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November 22, 2002
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Approved For Fuse 2003/01/29: CIA-RDP80B01676F600080062-0 CHARLES ANDRE WILLOUGHBY (04615)(?) Major General Charles A. Willoughby is Chief of Intelligence, FEC, and Chief, Civil Intelligence Section, SCAP. He is one of the handful of key officers, who came out of Corregidor in 1"arch 1942, with General Douglas L'acA.rthur, when the latter was ordered to take over in Australia, accompanied him. throughout the Csrnpaigne of the SWPA,, and then continued on the staff of the occupation of Japan. Charles A. ;":illoughbyr was born in Germany on 8 :,'arch 1892, the son of Baron T. von Tacheppe-':;eidenbach (Silesia) and Emmy .;illoughby (Baltimore, I.:d) He attended various continental, college,? particularly the University of ...;ide;ihed ; u:i rise; ooroonne, Faris, He majored in philology and modern languages: French; Spanish; German. After intermittent visits to the United States, he joined his American relatives, in 1910,, to complete his American education and to obtain U. S. citizenship. Bent on a military career, he enlisted in the Regular Army, as a candidate for a Commission, and served as a private, corporal and sergeant of Co K_,, 5th US Infantry, in the interim period from 10 October 1910 to 9 October 1913. In 1913 he entered the senior class of Pennsylvania College,, Gettysburg, Pa., and Graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1914. Later,, he pursued postgraduate studies, for the degree of N.A., at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. In Iay 1914 he obtained a commission as Major, Officers Volunteer Corps,, the forerunner of the present ORC,, which he vacated to accept a Regular Army Commission in August 1916, While awaiting this Army appointment, he taught at the Howe School;, Howe? Ind,, and at Racine College, Racine, Wis., in their modern language departments. Promotions: Second Lieutenant; 27 Nov 1916: First LieVtenant; 27 Nov 1916g Captain; 30 June 1910 Major; 6 March 1928; Lieutenant Colonel, - 1 June 1938, Colonel; 14 Oct 1941; Brigadier General (Temp); 20 June 1942, (Perm) 26 1.?ay 1944% iajor General (Temp); 28 Oct 1944. His first assignment, in December 1916, was with the 35th Infantry on border patrol duty at Fogales, Arizona, At the outbreak of the war, he was transferred to the 16th Infantry at For. Bliss, Texas and left for France in June 1917. He served initially with the 16th Infantry, 1st Division AEF, then joined the Air Corps, trained under the French, and was breveted as Military Aviator, flying, the "Nieuport" and TtSpad",, pursuit types. Howerved as Executive to General Karl Spaatz (the famous Air Force Commander of Norld War II)9 who was then Commandant of the Aviation Training Center at Issoudun, Prince, the largest in world War I. He later took command of the Aviation Branch School at Chateuroux until Lay 1916, when he was trans- ferred to the Aviation Section. WD, ;`;aehington. He was placed in charge of the pioneer development; of the first Aerial L:ail Service, which he accomplished successfully, under Postmaster General Burleson, serving in that capacity until December 1918. On leaving the Air Service, he returned to his basic branch (Infantry) and took command of the demonstration machine gun units at Fort Banning., Ga., in the initial organization of the now famous Infantry School. In October 1919 he was assigned to the 24th Infantry at Columbus, New Lexico,, serving as Company and Battalion Commander in this famous border station, that was raided by Pancho Villa. Only officers of recognized dis- ciplinary capacity, combined with great tact, are assigned command of regrc troops, In February 1921, he was due for foreign service and was assigned to the 65th Infantry, San Juan? Porto Rico,, where he serve: as a company and battalion r_o1 Len .ndur? until 'ay 192.3. 'PLO, bepartment of the Army, -,'eshinoton, Approved For Release 2003/01/29: CIA-RDP80B0l676R002600080062-0 25X1A Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 Approved For ease 2003/01/29: CIA-RDP80B0l67S02600080062-0 MacArthur in his dramatic break--through to Australia in March 19112. He continued- an-- MacArthur II-s- Chief- of- Intelligence (AC -of S, 0-2) General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area, and remained to serve in the same capacity on all subsequent staffs, throughout the Campaigns of MacArthur from Papua to the Philippines, and to the occupation of Japan. DECORATIONS In April 1942 he received the Silver Star with the following citation: "For gallantry in action in the vicinity of Agloloma Say, flataan, Philippine Islands, on January 21x, 1912. During an attack to expel an He returned to the United States, In Nay 1923 for temporary dut1 with the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department, in prep r tio,, for assig iwnt as 'Tiitary Attache abroad. In July, he was order-irr:d t ~ Venezuela, for station, and for general duty as '.Ilitary At t.a Jie t, e American Embassies or legations in Veneguela, Colombia and Ecuad _;r, He served successively at Caracas (Venezuela, ), Bogota (Coco.,;, ^Aa) nc3 Quito (Ecuador). The tour of duty is usually one of four (1x; yearn:.: tin; .Yes vor ; - suoceasful in this diplomatic post and received high decor. , s f. r' m the Goverments of Venezuela and 1 cuador. In this period he pubs ishel the "House of Bolivar" - a study of the great South-American stateamanne and soldier, native of Caracas, Venezuela. In M v 1927 he was transferred to Fort D. A. Russell, ?(yomings for duty with troops, and served there until September 1928 when he was ordered to Port Binning, Ga., as a student in the Advanced Course at the Infantry School. He was graduated in June 1929 but remained at Fort Henning until August 1929, to prepare a "History of the Infantry School." In this period he published a monumental study on "The ;economic and Tilitary Participation of the United States in the :,ar 1917-1918". This was translated in saveral foreign editions and did much to orient the Latin-American countries to- wards the united States and acquaint them with its tremendous military industrial capacity. In August 1929, he was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, as a student at the Command & General Staff School. He was graduated in June 1931 after completing the two-year course. He was retained for duty at the Command & General. Staff School as Instructor, covering the subjects of Intelligence and ItIlitary History. He also became Editor of and brilliantly developed the "Command ?? General Staff School Quarterly", expanding part- icularly its coverage of the foreign field. In this period he published "The Element of Maneuver in War" which traced the art of war, through the principal campaigns of the XVIIIth Ceniuryo It was used as a textbook in the C.S.S.S., Leavenworth, and is now regarded as a standard reference work in its field. In August 1935 he went to +ashington, D.C.,.to take the cov- eted course at the Aran r:ar College, from which he graduated in June 1936. This is the final step in the higher training of American staff officers. In July 1936 he again proceeded to Fort Benning, Georgia, for duty as an instructor in the IId Section, at the now greatly expanded Infantry School. Ca completion of the four-year tour, he served briefly in New York City, N.Y., in February 1910, to initiate the ambitious '.iar Department "Military Dictionary Project" which developed and published foreign language pocket-dictionaries that became of immediate practical value in the ensuing World r ar IT., due to his farsighted planning. In June 19140, he was again ordered to foreign service, at Headquarters, Philippine Department, Manila, P.I. as Assistant Chief of Staff, 0--4. In that capacity, General Willoughby developed and expanded the Defense and Supply Installations on Bataan and Corregidor, that enabled 'facArthur's forces later on to make the protracted defense, that is now history. He was appointed A.C. of 3., G-2, i.e., Chief of Intelligence of USAFFE (United States Army Forces in the Far East) in 1941, served through- out the initial operations on Luzon and the defense of Corregidor and Bataan, and was one of the key staff officers accomparying General Douglas Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B01676R002600080062-0 2 Approved For ease 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80B0167602600080062-0 jr Mplatrditag penny, Colonel +illoughby, who wa o engaged in a reconnais.. saw* of the general area, voluntarily Joined in the attack when he learned that the company commander had been wounded and that the coaparW was without an officer. This eallult officer assisted in reorganising stragglers, and in the face of heavy enemy Smell arms and motor fire, demonstrated courage and leadership in proceeding through heavy jungle terrain to a position within twenty yards of the even r line. After the initial attack, Colonel Willoughby disregarded active enenpr snipers in administering first aid to a wounded officer and assisted him to the rear. The ale of courage and leadership displayed by this staff officer was a significant factor in the ultimate success of the attack." The wd,t involved was the Philippines Constabulary Patallion, hold- IM a defensive nectar on the China Coast. The Ratallion was commanded by Col. M. Castaneda, who was a former pupil of (fen Villoughby's at the Inf- antry School. Brig Gen Castaneda (1947) now heads the Constabulary of the Not Phillipines Republic and was recently active in suppressing the sub- versive Iiukbalahap movement on Luzon. In 19113 he w:ts awarded the Distinguished Service Cross with the follow- ing Citations "For extraordinary heroism in action in New Guinea, during the Papuan Campaign, July 23, 19112 to January 8, 1943. As Assistant Chief of Staff, G-,2, Southwest Pacific Area, Brigadier General illoW;hby displayed eoctra- ordinary courage, marked efficiency and precise mcecution of operations during the Papuan Campaign," As personal representative of General MacArthur, General llloughby accompanied the Headquarters of the Australian and American Corps, in the operations against Aura-Gona. He was with General Eiehelberger, in the bloody capture of Buna Village in December 1942. In 191111 he received the Distinguished Service !lodal with the following Ciations "For exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a position of great responsibility from 18 April. 19112 to 1 September 1943. Upon the establishment of General Headquarters, -southwest Pacific area, General Willoughby (then Colonel) was assignrxl as Assistant Chief of Staff, G--2, and was charged with the particularly complex and difficult task of organ-- izing and coordinating intelligence activities in the theater. Speedily and with brilliant resourcefulness hat planned and put into action necessary agencies for providing the command with reliable and comprehensive inform- ation concerning the terrain, the native inhabitants, enemy installations, dispositions, and movements in a vast and inaccessible area. During the containing operations which were necessary before an offensive could be launched, his assessment of enemy strf.ngths and intentions was conspicuously accurate, and data .ere me:mwhile assembled upon Which sound plans of attacc could be based. General Willoughby, by his noteworthy achievement as an organiser and by his penetrating analy.;is of the military situation, made an invaluable contribution to the success of military operations in the , Southwest Pacific Area." the following Citation: In 19146 he received Oak Leaf Cluster (Distinguished Service `iedal) with "Brigadier General Charles A. :dlloughby, as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area, performed meri- torious and distinguished service from September 19113 to "larch 1945. He directed and coordinated intelligence activity in connection with oper- ations in Salamaua, Lae and Finschhafen, New Guinea; Hollandia, Wakde-Sarni Approved For Release 2003/01/2$: CIA-RDP80B01676R002600080062-0 . Approved For .ease 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO16702600080062-0 and Bia]c, Dutch Now Guinea; and in the Philippine Islands; collecting, evaluating and disseiainating information for use in planning and e>mout- ing a series of devastating blows against the enemy. 'Through his pro- fessional knowledge and resourcefulness, General Willoughby contributed materially to elimination of the enemy In the Southwest Pacific Area and to the liberation of the Philippine Islands." Eb was nwordei the 24edcl of Honor (Affairas d? trangeres) by the French Government (1922),o for World Vex service, 1917/1918 and was previously bre`uted by the French and the A.C. as a "Z3ilitary Aviator". The French Government awarded him the Legion of NoaQor, in the grade of officer (1948), for conspicuous service in the Pacific Theater in a highly responsible Staff position. 39 was awarded the Order of St. Liaurico and at. Lazarus by the Government of Italy, in 1929, for his assistance to the Italian 1 n- kwrican Flight, chile he was Military Attache in Venezuela (1924) and aid to the Italian :lilitary Mission in louador (1925). Ha was awarded the Order of Abdon-Calderon, a high decoration by the Government of souador; the Order of Lbrit, a second decoration by the Government of souadors the Order of the Liberator (Officer) by the Government of Venezuela. The British Government awarded him the "Order of British tbpire", in the grade of Comrnder, (1946) for his contribution to inter-Allied Intelligence during World liar U. Other Decorations and Citations, vine Legion of Lbrit . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Defense !I/one Star . . . . . . . Asiatic-Pacific Thoater w/Seven Stara . . Victory Medal .. . . .. . . . . . . . . Japanese Occupation ... . . . . . . . . Unit Citation w/Throe Clusters . Philippine Dofenso . . . . . Philippine Liberation w+/! iro Stars Distinguished Service Star (Phil Rep) . . Philippine Independence Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . .. 1941 . . . . . 1941 . . . .... 1941-1945 . . . . . .. 1918 & 1945 . . . . ... 194f,-294V , .. 1942-1945 . ... .. 1941-1942 1944-1945 .. . . . 1945 . . . . . . . . 1946 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 4 Approved For ease'2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO167662600080062-0 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 Approved For ease 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80130167662600080062-0 Maj Gen Andrei E. Svirin Maj Gen C. A. Willoughby Lt Gen Robert L. Eichelberger Lt Gen Kuzma N. Derevyanko Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0 A. C. of S., t=2 GHQ SCAP SUBJECT: Biographical Data C.A. 'Jilloughby Lir. Allen Dulles Since I may need a friend in court, and you will undoubtedly have run across all kinds of con- flicting stories about me, I take tl:e liberty of filing with you some bio"raphical data of which there are many garbled versions' for your files in case the subject matter comes up and you will know exactly where I stand and all about me. The item of "Life oftha Soldier and Airman 1950" page 13 may be of interest as well. Approved For Release 2003/01/29 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R002600080062-0