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December 14, 2016
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January 9, 2003
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June 26, 1961
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AwRrogr Release 20 JUNE 26, 1961 0ali6 090090019- 01'-(0)189 I1 iii ~ 11,1hhI~ )11 NO. 445 REMMAfKS BY THE HONORA113LE ADLAI STEVENSON, UNITED STATES A! ,ASSAY:? t TO THE UNITED NATIONS, BEFORE THE. NATIONAL PRESS CLUB, WASHING TON, B. C . , MONDAY, JUNE: 26, 1961. THE CHAIRMAN (Mr. Cosgrove': C n` :_.r: i en, if we may, we will begin the meeting. Contrary to unconfirmed re por-;,rr, 1 have it on good authority that Adlai Stevenson is not runn_inr, for President of South America. (Laughter) After the coun';do;:n or coup ;. ;;* la2 ;; .fall? Mr. Stevenson learned that one doesn't real ' r aay e to be I.e vIctorI ous candidate to win. Besides his o,n appoin na nt a A ,bca -I.;ador to the UN, his law practice was practically dls o3_:ved b-d ,...; ,co ,,ynw :ppo,?.nvzr.ent by President Kennedy. You will recd vivo ;.,one of at the head table today with the other dI tin ;uIs .c;d f:ueots I would like you to meet at this time. On my left is Hi:; ' ;celIer.,~ , 'r:ho is also the Vice Dean of the Diplomatic Delegation, Fernando Q rc'.c:r yer, the Ambassador of Peru, (Applause) On my right i.s Hip. Excellency the Ambassador of Chile, Walter Muller. (Applause) On my left is His Excellent.; he Ambassador of Argentina, Dr. Emilio Donato del Carril. (App l.:ausc ) On my ri (5-ht is .1-11s Excellency the Ambassador of Venezuela, Dr. Josh Antonio Mayobre. (Applaue ) On my left is His Excellency the Ambassador of Ecuador Dr. Alejandro T. Ponce L. (Applause) , To the right is Charge d'AffaI_res of Colombia, Dr. Ignacio Mesa. (Applause) On my left is Charge d'Af&aires of Paraguay, the Honorable Persio da Silva, (Applause) To the right is the Counselor of Bolivia, representing the Ambassa- dor, Mr. Julio A. Eguino L. (Applause) To my left is Charge d'Affaires ad interim and Minister Counselor of Brazil, the Honorable Alfredo Bernarde3. (Applause) On my right is the Secretary of Labor, whom I'm very happy to have with us today, the Honorable Arthur J. Goldberg. (Applause) To the left is the Governor of Puerto Rico and a member of the Club, Luis Munoz Marin. (Applause) To the right is the Chairman of the Latin American Subcommittee on Foreign Relations, the Honorable Wayne Morse. (Applap4e), On my left ~~ 1 ~ ~ 1 /b JUN 4 oApwved For Release 2003/01/2 : CIA-RDP80BU ~ 00u 00090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 2- v 1 i.:" rtyy :ei , is th Secretary General of the O--gar ..:ration or American Dr. Jos A. M'-oora, (Applause) -,ht is ;r,e Honorable Thomas Morgan ei r vrrnsylvan:i._i, ,.. _rrr of the ! orei,;n Affairs Committee. (ApplausE ' der Secretary o' Labor (,ht iionorabit, essor, by the way, is from Harvard, the ucon rnics Section. on the left, another member of the tour, j-1., ufessor Lincoln Gordon. z ;;our with the Ambassador. ,they member of the tour, the Director of New Service. U. S. to the.Unlted Nations, Mr. Frank Carpenter. 'Applauser the left is t ze Acting Secretary of State r.'o, internationa:l .tio. Affairs, the Honorable Woodruff Wallner (Applause) the right is the Director of the office of E ,3r, Coast Affai errt f State, Mr. Harvey Wellman. (Applause) Mr. Wellman a :crab e Roger `Oubby. (Applause) 1ne lei t 113 L ie vrl s Wirtz--as one of the law partners. (Laug,hte .,) (Applause) rt atr ht is tie Assistant Secretary of State ;.'or Public Affair:, have Senator MIusKie of Maine and Senator iVict; :rthy of Mi.nnesr)ta ressma't John iirademas of Indiana. (Applause have i:i the audience a number o!' guests i ' u _ ike you tro meet . `::.master General, J. Edward Day. :.Applause) form me Senator Kefauver is .sere too. w . had planned to have in at the head table, but he is here with u somewhere. efauver. (Applause) member ~~. the law firm Is Under SecretE : of Labe': --oh, Nn. ton 1''Iinow. dark. (i~..iught:-.'.r tillC7:i'~ 3'~Uar, -x. _-Lair, i the a.icons a delegation i'rorn tha. S~ +th American ey are '=ere with the OA studying ?,rye rilianza f c r Progress . r4 ssrran 3oi; Uook of Ohio is aisc with u s t~ a,y. (Applause) the Residen Commissioner of Puerto Hic-o, . , t ernos-i:sern, s t 1 nr~r.t r ago. ,,his tour 1-ncluded tcn .ations end altrros ~u ;l:ssance to th+ same area that he had made a rip as a private --n< A,ioassador Stevenson returnee ~'x, [a a i9-da,,, diplomatic Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B0167GElQQOa$JOA90019-7 . Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000800090019-7 -3- PR 445 AMBASSADOR STEVENSON: It's 17,000 miles. THE CHAIRMAN: I'm corrected, it's almost 17,000 air miles. I don't want to undersell anyone here today. ? And in asking the Ambassador to make this special mission part of the Alliance for Progress, President Kennedy emphasized that our cooperation in this Hemisphere should not only be in the economic and social fields. He said, "We need to explore methods of obtaining closer relationships in the cultural field as well as between our schools and universities, our teachers and students, our scientists and artists, our writers and thinkers, in short each manifestation of the diversity of the culture and tradition of our peoples." And continuing the President said, "I think there are few people in the United States better qualified than Adlai Stevenson to examine and discuss all these possibilities. I'm sure that his journey will contribute immeasurably to our preparations for the Montevideo conference and the strengthening of the inter-American system." Gentlemen, those are the President's words and I think we have with us today a man who really needs no introduction. Adlai Stevenson is well known to all of us. You know his background and his history and his qualifications for his present assignment. It is my pleasure to present to you now the Honorable Adlai Stevenson, the United States Ambassador to the UN. (Standing ovation) AMBASSADOR STEVENSON: Mr. Chairman and ladies and gentlemen, I hope you don't know my, qualifications for this trip. (Laughter) Perhaps I should have said "Ladies and gentlemen and fellow Democrats, since this is a more agreeable reception than I ever expected to get at the Press Club. (Laughter) I also didn't overlook the delicacy and the potential value of your introduction of the law firm. (Laughter) The time may come, boys, when we will have to go back to work again. (Laughter) (Applause) I have successfully evaded the Press Club for a good many years and this time you caught me by cable. It's bad enough to be exposed to the United States press and all of the experts on any given area of public interest, but here toda I have not only the press but also Senator Wayne Morse. (Laughter) Who probably knows more about Latin America than I shall ever know; Congressman Thomas Morgan, before whose committee I am about to appear at 2:30 this afternoon, if I get out of here alive. (Laughter) And the Ambassadors of all the countries that I have visited, including finally my old and esteemed friend who honors me by his presence here today, Dr. Mufioz Marin, Governor of Puerto Rico. And, finally, I have even two Illinois colleagues, Arthur Goldberg and Ed Day. Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 s.z know, when I came home I thought that thir;~j~ were a little ned in Latin America. but when I came back to find that the ri t. 1_me Unions were turtling down the Secretary of Labor's attempt _3id us1n~T the Taft-Hartley Act and the President was proceeding i :,oke it after he succeeded in getting the advice of Arthur Goldberg, t: only report that the affairs of Latin America .re in pretty good (Laughter) (Applause) reminded of the distinguished scholar on th` trip, one of i:'.e Presidents of Uruguay, who said to me, aftez we had concluded _rternoot, of conversation with the collegiurn that ;overns that _-~y , "G~:overrior Stevenson, If you feel a little b-','. depressed, just .,ber what a great Spanish writer once said. He :aid that Spaniards =~ttie all of the problems of the world except tI eir own country's." titer ) ybe it wasn't a Spanish writer after all. (Tx. o:i.ghter) ~t b:.:fc:^e I left on this Journey at the in.,tar se of the President, to a big; dinner in New York and Bcb Hope was- r..7ere and he turned ;:::aid, ":,'(y friend, Adlai Stevenson, is about to lave for South to visit our. friends and he will be back the sarne day." (Laughter) all, I want to assure you that that is not the :ase, that our were very f'rier,dly, and it took me 16 days ti get home. ..emembcr very well a year ago, plus, when __ m ae a long trip -shed diplomats, a leader, the Foreign Minist~.r of one of the pit ~, one of the Republics of Latin America, whc said, You know, -, id la;/:3 you had a policy called the good nei Tibor policy. Well, that because we al,.-,ray., the ught of you a.: th, neighbors and we t ':rd. (Ltd. L.i~ilt .nr) r:rus say ;;::at this time I came away wlUh Lie impression that, America is not only an enormous problem for the United States rat they understand its problem perhaps better ' han it did when led there before. But it's not Just a problem for the United It's a problem for the world, for Latin dnez -ca. r. our ,journey, we covered some l(,ODO miles an visited all of . ;way , General Stroessner is clearly in cc unand. His leader- ship is short: of a to?alitarian police state by far. But he seems reluctant, -although I"m very hopeful that these views will be dispro.ed in the near future, t,- fulfill his pledges of democratization and some {observers believe that some subversive, at least ;,;ommt;:rlst forces, are more powerful than appears to be the case. But I hay>ve great hope for raguay. chile continues to enjoy its broad traditional, ancient devotion to democratic institutions. The relative success of "clessandrl in controlling inflation has reduced one serious source of social dis- content, but other sources remain in the continuing economic stagnation and the need for positive action on land reform. A cangerous sign was the swing of peasants and votes this spring to the e:'t,reme left for the ,'first time, at the same time that the moderate Radia:_ Party was gaining puooort in the urban centers. 3olivla, of cour3e, is in an acute and dangerous state. ?resident I?az Estenssoro, a man of vigor and purpose, I felt, __s maintaining his authority but by a tenuous thread. Vice President Lechin has been unwilling so far to announce his firm support for th- new stand against the Communist mine workers and the student leaders. The basic crisis of govern mental authority is now being played out in strange and wonder- country, with the little army supporting the Pre. ident but w: th uncertainty whether he can sufficiently dom-` nat the situation to rm '.;ie private miners and peasant armies and 'o .fide enough bility so that the long awaited and perfectly fea ible economic ~lopment can go forward. In Peru, political circles are preoccupied with the 19b2 Presidential ~..icctIon. While the present regime of President Pra.,o and of its distinguished Prime Minister Pedro Beltran is strong, there is not yet clear certainty that their coalition of moderate and conservative and anti-Communist elements and the left wing of the Apr:_sta party will be a,-)1e to agree upon a candidate for the next election. i`,- present, the anti-government front runner wo.tld appe-:r to be I4?ernando Belaunde, an attractive and vigorous younger man wh) is pr,---- occupied with.many large plans for internal developm:nt of his I'asclnating country, but says, for example, that he .cows sonc} .iii.*.:t, about :ru but nothAOOroAAV.,or Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 -7- PR 445 Cuba, and avoids foreign policy controversy. While the government is trying to make social improvements in housing and land settlement with some success, there has been as yet, no successful basic, fundamental attack on the vicious tax and land reform problems. But the government recognizes this necessity, as in so many of the countries of Latin America. Here, too, therefore, the present relative calm, except in the universities, probably conceals-some explosive undercurrents. But we and Western ideals have no firmer friends than the present government of Peru. In Ecuador the government is headed by President Velasco Ibarra, Who seems confident that there is no Communist problem in his country and that if there is he can deal with it by the force of his personal, peaceful philosophy and he is a great scholar and also by his extra- ordinary personal popularity. The student leadership in this interesting country has recently been captured from the Communists for the first time in 16 years. And the program of the government to improve domestic conditions is good and timely, in view of the country's badly disordered economy. The present leadership in Colombia is, of course, excellent. But the stability of the regime depends now on finding a conservative presidential candidate to carry on in the period 1962 to 1966, in accordance with the curious bipartisan national front arrangement which was worked out in 1958 to stop the violence and which replaced the dictatorship at that time. Bandit type violence remains a major problem in several outlying provinces of Colombia, now aggravated by Communist infiltration. The domestic program of President Lleras Camargo is precisely in accord with the Act of Bogota, and the thinking underlying the Alliance for Progress. You will want to know something about the obvious questions that always interest us. Communist penetration, and so on, have increased, I believe, in vigor and effectiveness since my more leisurely journey through these countries in 1960. This is marked especially in four groups: the university students, the professors, the school teachers, and the labor unions. Urban slum dwellers, especially where there is severe unemployment, are also ready victims and hitherto unorganized rural areas, of which outstanding examples are northeastern Brazil and rural areas in Chile and Colombia and Ecuador. A good deal of propaganda material is being imported from Cuba. Several governments commented on activity by Cuban agents, sometimes with the help of Cuban diplomatic missions. The Cubans appear, however, to be becoming increasingly cautious about gunrunning and blatant abuses of diplomatic missions for subversive purposes. I must tell you I was followed on this journey or preceded by two or three diplomats from Cuba. It sort of reminded me of those truth squads that the Republicans had. (Laughter) Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R0008Qa0.090019-7 e1. FR Lu 1, remember saying at a diplomatic banquet somewhat to the amusement of the audience, in the campaign I think of 1956 when the truth squad arrived at the airport about the same time that I did, that they bore -xaetly the same relation to the truth that the fire engine did to the they would extinguish it If they could. (Laughter) I'he theme of these gentlemen, and very accomplished senior diplomats the Cuban Foreign Service they were, was generally to interrogate the eign Ministers and the Presidents of the countries that I just visited to their view on nonintervention and on self-determination. I must all vividly the responses that some made who will have to be nameless ,,ecause I don't want to embarrass them. One of them told me that he had laid, "Yes, we believe in self-determination in this country and we be- tieve that self-determination means the right of the people to choose all the time. Have you those conditions in Cuba?" Another one said, "Yes, believe in those principles of the American system, of the American ructure, but we also believe in all of the other principles of the American system." think these kinds of responses are indicative of the feeling that revails among the thoughtful leadership in most all of Latin America. she alignment of Cuba with the Communist movement has greatly added the appeal of Communism, however, since it can now take on the guise an indigenous Latin American revolutionary movement. There is very despread popular sympathy for the proclaimed goals of the Cuban revo- .ution. including land reform, popular education, social equality, the =lenmoval of foreign business influences, and defiance of the Yankee lossus. The failure of the April invasion attempt gave added impetus Communist Castro penetration since It seemed to imIly immunity of left xtremism in Latin America from United States retaliation. There is Little popular appreciation of the Sovietization of the Cuban regime. ,atin America thinks of Cuba as -- by and large, the common ordinary people think of Cuba as a social reform, as a social revolution, whereas 4e think of it as Communism. They are unaware for the most part, I felt, its establishment as a police state apparatus of terror or the other erversions of the original revolutionary objectives of Mr. Castro. Much more intensive action in evidently needed to promote the demo- eratic cause in intellectual savants in Latin America? Ministers in several countries canmented once again on the absence of cheap paperback translations into Spanish and into Portuguese of United States classics and of important nonfiction, contemporary works, including my own. ( Laughter) Which I am happy to say I do have Spanish translations in most ies and I seem to be very well known. I'm not sure whether they read them just the day before I arrived or not, but they point to the can- trast with the highly subsidized and widely distributed editions that we have all encountered in our travels abroad of Marx, Lenin, of Mao Tse- ung and other Communist writers. Far more, as we find now, as you probably know, aiistributed all over h America, do-it-yourself handbooks on how to be a guerrilla war f1.g-iter Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000800090019-7 -9- Pfd 445 fighter printed in China, "How to Overthrow the C tt1dlc Church'?, printed An C:~s:ina, and so on. A far more affirmative attaak'.on he problem of urban shun conditions and the rural insecurity ,.s 4.p? evidently needed if these large groups, no longer poli ~;ically pa,ssj . ., $ re,tp a e, some hope for a better life under free institutions. ;y I ., In connection with the misunderstanding of t~ current develo ment i p s n Cuba, I believe that exa.# of attudenta and ^P especially those who fought with Castro inh1s3 ec write and cirAculate a mong their counterparts tpyol Their testim ony would have a credibility whl t4no expected to achieve. I rue Fra.cter of the tINg?e :Ccs*i4lO be made t tbarl.,:e 1e$, u t4" i 8m+er. p, ;can` be We encountered a unanimous and intense, and x d ~ -exaggerate, in- tense interest in the Alliance for Progress Program. Pte?$ident Kennedy's March 13th address was described as having created asp,'a and impression In Latin America, the most favorable since Franklin iocaevelt's announce- ment of the Good Neighbor Policy. Without exception, governments em- phasized the political importance of making the Uruguay ,meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council a success, to use their word. And that means not merely another in the long line of ipter-American meetings. On the other hand, there was no clear or uniform definition of what constitutes success. There was a wide variety in t1e concept of the meetings of objectives and procedures and great disparity in the inten- sity and the character of national preparations for this program. A few governments appeared to believe that the meeting would be the occasion for the cutting of an aid melon, so to speak, with little :?e- gard to self-help measures or structural reforms In such fields as land tenure and taxation. But all paid at least lip service to the concept of self-help. And several were in deadly earnest on this front. In terms of technical work on long-term programming for national economic and social development, Colombia, Chile, Brazil and perhaps Venezuela seemed to be well in advance of their sister nations. Several others handed us interesting, some handed us shopping lists, so to speak, of public investment projects on which they look for aid by loan and otherwise. Argentina emphasized the importance in her rather special case of Industrial development, as contrasted with social investment which has made such long progress foar so many years in that great. country. Many governments advanced claims for special consideration on political, or other grounds. In several cases less emphasis was placed on outside aid for public investment than on trade and commodity price, policies. Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, have declared frequently their strong emphatic interest In American policy support fortth4r commerpiai negotiations with the European Common Market. And be'e,was the most intense interest in joint action to stabilize coon .d,.ty prices and to raise the prices of key import items in this countrvk ex ort items for them, notably coffee. Some 14 countries, ap you q%p/,, of Lat,4n America Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 -10- PR 445 are largely dependent for their foreign exchange position on their export of coffee. I believe our mission greatly clarified the thinking of many South American governments on the types of results which we might hope to achieve at the Uruguay conference, especially in the fields of investment, programming and the coordination of outside aid. We must clearly expect active discussion of commercial policy and of commodity markets and we should have well defined positions on these issues. A forthcoming attitude in these fields would do much to overcome the disappointments which are likely with respect to the amounts and the conditions of financial aid. As to aid, it is a fact that the needs are enormous. The desire for accelerated growth is great and universal and the capacity for effective use of aid is being rapidly augmented by the systematic programming of public investment, often for the first time. In most cases the general concepts and priorities are not far out of line with our own thinking. It is evident that large increases in the rate of economic and social investment and United States aid as compared with recent years are expected throughout South America. Fortunately, most of the governments appear to be thinking mainly in terms of hard loans which can be financed by the World Bank, by the Inter-American Development Bank, the Export-Import Bank, to the extent that their real credit worthiness permits. This in turn may be largely dependent, of course, on action in the commercial policy and commodity market areas. If Congress furnished the authority for making long-term commitments, there is no question but that the ability of the Latin American governments to carry through sustained development efforts, including the needed structural reforms, will be greatly enhanced. Our mission demonstrated, I think, the vital importance of reereat- Ing confidence in a collective approach to the problems of Communist sub- version and of indirect aggression if the inter-American system has any hope of survival. The abortive Cuban invasion attempt of last April, coupled with sub- sequent public disclosure and controversy, did not enhance Latin American opinion about the United States, I think we might as well face it, be- cause non-intervention is still a cardinal article of faith throughout our good neighborhood. But I suspect there is a great deal of unspoken disappointment, actually, that the invasion failed, that even in these uses, most of them I dare say, would have denounced any unilateral in- lon publicly. In some countries there has been a tendency to regard the Cuban p9oblem as essentially a bilateral one between the United States and uba, which might be negotiable if we only relaxed our hostility and permitted Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000800090019-7 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000800090019-7 -11- PR 44,, permitted the larger Latin American states to act as mediators. I be lieve that we succeeded in convincing the Presidents and governments con- cer,aed that the problem is by no means a bilateral problem, that such issues between ups "s compensation for expropriated properties are of secondary order, which could be negotiated if other circumstances were favorable, and that tYe real cause of concern is the establishment of a beachhead for Communist penetration and subversion throughout the Hemi- sphere, It follows that the issue is one of concern to all of the American Republics, affecting Latin America even more than the United States, because it is the Latin countries which are more vulnerable and actually the object of indirect aggression today. It is they, therefore, who should be primarily concerned with action to deal with this universal problem. It was generally and strongly felt that no collective action could be officially considered until the economic conference was concluded and had demonstrated its success as a major step toward economic and social development, towards the creation of some sense of hope among these miserable masses in so many of the Latin American countries. 1.12hJ.s conclusion was based partly on the need to obliterate the memory of the April invasion effort, but; far more on the need to sho% to dissident left wing; elememts in their countries that there a.3 real promise of economic and social progress under genuinely democratic regimes -. ~orking An cooperation with thr United States As to the po.ssibllity of collective action aftfar the 6,:il.ja.nce for Prourese meeting in Uruguay, I can't predict of course with any eonfi- der1cc. Sut I think ft's quite possible that shesre will b