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November 8, 1972
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CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR Approved For Release 2001/01/Q4V: NA-RDP80-01601R00 0 Aoweitsi to the Wet: tir,Ade, _ e@ ? By Leo Gruliow eolog 9 no thanks. Staff correspondent of - The Christian Science Monitor unlikely to blossom, and tne project was ? dropped. American newspaper editors asked ? Moscow the right of free sale of some of their papers Heads of state from abroad, foreign min- in Moscow on a reciprocal basis ? Soviet isters, and international businessmen have newspapers circulate freely in the United ; been streaming into Moscow this year as States ? and were turned clown. An occasional limited exchange of individ- ual articles occurs, as well as a government- approved exchange of stage perforrners. But the exchange which overshadows all today is in the realm of science, technology and business. Even here, ideological rivalry turns up. The American-Sbviet Joint Committee on Environmental Protection recently adopted a program of 30 shared projects. The American co-chairman,..Russell E. Train, spoke at a press conference after a field trip around the Soviet Union. That same day, Kommunist magazine went to press with an article by the soviet co-chairman, academician Eugene Fedorov. rarely before. Cultural and scientific ex- changes have been equally lively. But in all this flowering of peaceful co- existence, there is one aspect of foreign contact that remains barred. It is ideological exchange. Vadim K. Sobakin, a young professor of jurisprudence, spelled out the Soviet stand in New Times magazine this week. The policy of peaceful co-existence, he said, aims at preventing war and subversion and at encouraging contact, but does not deny the existence of 'Continuing ideological war- fare. Westerners who think that only Pravda deals in ideology are nurturing an illusioh, he declared, citing not only the existence of STATI NTL Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which The first questions put to Mr. Train from broadcast to Eastern Europe and the Soviet American reporters were -about whether Union, but also ? out of context ? columnist America is not more sophisticated than the James Reston's critical view of the use of Soviet Union in, matters of pollution. Mr. media in the American elections. Train said he thought America had the edge. Mr. Sobakin warned that the Communist Mr. Fedorov's article stressed what he bloc must be vigilant against ideological considered- communism's superior capacity Infiltration through exchanges of people and to cope with environmental problems and Information, referred to the rapacity of capitalism as a When Americans think of exchange of cause of the spread of world pollution. Ideas, they are apt to conceive of it as ideally Scientists and businessmen, however, can a free and untrammeled flow. The Soviet agree to disagree on the merits of their Union encourages cultural exchange, but respective societies and then go on about insists that it be carefully regulated. their work in harmony, which is what Messrs. The desire of Western countries to enlarge Train and Fedorov did. But the Soviet Union the exchange of people, ideas, and informa- considers journalists, writers, and even art- tion and the Soviet Union's firm refusal to ists "ideological," and here the attitude is "open the borders" to unrestricted ex- that "never the twain shall meet." changes are likely to clash at the preliminary The businessmen and technicians are apt to meeting for the European security conference. provide the real exchange of ideas in the This meeting, which opens in Helsinki Nov. future. So if you are planning to start a 22, is to draft the agenda for the conference, journal of cultural exchange, make it a Mr. Sobakin accuses the NATO countries of magazine of science, technology, or trade, planning to demand concessions from the where hard self-interest dictates cooperation Communist lands in order to "open the on bot si es. borders" to "monstrosities of bourgeois culture , In the meantime, you can enjoy the Balshrai and misinformation. Ballet in New York and the New York City Ballet in Moscow ? as long as they don't Magazine project dropped tangle with conflicting social or political A decade ago, when cultural exchanges ideas. were new, Americans placed high hopes on them as meeting grounds for divergent ideas. At. that time a New York publisher planned to issue a magazine to print, side by side, the the contrasting views of Soviet and American writers about the problems of their respective societies. But it soon became apparent that the hope of. an unit;1015cidifeitinFto 1?Relleages2 0 01 /03/04 : tiA-RDP80-01601 R001100070001-5 Approved. For elease 20iO3iO4-CiAARISTP80-Q3tr3,10- - 4 OCT 1972 Putting Down By CiEenciE MELLOAN When the United States mined North Viet- 'nam's harbors last spring, putting several Russian ships in some jeopardy, a key ques- tion was whether Russian leaders would call off their May summit meeting with. President Nixon. The fact that they did not suggested that the Soviet leaders wanted the summit badly enough to ignore the mining, after some rela- tively mild protestations. What was not so well known was why. ' The Soviet leaders were presumed to be concerned about the U.S. overtures toward Russia's big neighbor, China. Leonid Brezh- 'ley also was said to yearn for a place in his- tory as a peacemaker.' These speculations may have had some va- lidity but hindsight now suggests another rea- son which could Well have been the most im- portant of all: The Soviet leaders may have wante.d the summit for the simplest of all pos- sible reasons?the knowledge that they would need 'U.S. food to tide them over an impend- ing crop failure. This interpretation offers somewhat less promise for future improve- ment in U.S.-Soviet relations than did some of the earlier appraisals. Also, some of the ear- lier, hopeful interpretations have been tar- nished by a post-summit wave of official re- pression inside the Soviet Union. The Polities of Food Well-fed Americans can easily underesti- 'mate the importance that food production has for a Soviet regime. That nation of some 240 million people seldom has a comfortable mar- ?gin of food production, and agricultural fail- -tire and political turmoil have been closely linked throughout Russian history. Starvation and violent repression went hand in hand in the Stalinist 1030s. Nikita Khrushchev was blamed for the 1903 crop failures when he was toppled in 1964. No Soviet regime?or for that matter any regime anywhere?feels comfort- able with, hunger. And with the Canadian and Australian grain crops heavily committed, the Russians may have foreseen that the U.S. might be their only certain source for very large prospective needs. Now that $1. billion in U.S. grain has bailed the Soviet leaders out of their immediate food difficulties, another question arises: Could Nixon, Kissinger & Co. have driven a far harder bargain, not only on grain but on the more important issue of strategic arms limi- tation? Could they have gotten stronger So- viet support far a Vietnam peace settlement? And a further question, from a few Ameri- cans who have contacts with the Russian po- litical underground?could President Nixon have used his advantage (which they claim -was substantial) to relieve some of the bur- dens of the Russian people? There is no simple answer to these ques- tions, hilt, as a starting point, it is unlikely . that the Nixon team knew as much as the ' Russians knew in May of the difficulties that would eventually wipe out some 30% of this year's Russian grain crops, according to pres- . . . . ? ' lieved. . Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601K001100070001-5 issent in eat estimates. U.S. weather satellites can monitor growing conditions in the Soviet Union and other satellite devices may offer even more precise means for monitoring So- Viet crops. But satellites cannot measure such problems as bureaucratic bungling, tractor parts shortages or footdragging among dis- contented farm workers. Further, there were expectations until very recently that a good spring wheat harvest in the virgin lands of Central Asia would offset some of the crop losses that occurred earlier this year in the Ukraine. But only in recent days has it be- come evident that an early rain and snowfall will diminish the virgin lands crops as well. A case could be made that a tougher U.S. stance at the summit would eventually have exposed the weakness of the Soviet. position. But it should be kept in mind that President Nixon's bargaining position was riot rock solid either. He was under strong election year pressure from war critics; he needed some- thing to placate restive farmers. While it is not entirely idle to hash over the questions of what might have been, the really Important issue is what might still be in the U.S.-Soviet relationship. And to answer that question an examination of the 'Soviet Union's internal political situation is of some value. The .salient fact is that the Soviet people appear to be experiencing a new wave of offi- cial repression which got underway last win- ter but has become particularly severe since the summit. Communist Party idealogue Mikhail A. Suslov, who had delivered the coup de grace to Khrushchev's era in 1964, helped launch the post-summit offensive. Ile declared that the West was seeking to "implant in our society poisonous seeds? which he described in some detail in that special language of the Soviet catechism. Some of the repressive measures have made the world press. For example, Pyittr Yakir, a 49-year-old historian who has been a prominent champion of civil rights, was jailed in late June for allegedly passing "anti-Soviet propaganda" to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. And., of course, the August 3 edict by the Soviet government, requiring pro- spective emigrants to pay an expensive head tax before being allowed to leave, represented a significant hardening of the official position towards Soviet Jews seeking to emigrate to Israel and other lands. Other measures are described by Ameri- cans who have been in recent touch with Rus- sian dissidents. They say that closer restric- tions on travelers, both foreign and Russian, were applied in June, with five-day limits placed on visits by foreigners to some cities and closer questioning of travelers about who they planned to talk with or visit. According to these reports there also have been numerous arrests of dissidents in the more restive non-Russian republics, particu- larly the Ukraine and Lithuania. And a purge of the Communist Party appeared to be in the works in June with a demand that members must turn in their party cards so that mem- bership could be reviewed and new cards is- sued. One party directive complained that too many party members were being seen in church. A few dissidents have simply been ex- pelled from the country. One of them, who prefers not to be identified, said recently in a private interview with an American that he regards the present situation as more serious and ominous than anything that has hap- pened since Stalin. "The prisons are filling and the mental asylums are overflowing," he is quoted as saying by his interviewer. "All my friends are now in prison or have served time or they are passing time in mental asy- lums.'' A Struggle for Power? The interpretation this young man places on the events he describes is that the KGB, the Soviet Union's security police organiza- tion, has grown in strength and is vying ac- tively for political power with both the party and the military. It is demonstrating its power not only through a Stalinist style crack- down on dissidents hut in other ways, ho claims. Last autumn, for example, the KGB incorporated into its ranks the regular police, or militia, which handles routine police work such as. arresting drunks or breaking up fights. Further, the KGB has been conducting an active recruiting pro,gram in factories and is having more success at its recruiting than is the Konsomol, or youth branch of the party. The reports of ekpelled dissidents nor- mally have a high emotional content and thus such judgments must be regarded with sonic skepticism. But- such sources sometimes are in a better position to know and report what is really happening inside the Soviet Union than Western journalists, whose contacts and ac- tivities are restricted and monitored with some efficiency. If nothing else, the reports serve to remind Westerners that the Soviet Union is not really a monolith. Popular disaffection towards the government is widespread. Ethnic conflicts between the predominant Russians and such national groups as the Ukrainians, Georgians, Tatars, Uzbeks, Lithuanians and others smol- der just below the surface. Ukrainian nation- alism, which has been flaring up in recent years, might even have had something to do with the harvest difficulties. The ;population. is kept under control through government administration of travel and residence permits, job assignments and ? the various other levels that stem from near- total government control of the nation's eco- nomic life. Ultimately, of course, there is the secret pollee. Events have shown that this type of politi- cal system is never as stable as it sometimes seems to those on the outside who know noth- ing of its internal tensions and stresses. It may well be true that a struggle is taking place between the party and the KGB. There is a historical precedent. Only tile quick, conn bined action of Politboro party stalwarts pre- vented Secret Police Chief Lavrenti Bevis from seizing power after the death of Stalin: if Nikita Khrushchev's account can be be? COntinued Al% wed For R lease 2001/031044. i.iycia-REIPAIrEili6, .0 0 AUG 1972 Radio CIA rosearthes esplonage. ? The researchers exclude, as far I ? ? - as possible, "refugees or immi- grants who have made a psycho- logical break with the thinking of their compatriots," . The "samples consist wholly or ahnost wholly" of such nationals ? as are planning to. return to their native countries.l' . This concentration on nationals " who will return home, rather than those who have 'gone West' in more ways than one, offers the ivospeet not ...only of relevant - ? of-Anion research .but. God willing, . of subversion and espionage. ". The problem of organizing these surveys about the CIA radios! :effectiveness is tricky. Those who are to be interviewed Id that cannot, obviously; be to (W57.1/ By ERIK BERT One of the problems confronting sales managers is how the product. they are peddling is.being receiv- .?eZI. To that end market research has bei concocted, a perversion of psychology, sociology,: and .statistics. The Central Intelligence Agency` . has a similar prohlem with its " product, the propaganda it directs at the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries through Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. The critical question for the CIA is how well it is- succeeding -in its attempts at subversion. ,To, this end Radio Free Eur- ope's Audience and Public 0pin- ion in Mu- nich developed a methodology for assessing , East European public opipion. ? . This is described in the study of RFE which the Library of Con- gress produced for the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee earlier this year. The "market" being surveyed to enlighten the CIA consists of .. the 200,000 or so East Europeans who visit Western Europe each. year :as tourists, visitors, com- mercial travelers, or sportsmen. From among these some 6,500 to 7,000 are interviewed, some 1,000 or more each from Czechoslovak: ia, Hungary, Poland and Romania, . and fever than 1,000 from Bul- garia.: ? they are being interviewed for the Central Intelligence Agency. Therefore, the "interviews are 'conducted by independent re- search organizations under 'con- tract to Radio Free Europe." The "respondents are said to be unaware of the EWE (let 'alone, the CIA--EB) sponsorship of the interviews." " These "research" institutions are not so "independent" that they disdain working for U.S.. intelli- gence. - The research institutions used ? ? mdrkc-Yat by the Central Intelligence Agen- cy's Radio Free Europe ? include, according to the Library of Con- gress study: INTORA Opinion .Research Institute, Vienna. A.I.M. Market Research In- stitute. Copenhagen. A.I.M. Market Research In- stitute, Stockholm. ? William Schlackman Psycholo- gical Research. London. Sales Research Services. Lon- don. SOFRES Opinion Research Institute. Paris. COFREMCA Opinion Research Institute. Paris. Vandoros. Athens. -- ? The Library of Congress study includes tabular - material .show- ing the composition of the persons intervigwed in 1970, by occupa- tion, sex, atg.e. and by party prefer- ence. . . It. is impossible to say how legitimate these ? figures are., They do show either a predomin-- ance of non-Communists among those visiting Western Europe or - a very low proportion of Commu- nists talking to the CIA's "inde- pendent" researchers, or both. The political orientation- of those interviewed Samples in 170. were,:. ? 'Czechoslovakia Hungary ." Poland Romania. Communist . 3 . 5 3 . 11 Democratic Socialist 41' - 35 37 ? Christian Democratic 26 .27 , .36 23 Peasant 6 j3 6 8 National Conservative 7 2 13 Other and .no answer 17 13. 15 8 Approved For Release 2 -* DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 2001/00.4 : 2 3 196A- ISIDRENCP1.601 Contials ada r3" mthon agOr?[ d says, "it is safe assumption that Contaet between that (Cen- Jral intelligence) Agency and Free Europe. Inc.. was probably a major function of the Free Eu- rope Inc. corporate headquarters." located in New York. The boards of Radio- Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty. the Li- brary of 'Congress study said, "are comprised of citizens of considerable prominence?men who have ready access to leading business and political circles in the United States, and who do not hesitate to' make use of this ac- cess 'when the interests of the corporation so demand.'' We can confidently expect. on the basis of past experience, that the shift in funding o Congress will not affect Radio Free Eu- - rope's outlook. In fact, the Free Ettrnpe Inc,? board of directors used to 'rely .on RFE's Munich headquarters in the past to carry through 'the basic subversion and espionage for which it was or- ganized. ? . "Trust and confidence in REF.','s management and procedures" formed the basis of the relation- . ship. - . The degree of -confidence of . the Central Intelligence Agency. and the Free Europe Inc. board of directors in their West Ger- .man headquarters was evident in ? the fact that. a the Library of Congress study puts it. "Radio Free Europe management in Mu- nich enjoys a near-total autonomy - in decision-making" "in the con- duct of its daily broadcasts." Radio Liberty enjoyed a simi- lar degree of independence. "It seems to have a wide range 1. of independence from the Execu- tive Branch," "its operating poli- -des seem to he generated _with- in the organization and not neces- l?-'sarily dictated by an outside au- thority"---like the CIA?accord- ing to the Library of Congress. This independence did not in- vite divergence. Rather, Radio Li- berty's independence was based on its having the same anti-social- ist, . anti-Soviet, espionage ob- jectives as it "sponsor," the CIA. In baking over the funding of - Radio Free Europe and. Radio ? Liberty, Congress has not Laken poovieirciestl7 determinaLiOn of their ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA,RDP8 efinBee0,?IleiTy!.4. -5 9h-Pcrrraaligrauni:Nenil By ERIK BERT On 'August 6 the House of Re- presentatives by a vote of 375 to 7 approved the appropriation of $38.5 million for the operation of ? Radio Free. Europe and Radio Liberty througliJune 30, 1973. ? There was a flurry earlier in the year when Sen. J. W. nil- bright urged. that the two opera- tions be phased out as relics of ^ the cold war. The problem of, giving the two ? radios a. Mr. Clean treatment was initiated in January, 1971. according to James' R. Price, the author of the Library of Con- gress study of Radio Free Eu- rope. ?, "Both radios had hitherto osten- sibly been supported by private funds but had Qctually been large- ly .funded by the Central Intelli- genee Agency." Without Congressional funding, and with CIA funding' under a cloud; the 1,600 employes of Ra- -dio Free Europe, who carry the ;cold war to Bulgaria,. Czechoslo- vakia, Hungary, Poland and Ro- mania, would have had to go on relief. So, too, would the .1,000 operagves of Radio Liberty whose cold-war efforts are directed at the Soviet Union. The funding has been, shifted, from the CIA to. Congress, but there is no evidence that the poli- tical direction has been shifted. In fact, the 2,600 operatives are still devoted to the cold war. How direction of these enter- prises was carried through in the past is not yet public. informa- tion. Last March 6 Sen. Fulbright informed his colleagues and the. members of the House that they could look at a "brief descrip-? (ion of the arrangements used by the executive branch to maintain. policy control and direction. of Radio Free, Europe and Radio Liberty?' This was on "on. a ? classified basis only. a restriction insisted upon by the State Department," ? Fulbright said. The secret "brief description" has not yet found- its way into Jack Anderson's syndicated col- umn or Pentagon-style Papers. The Library of Congress study of RFE, introduced into the Con- gressional Record' 'of March- 6; ? Approved For Release 2 imigrwitlimito go1pp97OOOl-5 AUGUST 1972 TO THE REVIEW: ?Thank you for the latest in the continuing series of Darts you have been shooting at the Newspaper Guild recently [PASSING COMMENT, March/April]. ? I don't know why you found it purposeful to say that the Guild's interest in seeking continued fund- ing for Radio Free Europe "ap? ? pears" to be a hangover from the days when the Guild itself was in- ? volved in Central Intelligence Agency funding, when the answer to our interest appears in the sentence following that statement: our interest stems from the interest of Mt people who will be out of work if this agency's activities are ,either curtailed or ceased. That should seem to be justifica- tion enough, ? except to those who find some self-serving purpose. in resurrecting references to incidents which still have to be proved. CHARLES A. PERLIK, JR. President 1 The Newspaper Guild Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 20641ipteifT,CIA-RDP80-01601R00110907100611-15 1 Ill] .c?Lio 1:1; '!15rrn r.0-1 BY m rKE JAN: -,LraraSSIACCET:PFAILtil2:21.1WIA:th.120,-. ? ? Rhodesia in but as u) The International Olympic Committee has responded ?to. the demands of the Supreme African Sports Council that racist Rhodesia be barred from competing at the Munich Games by ruling that the Rhodesian athletes can compete . . . but as British subjects. . -? The controversy over Rhodesia's participation threatened to throW .a huge monkey wrench into the Olympics at Munich later this month. Independent African nations threatened to boycott the Games and, the Supreme Council issued a call for others to follow suit. Rhode-- sia'.s whi_te minority racist regime is 'an international outlaw, not recognized`by the United Nations. But the organizers of the Munich Games invited the Rhodesians ? .to participate as a sovereign state, arousing a storm of protest from foes of racism the world over. ? The compromise worked out by the lOC hs been accepted by the Supreme Council, according to a UPI report from Munich. jean- :Claude Ganga, general secretary of the African group, is quoted. as saying?that the Supreme Council has accepted the IOC's guarantee that the Rhodesians would participate as "Southern Rhodesia", and Its athletes identified as "British subjects." In other Olympic news, .the German Democratic Republic has announced that it is sending a total of 324 athletes to Munich for the - Games, competing in 17 of the 21 Olympic events. . . There is special importance to this news, for the games at Mh- nich,?in the Federal Republic of Germany, will mark the first time that a team from the GDR will compete in an Olympics?on absolute- ly equal footing with other nations. For the first time in the summer games the athletes will com- pete under the rightful name of the GDR. under the emblem of the : socialist state, the national flag and the national anthem of their country. ? ? At a press conference this week in Berlin, GDR, Dr. Heinz Schoebel, president of the GDR National Olympic Committee, hailed the significance of this victory and expressed the hope that the Mu- nich organizers would. see to it that the rules are adhered to with- out any disturbances. Munich. of course, is a hotbed of anti-socialist activities and neo-Nazism. It-is the home of two CIA radio stations from the U.S., Radio Pree Europe 'and Radio Liberty, and there is concern that these elements will attempt to disrupt the Games for their own foul purposes. !Ting-pong diplomacy", has reached another low. Thailand, which has become the. main base of. U.S. military might in Indochina, has , decided to send a table tennis team to Peking fOr a tournament in- volving countries. .. ? ' ? Having won his 13th game in a row and his 18th oPthe year, Steve Carlton, pitcher for the, Philadelphia Phillies, is working towards his - first Cy Young Award and possibly toward MVP .honors in the Na- ional League. He should be a contender if he doesn't win another game this year. Anybody who can win that many games for ?a team as bad as the Phillies gets My vote. . . ? Two beautiful penhant.races that didn't figure at the start of the season are making the American League interesting to watch, for a change. The Oakland are' finding themselves locked in battle with the Chicago 'White Sox, 'of all, people, in the West, and there's a ? four-way battle in the East among the Tigers, Orioles, Yankees and ? App roveckfor. Rileaser2001d0M4ayOK-REIP80 -QUO RG01100070001-5 taking the New York sports page he-ndlines away from the Mets. I figure they'll win the ,pennant, pick up a huge New York. following, Approved For Release 200i1g316P. ?tgek4RDP8 S T 1 I AUG 1972 Soviet Asks Bar intrusion by SaicEllteTV By HEDRICK SMITH ? ? ' speeat to 'rat New York Times ? ? banned. In case of violations, the Soviet proposal would grant the aggrieved nation the. right of unspecified counter- measures. "- The Soviet proposal was seen as an effort to head off future use by such ideological rivals - as the United States or China. of satellite relay systems to. beam television programs di- rectly to the sets of . private Soviet viewers. Scientists have .written that transmission by satellite to home television screens is tech- nically feasible, but such ? a. system has yet to be put in operation anywhere. The Soviet Union, which. seeks to control carefully the flow of information to its people, currently . jams such foreign radio broadcasts as Russian-language transmissions of the Voice ? of America and MOSCOW, Aug. 10?The So- Viet Hnion today proposed- an 'international convention to pre- vent nations from directing 'television broadcasts from sat- ellites to private homes in other 'countries without the countries' express consent. The. 'Soviet press agency, Tam made public the proposal, which was formally submitted by letter two days ago by For- eign Minister Andrei A. Gro- myko to Secretary General Waldlieim of th United -Na- . tionst Mr: Gromyko's letter request- ed that the. Soviet proposal and draft convention be submitted' to the 27th General Assembly of the United Nations this fall. ACcording to the Soviet draft, broadcasts beamed into a' for- eign country without its au- thorization. would represent nterf erence in a state's inter- 1 ff ' 1 11 b Radio Liberty, Making reception quite difficult in heavily popu- lated regions and major cities. Technically, it would be rela- tively easy to jam satellite transmissions too. Soviet access to foreign newspapers is also tightly reg- ulated. Only limited numbers of ? Western newspapers are per- mitted into the country, for, purchase by resident or visiting foreigners, or for closely con- trolled circulation to Soviet edi- tors or other trusted members of the Establishment: Despite the jamming and the censorship, however, many Rus- sians privately report that they listen of foreign broadcasts and, even now in Soviet Es- tonia, private citizens can pick up Finnish television. But the Prospect that this practice might spread and reach the large majority of Soviet people evidently disturbs the Kremlin. Mr. Gromyko's covering let- ter. aaid that the proposed con- vention on satellite relays was "necessary to protect the 'sov- ereignty of states against any outside interference and pre- vent the turning of direct tele- vision broadcasting into a source of international 'con- flicts and agera.vation of rela- tions between states." ? Specifically, the Soviet pro- posal would commit signatory nations not to transmit via satellites "materials propagan- dizing ideas of war, militarism, Nazism, national and racial hatred and enmity between peo- ples, and equally, material of immoral or provocative nature or otherwise aimed at interfer- ence in internal affairs of other states or :their foreign policy." Among particular categories to be recognized as unlawful were programs "containing pro- paganda of violence," horrors, pornography and. use of nar- cotics" and thase "undermining the principles of local civiliza- tion, culture, everyday life, tra- dition and language," and those "representing misinformation of .1 the population on that or other: questions." One article appeared to give countries the right to jam elec- tronically satellite -relay trans- missions and to interfere ac- tively with foreign satellitess: used to relay objectionable ma- terial. It granted them the righti to ."use measures within their: reach" to counteract unlawfuli transmissions "not only on their territory but in outer space and other places outside the bounds" of their own territory. ? Other provisions called for cooperation between nations on. technical matters as distribu- tion of frequencies, elimination of interference with sea and. air transport, and copyright of; television broadcasts, The prominent publicity given the Soviet proposal in the con-- trolled media here today suggest that Moscow was planning a major campaign at the 'United Nations sessiion this fall for some restrictions on satellite- relayed television broadcasts even if it had little hope for such a strict ban as the one proposed today. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 4.r.11?Ise5,0?011/ WASHINGTON POST Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ? CIA-RDP80-01601R0011 8 AUG 1972 ' 9 C' STATINTL ? By Richard L. Lyons Weshington Post Star C Wxiter ' The House rebelled against the widows are almost desti- ? being told to vote on 24 bills Jute. The bill also permits jus- yesterday and after a series of tmes t h in the future o contrib? alf-hour roll calls persuaded ., ? the. leadership to quit after tit. to funcfs to provide for only six had been taken up their widows. and passed, * Make it a federal crime to Yesterday was one of two murder, kidnap, or harass a days this month when the foreign official in this country. liouse under its rules can pass It was approved, 380 to 2, and. non-controversial bills under a sent to the Senate. usually quick procedure that. * permits only 40 minutes' - Authorize $28.5 million to de finance activitic..s . Radio bate and no amendments, and requires a two-thirds vote to Free Europe and Radio Lib- pass. erty this year. The Senate- The other Monday for sus- passed bill was sent to the pending the rules will be lost White Irmise bY a vote of 375 to 7. Until last year the to the recess for the A Ug. 21-23 stations,which broadcast to Republican National Conven? Eastern Europe and the Soviet tion. In an effort to clear away much work as possible, Union, had been financed by as Home leaders put every avail. Central intelligence Agency able minor bill on yesterday's and private funds. schedule. * Extend for two years the But for various reasons, in- period in which federal funds eluding members' resentment will pay the first S25:000 al. being being asked to ram through cation costs for persons whose 24 bills .in one sitting after a property is taken for a federal leisurely schedule of 31/2-day project, The bill, which had weeks most of the session, the passed the Senate in different attempt didn't work. Conserva-!form, was approved 374 to 10. lives demanded roll call votes .on- every bill, includim../ onr. o Permit employees of non-? that passed by a vote of 380 to profit hospitals to use machin- 2. At 6:30 p.m., the leadership erY of the National Labor Be- gave up and adjourna lations Board to obtain recog- The six bills would: nition of their unions. Most hospital strikes have been ' 0 Imrease from $5,000 to caused. not by disagreements $10,000 a year pensions for the over. wages but over whether six widows of Supreme Cowl- the hospital would recognie: justices. The bill, which the workers bargaining unit. passed 280 to 97 and has been It WaS sent to the Senate by a approved by the Senate in clif- t of 285 to 95, ferent form, was drafted after reports that one or more of 6 Strengthen administration ? of a law requiring that em- ployees of .a company holding a government service contract, such as a laundry servicing a military base, be paid the pre- vailing .wage and fringe bene- fits in the locality. The bill is. more specific enforce- ment direetives to the Labor ? ,Department, which the House .14_1(itication and Labor Comtnit- ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : th 100070001-8 - the senate by n vote of 2.74 to 103. . STATINTL AugAPPYPY9912F0r Itc0fIWERVOItrficW-PFP/9179itz, HR. 12308 Establishes a National Institute on Aging. 15.14. 12325 Provides homemaking and eon- sumer education assistance for the elderly. H.R. 13128 Updates pensions for World War I veterans and widows. HR. 14077 Provides for voluntary employ- ment programs for older persons. H. Res. 124 Establishes a Select Committee on the Aging to study problems and needs of the elderly. S. 1103 Provides ?increases in the field of nutrition, education, and low-cost meals for the aged. FEDERAL HELP FOR CITIZENS' GROUPS ? HON. JONATHAN II. 13INGHAII OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Friday, August 4, 1972 ? Mr. BINGHAM, Mr. Speaker, inci- dents of crime have increasingly marred the daily lives". of all Americans. Effec- .tive measures to forestall the rate of crime must be given the fullest attention of Congress. On successful method has been the?formation of citizen groups to patra their own communities. have recently received a petition from New York City residents supporting H.R. 12262, the Citizen Anticrime Patrol Assistance Act which I originated and have introduced in the House, This legis- lation would- provide Federal assistance to citizens' self-helli organizations for their efforts to curb crime and restore peace to neighborhoods. Such assistance could be used for the formation of crime wateh patrols and the coordination of escort services to help residents reach their hoes Safety. The assistance under tins bill is not intended to fight crime through the use of guns and strong-arm methods. Instead, it would deter the oc- currences of crime by the interested pres- ence of organized residents. I have pre- viously provided a detailed description of the 'purposes and provisions of the Citi- zen Anticrime Patrol Assistance Act on December 13,1972 at pages 1112391-12292 of the REcos.D. I am particularly pleased to submit for the Recoil') the following petition signed by 65 residents of the 23d Con- gressional District which I have the honor to represent as an indication of Popular support for legislation of this kind. The petition follows: Baorrx, N.Y., March 7, 1972. Mr. JONATHAN B. BINGHAM, Congressman 23d District, Bronx, N.Y. DEAR SIR: We the citizens of the Bronx and. other Boroughs hearledly endorse your pro- posal to enact legislation to obtain "Federal Funds" to finance a "safe street" program whereby, citizens could have street protec- tion and escort services in hallways and stairs. Especially senior citizens who are afraid to go out evenings to churches etc., and especially in high crime areas' we. are, also opposed to funds being used for guns or any form of weapons or transportation. Please accept the following signatures to back-up our sentiments: SIGNED DY 65 NEW YORK RESIDENTS. Rev. S. A.. Allen, Carolyn Allen, Geneva Walker, Rosetta Grover, V. M, Fred Allbrit- ton, David Tuckcy, Jesse Tuckey, Dorothy Gray, Katie Williams, William Kitt. Venus Price, Wayne Nerds, Paul Neal, Mrs. Charlie Mae Luckey, Mrs. Audrey Williams, Annie Slaten, Edith Wingate, Ethelise Wil- liams, Mrs. Kupert P. Bowman, Samuel Scott, Mrs. Louise Kitt, Chirlie lIasel, Kattie Williams, Barbara Slate?, Lillie Greene, Donald Smith, Wally Slater, Latirene Gruleb, Jasper Williams, Essio Bowman, Mrs. Brenda Furniye, Mr. Buster Lee Funny?, Mr. and Mrs. S. Sussman, Sonnie Wisie, Mrs. P. Glastern, Julius Glastern, H. K. Kroniss, Hyacinth A. Davis, M.D., Carmen Ortiz, William Smith, Carrie Bradley, R. Hedman, A. W. Madden, C. Lipschitz, Joanne Goluck, Ana Rodriguez, S. Ciolafede, S. Bernstein, J. Finan, Mrs. Gera ? Northern, Barnet Sharron, Julie Kaplan, M. Syloette, Josephine Syloette, Brenda Robinson, Juan Rivera, Millie Santos, Goofy Velez, A. V. Brathwaite, R. Arum, Chris Fargo, Juan Ruiz, Ruben Stewart, Seymour Clark; Mr. Morris, Luis Magdanela, J. Toben, M. Schneider, John Argot, W. Glazer, A. Hornstein, B. Glazer, Henri and Gladys Vilarie, John Henry Snow, Tassas Deellhos, W. Samborg. A FRESH LOON. AT RADIO LIBERTY AND RADIO FREE- EUROPE HON.. I1ENJAEIIN S. ROSENTHAL OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE or REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 7, 1972 Mr. mosENTnAL, Mr. Speaker, I voted today to approve the interim ex- tension of financing for -Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. I did this with some serious reservations about the wis- dom of continued official American sup- port for these stations which broadcast to the Soviet Union and to .the other eastern European countries, respectively. This reservation stems from the earlier clandestine American involvement in supporting these broadcasts, through the Central Intelligence Agency. With the exposure of that suppOrt, which was done without congressional authorization, must come a new status for these sta- tions. Radio Liberty and Radio Free Eu- rope should either continue to receive official American support under appro- priate fiscal and policy controls?in which case they probably should be in- corporated into Voice of America pro- graming?or they should be fully inde- pendent of official support and control. Giving mine support without public controls is wrong; duplicating Voice of America broadcasting. through Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty is waste- ful; and trying t& maintain the fiction that we Can officially fund private attacks on other governments while trying to imi?.?ove relations with those govern- ments is foolish. I support this interim program with the understanding that the study of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty which we authorize with that support will yield a prompt solution to the pres- ent anomalous status of these. stations. cram- zs E7331' FDA BAN OF DES TARDY AND INADEQUATE ? 1-10N. L. II. FOUNTAIN. OF NORTH CAROLINA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, August 7, 1072 Mr. FOUNTAIN. Mr. Speaker, last Wednesday the Food and Drug Adminis- tration announced that it has taken ac- tion to ban the use of diethylstilbestrol? DES?as a growth stimulant in animal feeds. In explaining the basis for this action, FDA Commissioner Charles C. Edwards said that new scientific data developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture?USDA casts serious doubt on FDA's ability to set rules for the use of DES in animal feed that will assure against residues remaining in animal livers. Thus, the United States has now taken steps to join 21 other countries in banning the use of this cancer-promoting drug in tile production of meat. I am pleased that FDA has finally faced up to its responsibility for enforc- ing the law, but this action is Jong over- due. It was required many months ago when it became clearly evident that the use of DES in livestock feeding could hot be controlled. Although FDA has finally halted the manufacture of DES for feeding pur- poses, I find it indefensible that Com- missioner Edwards is permitting the con- tinued shipment and use of feed mixes containing DES until January 1,1972. If the law re.quires FDA "to discontinue approval for use of the chemical in ani- mal feed," as Commissioner Edwards sttited in his news release', I do not know the source of his legal authority for sanc- tioning the continued interstate ship- ment of DES mixes. Both the wisdom and the legality of permitting. a 5-month phaseout period for a product which can no longer be legally manufactured must be seriously questioned. There is no justification, in my opinion, for ex:- posing the public another 5 months to drug. which is known to be a potent ,/cancer-promoting substance and which FDA now acknowledges cannot be kept out of the liver we eat. The Commissioner's statement that. DES has been used in the feed of cattle and sheep for nearly two decades "with- out a single known instance of human harm" is not very reassuring. As the Commissioner surely knows, it is virtually impossible to prove in this tune period that. small amounts of any carcinogen, no matter how potent, have harmed humans, because cancers in man may not 'become apparent until decades after the exposure has taken place. 1,1-ore:iver, there is no available scientific method for demonstrating that a very widely used carcinogen, such as DES in livestock feed, is or is not the causative agent for any form of cancer which develops in man. What we do know is that DES, which has long been known to cause cancer in numerous species of experimental ani- mals, was associated for the first time last year with human cancer. Medical Approved For: Release 2001/03/04: C.IA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 201;:q Ti' 411 ? .1. 10 0 ? auive .des.11.-nt , 0 '. By Donald R. Morris Post INIewl AnAlyst ? Radio Free Europe, broadcasting into East Europe, and Radio Liberty, broad.: casting into the Soviet Union, are safe.- . -- ? for another year. . .... . -. ?.. Sep. J. W. Fulbright's attempt to, choke them has been beaten down. (In. view of ihe measure of senatorial sup--.. pOrt they received, "crushed down''- might be it better term.) ... , ? The Radios were started in 1950 by the. United States government.. Wishing ,to. /conceal its hand, the 'government mad, use of the nascent CIA to establish and fund them; which the agency ably did, . The rationale was only partly the desire' to achieve plausible denial?after all, the government was overtly broadcastinf much the same sort ,of material on the Vice .of America. 'Far more important was the fact that the potential audience. would be much more receptive to mate- rial. emanating front a "private" enter- prise than it would be to official broad- casts from a foreign government .it re- garded with some hostility. This was?and is?a perfectly work- able device. The sponsorship of the Ra- dios didn't fool the KGB, which promPtly set up a clamor, and it didn't so Much fool as lull the audience; the object was to get people behind the Iron Curtain to listen to the news, 7t,1 d start- ing broadcasts with "This is the United States government speaking" simply set the red lights flashing. . There was newr a deliberate attempt to fag. the American public after the first few years, when private funds were solicited through commercial advertise- ments in President Eisenhower's name.. By the. time of the Hungarian revolt in 1956, the Radios'. tattered virginity could not be patched and ihe effort was aban- doned; by the 1960s .their continued exis- tence as "private" -enterprises resem- ibalVAPidd irilg. Reittige/901/03/04 .. CIA7RDP80-01601 R001100070001 -5 STATI NTL c#41-siP*RDP80-01601 Sen. Cli.fforcl Case, offended hy anamoly, tried to make honest stations out of the Radios in 1971, by excising I he ? CIA funding duct ?and replacing it With direct congreSsional appropriations. This would have destroyed what little plau- sible denial the Radios still pos- sessed--and be it i'6Inembered the plau- sible denial was designed not for the American public but for the audience be- hind the iron Curtain. ' Sen. Fulbright, however, wished to go further. Abetted by Sen. Mike Mansfield and Stuart Symington, who, with Sen. William Proxmire, constitute ?a group known in. certain governmental ? circles as 'The Anvil Chorus," he tried to kill off the Radios, on the grounds that they antagonized the ruling cliques of total- itarian states with whom we were at- tempting to achieve a detente. The Radios are listened to regularly by an est boated 300 million people in Eastern Europe?hall the population over the age of 14----and very few of them appear to be antagonized.' Senatorial reaction?as well as Ameri- can press comment, which ran 20 to 1. in favor of the Radios?proved to be more far-sighted than the Anvil Chorus, The Radios can now continue, in peace, quiet and considerably more limelight than they appreciate, until the next fiscal year. ? ? DAILY wRu) Approved For Release 2001/03/04 :.CIA-RDP80-01 18 JUL 1972 ele:1,1-4112ogal STATINTL . .112adio Liberty's mut.'3-Piteroual subversion By ERIK BERT ? The New York Times has re- cently been featuring Lithuania' in its Moscow dispatches. If a Lithuanian nationalist belches or burps you can be certain that the New: York Times will find out about it, report it, via under- ground sources, as a signal of socialist Soviet Lithuania rising up against socialism, the Soviet /Union, Karl Marx and soon. .There is a parallel between the Ki New York Times' concern Jor the Soviet nationalities and that of the Central Intelligence Agency. Thus, the CIA's outlet to the Soviet Union, nadio Liberty, has a "specialized interest in the ' non-Russian nationalities" in its . operations, the Library of Con- gress study of EL reports. ? The ramifications of the CIA's Radio Liberty operation may be ? judged in part by the fact that its Nationalities Service broad- casts in Ukrainian and Byelorus- sian, both Slavic languages; and in the following non-Slavic lan- guages: Armenian, Azerbaijani. and Georgian: the North Cauca- sian languages, Adighe, Ayar, Chechen, ?Karachi, Ossetian, Ta- tar-Bashkir :and Crimean Tartar; and the Turkestani languages, Ka- zakh,. Kirghiz, Tajik, Turkmen, . Uighur arid Uzbek, and in Kara- kaipal. ? The CIA's "RL regards the na- tionality question as one that is and will continue to be a critical and potentially divisive problem , of the Soviet system." The tee- Meal objective of the CIA is -to get nationalists to "make common cause with each other outside the framework of official Soviet po- licy." ? It attempts to instigate nation- ' alistic antagonism within the So- viet Union, and to frustrate the attempt to create, among the many nationalities that comprise ? the USSR, "a single 'Soviet peo- ple.' : Radio Liberty seeks to stimu- late "national (nationalistic?EB) and local interests versus the all- task of encouraging the national- The -subtle touch is 'indicated ities separately. ..against the in a program of Radio Liberty's centralized regime." Ukrainian-Byelorussian service The target is the Soviet system - in October, 1971, alleging that the and the CIA 'therefore "avoids Soviet regime "has allowed pre- stimulating antagonism among the 1917 national monuments in Bye- Soviet peoples whatever their na- lorussia to fall into disrepair, tionality" for such nationalistic while allocating resources for antagonism would confuse its preserving those of the Bolshevik. anti-Soviet goals. period." - To this end, appended to Radio The CIA is promoting the na- Liberty's Policy Manual is a tionalism angle, also in the arena of semizdat, that is, the repro- "series of National Langunge An- of for each (non-Russian--EB) duction of literature In mimeo- language service." They provide graph, hectograph, carbon-copy "specific commentaries on the and other 'underground' 'devices, unique aspects of broadcasts in including handwritten copies. the given language" and "deter- RL's Ukrainian broadcasts have mine for each nationality any spe- been a major vehicle of this na- cial goals or emphasis, specific tionalist:samizbat. policy lines, and distinctive audi- The CIA is interested neither ence characteristics, in a people's language, nor their "The annexes also state RL's national culture but in anti-Soviet (that is the Central Intelligence ."political overtones." ? Agency's?EB) policy lines on any In its broadcasts RL attempts territorial questions and histori- to create an anti-Soviet front cal topics of particular import- regardless of origins, "stressing mice only to the given national and For example "M.'s Armenian broadcasts" purport to defend the Armenian language against .--11.ussification," supports "indi- genous efforts for purification of other Soviet nationalities, Radio the language," recognizes that Liberty broadcasts in Russian not "all languages incorporate words only for Russians but because !The Russian language is the lin- gua. franca of the Soviet Union spoken and understood not only by the Great Russians but also by many of the other nationali- ties." The CIA's nationalistic stance in respect to languages is totally unprincipled and, of course, un- ? scrupulous, twisting the issue whichever way will suit its dis- ruptive purposes best. - In the murky waters of nation- alism, .the CIA casts a benign eye on even Great Russian chauvin- ism, on one hand, and Europeani- zation,. on the other, promoting impartially what Radio Liberty calls the "historic conflict be- tween Slavophiles and Wcsterni- zers." Radio Liberty has had problems Union regime," denouncing "over- question of language, but not to in promoting non-Russian nation- centralization of state power at do it so violently and antagonis- alism since, as the Library of the elense of the regions." 1.16 ausaAdeatc[14.:40 stil on RI. reoorts, it . "concentrates on the immediate to subvert. ' the need for common cause with Russian disenters and other op- positional elements in its non- Russian broadcasts.'. While decrying the Russian lan- guag,e in' its broadcasts to th m e fro other languages as part of - a natural process," accepts "evo- lutionary trends in the Armenian language,". but desists from set- ting itself up as an "arbiter of good Armenian language or lead- ing the "campaign for purifica% lion of the Armenian language." "The main emphasis of the (CIA's-----EB) Armenian Service is on the right of the Armenian people to use and develop their language," to determine, "through changes in accepted usage . . . the kind of Armenian language they prefer." This tortuous policy does not arise out of concern by the CIA for the purity or the natural evo- lution of the .Armenian language. It is intended rather to stimulate Armenian nationalism around the . in t ppromecliEcar Releaser Oa - . b ,80-411 liR0 140007. CH11115 ? Russian chauvinists. STATI NTL oontil/ , L . ? ta'a ) .'???? ? I.. ') 1. ? ? a : .. ? _f?'?'"--...--,',.'? T:li-1-1 - _;?.;.-: 1. t i ..,:.? I11 ? '..,,' ,:?.) ? co'aat? . . ,' ? - iti il .:: .:? .?v,, 1.5la??'.'1.:4?? ? ii.- 4 -.'t ty. ? ial c tAa ' I' ..t By EAII1 BERT ? The Central intelligence Agency plays a cautious game with idea- logy, and -ideological struggle, in deali-ng with the socialist world. For example, Radio Liberty, CIA's Soviet-oriented broadcast- ing system, uses the formula, "ideologiCal irrelevance of Marx- ism-Leninism." That is one of the t "practical themes" in the "im- mediate objectives" which RI. pursues "within the larger frame- work of goals and purposes." That's the way it's put in the Li- brary Congress study of Radio Liberty. Marxism-Leninism. is the ern- ? bracing ideological superstruc- ture of the socialist nations. It is : an instrument for political, eco- ? nomic and social development. The CIA considers it the better part of discretion, generally, to avoid a philosophical confrontation on this level. For one thing; what competing package would it pick, from philosophical wares offered . in Capitalism's ideology shop? For another thing, the experi- ences of the Czechoslovak Spring in 1933 suggested that there are better alternatives. The socialism- with-a-human-face slogan prey- ? ed to be very useful, in encour- aging -anti-Sovietism?in the name of socialism. The Prague experi- ence showed that a section of in- tellectuals in the socialist world are suckers for empty declama- tion. Under 'normal' circumstances, the CIA's Radio Liberty "as a matter of policy . . aoccpts all Soviet institutions though not its ideology." Radio Liberty's IfIfiLPolicy nail AzopromedfRoriFtedeasq 2001/03/04 Cpk-RDP SUA 1%1 it:Fel A 1.4109126/4/1413.V.0.1.M.06IMN366,84,11. Or?KJ,101101,12. t2, 0 c.:-al.a.1 ? undermine Communist idea- Lao sliewing that it does not apromote the wellare of. the pco- pies of' the USSR, trad to show, that history points toward pro- grass in freedom of all "Progress in freedom of all peoples" is net the progaam, of course, tlatt th CIA has practic- ed in Vietnam, in Laos, or Cam: bfalda. There t etaplimsis has Leen on ZSEaSSinNiOn. The Policy 7)-Saitud's propasal "to eacoarage cnIturai diverity and freedom of exteher1Z3 of ideas ant: travel" has also not ken carried out by the CIA in L :le china. The CIA's own "philosophy" might Le described as pragma- tism or practicalism. It does not oven stick. to the "principled" position that Marxism-Leninism is "irrelevant." A different posture is adopted in the "cross reporting" format of Radio Free Europe, Under "cross reporting" technique Ra- dio Free Europe reports "to each (socialist) country, developments in other East European countries, the USSR, and aniong Commu- nist parties in the rest of the world." The CIA presents its ideas "in 0 {:-'9 (17 ; i' (L.') I , (f. .,........). ...i*....,. ..., -,.. ,...............,..........-. ..__ .,.1 ... . t. -s.:;'?-,e.'.-' ---, L.:*--i.i.' ---------:_,-. 1 k i ...-.....: tt" I 1 ,:. , ?":---..._.-.._.------u _,--,.-7---;----;"---...--;: --).____--- :1 .-- ,-...-___. ,.......,........,\.?...--____, , -------_:----,--,..? 4.)...., A41-4:41V,C!!-Pt CO, mediate objectives:" 17 a a context which implies that they are ideologically defensible." That is, the CIA's propaganda is presented here as not alien to Marxism-Leninism. It is presented as "politically. practicable (at least in the eyes of one Communist leadership" against another Communist Party leadership. The CIA seeks to "create hope and interest in the possibility of change." Finally, it "eraphasize(s) what East Euro- peans have in common apart from (and in contrast to) the So- viet Union." RL has a "philosophical ap- proach." It "appeals to rational- ism." It would have Soviet citi- zens believe that its "rational approach' seeks to overcome the "monopoly over communications," whereas, what it has in mind, is warfare against Marxism-Lenin- ism, and the political line of the Soviet Communist Party.. ' Radio Free EtIrOp, the CIA ' broadcasting, operation aimed at Buigaaia, Czacia)slovotitia, Hun- gary, Poland and Romana, has pursued the campaign against Marxism-Leninisrn. in the guise of a defense of scientific advance.. The. "campaign for ideological purity" in "socialist societies'' has "always proven a hindrance to the improvement of living standards in keeping with the possibilities now available through technology," the Library of Con- gress study of RYE says. The broadcasts beamed at Bul- garia for example, concentrated on the following: "The neati for raore freedom of iuforrnatitahiDal:I-aria." "The need for less emphasis on ideological conformity and more on technical proficiency as job assignment and promotion crite- ria." The target is in fact Marxism- Leninism, the underlying philo- Oophy of the Communist parties, and of the socialist states. The attempt to undermine Marx- - ism-Leninism is undertaken in- directly. The attack is carried on by decrying agreement with Marxism-Leninism as "conform- ity;" but even that is treated gingerly, RFE-CIA recommend- -01S01-ROOt1000700014- phasis" on such "conformity." STATI NTL COritiLataiti DAILY won Approved For Release 200g/90/0ilaCIA-RDPNACHACITROO T(f-evul.,creal Radio Liberfy unplugs a sewer the (fascist?EB) document was Soviet Unitin, the cm "carefully By ERIK BERT Radio Liberty, the Central In- shelved." ' . indicates that the broadcast is telligence Agency's anti-Soviet It might also have had some done without, the knowledge of broadcast operation, has a theme "counterproductive".effects ? the writer:' This policy is design- song "that identifies the station," among Radio Liberty's other col- ? ed to protect the writers of the Library of Congress study laborators. These champions of samizdat from reprisals of the of RL reports. . "freedom" might have balked at regime." - It is "played in various rhythms , sharing RL's services with the To that end, also, "RL will ex- and styles depending on the : fascists who had slain 20 million ert every effort to assure that show." The"theme is taken from -Soviet people. its broadcasts of genuine texts ,Wymn to Free Russia' written The recurrence to the past be- Or excerpts are identified or at- by Grechaniov. ... between the came.a problem on one occasion. tributed on the air to reputable March democratic revolution and A Radio Liberty author, "corn- Western media." the November Bolshevik Revolu-. paring humanitarian aspects of RL "will always disassociate tion of 1917." the monarchy .of old Russia and the author from In.'s use of his This period, which the. Library the Soviet regime ... touched," tat' or excerpts ... Commentary of Congress .depicts as one of in the words of the Liberty of is to . be made only after the "evolving democwacy," was the Congress, "on a very delicate text or excerpts have been broad- period when the Kcrensky regime subject," the "humanitarian as- cast; RL will not by timing or sacrificed hundreds of thousands pect" of Czarist Russia. ? content of its broadcasts endan- of Russian soldiers to keep the . Radio Liberty decided that it ger an author whose position Allied side going in the imperi- "should not play the role of de- seems precarious ..." alist conflict with - the Central fender of the old (Czarist?EB) That's to remove the CIA odor Powers. regime ..." from the texts, excerpts, or au- The. 'Hymn to Free Russia,' "Action was taken and ap- thor. to capitalist Russia, was super- propriate changes in the text Book-size samizdat presents' a seded by the 'International,' Ke- were effected prior ' to broad- problem for the CIA. Broadcast- rensky ; by the Bolsheviks and cast," so that RL would not be jug a book from the first to last war by peace. presented to the Soviet audience page over Radio Liberty is a The first action taken by the as .a defender of the Czarist re- formidable task.. The solution?. Soviet government, the day after gime. "Now that Western commercial the revolution, was the Decree . Francis S. Ronalds, deputy to publishers are publishing samiz- on.Peace. Lenin was its author. the executive director of Radio .da," the "book review" tech- Music is not the main dish, Liberty, is quoted by the Library nique is being used. 'however, on Radio Liberty. That of Congress as saying that "there Samizdat has received a very spot is occupied by samizdat, the is `no question that RL is play- good press in the U.S., so much works of so-called 'dissidents' ing (an) essential role in giving so that some "Kremlinologists" reproduced by typewriter or mi- the publicity that samizdat needs have cautioned that its effect ?meo machine, or- otherwise, and and that .the democratic forces may not be as widespread as distributed by hand in the Soviet need?" I. advertiSed. Thus, the Library of Union. The main subscribers are The full truth is something else Congress study of Radio Liberty Western newsmen. again, as Ronalds discloses. cites Peeter Reddaway, a "So- Samizdat is not uniform in qua- " 'What is happening,' he said, . viet specialist" at the London lity. The Library of Congress "is that themes plugged for the ? 'School of Economics and an "ex- study cites "the case of a sam- past three years are now turning pert on samizdat," as saying that izdat document from multiple up in samizdat.' " ? "caution should temper thoughts ? groups in the Soviet Union that That is, the "themes plugged about the widespread circulation had a strong fascist flavor." , for the past three years" by the of samizdat." Radio Liberty's Program Pol- CIA over Radio Liberty have Similarly, Martin Dewhirst, icv Division in Mnnich "felt that been inscribed in one form or British specialist on Soviet at- this (fascist-EB), d o cu m en t another in samizdat, the samiz- fairs on the Faculty of Slavonic should be broadcast in keeping dat is smuggled to Munich, Studies at Glasgow University, with RL's principle of giving whence the CIA's Radio Liberty cites one "Arkady ?Belinkov, a all views." broadcasts it to the Soviet Un- widely read man if ever there - "However,- some RL staff ar- ion as "thoughts of the Soviet was one," who "did not seem gued against using it because of people themselves," which have even to have heard of it (re- the profound negative. feelings- not been "filtered essentially ligidus samizdat), let, alone to among the Soviet people arising through the minds of outsiders" have read it." from their wartime experience-s, but whose "purity' of thought- One would be tempted to con- To broadcast such extremist (fas- ful reflection in the Soviet expe- elude from the study- that "for- eist?EB). views, they felt, would rience is ... preserved." eign channels of communication be countArAii1?41te.," Till ?8If cimolicituns, of_ille_ahe press and l radio)" iirovide ecmcFgriggheam A i / 4e.C:IlAbliVIP80-0116014WiltOKR0010i -5 The PArggfarr" conceded, and the idea of using casting samizdat works to the .samizdat than the home market. .._ Approved For Release 2001T orsidit VOr Schleicher ? Langendorf ist, abgesehen von seiner Stellung ls Public-Relations-Mann beim Sender RFE, Herausgeber und redaktioneller Leiter der ?Osteuro- paischen Rundschau", die sich in Zei- ten des offert gefiihrten kalten Krie- ges ?Hinter dem Eisernen Vorhang" nannte, und gerade diese Funktion yerschafft ihrn eine Sonderstellung von auBergewohnlichem EinfluB.Ein- mal steht Langendorf ohne die sonst tiblichen Zwischenschaltungen in direkter Verbindung mit der New- Yorker FREE-EUROPE-Zentrale; em n wesentlicher Tell der Beitrage in der ?Osteuropaischen Rundschau" entstammt der in New York redigier- ten Zeitschrift ?East Europe" und wird von Langendorf far den euro-- paischen Konsum aufbereitet Zum anderen halt er aber die ?Osteuro- paische Rundschau" die Faden in der - Hand, die von RFE zur westdeut- schen Presse, zu Universitaten, Biblio- theken, kirchlichen Organisational und sogenannten Ostforschungsinsti- tuten f?hren, deren Vorstellungen und Urtejle fiber die sozialistische Welt sich ausschlieBlich aus diesen traben Quellen nahren. Langendorfs Publikation riihmt sich, ihren Abneh- mem neben allgemein ?orientierat- den" Artikeln ein exklusives Infor- mationsmaterial bieten zu konnen. Es wird vom ?East Europe Research & Analysis Department" des. Sen- ders aus angeblich 900 in der Sowjet- union und den volksdemokratischen Landem erscheinenden PublikatiOnen, STATI NTL '150-RDP80-01601R Da die ?Forschungsabteilung" von RFE unter Leitung des Englanders Cook in erster Linie ?nachrichten- dienstliche" Funktionen ausabt und zum Apparat der CIA geltart, stela Langendorf auf diese Weise mit dem Herzstack des Senders in engster Ver- bindung. Hinzuweisen wire auBerdem noch auf eine weitere Funktion, die der viel- beschaftigte Langendorf ausabt.? Er ist Vorsitzender der Vereinigung der Auslandskorrespondenten. In dieser Eigenschaft halt er engen? Kontakt mit den Vertretern der groBen aus- Iandischen Zeitungen' und Naduich- tenagenturen sowie mit den Bericht- erstattern westdeutscher Zeitungen. Ganz offen wird davon gesprocheri, dal3 Langendorf bei der Lancierung von Nachriduen nicht nur groBes Ge- schidc, sondem auch eine bemerkens- werte Freigebigkeit beweist Dent- licher gesagt, daB er die ?Gefallig- keiten" einiger seiner Kollegen von der auslandischen und BRD-Presse mit barer Manze honoriert. Auch .heiBt es, daB er unter dem recht pas- send gewahlten Pseudonym ?Schlei- cher" selbstverfaBte Artikel zur Auf- hellung des RFE-Images in groBen BRD-Blattem vom Typ der ?Sad- deutschen Zeitung" auf Grund dieser herzlichen 13eziehungen unterzubrin- gen verstanden hat. eheirnwaffe: Kultur Sozusagen als NebenprOdukt der ?Osteuropaischen Rundschau bringt der Abwehrab natarlida _teilt661 ceaktiona- miAoproveci2ForvRelease 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-0160413010,110A Cate, nach setzt, zusarnmengebraut 44 RFE miter Leitung von Langendorf einen Nachrichten-und-Feature-Ser- vice heraus, ?der wiederum von dem ?West European Advisory Commit- tee" angeleitet wird. Dieser Dien, der taglich in deutscher, franzasi- scher,. englischer, hollandisther und italienischer Ausgabe erscheint, geht der Tagespresse in den jeweiligen westeuropaischen Landern gratis zu. Das versetzt das Miro Langendorf in die Lage, seine zwielichtige Tatig- keit iiber die BRD-Grenzen hinaus auszudehnen. Als aussichtsreichste Methode, sich Gehiir bei einer gewissen Schicht von Intelligenzlern zu verschaffen, hat Langendorf das Gesprach aber Fra- gen der Kultur gewahlt. In den Dienst der ideologischen Diversion hat er das sogenannte Europa-Kolleg in Bragge und das ?Europaische Kul- turzentrum" in Genf eingespannt, welche RFE mit standigen Sende- reihen versorgen. Darin wird die ?Einheit der abendlandischen Kul- tur" im Gegensatz zu den ?russischen Traditionen" gepredigt, die kulturelle Zugehorigkeit der osteuropaischen Lander zum ges?amteuropaischen Kul- turkreis unterstridien und eine kul- turelle Renaissance im Zeichen der Nereinigten Staaten von Europa" in Aussicht gestellt Unser diesem Aspekt, wenn auch wesentlich konkreter, ist eine Liaison zwischen RFE und dem Pariser Mai- son Lafitte entstanden, das sich als polnisches ?liberales Emigrantenzen- trum far den politischen Austausch" bezeidmet und unter dem beherr- schenden EinfluB eines gewissen Gie- droyc steht, der vor dem Krieg in ooratinuad Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 der Befreiung Pc:dens 1945 nada Paris flUchtete und dort eine wild anti- sowjetische Publikation, ?Wschod" mit Namen, herausgibt A 'ughlitter in Zigaretten Maison Lafitte verlegt eine Zeit- schrift, ?Ku!tura" genannt, die sich so prazise den subversiven Inten- tionen der Langendorf und Kum- pane einfligt, dal die RFE-Zentrale in M?nchen jeweils die Halfte dcr Auflage aufkauft und auf Schmuck lerpfaden iiber die polnische Gren.A. zu bringen versucht Fin ? ultura'- beigelegtes Flugblatt, von derselben F.migrantengruppe entworfen, wurde, in vielen t'ausend Exemplaren ;I Zigaretten eingerollt, dutch ?Free- Europe"-Agenten tach Volkspolen geschmuggelt Es en.sot ach durchaus den betrOgerischen Methoden ?Free Europe's", dieses in Paris verfaBte Flugblatt...als ?Willensaufkrung der polnischen' Kulturschaffenden" fiber den Munchner Sender in die soziali- stischen Lander zu strahlen. Gerade an dem Fall Maison Lafitte laBt sich emeut der geradezu naht- lose ebergang von ideologischer Di- version in hand feste Spionagetatig- keit nachweisen. In standiger Ver- bindung mit entsprechenden Stellen in M?nchen hat Maison Lafitte auch versucht, einen ?Kurieedienst nach Palen einz-urichten und dort Agenten- gruppen aufzubauen. Kontaktrnanner versuchen besonders labile Studen- ten mit der Zusicherung, ihnen Stu- dienplatze an amedkanischen Univer- sitaten zu verschaffen, fur ihre finste- ten . Plane zu kodern. AuBerdem machen sie sich an Schriftsteller, Film- und Biihnenschaffende heran, dencn sic buthstablich goldene Berge ver- sprechen, falls sic sich entschlieBen sollten, der sozialistischen Hcimat deu Raken zu kehren. Allerdings, einem Tell der amerika- nischen Monopolherren, die ein paar hunderttausend Dollar an den ?Free Europe"-Fonds zzi iiberweisen pile- gen, paBt das nicht. Bei ihren zahl- reichen Stipvisiten in Munchen ver- treten sic immer wieder die Mei- nung, daB man statt des ganzen Linksgequassels" handfeste, harte paste und andere bekannte Marken- artikel aufhellen sollte. wessen Tasc:he? Auf dem Firmenschild am Eingarg des RFE-Gebaudes, Englischer Ga-- ten Nr. 1, steht unter der Zeile RADIO FREIES EUROPA in settr viel bescheidenerer Ausfiihrung 2u leen: ?Diese Stimme der Freiheit wurde ermoglicht durch die ZUVVCII- dungen von 16 Millionen Amerika- nein fiir den Kreuzzug der Freiheit .im jahre 1950." Das ist natrirlich chi Witz, auf den allerdings viee gccira Acn fo se und politiseft naive Menschen hereingefallen sind. Zw:.r stirnmt es, ciall der abenteuerlichste untcr den antikommunistischel Sabelmsslern, General Lucius D. Clay, gleith nach seiner Abltisung von dem Berliner Posten durch die Weiten der amerikanischen Staaten zog, in der einen Hand eine Nad- bildung der von ihm ausgeheckten SchOneberger ?Freiheits"bimmel mai in der anderen den Klingelbeutel. Zweifellos hat sein Redeschwatl vicie seiner Zuhorer hingerissen, ein Scherflein fur den ?Kreuzzug" be- zusteuern. Aber das ist der Cent, woher kommt der Dollar? Unbestreitbar ist ebenfalls, daB die milliardenschweren Herren, die sich in ?Free Europe Incorporated" zu- Leserrneinungen zu ? E-11 4 rit tun anf,;:iittletegl ii:M7404111 Sammler-Vorschlag kit sammle mit groBem Intereme die Tatsachen-Serien wie -?Feue,7- ball" und jetzt das ?Gift im Eng- lischen Garten". Dicse Serien um- fassen jeweils zwei Seiten, die aber 1eiderauf zwei Blatter gedrud:t sind. Zum Sammeln waren abet 2 Seiten auf 1 Blatt besser. J?rgen Gottscblicb, 8122 Radebeul Die Redaktion fiberpriift die typo- .grapbiscb-techniscben Moglichkeitea. Eine ErgAnzung . Der NBI em n Lob. Nath der Tat- sachenfolge ?Der Feuerball" fincle ich Georg Honigmanns ?Gift" sehr aufschluBreich daffir, mit welchen Methoden die CIA und ihre OrganC walen, urn die Entwicklung im Sozialismus aufzuhalten und rack- gangig zu machen. ?Gift" it eine Erganzung zum ?Feuerball". Karl Handke, 86 Bautzen Gefahrliche Giftspritze Das Gift aus dem Englischen Gar- ten client dazu, die sozialistischen Lander zu beschimpfert und zu ver- feumcfen. Oarnit wollen nicht nur der Hetzsender RFE, sondem auch die andcren Spionagesender des USA-Imperialismus in der BRD, wie Radio Liberty, Rias mid Voice of Amerika in Germany, die Lehre des Marxismus-Leninismus bekampfen, raffiniert verfalschen und die Werk- tatigen von der Politik der kommu- nistischen Parteien isolieren. Im Hauptdokument der Kommunisti- schen und Arbeiterparteien wurde zu Recht darauf hingewiesen, die verbrecherische Politik der Imperiali- sten verstarkt zu entlarven und start- dig die Wachsamkeit der Offentlich- keit gegentiber den Diversions-Pla- nen der Imperialisten zu erh?hen. Dr. Grinter Ebersbach, 8122 Dresden sammenfanden, ticf in die Tasche ge- griffen haben. Das tat ihnen nicht weh, und es gehOrt.zur Routine der Reichen und der Superreichen in den USA, mittels Spenden an Stif- tungen und ?gemeinnazige" Insti- tutionen ihre Steuererklarungen zu frisieren. Das ist ein ausgezeichnetes Geschaft, das ihnen ein Vielfaches dessen einbringt, was die ?patrio- tische" Geste kostet. Aber auch die paar Millionen Dollar, die auf diese Weise zusammenkommen, machen den Kohl nicht fett. Heute 'gibt es kein Ratselraten mehr.dar- Eber, wet der groBe Unbckannte ist, der Aufbau, Wartung und Pro- gramme der groBten und starksten Sendeanlagen Europa s und alles, was damit zusammenhangt, finan- ziert. Es ist die Central Intelligence Agency, die blutbesudelte, in aller Welt verhaBte, vor keinem Verbre- then zuriickschreckende CIA. - Propaganda senden und die Pro- gramme iaNiefickfidpvitrytOt spots fiir-CroE:aora;roleSee ase 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 continuad ovetrFor Re I east32001 3ic(4rIC*IRp1n' 1601R001100070001-5 wohlabgewogene Meinung" ? lieB er Johnson wissen ?daB die Einstel- lung der Sendetatigkeit einen groBen Propagandasieg fiir die UdSSR be- deuten wiirde. Die Auswirkungen wiinden sic,h innerlialb und auflerhalb des kommunistischen f3iocks sehr bald bemerkbar machen." Schon wenige Tage darauf konnte Richardson dem Senator seine Dank- barkeit fiir dessen erfolgreiche Inter- vention bezeugen. ichardson ? funkie SOS Indizien dafar, daB die auch heute noch krampfhaft aufrechterhaltene Behauptung, ?Free Europe" sel ein privates, unabhangiges Unterneh- men, ein aufgelegter Schwindel ist, gab es in Fillle, seitdem 1950 in Tag- und Nachtschichten linter Ein- satz Hunderter US-Soldatcn der imposante Gebaudekomplex um MCinthfier Engligchen Qiruri ohne Racksicht auf Kosten mid Materia- lien aus der Erde gestampft wurde. In den USA selbse gab es von An- fang an eine Gruppe progressiver Politiker, die die Tatigkeit der Orga- nisation ?Free Europe" und ihrer Hintermanner mit MiBtrauen ver- folgten und die Frage aufwarfen, von welcher Seite die Subventionen liir dieses? fragwiirdige Unternehmen stammten. Die Kritik am Sender RFE schwoll Mitte der -sechziger Jahre derart an, daB der damalige Aufsichtsratsvorsitzende von Free Europe Incorporated, der bereits mehrfach erwahnte John Richardson jr., um den Fortbestand von RFE und seiner Gliederungen .zittern muBte. Schon damals war es kein beheimnis mehr, daB die CLA bei der Grandung des Senders Pate ge- standen hatte und ?seitdem als wich- tigster Geldgeber in E'rscheinung trat. Ganz unbefangen hatte die ,,New York Times" (in ihrer Aus- gabe vom 28. 4. 1966) geschricben: ,,In M?nchen unteritiitzt die CIA verschiedene Forschungsgruppen und solche wichtigen Propagandakanale wie Radio Free Europe, das Pro- gramme nach Osteuropa ausstrahlt." In .seiner Bedrangnis appellierte Richardson an den erzreaktionaren Senator Eastland aus einem ehemaligen Komplizen des Hexenjagers Joseph McCarthy und zur betreffenden Zeit Vorsitzender des ?Ausschusses fur innere Sicher- belt", alles zu unternehmen, urn den Sender zu. retten. Denn ?Free Europe" ?' so hiell es in seinern Schreiben an Eastland ? ?ist in Frie- denszeiten das einzige Mittel, mit dem man die strategisch wic.htigen Lander Osteuropas erreichen und be- einflussen kann." Senator Eastland enttauschte nicht die in ihn gesetzten Erwartungen. Noch am selben Tag, an dem Cr Richardsons Brief erhielt (am 17. 11. 1967), All) pray adh Far Rekaas e Nachtrag ADN wide!: Washington. Der Be- willigungsausscbufl des amerik_ani- schen Reprdseniantenhauses hat be- scblossen, fur die be/den in M?nchen stationierten Hetzsencler RADIO FREE- EUROPE und RADIO LIBERTY weitere 38,5 Millionen Dollar bereitzustellen. (ND yam 17. 5. 1972) ENDE 3 ?Intellektueller Touch" (Foto: Rundfunk- ?Universitat? von RFE mit westeuropaischen ?Wirtschaftlern", Don Salvador de Madariaga, am Mikrofon, Dr. Henri Brugmanns, Rektor des College of Europe) e t lummwm424_,y-..kom raiiltMrsTert154 ?Freiheits"- Gebimmel (Foto: Der beriichtiE,,te Lucius D. Clay auf W_erbefeldzug mit ?Freiheits"- Glocke dutch US- Bundesstaaten) 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 continued ApprowetVforAeiease,2001/03/04:-ZIA.RWAO,Gt6G, Riihren alles ein F- 1T F" 2. CIA (Foto: CIA-Chef 1: -1 . N rV: Helms), Pentagon -' /wi und Weilles Haus, F!?--> was RADIO FREE F.1'S 4.4.-- EUROPE. in den Ather spuckt. trr Nie mdir durch Mundoeruch eirenSt ggg- -V Direkte Putsch- ' aufrufe (Foto: RFE-Sprecher vor ?Operationskart:" atentr.,,,mexEesesmsennstatatsi IHetzbroschiiren inurcortromentssamonwirpvcr Harmlos v.erklei- sterte Geld- geber-Reklame Radii) Free 117,0 CURTAtIl NEVIS Ns isuc DOI INA olegri; ? he' 70001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/g4j% ti uscresuchte Objekte Linter dein EinfluI3 diescs ganz im .'qrhattert von Pentagon, CIA und dem NATO-Hauptquartier stchenden westeuropfiischen Beratungsausschus- ses hat RFF, den Frontalangriif auf dos sozialistische? Lager abg,eblasen und ist dazu fibergegangen, dos Feuer der psychologischen Kriegsffihrung immer wieder auf ausgcsuchte Ob- jekte zu konzentricren. Trotz dieser Selbstbescheidung kenn- zeichnete Resignation den Grund- tenor der ha Frahjahr 1961 abgehal- tenen WEAC-Tagung, die sich mit der kiinftigen Strategic und Taktik FREE EUROPE's befaBte. Man konne mit Teilerfolgen hachstens in cler sehr weiten Zukunft" rechnen, denn ?weder die inneren noth die Au&Ten Komponenten" ? so stellte man damals fest ? ?sind far cinen . Wandel im internationalcn Ge- schehen gegcben". Also bleibt nichts fibrig, als auf der SteIlc zu tceten. Dicse Auslassungen sind in Jr:ehr- fncher Hinsicht auBerordentlich be- merkenswert: crstens, veil solche Oberlegungen auf ciner relativ reali- stischen Einschatzung des internatio- nalcn Kraftcverhaltnisses beruhen; zweitens, veil daraus hervorgeht, da13 der RFE-Ffihrungsstab nunmehr den llatiptstoIl seiner idcologischen Di- version auf eine ausgesuchte, zahlen- in513ig kleine Gruppe in dem bead- !Wen Land richtet; drittens, veil sich daraus ergibt, dal3 RI-7E kfinftig auch von cincr ?ultralinken" Position aus operiert und als eine wichtige ten mit agita-torischer Munition zu beliefern (der Formulierung eines ?ZtiOnsprograinins " st ahtief eine wichtigc Rolle zug'edacht und dicse hat sic dann wahrend der konterrevo- lutionaren Ereignisse des Jot-ices 1,968 in der CSSR ouch tatsachlich ge- spielt); viertens, veil die wichtigste Funktion von RFE ganz often beim richtigen Namen genannt wird; n5m- lich, eincn festen Kontakt mit poli- tischen Abenteurern, Opportunisten und Oberlaufern herzustellen und aufrechtzuerhalten, auf die man sich bci der Vorbercitung eines konter- revolutionaren Putsches glaubt ver- lassen zu konnen und die sich ihrer- seits auf Gcdcih und Verderb an den amerikanischen Imperialismus vet.- kauft haben. es Pudels Kern Selbstverstandlich flicIlt der Strom von Kommunikationcn in zwei Rich- tungcn: RFE tritt nicht nur als Liefe- rant von suloversivem Propaganda- und Agitationsmatcrial und als Diri- gent urnsturzlerischer Aktivitaten auf; RFE ist zuglcich Empfiinger von Informationen und Mittcilungen dar- iiber, wo sich nach Ansicht ihrer Agenten im fraglichen Gcbict An- knfipfungspunkte bieten. In dieser Weise stellt RFE eines der wichtig- sten Zentren geheinadienstlicher Be- tatigung irn globalen System der CIA dor. Sehr treffencl bemerkte der poi- nisthe Kundschafter I lauptmann ,Czechowicz nach seiner Ruckkchr in die Ilcimat auf ciner internationalen A ufgabe bctrachtet, die als ?wahre` , Pressckonferenz: ?Spionagedienst ist 9-016 nagetiitigkeit sind so cng mitcin- ander verbunden, daB as nicht mag- lich ist, die eine von der andern zu trennen." Nicht wenigcr aufschlul3reich ist, was auf der Tagung dcr WEAC John Richardson jr.? zu diesem Zeitpunkt Vorsitzender des Aufsichtsrates von Ftee Europe IncOporated ? fiber die Funktiont der Mfindmer Sendezen- trate in dcr Aera des ?13rficken- schlags" zu Sagan hatte, ?Das Bauen von Draken nach Ostcuropa ist kcin Selbstzweck", crklarte at, ?sondem cin Mittel zur Beeinflussung ciner konstruktiven (I) potitischen 'Ande- rung in Osteuropa. Dieser Veranda- rungsprozeB schlieSt umwillzende Er- eignisse (!) nicht aus." Offensichtlich hatte Mr. Richard- son jr. bereits zu jencm Zeitpunkt ? 1965 ? die Moglichkeit .soldier, vie cc as nennt, ?konstruktiver Vet-- anderungen" in der CSSR ins Auge gefaBt und als die aussichtsreichste Taktik zur Realisierung dieses Zicls die Propagierung und Popularisie- rung ,,linker" und ?recIlter" Abwei- chungen von der mandstisch-lenini- stischen Generallinie erkannt. ?Abweichungen vom Marxismus- Leninismus", so erkliirte at wortlich, ?ffihren dazu, daf3 sic selbst dynami- seller werden und, indem sic auf alt- hergcbrachte Interessen lokalcr Grup- pen sich stfitzen, selbst fortbcstehen wollen und institutionelle Formen erlangen. Wahrend die Grundlagen dcr kommunistischen Herrschaft un- herfihrt blciben, erlauben qualitative Veranderungen in den Methoden der kom mu nisti schen Herrschaft as anderscienkended Menschen, sCirker zu werden mid die Autoritat der itra)..enIft? &giem o'er ?gad Zd schwachen." Selbst cin Blinder muf3 erkennen, daf3 der Fiihrungsstab von ?Free Europe" mit dieser Aufgabenstellung den Wcg markicrtc, auf dem sich drei Jahre spater clic ?tschechischen Refor- mer", vie sie RFE zu nennen be- licbt, begeben haben. Ihre Absicht dabci war, wie Mr. Richardson jr. vollig klar sah, schr bald die Ober- hand zu gcwinnen und als crstes die bissic"'ApprbvddafteRtgleaseatalz/026/134adcelAuRIIP430..01-601ROOM00070001s4fen zialisten sich gcbi-irdenden Kapitulan- idcologische Diversion and die Spio- Herrschaft" zu liquidiercn. continued 13 red tktionelle Mitarbeiter gefeuert, pproved For Releate)2001/03104TerGIAtRIDP8 ten, als dag sic den Weisimgen der New-Yorker getreulich ge- folgt waren. lj Mann jedoch hat es verstiinden, alien Starmen zu trotzen und seine Position stiindig auszubauen. Es ist der ncatschamerikaner Ernest Lan- :-.f.ndotf, der heute den The! eines :,nire'oors des I3aros far deutsche Ar!(adleiten in der Abteilling otfentliche Arbcit von RFE" fahrt und dessen Gnindsatzerkliirung zur .Arbeit des Senders bercits zitiert wurde. Langendorf, hager, grog, selbst- gewahlR: 13erufsbezeichnung Journa- list, gib sich gem n ?neucr Linker" mit weitverzweigten Verbindungen zu den namhaftesten westlichen Intel- lektnelien, die ? cinig in ihrcr anti- kommunistischen Haltung ? verschic- dene aus Maoismus, Trotzkismus und anderen Elementen gcmischte, kon- fuse, aber gefahrliche Stromungen vertretcra. Nnch DarstelIung informiertcr Kreise hat sich Langendorf wahrend des opfervollen Kampfes des spanischen Volkes gegen die Franco-Clique in Barcelona aufgehalten. Er stand dort n Verbindung zur trotzkistisch-anar- chistischen POUM-Gruppe, die die Benuilhungen der Volkskrafte- urn einheitEchen Kampf gegen die Franco-Marodetire schwer behinderte und (lea Faschisten praktisch in die Ilande spielte. Vet- dem zweiten Weltkricg emigricrte Cr dann nach den USA. Dort ?bespitzelte cr in Auftrag der Abteilung ?Ausliincler- Oberwachung" des FBI antifasclii- stische deutsche Emigranten und denunzierte eine Anzahl von ihnen als ?kommunistenverdachtig". Spater trat Cr in die US-Armee cin, wurde sdtclJ beiordert und gelanate ? im Range eines Captains ? am 30. April 1945 mit den Vorausabreilungen der Heeresgruppe General Patrons nach M?nchen. Am Bode seiner sieben- jahrigen Tatigkeit, zucrst als Rcdak- teur der amerikanischen ?Neuen Zei- tung", dann als Pressereferent der Militarregierung vcrantwortlich ? fur die Lizenzvergabe an genehme bayrische Bei,verber,beschcinigten.ihrn seine Arbeitsgeber im US-Hochkont- missariat, dafi er sich ?bcispiclhaft fur die Intercssen der amerikanischen Politik eingesetzt" habe. Kcin Zwei- fel best eht darner, daB er seine bei- spielhaften T.,eistungen in enger An- lehnung an FBI und CIA vollbracht Ii ntspannung so oder so? John Richardsons Darlegungen auf der WEAC-Beratung im Jahre 1965 getter' auch heute noch als verbind- liche Direktive. Das beweist eine Anfang 1971 veraffentlichte haus- ititere Broschare der Manchncr Zen- trate, in der es einlcitend hen: ,,RPE i=nr. die gthgte Unterabteilung von Free Europe Incorporated, die es sich zurn Ziel gesetzt hat, die friedliche Evolution in Richtung auf gragere innere Freihei ten der kommunistisch beherrschten VOlker Osteuropas zu iCirdern. Free Europe ist sich dcr cot- scheidenden strategischen und poli- taschen Bedeutung Osteuropas be- ;vat. Die z-ukiinftig,e politische Far- hung dieser Lander ist &her far die freic Welt von ungeheurer Bedeu- lung. Su erklarte der am Minnesota ge- bartige RFE-Direktor Ralph E. Wal- ter, der seit 1951 Free Europe Incor- p0fated in leitenden Stellungen diente mid Ende 1968 zurn Direktor des Manchner Hauptquartiers er- natnit wurde: ?Far uns bedeutet Ent- , spannung nicht einfach ein Einfrieren des Status quo." (Zitiert nach ?Wa- shiagton Post" vom 22. November 1 1979) Seile Gedankengange decken sich vollstandig mit den Auffassungen des bekannten antikommunistischen Theo- retikers der US-Globalstrategie Zbig- 1 niew 13rzezinski, wie cm sic in einem (kundsatzartikel in ?Newsweek" (you 4. Januar 1971) formulicrte. Audi Baczinski, der zum Stab stan- I diger Berater von ?Free Europe" ge- hOrt, unterstreicht, dag Entspannung I tinter keinen Umstanden em n Bin- l frit:reit des Status quo in Osteuropa becieuten dude, und visiert als Zici ?eine fortschreitende Umwandlung der ostlichen Regime in ctwas, was der Sozialdemokratie nahekommt" an. . in gewisser Langendorf Die verschiedenen Wenclungen und Venvandlungen, die die Politik der MUnchner Zentrale dorchmachte, batten zahlreiche Wechsel in der Lei- rung des Senders zur Folge. Allein nach der monstrosen Niederlage, die REF. nadi dem Zusammenbruch, der hat un wst.t. ov wurden drei Dircktoren und tint fiihrte ihn der provedtForcReletimp 4.0.0410,:iociA,414e80-01601R00110007000011011;i-5nued Weg schnurstracks ungarischen Ap zu Zu rechter Blute jedodt !:run Ott601R007111,0007000114E in den sediziger Jahren von der Poli- tik des ?roll back" zur ?Politik des BrUckenschlags" hintiberwechseLeund cc damit in die Lage vcrsetzt v,,urde, seine alten und fiber die Jahre auf- rechterhaltenen Verbindungen zur intellektuellen ?Linkcn" ins Spiel zu bringcn. Langendorf hat den Kiiingcl dcr antisowjetischen und antikonimuni- stischen Schreiber in rifler Welt als stanclige Mitarbeiter fur die RFE7 Scndungen ?talking to Eastern Europe" gewonnen: Arthur KOstler, Ignazio Silone, John Strachey, Leo- nard Schapiro, Margarete Eubcr- Neumann und Salvadore Madcriaga, dcr noch 1961 in einem Buch ?Der Westen: Meer ohne Banner" ernst- haft den Vorschlag machte, einen ,,politischen Generalstab des kalten Krieges" ins Leben zu rufen. n einem Boot mit I-Iupka Auf Langendorf ist es auch zurfickzu- 'iihren, daB cs zu cincr VersCindi- :;ung und Zusamrnenarbeit zwi:chen .ZFE und den revanchistischen I nannscltaften und ?Vettriebefien"- organisationen gekornmen ist. Ur- :prunglich batten die Revanc.hi'rten- verb5nde, RFE hefrig ins Feuer ge- nommen, veil es die Frage der , Volksdeutschen" bewufit umgahgen blue. Langcndorf karate aber die FUhrer der Landstnannschaften und des BHV, den innvischen verstorbe- nen Seebohm, cinen Becher und frupka, schlialich doch davon aber- z.:ugen, &E. die von ?Free Europe" verfolgte Linie der Aufwcichung der sozialistischen Staaten von innnen in letzter Konsequenz auch zu territoria- ler Revision f?hren wurde. Die in 1\ 1Unchen crscheinende ?Sudeten- deutsche Zeitung" (in ihrer Ausgabe burn 30.6.1971) konnte sodann fest- s:ellen: ?Wir sind uns auch klar dar- ner, &II wir in einem Boot mit den Manncrn von ,Free Europe' sitzen." * OMGUS: Abkiirzung fur merikanisebe Militarregierung Li Deutschland 2 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 esen Sie irn n5chsten Hefl: o Vorsicht vor Schleicher o ?Geheirnwaire" Kultur O Richardson fuakt SOS ' 4. Pi,' en Pit 1."Z Drei Mann in einem Boot: Trotz aller Niederlagen Langendorf, Becher und Hupka (v. 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Uri itgin ts loanine 0,tio II,. ay. s.:00,es T. boll it 0.4.0 Site. 160.1hars. Putsch-Programm als Aufruf: Mr. Richardson mochte zu gerne die sozialistischen Staatcn nach seiner Terminologic: ?Ostcuropas" mit Ink des RFE-Programms in ?allelic Gesellsthaftsstrukturen" verwandeIn. -RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 3 j 1 DAILY V, CM') Approved For Release 2001/03/04j.jlik-fRDP80-01 6k--?-5M?Iaef:tigne STATINTL op a if ft Vh?n c4c1,4",e2 ',Ira . t (LA a VO k4.9d Crail vfiC-Yil Vllingcs By ERIK BERT "One of the most extraordinary developments in recent years within the Soviet Union has been the emergence within of samiz- dat, that is, the private publica- tion and circulation of one's own works," the Library of Congress' study of Radio Liberty says. "Satnizdat" has been lauded as a cry for freedom from out the Russian wasteland by the New York Times, by "kremlinologists" and by other exponents of free- dom: The ? reality is somewhat dif- d-erent, as the Library of Congress study shows. ? Radio Liberty?the Central In- telligence Agency broadcast di- rected at the Soviet Union?has become a main depository for sarnizdat. Foreign correspondents are "one of the major channels of the flow" of samizdat, according to Peter Reddaway, a "Soviet specialist" at the London School of Economics. This has been evi- dent in the dispatches -of the New York Times and other news- paper correspondents. ?In fact, "normally, samizdat documents are not sent specifi- cally to RL from the Soviet Union. Most documents have been publicized elsewhere before RL gets them." The Library of Congress study emphasizes by repetition how important samizdat has become in RL's anti-Soviet barrage and how important IlL has become for the .dissemination of samiz- dat. ? The study says:. Samizdat is "pi-esently the main staple of ItL's programming." "RL has become a prime source for uniting the disparate elements of Soviet samizdat producers . . a disseminator of all ' forms of samizdat from both the Russians and the (Soviet) nationalities. It is a "prime transmitter of samizdat." ? Radio Liberty is a "prime bene- ficiary of samizdat." - In the past two yearS; the Lib- rary of Congress study says, "the amount of prograrmning devoOd tially," from four . hours per tizdat which has been forwarded opinion," asking "basic questions month of "readings and discus- to ? Only one thing is missing. sins of samizdat materials" to The CIA's Radio Liberty "is That this is the arsenal of Ra 53 hours per month in the first able to benefit from inagnitizdat dio Liberty, prepared by the Cen quarter of 197L In April 1971 by the multiple dissemination of tral Intelligence Agency, for sub IlL's "Russian language services its broadcasts." That is. RL broad- orning treason in the Soviet Union devoted six hours per week of casts are, CIA hopes, taped in for preparing the overthrow o its 36 hours of original program the Soviet Union and then passed , the socialist Soviet system, time" to this material, on for further dissemination. Radio Liberty. seeks to incih Radio Liberty sees "intellectual Among those who have "made nationalist anti-Soviet sentiments dissenters" in the Soviet Union Among those who have- `made purporting to record the "con as "an audience of importance it' on magnitizdat are Svetlana cerns of the nationalities." ? which it has cultivated in a spe- Alliluyeva, Stalin's daughter "111cl-casing attention has beer eial way." in fact, Radio Liberty whose book ''Twenty Letters to a given to the broadcasting of sa? "has become the prime broadcast- Friend," magnitizdat, was sell- mizdat material in the Na tiona H- er of works by these intellectual big "on the black market" for. ties Service," the Library of Con- dissenters." "from 70 to 120 rubles ($77 to press reports. it cites broadcasts In the guise of a "public forum S132)?" in the Ukrainian. Ka rachai, Osse- of free discussion, nr., broadcasts .their thoughts and their works back to the Soviet Union, thus en- The Library of Congress presents tian and Avar la npuages. samizdat as a "form of self-hbe- . Some productions are run in ralization." encouragement of toto. Thus Solzhenitzvn's "First larging in g,eometrie proportions "rational thought," "the. enemy lite segments. three day Circle" was broadcast in 30-min- the potential area of interim- of Stalinism," "extending the over a five-month period.s a week tional circulation. ' `horizon of thinking,' ". represent- In fact, the CIA's Radio Liberty i41-1, g. 1-,i,le "maitiuhria"tionn,,of,,t,inelin,,o:fcroaf- ? (To be continued) has become "the principal source "c ideas ".--- ? -'---2--- ? for disseminating samizdat." the Soviet system," a "stimulant to ? independent thinking," the "RL has become a mean of in- "nascent expression of a genuine- ternalizing samizdat and also a ly, democratically, formed public means of .communication among all Soviet people." ? -That is, Radio Liberty has be- come a means for directing to \'?? ? ? . ? ? the Soviet Union the productions of Soviet citizens which serve its dissentious, . anti-socialist our- poses. Samizdat is a vehicle in that communications chain. The problem as the CIA sees it. is to "maximize the use of the (samizdat) documents in achiev- ing goals and purposes." 7' That should be plain enough for any Soviet "dissenter" whose ? works find their way. into the ; arsenal of Radio Liberty. Edward van der Ithoer, direc- (or of Radio Liberty's Program Policy Division says "sainiztlat has opened up a new ditnensionj_ to RL's activity." .?/: - e - 7 - /-- A z. '....):2---,......d.?,;?-"--, '?' ? ---- ?0 The .. , z" The most recent "plienomenon:t .-,''',./, ' : --7-A,' .-7-c-- in the Soviet dissident move-?,..--> ./.. . . ment,' the Library of Congressy,. ..s.-. - .r.,- study reports, is the "new form, ???-? , of samizdat called 'inagnitizdat' - . . . a technique of tape record-7?\? ? ing . . . of dissident material and -circulating it within a group - of/ friends." here the CIA steps in. o 1?0 OeePt9 to samizdat has Apprealsecit rP r DAILY ViVzi.1.1.1..k. Approved For Release 2001/6S/0411.4da2-RDP80-01601 1 . -0-?.....)7 ? .-,,,,,,,,,,, , v, ---, \,,,,,2,,,,?,?.12.6eSICYB4.10......P6.6611?M ...,,,,,... 1 ..1,* et-ei LMSS frOP fly ERIK 'BERT The aim of the CIA in its op- erations in the socialist countries in Europe, as distinct from the Soviet Union, is to separate them as a bloc from the USSR. That means rejecting measures which are aimed at creating con- troversy among thorn, in favor of the greater goal of opposing all of them to the Soviet Union. That is how it was spelled out in September, 1936, by Ralph E. Walter, now director of the CIA's Radio Free Europe. The Library of Congress out- lined this tactic in the study of Radio Free Europe which it pre- pared for the Senate Foreign Re- ia,tions -Committee. The study was published in the Congres- sional Record of March 6.. The ideological line to be pro- moted for separating the other socialist states from the Soviet Union is the Library of Congress study said: "Return Eastern Europe to Eu- iope in the broadest sense." The CIA means by the "broad- est sense" encouraging "growing ties between East and West Eur- ope, indeed between the East and the Atlantic community." ''The divorce of East and West has been unnatural and irration- al," the CIA propagandists say. Soviet "security interests," not the interests of the other social- - 1st nations, have been the cause of the divorce between East and West, they-add. By implication, the solidarity of the socialist camp is in the interest of Soviet "security," and not in the interest, from either a "security" or other viewpoint, of the other socialist nations. That was the line which was propagated, with considerable success .among, and by, the re- visionists in Czechoslovakia pri- or to 19:13. The "indepimdeuce" which they championed paral- leled the separation from the So- viet Union that the CIA propa- gated. "The growth of nationalism may lead Eastern European states to distance themselves from the Soviet Union," the RFE said. R warned that, in encour- n 9 t ;ran by CIA CIA S -V1751.3:1'0 aging nationalism, intra-bloc con- flict should be restrained. The CIA warned that undue en- couragement of nationalism could result not only in pitting "Hun- garian against Russian, and Pole against Russian," but "Roman- ian against Hungarian, Pole against 'German, and Czech against Pole." Radio Free Europe should try to replace the socialist solidar- ity between the Soviet Union and the other socialist nations by non-class "neighbor to neighbor" relations, promoting so-called "normal state to state relations between the Soviet Union and those countries on her Western frontiers." The aim is the disruption of the international solidarity among the socialist states. However, this requires care. "It Would be unwise and dange- rous for Western radio to advo- cate enmity with the Soviet Un- Ion." The policy lines of the CIA in- cluded, as we have seen ?Pitting the socialist countries as a bloc against the Soviet Un- ion. . . ?Resisting the promotion of nationalist controversy among the socialist countries. ?Directing the socialist coun- tries' political orientation West- ward. A further tactic was the utili- zation of developments in one socialist country to incite dissat- isfaction in another socialist country. That was the purpose of the so-called "cross report- ing" developed by CIA's Radio Free Europe. "Cross-reporting" is the chan- nelling, of "developments in oth- er East European countries, the USSR, and among Communist Parties in the rest of the world," to the five countries in REE's target range; Bulgaria, Czecho- slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The purpose is to create dis- sension, by one means or anoth- er. The aim, as the report puts it; is: "to create hope and interest in the possibility of change and STATI NTL to emphasize what East Euro, peans have in common, -apart from (and in contrast to) the Soviet Union." The broadcasts directed to- ward Czechoslovakia sought to use the two-nation character of the CSSR, which includes Czechs and Slovaks, as a wedge for dis- sension. REE-CIA charged in 1971 that not enough attention was being paid to the anniver- sary of Czechoslovakia's Found- ing Day, Oct. 28. It "quoted a book by a Yugoslav professor in Belgrade labeling Czechoslovak. federalism a sham. The profes- sor viewed current trends in Czechoslovakia as toward the strengthening of centralism and the restriction of nationalities." At the. time the CIA was quot- ing the Yugoslav professor's .book, the League of Yugoslav Communists and the Yugoslav government were rent by na- tionalistic disruption. . CIA's REE- "contrasted" the Heath government's "positive move in joining the Common Market," with what it falsely described as the "stalemated" economies of the socialist coun- tries associated with the Coun- cil for Mutual Economic Assist- ance. In this, CIA-RFE opposed not only the socialist countries but the trade union movement of Britain which unanimously op- posed Britain's entry into the Common Market. As part of its continuing effort to aggravate differences in the ranks of the Communist and Workers' parties, LIFE "report- ed a television panel, show- in Austria featuring prominent re- form Communists who conclud- ed that humanistic Marxism is the sole alternative to Soviet-type communism." These were the ''reform Communists" who help- ed bring Czechoslovakia to the brink of the anti-socialist abyss. .RFE "reviewed commentary by the Italian newspaper Corri- ere dela Sera on Romania's skill- ful and courageous foreign poli- cies" which it suggested might be a "possible forerunner of cur- rent East-West development." Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 NB! 07 June 1972 001/03/04 : CIA-R STATINTL 1 ufruf zum BlutvergieBen Die Kreuzfahrer der ?Freiheit" im New Yorker Hauptcluartier, die Tag far Tag ihren Handlangern in Man- then fiber Fernsthreiber prazise An- weisungen erteilen, hielten ihre gm& Stunde far gekommcn, als in Ungarn die gesammelte. Reaktion im Okto- ber 1956 den. bludgen Versuch unternahm, die volksdemokratische Ordnung zu starzen. Da machte sich RADIO FREE EUROPE, das schon Monate zuvor die Unruhe im Lande geschart .und zu konterrevo- lutionaren Provokationen gehetzt hatte, zur ideologischen und organi- satorischen Leitstelle der Putschistcn. Radio Free Europe setzte alles in Bewegung, urn die Putschisten und cinige Verfahrte zur Fortsetzung der aussichtslosen blutigcn Konterrevolu-, tion aufzupeitschen. ? Am 4. November 1956 lieB sich ?Free Europe", das vorher die Men- tercr aufgefordert hatte: ?Stedct Budapest in Brandi", vemehmen: ?Wenn die Ungam noch diese Wodae weiterkampfen, dann sind wir einem dritten Weltkrieg naher als zu irgendcinem Zeitpunkt seit dem Jab cc 1945", dean, so wollte REE seine ungarischen HOrer gl:luben machen, eine militarische Interven- tion der NATO-Machte und die Land ung amerikanischer Fallschirm- bataillone stehe unmittelbar bevor. So aufierte sich das FDP-Organ ?Frcies Organ" (Ausgabe vom 9.11. 1956): ?Wir sind fiberzeugt, daB zucrst und vor allem die a.gressive ! Propaganda dcs Senders Free Europe in Manchen ein gerattelt Ta Sem-MI Vbt iat's til:Vt, I cy vieka e ....1.111111111111111111= Eine Propaganda, dercn zweckbe- stimmte Agitation letztlich mit dem Blut irregeleiteter Menschen bezahlt werden mug, ist cin Verbrcchen gegen die MenschlichLeit." ? Dec Sturm der EmpOrung in aller Welt iiber RFEs gewissenlose und verbretherische Rolle in Ungarn zwang die Regierung Adcnauer, die irn Juli 1955 hinter verschlossenen 1'1:ken mit dem Mandmer Sender einen Lizenzvertrag abgcschlossen hatte, von dem ihr dada eingeraum- ten Recht der Tonbanderkontrolle Gebrauch zu machen. Wie sic das madue und mit welchem Erfolg, hatte jedczn politischen Kabarett ge- nagend Stoff zu einer bittersatiri- schen Szene gcliefert. Ein gewisser Herr Oncken, subalter- ner Beamter in Bonns Auswartigem Amt, forderte von RFE die Tonban- der aus der fraglichcn Zeit an. RFE liefede auch bereitwillig das Mate- rial aus, insgesamt fiinftauiend Scndestunden (I). Mit dern AbhOren dieses Wusts von Bandern wurde eine altere Dame beauftragt, die einmal fanfzehn unbeschwerte Jahrc in der Donau-Metropole verbracht und wahrend dieser Zeit sich einigc Kenntnisse der Landessprache ange- eignet hattc. Drei Tage nachdem sic die Arbeit aufgenommen .hatte, gal- ten schon sechzig Sendestunden 311 ?aberpraft". Herr Oncken ? offensichtlidi schwacher Rechncr ? meinte darauf- hin, da B sic den ganzen Schwung in ciner Woche bewaltigt haben warde. Nichts war darfiber verlautet woe. den, ob es der Entstheidung de das sich in den letz r ? Tagcn inAPPEPAte c gfg . aSlaandlitSitY4b1.etrAtiltDP8 zu ?beanstanden" sei und was nicht; ob es nut ihre Aufgabe scin die Texte abzustenografieren und dann zu iibertragen, was vorsich- tig geschatzt das Fan& bis Sechs- fache der Sertdezeit ausgemada haben warde. Im iibrigen sah sich auch niemancl veranlak zu kontrol- lieren, ob die Sammlung der Ban- der vollstandig war oder ob nodi naduraglich Korrekturen an den Diadem vorgenonunen warden waren. Das Zimmer, in dem besagte Dame arbeit&e, war zu keiner Zeit des Tagcs oder der Nacht verschlossen. Audi nicht am Wochenende. Die Bander lagen, wenn irnmer die Dame das Bedarfnis empfand, sich far einige Zeit zu entfemen, offen her- urn; jeder, der ein Interesse daran hatte, konnte sich ungehindert be- dienen. Dann sprach Kanzler Adenauer in einer Pressckonferenz am 26. Januar 1957 ? auf Grund der Tonband- ?aberprafung" der alten Dame ? ?Radio Free Europe" feierlich von jeder Schuld frei. Eine eingehende Oberprafung des Sendematerials dutch das Auswartige Amt habe keine ?belastenden Momente" crge- ben, wenn auch die Sendungcn von RFE ?einige Redewendungen" ent- !taken batten, die ? ?sdilechtert Wil- len vorausgcsetzt ? AnlaB zu deutungen" hatten geben kOnnen. L I cue Ti.! ?soft ,Ci" Free Europe ist vun eiern I lin ? watend dreinschlagerricn Bc ?t, zu einem Uhl berecfme,.? La..: fristig planenclen, alle Moglich!;eit, und Eventualitaten einicalkulierenden Vorkampfer an der ?Vierten Front" ? der psychologischen Kriegsfahrung ? geword en. Far Free Europes? revidierte und korrigierte Kampfformen trifft zu, was Leonid Breshnew seinerzeit auf der Internationalen Bcratung der komxnunistischen und Arbeiterpar- teien in Moskau 1969 feststellte: ?Der Imperialismus kann nicht auf Erfolg redmen, wenn er seine Zielc offen verkandet. Er ist gezwungen, ein ganzes System ideologischer Mythen zu schaffen, die den wahren Sinn seiner Absicht verschleiern, die 1fF11561flioe7ittefo continued Dazu hatAppivwcitEm &Ole 2001 gandamaschine geschaffen, die alle Mittel der idcologischen Beeinflus- sung ausnutzt." Dr. Gunter Kertzscher charakteri- sierte (ND vom 6. Juni 1971) die seit Elide der funfziger Jahre von RFE verfolgte Linie: ,;Man braucht also eine antikommunistisdie Propa- ganda, die nicht direkt ftir den Kapi- talismus und nicht direkt gegen den Sozialismus auftritt, man braucht einen Kommunismus, der der Poll- tik des ,Briickenschlags' und der ,neuen Ostpolitik` entspricht. Darum empfehlen amerikanische Taktiker der psychologischen Kriegsfiihrung den ,soft sell' (die weichc Verkaufs- masche) im Gegensaii zum ,hard ... Dec Klassenfeind kampft heute gegen den Sozialismus im Namen des ,besseren' oder des ,wahred Sozialismus." [3 zur3 zur NATO Eine wesentliche Starkung seiner Position erfuhr Free Europe 1959, als dieses weitverz-weigte ?Privat- unternehmen" in aller Stifle einen ?Bruckenschlag" besonderer Art vollzog und eine feste Bindung zur North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ? kurz NATO genannt ? einging. Schon in der Zeit, als RITE auf Grund weltweiter Kritik an seiner unheilvollen Tatigkeit derart in Be- drangnis gcriet, dag seine Existenz in Frage gestellt wurde, karn ihm uncrwartet ein Bundesgenosse h5chst seltsamer Obscrvanz zu Hilfe: der Stragburger Europarat ? die 1949 ins Leben gerufene und als Parla- ment aufgezogene politische Hills- 4 : CIA-RDP8O-6L1 _CA-- atria ? Rainer Barzels In Verbindung mit diesen Vorgan- gen ist auch die Grfindung eines aus sechzehn - Mitgliedern bestehenden Komitees zu schen, das den Narnen West European Advisory Committee (WRAC) erhielt und damit beauf-. tragt wurde, das politische Wirken von RFE und seinen Gliederungen mittels ?Dircktiven und Empfehlun- gen" zu lenkcn. Dies= Ausschug, der mindestens zweimal Arab au- sammentritt, gehoren maggebliche Mitglieder des NATO-Stabes sowie fiihrende, in antikommunistisdien Kreuzziigen ?bewahrte" alte Kamp- fer aus ncun europaischen Landern, daruntcr auch aus Schweden und Osterreich, an. Selbst Franco-Spanien und Cactano-Portugal sind im Aus- sdiug vertreten. Als Sprecher der BRD fungicrte bis zu seinem Ab- leben AuBenminister Heinrich von Brentano (CDU). Gegcnwartig ver- tritt der zurn CDU-BoB erhobene und als Kanzlerkandidat nominierte Rai- ner Barzel die BRD in diescm kon- terrevolutionaren Gremiurn. Als erstcr Prasident des WE,'AC fun- gierte einer der Gcburtshelfer von NATO und EWG, der ehemalige belgische Ivlinisterprasident Paul van Zeeland; den Vorsitz Ebernahm der Amerikaner John C. Hughes, Mit- glied des Aufsichtsrates von Free Europe, Incorporated. - Bezeichnend fur den engen Zusam- menhang zwischen Free Europe und der NATO-Struktur ist die filh- 6reVeR0t0011,1, 090e7q001citnalige NATO-Generalsekretar, der Hol- lander Dirk Stikker, in der WEAC spielt, deren Vorsitzender Cr heute noch ist. Erst in jiingster Zeit, da Free Europe als Instrument des kalten Krieges und auf Grund sei- ner Finanzierung durch die CIA (wovon spater noel die Rede sein wird) von progressiven amerikani- schen Senatoren in die Zange genom- men wurde, trat Stikker im Marz 1971 vor einem Untersuchungsaus- schug des Senats in Washington auf und setzte sich leidenschaftlich Rif den Fortbestand des Senders ein. ?RFE", so .erklarte er bei dieser Ge- legenhcit, ?ist in eincr sehr verant- wortungsbewaten (I) Weise tatig und dient den lebenswichtigen Inter- essen des Westens, soweit es dessen Beziehungen mit dern kommunisti- schen Europa angcht." esen Sic im dichsten Heft: o Ausgesuchte Objekte 0 Des Pudels Kern. continua organisation der NATO. Auf des- sen &selling begaben sich Vcrtreter der ?Kommission der im Europarat nicht vertretenen Lander" nach Mun- chen und kamen nach cinigcn Zu- sammenkfinften mit den Miinchner Spitzenkraften, samt md sonders amerikanischcn Staatsbiirgern, zu der Erkenntnis, daB eine Fortfiih- rung der Tatigkeit des RFE-Senders von vitalem Interesse ffir die im Rat 'vereinten kapitalistischen Lander Europas sei. Spater, im November 1960, zeigte der Stragburger Europa- rat sugar Bereitschaft, zur Finanzie- rung von RFE beizutragen, und be- ' riet fiber eine Vorlage mit dem Kennwork ApiffokittlERirftelea e 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Ie ase 2001/03/04 ?RbiD8?o 1601 R001 1 ifd7niTrre4.- 44;! I *64 ) , .;.(F";-7/ ? ''' '''' '' ? '' I ? 1 - _ ?? 11; . . ? ???? ft1 *s-v. *.t ? r - .(--1 ? 1 ? s? ? .5 /./' ? ,?kt ' Nach dem batten Fiasko jetzt eine acne Link von der CTA-Centrale (Foto): ?Wcithe Welk" minds privatem ?soft-sell" mit Kindel-singes) (1); liausfrancnprogrammen (2), Heimatmeloclien (3), ?Religionsstunden mit Pater Pite" (4), ?modern-jazz" ? Disc-jockey (5) und Chef-Divasant Melvin J. Lasky (6) (nebenbei Herausgeher des auf Intellektuellcn-Magazin gctrimmten ?ivIonats"). '",7:7-1=M7rx-cm=:a,mmmw,_ e 4 ? ; ? roved. /FfziRelea.?4411/03/04 : C -RpP80,0601R0 070001-5 Approved For Release 2001102414 zic,d6RDP8 24 JUN 1972 STATINTL Welna,./.4.61?4231....141?11 /77,.ii7il sr ri I 0 13 y EMU. OMIT The Central Intelligence Agency, and to carry on the attack against in its Radio Liberty operations, socialism within these boundaries, is a "participant in bringing in the guise of pressing for "re- about positive revolutionary form." changes in the Soviet Union," The situation in the socialist ? says the Library of Congress countries is such, the CIA be- study of Radio Liberty. lieves that "Communist regimes That study and a study of the are likely to remain in power for CIA's Radio Free Europe were the foreseeable future..." both prepared by the Library of Therefore the CIA will try to Congress for the Senate Foreign encourage, "within the frame- Relations Committee. They were work of the Communist system," published in the Congressional yhat it calls "positive evolution." Record, at Senator J. NV. Ful- bright's request, on March 6. In Iran, Guatemala, Laos, Viet- J nun the CIA has financed and Oireete-z1 murder brigades, lint This is what the author of the Library of Congress' RFE report . RFE _ -executives. The tactical guidelines for over RL, "it rejects ViO!CriCe as .RF.J;;q1,.'s counterrevolutionary a political solution," according course are?epecially cautious to the Library of Congress study. with respect I.o armed actions or . What is the goal:? , uprisings:- .. "The primary objective of RL" The Library of Congress study says the study, "is to encourage puts it thus: those forces of liberalization with -RFE should not: lead the . . . in Soviet society that will bring people to believe that in the an eventual Peaceful evolution of event of an uprising the West the USSR from Communist totali- would intervene militarily. RFE tarianism to a genuine democra- - must not . . . speculate about an tic form of government. - uprising. . .. . dor contingencies "RL's commitment (is) to arising therefrom." peaceful change from within." This caution has been laid out The CIA operates on two paral- so explicitly for two reasons. In lel courses which, like other par- the first place, RFE-CIA -was allels, converge. The one course sharply attacked in anti-Cominu- is to accept the socialist system, nist circles for having encourag- even the socialist governments, ed the Hungarian counterrevolu- as, given, - and to carry on tacti- tion in 1956 and misleading its cally within that framework. The forces into disaster. The other other course is to incite "peace- reason is that the CIA's five ful" rebellion against the social- RFE Broadcast Departments have 1st governments and against the recruited personnel whose coun- socialist system. . terrevolutionary aims have been In practice these two courses -more cutthroat than subtle. That sometimes run separately and posed serious problems for the sometimes intertwine. CIA, which fed the breed. The ;(int of convergence is The CIA has not, of course, anti'sneilllist and .anti-Soviet forsworn armed ' action. Ent it Union.. The CIA is ? Willing to concluded from the Tiongarian take any road, use any tactic events that it should not be suck- that will advance U.S. imperial- ed into actions it could not con- ism toward that point. ? trial. RFE-CIA "does not now -oper- It therefore holds, as the Li- ate" to "keep alive 'cold war' brary of Congress study, puts it: animosities in the sense in which "In the event of emergency con- that term was used in the 1950s," ditions .. . . due to Violent de- the Library of Congress study monstrations, -armed uprising and says. revolutions - or war RFE will not RS tactic rather?.-orzceept assume any attitude toward such - eating its mungariaa tactic 0-1. Warsaw Pact nations made the "prey i Pt9M -WnrtpryRelease-1200v03104irCIAIR P80-01601R0011000-40t4. rEl a military thrust wit tern in East Europe'as given, to them in any way, except for ?I'lle Library study defended thel' ' he "tolerated." camp would; r "avoid petty or personal attack straight and restrained news re- RFE's Polish broadcasts against - ,- 1?1 . - r.F1 ? ' I 1 The cocoa-Fagot-bent of "peace- ful" counterrevolution resulted in part from the 1948 defeat of the attempted putsch in Czechoslova- kia and the subsequent socialist citing the "Western press" ? prove RFE's innocence by tI claim that broadcasts to Polar were objective. - The Hungarian counterrevol hs: COINCIDEN CIA ? thrust there. The predominant thrust before the counterrevolutionary thrust in Hungary was toward "liberation of the captive countries," that is the restoration of capitalism in the socialist countries by force of arms. Radio Free Europe's predeces- sor, National Committee for a Free Europe, established in Dec- ember, 19-19, claims credit for the "liberalization" slogan. RFE's Policy Handbook written in 192-1951 used the slogan: "spirit of noncooperation" to dis- guise the counterrevolutionary spirit of "liberation." As a result of the defeat of the counterrevolution in Hungary in 1956, imperialist reaction turned increasingly to counterrevolution by "peaceful" means, toward .ideological warfare. Radio Free Europe had to live down the fact that its "earlier lit "1i lb "d i tdb s ory een om na e v proach to its basic purposes the sensationalism surrounding gan to occur as early as 1952." ?its broadcasts to Hungary before, The CIA program, this side and during the 1956 uprising.' 1956, for "peaceful" counterrel, This "sensationalism" was ac- Aution has not and does not c molly encouragement to armeu elude preparations for, and r counterrevolution, a course which lapses to, armed counterrevol proved disastrous. That is why the Library of Con- hon. The lesson of ,the Hungari gross study is extremely sensi- counterrevolution was confirm tive to the charge that during for the CIA more than a deco the Polish disturbances in the later in Czechoslovakia when t winter of 1970-71 the CIA 1Pife i?, 77r ;.J?, Jr, /1'4 f? A.1"? / 4 cL The CIA GAM:: how many CI ct:tonts can you find in this dra? Tho onos you can't find n busy bugging the Democratic Pc ty's convention site in Miami. tion was viewed by "most of a press and by many of the RE' staff . . . as a 'watershed' RFE history," the Library Congress study recalls. The "watershed" adjective 0 scribes the change from "strong characteristics" whit marked RFE activities until th tilne and the allegedly "fund mentally altered" practices them fore. The Library of Congress slut holds that the "watershed" then is not completely valid. "Fund mental changes in 'UT's a ???????r?rliCtrIC ? ? ? 3 . STATINTL DAILY lla) Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : waum-RDP80- JUN 1972 ? co, on ? ? ? u77:1 rl I .7 U ii 0 Li y IT,P? XIS RT The nature of the Central In- telligence Agency's infiltration into Soviet society is indicated by its avowed goal of the "liberali- zation of Soviet society." That is how its Counterrevolutionary, anti- socialist, anti-Soviet program is presented in the Library of Con- gress study of Radio Liberty, the CIA's Munich-based vehicle for subversion. The study was prepared at the request of Senator J. W. Ful- bright, as chairman of the Foreign Relations committee. It was pub- liShed in the Congressional Re- cord of March 6. ? In this vein the Central Intelli- gence Agency has expressed its concern, via RL, about the "seri- ous institutional and ideological inadequacies" of the Soviet Union, about its "'serious economic pro- ? blems," the "most serious being the allocation of resources." "Within the larger framework of (its) goals and. purposes RI pursues immediate objectives," the Library of Congress study 'points out. These "practical them- es" include "democratic political alternatives, economic reform, peaceful intentions of the demo- cratic world, ideological irrele- vance of Marxism-Leninism, and the virtue of cultural diversity and political pluralism." The CIA's concern that social- ism should flourish is also ex- pressed over its other system of subversion by radio ? Radio Free Europe, which, like RL, is ? based in Munich. James Robert Price, author of the RFE Library of Congress It 0 r, 6;4f' zIia/ bjJ.jIjiJ But even here the CIA is cau- tious. Simply to attack defects in "implementation" is no assur- ance of an audience, since the people in the socialist countries know, better than the CIA does, Nvha t their problems are. They criticize their own demerits the better to correct them. That is why CIA "criticism" is not "purely. negative." Instead, "valid achievements are given due credit" in order to offer, "in abundance," what pretend to be "alternative approaches" to what the CIA describes as "stagnated courses of action." The "general philosophical ap- proach of RL is one that appeals to rationalism." The IlloCIA me- thod of operation is, as the Lib- rary of Congress study puts it: RI, "attempts to 'substitute reason for emotion, and a calm ?ioice for stridency.' it begins from the premise that 'the most convinc- ing presentation is one which that tells all sides of a story." This philosophical approach , was not employed when Saigon militarists gunned down Presi- dent Ngo Diem, with the fore- knowledge and probably inspira- lion of the CIA; nor ftes it reflect the years-long murder policy ; carried out in Indochina by the CIA. ? Given peace in Vietnam, we can imagine the CIA resorting to e "rationalism" in its operations there; if not instead of assassi- nation, then in addition to it. , FiL's preferred tone is "friend- liness, enlightenment and dig- nity" the Library of Congress study relates. study, holds that, "by and large, In RL comments which de- commentaries tend to lean slight- scribed a "cliche" or "act" of ly toward the 'liberal' approach Leonid Brezhnev as "stupid," the as this term is currently used in?? ,, Nvord stupid would be bluepencil- American policies." cd by an editor, the Library of This testimonial is especially Congress study said. noteworthy coming as it does "Sarcastic expressions" about from a (former) CIA agent., Brezhnev were deleted from a "Stated Communist ideals" g? commentary beamed into the So- untouched, not because the CIA Is viet Union in June 071; as were more sSimpathetic to communism. references In " 'escape abroad,'01 t ? r 7 fl (PN rP, r ti 11 nIic ? 7iori vi I' - r y The Library of Congress RFT] study cites the text of a birthday editorial broadcast by RFE on the occasion of- the ?0th birthday of the (unnamed) leader of an (un- narned) socialist country. The study notes that the originai draft of the editorial had included a "petty and personal attack." lint that this had hen cleaned up prior to the broadcast. The draft and the final text suggest both that ItFin policy de- plores dirty pool. and that dirty pool is inherent is its operations. IZFE's policy is not based on de- cency but on the conviction that the ron?ily intentkas of its opera- tives do more harm than good, in the ? long run, and the CIA is in business for the lon2 haul. than to capitalism but because it .escape from the hornet:1nd,, and figures that attacks on the -inY- a 'comparison plementationA -1 Irli -61iitio- 4 , . - ,- - , ,, . _ . &PP& Relqasce 24iotivio/be4u:s61 .-RD P80 01 Al ? - - 70001-5 may be 'twee prn (live of subver- sion. V4),117;:.7.;,? 0.:.:. 6.W.IM6 CL'''.) i' Approved For Release 2001/03/04 :1C81/141161040-01601 .. t,_4 3, ?,?-, 3 I 'r 0 By a vote of 40 to 22 ? ... ) 74',./ ?,..L t IL. thAlth i struck front the pending $1.7 , .---t - , billion foreign military aid au- thorization a provision requir- ing auction that receives U.S. military assistance and excess defebse articles to deposit 25, E? . , per cent of their value in local .1:1),.- Q ifitTVrii Cl1].,'s- currency accounts for U.S. - USC. Sen. Gordon Allott (R- Colo.) argued successfully that raising the present 10 per cent Washington Post Stan Writer requirement- would make - it The senate voted 58 to 2 more difficult to 'help poor na- yesterday to authorize tions that can't afford, to put up 25 per cent. $38,520,000 for Radio Free Eu- 0 Br a 65-to?O vote, passed a rope and Radio Liberty for S3 billion appropriation for the fiscal year starting July I_ the Department. of Transporta- Majority Leader Mike Mans- 'lion and related agencies. ? field (D-Mont.) and Sttiart Ac- re VT );,-. v a.: '. ""c By Spencer Rich 'Symington (D-Mo.) were the only. senators opposing the au- thorization. It probably will have little trouble passing the House. Foreign. Relations Commit- tee Chairman J. IV, Fulbright (D-Ark.), who had favored kill- ing the radio stations or get- ting other nations to finance them, was absent. He has given up, for the present, his :attempt to block funding. The stations, once covertly financed by the Central Intel- ligence .Agency, broadcast news and opinion into Eastern .Europe. Fulbriglit regards them as a propaganda relic of the cold Nvar that can only make relations between Amer- ica and Russia more difficult. . Once the authorization clears the House, BPI] and Radio Liberty are assured of jfull funding because both the House and Senate have al- ready passed versions of the State-Justice-Commerce appro- priation carrying $38.5 million for the two stations ($23.7 mil- lion for RIM; $14.8 million for Radio Liberty), contin- gent upon approval of the au- thorization. In other action yesterday the Senate: STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- 17 June 1972 cr))...),,,,.,,_ , ? e - STATI NTL St.shvor.sivo racji? 'huomn sonlico' by CM By Erux BE;mr The targets for the Cent-al In- telligence Agency's subversion campaigns in the socialist coun- tries are "the power elite, either existing or in pbtential;:' that is, what the CIA hopes might become a new leadership group. That is how the Library of Con- gress study of the CIA's two radio agencies puts it. The refer- ence is explicitly to the methods of Radio Liberty, which is tar- geted on the -Soviet Union; but it holds also for Radio Free Eu- rope aimed at Bulgaria, Czecho- slovakia, Hungary, Poland .and Romania. ... (The Library of Congress study was published in the Congression- al Record on March G.) The Central Intelligence Agency .sees in "the forces of dissent and reformism" in the Soviet Union," in the "dissident move- ment" (which is promoted also by the New York Times), "a challenging opportunity for stim- ulating internal pressures for positive change." All of REE-CIA's five Broad- cast Departments attempt to create, among engineers, scient- ists and technicians, antagonism to the Communist Party. The CIA's Romanian broadcasts in the period surveyed for the Library of Congress studies were focused on aggravating differ- ences between intellectuals and the Romanian Communist Party. It noted that the ideological cam- paign of the Romanian Commu- nist Party had ''been viewed with considerable alarm by both groups of Romanian intellectuals and by RFE's Romanian .Broadcasting Department." It looked forward, hopefully, to the possibility of a "cultural revolution in-Romania," as a result. A stickler for efficiency, the RFE-CIA criticized Romania, as it did Czechoslovakia, for being tardy with its formulation of eco- nOrnic plans. To these ends Radio Liberty, in seeking a Soviet audience- ? "Lakes the stance of a 'patriotic. internal conAiptii.a6or ' tkat vea oPRetteasea01103/040:0C4ApRDIR804)1161:4R0011c00070001-5 the bureaucracy." not a U.S. imperialist- or CIA agency. RL-CIA puts on the false face of a "genuine uncensored 'Home Service,'" seeking to "convey to the listener that RL is really one of thorn;'' appealing to the "prin- ciples of common sense;" to "reason, moderation and ?good judgment.'' The CIA's Polish department presented itself as "an opposition press." bat "working for all prac- tical purposes within the context of Poland's present socio-politi- cal framework," that is, as a "socialist" CIA. To this end "the specific policy_with respect to- -ward contemporary Poland is one (1,f neither attack nor support of the regime in tofu," but "reason- ed discussion focused on all maj- or developments " This should be taken with a lump of salt, of course, for this "reasoned discussion" means at- tack on the allegedly "inadequate and vague formulation of the pre- Congress (Polish United Workers Party ? congress) guidelines on wages;" denunciation of the al- le.i.edly "scandalous conditions in -i;n1r. licspaa Is ;" "police inactivity" in nailing tio.ders in '"geld and foreign Cur- rencies" indicating that this meant "high-level corruption, possibly including the headquarters of the Ministry of the Interior." CIA zeroed in on the trade unions and the youth. also, de- claring that "under Party bureau- crats the trade unions had be- come tools of the establishment;" and "questioning whether . . . proposed additional bureaucratic bodies could': Solve certain youth problems. It, urged, "construc- tively," that more money, not new organization was needed to do this job. The major content of the FIFE- CIA Poland-oriented broadcasts, during the survey period, was discussion of alleged differences within the Polish United Work- ers Party, of party ?bureucracy." The lesson which RFE-CIA sought The key to this effort, the CIA said, was to be "freedom of the press" as the "only possible form of social control over the class of Party bureaucrats." The CIA soueht to convince its Polish listeners that such "social con- trol" was the "only effective brake on their (the bureaucrats') . .? . pushing Poland to the bot- tom and plunging the country in tragic stagnation." The CIA prOsented itself, in its RH; disguise, as the great cham- pion of socialist economic pro- gress in:Poland. RFE-CIA's Hungarian broad- casts for the period under re- view in the Library of Congress study "were weighted heavily" with economic subjects. Its gene- ral line was to agree with the goals, but "criticize the tactics". employed by the government. The CIA agreed that the "twin problems of overinvestment and foreign 'trade deficits should be solved"?but "without either oyer- exploitation of labor or curtailed productivity." it "emphasized the need to replace obsolete in- dustrial machinery" as a "neces- sary investment;" but "deplored the government's tendency to cut back" such investments as "waste- ful and prof it cutting." The Hungarian broadcasts urg- ed "more aid to private plot owners;" and help to "small farmers- (to) purchase directly badly-needed small farm machi- nery."' The CIA "promised to try" to provide a "weekly adult educa- tion course for Hungarian farm- ers during the winter evenings when weather conditions make farm work impractical." The CIA even "made several suggestions as to how the many problems" of .-Ilungarian arti- sans" could be aided by the gov- ernment. To further its aim of appearing within, the socialist communities as a "home communicator," as a loyal opposition, as more con- cerned with the progress of so- to get across was the need for cialism than the Communist ments, the CIA has worked oi over the years an elaborate pri gram of immediate aims. The purpose is, of course, we shall see in subsequent co umns, "peaceful" subversion, DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R 16 June 1972 ? # 09 R o gj fr 9 - z STATI NTL u la 3 Lin 0 1, h'./111 S o q. I ars i By ERIK BERT . . The role of the CIA's two from within." It accepted every- did not seek to impose any parti- European radios, Radio Liberty thing except - the Soviet "ideol- cular formof government on the . ogy," the spirit of Soviet power. and Radio Free Europe, has been Soviet people;" thus, "moderation outlined in studies prepared by In the late 1950s Radio Liberty and restraint - were restated as the Library of Congress. The stud- switched from "liberation" to principles to be follOwed in ies, while biased, are useful. The "liberalization," to a "policy of broadcasting:" There was a studies were introduced into the peaceful liberalization of Soviet ?commitment to a policy of Congressional Record on March 6 society." peaceful liberalizalion of Soviet by Senator J. W. Fulbright, as The shift to "moderation" was . society." chairman of .the Foreign Relae? not due to a change in the CIA's The 1065 Radio Liberty Policy tions Committee. outlook, but for the purpose of Manual was "even more explicit Radio Liberty's target is the gaining an audience. As Alexander than its predecessor in stressing Soviet Union. Backerac, one of the editors at the principle of evolutionary Radio Free Europe operates Radio Liberty put it: "no one change," to "helping all citizens against Bulgaria, Czechoslo- -is impressed by the 'hard of. the USSR achieve freedom and vakia, - Hungary, Poland andapproach.' responsible government " Romania. . The change in slogan from and "not to incite group action." Radio Liberty was conceived "liberation" to "liberalization" "Friendliness of tone was given with an anti-Soviet orientation, was not a one-shot operation. The particular emphasis..." That was spelled out in the name shift took place gradually, - with The moderation repeatedly of its forerunner, the "American some evidences of change in the recommended in succeeding Pol- Committee of Fredom of the early 1950s. The failure of the Hun- icy Manuals did not mean neces- Peoples of the USSR," incorpor- garian counter-revolution and, sarily greater moderation. ated in 1951. especially, the complicity of the Nor did the new line mean that Radio Liberty confesses its CIA's radio outlets in it,. iutensi- Radio Liberty had ceased to be a sordid past readily ? the better fted the rate of change. CIA organ, or that the CIA had to convince the world that it has During the Hungarian counter- ceased to be a para-military, reformed. , revolution, the CIA operated on anti-socialist, anti-Soviet agency. Cold war -"was R.L's raiSon d'- two distinct levels. Radio Free Moderation was a new cover for etre: it was a 'cold war operation' Europe cheered on the counter- counter-revolution and anti-Soviet ...It was a creation of the cold revolution,' Radio liberty played aggression. During those same war desic,,ned to satisfy U.S. for- it encl. years, in Indochina, the CIA par- eign policy requirements.. ..RL When the counter-revolution sued not moderation but murder. was one of the many weapons of came a-cropper, CIA's HEE was Future columns will deal with psychological warfare" against accused of "unnccessarity raising the CIA's intended audience and the socialist countries. That is the hopes of Western intervention with various aspects of its "mod- how Radio Liberty explained it, in the revolution," the Library crate" operation against the in the words of the Library of of Congress study reports. Socialist countries of Europe. Congress report: Radio Liberty In contrast. '.'during those was "committed" to the "corn- years," Radio Liberty was eriti- plete destruction of the Soviet cized for broadcasting material . Union. far too bland ? and mOderate" Early in 1921 the enemies of in political content. Soviet power initiated a shift in The line of peaceful transition tactics. The slogan "Down with from the Soviet system was pro- the Soviets!" was abandoned; a jected in 1054 and again in 1956. new slogan, For the Soviets, but By November 1958 "UL's basic without Communists," replaced it. Policy Manual... .made it clear The change in slogan did not affect that evolution, not revolution, the underlying purpose, as the was the main direction of politi- Kronstadt rebellion in 1921 cal change within the Soviet showed. The mutineers, inspired Union." "The principle of freely by counter-revolutionaries of elected government as a means varied complexion, took up the for political transformation was _ struggle against the Soviet power asserted." under the slogan: "Soviets with- Under the 1958 Policy Manual, out Communists!'' Radio Liberty "would neither Half a century later, guided by directly nor indirectly attempt to the CIA, Radio Liberty "as a urge any particular platform or matter of policy accepts all Soviet promote directly any line of ac- institutions" gikpprovedfor Release120011174/04a:kCIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 about peaceful democratic change clear that tne democratic West DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 2001/C4/0T4uraCKDP80-01601R00 ? e.9-1 g /15 ...asau-ma - crass On '"dufi'-'1,,?r-;', CIA ra CYO An b" taqa DMA'S WCIS (71,914 ify ,t) By ERIK BERT The attempt to frame Angela / Davis created problems for the V Central Intelligence Agency and, especially, for its Radio Free Europe network. RFE was at tempting to talk about "freedom" to an audience which was anxious about Angela Davis and protesting in her behalf. The Library of Congress study of Radio Free Europe, which was published in the Congressional Record on March 6, 1972, refers sketchily to the case. RFE-CIA "replied to official Czechoslovak propaganda... in the Angela Davis case," the Library's report said. FIFE-CIA's premise was that Angela Davis was guilty. That was what Nixon had said, that was what J. Edgar Hoover had said, that was what Governor Ronald Reagan had said; that was the CIA line, that's what CIA's RFE said. "Pointing out the facts of the crime," it indicated the "circum- stances wherein the trial is open to the public." RFE-CIA referred to the fact . that the "USSR had been invited to send observers." The Soviet Union declined to take the bait which was intended to provide a cover for the intended conviction. RFE-CIA said the "Court agreed to a change of venue," when in fact the change of venue was won only after an intense and costly struggle. RFE-CIA cited, finally, that ?Angela's sister remains free to travel and denounce the U.S." implying that the fact that Fania Davis Jordan- was not also being framed was a great tribute to capitalist democracy. RFE then asked, in conclusion, whether "such circumstances would be possible in the Czecho- slovak Socialist Republic." One thing is sure, Angela Davis would not have faced life imprison- ment in Czechoslovakia, as she did in California, for fighting for a nationally-oppressed minority, or against the imperialist war. One .of the key roles in this CIA attempt to prove to the Czecho- slovak public that Angela was get- ting _a fair trial for a. crinw .of whilAppkgygltforsRM4se 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 played by one Slava Volny. He is one of the emcees on the rIFE-CIA broadcast directed to Czecho- slovakia. Volny's last place of employ- ment prior to joining the RFE- jcia was Radio Prague where he was. a leading commentator in 1963 avowing his devotion . to "freedom," "democratic social- ism," and to "socialism with a human 'face." . _ - What is not clear from the Li- brary of Congress study of RFE is whether Volny was recruited by the CIA prior to fleeing Prague for Munich, or subsequently. The problem which now faces the Central Intelligence Agency._ and its Radio Free Europe outlet is to explain why the San Jose jury acquitted Angela Davis. They had said she was guilty. They will probably say that her acquittal proves that there is jus- tice for Blacks for Communists, and for Black Communists in the United States. They would still have to ex- plain why President Nixon, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Gover- nor Ronald Reagan declared her guilty ? before a trial; why she was placed on the FBI's ten most- wanted list, perilled by shoot-to- kill cops, why she was compelled to spend 16 months in prison be- cause she was refused bail before her trial. STATI NTL tOS AtIaLES Approved For Release 2411R3/892: CIA-RDP80-0160 Vital Communications to the East .;The Senate Foreign Relations Committee showed !good judgment this week when it overruled its '6airman, Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.), and ?koted to extend the life of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty for at least another year. For months, Fulbright has been doing his best to . throttle Radio Liberty and RFE?which broadcast 6 the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, respec- :;tively?by blocking the relatively modest funds :peeded for their. operations. Now that ds eff.cirts have been repudiated by his ?wn committee, it is taken for granted that both Uthorization and appropriations bills for the Mu- :hich-based stations will get congressional approval. I Fulbright argues that the stations are a relic of the cold war and can only get in the way of better relations between this country and the Soviet ,Union. There was a time, more than 15 years ago, NV)ieri his criticism might have had some validity. 13ut that day is long past. The best proof that the program does not inter- :Ore with detente is provided by the enormously STATI NTL Important treaties and agreements signed by Pres- ident Nixon? and the Soviet leaders at the recent Moscow summit.. . . The key function of RFE and Radio Liberty is not to broadcast American news or propaganda, but to give news of events in the Communist coun- tries themselves. It is news which the people would not otherwise read or bear because their own me- dia are so rigidly censored. ? As the liberal British weekly, the Guardian, ob- served not long ago, "Radio Liberty is providing an alternative free radio service for Russian listeners . . ? . it broadcasts back to Russia what the dis- sident Russian' writers and intellectuals are pre- vented from publishing in their own countries." It is significant that the severest criticism of ? Fulbright!s crusade has come from within the iCommunist nations themselves. When dissident Soviet writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn heard of the attack against Radio LibertSi, he told Western newsmen that, "If we ever learn anything about what is going on in this country, it is through them." ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 8 JUN 1972 IN7--..-- ,- -.- -A roved 7erocRelleaseenali01 . ciA-Rpp8p-p ir :11,S, RADIO 30. But Administration pressure limitation agreements was a BROADfor the fiscal year ending June achieve the irst s ra egi arm overridirig Fulbright, Unit ;Votes Funds for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty succeeded in bringing about a completely successful one," he compromise allowing the sta- said. "'fhis success was in no tions to function until this June way diminished by its continu- 30. The expected passage of the new bill will extend their life at least until June 30, 1973. White House View Given -The Administration's argu- ment for continuing the sta- tions was made by U. Alexis Johnson, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, at ,,.this morning's hearing. By BERNARD GWERTZMAN He told the committee that agreement on the strategic arms treaty. Mr. Fulbright had been in- creasingly frustrated in recent months in his efforts to curtail Administration programs. He was soundly defeated on the Senate floor after he had sue- persuading his corn- ing strong support for freedom of international communication, nor was the achievement of the agreements jeopardized by the continued broadcasting of Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty." Earlier this year, Mr. Fulbright had said that he thought the stations might be a factor in delaying Soviet al to The New York Times espi e the accor s rcacieci by: . Si:rect President Nixon in Moscow, the '. WASHINGTON, June 7?Dc- Soviet Union and the United spite the objections of its States would continue to be i . chairthan, the Senate Foreign major world competitors. Hel Relations Committee voted said that the stations were im- ioverwhelmingly today to ap- portant in that they served as 'a free and independent press" untied in prove an Administration request for the peoples of Eastern Eu - for 538.5-Million to extend the rope whose media are tightly, life of Radio Free Europe and controlled. Radio Liberty for at least an- Ho said that if the peoples of the Communist countries had ;other year. information that might other- The 10-to-3 vote of the corn- wise be denied them by their 'rnitteez headed by Senator J. W. governments, they could help Fulbright, Democrat of Arkan- bring about beneficial internal sas; virtually insuied the con- changes. tinued existence of the two sta- Mr. Johnson added that the . broadcasting activities of Radio tions, whose broadcasts have had n long infuriated the Soviet Union peded Liberty thed moot nsicvoNanytaw m- lks ay ibe and its allies. ? - , tween Mr. Nixon and the Soviet- , Radio Liberty beams its pro- grams to the Soviet Union, Radio Free Europe to' the na- tions of Eastern Europe. Both were established in the nine- teen-fifties and until last year received their funds seerptly through the Central Intelli- gence Agency. ? ? ?? Senator Fulbright, who has called the stations "relics of the cold war" and a waste of tax- payers' money, argued against continued Government financ- ing of the stations during two days of hearings that ended ,,this morning. But aside from the support he drew from Senator Mike Mans- 'field, Democrat of Montana, -and Senator Stuart Symington, -Democrat of Missouri, he failed to convince the committee -either to deny or to reduce the Administration request. The $38.5-million request for the next fiscal year has already been approved by both the Sen- ate and House Appropriations Committees. The House Foreign 'Affairs Committee is expected ? to approve the necessary au- thorization shortly. The bill is :pot expected to face any sig- nificant floor fight when it is brought ,up for Senate and House approval later this month, Congressional sources ssaid. Mr. Fulbrhippl5Ctiteld mist members of his commit- pc,. had almost succeeded in ea e . -I do not think that there is room now for any doubt that this Administration's effort to ? 1 o cu ?s arp y United States Information Agency funds for the next year. The vote today was one of the few against Mr. Fulbright by the committee itself. Over the years, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, both with headquarters in Munich, have received about 5500-mil- lion in Government funds. They specialize in broadcasting news and views that would not nor- mally be permitted by the Gov- ernment-controlled media, in 'Communist couutries. Mr. Johnson in his testimony said that efforts would be made to get financial contributions from West European countries to help defray the costs of the stations. ? STATINTL ? ? r Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATI NTL TAKIINOTON POS' Approved For Release 200160A4s9,1A-RDP80-0166T4130111TIX0070001-5 en,ate Panel Votes .Foreign Radio Money By Spencer Rich Washington Post Staff Writer ? Overriding the opposition of its chairman and of Senate Majority Leader Mike Mans- field of Montana, the Foreign Relations Committee voted 10 to 3 yesterday to authorize $38,520 for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty during the coming fiscal year. The sum was the amount sought by the Nixon adminis- tration for the two stations, which broadcast news and opinion into Eastern Europe from transmitters in Western Europe. A move by Sen. Frank Church (D-Idaho) to cut the figure to $36 million failed, 9 to 4, with Church, Mansfield, Committee Chairman J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark.) and Sen. Stuart , Symington,(D-Mo.) ' 'hacking the cut. ansfield, Symington and F u 1 bright voted against the final bill as well.' ? The committee also estab- lished a procedure for hear- itigt on the Moscow nuclear arms limitation agreements, whIch may be sent tb the Sen- ate today. -The committee decided to liOld hearings on the two in- ternational agreements in three phases. First, it will hear from the administration, then from a group of nuclear arms experts it will ask to testify, and finally from public organi- zations and individuals who wish to be heard. ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty were covertly fi- nanced by the CIA for two decades, but widespread oppo- sition to concealed CIA influ- ence moved Congress to re- quire public financing last year. At that time Fulbright and others argued that the stations are simply propaganda rem- nants of the cold war and should be phased out Approved For Release 2001/03/04: C1A-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 6.3HINTON POST Approved For Release io9y,R911. : CIA-RDP80-016 U.S.. Asked to Aid' 2 Radio Stations: ..? Supporters of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty argued yesterday for full fi- nancing by the U.S. govern- ment for one more year while an effort is made to got West- ern ,Europeans to share the ,burden. The testimony came as the Senate Foreign Relations Committee opened hearings on a Nixon administration bill authorizing' $38.5 million to op- erate the two radio stations in the year beginning July 1. The two stations, which up 'to a year ago were financed, in the Main covertly by the Central Intelligence Agency, broadcast to Eastern Europe and the ? Soviet Union from Munich. Committee Chairman J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark.), who earlier this year succeeded in legislal- ing an end to funding for the stations: as of June 30, ex- pressed opposition to contin- ued U.S. financing. Fulbright cited an "emerg- ing spirit of cooperation and accommodation" between the United States and the Soviet Union, and an "apparent lack 'of interest on the part of our European allies" in helping to finance the radio operations. The only witness to testify at the opening session, Dr. Dirk U. Stikker of the Nether- lands, chairman of the West European Advisory Committee to RFE, acknowledged that "it is time for West Europeans to begin sharing the financial 'burden." ,f Stikker said the climate in ,Western Europe is "clearly fa- vorable to the continuation of Lthe radios and, by careful and patient handling, to the devel- opment of a more active Euro- pean participation." But he said development of such support will "require ,long, hard work," and he said ,"an appreciable European con- tribution should not be ex- pected to be available in the ,next year.",. , Fulbright questioned Stik- ker at length about the pros- pect "of any tangible support from Europe." "Do you know of any gov- ernment willing to pay any- thing toward these radios?" Fulbright asked. Stikker said he knew of several "but it is all confidential." Stikker said supporters "cannot start a real organized effort to raise money in Eu- rope" until Congress votes to continue the radios. Sens. Jacob Javits (R.N.y.) and Charles Percy (R-I11.) argued for a year's grace but, in Javits' words, "there will be a real obligation on the part of Europe to see that the year is not wasted." Fulbright said he didn't see any, assurance, lithe U.S. pro. vides funds for another year, that there would be action in Europe. He said the European attitude was more apt to be: "The Americans will continue to do it?they're big and rich and stupid." STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 NBI STATINTL Approved For Release 20011013/64191A-RDP80-01601R ?!ii1;1;:c4.-01 t Crk,71-'!. i)_#) r.)[,() Spionagechef Allan Dullf; fih,litrte dem Komitee noch and frilheren Mitarbeiter z-u, &11e s5th bei dcr Herstellung von Naii--kontak- ten unter den Fittichen des OSS be- wahrt batten: u. a. Charles Douglas Jackson, einen Experten far psycholo- gische KriegfUhrung, der auf diesem Gcbiet crhebliche ?Verdienste" nach- weisen konnte. Abet auch auf dem privaten Scktor stellte Jackson als Vizeprasident des mad' aigen TIME- und LIFE-Vcrlages, der die in MI- lionenauflage und in ?International Editions" vcrbreitete Illustrierte LIFE und das Nachrichtemnagazin TIME herausgibt, etwas dar. Er wurde zum Prasidenten des Komi- tees ernannt und iibte diese Position bis 1952 aus; ferner Robert E. Lang, ein von Dulles besonders geschatz- ter OSS-Mann, der spater die Stel- lung eines Direktors von RADIO FREE EUROPE fibernahm. Zu den akti-vsten Komitee-Mitgliedem zahlte auBerdem der chernalige Kriegs- minister Clark M. Clifford, der seit der Prasidentschaft Harry S. Tru- mans als Berater des WeiBen Hau- ses in Geheimdienstangelegenheiten fungierte. Cu verpackter Antikornmunismus Selbstverstandlich fehlten in der Runde dskp?fo*edfor Rtilta nicht die Reprasentanten der grofien ) Monopole: Ford, vertreten durch den Chef des Hauses Henry Ford 1L, der 1952 General Clay als Pra- siddnt der Bewegung ?Kreuzzug fur die Freiheit" abloste. Clay fiber- nalun daraufhin den Aufsichtsratsvor- siez in FREE EUROPE, INCOR- PORATED, den er auth hcute noth innchat. General Motors hatte seinen Generaldircktor James Roche, Stan- dard Oil das Vorstandsmitglied Michel Haider delegiert. Die Dynastic Rockefeller war vertreten durch ihren Sprof3 Nelson Rockefel- ler, den derzeitigen Gouverneur des Smates New York, der crst in jiing- stet Zeit ? anlal3lich der Ausliefe- rung von Angela Davis an die ras- sististhen Justizbeh5rden Kalifor-. niens ? seine Vcrbundenheit mit den ultrarechten politischen Gruppierun- gen in den USA demonstrierte. Bedeutenden EinfluB auf das Aktionsprogramm von ?Free Europe" batten bemerkenswerterweise auth zwei in der Ivieinungsmanipulierung hochst rtihrige Antikommunisten: Dewitt Wallace, der Grander und Eigentiimer der in 29 internationalen Ausgaben und 13 Sprachen mit cincr Auflage von 9 Millionen Exempla- ren monatlich erscheinenden Zeit- schrift READER'S DIGEST, die seit 1921 untcr der Tarnung von Wissenschaftlichkeit und Objektivitat die biirgerliche Intelligcnz in allcr Welt mit antikommunistischen Argu- menten beliefert. Weiterhin der in- zwischen vcrstorbene Henry R. Luce, e 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0 1100070001-5 Verleger und Hcrausgcbcr des Nach- richtenmagazins TIME, der Wochen- illustrierten LIFE und der der Vet- herrlichung der ?freien Marktwirt- schaft" und ihrcr NurzniefIer ge- weihten, luxurias ausgestatteten Monatszeitschrift FORTUNE. Auch Luce war cin Mann, der es verstem- den hatte, den Antisowjetismus in dna. attraktiven Vernackune an die breite kleinbilrgerliche Mittelschicht, die ?informiert" scin rnifichte, zu ver- hokern. Der Unterstiitzung reaktionarer und sowjetfeindlicher Gewerkschaftsver- treter hatte man sich ebenfalls ver- sichert und auf Empfehlung des State _Department einen fuhrenden Funktionar namens Carey zur Mit- arbeit ins Komitee genommen. Auf diese Weise konnte man der Unter- stiitzung der vereinigten groBen Ge- werkschaftsorganisationen ? Ameri- can Federation of Labor and Con- gress of Industrial Organisation ? sicher sem, die sich tatsachlich auch spater bei der Propagierung Konrad Adenaucrs zum Bundeskanzler be- wahrte: Auf der Frontseite des Mit- teilungsblattes dieser graten ame- rikanisthen Gewerkschaft war da- mals ein lobhudelnder Artikel er- schienen, der Adenaucr in alien Far- ben und Tanen als den ?Retter des Abendlandes" anprics. Dieses Ela- borat wurde sofort ins Deutsche ilbersetzt und als ?Stimme des Freien Amerikas" in Millionenauf- lage in Westdeutschland verbreitet. Der ?Kanzler der Alliierten" war von dem Erfolg der Aktion derart tief bccindruckt, daIs er Careys Kol- legen, ?Bruder" George Meany und ?Bruder" Jay Lovestone, als seine personlichen Gaste ins Palais Schaumburg einlud und sic mit hohen Orden behangte. iserthower mit dem Klingelbeutel Urn der ganzen Sadie ein uberpartei- liches, nationales Mantcichen unazu- hangen, hatte man sich schliefflich der Unterstutzung und Mitarbcit von General Dwight D. Eisenhower, des spateren USA-Prasidenten, versi- chert, der mit hindenburgischcr Bor- niertheit und gespielter Bonhommie far jcden antikommunistischen Rum- mel zu haben war. Ihm hatte man, ?IntaMatwocaufgec n tontinued alction fiir dtirchzufiihr MOglicherweise?hatte man den reichlich naiven Eisenhowerr dartiber im unklaren gelasscn, &II die Mit- tel zur Finanzicrung der verschiede- nen Aktivitaten von ?Free Europe" !angst von anderer Seite garandert und gratenteils auch schon bereit- gestellt waren. Aber ein snleher Appell an die Freigebigkeit des ?patriotisch" gesinnten amerikani- schen Burgers war geignet, den wah- ren Charakter der Institution zu ver- schleiern und das Marchen von der privaten Initiative mit einer dannen Tunche von Glaubwiirdigkeit zu ilberpinseln. ?Kreuzzug fiir die Freiheit" und ?Free Europe" waren in ihren ersten Stadicn Ausgeburten der Wahnvo'r- stcllung, claB die USA ? in jenen Jahren noch im Alleinbesitz atoma- rer 'Warren, die in Hiroshima und Nagasaki mit dem. Buick auf einen kiinftigen Waffengang gegen die UdSSR '?"ausprobiert" worden waren ? die Sowjetunion und ihre VerbUn- &ten in die Knie zwingcn und den Sturz der Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Re- gierungen verhaltnismaBig miihclos herbeifUhren konnten. In diesem Sinne erklarte der offizielle Initiator des NATIONAL COMMITTEE FREE EUROPE, Joseph Grew, in der Griindungsversammlung: ?Wenn dcr Zeitpunkt kommt, werden wir es mit Zustanden zu tun haben, die einem sozialen Chaos und einem politischen Vakuum sehr nahekom- men. \Venn die demokratischen Fairer (gemeint sind die Verrater und Deserteure, die ihrem Vaterland den Riicken gckehrt batten ? d. Red.) die Zwischenzeit in vollcr Schaffcns- kraft iiberleben, konnen wir horren, dac sic ihren Tcil zum demokrati- schen Wiederaufbau lcisten werden. Unsere Aufgabe wird sem, die Stimmen dieser Exilfiihrer auszu- strahlen. Sic werden zu ihren VO1- kern in Europa in deren Sprache und vcrtrauten Worten sprechen. Wir werden ihnen helfen, da ihre Bot- schaft auch mit dem gedruckten Wort die Heimat erreicht." Das war nicht nur so dahergeredet Nachdem erst einmal ?Free Europe in Munchen einen BrUckenkopf cr- richtet hatte, wurden von dort aus sogleith und bis welt in die fiinfzi- ger Jahre hinein Hunderte von Mil- lionen gasgefUllter Ballons aufgelas- sen, die BroschUren und Flugblatter mit aufhetzenden, wenn auch v011ig wirklichk9ittimitiftri nach New '7:)rk unior ndon enu- Ottiveariceremi ? C0v1r1101#,4%PlasERAP teste der CSR-Regierung ignorierte Washington auch dann noch, air bpi LevoEa emu Passagierflugzeug dutch Zusammenprall mit einem Hetzbal- Ion abstiirzte und 30 Personen da- bei den Tod fanden. etze von - der Steuer absetzen Am 4. Juli 1950 wurden in Biblis bei Frankfurt am Main mit einem 7,5-kW-Kurzwellensender die ersten Erfahrungen gesammelt. Dann, 1951, nahmen General Clays Plane Gestalt an, in M?nchen em n groBangelegtes Diversions- und Spionagezentrum in Verbindung mit einer hEichst lei- stungsfahigen Sendeanlage (Gesarut- kapazitat heute 2245 kW, verglithen mit nut 500 kW der BBC, England, und 730 kW des US-Hetzsenders RIAS) zu errichten. Unter Berufung auf das Besarzungs- recht batten die Amis cin 70 mal 250 m2 groBes Grundstfick am Eng- lischen Garten gegen den lalunen Protest der bayrischen ?Verwaltung matliche Schlasser und Seen", die fUr das Grundstikk eine durchaus andere Verwendung in Aussicht ge- nommen hatte, requidert. Die bay- rische Verwaltung konnte lediglich die amerikanischen Gebieter zu dern Versprechen bewegen, den auf dem beschlagnahmten GrundstUck fr?her behndlichen Chinesischen Turm, dcr in den Kdegsjahren eingesairzt war, wieder aufzubauen. RADIO FREE EUROPE hat dieses Versprechen nut im ithertragenen Sinn &flint und seit der Abkchr der Mao-Clique von den Grundsatzen des Marxismus- Leninismus in seinen Sendungen die Mao-Karte turmhoc.h ausgespielt Im November 1951 kam dcr bereits erwahnte Charles Douglas Jackson, einer der wichtigsten Manner der Organisation ?Free Europe", eigens nach Munchen geflogen, um die in- zwischen rekrutierten Mitarbeiter auf Vordermann zu bringen. Klipp und klar erklarte Jackson bei dieser Ge- legenheit: ?Radio Freies Europa ist em n Dienst des psychologischen Krie- ges. Unsere Organisation ist ge- schaffen worden, urn in den Landern, dencn unscre Sendungen gelten, Unruhen hervorzurufen. Militarische Einmischung hat iiberhaupt nut Sinn, wenn den Volkern der uns atlidfbbTekgru-'Cdiescr ii eitung unterna p trn fO'FREE EUROPE den Amoklauf gegen die Volksdemokratien, damals noch in dem naiven Glauben, mit den Posau- nen aus Munchen die Mauern Prags zum Einsturz bringen zu konnen. In dem ersten Werbeprospekt, den RADIO FREE EUROPE im selben Jahr, 1951, in den USA zirkulieren lieB, konnte es auf eine AuBerung des amerikanischen AuBenminister Dean Acheson verweisen, der dem wilden Treiben der Miinchner seinen offiziellen Segen erteilte: ?Das State Department", so hieB es da, ?ist fiber die Bildung von RFE sehr er- freut Es halt die Ziele der Organi- sation fiir ausgezeithnet." Auf der- selben Seite war unten in kleinem Druck noch vermerkt: ?Spenden f?r ,Free Europe' konnen von der Ein- kornmensteuer abgesetzt werden." Standig crfuhr der Sender Verstar- kung und Ausdehnung ? gebiets- maBig und in Hinsicht auf seine tech- nische Ausrustung: Zur ?Voice of Free Czechoslovakia" gesellten rich noch vor Ende des Jahres 1951 Sen- dungen fur Ungarn und Rumanien, und ab Mai 1952 wurde Volkspolen tinter ideologischen BeschuB genom- men. ? Mit der Wandlung der auBenpolid- schen Konzeption Washingtons von der ?Einclammung" zum ?Roll back of Communism" (Zuriickrollen des Kommunismus). erfuhren auc.h die Taktikcn vort RFE insofcrn eine Modifizierung, air jetzt der Haupt- a.kzent auf eine ?Starkung der Kampfmoral der unterjochten Vol- ker" (0 verlegt wurde. esen Sie im nachsten Heft: o der alten Dame o Neue Taktik: ?soft sell" Continuel ? 20t1403164?IptAr-opleett 01 R001100070001 -5 bewaffneten in ndsa tionen cin- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Am 10. Marz 1948 traf Henry Ford ,lut dem Rhcin-Main- Flughafen cin und stellte sich mit seinen Ansiditen zur ?Lage in Deutschland" vor: als ganz privater politIscher Patriot. \ . ? 1,5 ? 5 4 ?10 Audi Monopol- SproB Nelson. Rockefeller hatte GroBes mit dein ?Privat"-Unter- nehmen RFE vor: Privat-Spenden durften von der Stcuer abgesetzt vvcrden. immer Millionen Dollar mit Meinungsmache verdient werden? konnen und die Meinungen von Millionen. mit den Magazinen TIME und LIFE manipuliert werden sollten, war Cr. mit von der Partie: Herausgeber Henry It. Luce (mit Eisenhower). Approved For Relea 3/04 Private Nebeninitiativen des RFE-Konsortiums: Im bayrischen Grenzgebiet werden Gasballons gefallt (Foto) und mit Hetzflugblattern versehen in Richtung Prag getrieben. ...msEaZWktkiNfRILEE62,ato Far Millionenauflagen in der , frisch gebildeten BRD dankbar: ?Bruder" Adenauer (links) ladt ?Binder" George Meany- 1 R001114100170004;.5 ,VMS/MM.T11,4,4,,IE MMNIMENINVV/I9NleANWN5tf STATINT Approved For Release 2001/03/04 rdIA-RDP80-01601R001 #25 3 June 1972 end'f.';Z,-,rous mi Waldorf Astoria Im Friihjahr des jalircs 1949, zu einem Zeitpunkt, als der ?kalte Krieg" hohe Wellen schlug und seine amerikanischen Einpcitscher auf der Linie dcr ?Eindammung des Korn- Munismus" (containment of commu- nism) operierten, Lam es in New Yorks 45stOckigem Waldorf Astoria .Hotel zu cincr folgenschweren Zu- sammenkunft: George F. Kerman, zu jener Zeit als sogenannter CA- experte inoffizieller Ratgeber Prri- dent Trumans und Verfasser zahlz reicher Publikationen des Inhalts, wie man die Ergebnisse des zweiten Weltkrieg,es zugunsten des amerika- nischen Imperialismus korrigieren sollte, gab sidi mit dem chemaligen US-Botschafter in Japan, Joseph Grew, bekannt als Konununisten- fresser, ein Vermutlich war der AnstoB dazu vom amerikanischen Kriegsministe- rium gekommen, gcnauer gcsagt, von dem -ihm unterstellten ?Department of Psychological Warfare", das ehenfalls mm Jahr 1949 das Licht der Welt erblickt hatte und dUrch beson- dere Riihrigkeit seine Existenzbe- reditigung tinter Beweis stellen wollte. Allerdings laBt sich die Spur, die zu der Begegnung Ken- nan?Grew f?brt, noch welter zurUck- verfolgen. lay ist dabei Im Herbst 1947 hatte eine Gruppe von Kongregabgeordneten eine Studienreise durch 22 Lander unter- nommen, urn sich einen Oberblick fiber die Arbeit der amerikanischen Propagandaorganc im Ausland zu ver- schaffen. Int Berliner Hauptquartier des US-Militargouverneurs Lucius D. Clay, von dem aus sic ihre weiteren Erkundungsfahrten unternalimen, lie- . Ben sic sich litre crsten Untenveisun- gen crteilen. Der General, bekannt als unver;Olinlicher Fcind der Sowjet- union, wahrend seiner Arntszeit zu verschiedenen Maim dazu ent- schlossen, den: kalten Krieg, in eincn heiBen SchieBkrieg zu verkehren mit dent Ziel, dcrungen na _ machen und den EitafluB des Westens in SUdost- und Osteuropa: wieder- herzustellen, Eberzeugte seine Lands- !cute davon, da f3 die von den offi- ziellen amerikanischen Stel len be- triebene politische Propaganda vollig unzureichend und dahcr wirkungslos ware. Er entwickelte den Gcdanken, man mfisse Organc und Institutionen schaffen, welclic ?nach auBen hin nicht offiziell aultretend mit groBter Wirksamkeit und mit nur gcringcr Schadigung des moralischen Anschens der US-Regicrung die f?r das Aus- land bestiannte subversive Propa- ganda betreiben" konnen. Nadi ihrer Rilcickehr in die USA eat- faltete die ?Studien"-Gruppe ameri- kanischer Parlamentarier urn Saint und irn Reprasentantenhaus eine hektisdie Betriebsamkcit, um die Vorschlage General Clays popular zu mac.hen. Selbstverstandlidi wurdcn sic bci ihrem Vorgehen von einem steifen Ruckenwind aus maBgeben- den Kreisen des State-Departments und des Kriegsministeriums begim- stigt. Auf die Initiative dieser Ab- geordneten ist auch die Einbringling und die in beiden Ihrusern des Kon- grcsses kaum urnstrittene Annahme des Smith-Mundt-Gesetzes zurucirzu- fiihren. Dicses Gesetz legte die staatsrechtlic.hen Bedingungen fur die GrUnclung und Unterhaltung privater Rundfunkanstalten fest, oder, andcrs ausgedruckt, es machte den Weg fur die Inbetriebnahme soldier Sende- einrichtungen, vie sic RFE spriter darstellte, frci. Bemerkenswert ist, daB das Gesetz vorschrcibt, daB allc politischen Sendungen der als vate" Unternehmen aufgezogenen Rundfunkstationen'der Kontrolle der Regierung unterliegen. Der Annahme des Smith-Munck-Ge- setzes folgte sogleich eine Serie von Geheimverhancllungen, bei dencn Vertreter des gerade damals sich un- geheuer aufblahenden US-Spionage- dienst entscheidend mitwirkten. Sic waren samtlich .darauf gerichtet,?der amerikanischen Propagandamaschine einen ,,New Look" zu geben, was damit crreicht werden sollte, (lag in Zukunft die Abteilung f?r psycholo- gisdie Kriegsfahrung und die Ge- heimdienstzentralc der CIA den To angeben sollten. Kerman schlug vor, eine Organisa- tion auf die Beine zu stellen, in der politische Emigranten aus Osteuropa zu einer ?demokratischen Elite" zu- sammengefailt warden. Kerman lieB dabci durchblicken, daB der darnalige amerikanische Augenminister Dean Atheson, bekannt als erner dcr aggressivsten Vertreter dee amerika- nisch.en Atombombenpolitik in der Zeit des arnerikanischen Kernwaf- fenmont:q>ols, solche Projclac mit allergrallter Sympathic vcrfolge und eine ?private" Initiative als denkbar beste Form zu deren DurchfUhrung 2n5chc. Auf diesc Tricifx auch gelingen, wichti6L v.irt liche, politische und rd i7 C,. ?, pen in den USA zu mobilisieren. Grew, dem die Obertrag-ong eines so wichtigcn Mission an scincm sonsm recht eintonigen Lebensahencl anfki- ordentlich schnicichelte, grill Kermans Empfehlung auf. Tin Mai 1949 zog cc einen alten Freund und Gesinnungsgenossen, Dewitt C. Pool, ins Vert-rauen, der in jungen Jahren als Charg?'Affai- res an der amerikanischen Botschaft in St. Petersburg den Sturm auf das Winterpalais erlebt und sidi von dicscm Schrecken zeit seines Lebens nicht mehr crholt hatte. In spateren jahren war et- am Aufbati des arne- rikanisdien Geheirndienstes maBgeb- lich beteiligt und im zweiten Welt- krieg als Abteilungsleiter int Office of Strategic Services (OSS) ? dent Vorlaufer der CIA ? an der Scite von Allan Dulles tatig, der seiner- seits 1953 die Lcitnng dieser letztge- nannten, berUchtigten Organisation fibernahm. Man darf als sicher an- nehmen, daB interessierte Stellcn Joseph Grew dazu veranlaBten, sich just in diesem Augenblicic seines alten Kumpanen zu erinnern, dean es war 118heren Orts von vornhercin vorgesehen, dcr zu grandenden ?pri- vaten" Organisation gebeimdienst- fiche Funktionen zu abertragen. eburtssitmcie ina Apartment 300 Grew und Pool lieBen nun Einla- dungen an eine Zahl ausg,ewahlter Personlichkeiten zur GrUndungssit- zung eines Gremiums ergehen, das nach einstimmigem BeschluB die Be- pproVedef ofcRe I ease OO4O8O4 : CIA-RDP 1945rackgangi, zu private" Untemehnien v D. _ .1 A, Aiitogigio#41t16r- konstituierende Versammiung j fand am 1. Juni 1949 in New York ;im EmpireApproVetlifgor?Re ".., meat 300, statt. Ersehienen -war so : ziemlich alles, was im offenen und i versteckten Kampf gegen die Sowjet- union und ande. sozialistische Lan- der gewatet hue. Allen voran Spio- nagebo8 Allan Dulles, Mitglied des Vorstandes der New Yorker IliHale der pronazistischen Londoner Schroeder-Bank, der bekanntlidt von seiner OSS-Zentrale in Bern non gegen Ende des zweiten Weltkrieges .mit Sendboten des SS-Chefs Himm- ler Vcrbindungen aufgenonamen und si:11 urn AbschluB eines Separatfrie- dens mit Nazi-Deutschland bemaht hatte. Allan Dulles wurde bald dar- auf zum Prasidenten des Exekutiv- ausschusses des National Committee Free Europe berufen ? ein V,Titeres Anieithen dafar, (lag die neugegran- dew Institution dazu auserschen war, als verlangerter Arm des ,amerika- nischen Geheimdienstes zu opericren. Nicht weniger symptomatisch war die Mitwirkung John McCloys, der von Anbeginn an zu der Spitzen- ruppe von Politikern gehorte, die en Fahrplan und die Marschroute iir ?Free ' Europe" -fesdegten. ilcaoy, der wahrend des Krieges den Rang eines Unterstnatssekretas im Kriegsministerium bekleidete, hatte bucks zu jener Zeit Grund- satze eincr Nachkriegspolitik mea- ner dem geschlagenen Nazi- Deutschland aufgestellt, die im kras- sen Gegensatz zu den Vereinbaron- gen von Jalta und Potsdam stanclen und auf die Restauration des dent- schen Imperialismus als antibolsche- wistische Bastion abzielten. Selbst elremaligcr Corporationsanwah und juristischer Berater der maB- gebenden amerikanischen .Monopole, stand er in eager Verbindung mit dc:r Clique fahrender Bankiers, die wie die Chefs von Dillon, Rend & Co. und Brown, Harriman & Brothers bercits flack dem crsten Weltkrieg der daniederlegenden deutschen Rastungsindustrie mit Anleihen und Krediten wieder auf die Beine go.- holfen und die ihre eager' Geschafts- verbindungen auch mit dem faschi- stischen Deutschland welter aufrecht- erhalten batten. In einem Interview mit der in Chi- cago erscheinenden (inzwischen ein- gegangenen) Zeitung ?PM" hatte McCloy erklart, daB die bisherigen Nachkriegsplane fur Deutschland, wie sie in Potsdam urnrisscn wur- den, nicht atm Verwirklichung . korn- I- P men warden Seine en mit dem Erkp Ml&PIcItY-1 Imentiett seine Tatig,keit als juristi- i ?1 in Deutstbland- ofTen da- seic20108/04 DIA80 01601R00111000700044utio- Bank, als dcren Dircktor er seit 1953 tatig ist. Von 1947 bis 1949 nahm er den Postcn eines Prasiden- ten der International Finance Corporation ein und war in dieser Eigcnschaft mit Erfolg datum be- mat, eine Sozialisicrung der Ruhr- industrie zu verhindem und den I I itlerschcn Welirv,-irtscha ts fa hrern und Kriegsverbrechern -die Rik.likeln zu den alten Kornmandostellen erra5glichen. Noch bedeutsamer aber ist, daB McCloy lid der Ernennung von Ge- neral Lucius D. Clay zurn gouvemeur in der amerikanisciten liesai41.11q.,,SZOIIC seine Hand im L, lel bane und auf Clays Entscheidungen wahrend dessen Annszeit unheilvol- len bestimmenclen EinfluB ausabte. Es ist claher auch nicht verwuncler- lich, claB General Clay sogleich nach seiner Rad:kehr acts Westdeutsch- land im Jahn: 1919 eine Schlassel- position mi K.onlitee bezog, this in- zwischen die Form einet Gesellschaft offentlithen Rechts angenommen }mac und sich, jetzt FREE EUROPE. INCORPORATED nanntel inc ?todliche Stimme" Auf Clay geht die Grandung eines anderen Kornitecs?,Kreuzzug fiir die Freiheit", zurack, dessen Lcitung er abernahm. Organisatorisch wurde es als Dachorganisation fiber Free Europe, Incorporated gestellt. Envie- sen ist ebenfalls, daB Clay das Pro- jekt-eines arnerikanischen Senders in M?nchen noch wahrend seiner Tatig- keit als Militargouyerneur cifrig ver- folgte und die ersten praktischen Schritte an seiner Verwirklichung untemahm, bevor noch im Juli 1949 ein Unterausschug von Free Europe, Incorporated einen entsprechenden BeschluB Clay hat in seinem Buch ?Entschei- Is niiie lir WIC/Ching 2,11 V,!ikS(1 CMO/Zra- ElSChc:11 Staaten in de '1 Ungarn, und Runtanien zu einer Vey.!'iii;:bung des strategif:chen Gleichgev,i;hts zuun- gunsteu des Westens Art habe und clic ?Vreie Welt" sick mit dies'''. Laze nicht ahfinclen So hatte Clay, einer der verboiut?.:,,,,:a kalten Elriel;er jener j;-7thre, in "Erni: granteip,, rider", tier in 1,4tc1bafer CSSR wetrIcn solltc, tchon darnals ein l?stturucut gesehen, um den Bode!) fi;,. Kon- terrevolution und den isurz dcr Volksherrschaft zu bel Von General Clay stammen a auch markig-,-t Worte, mit clenc--!i Cr sich iiber die Mission von EuroPc und des Manchener aus- lieB: ?Das Komitee Frciet Europa und RFE f?hren einen tml.armhcr- zigen, dutch niclits aufzuk I enden psychologisclien Krieg, der sich auf ein Ziel richtet: Sturz (Its y.Tommu- nismus." Und spuiell mit 130--Ilg auf RADIO FREE EUROPP,i ,,Wir brauchen eine anclere Stinm-!e, cinc Stimme, die moglichst wen4; v Status des Staates als solcht:Pl g:n re-' gclt wird, cad, wenn man will, eine harte und todlich ti4feade Stimme I" esen Sic im ri`chsten Heft: o Neuverpackt o Mit dem Klingelbettit.! O Mit Gasballons ase 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 200144 t-ipiA-ORMT6lo i`fte-Y;Nrf III ir;',11-i;i 411115isjj l_clq CT polnische Kundselmfter Hauptrnann Czechowicz 1st aus M?n- chen in die polnisdie Heinaat nicht mit leeren Handen zurfickgekehrt. In seinem Gepack fiihrte er zahlreiche' Originaidokumente mit, die einen tug 0_110 und Diverrionstatigkeit des Senders FREE EUROPE gestatten. Aus ihnen geht hervor, daB in alien AuBenstellen nadi demselben System verfahren wird, wie wit es mm Falle der Wiener INTORA kennenlernten. Beispielsweise befuaden sich unter diesen Dokumenten ?Rapporte" ? wie sic intern genannt werden ? des Agenten ?K 5", die liber seine sich genauen AppraVelit rIkE61eAb Nr01701itifded/Oktilli8 gen zu dem ehemaligen Sekretar der Polnischen Botschaft in Rom, Marian Wielgosz, Auskunft geben, den er schlieBlich zum Verrat an der Heimat anstiften konnte. Vermutlith batten zwischen Wielgosz und der CIA. scion vor seiner Entsendung nach Rom Kontakte bestandcn, dean es beiBt in dem ersten, aus dem Jahre 1957 starnmenden Beridit: ?Nadi seiner Ankunft hat er mich (?K 5") angerufen und em n Treffen in einem Restaurant vorgeschlagen. Nach vor- hedger Benachrichtigung entsprechen- der Personen habe ich mich bereit er- klart unter der Bedingung, daB er einvcrstanden ist, mein Gast zu sein. Wielgosz hat keine Vorsdilage ge: macht und sich schr anstandig (I) vcrhalten; nur einmal frag,, oh er mir in irgendeiner Angclegenheit helfen konnte. Ich dankte und scblug ihm dafOr jegliche Unterstiitzung far den Fall vor, wenn Cr sich entschei- den wiirde..." Zwolf Jahre danadi hat diese schmutzige Angelegenheit den voraus- berechnrten AbscilInf3 gefunden. Wit zitieren aus dcm Originalsdiriftstfick a uszugsweise ?Vcrtraulich ? Bfiro Rom (Michael idssonr9 Rom, 21. August 1969 RO 5583/K 5 ? Polen Treffen mit Marian Wielgocz Sicherheitsquelle: (Spalte nicht aus- geffillt ? die Red.) Bemerkung des Berichterstatters: Die zusatzliche Kopie des beige- fiigten Rapports muB an Herrn Jan Nowak, Direktor der Polnischen Sektion (von RFE, die Red.), ge- sandt werden. Dieser Rapport faBt das dreistiin- dige Treffen mit Herrn Marian Wielgocz, ehemaliger Sekretar. der Poinischen Kommunistischen Bot- schaft, ...gegenwartig in Emigra- tion unter dem Schutz der HIAS zusammen." In den folgenden vier Seiten des Rapports wird fiber die Unterhaltung zwischen Agent ?K 5" und Wielgocz minutios Rechensdiaft gelegt. Zu- nachst werden noch einmal die ein- zelnen Stationen aufgefiihrt, die zwi- schen der ersten Kontaktaufnahmc mit ?K 5" und dem endgiiltigen Ubertritt Wielgocz' in das Lager des Feindes Iiegen. Dann foIgt eine ge- naue Bcschreibung seiner familiaren Verhaltnisse. Detaillierte Angaben fiber seine Frau und seinen Sohn und 0-01601R001100070001-5 fOUtinuE,e, Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 . _ ?-.1.14.61,011,firaiThS ? - - r I E: vo n. , fir-g,ttilrc,,.??. 7 --- *So ? .' - t ' ? ' ? ; ?? \Nit de,ssen Plane, in Rom sein Studium zu Lade zu f?hren und dort eine, seiner Qualifikation entsprechende Anstellung zu finden.Diese Angaben nut Person Wielgocz' enthalten alle ?schwachen Punkte", die den arnot. kanis' then Geheimdienst? in 4j Lir versetzen, den Abtriinnigen, immer erforderlich, unter Druck p4 setzen und Run jede MOglichkeit ang Umkehr zu verlegen. AnschlieBend werden samtliche Personen aufge- fiihrt, mit denen W. wahrend teinraZ diplomatischen Tatigkeit in Rom in engere Verbindung getreten war und die fur die CIA und ihre Infos. tionssammelstelle RFE von Interesse sein k8nnten. Den 'Hauptteil des Rapports nehmen die nachrichten- dienstlich ergiebigen Auskiinfte cin, die der Kontakt mit W. erbrachte. Schliefflich werden in der VR Pokn ansassige Personen genannt, die sich nach W.'s Auffassung zu einer Kon- taktaufnahme eignen warden. uf geheimen Wegen AlsgrnogendrenFtiOnrd ekiittntg; Das System sich seit den Tagen, als eine Maria TIvrtratnvn ihrP Tat; pkeit in der Munchener Zentrale von RFE auf- gab und in ihre tschechoslowa- kische Heimat zuriickfand, kaum verandert. Damals gab tie in Prag eine Erklarung ab, in der es bieB: ,,In der sogenannten Informations- abteilung, wo ich seit Anbeginn ge- arbeitet habe, wurden Nachrichten abgeschrieben, die teils aus Verhoren mit Fliichtlingen stammten, tells auf ,geheimen Wegen', d. h. mit Hilfe der gelaufigen Spionagemethoden, zu uns gelangt waren. Die Zentrale die- ser Tatigkeit befindet sich in Mun- chen. Hier laufen die Nachrichten zu- sammen, welche alle iibrigen. Spio- nage-Zweigstellen liefern. Jede die- ser Zweigstellen hat eine Decknum- mer, unter der sic ihre Nachrichten an die Munchener Zentrale einschickt. Die dort einlangenden Nachrichten haben ausnahmslos Spionagecharak- ter, mag es sich urn militarische Nachrichten handeln, far die das groilte interesse vorhanden ist, oder um Nachrichten wirtschafdicher und politischer Natur. Jede Nachricht wurde mit der Nummer des Agenten versehen, von dem sic stammt Ich selbst babe auSer Nachrichten aus r e; I il elbstrnord - keine Ausnahme Die Erlebnisberichte des polnischen Kundschafters Andrzej Czechowicz verdeudichen zugleich Methoden und Praktiken, wie sic von der CIA in enger Zusammenarbeit mit dem BRD-Nachrichtendienst (BND) an- gewendet werden, um ?Fliichtlinge", von denen nicht wenige ihre Heimat infolge einer KurzschluBreaktion ver- lassen haben, zu Agenten zu pressen. Czechowicz hat das am eigenen Leib erfahren. Bekanntlich hatte der heute 35jahrige seine Mission 1962 auf- genommen, nachdem en sich nach erfolgreicher Beendigung eines Ge- schichtsstudiums an der Universitat Warschau ? den polnischen Sieber- heitsorganen nut Verfiigung gestellt und den Auftrag erhalten hatte, Zen- tren der politischen und ideologischen Subversion in den Landern des NATO-Blocks zu erkunden. Zur Erfiillung seines Auftrags haite einen Weg gewahlt, den abtriin- aige Landsleute des ofteren schon vor ihm beschritten batten: Fr be- gab sich auf legale Weise nach England, unterbrach abet die Heim- wise in Koln, meldete sich bei der BRD-Polizei und teilte flit seinen Entsd-ilull mit, nicht mehr nach Polen zurackkehreia zu wollen; en ersucke urn ?politisches Asyl", wurde darauflin 'fesigenommen und einige Tage in das ,Auffanglager fiir Ober- laufer aus den sozialistischen Lan- tern in Zirnd'orf bei Nurnberg ein- geliefert Dort teilte Czechowicz einen zellenahnlichen, sdumitzigen Ram in einer Holzbaracke mit sic- ben anderen Landsleuten, die dort bereits seit mehreren -Monaten fest- gehalten wurden. Sic beklagten sich iiber unzureichende Ernahrung, man- gelhafte sanitare Verhaltnisse und machten. einen vollig abgestumpften Eindruck. Sic seien, wie sic 1.._ibst erklarten, von den taglichen, viele Stunden wahrenden Verb-Oren ?ge- schafft". CzethOwicz selbst wurde bereits einen Tag nach seiner Einlie- ferung von einem BRD-Geheim- dienst-Offizier ausgefragt, und da er em n ?interessanter Fall" zu sein ver- sprach, an seinen amerikanischen Kollegen, einen US-Offizier ukrai- nisch-polnischer Abstammung, weiter- gereicht Dieser CIA-Agent haste dariiber zu entscheiden, wem das von den Lagerinsassen begehrte Pradikat abgalk#4513 8 0 -01!804fIR 0 01401X17 0001isant wurde. sant lnuou Vide, ja die iffiWavagERESOURACIRWPflaidgMrriP80701601 R001100070001-5 insassen waren gar nicht in der Lage, Auskiinfte zu erteilen, die far die CIA von Withigkeit sein konnten. Da abet die amerilcanischen Schniiff- ler von der Annahme ausgehen, der ?Fliiditling". hake mit Bedacht wesentliche Informationen zurack, nahmen die Verhore inquisitorischen Charakter an. Kam der amerik.-anische Geheimdienst schlief3lidt zu dem SdiluB, dem ?Fhichtling" das poli- tische Asylrecht zu verweigc,a, so sah sidi der Betroffene eirrer hoff- nungslosen Zukunft gegenaber. Lie- ferten die Flachtlinge nichts, dann sollten sic eben schen, wo sie blieben. Andrzej Czechowicz erwahnt den Fall der Polin Dworniczak: Als sie die Mitteilung erhalten hatte, dal!' ihr ?politisdies Asylrecht" nicht zuge- standen werde, nahm sie eine Cher- dosis Schlaftabletten und machte ihrem jungen Leben cin Ende. Selbst- morde im Lager Zirndorf sind keine Ausnahmeerscheinung. In der ?Neuen Rhein-Ruhr-Zeitung" konnte man lesen: ?FREE EUROPE ? unterhalt im Niirnberger Lager em n Baro. Nach Methoden des Geheimdienstes be- schafft man rich dart bei den aus- landischen Fliichtlingen und oft zwic- lichtigen die notigen In- formationen. Dabei wird kein Wert auf Stichhaltigkeit gelegt." an Nowak hat karrier recht Hauptrnann CzechOwl= freilich war darauf geeicht, seine Aushorcher zu- friedenzustellen. Er lieferte fingierte militarische und politische Informa- tionen, die dem Verharer so becleut- sam erschienen, claB Cr sie sofort an eine weitere Sammelstelle des US- Spionagedienstes in Oberursel bei Frankfurt am Main weiterleitete. Au13erdem brachte er CzechOwicz was fur dessen weiteres Wirken noch wichtiger war ? mit dem im Lager stationierten Korrespondenten des ?Polish desk" (der polnischen Redak- tion) von RADIO FREE EUROPE in Verbindung. Dieser wiederum empfahl Czechowicz an den Leiter der polnisdien Sektion der Manch- ner Zentrale, an den berths erwahn- ten Jan Nowak, seinen spateren Chef. Aber selbst die ?Auserwahlten", denen schliefllich die ?Identification Card" von FREE EUROPE, Divi- sion of FREE EUROPE, Approved For Release 2001103104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-Sontinuod wie es urn die ?Freiheit" bestellt 1st, ?Vr 1-4 13 2 die 66 FREE EUROPE praktiziert wird. Sie bleiben Gefangene unterA9i.,..1TTLY'j:DGS DAT iJM der Fuchtel Nowaks, den C.zechowicz U 1SSS als den ?Typ eines amerikanischen Gangsters" beschreibt, -der mit sei- nen Untergebenen nach Gutdanken umspringt. ,,Wer mit Pan Nowak in einen Disput gerat, ist erledigt." Czechowicz erwahnt den Fall des poinischen Schauspielers Janusz Koryzma, der nach einem Streit mit Nowak seine SteIle verlor. Aber da- mit nicht genug, veranlallte Nowak seine Verhaftung und spatere Einwei- sung in eine Heilstlitte far Geistes-1 kranke in der Nahe von StraBburg., Schlief31ich aber ist auch Nowak nur ein winziges Radchen in einem gigan- tischen, Tag und Nacht auf Hoch- touren laufenden Spionage- -und Diversions-Apparat. Wer sind die Konstrukteure, wet die ?Meister", die ihn in Gang halter!? esen Sie im nichsten Heft: ? Int Appartement 300 * Eine :rociliche Stimme Sie !assert ihre verfahrten Opfer eiskalt ?abet die.Klinge springen": die Direktoren der Hetzsendun- gen in Tschecho- slowakisch, Pol- nisch und Bulga- risch (v. 1. n. r.: Julius Fist, Jan Nowak und Milio Mileff) bci der Progamm- beratung.. 3 RADIO FREE EUROPE DIVISION OF IEEE EUROPE INC. IDENTIFICATION CARD NAME. ? A.ridrzej 2, _ CITIZENSHIP STAAISANGEH. Stateless TITLE ma. liesea.reher ? Of FCE DIENS;STETLF Xunich SIG.IATus. TERSCHR IFT # ? 1. CeUNTETL-7.ICNED BY S,ECtlgilY OCFICER- GEGENZEiCHNUNG DES SiCHERH.-OFEIZIERS t :AIE OF BIRTH HEIGHT WEIGHT HAIR EYES ,,ESURTSDAIUM GROSSE GEWIGHT HAARFARBE AUGENEARBE :. 7 Aug 37 172crn 65kg brown brown _ THE REAPER; IDENTIFIED ON THE REVERSE SIDE, IS A RADIO FREE EUROPE ii.,PLOYEE AND AUTHORIZED TO PERFORM DUTIES CONSISTENT WITH HIS POSITION. DrE AL.I DER RCCKSEiTE AUSGEWIESENF PERSON 1ST EIN ANGESTELLTER ON RAW? FREIES EUROPA UND ERMACHT1GT, DIE IN SEINEM DIENST- SEREICH IIEGENDEN AUFGABEN AUSZUEUHREN. NOTICE, ANYONE FINDING THIS DOCUMENT PLEASE MAIL TO RADIO FREE EUROPE, ENGLISH GAkDENS NO. 1, MUNICH. REWARD WILL BE PAID. ACHTUNG: WENN DIESFS DOKUMENT CH-LINDEN WIRD, SOLITE IS UNVER7CGUCH AN RADIO f REiES EUP.OFA, F mONCHEN 22, ENGHSCHLR GARI1N I, GE. !ANN WERDEN. EINE SLLOHNUNG WIRD AUSPE7AHLT. ZIRSEGESSISAISIffirentraMINISSIVISK=U Gewann als RFE-?Mitarbeiter" jahrelang besten Einblick in die innere Struktur von RFE: Hauptmann der Aufklarungsabteilung im polnischen Innenministerium Andrzej C.zechOwicz. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ,V4PANIKIIIMM411111.1106:Iminewmprowe AMMO. Selbstmorde keine Seltenkeit I im Lager: Erst verfuhrt, -dann verraten und verkauft, schlieBlidi dem gegen- seitigen HaB iiberlassen. Teilansicht der Redaktionsgebaude: RFE-Komplex in M?nchen egaNIUMMInsusenaminuzzo"lo,wamoreemik,avasisMaismar - I ? : I. I , "' ? ? ?-?? CrA ? ? sr - ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 4 IBI Approved For Release 2001/01001419111A-RDP80-01601 hue 1-4.-ischild in Wien Auf einem bescheidenen Messing- child im Hause Webgasse 43, Maria Hilfer Bezirk, Wien, stcht zu lesen: INTORA, ABSATZ- & MARKT- FORSCHUNG, 2. Stiege links. Mehrfachcs, anhaltendes Lauten bleibt unbeantwortet. ?Die sind nicht mehr bier", lautet die karge Antwort des Hausmeisters. ?Wohin?" Das kann er nicht sagest Doch wei- tete Ermittlungen ergeben, dal die Lcitung der Firma sich qntschlossen hat, aus der larmenden City zu ver- schwinden und sich in dcr landlichen Stifle eines Auflenbezirks, dem ab- gelegenen Penzing, niederzulassen. Hadikgasse 52 lautet die neue Adresse. Aber das fragliche Haus - ein dreistockiger nachterner Ncubau - tragt kein Nummernschild. Detre- ten kann man es nur von der seitlich ab biegenden Gyrowetzgasse. um neuen Heim hat man auf das Firmenschild' ganz verzichtet. Wer nicht wei8, daB Herr Helmut Aigner der Chef on INTORA ist - sein No.m, if a.,,f dem ?Stummen Fortier" ce.getragen kehrt unverrichteter Sae. e wied urn. Verbindung mit Wohnungsinhaher Aigner vermittelt am Hauseingang eine Sprechanlage, und die sic bedienende Weiblichkeit meldet erst nach verschiedenen Ruck- fragen, daB Herr Aigner, obwohl nirk beschaftigt den Besucher zu -en bereit ist. iierr Aignet, der auch im Zimmer eine randlose, dunkelglasige Brille tra_gt, ist wen_ig mitteilsam. Soviel laBt er sich nur entlocken: Sein priva- tes Unternehmen betrcibe die An- kurbelung von Geschaften im ost- europaischen Raum, vornehmlich mit der ?Tschechos,- il? -:" - ie et ?J?e (7K,X bezeidmet , aber mit andercn Volksdemokratien. Daraus eeklare sich auch, daB er nur Leute, die mindestens eine ??st-to .)paische Sprache beherrsdien, bes.?:nattige, dar- unter auch den einen oder anderen ?Emigrantert". Politik interessiere INTORA nicht im geringsten. Aus den stahlgerahmten Fenstem in Mg- nets Arbeitszimmer hat man einen freien Buick auf das Gebaude der CSSR-Gesanito taftft. rved For Rele -r7 \?\ lick: ?Mite. sprechen Sie! Verzichtet man auf eine Zusammen- kunft mit INTORA-Chef Aigner und wahlt stats dessert die Telefonnummer 82 51 02 - die nicht im Telefonbuch steht, abet- vom wil3begierigen Repor- ter herausgefunden wurde -, so hat man ein seltsames Erlebnis.. Klic.k - darauf spricht eine angenehm dunkle Frauenstimme vom Tonband: ?Guten Tag. Hier spricht der Telefonauf- nahmedienst der Firma INTORA. Geben Sic Ihre Mitteilung dutch. Wir werden gegebatenfalls zuriickrufen. Sir werden auf Tonband aufgenom- men. Ihre Sprechzeit betr? 45 Se- kunden. Bitte geben Sic die Zeit an, zu der Sic anrufen. Achtungl Bitte jetzt sprechen I" Klidc. Dec unnachgiebige Reporter, dem es gelungen war, die Geheimnummer von INTORA herauszubekommen - sic wurde seitdem verandert -, gab sich indessen mit dieser Entdeckung nicht zufrieden. Er unternahm wei- tere Erkundungen, um hinter das Gc- hcimnis des mysteriosen Absatz- und Marktforschungsinstituts zu kommen. Da fiel ihm auf: Tag fur Tag bevor der Praha-Wien-ExpreB auf dem Wiener Bahnhof einlauft, erscheinen auf dem Bahnsteig immer wieder die- selben undurchsichtigen Gestalten, denen trot krampfhafter Bemahung, nicht aufzufallen, innere Unruhe und Nervositat deutlich anzumerken sind. Rollt dam n der Zug in die Halle, ver- teilen sic sich auf die einzelnen Wag- gons, mustern mit prafenden Blicken die Aussteigcnden, um sich dann an &nen heranzumachen, der ihren Ab- sichten dienlich sein konnte, und reden in tschechischer Sprache hastig auf ihn ein. Sic ergreifen mitunter auch seinen Koffer und weichen nicht von seiner Seite. Das alles geht in solcher Eile vor sich, daB Verwandte und Bekannte des 13etreffenden gar nicht dazu kototnen, ihren Besuch in die Arme zu Ben, bevor noch der Fremde seine crsten ?markterforschenden" Kontakte herstellen konnte. Ehe er sich schlie13- lich verabsc.hiedet, aberreicht er dem Gast aus Prag verstohlen einen klei- nen Zettel mit seiner Telefonnummer ase 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP8 STATINTL und Anschrift. Er sei ja em n Lands- mann, v,-ie er sagt, der vor em n paar Jahren die Heimat aus rein person- lichen Granden verlassen hatte. Wie es jetzt da wohl ausschauen wiirde? Das konnte man sich doch bei &nem gematlichen Plausch im Kaffeehaus erzahlen lassen. Ahnlithe Szenen konnte der Repor- ter auch bei Ankunft des aus War- thitr "acipie-Expret.c beobachten. Und nicht viel anders gcht es auf Wiens Flughafen zu, wenn die Maschinen der Cesko-Slovenske- Air-Lines aufsetzen, oder am Donau- Kai, wo die schmudce ?Tschaika" aus Budapest anlegt. ?Besuch empfangen" wird diese Tatig- keit im Dienstreglement von IN- TORA genannt, dean es bcreitete dem Reporter nicht allzu groBe Schwierigkeiten, festzustellen, daB die aufdringlic.hen Herren auf den Bahnsteigen, Flugplatzen und an den Dampferanlegestellen im Dienste von Chef Aigner stehen. Das sogenannte ?Interview" ist &fin der nachste Schrift, den der INTORA-Mann arrangieren muB, der Treff mit dem ?Landsmann". er ?Landsmann" Freilich, Chef Aigner ist seinen An- gestellten gegeraiber nicht allzu ver- trauensselig, und zur Kontrolle, ob die Interviews auch tatsac.hlich statt- finden und nicht der Phantasie der Mitarbeiter entspringen, hat er die Sadie mit der telcfonischen Meldung, die auf Tonband registriert wird, ein- gefuhrt. Daher tautht zur abgespro- thenen Zeit und am angegebenen Otte ein zweiter INTORA-Mann ganz unauffallig auf, urn festzustellen, ob die Sadie auch wirklich in Ord- nung geht. Der ?Landsmann" abet, der zu dem Treff meist aus purer Neugier erschie- nen ist, ist hochst erstaunt, daB die Unterhaltung aber die alte Heimat eine ganz andere Wendung nimmt, contir?q -01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 I als er erwartet hatte. Nachdem et erst em n paar Belanglosigkeiten von sich gegeben hat, prochrziert sein- metier 1 Belcannter einen umfangreichen ; Fragebogen, 24 Schen stark, und , geht Frage auf Frage mit ihrn durch. Was man da nicht alles von ihm wis- sen milichte: genaue Adresse ? Alter ? Familienstand ? Schulbildung ? Be- ruf ? Religion ? seine Bekann ten ? in welcher Eigenschaft halt er sich in Osterreich auf, als Privatmann oder im ciienstlichen Auftrag; im ersten Fall: wer und was sind seine Ver- waridten oder Freunde, die er auf- sucht in dieser Stadt?; im anderen Fall: was ist der Zweck seines Auf- enthalts? 1st er Mitglied einer offi- ziellen Delegation? Eines kiinstleri- schen Ensembles? Angehariger eines Sportklubs? usw. Beabsichtigt er, wieder in die Heimat zuriickzukeh- ren? Und wenn ja: ist er bereit, den Kontakt. mit dem neuen ?Freund" aufrechtzuerhalten? eltsame Nqugier Da es sich ja um einen tschechischcn Landsmann handelt, holt der IN- TORA-Marm noch einen Zusatz- Fragebogen hervor, der seltsamer- weise ?Special Czech/Slovak Questio- naire" iiberschrieben ist Dieser be- zeugt einen recht eigenartigen Wis- sensclurst der Fragesteller: ?Welchen drei Personen in der CSSR unab- hangig von ihrer augenblicklichen Position ? bringen Sic das grogte Interesse entgegen? Wie grog ist Thr Vertraucrk zu Husak: in fast jeder Hinsicht? ? begrenzt? ? kcin Ver- trauen?" Und welter im Text: ,,Was ist Ihrer Meinung nach heutc das Schlimmstc in der Tschechoslowakei? Was halnin Sic vom XIV. Parteitag der- KFTA? Letrieli gie hn al)? Be- gragen Sic ihn?. 1st er Ihnen gleich- giittig?" Llnd schlieglich noch gezieltere Fra- gen wie diese: ?Wie ist die Lage in Ihrem Betrieb? Was sind die Griinde frit etwaige Unzufriedenheit? Weldae Moglichkeiten bestehen, einen Streik zu organisieren?" onterrevolution durch Television Karmen auf Grund des bereits Ge- sap,ten kaum noch Zweifel iiber clzi zwielichtigen, das heil3t recht eindea- tigen Charakter des Aignerschen Ab- satz- und Marktforschungsinstituts bestehen, s'45 lassen sich noch eindeu- tigere Riickschlusse aus der Dunkcl- manner-Existenz einiger seiner regel- magigen Beincher ziehen. Der Konterrevolutionar jai Pelikan ist einer von ihnen ? ehemaliger Intea- dant des Prager Fernsehfunks, der irn Jahr 1968 dieses Massenmedium auf den Kurs der Konterrevolution brachte, alle parteilichen und pria- zirienfesten Mitarbeiter, einen nazh dem andern, hinausdrangte, bis das Haus schlieglich zur Bastion der putschentsthlossenen Frondeure yid ihrer auslandischen Hintermanner wurde. ?Revolution durch Tele- vision", diese Losung hatte Pelikan selbst ausgegeben. Als jedoch der ferngesteuerte Aufstand dank der Hilfe der Truppen der Warschauer 1 Paktstaaten gar nicht erst urn sieh gaeifen konnte, verdingte sich Pelikan an den- amerikanischen Spionage- dienst In seinem Auftrag reist Pei- kan jetzt regelmaBig nach Wien, sao ihn sein Weg bei 'jedem Aufenthrlt zur Hadikgasse 52 fiihrt. Fast taglich lailt sich do rt auch eine stets nach neuester Mode gekleidete, nicht mehr ganz junge Dame sehen, die sich Vera Alfoldi nennt und als leitende Mitarbeiterin im standigen Wiener Bilro von RADIO FREE EUROPE beschaftigt ist. riickenkopf im Englischen Garten Das Stichwort ist gefallcn: RADIO FREE. EUROPE. Darunter hatte der Nichteingeweihte bisher den in Min- chen stationierten amerilcanischen Hetzsender verstanden, der rand um die Uhr 24 Stunden mit aufwiegela- der Propaganda die sozialistischen Staten der CSSR, Polens, Ungares, Rumaniens und Bulgariens berieselt Dod-i seit den sensationellen Enthill- lungen des polnischen Kundschafters Hauptmann Andrzej Czecbovicz, der sich sechs Jahre lang im Auftrag der polnischen Sicherheitsorg,ane im Mandmer Hauptquartier des Senders einquartierte, ist allgemein bekannt, dat die Sendetatigkeit nut einen, allerdings sehr bedeutsamen Zweig der Aktivitaten von RFF., darstellt. RADIO FREE EUROPE ist emn Knotenpunkt im weltweit- verzweig- ten Spionagesystem der amerikani- schen Central Intelligence Agency, kutz CIA genannt RADIO FREE EUROPE hat einen fesan Platz in `der Struktur der amerikar'schen Glo- balstrategie .und ist im NATO- Block-System fest verankert. Augen- stellen in Wien, Westbedin, Frank- furt am Main, Bonn, Brfissel, Lon- don, Paris, Rom, Madrid, Stockholm, Istanbul und Athen, urn nur die with- tigsten zu nennen, filttern in ununter- brochenem Strom die RI E-Zentrale im Englischen Garten Nr. 1, einem weiggetiinchten, niichternen Gebaude, das eher einem Krankenhaus ihnelt. Zur Sammlung von ?Inside Informa- tion" bertiont sich- R.ER zahlreicher, angeblich der Meinungs-, Markt- oder Absatzforschung &mender Institute. Auch die Firma INTORA it emn Stutzpunkt in diesem Ne. Achtzig Prozent der aus solchen Quellen stammenden Berichte werden aus- schlieglich fur die CIA ausgewertet; nut zwanzig Prozent gehen in die Sendungen von RFE th. In Munchen wird eine Kartei fiber ?interessante" tschechoslowakische Personlichkeiten gefiihrt. Die aus dieser Kartei gelie- ferten Informationen, Statistiken, Analysen usw. werden auf Lochkar- ten fibertragen, nach Washington transferiert und dein Computer- system der CIA einverleibt. Lesen Sic im nichst= ? Gesprich mit KS ? Selbstmord ? Pan Nowak hat immer recht Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 R1ADESt DIGEST Approved For Release 2001/03/9S %(,-RCfig13410111051 For two decades, Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty have been beaming a message of hope and truth to millions behind the Iron. Curtain. Nov, because ()fa move in the U.S. Senate to cut off funds, the mes- sage may fade into silence 4 9 ri ? .7r. 7 ? . emo tcr-ve::_^;(1 C L.,LJCL ;;, L.) p 71* 1 K-4 I... 10 . . By RALPH KINNEy BENNETT . . --r---,ROM a Polish industrial town, H a laborer writes to Radio Free Europe: "You are the only so. urce of truth. If it weren't for you, we wouldn't know anything. Every- ' ? body listens to RFE." In Czechoslovakia, a young man risks arrest to write: "I have listened r. to RFE since I Was a child. Today I ? am 22, and for most of what I know about the world I have you to thank. Your broadcasts have been my only window on the world." From the Soviet Union, a ?scien- - tist secretly sends a message: "Radio .,Liberty is what a Russian station .? would be like if we had freedom of ? speech." High praise, and all from behind ? the Iron Curtain. Yet?surprisingly ?in Washington, D.C., Sep. J. Wil- ? liam Fulbright (D., Ark:), chairman of the powerful Senate Foreign Re- lations Committee, takes a different .view. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, he charges, are "keeping ? alive the animosities which grew up after World War II." Both statins, he says, should "take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold-war relics." "Source of truth" or "cold-war relics"?what are the facts about these two stations? In the Vernacular. After 'World War H, as the world watched, an Iron Curtain descended on Eastern .events which by 1950 had shut off roo million people in Eastern Europe and 200 million people in Russia from any free communication with . the West. Many concerned Americans, in and out of government, asked them- selves how the West could 'respond. Should these people be abandoned, forgotten? The consensus was no: continuing contact was essential. And the best, most tireless vehicle was radio. Radio Free Europe went on the air in July 1950, broadcasting from Munich. From a modest begin ping, it expanded coverage to beam spot news, popular music, cultural pro- grams and commentary an average of 16 hours a day to listeners in Po- land, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Bulgaria?in their own language, by nationals who had fled their homeland. The founder?and current chair- man ?of Radio Free Europe is Gen. Lucius D. Clay, whose ? ex- periences with the Russians as post- war commander of U.S. forces in Europe had demonstrated the need for such a voice of hope. He wanted RFE to be as much as possible out- side the realm of government? speaking to the people in their own vernacular?rather than a "national" service like the Voice of America or the BBC's Overseas Service. Europe. The Berlin blockade and. In March 1953, another American order of things, few Westerners can , the Soviet seizure of Czechoslovakia station began broadcasting from appreciate the impact of simple, fac- werepart of the grim succession of Munich, direct to the Soviet Union. tual news reporting in the commu- the two have evolvedvery similar philosophies. Both grew up in a world in which propaganda was the norm: a period of threat and counterthreat in an international atmosphere of raw ten- sion. The staffs of the two stations, many of whom had fled communist ,oppression, found it difficult to re- ;main cool and detached journalists. But in the relative thaw following ? ? Stali0 death in 1953, Radio Liberty began modifying its stance of "im- placable struggle?against the commu- nist dictatorship until its complete !destruction." Increasingly, program- ?iming was directed not at toppling I the Kremlin leadership but at en- lightening the people, giving them .the news?local as well as world- wide?withheld from them by their own media, educating them to the democratic alternative, breaking through the distrust of the West. In the wake of the tragic, abortive Hungarian revolt in RFE was accused of abetting the Hungarian patriots' bloody resistance by, raising false hopes of U.S. intervention. ? However, the West German govern- ment, which licenses the two Amer- ican stations, examined tapes of all the programming during the revolt and branded the charges as false. Over the years the stations have been characterized by, as one expert ?puts it, "friendliness, enlightenment. dignity." journaliits around the world praise their restraint and ob- ? jectivity. Listeners agree. The communist regimes, Di Course, take a different view. ;tat minutes after Radio Liberty went on the air in 1953, Moscow began jamming it'?broadcasting nerve- rack ing noise on the same wave- length to drown out the signal. It has not stopped for a minute, and tens of millions of dollars a year are spent on the effort. RFE is still vig- orously jammed in Czechoslovakia, 'Poland and Bulgaria. Audience Appeal. Why do these stations enjoy the respect and popu- larity that they do? They are, for the communist world, a surrogate fee press. Be- - cause to them it seems the natural , Approved For Rebaninsit:41,:iiki ? in Nikita Khrushchev's death. And CERISTIAN, .scirws MONITp;/ Approved For Release 2001/03104: CIA-14DP80-01.601ROATOW6M01-5 2 4 MAY 1972 C. Funding in. jeopardy? By April Klimley Special to The Christian Science Monitor Taipei, Taiwan ? Employees at the Taipei branch of Radio Liberty are worried that all U.S. congres- sional appropriations for their work will end June 20. ? The station, which broadcasts in Russian to the 'U.S.S.R., came under attack this spring when Sen. J. W. Fulbright (D) of Ar- kansas accused it of being "a relic of the ? cold war." ' Senator? Fulbright's remarks and budget ? cuts demanded by Congress soon forced Radio Liberty's Taipei staff to face a re- duction from 9, not to mention creat- ing the feeling that the entire operation might be irdeopardy: ? The ? Taipei bureau of Radio Liberty serves as a relay ptation to Siberia. The staff puts together a two-hour program each day based on scripts and tapes sent from Radio Liberty's 'Munich, Germany, 'headquarters. The news is voiced by two Russian-lan- guage native speakers in Taipei. Three ,? transmitters send the program simultane- ? ously for eight hours a day, with one fre- quency beamed to? the Lake Baikal area ? and the other two aimed at the maritime ? provinces.. This shotgun effect attempts to 'elude Soviet jamming. News .events followed ? ? Although the station emphasizes news from Eastern Europe and Russia, there is little blatant propaganda in the daily news- casts. The excerpts from Western news- paper editorials, which follow- the news frequently, do not even touch on subjects directly related to the U.S.S.R. The press review usually concentrates on the big news of the day, such as the in- vasion of .South , Vietnam, and newspaper editorials express divergent views. The rest of the show is made up of taped commen- taries on cultural, scientific, or politica) subjects. Employees of the station deny that their programs are propaganda. One source ex- plained that things have changed since the days when the station called itself "Libera- tion Radio" and encouraged people to ac- tively oppose their government. After Western countries failed to respond to the Hungarian revolt of 1956, the station changed its name and began to aim at de- veloping a public opinion within the Soviet Union that,could both qce,Lt. a btLaking effect on ' Soviet mipprqvag rareigaileaseD2 government to improve living conditions. Siberian reach 'Books broadcast ? One way the station tries to do this 'is by broadcasting "samizdats," or self-publica- tions, which . are unauthorized writings smuggled out of the U.S.S.R. They are read at dictation speed, chapter. by. chapter, so that listeners can make copies if they like. The station broadcast all of Alexander T. Solzhenitsyn's books this way, with the ex- ception of his latest, which is yet to come. Mr. Solzhenitsyn himself has come to the defense of Radio Liberty. In early April he told a New York Times reporter that "if we hear anything about events in this country, it's through 'them." The station. transmitted Eugene Gins- berg's book "Noontime" and .the court transcripts of the trial of the young poet Vladimir Bukousky. ? Recently the bureau has been broadcast- ing something on Mr. Solzhenitsyn almost every day. On April 26 it read his New York Times-interview defense against an attack made on the 'funeral lament he had given for an editor-friend. He told the Times that it was while listen- ing to Radio Liberty that he first heard of. the attack. "Without our broadcasting, things wot be even more tragic for people like SolzI nitsyn. For instance, without us very fi would have heard his works. They would, know whether the charges against him a true or not. Now he's so well known ev inside the country that the government cal afford to-make him disappear all at oncE 'In his Times interview Solzhenitsyn rea ily admitted the Radio Liberty broadca: help protect him. But solitary achievemer like this may not be enough to keep Rac Liberty alive. Feedback lacking ? Despite its important target area in the far eastern Soviet Union, the Taipei branch of Radio Liberty is considered a country. cousin of the metropolitan headquarters in Munich. European relay centers beam pro- grams to the Soviet Union's more populated western cities, and fan letters usually come from these areas. ? "They frequently think of closing us down because of this," complained one man close to the Taipei station. He went on to explain that this lack of feedback is probably the result of the fact that mail from Siberia, unlike mail from western Russia, must first go through Moscow before leaving the country. ?In the early 1950's Rado Liberty had pri- vate income sources. But these have gradu- ally dried up. Achievements cited The people in the, Taipei bureau feel they have played a vital part in creating the new intellectual climate visible in the Soviet Union today ? so different from that under I I WatikeArec Med adidl WO 0 1 1 0 0 070001-5 tea ?JE .pa, mymnr) Approved For Release 20,01/0,3/04,: CIA-RDPRaltaill R001 114111 IJ/Z Another Summit: Capital Takes It in Stride By. BERNARD GWERTZMAN cast to the Soviet Union and Spec la) to The New York Times WASHINGTON, May 18 ? With President Nixon's depar- time for Moscow less than two U4 away, Washington seems the rest of Eastern Europe. And even though the Soviet Union is more open than China, Mr. Nixon and his top aides. particularly Henry A. have indicated relatively unexc pr ited about his Ki?ssinger' ivately that they find it more summit ? session, which may pleasant dealing with Mao Tse- prove the most fruitful of all tung and Chou En-lai than with the postwar Soyiet -American meetings. Tensions that were raised ordered the min- Leonid ? I. Brezhnev and Aleksei N. Kosygin. The Rus- sians, they believe, are always trying to take advantage of a Mg situation of North Viet- ? : whereas the Chinese nam's harbors Analysis seem more reasonable. virtually disap- when Mr. Nixon Rivalry Wearing Away - . peared as soon as Yet, despite the continuing it wa? clear :that the Russians differences with Moscow, much were not going to let support.iof the rough edge of the rivalry for their Communist ally pre- has been worn away over the vent completion of an agree_ years through increasing pri- ment on strategic arms ..and vate and government contacts. other accords with the United After all,some 60,000 Amer- States in Moscow next week. lean tourists traVel to the So- The sense of mystery that vict Union each year and thou- prevailed here before Mr. Nix- on's adeparture for Peking seems almost totally absent to- day. No summit meeting has been so well publicized as the Moscow one. Congress, the press and the allies have all been told just what to expect in the way of substantive agreements. ? Virtually no voices have been heard calling on. Mr. Nixon to put off the visit. The dedicated ' anti-Communists are simply not very any,: n visible in Washington ? Nixon to h ?y intercedeilave with virtually ; js6 eoi.os e r 1rt .woN who leaders x; here. At lunch today, the National no patrons on Capitol Hill. This almost casual ac- ceptance of the Soviet trip : but because this trip coin- does not mean, however, that billed all the 'elements of hope, the Russians are well liked Radio Free Europe alive so that, they could continue -to broad- Press Club heard a series of speakers deplore the treatment of Aleksandr T. Solzhenitsyn, the Soviet novelist who cannot publish his works in his own country. This afternoon, Irnal B'rith, tion, presented the State De- partment with legislative reso- lutions and governors' procla- . !nations from 30 states calling - the national Jewish organiza- tion, on behalf of want ' to leave the Soc,iet Union. The other day, Mr. Nixon sent Congress a bill aimed at keeping Radio Liberty and sands of Americans and Soviet scientists, scholars and artists have exchanged visits in the last 15 years. ..The Americans and Russians may not alike everything they see in each other's country, but the contacts have had the cu- mulative effect of reducing ap- prehension. As recently as 1959, when Mr. Nixon, then Vice Presi- dent, went to the Soviet Union the first time, there was con- siderable excitement and an air of adventure about his mission. "People had come to the air- port not just out of curiousity, It mystery, and even fear," Mr. Nixon wrote later in his book "Six Crises" about his depart- ure from Baltimore's inter- natinal airport for Moscow. Mr. Nixon recalled playing golf with William P. Rogers, then Attorney General and now Secretary of. State, just be- fore that trip: The caddy was told that Mr. Nixon was flying to Moscow, and he exclaimed, according to the story: "Won't they shoot him down?' Mr. Nixon's mission in 1959 was to open a large American exhibiton, which was dedicat- ed to proving to Russians that Americans lived on a higher standard than they did. Coor tio N S It pe a n oug ? The United States was con- cerned that summer about the psychological effect caused by the Soviet lead in the spate race; somehow it was- reassur- ing to Americans to know that even if the Soviet Union had more sputniks in space, the United States had more wash- ing machines on earth. Those were also the days when Niki- ta S. Khrushchev Was threat- ening to overtake the United States in economic growth and to "bury" capitalism. Over the years, the rhetoric has been deflated. Russian lead- ers no longer talk of compe- tition with the West but of co- operation. The space race that cost both so much money will end if Mr. Nixon and Mr. Brezh- nev announce plans for joint ? 4 U nion. docking in space by astronauts from the two countries in 1975. The arms race will also sym- bolically die upon an announce- ment -in Moscow of an agree- ment on limitation of strategic arms. And it is hard to talk about an economic race, when American businessmen are be- ing invited-to help develop Si- beria's mineral wealth. ? This kind of cooperation, only a fantasy' of the imagination when Mr. Nixon first visited the Soviet Union, is now treated by the American public as im- portant but not surprising. Pol- iticians who 15 years ago-could have been elected on an anti- Communist platform, now must pledge themselves to seek agreements with ? the Soviet . ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? . ' . Pni 7 - 5 SCI7nvTi: 140ii li Approved For RelVake 1703704':-Cik-RD- P80-016 I? MAY 1972 Why silence Radio LiEerty? By Roscoe .Drummond Wasbington Sen. J. W. Fulbright is out to silence Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe for bad reasons. ' He has to rely on bad reasons because there are no good reasons. ? . These two radio stations broadcast news and infor- mation to the people of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe which they can't get in any other way. They are located in Munich and they are financed by the .United States. ? Total extinction ' Senator Fulbright says they ought .to be taken off the air on the. ground that they are '"relics of the cold war," that they disturb rela- tions with Russia, and that they have . until recently been supported by the CIA. ? Congress has ended CIA financing. It has provided open appropriations, but ? they run out in six weeks. At that point Mr. Fulbright wants to bring about their total extinction. This broadcasting is not a "relic of the cold war" and repeating this canard over and over again doesn't make it true. At the Senator's request the Library of Congress undertook an exhaustiv.e study of the scripts of both Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe and reported that they were definitely not in the mold nor the mood of cold-war propaganda. The report confirmed that they ? were notably objective and restrained. Naturally. the Kremlin would like it if no effort 4. ? was made Anywhere in the free world to give the So- viet peoples any knowledge except that provided by the Soviet Government. Approved by censor But Radio Liberty does not seriously disturb U.S.- Soviet relations. It gives Russians of all nationalities much information about in- ternal affairs, which is otherwise censored by the /Kremlin, and provides bal- ance and perspective to events happening outside Russia. How rigid is the Soviet censorship today? A former Russian journalist, who re- cently left Moscow for the West, put it this way: "Not a single thing can be printed in the Soviet Union, whether it be a book or a postage stamp, a news- paper or a label for a bot- tle, a magazine or a candy. wrapper, unless it has been approved by the censor. No radio transmission is beamed, no public exhibi- tion is opened for public view. until an official stamp has approved it." What makes these broad- casts so valuable now is that in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe ? as illus. trated by. the bold effort of the Czechs to put some de- mocracy into their commu- nism ? there is a rising de- mand among intellectuals and professionals for more freedom of speech and press, for an end to perva- sive censorship, and for more government by the consent of the governed. This is a significant lib- eralizing-reform movement and it has found one way to circumvent censorship. That ? is "samizdat," which is the private circulation of type- written or hand-written pro- . tests, petitions, articles, es- says and novels. Radio Liberty has already put nearly a thousand of them on the air. Expand news flow Thus Radio Liberty en- ables the Russian reform- ists to reach other Rus- sians. Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe reports de- bates at the United Nations, including the remarks of the Chinese delegates,' whin the Soviets censor. They carry the protests of Soviet Jews which Moscow suppresses. They cover the pleas of Soviet citizens to ? the UN Commission on Hu- man ? Rights which the ? Kremlin won't allow to be mailed. The Soviet people would have only one side of the Czech invasion if it Weren't for Radio Liberty. They would never know about Pasternak's "Doclor Zhi- vago" or Solzhenitsyn's "The First Circle" if they weren't put on the air by Radio Liberty. Moscow does not hesitate to export ifs views in every language. Why shouldn't the U.S. be true to itself and support Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe to fur- ther the flow of news and information which is one of democracy's most precious ingredients? The need is to expand this flow, not black it out. The Senate will vote yea or.nay next month. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 NEWSWEEK STATINTL 15 mpy 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04.: CIA- Un Fulbright: No time for relics Amodest little pamphlet put out by the U.S. Information Agency ten years ago said that USIA "tells America's story abroad." How simple it seemed: Uncle Sam reciting "Once upon a time in 1776 ..." to an underdeveloped na- tion on his knee. It's a different story to- day, as our propaganda machine tries to ? find the right words and the right tone of yoke for a period in which the nation is simultaneously at war, at peace and at odds with itself. . In Washington last week, USIA won 'approval of its new budget at the cur- rent $200 million level, but only after the Senate restored cuts made in com- mittee that would have reduced the agency's film and print activities and all but ?dismantled. the Voice of America. The .authorization squabble grew out of continuing- rivalry .between Congress and the White House .over foreign affairs, and a running feud between USIA di- ? rector Frank Shakespeare, a conservative former network executive who helped' design President Nixon's TV image in the 1968 campaign, and Sen. J. William Fulbright, chairman of the 'Foreign Re- lations Committee and a critic of USIA since its inception . in 1953. While the showdown vote was an Administration ,victory, it did nothilfg to clarify such questions as how good or bad our propa- ganda actually is today, how it should change .or evolve in the 1970s, and whether Americans should be able to 'see and hear it themselves. ? Theoretically, the law protects the American public from being propagan- dized at its own expense by forbidding USIA to show its wares on the home front. Exceptions have been made in re- cent years, however, and last month, despite objections by Senator Fulbright and others, Sen. .James Buckley, the conservative New York Republican, showed a USIA propaganda film about Czechoslovakia on his TV show. After the broadcast, Fulbright's committee passed a measure that 'would reaffirm and clari- fy the ban on internal dissemination. Though the measure has no teeth, USIA is playing safg at the morvat odotbs bolding all iterdrifigtii media Arndt the issue is resolved. The STATIN.TL ropaganda: What We Say ?And How By Joseph Morgenstern STATINTL taxpayers, therefore, are either protect- ed once again from Administration prop- aganda, or prevented from laying eyes or ears on the stuff for which they're paying $200 million a year. What do we really tell our friends and enemies abroad? What effect does it have? "Czechoslovakia: 1968,7 the Academy Award-winning short that kicked up the fuss on the Buckley show, is an efficient and particularly repellent piece of goods. Starting with sweetly pastoral (and occasionally fake) shots from 1918 and ending with the Soviet invasion of 1968, it reduces 50 years of history to thirteen minutes of short takes and shrewd juxtapositions, that make strong appeals to the emotions, and some- times misrepresent history. Newsreel clips of the Soviet, Army's liberation of Prague from the Nazis in 1945 are inter- cut with those. of Hitler's occupation, suggesting one was as bad as the other when, in fact, Czech. Communists and non-Communists alike greeted the Sovi- ets with open arms. The film has no nar- ration..The only word in it is scoboda, Czech for "freedom." The same style is used to comment On the Berlin ?vall in B:31-0M. CVE 3.14-1-AHMHUE FGE3.E1KVI AMEPVK AHCKC1 0 IFFE?F-11A America Illustrated: Illustrated: A sense of style USIA's Shakespeare: A need to know' "Barricade."' These films are cinematic, all right, but -they're also slippery, fur- tive, and they raise the question of why a nation that's supposed to be open and truthful should rely, on subliminal trick- ery to condemn the conduct of other nations. "Vietnam! Vietnamr, produced by John Ford at a cost of some $250,000, proved such an embarrassment in its few public showings abroad that it was with- drawn from circulation and awarded the .oblivion it so richly deserved. Belliger- ently simple-mindud, necrophiliac in its frequent close-ups of bloated corpses and mutilated children, the film subtly blames the Democrats for our involvement in Vietnam and makes the antiwar move- iles. ment look like a pack of craven imbec "The Silent Majority," made in 1969 but -still in circulation, is a lumbering tract d re- sup- ith a t be that makes, much of a Gallup Poll an inforces its message of widespread port for the Nixon Administration w . smug, sanctimonius" tone that migh worthier of a Salazar or 'Duvalier admin- istration. Yet USIA, like the nation, speaks in more than one tone of voice. - The most popular agency film in recent a---A e its. Chi- dren . months is "President Nixon in Chin Journey for Peace." Its narrator, Ilk star, goes to great lengths to praise -nese athletes, culture, schoolchil and snow shovelers. American Pastoral . The best of the agency's production of twenty .to thirty films each year can be excellent indeed. "An Impression of John Steinbeck: Writer" looks at the man and his work, intercuts clips from the movie version of "The Grapes Of Wrath" with scenes of Salinas, Monte- rey and the green paradise of a valley where Steinbeck grew up. "The Num- bers Start With the River" is a life-affirm- ing work, narrated by an elderly couple who've got all they need and love iii the calm little town around them. By the .nature of their subjects, however, such films look to the past and cherish land- scapes and values that are fast disap- 64AAT t mbrifsAnad lity in these ,Mrqh7M 1litt'aft i k ot much evidence in any other USIA films of what MIAMI HERALD Approved For Release 2001108004190A-RDP80-01601R001 STATINTL - - - hon Asks WASHINGTON ? (AP) ? President Nixon, mindful ' of congressional criticism, has Called for $38.5 million to support .the operations of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty for fiscal 1973 while a study is made on future legislation. Funds for the two broad- casting systems that beam programs behind the Iron Curtain would otherwise end July 1. Nixon said these radi- os help to promote free, re- respOnsible communication among nations. _ ? He said, these radios "are not spokesmen for American official policy ? that role be- longs in broadcasting to the . Voice of America. Rather, they are expressions of our profound conviction that a responsible, independent and free press plays an indispen- sable part in the social and political processes that look to better understanding and More effective cooperation, not only within a nation, but also among nations." Noting a number of differ- Milliin fir Free ent views that have been ex- pressed in Congress on how fund the radios in the fu- ture, Nixon said he will ap- point a presidential study commission to make recom- mendations to him by Feb. 28, 1973, to examine this problem and suggest the best possible way to provide sup- port "for these valuable or- ganizations . . . without im- pairment to the professional independence upon which their present effectiveness depends." At the end of March, Nixon signed a law providing grants of $36 million in fiscal 1972 for the two radios, which he said had been ap- proved by large majorities in Congress and which he said reflects the judgment of many that they "continue to perform a unique and valua- ble service." He strongly recommended that Congress give favorable consideration to this new bill before the beginning of the new fiscal year. _ ie. aums Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 11/ P.AILX.YD ? Au. Approved For Release 2001-kmu s.11? :1972 u1A-RDP80-016 Thc sll-Dowleraufave sicts of __the CIA Senator J. W. Fu!bright, as chnirman of the Foreign Rela- tions Committee, Inserted, Into the March 6 Coe3ressional Record, stredIes on P..eello Free Europe ar.d Radio Liberty, the CIA media, whic% hed been pre- pared for the committee by the Library cf Coegress. Those studies provide the row mater- ial for this column. ? By ERIIC BERT Radio Free Europe was con- ceived in 1949 by the Truman ad- ministration as an anti-Soviet instrumentality "outside the realm of government," that is, outside the possibility of .Con- 'gressional scrutiny or control. Seeretary of State Dean Ache- son, one of the 'inspirers of the cold war, had directed Joseph C. Grey to."establish a private group to help deal with certain aspects of Eastern European ex- iles" who "were paying frequent visits to the State Department." The idea had been suggested originally in February, 1949, by .George Kerman, a State Depart- ment official. DeWitt C. Poole, a former For- eign Service officer, gathered a group of prominent Americans to fOrm the National Committee for a Free Europe, formally in- corporated in New York on June 2, 1949, as Free Europe, Inc. ? Grew told a press conference at the, time that the purpose was in part to find jobs for the "democratic" refugees from the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. . The National Committee for a Free Europe was not primarily an employment agency, however. It was a CIA channel for organ- ized warfare against the Soviet Union, with these "democratic" characters as its troops. By July, 1949, a Radio Com- mittee had been established with- in NCFE-CIA. A ? year later, in July, 1950, the Radio Committee went on the air as Radio Free Europe, a division of NCFE- CIA. This period Was roughly con- current with the persecution cf the top U.S. Communist Party leaders who were indicted un- der the Smith Act in 1948 and, following a nine-month trial and appeals, went to prison in 1951 for long terms. By the end of 1950, RFE-CIA had established a short wave radio in 'West Germany and was broadcasting one and a half hours daily to Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. By the end of 1951, RFE-CIA was operating three transmitters in Germany and one in Portugal. Czechoslovakia became the prime target, with one of the transmitters broadcasting a full day's program to the republic. There were limited short-wave broadcasts to the other targets. By the tnid-1950s, RFE-CIA was broadcasting 18-20 hours per day, through some 29 transmit- ters, primarily to Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. All of these became subsequently the Scenes of counterrevolutionary attempts. ? . . The CIA's Free Europe, Inc., its holding company, established, in addition to its broadcast opera- tions, the Free Europe Press which until the fall of 1955 en- gaged in balloon leaflet-distribu- tion and "has also carried out various other publishing activi- ties;" and Free Europe Exile Relations, the CIA's liaison with va rious counter-revolutionary groups, including the Assembly of Captive European Nations. Radio Liberty-CIA The Library of Congress study does not reveal when Radio Liberty was conceived. Formally, it emerged in January, 1951, with the incorporation in Delaware of the American Committee for Freedom of the Peoples of the USSR, Inc. This committee was the forerunner of the present Radio Liberty Committee, Inc. RL-CIA began operations on a small scale in March 1953, broad- casting short wave to the Soviet Union. Its mercenaries were anti-so- cialist, anti-Soviet emigres from the USSR. Its single transmitter was lo- cated in West Germany. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0 NEW of\... TIMES-PICAYUNE MAI 7 1972 - 196,345 ? S 303,949 Voice of America Chairman J. William Fulbright, for all his accumulated learning on and off the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee, should be plagued by his calling the Voice of America a relic of the Cold War. .Granted there's a lingering eu- phoria over rapprochement with Red China dictated perhaps by mu- tual international interests which no one presumes are immutable. But what other euphemism than "Cold War" can describe, say, the soviet Union's continued support and fi- nancing of .Communist subversion in Latin America? Columnist Jack Anderson, for example, recently reported a secret ,finding by the Central Intelligence Agency, which he said "has put to- gether the jigsaw pieces from its agents in Europe and Latin Amer- ica." . An earlier Anderson report told how Cuban Premier Fidel Castro ? moved his Latin American liberation Center from his Paris embassy to the ? one in Santiago, Chile, where Marxist Salvador Allende is presi- dent, duly chosen in a democratic election, albeit .by a plurality. (In his field of three, of course, Presi- dent Nixon was not elected by pop- ular majority either.). But the Kremlin, according to the ,quoted CIA report, has asked Cas- STATI NTL Cold War Relic'? tro "to try to regain control over Latin American revolutionary move- ments" and has promised "to pay all the costs involved." The Soviets are said to look with favor upon the "Chilean formula, which maintains that traditional democratic procedures are the best means of socialist power in weak, backward countries," though they will back Che Guevara-type armed revolution or political struggle, : "whichever was deemed appropriate in given countries throughout Latin America." If the ?CIA report is accurate or representative, should the United States and the rest of the Free World be sheepish about expressing our side or about "provoking" Rus- sia in a fancied thaw in the Cold War? Genuine overtures for mutual arms reduction and general detente are not to be discouraged, but let us not presume that muting Radio Free Europe or VOA, whose messages are beamed tO what were once con- ceded "captive nations" of Eastern Europe, will somehow cause the Rus- sian masters to stop feeding, or call off, their dogs of the Cold War. Isolationism is not going to make unpleasant world forces go away? no matter how hard we wish upon an Aquarian star. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 WASiIIGTC ST Approved For Release 20(114W/01i7.2CIA-RDPAO 0.16L1R001 s I-ATI NT CROSBY S. NOYES '.USIA ' The Senate is to be congrat- ulated for having overridden Its Foreign Relations Commit- tee, restoring $45 million that the committee had cut from the budget authorization of the United States Information Agency. The action of the committee to cripple USIA was a curi- ous combination of vindictive- ness and muddle-headed logic to begin with. Obstensibly, the vote to ?cut 20 percent of the agency's $200 million budget was part of the continuing struggle between Congress and the White house over the Issue of "executive privilege." In this case, the dispute. :arose over a refusal by the administration to.. turn over to the committee its "program memoranda" f r o in various Cotintrkes, outlining the major propaganda objectives for the countries. The agency argued that these were internal plan- ning documents rather than policy statements. Committee Chairman J. William Ful- bright contended that, what- ever they were, the committee needed them to evaluate the validity of the USIA programs abroad. On both sides, it was a silly .dispute which really had very 'little relevance to the prob- blem of executive privilege )or the prerogatives of the ' ? tits: It's Good That Fulbricht Failed Congress. It carried strong overtones of a personal feud between Fulbright and USIA's hawkish dire c to r, Frank Shakespeare. The committee action suggested that the chairman had neither forgot- ten nor forgiven the comment of a top USIA official (since resigned) that Fulbright's views on foreign policy were "naive and stupid." But more than this, the dis- pute reflected a continuing and profound difference be- tween the corrimittee liberals, headed by I..'ulbright, and the administration over anything that might be labeled as official propaganda. In Fulbright's view, all of these activities, whether con- ducted by USIA or by such separate operations as Radio Liberty and Radio Free Eur- ope, come under the heading of "Cold War activities" in- compatible with the new era of ideological disarmament, reconciliation a n d detente. There is good reason to be- lieve that the committee axe would have fallen in any case, whether or not the larger is- sue of legislative -executive prerogatives had been raised. In any event, the axe, when it fell, cut to the bone. Under . . the budget reported out by the committee, the Voice of America, which is the guts of the USIA effort, would have been effectively muzzled. Its ? program of 780 broadcast hours weekly in 35 languages would have been reduced to 454 hours in 11 languages. Most broadcasts to Eastern Europe would have been elim- inated altogether. The broadcasts to Africa, except in French, would have been completely eliminated. So would a large part of the Asian program, including broadcasts in Bengali, Bur- mese, Hindi, Khmer, Korean, Lao, Thai and Urdu. Of 15 broadcast relay stations in the United States and over- seas, seven would have had to be shut down. Other overseas operations of the agency would have been similarly curtailed. USIA would have had to close down operations completely in some 30 countries, cutting out 34 branch posts and reading rooms and reducing opera- tions in the remaining coun- tries. The motion picture and television service would have had to close one of its two studios and satellite transmis- sions would have been elimi- nated. More than a quarter of the USIA staff would have been fired, including 1,000 Americans. All this, mind you, in the name of international amity and the relaxation of tensions with the Communist and un- committed world. All this, given the almost incredible insularity and isolationism of the liberals on the Senate For- eign Relations Committee, based on the utterly false sup- position that the function of USIA is to encourage tension, to undermine the morale of foreign. 'populations and to present the. United States as a dangerous and political adversary. Which leads one to wonder what in the world the Foreign Relations Committee thinks detente is all about. Anyone who has lived and traveled abroad knows that USIA (and Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty) represents a most essential?and in Some cases unique?conduit of free infor- mation and ideas into the closed societies of the world. To base a detente on the sev- erance of all communication with the ? East?leaving the Soviet Union free to carry on its infinitely inore pervasive propaganda?is to promote the peace of the grave. Which is reason enough to hail the wis- dom of the Senate in restoring the funds. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 201M8g1415ZIA-RDFsTIOAVAIMR 6 MAY 1972 rSetting the necord Skraight Under the firm diroction of Frank Shakespeare, the ? United States Information Agoncy is finally doing tho job it was sot up to do?to prosont a balanced and. rosponsiblo picture of America to the world ? ? ByVERDON CUMMINGS It is either an outmoded relic of the Sen. Fulbright that Shakespeare is out Cold War and out of step?with the Nix- of step with world realities, claim that on Administration's policy of detente Shakespeare's approach has been ?noth- with the Communists or a hard-hitting ing short of disastrous,. and that only effective propaganda agency telling the . a drastic cut in USIA funds (over which truth about the United States?and Fulbright, as chairman of the Foreign .about.communism?to the world. . ?. Relations Committee, now has partial It is either an over-funded hodge-podge .control) will convince the Administra- ' ' of culture, information and propaganda, lion that Shakespeare.s approach is staffed by over-paid hacks or a sophis- all wrong. ticated and complex organizationstaffed The Foreign Relations Committee, by the world's bet propagandists, in the following Fulbright's lead and with what forefront of that combination of public one USIA official claimed was "perflII1C- relations and foreign affairs that has tory" examination of the . total USIA come to be known as the "new diplo- program during recent hearings, recorn- macy.'?'. It may be, in some bizarre sense, mended a cut of $45 million from the a bit of all of these. S200-million appropriation requested ? ? Whatever it is?and opinions cer? ? . . by USIA ? Such a cut was designed to cripple the Voice of A nlerica, USIA's tainly vary?the United States In- broadcasting arm, which has been formation Agency, under the direc- praised by Soviet Jews and ethnic min- ? torship of Frank Shakespeare since 1969, has suddenly become one of the , most talked-about and controversial governmental agencies in Wash- ington. oritics throughout Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union for its broadcasts. It might be said that with the Fulbright . attack, USIA has finally reached the position in Washington where, no matter For many years relatively unreported what people may say about it, it is no and generally unknown by the public, longer ignored. For almost 20 years USIA has in .recent months become it existed as a kind of adjunct to the the subject of heated comment across State Department (although USIA the country. Sen. J. William Fulbright is actually an independent agency within has directed all of his considerable con- the executive branch), all but unknown gressional powers to destroy any trace and unsung. But then, in 1969, President of anti-communism in USIA output. It is Fulbright's efforts to hamstring Nixon appointed Frank Shakespeare, the man chiefly responsible for his sue- USIA that have brought that agency on to stage-center in Washington, an cessfuluse of television during the 1968 to be head of USIA. Things unfamiliar and, to many USIA bureau- campaign, began happening at USIA immediately crats, an unpleasant place., thereafter and haven't stopped since. Supporters of Frank Shakespeare WI t has Shakespeare wrought? ApOroVedsFixuRelease 2obsltpy 4 crIN2$11egjefftt001 Ft OEN 1101:107:01) lea rs he has lived in a claim that since he has taken .over the ? reins, US like the dyn mic, combative, fast-mov- ing on a east. bn . r agency I was always guidance of the former CBS execu- propaganda a 't ? tive and articulate anti -Communist things just haven't been the same ? at USIA. Item: In the past three years under Shakespeare,. USIA films have received Academy-award , nominations and one Oscar for Czechoslovakia 1968, the re- cent showing of which by Sen. James Buckley over New York television sta.: tions caused a furor in the Congress. Czechoslovakia is a 13-Minute film in which a stunning combination of old . film clips, .evocative music and highly sophi.scated editing techniques tells the story of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1968. in trul:y cinematic terms. Only one word, "Svobodar (freedom) is spoken in the film so it has a universal appeal and can be enjoyed on many levels by different kinds of 'audiences. The last part of the film consists entirely of footage smuggled out of Czechoslo- vakia after the 1968 invasion, showing Russian tanks rolling through the streets of Prague. 'The film has been shown to universal acclaim throughout the world. Item: In 1970 the Voice of America (VOA) told of the Russian guilt in plac- ing missiles aldng the Suez Canal at a time when Secretary of State William Rogers was trying to soft-peddle the facts. This exacerbated the already sen- sitive relationship between America's top diplomat and top propagandist. Item: Shakespeare has officially stated that any top USIA officer who expects to advance professionally must have at least one tour in a Communist- dominated country. Shakespeare's feel- mg is that a foreign service officer can't '110111Iinn.9 DAILY WORLD Approved For Release 2001 p?4,41:91Ek1A-RDP80-01601R00 STATINTL ta.1.!011",e,tes?re&aZte Senator J. W. Fulbright in? serted into the March 6 Con- ?gressional Record two studies of the CIA's anti-Socialist com- munications network in Eur- ? ope: on Radio Free Europe and . Radio Liberty. Radio Free Eur- opa is directed * at Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Pol- and and Romania; Radio Lib- erty at the Soviet Union. The two studios were proper- - ed by the Library of Congress, which is anti-Soviet and anti. socialist in. outlook. The accom- panying article is based on these studies. ? ? By ERIK BERT ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty became a problem for the Nixon Administration, for the CIA, and others in January, 1971 when Congress, under persisting public pressure, addressed itself cautiosly to the 'funding and ad- ministration of the two radios. "Both radios had hitherto os- tensibly been supported by pri- vate funds but had actually been largely funded by. the Central In- telligence .Agency," the RFE study says. - ? ? .. The Advertising Council, an agency created to give the ad- vertising irdustry a decent public image, has provided the main cover for tie CIA funding of RFE. It promotes campaigns, os- tensibly for private donations to RFE-CIA, but actually to conceal the fact that the RFE's money comes from the CIA. The Adver- tising Council disguises its CIA cover campaigns as a "public service." The RFE media campaigns *iced through the Advertising Council had a commercial value ;of between $12 million and $20 million, according to Senator Clifford Case (R-NJ). However, the returns on these expenditures were pitiable?less than $100,000. The obvious con- clusion has been that the com- munications media and the ad- vertising industry, or their Big Business clients, supplied the bulk of $12 million to $20 million. Supplementary soliciatio_gsgom private induA?PRRYcguoilTPE "small , part" of the RFE-CIA budget. - Two studies.of how Poisons Europe's coley/ayes In .fiscal 1970, 8,279 corpora tions contributed to RFE-CIA and halfway through '1971, 4,462 had contributed. In fiscal 1971 $22,366,876 was expended for Radio Free. Eur- ope operations; $244,036 for RFE goes with it, includes, according to a recent RL-CIA pamphlet: Henry V. Poor, assistant dean, Yale College of Law, Howland Sarge-ant, president, former As- sistant Secretary of State; Whit-. ney North Seyrnour, chairman of capital investments; and $501,072 the board, Carnegie Foundation, for RFE Fund, Inc. former president, American Bar ? Radio Liberty's annual budget_ Association; John W. Studebaker, in recent years has ranged be- former U.S. Commissioner of Ed- tween $12 million and $14 mil- ucation; Reginald T. Townsend, lion, according to Senator Chi:. vice-president, RL committee; ford Case and the General Ac- William L. White, editor and pub- counting Office. fisher, Emporia Gazette; Philip RL-CIA has dispensed with L. Winkle, attorney; Mrs. Oscar the elaborate scenery behind Ahlgren, former president, Gen- which RFE-CIA received its eral Federation of Women's funds from the CIA. RL-CIA has Clubs; John Ft. Burton, chairman had no program for corporate of the board, National Bank of funding, and during the decade Far Rockaway, New York; J. 1962-1971, it received only $20,000 Peter Grace, president, W. Ft. in. unsolicited funds, or about Grace & Co., A major conglom- $2,000 a year. crate; Allen Grover, former The corporate existence of vice president, Time-Life, Inc.; Radio Free Europe-CIA is Ra- Gen. Alfred M. Gruenther, ret., dio Free Europe, Inc. former Allied Commander in The. RFE-CIA report says it is Europe (NATO); John S. Mays, a "safe assumption that contact former U.S. ambassador to between (the Central Intelligence Switzerland; H. J. Heinz, III, Agency) and Free Europe, Inc., 'chairman of the board,. H. J. was probably a major function Heinz ? Co., and Isaac Don Le- of the Free Europe, Inc. corp- vine, veteran anti-Sovi,eteer. orate headquarters." RFE-CIA operates also the RFE's board of directors con- West ? European Advisory Group sists of 19 persons under the ?of Radio Free Europe, a group chairmanship of General Lucius of influential Europeans who Clay. The fund raising conduit meet once a year with the. offi- is Radio Free Europe Fund, Inc., cers and directors of Free Eur- chaired by Steward S. Cort, ope, Inc., to exchange thoughts chairman of the Bethlehem Steel about policy and .such. The West Corp. ? Europe committee was estab- Radio Liberty differs from Ra- fished in 1959. Its current chair- dio Free Europe in the .struc- man is Dirk Stikker, Netherlands ture through which CIA ?control capitalist, politician and one-time is exercised. RFE's board of di- secretary-general of NATO. His rectors has participated actively predecessors were Randolfo Pac- in its affairs. ciardi and Paul van Zeeland. Radio Liberty's board of trus- Pacciardi, former Italian De- tees, embracing "leaders in the fense Minister, was accused in American business community, 1969 of having been involved in a former government officials and plot?for a Rightist coup in Italy. military leaders, educators and Radio Free Europe, Inc.; is publicists," is decorative and an outgrowth of the Crusade for "passive." Former President Freedom, -organized in 1950 by Harry Truman is honorary chair- Gen. Clay to support the counter- man, a post in whichhe succeed. revolutionary Free Europe Com- Hoover and Dwight Eisenhower. mittee. (86/1). William. P. Durkee, formerly tiskik kgrilf3716Asti-M141150PANKO ?AV CM CH -5 Free Europe Inc., and Radio radio operation, and for what Free Europe Fund, Inc. Approved For Release 200Vita3i/DitTOSIAVDR80-016011111111 MAY 1972 11IXON'S 'PEACE' in Europe. ? Upon returning to Bonn, Allardt paraphrased some of the warnings the men in the Kremlin have asked him to convey to the German leaders. Before his departure, Allardt had met with Leonid Brezhnev, the current Soviet No. 1, Pre- mier Kosygin, Foreign Minister Gromyko and President Podgorny. Ominously, the Soviet leaders mentioned the word "war" in expounding about what will happen in the event the Bundestag rejects the Moscow- Bonn and Warsaw-Bonn treaties recently negoti- ated by the Government of Chancellor Willy Brandt with the Kremlin and with the Soviet- sponsored Communist Polish regime. In his diplomatic parlance, Allardt stated that the interviews were "friendly, but at. the same time marked with a penetrating seriousness." Henry M. Kissinger, White House foreign policy mentor, has been giving "backgrounder" briefings to elected commentators conveying the idea that the Nixon Administration was alarmed at the extent of the concessions made by the Brandt Gov- ernment to the Soviets and their captive States. Actually, in his desire to run as the "Peace Presi- dent" in November 1972, President Nixon has let the Kremlin leaders know that he is ready to grant them?and to help them assert?suzerain rights in all Western Europe, as well as in Germany and in the Soviet-occupied countries of Central and Eastern Europe. That is the meaning of the vocal support which Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty currently are giving to Brandt's new Ost- politik, and especially to the German treaties with the Communist countries which the German Par- liament will be asked to ratify early in May. Both U.S.-sponsored radio networks are operated by the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA) which is now under direct control of Kissinger. The true intent of this Soviet-American accord is difficult to infer from Soviet radio broadcasts and publications, partly because of the exceeding- ly obscure Marxist terminology. It is also difficult to guess from the media, subjected to State De- partment guidelines. The retiring German ambassador in Moscow, Helmut Allardt, has put his finger on President Nixon's real policy toward the Soviet designs STATI NTL But there is nothing obscure about the coming new arrangement in Europe, as described in Com- mentary, the monthly magazine sponsored by the American Jewish Committee. In its January 1972 issue, after shedding crocodile tears over the fail- ure of European leaders to implicitly follow the Rothschild-Rockefeller Convergence scheme, Wal- ter Laqueur reveals: Western Europe would not be physically oc- cupied by Soviet forces, but there would be Soviet hegemony over the whole European Continent. Moscow will not necessarily insist on the inclusion of Communists in every European Government, but ( as in Finland) it would demand that untrust- worthy political leaders or parties be excluded from positions of power and influence, and it would expect a ban on any criticism of Soviet poli- cies. Broadcasting stations critical of Soviet poli- cies would be removed from the air as a danger to European "security." All interference with the ac- tivities of Soviet agents will be banned as a "hos- tile act." In short, the part of Europe that is still free will be readied for easy gobbling up by the Soviets. This is the deal Nixon is scheduled to sign in Moscow this month. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL nayApp_roved For ReIMR819PggfOAL: citkcaliFack*MIR0 1, ivrz ro-it. that the cold war with Russia and Communist Countries is not nr - ? the bortthteer r naive for us to think that a- and peace are in the offing. I do not - diwree with that. We have many problems with Russia, but I submit that one of the obstacles to better relations with Eastern Europe and Russia and most of those other ' countries?although I think our rela- tions have improved over time--but in any case, among the principal irritants arc these broadcasts from Voice of Amer- ica, Radio Free Europe, and Radio Lib- erty. They contribute to keeping alive the animosity and suspicion which exists be- tween our country and Russia. I said be- fore with retard to Radio Free Europe it seemed to me with the President going to Russia and having just been to China, and having announced a policy of trying to normalize and improve relations with those countries that it is inconsistent to " continue a propaganda program de- signed to arouse the suspicion of the peo- ple of those countries against their gov- ernments. I do not think it accomplishes our purposes; it harms our relations. I can , well imagine that there are people in " . Russia who disagree with their leaders' policy of meeting with the President of ? - the United States and who make the Same arguments that are made on the ? floor of this body that there is no hope ? for. better relations with the United States, or that they are kidding them- selves to think they can do business with ? the United States. One of the things they would point out would be the prop- aganda we engage in. It has always puzzled me why the Russians have such suspicion with re- gard to the SALT talks. They had one meeting interrupted by the U-2 incident. ?Those not disposed to normalized rela- tions with us can point to the Voice of - America and Radio Liberty and say, "They do not really. mean it, they are kidding us. They continue the old war- time programs of propaganda intended , to undermine the stability of our gov- ernment." I ask very seriously on the merits whether the program is well designed to accomplish the announced purposes of the President and what I believe to be the overwhelming view Of the people of the United States, and that is to bring ' about better relations with the people of . Russia, China, and Eastern Europe. It seems to me it is high time in this world with nuclear weapons that some other approach to the solution of these ? international differences be developed; that greater emphasis be placed on co- operation and discussion such as the United Nations offers, than to keep alive the traditional anticommunism which we have been subjected to for so long, to keep that alive by spending $200 mil- lion in this case, and many millions of dollars more in the case of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. I am not under any illusion it is going to be easy, but I think some different approach than the the we have had is called for. Mr. President, I referred earlier to an article by Bruce J. Oudes, who, I see, served with the USIA overseas from 1961 to 1965 and is now an International reporting fellow at Columbia University. So he speaks from substantial experience in the USIA. ? Mr. President, the article ntitled "The Great Mind Machine" relates to the problem I am talking about and that is the value of the USIA itself. Just to give a sample of the article, I wish to read one part: Much of the time there is a gnawing suspicion that whatever the project of the day might be, you're participating in a giant charade, a hoax. "What am I doing here?" Is a question that often intrudes in the mind of the USIA officer as he goes about his appointed rounds. Why was I hauling those pamphlets across the Sahara? In time the two of us delivered our "freight"?the agency term for its mes- sage?to the American Embassy in Nouak- chott, and it was duly distributed to its Mauritanian audience. Yet it is hard to imagine that any minds were altered by our pamphlets, either among the illiterate nomads who make up most of the popula- tion, or among the tiny literate ruling class, whose ears are tuned to Cairo and Paris. Certainly our message did not prevent Mauri- tania's rulers from breaking relations with the U.S. during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. And why was I hustling votes for Moise Tshombe in the Congo? Tshombe won the election with American help, but not because of anything USIA did; the constituency that mattered was the white mercenaries, who voted with their guns, and the kind of U.S. help that mattered was money and arms, and planes supplied by the Central Intelligence Agency. If we won any votes in Katanga, which I doubt, they weren't counted?that's not how power is won and lost in the Congo. Thus the USIA officer's self-criticism centers around feelings of futility; harmless in Mauritania, but distasteful in the Congo. ? USIA produces a lot of noise. Whether that noise wins any hearts and minds- out there is a question to which, fortunately for tho agency, there Is no statistical answer? for propaganda, unlike soap, cannot be meas- ured in bars sold. I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD the full article by Mr. Oudes. ? ' There -being no objection, the article was' ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows:, ? THE GREAT WIND MACHINE (By Bruce J. Oudes) The sight of a wheel rolling off into the desert- is of distinct interest if it Is one of four carrying you to Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. It happened the visit was a goodwill, more correctly a misguided will, mission. The oc- casion, replete with rising sandstorm, pro- vided time and conditions for a unique reas- sessment of the heavy cargo, principally hundreds of pounds of pamphlets explaining the American way of life, which had con- tributed to the breakdown. My companion, who had been sent from Washington to see if the United States In- formation Agency (USIA) was hitting the "target" in West Africa, blew the sand off a brochure on the American economy, one which described the marvelous Detroit motor vehicle, and broke up laughing. On another occasion, the scene was the Congo and my companion was an American newsmagazine correspondent. We spent a rather wry afternoon driving around the precincts of Katanga distributing a station- wagon load of American-produced "get out the vote" leaflets in Swahili in preparation for an election which, to no one's surprise, ratified orn e as ic =go s Prime Min ster. Any officer in USIA has a store of such stories. They are rooted in the frustration of determining the message, the audience, and how the audience Is supposed to react to the message. Much of the time there is a gnaw- ing suspicion that whatever the project of the day might be; you're participating in a giant charade, a hoax. "What am I doing here?" is a question that often intrudes in the mind of the USIA officer as he goes about his appointed rounds. Why was I hauling those pamphlets across the Sahara? In time the two of us delivered our "freight"?the agency term for its message?to the American Embassy in Nouakchott, and it was duly distributed to its Mauritanian audience. Yet it is hard to imagine that any minds were altered by our pamphlets, either among the illiterate nomads who make up most of the popula- tion, or among the tiny literate rulinu class, tvhose ears are tuned to Cairo and Paris. Certainly our message did not prevent Mauritania's rulers from breaking relations with the U.S. during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. And why was I hustling votes for Moise Tshornbe in the Congo? Tshombe won the election with American help, but not be- cause of anything USIA. did; the constitu- ency that mattered was the white merce- naries, who voted with their guns, and the kind of U.S. help that mattered was money and arms, and planes supplied by the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency. If we won any votes in Katanga, which I doubt, they weren't counted?that's not how power is won and lost in the Congo. Thus the USIA officer's self-criticism centers around feelings of 'futility: harmless in Mauritania, but dis- tasteful in the Congo. The agency that sends its people on such ? missions is a I7-year-old cold war hybrid, the descendant of the World War I George Creel committee and then in World War II the Overseas Operations Branch in Elmer Davis's Office of War Information. At the end of the war OWI was transferred to the State Department where William Benton, the ad- vertising man, later a U.S. Senator, nursed it for two years. As the cold war got under- way, Benton's office drafted a bill which be- came the Smith-Mundt Act and put propa- ganda permanently into the American de- fense arsenal. Under the Eisenhower Admin- istration in June, 1953, John Foster Dul- les rid his beloved State Depadtment of the dirty linen of propaganda work and the name U.S. Information Agency was born. The USIA budget passed the $100 million mark dur- ing the Eisenhower years and floated up *to its present $175 million mark during the two subsequent Democratic Administrations. Today USIA produces 66 magazines in 27 languages. Its Voice of America broadcasts 932 hours weekly in nearly three dozen lan- guages using 104 transmitters with a total of 19 ,million watts. It has assisted foreign book publishers in-producing more than 120 million conies of over 14.000 editions since 1950. It operates more than 22 libraries vis- ited by 20 million or more persons annually (down from over. 31 million in 1935). It radloteletypes abroad a 10,000-word daily file of Administration statements and packaged stories ready for foreign newspapers to lunk In their columns. It does all this with a staff of 2,139 Foreign Service personnel, a total which will be reduced to about 1,760 by mid-year by Presidential order. Foreign Service personnel, however, are substantially outnumbered by the 2,410 permanent Wash- ington-based employees who try to commu- nicate America to a world they never see. USIA produces a lot of noise. Whether that noise wins any hearts and minds out there Is a question to which, fortunately for the agency, there Is no statistical answer?for propaganda, unlike soap, cannot be measured In bars sold. True believers in the agency pro- Approved For Release 2001-/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0-1601 R001100070001-5 THE SOVIET NEW TIMES Approved For Release Sadr0V3/04 : C1A-F$15/44.6 fr COLD WAR y..KUiNETSOV TO BELIEVE official Washington, it would be a, "tragedy" if the Amer.- ican-financed ,Radio ?Free, Europe and Radio Liberty in Munich went off the air. A tragedy for whom? Do they think in the United States that the so-' cialist countries will miss them? The two stations have already swallowed up nearly $500. million and now cost the American taxpayer nearly $40 million a ,year?so it will hardly be a- tragedy for him.- If anyone might suffer from their closure, it is the . handful that feed from its anti-communist propa- ganda kitchen. In any case, the word "tragedy" is altogether' out of place Where it con-' terns air polluters who subsist on pro- paganda which at best is cheap. A morn suitable word would be "comedy." For what if not Comic Were the, Wash- ington AdMinistration's claims that' It had nothing to do with the two stations, that they were depeqdent ..solely on "private contributions" and, "dimes from schoolchildren"? Goveen- ment officierr3 had good cause to pon- der long on how to camouflage the whole thing. ."Official government ra- dios mist take care to avoid the charge of interference in the internal affairs of other nations," Assistant Secretary of State Hillenbrand said in the Senate Foreign Relations Cominittee?', on May 24, 1971. . 'The comedy flopped when Senators Clifford 'Case and William ? Fulbright openly charged that Radio Free Europe and itadio Liberty were financed by the Central Intelligence Agency. They thus . confirmed what. had long been asserted by .the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, namely, that these Munich stations Were subsidiaries of. the U.S. Information Agency and the CIA, "It was always ridiculous to pretend that Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe .had no connection, with U.S. govern- ment agencies," Cyrus Sulzberger com- mented In the New. York Times. World public opinion now possesses 'enough facts, to form a clear idea about these "free" voices of the "free world." Newspapers everywhere printed ? the revelations of -Captain Andrzej:Czecho- 'BALLAST :????.; :f.1* ?- ?! r ? .??? ? t,' wuz who ,worked for six , years at, Radio .Free Europe. on . an assignment. from. the Polish security service. Its. output. -he wrote,' "has long been part, and, parcel of -espionage and overt sub-. 'version ,against ,out 'countries..., The two; political :,departments and all , the. sections of the broadcasting station are, headed; Thy . American intelligence officers." . Then there is the book "Hungarians on,. P?dyrbll," just published `-?ift Buda:pest: rlis author; journalist Istvan Pinter,? spent fifteen years collecting material about the subversive activities of Hungarian emigres working for Western Intelligence services and about Radio. Free Europe and its sinister part ' in- the 'preparation' of the counter- revolutionary putsch of 1956. Lastly; there is the. new Soviet tele- vision film about Radio Libeity pro- vocateurs?an expose based strictly on documents and affidavits. But: perhaps the socialist countries .are too prejudiced against Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty which, their directors and patrons affirm, sow "seeds' of truth, freedom and justice" and not the poisonous seeds of anti-communism,, hostility, distrust and international ten- sion? Let 'us see what is said on this score in Federal Germany and the, United States. ? ? "Anyone. whb wants to work for Radio Liberty must be an anti-commun- ist," a spokesman of this Munich broad- casting station said in an interview with Axel Springer's Die Welt. .And here is the opinion of Senator Fulbright. The two stations, he said. are "a product di the U-2, Bay of Pigs and Tonkin Gulf ,mentality," a "part of a pattern?a pat- tern of falsehood and deception?a pat- tern of fraud and deceit?a 'pattern of conspiracy to -mislead not only the American but anybody else who was willing to listen and follow." The Washinglon:,Evening Star wtites . that one can agree that the production ot the Munich "voices" is nothing but, official propaganda against the com- munist countries. Both stations, writes Bernard Gwertiman in the ? New York .Times, "were set' up at the height of .PROBLEMS AND OPINIONS the Cold wax to broadcast news and ' commentary to the Soviet Union and its .Eastern European allies." The' cold war has been abating of late, and this is recognized In the West too. But what do the Munich "voices" care about that? These offshoots of the Cold war have not become wiser with the years, they are still its troubadours, They persevere in the "liberalization of the Soviet Union" (New York Times), In trying to "infitience people in the Russian orbit at? the expense of the communist governments" (New York Post). While qualifying the two stations as a "hangover of the cold war," the New York Post 'intimates that the U.S; government appears to have no inten- tion of "kicking its long addiction to anti-communist crusades at home and abroad." Are the present-day crusaders, one may ask, not being too presumptuous In venturing beyond their own borders, even' if only on the air? Senator Stuart Symington '.put the' question bluntly during the discussion of the State Department budget in the , Senate. Didn't the .Secretary of State" " think that the American broadcasting. stations in Munich were interfering in ?the internal affairs of other nations, he asked Rogers. Rogers tried tO avoid giving a direct, . reply. But 'the question cannot be. evaded. The Munich broadcasts, the, Washington Post wrote in one of its editorials. were a form of interference in the. internal affairs .of Eastern Eu- rope and the 'SOviet Union. In the recent U.S.?China com- muniqu?the United States declared its support for the principle of non-inter- ference in the internal affairs of other countries. How is one to interpret this: as an empty Promise, a simple formality or a. serious international commitment? "How, it is asked, can that be squared with further operations of Radio Free . Europe and Radio Liberty?". the New York Post _asks the Republican Admin- istration. It is noteworthy tha,t while formerly Washington disowned these broadcast- ing stations to avoid being rebuked for Interiering in other. countries' affairs, now?when the carefully concealed links between the stations and the CIA have been exposed?It is insisting on its. "right" to poke Its nose where shouldn't, and even on recognition of this "right." This,ls implied' in? the 'U.S. Adminisration argument Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070041tign-,(1 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: .. '.ORANGE, N.J. RECORD, MAR 3 0 1972 WEEKLY ? 3,800 - 0 YZ By Sen. Clifford Case Last week the Congress approved my bill to bring into the open the funding of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty which broadcast to Eastern Europe. . I first introduced this legislation in January 1971. At that time, I decried the fact that for over twenty years the two stations had been financed covertly by the Central Intelligence Agency LCJA1,,While such '? funding might well have , been justified for a few years in the conteit of the early 1950's, it seemed to me .there was no reason to have continued U.S. Government contributions on a secret basis for all those years, particularly in light of the hundreds of millions of the taxpayers' dollars wnicii were being spent. . My purpose was not to end the broadcasts of the station*. It was simply' to bring their financing out into the open. Our Constitution. states that Congress shall ap- propriate funds for government purposes and the: Congress had never knowingly voted a penny for either station. The money had come out of that vast intelligence budget which is hidden in other ap- propriated funds. Moreover, in 1967 a high level govern- ment study -pawl) recommended that CIA financing of activities such as RFE and RL be ter- minated. I did not question whether or not RE and RL were doing a good job. Frankly, I had no way of knowing, since one obvious result of the secret funding was that neither Congress nor the public had much idea what the radios were doing. Tliere were, of course, television and magazine commerieals for RYE, but they gave the Misleading impression that without private con- tributions the stations would not be to broadcast. Hearings wei-e sene.uled in the Senate For(_ign Relations Committee en my bill which, in effect, authorized funds for ac- tivities that were already being paid for secretly by the government. ? For the first- time, we received reasonably complete information about RFE's and RIA programs, costs, assets, 7rtil i: abilities. While the A. ininietration did not object to open fun- ding, it suggested that the stations be In.r:led through a - -public ccr:.oez ;lion. This measure wai voten down in the aif n Relations ' Committee, net the Com- mittee and late:- the Senate, adopted my original proposal for ..cpen funding through diecretary .of States - -The of Represe t then passed cn bi!,1- which, while ac !'ti.rae the open funding ? `,!, called for a differc of structure for the iwe stations. A deadioek between the House and the Senate then developed when several of my colleagues decided that RFE and RL should be ? discontinued entirely. Happily, the impasse was recently broken, and the Congress as a whole has now approved funds for BFE and RL through the current fiscal year. Thus, RFE and RL have finally been put on. the same basis as other regular governmental activities and programs. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ?17 THE CHARLESTON, W. VIRGINIA GAZETTE Approved For Release 2001/03104PA3AW0P80-01601R00 Editorials- : isn't There Criv 'Outcry Against ? Literate Americans know, but may not ? care, that a taxpaid government espio- nage agency is waging a not-so-secret war in Laos against Communist insur- gents in that country. . The administration cannot afford to send military troops into Laos, for such a inove would be interpreted as an ? escalation of the war?which it surely would be.. In view of the mounting public distaste for American military adventures in oth- er people's countries, we cannot under- stand why there is no outcry against the use of civilian CIA "troops" in Laos. If .more were known about the CIA, -public indifference might change to out- rage. Here are some episodes in which the CIA was involved, each of which ,outraged us: is-The CIA's spy plane over Russia demolished President Eisenhower's sin- cere efforts to improve relations with the Soviets. How would you like it if Russian 'Spy planes were dispatched over Ameri- ca? is-The CIA conducted an armed inter- vention in order to save Guatemala from leftist political elements of which the prevailing powers didn't approve. Inter- nal politics in Guatemala aren't any of America's business. How would you like it if Guatemalan spies worked to discred- it one of the American political parties? Is-The CIA secretly financed Radio Free .Europe, which many df us innocently believed was supported wholly by private "- contributions. The CIA's takeover of .RFE! thoroughly stripped the radio sta- tion of credibility. How would you like it if a foreign spy network beamed radio .messages into America under the cover .of "information?" Is-The CIA planned and directed the Bay of Pigs fiasco. How would you like it if a Man spy apparatus equipped an army of disgruntled American exiles and dis- patched them as an invasion force bent :on the overthrowof the governmnt? - 10-The, CIA conducted a military opera- lion in the Dominican Republic to pre- :vent a. rebellion which would have re--, stored to power a president Whom righ- tist forces had deposed. How would you like it if foreign spies had intervened in the American revolution, in support of George III? 0-The CIA gave armed support to the? overturn of a Congo government and had a strong role in the overthrow of Dicta- tor Diem of South Vietnam, an accom- plishment which produced another dicta- tor more pleasing to Washington. ? In none of these enterprises has the CIA enhanced the name a the United' States of America. To the contrary, it has given support to the spreading view- point that tlie United States is a med- ? dling power which has contributed enor- mously to the unsettled state of the: world. In all of these enterprises the CIA has been answerable to no one except presi- dents who, incredibly, had io compunc- tion about conferring the power to make War upon, an intelligence agency. And, if we've got you to thinking about the CIA, think about this: it has 18,000 , employes, 6,000 of whom ar6 working in clandestine services, according to Victor L. Marchetti, a former CIA agent, who is writing a book about the CIA.' The CIA budget, Marchetti maintains, is $6 billion a year. - Marchetti May be wrong on every count. The number of CIA agents in- volved in clandestine activities and the annual CIA budget are "secrets" with- held from the American people. And one more observation: the admin-, istration has obtained a temporary order against publication of Marchetti's book. Naturally. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 DAILY WQ17.:D. Approved For Release 200431)84 ;19.A-RDP80-01601R0' 0 Fulbright pr bes CIA propagan By ERIK BERT Senator J. W. Fulbright. chair- man of the Foreign Relations Committee, asked the Library of Congress last June to furnish the . committee with an analysis of the operations. of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The Librar:st of Congress re- searchers completed their work seven months later. in January. The committee staff informed the researchers about some al- leged' deficiencies. Nevertheless, the final LC reports were "sub- stantially as the original drafts." Senator Fulbright said. Following receipt of the reports by the committee, rumors were circulated. in Washington charg-. Ing that Fulbright was suppress- ing the information or altering its presentation. In response, Ful- bright had the reports published in the Congressional Record .of March G. 1972. except for, he said. several hundred additional pages of appendices. which he said are available to the public in the For- eign Relations Committee office. where the original draft reports ' can also be consulted. As it is. the text of the reports covers more than' 80 of the Congres- sional Record's triple-column pages. In presenting the documents to the Senate. Fulbright pointed out that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty "still refuse to acknowledge publicly any ties to the U.S. intelligence community." The two enterprises are known to be vehicles for the Central In- telligence Agency. The issue on which the RFE-? RL problem arose was how to switch them from under-the- table financing by the CIA to aboveboard funding by the Con- gress. The CIA and the Nixon Administration have resisted con- gressional funding because that could open the doors to congres- ' sional inquiry as to how the money was being used, and the CIA wanted none of that. Fulbright offered a compromise. possibly a tongue-in-cheek resolu- tion of the problem. Ile told the Senate he was "persuaded that the Radios should be liquidated. unless perhaps our European al:- lies are willing to pick up their fair share of the financial bur- den." However, in a letter to Sen. Charles Percy. which he inserted in the Congressional Record with the reports. Fulbright noted the "lack of any apparent interest on the part of our Western European allies to help share the financial burden imposed by the Radios." " Fulbright recalled to the Sen- ate that in 1970 the Foreign Rela- tions Committee had obtained from the Department of State a "brief description of the arrange- ments and mechanisms used by the executive branch to maintain policy control and direction of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty." However. the Department of State "insisted" that its informa- tion be available only "on a class- ified basis." Senators who wanted to read it. Fulbright said, would have to betake themselves to the Foreign Relations Committee Cap- itol office. S-116. ? The Library of Congress report: on Radio Free Europe was pre- pared by James R. Price, .the LC's analyst in national defense. foreign relations division, and the report on Radio Liberty by Jo- seph G. Whalen. a 20-year LC employee. ? Whelan ca:me to the Library .of Congress from the CIA. accord- ing to the bibliography accom- panying his reports. "In 1951, he was briefly em- ployed by the Central Intelligence Agency." That's the formal side. It is an open question whether he ever departed from the CIA. The RFE and HL reports. al- though formally prepared by the Library of COngress for the Sen- ate Foreign Relations Committee. are in fact a CIA presentation. Despite this fact they are quite enlightening. dl- Approved For Release '2001/03/04: CIA-R0P80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL ? Approved For Relea?11.260410311W-MX1738%0.1.601R0 25 April 1972 1AHNIL 'lough Of Covert Action While the Administration has obtained a tern. porary order against publication of a book on the CIA by a former officer of it, Victor L. Marchetti, the public has reason to be thankful to the author. He has already provided outside of book covers some valuable insights and corn- Inents on an agency that. deliberately hides from the public and Congress. Without revealing any really hidden secrets, the author uses published reports to note that the nation's intelligence budget is 6 billion dol- lars a year, that the Central Intelligence Agency has 18,000 employes, and that 6000 of these 'are working in clandestine services, as opposed ,to intelligence collection. As it is, however, the CIA is the President's baby. ,Congress has proposed various control measures, such as a limit on the CIA budget, or requirements for clearer information about 'it, or Senator Cooper's present legislation for 'the CIA to give intelligence briefings to Con- gress ?as well as the White House. Congress, after all, foots the bill, but it does not know for what. CIA officials occasionally surface frdm se- crecy to complain that critics concentrate on CIA failures. If so, that is because -the public only hears about the failures, and they have to be, big ones at that. They always seem to Involve those covert or "paramilitary" opera- tions, which range from a most qualified suc- cess in Guatemala to an unmitigated disaster at Cuba's I3ay of Pigs. Mr. Marchetti says, "I don't think we've had a successful paramilitary operation yet." The clandestine operations are worth review: There was the U-2 spy plane incident that tor- pedoed President Eisenhower's efforts to im- prove relations with the Soviet Union. There was the CIA's proud armed intervention to "save" Guatemala from leftists, leaving the country to, oppression 4nd terrorism. There was the financing of Radio Free Europe Which, when disclosed, stripped that station of every vestige of freedom or credibility. And there was the Bay of Pigs. Then there was the CIA military operation to save .the Dominican Republic from a ?zebellion to return a democratically-elected president. There was armed support for the overturn of a government in The Congo. Of course, there was the CIA's hand in the overthrow of the Diem dictatorship in South Vietnam, opening the way for another dictatorship more satisfac- tory to Washington. And there is presently war in Laos, which the CIA actively engendered without any visible success for the American position in Southeast Asia, much less for peace and order. ' Aside from the fact' that so many of these clandestine activities were inefficient and in- effective, even aside from the fact that they were bound to be failures for America's long- range prospects and'reputation even if they did succeed, the ability of the CIA to engage in paramilitary functions represents a continuing ability to start hostilities without the knowledge of the people or Congress, and certainly with- out, any declaration of war. Author Marchetti is fair enough to say that, so far various presidents have kept a measure of control over such activities. That is no guar- antee for the future, however, and it is Con- gress, not the President, that is supposed to make decisions on war. Consequently, Mr. Mar- chetti recommends confining intelligence ac- tivities to a small and highly professional group, and eliminating the covert actions entirely. Intelligence simply cannot work well when governed by an agency equally interested in activities ranging from propaganda to military action; that is a conflict of interest. The nation does need successful intelligence. It does not need a publicly-uncontrolled and unanswerable power to, make war. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ?? Approved, For. Releas J*iA k''.?46 SUNDAY, APRIL 9, 1972 Right and Wrong BRUCE HERSCHENSOHN is ? a brilliant movie producer who has created two prizewinning documen- tary films for USIA. He is also a ded- t icated foe of Sen. Fulbright's efforts ? to gag Radio Free Europe, Radio Lib- aft erty anirg-iii-OthCPOSIA:-programs. ? He has publicly attacked Ful- bright, saying that the Arkansas sen- ator's criticisms of U.S. presidents "are only balanced by his words of praise .for Ho Chi Minh and 'thrush- chev and his defense of the doctrine :of 'Wars of National Libergtion' SI a ? ? ? - ? Furthermore, he has charged that Fulbright's attempts to "downgrade" the USIA information programs "could be tragic for this nation and a catastrophic for the people of other nations." We admire Herschensohn's good Work for his country and share his view of Sen. Fulbright's curious out- look on the world. But in one aspect ? of his feud with Fulbright, we must ? regretfully agree with the senator, at least in principle. In this case, it is an ?. important principle. HERSCHENSOHN appeared on a television show with conservative 4, Sen. James Buckley. On the same ? show, carried by 12 stations in New s' York State, the producer's Academy ?'Award-winning documentary on the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia was shown. This, despite Fulbright's efforts to block the airing of the film , on grounds that it violated the con- -gressional ban on the distributing of such USIA films in this country. a Like Herschensohn, we find it ,.. difficult to believe that Sen. Ful- bright's objections were Motivated ? by a high regard for the letter and spirit of the law. Sen. Fulbright has based his opposition to Radio Free Radio Liberty and ?011i-er such projects presumably because ST TINTL they tend to show the Sovlet Union in a bad light. Certainly there is no way that an honest report of the Soviet Union's invasion of a defenseless Czechoslo- vakia could do otherwise. Nev,ertheless, and in spite of any such motivation on the senator's part, Congress was right to forbid the use of tax-supported propaganda in this country. The senator's objec- tion seems valid. ? AND, REGARDLESS of the un- biased honesty of the propaganda or the acknowledged artistry of the presentation, the danger that Con- gress saw in this use of propaganda is very real. In this case, the moviernaker is a conservative, the film itself is a rec- ognized work of art and the events portrayed are authentic history. But what about next time? What if government propagandists were turning out hard-sell propaganda for, let us say, the guaranteed annual wage or forced busing or compulsory birth controls? Would we want our own tax dollars used by an incum- bent administration to propagandize us? We think not. There is all too much of this sort of thing done now, under the guise of the bureaucracy's various "information" programs. But The News thinks that this misuse of tax dollars is wrong and should be stopped. We believe that Congress was right in its ban on the domestic showing of USIA films. It is regrettable that Herschen- sohn has felt that it is necessary to quit the USIA in order to save it em- barrassment, at a time when its fund request is before Fulbright's commit- tee. At USIA the film-maker has served both his country and his art well. But in the matter of the film ban, we think the senator is right, even if he is right for the wrong reasons. Approved For Release 2001103104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 thm rig:pattii 1O fflY, It R. 1.3.5,35$ APR 81.072 Keep These Sta.:ions et,eil A President Nixon the other day signed legislation which allows the continued funding of Radio Free E_urope and Radio?Liberty until the end of the current fiscal year on June 30. But what happens then, especially with the opposition of Sen. -J. W. Fulbright? We well recall in the depth of the "cold war" how effective Radio Free Europe was in disseminating the real news to those millions be- hind the Iron Curtain. Then there was no question as to the value of R.F.E. It was an essential as far as ? "our side" was concerned. However, a little more than a year ago, it was brought out that both RFE and Radio Liberty re- ceived most of their operating funds from the Central Intel- ligence Agency. This caused quite a stir .and subsequently Sen. DA-- bright said they were relics of the 50s. The Arkansas senator has a lot to say since he's chairman of the foreign relations committee in the upper house and he's against the stations' continuance. He feels that today the stations are an irritant to the Soviet Union. So? Is that supposed to scare us? Despite the: rapprochement that we're working on with Moscow, in the wake of the Peking visit, Sen. Fulbright is not on the right track when he wants to close down these stations because they're an irri- tant. They, at least, keep the Rus- sians- honest. As evidence of the stations' worth, the Polish press has as- sailed Radio Free Europe in the wake of the accord worked out to give it funds to the end of June. One article assailed "inane propa- ganda made by liars for idiots." now friendly can you get? As far as we're concerned, both stations are just as germane and necessary now as they were at the peak of the "cold war." Unless you're against the broadcasting of factual news reports to the peoples in eastern Europe. Don't close them down because of lack of funds. 4proved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 trentA ;40 romsctEgoilRelease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01101R001100070001-5 TRENTON, N. J. D, 81,855 By NICHOLAS DANILOFF )(311 United Press International ? WASHINGTON ? The time: the early 19C0s. The place: Prague: The occasion: a state visit to Czechoslovakia by .Soviet Premier Nikita S. ?Khrushcbev. . The rotund Soviet premier 'descends from his jetliner on 'arrival from Moscow and lines up with Czech digni- :!taries to review an honor -guard. .Suddenly, he notices one of ,his shoe laces is untied. He stoops spontaneously to tie it. ? Rrarrip! His trousers have .split dawn the back. ;;'? In a? instant, an aide ap- - pears at larushehev's side with a freshly pressed pair of trousers over his arm. "But how did you know so quickly that my pants had split" Khrushchev inquires. "Oh, I heard on Radio Free Europe,", the aide replies. No one pretends that really happened, . but the story got wide circulation ? and laughs ? in Eastern European court- tries among listeners to RFE who depended on it for accu- rate, prompt, sometimes em- barrassing and ? uncensored 'news; This Was the kind of news thatRFE and its sister outlet, Radio ? Liberty, were created in 1949 to broadcast to the Soviet Union and other Com- muniSt. countries behind the Iron Curtain. More Restrained Twenty-three years later, the times have changed. The radios' brio.kftelsjA,W ? opinion ojr6h$11. Kr^Hdrci-D penis, have become more re- strained. But the prospects for .. ? ? The radios were established in West Germany with secret .financing from the Central Intelligence Agency to counter the highly controlled press and radio of the Communist governments. ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty made. it their business to broadcast back to Eastern Europe and the Sovi- et Union information on events which went unmention- ed by the official Communist media. They broadcast news about unauthorized strikes, intellectual ferment, natural disasters. - To help do this job, they made use of radio monitors ?and research institutions ? staffed partly by refugees and partly by Western specialists. The two radio stations pub- lished their research papers which were useful to scholars, journalists and Western intel- ligence. From the U.S. point of view, the radios were promoting the free flow of information to an area where information was severely rationed. From the Comnumist point of view, the radios were and are an ilTi- tunt; they were clearly sub- versive and undermined Com- munist authority; they consti- tuted interference in the-inter- nal affairs of the Communist countries. U.S. Dispute These points of view ,-stem from a fundamental ideologi- - cal difference in Communist and Western atitudes, but now the matter of the operations has blossomed into a trouble- some dispute between Con- ' ?* President ? Nixon signed. -a bill on March 30 to continue financing the two radio ? sta- tions until June 30. They are beiog funded at $32 million a year, down from $36 million. The President had to. fight to get the bill Out of Congress. On March 11; in a special White House statement, he .said it would be a tragedy if the radios were forced to , close down. ., The President was primari- ly countering the tough oppo. ? sition of Sen. J. William Ful- bright, D-Ark., who questions the value of the radios contin- . tied existence. He would have ? them eliminated ?,-.or at least financed at a far smaller level by the United States. "I didn't intend for this to become a cause celebre," Ful- bright said in an interview with UPI. "Pm primarily for cutting costs. Why, we in Ar- kansas have difficulty in get- ting $5 million for sewer and water projects." The Senator, who for weeks created a parliamentary im- passe which threw the future a! the stations into doubt, does not appear to be implacably hostile to the continued broad- cast operations. "Pm not going to die if these radio stations continue," he said. "I don't mind if the United States shares the oper- ating expenses with a? number of Western Europr xi govern- 71"-ifs v7id ntv. third or one fourth of the costs." But Fulbright does raise a number of hard questions about the radio stations. ? He calls them "relics of the Cold War." Radio Free Eu- rope has been accused of en- couraging the abortive Hun- garian rebellion of 195G and of spreading unrest in Poland during December, 1970, demonstrations. Fulbright notes that Soviet leaders, on the eve of Presi- dent Nixon's visit to Moscow next month, still regard the broadcasts as subversive. To continue these broad- casts, Fulbright says, is to east doubt on the sincerity of the United States in achieving an East-West indente. If the radios do perform a useful function from the II.S. . A numberl of - specialists disagree, saying this would lay the United States open lo The charge of interfering in the internal - affairs- of the countries of Eastern Europe. While RFE and Radio -Liberty are regarded as semi- independent, Voice of Ameri- ca is directly government- operated. Fulbright's dissent has not killed the radios. But it has forced the administration -to take a serious new look at RFE and Radio Liberty, how they perform, and what their value is. Officials are fond of com- ments by Communist officials which acknowledge the radios provide useful information, particularly in Eastern Eu- rope. Nobel Winner . Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the dissident, Nobel-Prize win- ning Russian author, declared in a recent outburst a(minst the Soviet governmeid- that Radio Liberty was one of the few sources of true. informa- tion in his country. - The State Department is now studying how best to fi- nance the radio stations in the future. At Congressional hearings last May and September, it was suggested that a public- private corporation be created :to keep the radios going. Possibly, West European governments, which are in closer geographical proximity to the Soviet Union, might chip in. It is felt here that West Germany may have a particular interest in shaping the future of RFE and Radio Liberty since they operate. from that country. Before approachin,g the Western Europeans, the State Department is sounding out the mood in Congress. A first step is quiet consultations with Senate Republican Lead- er Hugh Scott, of Pennsylva- nia, Sen. Charles Percy, 11- and Rep. Dante Fascell, Percy sponsored a Sermte resolution which won 07 votes in favor of continuing the gress and the Administration. noint .01.4w,A., ?FiAbujn.t..s1 radios. Fascell proposed. an Releaqet20011103104 :0CIAIRLatitioggrv1111(0110007:00011.15ise bill which ,., - continuing difficulty for top formed by the Voice of Ameri- ? would have financed the ..Aministration officials. . ca. ?. radios for two more years. - Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 PittsIggli Press D.- 346,090 SUN. 744,732 APR 5 1972 The Nobel Crime In a stupid and heartless move, the Soviet ? Union has reused an entry visa to the . permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, 7 Which awards the Nobel Prize for Literature. The terrible crime he was planning was. to ,present, at an informal ceremony in a private :apartment in Moscow. the medal and diploma of the 1970 prize to -Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn, . 'Russia's greatest living writer. Because his novels depict the horrors of Stalin's prison camps, which he survived, and because he fearlessly speaks out against the police-state aspects of modern Soviet life, ,-,-Solzhenitsyn is anathema to the ruling Cern- 'Munist Party. ? :The cruel action by the party hacks in heating Solzhenitsyn of the pleasure of re- ?,ittiving his award is sure to backfire against them. It will only increase sympathy for the :1-persecuted witer in Russia and abroad. From anyone who values freedom, Solz- henitsyn deserves respect bordering on awe- -pot only for the uncompromising truth of his ,inovels but also for his personal comportment. 145L1- considerable risk, he is filling the role of ;iRussia's conscience. He has long spoken against the trampling -IA civil rights. Last month he went further by circulating a "Lenten Letter." It accused the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church of '.betraying its flock by acting as a tool of the atheist state. Instead of behaving like an unperson as an 011iCast should, Solzhenitsyn this week called . two American news correspondents. He boldly complained of harassment aimed at ? thwarting his work on a series of historical novels. tie is barred (torn using public achives and forbidden to hire research assistants. . v Survivors of the revolution are intimidated out - of sharing their memories with him. His friends are followed and threatened, his mail opened, his house bugged. His wife was . fired from her. job to intensify financial pressure on him. In the interview, Solzhenitsyn made a remark of special relevance to Americans. : criticized the Soviet press' lack of fairness and completeness and praised Radio Liberty, . which broadcasts in Russian from WPI.t Germany. "If we learn anything about events in our country," he said, "it's from there." Like radio Free Europe. its sister station - that broadcasts to the Soviet satellites, Radio. Liberty is supported by Mel]. S. government. Both stations are the target of a relentless vendetta by Chairman J. W. Fulbright of the. - Senate Foreign Relations Committee and will go off the air June 30 if he has his 'way. Radio Liberty is one medium by which the thoughts. of Solzhenitsyn and other dissident writers can reach broad audiences in Russia. It also serves as his insurance policy: The .secret police would drag him away in a minute if they could be sure Radio Liberty would not alert his admirers. For brave men like Solzheniisyn, who risk all for a decent future for Russia, Radio Liberty is a candle holding back the totalitarian night. ; Sen. FOlbright, for dubious reasons, wants to snuff it out. He must not be permitted to do so. ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 DAYTON DAILY NEWS DAYTON, OHIO D. 161,249 SUN. 215,360 APR 2 1972 sp_ (Fulbright: Censor Sen. William Fulbright, who has been trying to shut down Radio Liberty and ? Radio Free Europe which beam informa- fibribehind. the: iron Curtain, has said the details of the sta- tions operations "in many cases, are still locked away, - hidden I rom con- gressional scrutiny or public review." - What S c n. Ful- bright does not .point out is that he. ? has been primarily 'responsible for hid- ing some of this in- formation, a.nd that proponents of the :.stations ? an impressive list of liberals and conservatives?want the whole story brought to public light. Fulbright. When Sen. Fulbright ordered the Li- brary of Congress to study the perform- -, ance of the stations, Sen. Fulbright obviously was disappointed to find the report overwhelmingly favorable. The - report was delivered to Sen. Fulbright's office in mid-January. The Senator did not release it until March 6 after he had been accused of trying to suppress the favorable findings. ? Less well known, however, is that Sen. Fulbright censored the report before releasing it, which is not out of line with .* the senator's other .attempts to rewrite history. The senator says the original drafts of . the studies on Radio Free Europe ,and Radio Liberty are available at the office of the Senate Foreign. Relations committee. Since Sm. Fulbright is still bent on closing down the stations and keeping the \ debate alive, he ought to demonstrate enough integrity to publish the uncen- sored report. in the Congressional Recordj Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 - The Houston post D. 294,590 SUN. 227,167 APR A972 431.a. 'Stop it, you're disturbing tile relaxation' ?Behrendt, Het Pored (Amsterdam) :..?- . ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: C1A-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 "ftaifei;?4, 31.1trittintraut 3.\Trtmi BIRMINGHAM, ALA. D. 179,120 SUt4?, 219,330 MAR 3 1 1972 oga. Don't Sacrifice Truth There is an element of uncertainty . about the future of Radio.Eree Europe and Radio Liberty even though the broadcasts have funding until June . O. Funding beyond that date has ? been blocked by Sen. J. W. Fulbrighl, who has characterized the two .radios as "relics of the cold war." Although RFE-RL broadcasts once -iollowed a cold war line, today it is generally acknowledged, Sen. Ful- bright notwithstanding, that the news .the radios beam to the peoples in .Communist countries is objective. Rather than inciting the listeners to rebellion, the broadcasts give the - only reliable reporting on political, ee0110MiC, cultural and sports events ? available to people who live in socie- ties whose news media are carefully ....managed by the state. It seems to a great many people in Europe as well as in this country that ' Sen. Fulbright is overreacting in his -stated desire to help foster a spirit of detente. ? A reporter for the Christian Science Monitor found nearly every major 'newspaper in Western Europe urging the preservation of these media. "Why," one European observer was quoted as asking, "should the radios be shut down simply because they irritate the Soviets? Have the Russians stopped building up their 1 military power because this alarms.. us?" A Russian writer who escaped to Britain, Anatoli Kuznetsov, said that closing the two stations would be cheered by the KGB, Soviet govern- ment intelligence, as fulfillment of , one of its most ardent wishes. Kuznetsov said he and other Rus- sian intellectuals depended on foreign stations for honest reporting. And he said of all the broadcasts, RFE-RL alone are not devoted to building up the image of the country sponsoring the broadcasts. . . RFE alone is reported to have an audience of an estimated 55 million. . It is no secret that the Russians would like to sec the end of the broad- casts, especially since they go to con- siderable trouble to try and jam the broadcasts. ? But detente at this point is an elu- sive goal that will not be brought sig- nificantly .closer by merely eliminat- ing these radios. The stations are peb- bles compared to the mountains that obstruct progress toward detente. . The ? fact that the Soviets are so ve- hemently opposed to the objective re- porting of news to the Russian people also says something about the nature of the societies with which we are dealing and chills prospects of the two countries being able to resolve their differences. The Russian government still wants to tell its people what it wants them to know. This doesn't suggest that Russia herself has moved away from a cold war attitude. We shouldn't have to make all the concessions for detente and R.FE-RL ---- should not be sacrificed simply as a polite gesture. Congress should insist that the two radios have the funds to continue beaming their messages of truth. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 . . cue Arin Arl5or News ANN. ARBOR, t.i1C1-1, .P. II,.5.59 MAR 2 9 1972 They've Earned A Reprieve SEN. FULBRIGHT calls them relics of the cold war and an irri- tant to East-West relations, but. -Radio Enrope and Radio Lib- . erTi ought to-be-allb-Wed to con- tinue beaming their message to :Eastern Europe. The reprieve re- cently granted by the Senate ex- pires in June. The stations serve a useful pur- pose. They counteract to some ex- , - tent Soviet and Communist bloc programming. When they play the news straight without hard ' sell prOpagandizing, these stations perform a service which contrasts ? remarkably with the state run ra- dio of the Communist states. Whether HEE has been ,used to sem the interests of the CIA we don't know. There ought not be any link to the CIA. News of con- ditions behind the Curtain is of- ten passed on by recent arrivals who have fled Eastern Europe. When some of these help to staff the stations, the anti-Communist viewpoint understandably at times becomes fairly strong. One would expect this from those fa- miliar with terror and repression. By the same token, the word of these brave souls may be more accurate in some instances than the more established sources. When troops are cut back and withdrawn, RFT and Radio Liber- ty may be all that is left in this part of the world. These voices ought not be silenced yet. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 GAR GABRIEL, CALM GAR GABRIEL: YA1LE6 TRIBUNE D. 66,500 S. 68,000 MAR 2 5 1972 : .21 U F1: 1! t 4 ? Le, r 1,1- i Ai -iuTiv , J ....i. J.L7 Ztil - U.S. Sen. J. William Fulbright is elected by the people of Arkansas and. held accountable at the polls only to them. But, what he does often affects us all. This consistent opponent of the President's foreign policy is now in the process of choking off the only voices of freedom available to Communist- controlled peoples. . These voices are Radio Free Eu- rope, which broadcasts messages of freedom and. truth to people in Eastern Europe, and Radio Liberty, which car- ries the same message to people in the Soviet Union. ' "Now after 20 years of such in- 'dispensable service," reports Rep. Gene Snyder, "it appears that these :two voices of liberty are going to have 'to shut down. . - "But should these broadcasts cease, It will not be because Congress has de- cided they have become useless. On the contrary, both houses of Congress have already approved a continuation of the programs. Since the bill passed .by the House differed from that ap- proved by the Senate, it was necessary .,.. . Voke of Fraidoni to send the bills to a House-Senate con- ference committee to reconcile the dif- ference. "It has been the opposition of three of the five senators in that conference, . led by Fulbright, that has led to the present stalemate. "Senator Fulbright, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, - has refused to accept any compromise. ? "So the legislation is stuck ? and without congressional authorization and provision of necessary funds, these two programs can not be contin- ued," according to Congressman Sny- der. Thus it appears that Senator Ful- bright and his allies have made good their boast that they expiration of the existing authority as an opportun- ity to kill these programs. . The senator from Arkansas, in so doing, has -thwarted a program be- lieved important to people in other states. But, then Fulbright has to an- swer only to the voters in Arkansas ? and Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty aren't among their prime con- , cerns. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 PS,77,1.17fR,INSIe2 NI 4 SUBJECT; eI 10/ Ii ;11 1.1 '.1EWO W WJA. Shut Them Down? 72-31 BROADCAST: March 7, 1972 pfxkloopktmQ1 I 0011-70001=-5--- SAN f RAN(.1scocAtiroiNIAwn PHONE 1,1151982-7000? CBS OWNED This is one of a continuing series of KCBS Radio editorials on topics of vital interest to the community. Responsible rept eserflotives of opposing viewpoints are given the opportunity to reply on the cm. If you missed the broadcast of this editorial, we hope you will read it Your comments ore always most welcome. Peter M. McCoy, Vice President, CBS Rocha Divisiqa \14. :zar-Lits General Manager, KCBS Radio AM: 12:15, 3:15, 5:15, 8:15 AM; 12:15, 4:15, 6:15, 9:15 PM Repeated: Saturday, March 11, 1972 - 12:15 PM Sunday, March 12, 1972 - 6:15 PM Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are two of the most effective weapons in the western arsenal. Neither can be stopped by bullets or bombast. Unfortunately, Senator J. W. Fulbright doesn't share that view. Senator Fulbright contends both are relics of the "cold war." He thinks they are no longer necessary. As a result, he has effectively stymied further progress of legislation to continue financing of both services. What jamming and bullets couldn't achieve, Senator Fulbright may accomplish through fiscal strangulation. In a nation founded on the principle of providing free and open speech, such suggestions seem strange. Coming from a Senator, whose colleagues pride themselves on their right and ability to filibuster, the. pronouncement is incredible. KCBS can't agree with Senator Fulbright's position. Rather than shut Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty down, we ought to expand such services. A free idea is a very lethal weapon against demagogues and dictators. We are continually told that America is misunderstood abroad. To eliminate a possible link with many parts of the world, where the lack of free ideas have contributed to that misunderstanding, is not only folly, but it strikes us also as rather poor foreign relations. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Ta-"rr" Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 translation ? La Tribune de Geneve (Swiss daily -- Independent -- circ. 62,000) April 14, 1972 editorial: WAVES OF THE AIRWAVES by Alexandre Bruggmann "If we happen to learn anything about events in our country, it is through Radio Liberty", said Alexander Solzhenitsyn recently. And he said this after having criticized the lack of objectivity of the Soviet press in which, what is worse, not much useful information can ever be found. Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe are American radios sta tioned in Federal Germany and directed toward the countries of Eastern Europe. Their (future) existence is in doubt, assured only through June. After that date, everything will depend upon the Nixon government's at- titude in face of proposals coming from a group of senators headed by Mr. Fulbright. He and his friends, along with a handful of West German Social Democrats, believe that broadcasting a program of information and com- mentary in the languages of the East European is irreconcilable with a policy of detente. Created at a time when East-West relations were particularly bad, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe have had a double goal from the outset. While, on the one hand, they were charged with the task of transmitting information (otherwise) unavailable to those countries with a (state-) directed press, they also had to make outright propagan.da. It is undeniable that the two radios were partly responsible for certain illusions about possible Western support in case of "rebellion", for circulating rumors, notably, on the occasion of the workers' uprising in East Berlin or on the occasion of what Moscow called the Hungarian "counter- revolution" of 1956. The populations were incited over the (air)waves to "shake off the yoke." For over ten years now the broadcasts to Eastern Europe have lost this dubious propaganda function. Even after the Czechoslovak events, no one in Moscow or Prague sought to incriminate the radios which, after their -grave initial errors, contented themselves with broadcasting and commenting on verified information. In those states (Eastern Europe), where the audio-visual as well as the written press are direct voices of an all-powerful apparatus, there Ariproved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016r R001100070001-5 - 2 - can no longer exist a question of information in the sense we understand this term. Every news item published becomes an element of a certain kind of opiate for the masses. This is why radio broadcasts coming from another source make sense for the populations of the East. (Such broad- 'casts) enable them to keep alive the freedom of judgment which is being throttled by unilateral information. In private, high functionaries of this or that member country of the Warsaw Pact readily admit listening to Liberty in order to know what really goes on in the Soviet Union. Also, the East is far from being homo- geneous, and the two threatened radios enable the very-much-alive national con- sciousnesss to keep their reasons for existence: to this end, it is sufficient to be genuinely informed. At a moment when the clandestine press is getting such wings in the Soviet Union, is it really necessary to cease giving, from the outside, the kind of information to which the populations have a right? Does it mean carrying on a cold war to give indispensable elements to the exercise (of the right) of freedom of thought? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R00110007000.1-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01101R001100070001-5 translation Pronouncement by West German Student Organization "RCDS" April 13, 1972 NOTE: The Circle of Christian Democratic Students (RCDS), a student organization loosely affiliated to the CDUonnounced in Bonn April 13 that its chairman, Gerd Langguth, had written to Chancellor Brandt on the same date, expressing concern about the future of RFE and Radio Liberty. (Despite its CDU ties, RCDS has often disagreed with the Party! For example, it has expressed qualified support for the treaties with Moscow and Warsaw treaties negotiated by the Brandt Govern- ment. ) Following is a translation of the ?RCDS press release: On the basis of letters from East Bloc students to the Ring Christlich-Demokratis cher Studenten (RCDS), expressing concern, Gerd Langguth, Federal Chairman of the RCDS, today addressed a letter to Federal Chancellor Brandt. In this appeal, Chancellor Brandt is called upon to use his influence on behalf of the maintenance of the two radio stations Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, since the cries of distress from East Bloc students to the RCDS have shown that these two broadcasting stations represent the sole possibility of contact with the Free West, especially for many young people. The letter added: it is precisely for this reason that we regard it as more than regrettable that some SPD Bundestag deputies have urged that the broadcasting licenses for these two radio stations should no longer be renewed." The RCDS would have especially welcomed action by Brandt to end the speculation about these two radios, and to make clear the interest of the Federal Government that inhabitants of the East Bloc should continue to receive information from the Free West. " In his letter to the Chancellor, Langguth also clearly endorsed free expression of opinion for the two radio stations which - according to several recent speculations - may possibly no longer be guaranteed, under conditions of "political good conduct" which might be imposed upon them in dealing with the policy of the Federal Government. (Signed) Michael Lingenthal, Press Spokesman. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/44i4JAAPP80-01601R001100070001-5 Finanz und Wirtschaft (Swiss semi-weekly financial publication Conservative -- circ. 15,000) March 29, 1972 article: FATEFUL MISTAKES by Salvador Madariaga Even the honest efforts of the most enlightened men in public life in the USA were not able to save the operation of the two radio stations, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, from being silenced. Senator Fulbright was not willing to grant them more than a grace period of a few months, and thus the United States, should nothing happen by June of this year, will have committed one of its most fateful mistakes. Freedom Stations It would be superfluous to point out these two stations' worthwhile achievements. Their most important task consists in keeping alive, intel- lectually and morally, millions of Europeans who otherwise would vegetate aAgray in the enormous prison represented by the Soviet Union and its European colonies. The two radio stations make it possible for these people to partic- ipate not only in the daily life of the West but in that of the entire world -- including the Soviet Union, whose news service serves more to mask and manipulate than to inform. This fact is so obvious that I do not wish to deal further with it here, particularly because my topic today deals with another question. It is a matter of pointing out and investigating a noteworthy state of affairs: namely, that the author of the plan to silence (the stations) mentioned at the outset is in no way a fool, but rather an unusually bright man. Wherein lies the explanation of such an enormous paradox? The answer will emerge in the course of investigating the arguments which Senator Fulbright himself advances. The first argument says that no nation should interfere in the internal affairs of another nation. Without a doubt, this has for ages been an excellent principle for international behavior, but it long ago lost its effectiveness. --- At the time when President (and) General Washington formulated it, it took months for the ideas propagated in New York to reach Russia. Today, this ? takes place in split seconds. The world has shrunk and its public opinion has become a unified, entity. The main object of the contemporary battle is the winning of hearts with the help of words. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 -2- Senator Fulbright, however, appears to be of the opinion that it is a matter of territory and weapons. That is the root of his error. By having the two stations silenced, he disarms the nations of the West and discourages the peoples of Eastern Europe. And he is not likely to consider the fact that -- when he condemns Russia's intellectual breath to suffocation -- he is interfering just as much in Russia's internal affairs as if he were not doing so. In the final analysis, he would be doing so only to an even greater extent, for speaking the truth does not represent interference for the country to which it is directed; but to permit a nation to be misled represents interference in the freedom of a people. Therefore, Senator Fulbright's first argument is untenable. The second reason that he cites says that the two stations are con- tinuing a cold war which has already ended. Of all self-deceptions, this is probably the most fantastic. For the rejection of the liberal system in the West on the part of the Soviet Union is absolute, and the cold war can only be ended in one of the following three ways: either through the conversion of Russia to a form of liberal socialism or through the conquering of Europe by the Red Army, which would force Communism on the West with gunbarrels, or by a series of (more or less spontaneous) revolutions along Cuban or Chilean lines, such as Berlinguer is preparing in Italy with his remarkable imitation of Cavour. In the meantime, the Soviet Union protects its public opinion from the consequences of the truth by locking up its dissidents and, with the help of Fulbright, taking the air and the light of the West away from its people. Thus, the second argument is untenable. Stalin Refused The third says that one should make concessions to the Soviet Union and in this way contribute to detente. If, however, one were to ask Senator Fulbright when the Soviet Union ever made a concession in the last fifty years, he would find himself in a very uncomfortable pinch indeed. Besides, there is tension from the East vis-a-vis the West. But from the West to East, there is none. When the USA called into being the Marshall Plan, it offered its benefits to the Soviet Union as well. Stalin rejected this and in addition forced Czecho- slovakia to turn down the assistance. The West has repeatedly shown that as far as it is concerned no tension exists vis-a-vis the Soviet Union -- while the exact opposite is true in the case of the Soviet Union, for it itself causes the tension. The United States only armed itself because the Soviet Union forced it to through its own collection of weapons. And then there's still the iron curtain and the Berlin wall. What do they prove? In the West, there is no tension vis-a-vis the East; any resident of the West can go to the East through the curtain and the wall - assuming Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 :_CIA:RDP80-01101R001100070001-5 that he is let in. But the tension prevailing in the East against the West is so strong that no one from the East zone is allowed into the West, and if he goes anyway, he is shot. Lack of Understanding Therefore, Senator Fulbright's disastrous plan and his inflexible blindness show a catastrophic lack of understanding of the true state of affairs: - he thinks the cold war is over, while it is more alive than ever; - he thinks it is (or was) a war in which the conquering of territory by means of weapons was involved (which could, by the way, still happen), while it is here a matter of winning hearts with words and brains; - he thinks we should make concessions in the interest of "relaxation of tensions", while there is in fact only one single tension, namely the one which the Soviet Union purposely causes in its relations with the West; - he thinks that the East in a homogeneous world, while it is really divided: into an upper level of governments -- against the West -- and a lower level of the governed -- with the West. One can hut wonder how it is possible that a bright and honest man can stray so far from the path of reality. Probably because there are many people who permit themselves to be misled by the very clever campaign of confusion with slogans like "cold war", detente, iron curtain, with this whole pointless and meaningless language. The Senator is in large, if not good, company, and the source of confusion which led him not only to approve of but to encourage the intel- lectual suffocation of the peoples of Eastern Europe is the same as that which led Federal Chancellor Brandt -- another intelligent and honest man to believe that, with those dubious treaties, he was working for peace. In both cases, it is not the eyes, but the (good) sense which has been struck blind. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Releasil'21501NgiOr:s81A-RDgMAMR0 23 APR 1972, atvland Evans and Robert Novak Poles Aid Drive Against THE PRESENT drive to end vital U.S. government subsidies for Radio Free Eu- :rope (RFE) is being aided by tt clandestine operation of the Polish Communist Party, ac- .cording to a confidential re- port: from a reliable inform- antlinside Poland. This informant reports that the now deposed regime of -.then party boss Wladyslaw Gomulka about two years ago became dissatisfied with the lack of action on RFE, the Munich-based station which beams broadcasts. to Poland and other Eastern European Communist states. Conse- quently, it set up a secret group to "systematically in- stigate opposition tow ard RFE", with $3 million funnel- ed into Poland's Washington embassy. ? In charge of the operation, according to this report, is Ryszard Frelek, a member of the party secretariat. Besides stirring up opposition, it was :charged with responsibility for supplying helpful infor- mation to American foes of -,RFE. Serious American students of the Polish -situation doubt that anything close to $3 mil- lion was appropriated for this !purpose. However. the in- formant's past record is good enough to make the outlines of the story credible. ? Actually, .anti-RFE opera- tions in Warsaw remained strictly secret until February when rumors began pouring out. "It is assumed that they were started by former Go- mulka men . who were re- moved from this project," the informant reports. However, he adds that there is divided opinion deep inside the Polish United Workers' Party?the coun- try's Communist party?about BEE. In party discussions, he says, it is noted RFE not only "creates many problems for the party leadership" but also provides some benefits. Without RFE, almost all seem to agree, Soviet instruc- tions would , be more strict and also there would be a trend to fall in line with oth- er Soviet republics," he adds. A footnote: The informant reveals that party secretary Jerzy Lukaszewicz recently called in the heads of Po- land's newspapers and radio stations to caution them not to go overboard in praising Sen. J. W. Fulbright's drive against RFE. "The mass media in Poland should use only information from the + Polish press agency without any embellishment of their own," according to the in- formant. McGovern Dilemma SEN. GEORGE Mc- Govern, father of the re- forms that have revolution- ized the Democratic national convention structure, is say- ing privately that he does not approve of efforts by his fol- lowers to unseat the Chicago delegates of Mayor Richard J. Daley. ironically, the Chicago challenge is viewed nation- ally by anti-organization Democrats as a lest. case for rigorous enforcement of dele- gate guidelines adopted by the McGovern commission. But McGovern, now not merely a reformer but a front-runner ?for the . Demo- cratic presidential nomina- tion, does not wish to alien- ate Daley. The challenge against 53 uncommitted Chicago dele- gates and six more in the suburbs who were elected in the March 21 Illinois primary ,is based on the charge that they were hand-picked and supported by the mayor's reg- ular party organization in de- fiance of McGovern commis- sion guidelines. Alderman William Singer; a McGovern supporter who is heading the challenge, was told by two McGovern aides weeks ago that he definitely would have the senator's support. They were wrong. Al- though he has made no pub- . lic declaration, McGovern privately is inclined against supporting the challenge be- cause the Daley delegates were elected by the public? most of them 'without opposi- tion from McGovern slates. But beyond that, McGovern hopes that Daley, whose dis- taste for Sen. Hubert. Hum- phrey is well known, might' chose McGovern in a Mc- Govern-Humphrey confronta- tion. Such an endorsement could erode anti-McGovern feeling by other key party regulars, such as Pete Camiel of !Philadelphia. However, McGovern now will be pressured by his fol- lowers to, publicly endorse the. Chicago challenge. Their argument: Failure to do so would demoralize Democrats around the country who, un- like Daley, have scrupulously and painfully followed the McGovern commission guide- lines. In effect, they argue,. McGovern would be. destroy- ? ing his own creation. , Publishers-Hall Syndicate Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 IILT1.11 E-1,7.1I: Approved For Release 2001/0V0eUVRDP80-016 STATINTL R1114[1E1'1 s 'Co 8' iln ? By DUMITRU DANIELOPOL in the San Diego Union . Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have been granted a stay of execution, but their life hangs by a thread. Their future, literally, is in the hands of the A mericap people. If by June 30 the public hasn't made it quite plain by floods of letters and tele- grams to their senators that they want the two stations to continue to broad- cast to the people behind the Iron Cur- tain, the tWo major Western radio voices will be silenced. It's as simple as that. Without a masshe letter-writing ? effort, the Senate Iv ill not override obstinate Sen. J. William Fulbright, Democrat of Arkansas, who is deter- mined to end the Munich-based op- erations. A tricky ? situation began to develop last year when President Nixon made public the fact that the Central Intel- A massive letter-writing campaign might well deter the Arkansas so/on from carrying out his vendetta against the free radio operations. ligence Agency had been providing' most of the money for the two stations. Since then they have been funded publicly by Congress. Now Foreign Relations Com- mittee Chairman Fulbright has balked. He has agreed to appropriate funds only until June 30. ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty "are Cold War relics," Fulbright says. They will continue to function after June 30, he adds, over his "dead body." The senator's attitude has caused a furor not only in the United States, but in other parts of the world. While the Soviet bloc is overjoyed, the Con- gressional Record carries page after page of editorials and statements from Western Europe deploring Fulbright's stand. President Nixon has expressed con- cern. A bi-partisan citizen's committee, including leaders in the field of finance and industry, former government of- ficials and diplomats, teachers and labor leaders has been formed to support the stations. Millions of ethnics, especially those from the Eastern European target area, have conveyed through their leaders their pleas that the broadcasting continue. Some 57 senators have signed a reso- lution presented by Sen. Charles Percy (R.-Ill.) and Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey (D.-Minn.) asking for the preservation of RFE and Radio Liberty. This augurs well, but any such action must go through the Foreign Relations Com- mittee. Fulbright is not likely ? to change his mind unless a massive outpouring of opinion from every corner of the United States makes the Senate conscious of the public mood. The time is short. ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDF'80-01601R001100070001-5 STATI NTL iuULiLIC e 2oo1impf ApeepP80-01601' STATNTL Our Man Beelzebub- ehlen: Spy of the Century by E. H. cookkfidge (Random House; $10) The'General Was a Spy by Heinz Tiohne and Hermann Zolling STATINTL (Coward, McCann & Geoghegan; $8.95). . A year before Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri, which formally stated the theme of Act I of the Cold War, a prologue was being written and played backstage in Europe by Americans and Germans. They had already identified Soviet Communism as Enemy Number One, not primarily because Russia had Eastern Europe in its grip, but because Soviet Commu- nism was satanic and was set on con- quering the world. And as Hugh Trevor- Roper remarks in his introduction to" The General Was a Spy, "it is legitimate to use Beelzebub to drive out Satan." Beelzebub was willing. Both these spy stories describe how and why, with the collapse of the German armies, the Americans recruited Hitler's Chief of Intelligence .against the Soviet Union and underwrote his postwar espionage operations. Reinhard Gehlen was a professional, an experiensed, single-minded anti- Communist with exceptional contacts. Those who hired him were not of the breed of Henry Stimson, who once said quaintly that gentlemen don't read other people's mail. They were what came to be called realists, and they dominated US foreign policy for the next quarter of a century. The US gov- ernment secretly financed General Geh- len to the amount of $200 million, and when he finally left his American super- visors and went to work directly for the Bonn government, Mr. Cookbridge tells us, Allen Dulles gave him "a golden handshake in appreciation of the great work he had done for CIA; a gratuity of 250,000 marks had been authorized. Dulles added the not entirely seridusly meant condition that Gehlen should use the money to buy a fine house somewhere in the Bavarian mountains." For the $200 million,. CI& received rnOunthiPPr9M#9.1 ASP FARIMsft 2 clandestine tips on Eastern Europe and the USSR. Toward the end, it learned that much of the information was use- less; and it learned something more disturbing: the Gehlen organization had been penetrated by the Soviets. By the early '60s, Washington's interest had cooled. The General Was a Spy is drawn from a series of articles written by two German journalists for Der Spiegel. Gehlen: Spy of the Century is the product of a Euro- pean educated British journalist who was himself an intelligence agent in World War II and was imprisoned by the Gestapo. Hohne and Zolling offer a more detailed and dispassionate ac- count and focus more sharply on the intricacies of the postwar intelligence network inside Germany; they are less revealing than Cookbridge, however, on the American involvement and on the Nazi backgrounds of Gehlen's associates. Gehlen served any master who served his purpose, which was the undermin- ing and the destruction of Communism. When it could no longer be doubted that the German armies were defeated, Gehlen' turned to the Werewolfs, the young terrorists .who were to carry on after Hitler's collapse. The Werewolf project had been discussed at one of Gehlen's last meetings with the Fuhrer, whom Gehlen found "most charming." They had also discussed Hitler's order that "gramophone records with sound effects of combat noise and rolling tanks . . . be distributed to front line com- mands and played from dugouts as near as possible to the Soviet lines." Hitler was mad, Gehlen was not. Yet Gehlen accepted this. order, as all the others, knowing it was too late to stave off disaster, but obedient to authority. WO ? libleiZiWilooleryb 0 fib part, in any German plot against the Nazi leaders. He waited until the end and then escaped to Bavaria, in early 1945, taking with him files he knew would interest the Americans? to whom he intended-to surrender at a price. He met with Brigadier General Edwin L. Sibert, senior intelligence officer of the American Zone, who (report Hohne and Zolling) "while fighting was still in progress in France . . . had been pre- Tared to make use of Adolf Hitler's officers in the cause of 'American strat- egy" and who "had a most excellent impression of him [Gehlen] at once." 1 Sibert promptly took up with General Bedell Smith, US chief of staff, Gehlen's proposal to set up a German intelligence service "financed by the US and directed against the Soviet Union." Bedell Smith "okayed" the project, according to Hohne and Zolling, but did not inform . Eisenhower, the Supreme Commander, who had forbidden fraternization with Germans. After lengthy interrogation in Germany, Gehlen was flown to Washington. Though friendship with Moscow was then 'official US policy, Cookbridge points out, Gel-lien 'knew -that "many generals, above all General George V. Strong, the chief of G-2 army intelli- gence, and Sibert, were very far from regarding the Soviet Union as a future ally. In fact, a vastly different vision was taking place at the Third Army head- quarters at Bad Toelz, near where he EGehlen] had buried his... files. There General Patton was drearning of rearm- ing a couple of Waffen SS divisions to incorporate them into his Third Army and 'lead them 'against the Reds.'" Said Patton: "We're .going to have to thght them sooner or later. Why not now while our army is. intact and we can kick the Red army back into Russia? We can ?do it with my Germans. . . . They hate those Red bastards." % That, of course, went way beyond znything Gehlen's cAptors had in mind. They wanted information; Gehlen had $o, says Cookbridge, they treated Lim with great courtesy, "wooing him like a wayward lass who can bring a large dowry to offset the blemishes of hr past. ... Gehlen bargain'ed his.vvay into the gray dawn of Cold War espio- maze, conceding or compromising,, on . smile points, using pressures near., to. "blackmail to gain others. It says mi..1h , ? . .r . far his shrewdness, self-assurance- and. persistence that he was able ,to take on ? siinglehancied such an array of top-rank- in: American experts." They agreed to Z. 04071110014 autonomous .. NEW YORK DAILY NEWS Approved For Release 2001/0/041:8C4ARI4kikapAGEIM- MildninemommimEOPMIcarssasems... By JERRY GREENE Washington, April 17 ? Neither Secretary of State William P. Rogers nor the Senate Foreign Relations Corn- . mittee probed even once today on the basic reason for bombing Haiphong and Hanoi?the necessity felt at the White House to counter a new power thrust by Russia. ? As a revived sounding board for a thunderous blast at the 'administration's Vietnam policies, the committee session fell on its face by comparison with the productions of earlier years. ? Rogers would not be cowed by Sen. 3. William Fulbright (D-Ark.), the Bomb Message vitriolic chairman, nor would he back off an inch to give aid and comfort to Really Aimed _ Sen. Stuart Symington (1)-Mo.) in his efforts to hang the President on the campaign oratory of 1968. The corn- ?. At the Kremlin . mittee's war critics, a majority of the membership, were subdued somewhat . after Sen. George Aiken (R-Vt.) de- serted their ranks for emotional support of the President. ' The .Rogers defense, delivered off the cuff but obviously well rehearsed, was along expected, oft-used lines: to protect U.S. troops, to assure continued withdrawal of Gls, and to help the South Viet- namese-protect themselves. But Rogers did not, nor could he have done so, as the nation's chief diplomat, make any mention of what for many months has been the cause of principal con- cern to the foreign policy experts. This has been ?the open, almost reckless, and certainly aggressive inclination of the -government in the Kremlin to push Communist influence in any direction where a weakness was spotted. This Soviet policy, evident in Egypt, in Syria, in India and the Indian Ocean, in the eastern Medi- terranean, seems to have escaped the notice of Chairman Fulbright. The senator, in commenting on the bombing, told Rogers: "I, for one, cannot possibly under- stand what consideration war- ranted these drastic measures." ? Fulbright, of course, has uni- laterally declared the cold war ended during his efforts to shut down Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty; no such signs of armistice have come out of Mos- cow yet. Rogers could have told the committee under other circumstances, and the information is readily available at several points in the capital, that Russia began deliver- ing to North Vietnam the heavy and sophisticated arms required for conventional offensive warfare just 12 months ago. Sen. J. William Fulbright The motive escapes him Back during the air strike days of 1967-68 the Russians had supplied Hanoi with powerful defensive armaments, surface-to-air missiles and radar-directed automatic antiaircraft artillery. But the heavy artillery, the tanks and the armored personnel carriers for .frontal assault did not appear in Haiphong Harbor until early last spring, ? , Caused Months of Worry This development of an offensive conventional war capability by the North Vietnamese has been a worrisome thing for the American officials for many months. They had been expecting the assault when United States ground troops were reduced to a small forPA, ? 0. s$e5cOuOrimillionT9V-4/ el3011160#04111M1Cf4 a,k.igIA-RDP80-01601.R001100070001-5 climbed back to $100 million in 1972. ? The Soviet push in tlia;Middle East and in India and Bangladesh had been an unbroken stride by-the Russians as they continued the preparations for the Hanoi offensive. This Kremlin foreign policy movement, everywhere opportunity presented itself, appeared to be reaching ominous proportions, despite the simultaneous steps toward easier relations with the U.S. and Western Europe. What would appear to be a hopeless contradiction to a free- world mind was a state of affairs quite acceptable to the Kremlin Communists; Hanoi was quite clearly going along with the pro- claimed doctrine of the late Ho Chi Minh that a time of negotia- tions was the time to improve one's military position for a climactic blow. What They Need From West Additionally, it is believed here that Russia, for internal rea- sons, badly needs an accord with the West; the Soviets want an easing of tension between East and West Germany; they want urgently a trade agreement with the U.S., and, now that they have parity or better in nuclear weapons, they want the strategic arms limitation pact to cut the costs of the missile race. As a specific example, Russia is woefully short of feed grain' for livestock. Agriculture Secretary Earl L. Butz has been exploring the possibility of selling $200 million a year worth of grain to the Soviets, who quite naturally want long-term, cheap credit, With President Nixon urgently in pursuit of peace through summitry, with the election year hampering his reactions through domestic pressures, the Russians felt smug and secure in promoting the Hanoi plans for invasion and a Saigon knockout. Thus, apart from the needs of the battlefield, the necessity for smashing the supply dumps supporting the 12-division invasion, Nixon became convinced that only a spectacular, dramatic response would in turn impress the Kremlin with the seriousness with which we regarded the Soviet play at brinkmanship. Offie4als here believe the'tRussians are ?fgetting the message, ?1iwill leave it to Hanoi to salvage what it can Of the invasion ainld,?geon ab,ou3 ?",their other business almost as if North Vietnam did not 'exist. ' "t - ? ? t ? ? , ? MINNEAPOLIS MINN. TRTBUNE Approved For Release/OltH/1313?0V CIA-RDF'80-1-611466110 ? " ioTsjisi 3 4 n c4 dons ? Robert White's artitle on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty was inter- esting, and his advocacy of continued funding for the stations on the basis of !good programming a n d large audiences is under- standable, but there are questions more profound that need to be asked. ? Integrity of government in dealing with its citizens is also at stake, as well as the Imore practical diplomatic problem posed by Ameri- can installations in friend- ly foreign nations promot- n g anti-Soviet propa- ganda. The prime grievance we all should have against RFE and RL stems from their. 'long deception of the. American people. For more . than 20 years the opera- tions were billed as volun- tary enterprises supported ? by the contributions of Americans. Advertising, : particularly by RFE, was always urgently directed . tciward Americans to help bring "truth" to the pris- oners of communism. 'Both organizations: we re , set up as corporations with big-name Americans- on their letterheads as a blind to hide their true source.of :- ? , .support. And while the deception was an open secret among well-in- formed people, the conspir- ..sacy of political silence was - total until Sen. Case .dis- closed their CIA funding. -Another part of the decep- tion has been the use of -prominent American trav- elers and scholars behind the Iron Curtain as inform- ants for RFE and RL: Many such trips, supposedly in- ' nocent of espionage, were sponsored by and paid for . from CIA funds, using RFE and RL as fronts for peo- ?t: pie doing "research." A good deal of the scholar- ship and research gener- 1.atecl1n support of RFE and RL has always been CIA- funded. I suppose that many of the people who performed the tasks were not fully aware of the iden- tity of their sponsors. It is these peripheral ac- tivities of RFE and RL I believe to be the most cor- rupting, because they strike at the very root of intellectual integrity. It may be true, as White says, that RFE and RL have large followings be- hind the Iron Curtain, but they are not the only for- eign broadcasters to ? the Communist world, nor are they necessarily the best. VBC certainly was, and I hope still is, .extremely effective. Another difficulty with the two stations, now that t:h e i r cover has been "blown," is that they are official foreign installa- tions disturbing to the po- litical sovereignty of the host nations. When the pretense could be main- tained that RFE and RL were private and not relat- ed to the U.S. government, host nations could ignore Soviet protests. This they now will find difficult. RFE and RL are headquar- tered in Munich, but some of their transmitters are located in places other than West Germany. How can such countries openly accommodate those broad- cast facilities, which are so unremittingly hostile to Soviet interests? How would we feel if the Soviets had a series of powerful transmitters in Mexico, spilling Soviet propaganda into the Unit- - ? 44: v6,4-7.1?:`4,!4 ecewe - ed States? Can West Ger- many now continue to permit those troublesome installations to remain within its borders when the West German govern- ment is trying to heal some of the wounds of World War 'II? Surely So- viet negotiators have a good argument in dealing with German officials. erica I hold no brief for the So- viet paranoia about free circulation of news, but I think that justification of the expense of maintain- ing RFE and RL is pretty shaky, both in the light of past ineffectiveness in al- tering Soviet policy and in the light of present availa- bility of a great many pro-. ? grams from the radio sta- tions of other nations, in- ;eluding our own Voice of America?Ervin J. Gaines, director, Minneapolis Pub- lic Library. Editor's -note: Dr. Gaines was on the administrative staff of Radio Liberty from 1952 to 1954. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01101R0 U. S. Press - Editorials - Positive ADDITIONS TO APRIL 13, 1972 LIST No. of other appearances Journal (Winston-Salem, N. C.) - "Windows in the Wall" - Mar. 15 Broadcasting (Wash., D. C.) - "One-Man Rule?" - Mar. 20 News-Press (Santa Barbara, Cal.) - "East Bloc Depends on News Flow" - Mar. 23 News (Hemet, Cal.) - "Senator Fulbright' s Cole War Relics" - Mar. 23 Palladium Item and Sun Telegram (Richmond, Ind.) - "These Broad- casts Needed" - Mar. 23 Jewish Week and American Examiner (D. C.) - "Immigrants Plead for Radio Liberty" - Mar. 23 Lubbock Avalanche Journal ( Texas) - "Rebuff for Fulbright: Funds for Freedom Radio Needed" - Mar. 27 Register (Richmond, Ky. ) "Fulbright' s Power" - Mar. 29 The Boston Herald Traveler - "Reprieve for RFE and RL - Mar. 29 Advertiser (Salisbury, Md.) - "Radio Free Europe" - Mar. 30 Arcadian Tribune (Rayne, La.) - "The Arkansas Statesman" - Mar. 30 The Plain Dealer (Cleveland) - "No U. S. Gag in World Debate -Apr, 1 Chicago Tribune - "Sen. Fulbright' s Latest Beef" - April 10 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 MARTINSVILLE, VA. BULLETIN D. 15,500 S. 14,500 MAR 2 6 1972 OIL NOTE: Both Communist and Western press reports on Ahl ers' statement interpreted it as saying there were new, active talks ,-underway betweern?--Wa.hingto4 and Donn UUU C[IciTafilas ,co] fie :;) Li Ci] Lj - Chicago Daily News . BONN? RadioFree Europe and Radio Liberty may be ander fir4 from Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.), West German members of parliament and communist east i Europe, but officials here have 'clarified that there is no West German-American plan to shut the.stations down. A misinterpretation,' , however, has sprung up in the 'West German press over a ;statement by Bonn government press spokesman Conrad Alders ' that the two governments are "in contact" about the work of ' the stations, which broadcast Into east Europe. "I'm sure he meant we are in Iconstant touch on the stations and their operations," an American embassy spokesman said. -But we are not discussing the question of opening or closing the stations." 1 Ahlers explained today that ' ?he "never said they were new contacts." But that impression was given following the announcement that eight members of chancellor Willy , Brandt's Social Democratic ; Party had sent telegrams to ? Brandt and President Nixon asking that the stations be 'closed down after June 30. That ' is the date temporary funding for the former CIA-backed stations ends. ? Sen. Fulbright has led the congressional fight against President Nixon's plans for open government support of the ? stations. The telegrams will fuel the ?Fulbright campaign, though .1 : ' they are an embarrassment to .Brandt. The Bonn government has supported the stations even ., though they are sharply' ' attacked 'by the east European .governments with whom Brandt is trying to improve relations through his ostpolitik. "The Bonn government , I /I 1 for the dissemination of free information to the people in the east bloc.," ,Ahlers said in his statement. "On the other hand 'it is concerned that the programs of the stations should not set back the development of West Germany's foreign relations." The. eight members of parliament ? mostly young, liberal and outspoken?argued in their telegrams that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liber- ty, are a "stumbling block" to German foreign policy. They said the presence of the American-controlled stations "raises doubles about the sovereignty" of West Germany. They suggested that the stations ' be turned over to the Deutsche We lie, a German international broadcasting service. Two stations operate on licenses granted by the West German government. Offices ? and studios are located in Munich and most of the transmitter facilities are also here in West Germany. ? The licenses are renewed every year in July, automatically unless one party or the other raises an objection. :And American embassy officials say there has never been any question raised about' renewing the licenses. : acknowledgesalia.tho Teii. Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 the'importan6d ti ins Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 SPRINGFIELD, MASS. VETERANS NEWS L 28.000 . ?? !. MAR 30 1972 Vt.& Chief Supports :.Rath.b. Freq. Europe , - WASHINGTON, D.C. ? Mr. : Joseph L. Vicites, Commander- in-Chief of the Veterans of , Foreign Wars of the United I, States, 'added the weight of the ; more than 1,700,000 members of , the VFW to those who support the ? %. continued operation of Radio ? ?Free Europe and Radio Liberty.' Nothing that "a small band of willful men" were instrumental in blocking US accession to the post-World War I League of ; Nations and thus helped pave the way for World War II, Mr. Vicites. ' called for a "fully funded and ,..unhampered operation by these , two radio systems whose ob- i jectivity and technical com- petence have just been re: 'verified by a comprehensive' [Library of Congress Study."? ; _ 01R001100070001-5 41? Approved ForliZelease 2001/03/04: Clk-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 'Approved For Release 2 01/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 t'ie fvoi ton 051 ."frXIDAY, APRIL 14, 1972' ?Vargas Childs roaidcasting And Westpolitik r?-?7 t.. ONE OF THOSE bones of t'contention calculated to cre- ate the utmost ill will is be- fore the Congress with the path to final decision sown ;with booby traps. The ques- Won, is whether Radio Free [Europe is a vestige of the I Cold War that should be closed out in light of the ' l:new Nixon approach to the Soviet Union or whether it Is an invaluable window to the West for the peoples of :the Soviet Union and East- ;ern Europe fed solely on government propaganda. . ?It is .an issue freighted -with all the fears and suspi- 'cions of the past; the tra- gedy of refugees who have iseen their homelands turn- led into prisons by Commun- ? ? ist walls. Passionate parti- sans of RFE scoff at econo- mizing by cutting off the s3p million fo . rthe operaton. ? Their villain is J. William ? Fulbright (D-Ark.), chairman of the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee, who sup- ported a bill providing ;funds for RFE only until the June 30 end of the fiscal year. After that date its fu- ; !ture is uncertain, unless the administration acts quickly to push a new status for a further appropriation. Fulbright points out that !,the cutoff date was ini- ? tiated by Sen. Clifford Case of New Jersey, a ? Republican member of the Foreign Relations Commit-- tee. While Case is not enthu- ' siastic about RFE, he would not oppose continuing it if some new framezork could be established. Here, in my opinion, is an example of-Ahtscistc,ofjail: Approved For Release ing to grapple with a long- ? ou_tmoded condition and simply letting drift take over. The Central Intelli- gence Agency provided the money for RFE for many ? years in a semi-secret fash- ion, A facade that public contributions supported both RFE and Radio Liberty was just that, since most of the money came from the ? CIA. THE . TIME had long passed for the CIA to be in the ? business of operating a semi-clandestine propaganda station based in Munich. With the facts about the CIA's involvement revealed, . the moment was at hand to ? face up and ask Congress for -a direct appropriation. . The House Foreign Af- fairs Committee initiated a bill, later passed by the House, setting up a semi- governmental corporation to operate the two stations for . a trial period of two years. That proposal died in con- ference when the conferees accepted the Case compro- mise for a June 30 cutoff. What is the value of the broadcasts that RFE beams to the Soviet Union and the satellite states? Here intan- gibles galore enter in. The passionate partisans insist - that. the broadcasts keep ? the hope of dissent. The legislative reference ? branch of the Congress made a favorable report ? which Senator Fulbright put in the Congressional Rec- ord. But doubters believe the , broadcasts are an irritant that stiffens the resistance . of Communist governments 2001 /03/04 : CIA-RDP80-0 to any dissent and makes the lives of the dissenters even harsher than they would otherwise be. When Secretary of State William P. Rogers was before the . committee, Fulbright repeat- edly sought to draw him out on whether RFE and Radio ? Liberty were an impediment to any understanding with the Soviet Union. Rogers . cited the series of agree- ments currently in ? the works, including the two- year cultural agreement just signed. ? THE CIA stopped funding the stations July 1, 1971, and the order from the top was to have no further connec- tion with their operation. The CIA had done a study at the request of the Office of Management and Budget in the White House dealing solely with the cost of liqui- dating the operation. This would be considerable, since RFE has 2,000 employees, the Majority refugees and many advancad in years. Why shouldn't Germany ' Share a part of the cost of , the 'stations that broadcast ' from German soil? Or NATO? There is a compromise which might assuage the partisan passions. That is for Congress to vote funds for an additional six months of operation beyond June 30. During that time a high- level panel to be named by the White House, perhaps jointly with Congress. would ? evaluate the broadcasts. Hopefully, the panel's re- port would take the whole matter out of the shot and shell of politics. 1601R06i12011betbbblYtica'e John Chamberlain 'APPISeffatoffeW2941014 They call him "Fulbricht" in Czechoslovakia, to rhyme with EastGermany's formerStalinoid dictator, the ineffable Herr Walter Ulbricht. In Poland it's "Fulbright-psubrat," or "Ful- bright-scoundrel." This informa- tion comes from a front-page article in the influential Swiss Neue Zuercher Zeitung written by the paper's East European correspondent, Alexander Korab. Korab thinks the name-calling, which is reminiscent of some? of the late Senator Joe McCarthy's cracks, expresses the prevailing mood of the common people of the "East Bloc," who are increasingly hostile toward Sen. J. William Fulbright for his efforts to kill Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the two U.S.-supported stations that broadcast the news to countries behind the Iron Curtain. e In his campaign to liquidate Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty as "relics of the Cold ' War," Senator Fulbright has said the two broadcasting stations are incompatible with President Nixon's new Chinese policy, which would presumably regard a U.S.-supported Radio Free Asia with a base on Taiwan as an inconsistency. (There does happen to be a South Korean-based outfit called Radio of Free Asia, but it raises its money from private citizens in ,..the U.S. and hence is beyond Fulbright's reach.) What Fulbright misses is that Nixon's Chinese policy, which takes off from the basic ? affirmation that Taiwan and mainland China are ' parts of a single nation (both Mao Tse-tung and ,Chiang Kai-shek say so), could not possibly be applied to Eastern Europe or to such parts of the Soviety empire as the Baltic countries, the ? Moselm inner Asia region or even the Ukraine. These are entities that once had their freedom; in sponsoring broadcasts to them, our, government is merely recognizing the doctrine that separate peoples are entitled to a say in their own behalf. The animus against Fulbright in Poland and, Czechoslovakia, as reported by Alexander Korab, corroborates the idea it would take some wrenching to turn Nixon's China policy into an endorsement of the Brezhnev Doctrine that Moscow has a right to send tanks into other socialist nations for Soviet nationalist purposes. If Fulbright can't see this, he can't see anything. No wonder Fulbright now considers Ho Chi Minh to have been a nationalist patriot, not a Marxist zealot. As a matter of record, a majority of Fulbright's own colleagues in the Senate think he gets blinder by the minute. Working on the Senate floor when Fulbright began his recent attack on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, Sen. Charles Percy of Illinois soon had 20 signatures to a resolution supporting the two broacasting stations. Sen. Hubert Humphrey put his _name to the resolution as a co-sponsor, and ; the list was quickly enlarged to 57 Senators, including all the then-current Democratic candidates for the Presidential nomination with the single exception of Vance Hartke, who didn't happen to be around. This was America, the land of _ethnic ? minorities, speaking. With such opposites as Birch Bayh and Barry Goldwater, or Mark Hatfield and Henry Jackson, supporting the resolution. Fulbright might have been expected ,to surrender-bis ounosition. But_radliala Appr9m ForiKelessetio : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 refinancing of Radio Free Europe and Radio . Liberty will have to be discussed all over again. CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 GREENWICH TIME Established 1861 April 12, 1972 .Chamberlain (Continued from Page 4) campaign against Radio Free' .Europe and Radio Liberty long ,after they had ceased to think in terms of subverting socialism or Communism by encouraging revolution. It so happens th,..t a group of Polish anti-Communist emigrants has just addressed a protest to General Lucius Clay against the broadcasting practices of Jan Nowak, the director of the Polish section of Radio Free Europe, on grounds that he is much too conciliatory toward Communism. They accuse Mr. Nowak of blacklisting all references to anti-Communist Poles, and fo speaking of "the necessity to reform the Communist system but not of the necessity to abolishiit." Furthermore, so the anti- Comm unist Poles say Mr. Nowak's broadcasting practices "are anti-German and not anti- Soviet."Nowak's excuse for this is that it is demanded by the "American policy of 'building bridges to the East.' " Personally, I sympathize with the anti-Communist Polish emigrants, Janusz Kowalewski and Juliusz Sokolnicki, in their desire to see Radio Free Europe broadcast their own unreconstructed feelings about Communism to their countrymen ? who hive not escaped to the West. Yiut why Fullbright should objirA to the present neutral ,?scie,to-the-news practices of ?11*o Free Europe and Radio L:)., rty is beyond ? c.u.uprehension. thina ie thnt Vulhriallf chnrtarl hie Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 (144gq....0.0nue Monday, Apr11 10, 1972 Sen. Fulbright s Latest Beef In the dream world in which he dwells, Sen. J. William Fulbright of Arkansas, chairman of the Senate For- eign Relations Committee, views Com- munism as an inoffensive domestic experiment, inclined to live and let live in such places as the Soviet Union, Cuba, China, and Eastern Europe. His fantasy, therefore, is that the United States should not abrade the sensibilities of Communists. Mr. Fulbright has taken a bead on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, primarily funded by the American gov- ernment, which broadcast news which people behind the Iron Curtain other- 'wise would not hear. Their objectivity has been commended by the Library of Congress. Fulbright was unsuccessful in trying to cut off funds for the stations on the ground that they were "relics of the Cold War." They have been granted enough funds to continue thru June 30 while Congress considers their future. Balked on this front, Fulbright looked around and discovered that Sen. James Buckley, of the New York Conservative Party, ran a short documentary film on the Russian armed repression of Czechoslovakia in 1968 as part of his monthly television report- over a New York channel. The film was produced by the United States Information Agen- cy and the senator obtained a copy from the National Archives. The quality of the film is attested by the fact that it won an Oscar in 1969. Sen. Fulbright immediately blew the whistle, pointing out that the law ex- cludes domestic exposure of official overseas propaganda. Sen. Buckley, however, had obtained an opinion from the USIA general counsel that the in- tention of the law [to prevent the USIA from becoming a propaganda arm for the incumbent political administration] could hardly be considered applicable, in that the film clearly would have no do- mestic political impact. The Arkansas senator's feelings were ruffled further when Bruce Herschen- sohn, producer of the film for USIA, appeared on Buckley's program and, in introducing the film, volunteered the opinion that Fulbright was "very sim- plistic, very naive, and stupid" in his understanding of propaganda, and that he was trying to "downgrade" the USIA in his campaign against Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. This proved offensive to Fulbright and his adjunct, the New York Times, tho we do not recall that either pro- tested when the USIA waived limita- tions on domestic showing of "Jacque- line Kennedy's Asian Journey." Mr. Herschensohn has now resigned as di- rector of the USIA motion picture and television division, but says he believes his characterization of Fulbright was accurate. We wouldn't argue against it. - ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 'Appratttklifbr Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 TELEGRAM (NEWARK-NYC MARKET AREA) W. 3.500 APR 41972 RADIO FREE EUROPE It seems a strange course of events when our President spends thousands of dollars going to Communist countries with a huge staff of advisors on how to make friends and influence people who now con- duct their lives as they see . tit, yet at the same time this government is involved in ac- tivities designed to undercut the Communist form of governr merit by baiting its citizens with how good the life outside of the Communist control can be! The question uppermost in the minds of foreigners, whe- ther Communists or not, must be, "can such friendship be 't trusted when the chips are down?" No foreign country is allowed the beam destructive , radio messages to this country. Should one manage to reach a few radio Hams, Washington would call out the Army, Navy and ? Marines. The Air Force ? Is already tied up in battles. Isn't it possible for this ? country to proceed full steam ahead as a Democracy, with- 71 out spending millions of dol- lars of the taxpayer's money supporting subversive activ- ities under the guise of giving . - so-called non-profit, patri- otic, organized effort the right .:of expression, as set forth in the Constitution? Our United ' States Constitution was never intended as a cover for such activities as are carried out by the CIA, 13a_di_o_Free Europe and other outfits financed here, but operating abroad, at tre- mendous cost! All too often paying for these subversive operations takes monies that should pay for services needed In our cities and rural areas. Services these outfits brag , Aillaout but UagoSiVelitizens ? scale needed to relieve hunger, ? sickness and prevent crime. a a ED !Th La EVENTS n n Here & Elsewhere By] Nana Page - The better part of Demo- cratic action would be, to let ? those who live in Communist countries solve their problems through pressure on their lead- ers if they see fit. We have _ enough domestic problems of our own without becoming bogged down with foreign prob- ? lems laid upon us by Washing- ton adventurers, who dream of personal empires gained by manipulating bargains in Aid in the name of the people, but , managed in the interest of hold- ing companies in the little tax- weary citizens know nothing about and gain nothing from. President Nixon has just signed a bill authorizing contin- ued Federal financing of "Rad-. lo Free Europe" and "Radio Liberty." There two meddle- " some Mattie outfits were set up iv Nthe CIA, and Operations Based in Munich, 1n1950. Their programs were beamed to Bus- . _ sia and other Communist coun- tries, urging insurrection. Last week, after the expo- sure of the United States intrigue, President Nixon ordered ? the CIA to disassociate itself.: This was a thin ploy. The government is funding the op- erations to the extent of thirty- six million dollars to last just until June of this year. While Senator Fulbright Insisted that the programs be discontinued, there are those in , both the House and Senate who are of the opinion to hang on, even having the stupidity to I consider asking other coun- tries to chip in. Apparently no other countries now are as Gung-Ho about Communists as the United States. We can ex- pect Munich to like the pro- gram, since it brings most of the operating cost smack dab into the GermanCoffers. From time to time now Germany (West) tells us where to head In, in no uncertain language. President Nixon would hardly remove the operations from Germany. Especially not when every suggestion he gets on ,foreign policy comes from one . of his many German advisors :based in the White House. One advisor was active in the Hitler Youth movement. According to Anderson, Ex-Nazis have been, guest of Nixon at the White House. flow about that for ?Democracy. Cr ? 4 ' ? parAme s ease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 FORT WORTH, TEXAS NATIONAL CATHOLIC MPG I STER IRC.N.AVA IL. PR 2 1972 a -n et ? (7 a) cf) a a CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Ramblin Radio Free Europe fighting sound barritt By Msgr. R. G. PierS Radio Free Europe isjn Jhe. news these days. Along with Radio Liberty (which broadcasts only to Russia) it has for more than 20 years been for citizens behind the Iron Curtain the only real ..,source of information about what goes on in the free :world ? and even in their :own countries. f But the lives of both these -stations are threatened. By :the time this appears the de- !bate may have been settled one way or the otker. Last year Nixon ended CIA fund- ing of the stations and asked -that a public-private corpora- tion be set up to fund and run 'them. Both the Senate and the House voted emergency funds lto tide the stations over until 'fsuch a program had been set ;up. But the two bills differ Ion time, and Senator ,Fulbright has worked to pre- vent compromise ? and by such delay to kill the stations. My own special interest goes back to the day in 1967 ` when I was fortunate enough go get a special look at the 'Radio Free Europe headquar- ters in Munich. (Tile' station Is located there ? as are near- ly a thousand of the 1,600 em- ployees ? but the transmit- ting towers are in Portugal, a better spot for technical purposes.) ? Some idea of the import- . ance West Germany sees in Radio Free Europe is the fact that it was allowed to build its large headquarters in Munich's sacrosanct English Gardens (something like building in Central Park in New York). We were allowed to sit in on the daily policy session at RFE that morning. It's a round-table in which the heads of the various national bur- eaus and their advisors dis- cuss current developments and plan the angles they will stress in their broadcasts. Among the items covered that day, for instance, was the trend, backed by the Russian paper, Isvestia, to have col- lective farms promote pri- vate initiative; and the fact that Stalin's daughter, Svet- lana, had turned down a quar- ter of a million dollars in or- der to appear on an educa- tional TV program. This lat- ter would be used on all broadcasts to counter the -- Russian charges of commer- cialism made against her. The completeness of the RFE files was impressive. There were 80 on the local research staff, who interview- ed refugees, monitored broadcasts from Communist countries, and also studied about 2,000 publications, 850 of them Communist. The result was the best re- search center on Eastern Eu- rope in the world ? and one used by many other people and organizations. Most important was the fact that, after an original mistaken approach, RFE em- phasizes evolution rather than revolution in its broadcasts. They continually, for exam- ple, encourage regimes when they make a democratic move, and they make it diffi- cult for the government to take back freedoms once they have been granted. Typically, when an incen- tive program worked in one part of Hungary, RFE let the rest of the country ? and all Eastern Europe ? know about it, thus building up the pres- sures for economic reforms. News makes up 10 minutes of every RFE hour on t h e air. And accuracy is what the station has to sell. Iron Cur- tain magazines have even needled their own Communist, broadcasts for omitting news details that were then natur- ally provided by RFE. But, at that time at least, 25 per cent of the programs was music, mostly popular. But the future of those Iron Curtain countries is in the hands of the youth, and it is at them RFE aims much of its effort. The young people seem to care not the least that the music usually happens to be in English. Strangely enough, at that time RFE was getting pleiQy of mail from listeners fr-/ behind the Iron Curtain, m t of it about the music. Itgs figured that about one of 610 such letters gets through %o one of the many disgui mailing addresses RFE us but in 1965 they totalled 13,09 letters. Time magazine in a recet story said RFE gets 78 eir cent of all radio-listening Poles, 81 per cent of the Hun- garians, 77 per cent of ta Rumanians, 78 per centsof Bulgarians, and 60 per ci*It of the Czechoslovaks. Fulbright calls the Ai- tons "cold war relics." Rat Time suggests that, in t5b light of the stations' modq:i tactics, Fulbright's own cism is a cold war relic. Eict- er the Senator doesn't kngif what's going on in such brag- casting or he's fallen (harcar likely) for the Commurug line that the people have 01 the news. If freedom of informatitra is so important to us here 81 the free world (and this as - what much of the headlirres are about these days), haft can we completely abandon the even greater information needs of those in Eastern Europe? In an era when the West has definitely given up any hope of military inter- vention, it is the one remain- ing thing we can do for them. 'Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01101R001100070001-5 THE PLAIN DEALER CLEVELAND, OHIO D. 403,145 SUN. 533,828 PR t 1972 eicir. ' . ,No u.S. Gag 1n.WorId Debate We see no justification for Sen. J. W. Fulbright's attacks upon the U.S. Informa- tion Agency and upon Radio Free Europe. These attacks sound like backwoods, bush- league thinking, though they come from the tophisticated, chairman of the Senate For-. eign Relations Committee. . . Sen. Fulbright, D-Ark., accuses the USIA of trying "to stir up trouble" for the Soviet government by referring to its sev- eral ethnic groups -- Ukrainians, Armeni- ails, Russians. i; '10 No doubt it irritates the men in the cinIin to have any encouragement, from the outside, of nationalities which are sell- conscious culturally and in some cases ?.,;. ,f l yarning for separate or autonomous sta-.. tue.,j11c example o Croatia in.Ysigosavia must worry Soviet leaders, lest it become a model copied within the Soviet realm. ? But Fulbright's position ,calls for gag-. ging or censoring fact and opinion on this subject. It would mean that the United States, if not the whole of the West, ought not to risk ruffling Moscow's feathers just now when negotiations are going on toward a possible detente. Fulbright took the same line in trying to choke off Radio Free Europe. He called it an atavism, a relic of the Cold War. But it is preposterous to think that the United States should gag itself, and not state its viewpoints while Moscow and its sister Communist capitals keep dinning their propaganda out incessantly.. East Germany. Poland, the tamed Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union pour out their picture of the West. their party .line on detente, their standardized view of the world. It would be naive to think they would pull their punches at "U.S. imperial- .,Ism" and its allies in return for a shutdown :of U.S. information centers, or would can- eel negotiations because the USIA said 'something Moscow did not agree with. I Meanwhile ,brave thinkers who believe In freedom, "and speak out for it within. repressive countries, need as evidence and. !encouragement ? all the news they can get Ifrom the West. Such news strengthens the West in its negotiations of a fairer kind of. :detente, or arms treaty or peace. That is h y we see the Fulbright approach as Aveak,and ,wrong-headecl,_:d. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ReleaSe 2001/03/04. - 0111001410047DPOrbrAr the stations NEWS CONGRESS ENDS FUNDING OF FREEDOM RADIO STATIONS LC Evaluative Studies Had Supported the Outlets Despite two Library of Congress studies recommending continued government fi- nancing, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have temporarily lost their governmetiniThErig-Te?EaKirof'd dispute between the House and the Senate over two proposals which might have kept the stations alive for another year. The Central Intelligence Agency had secretly funded the outlets for 20 years, but that funding? about 36 million annually?came to an end after Senator Clifford Case of New Jersey disclosed the extent of the secret funding. Over the years,: Radio Free Europe has re- ceived government grants of $306,890,469, and Radio Liberty's grant support has totalled $158,830,637. Congress had passed an appropriation bill providing funds to the two stations until June 30; however, this appropriation was contingent upon congressional approval of an authorization bill which has not yet been enacted. The : two stations have said that they would have to cease operation within a month if . congressional authorization was not forthcoming. Prior to the congressional stalemate, Senator William Fulbright had asked the Li- ! brary of Congress to conduct studies on the effectiveness of the two stations. Fulbright had hoped that the reports would support his contention that the stations should "take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold war relics." However, instead of urging that the stations be disbanded, both LC reports strongly supported the stations. In his report on Radio Liberty, Dr. Joseph G. Whelan, a specialist in Soviet and East European affairs, contended the government to oversee their opera- that the station's basic policy has shifted tion. The House bill is closely aligned from its early "liberation" approach to with the Administration position: it the "liberalization" of conditions within would provide funds for two years and Soviet society. He commended the staff establish a two-year study group. The for their "professionalism" and he Senate bill, on the other hand, would praised "the existence of an organiza- finance the station through the Secre- tional spirit that seems to arise from a tary of State for only one year. Senator conviction of participating in creating Fulbright has opposed giving the sta- positive change in the Soviet Union." tions "a new lease on life" and he was The reality of Radio Liberty, said Whe- influential in getting the Senate to pass Ian, conflicts with its popular cold war the measure. Fulbright has questioned. image. He maintained that the station the sincerity of the Administration's ex- "accepts all Soviet institutions, though pressed desires to improve relations not its ideology, and seeks to bring with communist countries in view of its about peaceful democratic change from efforts to keep "this old cold war pro- within." gram on the books." Whelan warned that if the station Even if the House and Senate iron were disbanded the Soviet people would out their differences and draft an ac- lose "a free press for the inflow of in- ceptable compromise measure, the formation." Ile added if this were to future of the two stations looks bleak. occur the dissemination of "samizdat" Although spokesmen for the Adminis- or underground writings?most of which tration have said that President Nixon are made available to the Russian public was "personally" concerned over the via radio?would be sharply curtailed plight of the stations, he has not spoken ; "with the consequences that this liber- out strongly on the issue. Few senators alizing movement will unquestionably have publicly voiced opinions in favor receive a seriou-S setback." of the stations. With the change in po- Similar praise for Radio Free Europe litical climate?from open hostility to was expressed by James R. Price in his negotiation?it has been difficult to Library of Congress report. generate enthusiasm for appropriations. The Nixon Administration supports The recent expose on the Secret CIA direct congressional funding of the sta- funding of the stations has made poli- tionsAINANYVell fFrCecl4ei trafleaptietieSMilwaYOP*Rel Prit0a0t601 R001100070001 -5 nonproffir organiza ion in epen en o cep is as 'liberation and "liberaliza- ?as described in detail by the Library of Congress--is one likely to be critically examined by librarians concerned with both intellectual freedom and the role of libraries in the international scene. LIBRARY JOURNAL NEW YORK, N. Y. SEMI-MONTHLY 46,000 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 RkYNE, LA. ACAD I AN TR I BUNE W. 4,120 MAR 3 0 1972 131?4:' Pie........00?11.????????,??????????.41N.R.????????????Ir , ? 01R001100070001-5 The Arkansas Statesman U.S. Senator Fulbright, who has been a consistent obstructionist in his chamber, now is in the process of choking off the only voices of freedom available to communist- controlled peoples. These voices are Radio Free Europe which broadcasts messages of freedom and truth to the com- munist dominated peoples of Eastern Europe, and Radio Liberty, which carries the same message to , people in the Soviet Union. \ "Now after 20 years of such in- dispensable service," reports Rep. i Gene Snyder, "it appears that these two voices of liberty are going to I have to shut down. "But should these broadcasts cease, it will not be because -Congress has decided ? they have become useless. On the contrary, - both houses of Congress have already approved a continuation of the programs. Since the bill passed . .. 1 . ? by the House differed from that approved by the Senate, it was necessary to send the bills to a House Senate conference committee to reconcile the differences. "It has been the opposition of three of the five senators in that conference, led by J. William Fulbright of Arkansas, that has led to the present stalemate. "Senator Fulbright, chairman of , the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has refused to accept any compromise. "So the legislation is stuck ? and without congressional authorization and provision of necessary funds, these two programs can not be . continued. . . . "As Senator Fulbright and his allies have made clear, they view the expiration of the existing, authority as an opportunity to kill these programs." ?Kentucky Exclusive , I'd10 Approved For For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001 -5 SALISBURY, MD. ADVERTISER W. 3,785 MAR '3 0 1972 EDITORIALS I Radio Free Europe 'here are some people (including Senator J. W. Ful-, I bright) who would like to see_Radio Free Europe destroyed. The Senator's position is that the .bi:oadcasts. are' irritants to the developing entente between the United States and Russia. Radio Free Europe and its sister Radio Liberty were, founded during the freezing darkness of the cold war to give heat and light to the imprisoned people of East Europe. With the years, the stringency of getting uncensored news has passed these countries by. Governmental control- led newspapers and broadcasting have taken a Milder tone .and the people, better fed and better clothed, are no longer as avidly hungry for personal liberty. Yet there is something which Senator Fulbright does ; not take into consideration. The changes in the communist countries are partly due to the influence of Radio Free Europe, not only on the people themselves, but on the of- ficials, who also listen in. If he would look at these voices 1 from a businessman's point of view -he would realize that ..)advertising is an absolute necessity in the selling of a pro- duct. Ford and General Motors as competitors would find , It hard going if they didn't continue to tell the people why they should buy their cars. Hanging on a thin thread, these voices of free enter-1 ? fprise depend entirely on Federal appropriations. The Senate :should do well to consider their value in the selling of free- dom.- ? : ' . ' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 TIE BOSTON HERALD Erztuarr D. 210,540 S. 260,961 MAR 2 9 1972 Reprieve for RFE and RL Congress has given Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty another three months on the air, at least, providing emergency funds to continue beam- ? Ing their broadcasts behind the Iron Curtain ? through June 30. But Sen. J. William Fulbright, who has been trying his best to do what the Communinsts have failed to accomplish in more than two decades .,of trying?i.e., silence these two strong voices of ; truth and freedom?has vowed to continue his i campaign to shut off funds for RFE and RL in the ;ComiAg fiscal 'ear Approved For Re Fulbright says the stations are rusty relics of the Cold War, and if they were really worthwhile ' the taxpayers shouldn't need to support them. The Arkansas Democrat has never been known as a foe of subsidies, and as one of our columnists recently, remarked he has certainly never raised that par- ticular point in reference to the funding of Fulbright Scholarships. . In any event, we hope that Congress has the good sense to override Sen. Fulbright's carping crit- icism, and provide the funds necessary to keep the ttionon the air indefinitely .. ease 2001/03104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 'Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 hicaloND, Kr. 1 REGISTER D. 6.000 _ MAR 2 9 1972 44. FULBRIGHT'S POWER 01R001100070001-5 Senator William Fulbright, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, seeks to close Radio Liberty and Rado FEep_EArgpe by blocking action on long-term funding of these Munich-based stations. Fulbright sees the stations, which beam messages to communist Europe, as relics of the cold war. Critics have in the past charged their broadcasts stir unfounded hopes among captive communist peoples, that they helped instigate the hopeless, post-war uprisings in East Ger- many, Poland and Hungary. The Russians have long viewed the stations as provocations. Yet for many Europeans under communist domination the broadcasts of these stations are 'a valuable source of truthful news and in some cases the best surce--although the Russians have in the past jammed their broadcasts with Varying effectiveness. If the policies and operations of the stations leave much to be desired, the remedy would be reshaping operations and policies to best serve the purpose of tese outlets-- the truthful dissemination of news to communist Europe. Chairman Fulbright, who is entitled to his opinion, is in this instance seeking to shape foreign policy by forcing the closing of the "stations?constitutionally the responsibility of ;the President; in this maneuver he is almost certainly acting contrary to the wishes of the tri.olor,ity of. Americans. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R00110007000f-5 ? Lubliock Avalanche Journal LUBBOCK, TEXAS 17, 62,050 SUN. 73,263 MAR 2 7 1972 ikiltr, :REBUFF FOR FULBRIGHT Funds For Freedom i; CONGRATULATIONS go to the U.S. Senate for its rebuff to Sen. S. William Fulbright in the matter of Radio Free Euro_p_e Land Radio Liberty. The chairman of the Foreign Relations '..Committee a n d several fellow neo - isola- .tionists and. pacifists conducted a long and :bitter campaign to deny funds for the two stations. Both operate in Munich. Radio Free 'Europe broadcasts in native languages to .five Soviet bloc Eastern European nations. Radio Liberty beams information in 17 languages to the Soviet Union. They have offered to these people their ?only chance to receive accurate information, or any information at all, about events of worldwide importance. Often, they provide the only source of news from within the 'countries themselves. The only criticism of any importance advanced by Fulbright & Co. has been that the broadcasts are "Cold War relics," ;unsuitable in this "Era of Negotiation." ' ,However, they still are needed, for good reasons. One is that truthful news is desirable ;to counteract vicious propaganda still directed against the U.S. from behind the Iron Cur- tain . ? .? A ? ?;?;1'. ? Recently, for example, Moscow television aired a "documentary," titled "America- Autumn '71," designed to (picture the U.S: the worst posible light; It showed Klan meetings, Times ? Square prostitutes and American Nazis as "typical" of American life. AccusatiOns that the radios broadcast pro- paganda are phony. Both stations have earned virtually unanimous praise for broadcasting objective news and impartial analysis. Most importantly of all, the broadcasts ?provide, at relatively modest cost, ? a service to people in the captive nations who yearn " for knowledge. As Sen. Charles Percy says, "It is a sad fact that a man in Leningrad. may not know of a major news event in. Kiev or Prague or Paris or New York unless: Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty informs him." ? Fulbright tried to use his "power of ? ar- rogance" to silence them. It is true that. Congress has appropriated funds only. for ? the next three months. However, the Senate vote of 65 to 6 is a strong indication that more favorable action will be taken later in the year. It sho betakn. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 tretrinZ/3`tly!",\Wailla TULSA, OKLA. D. 1O9469 SUN. 176,258 MAR 2 6 1972 rFulbright Defended , I believe it was the March 4th edition of the Tulsa World, editorial page, that an article by Roscoe Drummond reported Sen a tor F ulbright of Arkansas as recently putting forth an effort by him to kill all financial assistance for Radio' Free Europe and Radio Liberty. As you will discover, by the enclosed copies of a personal letter from Senator Fulbright and a report of the above men- tioning. Fulbright claims he said no such thing. He also backs up his statement by offering documented evidence from the Library of Congress. Senator Fulbright does favor dis- continuation of both Radio Free Europe. and Radio Liberty. He bases his opposi- tion on several points ? most notably: 1. Our tax money "was being secretly used to support these radio services through the Central Intelligence Agency," not from "the dimes of school children and voluntary gifts from concerned citizens," as is the populhr belief . . . not to forget mention as being advertised as such: 2. Fulbright brought out the realization that, while $36 million of our tax money was being secretly used for the Radios, Ar- kansas was able to receive only1'$5 million ? for much needed water and sewer sys- tems. The $36 million for both Radios. in- cidentally, is in addition to the $41 million budget for Voice of America, the "sane- , tioned overseas broadcasting service of our government." After studying the report, perhaps ator Fulbright may really have some- thing on his last point ? "If the need for ,RFE and RL is as clear as adminis- :tration officials claim, why isn't there 'some interest on the part of our NATO llics ? who are much closer to the situ- ation than we are? None of the European countries contributes to the cost of the Radios.' Why support something that the 'people it is supposed to help have no in- ? terest in? I hope, in all fairness, you might pre- sent my Senator's side of the story. Siloam Springs, Ark, Gary D. Darling Approved For Rellase 20011.03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 V , Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 oRthimo,FiL sumva D. 113,000 S. 146,000 MAR 24 1972 QV. ssi n's Cl 1 01R001100070001-5 ndes tine Letter Begs For .a-acac ? 1-7? MOSCOW (Reuter) As Congress debated in Washington whether to Continue- funding two radio etations beamed? at .the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, voices were beingl,"! aised -here, too for andl . .against. One was the voice of the Soviet government, whose. daily newspaper Izvestia l.this week published the latest of its frequent at-,1 :tacks on Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe,: :7deriiniiielfig?the in?at" 'main-7 'Stays of '"American Communist propaganda." t BUT ANOTHER voice iwas that of a single listen- er to the Russian language ; ,broadcasts of Radio Liber- whose appeal against proposals to close the sta- tions has been circulating ntypescriptamonga'; number of Russians..;: .. The. official view here is 1S1ose to lhat...of _Sen, erty To Continue .:. i,., ..o.,, it., ...,...Cf. 1. i?....4,,,:..,,4, ..,"..-.,..._...,..:.. , . I ...........; I , , Fulbright '(D-Ark.) ? that the sta- ;tions are a cold war relic' and that U. S. funds for 'them should be cut off if. .there is to be detente in: Europe. FOR LISTENERS like ithe author of the appeal, Which usually reliable, sources attributed to a ? Muscovite named Dzher- !I men Smirnovsky, nothing could be further from the , truth. . ei 0 "For Russia to lose Ra- il dio Liberty means to lose 1 the little freedom,left to us ... the freedom to get truthful information about I our country. ... if you want to fight against the cold 'war, Mr. Fulbright, you, are welcome ? fight. (Together with Radio Liber- ;ty, together with all" our' !. . people," the letter de dared - , 2 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 LETHBR I D-CE, CANADA HERALD . 4 0,4 93 MO 2 3 1972.4 ' Viaeut quarrel over, situation 0 - Radio voice of 'freedom faces By SEAL ASCHERSON Lot n Observer Service . LONYDDN ? The violent guar- 7e1 ov the future of _Radio. .opes_ touched off by ;enato Villi am Fulbright's >ropes hat the United States ihould Ot ff its funds, has be- ona of bar-room brawl or intaectuals of the entire Vesterrldvorld. Not fe. many years have so nany pitminent men called so nany '91her prominent men 'appeaUs," or "soft on Coro- aur.Lsm> or "incurable Cold Carrio " Radio ee Europe, which roadca to Eastern Europe, ad Ra Liberty, which broad- asts incRussian and a multi- .:de of &per languages to the niet I;aion. were set up in tunichg 1950, in what was en th American - occupied )ne of7Test Germany. They ere finalced, through various evices,Qy the Central Intelli- Ence rAncy until last year, hen tic) American Adminis- ation tall- on the burden of an ;timatefa336 million a year. heir olitonal purpose, strong- suppoCbd by many of the r.igres 2ho were collected to aff thei station, was to sub- 01 vert Communist regimes, but to this approach was severely in modified after 1956, when Radio Free Europe was charged, jus- tifiably, with having encour- aged the Hungarians to take up arms against the Russians. CAUTIOUS POLICY Since then, the policy of both stations has been more cau- tious. In principle, they claim to provide Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union with objective world news and with news about events within the listen- ers' own countries which might not be available to them through the Party - controlled media. Radio Free Europe's staff of 1,530 people, of whom 1,140 work in Munich, produces some 560 hours of programmes a week for Poland, Czechoslova- kia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Ro- mania (Czechoslovakia receives some 20 hours a day, followed by Poland and Hungary which receive 19). There is also a re- search service, which issues ex- tremely full and reasonably fair accounts of events within these countries, and their neighbours, and summaries of their Press: this service is also distributed journalists and the West. Those who are protesting- against the close - down of the stations ? which will happen in June if no further money is voted by the U.S. Senate?argue that the Cold War is still very much a reality and that the need to provide "objective" news for East Europeans is as strong as ever. .The other side consider that the existence of the stations, bitterly resented by the Soviet and East Euxo- pean governments, is in con- tradiction to the whole spirit of detente in Europe and threat- ens to compromise not only Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ost- politik but bilateral plans to improve Soviet - American rela- tions, and in particular might affect President Nixon's visit to Moscow in May. Travelling in Eastern Europe, one gets the impression that RFE's effectiveness varies con- siderably. Its main success is the Polish service, which is heard by a large proportion of the population and ?.privately ?by many Party and Govern- ment leaders. Its intimacy with Polish life, ? and its cautious agreement with the regime on shutdown academics what Polish patriotic interests and limitations are, have estab- lished a sort of symbiosis of a very unofficial kind with the Warsaw leadership, although it is hotly denounced on Polish radio and television. The listener figures estimated by RFE itself, based on rather unreliable sampling, suggest that around half the population of Eastern Europe hear RFE at one time or another in a year. But listeners in countries other than Poland sometimes com- plain that programmes are pro- duced by emigres of the older generation who are stiffly anti- Communist and who have lost touch with the realities of their own societies. This has been a 0m21a in t, for instance, in Czechoslovakia. WEST ROW The row in the West has a certain unreality about it. The party most intimately involved ?the West Ger m an Govern- ment ? keep an embarrassed silence. There is no doubt that it is an obstacle to Brandt's Ostpolitik to have an Ameri- can propaganda station of this kind lodged on West German territory, and many leading So-, cial Democrats privately wish that it would move out. Its pres- ence during the Olympic Games in Munich this summer is al- ready drawing protests from East European capitals. But the Brandt Government, with its tiny majority in the Bundestag, cannot afford to make any ges- hire which would be interpret- ed by right-wingers in the coal- ition as "truckling to Commu- nist pressure." The alternatives under dis- cussion- in Western newspapers ?continuation in Munich or to- tal shut - down ? are in fact incomplete. There are several other possibilities. One would be to withdraw RFE and Radio Liberty from West Germany and base them where they real- ly belong: in the United States. RFE is transmitted mostly on short-wave, but there is also a medium - wave transmitter which would not operate over such a distance. Conceivably, if the Senate changes its mind and decides that RFE must con- tinue at full strength, medium- wave equipment could be. mounted on a ship in interna- tional waters, or a satellite could relay the programmes in a sort of "informational bom- bardment." - . . The principle here would be the "nationalization" of the sta- tions. Their vulnerability comes from their pseudo - internation- al status. Most East European 1 nations operate multi - language external broadcasting stations which are extremely critical and sometimes hostile about the Internal affdirs of Western 7 tions, but these stations are t official voices of the States which they stand. The decisi about RFE's futur should an American dze" , in way involving ot \Vests countries, and, it isaid, if is to continue it shoI do so an unmistakably A rican dio station based in e Unit States. The other possib. , whi should be confront by thc who deplore the thrpe. to Rf and Radio Libertain th presen form, is thattothe ext nal broadcasting ofstern r tional stations shoulet, ? stetpp up as a substitute. , There is somethi.46disinge uous about lament' .0 the fa of RFE if the lammter is r prepared to argue Ulla his ON country should preSede ext money to bring the Vast Eu pean services of thrBBC, t French ORTF or theZest man Deutsche WelWup to similar volume Oprograi ming. All three areugarved funds, although the* eputati for detachment --Tf.Specia] that of the BBC elOrnal vices ? is usually legher th that uf the Americatbor Am( ican-financed station0_ It is a condition o2 urope security today, win ?er t Russians and Arne,' ans li it or not, that no cg? ?ernms may use either forcar infla matory propaganda afornen1 violent change of regittne in a other country. Withe"that Ii itation, there is no,4.son w the radio stations obcountr with different soci systei should not describe nd cr cize each othe r' societii There will always protes' some Governments have th ner skins than others. But obvious targets like the "int national" status of Radio F. Europe and Radio Liberty we removed, this would become custom which both halves Europe might eventually lea to live with. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016101R001100070001-5 Cong. Ancher Nelsen Reports F re:g The history of foreign aid has been stormy, and this year has proved no excep- tion. We didn't get around to clearing the $2.9 billion for- eign aid bill for the fiscal year that ends this June until this March. In other words, eight months of the fiscal year was, aiready over before Congress com- pleted action. Obviously, as our col- league John Anderson of Il- linois noted recently, "for- eign assistance is still a weak bird with a broken wing 'flying against the wind in the middle of a storm." Part of the reason the foreign aid program seems in constant trouble is that in the minds of many Ameri- cans, myself included, at least part of it has been spent wastefully or in ways that even seem to hurt our own national interest. Also, it represents a nagging drain on taxpayers when we have many urgent needs here at home. Take just one example. Many of us believe the United States contribution to the United Nations is far too big and should be re- duced. Originally, the House did, manage to cut back our contribution to the , United Nations Develop?, ment Fund by $100 million. Unfortunately, however, a conference committee lat- er restored $86 million for , this U.N. Fund, and that decision now stands. Such, questionable items tend to. Aid Program StiN in discourage support for any foreign aid at all. THIS IS unfortunate be- cause the foreign aid pro- gram is directly related to our own national security and to the securing of world peace. For example, the measure recently passed contains economic and mil- itary assistance to permit the President's Vietnami- zation program to continue .so that we can get our re- maining troops home from Southeast Asia. This aid is vital to ending American involvement in this tragic war. The aid bill also contains needed help for Israel and other allies, that we have encouraged to stand on their own feet. And it makes possible the contin- uation of efforts like the Peace Corps, which surely has been one of our more successful overseas pro- grams. I might add that the Peace Corps budget was regrettably cut back by Congress this year well below what the Nixon Ad- ininistrtion had requested... ? The reduction was thought to threaten a curtailment in operations in some under- developed countries badly in need of American techni- cal know-how. We under- stand now, however, that a compromise has now been ; ' worked out that will restore 'some of the cutback and .ease the Corps' financial headaches. THE LATEST foreign 1. policy furor involves the F' future of Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty. As you may recall, Radio Free Europe has been broadcast- ing to Eastern Europe ever since 1950 and Radio Liber- ty started reaching millions of listeners in the Soviet U ? mon a year later. They have proved enormously successful in enabling un- censored news and views I. from throughout the world to penetrate behind the Iron , Curtain in the native Ian- ; . guages of the people who so ; eagerly listen to them. Criticism developed be- , 4cause these operations , were mainly financed coy- ertly by the CIA. So Con- gress agreed to fund them ' openly. Both House and Senate have voted to contin- ue these operations, a deci- sion I support. But, in spite ? of this clear expression of Congressional will, both radio operations may well Approved For Release 2001VO4e,dt194e-RirrOL01601R001100070001-5 arch uecause jus t r e :senators, led by Senator Trou Fulbright or Arkansas, appear determined to kill them. They argue the broad- casts are relics of the old Cold War days and only irri- tate the Communist leader- ship, so they are refusing to cooperate in working out final details of a bill in a conference committee. In my qwn view,, killing these,,programs means victory for the Soviet bl hard-liners who hate t radios as allies of libel and progressive elemen It will be tragic if tht misguided senators fri trate the majority will Congress and accompli for the communist leadl . that total news suppress they were never. able accomplish for themselv+ CHASKA1 MINN. SUN vr. CIRC.N.AVAIL. MAR 2 3 1972 VI"- Approved For RNme 1I03/04 : CiA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 HERALD W. 2,993 MAR 2 3 19 4144- 1- ?Acecirding To Tom by Tom W. Gerber Over-Kill in Triplicate Most Americans have heard about the Voice of America, the world-wide radio arm of the U.S. Information Service, which 14roadcasts news from 108 stations in 35 languages to people In every 'part of the world who are equipped to pick it up. It is a comPlex electronic set-up which operates on a 1971- 7.2 budget of $41,000,000. ; Not so well known is the fact that the U.S. government for quite a few years has been operating two other multi-language radio networks, aimed at specific countries, and ,designed to give the American viewpoint on news events. ?: Radio Free Europe is one of these which was well-publicized about two decades ago when the late Drew Pearson, columnist, 4alled for public contributions to support the enterprise, and, perhaps, to create a yearning for "the American way of life" specifically in the five border countries of Europe: Bulgaria, czechoslovakia, Poland, Rumania and Hungary. Possibly Radio Free Europe helped fire up the Hungarian rebellion of 1956, 'taut the U.S. was unable to do much about it, and Soviet tanks tippressed the uprising quite bloodily. 'The other U.S. network is Radio Liberty, which is aimed stlirectly at the people of Soviet Russia, and which broadcasts In 17 different languages or dialects. ; Since it started, Radio Free Europe has cost American taxpayers $306,890,469 and Radio Liberty, a more recent enterprise, has cost $158,830,637. Their expenses for many i'ears have been covered in the blanket budget of the Central :Intelligence Agency (CIA) which doesn't have to account to Con- gress for expenditures. Times have changed over the years. Points of view are chang- Ing all over the world. Propaganda, if that is what the last- tiamed agencies have been dishing out, loses its effectiveness. -The U.S.S.R., we have heard, no longer "jams" the RFE and III, networks electronically. Yet they continue to operate ex- pensively. ,4 Now Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty no longer are un- tier the wing of CIA and Senator James W. Fulbright, chairman vf the Foreign Relations committee, proposes to cut off their appropriations after June 30, 1972. It would seem to this Pld codger, a bit of a veteran in the communications business, that the useful duties of the latter two agencies could be taken over by Voice of America. Or, we might Abolish all three. Intorchange of news reports, I understand, has been re-es- tablished between the Tass Agency in Soviet Russia and the ;Associated Press and United Press in the United States. If Propaganda is the objective of the U.S,-operated networks it is high time we abolished them. It isn't effective any more. )t's a terrific waste of money and brains. But President Nixon pas asked Congress to appropriate money for RFE and RL. The Soviet Union has no free press anyway, and we are merely )vasting time and money trying to force our point of view on the people of their countries. It is doubtful if our broadcasts have ? any Significant body of listeners in real communist countries. They would be risking their necks if they were caught tuned to ,,our hoop-la, and the truth, if important enough, will get through to them sooner or later. When they find out that their own country has been lying to them, or keeping secret from them important events they should know about, they may change their minds 'about their own brand of government. I understand that Pravda, Russia's principal newspaper, printed only two brief ,sentences about President Nixon's trip to Pc- in z then later printed editorial comment tending to belittle Approved For NelriNisei2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-016011R001100070001-5 But Mr. Nixon wasn't expecting to win many votes in Moscow, and probably not in Peking, either. Certainly he will not get ww6nv in g'aiwan but somebody in the Aleutian Islands might 'Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 4", WASHINaTON, D.C. JEWISH WEEK AND AMERICAN EXAMINER MARYLAND VIRGINIA AND D.C. , EDITION W. 24,763 ? ? MAR 2 3 197 41,0?????????????*???????????????I 71 .1 Immigrants plead for Radio Liberty TEL AVIV -- A delegation often Jewish immigrants who arrived from the Soviet Un- ion during the past year met with United States Ambassador Walworth Barbour at the US Embassy here and asked him to convey to ' thc US Senate their support of Radio Lib-. erty. Radio Liberty is one of two private American broadcast services which beams short wave programs behind the iron curtain ? and which are threatened with closure by the withdrawal of government support. Avraham Shifrim, who headed the delega- tion, told Ambassador Barbour that Radio Liberty which broadcasts exclusively to the Soviet Union "brings a breath of freedom into our lives." The other threatened service is Radio Frec Europe...which broadcasts to EiisTrtiroiGn Communist bloc countries. The interview with Ambassador Barbour was conducted in Russian with embassy first sec- retary Walter Smith serving as interpretenk Smith previously served in the US EmbassY jr! Moscow. . Approved For Rekpase 2001103/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01101R001100070001-5 RICHMOND, IND. PAILADIUM ITEM AND. SW MEGRAM D. 30,000 SUN. 31,000 MAR 23 1972 gyia These Broadcasts Needed For almost 20 years Radio_Free Europe,.' (RFE) and Radio Liberty (RL) have broadcast 'unmanaged news of the world to countries be- hind the Iron Curtain. Radio Free Europe broad- casts to five East European nations in native languages and Radio Liberty broadcasts to Rus- sia in 17 Soviet languages. ?. The operating budget for both broadcasting r.stations is $36 million and is used to maintain transmitters on Taiwan, in West Germany and Spain and pays a staff of employes which in- cludes 250 Soviet defectors. The effects of these broadcasts have been al- most unanimously approved and endorsed. But ? despite this fact RFE and RL will cease oper- ations within the next few months due largely to ;the myopic tactics of one misguided American: 'Sen. J. William Fulbright. Fulbright has called the radio stations "cold war relics" and continues to maintain that they endanger American relations with Communist countries. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee he has singlehandedly blocked legislation which would allow appropria- Ltions to continue beyond June 30., Fulbright's intransigence indicates that once his mind is made up he has a fear of being con- fused with the facts -- a malady which he has suffered from, most painfully, ior a number of years. It was Fulbright, for example, who asked for a special Library of Congress study to evaluate RFE and RL. When the study was completed Fulbright re- fused to release the findings. Only recently after intense pressure from all areas of the political spectrum did he agree to release the study. To Fulbright's everlasting embarrassment the results of the study concluded that RFE and RL were very good indeed and worth continuing. But all this made no difference to Fulbright.. He still refuses to allow extended funding for the stations. Evidently there is nothing wrong with RFE or RL except Fulbright's fear of the free flow of :ideas between nations. Perhaps when the sta- tions fall silenthe will be capable of realizing ".- precisely what his fear has done. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Apprbved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 MET, CALIF. NEWS DAILY 6,500 Wkit 23 1972 va. a", ? RllA,S Senator Fulbright's Cold War Relics A th th th f lif i th ? no er ree mon s o e s e prognosis for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Tlie?fOrmer broadcasts in native ? languages to five eastern European nations. ? The latter broadcasts to Russia in seventeen Soviet languages. The broadcasts are scheduled to die not because of their own weakness, but because of the political malaise of Senator William J. Fulbright. He believes the stations are relics of the cold war which should be discarded because tensions have eased. Until last year, there had been govern- mental pretense that the stations were ? financed by private subscription, while in fact ' they were supported by the -Central Intelligence Agency. Just why that deception was considered necessary remains a mystery. There has never been an ac- companying pretense that the CIA withheld from other anti-Communist operations. Despite that recognition of the CIA's role, there is no evidence that the agency ever ? interfered with program content, nor has there been any charge that the stations in- dulged in propaganda for propaganda's sake. ? Former Polish Ambassador John Gronouski praised the accuracy and detail' of Radio Free ' Europe's coverage of the 1968 Polish ; uprisings which were ignored by the Polish press. Both Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty were factual in their coverage of events such as the ouster of Khrushchev, the Cuban missile crisis, and President Nixon's visit to China. To end the CIA tieup, President Nixon has proposed that the stations be financed by Congressional appropriations and run by an , eleven member non-profit corporation in- dependent of government control. Although both House and Senate have passed differing , authorization bills, Senator Fulbright has defeated any attempt to resolve the dif- ? ferences by conference. He maintains that the stations are no longer justified because tensions have eased bet- ,., ween the United States and its ideological antagonists. There is reason to suspect, however, that at least part of that change may be a result of the work of the stations. They have made possible a flow of ideas to peoples across borders that are closed to other means of communication. There is , merit to the theory that even a dictatorial government must respond in some degree to what its people know. e. ? ? Approved For RelTase 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 " SANTA 'BARBARA, CALIF. NEWS-PRESS 1), 38,000 EVENING , MAR 2 3 1972 Q. ? f. East Bloc Depends:on News Flow, The future . of Radio Liberty and alysts and virtually every West Euro- Radio Free Europe, which beam news? pean newspaper, into lifelines of objee- to the Soviet Union and East bloc na- ?tive reporting on political, economic ! is threatened by a congressional and cultural happenings of vital impor- `f cutoff of funds. tance to peoples behind the 4-on Cur- , , r:.? Sen. Fulbright, chairman of the tam. :-Foreign Relations Committee, consid- 'A noted Soviet refugee author, for ers them "relies of the Cold War" and example, says the closing down of proposes ,their shutdown. He is blocking ? these stations would fulfill the most ar- t- .further financing beyond June 30 if dent wishes of the Russian intelligence Congress does not override his wishes. network. The broadcasts, he says, are According to major newspapers in depended upon for truthful reporting West Europe and Great Britain, howev- that "give hope" to the people. er, the stations are very much more The Guardian in England edi? than the "relics" the senator deplores torialized recently that to silence the 'and constitute channels of vital public stations "would confirm and condone . !.? information to Soviet bloc peoples. Bul- the suppression of free speech in Rus- , garians, Romanians, Poles, Hungarians sia and the rest of the Soviet bloc. No and Soviet citizens have come to trust. wonder the Soviet leaders are using the broadcasts to deepen their under- such diplomatic levers as they have at !, 'standing of world And home events. hand to bring this about.. Granted, the stations until recently. Congress, we believe, should con- t were financed by the U.S. Central In- tinue its contributions to these sta- , telligence Agency, a point that Sen. tions, pending a program of joint sup, rFulbright is emphasizing. But they , port with other West European coun- t',: hav9 gY.91v,ed,.a,CcoYclin..t9 Yelsteril..an7 Approxied For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 BROADCASTING WASHINGTON, D. C. W. 28,000 MAR 20 1972 ftlietads One-man rule? For the past several weeks we have reported the sad state of affairs surrounditig continued underwriting of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the U.S.-operated radio-broad- cast services programing into the Eastern European nations under Soviet domination and to the USSR itself. Now a temporary accommodation has been reached to continue these vital services for three months. Senator James Fulbright (D-Ark.), who wields enormous power as _chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, has stub- bornly argued that these medium and shortwave broadcasts are "relics" of the cold war. We disagree. 4 To discontinue these stations would silence truthful and respected voices that are now penetrating the Iron Curtain with authentic news of the outside world. They monitor the Communist news media to cqunter the anti-American prop- aganda, and do this in the native languages of the five East- ern European satellite nations, reaching 31 million?more than half of their population over 14?regularly. Radio Liberty's native-tongue transmissions into the Soviet Union likewise have been a thorn in the Soviet's side. President Nixon, backed by a solid House majority and a ? seeming majority of the Senate, wanted financing through June 30, 1973. The compromise forced by Senator Fulhright leaves just one ray of hope?agreement to consider a bill that would provide funds for the fiscal year beginning July I. The administration bill carried an appropriation of about $35 million for the two services, as a direct fund supplanting imoney heretofore provided secretly through the Central In- telligence Agency and some public contributions. If Chairman Fulbright persists in his stand in defiance of overwhelming congressional and administration views, it is bound to stir more opposition to an archaic' system that invests autocratic power in committee chairmen who achieve exalted status through seniority alone. - _ ? ? Approved For Rellease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDF'80-01601R001100070001-5 WINSTON-SALEM, N. C. JOURNAL D. 7,8,000 ' MAR 1 5 1972 V' Windows in the Wall ?;.pADIO Free Europe and Radio -1-1-LibeRnie-fa11en out of favor in recent months, and by June 30 Congress must decide once and for all ? whether it Will go on supporting these "cold war relics" or abandon millions of people in East Europe and the Soviet Union to a steady, unvaried diet of state-approved radio fare. Relations between the U.S. and the Soviet bloc have certainly improved since the period at the end. of World War H when the stations were established. The broadcasts are a continuing source of irritation to the Russians and could conceivably be an embarrassment to President Nixon when he visits Moscow. Moreover, the stations have been damaged by the discovery that they are supported mostly by Central In- telligence Agency money rather than by voluntary contributions, as we have been led to believe for so long. This _ association is a sour note in the minds of some people at home and tends to ;. make more credible the long-standing Soviet charges that the broadcasts are used to foment insurrection in the -.satellite nations. But even as old tensions relax between the governments of the West. and the Soviet bloc, an estimated. 30 ' million people behind the Iron Curtain continue to rely on these stations as their sole source of uncensored news and entertainment. The citizens of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria are still kept largely ? in the dark by the Soviet masters of their regimes, and the very fact that massive efforts a r e ? constantly made to jam the broadcasts ? (with little apparent success) is proof that they are still important and: necessary. This nation is long on talk of "corn- 'if mitments" to other peoples; such a commitment is at stake here. Until .1 ? news and information are permitted . :? to flow freely within the satellite na- tions, we should continue to supply them from outside. - If the government is going to ? support these stations, it should do so openly, through existing channels of cultural and information exchange. The connections to the CIA should be severed. Current legislation to cut . them should be considered seriously . by the Congress. ' Most important, we must first , resolve not to wall up these cracks in ' the Iron Curtain, but to keep open. ?1. these tiny windows at which 30 million? : ,people gather, to listen for the truth.. , Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 1 STATINTL WA7STI I iiG TON Eon Approved For Release 2001/03Z04 ..CIA-RDP80-01601 a Aric 19/c ? Marquis Childs roadeastin. g And Westpolitik ONE OF THOSE bones of contention calculated to cre- ate the utmost ill will is be- fore the Congress with the 4.path to final decision sown 'With booby traps. The ques- tion is whether Radio Free '.--Europe is a vestige of the .? Cold War that should be cloSed out in light of the new Nixon approach to the , Soviet Union or whether it Is an invaluable window to , the West for the peoples of the Soviet Union and East- ern Europe fed solely on ? government.propaganda. ? It is an issue freighted with all the fears and suspi- ' *dons of the past; the tra- gedy of refugees who have 7 seen their homelands turn- ed into prisons by Commun- Ast walls. Passionate parti- sans of RFE scoff at econo- - mizing by cutting off the million for the operation. Their- villain is J. William F,ulbright-(D-Ark.), chairman of the Senate Foreign Rela- tions; Committee, who sup- ported a bill providing , funds for RFE -only until the June 30 end of the fiscal year. After that date its fu- ? ture is uncertain, unless the administration acts quickly ? to push a new status for a further appropriation. Fulbright points out that the cutoff date was ini- tiated by Sen. Clifford Case of ' New Jersey, a Republican member of the Foreign Relations Commit- tee. While Case is not enthu- siastic about RFE, he would not oppose continuing it if some new framework could be established. ? Here, in my opinion, is an, example of the cost of fail- ing to grapple with a \long- outmoded condition and simply letting drift take over. The Central Intelli- gence Agency provided the money for RFE for many years in ,a semi-secret fash- ion: A facade that public s THE TIME had long passed for the CIA to be in the business of operating a semi-clandestine propaganda station based in Munich. With the facts about the CIA's involvement revealed, the moment was at hand to face up and ask Congress for a direct appropriation. The House Foreign Af- fairs Committee initiated a bill, later passed by the House, setting up a semi- governniental corporation to operate the two stations for a trial period of two years. That proposal died in con- ference- when the conferees accepted the Case compro- mise for a June 30 cutoff. .What is the value of the broadcasts that RFE beams to the Soviet Union and the satellite states? Here intan- gibles galore enter in. The passionate partisans insist that the broadcasts keep alive the hope of dissent. The legislative reference branch ? of the Congress made a favorable report which Senator Fulbright put Into the Congressional Rec- ord. But doubters believe the broadcasts are an irritant that stiffens the resistance of Communist governments to any dissent and makes the lives of the dissenters even harsher than they would ' otherwise be. When Secretary of State William P. Rogers was before the committee, Fufbright repeat- edly sought to draw him out on whether RFE and Radio Liberty were an impediment to any Understanding with the Soviet Union. Rogers cited the series of agree- ments currently in the works, including the two- year cultural agreement just signed. ' THE CIA stopped funding the stations July 1, 1971, and the order from the top was to have no further connec- tion with their operation. contribution supported both RFE and Radio Liberty The CIA had done a study a th was theintil(ske pal/vitt Revi re se Asilbaeliiceec IA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 t in the White House dealing solely with the cost of liqui- dating the operation. This would be considerable, since RFE has 2.600 employees, the majority refugees and many advanced in years. . Why shouldn't Germany share a part of the cost of the stations that broadcast from German soil? Or NATO? There is a compromise which might assuage the partisan passions. That is for Congress to vote funds for an additional six months of operation beyond June 30. During that time a high- level panel to be named by the White House, perhaps jointly with Congress, would evaluate the- broadcasts. Hopefully, the panel's re- port .would take the whole matter out of the shot and shell of politics. c 1972. Unite.d Feature Syndicate WASHINGTON STAR Approved For Release 2091/02/04 9IA-RDP80-01661-ROVIellT00070001-5 AFK 1 The Herschensohn Flap / Bruce Herschensohn, the USIA offi- 41a1 who resigned Monday, probably was wrong to describe some of Senator Ful- bright's views as "very simplistic, very naive and stupid," particularly when Pr'ulbright's Senate Foreign Relations Committee was about to consider the Information agency's $200 million au- thorization request for fiscal 1973. Mis- ohlevous and wrong the senator fre- quently is; but naive and stupid, seldom. The flap, of course, came in connec- tion with the showing by Senator Buck- ley on 12 New York television stations of a USIA film on Czechoslovakia, which ends with Russian tanks rolling into that unfortunate country in 1968. The film ? has won several awards and has been well-received by audiences abroad. There is, however, an implied ban in the enabling act establishing USIA in 1948 'against the dissemination of the agency's material in this country. There is a certain logic in that, the logic being that such films are propaganda and should not be used to influence the thinking of the people who have paid for their production. At least two exceptions have been made, the most recent of which was the 1965 release, specifically authorized (over Republican objections) by act of Congress, of the film "John F. Kennedy: Years of Lightning, Day of Drums," an uncritical analysis of the late President's brief administration. The proceeds went to the Kennedy Center. Acting Attorney General Klein- dienst's ruling that Buckley could use the Czech film because USIA material is open to congressmen "for examination" was, to say the least, somewhat strained, if only because the New York senator, clearly is a political figure and was using the film for a political purpose. The fact remains, however, that there should be some mechanism short of a specific act of Congress to make it possible for USIA films of merit to be seen by domestic audiences. The Czech movie apparently was such a film and had its showing not been related to a specific political figure there seems no reason why it should not have been shown. Clearly, there would be few such worthy exceptions to the rule and a bi- partisan review board could be set up to Identify them and make recommenda- tions. As a result of this little imbroglio, USIA has lost a talented albeit conserva- tive executive, Herschensohn has lost a $36,000-a-year job, Fulbright has lost his never very frigid cool (he threatens to attach an absolute ban on such showings to USIA's authorization) and the infor- mation agency may lose the money needed to fund two worthwhile insti- tutions already under fire from Ful- bright, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. In our view, which we hope is neither simplistic, naive nor stupid, this was a hassle nobody needed. Steps should be taken to clarify the issue and to make it possible, from time to time, for the American people to see USIA films of merit under conditions which would not provide partisan 'advantage to any polit- cal, party or personality. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 , STAT1NTL April A!3191.Med For ReleM3RN9Mili V----"IMPACT OF RADIO LIBERTY ON RUSSIAN SOCIETY Mr. McGEE, Mr, President, the Wash- ington Post of Sunday, April 9, 1972, contains an interesting analysis of Radio Liberty and its impact on Russian society. The article was written by Susan Jacoby, a former reporter for the Post, who returned to this country in 1971 after a 2-year stay in the Soviet Union. The important aspect of the column is that the author is presenting a perspec- tive of Radio Liberty based upon her per- sonal experiences in Russia and the value the broadcasts of this station have for the people of that country. I believe it worthwhile to read this excellent presentation of Radio Liberty because it comes from all individual who was in a position to rationally and real- istically analyze the impact of the sta- tion on Soviet society?a person whose observations are not tied to personal prejudices. ? I ask unanimous consent that the ar- ticle be printed in the REcoRa. There being no objection, the article was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the Washington Post, Apr. 9, 19721 RADIO LTDERTY AND THE RUSSIANS (By Susan Jacoby) On a snowy day during the winter of 1971, an unidentified young man 'from a small vil- lage arrived at the Moscow apartment of An- drei Amalrik, author of "Will the Soviet Union Survive Until 1984?" and "Involuntary Journey to Siberia." The young mass had heard on the radio that Amalrik had beets sentenced to three years in a labor camp, and he wanted to do something to help. Because Amalrik canted comments from readers, his home address had, been broadcast several Months earlier when his books were read over Radio Liberty. The young man knocked on the door and presented a sticky honeycomb to Amalrlk's wife, Gyusel. lie told her she must take it to her husband in camp, since honey would help a prisoner keep up his strength. Then he disappeared, leaving no name or address. The young stranger is one of the many Rus- sians who listen to Radio Liberty. (It is ins- possible to determine how many listen, al- though millions of short-wave sets can re- ceive the broadcasts despite intensive jam- ming.) What these Russians hear and how they react are questions that Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) has never answered in his fight to close down both Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe as 'Cold War relics." Nor ? have Supporters of the two stations shown much awareness of what the broad- casts really mean to people in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Radio Liberty means different things to ? different Russian listeners, depending on their interests and political orientation. Alex- andria I. Solzhenitsyn, Russia's greatest liv- ing writer, said recently, "If we ever hear anything about events in this country, Ws through them." Solzhenitsyn, who made the statement In an interview with Moscow Cor- respondents of The Washington Post and The New York Times, had just heard a Radio Liberty report of an attack on him by Yaro- slay V. Smelyakov, an official of the writers union which expelled the Nobel Prize-win- ning novelist in 1969. - The Smelyakov letter was an indirect offi- cial response to a sad and stinging lament Solzhenitsyn had, written in memory of his friend and former editor, Alexander Tvardov- sky. It was published in the West and broad- cast back to the Soviet Union by Radio Liberty. The exchange, a minor literary quar- rel from the vantage point of an American audience, is highly significant to Russians who care about literature?and most of the people who listen to foreign radio stations care a great deal. Smelyakov implied that Solzhenitsyn, as a writer proscribed by the authorities, had no right to eulogize Tvardov- sky, who received many official honors during his lifetime. The attack neglected to men- tion that Tvardovsky was forced out of his job as editor of the magazine Novy Mir pri- marily because ho championed Solzhenitsyn .so steadfastly. LETTER FRONI A LISTENER To many Soviet listeners, Radio Liberty is simply a source of outside information with which they may or may not agree. One man wrote Radio Liberty a letter vigorously dis- puting the station's assertions that collective farm workers have a low standard of living in the Soviet Union. - "My brother works on a ko/k.hos as a ma- chine operator," explained the letter, which was addressed in a chatty tone to a female broadcaster. "He receives 120 rubles, his wife 80 rubles and his mother a pension of 30 rubles. Ile personally owns a, large garden, two cows, two piglets, sense birds, chickens, ducka, geese and 15 bee-hives." (One ruble equals approximately 91.11 at the official exchange rate.) While Radio Liberty seldom receives let- ters praising Soviet life, its audience does not consist entirely of people who are deeply dis- satisfied with their country. A professor of French literature at a Moscow university once told me, "I don't always agree with these broadcasts, but I do believe it's important to hear other views of the world and of life. I think it is sod that we don't have these different views in our own newspapers, be- cause I believe this kind of discussion would strengthen rather than hurt our society." Radio 'Liberty attempts to provide a wide variety of news about the Soviet Union and the outside world that IS not available in the Soviet. press. However, broadcasts of clan- destinely published Sami72dat literature anger the authorities more than news broadcasts. Lengthy novels arc read in half-hour install- ments over a period of several weeks: The radio thus enables a widespread audience to hear literary works it cannot read because of Soviet censorship. All of the best RITSSiRll novels and non- fiction works of the 19603 have been read or discussed extensively on Radio Liberty. They include all of the Solzhenitsyn novels banned by Soviet authorities since 1964: "Cancer Ward," "The First Circle" and "August 1914." Other major works read over the air have included Nadezhda Mandelstam's "Hope Against Hope," which describes her life with the poet Osip Mandelstam until his death in a prison camp in 1938; Vastly Cirossman's "Forever Flowing," which deals with the feel- ings of a camp supervisor who returns to the outside world; both Amalrik books, and the uncensored version of Anatoly Reuznetsov's "Babi 'Var." "Babi "far" was originally published by the Soviets in censored form in 1966, The uncen- sored version became available only after Kuznetsov defected in London in 1369. Rus- sians who listened to the broadcasts of "i3abi Yar" say they were particularly dramatic be- cause the originally published portions were read in a flat announcer's voice and the parts cut by the censor were read by Kuznetsov himself. The censored paragraphs, which snake up at least a third of the present book, dealt with subjects ranging from Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi occupiers during World War II to continuing anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union. ARGTIME.NTS WI-I'll TI-SE PRESS Radio Liberty also broadcasts many Semis- dot works by Ukrainian writers in the Ukrain- ian language. They are not as well known in the West as Russian Samizdat writers hut are even more important to the 49 million Ukrainians who make up the second largest ethnic group (after Russians) in the SoViet Union. The station broadcasts 24 hours a clay in Russian and intermittently in 18 other Ian- . guages spoken by different nationality groups within the Soviet Union, Radio Free Europe broadcasts to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hun- gary, Poland and Rumania. Radio Liberty now has a yearly budget of $12 million and. 920 employees; Radio Free Europe has a $21 million budget and approximately 1,600 em- ployees. Radio Free Europe is better known in the United States than Radio Liberty because It still commands political loyalty and some fi- nancial support Irons Americans of East Eu- ropean ethnic origins. The two stations have completely separate business and editorial operations, through their funding is a single Issue in Congress. Differences between their programming are substantial, and they re- . fleet different political conditions in the So- viet Union and Eastern EuroPe, Radio Free Europe tends to engage in run- ning arguments with the official press in countries like Hungary and Poland, and the official newspapers often answer the broad- casts. Such dialogue is possible because the press in Eastern Europe is censored with a much lighter hand than the Soviet press. Russian newspapers and radio stations sometimes attack Radio Liberty, but they do not mention specific broadcasts: Any dis- cussion of specifics would help spread news the Soviets want to keep quiet, Radio Liberty devotes about a third of its coverage to international affairs and two- thirds to Soviet domestic issues. There is some overlap in international coverage, since the station often broadcasts Western wire service accounts or its own analyses of events that have beets reported by official Soviet papers or the news agency MSS. A DAY TN MARCII _ On March 1, an ordinary news day, both Radio Liberty and Pravda covered the arrival of Sheikh Mullin's' Rahman in l'.1escow to seek ald for the new stale of Bangladesh. An- other event reported by both sources was the killing of two Ulster defense regiment soldiers in Belfast. Radio Liberty generally devotes only brief commentary to news stories that are non-controversial enough in the Soviet Union to be reported in straightfor- %yard fashion by the official press. On the same day, Pravda ran a Tess story ' Irons Washington reporting President NiY.011:5 return from Peking; it was based mainly on American press commentaries. Radio Liber- ty aired a nine-minute world press review of the Nixon trip, giving more prominence to Western European press reactions. Another world press roundup dealt with new .devel- opments in the Middle East: Radio Liberty generally attempts to offset the Soviet posi- tion 'that Israel is the only aggressor. News items reported by Radio Liberty that ? ? were not covered in the March 1 Pravda in- cluded: Announcement of new exchange of scien- tist-lecturers between the Soviet Union and the United States. Reaction by black Rhodesians to the pro- posed agreement between Great Britain and Rhodesia. Introduction of food rationing in Chile.-- Authorization of Soviet border guards to detain people in border regions for up to 10 days without giving official cause. The move ViRs seen as an effort to stop border traffic in Soviet Central Asia, where the frontier is less closely guarded than the Soviet Union's western borders. The showing of a Romanian film In Bu- charest about life during the Stalin-era. A scheduled meeting between British Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President Georges POTIlpid011, Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 .1.4???????????????? IVAS1-1:11:-aTON POST Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : Asrz 80-0 tO"'People in the Soviet Union an Eastern Europe. Radio Liberta means different things toe different Russian listeners, depend- ing On their interests and political orientation. Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn, Russia's greatest living writer, said recently, "H we ever hear anything about . events in this country, it's through them." Solzhenitsyn, who made . the- statement in an interview with ' Moscow correspondents of The Washing- ton Post and The New York Times, had just heard a Radio Liberty report of 0 . an attack on him by Yaroslav V. Smel- v., an 71 a.-71 cvn 6-11, -ri/T, yakov, an official of the writers union which expelled the Nobel Prize-win- ning novelist in 1909. The Smelyakov letter was an indirect . official response to a sad and stinging lament Solzhenitsyn had written in memory of his friend and former edi- tor, Alexander Tvardovsky. It was pub- lished in the West and broadcast back to the Soviet Union by Radio Liberty. The exchange, a minor literary quar- rel from the vantage point of an Ameri- can audience, is highly significant to Russians who care about literature ? and most of the people who listen to foreign radio stations care a great deal. Smelyakov implied that Solzhenitsyn, as 'a writer proscribed by the authori- ties, had no right to eulogize Tvardov- flev, who received many official honors duting his lifetime, The attack neg- lected to mention that -Tvardovsky was forced out of his job as editor of the magazine Novy Mir primaeily because he 'championed- Solzhenitsyn so stead- fastly. ? LOW Front -a Listener - rO MANY SOVIET- listeners, Raffle Liberia' is simply a source of out- ride infermation with which they .may or may not agree. One man wrote Ra- dio 'Liberty a letter vigorously dis- puting the station's assertions that collective- farm workers have a low standard of living in the Soviet Union; "My brother works on a kolishoz as a machine operator," explained the letter, which was addressed in a chatty tone to a female. broadcaster. "He re- ceives 120 .rubles, his wife 80 rubles and his mother a Pension of 30 -rubles. He personally owns a large garden, two cows, two piglets, some .birds, chick- ens, ducks, geese and 15 bee-hives." (One ruble equals approximately $1.11 at the official exchange rate.) While Radio Liberty seldom receives letters praising Soviet life, its audi- ence does not consist entirely of peo- ple who are deeply dissatisfied with App roatediE OA Re leaseaMinn vp iotite,r qtteloqivetwi#10 of the two stations shown much aware- ? lo c r eaa I a told me, -"I don't a always eagaree with By Susan Jacoby ?The writer, a former reporter for :The Washington Post, returned in 1971 ? from a two-year stay in the Soviet Union. She is also. the author of the ? forthcoming book, "Moscow conversa- tions: Friendship and Fear." (IN A SNOWY DAY during the win- ter.)- of 1971, an unidentified young , man from a small village araivcd at the Moscow apartment of Andrei Amal- ? rik, author of "Will the Soviet Union Survive Until 1984?" and "Involuntary Journey to Siberia." The young man had heard on the radio that Amalrik had been sentenced, to three years in a labor camp, and he wanted to do some- thing to help. ? 'Because Anialrik wanted comments from readers, his home address had been broadcast several months earlier When his books were read over Radio Liberty. The young man knocked on the door and presented a sticky honey- comb to Amalrik's wife, Gyusel. He told her she must take it to her husband in camp, since honey would help a prisoner keep up his strength. Then he -disappeared, leaving no name or ad- dress. The young stranger is one - of the many Russians who listen to .Radio Liberty. (It- is impossible to deterinine how amany listen, although millions of abort-wave sets can receive the broad- casts despite intensive jamming.) What ' these Russians hear and how they re- act are questions that Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) has never answered in his fight to close down both Radio 'Liberty and Radio Free Europe as neep of what the broadcasts really mean these broadcasts, but I do believe -it' Important to hear other views of th world and of life. I think it is sai that we don't have these differen views in our own newspapers, beeaus I believe this kind of discussion woul strengthen rather than hurt our sc cletYaCil Rio Liberty attempts to provid a wide variety of news about the Si viet Union and the outside world thn. is not available in the .Soviet pees. However, broadcasts of clandestine] published Samizdat literature zing( the authorities more than news broac casts. Lengthy novels are read in hal hour installments over a period c several weeks: The radio thus enable a widespread audience to hear literar works it cannot read, because of Sc viet censorship. All of the best Russian novels an non-fiction works of the 1960s hay been read or discussed extensively o Radio Liberty. They include all of th Solzhenitsyn novels banned by Sovic authorities since 1901: "Cancer Wmal, "The First Circle" and "August 1914. Other major works read over the al have included Nadeahda alandelstant "Hope Against Hope," which deaf:1-.03e her life with the poet Oaip Mandelst until his death in a prison crew i 1933; Vasily Grossioanas "Foreve Flowing," which deals with the far ings of a camp supervisor who return to the outside world; both Aratini books, and the uncensored version n Anatoly Kuznetsov's "Bahl Yar." "Babi Yar" was originally publiehe? by the Soviets in censored form i 190. The uncensored version beeern available only after lauznetaov deace- ed in London in 1909. laussians wh listened to the broadcasts of "Bal Yar" say they were pardeularly matie because the originally publadie portions were read in a fad announcer voice and the parts cut by the cense were read by lauznetsov himself. Th censored paragraphs, which make u at least a third of the present bool dealt with subject; ranging fro) Ukranian collaboration with Nazi ca cupiers during Woraa War II to col tinning anti-Semitisna in the Sova. Union. Arguments With the Press ADIO LIBERTY also broadcast many Se in isdat works b Ukrainian writers in the Ukrainia language. They are not as well know in the West as Russian Samini ii writers but are even more importar to the 49 million Ukrainians who mak omileoeibort largest ethnic grou IRWIN EVENTS Approved For Release 2001/d330:ak-FUFAM01601 AIM Why Radio Free Europe Must Not Be Silenced Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the two- American stations which broadcast uncensored news and views to more than 350 million people behind the Iron Curtain, are in danger of drowning beneath a new wave of unilateral concessions to the Soviet Union. Last week's 654o-6 Senate vote providing funds for the stations through June 30 was only temporary relief. Whether they will obtain enough funds to op- erate much beyond this date is still problematical. - The threat to the existence of RFE and RL? looked to by people under Communist rule as their only "tree press"?emanates from three sources: ? Sen. J. William Fulbright (D.-Ark.), the power- ful chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee, who has relentlessly campaigned to close the stations down because he believes they block bet- ter relations with Moscow. ? ? ? ? President Richard M. Nixon, who had been standing firmly for the stations, but now appears to be wavering as his journey to Moscow draws nearer and his desire for accommodation with the Russians grows more intense. ? West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, who is anxious lest the forthright broadcasts of the M unich- based stations offend the Kremlin to the point where his own drive for d?nte with the Soviets will be detoured. ? - Aware of President Nixon's capacity for stir- pvse ntoNes (and concession...), proponents of the two stations will not breathe easils Until all the results from the Nixon Moscow mission are in. However,. far more worrisome to them is Willy Brandt, whose government holds license renewal power over the stations, which must apply for new licenses in April. Already in a somewhat euphoric state over his Cistpolitik. Brandt is under tremendous pressure both from the East European and Russian Communist leaders and from the far-left wing of his own Social Democratic party to refuse new licenses. In a recent development, eight far-left Social Dem- ocrat parliamentary deputies sent a telegram to Pres- ident Nixon, calling RFE and RL "a stumbling block" and urging that they be closed down. Brandt's chief spokesman, Conrad Ahlers, followed the telegram by noting in a low-key way that his government recognizes the stations' "significance" but weal) ligtaVACItlFechrtRiThitOrnel)2a0v1A3104 East. This has caused an uproar throughout West Ger- many, where the public is growing increasingly un- easy over Brandt's wooing of the Kremlin. "The readiness of some Social Democrats to demonstrate Bonn's good will to the Soviet Union and the East European regimes obviously knows no limits," re- marked the conservative Munich daily, Muenchner Merkur, calling moves against the radio stations "a characterless, pitiful policy of favoritism toward the Kremlin." ? ? But the potential inclination of the President and the wavering of the present Bonn government only serve to reinforce the most formidable opposition to the stations: Sen. Fulbright. He has been battling the stations ever since the 1970 revelation that they were funded mainly by the- CIA (hardly a startling revelation to those who had long seen the radios as unique instruments of Ameri- can policy whose combined budget of $36 million a year had not come from just public contributions). Rebuffing Fulbright, journalists, scholars and diplomats loudly hailed the stations for their ob- jective reporting, informed commentary. indepen- dence and candor. The stations were further praised for helping preserve the cultural heritage of peoples behind the Iron Curtain, who have endured a pro- nounced and vigorous "R ussifica Lion" over the years. More importantly, RFE and RL have provided the best insurance that the common man in the Com- munist domain does not look upon the West as a gang of capitalist Neanderthals bent only upon club- bing him to death. That, in the long run, is the only real assurance of possible d?nte. However, none of this has deterred Fulbright from his well-publicized death wish for two insti- tutions he calls "relics of the Cold War." During the past year he tried to financially strangle the radio stations by delaying even non-CIA funding. Then he made a clumsy attempt to withhold from his col- leagues highly laudatory Library of Congress studies of the two stations, an exercise in petulance that earned him a sound thumping from the Washington press corps. Fulbright's efforts to torpedo the stations reached its most ludicrous stage when he con- vened Foreign Relations Committee hearings on the matter. So absolute was the concert of expert opinion for the stations that the Arkansas sen- ator could find no witnesses of any stature azainst : QiAnRDP80-01601 R0011000700101-5 rt'ttat 2 Approved For Release 2001/03/QCX1A7RD10(6014111R001140QINAQr1-5 He summoned an unknown but seit-prociaamen "student and practitioner of international broad- casting" from Fresno. Calif., to criticize the stations but this testimony Was greeted with bemused in- difference. Always. demanding full disclosures and unshrouded facts from those who appear before him. Fulbright elicited a wave of snorts and guffaws with his next effort at testimony: To counter the persuasive' pro-RFE-RL testimony of men like Yale political scientist Frederick C. Barghoorn and MIT political scientist William E. Griffith, the senator later produced a letter on the Senate floor which he said was written to him from a retired lower-echelon State Department officer who, he claimed, could not be identified. .*It Seems clear to me where there is no RFE or Radio Liberty now in existence," wrote Fulbright's mystery 'supporter, "that nobody would suggest that? this would be the time to establish such a station." Upon finishing reading this letter, Fulbright in- toned gravely, "This is a very perceptive observa- tion," ? _ _ The senator, hoWever, had not commented on what seemed the infinitely more perceptive observation of another retired State Department office' who did choose to be identified. Foy D. Kohler, former U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, wrote Fulbright: "I strongly support Western radio broadcasts into the Soviet bloc, and consider the services of RL and RFE to be especially important.... i also be- lieve that continuation of these two broadcasting ser- vices is fully compatible with the long-range stability of our relations with that area....... The penultimate result of all Fulbright's maneu- vering was the recent vote on a compromise measure to keep the radio stations going. Although many saw the 65-to-6 vote as a victory for the stations. it merely set the stage for the real battle later this spring when Congress must decide on a permanent method of funding. ? Fulbright would like to see the stations dead. Most proponents would like to have RFE and RL operate out of an autonomous government- funded foundation, similar to the one under which the British Broadcasting Corp. operates. Those who stood with Fulbright in the recent vote constitute a predictable handful of senators whose sanguinity regarding Moscow seems to lead them into, as the British newsweekly The Economist puts it. "doing the Communist governments' work for them." Voting with Fulbright were: Alien J. Ellender (D.-La.), Harold E. Hughes (D.-Iowa), Mike Mans- field (D.-Mont.), William Proxmire (D.-Wis.) and Stuart Syniington (D.-Mo.). ? "The stand of _Fulbright and his little band has of course not been lost on Moscow. Pravda and Radio Moscow are duly commending him." says The Economist. The Eastern European correspondents of seyeraAin Cr Fele Ora g 6(1 00 IYO'S /04 nA on WabjeJS.tlIC rej2Wling_Cloilthe two sta- Q-K?MithiRUall-M-0709 a5 has gone out to Communist bloc embassies in Wash- . . bit of information helpful to him in his fight against "the capitalist pirates of the airwaves." The citizens of Eastern Europe take a different and somewhat dimmer view .of the affair, having heard of Fulbright's opposition over RFE and RL (which have given the senator's side equal time). He is now referred to behind the Iron Curtain as the "Arkansas Fellow-Traveler," or "Fulbrightov," or "Senator Fulbrightovich." And in a withering telegram from London, Oleg Lenchevsky. a Soviet scientist and party member who defected in 1962, suggests a "cure" for Ful- bright and his followers: "[Letj them live the very midst of my hapless fellow countrymen totally deprived of any sort of truthful information, vegetating on a rickety diet of chronic lies from Radio Moscow and Pravda." Heinz Barth, Washington correspondent for Ham- burg's influential daily, Die Welt, observed dryly in an article widely quoted in Europe: "If thank- fulness were a characteristic of the Soviets, they would put up a statue to the senator in Red Square." Moscow's delight with any progress Fulbright makes is indicative of the effectiveness of the sta- tions. The Soviet youth newspaper Kontsomolskaya Pravda noted ruefully last year that Soviet propa- gandists "should draw serious lessons from the work" of RL. Because their large audience (estimates range from 30 to 70 million) treats them as a trusted home senice, speaking to them in their own lan- guage and even dialects, RFE and RL arsjaak.._- fished as a part of the daily life behind the Iron Curtain. It must not be forgotten that they are equally im- portant to the West for several reasons. First, they inform the Communist public about news in both East and West. In doing so they force the Communist governments to confront issues they would otherwise prefer to hide from the public. Much of the world pressure against Moscow on the issue of Soviet Jewry has come about because Radio Liberty has continued to broadcast news of trials and per- secutions and petitions for succor. Second, and this is closely connected with the first, the stations have become a kind of sounding board or clearing house or priceless information on what's going on behind the Curtain. This infor- mation has often. served to delineate the reality of the "workers' paradises" for people in both East and West. For example, it was RFE which broke the news of the December 1970 price riots in Poland which eventually toppled the Gomulka government. Polish state radio was keeping a tight lid on news of the bloody rioting in the streets of Gdansk until RFE began broadcasting news bulletins which alerted the Western news media. use therrMr-S0191 roor4eliRge e 3ogi/ovo r o ispaipglp-e m . enry laV sloVo n 0 1 t'lh Oe Ob 7c Om0a ;e5t Direcki, director of the Cultural Exchange Depart- . for as high as $140. ment of the Polish Foreign Ministry for eight years before his defection in 1968, reports: "RFE news and commentaries are topics of daily discussions at all levels, including members of the Central Committee.. .and the governmental of- ficers." In Prague each morning, members of the Presid- ium, top government officials. and newspaper editors receive a thick bulletin marked "Secret" printed on red and blue paper containing digests of the latest RFE broadcasts. By simply telling the truth, by simply broadcast- ing facts, the stations provide a constant embar- rassment to the Communist governments. The Li; brary of Congress report on RFE transmits the cha- grined reaction of a minor Polish Communist of- ficial Stanislow Mialkowski: "...Members are influenced by the hostile pro- grams of 'Free Europe.' We activists are [therefore] not always able to adopt the right attitude to some matters. For instance, we only learned about the regulations of wages and prices very late, while peo- ple in the street talked about it several days before." Writing from the Ukraine, a listener to RL thanked the station for its floW of information and castigated his own government for its "cowardly silence and wish to hide a pig in a poke from their very own people." In an apologetic manner the Ukrainian listener continued: ? "I only regret that I am a Russian and still live in this wretched Russia and have to write in shame- ful block letters like an illiterate at a time of free- dom of the press and speech" (presumably he Was referring to efforts to disguise his handwriting). In an eloquent denunciation of Moscow's stranglehold on freedom of information the writer noted: "...To our shame and regret we have to learn the truth not from the voice of the public, but from abroad. And all this serves only to undermine more and more [Moscow's] authority.... Let me express over and over to you my acknowledgement that you have been able to open my eyes and broaden my horizon." Particularly embarrassing and infuriating to the Russians is the fact that RFE and particularly RL have become the rallying point and "bulletin board" for the extensive dissident movement in the 'Soviet Union. The movement encompasses a wide spectrum of Soviet life but is particularly concen- trated among the intellectuals. The chief manifestation of this movement has been the much-heralded samizdat, or self-published writings of protest which, though banned by the Kremlin, are quoted widely by listeners of RL. Writings by men like Marchenko, Pasternak, Sen. Fulbright remains unmoved by any testimony Solzhenitzyn and Platinov are familiar staples on the of this sort. As Die Welt correspondent Barth says, RL airwaves. The Russian people eagerly (and il- "One does rut, LIAa.L., ? legally) tapAtindvedc et lksrtRgaisiEfriteel. O3 eQL fiVi glitgli#CsilMi areas where heavy 'jamming precludes reception. munist countries." In addition to these more prominent works of pro- test, RL broadcasts the appeals of religious and eth- nic groups seeking freedom of worship or simply freedom from government harassment. These broad- casts often force the government to confront the is- sue, however obliquely, to answer public opinion. Public opinion was a phenomenon the Kremlin had hoped it could do without. But that was before RL. RFE and RL broadcasts have ignited the desire of untold thousands of people to leave the East bloc and come to the West, bringing skills and valuable information with them. Nuclear scientists, literary figures, artists, a wide intellectual spectrum, have "testified with their feet" to the awakening provided by these two radio stations. A poignant example of this was provided by Dr. Alexey Vasilovich Levin, a former nuclear physicist whodefected from the USSR in 1968. Testifying before the Flouse Foreign Affairs Committee, he said that were it not for Radio Liberty he might well have been "sitting in a Soviet tank in Czechoslovakia, or being expelled from the Sudan as a Soviet ad- viser implicated in an attempted Communist take- over or fulfilling some other imperialist role." Dr. Levin praised the "information which seeps into the Soviet. Union from abroad. It was only be- cause of that uncensored information that I stopped to think about the reality of Soviet life around me." Explaining the effect of RL broadcasts on himself and fellow intellectuals, Levin said, "It was like circles on the water. One listener was like a stone in the water, in my case because the opinions and in- Sen. Fulbright wants to curtail the anti-Communist radio broadcasts in the belief that they harm U.S.- USSR relations. formation of Radio Liberty so stirred me inwardly that I got excited about it?this opinion, this infor- mation that I could never receive from the Soviet media. So, I had an impulse to share my opinion, my analysis of this information with my fellow stu- dents, or with the young scientists with ?whom I worked." . s Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 The Arkansas senator maintains firmly, that the do well to recall the friendly crowds that greeted stations' alleged policy "to stir up trouble in Eastern him on his trip to Poland in 1959 and his trip to Europe and Russia is contrary to the President's Rumania in 1971. Expert observers agree that it was own policy." Yet President Nixon himself, in a letter the announcements of these trips over Radio Free to REE last December said: Europe that caused the big turn-out. "The free flow of information and ideas among nations is indispensable to more normal relations as between East and West and to better prospects for an enduring peace." The Belgian Socialist newspaper le Peuple has commented: The disappearance of RFE would permit the Communist parties perceptibly to improve their con- trol of the population, and by this increase their level of security. Viewed in this manner the closure of RFE would certainly contribute to detente;but can one really plead for a detente which n. ,nifestly goes against the interests of the inhabitants of Eastern Europe?" Interestingly enough. it is the intellectual com- munity, the "thinking elite behind the Iron Curtain, which appears to be most strongly for the stations. Many bubbling Galbraithians believe those intellec- tuals hold the key to change in the Soviet Union and the East Bloc. But they often fail to realize that much of the . hope and inspiration for these intellectuals has been provided by the two radio stations. "I well remember," says Soviet emigre Natalia Belinkev, wife of the late well-known Soviet literary critic Arkady Belinkev, "the efforts made by my friends to hear, despite difficulty,. the unfettered word filtering through jamming. **My invalid husband would spend hours sitting tensely before the radio, operating the volume and tuning controls with both hands. We saved our money, and even went without necessities, in order to buy the most sensitive receiver.... The ending or altering in character of Radio Liberty broadcasts would be a major catastrophe for the So- viet opposition." Russian author. A. Anatoli Kuznetsov, winner of the Stalin Prize, joined eight other exiled scholars and writers to report: "When we listened to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty their programs were for us a sub- stitute for a free press non-existent in our coun- tries.... To speak the language of a free press and not of the government propaganda...makes [RFE and RLI so attractive to their audiences. To deprive them of that life-line would be indeed a crime against liberty." It may be difficult for Sen. Fulbright, who recently characterized the concentration camp-cum-secret po- lice regime of Joseph Stalin as "rather unreason- able," to comprehend the idea of a crime against liberty. He is still opposed to the stations and seems satisfied to leave the people behind the Iron Curtain in darkness. Lest RiqvitispedrporRefleageonoimio4 : C IA-RDP80-01601 R001100070001 -5 Kremlin this ay, begin to think likewise, he would WitSiiIiiCTON DAIL? NI"4.3 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016 !) APR 1972 STATINTL ( West German governments- nay chip tree s By NICHOLAS DANILOFF , By United Press Iniernotional The time: The early 1960s. The place: Prague. The occasion: A state visit to Czecho- slovakia by Soviet Premier Nikita S. 'thrush- chev. De terminated? area where information was severely rationed, cast doubt on the sincerity of the United State From the communist point of view, the radios in achieving an East-West entente. were and are an irritant; they were clearly subversive and undermined communist author- If the .radios do perforin a useful functioi from the U.S. point of view, Sen. Fulbrigh ity; they constituted interference in the inter- nal affairs of the communist countries; suggests that their job be performed by 01 Voice of America. , : The rotund Soviet premier descends from his JUNE 30 DEADLINE A number of specialists disagree, saying thi, jetliner on arrival from Moscow and lines up .... . . with Czech dignitaries to review an honorThese points of view stem from a fundamen- would lay the United States open to the charga guard. : . . tal ideological difference in communist and of interfering in the internal affairs of tip Suddenly he notices one of his shoe laces is western attitudes, but now the matter of the countries of Eastern Europe. While RFE an . untied. He stoops to tie it, operations has blossomed into a troublesome Radio Liberty are regarded as semi-independ dispute between Congress and the Administra- ent, Voice of America is directly government Rrrrrrip! tion. The dispute promises to be of continuing operated. His trousers have split down the back. difficulty for top Administration officials. Sen. Fulbright's dissent has not killed tIT i In an instant an aide appears at 'thrush- President Nixon signed a bill on March 30 to radios. But it has forced the Administration t( chev's side with a freshly pressed pair of trou- continue financing the two radio stations until take a serious new look at RFE and Radii -sers over his arm. June 30. They are being funded at $32 million Liberty, how they perform and what thei "But how did you know so quickly that my a year, down from $36 million. The President value is, pants had split?" Krushchey inquires. ' had to fight to get the bill out of Congress. On PROOF OF VALUE ? "Oh, I heard it on Radio Free Europe," the March 11, in a special White House statement, aide replies. . he said it would be a tragedy if the radios fist officials which acknowledge the radio No one pretends that really happened, but were forced to close.down. provide useful information, particularly 1 the story got wide circulation ? and laughs ? The President was primarily countering the Eastern Europe. in Eastern .European countries among RFE tough opposition of Sen. J. William Fulbright, Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn, the dissident, Nc listeners who depended on it for uncensored D-Ark., who questions the value of the radios' bel Prize-winning Russian author, declared J news. continued existence. Ha would have them elim- \I a recent outburst against the Soviet govern This was the kind of news that RFE and its mated ? or at least financed at a far smaller , ment that Radio Liberty was one of the tm- sister outlet, Radio Liberty, were created in level by the United States, sources of true information in his country. 1949 to broadcast to the Soviet Union and other "I didn't intend for this to become a cause communist countrie behind the Iron Curtain. celebre," Sen. Fulbright said in an interview. The State Department is now studying TIUS best to finance the radio stations in the future RESTRAINED NOW "I'm primarily for cutting costs. Why, we in Arkansas have difficulty in getting $5 million At?congressional hearings last May and Sc T w e n t y -t h r e e years later, times havefor sewer and water projects." tetnber, it was suggested that a public-privat changed. The radio's broadcasts, in the opin- corporation be created to keep the radios go The senator, who for weeks created a parlia- ion of diplomats and experts, have become ing. . more restrained. But the prospects for 'their mentary impasse which threw the future of the stations into doubt, does not appear to be P o s s ib 1 y, West European gevernment ,-future are murky, to say the least. immplacably hostile to the continued broad- which are in closer geographical proximity t The radios were established in West Ger- the Soviet Union, might chip in. It is felt her I many with secret financing from the Central cast operations. : that West Germany may have a particula `J Intelligence Agency to counter the highly con- "I'm not going to die if these radio stations interest in shaping the future on RFE and Ra trolled press and radio of the communist gov- continue," he said. "I don't mind if the United dio Liberty, since they operate from that cour ernments. . Slates shares the operating expenses with a try. number of Western European governments ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty made Before approaching the Western Europeans and pays, say, one third or one fourth of the it their business to broadcast back to Eastern the State Department is sounding out the nioo. costs." Europe and the Soviet Union information on in Congress. A first step is quiet consultation events which went unmentioned by the official But he does raise a number of hard ques- with Senate Republican Leader Hugh Scott, c communist media. They broadcast news about tions about the radio stations.- Pennsylvania, Sen Charles Percy, R-Ill., a n, unauthorized strikes, intellectual ferment, na- He calls them "relics Of the cold war." Ra- Rep. Dante Fascell, D-Fla. . tural disasters. dio Free Europe has been accused of encour- Sen. Percy sponsored ? a Senate resolutio To help, - they made use of radio monitors aging the abortive Hungarian rebellion of 1956 which won 67 votes in favor of continuing th and research institutions ? Staffed partly by and of spreading unrest in Poland during De- radios. Representative Faacell propoec an or .refugees and partly by- western specialists.- cember, 1970, demonstrations. ? successful house bill which would have fi The two radio stations published their re- Sen Fulbright notes that Soviet leaders, on nanced the radios for two more years. search papers which were useful to scholars, the eve of .President Nixon's visit to Moscow Once the extent of congressional support l journalists and western intelligence. next "month, still regard the broadcasts as sub- estimated, the State Department will bogi From the U.S. point of view, the radios were versive. . , contacting West ,Germany and other nation promoting the free flow of information. to an To continue these broadcasts, he. says, is to about supporting the two stations. . . .. . ... ., . . . . Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01.601R001100070001-5 TNE FaCNMOND. NEWS LEADER Approved For Release 2663bliartIA-RDP80-01601R0011111111111111111.=11 STATINTL Ask Chiang Last ? Week , President Nixon signed a three-month reprieve for 'Radio Liberty and Radio Free Eu- 613e, the Munich-based stations that broadcast, respectively, to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. ? The ap- Propriations ? bill provides enough tooney to carry the stations through to the end of this fiscal year, at which ;(time Congress will consider a new 'Ad- ministration request for funds?that is, 4f the Administration bothers to make 'Stich a request. Each day, the odds grow slimmer, 'and not, strangely, because of the sta- tions' most vocal opponent, Senator J. William F'ulbright. To be sure, the Chairman of the Foreign Relations -Committee has led the charge against the stations, whooping that they 'should take their "rightful place in the graveyard of cold-war relics." And the bill that the President has just signed does represent a victory ....for the Senator, who vowed to hold up all legislation on the stations until the Potomac parted, rather than agree to long-term funding. Nonetheless, not even Senator Fulbright can write the death . sentence on RFE. and Radio Liberty. No, that dubious distinction could be '., claimed only by President Nixon, who ?1 must choose whether to circumvent .1 the ,Fulbrights of the world. In the re- cent battle over the stations, the Pres- ident did little more than slough the `[.entire issue, notwithstanding his longtime pledges of support for the stations. There will be Moscow in May, and the President must not be too bold in such trivial but sensitive matters as straight-talking radio stations. That is why disc-jockeys in Munich these days are reading want ads. Since 1950, RFE and Radio Liberty have passed truth over the Iron Cur- tain to millions of grateful listeners who could get- it no other way. Des- pite excesses during the Hungarian Revolution and despite past support by the Central Intelligence Agency, the two stations have consistently of- fered objective and non-inflammatory programming from news to music. No Tokyo Roses, no Lord Haw Haws, no Hanoi Hannahs. Just the straight stuff. As a result, the Kremlin has de- spised the stations from the start: Propaganda can be countered by truth far more easily than the other way around'. So when the President goes to Moscow, the Soviets undoubt- edly will suggest to Mr. Nixon what a nice gesture it would be if RFE and Radio Liberty were sent to the guillo- tine. Mr. Nixon just might say yes, and tell the nation upon his return that?in Senator Fulbright's words?"I find it incomprehensible after these years of direct contact with the Soviet Union, that we must continue to sup- port (these stations)." Anyone doubt- ing such a possibility should address all inquiries to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 1-1 VATION Approved For Release 20010/414-61A- RUATAT CIL: TM-, 17,1 IPITZE7-3- ED17,1',711"El Incrort MALICIMTTI Mr. Marchetti was on the director's stall of the CIA when he resigned from the agency two years ago. Since then, his novel The Rope-Dancer has been published by Grosset & 'Dunlap; he is now working on a book-length critical analysis of the CIA. The Central Intelligence Agency's role in U.S. foreign af- fairs is, like the organization itself, clouded by secrecy and confused by misconceptions, many of them deliberately promoted by the CIA with the cooperation of the news media. Thus to understand the covert mission of this agency and to estimate its value to the political leadership, one must brush myths aside and penetrate to the sources and circumstances from which the agency draws its au- thority and support. The CIA is no accidental, romantic aberration; it is exactly what those who govern the country intend it to be?the clandestine mechanism whereby the executive branch influences the internal affairs of other nations. In conducting such operations, particularly those that are inherently risky, the CIA acts at the direction and with the approval of the President or his Special Assistant for National Security Affairs. Before initiating action in the field, the agency almost invariably establishes that its oper- Ational plans accord with the aims of the ?administration and, when possible, the sympathies of Congressional lead- ers. (Sometimes the endorsement or assistance of influen- tial individuals and institutions outside government is also sought.) CIA directors have been remarkably well aware of the dangers they court, both personally and for the agency, by not gaining specific official sanction for their covert operations. They are, accordingly, often more care- ful than are administrators in other areas of the bureau- cracy to inform the White Hous,e of their activities and to : seek Presidential blessing. To take the blame publicly for an occasional operational blunder is a small price to pay in return for the protection of the Chief Executive and the men who control the Congress. The U-2 incident of 1960 was viewed by many as an outrageous blunder by the CIA, wrecking the Eisenhower- Khrushchev summit conference in Paris and setting U.S.- Soviet relations back several years. Within the inner circles of the administration, however, the shoot-down was shrugged off as just one of those things that happen in the chancy business of intelligence. After attempts to deny responsibility for the action had failed, the President openly defended and even praised the work of the CIA, although for obvious political reasons he avoided noting that he had authorized the disastrous flight. The U-2 program against the USSR was canceled, but work on its follow-on system, the A-11 (now the SR-7I,) was speeded up. Only the launching of the reconnaissance satellites put an end to espionage against the Soviet Union by manned aircraft. The A-11 development program was completed, neverthe- less, on the premise that it, as well as the U-2, might be useful elsewhere. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ? After the-Bay of feel the sting of Pre: the agency had its because it failed in overthrow Castro. C the top of the agenc committee, which til tration, the agency tices. Throughout th tine operations again the same time, and agency deeply invol% ing regimes in Laos When the Nationi the CIA in 1967, s exposed the agency' labor and cultural ( funding conduits, ne tried to restrict the Senator Fulbright's a trol over the CIA h; was siMply told by P and get on with its b; formed to look into Secretary of State, th of the CIA. Some because they had be -longer thought worth continued under improvea cover operations went .on under almost Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty examples. And all the while, the $500 million-a-year private war in assassination programs in Vietnam . A tew ot the larger open CIA sponsorship, and Air America being CIA was conducting a Laos and pacification/ The reorganization of the U.S. intelligence commu- nity late last year in no way altered the CIA's mission as the clandestine action arm of American foreign policy. Most of the few changes are intended to improve the finan- cial management of the community, especially in the mili- tary intelligence services where growth and the technical costs of collecting information are almost out of control. Other alterations are designed to improve the meshing of the community's product with national security planning and to provide the White House with greater control over operations policy. However, none of that implies a reduction of the CIA's role in covert foreign policy action. In fact, the extensive review conducted by the White House staff in preparation for the reorganization drew heavily on advice provided by the CIA and that given by former agency officials through such go-betweens as the influential Council on Foreign Relations. Earlier in the Nixon Admin- istration, the Council had responded to a similar request by recommending that in the future the CIA should con- centrate its covert pressure tactics on Latin American, African and Asian targets, using more foreign nationals as agents and relying more on private U.S. corporations and other institutions as covers. Nothing was said about reduc- CIA-I-RDP80-01601 R001100070001 -5 rtc STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/Q3/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001 NEW BRITAIN, CONN. . HERALD ApR 3 1972 E 33,321 Radio Free Europe ,.?should be maintained Dear Editor: if Senator Fulbright has his way, RadiO ! Free Europe will cease broadcasting this month. Funding ran out Feb. 22 following a charge by Mr. Fulbright, that RFE was being financed in part by the Central In- telligence Agency. He failed, however, to mention that constant monitoring of RFE programs revealed unbiased news report- ing and straight commentary similar to that supplied by the three major ne- tworks. Our own republican representa- tive, (Robert Steele) has demanded that Fulbright release two favorable and sub- stantial reports on RFE to the public. Ironically the reports were ordered by his ' own committee on Foreign Relations, of which he is chairman: Radio Free Europe stations broadcast to eastern European nations including those behind the 'iron curtain. Thus they are a potential threat to the soviet form of tyranny which has enslaved millions and' prevented men and women from learning anything save "the party line." Why then does Senator Fulbright want RFE muz- zled. Are we to believe the sole justifica- tion is association with the There are thousands of Mgarians, Luthuanians, Czechoslovakians, Ruman- ians, Latvians and Bulgarians located in ? this state. Are they going to allow Mr. Fulbright the opportunity of shutting down RFE? Will they permit his ending, perhaps for all time, the one contact that ? keeps hope alive in the hearts and minds ? of relatives and friends behind the barbed wire of the USSR? I think not. Please write or telegram representative Steele , so that he will know you care. Do it for those you love, do it for RFE, but do it. DOUG WARD WELL 74 Sylvan Rd. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 t'Angi 1:GT EOST, Approved For Release 200vcipfp197p1A-RDP80-01601 Mr. Kleindienst, Meet Mr. Shakespeare The current flap over whether it is appropriate for a USIA film to be shown on Senator Buckley's TV show, designed for constituent consumption, contains a lot of legal analysis, high drama and low comedy. Lurking in the background is a con- tinuing conflict between Senator Fulbright and the USIA over the value and the merit of sonic of that agencies efforts, most notably, Voice of America, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Ami some- where in the foreground- is a statement by a USIA official on the taped Buckley show to the effect that the foreign policy views of the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee are "naive and stupid." And right in the middle is a large question of law and policy about whether it is either lawful or wise for the U.S. information agency to make its output, originally designed for use abroad, available here at home through a polit- ical figure, or through anyone else for that matter. When the press reported that the taped Buckley show existed, Senator Fulbright? ignoring the ref- erence to him, asked the Department of Justice to restrain its release on the ground that the USIA was not authorized by law to distribute its material .domestically. At about the same time, USIA Direc- :tor Shakespeare issued a statement acknowledging past difficulties with the senator, but stating the hope that "future discussions . . . will be conducted, as they have been heretofore in a courteous and respectful manner." ? Then, Mr. Shakespeare sent the senator a formal apology repeating the tone of his earlier statement and commenting on the issue at hand: "There is also a question in my mind as to the propriety of the national archives release of a USIA film to a political figure for use on a domestic TV program . . . I can well see that the use of the film by a political figure, even on an educational program, is of questionable validity." He informed the sen- ator that he had asked his general counsel to in- struct the archives that such use of film does not eonform to the agency's judgment of the propri- eties involved and thus that such material was not to be used in that manner in the future. At this point it seemed that those who fear the development of a governmental domestic propa- ganda capacity could all relax. But it was not to be. On Friday, Acting Attorney General Kleindienst sent over his answer to the senator's request to stay USIA's hand. Astonishingly, he found that words in the act establishing the USIA were in- .. STATINTL tended to permit USIA materials to be made avail- able to the American public through the press and through members of Congress. This analysis is remarkable in view of the lan- guage of the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 creating the USIA. As we read it, this language speaks only of the promotion of understanding of the United States and her people "in other countries" and to 'that end of the "establishment of an information service to disseminate abroad" information about the United States. When, in 1965, there was strong public interest in a USIA film on President Ken- nedy, the Congress passed a special joint resolution to permit the agency to release the film to the American public. During the debate on the issue, Senator Mundt, one of the authors of the original USIA bill, said, in an executive session of the For- eign Relations Committee, that during the original debate, one of the most hotly contested issues was whether the Congress was creating a "domestic propaganda agency." He added: "We Put in a?sec- tion specifically to prevent it." The Foreign Relations Committee Report on the Kennedy film resolution contained the following language: "It is the further sense of Congress that the expression of congressional intent embodied in this Joint Resolution is to be limited solely to the film referred to herein and that nothing contained in this Joint Resolution should be construed to establish a precedent for making other material prepared by USIA available for general distribu- tion in the United States." Now that seems pretty clear. Yet the acting attorney general found otherwise. The dangers to a free people of a creeping prac- tice of governmentally developed propaganda ma- terial being broadly disseminated to the American public are too obvious for extended analysis, par- ticularly when the first instance of such dissemina- tion is through a political figure of the same general political persuasion as the administration in power. We think that Mr. Shakespeare's instincts and judgments were correct and that Mr. Klein- dienst was wrong on both the law and the policy. Fortunately, sources within USIA express an inten- tion to adhere to the limitation in Mr. Shakespeare's letter. But we think that that limitation should be broadened. It should not simply apply to dissem- ination through public figures, but to all dissemina- tion to the American public. Finally, it is only fair to say that Mr. Fulbright, far from being either stupid or naive on this mat- ter, was eminently wise. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 7-7 kiAPOLIS, MINN. TATILITL TRI VritcSIP-111A oo .fra 1N^ For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-Avou-uib01 M ? 240,275 S ? 674 p302 By Robert J. White Of the editorial page staff Radio Free Europe and Radio LibertY. have an assured future of three months. Unless Congress overcomes the objections of the powerful chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, two decades of broadcasts by RFE and RL to Communist countries will end. That is what Sen. William Fulbright hopes will happen. The two Munich-based stations are, he says, "Cold War ? relics," vestiges of an outdated, evangelical foreign poli- cy assumes others "will act like we want them to act if we only tell them how." . The Nixon administration, and even many who have been criticizing RFE-RL past practices, believe that the /stations still play a neceSsary role. After Sen. Clifford 4 Case blew their CIA "cover' a year ago, he and others in .1- Congress pushed?legislation that would openly fund .RFE and RL and continue their operations. The adrninis- '? tration, differed on details, but agreed in principle. But with Fulbright's hand on the legislative brake, an im- passe' developed in February that threatened momentari- ly to extinguish the stations. A brief reprieve came March 11 in a compromise for funding until June 30. The short-term agreement gave President Nixon the op- , portunity to reaffirm his support for REE and RL as a "vital source of. uncensored news and commentary for ttens of millions of people." - ' . "Cold War relic" or "vital source"? The view offered here is that Mr. Nixon's statement comes closer to the vmark than Fulbright's. That conclusion is based on three , arguments: First, RFE and RL are not the deterrents to detente they are sometimes made out to be. Second, the stations are carrying out, a positive purpose that might be pursued by other means ? but no other means are in sight. Third, the stations are effective at reasonable :I?cost. But Brandt's ostpolitik is now jeopardized more by fal- tering support in his own parliament than by Communist intransigence. And last. fall's four-power agreement on 'Berlin, Which only dedicated optimists had thought even remotely 'possible, .would surely not have been reached if RFE and RL were the impediments to detente Fulbright believes them to he. STATI NTL It's not enough, of .course, to say-merely that RFE and RL do no discernible harm. Another important question is whether they serve a positive purpose. On Fulbright's \ 'premise, the answer is no. On the other premise -- that the Cold Wm' has changed, not vanished ? the answer is yes. It is true that the Cold War produced RFE and RL. The ? Cold War also, produced NATO, the Warsaw Pact, the Berlin Wall and various other "relics" that are still ??' around. It is true, too, that a whole series of East-West negotiations, in process or imminent, depend on a good working relationship between Moscow and Washington. -.'Arms limitation, European security, Middle East, trade all are on the agenda, and the President's forthcoming -tap to Moscow gives special urgency to preserving an .7 atmosphere in which negotiations are possible. ? But to argue that RFE and RL are barriers to such nego- tiations is to overlook the East-West negotiating prog- ress already made, despite attacks on the stations. RFE I came. under particularly heavy Communist criticism last .year after it gave early and extensive coverage to the 'December 1970 riots in Poland. At the same time, Communist governments complained to West Germany that allowing the stations-to broadcast from Munich was at odds with Chancellor Willy Brandt's ostpolitik, or ne- gotiations with the East. , . . . Approved For Release 2001/03/ Unlike the- 1950s and '60s, the 1970s are providing abun- dant, signs that East and West want to expand their con- tacts, prevent great-power confrontations and promote political stability in -Europe. The least change is in the unfashionable, but nevertheless real, area of ideological differences, Party Secretary Leonid Brezhnev last month promised 6,000 Soviet trade unionists that improved East-West relations will not bring a relaxation in the "ideological struggle." President ? Nixon sounded the same theme in February, saying of the Soviet Union, "We are ideologi- cal adversaries and will remain so." Each is stating the belief ? as are other leaders, East and West that peo- ple in antithetical political systems can coexist without forfeiting their ideological principles. A fundamental principle of the Soviet ideological strug- gle is restraint of the free flow of ideas and information. A fundamental principle of Western ideology is precisely the opposite. And there is a further distinction. "Struggle," to the Soviet Union and allied countries, also means spreading their political viewpoint abroad. Radio Moscow and Radio Peace and Freedom (the latter a theo- retically "independent" station) broadcast about 1,900 hours per week outside the Soviet union in 80 foreign languages. Another 1,900 hours per week of external broadcasts come from East European stations; Radio Prague, for example, includes programs in Spanish, Ital- ian and German. The distinction between these and Western programs de- signed for Eastern audiences is both quantitative and qualitative. The weekly hours broadcast by Voice of America, RFE and RL combined are about the same as the foreign - language broadcasts from the Soviet Union alone. But that does not mean a superpower parity in propaganda. , of America, which -Secretary of State Rogers de- scilb-n?as 1The principal interpreter of U.S. domestic and foreign policy to the peoples abroad," clearly prom- otes the American viewpoint. But only 40 llercent of its 041:6[CttAulit3 PU411 6 OIROSII NO.701:101e,51s win be demonstrated, by no reasonable definition can . RFE and RL be considered propaganda stations. If they Approved For Release 2001/03 I P80-01601R00 Correspondence Foreign Broadcast Sirs: As an admirer of the quality of your editorials and original research, I was disappointed with your March 4 "En- lightening the Natives," advocating th'at Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty be shut down. ? _ First, you imply that; since Radio Free Europe (RFE) and Radio Liberty_ (RL) are subsidized by US government funds, they could not .be more "inde- pendent" than the Voice of America. The VOA broadcasts official views but does not broadcast views of the domes- tic affairs of the countries to which they are talking. (Radio Free Europe not only talks about events in Poland, but gives extensive information on sports, agri- cultural developments and cultural events in the West as they relate to Poland.) Second, the editorial says the purpose of the stations is "not merely to give the news, but to encourage, perhaps to in- cite, change inside Communist coun- tries." Of course it encourages change. Isn't that the object of a liberal foreign policy? The stations give facts, alterna- tive information people can use. Amer- ican liberals long have been pointing to the fact that there is a Sino-Soviet split, but it was Radio Free Europe that first made extensive broadcasts on these dif- ferences in 1962 and helped give Ro- mania and other countries more room in which to maneuver in ttie schism. Third, the editorial says; the Bul- garians, why not the Spaniards and the South Africans and the Brazilians," etc.? Since it is not fashionable in liberal cir- cles to be disturbed over Soviet hege- mony, it at least ought to be recognized that the last two world wars began in this area and it remains in a highly un- 'stable equilibrium. Let's face it: the fate of the Brazilian indians, however un- just, has not yet become a serious chal- lenge to the survival of the West. Fourth, your editorial says, as a matter of national policy, we doubt the efficacy of the attitude that we know what's good for them." The radios aren't operating under that assumption. Rather they operate on the assumption that the more information people have, the better they can decide how they want to run their lives. Your editorial implies that RFE broadcasts to people whether they like or not: it is their gov- ernment that may not like it, but sur- weys show the broadcasts are widely received among the people in Eastern Europe and that Radio Liberty is a ctu- ? cial support to liberal elements in the Soviet Union who hunger for a substi- tute free press. Fifth, your editorial says the money. ought to be used for American broad- casts instead. You should know such an either-or argument isn't necessary. Hap Cawood Dayton, Ohio STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 JlIAI J.+ 3 1 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDPset0A911100 An Underground View of Radio Liberty By DEAN MILLS , Moscow. There is no way of gauging public opinion in a country where the government owns the press and all the research institutions. No one, Westerner or Russian, can guess with any accuracy how much of an effect Western radio stations have upon Soviet audi- ences. But Westerners living here do know, from limited firsthand con- tact with Russians, that many of them listen regularly to the BBC, Voice of America, Radio Israel, or Radio Liberty. Members of the constituency have included the late Nikita Khrushchev (reportedly a Voice of America fan) and Alek- sander Solzhenitsyn (BBC). A 3,000-word essay is now circu- lating in the Moscow underground, attacking United States Senator J. William Fulbright for trying to cut off funds for Radio Liberty, the station which devotes the most time to the Soviet Union. (Radio Free Europe, another of Senator Fulbright's targets, broadcasts only to the other Eastern bloc countries). The writer of the essay is reliably reported to be a physi- cist, German Smirnovsky, who has never been active in the dissident movement.' ? ? ? , ? ? The language is at times intem- perate, in the style of most Rus- sian political tracts. And the straight-forward anti-communism of the writer is almost certainly shared by no more than a small minority of his countrymen. But the essay gives some rare insights Into the Russian's ear view of Western radio broadcasts. And it Js 'a reminder that there are peo- ple here, however small their number may be, who do not ac- cept the Pravda interpretation of ,Western radio stations, or of any- thing else. Here are excerpts from the essay, entitled "Whose side are you on, Mr. Fulbright?": !`The city sleeps. At least so it seems to the policemen who patrol the frozen capital. The sound of the snowstorm muffles the clank- ing of their hobnail boots on the pavement. "But what is this? In Moscow apartments, villages on the steppes of Central Asia, in the Siberian Taiga a voice is heard, a human voice, speaking in Russian, so unlike the official ravings of the Soviet language. "'This is Radio Liberty.' " ? ? ? "It penetrates every remote cor- ner of the country and finds a response in the heart of every decent person in Ruskia. And the super-jamming, for wch taxpay- ers every year put up to a million rubles, does not help. Nor do the snoopy neighbors?KGB agents who expose those who listen to Western stations (God knows how much our people pay this bunch of informers), nor the slanderous ar- ticles in the official press. Commu- nism, with its anti-human face, is powerless against the free world. "The closing of Radio Liberty would have terrible consequences for our country. And if Fulbright succeeds in closing the radio sta- tion, then the question automati- cally arises: Where will this Rus- sophobe turn next? Perhaps to the Russian section of the Voice of America? "Not one of the other Western radio stations could replace Radio Liberty for listeners in the Soviet Union. Let us consider the more popular stations: "Voice of America: The usual .length of broadcasts in the Rus- - sian language is six hours in the evening and two in the morning. When the government was not jamming foreign government broadcasts, Voice of America en- joyed great success in the most varied circles of society. In the apartments of many of my ac- quaintances, particularly among youth, the station was heard from 7 o'clock in the evening until 1 o'clock in the morning. "The news on the hour (still) is popular. After that, radio listeners generally turn to other stations. Few people. want to listen to sto- ries about how some farmer in Iowa had a huge corn harvest or about some famous American woman Negro athlete who is com- pletely unknown here. "BBC?This radio station broad- casts in Russian five hours a day. In Russia, there is a widespread feeling that the most objective, 'disinterested' news is broadcast by the BBC. In fact, it almost fully corresponds to the news given by Voice of America. The station is jammed in all of Moscow much more strongly than the broadcasts of its American colleague. It de- votes a great deal of time to events in Ulster and Malta. ? ? ? "Radio Israel?It is also popular in Russia, but mainly among Jew- ish circles. I am struck by the abundance of Jewish information from Russia that is broadcast by the station. Many letters, petitions and telegrams are read on the radio the same day they are writ- ten in the Soviet Union. "The party 'brothers' ... also broadcast full programs in Rus- sian?Radio Peking and Radio Tir- ana. They are popular in certain circles of workers who, like all people. are displeased with the party bosses. Like those of Radio Belgrade, they are intended for Communists. But there are few such people in Russia, Commu- nists of conviction rather than con- venience, and for the rest these broadcasts are simply not interest. ing. ? ? ? . - "However, when one succeeds in receiving Radio Liberty, absolutely everyone listens to it. In addition to giving its listeners truthful in. formation and preserving Russian cultural values, Radio Liberty tries to. educate listeners as deceni people, to correct moral .cripples after 50 years of Communist tyran. ny, to combat the pettiness formed in the minds of the people. "It is difficult to convey the NI significance of Radio Liberty fox Russia. One can learn things tlu party bosses concealed from Hit people in .the course of their rule: The truth about the political trial: of the ?Thirties, the true face o Lenin and his supporters, and the great heritage in literature, philos ophy and social science which ix hidden away in the locked rooms of libraries: "To lose Radio Liberty mean: for Russia losing freedom, the lit- tle left to us, in the literal sense 0: the word. The freedom to get ti information about our count: y Not one Western radio static): gives this so well, with the under standing of the needs of Russia, a: does Radio Liberty. "Fulbright and his supporters say that Radio Liberty is a relic o the Cold War. Consider thi: phrase: How stupid it sounds 13: itself. No, Radio Liberty is not a relic of the Cold War, but of tit( human necessity to end the mora murder of 250 million people. A: for the Cold War, it continues. From one side. From the side 01 the Kremlin rulers ..." Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 L44-1'11. 3 1 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-AT:NMI% Confiden-ee Vote Foreig.tittiderit opuldion Grows, ? .,.13y ? Stephen S. Rosenfeld . -7 THE NUMBER of foreign students at '-American universities has been growing at a rate. described by the State Department, which is not normally given to unrestrained language, as "spectacular." 34,000 in 1954. 82,000 in 1965. 145,000 in 1971. Though rising costs, open-enrollment, "Americans first" pressures and the buildup of facilities back home may . now be cutting off further growth, the figures are indeed spectacular, not to say intriguing and quietly cheering: They seem to say something about America that, for a change, most of us can agree is nice to hear. . The figures are, first of all, evidence of :the most compelling sort of the attractions which , education and experience in the United States have around the world: 37 per cent of foreign students come from the Far East, 20 per cent from Latin America, 13 . from Europe, 12 from the Middle East; 9 from North America, and 6 from Africa. (Overall, three of four are men.) Students ' began coming in numbers in the 50s. That ? was understandable because their choices were limited and, to many, the American ciream was still bright. Rising appetites for education and the stimulus of a certain Sovi- ,et-American rivalry for the allegiance of the world's young, thought to be a key group, brought more students in the 60s. But the 70s, when supposedly Vietnam had proven beyond any innocent's doubt that America was over, turned sour, a crass out- of-control machine; when word about our failings had supposedly filtered back to the remotest third-world village and slum . . . Well, here are 145,000 foreigners, most pre- sumably from their homelands' elites, cast- ing by their presence what yon might call .a 'vote of confidence in the United States. cis) ? " 1 , . you inay say, they're Merely gritting Itheir teeth, exploiting our naivete and our superior educational plant, and hating us The more for knowing us when they finally 'go home. Perhaps. Reliable follow-up attitu- ?dinal studies are scarce. Yet too many of us have met and known too many foreign stu- dents to really believe that, I would guess. They may be "expoiting" us but we?espe- cially our students?are ."exploiting" them 'too. To know us may not be to love us but surely to know us is at least to pause and consider our complexities before rendering verdict, however harsh. . You may also suspect that our govern- ment is out there buying up unaware or des- perate young people in order to "influence" them or to prevent the Russians (or -.Chinese) from winning a crucial battle for hearts and minds. But less than one in 20 foreign students is supported by the govern- ment, and' then customarily only in inade- ttuate partial meast....Some 37 per cent of tothi 'are selfSUPPOrting; 32 per cent's support is unknown; most of the rest are carried by American organizations?univers- ities, foundations, and the 'like. It is not by -official government policy but by individual foreign choice and; beyond that, by private voluntary American demand that foreigners study at our campuses. This is an interesting point to ponder at a moment when predictions of a national slide toward neo-isolationism are widely in vogue. Not only are foreigners evidently not fed up with us; we evidently are not fed up with them. It is the decision of hundreds of uni- versities and other groups to contribute to foreigners' and their own enrichment by 'maintaining and expanding these very tangi- ble continuing ties. "The government" in its various aspects is important. For instance, the 25-year- old Fulbright-Hays program has . brotight 140,000 foreigners scholars here. Senator Fulbright hailed his brainchild just the other day "because it leads to the civilizing of our people so they don't engage in peri- odic blood-letting." (He contrasted Ful- bright-Hays, by the way, with Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, whose "propa- ganda" broadcasts he hopes to terminate; al- though just why it's fine to let a foreigner see us close up with his own eyes, but not to hear us from a distance with his own ears, is not obvious.) ? ' Mr. Nixon's own attitude can perhaps be fairly indicated by the fact that, as Vice President in 1958, he made a rare appear- ance before the Senate Appropriations Com- mittee, testifying for, if you will, Fulbrights Hays. In his administration, the State De- partment's budget for foreign-student serv- ices has increased: back-home counseling, on-campus orientation, travel. (State per- suaded the National Association of Motor Bus Owners to facilitate "See America" tour tickets), etc. The department feels that em- phasis on these auxiliary programs aiding -individual students is all the more impor- tant now that the international youth and student organizations of the '50s and '60s are pretty much spent. ?. THE rationale for official interest is dis- played by the title?"Leaders for Tomorrow, A Review of U.S. Programs for Foreign Stu- dents"?of the last annual report of Assist- ant Secretary of State John Richardson Jr. "No one can say with assurance what spe- cific education and experience produces a leader," the report says. "But it's a certainty that more and more of tomorrow's leaders here and elsewhere will be drawn from those who study outside their own country, .or have had some opportunity to observe other- na- tions and peoples." To observe not as sol- diers or tourists or emigrants, it might be added, but as individuals who come for a peaceable purpose, stay long enough for deep exposure, and go home. - Foreigners' study here, the report con- cludes, "makes them members of the new in- ternational fraternity, the transnational 'community of the concerned.' It is this group in each country which is most likely to develop new forms of international coop- era ion, and to work consciously among themselves and other nations, inch:Wing -the United States, to solve some -of mankind's common problems. To the extent that we as American individuals, communities, institu- tions or public or private agencies, help them build ties with U.S: classmates, friends and professional colleagues, we contribute towards this long-sought international part- nership for peace." Amen. . Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 LEBANON , N.H. Approved WthliNtril3 0Q3/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601ROOM=M E ? 9,635 Government Deceit STATI NTL ? Deceit in government has no place in an America that reveres its first President for his declaration, can- not tell a lie." But deceit has been rotting America's government in recent years, so much so that nearly half the Americans questioned in a 1970 survey said they no longer believed what their government told them. Americans had new reason for their distrust this week, when Administration officials and Congressional aides worked out a way to continue government financing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty until June 30. ?They were reminded that these radio stations have ? been financed to the tune of $500 million by the_Qp and they remembered those stirring television corn- mercials through the years that urged them to con- tribute their gifts to Radio Free Europe to carry the truth behind the Iron Curtain, when all the while their con- tributions were ,not needed. Americans have a degree, of sophistication. They - understood, when they found out a couple of years ago ? that Radio Free Europe would not die if they stopped , - sending contributions, that its effectiveness among its European listeners might have been diminished if they , A had known the broadcasts were really U.S. government , broadcasts. But AmeriCans still do not like to be duped by anybody, much less by their own government. And they could well wonder, now that the world has known for a couple of years that these radio stations' , are government financed, why the government is so , eager to continue them if that knowledge has rendered their words suspect. Those words need not be suspect. Governments ; can tell the truth. Governments can demonstrate in- : 'tegrity, and when they do they find that they are more powerful at home and throughout the world because 3 . they can be trusted. Paul Joseph Goebbels, propaganda chief for Adolph Hitler, lamented in his diary because the German govern- ment had lied to its own people but Winston Churchill had told the truth to his, Churchill could inspire more _ determination and enthusiasm among the British by announcing a defeat than Hitler could inspire among , the Germans by -announcing a victory. Let Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty go on, and I let them tell the news with a candor and honesty that cannot be challenged, and let the government of the United States treat its own citizens with the respect owe ApprovsedieRWIZPA2661110,014,thCIA-RDP80-0 01R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 140111/03104324A-RDP80-0160.1R0 3 0 MAR 1972 Lette-r's to the Ed to 'The, Orange Card' SIR:: The gratuitous criticism in your March 25 editorial,. with respect to my position on Northern Ire- land ignores an obvious fact. The new peace initiative announned last week by Prime Minister Heath coin- cides almost precisely with two of the most important 'provisiQns in the resolution I introduced in Congress last October with Senator Abe Ribicoff and Congress- man Hugh Carey?the promised phase-out of intern- ment, zind the institution of direct rule of Ulster from , Westminster: My only real regret is that the initiative was so long delayed in coming, and that so many innocent lives " Were lost before Britain decided to act. All of us hope and pray that the new policy will be successful in halting the killing and violence. Simple humanity requires us to . continue to speak out to insure the earliest possible end to the tragedy. One other point should be made about your editorial. ' Anyone familiar with Ulster history must wince at the obvious blunder in your use of the famous expression "Playing the Orange Card" to describe Prime Minister . Heath's initiative. Lord Randolph Churchill coined the phrase in the 1880s and played the card in opposition to Gladstone's Home Rule Bill. As Churchill wrote to Lord Justice Fitzgibbon in 1886: "I decided some time ago that if the COM (Grand Old Man, Gladstone) went for Home Rule, the Orange Card would be the one to play. Please God, it may turn okt the ace of trumps and not the two." ' Ever since, the phrase has been used to denote rttempts to stir up the Orange Order in Ulster and other Protestant opposition to British policy. The phrase can tardly be used to describe a progressive British initia- tive. For nearly a hundred years, British policy toward 3reland has been paralyzed by fear of the abominable Orange Card. Now, Prime Minister Heath has faced the thallenge, and for that he deserves great credit. Edward M. Kennedy, U.S. Senator. ? ? Radio Free Europe SIR: Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are very Important means of communication with the captive nations in Eastern Europe. People behind the Iron Curtain deserve hearing news and information from the ''ree World. Any dollar we spend for this cause is worth It from the humanitarian point of view. If present conditions are such that we cannot help them otherwise, the least we can do is to extend them unbiased informa- tion.. I oppose Sen. J.W. Fulbright's attempt to discontin- be funds for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Closing of these broadcasts would be a service to the International communism. John B. Genys, President, Lithuanian-American Community of Greater ' Wadlington? _ t STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 gi I. .4.1 ki S 4,01 2 9 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: Clk-WFM6101601 DESPITE PRESIDENT Nixon's total support for continuing Radio Free Eu- rope (RFE) and Radio Lib- erty (RL) broadcasts to Communist Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, hard- line skeptics are fearful his policy of detente with the Communist world is subtly undermining freedom of the two radios to keep operat- ing. Subterranean signals that some Nixon advisers may be having second thoughts about the kwo radi os beamed to the Communist heartland were evident in the toned-down statement he belatedly put out March it That statement, asking Congress to break its long deadlock on financing the two radios, was issued only later the deadlock' had in ef- fect already been broken. ? Thus, there must be a slight amendment in the over-all picture of Sen. J. W. Fulbright of Arkansas sin, gle-handedly defying con- gressional and public opin- ion in his fanatical cam- paign to silence RFE and ?RL, by far the most honest sources of news available in Eastern Europe and Russia. While his lobbyists battle Fulbright to keep the radios alive, hard-liners believed Mr. Nixon?so deeply in- volved in detente?shows signs of ambivalence. . Rowland Evans and Robert Novak etente Versus E For example, his March 11 statement was not issued until - the nationalities divi- sion of the Republican Na- tional Committee reported to the White House the out- rage among East European ethnic groups over presiden- tial silence. One early plan for the presidential statement was to include strong language on the vital importance of people-to-people contacts, using quotations from Mr. Nixon during his visit to the Great Wall of China Feb. 24. None of that survived the editing. The final version of the statement, while putting Mr. Nixon strongly on the side of continuing the broad- casts, was routine. There are other signs Mr. Nixon's spectacular move to- ward detente with the Com- munist world is subtly un- dermining the freedom of U.S.-controlled broadcasts beamed to that world. A costly Voice of America film on the plight of Tibetan refugees who fled after the Chinese takeover of Tibet has been banned by the White House. The film, enti- tled "The Man From the Missing Land," was finished in late spring, 101. It was ordered locked up until after the President's trip to China. Since Mr._ Nixo.n.'s return, - repeated efforts to get White House clearance. to send the film abroad have met a stone wall. The reason privately given: to air the film .now, on the eve of the President's Moscow visit, could embarrass Peking. THAT SAME problem of potential conflict between Mr. Nixon's foreign policy and RFE-RL is now arising in West Germany, where left-wing members of Chan- cellor Willy Brandt's Social. Democratic Party are press- ing him not to renew the li- cense for the Munich-based radios. - Partly as a result of that domestic political pressure, Brandt's government has quietly informed the Nixon administration that there will be no license renewal unless the U.S. agrees not to follow a line on RFE-RL that might "undermine" Brandt's Ostpolitik, epito- mized by his new treaties with Warsaw and Moscow. The first sign of West German hesitation over the impact- of the radios on Brandt's Ospolitik came al- most two years ago. At that time, Mr. Nixon assured Frank Shakespeare, director of the United States Infor- mation Agency, which in- -eludes the Voice of America, , and William F. Buckley Jr. then a member of the USIA Advisory Commission, that he would not permit RFE- RL to die. Tell the Germans, 1?11. Nixon said, our troops in Eu- rope and our radios in Mun- ich go together. Two years later, with his own Ostpoli- tik in full bloom, that mood of the President appears slightly abated. :. it is against that back- ground that opposition to RFE-RL funding for the year starting July I must be examined. With their financ- ing now on a routine cycle of annual authorization and appropriation in Congress, Fulbright as' chairman of the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee has enor- mous influence over author- izing the broadcasts for an- other year. Fulbright, over- .riding a strong majority on his committee, insists with the passion of the ideologue that the broadcasts so ea- gerly awaited by the citizens of Eastern Europe are an- achronistic relics of the cold war. President Nixon flatly dis- agrees with Fulbright's dogma, publicly and pri- vately. But hardliners insist. that the heady and domi- nant fragrance of detente is subtly undercutting his posi,- tion. , Rul*shers-Hall Syndicato Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160151101It01070001-5 MEMPHIS, TENN. COMMERCIAL APPEAL MAR 26 1972: M ? 219,462 ? 268,338 Blanton Backs Radio Stations ram The Commercial Appeal ?shim:Atm Bureau WASHINGTON, March 25. ? Representative Ray Blanton (D-Tenn.) Saturday dismissed as "hogwash" arguments by Senator J. W. Fulbright (D- Ark.) that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty irritate So- viet Union leaders and prevent a detente. , "While I have never voted for a foreign aid program," Blanton said in his weekly newsletter, "I believe Radio Free Europe is a worthy com- mitment for this nation." The two Munich-based sta- tions, operated by the Central Intelliegence Agency, beam broadcasts to the Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Fulbright has been leading a drive to have the stations ter- minated on grounds they are 'axpensive irritants and "rem- ants of the cold war." "I would rather see our tax money spent for a good pur- )ose such as this," Blanton said, "than in trade with Com- munist countries or aid to ountries who couldn't care ess what happens to American n the hng run. What the sena- ors are suggesting is that we abandon any efforts to allow he people of captive nations to now the real truth about the ree world. "I (147. Vt think Congress will abandon the free world. "I don't think Congress will abandon Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The spe- :ious arguments used against them won't convince the ma- ority of the Congress to drop a ?rogram which has been most, effective." Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 NEW YORK IMES MAGA ZINE Approved For Release 2001/03/0* efAcRaFFSO-OWTCP1T4ba1 0 , LIT,st 1712 022 Eladrio L%Erce 175zrzon.mtalir w 5,EaT:1 t,' LL ? "Mr. President, I submit that these radios should be given an oppor- tunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold-war relics." ,?SENATOR J. W. FULBRIGHT, speak- ing in the Senate on Feb. 17, 1972. "It happens quite often that I am unable to hear your station because of the jamming. At such moments I feel like smashing the radio, as if the wooden box were to blame, and I almost cry in helpless rage. It seems to me that somebody wants to tear me away by force from my good friends. Be with us, as we re- main with you." ?"YOUR LISTENER FROM CHRUDIM," writing to the Czechoslovak De- partment of Radio Free Europe on Sept. 27, 1971. 0 doubt the Senator from Arkansas is right. Radio Free Europe began broadcasting to five countries of Eastern and Central Europe at the height of the cold war, not to mention a hotter one raging In Korea, on July 4, 1930. But just as surely, the lady from Chrudim is right. She is just one of millions in her own Country, Poland, Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria who believe that their own newspapers, television- and radio 'tell them lies, that noth- ing available to them is quite so reliable as Radio Free Europe. As Chairman of the Senate For- eign Relations Committee, Fulbright prevented all Congressional attempts to renew funding?for Radio Free Eu- -rope and its sister station, Radio Liberty, which broadcasts to the So- viet Union, before their ? last appro- priation expired Feb. 22. Despite a House bill proiriding new funds 'through June- 30, 1973, and a Senate measure guaranteeing funds through next June 30, Fulbright has kept the stations living on borrowed time by blocking any compromise bill. The House will no doubt accept the Sen- ate version (which the Administra- r t 7) 17P ri (77 Ltj Li Li 6 ' the stations from dying before June 30, but there is still pessimism here about its prospects. At a time when President Nixon will be preparing to visit Moscow, the pessimists ask, what chance is there for the passage of a measure to continue a service that has been a thorn in the Soviet side for many years? The disclosure that Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty operated on funds secretly supplied by the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency set off 'in tile United States a heated debate on the propriety of continuing to pre- tend that they were private institu- tions supported. by charitable contri- butions, and that debate ultimately led to Fulbright's stand. But the dis- closures and, the debate caused no concern among the stations' listen- ers. They continue to tune in with as much faith as an American might bring to a' newspaper that has a de- cent record for factual reporting and an editorial policy with which he agrees more often than not. Their devotion . is almost unmatched in countries that offer more than one credible source. of news. T takes a while for to the countries of the being surprised when Rumanian friend says, a newcomer East to stop a Polish or "I heard on the radio last night . . ." and relays a bit of news that the Polish or Rumanian radio would announce only if its management, the Govern- ment, were to repudiate everything it stands for. "The radio" means Radio Free Europe; the Warsaw or Bucharest stations are more likely to be discussed as "they." Despite its cold-war origins and C.I.A. sponsorship, Radio Free Eu- rope's listeners consider it not a propaganda station, but the anti- propaganda station that adjusts the one-sided view of the world laid down for all domestic media by the information department of the cen- k.2.1 STATINTL sny LIENZIlr rtztrzra ern Europe are sophisticated enough to know that Radio Free Europe is in- terested in influencing their minds, but they seem to feel that its methods do less violence to their intelligence than do those of the state media. "We don't project one point of view, but the diversity of freedom," said Jan Nowak, the head of Radio Free Europe's Polish service. Although it is an American sta- tion, recognized by its audience as such despite its neutral name, its programs do not reflect a specifically American point of view. The bulk of its news report is drawn from four news agencies, of which only one, United Press International, is Amer- ican. The others are Reuters, of Britain; Agence France - Presse, and Deutsche Presse Agentur. More Eu- ropean newspapers of all political persuasions than American are cited in the press reviews that form an essential part of the programing. Unlike the three other foreign broadcasters with large audiences in Eastern Europe?the British Broad- casting Corporation, the Voice of America and the West German Deutsche Welle?Radio Free Europe is not regarded as an official station pushing a government point of view. In countries in which only govern- ment views are broadcast and there is a deep audience skepticism toward all official views, Radio Free Eu- rope's quasi - private sponsorship gives it a great credibility edge. "The programs of the B.B.C. or the Voice of America are welcome but they bear an official stamp," said Karel Jezdinsky, one of the most popular and politically influ- ential commentators of Radio Prague when that station found its long- muffled voice for a few glorious months in 1968. "Their news pro- grams are limited to news from a national point of view. The rest are nonpolitical programs of no basic interest to the listener. They can tral committee of each country's get some nonpolitical news on life in tion has relkictantly backaRi) toaicau prp p FOVA r gife120040318)4itecialaikkRDREW-060111R00440007?0001n-aheir ,401.4 HENRY KAMM is a correspondent of The New York Times based in Paris. L' 1. .1,V141. 2 6 MAR 1972 STATINTL ved Forfir lease -2001/03/04 : CIAIDP80-01601 hiy # Tell Ot' , unwholesome enterprise. Other Western ,nations engage in similar operations but meet with jamming interference from Soviet and other Cwamunist sta- tions as "indirect imperialist sub- version." .. During IThrushchev's regime, the So- TheTruth? viet Union ceased jamming but inter- mittently his downfall this has been . resumed. People caught ' By C.' L. SULZBERGER listening to blacklisted stations are subject to punishment and Moscow One curious aspect of the new stubbornly campaigns to stifle foreign isolationist mood among so many transmitters. Americans is their hostility toward the This diplomatic campaign empha- relatively modest U.S. propaganda sizes West Germany, which is told apparatus. Ever since it was quite that harboring stations like Radio properly disclosed that some funds Liberty and R.F.E. is a hostile act / from the C.I.A., there have been supporting Radio Free Europe came - not consonant with Chancellor Brandt's efforts to achieve d?nte. It seeks mounting signs of distaste for the very to exploit American public distaste for Idea of explaining America's viewpoint propaganda, labeling it variously as .to citizens of countries where there is C.I.A. "agitation" and "Zionist." no freedom of expression. The intensity of these endeavors' Even so worldly a man as Senator seems to confirm the broadcasts' ef- Fulbright Opposes the idea of rearrang- fe.ctiveness. More than half the adults log R.F.E. finances on a new basis to of Poland, Rumania, Hungary, Czecho- secure its continued operations. Radio slovakia and Bulgaria listen to R.F.E. Liberty, which broadcasts to the Almost 30 million radios in the U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R. in seventeen of its many are capable of receiving Radio Liberty's languages, has increasing difficulty in . shortwave broadcasts. supporting itself. The Voice of America, representing the U.S. Information It is difficult to understand what is wrong with using modern communica- Agency, faces a thin budget. Sending ideas abroa is not an Sur These services differ in all aspects tions to tell people what is going on? savepeople whose own governments prefer cial and global in concept. Radio for money trouble. V.O.A. is off people hide pr distort the truth. There 'Liberty focuses on the Soviet Union's can never be international understand- many republics and has transmitters ina without more open exchange of in Lampertheim, West Germany, as ideas other than those permitted by well as Spain and Taiwan. R.F.E. has totalitarian systems. Moreover, Americans who pretend embarrassment because we are unabashedly engaged in the propa- ganda business should realize that the transmitters objected to by Moscow and its allies are in fact imitated by them and their imitative broadcasts are 100 per cent official and biased in presentation of news, often de- liberately seeking to stir up trouble. Thus Radio Prague specializes in Italian and Spanish programs designed to create unrest among foreign work- ers in Common Market countries. The U.S.S.R., for its part, has added a copy of R.F.E. to Radio Moscow's regular setup. This is the allegedly nonofficial and independent radio Peace and Progress. If that is an independent enterprise, it is the only one in the Soviet system. Moreover, its transmissions tend to be far more hostile and unrestrained than those of Radio Moscow itself? especially broadcasts in Chinese, aimed at mainland China, and in Indian lan- guages, which provoked a protest from the New Delhi Government last year. Moscow answered with the excuse FOREIGN AFFAIRS 'There can never be inter- national understanding without more open e>thange of ideas other than those permitted by totalitarian systems.' ?.tiao.unitteis in Holzkirchen and Biblis, West Germany, and in Portugal, aim- ? Ing at Russia's East European allies. It was always ridiculous to pretend that Radio Liberty and R.F.E. had no connection with U.S. Government agencies. Yet, while it was wise to ? sever. links with the C.I.A., it would be folly to terminate operations of these semiprivate propaganda enter- prises. After all, like the V.O.A., they that it had no "influence" over the explain what is happening in the nUnited States. a.1 thevorld to popilla- "independent" station. ARP EctifRadicaroKNease0200 1/03194"h CRIptsgt&410 R001100070001-5 even hough c Western nations, including the U.S.A., have at least as much right to tell their story to muffled populations as Communist stations have to paint their own picture in the free air and press of the democratic world. It is folly for any Americans to have an inferiority complex about telling things_ as they are, apparatus of totalitarian regimes. Map TRIBUN STATINTL Approved For Release 2001MAYAR: NA-RDP80-01601R Letter from Moscow 'To. -CD iii)a(rd1.11. By Gherman Sinirnovsky This is excerpted from a letter provid- ed by Soviet sources who identified the author as Ghcrman Stnirnovsky, a Mos- cow intellectual and physicist not previ- ously linked with the Soviet dissent movement. In this open letter to Sen. J. W. Fulbriyht ID., Ark.], who seeks to cut off congressional funding of Radio Liberay and Radio Free Europe, Smirnovsky stresses Radio Liberty be- cause R. F. E. broadcasts only to East- ern Europe, not the U. S. S. R. MOSCOW?The city sleeps. At least it seems so to militiamen who patrol the frosty capital. Their hobnailed knee boots clatter on the cobblestones above the noise of the snowstorm... ..The night has come, but what is this? In Moscow apartments, rural huts, in the steppes of Central Asia, in the Sibe- rian taiga, a voice is heard, a human voice speaking in Russian, which dif- fers so much from the official ravings in the Soviet language:.. "Radio Liberty speaking." ? Reaches Every Corner _It reaches every remote corner of the country and finds a response in the heart of every honest man in Russia. Superpowerful jamming, for which tax- payers pay one million rubles a. year, will be no help. Pushy neighbors ? K. G. B. agents who expose listeners to the Western stations [God knows how much our people pay to feed this hunch of informers]?also will be no help, nor will slanderous articles' in the official press.:. ? ..Communism, with its antihuman face, is helpless against the free word... ..The West addressed the Russian peo- ple by radio for the first time on the day of the German invasion in 1911. Churchill's address was broadcast by the B. B. C. in Russian. In 1943, they began to beam regular programs of the Voice of America and the B. B. C. to the U. S. S. R... ? Witnesses remember the horrible times of the Stalin era, and the impres- sion made by Western radio programs was like the blast of an, atomic bomb. It was a? 'sappEQvAtCliEso Roles and did not trust their ears. At last: II ball ? ' ? ? ,:.-, ::??? ' Sen. Fulbright tyranny, the people heard a human word. The people learned what really was happening in the world- and in their own country . . . .."Several days before the death of the dictator [Josef Stalin] on March .1, 1953, a new radio station, "Liberation," came on the air. It immediately gained wide popularity in our country altho the tone of the broadcasts did seem to some to be rather sharp in relation to the regime... Quiet Justified ..But it was quite justified by the most horrible model of Communism?the So- viet. autocracy. Later, in the course of the thaw, this tone moderated. The s2O1VO3G4 s:telAwIRDP8434 1 to some extent and it was renamed Thrtt so many years of total Communist Radio Liberty... ? ?? t:\ ?Jamming started immediately after the station began its work . . . it con- tinued Until 1956, when it stopped in the summer for several months. But after suppression of. the Hungarian revolu- tion, jamming resumed until 1963... ...In that year, Khrushchey decided to leave Western government radio sta- tions alone. But Khrushchev's "amnes- ? ty" did not extend to Radio:Liberty. ..Nevertheless it was a victory, tho not a complete one. Free, independent, ob- jective information triumphed over the narrow ideological propaganda of Com-. munism . . ' ..From 1963 until the resumption of 'jamming after the occupation of Czech- oslovakia on Aug. 21, 1968, a close spir-, itual tie was established between the peoples of Russia and the free West. Western radio stations played an ex- traordinary role in that process. ..The people learned all that had been hidden from them by the Kremlin ruler: The cruel court reprisals against Sinyaysky and Daniel, and later against Ginzburg and Galanskoy. . They Could Not ..No matter how party propagandists tried to blacken these people, . they could 'not. Truthful information about the laW- lessness of the regime was broadcast over the radio . . . and influenced sam- izdat [dissident .materials, .circulated clandestinely], which was becoming stronger at the time. The agitation to make things public, folerssccivhilanrcieghot, fsappcwouldar hingaiv h if this thiasd much i i. ty had existed only in the closed circle of political dissenters, but with the aid of Western broadcasts, the facts of vh,.. lations of human, rights in the U. S. S. It. were reported to the whole country and the whole world. The biggest influence in this has been that of Radio Liberty. But our country does not need only the naked facts. After the Bolshevik seizure of power, culture completely disappeared in the country. Russia has been cut off from the best liiteraz gP.S11. aintld?iTien thrl3NR:r"t. n t Aout blazed INAW-iiiujl 1'061 Approved For Release 2001/03a :1EFA14P80-0160 Clayton Fritchey STATI NTL alng+;v? Of the Col :a IN ? THE LIGHT of Mr. Nixon's trip to Peking, and his coming one to Moscow, undertaken to relax cold war tensions, advance tie- 'tenth and promote co-exist- ence and co-operation with the Comnmnist world, it might be thought that the ? U.S. government was on the point of kicking its long --addiction to anti-Communist ? crusades at home and Abroad. Easier said than done. Old habits are hard to break, even when they no longer seem appropriate to a na- ton's new mode. A few weeks ago, for instance, there was an argument in Congress over giving addi- tional money to that relic of the McCarthy era, the House- Un-American Activi- ties Committee. The com- mittee hasn't caught a Com- munist in 20 years, if ever, ?but no matter. It's now ? called the House Internal Security Committee, and it has just been given $525,000 more to waste. THIS IS tip money, how- ever, compared to the $33 million a year in tax funds that the President and Con- gress want to give another hangover of the Cold War? /Radio Free Europe and v -Radio Liberty, which for many years were presume- ., . . , ? ? bly financed by private con- tributions, but actually were secretly subsidized by the CIA with public money. Sen. 1 W. Fulbright (D- Ark.), chairman of the Sen- ate Foreign Relations Com- mittee, has made a deter- mined but lonely effort to put a stop to this expendi- ture. He had temporarily succeeded in heading off an- other appropriation for 1973, but most or his colleagues shied from voting against anything that has an anti- Communist label on it, re- gardless of bow -anachro- nistic it may be. Both Radio Free Europe (RFE) and Radio Liberty (RL) were established over 20 years ago at the peak of the Cold War to beam news and propaganda into Russia and its Eastern European satellites. The stations oper- ated under the camouflage of private sponsorship but, unbeknown to the American public, were financed by the CIA at a cost of about $500 million over the years. Backers of the stations contend their broadcasts are now "objective" and no longer dedicated to "roll- backs" or "liberation" or stirring up internal opposi- tion to the Communist gov- ernments of Europe. But U.S. citizens are already being taxed $41 million a year to enable the Voice of America to provide the world with "objective" news coverage. The Voice, which has 103 transmitters around the globe, broadcasts in 36 languages, devoting 40 per cent of its air time to audi- ences in Communist coun- tries. Neither RFE or RL, of course, could get a dime from Congress if they were not primarily engaged in trying to win friends and in- fluence people in the Rus- sian orbit at the expense of the Communist govern- ments. However desirable this may have been some years ago, does it, on bal- ance, serve the best inter- ests of the United States and the Free World at a time described by President Nixon as the "new era of ne- gotiation" rather than "con- frontation?" THE STATIONS have in- furiated the Soviets, which may please some Americans, but, as Mr. Nixon prepares for his Moscow trip, should we be engaging in activities which might make it more difficult for the United States to gain its major Rus- sian objectives, such as nu- clear disarmament, stablili- zation of the Middle East and better security arrange- ments in Eastern Europe? . It shouldn't be hard to im- agine what the U.S. frame of mind would be if Russia were to establish Radio Free America in Cuba, and start broadcasting around the clock its view of the world to American listeners. As justification for such an op- eration, the Soviets no doubt would quote Vice President Agnew's charges that the U.S. press can't be trusted. In any case, the new US.- China communique, signed by Mr. Nixon in Shanghai, pledges the United States to support the principle of non- intervention in the internal affairs of other countries. How, it is asked, can that be squared with further opera- tions of RFE and RL? Finally, if they are to be continued, why shouldn't they be directed at all the totalitarian nations which are without a free press? Why not Radio Free Pe- king? Or Radio Free Greece ?or Spain or Portugal or Brazil, or Argentina?to name only a few? Sen. Ful- bright has the answer. These radios (meaning RFE and RL), he says, "should take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold war relics." es 1972, Lo Angeles Tilos Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ru Approved For Release 2001_105/VV: 15U-Rop8o-VerTiKb11000 _ ill Clears F For Padio Europe By Spencer Rich Washinirton Post Staff Writer Funds to continue Radio Liberty and Radio Free Eu- rope through June 30 won final congressional approval yesterday as the Senate com- pleted action on an authoriz- ing bill, 65 to 6. The bill authorizes $36 mil- Fulbright, Mansfield and others had argued that, while the stations admittedly now are less aggressively "cold war" oriented than in the past, they constitute an expensive,. unnecessary irritant to East- West relations, costing as much as the whole U.S. cul- lion for the two stations, tural relations program. which beam news and corn- The administration backed ment into Eastern Europe. . the House version of the bill, However, the stations will ac- continuing the stations until tually get only $32 million be- June 30, 1973, and setting up a cause a separate bill appropri_ commission to study whether *ling funds?contingent upon they should continue. final enactment of the authori- Fulbright,. arguing that the zation?carried the smaller commission would undoubt- amount. edly be shaped so as to recom- / Voting against the authori- mend continuing the stations, insisted instead that the au- t.'. zation were Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D- thorization expire this June 30 Mont.) Foreign Relations and that the State Department ? Committee Chairman J. W. be required to justify contin- Fulbright (D-Ark.), Appropria- nation beyond then. He also tions Chairman Allen J. Ellen- favored putting the stations Oer (D-La.), Harold Hughes under U.S. Information (D-Iowa), William Proxmire Agency or State Department (D-Wis.) and Stuart Symington control, so that the U.S. diplo- (D-Mo.). ? matic agencies would be di- All Maryland and 'Virginia recty responsible for them. senators voted to contihue the Faced with a total cutoff of stations except J. Glenn Beall funds when House-Senate con- (R-Md.), who was absent. ferees couldn't agree, the ad- Yesterday's action temporar- ministration yielded and fly ended a severe congres- agreed to a continuation to sional battle over whether the June 30 only, extracting from two 'stations, which up to now Fulbright a pledge to consider have been covertly financed any ? request for future fund- by ,the Central Intelligence ing, Agency, should be abolished George D. Aiken (R-Vt.), the or allowed to go on. But a new senior Republican on the For- fight. is almost certain if the eign Relations Committee, administration?as expected? said yesterday that he would asks Congress to provide au- do his best to assure a fair thprizations for future years.. hearing for any such request. ? , Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 111511-iirCI'QN STAR Approved For Release 20640%419.781A-RDP80-01601 rIN CONGRESS Radio Free 'Europe ..M-epsure Is Passed ? The Senate has passed and sent to the White House a bill to keep Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in operation for the next three months. The Senate vote, 65 to 6, authorizes $36 million in feder- al funding for the two stations for the 12 months ending June 30. Most of the money already has been spent under emer- gency appropriations. The House earlier this week yielded to the insistence of high-place senators that the stations ? which long had been financed secretly by the Central Intelligence Agency ? should be openly financed by the government for only one year instead of two. Doubt about the future of the stations after June 30 was emphasized yesterday by the votes of influential senators, in effect, to shut clown the stations immediately by deny- ing them money. Voting against funding even for the next three months were Sens. Mike Mansfield of Montana, the Senate Democratic leader; J. W. Fulbright, D-Ark., chair- man of the Senate Foreign Re- lations Committee; and Allen J. Ellender, D-La., chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee. Other negative votes came from Sens. Harold Hughes of Iowa, William Proxmire of Wisconsin and Stuart Syming- ton of Missouri, all Demo- crats. In a months-long campaign to end taxpayer support of the stations, Fulbright called them "relics of the cold war" and a continued thorn in East-West relations. Some senators have said they want the stations termi- nated and others want them continued only if they are sup- ported by other partners of the United States in the North At- lantic community. ? AP. . knee transmitted into Ameri- can homes. Sen. John Pastore, D-R.I., issued the call for a "violence index" yesterday after taking four days of testimony on the effect televised violence has on children. The hearings were directed at childrens' programming, but the survey will cover all phases of televi- sion.- Pastore is chairman of the Senate Communications Subcommittee. The annual report will be made by the U.S. Surgeon General's Office in HEW in conjunction with the Federal Communications Commission. Although network executives testified that they are reduc- ing the incidence of violence, especially in childrens' pro- grams, most public and pri- vate witnesses told ;the sub- committee there is too much violence and predicted even more in years to come. "Ten years from now the networks will have far less control over these things than they do now," said Douglass Cater, a White House adviser in the Johnson administration and a leader in the creation of educational television. Cater said the proliferation of chan- neLs :through cable television and growth of regular com- mercial television will make regulation more difficult in the future.?UPI. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R00 ANCHORAGE, ALAS. NEWS KR 2 4 19T2. - 11,056 S - 12,970 Financing the radios Sen. J. William Fulbright of Arkansas, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is obsessed with the need to MOdernize America's obsolete cold war for- eign policy. There is no doubt that change ? is necessary in many areas (as President 'Nixon's dramatic turnabout on China has - .demonstrated). But Sen. Fulbright's obses- ?-sion, like many another, has led to some bizarre abberations. Consider his determination to close .down Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty because they are "relics of the cold war" which the Soviet Union doesn't like. If Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty were, in fact, the blatant propaganda outlets Mr. Fulbright seems to consider them, there might be some foundation for lie belief. The senator no doubt recalls that during the Hungarian revolt of 1956 RFE recklessly implied that American aid might forthcoming for the insurrection. And he was irritated a couple of years ago when . long-standing suspicions were confirmed ad the Central Intelligence Agency ad- mitted vrtrriling 141oianheirteiwy.-nkeded to keep the stations going. ;- But there is every reason to believe that RE learned its lesson in 1956. Since then, its news broadcasts,' beamed to mu- lions Of listeners in Eastern Europe (and , those of Radio Liberty, which are broadcast to the Soviet Union) have been notable for their objectivity and balance. The Soviet _ . -Union objects to the stations not because what they say is inflammatory but because they provide a much more complete and truthful picture of the world than what is available in the rigidly controlled Comm- nist press. And regardless of what pique Mr. Ful- ? bright and his colleagues may have felt at :the clandestine CIA financing of the sta- tions, that episode, too, is in the past. The question now ought to be whether ? it is we for the United States to invest $35 million-$38 million a year in providing an estimated 300 million listeners in Russia .. : and Eastern Europe with a relatively un- `;. biased alternative to the utterly biased, t! dogmatic party press. We believe it is. - And we hope the wilfully obstructionist, and so far quite successful, tactics of Mr. ' Fulbright, which could cut off fundhig for , the stations June 30, are replaced by ton mon sense. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001:1?/96: 9.1t-RDP80-01 onn, Aides: Close' ? dio Free Europe- .,? BY ALICE SIEGERT ? ' [Chief of Bonn Bureau] (Chicano Tribune BONN, :March 23 ? Eight deputies of Chancellor Willy Brandt's Social Democrat Par- ty asked in a telegram pub- lished today that President Nixon close down the Munich- based Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The legislators said the two anti-Communist stations were a stumbling block to improved East-West relations. They said the stations' existence in West Germany has raised doubts about the Bonn government's sovereignty. . The West German move co- incided with passage of a bill i by the United States House of ! Representatives yesterday to extend financing of the stations until June 30. Heard in E. Europe Radio Free Europe and Ra- dio Liberty beam news and commentaries to listeners in' ? Eastern Europe. The two out- lets came into the limelight jest year with the disclosure that they were being financed by the. ?Central Intelligence Agency. 'Sell: J. William Fulbright [D., Ark.] demanded that their operations be discontinued be- cause they were "relics of the cold war" and barred efforts to achieve detente with the So- ?viet Unoin.. . . ? o ? The Social Democrats asked .Nixon to recommend to Con- gress that financing of the sta- 'tions be terminated June 30. They asked his consent that the Bonn government cancel ,operating rights on that date. Heretofore, operating licenses were renewed automatically on a yearly. basis. Press Service] Brat* Gets Request The deputies addressed a similar request to Brandt, ask- ing that he use his influence to stop the radio activities. Conrad Ahlers, chief govern- ment spokesman, said the is- sue was being discussed by the West 'German and American governments... Radio Free Europe has been broadcasting to Eastern Eu- rope for 21 years. Radio Liber- ty directs its programs exclu- sively to listeners in the Soviet Union. ? ? Russ Voices Heard Moscow, March 23 [Reuters] ?Voices are being raised here for and against the continued operation of Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty. The Soviet government's daily newspaper Izvestia this week published one of its frequent. attacks on the stations. It de:, nounced them as mainstays of "American a nti -Communist propaganda." An appeal against proposals to close the stations also was being circulated in typescript 'among a small number of.Rus- sians. The author of the appeal was said to be a Muscovite. He asserted: For Russia to lose Radio Liberty "means to lose the little freedom left to us . . the freedom to get truth- ful information about ,:+ur coun- try." STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 2 4 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDR80: 6_0 011R0 SIAM IL By WILLIAM J. PfiSIEROY ? LONDON, March 17 (By mail)?The recent moves led by Sen. William Fulbright to slice away the U.S. funds that have financed that fountainhead of subversion known as "Radio Free Europe," along with its sinister sister "Radio Liberty," have brought protests from none but the most ardent hate-merchants and Neanderthal cold-war . propagandists. The London Times, seeking to whip up backing for these cold- war instruments, opened its letter columns for opinion on the matter, but only one Briton replied, and he expressed the belief that "the West, and particularly America" had been trying for too long to Impose its ideas on the socialist countries. Otherwise the Times has had to content itself with dredging in and holding up for view some strange fish indeed. ? ? Defector's letter One of the smelliest of these is the former "Soviet novelist," An- atoll Kuznetsov, who defected a couple of years ago for monetary rewards from anti-Soviet publish- ing houses. Periodically, Kuzne- tsov is dragged forth from his hiding place near London to ut- ter the most' absurd statements about "the lack of freedom un- der socialism." Recently he sol- emnly proclaimed the authenti- city of an anti-Soviet pornograph- ic comic-strip allegedly pro- duced in the Soviet Union, which turned out to be the fabrication of another "artist" defector. In a letter to the Times signed by Kuznetsov we find this gem of a paragraph: "I was working on my novel, 'Crucifixion,' which deals with present-day life in the Soviet Union. By chance I was actually describing an episode in which people are listening, through the din of the jamming, to `Radio Liberty.' The episode is auto- biographical: I, a Soviet writer, like all Soviet intellectuals, had for many years learnt the truth from one source only?foreign broadcasts. They told the truth and gave hope." The Times also printed a letter from a certain Stefan Korbonski, who represented himself as chair- man of "Assembly of Captive European Nations" based in New York. Korbonski also was de- pressed by the thought of "Radio Free Europe" losing its boice, but he had prospects of hope for "the peoples of Bulgaria, Czech- oslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania": Mao to the rescue "Surely," he wrote, "it would not kill their striving for inde- pendence but, paradoxically, might result in shifting their hopes towards the People's Re- public of China, which alone of the great powers shows some interest in East European coun- tries regaining their independ- ence. This interest was demon- strated by several announcements of the Peking Government and, not so long ago, by the vehe- ment condemnation of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia by the present Chinese delegation to the United Nations. It is also be- ing demonstrated by Radio Pe- king broadcasts to East Europe." So now we have it, from the mouth of the CIA-supported anti- Soviet emigre gangs, the pro- fascists whom the people of Eastern Europe are glad to get rid of: the logical successor of "Radio Free Europe" is seen by them as Radio Peking. c Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 VASE: N; TON pco.t STATINTL Approved For Release 20010/3M:121A-RDP80-01601R Around the World ? U.S. Radio Stations BONN? Chancellor Willy Brandt'q government an- nounced that it is conferring with Washington on the fu- ture of the American broad- casting stations in Munich, Radio Free Europe and I Radio Liberty. The announcement fol- lowed a call for the closure of the stations by seven par- liamentarians of Brandt's Social Democratic Party, who said the stations' exist- ence raised doubts about West German sovereignty. T Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 TI-ST:AN SCI:17CT Approved For Release 2001/b?/U4F OR-RDP80-01601R011111111111111 STATINTL ? ? ,A;AV:' 4:eagaa4i.nrWZMAZUNO ATECAM, ira:MWMannMagra4r4VMN Oonuna. laWagrinfinnetton teacillo tailks , By the Associated Press Bonn Chancellor Willy Brandt's government says itis conferring with Washington On the future of the American broadcast stations in Munich: Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Government spokesman Conrad Ahlers says Bonn recognizes the significance of the U.S.-financed radio stations in providing information to the people in the Soviet bloc. But at the same time it wants to avoid possible harm to the "foreign relations of the federal West German republic." ' The problem is that the Soviets take a dim view of the stations ? and have said so during recent negotiations over roadblocks to East-West detente in Europe. ? Mr. Ahlers was commenting on a call for the closure of the stations made In telegrams to President Nixon and Chancellor Brandt by a group of seven parliamentarians of Mr. Brandt's Social Democratic Party. The U.S. House of Representatives has voted funds to keep the two stations going through June 30. The bill has been sent to the Senate, where Chairman J. W. Fulbright of the Foreign Relations Committee has been leading a cam- paign against the two "relics of the cold war." The telegrams called on Mr. Nixon to halt financing of the stations after. June 30 and make their frequencies available to the Cologne-based "Deutsche .Welle" station, which they .said could just as well provide "realistic re- portage" to the Soviet bloc. At the same time, they said it could not be denied that both radios hail abandonedthe policy of disseminating "unmistakable anti-Communist propa- ganda" they had followed during the cold-war days of the early 1950's. fmz'xs'eeo:',.e''MPMM,;'mmszzmsmmmw.e../mtrmszamn.S.wzm,tnm.wsze.m.mmaimm.mimozm.,?x Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For ReleaseW6170704cT-0:14-F4DPIRA016 23 MAR 1972 'U.S. radio-broadcast funding STATINTL By Paul Wohl Written for The Christian Science Pefonttor , Sen. J. W. Fulbright's efforts to block the funding of Radio Free Europe and Ra- dio Liberty, the two Munich-based American radio stations, have severely shocked many people in .Russia and Eastern Europe. A recent visitor from Poland reports that the irdminent closing of "Warsaw Four," as Poles call Radio Free Europe, is the main subject of political discussions in War- saw's _caf? ? Not even Communist dissenters want the -West to revert to cold-war politics. But every indication of Western determination to defend its rights and values is applauded In the .East.? Castro vs. Battista This writer remembers how, during the Cuban Crisis, educated East Europeans ex- pressed their satisfaction over America's stand. These people preferred -Fidel Castro to Battista and Communist to capitalist ways. But they were weary of Russian heavyhand- edness. They did not want to be compressed into a monolith. Deep in their thoughts was the old fear of the Russian steamroller, ever ready to flatten any kind of nonconformism. As long as the West, and especially Amer- ica, stood firm, the steamroller) they felt, was stalled. The occupation of Czechoslovakia really shook most East Europeans, including party members. The trauma still lingers. This may explain why politically alert East Europeans reacted bitterly to the news that Radio Free Europe is likely to be closed down. ? Uncomplimentary names In Czechoslovakia, Mr. Fulbright has been referred to as "Fulbricht" ? which brings to memory the name of East Ger- many's Walter Ulbricht. Poles use a play on words which makes Mr. Fulbright's name sound like a vulgar Polish epithet. To emphasize how much the Senator's policy favors the not overly popular Russians,. his name also is russified into Fulbraitov. The Soviets, on the other hand, are satis- fied. A 225-page book by the Arkansas Democrat on "The Arrogance of Power" was brought out in Russian in 1967. Toward the end of last year the Moscow publishing house "International Relations" published a 271-page Fu/bright biography by V. B. eners criticize Vorontsov under the title "The Senator from Arkansas." Privately the Communist leaders are elated. According to a report from dissent- ing Communists, a recent ideological con- ference in Moscow devoted to fighting anti- communism concluded: "We do not have to do anything right now. Leave it all to Ful -/ bright." , Grain's of truth While there can be no doubt that most East Europeans and Soviet dissenters, in- cluding many rank and file Communists, are disappointed', there is nevertheless more than a grain of truth in Senator Fulbright's contention that the two stations are popu- larly identified with some of the grimmest phases of the cold war. Actually they have long ceased to be cold- war propaganda outlets 'and have become information niedi,a of a special kind which keep their walled up audiences alert. The fact is that they are not official gov- ernment stations. Though under Washing- ton's general political supervision, they have enough leeway to be flexible and enough autonomy to call a spade a spade. And this fact enhances their plausibility. Some observers say much of the cold-war sting would be removed if the two stations were given less innocuous names. Radio Liberty already is an improvement over its original name, "Radio Liberation." ? Latvian born Arsene Eglis, who has long been connected with Radio Liberty, sug- gests combining the two stations under the name of "Radio West." Merger possibility A merger of the two stations, of their re- search staffs and of their broadcasting fa- cilities, would mean substantial savings. Yet it is doubtful whether the two can be combined. Radio Free Europe appeals to East Euro- pean audiences, is manned by seasoned spe- cialists for the various East European coun- tries, and broadcasts in East European languages, Radio Liberty employs, as consultants former Soviet citizens, especially from na- tional minorities. Its broadcasts are in Rus- sian and in Soviet 'minority languages. If Radio Liberty is to be maintained, as . most Americans with firsthand knowledge of Soviet and East European conditions hope, there is good reason to urge that its name be changed to indicate that the West has effectively abandoned a cold-war ap- proach. The present name?in many East European eyes?somewhat arrogantly im- plies that there is complete political liberty in the West and that liberty does not exi at all in the East. One suggestion is an invocation of the is of the three rallying slogans of the Frem Revolution ? Liberty, Equality, Fraterni? ? by changing the name of Radio Liberty ? "Radio Brotherhood." Broadcasts of Radio Free Europe, on tt other hand, might sound less condescem ing if they went under the name of "Rad: West" or "Inter-Europe Radio." Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R00 STATI NTL GRANPVIEW, MO. JACKSON ADVOCATE MAR 23 1972 WEEKLY ? 7,353 ? 5redideif SPeaiiig By THOMAS F. EAGLETON U.S. Senator?Missouri , ??11.???????????????????? . The Congress of the United States is an oft-misunderstood institution. The recent working of a House-Senate Conference 'Committee on legislation to de-. ride the fate of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have s certainly not made Congress any easier to understand. . The, Conference Committee was deadlocked on the question ; of how long to fund both radio networks. The House side wanted . to provide funding for a two- year period and the Senate in- issted on approving funding only through this fiscal year ? which ends June 30. Neither side was willing to compromise. The Senate conferees showed little inclination to yield to the House because of the conviction of some that Radio Free Europe and, Radio Liberty are tolls of ; the Cold War and now strain our relations with the Soviet ? Union. I disagree with this assess- ment. 1 believe it is important ' for those living in totalitarian societies to hear uncensored news reports and other programs, characteristic of a free and ?pert; society. Radio Free' Europe and Radio ? Liberty have, over the years, built up large followings, the former in Eastern Europe and the latter Approved ForiReleaset20111103/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 These broadcasts ?in. most cases represent the only link the people of these nations have, not just with the free world, but also with the events occurring within their own countries. We have ? an obligation to maintain this Jlink. Of course Congree also has an obligation 'to give funding re- quests for all federal programs careful scrutiny. In the past no specific fund- ing action for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty was required on the part of Congress. Both networks then were run by the Ce n t rgintelligence Agepc.y4rp? funds in the CIA budget, a raZt which. surprised and shocked a large seg,thent of the public when, it was revealed last year. Now both radio networks are under the control of the State Department ? a much more proper arrangement, I think. We do not, need a covert intelligence agency to sell America to the ? community world. America can sell itself openly, without em- barassment. We have nothing. to hide . . just a great deal to offer. .Last week, after much wrang- ling, the Conference Committee finally agreed to fund the two networks through this fiscal year and to require annual appropria-?- tions for their operation in the . future. ? The reason for this require- ment was the Committee's belief that these radio stations, like all other federal programs, should be fustified to Congree on the basis of each year's performance.. Of eourse we should demand con- tinued excellence from our main ' voices to the community world. A STATI NTL --AprovervrRetease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 MEMPri S, T NN. COMMERCIAL APPEAL_ MAR- 23 19TZ m ? 219,462 ? S ? 268,338 _ 'I House Vote Extends Life Of Freedom Radios' By MORRIS CUNNINGHAM ? Pram The Commercial Appeal Washington Bureau WASHINGTON, March 22.? A bill that would continue Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in operation through June 30 Was approved by the House Wednesday by a voice vete. . ? Senate leaders scheduled the measure for consideration Fri- day and passage in that cham- ber is regarded as certain. It would authorize 35 million dol- ars to finance the stations. \ Chairman Thomas E. Mor- ? gan (D-Pa.) of the House For-1 eign Affairs Committee told! the House the three-months ex-1 tension was the most he could extract from Senate confr rees, Chairman J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark.) of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee opposes continuing the stations, but has agreed that his committee lat- er this year will consider legis- lation continuing them for a longer period. The two stations, based in Munich, Germany,.were estab- lished after World War II, and have been operated and until recently secretly financed by the Central intelligence Agen- cy. casts - casts to the people of Soviet- block countries in Eastern Eu- rope. Radio Liberty beams its broadcasts to the people of the Soviet Union. Firlbright has called the sta- tions unnecessary, expensive "remnants of the Cold War" that irritate efforts to reach a detente with the USSR Howev- er, in testimony this week, offi- cials, qf the United States Through June 30 formation Agency, which oper-. ,ates the Voice of America,1 have warmly praised the work of RFE and RL and, while opposing consolidation of the stations with VOA, have urged that they be continued. - As of now, no legislation to continue RFE and RL beyond June 30 is pending in Congress, and the administration has not yet come forward with a pro- posal. Earlier the administration supported a two-year financing extension the House had ap- proved, but which House con- ferees were forced to abandon' in favor of the three-month-ex- tension in the face of what Morgan called the "tdtal in- transigence" of some senators.. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 1117 YORK 'MIES Approved For Release 2001/0g/de a-RDP80-0K1-FRCI-1100070001-5 9 House Votes Stopgap Funds For U.S. Radio in Europe WASHINGTON, March 22 (Reuters)=The House passed compromise legislation today providing funds for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty until June 30. The Senate is expected to complete Congressional action on the bill tomorrow. The funding for the United States radio stations, which broadcast from West Germany to Eastern Europe and the So- viet Union, expired on Feb. 22. The original House proposal, backed by the Nixon Adminis- tration, would have provided funds for the stations until the middle of next year. Fresh funds were delayed in the Senate in a fight led by Senator J. W. Fulbright, chair- man of the Senate Foreign Re- lations Committee, who de- scribed the stations as relics of the cold war. - Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601-R0011000700015 CURT.I.ITIAN SCIENCE MONITOR ? Approved For Release222%1613ffi4 : CIA-R0P80-01601R0 STAT I NTL AlTied backers plead r Free Euro By Harry B. Ellis Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor Munich, Germany Virtually every major newspaper in West- ern Europe, including Die Welt of Hain- - burg, Le Monde .of Paris, Switzerland's Neue Zuercher Zeitung, and the Times ' of London, editorially urg,.-!-, -the retention of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Radio Liberty beams news and comment almost around the clock to the Soviet Union. .RFE does the same to the other nations ? of the Soviet bloc. Together the stations, which were founded in the early 1950's and are based here in Munich, broadcast in more than 20 languages. ? Thousands of East bloc listeners have written to Munich to say that the two radios represent the letter writers' only source of ,unbiased information on developments with- in their own countries. The government of Chancellor Willy ? Brandt continues to voic'e support for the stations,. despite Communist demands that. the two stations be expelled from West Ger- man soil. Sen. J. W. Fulbright (D) of Arkansas, however, describes the radio stations, which 1,/until recently were financed by the U.S. -Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), as "rel- ics of the cold war," and urges their shut- down. Senator Fulbright has blocked further fi- nancing of the stations, which employ more than 2,000 people, including many East bloc emigres, beyond June 30, while -Congress debates their future. "Why," demanded a European observer, "should the radios be shut down, simply because they irritate the Soviets? Have the Russians stopped building up their mili- tary power, because this alarms us?" A West European advisory committee of RFE, headed by former NATO Secretary- General Dirk Stikker, now is exploring whether Europeans governments might 'help finance the stations. Hundreds of interviews conducted over ithe years by Western analysts confirm that .ordinary Poles, Hungarians, Romanians, :Bulgarians, and Soviet citizens listen to ? RFE and Radio Liberty more often and with ? greater trust, than to the Voice of America (VOA), Deutsche Welle, Radio Paris, Radio Vatican, and other official stations. RFE alone has an estimated audience of 55 mil- lion. Anatoli Kuznetsov, a Russian writer who fled to Britain, wrote to the London Times that closing down the two stations would fulfill one of the most ardent wishes of the KGB, the- intelligence organ of the Soviet Government. He, like other Soviet intellectuals, Mr. Kuznetsov wrote, depended on foreign radio stations for truthful reporting that "gave hope." "VOA, Deutsche Welle, even the BBC," declared an analyst, "aim at promoting the image of their country of origin." Policy changed He meant that VOA expresses an official American point of view. Deutsche Welle does the same for the West German Gov- ernment; and even the BBC, the analyst said, reflects a British outlook. "RFE, on the other hand, takes an active Interest in East European countries and peo- ples ? identifies with their aspirations. "Where Radio Free Europe is unrivaled," the expert went on, "is in'detailedreporting on events within Eastern Europe." . Station officials agree that in the early 1950's when U.S. State Department policy under John Foster Dulles was keyed to a Communist "rollback," the two stations stressed a cold-war line. Then came the abortive Hungarian re- volt, which, as one official put it, "taught the West that communism _could not be rolled back by words alone."' ? Since then the tone of the two radios has evolved, until today the thrust of their programming is objective reporting of political, economic, cultural, and athletic events behind the iron curtain. Library of Congress studies say of Radio Liberty, for instance, that it is neither "a cold-war operation nor is its staff a group of cold warriors." The Soviet Government, analysts report, makes it harder for Soviet citizens to hear Radio Liberty by jamming its broadcasts. RFE programa are jammed in Czechoslo- vakia, Bulgaria, and Poland, but not in Hungary or Romania. Approved For:Release 2001/03/04.: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 N. IL Y MID , STATINTL Approved For Release 200116iger! a1'A-RDP80-0J 601R0011 1 Li kz,:j By TIM WHEELER WASHINGTON, March 18 ? "Radio Free Europe" extorts free poster space on buses and sub- ways across the nation to plead for the nickels ? and dimes of school children to keep alive its broadcasts to socialist countries. But Senators J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark) and Clifford Case (R- NJ), in speeches in Congress, revealed that "Radio Free Eur- ope" and its partner, "Radio Liberty," are wholly olimed sub- sidiaries of the Central Intelli- gence Agency, which wallowed in $480 million in taxpayer ap- propriations in the past 20 years. Senator Case introduced legis- lation to prohibit the CIA from continuing its secret funding of RFE and RL and to require that all future U.S. appropriations for the networks be a matter of public record. Senator Fulbright, chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, went further. He proposed out- right liquidation of the stations, and cited President Nixon's com- munique from. Peking extolling "non-interference" in the internal affairs of other nations, lie wryly noted that Nixon shuns the idea of a "Radio Free China." . RFE and RL, said Fulbright, are "based on nothing more than an arrogant belief that people around the world will act like we want' them to act if we only tell them how." One-year fund voted However, Fulbright, Case and others yielded this week to the cold warriors and agreed to a one-year U.S. appropriation of $36 million for RFE and RL ? the first time since 1950 that the U.S. appropriation for these sta- tions has been a matter of pub- lic record. RFE and RL had asked for a two-year appropria- tion. "They will have to come back next year," said an aide to Ful- bright. "They are going to have to erase some doubts before these Programs are going to be re- :r1 I'L9 ,40, newed. It. is incomprehensible how the U.S. could give away $480 million over a 20-year period for these radio stations." Fulbright inserted in the Con- gressional Record separate re- ports on the two stations written by Joseph C. Whelan and James - Robert Price, anti-Soviet experts on the payroll of the Library of Congress. The reports sing praises to the two stations, but biogra- phies of the two authors appended to the reports indicate why: both are CIA agents. Whelan, the re- port on RL declares, was "Brief- ly employed" by the CIA in 1951. Price, author of the report on RFE "was employed by the CIA" from 1950-1857. . . . 'Sam izdat' opera tion Whelan defends "Radio Liberty" as the main instrument for pro- moting "liberalization" in the So- viet Union. His booklength report dwells for several chapters on "Sarnizdat," the anti-socialist writings of disgruntled Soviet "liberals" which are circulated in manuscript form because their authors are unable to find pub- lishers. Whelan's report describes Ra- dio Liberty as "the principal source for disseminating "sami- zdat" throughout the Soviet Union." In a chapter titled "Main De- pository of Sarnizdat," Whelan declares, "For RL samizdat is the beginning of a harvest after years of labor sowing the seeds of democracy in the Soviet Union. "RL has the largest-deposit of samizdat in the world to draw upon for its programming. and its archives are growing daily. What RL does is magnify the au- dience from .what would ordi-. narily be a small network to embrace a national constituency. "In so doing, RL has become a prime source for uniting the disparate elements of samizdat producers. Thus, by becoming a prime transmitter of samizdat, RI, has contributed substantially- to this self generating phenorne- Interventions cited ' The "abortive" rebellion in: East. Berlin in 1953, Price de- clared, caused RFE "to develop a technique of 'chipping away' at Communi,st power structures. Frontal attacks against the Com- munist regimes were downgrad- ed in favor of progress designed to encourage long range and sub- tle attitudinal changes among the listeners until objective condi- tions favoring -a radical change are established." He explains how RE used this technique to promote and guide the anti-socialist crisis in Cze- choslovakia in 1968. Instead of promoting open, armed counter- revolution. RFE urged ideological and political sabotage from within. Whelan confirms that this tac- tic was employed by RL as well. "Guidances were planned and formulated as the crisis gather- ed momentum," he- declared. "Monthly and daily guidelines provided continuing ad hoc guid- ance, with caution the key word. Contingency plans for program- ming were made on July 30, well in advance of the crisis of Aug. 21, the day of invasion." Adopted socialist mask Whelan reports that Radio Li- berty assumed the guise of. a partisan of socialism "with a hu- man face;" and that it bemoaned the intervention of the Warsaw Pact in Czechoslovakia as a "loss of moral, ethical and practical positions for. the Soviet Union . . the damage to the cause of so- cialism and of liberalization at home; and the irreparable split in the world Communist move- ment." Price reveals that RFE has a full time staff of 1,611, of whom 211 are U.S. citizens and the re- mainder anti-Communist emi- gres. The costs of the station in 1971 were $22,356,876. Both RFE and RI? Price de- clared, "had hitherto ostesibly been supported by private funds but had actually been largely funded by the Central Intelligence Agency. "Although the author of this I port did not interview offich of the CIA it is a safe as.sun tion that' contact between ti -agency and Free Europe In was probably a major function the Free Europe, Inc. corpon headquarters,"- Price conclud( The officials ib charge of RE the report states:- are Stem. S. Cort,. chairman of the Beth h2n1 Corp., and retired Getiel Lucius D. Clay. ? Approved For ikeivelitnelkiridiffic: cIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 eifia" .STATINTL Approved For Release 200T/e3V0*:TFA-RDP80-01601R0011 '1,1ulbriht;* Stance on Pr6pcigar.t a :By Dorothy McCardle tionalist China joined the program. Sen. J. William Fulbright, "We don't know what will chairman of the Senate For- happen now," said Ful- eign ? Relations Committee, bright. explained to Fulbright-Hays Fulbright was in a hurry scholars yesterday why he is to get back to Capitol Hill critical of such propaganda where, he said, he would "be agencies as the United voting for the Equal Rights States Information Agency, Radio Free ' Europe and Radio Liberty. ? "These programs keep alive the cold war," Ful- bright told scholars at a lunch at the Ken t2.dy Cen- ter on the first day of a three-day conference here. .. "These programs are not presented to promote under- standing or compassion." ? Fulbright said that he has no objection to a modest in- formation program which is ot based on the assump- tion of infallibility on our part." He praised the Fulbright- Hays exchange-of-scholars program which he helped start 25 years ago as a "gen- eral cultural exchange and ' not propaganda." He said that the 140,000 Fulbright-Hays scholars edu, cated in this country for short and long terms in the past 25 years have under scored' ,the better under- standing for which the United Nations stands. Many of these scholars have gone on to become the diplo- matic, political, scientific and, business leaders of their countries, he said. program had a $40 million budget last year, which will have to be upped to $53 million for next year. "We don't know if the United States can go up to .$53 million for this pro- gram," he said. "We need some kind of cooperative ef- fort on this. "But this program is so -important because it leads ?to the civilizing of our peo- ple so they don't engage in periodic blood-letting. A suc- cessful program of this kind is the best possible way to educate people away from their biases and prejudices." The first country to sign up for the Fulbright pro- gram in 1949 was mainland -China, which later withdrew, he said. After that, Na- 'Approved For Release 2001/03/04 Amendment for women." The scholars arriving yes- terday included 57 men and seven women from 28 .for- eign countries. Mrs. William J. Rogers, wife of the Secretary of State, Mrs. Walter Washing- ton, wife of the Mayor, and Mrs. Hugh Scott, wife of the minority leader of the Sen- ate, received the scholars at a morning coffee at Merid- ian House. Their morning speaker, Hugh Sidey, of Time-Life, spoke on the con- ference topic," The Ameri- can Presidency." ?? : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001?-5 STATINTL Approved For ReiiiiigiiithWei4. 6W-1*P80-01601R001 2 0 MAR 1972 Mirror of opinion No yielding Reputedly Radio Liberty is providing an: alternative. free radio- program for Russiari listeners, and has become, with a large audience, a channel for broadcasting back , to Russia what the dissident Russian writ- ers and intellectuals are prevented from publishing in their country. To silence those stations would confirm and condone the sup- pression of free speech in Russia and the rest of the Soviet bloc. No wonder the Soviet lead-2rs_are using such diplomatic levers as they have to hand to bring this about. . . There should be no yielding. For if, as a matter of diplomatic tactics or supposed principle, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are to be stopped, then the BBC's external services, it might be argued, should be muzzled too. In any event, the BBC ser- vices, excellent and important as they are, need to be augmented by broadcasts such as those put out by Radio Free Europe. Similarly, the Voice of America broadcasts are a more distant link with the outside world, whereas Radio Free Europe has been able to establish a more informal relation with an eager audience using medium wave- lengths. Have the- American congressmen really taken these factors into account?? The Guardian (England) Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATI NTL 23LLTikuitE V-1,-2 .6.?7,74-Cia. Approved For Release 20Ellii31f0 419cpiA-KuP80-01601 PraOrifir,e8 Red 'World with Factual. Balanced VfrrilM it formati WASHINGTON ? .(AP) , While Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe fight for survival in Congress, this country's third; and largest propaganda agency,' is aliv.e, and busy, selling the; American Way of Life from 1776 Pennsylvania Avenue and a half; a dozen other Washington' buildings. 1. ? The U.S. Information Agency is, in fact, so busy that in the' I days of federal belt-tightening it; is asking Congress for more'i rioney, not less. USIA wants $198 million for fiscal 1973, a $2 million increase,' to' continue cranking out stream of books, magazinesd 5amphlets, films, radio broad- casts, TV programs and to maintain outposts in such !remote spots as Luluabourg in ; the Republic of Zaire and !Maser* Lesotho. ? THE MILLIONS' of words and !pictures flowing daily through IA's printers .and transmit- twrs carry one continuous ; message; chiefly to Iron Curtain 'countries: No matter how turbulent American society may seem because of riots, assassinations, plots and bombings, life in the United States is better than anywhere else. ? Item: Although USIA reported every known detail of last fall's Attica prison Uprising . during which 90 convicts and hostages died, it managed in the course of a special series over Voice of America to convey 'the iny- presslon that life here is better even in prison. For example, the VOA found a ' California professor who said Americans invented ?modern in- carceration which he describes nAp.ency Fights C, One who does not in USIA'si chunky boyish-looking director,' Frank Shakespeare Jr., 45, whoi next week must go before a' skeptical Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee to 'defend his .budget requests. "A ? major world power, which we are in this moment in history, must have a mechanism by which it attempts to com- municate what it stands for to people throughout the world," the ex-television executive said. In past years, USIA has had little trouble obtaining its budget requests from Congress because the law required it to appear only before generally sym- pathetic appropriations com- mittees. 'UNDER A RECENT legislative reorganization act, however, USIA must appear for the first time before Foreign Relations,.headed by Sen. J. W. Fulbright. USIA officials are understan- dably nervous. The Arkansas Democrat ha S just won the first round in a battle with the ad- ministration that could end government financing for Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe which have been beaming prop- aganda to' the Soviet Union and its East European satellites since the peak of the Cold War. "These radios should be given an opportunity . to take theirl rightful place in the graveyard of Cold War relics,': 'said Fulbright, who contends U.S. propaganda acts as an Irritant, delaying arrival of Nixon's "era of negotiation instead of con- frontation." FULB RIGHT WAS out of town and unavailable for comment. as just locking people up and not But an aide, saying the corn- locking them up and beating on mittee was approaching the them, too. " hearings with an open mind, CITING a general easing of also said the senator could be world tensions, some in Con- expected to remain consistent gress ? argue that hard-sell with his stated desire to see a no longer is lowering of the U S profile necessary, ailkiptObtibtidOW'Rbibase 2001/03/04 abolished. ? propagandau. s. The effort to scuttle the two I radio stations began last year with disclosures in the Senate that they were being supported . secretly by the Central In- telligence Agency. For years there have been rumors USIA, too, is linked with CIA: Questioned by Fulbright on possible links with CIA at a 1970 hearing, a USIA officer said any. comment would have to cotyle "in' executive session from ap-1 ,propriate other officials." . EVEN PRIVATELY, USIA! officials are unanimous in denying any link with the CIA.' "Look," ? commented o n e young officer, "the CIA is the) best run agency in town. If they ran us we wouldn't be so fouled up." While there is some talk on Capitol Hill of doing away with USIA entirely, serious debate centers on the agency's size. Its 9,881 employes are more, ac- cording to a former USIA offi- cial, than those employed full- time on propaganda by all other nations combined.' Its role in U.S. foreign policy, and the tone and quality of its product will? also be questioned. "USIA has been a puzzle to policY makers ever since it began back in World War II," said one 28-year-old empioye. I "Hell, it's had half a dozen dif- ferent names. "EVERYTHING this agency does is based on the idea we've got something the Zambians want. Well, maybt they don't want it." veteran. UA employe who thinks the agency is too big said, "Look at this, we have a guy in Lesotho. I don't even know what they do there. But I do know that whatever they do in Lesotho, there is no way it can .It'atIA-g6kb The most talked of alternative! to aboliihing USIA is returning! it to . the State Department where most of its programs were lodged from 1946 to 1953. State, indeed, Would probably like to have control over the agency, now legally bound only to listen to the State's policy guidance. BUT SHAKESPEARE, has pushed hard to give USIA a higher positron in the policy to get ? P , specifically 'it back on the National Security Council from which President ,/ Nixon excluded it three years ag6 in a streamlining eff.y,t. "If you are going to ef- j.t? ctively promulgate a program! Von a worldwide basis it is necessary to hav.? the deepest possible understanding of the nuances," Shakespeare in an. -interview said. 1 Because Shakespeare was and I is an outspoken anti-Communist, I there was open speculation in I Washington that USIA would speak more stridently after he took over. The official line, however; has not grown per- ceptibly harder. "Mr. Shakespeare is as firmly anti-Communist as he ever was," said one top-ranking agency official. "But I think he's more subtle than when he first came here. That's because he has traveled and has a better understanding of world affairs. It was inevitable." SHAKESPEARE ALSO went a' long way toward improving strained agency morale by en- couraging young officers to form a grievance committee which can see him at. a moment's notice. The consequence of that: A dearth of serious grievances. As for the. agency's products, Bruce Herschensohn, head of the film service said: "We are trying to build a climate of eililgit%1 States IdlreVriect for tOainuad 2 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Communist countries and unless a film serves one of these puf- poses USIA doesn't use it." .' ? Under Herschensohn, the agency has turned out films on Vice ? President Agnew; the "Silent Majority," and Honor America , Day. It spent $250,000 on a Vietnam war documentary so blatantly one-sided that only three of USIA's 106 posts would accept it. AT THE SAME .t i m e, however, the agency has pro- duced three films in the past three years that have either won or been nominated for an Academy .Award.. A documen- tary on the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia won an Oscar. The other two dealt with life in this country. ? The agency's magazine sec- ? tion continues to publish itS flagship periodical, "Problems of Communism." But it also produces, along with dozens of other pamphlets and magazines,. a ? slick-covered Russ fa n language number call4d ' "America Illustrated." A recent edition was devoted to dissent in the United States and quoted altn0 every notable from .osie end of the political spectrum- to the other. I ? The unspoken message was that the United States is an open !society that tolerates dissent. MOST OBJECTIVE of USIA's divisions is the Voice of America which uses 109 transmitters to broadcast straight, factual news, plus music,. features' and generally noncommittal com- mentaries in 35 languages. Although VOA personnel ?con- sider themselves professional newsmen and take great glee in ignoring policy directives, the division gets an occasional nudge. During Nixon's Cbina visit, according to one VOA officer, writers and reporters got swept away in the "euphoria" and had to be reminded to emphasi7e o f Chinese life. ye aspects o sme of the negative aspects FULBitIGHT- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 LONDON DAILY TELEGRAPH Approved For Release 2001/034)4}MikaD1380-01601R0 RADIO FREE EUROPE REPRIEVED By RICHARD BEESTON in Washington ,RADIO FREE EUROPE and its sister station Radio Liberty, which are :threatened with closure, hav,e?? won -a short new lease of life from Congress . and the prospect of longer- term Government financial backing. .. ? --?? ? At the 'same time the arch ,enemy of the two stations, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator William Eulbright, has shown signs of softening his oprrosition. Senator Falbright originally ,called for an end to the two ;stations which he called "relics. of the Cold War " and his op-position caused. a deadlock between the Senate and the House of Representatives over the question of. further financial aid. . ? A -conference of representa- ?tives of both House of Repre- ;sentatives and the Senate has 'now. reached a compromise to .continue' financial support until .the end of June. Before that -date it will ;hold meetings to. ;discuss the question of providing government aid after June 30 :on a more permanent basis. This agreement followed a .personal appeal to Congress last. week by President Nixon who stated that he was "deeply con- cerned about the imminent pros- pect that they may be compelled to shut down. " With the support of the American Government and people, these two unique voices of freedom have for many years been a vital source of uncen- sored news and commentary for tens of millions of people in 'Eastern ;Europe and the Soviet .Union," hc said. ? Financed by CIA Sen. said originally-- that a? Bill for another year's - financing of the stations would have to be passed "over his dead body." Since then, 63 of the 100 American senators have co- sponsored a resolution to keep the stations going. These include nine out of 10 members of Sen. rulbright's own Foreign Relations Corn- , -mittee. )Sen. Fulbright has now said that if some Western Turope.n countries would he prepared to ..make a contribution to the sup- port of the stations most of his doubts would be removed. The two stations broadcast to Eastern European countries and -Russia and in past years were largely financed by the American spy network. the Central' Intelligence Agency. When the CT A support ended it was replaced on an annual basis by a -direct Govern- ment grant authorised by Congress, STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Meal VYLMS. 20 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160 LETTERS Radio Free Europe I would like to emphasize that the liqui- dation of Radio Free Europe (INTERNA- TIONAL, March 6), would be interpreted by the peoples of Bulgaria, Czechoslo- vakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania as final recognition by the United States of the permanency of the Soviet rule in East Europe. Surely it would not kill their striving for independence but, paradoxi- cally, might result in shifting their hopes toward the People's Republic of China, which alone of the great powers shows some interest in East European countries regaining their independence. STEFAN KORBONSKI Chairman Assembly of Captive European Nations New York, N.Y. ? The fact that Sen. William Fulbright, so often portrayed a a defender of indi- vidual liberties, could "liquidate" Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty is almost totally unbelievable. If these stations pro- vide Eastern Europe with its only recep- tion of objective news they should be continued regardless of who is funding them. At least, the people should have the opportunity to hear something other than a censored Communist press. ? The initials CIA may often be associ- ated with political intrigue, but in light of the favorable reports given to RFE and Radio Liberty by various sources both in and outside the Communist bloc, the good senator has definitely aimed his. . sights at the wrong target. JOSEPH BERTOLLO III Hawthorne, N.J. ? Senator Fulbright is one of the few pol- iticians I admire because of his ability to see things as they really are. Radio Free Europe belongs in the museum of cold- war relies. .As an ex-Czechoslovakian, I would like to inform your American readers what Czech people- think about RFE. Today only a very few people listen to RITE because there has been a good deal of misinformation based on anti-Commu- nist propaganda. Strangely enough, peo- ple feel there is not too much difference between propaganda from any source, and RFE definitely has done damage to listeners' morale and faith. As a source of objective information, RFE is today considered as reliable as Radio MOSCOW. MILAN REZABEK Vancouver, B.C. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 LOtlLE3ILiE STAT INTL Approved For Release 20pp9tiVi9!7p1A-RDP80-01601 rETTERS TO THE TENIES, Can't Afford to Let Radio Free Europe Die I would like to reinforce the state- mints you made in an editorial (Feb, 24) on Radio Free Europe. I in very familiar with that organiza- tion as in 1963 I took a two-year leave of absence from my company :to work in Munich as deputy to the director of RFE appci later extended the leave two more years because of the tremendous value of what they .,.are doing. I ani deeply shocked by the at- tempt of Sen. J. William Fulbright ..(D-Ark.) to kill both FIFE and Radio ;Liberty. They are indeed, as he says, "relics of the cold war" but this im- plies that other relics of the cold ?war .--particularly the denial of basic Totalitarianigin's Little Helper freedoms to the people of Eastern Europe?no longer exist, And that is Patently untrue. It also implies that these two radio groups operate with- in cold war concepts. Also quite untrue. The fact is that for many years both organizations have had to-fight the charge of simplistic Americans that they have "sold, out" to liberal forces within their ranks because they have not engaged in cold war tactics. Instead of name-calling and finger - pointing (I suspect most Americans are convinced this still hagoess been to Approve on) their task for many y r.- Ie W TttrAM/FiTItki flk,400-01601R001100070001-5 paganda spread within the regimes dfor wav, good or bad." Less than four. and give their listeners a true per- years after the occuPation of Czech- spective on (a) what is happening in their own country, (b) what is hap- pening in the rest of the world. The statement made- so often that the Voice of America and the BBC can give them news of the world is true. No other group, however, can interpret internal bloc de v el o p- ments as quickly and responsibly as can RFE. They peg the lies, distor- tions and party fulminations as soon as they erupt, this because over the years they have assembled the most extensive library on Communist countries existing anywhere. A letter writer to your paper (March 7) describes these operations as "self righteous ' meddline.." On that basis we are also "meddling" in Peking, the Middle East, Africa, South America and Asia. As are the Russians. And the Chinese. Operat- ing in this very real world, we had better continue to "meddle." GORDON DAVIS . Los Angeles 101 . , ? ? If there is one thing that is likely -to reduce the, threat to us in West- ern Europe and ultimately to you Americans it is change within the Soviet Union and increased internal pressure on the Russian leaders to change their policies. Since World War II both Radio Liberty and Ra- dio Free Europe have been broad- casting across the Iron Curtain with just this aim in mind. I understand that Radio Liberty alone has an estimated, audience of 31 million in Russia, but now the work that they are doing is threa- tened with extinction. The cost of running a radio station Is hut, a small fraction of the cost of maintaining a modern army, but the benefits can be much greater. JOHN HARVEY Swansea; England . . The objections to The-Times' edi-- torial position on Radio Free. Eu- rope voiced by Cleorge Holmes and Frei Warner Neal (Letters, March 7) are, in my view, unfounded. In re- sponse to the former, RFE"aims pre- oslovakia, it hardly needs to be re- peated that the peoples of Eastern Europe do not presently enjoy this right. RFE. provides an ersatz domestic communications medium for societal forces in Eastern Eu- rope seeking evolutionary political' liberalization, national affirmation, and in time relaxation (not abolish- ment) of Soviet control over the area and supersession of the artificial partition of Europe. Professor Neal depicts RFE as broadcasting cold war propaganda which lizt no impact on the East Eu- ropean populations. This is to over- look overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Continued jamming is per- haps the best indication that, for the East European Communist lead-. erships, more is at stake than false hopes of -Communists and, curiosity about rock music. I know. the Polish case best; I have yet to meet a foreigner who has resided in Poland?governrhent official, jour- nalist, or student?who has not tes- tified to the impact of REE in Po- land and the esteem in which its broadcasts are generally held. ? A. ROSS JOHNSON . Santa Monica' The writer was assistant for Po- lish affairs at RFE front 1966-1969 ?Ed. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/016WPM441)P80-01601R01111111111111 17 MAR 1972 More on Radio Free Europe ,4:Coexistence, or detente, or whatever it happens to be called at the moment, must not be mis- understood to mean an end to the conflict of ideologies. Communism uses the press and broadcasting to manage public opinion in the inter- ests of the state. One of the funda- mentals of a free society is that people should be free to think and say 'what they want, and should have the communications media open to them to do so. There should be no yielding here." The lines above are taken from an editorial in the Manchester Guardian weekly suggesting that the United States should continue the operation of Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty, transmit- ting news and opinion from a free society into the closed society of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Government funding of the stations now is hung up in a?con- ference committee in Congress; the proposal of the Nixon adminis- tration and the House of Repre- sentatives to appropriate money to maintain the stations is being resisted by the Senate Members of the conference committee led by Senator Fulbright. Mr. Fulbright and the senators who share his position hold that the .broadcasts, which in the past were covertly financed by the CIA, are relics of the cold war and irritants in the way of better rela- tions with the Soviet Union. The Guardian puts the subject in a truer perspective when it says: "To silence these stations would indeed remove an irritant, but it would confirm and condone the suppression of free speech in Russia and the rest of the Soviet bloc. No wonder the Soviet leaders are using such diplomatic levers as they have at hand to bring this about." 4 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL covINGApipraved.For Release 2001/0/04 : CIA-RDP.80-01601R0 LEADER tIAR 1. 697a WEEK Y ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? r FULBRIGHT AGAIN! , ? Sen. J. William Fulbright of ? 'Arkansas, who has been demanding the scuttling of Radio Free Europe, has drawn fire from an esteemed in- ternational correspondent of the Copley Press, Dumitru Danielopol. This writer's attack is .squarely on target, and I pass it 'on to you because you should know what one United States Senator is doing to a proven 'effective anti-corn munist effort. Sen. J. William Fulbright's stubborn determination to dismantle Radio Free Europe ? and Radio Liberty brings to mind Malcolm Muggeridge's .theory of "the great liberal death wish." ? The well-known British newsman, writer, TV and radio ; commentator sees the Free '.World threatened not so much by communism, but by the 4'death wish" of the left. wing enunciated by liberal Politicians, commentators and authors who find "our enemies are always right and our friends are always wrong." Much of the comment on .? that people's paradise called 'Red China follows this line. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, two organizations created in the early 50s to beam true in- formation into eastern Europe .and the Soviet Union are ob- vious targets. They are 'American, therefore, they must ' be bad, or at least ineffectual.. Never mind the fact that their existence and American , backing has been a great in- spiration to people behind the Iron Curtain. Never mind that they are a daily proof that the people of America have not forgotten those snared into a communist.i3PL Aad- mind that t i,p AgprFtypgeft4r Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 'erroneous information about , by wayne robbins the United States from Com- munist propaganda machines. Fulbright says that they are useless and must go. The financing of the two stations for years was handled mostly by ,i'La'eaNba'ais it to be public. The "House is in favor of continuing the operations. In the Senate the decision rests with the Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by Sen. Fulbright, D-Ark. He is adamant. The stations are an "anachronism" he says. "They are cold war relics." ? They will continue only over his "dead body." The cold war is over and we plat aren't smart enough to know it. I have often been a critic of RIFE operations, I say now that on every count Fulbright is wrong. The cold war is not over. It goes on more furiously than ever. If the cold war was over, why do the Soviets make every kind of propaganda to disband NATO, to promote a phony European Security conference, to bring about the disrnem- berment of Yugoslavia? Use every means to push the United States from Europe, the : Mediterranean and North Africa? Why do they support every kind of subversive, anti- capitalist group in the Free World? Moscow and other Com- munist capitals in Eastern Europe have been ranting for years against RFE and Radio Liberty. They even threatened not to send teams to the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 unless theaatakipns there ,?;, ? were silenced.' - Now the blOmcomes from Washington. The silencing of these two voices 'would?in the opinion of this correspondent? be the greatest cold war victory that the Communists ever won. It would tell their subjugated onle that Soviet. rule was iie'itoble?endless. ''.he prestige of' our country Let, i eal the- Iron a Curtain and. air ea exiles and refugees. in Europe would :sink freee .aaht. It is ironical to find' that Fulbright wants to strike such a blow at a moment when Red China is bidding for the support of the captive peoples and the ethnics abroad to form a common front against Russia. The Senator may say his own "mea culpas," but he has no right to chant them for people who want to live. e 11.1-1ES Athbkk a ,zz ? VI30 CONMEre 20011,014 : 19LAA-RDP80-01 'Viin United States government funds secretly through the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency. But after the agency's role became public knowledge, the Administration agreed that the stations would have to be sup- ported openly by Congress. Thel Administration has sought RADIOS IN EUROPE House and Senatagree on f f Funds Till June 30 for ? t and Radio Liberty f' By BERNARD GWERTZMAN Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, March 11? Faced with an imminent shut- down of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the Admin- istration dropped today efforts to secure long-term funds for the American-run stations and agreed r'w a plan to keep them alive for at least three more months. about $35-million a year for the two stations. Mr. Nixon's statement said that "with the support of the American Government and peo- ple, these two unique voices of freedom have for many years been a vital source of uncen- sored news and commentary for tens of millions of people.' An aide to Senator Fulbright said the Presidential statement originally was much sharper and appeared to be aimed at Senator Fulbright, but was toned down in order that the The arrangement worked out agreement could be reached.? this morning by Administra- Under the arrangement tion officials and Congressional worked out, the House confer- ees, led by Representative aides was clearly a victory for Thomas E. Morgan, Chairman Senator J. W. Fulbright, Chair- of the Foreign Affairs Commit- man of of the-Foreign Relations tee, will accept the Senate bill Committee, who ?had resisted for funds through June 30. 'pressure to agree to an Admin- The only oncession made by the Senate side was to agree to istration-backed bill voted by consider later a bill which the ,}Jouse that would have would provide funds for the 'provided funds through June fiscal year starting July 1. 30, 1973, and created an inde- Senator Fulbright was out of pendent body to administer the town, but aides said they were station. sure he would remain opposed to continuing the life of the M. Fulbright had held out stations beyond June 30. for acceptance of a Senate bill Senator Fulbright has said that provided funds through he ragards the stations as irri- .'June 30,. to be administered by tants to the Soviet Union, ob- stacles to better relations be- the State Department. tween East and West, and An impasse had developed "relics of the cold war." The between Senate and House con-,Arkansas Democrat has also ferees and payments stopped!ins'sted that United States al- on Feb. 22. Both stations i?IiCs in urope pay a part of the formed the Administration that!uptc..eep for the stations, which are based in Munich, West they would have to begin cls- Germany. ing down on Monday if new funds were not available. President Nixon, who had re- mainned silent about the sta- tions, issued a statement this afternoon at about same time the agreement became' known. He said? that he was "deeply concerned" at the prospect of the ? radio stations' closing down. He said it would be "a tragedy" if they did not con- ! ue. Both stations were set up at the tleight of the cold war to broadcast news and commen- tary to the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies. Be- cause their material often in- cluded items not available .in the strictly controlled Commu- nist media, the stations have long been attacked by Moscow and other Communist govern- STATINTL meats. , AfikirkgretIMMON, 2001/03/04.: CIA-.RDP80-01601R00110007000t-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0 Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 1972 (Vol X, No 6), p. STATINTL news media begin to move toward solutions. Not all of them will necessarily survive, but they and their successors should lead to an improved at- mosphere for those now entering the profession. More monitors Cities that still lack journalism reviews are ac- quiring them at a rapid rate. Three more are appearing this spring: ?Buncombe: A Review of Baltimore Journal- ism, led by staff members from the Sunpapers, but covering all media. The first issue is being of- fered as an insert in The Paper, an alternate-media periodical, but it Will be separate thereafter. [Bi- monthly; sample copy, 25 cents. Address: 2317 Maryland Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 21218.] ?TCJR: Twin Cities Journalism Review be- gan bimonthly publication in February. Its first editor (editorships will rotate) was Robert Protz- man of the St. Paul Dispatch. Robert Sylvester of the Catholic Bulletin is president of the sponsor- ing Twin Cities Media Project. [Individual copies, 50 cents; annual subscription, $3. Address: Box 17113, St. Paul, Minn. 55117.] ?The George Washington University chapter of Sigma Delta Chi has set a Washington journal- ism review for April publication. [Address: Dan- iel M. Larson, executive editor, 2121 N Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037.] Meanwhile, journalists in Buffalo, N.Y., and Boston, among other cities, have begun prelimi- nary planning for local reviews. An honorable old title, CBS Views the Press, has been revived on CBS radio?though programs are aired only twice a week for four minutes. And Prof. William L. Rivers of Stanford, one of the most prolific writ- ers on the mass media, is now conducting a regular column in the Progressive: MONITORING MEDIA. Darts and laurels Laurel: to Dan Rather of CBS, for asking real questions in his Conversation with President Nixon on Jan. 2, and overcoming the ever present temp- tation to be merely chummy or respectful. Dart: to the New Orleans Times-Picayune, for establishing the curious policy of dropping most racial identifications except for stories of "signifi- cance" such as crime reports involving two races. Laurel: to the Minneapolis Star for its continu- ing consumer series, "Your Dollar's Worth." Among the series' services was a microscopic ex- amination of the area's hamburger meat at mar- kets and hamburger stands?down to the last bacterium and insect fragment. In each case, the seller was identified by name and address. Dart: to the Newspaper Guild, for calling on Congress to continue funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. A Guild resolution says that the two projects "seek to lessen tensions between the peoples of the East and West." In fact, they are official propaganda agencies, and the Guild's continuing interest appears to be a hang- over from the days when the Guild itself was in- volved in Central Intelligence Agency funding. Radio Free Europe employs 284 Guild members. Laurel: to WNET, New York, for its week-long series, A Murrow Retrospective, bringing back to the screen the cream of the Edward R. Murrow- Fred W. Friendly documentaries of the 1950s. The showings were confirmation that, indeed, See It Now had a special freshness and energy now rarely attained in TV's riper years?and the time to show them. Dart: to the same WNET, for its curious post- script to the Murrow-Friendly documentary on Annie Lee Moss, the code clerk accused of Com- munist affiliations. Without explanation or re- buttal, the station brought on Roy Cohn to state that charges against Mrs. Moss had been affirmed. Laurel: to the Wall Street Journal, for alertly reprinting [Jan. 191, with approval and full credit, Alan Weitz's comprehensive and thoughtful sur- vey of the heroin problem from the Village Voice, ancestor of the underground press. March/April, 1972 0 7 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Iv.00rp,O(lii11:41,1,M4 ;,4v,?!,),On-.0.4 WASHINGTON POST Approved For Release 2001/13i/1141i OFA-RDP80-01601ATAT VT000 -5 Nixon Urges Hill to Save RFE Funds Associated Press esident Nixon appealed to. Congress yesterday in a last ditch administration attempt to .keep alive two radios that !beam broadcasts beyond the Iron Curtain. Unless they have assurance of more U.S. government' funds, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have served no- tice that they intend to start shutting down operations this week. Mr. Nixon's statement came as the administration put for- ward a compromise offer in its dispute with the Senate For- eign Relations Committee chairman, Sen. J. W. Fulbright (1)-Ark.), who wants to end the two operations. "I am deeply concerned at, the imminent prospect that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty may be compelled to shut down," Mr. Nixon said in Et, statement put out by the White House. Stating that the American people and an overshelming congressional m aj orit y strongly back Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty, the President said, "It would be al tragedy if their light should I now be extinguished because of a parliamentary impasse be- tween the two Houses." State Department off.icials. said that in the hope of quick- ly breaking the Senate-House- conference-committee dead- lock over continuing the life of the stations, this admini- stration compromise offer has benn put forward. The Senate-passed bill which would carry on the ra- dios until the end of June 30 would be accepted by the con- ferees instead of the House measure which would continue the operations for another two, Yeats. ' ,...? ? 'Both houses *mild agree to consider a separate meas- ure which the administration would submit for running the radios in the 1973 fiscal year starting July 1. ? In the three months time bought by the proposed com- promise, the State Department would see whether America's EuiOpean allies would help pay the radios' approximately $40-million-a-year cost. It was understood that Sen. ' / George Aiken (R-Vt.) would I make a move Monday to ac- cept the administration's pro- posed compromise in the ab- sence of Fulbright, who was reported out of town. Rep. Dante Faseell (D-Fla.) was reported ready to accept the administration offer on the House side. Mr. Nixon's statement was issued by the White House yesterday at a time when the President himself was at his Camp David retreat in Mary- land, preparing a statement of policy on school busing. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 HUMAN EVENTS ? 11 MARCH 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 Radio Free Europe Soviet Onion, these stations irritate the ? Communist leadership and undermine By REP. PETER FRELINGHUYSEN efforts at d?nte. I disagree. President ? r?E t Nixon's visit to China demonstrates that mutual understanding comes with a free ? exchange of ideas. Similarly, these radio ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Libert, stations bring needed information to the appear on the verge of leaving the air Communist world. Beginning in l90, Radio Free Europe 4 If three senators should be successful has been broadcasting in killing these programs it will have each day to Eastern been because of their manipulation of the Europe, while Radio legislative process, in defiance of the Liberty a year later expressed desire of both the Rouse and started reaching mil- the Senate to have these programs con lions of listeners in the tinue. This is most unfortunate. ? Soviet Union. In my?opinion the senators' refusal to Should these broad- seek a compromise is irresponsible, and ? casts cease, it will not be because Con- a reflection on Congress itself. This gress decided they have outlived ?their willful frustration of the will of Congress usefulness. To' the contrary, both houses will have immediate and adverse reper- of Congress have already approved a cussions abroad, and will show the in- continuation of these programs. Sin ability of Congress to see that its own ce the hill passed by the House differed decisions are carried out. ? from that approse.el h the SenAe. it u as Over the years the Soviet Union and ileec.sary to send the hills to a con- her allies in Eastern Europe have spent ference committee to non out the dif- millions in efforts to stop Radio Free ferences. Europe and Radio Liberty from reaching ? It has been the oppt sition of three their citizens. There is something seri- al the live senators in that conference, ously wrong ? when three United States led by J. Vs'illiam Fulbright of Arkansas, senators can accomplish this for them. ? that has led to the present stalemate. Sen. Fulbright, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has re- -fused to accept any compromise. And without congressional authorization' and .provision of the necessary funds . these programs cannot be continued. As a House conferee, I can report that the deadlock is in no way the fault of the House. We earnestly sought agreement. The differences between the bills passed by the House and Senate were not funda- mental and could have been reconciled, had good will been shown and reasonable concessions made by ? both sides. All that was at issue was how long the pro- grams should continue, and how the funding should be handled. But as Sen.. Fulbright and his al- lies have made clear, both publicly and privately, they limed the expir- ation of existing authority as an op- porttinity to kill these programs. By their refusal to seek?let alone reach ?A compromise, they may hale acted within their rights, but by their actions they unquestionably used the- legislatiie process to further- their ? own political convictions, rather than the expressed decision of the Senate. They. argue' that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are .relics of the Cold War and that by aiming broadcasts at the Pecii15100riittdrit6ilrigi?efigi001/03104 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 $TAT1NTL TEE ICONON/ST Approved For Release 7069ftio141.5CRA-RDP80-01601R001 STATI NTL R?adio Free Europe 'news by switching on their transistors, Shall not nation speak unto nation? Senator William Fulbright's campaign against Radio Free Europe, the Munich station that has broadcast to eastern Europe since the early 1950s, is liable to have very unfortunate effects. Mr Fulbright, the chairman of the Senate's foreign relations com- mittee, claims that the station and its twin, Radio Liberty, which broadcasts to Russia, are cold war relics and obstacles to detente. He is pressing to have their State Department grant cut off in June (until last year they were ?financed by the CIA). If he is successful?and it now looks as if he might be?the Administration in Washington will suffer only a small political pinprick, but the one in Moscow will be handed a major propaganda victory on a plate. The communist governments' standard complaint against these stations is that they represent unwar- ranted interference in their internal affairs. What really upsets Mr Brezhnev and his colleagues is that western broadcasts are popular among listeners in communist countries, and 'especially among party members and intellectuals. So long as these listeners can get alternative versions of political. they can free themselves from their governments' monopoly of information. The Munich stations, in particular, have annoyed the communists because they have been more outspoken than most other western stations. It was their original ambition to broadcast to eastern Europe the sort of things that a responsible opposition would be saying if it were allowed to exist there. Most of their strident anti-communism of the 1950s and early 196os is now gone, and Radio Free Europe could not now be accused of making inflam- matory appeals for revolution, as it was during the 1956 Hungarian revolt. Now MB Fulbright looks like doing 'the communist governments' work for them, and Pravda and Moscow radio are duly commending him. But the continuation of broadcasting to the east remains an essential western interest. It is not a liberal action on Mr Fulbright's part to try to silence this part of it ; and it casts further doubts on his understanding of inter- national issues. If the Americans fail to provide alternative ways of financing the Niunich stations, others should step in to fill the gap. Britain might well increase its grant for the hard-pressed BBC external services, which enjoy a high reputation among listeners in the communist world. ? . Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 -1/ Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0 a '1;" ? ChICAGO, ILL. TRIBUNE jr M - 767,793 . S 11916,275 MAR 9 1972 'iron Curtain Broadcasts CHAMPAIGN, Ill.?I commend your . editorial "Penetrating the Iron Curtain" larch 4] for its frank putdown of Sen. ' zlbright and his views on Radio Free rope and Radio Liberty. How he uld be so naive, I can't imagine. As you ,mentioned, nearly one-third [250 out of 800] of the workers and staff of Radio Liberty is composed of Soviet ,-defectors. If, as Fulbright puts it, Radio ;.". Free Europe and Radio Liberty were pure 1311.4. propaganda, then why do these people who Ithe listened to the k? .broadcasts, and had a chance to find out the truth after having defected, go there to work after their achievement = of freedom? ? They know what it means to not know ' what is going on in the world. They know also what propaganda is, having lived with it while in the Soviet Union. . As one example, when Khrushcher died one would 'expect the people of the Soviet Union to hear about it im- mediately, as America did when Presi- dent Kennedy was assassinated. How- . - ever, this was not the case. For those who had no access to the Radio Liberty broadcasts the news was days late. For those who did have access to these . broadcasts, the news was known im- mediately. The subjugated people of the Soviet Union have learned to rely on these broadcasts as.a source of hope for bet- ter things to come. If these broadcasts r are cut off, the effect can be totally demoralizing and disastrous. ' arasDrozd n STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 21t7 TI.:E(.; ? Approved For Release 2001/03904APPFDP80-01601R0 ROGERS DEFENDS ASIAN ALLIANCES .1 1" ? H Rejects Senators' Proposal That Pacts Be Reviewed in Light of China Contracts By BERNARD GWERTZMAN specie to The New York Times WASHINGTON, March 8 ? Secretary of Stat William P. 'Rogers rejected a suggestion Itoday that because of the cur- rent improvement in relations ? ,with China, the United States should re-examine its need for military alliances in Asia. Testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, ? Mr. Rogers said it would be ? "irery unfortunate to leave the hripression that, now that the visit tb the People's Republic of China has taken place, we are! thinking of treaty revisions' :with countries who have based their foreign policy on such treaties." Panel Might Take on Task The Secretary was urged by Senator Frank Church, Demo- .rat of Idaho, to undertake the review of American alliances, such as the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which were originally set up in the nineteen-fifties to counter pos- sible Chinese expansionism in the wake of the Korean war and the French Indochina war. ? Senator Church said that if the Administration would not undertake a eview of the for-i mal defense commitments, thei Foreign Relations Committee should. ' Mr. Rogers seemed disturbed. at the timing of Mr. Church's suggestion. The Administration has gone out of its way to assure its Asian allies that the China trip would not under- mine ties. This was Mr. Rogers's first public appearance before the committee since October. But the committee members seemed almost uninterested in ques- tioning him on such major re- cent developments as the China trip, the forthcoming Presiden- tial visit toappco,vteottior on strategic arms, the Middle East, Vietnam .or any of the other problems that have re- ceived public attention. . Senator J. W. Fulbright, the chairman, and Senator Stuart Symington, Democrat of Mis- souri, devoted a considerable amount of time to bickering with Mr. Rogers over the value of Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, two American-run radio stations in Munich whose future depends on further ap- propriations from Congress. Senators Stress Opposition The two Senators stressed, their opposition to the stations; with Mr. Fulbright at one point asserting that an agreement on a limitation on strategic arms may have been delayed be- The Now York Timis William P. Rogers, Secre- tary of State, testifying before the Senate For- eign Relations Conunittee. This morning's session opened three days of hearings on the State Department's reques for $563-million in the fiscal year starting June 30. Change in Procedure This is the first time that the 'department has had to 'apnea before the Foreign Relations Committee for authorization. Previously its budget requests were handled solely by the Ap- propriations Committee, with no requirement for separate au. thorizing legislation. Mr. Fulbright and several other Senators questioned Mr. Rogers on his role in pol- icy formulation, with Mr. Ful- bright suggesting that the Sec- retary had let Henry A. Kissin- ger, President Nixon's assistant for national security, dominate foreign policy. But Mr. Rogers repeated In essence what he said at a news conference yesterday ? that he was "perfectly satisfied" with the curent division .of respon- .sibility. ? . ' In answer to a question from Senator Jacob K. Javits, Repub- lican of New York, Mr. Rogers said it was doubtful that the President would go to Japan. this year because he has "otheri attend to" ? an allu- sion to the forthcoming cam- paign. Emperor Hirohito has said he would be ver pleased if Mr. Nixon visited Japan. Despite the fact that mem- bers of the committee have oft- en criticized the Administra- tion's foreign policy, most of. the members at the hearing personally praised Mr. Rogers for his work. 4 STATI NTL cause of such irritants to the Russians as Radio Liberty, which broadcasts to the Soviet Union news and analysis not available from Soviet sources. Senator John Sherman Coop- er, Republican of Kentucky, disagreed with Senator Ful- bright over the effect on the arms limitation talks. He said that he understood that con- siderably progress had been made and that a first-stage agreement would be reached by :the time Mr. Nixon visits Mos- cow late in May. Mr. Rogers, asked for com- ment, said he was optimistic Njouwhossiiimb? CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Lis1T.11;cT0'.1 POST ? Approved For Release 2001/liiK04)72CIA-RDP80-01601R001 STATI NTL Letters o 7fr e Edi or r rr On Radio Free Europe In connection with the uncertain fate of Radio Free Europe I would like to empha- size that its liquidation would be interpreted by the peoples of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, ?Hungary, Poland and Rumania as the final recognition by the United States of the pres- ent status quo and of the permanency of the Soviet rule in East Europe. Surely, it would not kill their striving for independ- ence but, paradoxically, might result in shifting their hopes toward the People's Re- public of China, which alone of the great powers shows some interest in East Euro- pean countries regaining their independ- ence. This interest was demonstrated by sev- eral announcements of the Peking govern- ment and, not so long ago, by the vehement condemnation of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia by the present Chinese dele gation to the United Nations. It is also being demonstrated by Radio Peking broadcasts tc East Europe and by Radio Tirana broadcast! to Poland. .1 In addition the closing of Radio Free Eu rope would represent an unwarranted gift tc Soviet Russia which through her own am satellite facilities pours "hate America' propaganda 900 hours daily in 78 languages. STEFAN KORBONSKI, Chairman. Assembly of Captive European Nations. New Yott. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 iVA'SHINGTON POST' ? Approved For Release 2001/03/041VIACIiiRDISMIM1611R v. ers Defens State tIearbnen ey R Senate Hearin . By Murrey Marder . Washington Post Staff Writer 'Senate concern over the rosion" of the State Depart- ment's theoretical primacy in foreign affairs was disputed and ' brushed aside yesterdaY with the President." as the government of the by Secretary of State William 1 "The system is working very 'United States?to 44 coun- P. Rogers. well," Rogers inSisted. "The tries." "I : am perfectly satisfied foreign policy is very effec- tive." Rogers also was challenged witfi the way it P.> operating," by Fulbright and Sen. Stuart 'said Rogers. The State Depart- R Ment is "happy to play a role" l Rogers also came under! symington (D-Mo.) on adminis- questioning yesterday tration. support of funds until. In foreign policy, and "Mr. close ,...iout the need to jettison June 1973 for Radio Free Eu- Kissinger has a role," said Rog- what several senators called rope and Radio Liberty. They era, but "the people elected f remnants of the cold war, were previously financed coy- the President" to "make for- Sen. Frank Church (D-I-, ertly by the CIA. The dispute : ? eign policy." daho) commending the Presi... is in a Senate-House confer- i Rogers refused in that fash-1 , 1 dent's China trip, said it is ence, with the Senate favoring; . lion, to debate whether he is time to eliminate all vestiges 'funding only until June 30 of 'being overshadowed by presi- of the "China demon fixation"1 this year. dential security adviser Henry in U.S. policy. Church said ?The U.S.-China commu- ' A. Kissinger. That conformed there is "no relic" that more . ' nique, pledging peaceful co-ex- about having State Department ous" and would suggest "a positions lost in the National 180-degree turn" in U.S. p01- Security Council staff machin- icy. ery that Kissinger controls. If Church countered that since anything develops "contrary ancient Rome, "no other coun- to what I think should be try in history has undertaken done," said Rogers, "take it up so many formal commitments bright suggested various ap- proaches for strengthening the State Department's posi- tion in foreign affairs, includ- ing a "unified budget for for- eign affairs." Rogers said that would be "too complex." Ful- bright noted that other agen- cies, including CIA and De- fense, haVe "seven or eight times as many people in our embassies as the State Depart- ment does.'" Rogers said State has only 16 per cent of its own employees in embassies over- seas, and State's total employ? - ees were listed at 13,236 Rogers disagreed, however, with Fulbright's claim that the growing, National Security Council structure, which Kis- singer beads, has overstepped its intended authority. with his insistence on Monday deserves being "tossed in the that, "I didn't feel excluded at ash can" of history than the istence, Fulbright said, "is all" during the President's Southeast Asian Collective De- quite inconsistent with what trip to China. fense Treaty of 1954. you are doing in Russia." The As a result, Rogers' words deflected the Senate Foreign Relations Committee yester- abandoned by France, Britain day from its own groping ef- forts and Pakistan: invoked as '.an grams created at the begin-1 to enhance the State De- ? , ning of the cold war, at the after thought to help justify ing foreign policy.. . L.S. involvement in the n o- riod." I chinabut now deserving S ? . J. W*11* ., . decent to avoid use in Ark.) held its first hearing.; other entanglements. The SEATO treaty is "a corpse," said Church, long broadcasts beamed into the Soviet Union, said Fulbright.1 continue "old, obsolete pro-1 ' I d height of the McCarthy pe- partment's' share in formulat? The committee, he by ' ? burial"?d ? Fulbright claimed that con- on $563 million requested in ; Rogers, however, told authorization funds for the Il Church "your timing is partic- . State Department as required- ularly unfortunate." by a rider it attached to last 1 Following the President's year's foreign aid act. A major , China trip, said Rogers, the purpose, as Fulbright noted United States is now reassur- i yesterday, is "restoring Con- ing its Asian allies that it will gress' proper. role in the mak- abide by all -its "e o m m i t- T ? " o a tinuation of such broadcasts could result in "a lack of cred- ibility" about U.S. intentions to negotiate in the strategic arms control talks (SALT) and to reduce tensions. Rogers dis- agreed. He said he sees the radio as no "interference in the internal affairs of other countries," and he expressed ing of foreign policy." ments. bandon the optimism for a SALT agree- With Kissinger beyond ?the ? SEATO treaty now, said Rog- ment this year. ers, could be "quite danger- ? , official reach of the committee - - ? During the hearing, Ful-1 became he is a White House adviser, Fulbright Fulbright and other senators hoped Rogers would ,join in seeking to strengthen :State's hand in policy making. In theory, that would ;strengthen the role of Con- ..gress, because State is obliged to be more resonsive to Con- gress than is the White House.. Rogers, however, pro- nounced himself quite satis- fied with the status quo. He disclaimed , any concern ? ? STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 DAM ViORLD Approved For Release 2001/011/URCIP2-RDP80-01601R Financing more cold war The resolution introduced in the Senate last week by 50 Senators urging U.S. government financial support for Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe is admittedly a "cold war" resolution. ? ? In introducing the resolution Senator Charles Percy said, emphatically, that the term "cold war" is "valid" in respect to the ."Soviet Union and... the other countries of Eastern Europe." ? That is the viewpoint behind which Goldwater and Buckley, Eastland, Thurmond, and Jackson, on the one hand ? and Kennedy, McGovern, Muskie, and Stevenson, on the other hand ? are united. ? Their excuse? That the two CIA radio stations are, in the words of Senator Percy, purveyors of "objective news." ? Expert witnesses testifying before the Congressional Black Caucus Monday showed that the domestic U.S. com- munications system is racist in orientation, hiring prac- tices, and ownership: That is the background for the two CIA stations the Senators would save. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 BALTIMORE EEO AURICAN Approved For Releale306119/W4 : CIA-RDP80701601R 6,8 Senators Sagne . adio Free Europe Funds in Support By DAVID BARNETT News American Washington Bureau WASHINGTON ? Growing support for Radio Free. Europe and Radio Liberty appeared to- day to have blunted Sen. J. William Fulbright's drive to silence the two controversial stations. Scott Cohen, executive assist- ant to Sen. Charles Percy, R-11 Ill., said 58 senators had signed , up as sponsors of the Percy- ! ,Humphrey resolution expressing the intention of the Senate toi continue funding the stations. ! The formation of a national bi- partisan committee of 60 former high government of ficials, , diplomats and labor and 'business leaders to support the .stations was announced yester- day. INTERIM federal financing for the overseas broadcasting operation ..expired Feb. 22 and House and Senate conferees are deadlocked on a bill authorizing funds for the stations. The units have enough money on hand to continue operating for about two Mote weeks. Fulbright, fl-Ark., 6airman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, told the Senate Feb. 17 that the stations "should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard of Cold War relics." The senator putinto the Con- gressional Record yesterday Library of Congress studies generally favorable to the sta- tions. He reiterated his convic- tion that the stations should be silenced but added, "unless perhaps our European allies wilil help pick up the costs." The House bill, passed Nov.1 19, provides $36 million for thei current fiscal year, ending June! 30, and $38.5 million for fiscal! 1973. It also creates a presiden- tial commission to study the sit- uation and to run the stations in the meantime. The conference committee toi iron out the differences last met: Feb. 23. HOUSE Foreign Affairs Com- mittee Chairman. Thomas E. Morgan, D-Pa., said the Senate conference, headed by Fulbright, refused to make any compromise, making it apparent! they "favored abolishing the two stations." For 20 years, the stations have been financed covertly by the Central Intelligence Agency and by private contributions. The private funds amount to about 1E per cent of the total. ! The citizens' committee, !which includes all living former i U. S. ambassadors to the Soviet !Union, said in a policy state- ) ment that to shut down these "valuable instruments of 'com- munication" without careful ! consideration "would be an ir- !1responsible action contrary.r to the best interests of the Amen- can people." .STATINTL A SUPPORTER of the opera-I tion said he was sure the Euro- peans would help ikeep the stal tions alive, if asked. ? ' The Senate last Aug: 2! authorized $35 million for fiscal! 1972 for Radio Free Europed which broadcasts news, corn-1 mentary, music. and sports 161 ?mclato_five countries in! Liberty, which broadcasts 241 p,ofieRelease 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 hours a day to the Soviet Union.! ?? _ thrroloh Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R BALTIMORE, MD SUN ? 164,6 E ? 189,871 B ? 323,624 MAR 7 1972 STATI NTL t f ,t. t ri*Ti all urges continued support f' or 2 U.S cold war radio stations PETER J. KUMPA Washingt2FIriereau of The Sun Washington?A committee of 60 prominent foreign policy ex- perts of the past three decades yesterday urged Congress to continue the operation of Radio bk? Free Europe and Radio Liberty ;11ntil 'a future presidential com- Qmission study is completed. Speaking for the committee. ...was George W. Ball, former .1 sunder secretary of state and now ; 'a partner of Lehman Brothers, 'a New York investment banking firm. ? Its target was Senator J. Wil- ? liam Fulbright" (D., Ark.), /,chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, who has , refused any compromise be- tween Senate and House 'ver- sions of funding legislation for . the two semi-official radio sta- tions. Mr. Fulbright wants the radi- os Closed as "relics of the cold war." ? :? Kept the pressure on Mr. Ball argued instead that The stations kept pressure on the Soviet government while . promoting an East-West de- tente. He maintained that the Kremlin was no longer imper- vious to public opinion within the Soviet bloc. ? "If we are seriously for nego- tiations for a detente," Mr. Ball explained, "it is best to open doors and windows to, Eastern Europe and let some fresh breezes blow in." Mr. Ball spoke at a news conference here on behalf of a committee that includes the three living former United . States ambassadors to the Soviet Union, Charles E. Boh- ? len 'UT .,,,A Harriman and Europe and Radio Liberty," also includes the president emeritus of the Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Milton S. Eisenhower, and such leading figures of past administrations as Clark Clif- ford, C. Douglas Dillon, John J. McCloy and William Benton. . The committee's policy state- ment supported the House con- ferees' solution for the two ra- dio stations. The House would finance the stations until June of next year while a White House commission studies their future. Senator Fulbright, heading the Senate conferees, would let the radios exist until this June ?but not beyond that date. Mr. Ball said he could not understand the Fulbright posi- tion?how the Soviet' 'Union would be moved to a detente when its own people and the 85 million people of Bulgaria, Cze- choslovakia, ? Hungary, Poland and Romania would be de- prived of independent news of the West and their own sys- tems. Radio Free Europe estimates that its audience includes slightly over half of the Eastern European populations over the age of 14. Radio Liberty broad- casts to the Soviet Union. Committee aides estimated that the radio stations will have to close down in two weeks if funds are not made available. With them will go the research staffs that support the broad- casting of news, political com- mentaries and press reviews. Mr. Ball admitted that the former secret financing of the stations by the Central Intelli- gence Agency we'!' "mis- takeL?But he urged that the' "sins of the father!' not be "passed on to the sons." Het asked that the stations be judged on their merit for, in' the committee's words, "an ir- responsible action" would result from their closure." Approved FOTANkifte 200P1/03/0 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? The group, called 'the Citi- zen Committee on Radio Free 102 /?iLZS1:1.1.33 Approved For Release 2u01103iO4 : CIA-RDP80-01601R ? -7 MAR 1972 Letters to The Times Fulbright Is Right on Ridio Free Europe Sen. J, Fulbright (D-Ark.) Is right again, and you are wrong on Radio Free Europe (Editorial, Feb. 24). We have finally learned some humility through the Vietnam: fias- co, but apparently: ??we - still have many- things to learn. When will we realize that though - we are the mightiest country, and in Many ways the best, nobody elected .us to run the rest of the world.. ? - Just imagine if the Soviet Union had a Radio Free America stirring up disaffection against our govern- ment, using bases in Canada and Mexico! There will be no real peace until we grant others the right we Insist upon for. ourselves, the right to live their own way, good or had, without our self-righteous meddling. ? ' ? ? GEORGE IIOLMES ? ? Long Beach STATI NTL I would like to express, as strongly as possible, my support for Sen. Ful- bright's efforts to eliminate federal funds for Radio Free Europe- and Radio Liberty, two government' out- lets for cold war propaganda: ? Radio Free Europe was long a se- cret ? CIA-financed operation?con- ducted by anti-Communist emigres --;-aimed at creating unrest in East- ern Europe. Radio Liberty was a si- milarly financed activity aimed at the Soviet Union. These two rem- nants of the cold? war have never had significant impact other than to Interfere with improved relations between the United. States and the Soviet Union, except, perhaps, that Radio Free Europe played a minor role" in the. disastrous Budapest uprising of 1956. That either of these two radio propaganda activities has ever been important?let alone now?is a fantasy fostered primarily by our propaganda bureaucracy for Its own ends: . .Radio Free Europe?aimed at Eastern Europe?doubtless fosters false hopes among small anti-Com, munist groups and intrigues a limit- ed number out of curiosity and in- terest in American rock. music. Ra- dio Liberty's target is ?the Soviet Union, ,where its audience is even more minuscule. Approved For Release 20011VSYNAMMIpar.80-01601R001100070001.-5 7 WAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601 ? Fulbright, Citing China.,-Deplores Any Aid By BERNARD GWERTZIVIAN Speclat to The New York Times WASHINGTON, Mara 6? Senator J. W. Fulbright said today that the Nixon Adminis- tration's pledge not to inter: fere in China's internal affairsp made continued support of Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty incomprehensible. The two-decade-old stations, privately run by Americans with United States Got,,rnment issistance, view their pur- pose as the liberalization of the Soviet Union and members Df its bloc. ,The comment by the Arkan- rai-Democrat, who is chairmanl of the Senate Foreign Relations i Committee, was included in a' statement affirming his view' that the stations should be liq- uidated. He has asserted that he believes they hurt the chances of improving relations with Moscow and should be discarded as "cold war .relics." Government funds for the stations ran out on Fb. 22, unless Senate and House con- ferees overcome the difference between their bills, the stations will close in about two weeks. Until last year they had been. assisted secretly by the Central Intelligence Agency. The impasse has been caused by the refusal by Mr. Fulbright, as the chief Senate conferee, to approve financing beyond June 30, as provided in the Senate bill. The Administration- backed House bill would pro- vide funds until June 30, 1073. To put pressure on Mr. Ful- bright to change his stancin 57 senators introduced a joint re- solution last week expressing their support for the two stations. But the resolution, which must be approved by the Foreign Relations Committee, is not expected to be brought to to Radio Free Europe l STATINTL a floor vote soon. Only six of the committee's 16 members joined in the resolution, which was broadly interpreted on Capitol Hill as a rebuke to Mr. Fulbright. Today George W. Ball, a for- mer Under Secretary of State, held a news conference here to announce the formation of a bi-partisan citizen's' committee in favor of the house bill. Mr. Ball said that he believed de- tente in Europe could be fos- tered by continuation on the stations, which he said keep Eastern Europeans informed. The House bill would set up :a special committee to admi-' !ister the stations independent of the Government. The Senate ;version would fund them di- rectly through the State De- partment. The Administration has opposed State Department control, arguing that the sta- tions, which beam news and views about internal develop- mentsin the Communist bloc, should be independent. Senator Fulbright, quoting from the communique issued in Shanghai, noted that the United States supported the principle of nonintervention in other countries. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03041APCIliaDP80-01601R0 RadkE?iope Studies Cited By Fulbi'ight Senate Foreign I Relations Committee Chairman J. W. Fulbright ? fD-Ark.), stung by criticism that had sup- pressed two Library of Con- gress studies fiivorable to Radio Free Europe and Radio .Liberty, read both reports into the Congressional Record yes- terday after noting that he Itad received the final versions only last Friday afternoon. Backed by all four other Senate members of a House- ,Senate conference ,on a bill to -eentinue the two radio sta- tions, ? Fulbright has been in a dispute with the -House For- eign Affairs Committee over how long the stations should 'be funded.' .? , :Senate conferees favor fund- ing only through June 30 of , this year, with the State De- partment required to justify Anything beyond ? that. House conferees are holding out for June 1973. Meanwhile, regular congressional financing, in place of the former covert CIA funding, expired Feb. 22. ? Fulbright considers the sta- tions, which broadcast into Eastern Europe, a provocative irritant to East-West relations Whose cost isn't justified. Some defenders of the sta- tions Aay they simply broad-- cast primarily' truthful' news to Eastern Europe. But Ful- bright said the Radio. Liberty study makes clear . that that station's aim is to influence 'Political. g3rents. 4 He quoted the Li rary of Congress study as saying that Radio Liberty "identified with 'what it believes to be th,e best ' interests of the Soviet peoples and speaks in their, behalf, ? hoping that in the long run this effort will contribute to those forces seeking to bring about a democratic transfor_. mation of Soviet society. For, RL's ultimate goal is the peaceful democratization cif the Soviet Union; and it holds Ito the belief that the best as- surance for peace with Russia is sovtiherto ut ogthalitthaeriadniimsminuatinodnhoef ,growth of democracy." Meanwhile, a newly formed committee of scholars and for- mer government leaders is- sued a statement Calling for continued congressional sup- port of the stations "pending a full and fair examination of their effectiveness." The' group's spokesman is former Undersecretary of ,,State George w: Ball. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL Approved For ReftsGeRN9A3B4liatzBDPALK lieb01R0 S 3428 r t, u, and the general lack of reliable, objective information. RECOMMENDATIONS As a point of departure, we must recog- nize that the Soviet hostility toward public opinion research, the campaign conducted against Radio Liberty, and the retaliation of the Soviet authorities against Soviet citizens are real. The political proscription and perse- cution the citizens may be exposed to are too severe to be ignored. The citizenry, living in the heavily controlled social environment, Is fully aware of the possible consequences and carefully avoids unnecessary risks. Nor could Radio Liberty survive if it did not pro- ceed with caution and responsibility. Just what the proper level of caution should be in the present period is not easy to tell. The number of Soviet travelers has in- creased, cultural contacts are generally on the ylse, and Soviet citizens may move some- what more freely or at least more frequently abroad. Simi)ar but probably more articulate de- velopments were recognized and used by RFE for the institution of public opinion research activities founded on scientific principles. Parenthetically mentioned, this work requires a' careful reconciliation of ideal criteria and diverse, situational constraints. Nonetheless, as a result of its audience research, Radio Free Europe is now in the position to docu- ment the size of its audiences and the di- mensions of its impact. The value of this knowledge is consider- able and it bears both methodologically as well as substantively on the larger issue Sen- ator Fulbright has clearly articulated in re- cent hearings on the role of social sciences in U.S. foreign policy and international rela- tions. Ih our atomic age a better understand- ing of the Communist powers, their percep- tion of the world, arel the psychological fac- tors Influencing their decisions represents a matter of human survival, Senator Ful- bright expressed surprise at how little re- search is presently being conducted on this issue.' Both RFE's and RIA research is closely re- lated to this issue. RFE has set the example that empirical research in this domain is not a hopeless enterprise. Even though Radio Lib- erty. operates under more restrained condi- tions, Radio Free Europe's success suggests that it would be worthwhile to explore the applicability of new approaches under the present, partially changed situation. Just as it would be wrong to overestimate the changes in their dimensions and conse- quences, it would also be wrong to miss the opportunities these changes may offer for re- search. There are three main developments which suggest taking a fresh look at this problem. a. There are some indications of freer criti- cism in the U.S.S.R. and a lessening of fears and inhibitions of the Soviet citizen to meet foreigners and to talk more openly. b. Recent years have shown an increase in the number of Soviet tourists, especially travelers on scientific and business missions to the West. o. Radio Liberty has shifted its institu- tional status from a situation of confiden- tial, undisclosed sponsorship to an open in- Hearings before the Committee on For- eign Relations, U.S. Senate, psychological As- pects of Foreign Policy, U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1969. stitution with responsibilities and informa- tion policies exposed to public control. This partially changed situation may not warrant a public opinion research matching Western polls in size and style but may pro- vide for a gradual introduction of scientific methods on a modest scale and carefully ad- justed in approach. The groups interviewed presently from year to year are large enough (N=500) to warrant statistical treatment. By a certain standardization of the interview procedure, the comparability of the individual inter- views may he substantially increased. By fo- cusing the interview on predetermined cate- gories of information, opinion profiles may be derived and trends analyzed. It appears to be advisable to retain the present distinction between program evalua- tion by panel and audience research by in- terviews. Because it is especially important for the panel members to be articulate and up-to-date, the use of recent emmigrants may be useful. For audience research in order to increase the representativeness of the in- terviewed samples, RFE's policy of using travelers exclusively may be adopted. Similarly, it may be recommended that Radio Liberty explore the possibility of adopting the RFE approach of contracting out the interviewing to independent national public opinion and market research orgae nizations. The language is a problem here but these national firms may hire Russians as in- terviewers just as RFE's contractors hire Eastern Europeans. The uSe of these inde- pendent business organizations offers an ef- fective method of demonstrating that the surveys involve public opinion research with no relationship to intelligence and espionage work. In order to reduce the problem resulting from a lack of experience with social science and survey methods, it is desirable to explore alternative methods in the administration and form of the interview to adapt it to the Soviet samples. Here preference may be given to projec- tive techniques which show people's percep- tions and attitudes without forcing them to make statements on topics which may be judged sensitive or political by Soviet stand- ards. Similarly, tasks of obviously mechanical nature (checkmarking, rank ordering of given alternative choices) may be used ef- fectively to underscore the statistical, imper- sonal nature of the interest in contrast to the more personal nature of interest sug- gested by direct questions. While some of these ideas may fail, others may work better than expected in the present, situation which does suggest certain ele- ments of change. After all, some of the pre- sentday RFT research would have appeared unthinkable five or ten years ago. Finally, because the Soviet public opin- ion data bear on a critical information gap which has important political as well as sci- entific relevance, and because this informa- tion is essential to provide for an educated U.S. public opinion instead of being kept confidential, it should be given the necessary publicity. JOSEPH G. WHALEN Joseph G. Whalen, presently a twenty-year employee of the Library of Congress, was born in Olean, New York, on January 1, 1921. He entered the U.S. Navy immediately after Pearl Harbor and served in the Pacific Thea- ter, participating in the capture of Iwo Jima and the occupation of Japan. He graduated from Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, In 1918, with honors in history, and won the Ph.D. degree in history from the University of Rochester in 1959. For Ave months in 1916 he was employed by the State Department on the staff of the Far Eastern Commission. From 1918 to 1951 he was a graduate student and an instructor in history at the Univer- sity of Rochester. In 1951, he was briefly em- ployed by the Central Intelligence Agency prior to accepting a position on the staff of the Foreign Affairs Division of the Legisla- tive Reference Service (now the Congres- sional Research Service) of, the Library of Congress. Dr. Whalen is a member of the American Historical Association, the American Asso- ciation for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, and the American Political Science Association (Washington Chapter). Since 1966, he has been a regular participant in the Inter-University Research Colloquium on Russia and Eastern Europe, Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies of the George Washing- ton University. He has written, or helped prepare, the fol- lowing: 1. U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Communist Aggression. Baltic States: A Study of their Origin and National Devel- opment: their Seizure and Incorporation into the U.S.S.R. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1954. 537 p. ? [Prepared Chapters III and IV, re-wrote Chapter II, performed coordinating and edi- torial tasks for Committee.] 2. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Tensions within the Soviet Captive Countries. Hungary. 83rd Cong., 1st seas. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1954. pp. 173-206. [Prepared study on basis of first draft by Dr. Bela T. Kardos.1 3. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Un- American Activities. Who Are They? Wash- ington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1957-1959. [Prepared biographic studies on Janos Kadar of Hungary, Part 4; Tito of Yugoslavia, Part 5; Enver Hoxlia of Albania and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej of Ru:mania, Part 9; and Karl Marx, Part 10.] 4. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. The Soviet Empire: Prison House of Nations and Races. Prepared for the In- ternal Security Subcommittee. 85th Cong., 2nd seas. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Oils ?1958. 72 p. 5. World Communism: A Selected Anno- tated Bibliography. Prepared at the request of Senator Edward Martin and Senator Joseph S. Clark, Jr. of Pennsylvania and pub- lished by the Department of Public Instruc- tion, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harris- burg, 1958. 20 p. 6. U.S. Congress. Senate. Khrushchev on the Shifting Balance of World Forces: A Selection of Statements and in Interpretive Analysis. A special study presented by Sen- ator Hubert H. Humphrey. 86th Cong., 1st Bess. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1959. 13 p. 7. Soviet-American Relations, 1933-60: A Brief Selective Chronology with Interpre- tive Commentary. Washington, Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress, 1960. Published in, The Congressional Record by Senator Everett M. Dirksen, July 1, 1960, pp. 112238-142254 (Daily edition). 8. U.S. Congress. Senate. Khrushchev's Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATINTL maAppit9vfiNkf or ReleaseaOMMIN\RHWR950_1?K1519411111111111111P quirements for broadcasting through the ap- propirate telecommunications authority in the host country for notification to the ITU. What is important about this arrangement is that the frequencies are registered with the ITU in the name of the country filing the notification, that is, the host country. This action neither confers nor implies any vested rights to the individual franchised user of that frequency but only priority rights granted by the country of notification, that is, the host country. 33 Dependency of AL on the host country for its license to transmit is, therefore, great, and as RL's network chief George Herrick said in commenting on the precarious nature of licensing and frequency allocation, "the loss of frequency and license is an irreversible loss; it can't be negotiated as an economic matter; the right to operate and the right to frequencies can't be. bought." The matter of licensing became a serious question for RL in the spring of .1971 when its license to transmit in Germany same up for renewal. The Soviet bloc exerted great pressure on the West German Govern- ment not to renew the license, but the West Germans resisted, and RL was given a new lease on life in Munich and Lannas B. Research facilities 1. Overview of Resources RL's broadcasting operations are support- ed by a research effort that is impressive both in quality and in quantity. To keep abreast of internal developments in the Soviet Un- ion and .to know what gaps to fill in their ' programming, RI., researchers, programmers and other staff read and process more than 250 Soviet newspapers and journals in addi- tion to an equal number from the West. The . annotated bibliographic notes prepared on the basis of this press screening have fur- nished vast and unique archives containing more than one million separate items of in- formation. In addition to this. RL monitors listen to, tape, and partially or fully reproduce the texts of from 80 to 120 hours of Soviet broadcasting a day, including the gist of the columns which Soviet citizens are reading in their daily newspapers.'a Moreover, RL libraries in New York and Munich provide extensive coverage of recent periods of Soviet history and up-to-date in- formation on current Soviet affairs. The library collection in New York consists of 14,000 books, subscriptions to 200 Western -and 220 Soviet periodicals and dailies, 2,500 Microfilms, and extensive files of archival Material as well as a record and tape library. In Munich, researchers and programmers have available a library collection of 65,000 books, subscriptions to 291 Soviet periodicals, including 59 newspapers and 232 magazines and scholarly journals. The library also con- tains documents, reports, pamphlets and microfilms. Published materials are supple- mented by a large achive of in-house mimeo- -graphed research materials dating back to ? 1951.35 ? Presently, RL has under consideration the - problem of maintaining a vast samizdat col- lection which increases with each passing week. Scholars regard RL as the largest archive for this valuable raw research mate- ria1.33 In collecting semizdat, and in repro- clueing an extra copy for broadcasters, RL has found itself performing a major service to a small circle of Western specialists; but now It is faced with the problem of whether a similar service should be performed for a larger outside circlea, Recently a decision Was reached on releasing sainizdat, and the mechanism for making it available to the Scholarly world is now being explored. Ne- gotiations are underway to have duplicate copies of the material deposited in the Li- ? brary of Congress so that scholars will have ready access to this rich bank of research material, 2. Research Resources at RL's Munich Headquarters Both New York and Munich maintain sep- arate research facilities to support their own individual programming operations. The main research effort is, however, in Munich. There, the division of labor and allocation of research resources seem to be structured generally to suit the particular needs of the organization as it has taken shape over the years. Dispersion, therefore, characterizes the informational side of RL's operations. Formally, the primary research base within RL is the Research Department. Efforts have been made to integrate policy and research so that policy can have the assurance and support of solid underpinnings of data and analysis. Thus, the Research Department falls administratively within the responsi- bility of the Director of the Program Policy Division. The Research Department also acts as an i formatioaal conduit for programmers through which up-to-date information is channeled. In brief, the Research Depart- ment seeks to establish an inter-relationship - with both policy arid programming. In large measure it one of the principal support units of 11,L's broadcasting opera- tions. Research staff maintain individual sources of information. A remarkable bank ? of data, on the Soviet Union called "the Red Archives" is at their disposal. Since the Re- search Department has become the primary depository in RL for the processing of samiz- dat and feeding it into programming, re- searchers have this wealth of new material to enrich their research product. The library acts as a broad base archival support for RL's operations. In addition to the general services that a library renders to a research organization, libtary staff provides RL researchers and programmers with bibli- ographic information on such matter as new acquisitions and on projected subjects for broadcasting set forth in the Monthly Guid- ance. Library staff also maintain a close "inter-library loan" relationship with the Bavarian State Library in Munich where they can draw on its highly commended "East European Collection." Programmers also have their own inde- pendent sources of information, in addition to what is available in the Research bepart- ment. This is especially the case with the Nationalities Service. Owing to their special- ized interest in the non-Russian Soviet na- tionalities and to the heavy emphasis on strictly Russian materials in RL's research resources, staff of the Nationalities Service have had to develop their own sources of in- formation. In fact, the programmers in both the Russian and Nationalities Services, spe- cialists themselves in their own fields, have acquired a finger-tip sensitivity to develop- ing events and thus often rely Upon their own resources rather than the lengthy, scholarly-oriented studies from the Research Department, sometimes too indigestible to suit their immediate needs. The program- ming effort is essentially a journalistic oper- ation; it is "history in a hurry", as one senior staffman said; it is an "integrating process" of past knowledge with unfolding contempo- rary history in which speed is vital. Hence, the need for this special source of informa- tion within immediate reach and in a read- ily uneasable form. Other sources of data are available in the Information Center and Music Library which are administratively under the .Pro-- gram Operations Division. The Information Center maintains ready-reference material such as reviews and periodical literature, along with a 10-day deposit of RFT daily news budgets. The Music Library maintains an extensive record and tape collection. Tus. RL has substantial resources of in- formation and research data. available for staff; but it is widely dispersed throughout the organization. This development seems to , have been dictated by the special require- menti of the various departments in research and programmiag. As a result, the library seems to have takemon the form of an archi- val center rather than that a of a nerve cen- ter for a research organization, at least in ? the American sense. Whether or not disper- sal or centralization of research?resources in- to a central library is the most effective and efficient mechanism of organizing RL's infor- mational data may well be a question for - future consideration. 3. The Institute for the Study of the USSR The Institute for the Study of the USSR was, until recently, another support serv- ice available for RL staff in research and programming. The Institute was an entirely separate operation from RL's broadcasting. functions, and administratively it was re- sponsible directly to the President of the RL Committee. However, the Institute was located in Munich. and its research resources were available to RL. The Institute's library of 75,000 volumes constituted one of the richest specialized collections on the Soviet Union in Europe. It concentrated on the acquisition of Soviet materials, particularly current periedical.s and newsnaners. It also contained a large number of books and periodicals not now available. Such basic research materials as the comnlete sets of Pravda and Lzvestia since 1917 were available on microfilm. In addition, the Institute in.aintained an ex- tensive biographic file of more than 130,000 leading Soviet personalities. One of .its many publications was the standard reference ' work, "Who's Who In the USSR." 3. The main effort of the Institute was in the realm of publications, notably of peri- odical literature which focused mainly on Soviet interest in the underdeveloped areas of the world. However, the Institute also published books based on conferences and symposia in which leading Soviet specialists in the West participated. A recent book in this series is, "The Military-Technical Rev- olution", published by Praeger, edited by John Erickson, and containing chapters on Soviet defense matters by leading specialists In the West. In addition, the Institute spon- sored a 6-week Soviet Area and Russian Language Summer School conducted by .the University of Oklithema.40 Thus, the Institute served varicais pur- poses for RL staff: it provided library ma- terials that supplemented collections in their own library, it brought together specialists on Soviet affairs in conferences and sym- posia, thus enabling It,L staff through con.; sultations and informal associations to gain other perspectives on the Soviet reality; and finally it published data that was available for immediate staff use in research. 4. Availability of RL's Research Resources and Output to Scholars RL's research facilities are open to scholars and researchers. Moreover, RL makes many of its research products available to a wide range of specialists on Soviet affairs. Thus, RL is able to serve two functions: it is able to maintain its important connection with specialists in the scholarly community in the West to whom it Often turns for advice and counsel on programming and policy It is also able to infuse up-to-data informa- tion and important emerging ideas into the mainstream of Western thought on devel- opments in the Soviet Union. A major effort is made by RL to keep So- viet specialists informed on current hap- penings in the USSR. It does this by dis- tributing free-of-charge its publications to 650 specialists in North America who have regularly asked to receive the material. EL publications include RL Dispatches on current affairs analysis, issued several times a week; RL Research Papers, providing more extensive, background information; and RL Approved-For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 S 3390 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 clATRDP,80,01601R0011000MQ1-5 cit b, 1972 CONGRESSIONAL KEcoKu ? stiN A t translations of significant articles from the Soviet press. (For examples of RL's publica- tions, see Appendix 22.) The latter two pub- lications are issued on an ad hoc basis." RL research facilities have, therefore, not only provided support for RI, programmers and broadcasters, but, as a spin-off of its pri- mary activity, namely, broadcasting, it has also provided an important service to spe- cialists in academia, the government, and the mass media who are concerned with con- tempary Soviet affairs. A measure of the value of ILL's research materials to Western scholarship can be seen in the appraisal by Prof. Leonard Schapiro of the London School of Economics. Prof. Schapiro wrote that he has followed the work of RL "very closely" for over 15 years and that "the products of the research in which it engages, and on which it broadcasts are founded, have been closely studied by me and by my colleagues in my department for many years." "I have no hesitation in stat- ing," Prof. Schapiro went on, "that the qual- ity of' this research has been consistently high and that it has proved of inestimable value to those who, like ourselves, are con- cerned with the study of the Soviet Union." " The tone of this endorsement of RL's re- search products along with others reproduced in Senate Foreign Relations Committee hear- ings and in RL's statement to Congress have the flavor of excessive testimonials; but this judgment must be balanced by an awareness that the writers are eminent scholars in the field of Soviet studies, and speak with some authority. 5. Importance of Research in RL's Operations The quality of research done by RL, whether it be in the Research Department or among programmers, and the availability of input source material, whether it be in the form of books, periodical literature, the press, radio monitoring or even word of mouth, is vital to RL's broadcasting operations. For the quality of information derived from re- search sources, along with the daily input of news (which is essentially part of the re- search process), deterniines in large measure the degree to which RL is achieving its stated goals and purposes as a surrogate "Horne Service" for the Soviet people. By the nature of things RL must operate from the premise ? that its audience suffers from large informa- tional gaps which it seeks to fill. RL tries to give the Soviet audience a rea- sonably complete picture of reality as any Soviet citizen would perceive it had he access to free information as in the West. And this can be done only by research, analysis, and a highly rational selection of news?in brief, only by hard intellectual effort. VI. mamma: SOURCE OF CONTROVERSY ? In recent years RL's annual budget has ranged between $12 to $14 million. According to Senator Clifford P. Case (R-N.J.), the op- erating cost of RL for FY 1969 was $12,887,- 401.a According to a GAO estimate, RL's budget for 1971 was about $13,700,000at Formally, these funds were apparently sup- posed to have been provided by private sources in RFE/11L's capacity, in the State Department's words, as "private broadcas- ters." a However, according to the SFRC re- port, the "gap between private contributions and actual budget expenditures ... has been filled by funds from the Central Intelligence Agency. ..." a According to the State Depart- ment, I'M has no program for corp-orate fund- ing, such as that for RFE." (During the de- cade 1962-1971, ISL received about $20,000 in unsolioited funds.) The SFRC report stated that the ". . . Executive Branch officials re- fuse publicly to acknowledge the [Central Intelligence] Agency's participation or role in maintaining and operating the two Radios." Accordingly, "the Department declined to supply additional financial, data for this re- port on Government funding of RFT and RI,." FOOTNOTES FOOTNOTES U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on For- eign Relations. Public financing of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Hearings. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print, Off., 1971; p. 5. Hereafter cited as, "SFRC, RFE/RL Hear- ings." When the press reported that the Library of Congress and General Accounting Office- were going to prepare studies on RFE/FaL for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Mr. Howland IL Sergeant, President of Radio Liberty Committee, wrote Dr. L. Quincy Mumford, the Librarian of Congress: "Radio Liberty is now completing its second decade of uninterrupted broadcasting to the So- viet Union. I would like to assure you that ? Radio Liberty programs and documentation relating to these broadcasts are freely avail- able to the Library of Congress in carrying out its assignment from the Foreign Rela- tions Committee. I offer our fullest coopera- tion and look forward to hearing from those in charge of the studies as to how we may be most helpful." (Sergeant to Mumford, Radio Liberty Committee, July 26, 1971.) Documentary material provided by RL is deposited temporarily in the Foreign Affairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Citations to sources re- fer to particular documents as filed accord- ing to volume. For the most part material drawn from interviews is not cited in the footnotes. 4 Radio Liberty:' An Historical Sketch.-Sep- tember 2, 1971, p. 1. (RL, V. IV, pt. 1) 9 Evolution of Radio Liberty Policy: 1952- 1971, p. 1. (EL, V. IV, pt. 2) 6Ibid., p. 2. Robbing. Enna. Radio Liberation Speaks for the Silent. The New Leader, v. 41, Oct. 6, 1958: 21-22, and Petrov, Vladimir. Radio Liberation. The Russian Review, V. 17, April 1958: 110. 8 In a critical appraisal of RL, Erik Barnouw observed in his history of American broad- casting that RL had begun broadcasting two months after the inauguration of President Eisenhower, and he went on to say: "Al- though plans for it had been made earlier, Radio Liberation became the epitome of the foreign policy of the following years, a pol- icy dominated by John Foster Dulles of the Department of State and Allen W. Dulles of the Central Intelligence Agency?two re- markable and complex men, differing yet working in harmony. They made a fateful impress not only on American diplomacy but also on its broadcasting?at home and abroad." (The Image Empire: a History of Broadcasting in the United States. New York, Oxford University Press, 1970, v. III, p. 92) 9 Evolution of Radio Liberty Policy: 1952- 1971, p. 2-3. (RL, v. IV, pt. 2) 10 Ibid., p.4. 13- Dr. Pet?rov made these observations on RL's conduct during this critical time: "This lack of clarity in political matters RL's policy] is an obvious shortooming. It was clearly demonstrated during the Hungarian crisis in November 1956, when RL didn't know what to say. Actually, some foolish things were said. For example, appeals were made to the Soviet soldiers not to shoot the Hungarians because they also were building socialism; regrets were expressed because 'our' brave soldiers murdered Hungarian women and children; appeals were made to the members of the Communist Party and to the 'politrabotnikr of the Army to stop the mass slaughter of the population." (Petrov, op. cit., pp. 112-113) " Writing in 1958, Dr. Petrov commented: "Since most of the policies of RL consist of 'don'ts' and since the writers and editors are reduced to platitudes, RL suffers from a dis- tinct lack of character." (Petrov, op. cit., pp. 110-111). However, in a commentary on the effects of the Hungarian crisis on RFE/Rls David Binder of The New York Times recent- ly observed; "The crushing of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 by Soviet armor also led to the crushing of cold-war agitation by Radio Free Europe and, in less dramatic form, at the Munich station aimed at the Soviet Union and then called Radio Liberation. At Radio Free Europe .commentators and policy ad- visers were dismissed or shifted to innocuous jobs. Radio Liberation changed its name to Radio Liberty and gradually toned down its more aggressive commentators." (Binder, David. Embattled Radio Free Europe defends role. The New York Times, March 15, 1971, p. 10) 18 Ibid., pp. 4-5. Ibid., p. 5. . 15 Ibid., pp. 5-7. The moderation of ILL and Its commitment to the principle of evolu- tionary liberalization were evident in the fol- lowing six "Immediate objectives" cited in the 1965 Policy Manual: "1. to encourage practical, democratic po- litical alternatives to Soviet practices; "2. to encourage more rapid social and eco- nomice reforms and allocation of more eco- nomic resources for the benefit of Soviet consumers; "3. to reassure listeners that democratic powers want peace and eschew aggression, but will defend themselevs against aggres- sion; "4. to encourage the view that the Soviet Government should abandon world revolu- tionary aims and work more actively for peace and international cooperation; "5. to undermine Communist ideology, showing that it does not promote the wel- fare of the peoples of the USSR, and to show that history points toward progress in free- dom of all peoples; ? "6. to encourage cultural diversity and freedom of exchange of ideas and travel." CFRC, RFE/RL Hearings, p. 27. Artem F. U.S. Radio in psycho- logical warfare. Moscow, International Re- lations Publishing House, 1967. (Excerpts and bibliography translated by Radio Lib- erty) 18A recent pamphlet published by RL listed the following as members of the Board of Trustees: Henry V Poor, Assistant Dean, Yale College of Law; Howland H. Sergeant, President, Radio Liberty Committee and former Assistant Secretary of State; Whit- ney N. Seymour, Chairrnon of the Board, Carnegie Endowment and former President, American Bar Association; John W. Stude- baker, former U.S. Commissioner of Educa- tion; Reginald T. Townsend, Vice President, Radio Liberty Committee; William L. White, Editor and Publisher, Emporia Gazette, and Philip L. Willkie, Attorney; Mrs. Oscar Ahl- gren, former President, General Federation of Women's Clubs; John R. Burton, Chair- man of the Board, National Bank of Far Rockaway; J. Peter Grace, President, W. R. Grace & Company; Allen Grover, former. Vice President, Time-Life, Inc.; Gen. Alfred M. Gruenther, U.S.A. (Ret.), former Allied Commander in Europe (NATO); Hon. John S. Hays, Communications Specialist and former U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland; H. J. Heinz II, Chairman of the Board, H. J. Heinz Company; Isaac Don Levine, Author and Specialist on Soviet Affairs. " U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on For- eign Relations. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Report. 92d Congress, 1st Session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., July 30, 1971. Report No. 92-319, p. 2. Hereafter cited as "SEEC, RFE/RL Report." ,0 The special role of RL's New York opera- tion, Oct. 1971, pp. 1-3. (RL, v. XII, pt. 3) SFRC, RFE/RL Report, p. 2. " Radio Liberty. Guests in the Soviet home, ?1970, p. 10. And, RL letter and telex, Nov. 12, 1971. "Radio Liberty Visual Exhibits, Illustra- tion 24. (RL, V. V, pt. 11.) i4 Binder, David. Embattled Radio Free Europe Defends Role. The New York Times, March 15, 1971, p. 10. a Radio Liberty: An uncensored informa- tion medium for Soviet citisena, Juno 14, Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 March 6, 1972 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD ?SENATE 1971, p. 11. (EL, v. I.) Hereafter cited as, Radio Liberty Statement, June 14, 1971. "In FY 1971, RL expended $50,900 for training purposes. (Chart XVII, Training Ex- penditures. RL, V. V, pt. 12, P. 16) EL: Programming-language personnel. Total staff by prime language vs. current ex- tended personnel plus retirement 1972-76, October 1971. The present strength of the Russians is 168; Ukrainians, 20, Belorussians, 12; Armenians, 7; Azerbaijanians, 7; Geor- gians, 8; Karachay, 1; and Tatar-Bashkir, 8. The anticipated percentage loss from retire- ment during the period 1972-76 is 27.9 per- cent for the Russians; 20.0 percent, Ukrai- nians; 33.3 percent, Belourussians; 14. 3 per- cent Armenians; 14.3 percent Azerbaipanians; a 37.6 percent, Georginas; 100 percent, Ka- rachay; and 12.5 percent, Tatar-Bashkir. "According to David Binder, "the average age of the Radio Free Europe employees is 45. It is perhaps a bit lower at Radio Liberty, where the director, Kenneth Scott, has re- cently hired several colorful Soviet defectors." (The New York Times, March 15, 1971, P. 10) "Radio Liberty Statement, June 11, 1971, p. 11. (RL, v. I) 00 The future of Samizdat; Significance and Prospects, p. 29. (RL, V. II, D1) 21 This section of the Study is based upon, RL's technical facilities, pp. 1-3. (RL, v. HI, pt. K) "EL Basic briefing outline, p. 7. (RL, v. V, pt. 10) "Frequency usage and facility occupation, Aug. 6, 1971. (EL, v. XI, pt. 8). "EL, Guestsin the Soviet home, p. 9. "EL Statement, June 14, 1971, pp. 17-18. (EL, v. I). "The future of .samizdat, pp. 37-38. (RL, V. II, D1). p. 19. "Because of a sharp budget cut RL ter- minated the Institute at end of 1971. "Institute for the Study of the USSR. Munich, Germany, Carl Gerber, 1969. 9 p. " Ibid. "RL Statement, June 14, 1971, pp. 17-18. (EL, v. I.) See also part L, RL Research Bur- letin, 1970 Index. p. 25. Dr. Frederick C. Barghoorn, a leading American specialist on Soviet af- fairs and a Professor of Political Science at Yale University, commented: "As a scholar I have long admired and I have found most useful the research and publication activities of Radio Liberty. These information activi- ties are very important to scholars, journal- ists, and other communicators not only in the United States but in Europe, Asia, South Africa, and other parts of the world." (SFRC, RFE/RL Hearings, p. 172.) "SPEC, RFE/RL Report, p. 9. "Figures, provided by GAO. " SFRC, RFE/RL Report, p. 2. "Ibid. p. 11. "Ibid., p. 2. The refusal of the Executive Branch to acknowledge publiclY its role in funding RFE/RL was revealed in David Binder's report on both radios. Asked about the disclosure that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty were financed by CIA, Mr. Binder said that Mr. Ralph Walter, the Munich director of RFE, declared: "Our broadcasting policies are migie here in this house and are not guided by anyone in Wash- ington. We are nobody's mouthpiece." An EL official concurred. (The New York Times, March 15, 1971, P. DI) CHAPTER II: RL's GOALS, POLICIES, AND POLICY FORMULATION I. na's OBJECTIVES A. Ultimate goal: Democratization of Soviet Society The primary objective of RL is very simply to encourage those forces of liberalization Within Soviet society sthat will bring about an eventual peaceful evolution of the USSR from its present form of Communist totali- tarianism to a more tolerable and humane form of democracy. The ultimate goal is democratization of Soviet society in the ex- pectation that within such liberalization lies the greatest hope for world peace. Perhaps, this general objective was most succinctly and yet comprehensively set forth in RL's formal statement to Congress. It said: "Radio Liberty is a communications channel for Soviet citizens concdrned about their country's future, and its place in the world community. It is dedicated to human rights, to peaceful evolution of Soviet society and to harmony in international relations." I As an ultimate goal in broadcasting, RL directs its energies towards achieving the democratization of Soviet society. The Policy Manual of 1971 defined RL's ultimate goal in these terms: "to see all the peoples of the USSR acquire the opportunity to live in freedom with truly democratic political in- stitutions, based on free election processes and guaranteed observance of human rights, and which represent the best interests of all citizens and assure for their country a nor- mal, cooperative and constructive role with- in the comity of modern states,"' B. Commitment to peaceful change RL's is, however, a commitment to peaceful change from within. It seeks to encourage liberal and progressive elements within So- viet society, seeing in these forces the greatest possibility for a Soviet Russia regenerated by the liberating spirit of genuine democracy. It rejects confrontation as an instrumental- ity in achieving its goals and fosters an ap- proach to policy formulation and policy ex- ecution that is essentially benign in spirit, positive in direction, and pacifistic in its rejection of solutions by force. Thus, RL Is not now a Cold War opera- tion in the sense that this term was used and understood in the 1950s and which well de- scribed its functions at that time. On the contrary, RL accepts Soviet institutions, though not its ideology, and seeks to bring about peaceful transformation within the system as it now exists. C. RL's purposes In seeking its ultimate goal of democrati- zation, RL has a rather precise perception of how this should be done. It encourages the Soviet peoples to work together as a first step in instilling the habit of democracy. The expectation is that by mutual cooperation the Soviet peoples themselves can establish a democratic system that will not only be representative of and responsible to the will and aspirations of all, but also will be cap- able of sustaining their national interests and maintaining a viable economic struc- ture.3 In assisting the Soviet people to achieve this goal, RL broadcasts to its listeners truthful information which will enable them to make up their own minds, form their own judgments, and reach their own independent conclusions on developments within their country. RL seeks, therefore, to relieve the Soviet people from their total dependency upon -the regime as a source of information. Having monopolistic control over informa- tion and publicly expressed opinion, the rul- ing elite deprives Soviet citizans of access to information that would give them a more complete and truthful picture of reality. RL seeks to fill in these blank spaces of cal- culated omissions and correct distortions of official Soviet propaganda. Finally, RL urges the Soviet people to develop a sense of com- mon cause and recognize that their concerns and vital interests are shared concerns and interests of many other Soviet citizens:, In speaking for the genuineneeds and best aspirations of its listeners, both Russian and non-Russian, RL emphasizes the importance of both historical continuity and the rele- vance of contemporary problems. For all So- viet peoples it assumes the obligation of S 3391 linking their past to the present and future in an effort to maintain the vigor of their historical and cultural legacies in the face of regime attempts to exploit them for prop- aganda purposes. Attuned to the require- ments of history, EL thus relates the past to the present and future while concentrat- ingo . n contemporary problems in Soviet so- ciety.' D. RL's Immediate Objectives Within this larger framework of goals and purposes, EL pursues immediate objectives that focus on such practical and positive themes as democratic political alternatives, economic reform, peacef UI intentions of the democratic world, ideological irrelevance of Marxism-Leninism, and the virtue of -cul- tural diversity and political pluralism. As a primary immediate objective, EL tries to convince Soviet listeners that practical, democratic political alternatives to their present system do exist. It encourages them to work toward these alternatives in their own interest by asking questions, by seeking more information, by finding practical solu- tions to specific problems, and by uniting in common efforts to create internal pressures for change.' In brief. 111, seeks to destroy the prevailing, officially-induced myth of a politi- cal system preordained by history and sug- gest pragmatic means for transformation. RL also encourages among its listeners the belief that more rapid and equitable solu- tions are possible to their domestic economic and social problems, and to the problems of the nationalitie?. RL persuades them to press for basic economic reform and allocation of more economic resources for the benefit of the consumer. It also persuades the Soviet listener to press for the cultural needs of the various nationalities, including the Rus- sian? In the realm of international relations, RL assures its listeners that the democratic powers of the world are pursuing foreign policies that are designed to achieve world . peace and stability. It tries to convince the listener that, notwithstanding the constant claims of Soviet propaganda, none of these states has any intention of committing armed aggression against the USSR. Defense establishments are maintained, RL points out, in order to resist aggression by other world powers.' Moreover, RL tries to convince its listeners that by abandoning world revolutionary aspirations, moderating its aggressive foreign policies, and instituting a policy of more active international cooperation within the United Nations, the Soviet Government would do much to lessen the danger of thermonuclear war and to assure world peace? Or said another way, adherence to the ideological principle of "struggle" and the advocacy of the conquest of 'power that flows from this belief, enhance the possibility of thermonuclear war, and only through So- viet moderation and cooperation in the United Nations will peace be assured. In ideological matters, RL' challenges the faith of Communist believers?both sincere and opportunistic?in their obsolescent ideology which as Marxism-Leninism con- tains the seeds of Soviet dictatorship. It tries to convince believers that Marxist philosophy as it has taken shape in the USSR has been perverted and in the course of time reduced to a collection of primitive dogmas. RL tries to show believers that the "revolu- tionary struggle" in the world today, so seminal to the concepts of Marxism-Lenin- ism, does not coincide with their views or their interests. These would be better served, RL stresses, by the peaceful pluralistic devel- opment of societies under the rule of law, and in freedom for all peoples everywhere, including the peoples of the USSR?, In brief, RL challenges the faith of Marxist-Leninists as being outdated, irrelevant and contrary to the real interests of the Soviet people; it Approved For Release 2001/03104: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 S3326 STATINTL Approved For ititifwitaapiblAVOAERLTLETIZA-1A01R0011 against Mexican-Americans in the South- west . ." The California Rural Legal Assistance Project documented the exclusion of Mexi- can-Americans from. grand jury lists. They found a 12-year period in which 500,000 Spanish surnamed persons were eligible for grand jury duty in Los Angeles County, yet only four were chosen. Perhaps the most disturbing incidents are those that still occur at the federal level. Why was it necessary for Senators to send tele- grams to spur the Justice Department to investigate an assassination plot against Cesar Chavez? :And why was it necessary for Senators to remind the Labor Department that their own regulations prohibited importing foreign Workers to break a farm worker strike? ' And if we look at the Selective Service System, once again, we find Inequities. Prac- tically no change has occurred in the rep- resentation bf the Spanish-speaking corn- Munity? on local and appeal boards. On local boards it was 2.9 percent in 1968, and today It is barely 4 percent. c'ea appeals boards, it is. even worse, barely over 3 percent. And when one looks at the states with heavy concentrations of Spanish-speaking, one finds only 4 of 88 appeal board members in California who are Spanish-speaking. In Colorado, none. In Arizona, none. In Florida, none. Yet these are the boards that the sys- ? tern provides to halt the egregious errors that many local boards commit. How can that cleansing function be fulfilled when none of the appeals boards can easily understand, let alone relate to a Spanish-speaking registrant? ' Equal treatment under the law, a basic condition for maintaining the bond of citi- tenship, lies been repeatedly and flagrantly denied to the Spanish-speaking, and it is time to change. These statistics demonstrate the need for the seminar that is taking place today. More than that, they demonstrate the absolute necessity for Spanish-speaking citizens to be active politically. For if .you permit the po- litical leadership of this country to continue to treat zou as "Strangers in your own land," .then there will be a perenial list of unmet goals in education, housing, in employment, in .access to the protection of the law. The clfalienge not only lies with both partieo to respond and to respond effectively. It lies also with you to force the parties to respond. And despite the tremendous re- sistance that undoubtedly exists, I believe that they can be made to respond. ? But it means that you must take the initiative, that you must do the registering and organizing, that you must do the pre- cinct work and the, polling. And it is not just the federal elections that count. Gov- ernors choose boards of regions and state university directors. Sheriffs and district at- torneys decide local law enforcement poli- cies and city councilmen and mayors control the decisions that send funds to the mani- cured streets of the affluent few or the still:. unpaved roads of the barrio. The challenge is before you. It does not rest with those unwilling to risk something of themselves. Nor does it rest with those who demand that the struggle be easily won. It rests only with those ready to trade the com- fort and convenience of the critic for the tor- ment and sacrifice of the committed. Yet you have among La Roza, many who already have shown the way. You have men such as Cesar Chavez, who has brought the farmworker of this nation his first hope for lasting dignity. The victory kr Florida is part Of a struggle that began not five or ten years ago, but two decades ago. when the first or- ganizing began. And if that kind of commitment is made, then I believe there will be response. I believe there must be response. Robert Kennedy shared that view. He walk- ed through the barrios of East Los Angeles and through the dusty fields of Delano. He was committed to change the conditions of poverty and discrimination he saw. For he believed as I do, that this nation can never be free until there is no longer a child who cries from hunger or a mother who fears illness because she cannot afford a doctor, or a man who dies because the law does not see him as a man. There is much to be done before we are free. ? RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY , ? Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, there are Chose who urge the dissolution of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. These persons say?correctly?that these sta- ? tions are obnoxious to the Soviet Govern- ment. And they assume?implausibly? that dissolution of these stations would cause the Soviet Government to feel af- fectionately about us. Even if such affection were likely, which, of course, it is not; and even if such affection were more precious than the satisfaction the stations bring to the oppressed people living under Soviet domination, which it is not, one would still want to note that not even Chan- cellor Brandt, whose enthusiasm for accommodation with the Soviets is nearly boundless, refuses to accede to the Soviet demand that the stations be expelled from German soil. Mr. President, it is a tiresome but nec- essary chore to reiterate these self-evi- dent truths in the fact 'of palpable and unattractive delusions about the potential affability of the Soviet Union, and the sinfulness of any and all things that are obnoxious to Soviet despots. But so that all Senators can consider this iSsue, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an editorial from the London Sunday Times of Feb- ruary 27, 1972. There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: [From the London Sunday Times, Feb. 27, 19721 IN DEFENCE OF RADIO FREE EUROPE Senator Fulbright believes that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, operating from Munich, should be stopped from broadcast- ing to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Un- ion because they are "Cold War relics" and hinder detente. He is wrong on both counts. The radios abandoned the unfortunate policy of "liberating the captive peoples" in 1956 and now support Willy Beandt's Ostpolitik and all Communist reform movements in Eastern Europe. It is true that the Russians and their allies have consistently demanded that Brandt shouLci expel the radios from Munich. But his refusal to do so has not stopped the Russians and the Poles from signing treaties with him, and the Czecho- slovak-West German Treaty is held no by a dispute over the Munich Agreement of -1338, not over the radios. In fact,. by their con- stantly objective coverage of West German events, the radios have done more than any other organisation to dispel amongst ordinary East Europeans the official Communist myth of "West German revanchism." Fulbright argues, rather startlingly, that the radios are useless because "truth and freedom are indigenous and subjective is- sues and cannot be transferred from one peo- ple to another." That fashionable cynicism Is disproved by Soviet hatred of the radios; It is precisely the "transference of truth" that the Russians fear. The radios, whatever their imperfections, provide East Europeans with a far more reliable source of world and domestic news than their own, Government- controlled media. It would be a tragic and distasteful appeasement for the West to cut off that source at Soviet behest. Fulbright's only useful suggestion is that Western Europe might play a part in financ- ing the radios. They should close down only when, as in Dubcek's Prague Springs, East Europeans no longer need to listen to them; with the current KGB persecution of Soviet dissidents and Husak's campaign of intel- lectual genocide in Czechoslovakia, that day is sadly still far away. ? Mr. ALLOTT. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have printed in the RECORD an editorial published in to- day's Wall Street Journal which asks "What's wrong with wanting to con- tribute to the free flow of ideas across international borders?" There being no objection, the editorial was ordered to be printed in the REC- ORD, as follows: [From the Wall Street Journal, Mar. 6, 19721 THREAT TO RADIO FREE EUROPE We have difficulty understanding why Senator Fulbright is trying to deny Con- gressional appropriations 'to Saadi? Free Europe and Radio Liberty. We are aware of his animus toward "cold war relics," but both stations have earned virtually unani- mous praise for broadcasting objective news and impartial analysis. There is obviously a crying need for such Information, which RFE broadcasts in na- tive languages to five Eastern European na- tions and which Radio Liberty broadcasts to the USSR, in 17 Soviet languages. In ef- fect, the stations function as a free press for some 300-million fettered people. Con- trast that with the Communist bloc's un- relieved propagsinda broadcasts, 900 hours a day in some 80 languages to every con- tinent. In the early and mid-50s, both stations were accused of adding to the tensions of the cold war. If so, that .charge has not been true for at least 15 years. Indeed, for- mer ambassador to Poland John Gronouski praised the accuracy and detail of RFE's coverage of the Polish uprisings of 1968 (up- risings that were ignored by the Polish me- dia). And both stations gave factual re- ports on such important issues as the ous- ter of Khrushchev, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Nixon visit to China, stories that the Communist world ignored or down- played. There was a minor flap last year when it was revealed -that the Central Intelli- gence Agency had secretly been subsidizing both stations, even as Washington insisted that they were privately financed. There was no evidence that the CIA ? ever inter- fered with program content, but such de- ception is inexcusable nonetheless?which is why President Nixon proposed that the sta- tions be financed directly by Congress but run by an 11-member nonprofit corporation independent of government control. Yet Mr. Fulbright objects even to thst. And although both houses of Congress have passed authorization bills, he has managed to delay any cpnference for resolving the differences and thus keeping the stations alive. It is this opposition that we find hard to fathom. Does he also object to the Voice of America? Although Senator Fulbright argues that the stations have no place in a period of East-West detente, we suspect that they have actually contributed to detente by helping to erode ideological suspicion born of ignorance and misinformation, and that abandoning them may prolong the East- Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RQP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? STATINTL s 3346 Approved For ReIta?ggiggpmw: pmeRrieawNIRoo 6, 1972 foreclosure Comes within a year; the company has an $800 return on the $9,200.) The homeowner packs up her children and belongings and resumes her search for decent . housing, disenchanted with the American ? dream of home ownership and minus her down payment, possible closing costs and a few dollars in equity. And the public which finances the scheme through monthly mortgage insurance pay- ments under some FHA programs is out an- other few thousand dollars. Abuses in FHA programs are not new. Ironically, publicity on irregularities in one program?Section 235?caused the federal government to suspend that program while ' the much larger Section 221(d)2 prograin continued unhampered on Its abuse-filled way. MAsoft FHA HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Here, briefly, are the major FHA home ownership programs: Section 203?The largest of the programs, this' is used to insure standard mortgages in stable neighborhoods. Aplication fees and mortgage insurance premiums paid by home buyers to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund finance any foreclosures necessary un- der the program. Section 221(d) (2?This is the largest of the inner city home ownership programs. It provides for down payments as low as $200 for persons displaced by governmental ac- tions (urban renewal, highway building, etc.) : and.liberalizes credit requirements. Foreclos- ures are financed by the General Insurance Fund, funded through mortgage insurance ?? premiums and fees from several FHA pro- Section 223?A section used in combine.- ? tion with 221 or 203 which allows a house in - a "reasonably viable" area to be insured for mortgage if one or more requirements of another section would preclude a mortgage under that section. Foreclosures are financed by the Special Risk Insurance Fund which is funded by premiums and fees from several FHA programs. . ? [From the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, Mar. 6, 19721 gIGHTY-POUR VACANT HOMES; 84 VACANT LOTS: ABUSE OP PROGRAM DOOMS NEIGIIBORHOOD (By Robert It. Teuscher and Harry E. Wilson, Jr.) -.Eighty-four vacant lots testify mutely here ? to the abuses in a federal program designed ? to rehabilitate neighborhoods and put poor families into their own homes. ? A-The lots are the tail-end of what has be- come an all-too-common urban phenome- non?blockbusting, real estate speculation, foreclosed mortgages, and the federal wreck- ing ball. ? They represent one-third of all the fore- ? closures in the federal Section 221(d) (2) Mortgage insurance program. The houses that once stood on these lots were certified for 25 to 30-year mortgages only three and four years ago by appraisers from the St. Louis area office of the Depart- ment of Housing and Urban Development "(BUD). According to HUD regulations, houses ishonld not be approved for federally insured Mortgages unless the HUD aparaiser finds them sound enough to stand for at least three-fourths of the term of their mortgages. Yet an average_ of only 18 months after appraisal and sale with the federally insured Mortgages, these 84 houses were sold to HUD for their insured values in foreclosure pro- ceedings. HUD then decided that the houses were either structurally unsound or too expensive to repair and demolished them. The Section 221(d) (2) program that once financed these houses, allows low-income families in the inner city to purchase homes by providing mortgage insurance similar to the FHA or GI home mortgages used by mil- lions of American families. The program differs from standard mort- gage plans by permitting down-payments as low as $200 and by requiring rehabilitation of the homes before sale. - The program's track record has not been good. The foreclosure rate here now stands at 8.63%, the fourth highest in the nation, ac- cording to HUD Secretary George Romney. (The foreclosure rate for standard mortgages is less than one-half of one percent.) Paying off the foreclosed 221(d) (2) mort- gages in the City of St. Louis has cost the federal government mere than $2.7 million Repairing foreclosed homes for resale h . cost another $600,000, and demolition of the 84 houses has cost $80,000. HUD has been able to recoup only $1.15 million on the resale of repaired houses Or vacant lots. Real estate speculators and mortgage com- panies, however, have turned tidy, and some- times immense, profits, records show. In the meantime several stable neighbor- hoods have been ruined. The Eads and St. Vincent avenue neigh- borhood, in the shadow of Firmin Desloge Hospital on the Near South Side, is an ex- ample of the blight that follows a combina- tion of speculators and 221(d) (2) mortgage insurance. ' ? As late as 1967, this was a bule-collar, mid- dle-class area, made up of single and two- family brick homes that were nearing the end of their useful lives. Norman Keathley, who lived at 2926 Eads since 1943, described the area as a "poor, but respectable neighhorhood, with working class people." But in early 1968, conditions, particularly crime, took a turn for the worse, according to former neighbors. "They (vandals) tore the copper guttering right off my house in broad daylight," Fran- cis Green, formerly of 2829 Eads said, "I figured it wasn't safe for the kids anymore." Asked about the sale of houses in the area, Green said, "I figured blockbusting was what was going on. I hope they catch them (the speculators) at it so it won't happen here (at his new house in South St. Louis)." At the same time that things turned bad on Bads and St. Vincent, a group of real estate companies moved in. Between September, 1968, and June, 1970, 23 houses on Batts and St. Vincent were sold to real estate firms, who then resold the houses under the 221(d) (2) program. The houses were bought by the realty firms for an average of $5,000, with some going for as little at $1,000. When the real estate firms resold the houses several months later to 221(d) (2) families, the average going price was $10,000. Each of the houses had been appraised at an average of $10,000, the sale price, by HUD appraisers, and the appraisers had also cer- tified that the houses were good for 20-30 year mortgages. Today every one of those houses is a va- cant lot. And there are 27 other vacant lots on Eads and St. Vincent, all of which were run ? through federal mortgage programs similar to the 221(d) (2) mortgage insurance. HUD officials are not sure how the houses which were old in the first place, ended up in such condition to require demolition. The reason could have been mismanage- ment or abuse by the homeowner, or a faul- ty HUD appraisal, in the first place, accord- ? ing to George 0. Hipps, director of HUD's Single Family and Land Development Divi- sion in Washington, D.C. Who were the winners in this example of speculation and blight? The oroginal owners were forced to sell at rock bottom prices for fear of crime and speculation. The 221(d) (2) families lost all of their equity in homes they could not afford, and most of them are now ineligible for any other federal housing programs. The Record for Section 221(d) (2) in St. Louis Home mortgages Insured (1967-June, 1971)..._:__ 2, 144 Foreclosures (Jan. 1972) 265 Foreclosures (percentage) 8.63 Cost of mortgage payoffs $2, 705, 000 Repairs after foreclosure $662, 474 Demolitions 880, 610 HUD recoup from resales $1, 155, 700 RADIO 1,1tEE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, the Library of Congress has completed its reports on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The reports were delivered to the Committee on Foreign Relations on Fri- day, March 3, at 5 p.m. In view of the controversy surrounding these reports and the allegations that I and members of the committee staff have tried to suppress this information or alter its presentation, I ask unanimous con- sent to have the rePorts, plus my cor- respondence with the Library, included in the REcoRD at the conclusion of my re- marks. The appendices to the reports, numbering several hundred additional pages, are in the committee's files and are available to the public, as are the draft versions of the reports. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. (See exhibit 1.) Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, this work is the result of a .request which I sent to the Library - on June 8, 1971. Shortly thereafter, Mr. Charles Gellner, Chief, Foreign Affairs Division, and Mr. James Price, analyst in National De- Jens% bah .of the Library of Congress, met with Mr. Robert Dockery of the com- mittee staff for the purpose of discussing the Tequest. Following this meeting, Mr. Dockery was informed by the Library that two studies would be prepared, one on each of the Radios, that Mr. Price would be responsible for the Radio Free Europe study and that Dr. Joseph Whelan, Specialist in Soviet and East European Affairs of the Library, would be responsible for the Radio Liberty study. At approximately the same time, Mr. Dockery was informed that, at Mr. Price's suggestion, an independent con- sultant, specialized in audience research analysis techniques, would be brought in to evaluate the Radios' audience-re- sponse claims. At my request, the Library agreed to include in the final reports a r?m?n each of the research participants. The researchers completed their drafts during the first part of January and Mr. Gellner forwarded them to Mr. Dockery on January 14. In his transmittal memo, Mr. Gellner clearly identified the status of the reports by noting: We will be happy to have your comments before' we put the studies into final shape and formally transmit them. Our review of these drafts has not yet been completed and we too will wish to make some changes. : Approved For Release 2001103/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001:5- S.TAT I NTL E 2028 Approved ECIRactifEMIsnij laigtaiD CICRIMO- Q4ROfl 0001MOCI1J -5, 1972 RADIO FREE EtatOPE, Hon. PETER H. B. FRELINGHUYSEN Or NEW ,JERSEY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, March 6, 1972 ? Mr. FRELINGHUYSEN. Mr. Speaker, the deadlock between the House and the Senate over legislative authorization for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty still continues, and it is a matter of widening concern. An article by Flora Lewis in the Boston Evening Globe il- lundinates the problem from an American viewpoint, and an editorial from the London Daily Telegraph expresses Brit- ish concern for the fate of the two radios. The 'latter editorial correctly notes that the present impasse is in no way the _ fault of this body. Editorials also a vpeared today in the New 'York Times .id the Wall Street Journal. The text of all these editorials follows: ? [From the Boston Globe, Feb. 25, 19721 FULBRIGHT SILENCES Two. 'US. VOICES (By Flora Lewis) WASHINGTON.?Unless Congress acts by the end of the month, the semi-official American radio stations broadcasting to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe will be shut down. ? That is precisely the aim Of Sen. Fulbright ID-Ark.), chairman of the Senate Foreign ?' Relations Committee, who has maneuvered to kill the stations by legislative impasse cutting off their funds. "These radios should be given an oppor- tunity to take their rightful -place in the graveyard of cold war relics," Fulbright told the Senate. The two are Radio Free Europe, which own languages, and regularly publishes careful research on those countries in broadcasts from 12 to 20 hours a day to the nations of 'Eastern Europe in their English. Radio Liber- ty performs the same functions but focuses on the Soviet*Union. ? Both, were 'started at the beginning of the '50s wads as Fulbright says belately, they were major weapons of the cold war. Futher, they were secretly funded by the CIA, al- though Free Europe also received public con- tributions. The irony of Fulbright's position is that both these faults have been corrected. The two radios now operate aboveboard. More im- portant, they have come to provide a vital, straightforwardly informative service far superior to the 'U.S. Government's own for- eign broadcasting system, the Voice of America. Last year, Sen. Clifford Case (R-N.J.) made Free Europe and Liberty honest ra- dios with a bill ending their dependence on the CIA budget. They are now financed ? through State Department appropriations ? open to public scrutiny. That was not ideal, since it exposed- them to more political and propaganda controls than the previous secret, but essentially autonomous, arrange- ment with the CIA. State wisely decided that it would be bet- ter to set the radios up as quasi-independ- ent systems, similar to the domestic Public Broadcasting System. In that way, the pro- fessional judgment of their excellent and sober staffs would be better insulated from Improper influence. ? A bill to this effect passed the House. But Fulbright got a bill through the Senate keeping State in charge until the end of the fiscal. year, when he hoped to cut off the. funds altogether. The two houses have failed to reach a conference agreement, so the radios are due to be silenced this week. It would be a grave loss, both to the peo- ple of Eastern Europe and the scholars and researchers of the United States. The radios are no longer the strident propaganda trum- pets of their early years. Since the Hungarian revolution of 1956, when they reviewed their role and drastically changed their policies, they have been serious and reliable sources of information and analysis which the people of Eastern Europe are totally denied by their governments. Of course, Moscow and its al- lies don't like that. Silencing Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty would simply amount to ? collabo- rating with those governments to silence dis- sent and keep their peoples ignorant. The annual appropriation required for both is $36 million. Sen. Fulbright compared it to the $4.1 million which Voice of America's worldwide operation cost. But VOA broad- casts only a few hours a day, and very dif- ferent material?banal, official sometimes biased governmentese. If the point is economy, then it would be far better to drop VOA and let the two ef- fective radios keep broadcasting. A special Library of Congress study, asked to evaluate Radio Free Europe and Radio ?Liberty by Fulbright's committee, came up with the answer that they were very good indeed, no doubt the opposite of what Fulbright hoped to hear. And If the point is to call off the cold war and deal more openly and sensibly with the Communist countries, then it would also be better to preserve the two autonomous radios and kill the US. government props- gandaservice. If Fulbright's purpose is achieved, the re- sult would not be to bury cold war relics but to help preserve the dark silence of the cold war in Eastern Europe. (From the (London) Daily Telegraph. Feb. 23, 19721 FREEDOM'S VOICE IN PERIL A diggraceful surrender of the West's right to broadcast objective news and comment acrots the Iron Curtain is about to take place unless the American Government acts quick- ly and firmly to stop it. Funds have been cut off from Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty, both based in Munich, which for over 20 years have been transmitting to the satel- lite countries, and also to Russia in the main languages of the Soviet Union. As was recent- ly nearly the case with American foreign aid, the cut-off is a result of a dispute in Con- gress. Senator FULBRIGHT is in. his usual role of leading the appeasers. A year ago he suc- ceeded in stopping the provision of funds for the two stations by the Central Intelligence Agency. The State Department took over the responsibility on a year-to-year basis. The Senator now seems within an ace of block- ing the voting of funds for the coming year, in. which case the stations would have to close down within a fortnight. He says that this would put them "ln_their rightful place in the churchyard of cold war relics." Is it "cold warfare" to broadcast the truth to the peoples of the Communist dictator- ships? Is it wrong to give them samples of Western culture and entertainment, to seek to correct the dangerous, perverse and mali- cious slanders about the allegedly aggressive war-like West with which they are fact by their governmental propaganda machines? Do the Communist regimes, in the barrage of vicious propaganda against the West with which they crowd the. channels- day and night, ask whether they are offending the susceptibilities of the societies it is their in- tention to disintegrate? The West has the obligation, to itself and to subject peoples everywhere, to testify to democracy. Radio. as millions behind the. Iron Curtain will gratefully confirm, is the Ideal means of com- munication in the circumstances. It must not be silenced. (From the New York Times] A SENATE MAJORITY $PEAKS A majority of the members of the United States Senate has sponsored a resolution de- signed to back continuation of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. What snakes the move extraordinary is that the primary immediate aim of the sponsors is to put pressure on the Senate's conferees to end their deadlock with House conferees on this issue, a stalemate that threatens the swift demise of both these major communi- cations links to Eastern Europe. Now that a majority of the Senate has spoken, there can be no moral basis for the continued obduracy of that chamber's conferees, Their present tactics, if successful in ter- minating these broadcasts, can only benefit the Kremlin. Its bitter enmity to these radio voices has long emphasized their importance in filling a communications void by provid- ing information otherwise unavailable. [From the. Wal] Street Journal] THREAT To RADIO FREE EUROPE We have difficulty understanding why Sen- ator Fulbright is trying to deny Congressional appropriations to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. We are aware of his animila toward "cold war relics," but both stations have earned virtually unanimous praise for broadcasting objective news and impartial analysis. ? There is obviously a crying need for such information, which?RFE broadcasts in native languages to five Eastern European nations and which Radio Liberty broadcasts to the USSR in 17 Soviet languages. In effect, the statons function as a free press for some 300-million fettered people. Contrast that with the Communist bloc's unrelieved prop- aganda broadcasts, 900 hours a day in some 80 languages to every continent. In the early and mid-50s, both stations were accused of adding to the tensions of the cold war. If so, that charge has not been true for at least 16 years. Indeed, former ambas- sador to Polanil John Gronouski praised the accuracy and detail of RFE's coverage of tile Polish uprisings of 1968 (uprisings that were ignored by the Polish media). And both sta- ? tions gave factual reports on such important issues as the ouster of Khrushchev. the -Cuban missile crisis, and the Nixion visit to China, stories that the Communist world ig- nored or downplaVeci. There was a minor flap last year when it was revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency had secretly been subsidizing both stations, even as Washington insisted' that they were privately financed. There was no evidence that the CIA ever interfered with program content, but such deception is in- excusable nonetheless?which is why Presi- dent Nixon proposed that the stations be fi- nanced directly by Congress but run by an 1I-member nonprofit corporation independ- ent of government control. Yet Mr. Fulbright objects even to that. And although both houses of Congress have passed authorization bills, he has managed to delay any conference for resolving the dif- ferences and thus keeping the stations alive. It is this opposition that we find hard to fathom. Does he alao object to the Voice of America? Although Senator Fulbright argues that the stations have no place in a period of East- West detente, we suspect that they have ac- tually contributed to detente by helping to erode ideological suspicion born of ignorance ?and misinformation, and that abandoning them may prolong the East-West tension the Senator so passionately denounces. In any event, what's wrong with wanting to con- tribute to the free flow of ideas across inter- national borders? App'roved For Release 20011q3/04_: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001.-5 . ? 7Tii.E SU Approved For Release 2001/039011"b&?RDP80-01601 ? STATINTL Voices in the Air Bonn. The scene at Warsaw's interna- tional airport one day last April ;was more Marx Brothers than Karl 'Marx. ? Decked out in khaki and red trim 'uniform, one of the airport's se- curity officers came trundling along carrying a foot-high stack of re- search papers published by Radio . Free Europe. With a flourish he handed them to a fuming American newsman who had missed a plane to Budapest because customs of- ficials had become inquisitive about the contents of his briefcase. ? "No," said the newsman, who .feared that Hungarion police would ? have been notified of the incident. ? "I suggest you keep it." ? ? I. The. Polish officer smiled, winked and replied: "I don't need the stuff. I hear it all on the radio anyway." A bit of Polish hyperbole? Well, hardly. It is common knowledge in Poland that the only way to have a glimmering of what is really going on in the country is to listen to Radio Free Europe. :One American sociologist who spent some time in a Polish village found that fur out of five house- holds tuned in regularly to RFE. The Munich-based station estimates ? its Polish listenership at 60 per cent of persons over the age of 14 (and it is a near certainty that among .the most avid members of the ? audience are party leaders who dis- ,like being prisoners of their own ,propaganda system). In Poland's capital, RFE is humorously called 'Warsaw IV" because the regime has a lock on the city's three local stations. If Senator Fulbright succeeds in silencing RFE, which transmits to five Eastern European countries, and Radio Liberty, a sister sta- kleee &trope By JOSEPH R. L. STERNE tion aimed at the Soviet Union, ? this would be a development of considerable magnitude for millions of listeners in the Warsaw Pact area. Neither Voice of America, nor BBC, nor Deutsche Welle, nor Radio Vatican nor Radio Paris is presently equipped to fill the vacuum that would result. These net,,vo! --;_leam excellent surveys of w !1---news in native languages to the Communist-ruled nations and BBC especially, provides respected commentary on affairs concerning its target areas. But only Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty provide an abun- dance of programs with y a home- grown flavor for a home audience. RFE's ability to do this and cap- ture a lion's share of the radio audience in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania is a reflection of the kind of people working in its austere, white build- ing on the edge of Munich's lovely English gardens. ? ? ? While ?Americans hold the ulti- mate policy-control posts at RFE, the departments handling broad- casts and writing research papers are manned by Eastern Europeans who have left their native lands. This is a system with obvious built-in dangers and advantages. In their anti-Communist zeal, such employees gave a cold war- rior image during the early and mid-1950's that has hurt the or- ganization to this day. Senator Ful- bright's speeches in his campaign to deny the radios any U.S. gov- ernment funding attest to that. But in their mother-tongue command of 19 languages and in their knowl- edge of their homelands, the East- ern Europeans on. the RFE staff provide an authenticity that is the basis for the wide acceptance of their programs. As the official goal of RFE has been transformed through the years from "liberation" to !'lib- eralization," the ideological content of RFE has become. less polemical. During a few .das in mid-Febru- ary, for example, the Bulgarian service dealt with promising new school reforms but reported on continuing sentiment for a longer mandatory period of school at- tendance. The Polish service dealt with the trials of some security officers, suggesting they were po- litically motivated. The Hungarian service voiced skepticism about new efforts to increase productivity that do not delineate a worker's personal stake in such efforts. The Chechoslovak service concentrated on implications of the crackdown against journalists of the Dubcek era. The tone, thus, is often critical but its thrust is reformist rather than revolutionary: Most research documents and mdny broadcasts either are starkly objective or as- sume a tone of sympathetic en- couragement if there is evidence of liberalization. ? ? ? RFE broadcasters and research- ers get much of their information by poring through national and local newspapers, by listening to monitored broadcasts and, by tap- ping private channels of informa- tion from the Soviet bloc. In its libraries are one million index cards. In addition, RFE has a news- room manned chiefly by Americans who keep a watch on the material of all major news agencies, East and West, and provide the broad- ? ed, ? casting units with material for their international news surveys. RFE staffers and stringer S are found in most free-world news centers. All this suggests an enormous operation?and it is. According RFE statistics, the station ha S al- most 1,600 employees (mostly in Munich), uses 32 transmitters in Portugal and West Germany with a total power of 2,245,000 watts, broadcasts 77 hours daily on its ? five services, monitors 40 Commu- nist stations, subscribes to SOO dif- ferent publications and consumes 48 million sheets of paper annually. With an' audience of -nearly 31 million persons?ranging: from 6ll per cent of the over-14,listeners In Poland .t? 45 per cent in.Czechoslo- vakia, RFE is far and away the most popular voice in Eastern. Europe, as the jamming 'efforts of- the Communist regimesiattest. The Czechoslovak people turned - to it during the Soviet-led invasion of 1968. RFE was a prime source of the news that Polish ?. authorities tried to suppress during the Baltic seaport upheavals of late, 1970. Thus if Radio -Free Europe is a relic of the cold war, as Senator Fulbright suggests, it is not a mori- bund relic and its buriaLwould be a wrenching affair for zany, many people. ? Any American who has spent any time in Eastern Europe knows what a comfort it is to switch on his transistor and catch the -"Yankee Doodle Dandy" theme that signals VOA and its world news. roundup. Many a Polish citizens who has a low regard for the controlled press. at home, perhaps has even stronger emotions as he hears a melody by Moniuszko which means. that "Ra- dia Wolna Europa' ?isle the aie, ApprovedFor Release 2001/03/0.4.: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 27 BLLTIV.O.U. sup Approved For Release 2004/63M49Th1A-RDP80-01601R00 STATINTL 'Radio Free Europe and Liberty An article by Joseph R. L. Sterne, pUblished in adjoining columns, provides an illuminating account of the work being done by Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty and the significant way in which they sup- plement the European broadcasts of the Voice of America. All of these are voices of America, in the sense that, they are financed by the United States government and hence the American people. For years a pretense was maintained that Radio Free Europe depended ,on voluntary financial contributions to operate when in fact it was being financed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. At the insist- ence of Senator Case of New Jersey the C.I.A. financing was both dis- closed and halted, and now Senator Fulbright of Arkansas is making a strong effort to stop the federal government from continuing these stations through open, public ap- propriations. Mr. Sterne's article shows per- suasively, it seems to us, that Radio Free Europe in particular is doing important work that is not being done now by the Voice of America, and that it is established as a major source of news and information in the countries of Eastern Europe in which the press and radio are con- trolled and operated by authoritar- ian governments. Much the same applies to Radio Liberty, which aims its broadcasts at the people of the Soviet Union. At issue now in Washington is the future of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. A bill passed by the Senate would fund the two stations only .until June 30, the end of the current fiscal year. A bill passed by the House .of Repre- sentatives, and endorsed by the Nixon administration, would ap- propriate funds for another year, until June 30, 1973, and set up an independent agency to administer the stations. The legislation rests now in a Senate-House conference committee, with Mr. Fulbright urg- ing an end to the stations and re- sisting the House provision. The cost of the stations is put at about $35 million a year. Mr. Fillbright argues that the stations are relics of the cold war and have no place in present Ameri- can policy. But it can also be ar- gued that the broadcasts have had a part in the development of pres- ent policy and, indeed, help to reinforce it now. It would be a' mistake to cut the stations off the air this month, as apparently will happen if the conference commit tee impasse is not broken. A com- mon-sense solution would be to continue the stations for another year, as proposed by the House and the Nixon administration, and in the meantime either modify the present operations of the Voice of America to the extent that they duplicate the two radio services, or merge the operations so that the strong points of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are maintained: Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 NEWSWEEK Approved For Release 2006/01011 1fiZA-RDP80-01601R00 STATINTL RADIO FREE .EUROPE: Station Break? For two decades, Radie Tree Europe and Radio Liberty have been household words throughout Eastern- Europe and the Soviet Union. To many millions of people in the Communist bloc, in fact, the two American-financed stations have often been the sole source of ,unvarnished information about events around the world. This, not surprisingly, has made them constant targets for the wrath of Communist authorities. Forbidding their citizens to listen to these voices of "bour- geois ideology," the Soviet and East European governineliave sought to jam the offending broadcasts. Their jam- ming efforts have largely failed .and their prohibitions have been ignored. Last week, however,. the Communists got an unexpected assist from Washington when the U.S. Congress failed to extend gov- ernment financing of the stations. The trouble began a year ago when New Jersey Sen. Clifford Case revealed 'that while Radio Free Europe (which broadcasts to Eastern Europe) and Radio Liberty (which is beamed to the Soviet ,Union) both claimed to be privately financed, the bulk of their money actual- ly came from the Central Intelligence Agency. Although this fact had long been an open secret, its public disclosure touched .off a furor, since it fueled Com- munist charges that the two stations were propaganda organs of the U.S. Govern- ment. While an embarrassed Administra- tion promptly transferred control of the stations' budget from the CIA to the U.S. Information Agency, Congress began to debate the organizations' ultimate fate. Recently, the House of Representatives approved an authorization of $35 million until June 1973, while a nongovernment- al means Of funding was studied. But un- der the prodding of Sen. William Ful- bright, chairman of the powerful Foreign Relations Committee, the Senate balked. In Fulbright's view, the disclosure of CIA backing underscored the fact that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty had deceived both their Iron Curtain listeners and the American people about their true nature. Contending that .both stations were an anachronism in an era' of budding East-West rapprochement, the Arkansas senator thundered: "These rhdios should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold-war relics." And with that, he announced himself opposed to funding the.two stations beyond next June. Slogans: Defenders of the stations ar- gued that it was Sen. Fulbright himself who was out of step with reality. They admitted that immediately after the sta- tions were set up in 'Munich in the early ?1950s, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty dedicated themselves to encour- aging the citizens of Eastern Europe to "roll back" Communism?a policy that helped to spark the ill-fated Hungarian revolt of 1956. But following the Hun- garian uprising, the stations changed their tune. Trading their old slogan of "liberation" for a new one of "liberaliza- tion," they have sought to enlighten their audiences with objective accounts of events suppressed by the heavily cen- sored Communist media?a practice that has made the East 'European press dis- cuss subjects it would otherwise ignore. With their combined staffs of some 2,400 putting out 1,000 hours of broad- casting in 25 languages a week, the sta-. tions also have become a prime means of disseminating. documents written by So- viet and East European dissidents that have been smuggled abroad. In support of present. progran4ing, partisans of the station quoted a recent letter from a So- viet scientist which said: "Radio Liberty is what a Russian station would have been like if we had freedom of speech." Adamant: All of this was known to Sen- ator ? Fulbright. For he had himself com- missioned a. Library of Congress study of the two stations that, contrary to his expectations, praised the professionalism of their staffs and the quality of their broadcasts and research reports, which are used by scholars all over the world. The study concluded that the demise of the stations would constitute a severe blow ? to the flow of information in the Communist world-. Despite this, however, Fulbright remained adamant in his op- position to the stations. "The senator," said a staff member, "would like to see the whole operation liquidated." And, perhaps inevitably, no major congres- sional figure seemed prepared to be as active in defending the stations as Ful- bright has been in attacking them. Ac- cordingly, although RFE and Radio Lib- erty have enough funds to stay on the air for several more weeks, it seems quite possible that, in the end, the sen- ator from Arkansas may succeed in si- lencing them. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 YOiiK 'ELVES Approved For Release 2061166/A4: CIA-RDP80-01601R001 A Senate Majority Speaks A majority of the members of the United States Senate has sponsored a resolution designed io back continuation of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. What makes the move extraordinary is that the pri mary immediate aim of the sponsors is to put pressure on the Senate's conferees to end their deadlock with House conferees on this issue, a stalemate that threatens the swift demise of both these major communications links to Eastern Europe. Now that a majority of the Senate has spoken, there can be no moral basis for the continued obduracy of that chamber's conferees. Their present tactics, if successful in terminating these ? broadcasts, can only benefit the Kremlin. Its bitter enmity to these radio voices has long emphasized their 'importance in filling a communications void by providing ,information otherwise unavailable. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Pat YORK TIMES Approved For Release 2001/03/64M:A811f-RDP80-01601R001 STATI NTL ? [..; to the Editor Save Radio Free Europe ,To the Editor: I In connection with your Feb. 22 editorial "Saving Free Voices," I Would like to emphasize that the liquidation of Radio Free Europe either by extinction or by policy de- cision would be interpreted by the peoples of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania as the final recognition by the United States of the present status quo and of the permanency of the Soviet rule in East Europe. Surely, it would not kill their striv- ing for independence but, paradoxi- cally. might result in shifting their hopes toward the People's Republic of China, which alone of the great powers shows some interest in East European countries regaining their Independence. This interest was dem- onstrated by several announcements of the Peking Government and, not so long ago, bY the vehement con- demnation of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia by the present Chi- nese delegation to the United Nations. It is also being demonstrated by Ra- dio Peking broadcasts to East Europe and by Radio Tirana broadcasts to Poland. In addition, the closing of Radio Free Europe would represent an un- , warranted gift to Soviet Russia, which through its own and satellite facili- ties pours "hate America" propaganda WO hours daily in 78 languages. STEFAN KORBONSKI Chairman, Assembly of Captive European Nations New York, Feb. 22, 1972' An editorial on this subject appears' today. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 LOS tiliGLILES Approved For Release 200111011A2419121A-RDP80-01601 FUND CUTOFF NEARS STATINTL ? Free 'Voice to' East Threatened by Its Friend ? OSGOOD CARUTHERS ? ' VIENNA They aren't quite dead vet but the death knell is tolling for Radio Free .Europe and Radio Liberty. For a -quarter of a century they have been - beaming uncensored in formation to millions living in the Soviet bloc .in Eastern Europe. ? - The lives of these two U.S. go v ernment - supported organiza- tions .re being szarificed to the eu- phoria surrounding the desire for an Xast-West detente by the powerful rhairman of the Senate Foreign Re- lations. Committee, Sen. J. W. Fill- ))right (D-Ark.). - . ? . Picking tip the cudgel from those who successfully halted part of the jinanci?ng of these organizations rom the secret funds of the Central ntelligence Agency and made all government support of them a sub- ject for continuing congressional approval, Fulbright now wants Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty closed down altogether. And unless the general public and Congress are persuaded that these ? . Based in 1:ienna, Times $taff writer epruthers covers much of Eastern Europe: ? two organizations are the most ef- fective means the West has ever had for keeping free information flowing to the Communist-ruled nations of Eastern Europe, he may succeed. For Radio Free Europe, which beams news and information broad- casts to five of the Communist-ruled countries. outside the Soviet Union, and Radio Liberty, which broad- casts exclusively to the people of the Soviet Union, have sufficient funds left to keep them going for only a month. ?I Contributions from private thdlvi- 'duals and public organizations form only a small part of the required support for the two organizations. They are now waiting , with faint hope, indeed, for an apparently in- different Congress .to vote new government funds for them. If the funds are not forthcoming, an estimated 31 million listeners over the age of 14 in Poland; Czecho- slovakia, Hungary, Romania and , Bulgaria, arnAppiroved poilDR ? more in the Soviet Union, will be de- nied a Western source of news, re- views of the Western press and com- mentaries on affairs in their own countries and throughout the world. In a letter to the editor of the Times of London, author -Anatoly KuznetsoY, who defected to England from the. Soviet Union three years ago, wrote in fervent defense of Ra- dio Liberty, which, he said, had been the principal source of truth for So- viet intellectuals. "But Radio Liberty is something unsurpassable, said the writer after praising the . British Broadcasting Corp.'s Russian service. "ft is the voice of fellow countrymen who live in the. free world, a oiEe which is ?not subject to Soviet -censorship and which openly speaks about .our spe- cial problems in the Soviet Union. One of the most fervent wishes of the KGB (the Soviet secret police) is to destroy Radio Liberty." Independent newspapers of all po- litical colors (with the exception of the Communist press, of course) have risen editorially to' the defense of Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty in Britain and throughout Western Europe. They have done so despite the common knowledge that these organizations once got part of their funds from the CIA and, even more importantly, despite the fact that many political leaders have baSed their government's policies on a platform of detente and peaceful coexistence with the Soviet bloc. ? ? The socialist government of Chancellor Willy Brandt in ? West Germany has stood up -to tremen- dous political pressure from the So- viet Union to close down the opera- tions of the two broadcasting organi- zations, which both have their head- quarters in the Bavarian capital of Munich. Brandt has thus far refused to bow to these pressures despite his eagerness to push ahead with his Ostpolitik. This has been true despite crudely unsubtle hints from Moscow that the Kremlin might be more pli- able on such critical matters as ? Berlin and on better trade relations between the Soviet bloc and West Germany if Brandt closed the two stations. The very vehemence with which . Re fueor9Pak F430104604 ROO ilt010throughyears of07000ts5 to the effectiveness of the broad- casts from Munich to the people be- hind .the Iron Curtain. The estimated $31 million required to keep the two organizations going is paltry compared to the budgets of most national networks. About 520 million of this is needed by the lar- ger RFE, which in addition to its na- tive American staff employs about 350 refugees from the five Commu- nist bloc countries to which it broad- casts. One hundred of these refugee employes have become U.S. citizens and many others are working to- ward that end. Besides its broadcasts in the lan- guages of the target countries, RFE monitors radio broadcasts .of these countries. It also combs a major part of the press from the capitals and the provinces of the countries con- cerned. It coMpiles from all of this a vast wealth of reference material that has been invaluable to scholars, newsmen and politicians throughout the West. Thus it 4proVides a source of knowledge and understanding of what is going on inside those closed societies that no other organization or government agency has been able so effectively to provide. Fulbright has grounded his oppo- sition to RFE and Radio Liberty on the charge that they are; as he put anachronistic remnants of the cold war. But thus far he has not called in a single official of Radio Free Europe from its Munich opera- tion to hear the other side of the ar- gument. The Soviet propaganda machine continues tirelessly to demand the demise of the two organizations, while at the same time the voices from Moscow, Prague, Warsaw, Bu- dapest, Bucharest and Sofia carry on a relentless campaign of vitupera- tion against the United States. This suggests that despite the :ver- bal pledges of peaceful coexistence and a desire for detente, the cold war is not really ended. The Ameri- can-sponsored operations in Munich do not return such vituperation but do offer some light to the Soviet bloc peoples. If the pressure in Washington to choke off these two organizations succeeds, it will mean that what as -using abuse on RFE ? and Radio have failed to do Liberty is the most vivid testimony one-sided pressures will have been aernrnnlihpri far fhpn-i?cratk HART FORIPp69ti9d For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0 A TIMES oR. A. 1STI E & s ? 135,812 ,Observer at large New Hope; new prices; old Radio Free Europe By DON 0. NOEL JR. rEditor, Editorial Page I'VE HAD little recent -cont-act with Radio Free Europe, and none with Radio Liberty. But I'm inclined to.think Senator William Fulbright is nearer right than Rep. Robert Steele on the question of extending federal funding of these propaganda stations overseas. : My first contact was with an ex- RFE (Radio Free Europe) broad- caster a few months after the abor- tive Hungarian uprising of 1956. He'd been Urging the Hungarians to revolt ? for months, he told me, and. broad- casting that the United States could .be counted on to come to their aid. When ,Hungarians rose and fell on their own, his stomach heaved, and he quit. Morq recently, in ,Romania in 1967, I encountered an enthusiastic high school student who raved over Radio Free Europe. and who seemed to think the streets of the United States were paved with gold. I quized him a bit about what seemed. a too-facile swallowing, of rosy -prop- aganda, and asked him whether he also listened to the BB? (British Broadcasting Company) and V044 (Voice of America) programs. Both were readily heard, and not jammed. No, he told me. They were too tame. He liked to be told how terrible his country was, and how great ours was, without any qualifications. , There may have been a time when such programming had a function. Our government Clearly thought so; the CIA for years has provided most of fh?elt? support, although they were purportedly privately run by con- cerned Americans. It's only in the last year that Congress has forced the funding into the open. - . Whatever the past justification, the time has come to quit. We can't propa- gandize the whole world. If we must have transmitters beaming our view of the news to. countries with closed systems, shouldn't we telecast news of Mr. Nixon's Peking visit to the Taiwanese, who were allowed no news of the trip? Shouldn't we force some honest reporting into. Greece, whose military junta has suppressed free comment? Where- do we stop? The place to stop is before we start. The Voice of America has an entirely adequate program of straight news, Ainerican 'music, bits of Ameri- cana. That's enough. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 viptuLD 3 MAR 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0160 %te.-elt447.400,4i STATINTL 'Dissenter' handful among Soviets b 'Made in us.' stamp ? By MIKE DA'VIDOW ' Who are the Soviet "dissent- ers?" Even the U.S. capitalist press has to admit they are a /pitiful handful. Dusko Doder, Assistant Foreign Editor of the Washington Post and formerly UPI Moscow correspondent point- ed out (Int. Herald Tribune, Feb. 8, 1971): ? "The dissident movement is so small that most observers regard it as being ' without political significance." But the U.S. capitalist press has gone all out on this totally un- representative handful, precisely to manufacture political contro- versy. . The fact is, they hardly cause a ripple in the Soviet Union, not withstanding the massive use made of the dissenters by the CIA-sponsored Voice of Ameri- ca and Radio Free Europe. , The truth is that the blown-tqi iimage of Soviet dissent bears the trade mark?made in the U.S.A. Robert Kaiser hints at this In the International Herald Tribune (Jan. 27) when he notes that the Western news organiza- tions in Moscow comprise "the single most attentive audience to the confusing spectacle of political dissent in the Soviet Union." '? Doder is much more to the point. He confesses that.. the stories sent by Moscow. corre- spondents of the capitalist press "have created a somewhat dis- torted picture of a Soviet Union populated by angry poets and sci- entists." But notwithstanding this frank admission, such distor- tions continue to come from the,. in the U.S. today. But even Kai- typewriters of correspondents. ser had to admit the difficulty Some dissenters portray them- of making this charge stick when selves as representing the new he noted the "crackdown" has rather than the old society.1 II "directly touched less than 35 fatt they try to lay claim to be- people." Ing the best and most advanced Much can also be gathered representatives of the future from the character of some of since they supposedly want to the correspondents who blossom- , make socialism in the Soviet ed out as fervent champions of i Union more "humane and dem- Soviet dissenters. Take William ocratic." But their pretenses are Cole, the CBS man who smug-' exposed by. their alliances. On gled 'out . a recent filmed inter- whom do they depend to bring view with a dissident. . about their "more humane and I was present at a dinner in late more democratic" socialism? .fall, 1939, at the home of John" On that great revolutionary and Dornberg of Newsweek (since democratic force?U.S. imperial- expelled from the Soviet Union) Ism and i. ts press Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 The relationship between the "dissidents" and the U.S. cap- italist press is a calculating one on both sides. More, it is an "al- liance" which Doder describes as an arrangement of "mutual convenience." The Soviet dissenters and U.S. press have another thing in com- mon. Both are doing their ut- most to use the tragic mistakes committed during the cult of the personality period, viewed by the overwhelming majority of the Soviet people as past history, to besmirch the tremendous human achievements of Soviet society, to slander the role played by the Soviet Communist Party and its leaders, and to boost bour- geois democracy as the only real democracy. This is still .done in the name of "democratizing" socialism since one could?hardly get very far here with open ap- peals for bourgeois democracy. Both dissenters and the U.S. 'press in fact try to use past mis- takes as a club over the heads of Soviet state bodies. When The Soviet judicial authorities re- Lpond to brazen violations of their country's laws with penal- ties, the cry of "Staliaist repres- sion" is trumpeted to the world by the powerful U.S. propaganda machine. The U.S. press has tried to picture these acts of law enforce- ment as massive' repression in an obvious attempt to take some of the heat off the truly mass repression of democratic rights when the expulsion of a- Canad- ian correspondent was being dis- cussed. All admitted that the "source" for the Canadian cor- respondent's anti-Soviet tripe came from his Moscow mistress. But that didn't seem to bother Cole or his colleagues.. The Canadian correspondent, they noted ruefully, made a mis- take. His timing was wrong. An expulsion can be very helpful as advance publicity for a book on the Soviet Union, providing one has already 'managed to stay long enough to give the impression of expertise, they all agreed. I was with Cole in Tashkent ? in December of 1969. One would ' think the big story there was how the entire Soviet people rA.- built the Uzbek capital -which was largely destroyed in an earthquake in 1966. But the in- terest of Cole and other eorre- spondents of the capitalist press was in other directions. They were on a hunt for so- called Tatar "dissidents" that to Cole and his colleagues was the real story of Tashkent. Or take another "champion" of 'Soviet dissidents Whom Kai- ser cast's in somewhat of a "militant" role, David Bonavia of the London Times. Bonavia, too, was with --me in Tashkent and, if anything, was one of the leaders of the hunt for .Tatar dissidents. Then, in the course of our conversation, it turned out that this friend of "oppressed" Tatars was formerly a corre- spondent in Saigon and one of the most fervent supporters of Nixon's Vietnam policy I've ever come across. STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- SAN FRANCISCO, CAL; EXAMINER E ? 204,749 EXAMINER 8: CHRONICLE S ? 640,004 " 3 1972 --- -'\Roscoe Drummond Fit/brio-lit vs. WASHINGTON?There is not the mer- est, minute molecule of justification for the way Sen. William Fulbright ID-Ark.) is?us- ing his power as chairman of the Senate ?? . Foreign Relations committee to frustrate the will of .Congress. MS goal is to kill Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. . The facts in ? the strange case of Ful- bright vs. Congress speak for themselves. FOR TWO DECADES Radio Free Eu- rope has been broadcasting from Munich to the people of Eastern Europe and ?Radio Liberty- to the peoples of the Soviet Union. the news and commentary which their gov- ernment censorship denies them. ? Until two years ago, these broadcasts .Were largely supported bY funds from the Central En Iliffen .e.,%gcucy. Congress dis- app ?oved this under - the - table financing ? and voted appropriations to enable the ' State Department to allocate funds openly to the two stations. This was the policy of the. U. S. govern. ? ment and this was the policy of Congress ?until last summer, until Sen. Fulbright act- ed to kill all financial assistance and bring this broadcasting beamed behind the Iron Curtain to an end. . By a. voice vote. the Senate decisively ;? rejected Sen. Fulbright's plea that Radio . Free Europe and Radio Liberty be put put of existence. ? By a vote of 271 to 12 the House did the same.. ? But because the Senate and the House passed differing bills,, the legislation has been tied up in conference, for nearly nine months and now the two stations are dan- gling. . at the end of a noose. It is a noose tied *by. a stalemate which Fulbright has ? nurtured. ? Last summer when he saw he was losing , his case in the Senate, Fulbright pleaded for delay until the Library of Congress Re- the Majority ? search Service' could complete a 'study he had asked for on whether "it is in the public interest to provide tax dollars for the two , ? radios." ? The Library of Congress' report so con- tradicted Sen. Fulbright's views that he did his best to keep it secret. He not only stood out against the public's right to know but also against Congress' right to? know.. ' Some copies of the report have circulat- ed and its central finding is that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty "contribute sub- stantially to'preserve the reservoir of good- will toward the United States." ? ' The New York Times and, the Washing- ton Post. who are as anti-cold war as they . come, both urged that the U.S.-financed Munich radios keep up their. good work.- . Says the Times: If ,the deadlock kilts Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the chief gainers will be the Soviet bloc's hard-liners who hate the two radio stations as allies of the liberal and progressive ele- ments in the Communist world." Says the Post: "These (broadcasts) are nOt provocative, propagandist diatribes and still less do they 'sell' America, USIA-style. Rather, what both stations attempt to do is tell the people of Eastern Europe and Rus- sia news about themselves and their coun- tries which their governments don't want them to hear." WHEN SEN..FULBRIGIIT made his case ? or rather failed to make it ? on the floor of the Senate, he said: "I submit these ? radios should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard-of cold war relics." ? That is the view which both the Senate and House overruled. Now Fulbright is trying to bury majority rule with a tactic that ought to be consigned to the graveyard of outworn politics. Approved For' Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 WASKINZZ POST Approved For Release 2001/03/t4tAIMDP_O-ViN6Cyr001 r el? Tg. ? 2.6 it illi n, Foreign, Aid ? Clears Hill Under Protest By Spencer Rich Washington Post Staff Writer The Senate, 45 to 36, gave Anal congressional clearance yesterday to a $2.6 billion for- eign 'aid bill?about $900 mil- lion less than the administra, tion sought. ? ' The, bill also . carries $599 million for related programs- such as the Peace Corps, Cuban refugee aid, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. The Senate vote, protested by William Proxmire (D-Wis.) Alan Cranston (D-Calif.) and bthets who said the final measure was top-heavy with unneeded military aid outlays, completed action on-the fiscal 197-2 foreign .aid request only four months before the fiscal year expires. Both Maryland senators voted for the meas- ure, while both Virginia sena- tors opposed it. ' ,In other foreign policy de- yelopments on Capitol Hill yesterday: ? Fifty-three senators led by . Charles H. Percy (R Ill.) and Hubert H. Humphrey (D- Minn.), and including all the Democratic presidential candi- dates except the absent Vance Hartke (D-Ind.), introduced a resolution calling for contin- ued funding of Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty broad- casts into Eastern Europe. Emergency funds for the broadcasts expired Feb. 22, and an authorization to con- tinue them has been held up because a House-Senate con- ference cannot agree on the terms. Senate conferees, led by Foreign Relations Committee Chairman J.W. -Fulbright (D- Ark.), are willing to let the broadcasts continue through June 30, with the State De- partment required to justify anything beyond that; House conferees, led by Foreign Af- fairs Committee Chairman Thomas E, Morgan (D-Pa.), want continuation to June 30,1 1973. Fulbright regal ds the broad! casts as a needless irritant to East West relations. He says' that if the broadcasts are pop-1 ular with U.S. allies, NATO should consider funding them. ' . . " ? Sens. Charles McC: Ma-. thias Jr. (R-Md.) and Philip A. Hart (D-Mich.), introduced a. resolution calling on the ' United States to speed conclu- sion of an international ban on underground nuclear tests by abandoning its demand for on-site inspections. The two senators told a press confer- ence that seismic detection of underground blasts had im- proved so much that on-site inspections are not necessary to verify whether participants in an underground test ban are complying. The 1963 Nucleat Test Ban Treaty barred all nuclear tests except thoSe conducted under- ground. Hart and Mathias said the number of underground tests by all nuclear powers.; had increased from an average! of 40 a year before 1963 to 48 a? year since. Dr. Herbert Scoville of the Federation of American Scien- tists sat with Hart during the , press conference, and saidl blasts of about 5 kilotons or more now could be distin- guished seismically from earthquakes. ? The House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, headed by Rep. Cornelius J. Gallagher (D-N.J.), voted 6 to 1 for a con- current resolution calling for U.S. diplomatic recognition of Bangladesh. Gallagher said some 45 ,na- tions ,had already recognized Bangladesh, fornierly East Pakistan. The fact is that the usual requirements for recog- nition such as control of terri- tory, approval of the -popula- tion and a willingness by the Sheikh Mujibur Rahman gov- ernment to meet its interna- tional obligations have now been met," he said in a state- ment. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/b4: CIA-RDP80-01601R00110007.0001-5 WkSITIMOZT kOST Approved For Release 200113fid IRLA-RDP80-01601 STATINTL o The Editor Free Radio's Role '.1 seldom agree with the opinions and ideas e,xpressed in your editorial column. There- fore, it was a pleasant surprise to me to read your very sober. and realistic answer to the efforts of Senator Fulbright aimed at depriv- ,iii_g the people of Eastern Europe and Russia of the almost only source of information about the world and themselves, by choking off the appropriations for Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty. .Having lived in Communist-run Poland for 21 years7-1 can hardly recall a day or two spent without listening to, at least. RFE news. Despite the jamming and penalties for listening, almost every citizen of Poland, Communists and anti-Communists alike, ?turn to the RFE in order to get news that hasn't been distorted, disregarded, manipu- lated or twisted. It was from. RFE. not from the Communist-run Polish media, that Poles have learned about workers' demonstrations In ? Poznan (1936), the Hungarian rising (1956), student protests (March 1968); events before and after the invasion of Czechoslo- vakia (1968) and hunger riots in the coastal cities of Poland (1970). ? - for years, the popularity of RFE and the het that it has a whole network of corre- spondents behind the- Iron Curtain report- ing the abuses and crimes of the Communist regimes was leaving those regimes sleepless. For years the Communists tried to discredit ,RFE and force its liquidation. Last year in Poland, a Communist spy captain, Czecho- wicz, who infileated the RFE trying to get the names of the correspondents, was given a hero's welcome on his return to the Peo- ple's Republic. His achievements were highly publicized by the Communist radio, press and television and gave new momen- tum to the attacks on RFE. Mr. Fulbright is not alone in his attempts to deprive the people of Eastern Europe and Russia of the services of RFE and RL. How- ever, one can hardly congratulate him on his company. - W. J.. RZESZOTARSKI, Ph.D. Vashington? , , ? ,-. 7 7.i .7 istr ? ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP8Q-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0011 BOSTO , MASS. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE , MONITOR 1.11 ? 217,264 MAR 2 1972 Worth the price . Elsewhere on this page today Prof. Wil- y Ham E. Griffith of MIT argues for fed- eral appropriations for continuing Radio Liberty, which broadcasts in Russian,.and Radio Free Europe which broadcasts in ' the various languages of Eastern Europe. These two services were set up in the early days of the so-called "cold war." They were organized and financed clan- destinely by the CentraLlatelligence Agency. They were cold-war propaganda ' weapons. There is a question whether the United States should continue in these times to beam foreign language broach casts into the Communist countries. Th'e ? argument against is that this is interfer- ence in the internal affairs of other coun- . tries. These two radio shortwave services are now open and aboveboard. They are no ? longer deliberately subversive. They are 'trying to make available the other side of the news story in countries where there is only one version of events, the offieial one. The evidence indicates that there is a real desire for this "other side" of the story and that to make it available helps to sustain the inquiring mind. ? The cost runs to about $35 million a !. year. That's about a thirtieth of the cost of one new aircraft carrier. We think it's worth that price to let people in Eastern Europe hear more than me side of the news at least until their own governments \become more liberal and enlightened. ? STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 . ST/ CHRISTIAN SCIENCE :117DNITOR ? Approved For Release 2001/03i0C;n9s,2RDP80-016QtROg110 Overseas broadcasts By William E. Griffith Sen. J. William Fulbright seems deter- mined to use his position as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to strangle Radio. Free Europe and Radio Liberty. For two decades these stations have been broadcasting from Munich to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Until last year they were largely funded covertly by the cm. Now, properly, Congress must publicly decide if and to what extent they are to continue. The Senate, with Senator Fulbright grudgingly agreeing, has voted fort a one-year extension under the State Department, while the House has voted for a two-year extension a:%1-41?a study commis- sion. The two houses are now deadlocked In conference committee, and Senator Ful- bright hopes that this deadlock will kill the two radios, whose-temporary appropriations are running out. ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty broadcast 18 hours per day, largely on Internal developments. Their broadcastS, as a recent Library of Congress survey com- missioned by Senator Fulbright's commit- tee showed, are objective, comprehensive, and de,loted to aiding-peaceful, democratic change in these countries. Their original "cold war" character has decisively changed since the '50's. Radio Liberty, for example, broadcasts into the Soviet Union the dissident literature, such as Solzhenit- syn, which Moscow is trying to suppress, while Radio Free Europe gives to East Europeans the equivalent of a free press and radio. Senator Fulbright maintains that these radios, should be 'discontinued because they are "remnants of the cold war." He thus displays a curious naivet?bout how the Soviets and the East European regimes view "peaceful coexistence." For them, as they constantly and publicly assert, it is not the decline but the intensification of "in- ternational ideological class struggle." This is clearly demonstrated by their massive radio broadcasting effort to the West and by ? their other large-scale propaganda efforts, Including their massive efforts to get rid of ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Moreover, because d?nte,' which they need for reasons of foreign policy, is so danger- ous to them internally, they are intensifying their repression at home, as is evidenced by the recent stepped-up arrests and trials in the Soviet Union and in Czechoslovakia. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, on the other hand, give information and hope to the liberals in these countries. Only the dog- matists there would benefit from their clos- ing. Communist states are determined to mo- nopolize all means of elite and mass com- munication. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have prevented the Soviet and East European regimes from achieving this ob- jective. Senator Fulbright may na?ly ex- pect that the Soviets and East European- rulers would reciprocate their liquidation, but he is mistaken. Indeed, to end them unilaterally now, just before President Nixon is going to Moscow, would deprive the U.S. of one of its major assets in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. No way to start bargaining. Senator Fulbright seems isolated in Con- gress in wanting to close down these sta- tions. Moreover, U.S. and European editorial opinion is for them. Should he be permitted to use his chairmanship to impose his will on the great majority in both houses of Congress. who favor the radios' continua- tions? He is indeed a willful man but he is not and should not be in charge of U.S. foreign policy. It is high time that the Presi- dent and the Congress overrule him and ensure that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty can, continue their good work. The author is a professor of political science in the Center for International Studies at MIT. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATI.NTL Marc ri:d For Relea8REK/M94tAltsfeaft?11:14 ' ifT his sister on that same bus headed for the same integrated school where they could learn in a gentler way that I had two decades earlier how to live in an integrated world. ' They both began to read. And that was the essential point. ? 1--- RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY . Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, there is a great need to continue the financing of ' Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. I- ? ask unanimous consent that an editorial column entitled "A Setback for Liberty," . written by John P. Roche, and published in the February 26, 1972, Washington Post, and an editorial entitled "Congress 1- and Free Voices," published in the Phila- delphia Bulletin of February 25, 1972, be printed in the RECORD. There being no objection, the items were ordered 0 be printed in the RECORD. as follows: A SETBACK FOR LIBERTY (By John P. Roche) One of the most bizarre?terrying?scenes In Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's masterpiece, "The First Circle," describes a visit to a So- viet prison by a distinguished American, a woman with high political connections. A group of prisoners are put through a special .drill for her benefit dressed decently, put in a clean cell with an ikon, and told by the police that if they don't perform, zap! They did go through with the charade and the American visitor left with a high opinion of Soviet justice. What made this sort of thing possible, of - -course, was the total Isolation from the world outside. Once caught up in the toils of Joseph Stalin's terror apparatus, it was for himself with no hope of succor, no hope that outsiders would even learn of the situation. Part of Solzhenitsyn's power comes from his 'description of how some hu- man beings resisted atomization and per- sisted in acts of decency. The .prerequisite for running an efficient tyranny?as Aristotle pointed out more than 2000 years ago?ie to destroy this human sense of solidarity, and to convince each vic- tim that he is alone in the face of over- whelming power, that no one cares. This has become more difficult with modern tech- niques of communication. It is hard to jam all incoming radio messages, and the spread of the transistor radio and of tape recorders has launched a whole new era in underground communications. Through Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe the United States has for almost a generation brought to the peoples of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe the message that they are not alone. To take but one example, a Soviet Jew signed a petition attacking the appalling Leningrad trials. Thirty years ago he would have dropped this pebble down a bottomless well, but now, the next morning at 2:30, Radio Liberty was on the air with the text of the petition and the names of the signa- tories. This man, now in Israel, recalls the .??? sense of triumph as he heard the broadcast: "They (the KGB) can take us now, but our testimony will stand in history." Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe have reunited these peoples with history. And in the view of Sen. J. W. Fulbright that is a Capital offense. Just? about the time this column is printed, these radio stations? formerly subsidized by the CIA?will go broke unless emergency action is taken. Both houses of Congress have approved their con- tinuation with overt funding and there is overpowering consensus that they have done a splendid and nonprovocative Job in a very delicate area, but Fulbright singlehandedly - has been blocking a compromise between House and Senate versions of their appro- priation. Fulbright refused to call a meeting of the House and Senate conferees, obviously hop- ing that in this backhanded fashion he can quietly. destroy what he has called these "Cold War relics." It is a clever move: If he can stall, key personnel will have to find other jobs and the expertise built up over a genera- tion will dribble away. He must not be per- mitted to get away with it. No one who reads this column will suffer from the illusion that I believe the United States is perfect, but we Americans have been fortunate. We have never had to rise at 2:30 and turn on a radio to learn that we are still members of the human race, that we are still part of history. We can not allow Ful- bright to deprive our brothers of this price- less link with humanity. CONGRESS AND Fa zz VOICES A stalemate between the U.S.. House and Senate over separate bills to continue fi- nancing Radio Free Europe and Radio Lib- erty threatens very sudden death for the two enterprises spawned by the cold war to offset censorship of news in Russia and the Com- munist bloc. If the two stations stand as nothing more than relics of the cold war, then, their con- tinued existence does seem inconsistent with the new era of detente emerging between the United States and Russia. But in fact, the approach of broadcasts in recent years has changed, as attested by a recent Library of Congress study, from one of "liberating" people to "liberalizing" the information available to citizens in Commu- nist societies. Translated, the aim is no longer propaganda but a genuine effort to present an objective accounting of outside events and cultural development, generally not permitted by the government-controlled presses in recipient nations. Whether one chooses to believe the pro- gram is only a relic of the cold war or some- thing more, its quick termination by what amounts to a technical strategern is unwise. It deprives President Nixon of a possible bar- gaining counter iii his meeting with the Rus- sians in May and presents a poor picture of democratic procedures to individuals who have voluntarily helped support tile broad- casts. Congress should authorize some 'addi- tional funding now and delay a decision on the long-terrn continuation of the broad- casts until their present and potential bene- fits have been properly assessed. An abrupt cutoff now would satisfy only the opponents who see nothing redeeming in the program and the Communist hard liners who bitterly resent the broadcasts. CENTENNIAL OF YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK Mr. MOSS. 1'Tr. President, today we mark the century anniversary of our first great national park?Yellowstone. Thus, 100 years ago, our country began its enlightened national policy to set aside, preserve, and make available for all people superlative area,s of natural beauty, scenic grandeur, geologic inter- est, and historic significance. With laudable diligence and devotion, the National Park Service discharges its duties as custodian and interpreter of these wonderlands. Our national parks, national monuments, national historic sites, national seashores, national rec- reation areas have grown in number and diversity.' They are far flung and expand- ing. But the needs of our people for out- door beauty and experience a-re growing even more rapidly. We need more parks. Yellowstone remains, however, the bellwether Park?its wonders, beauty, and wildlife undiminished over a cen- tury of time. We must protect and keep it so for the century to come?and be- yond. THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOCIETY OF A FIRST AND . SECOND CEN- TURY OF NATIONAL PARKS Mr. PACKWOOD. Mr. President, 100 years ago today, President Grant signed into law the creation of Yellowstone Na- tional Park?the Nation's and the world's first national park. This marked the beginning of a unique new. way of thinking in public land man- agement in this country, and for that matter, throughout the entire world. The unique natural resources embraced by what then became Yellowstone National Park were considered to be of such novel- ty and value that they should be pre- served for all time for all to see and en- joy. No individual or group should have the right to exploit or despoil them for personal gain. The passing century since the creation of Yellowstone National Park has .borne a tremendous growth in the. national idea?not only in the numbers of na- tional park system units?which now to- tal 284-but also in the depth and in- tensity of understanding, appreciation, and concern for the preservation of our natural, historic, and cultural heritage unspoiled. The first national parks paid primary homage to the preservation of some of no ture's most superlative natural wonders. But as the Nation and the park system grew, attention was also turned to preserving some of the most signif- icant historic and cultural resources of this great country. With the onrushing demand for opportunity to refresh the body and spirit in the great outdoors, re- sources primarily bearing significant outdoor recreational opportunity have also come to be incorporated into the na- tional park system. As a result of a full century of effort by dedicated ?individuals, groups, legis- lators, and administrators, we have built a national park system which was not only the first, but is undoubtedly the finest in the entire world. There is per- haps no other area of cultural enrich- ment where this country has contributed so exclusively to the rest of the world as in the exportation of the national park idea. There are now 1,2.04 national park and equivalent reserves around the globe administered by 93 different coun- tries. In recognition of the important con- tribution that the national park idea has made to our society, President Nixon has recently proclaimed 197`c as "Na- tional Parks Centennial Year." Many formsof celebration and commemora- tion will be taking place throughout this year. While recognizing the achieve- ments of the past is most logical and im- portant on such an occasion, the Interior Department's National Park Service has chosen to put principal emphasis on looking ahead to the future. The theme chosen for the National Parks Centen- nial Year is "Parks, Man, and His En- vironment," and it is designed to strong- Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 )111,5131.17GT 01 STAY. itikit 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601 STATINTL 'DAVID LAWRENCE Why Give A controversy of an unusual nature?to suppress free speech?has arisen as a result of an effort by some members of the Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee to cause the American government to dis- continue its support, for the broadcasting news services known as Radio Free Europe and Vadio Liberty. These have won eat praise for their daily Operations in informing the pOpulation of areas which oth- erwise would not get the truth about news events. Rep. Robert Steele, R-Conn., declares that the Senate For- eign Relations Committee has 'received two favorable reports on the radio stations but has refused to make them public, and that a Senate bill to fi- nance the project and, a House bill authorizing creation of a senii-governmental commis- sion to oversee a similar serv- ice have been stalemated. Steele says he has requested Chairman J. William Ful- bright. fl-Ark., to publish the reports made to the Senate committee and has asked Con- gress to keep the radio service alive pending a study of the findings in the reports. Meanwhile, the European press is disturbed over the possibility that Radio Free Eu- rope might be discontinued. The London Times a few days ago said in an editorial that the American station "pro- vides a calmer and more fac- tual news service that is very widely heard in Eastern Eu- rope." The editorial added: "It is not always perfect but ? Up Radio Free Europe? it clearly meets a very deeply felt need among its listeners, as any traveller in Eastern Europe can testify. It gives them news about the world and about their own domestic af- fairs that is not available from their own controlled press. "Naturally Radio Free Eu- rope is a thorn in the flesh of East European governments because it breaks their monop- oly of information. For them, truth in any form is an enemy agent. It can therefore be said to undermine their system,' but only so long as people want to ? listen to it. "Meanwhile, whether its ac- tivities can be regarded as im- proper interference depends on- what you mean by detente. As the Communists them- selves never tire of pointing out, detente does not mean end- ing the peaceful competition between two systems. What it should mean is codifying the rules on a fair and equal basis. "There is no reason why : these rules should exclude peaceful and equal competi- tion between ideas. Indeed, this is one of the basic values of the Western world which should be most vigorously de- fended. "Nor can anyone say that the Communists do not have ? an equal chance. They have free access for their ideas in Western markets. They can work through legal publica- tions and legal Communist parties. They can broadcast as much as they wish, and as 'their programmes on Ulster have shown they can win all the prizes' for vicious inac- curacy. "The West has far fewer means at its disposal. To give up Radio Free Europe would be a gratuitous act of. appease- ment that wou,ld unbalance things even more and would be a very severe blow to the millions if people in Eastern Europe who still look to the West not only for information ? but for the defense of values in which they believe, and which even many progressive Com- munists regard as vital for the salvation of their system." Congress has not debated the question thoroughly, and presumably hasn't studied the facts contained in the special reports which the Senate For- eign Relations Committee has had prepared. If these were made public, the nation would learn of the importance of Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The United States has per- formed no greater act of infor- mation distributioA than has been accomplished by radio stations that tell what is hap- pening all over the world, in- cluding events of international significance. This news reach- ing into Communists countries has been useful in conttadict- ing propaganda misrepresen- tations. Many members of Congress are puzzled that any effort should be made to abolish Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which have rendered so valuable a service to the world. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601p001100070001-5 ITE 1710 STATINTL Approved Fiiiiik6k4si6,12661ThrfiatitPetARiznife-alsiievRetri . RADIO FREE EUROPE AND RADIO LIBERTY HON. HUGH SCOTT ? OP PENNSYLVANIA ? IN THE SENATE OF THE .UNITED STATES Tuesday, February 29, 1972 , Mr. SCOTT. Mr. President, I have re- ceived a telegram from Lucius D. Clay, chairman of the board of directors of ? .Radio Free Europe, regarding the unfor- tunate consequences of further congres- ? sional delay on funding for Radio Free ?-' Europe and Radio Liberty. I ask unan- imous consent that this telegram and several editorials which have appeared ? in newspapers around the world be printed in the Extensions of Remarks. . There. being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, . as follows: Hon. Hamar Scorr, Minority Floor Leader, U.S. Senate, 014 'Senate Office Building, Washington, We believe it our duty to inform you that we shall immediately be obliged to begin the liquidation of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty unless congressional action on pend- ing authorizing legislation is completed. .- The essential facts are these: (1) Both Houses of Congress have passed authorization and appropriation bills to ? provide necessary U.S. Government support In fiscal year 1972. ? (2) The President of the United States ? has assured us by letter that in his view "the ,free flow of information and ideas among nations is indispensable to more nor- mal relations between East and West and to better prospects for an enduring peace" and that his administration believes that broadcasting of this type continues to serve a fundamental national interest. (3) Within the past two weeks editorials by . leading newspapers throughout the . ? United States and 'Western Europe have given unqualified support. We are sending you today copies of editorials which have appeared in the following newspapers: San Francisco Examiner and other Hearst papers (2/20/72), New York Times (2/21/72), Washington ? Post (2/22/72) , Philadelphia Inquirer (2/22/72), Washington Evening Star (2/22/72), Washington News (2/22/72), St. Louis Globe-Democrat (2/24/72) ,Los Angeles Times (2/-24/72), Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2/19/72), Hannoverische Allge- meine Zeitung (2/19/72) , Zurich Die Tat (2/19/72), Hamburg Die Welt (2/19/72), London Daily Telegraph (2/23/72), 'quench- Iler Merkur (2/24/72), London Times (2/25/72), Paris Le Monde (2/25/72), London Sunday Times (2/27/72). ? (4) Yet Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty face the iminent prospect of liquida- tion with all attendant consequences, and expenses, because it has apparently not been possible to reconcile the different Senate and House authorization bills through the normal procedure of compromise in the conference committee. We want you to know that we are pre- -pared to continue broadcasting under any arrangement that would assure the necessary U.S. Government contribution while leaving the present professional integrity of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty unimpaired. The employees of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have stayed on the job but are understandably concerned. We are hopeful that a solution can mid will be found. We respectfully urge your support and assist- ance; The message has been addressed also to Senators Mansfield and Eliender and Repre- sentatives Albert, Boggs and Foad. .Lucius D. Clay, chairman. Board of Directors, .Radio Free Europe, and Members of the Board:. Eugene N. Beesley, Stewart S. Cort, Winthrop Murray Crane III, Eli Whitney Debe- Iroise, and William P. Durkee. Trustees of Radio Liberty: Mrs. Oscar Ahlgren, John R. Burton, P. Peter Grace, Allen Grover, Alfred M. Gruen- ther, John S. Hayes, H. J. Heinz II, Isaac Don Levine, Ernest A. Gross, Michael L. Haider, John D. Harper, Roy E. Larsen, Neil H. McElroy, Donald H. McGannon, Robert D. Murphy, Wil- liam B. Murphy, James M. Roche, Frank Stanton, Theodore C. Streibert, H. Gregory Thomas, Leslie B. Worth- ington, Henry V. Poor, Howland H. Ser- geant, Whitney N. Seymour, John W. Studebaker, Reginald T. Townsend, William L. White, and Philip L. Willkie. (Recent U.S. Editorial Opinion) [Published Feb. 20, 1972, in San Francisco Examiner and other Hearst papers] ' ? EDITRR'S REPORT?A SMELL OF SMOKE (By William Randolph Hearst, Jr.) PALM BEACH, FLA.?President Nixon's his- torte mission to Peking is of course the Big Story of the day, but comment in this col- umn is being deferred until we see what actually happens over there in alaoland. Judging by the poisonous major foreign policy article transmitted from Peking on Friday by Mao's official press agency. Hsinhua, all I will say Is that it doesn't look as if the get-together is going to be all, warm lichee nuts, aromatic tea and happy fortune cookies. The article, issued while the President was en route in his quest for "a generation of peace," accused the Nixon administration of continuing policies of "aggression and war" and proceeded with a lengthy tough talk re- 'capitulation of all the many differences be- tween the United States and Red China. Since even the President admittedly does not know what may come of his trip, all the advance speculation which has been filling the news columns strikes me as pretty futile. So?with no further apology?I turn to an- other news story which deserves a lot more. attention than it probably has gotten. This shocker, strictly speaking, was not straight news. It came in the form of a scoop reported with editorial comment last Thurs- day in the crackerjack Washington column of Rowland Evans and Robert Novak. Here are the first three paragraphs, summarizing the latest outrage being attempted by my least favorite senator, J. William Fulbright of Arkansas: "The inexorable campaign by Sen. Ful- bright to cast U.S. foreign policy in his own image has almost strangled the broadcasts beamed into Communist eastern Europe by Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. "Operating from his power base as chair- man of the Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee, Fulbright Is within days of cutting off, at least temporarily, vital U.S. govern- merit. subsidies for the two programs. Unless Congress acts before next Tuesday, the money stops. "Congressional sentiment for the broad- casts is so overwhelming that it seems im- probable Fulbright will ultimately aucceed. ' But he has come perilously close to doing what twodecades of Moscow's electronic jam- ming could not do: end non-governmental communications between the United States and some 200 million residents of the Soviet Union and 100 million in five other Com- munist countries." It must be realized as background that eastern Europeans since 1950 have been hun- grily dependent on the two Munich-based broadcasters for uncensored news of the out- side world. Radio Free Europe transmits to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. Radio Liberty is beamed into the Soviet Union itself. I have been in all but Bulgaria and talked with residents of all of these countries. In- variably they have stressed that the news and entertainment they get from the Ameri- can stations constitutes a real godsend to their lives?a whiff of the freedom they are denied. The Communist governments, naturally, are deeply resentful of the broadcasts, which is why the appeasement-minded Fulbright has been trying to cut off funds for the sta- tions. As Evans and Novak put it: "To the chairman, such spending is an an- achronistic relic of the cold war, prejudicial to East-West detente." The fact that Fulbright has been trying to block further broadcast funds is bad enough. The way he has gone about it is all but incredible and an inexcusable affront to his fellow lawmakers. As Evans and Novak tell it, it seems that the stations have been operating with sub- sidies provided by the CIA. Last year the administration proposed direct government financing but Fulbright balked, demanding first a study of the operation by the Library of Congress to see if the broadcasts are "in the public interest." The study reports were in FulbrIght's hands before last January 26?and he wasn't pleased with what he read. They warmly praised the programs and strongly advocated continued financing by the government. "Radio Free Europe," reads one report, "contributes substantially to preserve the reservoir of good will toward the United States by eastern Europeans." The other aeporfs says: ? "Radio Liberty has played an explicit enough indirect role in lightening the bur- den of ,the Soviet people." Now cet this. On January 26 a Senate- House conference met to resolve differences in their resnective bills providing funds for continuing the broadcast. They got nowhere because Sen. Fulbrieht alone knew of the favorable reports and he had sent them back to the Library of Congress for "reworking!" According to Evans and Novak. This outrege is only another all to typi- cp example of the extremes to which our consistent armeasers of Communism go. For the life of me, I simply cannot under- stand these people. They claim to be Ameri- cpns Yet they et:maize or actively oppose al- most anything intended to strengthen this nation and its allies. Conversely they invari- ably support almost anything which favors our enemies. ? You don't have to ask who those enemies are. They have announced their enmity often enough, and proven it often enough. They have proclaimed us as the only fly in their omelet and they are sworn to get us out of their way: Contrary to what many of my readers seem to think?and apparently I have to keep sav- ing this again and again?I am not opposed to Communism or any other dictatorship someplace else. The government of another country IS its own business. I am simply op- posed to any re7ime which keeps -interfering with our way of life or that of our friends. Some of our friends, of course, have non- 'Communist military dictatorships. It is typi- cal that these are invariably the major tar- gets of those who?for want of a better word?I can only call our leftist-liberals. You never hear these people refer to Com- munist regimes as military dictatorships. an exact description.. Instead they regard the Red regimes as part asf some kind of Ideal- istic social experiment which only reaction- ary' numbskulls can view with alarm. Be nice to the Communists, the Fulbrights say. Keep smiling and holding out a friendly hand in spite of all the insults, threats and outright aggressions. On the other hand, they Approved For Release 2001/03/D4 CIA-RDP80=01601R001100070001 -5 X3ALTIMORE NEWS AMERICAN Approved For Release 2001/6904E:BC119X?RDP80-01601RSTATINTL ? .41m sick 01 our Old freedom' Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80- MEMPHIS, TENN. COMMERCIAL APPEAL ? 219,462 S ? 268,338 FEB 2 9 1972 ulbrightDenies Study 'Cover-Up By MORRIS CUNNINGHAM 7FrOM The Commercial Appeal MashIngton Bureau t WASHINGTON, Feb. 28. ? passed a bill to authorize the !Senator J. W. Fulbright (D- State Department to spend 35 Ark.) Monday denied a charge I million dollars operating the stations for one year. In De- cember, the House passed :order to improve his chances authorizing different legislation oi th killing off Radio Free Eu- g two more years of ;rope and Radio Liberty. operation. Representative Robert Ho Senate-House conferees have been unable to agree on a com- promise. House speech that Fulbright, a Senate conferees have of-! .chairman of the Senate Fop.: fered to extend government fi- eign Relations Committee, is nancing of the stations to the suppressing a favorable study end of this fiscal year, but of the two stations made at House conferees have refused. Funding for the stations pre- Fulbright's request by the Li- viously provided by Congress brary of Congress' Congres? through the CIA expired Feb. sional Research Service. 22, and: the station managers h Steele said the study menu- ave said they can continue scritSts were delivered to the operating only another week or committee staff in mid-Janu- so' ary and "as far as I can find Fulbright has argued the sta.- out, they have just been sitting tions are costly and unneces- sary and that their output, there ever since, seen only by a handful of outsiders." while not as stridently political ' as some years ago, is still con- Fulbright's office said the utrary to efforts to improve the Manuscripts are a draft ver- thnited States.' relations with e Soviet Union and Eastern sion of the study, have been European countries. examined by several newsmen He also has said the stations and are available to anyone, conflict this country's official who wants to take a look at conflict with the Voiceffi of \Ithem. overseas broadcasting service. version had been received and that it was favorable to the i two stations. The two stations, which' ,broadcast propaganda to Com- munist countries of Europe: were established after World War II. The stations ostensibly were established and financed by private contributions by Amer- ican citizens, but it became known last year they had been established and funded from the beginning by this country's Central Intelligence Agency. Lasr-strrnmer, the Senate "Senator Fulbright was dis- appointed the study turned out to be favorable, but there has been no attempt to suppress it," a Fullbright press assist- ant said. ' He said when Senate-House conferees met, they were giv- en memos statin the draft STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601-R001100070001-5 ? sug Approved For Release 2001/03/84 :FdrieAbP80-01601 STATINTL Cold ioar radio sta ions lcok 'awful tack' ? By rETEn 3. KUMPA Washington Bureau of The Sun Washington?The deadlock between Senate and House con- ferees over the financing of Radio Free 'Europe and Radio Liberty has continued for eight months. Yet another compro- mise effort to keep the stations broadcasting to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union failed again last week. The chances that the stations will have to shut down are Increasing. In the words of Senator ?George Aiken (R., Vt.), "The patient looks awful, awful sick." If the stations close, credit will not go to their life-long critics, the Communist govern- ments from Prague to Moscow. Fulbright's opposition Credit will have to go to the !Chairman of the Senate Foreign 'Relations Committee, Senator J. William Fulbright (D., Ark.), who is determined to drive them out of business. "I submit these radios should be given an opportunity to take their right- ful pine in the graveyard of cold war relics," he told .the Senate recently in arguing for their demise. Senator Fulbright throws in the cost of the stations (about $36 million a year) as well as the history of their secret fi- nancing by the Central Intelli- gence Agency as part of his argument for closure. More important, however, is the considerable philosophic gap between Mr. Fulbright and the administration on how the nation's foreign policy should be run. Specifically, there is disagreement on bow to pro- mote a detente With the Soviet Union. ? Because the sfations, which concentrate on providing bal- anced and critical reportS on life in the Communist countries, ? are "Irritants" to the Eastern European governments and even more to the Kremlin, Sen- ator Fulbright reasons that re- moving them will help improve population. Radio Liberty is government-to-government rela- notable for its sympathetic tions. treatment of Soviet Jewry's The senator holds that such a problems. step would help President Nix- Freedom to speak on in whatever negotiations he holds with the Russians. He The stations are useful to the says that it could not hurt, administration because they Tlie?administration and par- have some non-governmental ticularly the State Department form and can say things that a disagree. Believing that the .completely government agency, "demise would be a great like the Voice of America, can- loss," John N. Irwin, an under- not. That is their value. The secretary of state, argues that Soviet Union maintains a simi- the stations "bring to individual lar station, Radio Peace and citizens (in Eastern Europe) a Progress, that it calls unofficial responsible and realistic ac- and broadcasts material too count of developments within daring for Radio Moscow. They are held more believa- ble in Eastern Europe because independent .outside source" they are staffed by emigres, many of them informed and with reputations back home. The pre-1968 staff of Radio Prague is now virtually the staff of the Czech Section of Radio Free Europe; for exam- ple. Senator I, ulbright counters that continuing broadcasts .amounts to "meddling in the internal political affairs of oth- er countries." If the reasoning on pressure holds for Eastern Europe, he asks why the ad- ministration does not propose to set up a "Radio Free Greece" Sovietologists believe that or a "Ramo Free Brazil" or a Moscow does little unless it is "Radio Free China" but instead pushed or shoved. Improve- relies on the Voice of America nients in living standards with-to getting information through. in the Soviet Union and other The administration answer is Communist countries have been that the situations are not at all due, in this view, to sirikes (as comparable. in Poland) or demands from Support for continuing the the public,. And only an im- stations has come from an inde- formed public, aware of events pendent Library of Congress in the west as?weil as trends in study which concluded that other Communist states, can they encourage detente, prod make effective demands, the governmental reform and help Soviet specialists contend. build goodwill for the United Few experts doubt that the States. The study found the Soviet ? Union, for example, content of the broadcasting ' would have permitted Immigra- tion to Israel without a world- wide campaign critical of Rus- sian treatment of its Jewish their own societies as well as the world at large from ah and, therefore, "are a useful enterprise." Form of pressure The stations are useful in the administration view, because keeping the public highly in- , formed within the Communist world is a form of pressure upon the governments to im-, prove living standards and to open the closed societies. This sort of pressure provides a strong incentive for a detente, in the opinion of administra-1 tion's Soviet experts. highly objective .and not propagandis- tic as it was in earlier periods of the cold war. Ironically, the stations might not be facing the death threat if the administration had not agreed to a proposal by Senator Clifford P. Case i;R., N.J.) to end CIA financing (public con-, tributions amounted to only 15 per cent of the budgets of the stations) and provide money through the regular congres- sional process. The close connection with the intelligence agency ? still dis- turbs Senator Fulbright. He regards the two stations ss examples of the "big lie" dished out by this and previous administrttions, comparable to what he says were such "de- ceptions" as the Tonkin Gulf ? 'incident and the .use of CIA :personnel in the guise of aid to 'Laos. Compromise plan The proposal' that Mr. Ful- bright will not accept ha S been offered by Representative Dante Faacell (D., Fla.). It would let both Radio Free Eu? rope and Radio Libelly live on through State Department fi- nancing until the meldle of next year while a presidential corn- 'mission would study their fu- tures. .Senator Fulbright said he will agree to that only "over my dead body." He is willing 'to continue financing only until June 30 under a simple resolu- tion. The confrontation is total. Richard T. Davies,? a deputy assistant secretary of state. Said last week, "we are not prepared to contemplate the termination of the radios." The flow of radio funds was cut on George Washington'e birthday. The radios can keep going for only a few more weeks with the cash they have in the till. Approved For Release '2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STAT I NTL S 2684 Approved For Rel@own9g04614 lahltAPP.Bpfikifpj R001 to testify in court trials; (6) the length of time required to conclude litigated claims occasioned by heavily congested court dockets results in a significant burden; (7) courts with their jurisdictional boundaries are unable to direct a meaningful nation- wide effort to improve the cargo claims situa- ? tion; and (8) strict accountability for cargo claims is most difficult, if not impossible, to - achieve. After exploring the possible alternatives to the vexing problems described above, in- cluding compulsory arbitration and no-fault Insurance, we concluded that disputed claims should be submitted for determination by this Commission in the first instance under, a sjmplified procedure. Such determination swered or commented upon in the enclosed report. To the extent, however, that the powers of this Commission do not go far enough to provide effective remedies for dealing with the discontent that prevails throughout the country in these cargo claims matters, this Commission has en- deavored to meet its duty to the Congress and the public by responding to what it con- cludes is a public defnand and need for remedial legislation in the claims area. If you have questions not covered by this letter, I shall be happy to forward a,prompt reply. Sincerely yours, GEORGE M. STAFFORD, Chairman. would be based principally upon documen tary evidence in order that the expensesr? attorneys' fees, and lost production time RADIO FREE EUROPE of ,key personnel necessitated by presents- LIBERTY PROMOTE tion of evidence in court or before an ar- bitrator could be avoided. As a positive ad- junct to this procedure, meaningful data on claims could be gathered and electroni- cally catalogued in order to define particu- lar problem areas. On the ?basis of this in-- formation particularized claim-prevention programs could be implemented on a na- tional scale. A specific legislative recommendation is made a part of the report (see Appendix F, Part 1) which, if enacted into law, would vest in this Commission authority to adju- dicate in the first instance all unresolved cargo loss and damage claims filed against carriers subject to the Interstate Commerce ?fiet. In the manner more fully described in the report, the prompt, impartial adjudica- tion of cargo claims and electronically cata- loguing claims data can serve a threefold purpose: It would provide an effective legal remedy to claimants where none now exists; the administration of justice would be more efficiently achieved in a factually technical area of civil litigation; and valuable data could be gathered on a national scale which may be employed to develop a national pol- icy with respect to the prevention of cargo loss and damage claims and the consequent waste of our Nation's resources. 'While this Commission is convinced of the need to adopt the proposed bill vesting claims Jurisdiction in it, the task cannot, in all candor, be undertaken with our current manpower and budgetary resources. Without tools commensurate to the task,. we could not be expected to achive any worthwhile or lasting improvement in the perennial loss and damage claims problem. In a second specific legislative recom- mendation, the Commission places before the Congress for its consideration, a proposal to allow this Commission to adopt regulations to require maintenance by rail and water carriers subject to the Act of adequate in- surance to protect the shipping public for loss and damage claims. Pursuant to exist- ing authority this Commission presenitly re- quires motor carriers and freight forwarders subject to parts II and IV of the Act to maintain sufficient insurance in this re- spect; the proposed legislation (Appendix F, part 2) would extend the power to carriers subject to parts I and III of the Act. In other portions of our report we reiterate our position on attorneys' fees legislation which already is well known to the Congress; pit- falls of creating courts of limited jurisdic- tion to deal with cargo claims matters are examined; we pledge to ?institute a rule- making proceeding for the _purpose of in- ' vestigating reasonable dispatch in the trans- portation: of perishable commodities; and the practices of carriers in inspecting com- modities and packaging when they are in- volved in concealed loss and damage claims ? are analyzed. Many of the inquiries you. may have re- ceived from your constituents have been an- AND RADIO DETENTE Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, I ob- serve that time is running out for the two "Radios" which constitute the best link available between the West and the peoples of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The operation of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are an essential in- gredient to meaningful detente in East- ern Europe. These radios reach out to the peoples of the put down nations of the They give them information about developments which are likely to affect their lives. All too often these peoples are denied such news by the censorship of their totalitarian Communist govern- ments. It is conceded that these radios are not cherished by the states of Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union. However, the fact that these governments do object to the broadcasts, and that the broadcasts have a regular audience of 30 million in East- ern Europe alone, suggests the extent of their appeal. The Eastern European nations have resorted to expensive measures to stop the broadcasts of the radios. They have jammed them, at huge cost and have even attempted retribution. With the West German Government's recent initiatives or "Ostpolitik" there arose a chorus of Eastern European governmental de- mands for the demise of Radio Free Eu- rope. But the Germans have held firm. They recognize that these radios are not at all injurious to detente but, in fact, serve to promote it. The opponents of RFE and RL have questioned their effectiveness by suggest- ing ? that they cannot get support for their operations from NATO power gov- ernments. Let me point out that these governments have their own radios which are intended to serve their national in- terests quite specifically. The peoples of Eastern Europe know this. The character of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty would be quite changed and its credibil- ity to the Eastern Europeans diminished if its funding were to fall to govern- ments whose historic relations with the East may be less than fondly remem- bered. The nonofficial funding from the United States, plus the Radios'. several decades of objective reporting, have re- sulted in their remarkably great credi- bility and widespread use among the peoples of Eastern Europe and Russia. Several Senators have raised objections to the fact that the Radios have received funding through the Central Intelligence Agency. I do not believe that such fund- . ing has forever tainted these Radios. Strong evidence would suggest that the audiences in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union continue to evaluate the broadcasts they receive on the basis of content alone. They have continued to listen to the Radios and have?in a num- ber of cases?sent messages of distress at the prospect of their termination. I believe that it would be a squalid breach of faith for the Congress of the United States to deny millions of East- ern European and Russian listeners their sole source of uncensored information about the world they live in. This blow, in my opinion, would adverse:1y affect the diplomatic moves now being undertaken by our President with regard to the So- viet Union. Detente, if it comes, will be the widen- ing of the West's contacts with the East. Surely, it does not imply that we must aid the totalitarian governments of the Com- munist nations in their intent to keep their peoples sealed off from the West. Detente must lead to the exchange of words and ideas, and of goods and peo- ples. And this I submit is the essential business of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. The atmosphere between East and West today does not require us to demon- . strate our willingness to talk. We are ' ready. The Russians are ready. Discus- sions at the highest level are scheduled . for mid-May in Moscow. Any idea that we should allow Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty to cease broadcasting now is gratuitous. It would be without reward for improved East-West relations. I urge the Senate to call for an end to the deadlock of ?the conference connult- tee and pass a bill which will fund these excellent Radios for the duration of this fiscal year and for a second fiscal year as well. I applaud the fact that we have terminated their funding from CIA, but I cannot approve their demise. It would be my hope, Mr. President, that the Sen- ate will exhibit file leadership appropri- ate to save these Radios from an un- timely death by neglect. ABUSE OF ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUNDS Mr. FANNIN. Mr. President, the Fed- eral Election Campaign Act. of 1971 is one of the most dismal pieces of legisla- tion enacted by Congress. It was sup- posed to provide campaign reform, stead, it will encourage the continuation of the greatest campaign abuse in our Nation. . Labor unions will continue to exact funds from their members, and these funds will be allocated by the union lead- ers to the candidates of their choice. We have not taken a step forward in reform- ing our campaign system; we ha,,e slipped backward. Mr. President, this fact was brought sharply into focus in a column by Victor Riesel.. I ask unanimous consent that Mr. Riesel's column, published in the Arizona Republic February 18, 1972, be printed In the RECORD. There being no objection, the article Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : .CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 - ? E1664 , STATINTL ApproveoteriGROteattilDOTIMMP:-CrAtRIriFtE/01261164:11eReltli it hasn't as yet been resubmitted. If an ex- tension petition is filed by a car company, EPA has 60 clays in which to make a de- cision. Administrator Ruckelshaus has indi- Gated that any petition would be made available to the public for open hearings. He did indicate, however, that EPA was giving some consideration to amending the peti- tion's disclosure policy in order to provide full public disclosure and yet guarantee the protection of certain trade secrets. On January 1, 1972, the National Academy of Sciences filed its first semi-annual report on which EPA will base its decision on the technological feasibility of the car compan- ies to meet the 1975 deadline. The report said that while "there is no centainty today that any 1975 model year vehicles will meet the requirements of the Act", it may be possible if three conditions are met: 1. provisions are made for catalyst replacement, 2. averaging of emissions throughout the day rather than Just for the first trip, and 3. general avail- ability of non-leaded gasoline. Besides Rep. Rogers' suggestion for the catalyst problem, the other two National Academy of Sciences' conditions may also see early solutions. Changes in the EPA testing procedure, beginning with 1975, will encom- pass the average of the emissions from all the trips taken in a day rather than just the emissions from the first trip (The first four to six running minutes emit the greatest amount of pollutants.). EPA officials feel that this change will "more accurately re- fleet the driving experience of the average motor vehicle in major urban areas." .? In addition, the oil industry will appar- ently have little or no trouble making non- leaded gasoline generally available for use by 1971. Although presently available in lim- ited quantities, there has been some .ques- tion whether it could be produced on a mass basis. When questioned during the hearings about whether the oil industry can get the lead out within the deadline period (the experimental converters work only on nn- leaded gas) an American Petroleum Insti- tute spokesman said "No question about it." "The bill means changes, and that's what we're doing is changing," he added. Am CLEANUP WASHINGTON, February 17 (UPI) .?De- spite erovernment promises to enforce a 1975 clean-air deadline, at least 18 states have requested two-year postponements and ap- pear likely to get them. In applications made to the Environmental Protection Agency, most of the states in- volved, said that urban areas could not meet the standards without limiting downtown traffic. They indicated a reluctance to im- pose such traffic controls. a When EPA Administrator William D. Ruckelshatts announced the air quality standards April 30, he emphasized that many cities would have to curb traffic. "I don't anticipate any delay in their im- plementation," Ruckeishaus said of the standards. But in an interview yesterday, the EPA official in charge of reviewing state applica- tions said that the agency probably would forgo the deadline rather than force traffic 'restrictions that might be unpopular with commuters. "If you need traffic control you probably can get a two-year extension," said B. J. Stelgerwald, director of the EPA's stationary source pollution control program. ? "Traffic control isn't easily imposed," Steigerwaid said. He said that cities would need mass transit to replace automobiles. "You just don't install mass transit in three years," he said. Experts from the EPA and other agencies have estimated that car exhaust causes at least 50 per cent of air pollution, the most harmful concentrations being in downtown areas. Richard E. Ayres, who has studied the state plans for the Natural Resources Defense Council, a private environmental group, said that any delay in curbing urban auto pollu- tion would undermine- the entire air clean- up program. "What they're saying is that they'll meet the standards where there isn't any pollution and delay them where the problem is most severe," Ayres said. Many states said that if given until mid- 1977, the car-pollution problem largely would go away because of progressively stricter fed- eral requirements for exhaust clean-up de- vices on new cars. The first such devices were installed on 1968 models. Under the same Clean 'Air Act, which mandated the 1975 air clean-up stand- ards, 1975 model cars must cut carbon mon- oxide and hydrocarbon emission by 90 per cent, compared with 1970 models, and 1976 cars must reduce nitrogen oxide emissions 90 per cent, too. Although the law allows a one-year exten- sion of these standards if car-makers can- not meet them, and although all four U.S. car companies have requested such a delay, the EPA permitted states to. presume in drawing up their plans that the 1975 and 1976 auto deadlines would be met. - Steigerwald indicated that he was using the sante presumption in reviewing state ap- plications. "By 1977, car emission limits will allow many cities to meet the air standards," Steigerwald said. "Does it make sense for us to demand significant traffic controls by 1975 when two years later they could meet the standards without traffic controls?" However, Stei,e,,erwald said, "About 15 cities won't meet the standards even in 1077 with- out traffic controls." He did not name all the cities but said that they included New York, Chicago and Los Angeles. The law required each state to give EPA by Jan. 30 its plan for meeting limits on six air pollutants?sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. The EPA must approve or disapprove the plans by May 30. The law says the limits must be met by July 1, 1975, unless EPA grants the state a two-year extension. no one in Washington has read them all. The plans are hundreds of pages long an United Press International compiled the list of 18 states seeking extensions from EPA sources and from reporters in state capitols. Most to the 18 sought no over-all exten- sions, but rather a two-year delay in meet- ing standards for carbon monoxide and hy- drocarbons?which come mostly from cars? in urban areas. Steigerwald said that about 15 states did promise to work on some form of traffic con- trols?reduced parking space, higher bridge tolls, inspections, mandatory installation of antipollution devices on older cars?but few included them as firm parts of an enforce- ment program. GOD BLESS THE PRESIDENT ON HIS TRIP TO CHINA HON. GILBERT GUDE OF MARYLAND IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 28, 1972 Mr. GUDE. Mr. Speaker, as we prepare to welcome the President back from his'. history-making trip to China, I would like to share with my colleagues the fol- lowing letter from a constituent of Mary- land's Eighth Congressional District. I feel it is particularly noteworthy in that it is not simply a parti an, "rubber stamp" letter of support, but one which expresses the views of a thinking, re- .? sPonsible American citizen. This kind of STATIN. thoughtful letter is further evidence that there exists widespread support for Pres- ident Nixon's meetings with China's leaders, and that, truly, all the Nation's prayers have been with him on this j own ey : GOD BLESS THE PRESIDENT ON HIS TRIP TO Canna Ciaavr CHASE, MD., February 17, 1972. Hon. GILDERT GUDE, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. DEAR CONGRESSMAN GUDE: I have written many letters to you, over the years, that could be onsidered critical in the sense that they expressed my frustration about what our government has done in Vietnam. Because?the President's trip to China is a day for hope, I wish to express words of favor for the present Administration and party in power which I do support from time to time, as follows: 1. I believe the President is trying (at some risk) by this China effort to find an end to a war which in all fairness we should admit he does not bear the major responsibility for. 2. I believe he understands the domestic needs of the American economy should now have top priority over do gooding abroad, and that he will act to help to restore the world leadership we once enjoyed as the most capa- ble country in the production of goods and services, here at home. There are, of course, a lot of things hap- pening in the government which I do not agree with, political and otherwise, and I am sometimes concerned that our very form of government is under severe test. I do want the President to succeed and I want you gentlemen to succeed in the sincere efforts you are demonstrating. I choose this day of hope4to express confidence in you. Yours sincerely, JOHN W. MALLEY. CONTINUE RADIO FREE EUROPE HON. ROBERT H. STEELE OF CONNECTICUT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Monday, February 28, 1972 Mr. STEELE. Mr. Speaker, I wish to direct the attention of the Members to the following editorial from the Hartford Courant on the future of Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty. The editorial presents an incisive analysis of the cur- rent congressional struggle to keep the Radios alive and makes a telling argu- ment for continuing their vital opera- tions. The editorial follows: RADIO FREE EUROPE FACES CUTOFF It seems more than a little ironic that in this country where freedom of information and the right to know are so fervently cher- ? ished, the Congress is haggling over whether Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty should be continued or not. In some ways the hangs-up is a technical one. The House and Senate are at odds, the former being willing to finance the two sta- tions for two more years, the latter wanting to cut off funds after one year. The real stumbling block is a matter of for- eign policy, and not just whether the country Approved For Release 2001/93/04 : CIA-RDP80-01p01R001100070001-5 ??? ?1 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-0 INDIANAPOLIS, IND. STAR FEB 28 1972, -- 231,064 S - 379,299 ? To Keep Freedom Alive For nearly two decades, since the end of World War II, two radio systems based in Munich, West Germany, -financed chiefly by the United States, have daily beamed to persons behind the Iron Cur- tain .fa:ctual news of the outside world unhindered by the censorsiqip of totalitarian, Communist regimes. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have staffs ;totaling 2,600 persons, many of them refugees from Communist tyranny, who broadcast in the tongues of the listeners. Radio Free Europe beams its pro- grams mainly to audiences in Hungary, Czechoslo- vakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Poland. Radio Liberty .transmits in the various languages of the Soviet Union. That these stations have been effective in getting to oppressed peoples of the world uncensored mate- rial is demonstrated by the constant pressure that has been applied on their operations by Communist governments. West Germany has repeatedly refused, as the Communists have sougit, to revoke the sta- tion's authority to broadcast from German soil. Yet these voices of freedom and truth may be .stilled?not by Communist pressure?but by action of thd congress of the United States, more especial- ly the Senate and in particular one senator, L Wil- liam Fulbright, 'chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. "These radios should be given an opportunity , to take their rightful place in the graveyard of Cold War relics," Senator Fulbright contends. At issue is an appropriation of 536 million needed annually to keep the stations in operation.. The ap- propriation is supported by President Nixon and even by such liberal publications as the New York Times which says the broadcasts "have contributed enormously to enlarging the marketplace of ideas in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union." But Senator Fulbright argues that the administration is seeking to "keep this Cold War program on the books despite the fact that neither the American public nor the governments of Western Europe are willing to support such a continuation." . STATI NTL The senator seems to ignore some studies he him- self authorized some time ago when he asked the Library of Congress for reports on the effectiveness of both. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Per- haps those reports, prepared by knowledgeable goy- , ernment experts, were at odds with Fulbright's zeal to retire these "Cold War relics." "The reality of Radio Liberty," concluded the report on that facility, "conflicts with its popular image. It is neither a Cold War operation nor is its staff a group of cold warriors. On the countrary, Radio Liberty accepts all Soviet institutions, though not their ideology, and seeks to bring about peaceful democratic change from within." . The question that must be asked is this: If the congressional opposition results in the end of these broadcasts to Iron Curtain countries what then will the people in those nations hear? It is certain that , what they will hear is the -official" line of hard propaganda that the Communist-controlled media already bears. Ending the broadcasts would elimi- nate, as the Communists want, any possibility of dis- sent occuring because someone, who heard a voice of freedom, realized that the Communist system, .! with its harsh, unrelenting control, is net the best of all possible 1,S,orlds. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-0160 DES MOINES, IOWA REGISTER FEB 27 19-ra - 250,261 S ? 515,710 Cold War Relics The AFL-CIO Executive Council has appealed to congressional leaders to continue financing Radio Free Europe and Radio pberty. Senator J. William Fulbright; (Dem., Ark.), chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is leading opposition to further government funding of the two radio operations. He has described them as part of a "pat- tern of fraud and deceit." Radio Free Europe was set up in 1949 as a private, non-profit corporation which would beam news broadcasts be- hind the Iron Curtain. The system, with news headquarters in Munich, has 32 transmitters in West Germany and Spain. . Radio Liberty was added in 1951. Its broadcasts are directed 'exclusively to the Soviet Union, with around-the-clock programs in 17 dialects beamed from transmitters in Taiwan, Spain and West Germany. Munich also is the news head- quarters for Radio Liberty. Both radio operations were promoted in the U.S. as a voluntary, non-govern- ment effort to counter Communist propaganda about American life and. government aims. There were periodic appeals for donations to help support the broadcasts. . About a year ago, Congress learned that the broadcasts had been secretly financed with tax funds by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The Nixon Administration, however, has yet to ad- mit to Congress that the radio oper- ations were a cover for CIA activities. After the disclosure of CIA in- volvement, the White House tried to c'ounter congressional criticism with a bill setting up a tax-eicempt corporation to oversee the radio operations. The Administration proposed spending $40 million a year. ?Fulbright's committee turned it doWn. Instead, the committee agreed to fi- nance the operations for one more year . at $35 million. The Senate passed the7 measure on a voice vote in August. - In September the House Foreign Af- fairs Committee advanced a measure authorizing $74.5 million for two year while a special committee evaluated the need for continuing Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in addition to the i government-financed Voice of America ; broadcasts. That was agreeable to the House. Now the two houses must iron out thcir differences or let filo two broadcast operations die. The Voice of America maintains a world-wide programming schedule. in 36 languages. About 40 per cent of its air time is beamed to communist-governed countries. For this, the taxpayers are spending $41 niillion this year. The AFL-CIO leaders adopted a reso- lution saying, "The closing of these vital communications with the captive peo- ples of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe will be a clear sign of U.S. capitulation in the war to bring truth and courage to countless millions behind the Iron Curtain." We agree with Fulbright that truth already was compromised by the gov- ernment's attempt to disguise its propa- ganda broadcasts as a voluntary ven- ture by American citizens. Fulbright suggested that the two radio operations should "take their rightful place in the graveyard of Cold War relics." We agree. Approved For Release 2001103/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-0 IlAi? fuRD, CONN. COURANTFEB '26 IV 2 - 152,528 S ? 199,160 adio Free Europe Faces Cutoff ' It seems more than a little ironic that id this . country. where freedom of information ,and the right to know are so fervently cherished, the Con- gress is haggling over whether Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty should be continued or not In some ways, the hang-up is a technical one. The House and Senate are at odds, the forriTer, being willing to finance the two stations for two more years, the latter wanting to cut off funds after. one The real stumbling block is a matter Of foreign policy, and not just whether the country should spend $36 million annually to run the two opera. tions. If Senator Fulbright has his way, the funding will not be renewed. He salve "These radios should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place In the graveyard of cold war relics." And of course, ever since it came out that the Central Intelligence Agency had been financing Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, their names have been mud ? not only in Russia and Eastern European countries naturally, but here at home among those who think there is something villain- ous about theCIA.? Yet when Senator Fulbright asked for studies by the Library of Congress on the effectiveness of the two stations, he was set back on his heels. "The reality of Radio Liberty," the Library of Congress reported, "conflicts with its popular image. It is neither a cbld war operation, nor is its staff a group of cold warriors. On the contrary, Radio Lib- erty aceepis all Soviet institutions, though not its ideology, and' seeks to bring about a peaceful dem- ocratic change from within:" The report on Radio free Europe Was iri kind. And the truth of the matter is that the two stations for a generation now have teen broadcasting fac- tual news. ,What has aroused the ire of the Com- munist regimes is -that there are plenty of facts these governments don't want their people to know. This 'is plain enough from the rigid control exer- cised over news media in Russia and its satellite countries. - If Radietree Europe and Radio Liberty are disbanded,,. the peoples of these countries will have lost .a free press for the inflow of information that Certainly is not going to be duplicated by officially spcinsored government radios. Millions of persons have listened to news over Radio Free Europe and Radio. Liberty, which would have been completely censored by Communist governments. As has been remarked,' before Congress de- cides whether it believes these radio stations are relics of the cold .war, it might he'll to wait until after Presid,ent Nixon returns front Moscow. The cold war itself inay-nOt 'prove to be the vanished spectre some persons would have us believe. An American foreign policy substituting negotiation for confrontation is a'very nice idea but it still takes two to tango. ? , - Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 .4 ? ASTATINTL Pciy Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016 ? z6 FEB 1P7a John P. Roche A Setback For Liberty ? ONE of the most bizarre ?terrying?scenes in' Alek- sandr Splzhenitsyn's master- piece, "Zile First Circle," de- ? scrib.os a visit to a Soviet prison by a distinguished American, a woman with ? high political connections. A group of prisoners are put through a special drill put .her benefit, dressed de- cently, put in a clean cell . with an ikon, and told by the police that if they don't perform, zap! They did go through with the charade and the American visitor left with a high opinion of Soviet justice. ? What made this sort of thing possible, of course, was the total isolation from the world outside. Once . caught up in the toils of Jo- ? seph Stalin's terror appara- tus, it was every man for himself with no hope of suc- .cor, no hope that outsiders would even learn of the sit- uation. Part of Solzhenitsyn's ?Power comes from his de- scription of how some human beings resisted atom- ization and persisted in acts 'of decency. THE PREREQUISITE for running an efficient tyranny ?as Aristotle pointed out ? snore than 2,000 years ago? is to destroy this human sense of solidarity, and to convince each victim that he Is alone In the face of ever- whelming power, that no, one cares. This has become more difficult with modern techniques of ?communica- tion. It is hard to jam all. in- coming radio messages, and P versi?ns of their appro the spread o .0Atiortayskto aroRelease 2001/E/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? ?,.? .! ? 1 ' radio and of tape recorders has launched a whole new era in underground commu- nications. Through Radio Liberty and Radio Free Eu- rope the United States has for almost a generation brought to the peoples of the Soviet Union and East- ern Europe the message that they are not alone. To take but one example, a Soviet Jew signed a peti- tion attacking the appalling. Lengrad trials. Thirty years ago he would have dropped this pebble doWn a bottom- less well, but now, the next morning at 2:30, Radio ib- ? erty was on the air with the text of the petition and the names of the signatories. This man, no;' in Israel, re- calls the sense of triumph as he heard the broadcast: "They (the KGB) can take us now, but our testimony will stand in history." ? RADIO LIBERTY and Radio Free Europe have re- united these peoples with history. And in the view of Sen. J. W. Fullbright that is a capital offense. Just about the . time this column . is printed, these radio stations ?formerly subsidized by the CIA?will go broke unless emergency action is taken. Both houses of Congress have approved their contin- uation with overt funding, and there is overpowering consensus that they have done a splendid and non- provaeative job in a very delicate area, but Fulbright singlcilandedly has been blocking "a compromise be- tween House and Senate s'IsullbiTght refused to ? a meeting of the House and Senate conferees, obviously hoping that in this back- handed fashion he can qUi- etly destroy what he has called these "Cold War rel- ics." It is a clever move: If he can stall, key personnel will have to find other jobs and the expertise *built up over a generation will drib- ble away. He must not be permitted to get away with it. No one who reads this col- umn will suffer* from the il- lusion that I believe the United States is perfect, but we Americans have been fortunate. We have never had to rise at 2:30 and turn on a radio to learn that we are still members of the human race, that we we still part of history. We can not. allow Fullbright to de- prive our brothers of this priceless link with human- ity. Eine Features Syndicate 5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 :2614RDW80-01601R0 iSTATINTL DAVID LAWRENCE And Then Comes the Moscow Trip , President Nixon has had the attention of the American peo- -ple focused on him as they 'keep up with his activities in Peking while he deals with the delicate problems of develop- ing friendly relations with the government of mainland China. ? Rarely has a miss.?anef this 'type been attempted in an election year, but Nixon found It necessary to move at this time into a world situation that demands personal nego- tiation. The trip to Red China apl? pears to be a success, but in a ? few weeks the President will be taking another journey ? ;to the capital of the Soviet .Union in the middle of May. He will undoubtedly make ev- ery effort to convince the lead- ers in the Kremlin that the :United States can work with them without letting differ- :elites of viewpoint stand In the path of a "peaceful coex- istence." The problems with the Sovi- ets are different from those with which Nixon has been faced in Peking. The United States formally recognizes the Soviet government and has for years been carrying on discus- sions about possible ways to ,advance the cause of peace. ? Some of the subjects that the president will take up in Moscow have been under con- sideration for a long time. There is, for instance, at pres- ent a continuing series of talks on the limitation of stra- tegic arms, and this affects not just Russia and the United States but the entire world. If the Soviets show an indi- cation that they are ready to go ahead on a program of lim- iting or reducing . nuclear weapons, it will be a big step forward and will assure the peoples of both Europe and Asia that the chances of nu- clear war are being diminish- ed. Nixon is hopeful that the United States and the Soviet Union can enter into a new relationship one that is ded- icated to the prevention of war, particularly nuclear war. If evidehce of this determina- tion can be presented to the world convincingly, the confer- ences between Nixon and the leaders in the Kremlin will be of transcendent importance. What is lacking Way is a close relationship between the American people and the peo- ple of the Soviet Union. Cen- sorship on the Russian side prevents their communicating with. each other. Congress at the moment is considering whether it will continue to fi- nance the broadcasts in sever- al languages which are daily transmitted by Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Libefty to the people of Eastern and Central Europe and of the Soviet Un- ion. More information about the United States and its policies needs to be sent into these areas with the hope that a friendlier feeling will develop in future years. There are many ways in which the Russian people could become better known to the American people, and one of these is to permit more visi- tors to travel freely through- out the Soviet Union. An inter- change of ideas between for-. eign tourists and residents tends eventually to generate a better understanding of world affairs on both sides. There is eery reason why the . United States should en- deavor to develop a friendlier relationship with the govern- ment in Moscow and the peo- ple of the Soviet Union. If preventing wars is to be the objective and "peaceful coexistence" is to be the mot- to, President Nixon could ap- ply this doctrine at his visit with Premier Kosygin and oth- er Soviet leaders. For the American people do not want war with any nation, antl they are anxious to see nuclear weapons limited if not entirely prohibited. The current talks on strategic arms with the So- viet Union are supposed to cover such problems. President Nixon will be busy with his foreign tours almost. up to the national party con- ventions in midsummer. For when he gets home, the piles of work to be done as a result of his journeys will occupy much of his time during 1972. He will be devoting his ener- gies to the task of striving to make peace, and this is a tre- mendous job in a world with so many small nations seeking to take advantage of one an- other. The major powers will have to be the peacemakers. Actually, relations between the Soviets and the? Red Chinese have been increasing- ly hostile in recent years, and Peking fears the further ex- tension of Soviet influence into Asian countries. It would mean a great deal to Red Chi- na . to feel that it has the back- ing of the United States. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0011033070001.5 4T. WAYNE, IND. NEWS SENTINEL , , -F7e8144 1072 ; "........"-- . ? Speaking 7; Radio Free Europe is no more -"relic" of the cold war than -J. 7illiam Fulbright is a relic of the .S. Senate., ? It should be no surprise to Sen- ,tor Fultd ight that Eastern Eu- . ope is still largely occupied by ? the military torces of a foreign invader.- the Soviet Union. And being headed by captive, satrap governments; the people of East- ern Europe are subjected to state- controlled press and radio. ? ,?'All ot'which is to say, the men, *omen and children of controlled and absorbed areas must look to sources such as Radio Free Eu- rope for information on their own affairs and the reactions of the Free World to events which affect their lives and future. . . i . , - Radio Free Europe might be a relic in the sense that it is now More than 25 years old. But the need has hardly changed. The So- 'viet occupation has not been with- ;drawn. The truth still serves a. purpose. The question arose this week because Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty were running out of funds. Private sources of sup- port have never been sufficient. The U.S. government, through the C_eiltsal Intelligence Agency, has bFeri-Supporthe twon-Ch, 'r o , stations with about $36 million annually. Congress must approve tbe continuation of the support or the radio broadcasts into the cap- five countries will be limited or discontinued. of R.elics Senator Fulbright, however, said the support should be dropped. He, called the stations "relics" to those bad old days of the cold war. In Senator Ful- bright's private world, the Rus- sian armies no longer have iron knuckles at the throat of the people in Poland, Czechosolvakia, East Germany, Hungary, Bul- garia, Latvia, Lithuania and Es- tonia. ? Just how much information the people of those countries gain from Radio Free Europe is diffi- cult to judge. The Soviet dictators and their Quislings do not allow the likes of George Gallup to roam around taking polls in most places. It is certain, however, that some people do listen to the radio broadcasts and find them useful. This has been reportea by both. travelers and the many who have migrated west. To those who still daily risk their lives to escape a prison existence, the cold war is no relic. ? ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty may not be perfect, but they are among the few media to combat the endless propaganda of the controlled press of Eastern Europe. It is hoped that Congress: will vote the rather modest sum to continue the broadcasts. One can agree with Senator Fulbright that there are those rel- ics which should be retired. But that is a matter for the voters of t Arkansas to decide. j Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-IRDP80-01601R001100070001-5 - 24 FEB 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDsF'18Ril1Q1R The Siege of Raclili Free Europe Sen: J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) made a laud- able, highly pertinent speech a few years ago urg- ing the American people to outgrow the cliches of the cold war?to distinguish between "old myths and new realities." It was good advice. Unfortunately, in his efforts to kill off Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the influential chair- man of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee is ? showing a certain confusion between myth and reality himself. For more than 20 years Radio Free Europe has been broadcasting to .the Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Its smaller sister operation, Radio Liberty, broadcasts to the Soviet Union in Russian and 16 other languages. In hours of broadcasting to These areas,. the two Munich-based stations are far more active than the Voice of America. ? Now Fulbright wants to kill off RFE and Radio Liberty by blocking congressional authorization for the current fiscal year. Failing in that, he fa- vors a Senate-passed bill which would extend the life of the stations only through June. We strongly urge, instead, that Senate conferees accept a House-passed bill which would authorize operations for two more years. During those two years, a 'study would be made to determine if the broadcasting operation should be continued?and if so, under what arrangement. Fulbright argues that RFE and Radio Liberty are "relics of the cold war" which have outlived their .usefulness in a day when the emphasis is on East-West efforts at detente. In this he is mistak- en. There was a time, prior to the 1956 uprising in Hungary, when the Munich-based stations indeed exhibited a cold, war obsession. Nowadays, howev- er, it is recognized that the Communist govern-- ments won't be overthrown by force. Any improve- ment must come about thi?ough the slow process of internal liberalization. And to the degree that such liberalization occurs, there is a hope .that Commu- nist foreign policy will mellow, too. . RFE and Radio Liberty encourage the liberaliza- tion process by publicizing the doings and writings of dissident intellectuals and others in the Commu- nist countries whose opinions would otherwise re- main smothered by censorship. Shutting down RFE. and Radio Liberty would make Communist hard-liners?those who oppose both detente with the West and internal liberaliza- tion?very happy. But it would be a discouraging development, indeed, to those who are striving, in the Czech phrase, the communism with a human face. It may be, of course, that substantial changes are needed in the way the stations are financed and managed. Direct European 'participation, for ex- ample, is long overdue. And certainly government support in the future should be open, rather than half-hidden as it. was in the past. But these are matters which should properly be explored in. the study called for in the pending House bill. , Approved For Release 2001/03/04,: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 49a7. 1.174C.EILTZ :17 *ZS STATINTL Approved For Release 20CEFAIF1t0.3/u4 :1972 tAA-RDP80-01601 , Fulbrighes About Face on Radio Free urope MUNICH?If historians are kind, Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) will .be honored as a powerful and effective advocate of better under- standing among diverse peoples. The bitter great and small power ri- valries of the post-World War II era have, at the very best, been amelio- rated by the Fulbright Program, the greatest government-sponsored ex- change of knowledge between citi- zens of different nations in all histo- ry.. . ? By the hundreds of thousands, Ameriean and foreign students have benefited from opportunities to learn more about other cultures Pro- vided by Fulbright's vision, it is cer- tain that the majority of Falbright Scholars would not have enjoyed such opportunities if they had to pay for themselves. It is impossible to state specifically how the great mass of humanity, the -cause of world peace or the interest of the United States have benefited. None- theless, the senator felt with total justification that even the possibili- ty of better underStanding? among peoples by exchange of information was worth whatever the cost. historians will. however, -require great understanding and forbear- ancesif they are to give Fulbright the credit he amply. deserves?and to reconcile the old, liberal Ful- bright with the pew, reactionary Fulbright. The junior senator from Arkansas is currently engaged in a one-man campaign to suppress two of the chief sources which provide the peoples of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe with nonofficial in- ? formation and curb bureaucratic 'tendencies toward .suppression. Against ?the consensns of Congress and in defiance of the conclusions of searching investigations. he himself ? sponsored,' Fulbright is determined to destroy Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. Fulbright's vendetta, marked by a vitriolic denunciation last week, is difficult to understand. It contra- venes his previously stated ideals. it contradicts his cOnstantly expressed desire for better relations between East and West?and a real, rather. BY ROBERT S. ELEGANT At best, one can conclude that Fulbright is badly informed. But, most distressingly, his rejection of the findings of two Library of Con- gress investigating teams indica tes that he may not wish to be better in- formed. Those teams heartily recom- mended keeping the stations alive. ? Both Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe were created as weap- ons of the?cold war, and both were largely financed through the Central Isst7e1ligence Agency. But,' as the senator knows, the passage of time alters all human institutions. pav- ing moved with the times, the two :\lunich-based radio stations now play a role quite different from their original function. Rather than ihtensifing, international tension, they encourage liberalizafion and stimulate internal dialogs in the So- viet Union and Eastern Europe. - In Romania. where a new cam- paign of intellectual repression is under way, I recently found that R.:- dio Free Europe broadcasts ---ws the ordinary citizen's chief source of nongovernmentI Information. Ro- manians learn not only, of develop- ments abroad, but even of internal events?cultural as well as political ?from Radio Free Europe. Even Soviet diplomats comment privately on their- content. In Poland at the end of 1970, ship- yard workers revolted and violence spread to students and other groups. Radio Free Europe monitors picked up reports from faint local stations' ?and lin; gave the news not- only to the outside world, but to. Poland as well. Absolute proof is, naturally, impossible, but there is general agreement among divergent politi- cal views that Radio Free Europe helped prevent a bloodbath and en- couraged formation of the present, liberalized 1?,"arsaw - regime. Free .availability of- information can, as the senator says speaking of the _United States, produce great bene- fits.- Fuibright has charged that the two stations' programs impede East, West relaxation and interfere with henUerl huag.i.? than mere1A 015PralgtIVIibric?1481easne%hb61./0,51110--,:dclArrifa80-01601R001100070001,5 Sos;iet. Union?Lor any power?will be moved to make concessions if its negotiating partner offers unilateral concessions like abolishing Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. But his own experience in the Senate must have taught him that success- ful negotiation results from mutual concessions, Even with the best of will, one-sided .concessions are likely to produce not reciprocal conces- sions, -but the demand for further concessions. It would be tedious to cite all the misconceptions Fulbright has ex- pressed. One wonders, for example, why he is now so insistent upon strictly government-to-government contacts while he was formerly the apostle of people-to-people contact. But one further argument absolute- ly- demands comment. ? Why, asks Fulbright, are- our Western European allies not inter- ested in helping to finance the two stations? The answer is twofold. In the first place. no government?or individual ?will offer to pay for something he gets for nothing. fit the second place, a committee of influential Western Europeans. alarmed by Fulbright's vendettzt. is now, talking seriously and concretely of contributing to the support of the stations. In Germany, the. authoritatiVe - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung re- ported flatly that the Social-Demo- cratic administration disagreed with Fulbright's assertions. Chancellor Willy Brandt's ostpolitik is spear-- heading efforts to improve East- West relations. But Bonn feels, the newspaper declared, that the sta- tions are not an obstacle to relaxa- tion of international tension?and are by no means "superfluous." In Belgium, Joseph L u n s, for mer Dutch foreign minister and preSent secretary-general of NATO. last week expressed the grayest concern regarding growing suppression of information in the Soviet Union and Eastern 'Europe. Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe challenge that trend toward increasingly suppres- sive and obdurate regimes. ? cold war. .? . so naive that he truly. believes the- .. . ST. LOUIS GLOM-DEMOCRAT IME=Approved For Release 2861TO/W-CIA-RDP80-01601 R GAGGING RADIO FREE EUROPE ,Broadcasts of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which for years have been beaming news and analysis of world issues behind the Iron Curtain, are in acute danger of being si- lenced. Bills of the Senate and House for federal sub- sidy - of between $35 million and $38 million have been arbitrarily bottled up in conference committee. For two decades Moscow's jamming has failed to stop the programs, which send free world facts and interpretation of political, eco- nomic and social problems into Russia and Eastern Europe. 'Now one senator .and a few misguided con- freres threaten to destroy these patently valua- ble broadcasts. The congressional jammer is J. William Fulbright, who denigrates the programs as "a relic of the cold war." This is familiar, standard conduct for Fulbright in almost ev- ery matter that tends to be against the Sovi- et propaganda line. ,The senator has used his weight as chairman Of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, as well as devious maneuvering, to block adoption of the Administration's request for funds to continue these two radio stations. ' He declared yesterday the Senate would ac- cept the House bill ? for permanent opera- tion of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty "over my dead body." . Fulbright is willing to continue the two sta- tions through June 30. No longer. He said in a Senate speech last week these broadc as t s l'should be liquidated." * * ? It would be tragic and a body blow to demo- cratic processes, if the Arkansas senator were to succeed in his plan to destroy two of the prime outlets informing peoples behind the Cur- tain. Congressional sentiment is overwhelmingly for retaining the radio systems. But so far Ful- bright, marplot of so many United States for- eign policies, has effectively blocked the subsi- dy legislation. Two key Senators can have a significant in- fluence on whether Senator Fulbright succeeds. One is Democratic Sen. Frank Church of Ida- ho, who opposes RFE but supports Radio Lib- erty, which has had a great deal to say in be- half of Soviet Jews. The other is Missouri Sen. Stuart Symington., Senator Symington has tended to agree with Fulbright in many policy areas. He is reported to "have an open mind" on the ra- dio issue. The Globe-DemoCrat strongly urges Stuart Symington to use his considerable influence to support continuation of both Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty on a permanent basis, with State Department support through federal funds. Failure to break the Fulbright jam in the conference committee would be a serious error in American policy, and a dismal blackout for millions in the USSR and its satellite European states ? people whose only knowledge of what. goes on ? in the world, especially in America, comes through these channels to which they tune surreptitiously but with eager. regularity. * * For years these two radio stations were sup- posedly supported by wide public donation. Ac- tually they were largely financed by the CIA's federal funds. This was a mistake, though the fact has been widely known since 1967. Now the Administration has asked open government subsidy. Both radio programs have done a good job in telling the United States story to people who could never krow it otherwise. The Li- brary of Congress was asked to study the two radio operations and reported, back Jan. 26 with warm praise and recommendation for continued federal financing. These reports have been largely seques- tered, apparently by Fulbright, from other members of the conference committee. Congressional authorization under which the radios operate formally expired on Tuesday. It is understood RFE and RL have sufficient funds to continue another week or two. After that, unless the jam created by Senator Fulbright is broken, they will have no alterna- tive but to stop. Thi g would be a graye misfortune for Ameri- can diplomacy. It would be against public con- -sensus and apparently the majority of ? Con- gress. It is possible that vigorous support by Sena- tor Symington can break the bottleneck and preserve Radio Free Europe and Radio Liber- ty. This would be an act of competent judg- .ment and statesmanship. . STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0011000700015 Approved For Release p01/,9153pa4 ALA-RDP80-01601R001 POST?DISPATCH E 326,376 - 541,868 FEB 24 t97 --- Crumbling Towers Of Babel Having failed to obtain a congressional ap- propriation for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the State Department apparently is , taking its. case to the people. r Words like "freedom" and "liberty" arouse emotions and the Executive Branch is quite capable of using them to get what cannot be had through a logical discourse. But we suspect there is little chance of success because this time at least Congress probably reflects popu- lar sentiment regarding taxpayer-financed radio stations beaming propavula to East Europe and the Soviet Union. What's. more, the sta- tions are simply incompatible with President Nixon's declared goal of bringing about "an era of negotiations." Senator Fulbright was correct when he called RFE and RL relics of the cold war. Still, John N. ,Irwin II, the Acting Secretary of State, claims that the propaganda outlets ; "are a most useful enterprise . . . . bringing to individual citizens a responsible and real- istic account of developments within their own spcieties and the world at large from an inde- pendent outside source." The trouble is that the "outside source" is ?not independent, nor does it bring "a responsible and realistic ac- count of developments." Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty perform functions which do not lend themselves to handling by the Voice of America, the formal instrument of the State Department for propagating the American view- point. In other words, the two other U.S. Gov- ernment-operated stations do dirty work. A few years ago the two?gitions distin- guished themselves not by informing people In the "chained" world but by deeiving the American public. Omnipresent commercials i 1 ? urged private donations for "private" stations:! Presidents Eisenhower, kemiedy and Johnson made annual appeals for donations without any . allusion to the fact that the stations were ac- tually financed principally by the Central In- telligence Agency. The CIA reportedly spent half a billion dol- ?, lars oTti5e stations until last summer when Congress approved an interim financing meas- ure. The funding has now.. expired. No more public 1\money should be used to keep these r relics rtificially alive: If Congress can find any exc ss money, it should go for multi-lateral foreign aid projects. - . Approved For Release-2001-105104 : CIA4RDP80-01601R'001100070001-5 --zSTATINTL Will:GI:01: POST Approved For Release 2001 ibalra B daRDP80-01601R -congressional Report 'RFE, Radio Liberty Split Hill Groups House-Senate conferees broke up in complete disagree- ment yesterday on legislation to continue the life of Radio Vree Europe and Radio Lib- 'pity, two U.S.-financed sta- tions which beam programs Into Eastern Europe from Munich. "The patient looks awful, 'awful sick," said Sen. George D. Aiken (R-Vt.) after the con- ference broke '.up without agreeing to meet again. ? Formerly financed covertly by the CIA, the two stations have recently been operating with emergency funds pro- vided by Congress, but these expired Feb. 22. Senate conferees want to au- thorize continuation of the sta- tions only through June 30, with the State Department re- quired to make a case for any- thing beyond that. House con- ferees are holding out for an authorization to carry the sta- tions through June 30, 1973. Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman J. W. Fulbright (D-Ark.) has made plain he'd be just as glad to see the stations die. He re- gards them as a useless ir- ritant to East-West relations. Arrogance Claimed Reil. Peter J. Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.) said he hoped for an- other emergency financing resolution to bypass Fulbright. "I've heard of the arrogance of power we saw misused -today," he said. "We were told ,to accept the Senate proposal to continue for lour months or there'd be no program at all." *. The House, in a belated at- tempt to keep 'em down on the farm, approved rural de- velopment programs yesterday that could cost hundreds of millions of dollars. Funds would be lent and granted to small towns, com- munities, non-profit and busi- ness groups and, in some cases, individuals for job-building ventures aimed at halting the flow of ex-farm workers to big city slums. Authorizing legislation was passed by voice vote and sent to the Senate, where hearings have been held on a similar bill. The bill would authorize ap- propriations up to $580 mil- lion a year for federal grants to build water and sewer sys- tems, control pollution, and plan industrial development in rural areas. Fulbright srAl the stations, In the absence of conference agreement, now had no au- thority to conilnue in exist- ence and a start of liquidation should begin. The Senate formally re- moved ailing Sen. Karl Mundt (R-S.D.) from his committee assignments and named two senators fighting for re- election to the vacated posts. Routinely and by voice vote, with no audible dissent, the Senate unseated Mundt awl named Charles N. Percy (R-I11.) to the Foreign Rela- tions Committee and Mark 0. Hatfield (R-Ore.) to the Appro- priations Committee. Sen. Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) was given Percy's &eat on Ap- propriations. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001103/04.: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001.-5 CMISTIP SCICE MOITITPR Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ? CJA-RDP80-01601 23 FEB 191Z ? STATINTL -Fullbright reaches to swite By Lucia Mouat Staff correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor . Washington congress, which frequently complains about its limited powers, is on the verge of exercising those it has?to cut off this coun- try's 20-year-old major communications Hi* with the people of Eastern Europe. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, beamed to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively, have been hanging on by the thread of congressional emergency funding since fiscal 1972 began last summer. This week those funds ran dry. . Although both houses of Congress have passed authorization bills, a conference to resolve the differences has not yet been scheduled. ?Sen. William J. Fulbright (D) of Arkansas, who time and again has urged that the radios be relegated to the "graveyard of cold-war relics" explains that Thomas E. Morgan (D) of Pennsylvania, chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee has been out of town. Others aver that Senator Fulbright, chief foe of continued operation of the radios,'is encouraging a filibuster of sorts for the specific purpose of letting the ?funds run dry. One conference that was held Jan. 26 ended abortively. 'No foot dragging' A House Foreign Affairs. Committee aide, who says Representative Morgan was in Washington last Wednesday and Thursday, says, "We're not dragging our feet?the House has been ready and anxious to go to conference any time Senator Fulbright (one of the five Senate conferees) says he would go." The State Department Tuesday issued an unusually lengthy supportive statement on the radios' behalf. Acting Secretary of State John N. Irwin said, "Their demise would be a great loss." During Questioning, Richard Davies, dep- uty assistant secretary for Europe, respond- ed to a question on radios effects on detente by saving. "We've never seen any indica- tion that international radio broadcasting has hampered that development." Senator Fulbright, who as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, wields considerable influence over his colleagues, argues that the radios are propagandistic tools that have no place in a period of East- West d?nte. Radio defenders, including the nation's .major newspapers, counter that the two operations have evolved away from propa- ganda toward more sophisticated, accurate reporting of the news inside those countries where broadcasts are heard. Library of Con- gress studies, requested by the Senate For- eign Relations Committee and given little public circulation, attest to the change. They say Radio Liberty, for instance, is neither "a cold-war operation nor is its staff a group of cold warriors." Specialties discussed Unlike the Voice of America, which fea- tures only United States news and, because of its direct government control, with a de- cidedly favorable slant, the radios specialize in news and commentary on East European developments that listeners, with only cen- sored material at their fingertips. might not otherwise know about. While Nikita S. Khrushchev's death, for instance, was not reported on Radio Moscow for close to 48 hours after the event, Radio Liberty had a documentary on the air within hours. The audience is large-55 million for Radio Free Europe alone?and program. jamming con- tinues vigorously. In the view of the Radio Liberty spokes- man, the major flaw in Senator Fulbright's argument on d?nte is the assumption that the future of East-West relations will be decided by the governments involved inde- pendently of public-opinion pressures on them. Not so, he says. While it may appear logical that since both branches of Congress have passed au- thorization bills, a conference to find median ground should be held, some argue if the radios are to be killed anyway at some point, perhaps now is as good a moment as any. The Senate bill, less generous than the house two-year authorization, ? ensures sur- vival only until June 30, when fiscal 1972 comes to a close. At that point the Senate would have to come to grips with the whole issue once again. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 ROS11bORIO01 -5 MIAMI, FLA. SEWS FEB 2 3 1972 B - 93,538 7 Sylvan Meyer 'Freedom radio' victim of changing We, the people of the U.S.A., are '; undoing a lot of programs in foreign relations formerly considered bu'.;t to the system. ? Red China, now known as the Peo- ple's Republic of China (PRO), is by ? President Nixon's Peking pronounce- ment no longer expansionist in its ,revolutionary ideals. For years our country has felt that the PRC spon- sored and funded enclaves of subver- sives in dozens of African and Latin nations. ? If the PRC no longer follows an ? imperialist course, then of course the old domino theory lacks validity. India, Japan and Indonesia, not to mention Thailand, Malaysia and the rest are safe. At least from the Chi- nese. India isn't peace-loving anymore. It is militarist. The military dictator- ? . thip of Pakistan, now bereft of its ? eastern dominion, is peace-loving or at least temporarily too preoccupied to worry about military ambitions. And now Congress is considering stopping fundt for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the powerful sta- tions that fought the cold war by drumming U.S. views ? outside the policy confines of the U.S. LA. and the Voice of America- ? deep behind the Iron Curtain. Freedom radio stations irritated the Russians, Bulgarians, Czechs and East Germans no end. They broadcast mighty signals to jam western mes- sages. Nevertheless, starved for infor- mation from the outside, their people listened. The youth of Communist na- tions learned of rock and roll, the Jef- ferson Airplane and so forth from freedom radio, all subsidized by the/ CIA. ? ' These stations represented what some Americans thought to be ideo- logical warfare, ideas vs. ideas. Our ideas are better, of course, but we could never be sure just how these stations were phrasing American po- litical conceptions. Fortner Vice President Hubert Humphrey, visiting Miami, is of a mind to let the stations expire. "Other countries thought we were interfering with their affairs," he said. "But if the stations just broadcast straight news, the information would be valuable to neorie denied complete news in their own media." It is a puzzlement. Should we go from something questionable in value to us to nothing at all, or try a differ- ent tack without propagandizing other peoples? Would the CIA then pay for a straight news station? Isn't ? foreign policies the Voice of America supposed to be disseminating reasonably dependable news reports, even when the news makes Uncle Sam appear a little shab- by? One thing hasn't changed, though our policy makers never banked on the principle to. begin with: the real conflict among men does involve ideas, life principles, economic and re- ligious theories. We never truly un- derstood this In Vietnam and that's why we've fallen on our collective faces. Bullets alone don't convince people democracy can work for their well being. Neither should we peddle philoso- phies through any agency ever con- nected with or funded by the CIA be- cause who would believe, even in America, in the integrity and purity of a news outlet dependent upon a secret security agency's support? Perhaps we are coming out of a long night a myth and superstition in foreign relations. Perhaps we are merely changing our dream scenarios. There is no indication in military bud- geting that an -era of good feeling is upon us. Dismantling a couple of radio stations might be the only tangi- ble sign we'll have for a while. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 p4ILY Kom.D Approved For Release 2d1f0017CIA-RDP80-01601 ? . STATINTL Samizdat, Ileany and the STAT I NTL During the past couple of years the capitalist press, especially the New York Times, has reported how Soviet poets, writers, and scientists have resorted to "samizdat" to get their words to the world. Via "samizdat" ? self-publishing ? the beleaguered intellectuals, through typewritten carbon copies, mimeo- graph, hectograph or other primitive publishing means, have bared their tortured souls, and have appealed to the conscience of the world for support, or so the Times .claimed. ? We now have the Library of Congress to thank for re- moving the-Veil from "samizdat." Dr. Joseph G. Whelan, head of the Library of Con- gress' anti-Soviet operations, revealed last week that the "samizdat" business is a CIA operation. The Library of Congress has been an'unlikely source for truth about The socialist world, devoted as it is to anti- Sovietism. . ' However, when Senator William Fulbright, chairman , of the Foreign Relations Committee, demanded that the U.S. quit funding Radio Liberty, a CIA operation in Munich, West Germany, Whelan complained that this would end the means of distributing "samizdat" in the Soviet Union. This '?movement will unquestionably re- ceive a serious setback," Whelan said. . The alleged cry for freedom from "SOviet intel- lectuals" is thus revealed to be, as long suspected, just a fink CIA operation. ? ? ? It shares this distinction with Radio Free -Europe, Radio Liberty, and the Assembly for Captive European Nations. ' . ? ? ? All have been fed out of the U.S. Treasury to incite? subversion and rebellion against.socialism. George Meany's complaint last weekend that the ACEN's $250,000 a year payoff has been ended is one more token of the fact that his heart belongs to the CIA, as does his"foreign secretary," Jay Lovestone. Meany's spiritual and other relations to the CIA are of long standing. His opposition to the Soviet Union and- socialism reflects his devotion to U.S. imperialism. That devotion accounts for his unconscionable support of the ravaging of Indochina by the U.S. Meany's devotion to U.S. imperiaiism is betrayal of the most elementiry interests of the U.S. workers, is enmity to the national liberation movement throughout the world. . ? Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ApfldMeIe 2901/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R INQU R - 463,563 $ 867,810 FED 2 2 1972 Kee STATI NTL 'Free Voices Speaking Unless the unexpected happens, Congress ' today will let Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty die- of lack of funds. We believe that such an eventuality would be a painful and un- ? thinking blow against the dissemination of ideas and fact ? and against the human aspirations of millions .of Eastern Europeans and Russians. ' The fiscal crisis is the product of a fit of ex- cessive enthusiasm aboil-, -the spirit of detente with clmmunism and legislative manipulation largely deriving from the legislative-executive tug-of-war ? and of peace. '- The price tag is $36 million a year. Appropri- ation bills have been passed by -both the House and the 'Senate. The measures differ substan- tially; among other things, the Senate version is :for a one-year program and the House's is for two years. No conference is scheduled, and a temporary Continuation of funding runs out to- night. , Without new funds, both organizations report, they will have to disband within no more than two weeks. The most effective enemy of the new funding effort has been Sen. J. William Fulbright, whose opposition was succinctly defined in a speech to the Senate last week: "These radios. should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold war rel- ics." Much of the popular support enjoyed by Sena- tor Fulbright and others who share his distaste for the programs comes from the appalling fis- cal history of the operations. Slightly more than a year ago, Sen. Clifford P. Case divulged that the preponderence of the radios' expenses for their more than 20-year history had been sup- plied ? covertly by the Central Tioualligence Agacd1e the American people and Con- gress had been left with the impression that pri- vate contributions had been carrying the bur- ? den. , ? The Nixon Administration backs a new pro- , %. gram, incorporated in the House-passed bill, which would set up and fund a non-profit organ- izaion independent of the government. Much of the virtue of the stations' effectiveness has been in the fact that their programinirig has not been tied to official American foreign policy, a de- tachment which the House proposal would keep alive. Senator Fulbright managed to limit .the Senate's bill to a one-year appropriation which would put the stations under the control of the Secretary of State ? thus involving them di- rectly in policy. For all the unforgivable impropriety and du- plicity of the now-known CIA front operation, the stations have served, we believe, an enor- mously important role. Both are headquartered in Munich. RFE. broadcasts in native languages to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania, and has a staff of about 1,600. Radio Liberty, with a staff of about 1,C00, broadcasts in Rus- sian and other languages used in the Soviet Union. 4 In? the aftermath of Senator Case's disclosure, ? Senator Fulbright asked scholars of the Library of Congress to evaluate the programs. To his surprise, the reports.were highly favorable; the Senator refused to release them. But a few days ago, the Radio Liberty report, by the Library's Soviet and Eastern Europe ex- pert, Dr. Joseph G. Whelan, was 'published in the New York Times. In part, Dr. Whelan's study said: "The reality of Radio Liberty conflicts with its popular image. It is neither a cold war operation nor is its staff a group.of cold warriors. On the con- ? trary, Radio Liberty accepts all Soviet institu- tions, though not its ideolgy, and seeks to bring about peaceful democratic change from within." In contrast to the impression which Senator ? Fulbright and other opponents seek to give, we believe the effect of 'such communication is to reduce the rigid polarization of people and poli- cies in the Free World and the Soviet bloc. - -Gradually, but significantly, we have seen evi- dence that awareness of the ideas of the outside world has encouraged intellectuals and others in communist countries to press, sometimes with startling effectiveness, for liberalization and re- form. ? ' To send the major conduit of these ideas to Senator Fulbright's "graveyard" for the sake Approved For Release 2001/03/04: OV4IIRDP8OzOISOPPR100111?09970001 ? Inertia ? would be a sad and inexcusable act of resignation. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0011 11 SYRACUSE, .4jy.4-i 1.? HERALD?JOURNAL, E ? 129,656 HERALD?AMERICAN S 251,094, Fq? Voices silenced ? Dr. Joseph G. Whelan, a Li- brary of Congress specialist in So- Viet and East European affairs, re- forted to the Senate's Foreign Re- ations Committee that the reality pf Radio Liberty, threatened with extinction, "conflicts with its popu- lar image." ? He advised the committee and the Congress: ?; "It is neither a cold war opera- ? tion nor is its staff a group of cold Warriors. On the contrary, Radio Liberty accepts all Soviet institu- tions, though not its ideology, and seeks to bring about peaceful dem- ocratic change from within. L "The professionalism of the piaff is apparent in the quality of their product, their multilingual fa- ; ally, the unique combination of American and western scholarship With the native talents of former 'Soviet citizens, and finally the ex- istence of an organizational spirit that seems to arise from a convic- ? tion of participating in creating positive change in the Soviet Un- 19n." Another Library of Congress re- searcher, James R. Price, ex- pressed similar conclusions to the pmmittee and the Congress in his report on Radio Free Europe which broadcastiToia-, Czechoslo- t STATINTL vakia, Hungary, Poland and Ru- mania. Because Sen. J. W. Fulbright, Arkansas Democrat, wants to sub- stitute his foreign policy for that of , the Department of State, both sta- tions are teetering on the edge of , dismemberment. He has been blocking a House- Senate agreement for current fund- . ing and has been maneuvering to eliminate funding for the upcoming fiscal year. The chairman of the foreign pol- icy committee had hoped the Li- brary of Congress reports would support his own bias. Instead, the researchers gave the two stations, funded covertly by the CIA in pre- vious years, not only an irra relfort but an A for effectiveness. For example, Dr. Whelan said silencing Radio Liberty would dry up an outlet for the underground writers in the Soviet Union and tune out a wave length that provid- ed Soviet citizens with a "free press." "The liberalizing movement," he wrote, "will unquestionably re- ceive a serious setback." Sen. Fulbright, who asserted these "relics of the cold war" t, should be discarded, hasn't been listening to his own sho4 wave re- ceiver lately to cheek on what . American listeners can hear. The Senate's foreign policy com- mittee should be relieved of legisla- tive responsibility for these stations to avoid dismantling their carefully organized staffs. Then funds should be voted for fiscal 1972 too. The , stations are more in tune with the realities of the world than , the senator. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 t7ASI-III.X=TC:7 "'CST Approved For Release 2001/1,:ughpaYERDP80-016 STATINTL Radio Free Europe Still Has a Part to Play When American public?or political?opinion swings, it tends to swing hard, and this is likely to be more and more of a problem for the Nixon Administration as it trumpets its "breakthrough" in Peking this week and, presumably, further suc- cesses in Moscow in May. No Matter what the true measure of the rapprochement achieved in either Communist capital, there will be a tendency on the part of some to exploit a "new era" in world re- lationships as a reason for scuttling anything and everything that smacks of the dark, old Cold War days. A case in point is the effort now being con- ducted in the Senate, largely by Senator Fulbright, to choke off appropriations for Radio Free Eu- rope and Radio Liberty, which beam broadcasts into Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, respectively, with the help of government funds. The CIA used to finance these broadcasts covertly and after this was brought inescapably to light two years ago, the government took over the burden openly, but on a temporary basis while debate continued about whether these operations should be continued, and In what form. With the question still unsettled, a continuing resolution authorizing temporary funding of RFE and RL expires today and the money will run out In a few weeks. This is just what Senator Fulbright thinks should happen, his point being that every- thing is changing, 'what with Mr. Nixon's new ap- proaches and new evidence of conciliation in China ? and the Soviet Union, and that therefore RFE and. RL should "take their rightful place in the grave- yard of Cold War relics." The Senator would have is believe, on the basis of White House briefings he has received about the President's policy, that broadcasts of this sort behind the Iron Curtain are contrary to the President's purposes in Peking and Moscow. The President, however, has not only never said as much, but has actually expressed quite the oppo- site view; in a recent letter to Mr.,Stewart Cort, the chairman of a fund which seeks to raise private money to supplement RFE operations, Mr. Nixon said he thinks the free flow of information is "in- dispensable" to more. normal relations between East and West. Given the nature of the service per- formed by RFE and RL, it would seem to us that their programs fit the President's definition of what is still needed in Europe, for all the bright hopes of easing tensions and developing detente. For these are not provocative, propagandistic diatribes and still less do they "sell" America, U.S.I.A.-style. Rather, what both stations attempt to do is tell the people of Eastern Europe and Russia news about themselves and their own countries which their governments don't want them to hear. They do this job professionally, responsibly, and effectively, by almost all accounts, and the only real question for Congress, in our view, is how RFE and RL should be set up in a more permanent way so that they can go on doing it. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 !UM 1:C2V;. Tir 123. Approved For Release 2001/0SQ4REGIMIDP80-0160111.1IIIIIIIIIIII Saving Free Voices' For a generation now, Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty have contributed enormously to enlarging the market place of ideas in Eastern Europe and the Soviet TheiCtransmissions have made available to those countries factual news of the outside World that the governments involved would have preferred their 'sub- jects did not know. In addition, these stations have broad- Cast the writings of such dissidents as Nobel Prize-winner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, whose masterly novels and sto- ries are prohibited in the Soviet bloc. A Library of Con- gress study of these stations, made at the request of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has paid high trib- ute to these organizations' contributions toward liberal- ization of the Soviet world. , But now both these stations are threatened with extinc- tion tomorrow unless House and Senate conferees end a Congressional stalemate. This situation arose because each chamber voted a different bill authorizing the con- tinuation of these broadcasts. If the deadlock kills Radio Free Europe and Radio :Liberty, the chief gainers will be the Soviet bloc's hard- liners who hate the two radio stations as allies of the liberal and progressive elements in the Communist world. Moreover, the demise of these broadcasts because of the inability of House and Senate conferees to agree would hardly project a flattering view of the American legisla- tive system, nor would it add to American prestige for Europeans to see an important political question decided by a mere technic'al stratagem. We believe the work of these two stations has a lasting validity and importance, but even those of a different view must realize that the existence of these organiza- tions provides potential bargaining counters for President ,?Nixon's Moscow visit next May. At the least, all con- cerned should be able to agree that a final decision on the future of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty can- not be made until Mr. Nixon has returned from the Krem- lin, and Congress can take a hard look at the post-Moscow '.situation of. American foreign policy. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP89-01601R001100070001'-5 17.r,,W !COX Approved For Release 2001/02/04FECIIODP80-01 . ? FiliillING NEAR un barboleadeinasf the rhme atceonnatlr, ')Inleodt aciloarn11.- 11 munist media, the Soviet Union m and its allies have long sought to still them. They are both based in Munich and the Com-, munist governments have put pressure on West Germany to revoke their authority to oper- ate, a move up to now resisted by Bonn. The C.I.A. financing for the stations ? about $36-million yearly?came to an end last year after Senator Clifford P. ? Case, Republican of New Jer- sey, disclosed the extent of t secret fuf.ling. The Nixon Administration, seeking to keep the organiza- tions alive through direct Con- gressional funding sought a bill to set up a nonprofit organiza- tion independent of the Govern- ment to oversee their operation But Mr. Fulbright was able see their operation. But Mr. Fulbright was able to get the Senate to pass a measure that would finance the stations through the Secretary of State for only one year. The State Department, arguing that the radios should be "independ- ent" of the Administration backed a House bill that would provide funds for two years and establish a two-year study' group. The differing House and Sen- ate measures must be ironed out in conference but only one has been held and none is scheduled before Tuesday's ex- piration. Mr. Fulbright has been ac- cused of trying to "filibuster" the stations to death by delay- ing conference action. But his staff denied this yesterday, saying that Representative Thomas E. Morgan, Democrat ? of Pennsylvania, the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, was out of town last. week. Scott Is 'Disturbed' Nevertheless, Senator Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania, the Re- publican leader, said Friday that he was "disturbed" that the Senate conferees had not met although "I understand the House has been ready to meet." He said the Administration was "most concerned" that the stations be allowed to continue. Spokesmen for the Adminis- tration have said that Presi- dent Nixon was personally con- cerned, but he has not spoken Reteds6 20019,0810- AlfilE9 AT RED BLOC Cutoff Tomorrow for Radio Free Europe and 2d Outlet Unless Congress Acts . By BERNARD GArERTZMAN Special to The New York Tlmes . WASHINGTON, Feb. 20?Ra- dio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the American-run sta- tions born of the cold war and ' secretly financed for more than 'j 20 years by the Central Intern- '.20 Agency, will lose their ? Government funding Tuesday and are struggling desperately to stay alive. IIf Senator J. V.T. Fulbright, . Democrat of Arkansas, has his !way, the funding will not be :renewed. : "These radios should be given an opportunity to take their rightful place in the graveyard of cold war relics," Mr. Ful- bright,-the chairman, of the For- , eign Relations Committee, told the Senate on Thursday. Future Seems Bleak But even if a compromise is reached in Congress to provide additional funds at least through the end of the current. fiscal year, which ends June 30, the future of the organizations seems bleak, even to their most ardent supporters. Through the years the C.I.A provided about a half billion dollars to the two stations, which broadcast to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Radio Free Europe, with 1,600 employes, was founded in 1930. It broadcasts in native languages to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania. Radio Liberty, with about 1,000 employes, was founded in 1951, and ? broadcasts to the Soviet Union in Russian. and other So- viet languages. , I Nonprofit Operation Sought 1 Because.. 11-igif&tbef - STATI NTL ? cult to generate enthusia appropriations of $36-million annually in an era when the focus is on negotiation and not dispute with the Russians. Ex- cept for Mr. Scott, few Senators have spoken in favor of the stations. ? Senator Fulbright said that the Administration was seeking to keep "this old cold war pro- gram on the books despite the fact that neither the American public nor the governments of Western Europe are willing to support such a continuation." Fulbright Questions Sincerity He said that continuation of the two agencies raised doubts about the sincerity of Mr. Nixon's desire to negotiate and improve relations with Cern-! munist countries. "I for one, and some of my colleagues," Mr. Fulbright said, "have not been willing to give it a new lease on life. I hope it will come to an end; I feel it should come to an end? it should be liquidated?if an authorization ? is not enacted." He indicated that he would oppose another continuing res- olution to finance the sta- tions pending legislation. The two radio stations have been operating under such a continu, ing resolution, which expires Tuesday night. Both stations have said that they culd pay their expenses for a week or two, but would have to cease operations if Congressional authorization was not forthcoming by' the end of the month. Congress al- ready has passed an appropria- tion bill providing funds until June 30, but it was passed contingent on approval of an authorization bill. Mr. Fulbright had earlier asked for studies by the Libra- ry of Congress on the effect- iveness of the two stations. He had hoped that those reports would bear out his contention that the stations should be dis- banded. But the reports, made available Friday to The New York Times by the Foreign Re- lations Committte, strongly supported the stations. Basic Policy Shift The report on Radio Liberty, written by Dr. Joseph G. Whelan, a specialist in Soviet and East European affairs, said that the station's basic policy had shifted from its early "lib. eration" of the Soviet Union' to "liberalization" as conditions eased within Soviet society. , "The professionalism of the staff," the report said, "is ap- parent in the quality of their research product, their multi- lingual facility, the unique com- bination of American and West- e.rOMIROP80-016011k001100070001.-5 a en s zens, and finally the existence of an organizational spirit that 'seems to arise from a convic- tion of participating' in creating positive change in the Soviet, Union." "The reality of Radio Lib- ctil; wieth its report popular continued, age. It is neither a cold war operation nor is its staff a group of cold warriors. On the contrary, Radio Liberty ac- cepts all Soviet institutions, though not its ideology, and seeks to bring about peaceful democratic change from with- Mr. Whelan said that if Radio 'Liberty was, disbanded, the Soviet people "will have lost a free press for the inflow of information" that could not be duplicated by officially spon- sored government radios. He said it would also bring the loss of a means of diSsemina- tion of "samizdat," or under- ground writings, throughout the Soviet Union "with the conse- quences that this ? liberalizing movement will unquestionably receive a serious setback." Similar praise for Radio Free Europe was expressed by James R. Price in his Library of Con- gress report. A General Accounting Office mem d to ?the Foreign Relations Committee disclosed that Radios Free Europe had received Gov- ernment grants of $306*,890,469 and raised $46-million through public fund raising. Radio Lib- erty got $158,830,637 from the governmeot. It did not solicit public ftinds. . ? , DAILY. yiORLD Approved For Release 200113204 l? CIA-RDP80-01601 t ui4 Fulbright urges end of CIA broadcasts in Europe WASHINGTON ? Labeling thb CIA-directed broadcasts to soc- ialist Europe as obsolete, Sen. J. William F'ulbright (1)-Ark) told the Senate Thursday that Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty are anach- ronisms which should be abolished. Fulbright declared, "The,American public recognizes this. So do the western Europeans. The time has come for our government to rec- ognize it too." . STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ? ?WA1L1IUi ?U 17 FE I3 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 R STATINTL ? , 7' ' ?r? Rowland Evans and Robert Novak Fulbright the Jammer ,THE INEXORABLE cam- paign of Sen. J. W. Ful- bright to cast U.S. foreign policy in his own image has almost strangled the broad- 'casts beamed into Commu- nist Eastern Europe by Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. ' Operating from his power base as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Fulbright is within days of cutting off, at least temporarily, vital U.S. government subsidies for the two programs. Unless Congress acts before next 'Tuesday, Feb. 22; the money stops. ' Congressional sentiment for the broadcasts is so over- -.Whelming that it seems im- probable Fulbright will ulti- mately succeed. But he has come perilously close to doing what two decades of Moscow's electronic jam- ming could not do: End non- governmeatal communica- tions between the United States and some 200 million residents of the Soviet %Union and 100 million in five other Communist coun- tries. BUT THE TWO programs, ostensibly financed with in- dividual American contribu- tions, have been secretly / subsidized by the Central Intelligence Agency. Even after this Was disclosed in 1967, the Johnson adminis- tration and then the Nixon administration dawdled about changing this clumsy arra .?ment. a year ago, Sen. Clifford Case of New Jersey forced action by demanding an end to the CIA subsidy. Belatedly, ? the administra- tion proposed overt govern- ment financing. Since then, Fulbright has - doggedly slowed down legislation. For instance, last summer he urged delay until the Li- brary of Congress Congres- sional Research Service could' study whether "it is in the public interest to pro- vide additional tax dollars for the two radios." Despite F'ulbright.'s ef- forts, the Senate and House by the end of November had passed separate bills financ- ing the programs (at be- tween $35 million and S38 million a year.) But a Jan. 26 Senate-House conference to resolve the two bills?its first and only session?met icy opposition from Ful- bright. By Jan. 26, the Library of Congress draft reports were available. Fulbright was not pleased. They warmly praised the two programs and recommended -contin-? . ? ued U.S. financing. Ful- bright's staffers asked the Library of Congress re- searchers to rework their papers. Meanwhile, other members of the Senate- House conference were una- ware of the favorable re- ports. THOSE VOLUMINOUS reports explain precisely why Eastern Europe experts are concerned by Ful- bright's action. Radio Free Europe, -? says one report, "contributes substantially to preserve, the reservior of good' will toward the U.S." by the Eastern Europeans. "In some cases, regimes have grudgingly adopted some features desired by their publics and supported by Radio Free Europe." The other Library of Congress report suggests "Radio Liberty encourages detente, amelioratio'n of in- ternational differences through negotiations, strengthening of the United Nations as an instrument of peace and creation of a world system based on the rule of law." But both reports agree (in language eagerly underlined by Fulbright's staffers) that the broadcasts are deeply resented by the Communist governments concerned. To .? Fulbright and his allies, East-West detente is a mat- ter for government-to-gov- ernment negotiation, not for a non-government informa- tion service direct to East- ern Europe's masses. ACCORDINGLY, if the programs are continued, Fulbright wants them under tight State Departnient reg- ulation (though this is criti- cized in the Library of Con- gress reports). But he would really prefer their death. A compromise proposed by. House and Senate staffers, putting the two programs provisionally under State Department control,. has been ignored by Fulbright. Whether Fulbright can kill the broadcasts may de- pend on the two other Sen- ate Democratic conferees: Frank Church of Idaho and Stuart Symington of Mis- souri. Church is adamant against Radio Free Europe but friendly toward Radio Liberty (because, mainly, of its concern for Soviet Jews). Symington tends to agree with Fulbright but adds he has an open mind. Neither, however, was informed about or has been aware of the favorable Library of Congress reports. Chairman Fulbright the jammer has seen to that. , Publishers-Sall Syndicate Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 DAILY wp:.--az) Approved For Release 2001/0(8/1143: 191A-RDP80-0160 ? Munich institute funded by CIA, paper reveals - FRANKFURT ? The West German bourgeois newspaper, Frank- furter Allegmeine Zeitung, said on Tuesday that the Institute for the Study of the USSR in Munich is being financed from the same sources as the Munich-based Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, both of which were set up by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The Institute was established in July, 1950, in Munich; its members are people who Left the USSR with the Nazi forces in World War H. The Institute puts )ut "scholarly" studies on the USSR in Russian, German, English and Turkish. ? STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 WASHINGTON STAR Approved For Release 2001ASIgii '4.A-RDP80-01601R00 Letters to the Editor Radio Free Europe SIR: Your recent editorial, "Peace Corps Crisis," pointed up the power of a single member of the Con- gress to work his will against a program he dislikes (for whatever reasons of ,his own) despite general support for that program, provided that that individual is in a position in the congressional hierarchy where his word Is the last to be heard on the matter. I should like to call your attention to a similar situation where the money involved is less than half the requirements of the Peace Corps. I refer to the life- or-death crisis involving Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which Senator Fulbright has criticized much as Rep. Passman has done with the Peace Corps. The odds at present appear very high that Sen. Fulbright will do his best to close these media despite favorable reports on their operations by the Library of Congress and the General Accounting Office studies the senator requested in the hope of obtaining material to discredit them. Munich, West Germany. n Thomas B. Crosson, Budget Director, Radio Free Europe. STATI NTL i Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001100070001-5 ICASHINGT.ON POST Approved For Release 2001/03/04 ? CIA-RDMAATOM Senators Take Closer Look ": 2 3. MAR 1972 The Ludget for Foreign Policy ? ? . ? \ By Murrey Marder ? NOTHING CAPTURES the attention of again. But he is beyond the Committee's of- federal -policy makers so quickly 'as laying a hand on their supply of money. So when the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began hearings recently for the first time on the State Department's budget there was conSid- ,erable interest in the government and in the 'press. ' To 'strike sustained sparks of headlines in a congressional inquiry, however, there must be at leaSt two adversaries to rub together. ?At the end of the first morning's hearing, therefore, when affable Secretary of State William P. Rogers finished an untrying ap- 'pearance in which he displayed no desiCJ-fo- quarrel with 'anyone, especially presidential -adviser Henry A. Kissinger, most of the broadcasters, cameramen and writing press packed up and left. 1 There Were glum looks around the State /Department where morale is decaying even 'faster'thari Usual since the President's China inission underscored so publicly what has ' ? long been so evident: that the most dramatic foreign policy ventutes will continue to be TUri -i3tri of the White House through the Kis- . singer apparatus, and that Rogers, in a Harry 'Truman phrase, will "not fuss" over it? at least not publicly and visibly. " Rogers, in a recent press conference and In the Senate hearing, was consistent in his insistence that he does not feel excluded from anything, that "the system is working Very well," that "the foreign policy is very effective," and that in any event it is Presi- dent Nixon, not Kissinger nor Rogers, who 'makes foreign policy." Even though Rogers may be, as he said, "perfectlY satisfied" with his r9le, the For- eign Relations Committee chaired by Sen. J. William Fulbright (D-Ark.) is not. Fulbright and his fellow critics who have engaged in an intermittent struggle with two adminis- trations over the shaping of foreign policy - have no personal quarrel with Rogers, a longtime friend of Fulbright's and other .committee members. 'However, they see their Own' power eroded by state's lack of combativeness in asserting its officially pro- . claimed "primacy" in foreign affairs. co-0 The nub of all this is that the Fulbright committee's functions are derived primarily from legislative jurisdiction over the State Department. As state's influence in the process shrinks, so does the committee's. It has watched the shrinkage with chagrin since President Nixon's decision in 1969 to put Rogers, one of his oldest friends, at the lop of State rather than an activist, ambi- tious, foreign policy professional, and to keep full control of foreign policy initia- tive t in the White House, with Kissinger as his conceptualizer, most-immediate adviser, director of a National Security Council staff that has grown greatly in size and power, and even, as it has developed, supreme se- cret sesnivriogyemArsiwalo gpo*haps. ? /in, Pular elAuRt13iP6VR eign Relations Committee members at Ful- When Fulbright, midway in the Johnson bright's home and elsewhere?and plans to administration, turned rebel over the Do- ficial reach, across the dividing line of "ex- ecutive privilege" that presidents invoke to prevent advisers from testifying before Con- gress. One unannounced purpose of the budget hearings was to explore whether Kissinger In his NSC capacity, might be drawn across the "executive privilege" divide to testify be- fore Congress by reaching for him through the National Security Act of 1947 which set up the NSC. Fulbright asked Rogers, a former attorney general in the Eisenhower administration, if he believed Congress intended the National Security Council to assume the role it now has in foreign affairs. Rogers said he did, that the NSC was intended as "a forum for presenting different views," with the actual "decisions" made by the President. Ful- bright, however, thinks that Kissinger's op- eration has reached a scope never imagined by Congress. That issue was not pressed very sharply in the recent hearings, but it is being pursued more openly by the Federation of American Scientists, who nOte that some presidential advisers who wear several functional hats do testify before Congress in capacities apart from their confidential relationships with the President. What the Fulbright committee focused on 'most in two succeeding days were State De- partment budget statistics. But there was an underlying motive there too. For the same reasons that its influence is linked to the State Department's power, the committee is hardly likely to use a meat-axe on State's $563 million budget for 1973. It would be skinning its own interests. Until this month, the Foreign Relations Committee never held authorization hear- ings on a State Department budget, not even in the so-called "great days" of the post- World War II era, when Republican Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan and Democrat Tom' Connally of Texas teamed in bipartisan har- mony with the Truman administration to re- construct Western Europe, build NATO and "contain" the Soviet Union. Fulbright, then a young and enthusiastic supporter of that Establishment philosophy, has come full cir- cle on most of its premises. The "great days" label was really a tribute to the Senate committee's acquiescence and cooperation with the Truman administra- tion' S plunge into what Fulbright sees now as imperialism, rather than an accolade for the committee's independence or competi- tiveness. The committee in those days was the junior partner of the Executive Branch, not a challenger. ? It was normal practice then for the Execu- tive Branch to quietly provide drafts of com- mittee members' speeches: even drafts' of committee reports. Vandenberg and Con- nally, insistent on being privy to the "take- off" of policy, were granted apparent co-pi- c n erven on. an e ie nam wa: relations between the Executive Branch an . the Foreign Relations Committee. whic u- F lbright now has headed longer than an other Senator, spun into reverse. His con j mittee was treated as hostile; to borrow th euphemism that the Nixon aciministratio concocted in Indochina, the Executiv Branch's relations with the committee ofte amount to "protective reaction": each, cite, fires on the other preemptively, on the a: sumption it will be attacked. To compete in the foreign policy arena, th Fulbright committee has stretched its imag nation and resourcefulness. It has sent it own staff investigators abroad, spotlightin many U.S. involvements and commitment never acknowledged in official public rec ords; it has left a rebellious mark on man: pieces of legislation, notably on the conduc of the Indochina war, and the committei now has put before the Senate a major bil based on the work of Sen. Jacob K. Javit (R-N.Y.) and others, to curb the President' authority to use troops in war without con gressional authority.. ? C4.9 ? The Nixon Doctrine's low posture, 'and tin opening to China, are directions in whicl Fulbright and his colleagues pointed loni ago; but they want to move much faster anc farther to wrap up the cold war and U.S. in volvement overseas. Last year, the commit tee hit on the device of attaching a rider tc the foreign aid act, requiring the approva of the Senate Foreign Relations and lious4 Foreign Affairs committees of the annual budgets for State and the United States In formation Agency. These budgets previousl were subject only to clearance by appropria tions committees, unlike the budgets of De ferise-and many other departnients that reg ularly are examined in both ways. The first round of this new approach nom has been played out in the budget hear ings. One thing they showed was that most senators were surprisingly unLmiliar wit): routine day-to-day operations of the State Department or State's, relation-,hip to the complex NSC structure that Kissinger con. trols. The bulk of foreign policy is not high wire diplomacy, but increasingly, trade, aid economic rivalry, technology, legal disputes military weaponry, 'international confer. ences, and the like. In theory, through its examination of State's budget, the committee, as Fulbrighl expressed it, can "further the process of re storing' Congress' proper rule in the making of foreign policy." Fulbright's committee new has acquirce the capacity to influence the .priorities ol State's spending. But that budget is one ol the smallest in the federal government even in embassies overseas, State Depart ment employees represent only 16 per cenl of all embassy employees, with the remain. .der assigned by Defense, AID, CIA, or other agencies. Furthermore, budget work is tedious busi ness, and attendance of Senate Foreign Rela tions Committee members at hearings is al. ready woefully spotty. At this point, the committee' latest d arture in its' search ovel but unproved. 00141000-710001? THE IOND017 LULY T=rtr-111 Approved For Release40010011,1121: CIA-RDP80-0 As British influence in Africa decl ned, so did British secret serv , sending hundreds of agents to African capitals like Accra, Lag to buttress sensitive states against communism and protect ? ? ,, his exclusive series on the CIA E. H. Cookridgc continues RE adventurous operations often bordering on the bizarre which the Central Intelligence Agency pursued in many parts of the world are usually ascribed to one man: Allen Dulles. They culminated in the abortive in- vasion of Cuba in 1961. When Dulles departed from the directorship of CIA after the Bay of Pigs debacle, he certainly left an indelible stamp of his Influence as the architect of the mighty CIA edifice and its worldwide rami- fications. The policy of his successors has, however, been no less forceful. CIA activities under its present director, Richard McGarrah Helms, may appear less aggressive because they are ? being conducted with greater caution and less publicity, and because they have been adroitly adjusted to the changing climate in international poli- tics. In the past CIA gained notoriety by promoting revolutions in Latin American banana republics, and sup- porting anti-communist regimes in South-East Asia. Its operations in Africa were more skilfully camou- flaged. For many years they had been on a limited scale because the CIA had relied on the British secret service to provide intelligence from an area where the British had unsurpassed ex- perience and long-established sources of information. But with the emergence of the many African independent countries, the wave of "anti-colonial- ist" emotions, and the growing in- filtration of Africa by Soviet and Chinese "advisers", British influence declined. Washington forcefully stepped, through CIA, into the breach, with the avowed aim of containing communist expansion. ? . Financial investments in new in- dustrial and mining enterprises, and lavish economic aid to the emerging governments of the "underdeveloped" countries, paved the road for the influx or hundreds of CIA agents. Some com- bined their intelligence assignments with genuine jobs as :technical, agri- cultural and scientific advisers. ? The British Government - parti- cularly after the Labour Party, had come to power in 1964 - withdrew most of their SIS and MI5 officials from African capitals, though some remained, at rulers, to orAtPreir own new in- Africa, an v e a' telligence and security services. CIA attractive, motherly woman, whom ing hydro-electric power for the nn one would have suspected of hay- A bloodless coup in Uganda in January last I and installed Major-General idi Amin as mill a section of his troops). How far was the C protest in Santa Domingo. A pro-rebel poster attacks American mrervennon ...??????4 ..... _,..., 1: A.": ?!?:"-z4...., ,',..a.-.../.i.-:,:_.,,-_, ? ? .1' ? - ?- ? lk,?c1.?-r.x.--7-'1-'- . men began hurriedly to establish their "stations" in Accra, Lagos, Nairobi Kampala, Dar-es-Salaam, Lusaka, the "sensitive areas- in danger of slipping under communist svt ay. By the mid-1960s several senior CIA officials, such as Thomas J. Gunning and Edward Foy, both former U.S. Army Intelligence officers, were firmly established at Accra. They were later joined by William B. Edmondson, who ng served for many years as a skilful FBI agent before joining CIA and being employed at Addis Ababa, Nairobi, and Dar-es-Salaam, acquir- ing fluency in Swahili. By 1965 the Accra CIA Station had two-score active operators, distributing largesse among President Nkrumah's secret adversaries. The Americans had every intention of helping Ghana's economy by build- PbrRelt*81"SCIVAVPVJAVPSDUOtterigg sortium, c o a , t!ti Tr5 STATI NTL STATINTL