, .an attractive figurehead, ' horn the . '.c-? '' ::?'...'--,: ??. .-::-.: ? ?I liberal establish- :,::-?::'? ? '???? ?-?:1?-''--1--: may co:m.s. back some day as a result of - . a free elcction. . ? . meat because they --v. --,?.-,.,....?,.- ?,_ ? . ? ? H are opposed i I, The author states that there is a warning n .:":"?''.'. .???; , ' prineiplc.. to mut. 1 ...7..-?'.:::',...,- ::::'-i to itmericans in the Gree's crisis and that tary ? regimes. T,,:,t, - -- -,.--?' ----- ???:-?--.?.---?...? ,...'; is that a definite threat exists that, some- his criticism of the Trehan -? thing simitsr ceuld happen here. However, junta, o ft en. by . ' this conimentator can't see any group of American colonelstaking over th3 govern- name, riake it d,3ubtful that the bock will meat or even a inilitary base,: for that ba republished in Greece or be applauled by- the right. " -. matter. ? . - . . .. '_The Greek case offers to the heart- Still, his woA is of importance to all .' sick, the dubious, the worciel and aimless Americans bccanse it shows the geed the and those. who yearn for authority a po- :peaceful revolution has already accem- te.ntial compromise between straight mill- can interests, because Greece offers the plishcl. It concerns an area vital to Allied- dietatership?as often seen in. the . i.t'Y only anchorage for United States men of underdeveloped countries of the ..kr9vellhig !.:%-liddle a Est,. Africa allot latin America? war in the Eastern 11-fediterranean sheuld . .1and the . free-wheeling, prraissive be.v11- . war the Middle East. - ' 1 &red denecraey of the west," . Stockton -' IfT will be y.nnoribered that on" April 20, I sys. "A powci? seizure. by the few is. an .1t: ,a group of colone.ts ?seizod power easy solution for indolent communities a revolution which did not cOst a sin* :whose faith in their own systeln and whose We. Tileir lea':er.wes and is Gect...!:. Papa.- 1 willinguess to galvemize Cut -way of life dopolous, a plIllosophoe-so:dicx, wilt) l!Ti3F.:S. i into positive, democratic activity, is .too some -clay to bring free ?eleetions to his :weak." s- ? - . - ?-.. .. . .country or says he does. - King ?Constantine, a personable young charmer went into exile. This common- . .tator tnet and talked with the former king when he. was -crown prince, so he can . claim a morsel of personal knowledge. The king attempted to regain power late in 1957 .in an abortive coup Which Stock- .. ton details.' . . ..-,-. Greek. exiles, who have managed to - release :much of. their passion and pro} . udice in - the American press., . have ., charged that the American military and 1 . - the Central Intelligence Agency master- minded the military take over. They have told many stories of cruelty and terror, i.:.4viai*-6i:i414--e's 2'15151'16-3/04 : CIA4RDP80-01601R000.500220001-5 . STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/93/04 : ciA-RDppo-o rap:, :Jas. tarc On .senaors and rri 1HE Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee has published an attack on the military junta . ruling Greece, and our Collegues of the Eastern establishment press are giving it favorable coverage. - They are billing it respectfully as -"a .Senate staff report." Its thrust is that ,? the American Embassy in Athens is too co* - with the regime, which ? is mildly dictatorial, and that the State Depart- Ment isn't doing enough to pressure Greece back on the democratic path. It turns out that the report is the work of two former Foreign Service officers, employed. by the committee, whO spent a week in Greece. It's possible that they know .more than the 86 State Depart- ment people, 47 information officials, 7 military attaches and Lord knows hoW many CIA agents stationed in Greece Many of them there for years ? but we wouldn't bet on it. ? The embassy is denounced for being "quick to praise . slow to criticize" - the ruling colonels. (Is this bad diplo-. ? macy?). And the United Statesambas- ? ?sador, Henry Tasca, is painted as an apologist for the junta. Imagine! An -ambassador hasn't provoked a row * With the government to Which he's ,STATINTL accredited. Naturally, the committee is thinking of suminoning 'rasa: for testi- mony. Thruout the report runs the implica- tion that it is up to the United States to do something about the junta and to See that Greece again has free elections and parliamentary rule.. . This activism is strange coming from the committee. We fail to understand how Chairman J. William Fulbright can be so negative and isolationist about Southeast Asia and so gung ho about making Greece shape up. . None of this, we hope, will be taken as a defense of the Greek colonels.' It's true that they overthrew an elected gov- ernment (albeit an inept, chaotic and corrupt one) and use heavy-handed pc- lice tactics when challenged. But it's not the business of the United States to . reverse every dictatorial regime. (If it were, there would be more flagrant ex- amples than Greece to start with.). ? The Nixon Administration sends arms to Greece not because it approves of the - junta, but because it wants to bolster the -southern flank of NATO. Also, it is in Washington's interest to have' good relations with Greece in case the Middle East blows up. ? .. There is something arrogant in :.the committee's view that the United States knows what is hest for Greece. To resto- !ration of Greek democracy Is up to the -Greeks. After all they developed that form of government and had an ad- vanced ;civilization when the ancestors_ :of most Americans Were painting them,: selves blue or skulking in caves. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 :.CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5. 1 STAT I NTL Approved For Releas#1,3991/03/04 : CIA-RD 18 J.,111.1ARY 1971 WHAT THEY SAY ABOUT THE COLONELS T'Nct 'CT-) LNJ V l!snaronCsrojin-,_'_, ?1/4D U Pew, editor and .associate publisher of the Troy (Ohio) , Daily News, has made three trips to Greece since the military coup of April 21, 1967; to gather information and conduct ? the interviews for this article. His most recent visit was from September to December of 1970. The three trips to Greece since the ?military take-over were preceded by a one-year resi- denee (1964-65) by the author and his wife, and by other trips to Greece that date back to the early sixties. Athens At the Athens International airport my wife was subjected -to a thorough body search. All women on the flight re- ceived the sarae treatment. Landing as we did soon after the multiple hijackings in the Middle East, we had grown accustomed to the strict security precautions that had; be- gun in Dayton, Ohio, and increased in thoroughness as we app.toached Greece. But my wife and I were at first at a loss to understand this search of body and luggage in Athens, since xs?e: had deplaned and were not transferring to another flight. - It was too late, as far as we and the other pas- sengers remaining in Athens were concerned, to hijack an airplane. it wasn't until several days later, when we were discussing the airport procedure iith some Greeks, - and after the events surrounding the visit of U.S. Secretary - of Defense Melvin R. Laird, that the reason for the search became obVious. ? The Greek aUthorities Weren't looking for weapons or . bombS bound for the Mideast; they were merely using this as a cover to look for weapons or bombs meant for local use. Why the, women were particularly singled out is &till not certain, but it's a good guess that somewhere back .along tile course, Greek security had received a tip that a woman was bringing something into Greece that would not be approved of by the colonels. But as we had returned again to Greece to find out just what the Greek dictators do and do not approve (and there are items a lot milder zhan plastic explosives on their unapproved lists); and, in turn, to discover the extent to? which the people approve or disapprove of the colonels, . the.airport experience was a good occasion to start asking our question:. "What. do you, as a Greek, think 'of_ the ? 'colonels?" The first- answer came from a professional man, who elaborated freely on the reasons for the opinion he expressed: ? - Power has gone to their heads. Like a Greek dancing ? high on ouzo, they are so intoxicated by their position they hardly know what to do with the people they have absolute rule. over. . .With all this troUble in the Middle East it suits the United States to keep these. guys on here, and we find that an absolutely disgusting motive on the part of Amer- ica. Can you blew: us? TheA, Ahe cp.lon.els] learned the tricks they useN1149145M-Fgr Mal EMS0,2001403/ CIA and they learned and used them well. . . Now the United States military treat our cictators as ? though they are all brothers of the same "free world" military fraJernity. These Greek brothers are celebrated' as some of the boys who have really hit the big time. I mean, they have a whole country at their dispcw.1, not just an army. Your own military people love them and " admire them.. You 'should have seen the reception the colonels got from the Sixth Fleet when it was here. The U.S. sailors, poor lads, were all dressed out on the decks of their ships, cheez-ing our colonels-L.-military men of. Greece exemplifying what the good 'army life can lead to. God, what a farce it all is. Only for us Greeks it's .beginning to wear a bit thin. - Just how thin- the eation could wear was. emphasized ? by the bomb blast that thundered through the Athens ,- National Gardens on October ?1, ,moments after Secretary Laird had laid a wreath at the tomb of Greece's Unknown Soldier a few hundred yards away. But the bomb blast aside, the Greek military junta has hardly been, able to . contain its glee ovef the visit by Laird and his travel- ing companion, Adm. Thomas Moorer, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs ot,Staff. Laird is the highest ranking U.S. official so tc honor the colonels since the take-over,.. ? and his coining to Greece is viewed by both the rulers and the people a; the final stamp of American approval ? on the military dictatorship: The degree of official satisfaction is best illustra.ted by' a translation from the Athens newspaper,..Flefalieros Kosmos, (Free World). Beneath the headline, "Laird: I repre- sent Nixon," the story read: ? "Laird's arrival in Athens coincides with exceptional and loss; crucial feament in. the Mediterranean and the Middle East. . . aTheSe anxi- eties were stressed by Laird. . . . ? It is significant that . Laird finds Greece a true_ ally standing firm. to its obli- gations, thanks to the insight of the revolutionary leader- ship." Another Greek :newspaper, the Nea Politeia, was ? even more blunt in describing the terms of the embrace be- tween the two Pentagons (the Greeks have named the building housing their military establishment after its. American counterpart): "U.S. leaders fully realize that a nation, however big and powerful it may be, cannot de- pend exclusively on itself and needs the cooperation and support of friends and allies, on whose frank cooperation and support it can count as long as its policy towards them is based on equality and avoids any unreasonable interference in their home affairs." "Interference in home affairs" is here obviously meant to read: just keep the arms and ammunition coming and leave your "unreason- able" democratic principles at home. It is no wonder the- colonels view the Laird visit with such complacency, -since it Came within a month after the United States .announced that it would resume. sales of heavy arras to Greec.,The resumption had begun sacret7:_a 04n!ceiA-Rrip8lver1so 4RICRY01500220110f*n colonels to another, so to speaa?and came to neaon aniee ;as, much military aid as was authorized by Conga ess. Bat STATI NTL :hr)s Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R 10 icji0 ? '? ----,? ?Th,-(--;; 1-, C.i. ' 4 ' ' '' '' t. I .? ,.--?! r; ;,- ' J. ?i .'1.r'.' . ,_.;:_ ....,. ...,....._._. _. ,...." . .. , li i?-- '1 ;'? I, 1'. -: (,) 1 1 . ' CI-Cia:..:,:!:-:-: :;:al..-1:-: --?'.'j-?:.c:', .;:::. -,--. , ??,.? 1 - ,... ,,,, ?. , , ,_, .......-....: . ........., Ii?..,.::?1:L ?...,%,?1:-? eXP:I'''''...i :?-? f.2'1::' ,..- C., Lt?c? ;;,,,,...11!.:ml,t. ' - .V., ? - '-' ?-,'-'-?-?-, ???' --; .1-0(..?1 !II (.:ireCe to tout: in a . Did 0.,,,,;?, :,..?....., ,,..?,::..., ,..c;0...... rf. rill :1....ary .1..:-,...--....-t-.r.v..-.:": zi:-....-. .., ... i..?., ;,.... , ?..... political campaign \vith , sympathetic It.: 1.7.1c a,:tii.111.4 1.:1:-?'t 'C.:- I. '...0 L....... '? "."?. '''' ''''.' 1 1 1 1 i 11 1 1 i , ? : of 7.111 j.; ant, in 4,1;,0, is..,...i.c.:. ,ityi Ausolinu .n ,ne s,.ya-t o.. ? States? - Portiug a dictatorial solu- the 'We!--"teen . . t:-. t -t. ? --, .rt. : ?7 c,,...., Little did the 't,7nivof,-n ,?t.....t case l.` T.:tet...:1:?:?);:: i-o., ' tton in Greece. - d tr:e now to iln6.--2?:.stt-ttici. the Di was vesiioned ,,i,aut of Atinneotit graduate reit- . - ... lize hack in P543 (when znentality thinfjs? I kittllw IIOLiUIIfI lt,t.; ma the Imittlt--???Ane aryl tt-hicli in fact I dre,?ts in a denlist's 01:10c2 : they few t e j ite?r.- (lid not exkt," added in that she ).--ipanducou, ? %,'I?111(1 e e en- .. is ,nat? cularly concerniug 1 con- . there 1)1 4.4y 1-,-hich II1Y hus- CretA -rlto `-'?V ";*il"t1;1L J. iii 11\\*RS sto,Tosed to ? 1.,1zr.?:"...:::r;_?,., ;??.:.,..,-.7:?-.-??rs itt'll"e)- to ' e D-2 nave , t ?-? ? " 'r refoi tits he felt NVere badly 4 out of (lreeee and flu CC In a (01. Pi trying ? Greece out of NA,'170." ? orofes,:or of eennenties at C-lit-:,?-?.;,'_: prilt-,-., ittin7..t.t.t-_- trettl PT .11 cl I 17 :rni-lat.;',:ll".-f; I 'lite outsp017.en author - -- ..:..,. ...-,...,,...?-.1,-.; 1--.7-., ?:.--e,-.?01-,i--..,:t tti.t.l.: ."1?41 7-i?-? 't , ,? ? ? se?-ertil .Anierie?an urtiver". I...,...' 4...........,'2,...,,,..._ '...,.... ,,-._..,...,,.. ,.., -? ';??????? ? . ? ' ' ? I ?- ?1. -r, -- ,-. '11,0 11 I., If C? , , ? ? I ? 1 . ? ' ' C ''''''''''' '''':.1.:.'.-.- (:''' 1 i ..:'1?: 1 ' 1 ''C'.1 0:;Il.CCe:';', ....' i botherod tlie?t tl?.-t niost s"es'The11-11-1'111g UC Berke- - (it: es- t i ct II. i ilea 1:,,o,,,? ! ley. 1.:-.?,. 1.,-...,...e,:. tt..,:....,,7 v-Ni..t.%. Li e ;Yee 1.1.1 v.?-anti-,, -:?'-, ???? i \t?as that 1 v,-tis a woinan - . ......._. - 1 e 1 "0 ti r involveinent in t t t ":;:s-11-s? in 1-,tist':-:," '1???_ ? thr'--:-'-'ve's ''-1.--' e :7:"'7"-;'--1?:''' r:?ol.?. ,--..-e-l..? ' '? ? -? t.l. ?, ? thl-,Y c,10,,:',, .-i f?l! ?tF-z-"-1-l-y-?---'.l--? t ?11''--?:.7.;- l -dCliuteinl:,- ,a" ffth-s eune o ngr - ' 1 Cat i 00 ht Greekpotieal f i -c:1)hlined.m r as- . ,-j.. ? T,,y . (lintA hk, Pert-,:ofireou '< Reline- in It1 LS; I.,..: l. - `,- ? ? - ' , ?-? Ct ."?''''.???'.? -7 ?I'''?-??' -.? "..fs ? C'' a r:'-'-i'0:.%',-V. IL ... L:'' ?'''' C" 1:..11t. rilhey v,1.,,:med I \?.as it.).59 when -we arrived in . . l'7"-- ?---t"--. (-? "---:-- ---1- . t..1, s,vr,e-.7e I:IO 10:::::- , A th e n s .-.,vit.11 0 it r four t-,.,;;',,,... ;-_,,..-- ;7?.;,_;T. ?-:!..,..]:-,..! -,:?--,i..,?-:.'..? I do ?.?117 ol ',Lc pc..-ol:,:c..- .....:.?..7.... o.-i-i?? ''..i"g ff'i. inleric'r"" hirc?ii for a. rui?i?ilit let.: t,...?:,_:_:- h-.,.-:o..:?.-i,llt., a -...;.a.-,--!.. .li !):'e-,...:::c.,cl 1-f..,,. a. 1:?:ctliet-,, slat the United States when ,yez:.r of sti.tdy.', ? .7.i?-.,t:l. i7;1;.r..'r :??:?::7!..2fl7.. I 1 3 .tt , ..: 3.,;P.3.-.2 110 pfi.2.-- P,i: ( il al 1 V I\1, III1 1!..aS h i.. 1-1,.-0,-,,,i,",;?irocia had hoc-_:y1 ..,.......:,-...,1.. .?:.?,.....-..n,.--:?.y.;-:?:..?17. 1 te.,,? ..., ....?,,;...,.., ,,,,..-,,,...,;.. 111,.! 1:nitcd St-li C3 31 Ot t? g10 f.r0111 1.7C. a yo.,11-, re- . e.'-Itro .h tit siinPlY to tl',1' rlr'd for lialf.a ,--ear air d - - .1'i:tent :."..::;.7.:.4:,4:-...? ..',7-;::::,?"....:?,yi ;; ritY stolsY, allj-t(7.0.t;lt "I have stide its stndport of tlemo-, then ioft?ag,,i.1-, for orcsoi,c, ??;...2,-,;,..-,.tc,--,1 K. r,t-?,-_,;,,,,, --7.i.e,-,,, c;,.?2.:,7?z , trier"; to 'ne...1-.7.r...7.i?-?-...,' at_ltnit,- emtie. rule in Greeee." . this time to fulfill a joh as ? .2-;?:.--.t....7,-,..:r?t! , ,-.,:,;(--? :r ;.,, . t C 311 I V.; ..?.;C, 0 111111 C . (I 1 1: e C tO I: to the ie,7.e.t?---,--i-...r.....,-, ':,i..7 ba.T;,..2-,?,:_ "Thaite ;-,i2e ti:-,-?,:..s -,,,or,r,,-.-1 .1 1-?0110.,\,,018. the hearing, lillar.h.? tif Gr ecce and to di- .4,..t,-,--:,Th..,,i--, -0-_,,,i2,1,-..?.?.....-? ccli,..e n-ty fatlt,---r-iii.-la..\V oc ' fc,-...,,t,,...., (0 rC:ei:,:!?':3 .4..?Trl-iir.27 rr l' ! ri-i o -..t.. a r g a r e t Pap,truIrcott o 1 1.-I:.(r,?17.0.ctlil,,,ei;;?z.,er1(.1..t11-111. 0-1 Ec'.1- ?.potA.,,,, ;;;...,,,,,,_?rtc.....e. -1;:,, z..., ?:.:-:.-,,., rninister,7 Clea,-..-e :i?-ta-,-5;,,,-.,.. countl she had gained eon, ' ,i.,,.;1.1, 31-10.1 iths pa..,z.?ed , ti;.:.3. ;."...:1,:r.:.: ?7:ri..-ii:-...1.1:',;?:". .? ? - . , CI -.L.CY,r) and. ray wn ?1-a- sit:lei:able notoriety. 7Cile? a,1,1 _\,,,,iro,,,,; roccil,-,-.,.d his next clay Dr: -picture ?was .. , - . , et-.,. (?,.:-? v,--,--7.-.'?,ttic: 1)a-flit's ael,i.o:x.t. . , tits, niast tro.n. tile rigni..-.- 1.1?:)olt-.c??-!-ii, .-'./.,:?:?:-,,-i r,!??.-,-,.'-- 0,-,..!.:.T. "The hc,01,-. -.r.i..:71&;--?:..,-, ;..1.,..-. printe;-1 on the' front pT,t, , - fa:co.:it,- f.1-,t..i fir!.i.-.71 Gi,,.2,?_,a.... --,,, not-no ciesi.i-,;,? ,,,,'',,,,,-,,:; 7 ?,:?. . of a Greek ne?,\-spap- ? --'1 il'? 11''S:3 in 'c'T's.Pcm? to ?.1 ,,,It- .....-.-e.t-,,,?-,!. ?_,.-.-;,-..?7... c..,.-..-?:?:.-.:,,,--....,.. -tha- Cr,i.:::1.-: 1-.K...-c?,1, 0.0111. next. to it a picture Of :\ fa- .1-.-?1-'''...J-? '''.-: :'..-11-6.11.11-Cl r'?.- ...., Ca.71::,,,_:.;,.. ,.,::.,,,r,..e J.,;_r?,.,,,2;..i., r,,,-.1;_-.,... ;.-,trc?-,....,, ,...,,..0,...,Th to 1.1tilne Ntt. `.17 he part-.11.1e1 ??(''-r'''''.'llcnrig l';:t(iii'ttl chan- t-lc:1,7,fL?;,,,,?-ae.r.;?,.t,:-, *the ' junta n-?-_-,-,,,;:ii:;-.2.7' )?:-,/,-, -drawn was that T, too, ha . f.,`:'s LI ..-;,;1'?e?L', e'1,1-.le"..:4-...i1i. . . pro,t.-_,:s7e.t?.t.. ;tr.,,?-,--&, z,,?_-, -porr7ter. ,.;.7... :...: Cr 1.::. I': 1.1. rC.7:1I r-ttaelsed 1 11? (2-1--A?" ? . 1.0 1-a.:10. - .1IS fir.allOW,*(1S Or I'atert \vherl Carl11-)aili" 'Ping.'"1113 will' s'sl'Il.. - ' ? ? . ?;... y:: t. t. 1?!-, .,,I.Ithol-zt, (... ??,..,-_,. ?i?:. 1.31g 111101 'Ii Greece- lvitli ?"At that point Ai-ich?o;1.s ? . Erl,....,. -0?,.)::, e.:,..p.:,......_,,,_.; ?,i1..,, :.?;!--,0?,,,ifa.,-,, ?,...,,,,,3 -.?;-?,,-..,y.):?.-1_ II-0:.:1.? hushaii(1, -who by. thea had docided to reentor ..?._.....?. ___,,, ,,- , _ ,"... ? ' L. - 1,,:id becon-R.-! his fat; Ices Cr rerl'k. 1)01 itir.'S ,V .1.114 his fa- l: r.) . .V.':.'"?.r. .3 '.t'..;"",;.? "'?,...;" - ,? ,? i 1 ; L?;1';',. ';'?'',;',-. i1----??? 1, - ? lC'll?-h-fficl if-mil ni..(1. 11.1- tiler, 111e11 Carit::? 1.11c? coi.ip :?tlili2.,...7.:i.1.-..!,, - i,.6 ,i.,1-..c.,..,-i,!_y,An i ?-?,- ; '-;?'.'???`-',- ti.U.k. i-,i'j-,;;.' .3' ' - r? ' ' ? L I ,./.,;;?-.,`1,-;:, 1,, . - :?,, . : ?, , ; ???,?--,.. ?;,.,?,.,,..... ,,1. , ,?.?, 1'11-31.",111:ent, to Icador,lnip or ,,,.-i(l. elL.;[.,,, luli::, .11!01 it his In_ ?''' 1,1:-.-; GeplOC1-it le, .oppo.-;1ijon, 1)1.1...?sou. not 1,-n)v.-ing tt-hei h.-. ?????-?-,,?'..?-?-?,...:{ .2.:L ::::.!.!?,,?.j.....r. ..?,.., ..1 '-,.: i).:.1?12.,:; ?0:: j,?,,j::?."-:1..- ..? PiS,L;ZI: I.: L-7.1'-'.;,::?:,.:!. I Vi.;11-i''.. ... C:L"J"' .:'(: "fa':2 1.7-;:; l'?11-.'":!..- :\ 1 a r g a t? e t Paoatull:eott er A31(7fees' life 1v0u1'1 he so cdrl'hes.e \1 IC tittles ;o ?,' --- -".. j i'',..' ''' '''' '-' - E'-''."'""1-1 the "ec?1;"Ile''? trutotyn 0:,`.: . O.,.,- of 10 i) ii1(.1 i'w:-.;pa iv." li.n,...:-.-..,1?J.:1,: ::nd 'Ye:??? ,,, i 4, 4 ro nte-..17?, 7 ?,.v.-....: suitity,f-...,., li---- v?L (1i3cuvl-A.'-:'` `n" v'''' I To has this turmoil ttf- liD,:: .1..?.C;,.,7 ,.....;.-7,. .,., _ I i ,,...... ,;. . 1 I.''. -gt71:s arta 3.0nh:?:> P201)10 !lad . feet et.1? the lives of the Pa- ,. i37;2 fro :I.-, r--- 'I---../ 1;?-l.l.,7'-i:L., 1.).,1 wry pfeitsed Witli ? ptintireous' four eliilt.',.ren, ant,: intt-trro.::,.1.,?2d t7,?... four 1.,...ciat I il??(/ (1,;),..,,c,?; Di?n.i.0?., 1 (leorge, . 1.8, Soidltia, 16, h??-?:: 't ?i-,. ot ..._-1;3,?,,..,t,i,-_,,!i,..?..,.,,,.-2.,,,-,i?ai;-.. - -'..:;:'?,..........,0;,, .,.,..7:.,.., our tours not orily.d.RI they. \lek' 1.1' `1?11(1 j\!1('Il'-'?' 11' ...l- r ,-.. e 7.7 ,-.1 ? ci t?e i t CIA-RDP80-016 .a?Anrwor?????????????amea............ PITTSBURGH, PA. POST-GAZETTE - 24,938 . . , ,) 7-------* fi * * us-reece (ct, iv ELECTRICITY has b e e ii ' . _ . .. brought to the ? villages' ande- -, . peasant debts exceedincr $330' Th 17 1 ' the Ce'r---' ' r? ? .,...., ..... 4 - 4 a 4 ., .4_ _ '- ? ' ..... k..1 't .were caScei." hd by the agricul- ., p Lt , Trp_.. 0 611 1. ' :i ?, .; il ? p ( .4 ? 0 . . . . ? . twat bank. The fiscally con-n .a.a- /111 - - - 1 1, .,..1 : servative Averoff sees this aS. -I, i- g CV 4-' \ 1-'1 Q i 1.21, , - . . ? Orillirie07113 Se q.Y.0' . JIAL;',1-.1)'ulie-'1,1c-4-elL but one example of maladmin-, ATHENS ? With the press tightly censored and the army firmly in control, there's not much the _ Greek demo- crats can do to restore de- mocracy e x- cept hope that Western n a- tions and es- pecially h e .United States pressure t h e Colonels into Mr. Averoff gradually relinquishing power. ? -- The rumor here is that the reason neither Russia nor the , . Greek communist party is . doing much against the re- - gime is that Moscow believes continued martial law is mak- ing conditions ripe for a take- over. , Official U.S. sources claim most of the professional Greek armymen would like to see the government broaden its base and. not rely so much as it does on the milital-y. These sources are somewhat confi- dent that the junta allow municipal elections in the, fall of next year or on the fourth anniversary of the "revolu- tion"; that is, the Colonels' coup of April 21, 1967. led by ' Col. George. Papadopoulos, . who was a Greek intelligence agent serving as liaison officer between the KYP 'the Greek CIA) and the U.S. Central1, Intellizelmee Agency. Evangelos Averott, the much respected foreign minis- ter-in the right-wing Cararnan- lis government from 1953 to 1963,. sees the future a little , differently. A member of the ERE (National Radical Union) conservative party, he foresees the possibility of the dictatorship perpetuating it- self as in Spain... * * * AVEROFP, 12 years older rtTlawn aon4t1hirflaikliaisfacci For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ? I ? ; istratio "The .By Ralph Z. Hallow fost-Graeti??? Editnri5i Writer . ? ; says that some high-ranking army men are saying among themselves that the "revolu- tion" has failed, that they should return the country to democracy .and that the army shouldn't mix into politics. This he sees as an opening wedge for his plan to join the present government, giving it the respectability it sorely' needs and has been unable to get (the Colonels have com- pletely failed to co-opt a single respectable or respected dem- ocratic politician into lending. his name and prestige to the junta by accepting a portfo- , ho). The tradeoff would be that to get Averoff now, the junta would have to sign publicly a pact stipulating that elections would be held soon, on a ? specified date. The junta, he believes, is ,attracting some young Greeks to it bui simultaneously seirl- ing most Greek youth into tie ranks of the "Maoist-ty?e groups" who promise dircct action against the dictator- ship. His is obviously a vulnerable position, allowing his critics to call him an opportunist or even a collaborationist. Not. even his own party endoses his back-door approach. . "There are many politieians.: whose passions drug them into. wanting what is not pmsible, not practical," rejoins- N'37. Av- croft, adding, "This d'ctator: ship will end either through.. compromise or b 1 o o d. against blood." "That's why an accommoda-e tion with the Coloneb must be,. made to bring eemocracy back" before the youth is lost," he says. . . Even the junta's dedicated. opponents, howev>r, concede. some accomplishments by the. re itne. ? economy 1! , y s turning over but' with conspica uously disquieting signs. We. are eating today the bread of tomorrow," he wrote. in the Sunday Times (of London) a, year ago. He still believes, that. As for the junta's much-her- aided morality ? even puri- tanism ? Averoff believes he, can point to more corruption: and favoritism now than wheii the politicians 'rule d. worse now because there's niri free press to watchdog thi: government. ? , "Some 300 members of par- liament did a little dirty work: under the democracy; today,' it's 5,000 officers doing it,"' according to critics: * * "GREEKS know this," sny. one democratic politicians bit- tory, "hut the Americans in; Greece do not." Anti-Americanism ? whiCf:! may account for the open' hostility I personally encoun-') tered as an American in sev- eral contexts from Greek work-- ingmen ? is beginning to! form, according to anti-junta-- politicians because many Greeks think the Colonels -are sponsored by the Americans... The attitude of some official - U.S. personnel here did notil$ ing, in my opinion, to contra diet that assessment, and that unfortunate thesis may ac-, count for the apparent Ameni- canizationof the present: Greek tragedy, the last act a which the Greek people shall, write themselves, even to tM last letter ? Z. VI Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RD ,CHICAGO, ILL. SUN-TIMES , - 541,086 .S - 697.966 , BOok-.10 2 4 1970 j STATI NTL At'-rest and torture in Greece. By George Anastaple Both "House Arrest" by Helen Vlachos (Gambit, $6.95) and ? ? . "Barbarism in Greece" by James Becket (Walker, $5.95) ad- . dress themselves to the .conscience of free men in the West by ' laying bare the deceit and torture needed to maintain in power ' -. the tyrannical regime of junior army officers who overthrew h. Greece's government in April, 1967. ? He 1 en Vlachos was, before the colonels struck, , Greece's most distinguished publisher and editor. She was i? known by everyone to be royalist, conservative, anti-Commu- nist, wealthy and influential. When the colonels came, she i ; promptly shut down her newspapers ? and kept them shut . down despite repeated efforts by the colonels to entice and ; - then to force her to resume publication. Her refusal to collabo- rate led eventually to house arrest (with her husband) and fthereafter to her escape to London/ : MRS. VLACHOS' BOOK is valuable for her reflections upon what a free press means today: She sees "the good journalist s...... . as the last of the free adults in this regimented world." She A Y not only recounts the coming of the colonels, with their tire- . :, some claims of having saved Greece from communism, but 1 she also exposes their claims as false, self-serving and even , ludicrous. .. The coup was partly made possible by the imprudent feud- ' 1 - big from 1963 to 1967 of the politicians, Imes:. and Palace of . 1 Greece. What makes Greece both exciting and vulnerable is a . developing sense of self-importance. Each Greek is prepared , ' to lead his country to glory, few are prepared to submerge' ; ? themselves (except in the face of foreign invasion) to a coin- /: mon purpose. ? . ' LIBERALS CONVENIENTLY DETECTED inch an invasion i In the maneuverings in Athens of the American CIA. Con- servatives were more effective. in conjininrifirldfeign .' :. threats, partly because of the distorting legacy in Greece of a 1 cruel civil war a generation ago: They could, Mrs. Vlachos ? admits, publish "whipped-up warnings of 'Communist danger,' . always a useful pre-election vote-winner for the parties of the I right. in which we had also indulged." , However responsible Mrs. Vlachos may have been for con- , tributing to the political paranoia and the self-righteousness of , '. the colonels (they were among her most devoted readers), she . was perceptive enough to see that such upstart extremists i 't : could not be the saviors of Greece?and she was courageous ; enough to immediately declare herself in opposition to them. . i The American government, on the other hand, allowed itself to ? i be taken in by the colonels' pretensions. : i MRS. VLACHOS HAS tong been among those Greeks who , ? ', ' are "genuinely pro-American, believing our.s4)ves very lucky , - ..../ , as a small and isolated nation to have :I-- .- z.nd support of ( . this great democratic power. And r?... .: ,cerely, in (the) e . , early hours of the Junta coup, not con;t ,,,=. t.vo not aecept it as 't; an American-conceived plan, but we ekpectt?(.: a violent reac- .tion against it Asopsoat,et*Asefttioase 2001/03 Helen Vlachosi "Whipped-up warnings . : . in which we also indulged." But the American attitude toward the present Greek regime .1 need not depend on our desire to help restore "freedom and democracry" to this faithful ally. What we can and should insist upon, if we are to continue our considerable support of the present regime, is a minimum of decency. On this question - James Becket, a sober American lawyer. Is decisive in his "Barbarism in Greece." ? BECKET CAREFULLY DOCUMENTS, with illustrations-I drawn front a dozen case histories, the extent to which the most brutal torture has been deliberately and systematically used the past three years (on more than two thousand men and women in a country of only eight million) to crush resis- tance movements and to. discourage political opposition in Greece. Prolonged torture has been Inflicted upon priests, con- servative3 and army officers (including, to our shame, some Who fought with us in Korea), as well as upon libeials and, ' Communists. .; The names are given by Becket of 126 torturers and of 32 places of torture, as are the names of 426 tortured people and of 12 Who have been "killed by the authorities" (including, we ? are told, an 8-year-old boy who was tortured "to force him to reveal his father's hiding .place"). So far as we know, no policeman or soldier has been punished for torturing prison- ers. But "some defendants have been given up to three years ? extra for 'insulting the tribunal' when they have talked about 5 their tortures at their trials." -It was on such evidence that the Council of Europe was/ prepared in December, 1969, to expel Greece from member- ship. (The colonels quit a few hours before they were due to be k expelled.) ? IT. HAS BEEN CLEAR for at least two years now that the colonels' government (with its Orwellian motto, "A Greece of _Ar Christian Greeks") has had recourse to torture an a scale and -I 01 an intensity unknown in peacetime Greece. The current t American-sponsored "pacification" by the colonels of the ; Cyprus issue has set them on a 'course which is explosive. In this, and In. other respects, the present Greek' regime may 'yle enda NATO even, more than it has.already. I . . teaches at the 'University 0/ Chicago Ana at Rosary.Cotieza in River Forest. ?."' *-k ? 04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-WAN1601 June :29, 1970 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE S 10133 The purpose of this prohibition is to dem- Onstrate to the Greek government, and the world, that the current military regime does . not enjoy the backing and support of the U.S. Congress ? The United States should not supply mili- tary aid to governments whose actions are anathema to our own principles. By the narrow margin of 45 to 313. the Senate failed to endorse the committee's recommendation. In view of the devel- ? opments in Greece since the Senate's action, I think it is even more regret- table that this body did not register its disapproval at that time?when it could have said to the generals in Athens that "this country will not give you any more arms to use to repress the freedom of your people." But, fortunately, we now have an op- portunity to correct that mistake. Since the coup in 1167 the United States has agreed to supply a total of nearly $300 million in additional arms to Greece? through the grant, sales, and surplus programs. A considerable amount of this is piled up in warehouses, undelivered because of the partial restriction on, shipments?which amounts to but a tap on the wrist of the generals. We should ?. not glut this pipeline of open support further. We should draw the line on further aid and say that the U.S. Senate does not wish to give more weapons to a government that demonstrates its utter contempt for the democratic values in- scribed in the premable to the NATO Charter. I hope that the Senate will' adopt the amendment. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the Senator yield for a question? Mr. CHURCH. I yield to the Senator 'from New York. Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I should like the author of the amendment to listen to this colloquy. ? I notice that the first clause of the amendment reads "unless specifically authorized by law hereafter enacted." Does the author of the amendment and the manager of the bill contemplate that, if we authorize a program for Oreece which Is discharged, this amend- ment would not foreclose submitting and getting together to go ahead with it and that it might be much larger than $300 Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, the Sen- ator from New York is entirely correct in his statement. Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, I hope the Senate will agree to the amendment of the Senator from Indiana. Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, *will the Senator yield to me? Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President. I yield the balance of my time to the Senator from Indiana. Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, I should like to make a few comments. The Senator from New Hampshire said that we were singling out one country. We are not singling out Greece. We aro not anti-Greece. We are not anti-Greek people. We arc not antidemocracy of the type Greece brought to the attenUon. of the world. We are saying that this present regime is not within the framework of the ideals of Americanism. Mr. President, I would like to quote a distinguished President of the United States who said: NATO means more than arms, troop levels, consultative bodies, treaty commit- ments. All of these are necessary. But what makes them relevant to the future is what the alliance stands for. To discover what this Western Alliance means today, we have to reach back not across two decades but through the centuries, to the very roots of the Western experience. ? When we do, we find that we touch a set of elemental ideals, eloquent in their sim- plicity, majestic in their humanity; idejils- of decency and justice, and liberty, and spect for the rights of our fellow men. Simple yes; and to us they seem obvious. But our forebears struggled for centuries to win them and in our own lifetime we have had to fight to defend them. These ideals are what NATO was created to protect. It is to these on this proud anni- versary, that we are privileged to consecrate the alliance anew. These ideals, and the firmness of our dedication to them, give NATO's concept it's nobility, and NATO's backbone its steel. This is all we are asking for. We are against dictatorships. We are against disrespect for the rights of our fellow men. This is what the amendment is all about. The President whom I quoted was President Nixon in a most eloquently worded statement delivered to the NATO Ministers in August 1969. This amendment is within the very ? ideas and ideals of President Nixon. These ideals should be carried out. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- sent that additional documents in sup- Port of the amendment be printed at this point in the RECORD. There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: AMENDMENT ? Mr. President, those who believe that America should continue to equip the Greek army for military reasons would do well to bear in mind that the present amendment in no way threatens the junta with a precipi- tous withdrawal of support. Even if we decide to prohibit future mili- tary aid, the Greek junta could still receive a minimum of 88 million dollars worth of American military equipment. Because the amendment is not retroactive, funds already approved for Greece would not be recalled if the amendment is passed. Only. future allocations would be prohibited. At the end of the last fiscal year, 897,- 237,000 in funds'already allocated for Greece, was still unused. That 97 million dollars which the Defense Department calls "unde- livered appropriations" is literally money in the pipeline to Greece. Shutting the value on the United State's end of that pipeline will not keep that 07 million dollars from the bands of the Greek colonels. ' Military appropriations programmed for this fiscal year amount to $24,298,000. In other words, a total of $121,735.000 worth of military equipment was available for deliv- ery to Greece this fiscal year. Of that 121 mil. lion dollars, the Department of Defense esti- mates 833,819,000 will actually be delivered by the end of this fiscal year. So, even if future appropriations are pro- hibited, 888,118,000 worth of military equip- ment will still await delivery to the Greek junta. Prom a military point Of view, the proposed amendment promises to be loss effective than manj of Its supporters would hope. But Ilse moral and political arguments for sup- porting the present amendment are very compelling. To pass the amendment would be to serve public notice that the United States will not. condone the development of a dictatorship in Europe. It would reaffirm our allegiance to the principles of democracy and freedom at a time when that reaffirmation would mean so much to Greek citizens now struggling un- der this oppressive regime. And, it would demonstrate our solidarity with the other nations of Europe who rightly perceive that the death of democracy in Greece is a threat to the strength of NATO. MILITARY REASONS FOR SUPPORTING HARTKE AMENDMENT Mr. HARTKE. Mr. President, it is fre- quently argued that, regardless of politi- cal and moral factors, we should continue to support the present dictatorship in Greece for military reasons. I would like to outline briefly why I do not find this argument very compelling. First, NATO is more than a military organization. The purpose of NATO lies In the defense of a form of civilization. The defense of the geographical area is a means to that end, not an end in itself. If we destroy from within the form of civilization which NATO is supposed to defend, the defense of the geographical area becomes meaningless. President Nixon stated most elo- quently, NATO's true purpose in his statement before the NATO ministers in August 1969. Allow me to quote ?from the President's address: NATO means more than arms, troop levels consultative bodies, treaty commitments. All of these are necessary. But what makes them relevant to the future is what the alliance stands for. To discover what this Western Alliance means today, we have to reach back not across two decades but through the centuries, to the very roots 'of the Western experience. When we do, we find that we touch a set ? of elemental ideals, eloquent in their sim- ? plicity, majestic in their humanity; ideals of decency and justice, and liberty, and respect for the rights of our fellow men. Simple, yea; and to us they seem obvious. But our fore- bears struggled for centuries to win them and in our own lifetime we have had to fight to defend them. These ideals are what NATO was created to protect. It is to these on this proud anni- versary, that we are privileged to consecrate the alliance anew. These ideals, and the firmness of our dedication to them, give NATO's concept its nobility, and NATO's backbone its steel. Second, Greece needs NATO more than NATO needs Greece. There are powerful military reasons why it is in the best interest of Greece to remain allied with NATO. Those who believe that Greece will voluntarily withdraw from NATO must believe that, in the event of armed attack by Communist forces. Greece will submit peacefully, an insult to the courage of the Greek people or will be able to resist the Soviet Union success- fully?an insult on commonsense and military reality. Third, in the past, Greece has always been a strong and enthusiastic supporter of NATO. To argue that Greece might withdraw because of our action today would suggest that Greece no longer SUP- porta NATO as it did in the Past Fourth, the Greek regime has caused a complete disintegration of the Greek Armed Forces and assigning the remain- Approved 'For Release 2001/03/04 CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2o44f63Yer1PCIA-RDP80-01601 STATI NTL 10 JUN 1970 GREEK JUNTA'S FOREIGN POLICY The article in the June 4 Daily World, "Trade agreement reached between Greece, Albania" will certainly cause confusion. This is what the Col- onels and their CIA bosses want: To present the Ath- ens' junta as seeking good relations with the Social- ist world, thus to gain the tolerance (or the sup- port?) of the liberals abroad, and simultaneously to help it blackmail those Western governments _which are trying to find a pretext for supporting the mili- tary regime. The junta-controlled press rsveatedly have "warned" the NATO countries ea the Colonels will turn to the East if they don't refrain from "in- tervening into the Greek affairs." Foreign Minister Pipinelis gave the same "warnings," though in a diplomatic way, during the sessions of the European Council last December, and at the NATO meetings in May. Facing enormous financial difficulties and an un- precedented trade deficit, mostly because the ma- jority of the European countries have cut down on imports from Greece, the junta tries hard to expand trade with the Socialist bloc. However, and con-/ trary to what some American newspapers sustain,/ the latter is cool to the overtures. The recently signed trade agreements between Greece on one 'hand and Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungary on the 'other, are routine; the volume of Import-export Is 'kept to the before-the-coup level, despite the serious efforts the Colonels made to increase it. ? " - ?An Informed Greek, New York, . Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDF'80-0,16 MOB YOM TDIES BOOK UMW \;.. 31 NV 1970 Democracy at Gunpoin The Greek FronL By Andreas Papandreou. 365 pp. New York: Doubleday & Co. $7.95. STATI NTL ? ? 1 ") Barbarism in Greece A Young American Lawyer's Inquiry into the Use ot Torture In Contemporary Greece, with Case Histories and Documents, By James Becket. Foreword by Senator Claiborne Pell. 147 pp. New York: Walker & Co. $5.9.5. By DAVID HOLDEN It is not necessary to carry a torch for the Greek Colonels to suggest;z that ever since their midnight coup three years ago they have had a disprepor- :i:. ? tionately bad press in the Western world. Disproportionate, that is, not only to what is said about comparable regimes elsewhere, but also to what is known' ' ? about Greek history, ancient, medieval and modern. ? Perhaps I should say what ought to be known, for it is one of the features, of much Western comment on contemporary Greece that its authors seem' often as innocent of real Greek history (as distinct from the mythical variety)! as they are of the real composition of the moon. If the one is made of 'green cheese the other, it seems, is a splendid record of heroism and democracy, suk Mr. Holden is chief foreign correspondent of the London Sunday Times.1 lied only by the conquest of the beastly Turks. Hence the Colonels are con-,,, demned as "un-Greek," and their actions are seen as a betrayal of all that' Greece has ever stood for. Now this, to put it mildly, is a distortion of the facts. Leaving aside the du- bious claim of the slave-state of classical Athens to be the cradle of democracy, ? at any rate as a modern American or Briton might understand the term, what 'about Byzantium? For 1,000 years the flower of all things Greek, its political ? institutions were autocratic, its rulers were despots?and only a quarter of them died natural deaths. Or take the painful story of the modern state of Greece. t Born in factional strife and murder. on the sufference of the Great Powers. out Of the centuries of Turkish rule, it has rarely known anything that most 7 Western nations would can political stability. In the last 50 years alone it has ? suffered two civil wars, eight military coups d'etat and a change of government ? on the average nearly once a year. : It is true that until shortly before the Colonels' coup one man, Constantine Karamanlis, had survived as Prime Minister through eight years and three ? elections, and in doing so had conveyed the impression that Greek politics were maturing. They were not?or not much. His regime was exceptional, for rea- sons that had as much to do with the cold war as with him, and the events that ' followed had a half-comical, half-tragical air of d'enr vu. The quarrel between the King and the Prime Minister, George Papandreou. ? the factionalism and personal jealousies of the politicians, and the tendency of ; the political forces to polarize between extremes, with reckless inflation of the , Communist menace by the right and demagogic irresponsibility on the left?all this had happened before in one way or another, not once, but often. Even the ? ;Colonels, when they came, seemed bound to some old Greek script. t When George Papadopoulos decreed that miniskirts were unlawful, he was only doing what General Pangalos bad done after his coup d'ettit in 1924. And .1 when he talked of "national regeneration,* commanding all Greeks to be honest and hard-working and worthy of "their 3,000 year-old heritage," there Was little in his program that had not been mapped out by General Mamas for his dicta., torship before World War IL ? 7 ? ? 7 - ? ? ? ' -a-imeas.46.;i1; . . "7% - Approved For Releaie 2061103/04 CI. Approved For ReleaseTikrintiggrePtilaikDP80-0 29 MAY 1970 STATINTL 1 An? , A t.?1,r,. : ? 4ti-Anrterican-.: zr.a D A With few exceptions (who t. ? . tend to be ostracized for - ? . ., , DEMOCRACY AT GUNPOINT: their nonbelief); all Greeks .1" ' , . THE GREEK FRONT '.1 ? /:itre _convinced that the ''' . , Andreas Papandreou ' pnited States, through the - (Doubled's. 365. vv. 61.55) ? - PIA, engineered the coup of April 21, 1967,. that brought. ' Reviewed by Al/red Friendly . .-. .., ?? the Junta to power. There is The reviewer is based in London and has reported irons i n) documentaryor accepta- Greece for The Washington Post, of. which he Is ? as ' ble factual evidence for this associate editor. iconviction; credence in it . . also requires the premise Moreover, injecting an un- ? It is also a tour de force.. that the CIA is not only vii- wonted qualification, Papaw to write a history of postwar iainous but insane. One is dreoti concedes with respect Greece without mentioning. deft only with the argument to his informant, "It is possi- the Marshall Plan, except; . !that where there is so muchble that his. facts do not al. for a passing comment that ysmoke there must be fire, a ways. Correspond- to historic Greece was subjected to, dubious supposition at beat reality." But,. Papandreou American tyranny because . ee ndered more so, as Marx is sure, ? va once noted during the interpretation do eivreefin etc: the theall major economic deci-' sions had to be approved by. McCarthy days, by the exist- coup by men who partici. the chief of the AmerIcan 'ence of machines that man- pated in it." - iAID mission. , ufacture end* lay down But qualifications event . Papandreou's book will be, smoke screens.' those rarely' offered, are,useful to the scholar who f ? American ?? responsibility elsewhere. forgotten takes it as an ex parte, prop- for the overthrow of Greek throughout the book. Ru4,aganda story of a principal. ;democracy Is. the. thesis of .mored CIA Involvement at a actor, a political conniver of. :Andreas Papandreou's book, lower level becomes the of& the left, as the colon* were ;It' is restated with the insist- cial;formally adopted policy of the right. Put together. lence and constancy of the of the Pentagon, then the with oithe.t.i.a ci; c.o.ou nii.t.t. Aherne in Ravel's "Bolero" State Department and fi- "'",?-, ...m''' ' -49,,,-.7,,e,,,,--it"?'7. :but without its ultimate con- nally the White House it- ma,,,"""" it,,'"?,,,,,-,A,4h,i- ---stio's,__,-'''WPI :luest of the hearer. In the self: America decided that --":"'"'-."- ---'"-----`'.."- end, one has only Papan- Greek democracy should be dreon's word for. it. overthrown, and thereupon , This is too bad, for -..I overthrew it. The author.? 'something that does not uses this thesis ince Pre-', need his word for ti?Amen. crustes used his bed: what. can influence in postwar ever ?the inconsistencies or, manifest impossibilities; Greece was obviously emir- they are made to fit. By tine mous; an objective account . of what it was, how it was. method you can prove that Used and what it really ac- it was Abel who slew Cain.. . complished for good or evil The younger Papan- would be of greatest value. dreou's furious political But Papandreou has given strivings beginning about us only a strident, confused 1964, his unbridled political and personal anti-American ambition, his hairy flirtation tirade, clouded with the; with crypto-Communists and musty. odor of paranoia. , his formidable demagoguery ; The . nearest the author are today considered by comes in 365 pages to pro. some anti-Junta Greeks to' would accept as evidence to tenting. what a historian have been the principal fee-, . .. tors that frightened a fool-' ish King . -Constantine into support his thesis , is the upsetting constitutional got,. Memorandum of a man he ernment and paving the way identifies as a Junta conspir for the Colonel's coup. Pa- ator who since defected and pandreou's responsibility in left Greece. The memo al- the Greek tragedy is hot leges CIA connivance through the person of the negligible. n' is something of a tour' coup leader and present Greek dictator, George pa., del force for him to wril . a padopoulos, who, it is pretty purported political history. of the times without men-,. 'CI\ clear, was at one time or an. payroll. tioning this central fact. / other on the CIA H . But, in the words of the Occasionally?it appears a memorandum, "When I Y most by ' inadvertence?he ? sa lets a crumb of information that Papadopoulos was an into the account from which, agent of the American CIA, I. .. 4 tis' an otherwise informed . do not ref A t', ..-,' -.? : Its leadershi. 737 ,.aoraiaeimedau240011,081,04 : CIA-RDP8a,o1601kocici:spo2oo.oi,5 ' ?a lad daee! the story were; within the CIA." , ?-,i,;- -' 411aboUt.., . *:.. :` . Approved For Release 20011f33104.: CIA-RDP8 DAILY WeIRT.31 27 MAY 1970 Interview With t - By ALLEN ZAK LOS ANGELES, May 26? ?Ars jously. Kazantzakis' works have nerney.06 ... . , , ?,.? ., .. Helene Kazantzakis, widow of not been banned despite his ?hud "This is our- iodine, she ? Nikos Kazantzakis, the Greek manistic- and democratic views:said, '"Both Greek sail -t poet and novelist, is a diminutive nor have those of Mrs. Kazant-ienn.?.7 .,., ..... .., .. , - ....- ., pale, seemingly frail woman who =kis. despite her open defiance ; , . ? 't1":-7. I would hardly be noticed in a sen- of the Greek mtarists. ior citizens' Saturday night pin. Kazantzakis is best known in ochle league. the U.S. for "Zorba, the Greek". Her appearance is deceiving.and "The Last Temptation of When speaking of the .. miiitaryChrist" among other novels. junta in Greece, Madame Kazant-His wife has published essays and zakis is fire and ice, and doesn'ta book on the life and ideas of her fear offending her Americancelebrated husband. audiences by placing heavy re_ Mrs. Kazantzakis was aware sponsibility for Greek fascist con-of the impending 1967 coup days trol on the U.S. government, before it occurred. In France at "Greece since World War Two," the time, she got on the radio to said Mrs. Kazantzakis, siin thewarn of the danger to the Papan- world's first example of Vietnam_dreou administration via a con- ization. The U.S. and Britain letsPiraeY involving the Greek Greeks fight Greeks to gain con-Royal family, King Constantine trol over us." and Queen Frederick, the Greek ? She was in Los Angeles ApriiGeneral Staff, and the U.S. Cen- 29, where she appeared on tele-tral Intelligence Agency. ? vision and before a meeting at the Before that coup took place. Retail Clerks Union Hall in Santahowever, which was aimed at Monica to speak against etaking over the Greek government Greek junta. ? prior to an election in which cen- . She detailed the step by step trists and leftists promised great betrayal of Greek democratic strength, a group of army colonels forces at the close of World War beat them to the punch. ? II by Britain and the U.S. That didn't take the U.S. gov- She told her predominantly ernment off the hook, in the view youthful audience how Winston of Mrs. Kazantzakis, but only Churchill, near the close of the showed that "sometimes the State war, had ordered rearming of Department and the CIA don't 'Nazi collaborators and turned always know what each other id them against ELAS, the Com-planning." ? ' munist-led anti-Nazi resistance "A victory of the Center Union movement. The collaborators, (a coalition of liberal parties) who betrayed thousands of their,would have resulted in a govern- countrymert to the German in- ment friendly to the U.S., but the vaders, were supported by the U.S. government only wants us as U.S. under the Truman doctrine, slaves," said Mrs. Kazantzakis she said, and the result, she de- in an interview with this reporter. dared, was the destruction of the She said organized resistance first popularly supported political against the junta was small but movement in modern Greek his-active. The resistance is split into, tory. ' , three wings: Centrists, leftists, The Greek Royal family wasand royalists. Mrs. Kazantzakis aim tainted with wartime collab- dismissed the royalists and con.: .. oration, she asserted. trists ("The Centrists want new Many of the same fascists, she elections.. for what?), and said noted, are now in positions of that the best hope for an over- power under the present military throw of the military government dictatorship. . lay with the left. . The Greek junta's suppression An ancient Athenian oath was ? of anti-fascist, democratic and cited and translated by Mrs. Ku- ' even classica awe Fei alialiosse12091i11381Mt: CIA- well documentd, but myster-!cleatb all who would abolish deni.,.. ' TIL Approved For ReleaseRibliftti1ilitIA-RDP80-01 27 MAY 1970 STATINTL Foreign Affairs: The Many Shapes of Chaos By C. L. SULZBERGER ; SERQUIGNY, France?The 'Mediterranean has traditionally ,been regarded as a vital seaway Tby the Western world and, more recently, as NATO's crit- !kat right flank. Yet rarely in 'peacetime, if such a euphemism As permitted, has the Mediter- ranean been more disrupted. ,?Today it is a mare nostrum for , neither West nor- East. 'Large American and Soviet ;fleets and smaller allied flo- :tillas play an edgy game of tag. :Both ends of the famous sea are politically punctuated by :dictatorships?in Greece and i :Spain. Between them s in- creasingly chaotic Italy. Eastward lies war, between ;Israel and the Arabs. Relatively ;non-viable national revolutions dominate the southern, shore. Only France and Turkey, among littoral states, are neither un- 'stable, undictatorial nor com- mitted to armed conflict. ? American diplomatic influ- ence on the southern coast is limited by our support of rael and it is embarrassed on -the northern coast by associa- ?tion with non-Communist. ? .Europe's best known vestigial dictatorships, . those of Franco and the Greek colonels. Secret: ?tary of State Rogers. has a ,chance to urge easement of the iqfest ?when , yieits_Madrid ? Thursday and- to suggest the start of liberalization before Franco yields power. In Greece the situation is more complex. As with Spain. U.S. interest focuses primarily on access to, air and naval -bases to offset the ' growing Soviet Mediterranean fleet and the growing network of So- viet military -facilities thrust- ing toward Libya and Algeria. ? Disorganized Opposition Spanish opposition to Franco and Greek opposition to the colonels is' extensive but dis- organized. This lack of unity .. makes it easier for the dicta- -?torships to warn against the alternative of Communism, . which is endorsed by only a small but 'relatively effective minority in each country. Although Spain was once famous for having fostered his-. tory's sole sizable anarchist ? party, the word "anarchist." ., like almost every other politi- cal definition, was first in- vented in Greece and all Greek opposition movements, left, right and center, are tinged Evith anarchic divisions. The colonels are fully aware of this and play the game of divide and ..rule with sl;iII. . ?, It is silly to blame Viz.: ;-ii -.;;? ton for sponsoring the colonels' coup in the first ? though, this is the ? prikeleAt: , claim of Communists and fel- 1ally hostile officers. low-traveling propagandists. , Mikis Theodorakis, a re-: 'The famous C.I.A. did not know nowned Communist composer,! about another proposed coup b was also jailed,, then released. discussed among Greece's sen-, by the colonels. A French op-4 tor generals. Nevertheless, it ? position politician claims credit/ ? surely didn't sponsor that one for his freedom although French; either because it wasn't even , Government leaders say they - attempted. As" for the colonels had arranged it. i ?most 'of them were unheard Theodorakis now promotes a; ' of in Washington before they. "national resistance council" to: scrambled to power. ., include all elements. However,a - ? It is slanderous when An- the Communists themselves are , dreas Papandreou, a former' so split that the movement has' American citizen and univer- '. 'fallen flat. Theodorakis op-I ? sity professor who was first ' poses Papandreou's call for vio-? arrested then released by the , lent action and believes "we' ' colonels, labels the April 21st. have many other rheans to ? coup d'etat "the American ver- overthrow the colonels?' He. sion of the invasion of Czech(); complains of Moscow's supports slovakia by the Warsaw Pact." , for the "most dogmatic and Papandreou calls for coopers- ? least progressive elements", i?ri the Greek Communist party. ? ' tion among resistance move- ments and organization of corn- . Meanwhile the Soviet Union' mando units to oust the colo- and its allies maintain cordial, . relations with the colonels. The ? nels by armed action. Although he is allied' to Antonio Brillakis,' sKremlin's only contribution to; ?gr?eader ? of one Greek resistance is to blame the Uniti Communist faction, his pro-", ed States in its own propaganda.' posal has been coolly received.- for supporting the Athens re- '' gime. Thus, apart from France s Imposed 'T ranquility . , (less than fully allied to: A' sizable? portion of the, ,NATO). Turkey (where anti- ., Greek middle class and farming Americanism grows) and Is.. ? communities accept the colo- ; rael (Which complains of in., ' nels' rule for the imposed tran-. adequate American support),;, q?ty it provides?lather the.!, the whole Mediterranean is in, ' . N.,..), many Italians liked the -varying degrees of turmoil,' ? "trains running on time". under ?.revolution. or counter-revolta, . ,. Mussolini. Moreover, the 'cola-. tion. Washington , has . shown: ''nels hanzetire4. most: otenm,lliere is little we can do *bout ILA Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Rel2M1deatOsetVCIA-RDP80 24 MAY 197G Uirr, 0-4 /Togo* ? a LI .1) ef71. ? . ?? .er'? ,r`T r> 13o DEMOCIIACY AT GUNPOINT: The Greek Front. By . Andreas Papandreou. Doubleday. 365 pp. $7.95. By George Anastaplo A conspiracy of junior Greek Army officers, exploit- ing American training, equipment and concerns, sub-, - jugated their country on April 21, 1967 to a tyranny which has consolidated itself in power the past three years by purges, torture, deceit and bribes. Andreas Papandreou, a Greek-born economist wh enjoyed a distinguished professional career in Ameri- can universities for twenty years before returning to 'Greece in 1959 for eventual service as a minister in his, father's government, has given us an insider's account, of the events leading up to the constitutional crisis that began in 1965 and gave a handful of unscrupulous of- ficers their long-sought opportunity to seize power. Papandreou's account is valuable both. for the in- formation it provides us about what was said and done by influential Greeks in the Sixties, and for what it rit tiisplay (sometimes inadvertently) of the sporadic turbulence and irresponsibility of Greek poll- It i an account which is distinctively (and in . tri3uini.4) Greek in that it is dramatic, plausible and 'intermittently persuasive and almost completely ob- livious of the fact that opposing accounts would be . similarly plausible and persuasive. It was such single- mindedness which permitted Greek politicians in 1965- 1967 so to insist on their relatively unimportant doc- trinal differences as to make it easy for ruthless military opportunists (who are radically different from them) to seize power. It is significant that, despite the presence of the colonels, the politicians of Greece still. find it difficult to close ranks and let bygones be bygones. One critical difference between Professor Papandreou -(who is now at York University in Toronto) and other Greek politicians is his imprudent frankness. In this he is more an intellectual than a politician. Thus, he him- self reports that his cighty-year-old father was moved to berate him when the colonels struck and the Papan- dreous found themselves prisoners: Didn't I tell yott? The Paraskevopoulos government ran interim coalition government.] was our last chance for avoiding a military takeovei. With your militant stand against f such a governincntl, with your strong statements against the King, with the distrust you in.. stilled in the American contingent here, this [military ? George Anastaplo teaches at the University ,o1 Chicago'. and at Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois. STATINTL takeover] became inevitable.... The author, on the other hand, sees as his critical defect not the lack of sufficient self-restraint but rather '1 the fact that he did not press vigorously enough for radical reforms while his father's party held power in 1964-1965. Even so, one glimpses again and again in this book the desperation of the late George Papandreou ? as he tried to control his headstrong son. . Andreas Papandreou's frankness would be more fit- ting in the memoirs of a very old man, with his public career behind him, than in the political manifesto of a middle-aged man who hopes to devote his many talents to the further development of his country. One need not decide how much is valid in his bitter criticism of other opponents of the Greek colonels, at home and in exile: Certain things cannot be said publicly without making it most difficult thereafter to secure the cooperation necessary among former political rivals if Greece is to be peacefully liberated from her military tyrants. In his ? partisan and often ungenerous criticisms, which neglect long-run political consequences, Professor Papandreou , is curiously like Vice President Agnew. Both men dis- play a volatile combination of intelligence, ambition, forensic energy and political inexperience; both, it should be added, can and should be better than they 'mistakenly believe it expedient to appear in public. Papandreou probably overstates American respon- sibility for the coup which crushed the troubled con- stitutional government of his strategically vita.I coun- try three years ago. But whatever the truth may be about the role of the Pentagon, the CIA, and the State De- partment in Greece then or now, it is likely that anti- American sentiment will prevail for years to come, and supplant all the beneficial effects of our massive eco- nomic and military aid since the Second World War. Conservatives and royalists have already begun to say what Andreas Papandreou was saying long before the .colonels struck -7- that the U.S. is primarily responsible for the miserable state eaffa. irs in Greece today. Certainly, at least since April 1967, the American :government has been pursuing in Greece an unimagina- tive and perhaps even cynical policy insofar as we have a policy at all ? that is at least as irresponsible as the one the Greek politicians foolishly pursued before the colonels came. The United States refuses to repudi- ate the dangerously incompetent tyrants who must con- tinue to parade "the American alliance" in Athens if they are to survive in power. We are losing our last clear chance to help our true Greek friends form a coalition government that could avoid political and economic, disaster. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016 TEC IIISTENER (PUBLISHED BY B.B.0.) 21 May 1970 Robert Hunter on the CIA' t ?Is it a department of dirty tricks, or an organisation of fact-gatherers? Did it underwrite the seizure of power by the Greek Colonels? STATINTL--- ? ??? ;? ? ? ? , V ? ? ? ? ?".;'? r. ? ???? 4.1'. ? ,!?.4'. :44.71: 6j, I? 14 1 re.'; ? ." - ? . -* ,-; : 4.., ? . L'I . .? ii: (' ? . ".? '.'.? ??,4.. ?:4? ?z'44:.'.:. i4 *44 . ......v.4, . ? ' . 4.',.v;i:,. ,,......'.`,. .;.,1:- ;:; ?.?'. ?.? ? .'.?4,. . 4 4 .0 . Nt?, 544/ .? I.? ,??l. 'l , ..i. ?..? ? (.. $31 g....% ....,,,..?,...6 . fl...; ???1'.. 0,4 . ' : ,Il '''? '. 1!.....'?i..P... ' ? i?... ' ' w ? . : .'"'..t. ? . : .;-...;.,? , ::? ?. , r, ? Itt' ? ? "1..! ,?it:..I:... ,:o ,.. 11?ki: :it , ? ' . " s,' ., .. r? .. ., :?? ... e ' . ip ..... 4.'' 4 p? ?? ,. h ?...e. I ? . ?AS ?A 40 L ? .. ? ...t. (:?:?:'.. ; ' 1. ' ;:,,.' .? 1 i T ? . 54 14;;j?SP ... , bi,.. ' ? ' .'? ?'' . .P : ? ' ! 1 1., ; - i '4 .; . . ? 4 .... :..: , ? t:?? ?.? ... ? ? . ? ? ? ',40 ..1'fr: ? , tr. -.?.. 1... ? ? ? ? , ? ? :IA ? ev?.,, ? , ? A;t 74:44.464.. ? 4.. ve ? ,. 141. ? , ..,k\, ... ? t 4 . . Lk........h....i. ! In the Ashcnden stories, Somerset Ittaug? ; Richard Helms, Director of the CM ' ham put a human face on the British Secret .:? Service. No matter that the Hairless Alexi- ?. everything right. Not so with the Central , killed the wrong man: this bumbling ' Intelligence Agency?or the CIA as it is helped soften the image of a nithiess and everywhere known. No humour here; just+ ever?competent machine dedicated to doing ?;. the sense of a sinister and heartless manipu, - His Majesty's dirty . business, and made -lotion of the democrats of a hundred count' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 boatinued Approved For Relead 2001A0100:VA-RDP80-016 18 MAY 1970 STATI NTL Hecklers Md a Ch For Paradi g Greeks At the height of the annual Greek Independence Day Parade up Fifth Ave. yesterday, a group of about 100 , balloon and placard-cai:rying persons staged a chanting I but orderly counter-demonstration behind police bartsti, cades at 72d St. They yelled such slogans as Palace Guard, who were flown in "CIA-Get Out of Greece" and from Athens for the parade. "Faseits state, Fascist state." They missed the demonstration, dropping out 'of the parade at . Thousands March G8th St. to go to the reviewing Thousands of sons and stand. 'daughters of Hellenes matched The demonstrators were mem- along the parade route from 59th bers of I American Committee to 79th Sts. to commemorate the for Dt2lii.),T:ks'Y and Freedom in 149th anniversary of Greece's in- Greece. Associate Professor John dependence from Turkish rule. Shenis jf i.he State University in The rainy weather diminished the N cwark, chairman of the corn, number of expected"'srpectators. mittee, accused the Greek govern- Leading the contingent was a meat of "paying for a parade to. company of white - skirted advertise a dictatorship. There is gvaones, members. of the Royal no 1Lecckorn in Greece" , Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-011111.1111 WHFFLING, W.VA. NEV1S-REGISTER * MAY 71910 E 30,102 S- 59,244 AT WHAT PRICE? U.S. Missiles In Greece? IN AN EDITORIAL last week discussing how , the Defense Department had secretly supplied the repressive Greek junta with nearly twice the amounts of military aid authorized by Congress, we mentioned how the Pentagon'had referred to Greece ' as one of our four "forward defense countries" in Europe. . 1 Now the frill Implications of that term are begin. . ning to surface. French publisher and politician Jac- ques Servan-Schrieher after a visit to Greece the other day declared that the CIA is backing the Ath- ens junta and envisaged aenteexatng divergence be- tween European and American interests there. Speaking in Strasbourg at the time when the Council 4 iof Europe was indicting the Greek government for oppression of its people, Mr. Servan-Schrieber said: 1 "In Greece the basis of the problem is Atlantic and military. No one is unaware that the United ' States has made Greece its principal strategic base tg In Europe and that it has installed there its princi- pal missile' bases. With Spain, Greece is an ancho- rage point of the American military system in Eu- ? irope, and the CIA plays a role all the more dan- gerous because, the organization there is often self- ; governing and personal, as in Southeast Asia..." E Well now, Mr. Servan-Schrieber may believe 1 that Americans are aware that we are maintaining a nuclear base in Greece, but the truth is that not ! even our* Senate Foreign Relations Committee has I been told of such a move. The committee's chair- .; ' man, Senator Fulbright, has been arguing for some ; time; that if not the public,. at least responsible ? , t.members of the Senate have a right to know where , our foreign nuclear installations are and what /agreements have been made, with foreign countries c respecting them. Senator Symington also has sought for some time to break the secrecy surrounding deployment of American nuclear weapons overseas: but , but with little success. It would. seem that in light of ' S these latest reports, that the Administration tn . iWashington owes it at least to the Congress to tell j exactly what we are maintainingthi Greece and' at i ' what price; ? Senator Fulbright .has stated that the presence of American nuclear missiles alters the framework , of our foreign policy toward the country in question, 'had may involve us in its domestic politics by giving` us an interest in maintaining a particular regime in power. That may explain the Defense Department's 4 . lavish policy of providing arms aid to the Greek , military dictatorship. . ' ; There have been reports circulating that the t Nixon Administration is considering lifting altogeth- er the embargo on military deliveries to Greece because of pressure from the Pentagon? which is t on-earned over the situation in the Eastern Medi- . terranean, where the Soviet Union reportedly has been building up its fleet. It follows then that Mr.' Servan-Schrieber probably has accurate infortna- i tion when stating that we have made Greece our principal strategic base in Europe and that we have Installed there missile bases. ' - If all of this is true we certainly 'are playing ' with fire in still another part of the world. Such a situation has international implications because of the strong sentiment in Western Europe against the. authoritarian practices of the Greek colonels who overthrew the constitutional government and today 1 ' rule by brutal decree and torture. Do we not re- member the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and the promises we made then to remove our own missile bases from Turkey? At least shouldn't the Congress of the United States know what our military is doing .....-....' * j .._, __,,,,...._rn ,....,... 4.,)?., , .. ,...? .....J ? - ' .' ..'.' ' In all parts of the,werld? We believe so. -4--'--'"Approsidd"FO:eRereSSe20'0' /03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/pypiatajtjA-RDP80-016 ma7 -LYN STAT I NTL o'Theodora!tis'urges' G re ... ? Le Monde Paris . r Mikis Tlicodorakis broke a 16-day self-imposed silence 'April 29 to give his first 'press conference since his unexpected . release by the Greek regime and his arrival in France. For the I n'this situation many 'Greeks take refuge in comforting illti-1 . first time he felt truly free and ready to resume his work as a sions, Theodorakis says. Some say the dictatorship is so ridic-: :political militant and as a musician. ulous that it is bound to -Ii natural death in the not too dis-i When he handcd the famed composer over to French radical tant future. They feel that Greece's exclusion from the Council: leader Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber on April 13. Greek' - ot Euroe will for.ce the Americans, through the pressure of i ,;Prime Minister Gcorp Papadopoulos told thspoliticiantwitha ' Westernp public opinio. n, to abandon the colonels to thcir fate. 1 . smile: "I'm putting an exposive packap in your hands?I wish ' ? .. But there is an opposing point of view which secs the junta as i i youIt jwas clear the leaderof the juntawas aware Servan-Schrei- ,oy. ' ? a permanent feature, enjoying as it does in practice the militar- ? bees statement that Thcodorakis would not engage in political Y' economic and financial support of Western Europe as well 'activities on French soil was only a matter of form. Nonethe- as the United States. i , less, he was happy enough to be rid of such an awkward pris- . Both are thus resigned to the fait accompli, while cherishing, . oncr. For no jail could hold this curly-haired, baby-faced giant, the misplaced hope. that circumstances will impel the regime to : of a man obsessed by the idea of revolution. ? blow a more liberal course. . ? ..' The outlaw turned prosecutor casts a threatening shadow. ? Theodorakis, who was one of the founders of the Patriotic ? over the regime. Even his jailers and torturers could not help. Front resistance movement, explained the conclusions the or- bumming the tunes of his songs against tyranny and would .ganization draws from these analyses of the situation. "The sometimes render him small services. , Greek people must begin by shedding their illusions and our ; His continued presence in Greece?particularly behind . duty is to help them do it. They have to learn to depend on. ' bp?became intolerable for the regime that thought it could ..their own resources, at least 'until the Socialist bloc, Western i neutralize his influence. ,. , ' , Europe and the Middle East states undergo-a radical change of ? There must have been some thought of liquidating him. On heart in their attitude to the Greek resime.". - ? ? the night of Aug. 20-21, 1967, when he was arrested, his cap- ' . ? - ? .= tors took him to a fir grove outside Athens, where, hands. . .. ? .i bound behind his back and with spotlights trained on him, he A program Is required , 0 was told he was to be executed. '. . "What are you feeling now?" an officer asked, as he pressed But he recognizes that some specific program . is required iv a pistol to the composer's chest with a trembling hand. to. galvanize' Greeks into actively opposing the dictatorship. : .."Shame." the composer replied. "Because you speak Greek." i "They will be called on to make great sacrifices and they He is convinced that secret American pressure was behind l' have the right to demand from their leaders a program with Vthe April 21 coup. "By imposing a peace of the graveyard on , precise objectives worthy of these sacrifices. us, the Central Intelligence Agency wanted to assure the futurei "When it is all over the people should be able to count on .1. ? ? of NATO bases on our territory, and to guarantee the safety of. the establishment of ireinvigorated democracy with all?and I., I Greek and foreign monopolistic capital in our markets," he mean all?the liberties restored and the army back where it :i said. "George Papadopoulos and his colonels are merely prox- belongs, in the barrack rooms. They should also be able to % ies for the United States." ? _ . depend on a redistribution olthe national wealth on a basis or .. , That Theodorakis has no great regard for the present mas- social justice. ' _ ? . lets of Greece is the least one can say. "Unlike the Nazis they ' "The state apparatus, stripped of its reactionary and incom- - have no ideology whatsoever to propose. They are semi-liter- ? pstent elements, would implement a new economic, social and '.' ate, they hate all forms of culture, they are anti-Greek and cultural policy to improve the lot of the underprivileged and ?,. chauvinistic at the same time, and take anti-Communism to working classes. It would bring in young people to assume pos- ,absurd lengths. They have the mentality of small-time fas- ? itions of responsibility and the entire population would take an ? 'cists." ? active part in thc running Orthe 'country. , And the man who wrote the Music for "Zorba the Greek", It is an impassioned picture of the Greece of tomorrow that' caps his distate for them with the crowning insult: "These peo-? Mr. Theodorakis paints. This ?leader of Lambrakis ? :plc love outmoded tangos and military marches...."- ' Youth-named after Gregoris Latnbrakis, the EDA (Union of t "Just as Hitler conquered Europe, but not its peoples, so the Democratic Left) deputy forSalonika, who was assassinat- 1 *George Papadopoulos has taken over the machinery of state,. ed' on May 22,1961?has been' sdreaMing of his new Greece, ' without winning the souls of the 'Greeks," he said. . ? ... ?pirough30 years of oectipaGok civ:l! 'war; prison,. internment : The composer-activist feels that resistance to the regime has kind denArtatioli.. ....... , ,...... 1 ..! ... ,...., ,,!,..: . .. . _ been largely passive to date because the coup itself and the ,... . r- .. . _....... , ..,? , = -;? ., ,....' i.....- . ... --...-..t..-."-? .. ? ; ease with which it was carried aut took the population by sur- ,,?' -. - _,,,`? . ' ' ???? -- ... ...: .prise. He says that the people, subject to pitiless repression ', "PerPetual militant- '? ' - ? ? . - - implement by the most modern methods, are taking part in l. -. ,? -''.?. ? .- ? ? _ - . .- ? a resistance movement whose many aspects are not always vis- . Behind the indefinable gentleness of his expression, the tend-, 0ible to the outside world. He admits, however, that the Greeks , er irony, flashes of humour and bursts of laughter, there is a late not yet ready for a showdown. ? ' . ? i' steely determination which shows through in the declaration of ' ..? : 1 " '' this self-styled "perpetual militant?' ? ' , ? . ? be people are discouraged .. . .. . - 1 , . , - ..! ? ;1 "Before we can lead the Greek people to victory we will Hundreds of thousands of people died and the Greeks 5uf-1' have to bring togither all the various resistance organizations. - feted cruelly under the German occupation and the civil war': from whichever point of the political compass they come. un-. 8 the political parties, which h . that fouowednilayeteeekfeiralltliassee20151107811t WARR* 4:14:704 -Ave been in decline since ? , . , w.rd, the ect ', I-Arm, lorlPicta ...' L ' 3 11, trttIrCe. It iSivt0?: . '. Wert not ii.ble in tore will,. , ? - bit ? , ? . . ,. , I. IYI ilet. rilOrta..':. ?... .??.' .."#?N ; . .. ". ' ? ? riss fres s tip n CC Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016 DAILY WORLD 3O APR 1970 STATI NTL "Greek leader accuses Washington ' WASHINGTON ? The United States promoted the fascist putsch in in Greece in April 1967 and' is doing everything it can to keep the. colonels junta in power. Andreas Papandreou, a prominent Greek leader in exile, said here in a speech. He said that the Pentagon and CIA consider Greece the most important strategic beachhead of NATO in the Mediterranean. The "Prometheus' coup was worked. out by the CIA and NATO, he charged. Papandreou said that if the Pentagon halted its 'aid to the Greek fascists, they could not stay in power more than a week. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release. 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP50-AW11-118-6b500220001-5 LOS ANGELE3 MIES ' 3 0 APR 1970 (. Greek coinOoSer Mikis Theodorakis i said in Paris that "American iniperi= 1 NyNt i . . alisni" was proPping up, the mifitary. -r1411.:: government in Athens and appealed nor EurOpet moral and 'material aid? ; to end the "Fascist dictatozahip:" ? The tOmposei, retehtly freed !Mtn a, s Greek prisort,-saiN'"NAT011..Anictit.) can generals are , there? td ' ltitii 4 Greece. into illuat miliuiry-base. I ? Andlehirtd.the:n1 tithe CIA, 0(0161 alto ?plipatpitent in* VW: Pentlal . , o4 .1 .. ? , t ..i! ? ??ti,114. .44. . .., -4L - ...: . -L. -, - "I ..., . 4,? ? . . , ? 1.? ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 CIA-RbP80-01601R000500220001-5 VO?11110,-,.: Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0155-Kkair0500220001-5 I. PHILAT".:T.PIIIA, PA. INQUIRER 1.1 ? 505,173 S ? 913,045 APR 29 1370 apandree s itter VRaws egime Of the CIA, Greek DEMOCRACY AT GUN.. L.-POINT: The Greek Front. By % Andreas Papandreou. (Dou- bleday & Co. 339 pages. 67.95.) sp WICE imprisoned, tortured -L and exiled, Andreas Pa- : pandreou is understandably ? bitter about political condi- .tions in Greece, and especial. ?ly the tight military dictator- -ship . that has been running the country since 1967. - Many Americans think of 'Greece as the beneficiary of , the Truman Doctrine, saved, from the Communists by- ,U. S. Intervention; and as a- reliable NATO ally. Papandreou looks at it dif. i,ferently. Ile regards Greece, *-since the U.S. filled the vac. uum left by the departing ::ItritIsh after World War II as an "American colony," and its armed forces and intelli- gence services as extensions pot' the American Military Nis. .45ion and the CIA. ? Examined closely, Greece bears many resemblances to ' South Vietnam. without. ;American troops and Ameri- can casualties. The U. S. sup- ports and sustains the ruling ? government, no matter how undemocratic,, no matter how many thousands of political , prisoners are jailed .and tor?t toed. . ? " ? ? ? ? ? ? DAPANDREOU quotes a I former chief of the CIA i Greece, when his father, ? George Papandreou, a former premier, was refusing to go. ? along with U. S. policies, as saying "Go tell your father ' that in Greece we get our, way. We can do what we want and we stop at noth- ing," Andreas Papandreou spent the years from 1939 to 1959 in this country, studying, serv- ing in the armed forces dun, ing the war, and teaching. . When he returned to Greece, he became active in politics and his faill,'r's party, the - Center Union. The party clashed with ' King Constantine, with the .; rich Greeks of the Right Es- tablishment, and with the CIA. It wanted the king to restrict himself to his consti-. tutional limtis; it wanted the army to obey the lawfully elected government; it wanted America to treat ? reece as an ally and not a , satellite. George Papandreou became premier when his party won an election, but the king forced his resignation. When.. - new elections were about to ' be held, and all 'indications . I: pointed to another Papandre. , ou victory, both the king and ' ' the army planned separate takeovers.' ? ? ? yOUNG colonels, backed, ? according to Andreas Pa- ' ? pandreou by the U. S.,. got ahead of Constantine and,. ' seized power under Col. ' George Papadopoulos. Papan-. ? dreou says that it did not . make much difference to the. U. S. whether the king or the army took over, except that the CIA had close relations , with Papadopoulos. This, says Papandreou, was the "first , successful CIA putsch on the European continent.1 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8Q-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- - BALTINORE MIX 27 APR 1970 r Greece Feared CIA Springboard ?v Paris, April 26 LB?Jean-Jac- ques Servan-Schreiber claimed today that the situation in Greece raises the danger of sub- !"-mission of all Western Europe to the United States Central In- telligence Agency and military. Mr. Servan-Schreiber, author ; of "The American Challenge" and former editor of the weekly news magazine L'Express, is now secretary-general of the F small, leftist French Radical Socialist party. After accompanying the t Greek composer, Mikis Theodo- rakis, out of Athens two weeks ; ago, Mr. Servan-Schreiber con- tended that the real powers be- hind the regime in Greece are r. the CIA' and American military. t- In a two-page column in L'L'Express today Mr. Servan- ;4. Schreiber-Astill president of I L'Express publishing group,- 3 said his claim was followed by pressure from CIA-related .80tirCeS. He said he Was told he should ` not annoy the CIA because the ,= North Atlantic Treaty Organiz- Vation needs a stable govern- Z, ment in ?Greece 'in order to as- sure the defense of the West. But Mr. Servan-Schreiber f, argued that such preoccupation 'with external defense risks e k gendering weakness internally:4 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80701601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 20CROM : CIA-RDP80-01 2 7 APR 1970 GREECE: Flight to Freedom Tap top, it's you. Tap, tap, its 1. . Which is to say, In wordless speech, I'm holding on, I don't give in. These lyrics, recently smuggled out trial were 'sentenced to lighter penalties ' of Greece, were written by the cele-1 than had been widely anticipated. brated composer Mikis Theodorakis , In Paris, there were fumors that, in while in an isolation cell, where he corn- exchange for Theodorakis's freedom, Ser- ; ? rnunicated with a fellow prisoner by tap- ? van-Schreiber had agreed to defend , ping in code against the wall. Arrested Greece before the Council of Europe, for pro-Communist activities shortly after which last week voted to release a 1,000- : the military junta seized power in Ath- page report on the junta's use of torture " ens, the 44-year-old Theodorakis has 'against its political opponents. And spec-' spent most of the past three years under ' ulation only increased when Servan- detention. All this time, he continued to Schreiber, in a: statement that seemed write his music?a mournful blend of By- aimed at., partially exonerating the colo- ? zantine and folk themes?often beating nels, charged *...that "those who govern-.? out the rhythm on the bars of his cell. Greece are tl* CIA and the American. And during these years, Theodorakis, -military." But only Theodorakis himself . ? composer of scores fouthe movies "ZorbM,. could reveal Servan-Schreiber's role.. resistance to the military regime. Last was in seclusion' at a sanatorium outside the Greek" and "Z," became a symbol of And for the time being, the composer 1 week, he realized in life what he had Paris. "Mikis is recovering very well," celebrated so often in song?freedom. ? said Melina Mercouri. "He had a tor- t ? Theodorakis's release from prison was . tured life in and out of prison. Now, after arranged by Jean-Jacques Servan-Schrei- so many' years of fighting for democracy ber, the former editor of L'Express and ? and liberty, he has the right to. explain now Secretary-General of France's new- his situation '? . ?, .ly renovated Radical Party. Approached .; ? by a group of Greek students in Paris, Servan-Schreiber had agreed to inter- cede on behalf of 34 anti-regime intel- lectuals who were on trial for sedition in Athens. Never one to shun the glare of publicity, Servan-Schreiber flew to Ath- ens aboard his private Lear jet and met with Greek Premier George Papadopou- ! los, who reportedly told him that nothing , could be done for the defendants while. the military court was still convened. In- stead, Papadopoulos offered to free ., Theodorakis. That same day, Servan- Schreiber picked up the ailing Theodo- rakis at a hospital outside Athens and the two flew back to Paris. Looking pale and shaky as he stepped off the plane,. Theodorakis was surrounded by well- wishers and tearfully embraced by ac- tress Melina Mercouri. "My body is here," he said, "but my soul is still in ? Greece, where I left my children and my wife." Arms: The junta's motives for releasing ; the composer seemed apparent enough. Theodorakis badly needed treatment for ? 1 a recurrence of the tuberculosis he had contracted years ago, and the regime saw an opportunity to curry some rare favorable publicity in the West by mak- ing a humanitarian gesture. Moreover, the Nixon Administration has made it clear that it will not lift the U.S. ban on ' shipments of new model' weapons to Greece until the colonels in Athens soften their dictatorial rule. In response, the ? several j 0, 4cnCirditaitti2.001 /03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 , I ? . unta r t p an easing of martial law. in Greece. And ? ? ? ? Jast week, the defesidAnisin?the sedition 4 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0 NEVI. XOR8 2111X6 ONASSIS IS URGED TO AID PRISONERS z ? ? Frenchman Says Millionaire ;- Will Press Greek Regime Spectal to Tae New York Times PARIS, April 25?Aristotle S. Onassis, the Greek shipping magnate, and other important businessmen have agreed to help in applying pressure on the Greek military Government to halt its political persecutions and release political prisoners, , according to Jean Servan- vSchreiber, the French writer and political leader. Mr. Servan-Schreiber, who has been active in the last two weeks in behalf of Greek pris- oners and who has said.he ob- tained the release of the com- poser Mikis Theodorakis, said in an interview that he had seen Mr. Onassis several times during that period and had told him that the prisoners had to be released. "Otherwise," Mr. Servan- Schreiber said he had told Mr. Onassis, "there will be such a revolt in Greece that you will Jose your investments.' Mr. Onassis agreed with this analysis and said he would help, Mr. Servan-Schreiber said. ,The writer remarked that with 'a program to invest $600-mil- lion in the next two years, Mr. Onassis has "the strongest :voice in Athens." Mr. Servan-Schreider said: "What Mr. Onassis tells the colonel,' I don't know. You have to use the power you have and Onassis does." Cites Foreign Help In his campaign to mobilize opinion against the military regime, Mr. Servan-Schreiber cited the help of Thomas A. Pappas, a prominent Greek- American business man who heads Esso Pappas in Greece and who Is friendly with the Administration in Washington. Ile also enlisted Gilbert Tri- gano, a Frenchman who is head of the Club Mediterranee, a tourist business that annually Sends thousands of vacationers to the villages it operates in Greece. "I went to Trigano and asked for a blank check," Mr. Servan- Schreiber said. "I wanted au- thority to tell the Greek Gov; eminent that if they did not tree the prisoners, they faced closing of the tourist villages. Pisan? anklifiromed...Fo 2 6 APR 1970 Betiiiied of the Club Mediter- ranee's importance other tour- ist organizations in _ Europe would follow suit, Mr. Servan- Schreiber asserted. Up to now, only Mr. Theo- ' ilaralds has actually ? been ?ireed. The regime has also , promised the release of Jean ,Starak-is, a French journalist of Greek origin who was sen- tenced two weeks 'ago to 18 years in prison for plotting against the regime. The French Government claimed credit for freeing Mr. Starakis who said he would re- turn last weekend with Mr. Starakis but failed to do so, neither confirmed nor denied theofficial French version. Mr. Starakis's mother returned to- day from Athens without her son but expressed confidence he would be released soon. Mr. Theodorakis, who is in a private clinic under treatment for what Mr. Servan-Schreiber described as chronic tubercu- losis, will make his first public appearance since his arrival here at a press conference next Wednesday. Mr. Semen-Schrei- ber said it had been agreed when he obtained the com- poser's release that Mr. Theo- dorakis would not organfze any political activity against the Greek Government but that there had been no commitment about Mr. Theodoralds's free- dom to speak out on political Issues. H Plans to Withdraw ? Mr. Servan-Schreiber, . whb recently became secretary gen- eral of the Radical Socialist party after making the weekly, L'Express one of France's big- gest publishing successes,-has been accused by his rivals of intervening in Greek problems to advance his own pblitical cause at home. Revealing some sensitivity to this accusation, he said that next Tuesday three of four prominent French nonpolitical figures, whom he did not name, would formally assume charge of the campaign on behalf of Greek prisoners. , "I am withdrawing from the limelight," Mr. Servan-Schrei- ber said in acknowledging that his presence in the forefront of the campaign made it mdre vulnerable to political attack. He said the new group would have available the business fig- ures he had cited and whom he described as 'my friends." He emphasized they had the power to reduce or increase their investment in Greece, and It& said thattimr_hiaoLessne 1-NNelf*e tW, 0411.1i, STATI NTL terests- coincided with the de- fense of moral values. Mr. Servan-Schreilier added that the Greek leaders were also sensitive to the moral pressure ordinary of Europeans. He was critical of what he viewed as the predominant and ? semiautonomous role played by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Pentagon in Greek af- /airs. When he returned with me Theodorakis made the charge that Greece was run by the C.I.A. and said he had proof, though he did not give details, the charge added to the controversy concerning his in- ? tervention. . He later said that one ele- ment of proof he had gathered in a weekend. in Athens was ? the fact that "when I knocked on several doors the only re- 4P9ice .withz #1. C?14.6,-. CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 4) Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01609A9A?R220001-5 ntrfs 2 8 APR 1970 Is Greece An American Nuclear Base? .14 i , Senator Symington's commendable effort to American military system in Europe, and the ' I break through the secrecy surrounding deploy- CIA plays a rble all the more dangerous be- ent of American nuclear weapons overseas cause the organization there is often self-gov- kes on fresh interest in view of reports from ' erning Sand personal, as in Southeast Asia..." reece. - ? ? Mr. Servan-Schreiber may think "no one is The Missouri Senator, with the backing of ;, unaware" of American missile bases in Greece, Chairman Fulbright of the Foreign Relations % but in fact the American people are unaware 1 Committee, has been contending for some time . of it. He may be right or wrong, but certainly ! hat if not the public at least responsible the. Foreign Relations Committee of the United j embers of the Senate have a right to know States Senate has the duty to know whether. ;where our foreign nuclear installations are and Greece is or Is not a principal base for Ameri- . *hat agreements have been made with foreign , can nuclear missiles. , '4 'countries respecting them. , After the Cuba crisis of 1962 the United I ? As Senator Fulbright has said, the presence 1 States was supposed to have withdrawn its . of American "mikes" alters the framework of Jupiter missile bases from Turkey in order to 'our foreign policy toward the country in ques- avoid giving ? the Soviets any new .excuse for: tion, and may involve us in its domestic pol- trying to install nukes on our doorstep as we 'Ries by giving is an interest in maintaining a .,', bad installed them. on theirs. As nuke trajecm particular regime in power. These are reasons toriee go, however, Greece is virtually identical ') enough why somebody besides the milttary , with Turkey. If we are using Greece to hold 4 should know what is going on. ' ? , a nuclear pistol at Russia's head, the Soviet ; Now, as if to provide chapter and verse ref- r" expansion of missile deployment and many erences to support that argument, the repres- ,, other aspects of its foreign policy might be I, sive military government in Greece comes to , come more understandable. ? ' ? .i .attention. Explaining why American policy . Also illuminated would be the United States !, toward the Greek colonels' tyranny is so chart- : L. Government's 'attitude toward the Greek colo-1 . table,. Titne magazine this week state s that. ,., nels..If they are providing us with nuclear , Greece figures More prominently than ever in 1 ,bases that may well explain why, at a time when :U.S. military planning, in part ? because it ,- democratic Europe conspicuously breaks with ,d ,serves u "a prime location for communication. ,. the Greek dictatorship, the United States goes .4 . nets and missile sites on Crete." . ' on supporting it. To get the bases, have we sac- 4 L A few days ago the French publisher and . , rificed our freedom. of action and opened the i politician Jacques Servan-Schrieber after a vway to unending blackmail?- visit to Greece declared that the CIA is back- : It is ,nothing ?short of shameful that the 0 s.- Ing the Athens junta and envisaged a growing ,,, United States, because of the militarization of ,divergence between European and American ,, ,its foreign policy, finds itself increasingly alien- A . interests there.. Speaking in Strasbourg at a .L,: ated from the European democracies and in- i time when the Council of Europe was indict- creasingly committed to the continent's two Ing the Greek government for Oppression of most despicable dictatorships, in Greece and . its people, Mr. Servan-Schreiber said, actord- Spain, as anchors of its diplomacy. What this .. t iing to The Christian Science Monitor:_ ' 'means is' that we are being pushed to the i . "In Greece the basis of the problem Is At- , : Mediterranean fringes of Europe while we j ,lantic and military. No one is unaware that the steadily lose influence in Europe itself. If all i ? tJnited States hu made Greece its principal. ,' this Is going on because of the Pentagon's mad : !strategic base in Europe and that it has In - obsession, with maintaining a nuclear ring ;stalled there its principal missile :bases. Witn, , around the Soviet' Union, then at .the very least ' Spain; Greece 'Is at anthems' point ofliee7 the 1J.& Senate ought to know about it.. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 AppPeI?: CIA-RDP80-01 limes - 54,391 S 69,238 APR 2 4 1970 ? Secret and Repugnant In Strasbourg last week, 15 West Euro- t ? pean governments (with only France and Cy- prus abstaining) were voting strong condem- nation of Greece's military dictatorship at the Council of Europe. Specifically, the 15 charged not only that t Greece had tortured and otherwise mistreated political prisoners but that it did so as 'an "ad- ? ministrative practice" officially tolerated by the colonels' junta that overthrew the legal ''government in April of' 1967. =. k : The report on which the Council of Europe ? action was based, a 40,000-word document- drafted by the European Commission of Hu- man Rights, cited the case of a pregnant 4 i woman who was one of many beaten on the i f- soles of the feet; and noted that this is a pre- ' ' ferred practice by the Greek police because , ? while it is intensely painful, no lasting marks i are left if the beating is skillfully done. In Brussels, the European Executive ? i: Commission announced it was preparing to !' "reconsider" the in-limbo 1962 agreement of l? association between Greece and the Common 1 f . Market. While these steps were being taken in Eu-1 . , rope, the disclosure in Washington of secret , ?and quite substantial?military assistance toi ' %the current Greek regime was in ironic and 3 shocking contrast. ?) Despite United States suspension of "ma-1 jor" military items to Greece after the 1967 t". coup, Congress has authorized $24.4 million in, ; military aid for the 1970 fiscal. year. '?'. Over and above this, however, Congres- sional sources have disclosed that the Pental gon is delivering additional equipment, from 1 stocks described as surplus, worth $20 million,/ , more. ;It is such activity as this, plus the inex-1 .i U eusable arrival Of the .S. Fleet at Piraeus . during recent political trials in Athens, that i lend credibility to the exaggerated charges i of such figures as France's Servan-Schreiber that the Central Inyllismsmaspagy is the real master of Greece. Not even the obvious threat of increased Soviet naval maneuvering in the Eastern Mediterranean can justify the provision of arms to a repressive dictatorship without thel knowledge or approval of Congress or thei Antedcm_ W.e. Appre,MakOrReleasee2041?1403L04.X1AADP80-01601R000500220001-5 MEN STATI NTL )11?110????0??????????? STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDF'80-0160 UADISON, WISC.: JOURNAL U ? 68,775 S ? 107,031 ' APR 2 4 1970 Director God , ? f????,..r,"""7"*" rd Peddles Marxism By JOSEPH McBRIDE film dealt only with sexual, not (Of TM SIM Amami Warn ideological liberation. Jean-Luc Godard was sitting Godard applauded and said he In the Rathskeller of the W considers the film "completely is- consin Union earlier this week. revisionist" today. Hardly anyone recognized him. "I need to be liberated by a As somebody said, you don't woman," he added. have to have read James Joyce Once considered an intransi- to be influenced by him ? he's gent individualist, Godard now makes films with "comrades of in the air we breathe. The same with Godard, a world-famous the Dzig a-V er toy group" French movie director. , (named after an early Russian director). he group consists of THE GENERAL public sel- Godard and Jean-Pierre Gorin, dom sees his movies, and even who appeared with him and some of his. early followers are who, according to Godard, is repelled by his recent pictures "exactly like me." (formless political harangues), Pardon me if I find Godard's but Godard is responsible more new stance of toiler for the than any other director for the masses as sophomoric as the way movies look today. audience, which accused him of Conditioned by his image as not being 'radical enough. a nervy paranoiac, I had been OTHER GODARD observa- wary of meeting Godard. In- lions: stead I found him strangely gentle, even shy, talking in a soft voice as he puffed on fat Boyard cigarets. -"I( I'm famous, V it's only 'be- cause I'm still a bourgeois," he told students in the Union Thea- , ter after showing a 1969 fi "See You at Mao." To which a girl responded, "Karl Marx was famous." Godard is making a brief If. S. tour to raise cash , for a film ? "Till Victory" ? which he is making for the Al Fatah group in Jordan. He is a dogmatic Marxist-Leninist. LIE DISARMED the audience of about 1,000 with his reply to a women 's liberation group's charge that his tour was spon- sored by lin ?exploitive" cow (Grove.Preee) and ...tIrteubla 0 On collectivism: "I don't speak personally, but as a mili- tant worker. This movie was done by people who didn't know where they were but thought they knew where other people O To a member of the audi- show business. n took me a ' ence who' said the movie had made him want to "send people into the fields" for Mae Tse- lung: "We try not to work any more with feelings and impres- years to discover that it was an. even more powerful family than, the other." GODARD MADE it difficult for the unconverted by refusing', sions." ' to talk about movies, only about O On. his American movie, "One American Movie": "A When I met him earlier, I had.: dead corpse. It's unfinished. It ",?,"n'ently- attempted to draw' will never be f n)i shed. It's ? him out on his future projects, bad . . " . * He turned away and stared0. On "Z": "It's not realistic. space. - The proof is that it won an nd when I asked about his? Oscar. The Greek government rmer friend and fellow dlrec- is controlled by. the tor Francois Truffaut, with Hollywood is the* ideologica ' . . whom ne broke after an ideolog- branch of the CIA." ? ? ?ical dispute, he scowled. ? ? 0 On mass consumption: "If Politics obv a minion prints are made of a more to him than people. i s 1 y means i Marxist-Leninist ft 1 m, it be- Why hasn't he worked with ,: comes 'Gone With the Wind.' ". the brilliant photographer Raoul O To a person who called him Coutard in the last two years? ??: a trend-follower: "You . know "Coutar,d is now making a more about me than I know film 11 South Vietnam for Para- t about you. That's not fair." mount," Godard said. "SoVV O On. his radicalization: "I have nothing more to do with . was raised in a bourgeois. fam- ? ? . Hy. To escape, from my family, Godard deserves his audience, I worked in another:.fimily, and _the', deserve h102, . = Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R000509220001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 23 APR 1970 1. Anti-CIA publicity " The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is in for another big publicity cam- ., paign against it. This time in Western Eu. rope: Opponents of Greece's military regime, :censured by a Council of Europe vote last , week, are planning a new propaganda of. . fensive against the CIA's reported influence ? in Athens. '. Launching it was French politician-writer ?"Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber. Greek Pre- mier George Papadopoulos recently released , Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis from. .confinement and permitted him.,tp fly out 'with Mr, Servan-Schreiber to Paris. In Paris afterward, Mr. Servan-Schreiber said he had "incontrovertible evidence" the. ? CIA and the American military, sometimes In ways unknown to the U.S. State Depart- ment, are the "real powers" in Greece. Antijunta forces led by economist 'An- dreas Papandreou now are ,gathering all , , available evidence to publish it. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 mIDDLETOWN, ONN_, papAproved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 E ? 19,771 APR 23 1910 A Very Sm The Greek regime, responding to world opinion, has taken a number of initiatives in the last few weeks to improve its image. The release of Composer Mikis Theodor- ; akis and 332 other political prisoners, the ? avoidance of the death sentence in the Athens sedition trial and the relaxation of martial law, all are part of a calculated pat- tern. At the same time it is clear that the Greek regime has engaged in extensive torture, and the suspension of civil liberties. " The foreign ministers of the Council of Europe have accused the Greeks of using torture as an "administrative practice" and the carefully documented case that was presented confirm the allegations. Civil lib- erties are- highly abridged, and laws are applied in constructions for which they 'were ; never intended. t. Europe has been a good deal more sensi- tive to the Greek situation than, the United all Retreat STATINTL 1 States. Jean Jacques Servan-Schreiber, the; Secretary - General of the French Radical; party, who arranged the release of Theodor- aids, immediately called a press conference to expound his view that theaimntrolled Greece, and that American influence hu Greece and elsewhere was a threat to Europe; and the world. While this no doubt paints an; exaggerated picture, there is no doubt that the United States has been giving the Greekl colonels more support than they deserve.4 President Nixon has been directing a policy I of allowing the U. S. to drift cloSer and:' closer to the regime, when he should be taking steps to highlight the grotesqueries! that go on under the banner of NATO. The recent changes in Greek Policy are; merely a sop to world opinion and should be regarded in that light; America has too:44 many friends who deal with their enemies? ;by locking them up.) Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STAT I NTL Approved For Release 2001./03/04 : CIA-RDP80-016 YORK, PA. GAZETTE & DAILY 11 - 35,186 APR 22 1970 ( ONLY IN AMERICA The release from "preventive detention" of the famous Greek , composer Theodarakis was achieved somehow through the offices of a French editor who is active in the politics of his country and western Europe as well. We do not profess to know what considerations led to the Greek decision to permit freedom to the composer. But presumably it was just that, a Greek decision by those elements which, according to a statement by the French editor, hold i in their hands effective control of iGreece. We refer to the U.S. military and the U.S. Central Intelligence .- Agency, the CIA. : The French editor says that his visit to Greece afforded him documentary proof of the Pentagon-CIA role. It is reasonable to assume, then, that he secured the release of Theodarakis without Pentagon-CIA approval, for if so there would have been no reason ,1 for him to have made his remarks about these U.S. agencies. Could it , possibly be that he has given us a clue 1 to a better understanding of the real nature of dictatorships around the, world which it is usually said 'U.S. foreign policy supports? There is, of course, no question about U.S. policy support for the. dictatorship in Greece or for those in South Korea, Taiwan, Congo, Brazil.. and elsewhere. But are such dictatorships actually locally owned ' and managed also? Or are some of them, maybe most, locally managed while ownership lies with the PentagQn and the CIA? Perhaps it would be better to say that the way it works is for the CIA to plan and finance the kind of local management it desires and for the Pentagon to supply the hardware to keep the local management in business. Should that be an accurate description of the setup, then it is _ misleading for anyone to focus critical, attention on, say, the Greek dictlfivatseit NioReqesa Greek mitten The place to focusl attention is on the CIA, the CIA and i the Pentagon. They are apparently 1: operating an imperialist foreign 1_ policy. For if what the French editor says is tru, e about Greece is true, too, i ? of other nations, these nations have4 been. taken over politically by the .1, CIA, with CIA control maintained by 1 ? Pentagon resources. The scheme is a little different from' . the old imperialist pattern imposed inl Asia and Africa by the ?Western, European colonizing countries. But it _ is different only in measure of ? sophistication. The CIA-and the Pentagon have, so to speak, perfected. an imperialist disguise that can be ( pierced. only when someone like the French editor wanders into the act and begins to talk out of turn. , Unfortunately, his words probably do ii-o-, t reach many American ears. And imost Americans go on thinking that There is really no such thing as U.S. imperialism. Other peoples, however, ido know what the CIA and Pentagon ;are up 'to. The secret can't be kept from diem: Only in America does this F ?type of ignorance prevail simply because the powers-that-be see to it , hat Americans alone are kept in the I lark, ? 1/03/04: CIA-R0P80-01601R000500220001-5 =2111100162. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- CHU8TIAN SCIENCE MONITOR liaraasa has ? ? f41.,Premier Papadopoules. ? ? ... holds Inn grip ? ; 20 APR WO , (One reason given for French abstention was France's desire not to widen the gap already ?? ? existing between "Europe" and ? Greece.) ' Reactions from Athens, how- ? reece: eveerr,earweafsar, from encouraging. official disappoint- . . merit in the Greek capital be- cause the Council of Europe had ? not taken more account of ? Greek announcements ?on the eve ()URI meeting. These said: that 330 prisoners were being- . . released.. ?? ? Also the release of the Greek ? ; composer Milds Theodorakis ap- ; tparently made no difference to the council's vote. The coin- ? poser himself appeared at a opt.. o .1 press conference in Strasbourg. , ? .1?t ?".1Tvii%ri $01! Sit This This was arranged by Jean.: . . : ? ? ?fftis.?? +v."! Jacques Servan-Schreiber? for. ? ' fo:mer editor of the French news ? . ? ?. ? :to)", magazine L'Express. 9: ? b'mlia"...4 political Image as the ? f'??;?111?0111 . Itxt tatar4Tt stle i ?Y! .. ? '.;:t ;40t441.11"111 Mi. Serven-Schreiber is build. i , ..e.? ? .. .! 11 ;11..1.i g up a . ? 4? . ,?,?.: .. liberal-minded leader of the old ? ? . Ye ' Athens :.. :r.i. - es........* French Radical prty,,Ile went ? 1.,.0 ? :1;;?fin '''?.?_,1?11116.,`"..,' id . Athens at the 'rellfk8f of a '1 )1.thorsitui.2""22 Greek students' association to ???/ ?????? .......?:11... ..% ..,? .,,,fri ,,.. .. c.::. . intervene on behalf . of political . . I ...14.% , 10.;4.-.0ng prisoners. ? ife . retUin -brintg . ? I ,. . ? ? with him ; the famous rd ? . ..1.?? ?? 4?,?; Theodoraldslor. medical . : . ment with appipial of the Greek By Peter S. Melles Special to The Christian Science Monfior ' Athens.' ? ? The revolution of April 21, 1967, completes its third year with an unquestioned grip on the country and with ? Premier George Papadopoulos as the accepted-leader -of the group' of colonels who acted to start a new era crt;?,, for Greece. ? . Operating on the basis of a well-planned blueprint vt ' whose drafting and implementation commenced in the rA late '50's, the colonels have managed, to consolidate their position, although many had thought they would' . never survive this long. Indeed, the indications now are ? that they will continue in power for some time.. , . With military precision the coup leaders won1egality. 1.1 ? through compromise with King Constantine during the first eight months of the revolution. They completely ? established themselves after the King's abortive, coun- ter coup in December, 1907, and his flight from the "?;;;; country.. , , But the Army-backed regime presents a dilemma', for the West. 1 regime... ), .? ? ? Charge repeatedi'? , ? It is Mr. ' Serve/I-Schreiber,, who has raised the question of a? possible conflict between 'American and European inter. . eats in the Greek situation. After ' his Athens visit he stated that ? the United States Central Intel. ligence Agency was backing the , Greek junta. He said he would have more to say on that when ; . !he went to Strasbourg. . ? At his Strasbourg press con- ? ference he repeated the charge.. ? Ile said that everyone knows ? this. Reports from Strasbourg .1 April 16 quoted him as saying: .? "In Greece the begs of the problem' is Atlantic and '?tary. No one is unaware that ' : Internally, Greece continues to offer the foreign vis-;?:! ? nor the same enchanting attraction as in the past..But ?;.: an unspoken ?fear lurks of the sort likkh prevails -. police states. There. is ? feeling that 'room or liter sem signed subusiales ereiblensity. will be required. a! 4 ? .STAT INTL .the United Stites has made. Greece its principal strategic . base in Europe and that it hail. ? installed 'there,. its Prk!olPol. : ? ' : ??, "With Spain, Greece is an .1 anebri:r: point 01lbs jaloot Approved For Release 200170344 : .CIA-RDP80-01601 R000500220001,5, 0????? ..1.1.0?1011?1101. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8 NEW YORK, N.Y. TIMES U ? 895,595 S ? 1,445,507 , 201970 FRENCH RADICAL STIRS CONFLICTS ST-ATINTL 1 He seemed 'to ald his oppo-1 ' nents by a series of statements, defendants On trial fair plotting' that struck many people as against the Greek regime. After making too much of a good, rejecting the idea of an appeal ,e ? thine He said that he would through Premier Jacques Cha- -Delmas of France because 1 ? ?Servan-Schreiber's Paper' 1 `+? Tells of Theodarakis Plea ' By HENRY GINIGER Sorelal to The New York Times PARIS, April 19?Greek and French politics have become Inextricably mixed in ? the per- son and activities of Jean Jacques Servan - Schreiber, the journalist turned politician. Last week headlines and controversy involving Mr. Ser- van-Schreiber, who is attempt- log to revive the old Radical- Socialist party here after having made a publishing suc- cess of the weekly L'Express, were in full bloom. Headline4 and controversy have accom- panied him through his career and more were in prospect , after his return to Athens 1Thursday to pursue the task of 1 freeing opponents of the Greek 'military regime that he began I last weekend. I Tomorrow- L'Express; from 'which Mr. Servan - Schreiber i has nominally withdrawn as ipublisher but not as owner, 1 will add fuel to the fire with i an account accusing the French I1Government of applying pres- sure on Greece in an attempt to stop his efforts to free ,Jean Starakis, a French jour- nalist of Greek abstraction 1 I sentenced last Sunday to 18 1 t gars in prison for plotting. t e newspaper account also i says that Mr. Servan-Schreiber ' has Involved the United States lin his activities. 1 He Brought Back Theodaralds 1 Last Monday he startled the t Trench political scene by arriV- i Ina at Le Bourget in a chartered twin-engined jet with Greece's ? most famous musician and re- sistance leader, Mikis Theo- , tlarakis, whom Mr. Servan- Schreiber said had been re- leased from captivity, after he appealed to Greek authorities. Mr. Servan-Schreibees exploi ' was praised by most politicians, but it did not take long for the Gaullist% the French Govern- ment, the Greek Governmen and Mr. eodarakis's leftist political f on him. gain the release of, Mr. Stara- ha his, that he had proof that it would be "too late," Mr., Greece was being run by the' !wan-Schreiber decided to ap-I Central Intelligence Agenc al directly to Premier George' and the Pentagon and that Mr. apadopoulos of Greece, the Theodorakis was no longer a ticcount said. Communist; On arriving 'in Athens late on He also made it clear that he iaturday. the account said, Mr. thought it was a mistake to Servan-Schreiber asked French isolate Greece from the Council. journalists there: "On what of Europe, an 18-member bodyi. doors should I knock? Who that tries to promote human'. really governs Greece, Papado- rights and cooperation, and in-1 poems, the tough colonels, the sisted on being .heard by the!' C.I.A.?" He concentrated on Ministerial Committee of thel yrreW,,Tho held key positions in Council, which met in Stras-1 banking, government and the bourg last week to consider al police and above, all the Pre- report condemning Greece for,? Inter, whom the account de- violating human rights. ?i! scribed as "ambitious, Intel* Statementi Challenged t?igent. and shrewd." His statements were immedill we'VienViesPidated and at dawn on telephone calls ately challenged. The French Government declared that it , met with 'Mr. Se ithivan-Schrelber "members of the had arranged, even before Mr.11 American Embassy:, the sc- Staraldes conviction, for hist met says. They are described release, the Greek Embassy as,1 as redeem, end the ,aceee serted that?the decision to free says the conversatiCal ,W1As SOS Mr. Theodorakis had been ? nec ? " k made "a long time agd." y Gaston Thorn., chairman of the Committee of Ministers ol the Council of Europe, reported after seeing Mr. Servan-Schreli bet that the latter had nothing new to tell him, and Gaullists charged that the radical Lead- er's demand to ? testify before the committee was a 'publicity stunt." Others intimated that he had made a deal with the Greek Government by which he would seek to ward off a for. mal condemnation in Strasi brourg. The condemnation camd anyway, with the French Gov ernment abstaining. Further Controversy Likely 'The account of Mr. Servan4 Schreiber's activities in tomor- row's L'Express appears cerr tato to add to the controversy.: In it the French Government id accused of demanding that the Greek Government turn Mr. Starakis over', to it and not to Mr. Servan-Schreiber lest the French vote in Strasbourg be changed. The Government also accused of not being very, "sporting" in asserting that Mr.1 Starakis's release had been ar- ranged earlier. . ; According to' the account, RI .was Michel Papayanalds, an structor at the Paris law fa ilaValSrentitel : CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved Far Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R xzw. IODIC UM; 1 9 APR 1970 ?? STATI NTL I. Foreign Affairs:Whose C. L A. and Pentagon? I By C. L. SULZBERGER ' 1 PARIS?Greece again be-I ! came a subject of heated dis- : cussion last week when its i most famous composer, Theo- ; dorakis, was rele'ased, when the :Council of Europe hammered T the colonels for condoning tor- ture, and when Athens momen- i? tarily became a French political football. ' Only the last event was sur- prising. The colonels have in the past shown willingness to liberate prisoners who have be- come ,too hot to handle?viz, Prof. Andreas Papandreou. Like- wise. the European Council first i declared itself on Greece in , 1969. t . .. 1 Easement in Athens It merely hopes continued pressure may produce an ease- ment in Athens, which might ultimately be the case. The regime is vulnerable to eco- nomic suasion in the money i market and worried about tour- ism from the West. especially - organized mass holidays. Tour- ism is a major income factor. 1 'The only new element was the intrusion of French politics. Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, - - a Paris magazine publisher who ? i party, taken over the moribund ' Radical Socialist pa, flew to ? .Athens last weekendand re- ? :.turned With Theodoralds. This , ? Ursa a But hwmaidtarian Coup. 4 but Servan-Schreiber made theiherhaps someone told him he' the way a clever publisher ac-! mistake of trying to turn it was talking about the wrong quires a dying magazine for its. Into a publicity stunt aimed at C.I.A. and Pentagon. ? circulation list. He became furthering his own French' Servan-Schreiber is the only secretary-general under the; presidential ambitions. French politician with an Amen- titular leadership of the radi- , The dynamic publisher, who can sense of personal publicity; cal's president, the pleasanto has already shown vast talent ' which he uses to zigzag from undistinguished Faure. In sub..; for self-promotion, announced left to right and back again in . sequent months Faure has van., '? that he had learned during his Aiis power quest. During al- , ished in the wake of J.-J. S.S. , weekend in Athens that Greece most a decade he has hoped to ? The idea of Servan-Schreiber i was in the hands of the C.I.A. run for France's presidency and ' is one that has intrigued pre41 '? ' and U. S. Army. This was a has studied the techniques of vious radical leaders? notablyS,; . remarkably' swift journalistic U.S. leaders, above all John F. ' Mendes-France: to revitalize the, . conclusion and undoubtedly Kennedy, with this in mind. ? . Radical Socialists and, using t ' founded on precise information. .4 ' them as a magnetic center, A LYching Politicians The only trouble was that he ' ', form an alliance of all parties I.? , didn't tarry to ascertain whit ? For some time he confined .. between the right and the Com. Greeks mean by C.I.A. and ' hitnirelf to his highly successful munists. This plan requires! ,Pentagon. The Greek Internal', management of "L'Express" and . genuine support from the na- i And external intelligence ap- ., a series of books compiled with*. ? tion. s youth. paratus is locally known as the help of that weekly's staff;,Seeking Youthful Image 1 "C.I.A." Greece's military head- and advertised extensively in it.' Now that J.-J. S.-S. is 46 it is 1 . quarters is locally called "the. He also, successively attached..' more difficult to produce a Pentagon." All the key colonels ? himself to well-known liberal are graduates of one or the . politicians including Pierreyouthful image for voters a ferre : generation younger. Moreover, Indications are that President other institution. Mendes-France, Gaston Def The combined labels "C.I.A." and (the latest) Maurice Faure. Pompidou, 58, will seek re-elec-.1 and "Pentagon" are a useful ' , Each of these alliances ter- tion in 1976. It is therefore im- ? handle with which to beat the ?,,,minated with a more noticeable :, perative for Servan-Schreiber to 'United States and gain pone- rise in Servan-Schreiber's for- . establish a position now and; larity among young prenbh tunes than in those of his as- stake out a claim among the voters. Servan-Schreiber prom- sociates. The original campaign youngsters. ised to go to Strasbourg, where was touched off by a cover of , Possibly with this in mind, the European Council meets, "L'Express" with the silhouette - he made the mistake of capi- and "prove" his allegations. ' of an unknoWn hopeful, "Mon- talizing on his generous and ? ? In the end the Council de- ; sieur X," whose general outline;.fortunate help for Theodorakis" dined to permit him to use its resembled Servark-Schreiber. . *.by slashing out against the fealties as a sounding board. Last year .I.4. S.-S., as he .: Wilted States, using familiar . This was perhaps fortunate* likes to be 'known h la F.DX. ,-, shorthand hate symbols. The, ? since he never followed through and J.F.X., took over the de-,:, they were.the wrong, .as ' his pro:kilned; Mfttim ' 011.....t 46.164.a....14,....aktg ? ai,Socialist_ , ,party .. CIA. and Pentagoot -- --??? ? ,. 1 ...A.A. 'Al 1..44, ..:-..t..kgr.a: ?? #4'4.0 ? Iriiiimiliiismillal?iiftctiewile I I I obelli.4. b 414 *iv I? AMIN* 44., ? ??? - .04 ????..061. ?4 ?.????.....? remit& ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Y0UNGST07iN , OHIO VINDICATWOVed For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 E ? 100,987 S ? 155,644 t. APR 1 9 1970 'Democracy at ty-unpoine' Greece Under the Colonels "DEMOCRACY AT GU N- t POINT: THE GREEK : FRONT," by Andreas Pap- andreou. Doubleday & Co. I 365 pp. $7.95. 1 THE day I. read this pessi- mistic analysis of the col- onels' coup in Greece mydaily paper happened to carry a series of interviews in which : ordinary Greek citizens ap- peared resigned to their au- rule. Nothing like that appears anywhere in ? Andreas Papandreou's book, of course. As an American- trained minister in the Greek Cabinet once headed by his( father, he is fully committed to the restoration of demo- cratic government. But a note of helplessness and frustra- tion is unmistakably present between the lines. Papandreou was his fath- tbotitarian ? er's righthand man and ob- viously in line to become a .1future Prime Minister of Greece. But the colonels clapped him in jail for nine months, then sent him into , exile. He now teaches at York University in Canada, where much of the book was written. At the time Papandreou left Greece the prospects for the , , overthrow of the colonels looked reasonably bright. To- day they are nebulous at best. The colonels are deeply en- trenched. ' This alone would not ac- count for ?Papandreou's pes- ; simism.: A Major Cause of his ALAt.FeAti,!, ?P2.1.!_ tributes to the C16,..ia-6. reece's , :, present plighrlf we are to 'i believe him, the colonels' ; coup was a NATO-elaborated : plan to prevent Greece pass- ing into Communist control, 1 a contingency he bitterly dis- putes. Papandreou says flatly: f ' "The CIA is turning Greece ) into its leading Near and Mid- dle East espionage and count erespionage base. There are more CIA operatives i Greece today than in Moscow. . intelligence Greece is on its way to be- coming a military 41 outpost of the United States in Europe." Nor is this all, says Papan- dreou speaking now as an econoMist. "The Gree ic econ- omy under the colonels is' rapidly being patterned after . the prototype of a banana re- public," he declares and goes on to list details of a large development contract signed .. by a U.S. corporation with the / colonels shortly after the coup. This was followed soon after ? by a resumption of U.S. milt- , ? tary aid. "The Greek militaryj , regime apparently has taken i - over the country in order to ' deliver it on a platter to-thel . economic and strategic inter.'4 :ests of the United States' - military-industrial ..complee'. -4.B. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-016 THE ECONOMIST .18 - 25 April 1970 Under westorn eyes FROM OUR ATHENS CORRESPONDENT The Greek regime's unexpected political gestures over the 0:0t eii (1:1y$ indicate an energetic attempt hy its leaders to reconcile the immovability of their domestic objectives with the needs of external expediency. The release of the composer Mikis Theodorakis and 332 other political prisoners, the avoidance of death sentences in the Athens sedition trial, and the relaxation of martial law ? all fit into the same context: the growing awareness of Athens that estrangement from western Europe can. hurt the regime's basic doctrine, which is to keep Greece within the West at all costs. ? There is little doubt here that dissenting vote on the sedition senten came from the military, court's civilian president. Had the military judges not pressed for the application of a law meant exclusively for cases of communist , subversion to defendants who were ? clearly non-communist, only. ten' of them ? (who were also charged with possession or use of explosives) would have been ? convicted. The strict application of ordinary laws is now evidently the regime's disciplinary antidote to the whittling down of martial law. It can be assumed that the disclosure of the torture allegations in court was due only to the shrewdness of the defence tactics. The regime was less embarrassed because the allegations referred to dates before the International Red Cross was ? The Creek leaders are determined not .given access to political prisoners last : to be pushed into speeding up the biologi- November. The ,incident did, however, tally slow process of establishing a new, increase its concern over the anticipated .disciplined democracy by; the simple decision of the foreign ministers of the Council of Europe this week to authorise expedient of creating a new class of . politicians and waiting for the former the publication of the human rights :commission's report accusing the regime politicians to die out. They are reali3ing, . of having used torture as an ". administra- however, that alienation from western live practice." Europe could hurt them in two ways. The government did its best to forestall First, by intensifying the hostile climate which has cut off Greece from the main- this decisinn. But in Strasbourg the coun- ? ? . al ministers were .left unmoved by Mr, Fapadopoulos's measures of liberalisation, and duly condemned Greece' for violating the European Human Rights Convention.' They agreed that the report accusing the regime of using torture should be published. Only France and Cyprus abstained. M. Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber; the secretary general of the French Radical ? Party, who last week persuaded Mr Papadopoulos to release TI eodorak is, was, as 'he had promised, in StraAsourg too, Exactly why, remains a mystery. But he took the opportunity of calling a press ?. conference to expound his belief, already expounded to Lc Monde, that the CIA , controlled Greece, and that American ?influence in Greece and elsewhere was a threat to Europe and the world. He stream of European economic and political evolution, especially by freezing ,its relations with the common market. ,Second, by virtue of the fact that the United States is becoming more suscep- tible to European feelings about Greece. The relaxation of martial law and the 'reactivation of habeas corpus marked a significant step forward. It would .have ? been more substantial if the regime had not already incorporated the main martial 'law provisions in ordinary legislation, and if the application of constitutional safeguards could have been protected by ? the mechanisms that only a parliamentary, democracy can provide. One . of the novelties announced by the prime minister was the establishment of a "small ? chamber" of up to 50 representatives from professional organisations, trade unions and local government to advise wished the council would grasp this point. on legislation. This will add one more He is due to return to Athens, supposedly. external democratic trimming, and may to bring back, this time, M. ?Jean act as a seminar for a generation of new Stamkis, a journalist of Greek origin but politicians guided by the law-and-order Frond, nationality, who was lemma to philosophy.rt yeaimprisonment last Sunday. The trial of the 34 intellectuals, which' ??? , ended on Sunday when 20 of them were ? ? given sentences ranging from three years to life, , was also a balancing act in ? domestic and foreign policy. The prime minister's exhortation to the judges to exhaust their severity on law-breakers and the prosecution's call for one death , sentence had evoked such a strong reac- ., tion in Europe that, by Comparison, ?the heavy senteneekappeared .to be light. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R0005002200 STATINTL ? 01 -5 Approved For Release 20011031,04 : CIA-RDP80-0 CHICAG0, ILL. TRIBUNE N _ 805,424 S - I,131,72 APR 1 b 070 STATI NTL Europe Council Condemns _ ... ? BY EDWARD ROIIRBACI1 .; parts of Which were. lealied last . ' [Chief of Paris Bureau] Iktovember ? to-? the presk. con- STRASBOURG, France, Aprillta ins :.1 cases of alleged tor, ' ,15 ? The Greek military gov- wnentation, with names and I I:?ture a ill treatment. The doc- ernment was condemned by the , places listed, includes descrip- ? Council of Europe here today pens. of face-slapping incidents . for flagrant violation of the land solitary confinement. Elec- jarganization's human rights , tro shock treatment and dozens tconvention. . . j of other sadistic practices also f The council's ministerial corn-? are cited. One man claimed his :rnittee also published a 1,000- moustache was burned off. . !page report to document al- I Seek Moral Pressure .? - -.-: .leged repression by the Greek Because the Council 'of Eu- "colonels" regime. The minis- I rope has no Political power, terial committee is composed of 1 publicatiOn .61 the highly dam- foreign ministers representing : aging report Is aimed. at bring- ,nearly fill of Western Eprope's. tog moral : pressure -.on the ' [Greek junta:The report actual- Greece has major countries. ' Greeee has already called the ly was drawn up.,last year to ' - report a "mockery" and has back the campaign of the Scan.' . I denounced the council's human idinay.",,,aLs and the Dutch for ? rights commission for meddling !expulsion of Greece from the 1 in its internal affairs. The leouncil. ' ? , t Greeks withdrew from the cons- The council's vote to condemn . cil over ? the issue last -Decem- 1Greece was in danger of being 1 her rather than be-expelled. _ :,, 'upstaged by Jean-Jacques Ser- Obly Ciprus and France did van-Schreiber, new leader of . not ? vote today. -The French. France's radical Socialist party. !have never ratified the human ' But ? the leftist politician, a ? rtighti convention. ' ? , ? former' editor of France's lead- s. . Violations Charged .", lug news magazine, . Express, I The '17.membei. rabiaterlav ;said' In, a telegram yesterday 'Committee charged the military 113 would "prove" to the- coun- . ? :junta with violating 10 articles: ell today that the "real mu- .The violations include tOrtlfrei-? tell" of the 'Greek1 regime are ? .unlawful detaining, of citizens" the American military machine iind failure to allow freaclo41 elf ad', the .. c"tria In14.P.One? aped* and assail*: ? ?? ? ' ' -!", ?ageneYsiii'ailireii`iiisicil: 'a press conference that the J? .94...L.Ard the United States'- military are keeping the junta in power by working behind the back of the American govern- ment However, he did not pro- duce the docume ntation as promised. ? SerVan- Schreiber, who dra- matically flew ailing Mikis Theodorakis to freedom Mon- day tom Greece ft er the "Zorba the Greek" composer had been interned by the re- gime for two and a half years,. said , the United . StateseI was making thq. *904'..unsat,of reek ? ' Approved For RelOse 2001/Ck.W.94': CI Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0 DANVILLF., VA. 1REGISTER M ? 10 t4P9R 16 1970 - 22,245 CI A Convenient :r The old proverb about the boy who cried wolf so often no' one responded when the wolf actually attacked, seems te, apply to those who use the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as a whipping boy in international rivalries. Little basis in fact, if any at all, is needed to start the finger-pointing at the CIA. Latest to do so with his own propa- ganda mill to feed is JEAN-JACQUES SERVAN-SCHRIEBER, leader of the Radical Socialist Party in France. He blared forth on Wednesday with the charge that America's CIA and military system are , "keeping the Greek junta in power with- out the knowledge or approval of the U.S. Government." Such is 'the use of falsehood in radi- cal propaganda. The attack on the CIA and, in fact, the whole U.S. Government, by the I French radical politician, came right be- hind the censure of the Greek Govern- ment by the Council of Europe, which had accused it of violating ten articles ofihe Whipping Boy European Convention on Human Rights., It is ironic that SERVAN-SCHRIEBER'S attack on the U.S. and its agency also' came at a time when talk around the United Nations is that the PAPADOPOULOS regime in Athens is being wooed by the,. Soviet Union, which wants Greek portal closed to the U.S. 6th Fleet so that the USSR will dominate the eastern end of the Mediterranean. At the same time, foes of the. ruling 'junta in. Greece are making their Pitch in this country and abroad to create a break between the U.S. and the Greek govern- ments. They do so by contending that sup- port of the Greek regime is alienating the good will the Greek people long have held for the United States, which once saved them from a Communist takeover through the TRUMAN Doctrine. It is a bit silly to put any confidence in the SERVAN-SCHRIEBER accusation that the responsible heads of the U.S. Govern- ment do not know what the CIA and our "military system" are doing vis-a-vis Greece, Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016-5 rliIA, PA. INQUIRE.R u _ 505,173 R311.1P1971) s - CIA Accused of Helping Greek Junta r?""urfEASBOURG, France.--French leftist Jean-Jaques ' Servan-Schrieber accused the U. S. Central Agency and the 1"American military system" of keeping Greece's junta in , power withota the knowledge or approval of the U. S. gov- ernment. Servan-Schricher, author and leader of France's Radi- cal Socialist Party, made the charge at a news conference . after the Council of Europe had accused the Greek mill- , tary dictatorship of violating 10 articles of the European 'Convention on Human Rights. is- Servan-Sctirieber 'declared that the European nations , 't should bring the alleged American intervention in Greece . ? ibefore the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. With only France and Cyprus abstaning, the 174nember council denounced the Greek junta and called for restore- lion of fundainentel human freedoms lir Greece :tirithouoi, . , ; _ Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release Eg4g4sinplA-RDP 5 APR 1970 U.S. IS CALLED FORCE BEIIIND GREEK JUNTA, French Politician Says CIA And American '- Military Run Nation 117 ittORIAS T. irENTON (Paris Bureau 01 Me Sunl Paris, April 14?The French politician who engineered the re- lease of Mikis Theodorakis, the Greek composer, charged today that the United States Central Intelligence Agency and the American military are the "real masters" in Greece. "I am absolutely convinced, and I can prove it," Jean- Jacques Servan-Scheriber, a leader of the Radical Socialist party, told the influential Paris daily, Le Monde. ? Mr. Servan-Schreiber said he would "reveal the real situation in Greece" tomorrow at a meet- ing of the council of Europe in Strasbourg. The council, which forced the Greek military re- gime to resign its membership sure from me .emire European at its last meeting, is expected :commun.......b.ait.r.?:.,,,i,dj also to hear a report from the : ? Scandinavian countries detailing new charges of torture of politi- cal prisoners in Greece. Charges Denied Mr. Servan-Schreiber, who re- , turned from Athens yesterday with Mr. Theodorakis, the Greek regime's most celebrated politi- cal prisoner, angrily denied charges printed in French news? papers that he had 'exploited the affair for his own political ad- vancement. ? He had flown to Athens Satur- day, he said, at the requests of Greek students in Paris to inter-' vene on behalf of several defend. A STATINTL The composer's wife contacte4 I him Sunday, he said, and he ; immediately contacted "Greek authorities," who appeared "greatly surprised" at his re- quest for the composer's re- The office of George Papado- ? poulos, the Greek prime min- " ister, allowed him to bring Mr. Theodorakis, who is gravely ill .4,, with tuberculosis, to Paris. On the flight back, he said, the composer assured him he wa' no longer a member of the out- lawed Greek Communist party., He said Mr. Theodorakis be- Heves the "only chance to res- tore democracy" in Greece Is 'through "constant moral ' pre& ants in- the thens sedition iris' and not to seek liberation Of Mr. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 CIA-IkbP80-01601R000500220001-5 Nr Approved For Release 11101AMOi4;o-41A-Rglf)A9-0111?L01 15 APR 1970 Colleges and .Individuals Here S.eek to BringTheodor4is, ' By HENRY RAYMONT The freeing of Mikis Theo- dorakis by Greece's military .Government, has touched off a series of efforts by colleges and individuals here to hrinc the composer to the United States. Mr. Theodorakis. best known in this country for his music for the films "ZorhN the Greek" and "Z," was unexpectedly set free from political imprison- ment in Athens on Monday. He was permitted to fly to Paris where he has entered a clinic for treatment of tuberculosis. One group that had actively sought his release, Academi- cians and Artists for Mikis Theodorakis. sent a representa- tive to Paris yesterday to seek to determine the condition of the 44-year-old composer's health and ascertain whether he was willing to acccpt a num- ber of offers to teach here. Dr. Konstantinos Lardas, pro- fessor of English at City Col- lege of New York and presi- dent of the committee, said that at least seven colleges and universities had issued invita- tions to Mr. Theodorakis to give courses on composition and folk music. They include City College, Hunter College, Queens College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Should the composer accept any of these offers, he is likely to create a new problem for the Nixon Administration, since his avowed identification with Communist causes would make him ineligible for a nrmal visi- tor's visa under the 1952 Mc- Carran-Walter act, under the legislation, which bars mem- bers of "proscribed or,ganiza- tons," only the Attorney Gen- eral has discretionary authority to grant exemptions from the ban upon a recommendation Of the Secretary of State. . Government Noncommittal ? In Washington yesterday, the State Department was noncom- mittal on the matter. Robert J. McCloskey, the department's spokesman, declared in respon to a question that he would have nothing to say until Mr. thcodorakis actually applied for a visa. Mr. McCloskey said that the department was aware , that many scholars and artists had already taken preliminary steps to obtain Theodorakis's admis sion to the United States. This was an allusion to the committee, whose members in- clude Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., the historian, Arthur Miller, the playwright, and Harry Bela- fonte, the singer. On Jan. 3, Socrates Zolotas, regional director of the Immi- gration and Naturalization Service in Burlington, Vt., ap- proved a petition by Dr. Lardas and other members at the com- mittee asking that Mr. Theo- dorakis be allowed to apply for a nonimmigrant visa to teach at City College for 10 months. The order reversed a previous decision by the service's New York office denying the peti- ion. It was also disclosed yester- day that Mr. Schlesinger and Senator Claiborne' Pell, Demo- crat of Rhode Island, had writ- ten the State Department urg- ing that it help remove any bar- rizr to the entry of Mr. Theo- dorakis or other political pris- oners who might be freed by the Greek Government. Vance Bourjaily, a novelist and critic who teaches at the University of Iowa, arrived here yesterday with tape recordings of 90 songs written by Mr. Theodorakis . during his Im- prisonment. ? He said he oti2 tamed the tapes in Greece two weeks ago from friends of the eatePe.ser. Mho. mated ,theY delivered to Dr. Lardas's com- mittee. "The songs are sung by Theodorakis who accompanied himself on the piano,' Mr. Bourjaily said. "He probably recorded them earlier this year when he was in exile in Ka- touna." Details of Release Unclear' PARIS, April 14?The mys- ery surrounding the release of Mr. Theodorakis remained un- esolved today. But it was widely agreed that it had been a political coup for Jean-Jac-. -- ? ques Servan-Schteiber, the French Iseditor-politician who brought' the composer out of: captivity. Mr. Servan-Schreiber, who recently gave up titular con- trol of his successful .. news- weekly, L'Express, to become secretary general of the ailing Radical Socialist party, declared, today that the Central Intel-' ligence Agency and the armed. forces of the ? United States, ., were "the real master of Greece." nd 'I have the proof of ,,i it," he added. He did not Ay& urther details. Mr. Servan-Schreiber was re- totting angrily tc, a question.' by the newspaper Le Monde, about a rumor that he. had obtained the composer's release. in exchange for a promise to, defend the Greek Government: before the Council of Europe.: He said he would go before, the Council in Strasbourg Pte-, morrow, accompanied by formal ? Premier Edgar Faure, to,disoirtss the Greek situation. He In- -,.?) dicated, however, that he wOuldi appeal tO' the CounciVoor eetree.40 Greee04. ? Approved For Release 2001/03104: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 i? Approved For Release 2.001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-031-6,411-1V010500220001-5 Ori1.Aii0:4A CITY, OXLA. TILIES E - 109,682 APR 1 5 1970 ? Theodorakisi Prisons, Tourists, linage By George Weller In April, season of tour- ? 1st bo ok in g s, Greece's ' 0 colonels are riding a new leniency kick. . Milds Why their leader, Prime Minister George Papado- ..: Theodorakii 1 . poulos, a bantam-sized stu- ? '1 has decided to shift his dent of Communist tactics, 0 ' ..... .- mean, alert police appara- tus. into low gear, is be-j' icoming clearer. He has .. turned uncommonly soft on his enemies, and rarely I:. uses even his onetime fa- vorite epithet of "Commu- nist." ? ?.. Papadopoulos topped his ;generous mood by allow- ing the tubercular Commu- ? 1, nist composer, Mikis Theo- ! dorakis, to be carried off ; to Paris in a private air-,, 1, plane by the news maga- . tzine publisher Jean-. i Jacques Servan Shcreiber. r The prime minister said :. that the release was "hu- ' > manitarian," granted on. !' the understanding that..1 ?;,Theodoralds would indulge l' in "no political exploita- ' .tion." . - : TO ANY GREEK, espe- cially a Communist, this I pledge to abjure polities is ' as realisti? as a prom'.. i?? 'not to breathe, ill.- -, '? ? '. : ' A nd re as .Papandreou was allowed to leave on a similar understanding ? shortly after the colonels took over, and hasn 't stopped denouncing them ' since. Papandreou, like Theo- dorakis, was a member of a Communist front when young. He has since formed an alliance with the Greek Communist front operating out of Ita- ly, doggedly preaching to Canadians that the plotted the takeover by thi? ", colonels. One reason why Papado- poulos is easing up is that he evidently does not want Greece to acquire the im- age of a "prison country" that the exiles are trying .to hang on her. ? Last year Italian so- . eblists smuggled Gore Mylonas, a non-Commu- nist liberal, off an Aegean, island.. Helen Vla c st publisher of the Independ- ent newspaper Kathemeri? ni, escaped from the. apartment where she was under house arrest and surfaced in the London press. This prison image is es- pecially unwelcome at the critical, moment of tourist bookings, when Greece is competing with Italy, Yu-, goslavia and Turkey. Amnesty Internationa1,1 the British organization to: free political prisoners," has been running a cam-1 paign against Spain and Greece. A similar "don't-. visit-Greece" campaign; run last year by Papan-' dreous and Melina Mer-1 ouri was a total flop.1 reece had 30 per cent': more tourists than the ear before. The colonels are rough,i on meddlers from outside, cheerfully denying them; any kibitzing privileges on Greek justice. When a German spokesman called Greek sentences "severe,"!. Papadopoulos said ? he'; "made a mockery, of jus- tics and morality." ? ? ? Chlawis Dailv Howe Smirks ?? ? /. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Relqaptiaflite8)10210t1A-RDF;80-01 15 APR 1970 Servan?Schreiber Sees CIA Behind Juntn Reuters PARIS, April 14?Greek composer Mikis Theodorakit, spent his first day of freedom, in an undisclosed Frenchhos-' pital today while the left-wing French politician who ob- tained his release attacked the United States for supporting the Greek military goyern- rnent. ' Theodorakis, failed '.about two years ago for beingsan al- leged risk to Greek public se- curity, was being treated for ? tuberculosis after flying to Paris from Athens yesterday with French politician Jean- Ja cques Servan-Schreiber. Greece said he was freed on humanitarian grounds. Servs n-Sc hre iber, former editor of L'Express magazine and now secretary general of the .French Radical Socialist Party, said the CIA and the American Army were the real powers behind the Greek mili- tary junta. Theodorakis, 44, is best known as the composer of the music for the films "Z." which attacks the present Greek gov- ernment, and "Zorba the Greek." ?1111e ;nitwit Is banked .111Grgete. ? ? ,;'; ' lromoliri-Ditri, ? 41464.ata?uwa. ? ? s NJ STATI NTL -SSII Ma ??? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP$0-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 ME MINNEAPOLIS TRIM= 25 Mar 1970 vow' :Former Greek Official Says Policy Is Wrong-headed By MOLLY WINS . ? Minneapolis Tribune Staff Writer "America is supporting a rdictatorship (in Greece) in r order to save democracy. it is a policy I cannot agree with," said George Mylonas, 'who was the minister of ed- ucation before the current military regime took over in i-Greece. 6 Mylonas is considered one '..of the most interesting of ;.the exiles now working in . the Greek resistance move- ment, both because he is a widely respected moderate 'and because of his spectacu- lar escape from the Greek is- land where he had been in- terned by the current Greek ;:regime. ; Mylonas, 50, was interned ,,on the island of Amorgos "'shortly after the Greek colo- nels took power. He planned his own escape with the aid ;cot his daughter Elenei, son- in-law Elias Kulukundis and .!,five Italian socialists. Mylon- ,.as climbed down a I,000-foot cliff where he was picked up ? In a rowboat rowed by his ? son-in-law and taken to an ? Italian cabin cruiser. Mylon- s was tipped to the "D-day" a tourist in a cafe carry- .:ing the book, ',The Tragedy of Lyndon Johnsoo.!!, ? .= He was in Minneapolis to speak last night at Grace Lu- theran Church near the Uni- versity of Minnagota. ? Mylonas was asked to comment on the theory widely held by exiled Greek leftists that the American Central Intelligence Agen (CIA) was responsible for the coup in Greece. "I have no knowledge, only opinion," he said. "But It ip a fact that the man who was for seven years the Hai-. son officer between the CIA' and KIP, the Greek intelli- gence service, is now one of: the five men in the military regime. "The people of Greece be: , 1? ye the CIA was deeply in-, V olved and it is at least a case of Caesar's wife even if she is innocent, she; does not appear innocent." 1 Mylonas said he is con- vinced that the great majori- ty of the Greek people do not support the colonels. "You ask mg how I 'know this? And I say to you, why not hold an election to see? But there are no elections in Greece. Not only are politi- cal elections outlawed, but even the president of the I awyer s' association, the doctor s' association, even the heads of the athletic; clubs in Athens are appoint-; ed by the colonels because, they are afraid any election would become a show of po- litical opinion." Mylonas said that if thei United States were to take; an official stand against the, dictatorship, it would mean, a great 'deal to the Greek' people, showing = them' that: the West truly believes.. democracy.: . , ,%, nr11 .GEORGE MYLONAS Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 * ? ? STAT I NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8 Till MANCHESTER GUARDIAN 23 March 19110 E .. -4 were . ? behind the ? plot to kill the ., ? ? . ? President and bring about , for. NATO .. i,. ,, Ewnc.,,,gs,iststill carries Tte lot sit lsl.aratu . cion was not diminished when , ? Suspicions ? e aillle,ves pi ot GrBu military osfilcsgrticsi,o.nithlhat unknown certain ? By TERENCE PRITTIE, /The leader of the ? Pan- Mr Andreas Papandreou, claims Hellenic ? Liberation Movement, that a new attempt to over- throw Archbishop Makaries and his Government in Cyprus is ? being prepared by the Greek regime, with the connivance of Vurkly and the United States. He - maintains that this ? Improbable alliance is trying to bring Cyprus under NATO domination. ? Mr Papandreou, ? who has coordinated most of ? the Leftaf-Centre opposition of ? Greek exiles to the Athens ? regime has a fixation about Ileged US involvement in Greece's internal affairs. Ile Insists that the US Ceitr.A.i Intelli erne A errc is? the wer e colonels' unta. ? . , In a statement in Toronto, ? simultaneously published by his followers in London, he declared that the Junta was directly responsible for .the recent attempt on Archbishop Afakarios's life and for the murder of Mr Georghardiis. The . . junta, too, had spread the story. ? that Cyprus was in a state of ' incipient chaos. Justifying infer. .TenUon from abroad. The Turkish Government. Diplomatic Correspondent according to Mr Papandreou, will only simulate anger at the junta's efforts to secure control of Cyprus. Mr Papandreou gives no reason why the Turkish Government should not be alarmed at the ? prospect of En osis, especially as the Turkish ?Foreign Minister, has been giving warnings of an impend- ing coup. Mr Papandreou said that the 'US State Department is worried, not about a coup being planned but 'about the effeot that. it may have on the Soviet Union?even to the point of . encouraging Soviet military ? intervention. Mr Papandreou's appeals to the people or Cyprus to "mobi- lisepossible to meet the ot against themselves as.puteklyi as their independence. ? When reporting developments Inside Greece. the Greeks in exile have been remarkably accurate. But the turning of Cyprus into a NATO island could, from the Junta's view, have only one purpose?to ingra- tiate 'itself with the Western.' Powers at a time when the latter are worried over Soviet naval strength in the Eastern ? Mediterranean. ? Archbishop Makarios denounced as a forgery a document, which Mr Georghadjis had entrusted to a friend Just before he met is death, naming Greek officcrs .allegedly behind the attempted assassination, a pro-Enosis coup,' and his own death. ? i This wag the situation which: the Russians began to exploit! so that by Wednesday night the ' .Turkish Foreign Minister was talking of an impending coup and armed Turkish-Cypriots in Nicosia went on .to a red alert behind barricades. ? I was eathig in a nearly deserted Turkish restaurant during the second night of the red alert when a squad of Eastern European Journalists, led by a correspondent from came in twice, walked about, and marched out. again. So far the determination of the Turkish Foreign Minister, Mr Caglayangil, and his Greek counterpart,' Mr Pipinelis, to maintain good relations appears to have survived. Tomorrow, Mr , GI avk os Clerides, Speaker of the Greek Cypriot Parliament and Mr Rauf Denktask speaker of the Turkish Cypriot Communal Chamber, will resume their long standing negotiations to find-, a feasible solution. to. the communal problem. Approved FOr Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 / RADIO Approv_gaEsiOgesrd001/03/04:CIA-RDP80-01601E000'5002?006f-SP-'-'"Ace7 1- 1/ Fti.truu 41 emir 4ap4o irrar. NW YORK. N. Y. 10017. 897?15100 FOR PROGRAM OATS PUBLIC AFFAIRS STAFF Barry Gray March 15, 1970 11:00pm. STATION INTERVIEW WITH JAMES BECKETT 'WMCA New York ? STATI NTL BARRY GRAY: My guest on WMCA New York is Mr. James Beckett,. author of a new book, called "Barbarism' in Greece," published by Walker. Mr. Beckett is an attorney, and obviously a writer. His wife is Greek. Mr. Beckett, I know nothing about Greece, except what I see in the travel ads. How often have you been there? JAMES BECKETT: Well, I've been there over the last ten years. And my wife and I used to spend the summers there. And before the colonels came, our interest was mainly in the sun and the sea, and the life that the travel ads show. But in the village which we went every summer, in the SUMP mer of 1967 we went and visited there, there was the grave of a young girl who had been shot on the day of the coup. All the elected officials had been thrown out of office. And all the inhabitants of the village were scared to death, scared to death even to talk to us. GRAY: Do you speak the language? BIACKETT: Yes, though not well. But I do speak the language. ? LOSAP1010.015 ? W/4110000TON. 0. 0. ? SAN rtwasuecto ? NEW ENGLAND ? (000A00 eitrie" OrrtglegIfi rwrikeiea se 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 STATINTL RADIO TetPREMPUP/11109ftic.2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01 ? 41 BAST 4allo 1131:1667', NEM/ YORK. N. V. 10019. C107?15100 ? FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS STAFF PROGRAM The Today Show DATE March 9, 1970 7:00 AM-- STATINTL STATION WRC TV NBC Network crry Washington, CHARGES OF TORTURE IN GREECE EXPLORED EDWIN NEWMAN: The military regime in Greece, which seized power in a coup almost three years ago, stands accused of using torture on political prisoners. The Council of Europe has ousted . Greece from its ranks. The Scandanavian governments filed charges against the Greek regime with the European Commission on Civil Rights. .14 Amnesty International, a humanitarian group, conducted a month long investigation in Greece and concluded that organized torture does, indeed, exist there. With us this morning are James Becket, an American attorney, who is involved in the investigation for Amnesty International, .and George Mylonas, who was Minister of Education in the government .of the former Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou. Mr. Mylonas was one of six thousand people arrested when the military men sksw took power. He was not tortured because, he says, the Greek government never tortures prominent people. At any rate, Mr. Mylonas escaped and is with us today for his first interview in the United Stites.' I 1 forma. Mearalt1414111144.; LAr IPAQ0111460411RG/441402420001 -5 r??????\ Approved For ReleaseiNtiFtIA-RDP80- ,: Papandreou, in Canadian Exile,, Leads Active, Guarded Life Says Overthrow of Creek Military Regime May Take 5 or 10 Years By EDWARD COWAN Special tomo New York Times KING CITY, Ontario, March 6 ?"I lead two lives," said An- dreas Papandreou, savoring the drama of the line. The former Greek Cabinet Minister has retunied to his in- itial vocation, teaching econom- ics, but what is most on his mind is a move to oust the mili- tary junta that seized power in Athens three years ago and has since ruled without an election. Mr. Papandreou said that the ouster might take five or 10 years. Mr. Papandreou, who is 51 years old, teaches at York Uni- versity, on the northern out- skirts of Toronto. He is the son of George Papandreou, the former Greek Premier who died in 1968. Andreas Papandreou?with his 81-year-old mother, his wife, the former Margaret Chant of Andreas Papandreou STATI NTL -mummy equipment to Greece.' "The U.S. services have found a way to assist the junta militarily and control the, junta," he said. "I don't bluntly identify America with all this,", he added. "I do make a distinc-i tion between Pentagonism and the political world." Mr. Papandreou described his own political philosophy this way: "I see myself as a social- ist, basically. I'm terribly com- mitted to democratic processes. Human liberty and popular sovereignty I ,put ahead of so- cial progress.' Says He Is Pragmatic By socialism, he said, he meant that "the economy is run in the interest of the peo- ple." I don't believe, say, in na- tionalization across the board," he said. "I'm very pragmatic. I believe in a mixed economy this insofar as it's compatible with personal liberty, which I'm not prepared to sacrifice at any cost." He also believed, he said, in national? identity, "I'm very much of a nationalist at this stage," he said. "I think that true internationalism has to pi through nationalism." Papandreou children want a ranged with the active assist, Mr. Papandreou's mien was somber throughout his political snowmobile so they can roar ance of United States military discourse. His pipes lay cold through backyards with the officers in Athens and the Pen-, on a table as he smoked one other kids. Living in the devel- opment might be some people's long, unfiltered American cig- idea of bliss. At the Papandreou! Charges a C.I.A. Role . arette after another. Behind home, the atmosphere is a little, When, In 1964-66, he was am, a snowy slope and his tall, different. .member of his father's Cabinet, bare elm and birch trees glis- An alias is painted on the mail-. Mr. Papanderou said,- the Greek tened in the hard, bright winter box. A frisky German shepherd intelligence service was under ',sunshine. named Turk ("That was the his jurisdiction, but only nom- Mr. Papandreou's book about name he had when we bought inally. IGreek political life and the him," explained the exiled: Mr. Papandreou said that he mut), 'Democracy at Gun- Greek politician) charges across. point," is to be published by the lawn to appraise visitors. had tried to 1:clean up" the Doubleday on April 17. His ,The telephone number is un- service but ,could not because wife's account of the coup and listed. It WAS directly administered the eight months her husband . The Papandreous want no and financed" by the United as in jail, "Nightmare in photographs or word pictures States Central Intel! igen therm," will be ? issued by of their house or car. 144r. Pa- pandreou is accompanied by a rentice-Hall in the autumn. Agency. "Next to every man Mr. Papandreou has little bodyguard-chauffeur. In _ Eu.. was an American counterpart" time for hobbies or family, life. .rope, where he goes every six in civilian clothes he said. On Sundays he may 'take weeks or so to keep in close Mr. ?, Papandreou predicted familY to &mot in one Of touch with the Greek exile that next month washing= map, GreebowRed Tempi= movement, "there's usually would mine giving vberie somebody with Andreasr said .... ? 14. 0/11 To judge .from a three-hour visit to their home this week and the ease with which it was arranged, the Papandreous do not live in fear. But, as Mrs. Papandreou put it, "in general, Elmhurst, Ill, and their four we're cautious. children, aged 11 to 17?lives In Over a light luncheon of a large house with outdoor, soup, crabmeat, liver pate, feta swimming pool in a subdivision cheese, salad, sliced apples and in this small, quiet community ala white Bordeaux wine. Mr. dozen miles north of the univer- Papandreou talked with inten- sity. ? sity of his own political life Atmosphere Is Different and of the April, 1967, coup. Since the junta released him Lots in the development are, from jail at the end of 1967, two acres or more and houses,Mr. Papandreou has contended ,cost $60,000 or $70,000. The, that the coup had been ar- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 1.1111.11111?1?1111110. Approved ForFlisftiitle $00,1163/04 : CIA-RDP80- 7 March 1970 The Colonels and Their Good American Friends 11-.).'etarn'a-r7 1. 3 .Greeks ? STATI NTL by Zalin B Grant earlier career suggest his talents' were devoted mainly , to plotting. As a young officer in the '505, he headed Athens a secret right-wing army organization. A major gen- eral ? now under detention ? once unsuccessfully lob- The secret police recently jailed a waiter named Con?bied against Papadopoulos' promotion to colonel, pro- stantine? Taktikos for doodling "KKE"? initials of testing that he had less than a year's combat service Greece's Communist party ? on the dusty windowpaneand few other recommendations. Colonel Papado- of a ? car. The regime has, at one time or another,poulos, obviously more confident of his abilities, also banned miniskirts and long hair, ordered grammar promoted himself to defense minister and minister of school history books rewritten to denounce parliajeducation and religion after he took ov.? as prime mentary democracy, punished antiregime "whisperers7minister. He has maneuvered to consoli( .5 power with harsh prison terms, and tortured women forwithin the ruling junta, a gray body of about a dozen vaguely specified political crimes. So Constantine'siofficers. "He doesn't yet .have the majority of them arrest was shrugged off here as further proof of whatiin his hands," says a well-informed source, "but the' everyone already knew: that Greece hasn't advance&others are split into easily controlled factions." an inch toward democratic rule since a bunch of face.: The Colonels' estimate of their popular support is less Army officers, mostly colonels, seized power on:not very high. They haven't risked lifting the strict April 21,1967. ? .martial law that has now been in force for three years. The best to be said about the Colonels' first thousand Nor have they attempted to legitimize themselves days is that they moved with a certain sophistication::through popular elections. Instead, acting like the while they converted Greece into a police state, carry-;;soldiers they are, they have methodically moved to ing out a few needed reforms in. the process. The tone Insure themselves absolute control in the event out- of the regime was set by their .smoothly executed'iside pressures compel them to suspend martial law - takeover, which was based on a computerized NATO or otherwise "liberalize' First of all, the new consti- contingency plan routinely drawn up a few month tution they handed Greece to approve in a Yes-or-No beforehand by NATO allies to counter the remote referendum was loaded with provisions outlawing possibility Of an externally inspired _Communist _coup vaguely defined anti-government activity. "In the fu-? _ in Gieice; hc crude terror- tactics with which the ture they can pass practically any repressive law to - Colonels underwrote martial law were balanced by 'stifle opposition," says a diplomat, "and it won't be. more subtle forms of oppression. Result: no protest unconstitutional." (The constitutional referendum strikes by the Greeks, no anti-Junta demonstrations: ;offers insight into how the regime works. At Delphi, And whatever opposition may be ? cooking today is, 'government officials passed the word that citizens fancied by the very brave or the foolhardy. ;should dramatize their support of the Junta by voting Chief technician of this straitjacket stability is Prime openly and unanimously for the constitution. They Minister George Papadopoulos, who rules Greece witht added pointedly that a curtained booth would be the aid of two key subordinates and a "politburo" of :available for those wishing secrecy. Of 728 voters, colonels. Papadopoulos spent nine of his 27 Army: 24 cast ballots In secret; the remainder minus one years in the Greek intelligence service - a combina-; :dutifully deposited their distinctively colored Yes bal- tion CIA-FBI once closely tutored by American opera- ;ilots in front of the government election committee. tives. Greeks say he learned CIA tricks well. Since ; The lone dissenter? The village daredevil, a fellow the coup the secret police force has been more than who had already been arrested several times by the doubled in size, listening devices have been attached secret police. A well-educated businessman from an- to countless phones and apartments, and a gigantic ' other town following more orthodox vpting procedures informer network has been set up. Papadopoulos' ! 'confides that he voted Yes because he tura the secret ? ubiquitous apparat has filled Greece with suspicion,, police might trace his fingerprints on a No ballot. causing a once-outgoing people to eye each other 'Though 92 percent of the electorate approved the warily. The shills and hookers who once patrolled' constitution, the Colonels apparently , reconsidered Athens's Constitution Square have all but vanished, ; their document and found it too liberal. Thus far they replaced now by less obtrusive plainclothes agents. ; ;have refused to Implement ltSiecondly. Papadopoulos' Most of the available, facts OA Mr. Papadopoulos' I ;mem bas begun buPd.. a substructure of repro- . _ Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 cont. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8 r. 11,1111,"T'''i. PI 4.1. M - BY GREEK JUNTA r L. b 11 a 13 ROGER 111.:liGERSoN Staff 1Vriter The United States :ind sik were prodded into depos- ingthegovernmentsof Gteece and Czechoslovakia b y "military-intelligence commands's? that function un- seen in their midsts, an ex- iled Greek cabinet minister .said Friday. In a speech at the Universi- ty of Minnesota, Andreas Pa- pandreou said that the super- powers acted out of fear of losing their control when the two smaller nations showed signs of easing relations with non-ally countries and gener- ally trying to run their own affairs. Papandreou. a former uni- ? :ill e CI . 11 n . 1 a k 6"17c.> 0 \ di (a r i I iWI s a cabinet minister at the.: tif' iiier5( country, ne sato. , Vet-0y economies professor,' ? time 0: the 1967 coup higher echelons of the mili- army generals. lie was ex- hv tary have developed into a polled from the government new caste, fighting to retain with his father, the prime the myth of conflict between . . . minister. nations. "Greece is only' the first in i..ontrot by a military Ma4 Western country . to go. and "Greece is an experiment , chine that is quite interna- I'm afraid that Italy is next, : ? -- ? he said. Papandreou saluted the re tiooll in character," he said. l. cent expulsion 'of Greece When he assumed his cabi- ' from t' Council of Europel net post, and with it thcoreti- as th ;t?st courace shntioit -I against - "demands "de and I ' cal control of Greek intellig-4, the epee operations, Papandreou' a blackmail". r.' ? - of ? the United . related, he ordered that all : States. telephone taps on activists be.:1 . , . discontinued. 1, A .study which he said is' "I was told that I was pow- still to be made public by the ' I' erless to do that, because all Human Rights Commission ,of the Council of Europe and of the intelligence money and.' I Amnesty. International will equipment. was supplied by the CIA." he said. I show . that the present Greek "The whole cabinet protest- !gime is using a program of . ed to the U.S.overnment?73tatLC . torture on its 04... - but. it was made clear that it i_triet iith1n."14. COI!.54 was conedered such an im- 1 ' -7---?,,....?,. ? ...___ portant issue by them, that to accomplish a change would mean a break in diplomatic ? relations. ? "We weren't ready to take that step yet." ? I The willingness came, he ,indicated, when the Greek - .cabinet was told by President! :Johnson and his advisers that ; it would have to acquiesce to Turkish demands concerning! Cyprus. "When we said no, we'd! fight instead, our fate was! decided." he said. ? Papandreou said the cur-i rent Greek dictatorship is; "LI.S.-made". and claimed that current premier, George Papadopoulos, was liaison het; lp Prior to the coup. tween the CIA and Greek in,' ? :tegence . ?? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : 'CIA-14DP80-01601R000500220001 -5 .1;4./2vrzi.:E. Approved For Release 2001/03/031JAIMIRDP80- STATINTL Greece: The Colonels Have Their Way Last week, after a lapse of nearly a year, the Un a new ambassador to Greece, which for 33 months has been ruled by a junta of messianic colonels. The ambassadorial appointment did not reflect American approval of the repressive regime, but it did seem to indicate that, for reasons of strategic necessity, Washington had decided to make its peace with the junta. In Athens, Newsweek correspondents Bruce van Voorst and John Barnes found that, wheth- er Western liberals like it or not, the colonels are firmly in the sad- dle. From their on-scene reports, General Editor Angus Deming de- scribes life in present-day Greece. For a pair of companion stories, written by General Editor Russell Watson, Senior Editor Arnaud de Borchgrave, London bureau chief Robert J. Korengold and. Rome bureau chief Philip S. Cook reported on the bleak life of Greece's political exiles?including her young monarch, Constantine II, and his wife and children. (Cover photo by Camera Press?Pix.) Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 oontTnea 2 Approved For Release 2001/9.340 AN tRDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ; INTERNATIONAL Brave new world: Members of the Greek junta review a parade of disabled veterans in Athens Greece: A Dilemma for the West t is one thing for Russians to crush I Czechoslovak liberals in the Kremlin's own backyard. But it is something alto- gether different for a clique of faceless ' colonels to establish a dictatorship in a West European country. Thus, when mil- itary men seized power in Greece 33 months ago?and immediately began is- suing ukases against miniskirts, beards and free speech?it seemed unthinkable to most of the democratic world that they would be allowed to get away with it. Yet that is precisely what they have done. For the moment, at least, the heavy-handed colonels who rule Greece have ridden out the storm. And last week, in a symbolic capstone to their achievement, the vacant post of .United States ambassador to Greece was finally filled with the arrival in Athens of career diplomat Henry J. Tasca. It had been nearly a year since Tasca's 'predecessor left the embassy in Athens, and during that time a dormant world conscience had begun to stir. There were chilling reports of torture in the dank cells of Athens's Bouboulinas Street prison. There was a powerful, widely acclaimed movie called "Z," which dissected the indecencies of a nascent police state in Greece. There was the spectacle of the Greek Foreign Minister stalking out of the Council of Europe in order to deny his democratic neighbors the chance to evict him. Worst oRppnomeasEoriffie of repentance or reformation from the colonels in Athens themselves. Indeed, as like Saigon. The Nixon Administration,. if to rub salt in the wounds of its critics, however, seems to have concluded that the Greek junta celebrated its third New there are more compelling reasons for Year's in power with boasts of peace placating the junta than for opposing it and prosperity, to the bitter end. The Mediterranean Nor were these entirely empty claims, is steadily yielding to Soviet influence, as even the most critical foreign visitors and even a once staunch NATO ally like to booming Greece could attest. And the Turkey is allowing Soviet-made MIG very success of such an unpalatable re- fighters to land at air bases on its soil. gime made the "Greek problem" even Greece, then, has become even more im- more agonizing to deal with. This was portant than before to American strate- especially true for the U.S. For through- gic interests, and it appears likely that out the postwar era, there has been a the Administration will soon order a corn- kind of special relationship between plete resumption of American arms ship- Washington and Athens. It was, after all, ments. Explains one U.S. diplomat: "We American aid that helped to defeat the are attempting to balance American na- Communists in Greece's devastating civil tional interest with moral principle?and war twenty years ago. And when the that isn't an easy job." colonels seized power in April of 1967 This juggling act could have vast con- -under the pretext of preventing a Corn- sequences, for by giving the junta its munist take-over?many Greeks automat- stamp of approval, however reluctantly, ically assumed, without a shred of evi- the Administration has signaled the colo- dence, that the coup had been spawned nels' enemies?both at home and abroad by patrons in Washington and nursed by f ?that the regime of Prime Minister the CIA. In fact, the U.S. has all along George Papadopoulos will probably been ambivalent about the new regime never be ousted by purely diplomatic in Athens. It slapped the junta's wrists means. In despair, the opposition might ' with an arms embargo (later downgrad- thus be driven to try to launch a civil ed to a "selective" ban), but despite war. At the moment, therefore, it is considerable pressure, has consistently the Greek people and their rulers who , declined to push the colonels any further. provide the best clues to their nation's End: To some Americans, there is a uncertain future. On the following pages, vague but nonetheless disturbing parallel NEWSWEEK describes the brave new between Washington's acquiescence to world the colonels seek to build and I easite20941C13404ts: GiApR.EAR80-0x116G4R40(1.510022001114 exiled for undemocratic governments in places King and commoners. . . .corit 1 flued Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 How the Colonels Run Things My country that was the cradle of beauty, The cradle of the golden mean, Today a plgce of death. So much light turned to darkness, So much beauty to fear, So much str:..ngth to tveaktiess, So many heroes to marble busts. ?A song by Mikis Theedorakis This is an in-between time of the year in Greece. In the countryside, where the bleak, scarred mountains arc still capped with glistening snow, all the crops arc in now except for some orang- es, which still droop heavily from the branches of groves dotting the shores of the Peloponnesus. The olive trees are being pruned and, in fertile valleys and on rock-strewn hillsides, plowing has once again begun. Even in the bustling cities of Athens and Salonika it is a mo- ment for pause. The festive holiday sea- son has come and gone, a new decade has begun, and few Greeks can think of a better way of marking the transition of time than by sipping endless cups of syrup-thick coffee at an outdoor cafe or passing an evening with friends at a taverna, drinking oum and listening to bouzouki music. In short, Greece in this midwinter of 1970 offers the same unchanging tableau that has captivated foreign tourists for generations. Yet, ?despite this appearance of nor- mality, many dismaying changes have come over Greece since the colonels seized power there nearly three years ago. One symptom of the change is that Greeks, known so long for their outgoing f '44.4 -1 warmth and hospitality, now regard for- eigners and even fellow Greeks with un- disguised suspicion. Nor, any longer, do Creeks pursue with characteristic pas- sion their national pastime: politics. Nowadays, if they talk of politics at all, Greeks do so only in the seclusion Of their own homes or in the safe company of their most trusted friends. As out of keeping with the Creek temperament as it may be, silence in public has become not only a virtue but a necessity. Arrest: Indeed, there is ample enough cause for the paranoia that has gripped the 8.5 million people of Greece. The threat of arrest for the most innocent of "crimes"?perhaps nothing more heinous than having been seen talking with some- one who, in turn, was overheard grum? Wing about the way the government, is mining things?hangs over everyone's head. On lonely Aegean islands and in closely guarded camps outside Athens, an estimated 3,000 Greeks still await trials that may or may not ever be held. (The "detainees," who .011CC numbered as many as 6,000, range from mildly lib- eral parliamentarians ousted from office by the military coop to right-wing royal- ists and even a handful of retired gen- erals.) And, within the consciousness of many Greeks lurks the unspoken fear of torture at the dreaded police headquar- ters on Athen's Bouboulinas Street?a fate suffered by scores of their country- men, whose gruesome accounts of bru- tality have given the junta its most in- delible public image abroad. Although no one outside the junta can say for certain, the weight of evidence indicates that such methods as the fa/an- ga?beating the solos of the feet with an iron rod or wooden stick?is no longer a widespread practice in Greece. Whether or not out of concern for his regime's im- age, Prime Minister George Papadopoulos has repeatedly given stern orders against the use of torture. And, coincidentally or not, there have been no published coin- ., plaints of torture from prisoners or their families since last November, when a Bed Cross inspection team with a Greek- speaking Swiss interpreter was given Uni- fied access to Greek prisons and deten- tion camps. Informers: For that matter, The Papa- dopoulos regime does not need to resort to brutality to keep the populace in line. The contagion of fear is enough in itself to kcep most people cowed. By bestow- ing euviable status upon police informers ?they are reportedly paid 500 drachmas ' (about $17) a month and are issued spe- cial identification cards?the government has built up an Orwellian spy system that keeps tabs on everyone. One result has been a spate of black-humor jokes of the sort that filter out of East Europe. In one of these, a man in an Athens bus asks his neighbor: "Aro you connected with the uei , military?" PapadopouaippgettIWIFOPRelease200:44081104e0DIA-RDP80-01 3 11PrbiOrk MD W.11111{0011 1.014t 'What Am I Doing Here?' "Your father? Son? Brother? Father-in- law? Son-in-law?" The answer is still negative. "Then in that case," the first man hisses angrily, "would you kindly stop standing on my food" But many Greeks, particularly intellec- tuals, do not consider the repressive at- mosphere a joking matter. "After two and a half years," says one of Greeces more promising young authors, "most people have found that sooner or later, no matter what their position, some demand will he made, some sign of submission or con- formity will be required of them. It may be something trivial, like having to put out the flag on the anniversary of the coup. Or it may be a crucial test, such as whether to shelter a friend from the po- lice or help someone escape. The pen- dulum swings from shame to fear. One is forced into intolerance, ruthlessness, in- flexibility. Forgiveness and understand- ing become dangerous luxuries." Culture: If the regime has alienated its more gifted citizens, it has also clamped a frozen hand on Greek cultural life. George Seferis, who received a 1963 Nobel Prize for his poetry, has not pub- lished a line since the colonels took over. Other Greek authors read their Manuscripts aloud at private gatherings or pass them from hand to band among their own circle of friends. Two of the most respected figures of the Greek stage ?Katina Paxinou ( who won an Oscar as Pilar in "For Whom the Bell Tolls") and her husband, Alexis Minotis?have quit the Greek National Theater and have formed a company of their own. Some big name stars, such as Melina Nfercouri and Irene Pappas, have chosen exile abroad. As a result, their movies are toppRietiees/32creo+-te music of continued ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Mikis Theodorakis, a former leftist dep- uty now in prison camp, who wrote the score for "Zorba the Greek" and whose score for the motion picture "Z" had to be smuggled out of the country. Nor have Greece's schools and news media been spared the heavy hand of Prime Minister Papadopoulos and his re- form-minded fellow colonels. Apparently to restore something of the glory that was Greece, the regime has decreed that katharevousa?a neoclassical form of the Greek language and virtually a foreign tongue to most Greek youngsters?shall henceforth be a mandatory part of sec- ondary school curricula. In the media, a new law that supplants official censor- ship (and which threatens prison and fines for articles or pictures that encour- age "defeatism" or "rekindle -the flames of political passions") plus a "whisper- ing law" (which provides jail and fines for spreading "false reports" or "rumors") combine to gag virtually all public writ- ing and speech in Greece today. ' All of this startling transformation in .the nation's political, social and cultural life has been wrought by a deceptively bland-looking group of career army offi- cers whose ideology is a mix of virulent anti-Communism, devout belLif in Chris- tianity, puritanical morals and almost ? frenzied nationalism. In short, the men who now rule Greece are fanatics. The symbol of their "revolution" is a stylized phoenix rising from a pyre of flames and its moving force is George Papadopoulos, a short, stocky colonel of artillery with long experience in KYP, Greece's combi- nation of the CIA and FBI. The So.dier: As Prime Minister, Min- ister to the Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Minister of Education and Religion, Papadopoulos is the junta's un- disputed leader. But although he traded his uniform for dark blue suits after the coup and rules from behind the same oaken desk in the "Old Palace" used by countless Prime Ministers before him, Papadopoulos still thinks, acts and lives I like a soldier. At his home in Psychic?, a residential section of Athens, he awak- ens, without benefit of alarm clock, on the dot of 6 a.m. Breakfasting on nothing more than a cup of coffee which he brews himself (his wife, Despina, pre- fers to sleep late), the Prime Minister thumbs through four Athens morning newspapers and two economic papers before stepping into his black, bullet- proof limousine. Then, while two motor- cycle MP's provide an advance guard and a hundred or so uniformed and plain-clothes police clear the route along Queen Sophias Avenue, Papadopoulos flicks on the car radio to listen to the early morning news as he rides to work. He arrives in his office at 7:30 a.m., leaves at 3 p.m. for a light lunch and nap and returns at 6 p.m.?often to work late. An austere man, Papadopoulos is also a clean-desk man. Except for two clocks, note paper and a timing device with a buzzer which he sets for as long as he thinks conversations should last, the Prime Minister's desk top is barren. He does, however, adorn his office with some decorative effects. Among them: a framed charm-necklace worn by his fa- ther supposedly containing a piece of the True Cross, and a three-dimensional rendering of Christ at Gethsemane simi- lar to those widely sold in religious sou- venir shops. And the same devotional object is found on the desks of Papadop- oulos's two top subordinates?S tylianos Pattakos, the regime's Minister of the Interior, and Nicholas Makarezos, the Minister of Coordination. Tough: Of these two, Pattakos, a for- mer brigadier general with a brother and sister in the U.S., is closer to Papadopou- los, despite the fact that his personality differs vastly from that of his colorless boss. A tough and moody native of Crete, Pattakos has as his personal trademarks a shaven pate, bushy black eyebrows arid an earthy sense of humor. Even some critics of the regime credit him with hav- ing done a commendable job in super- vising the construction of public-works projects such as bridges, roads and school buildings in the rural areas of Greece, which he often visits. By contrast, Makarezos, the other member of the ruling triumvirate, is the closest thing the regime has to a house "intellectual" (he holds law, political sci- ence and engineering degrees). But al- though Makarezos is given to boasting of Greece's favorable economic indicators (one of his jobs is to supervise the na- tion's econcmic growth), his record is spotty at best. Makarezos is the one who approved an abortive deal with Lit- ton Industries for development projects in Crete and the Western Peloponnesus. And although Aristotle Onassis is said to be on the verge of sign:ng a contract for a $600 million oil refinery deal in Greece, foreign capital, in general, has steered clear of Greece since the military regime took over. On top of that, there are increasingly persistent reports in world money markets of an inevitable devaluation of the drachma. Stability: For all its obvious black marks, however, the Greek military junta can boast of at least one accomplishment. It has put together a functioning piece of governmental machinery?part mili- tary, part civilian?that has remained stable and virtually unchanged in com- position for close to three years. Indeed, the only change at the top has been the appointment of Gen. Demetrios Patilis as Second Deputy Prelllier?a largely honorific title extended in recognition of his role in helping to thwart the 1967 monarchist countercoup which ended with King Constantine's flight into exile.. As Constantine ruefully discovered, gauging public sentiment in Greece has its pitfalls. But although no objective ob- server feels safe in venturing an opinion as to how much popular support the mil- itary regime really enjoys, it seems safe to say that a significant number of Greeks heartily dislike the colonels and all their ?vorks. One dramatic indication 2 4 of that was provided during the funeral in November 1968 of former Prime Min- ister George Papandreou?when some 500,000 persons lined the streets of Ath- ens to pay their last respects to a politi- cian who was anathema to the junta. The demonstration?the only one of its kind since the colonels took over? does not prove, however, that a majority of Greeks oppose the regime. In fact, the junta has assiduously courted public ap- proval?and there is every reason to be- lieve that its efforts have met with some success. Shortly after they seized power, the colonels canceled $250 million worth of debts owed by Greece's farmers, a move that won them instant applause in a country in which 60 per cent of the population lives on the land. What's more, the junta's highly publicized public-works programs and its nationalistic stance have convinced a number of conservative Greeks that the military has the country's best interests at heart. The Price: Still, progress under the colonels must be weighed against the enormous price Greeks have paid in per- sonal liberties. And many Creeks?among. them the most educated and politically sophisticated?clearly want ? to see the jou ta go. Nonetheless, there is little evi- dence that Greeks are of a mind to rebel against the junta or to combat it with an underground resistance. One reason for this, presumably, is that the civil war that shattered the country in the early post- war years is still a painful memory for adult Greeks. Another is the curious sen-' thnent, shared by many students and in- tellectuals, that the junta is the creature / of the CIA and that only Washington can bring about the regime's downfall something that neither newly arrived Am-. ph?51 stl Mourners at Papandreoteg funeral Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 ?anti nued Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R The Exiles: A CIutcn orraffilth Factions. . . And a Cooily Neutral Monarch On scene: Tasca arriving in Athens bassador Henry Tasca nor the White ' House nor the Pentagon has the slightest intention of undertaking. Yet another ex- planation for the widespread apathy in Greece toward the country's current po- litical situation stems from a painful dis- illusionment with professional politics of the past. "It is the democratic forces in Greece who are responsible by their ir- responsibility for this regime," says one former minister. "The Greek is in a dilem- ma. He wants to be a democrat. He doesn't want to support this regime. And yet he cannot see the point of starting a fight to bring back those politicians who failed him before." Given all these factors, the outlook for a return to constitutional democracy?a promise held out by the junta after the 1967 coup but still unfulfilled?is far from bright. Some observers and critics of the regime hopefully argue that only Greece's 118,000man army surely has " the strength to overthrow Papadopoulos and his fellow colonels. Perhaps. But with Greek officers now, enjoying new uniforms, higher pay and such newly ac- quired fringe benefits as imported Ger- man and Italian cars, there is little likeli- hood that Greece's current generation of captains, majors and colonels will slay the goose that laid the golden egg. Eventually, some analysts believe?per- haps with more than a dash of wishful thinking-the junta may ease up a bit by restoring democratic liberties on a selec, tive basis and by sponsoring the birth of at least a token political party. Such an evolution might be hastened, these ob- servers believe, if the Greek economy continues to develop strength and if at least some exiled politicians agree to re- turn to the fold on the junta's terms. But these are big "ifs." Meanwhile, George Papadopoulos and his fellow colonels are settling in for a long stay. ike most p ople, Greeks have a L. high orii.ion of themselves. And so it is per Laps only natural that the thousand, of Greeks who have gone into exil:, since the colonels seized power ar.: nourished by a deeply held conviction: that, by virtue of tradition and temperament, the people they left behind are toe proud to tolerate tyranny indefinitely. Says Mrs. Helen Vlachos, an Athenian newspaper pub- lisher now living in London: "The junta could disintegrate at any mo- ment, simply because it is Greece that they are dealing with." Yet, to some ?gr? this kind of determined op- timism does not serve the cause. "The colonels," says a self-exiled lawyer, "have been in power for almost three years, and only now are the Greeks abroad beginning to realize that wish- ing won't make them go away." So far, the Greek '?gr?have been able to do little more than wish, for despite their feverish plotting, they have scant influence with either their own countrymen or with foreign governments. Altogether, there are over 1 million Greeks living over- seas, but the great majority of these left home for better-paying jobs in Europe and North America. (Many of the Greeks living in the U.S. are fervent anti-Communists and thus supporters of the colonels in Athens.) True political exiles?those who fled . Greece because of conviction or politi- cal necessity?number probably more than 5,000. And among the political emigres, there are only a few hun- dred activists who devote most of their time and effort to undermining the junta. Even this small force is, in typical Greek fashion, hopelessly splintered. "As soon as you get any three Greeks together," remarks a Danish politician who has observed the ?gr?in ac- tion, "two of them gang up against the third." But in the constantly changing roster of parties and factions, three. main alignments have emerged: ? The right-wingers and moderates among the emigres look to former Premier Constantine Karamanlis, 62, as the "can opener" for the anti-junta forces. Karamanlis, a shrewd and cau- tious politician who held office from 1955 to 1963 and has lived in Paris ever since, keeps in constant touch with King Constantine by letter and telephone. Perhaps the mosr widely respected of all Greek politicians-in- exile, Karamanlis is supported by di- verse factions ranging from pacifists to a terrorist organization inside Greece known as the Movement of National Resistance and led by a shadowy fig- ure called "General Akritas." ? The left-trending Panhellenic Lib- eration Movement is led by Andreas Papandreou, the hot-headed son of the late George Papandreou, the Center Union party leader who suc- ceeded Karamanlis as Premier in 1963. Though a former U.S. citizen, Andreas, 51, is passionately critical of American policy. He currently teaches economics at York University in To- ronto, and recently formed an alliance with two other groups that include a melange of centrists, socialists and Communists. In recent months, Papan- dreou's radical politics and acerbic personality have scared off a good deal of emigre support. ? The Greek Communist Party, in compliance with the current Mos- cow line, has taken no overt stand ? against the junta and refuses to coop- erate with any other emigre groups. The party's leader is Kostas" Koli- yannis, 65, who has lived- in Eastern Europe since leaving Greece in 1949. Except for Koliyannis's Communists, most of the emigres still hope to un- seat the colonels by political means. They are reluctant to resort to force, for there is a widespread fear among On llllll a 1 11111.11 l'resm--1.1X At Mar V111 Gentlemen-in-waiting: Exiles Karainanlis, Koliyannis and Papandreou Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R00050022000011tatvo4 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 the moderate and right-wing exiles that another civil war could very well lead to a complete take-over by the Communists. Instead, the ?gr? harbor a vague hope that the Greek Army can somehow be persuaded to turn against the colonels, and that the U.S. and other democratic nations will exert pressure that will squeeze the junta out. In this vein, Karamanlis last September issued a statement calling on the army to rebel and implying that the U.S., by giving the colonels time to dig themselves in, was jeop- ardizing strategic American interests in the Mediterranean. Ripples: To the 6migres and their admirers, it seemed certain at the time that Karamanlis's call to arms would have a momentous impact on the junta. But in fact, the "political bombshell" turned out to be more like a pebble thrown into a pond, and by the time the ripples reached Greece, they could hardly be felt. And in the view of some of the ?gr?themselves, such inability to influence events inside Greece is a matter of simple and well-deserved retribution. "Let us have the courage to confess it at last," Paul Vardinoyan- nis, an exiled Center Union politician from Crete, declared recently. "It was we who weakened democracy in Greece so much that it proved in- capable of putting up even a few hours of resistance. Yet there are still some politicians in exile who think that it is enough to oppose the dic- tatorship in order to be trusted by the people once again. Unfortunately, we have learned nothing." Many exiles, however, have indeed learned from their bitter experiences. But the lesson seems to be that, per- haps understandably, the Greek ex- patriates have misjudged both them- selves and the colonels. "We Greeks spend our time gossiping in coffee shops, but you can't bring down gov- ernments with gossip," says one ?- gr?"Our problem is that we've been underestimating the colonels by assum- ing that they are only temporary. If you look at the way they're operating in Greece?at the laws they are passing, the structures they are creating?you can see they are systematically cre- ating an establishment that will be unshakable, even if one day they lift martial law. By then, the system itself will make free political development impossible.. The political parties will be hamstrung and the armed forces will be an uncontrollable superpower. Any way you look at it, time is not on our side. It is on the side of the colonels?or the Communists." R01.1,1.1, Pre NA, Spartans in Rome: Constantine and his wife romp with their kids For Constantine, life in exile is largely a matter of acting like a monarch without living like a king. Since December 1967, when he fled to Rome after a clumsy attempt to overthrow the colonels, the King of the Hellenes and his striking Danish consort, Queen Anne-Marie, have slipped into a simple, almost reclusive style of life. Yet even in this dimin- ished state, they have been careful to maintain most of the outward appear- ances and customs of reigning royalty. , For the 29-year-old Constantine and his wife want to make it quite clear that they are not just another pair of swinging ex-royals in the jet set. Even after two years in Rome, the royal family seems to believe that the call to return to Greece could come at any moment; and in their rented villa at 13 Via di Porta Latina, near the old Roman walls, they virtually live out of a suitcase. In their large, sunny sitting room, little has changed since the house was leased, furnished, from Contessa Christina Paolozzi. There are a few family photographs, a record player, some monogramed ashtrays and several books scattered around? nothing that could not be packed up at a moment's notice. Expenses: By royal standards, it is a Spartan household. When their third child, Prince Nicholas, was born last October, 4-year-old Princess Alex- ia and Crown Prince Paul, 2, had to double up to free a bedroom for the new arrival. "Those rumors of royalty having large, unnumbered accounts in Swiss banks certainly don't apply, to us," the 23-year-old Queen remarked wryly in a copyrighted magazine ar- ticle written by a family friend. (In fact, the King's expenses are paid by the Greek Government. But most of the family's authorized "civil list" of 6 $649,000 a year is banked , by the junta or used to meet the payroll of the royal palace staff in Athens.) Constantine's political activities are carefully limited, partly at the insist- ence of his Italian hosts and partly in order to preserve all his options. He keeps in touch with both the junta and the ?gr?pposition groups, but for the most part, he has refrained from rebuking the colonels or committing himself overtly to the exiles. "The im- pression I got from the King," said a Western diplomat who recently met him on a social occasion, "was that by playing it cool, he hopes to keep all the avenues open for his return to Athens. Either the colonels will dis- cover that they need him, or the ?gr?will restore him to his throne if the junta collapses."' Unemployed: The King is well aware of the possibility that his strate- gy may not pan out. Perhaps, uncon- sciously, that is one reason why he takes such consolation in the company of other unemployed monarchs in his family. He is close to his cousin, King Simeon II of Bulgaria, 30, who was deposed 24 years ago by the Commu- nists. And Constantine and his wife occasionally travel to Spain for visits with his sister, Sophia, the wife of Prince Juan Carlos, who has been designated as the next King of Spain and heir to Francisco Franco as Chief of State. Both youthfully robust, Con- stantine and Juan Carlos share a pas- sion for sports, and in Spain over the recent Christmas holidays, they hunt- ed game birds each day from dawn to dusk. "I come back home every night so pooped that I go right to bed," Constantine confided to another hunt- er. "Then I am up early the next morning to do just the same thing. I am having the time of my life." Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R000500220001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R0P80-01 DiTERIATIONAL AM= January 1970 WESTERN EUROPE ?Europe's Futures, Europe's Choices: Models of Western Europe in the 1970s. Ed. by Alastair Buchan. London: Chatto & Windus for the Institute for 31.rategic Studies. 1969. 167 pp. 30s. Paperback: 12s. 6d. Decision for ur : The Necessity of Britain's Engagement. By J. L. Z.irig. Baittotore: Johns Hopkins Press: London: Internazionn= -.1ort Group. 1969. 221 pp. Index. 66s. I,' THE current attenipt of the nations of Western Europe to form a closer political association is one of the most exciting political developments of the century.' Thus the opening sentence of Michael Curtis's West European i Integration, published in 1965.1 Authors are naturally convinced of the importance of their subject and may be forgiven some over-dramatisation. Some curb on hyperboles would not hurt. In 1962 Roy Pryce started his Political Future of the European Community 2 with the words 'Western ? Europe today stands on the eve of a decisive phase in its political evolution.' Well, perhaps it did; but it decided little and the story of the boy who cried wolf too often is salutary. Alastair Buchan's new book, a model of 1 sobriety in this respect, observes that ' this is a moment of slack water in the tide of European affairs, of uncertainty and of frustration'. Europe's. Futures, Europe's Choices is published for the Institute for Strategic Studies in London and is edited by its then Director. No other contributors appear under their own name, and the work is apparently the result of a joint research effort of the Institute's members and of wide discussions, the whole written up by Mr. Buchan. The current slack provides a better opportunity to think more wide-mngingly about future policies than a time of momentum. Mr. Buchan notes the difficulties facing such futurology. Analysis of future relations that relies solely on extrapola- tion of present trends is likely to lead to miscalculation if too precise, to useless generalisations if too cautious. The Institute therefore decided to examine a number of different forms of association that could develop in the next decade; hence the sub-title Models of Western Europe In the 1970's. I The book's threefold purpose is set out clearly at the start, to examine different structures of a future Western Europe, in order to see what their effect would be, especially on the Atlantic Alliance and on East-West ; relations; to assess the possibilities each of these offers to the solution of 1 14vrer York, London: Harper & Row. bodes: Jobs Marabbsek with the Federal Thal.' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R0P80-01601R000800220001-5 pontinued