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Document Creation Date: 
December 14, 2016
Document Release Date: 
October 22, 2002
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Publication Date: 
February 19, 1974
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T ;~ Approved For Release 2002/11/22, ~ CI~1,=,RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 _, '~~ I~CI~`~C 7~-~t- 1~ F~~ I3T4 NID~~IORANDUM FOR: Director of Central Intelligence SUBJECT: Declassification of Some of Your Murphy Commission Testimony 1. SubseQuent to your appearance before the Murphy Commission, on 19 November, the Commission staff reQuested that we review the transcript of your remarks and differentiate for them the classified and unclassified portions. For your information, they have taken this same approach with mast of the witnesses who have made refer- ence to classified information in their testimony. 2. The transcript which appears in the attached notebook has been reviewed by the DDI, the DDO, the DDS~,T, the General Counsel, and by me. We have underlined in red all portions which are classi- fied, except for a few points which are now treated within the Agency as classified but which you may r:ow wish to treat as un- classified. The particular portions to which I draw your attention are:. a. On page 9, the first full paragraph beginning with "That was a way of expressing the charge of conducting. espionage..." Is there today a good reason to deny that the US has a mechanism for directing the conduct of espionage? b. On page 14, the first full paragraph on the page. 25X1A c. On page 57, beginning in the first paragraph with "This, of course, is why we gat into the war in Laos...." and carrying through the middle of page 58; .then picking up again after certain deletions on page 58 with the paragraph "When the cease fire was arranged last January..." and carrying to Mr. Murphy's first c{uestion on page 59. This section describes how CIA got into the Laos war, etc. Can some or all of this go into the open .record to begin to set matters straight? State Dept. review completed. Referral to NSC not required. Approved For Release 2002/1'~J~~.''~~''~$3~RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 ~'~~~ 3~ Approved For Release 2002/11/22 : CIADP80M01133A001000060015-6 c3. t3n Pale 131= ttze ~aragra-~h z~baut which begins "~'It~.t har}~penec~ in 1~JS9 was- that a General in the Ca~~a3isn ,6~rr~y. , ." thr~nx~h page- 102 as m~rk~. This is t':z+~ story ~' why $ih,~ztouk thinks we tried to overthrcx~r h;n in 1059, and it semis that t~~is wt~u~d be ~. ~~ story t~ have out in the ctn. ~. Ths Cor:~3ssicm does not naw intend to bush a sanitized tr~~nsCri.~at, although they ~~y ~~ant to ~lis~~ an unclassified si~ry of y~aur ta~tirt~y. Thus, they wi11 need ~uf~dsnco ~rcm,~ us abiKxt which port~.ons s~f your brie~in~ they y use, Ater 1. ro- ce:tve yc~r ~uidsncs on these #~ c~ut~tandin~ mints, I will ru~rk thasir copy s~f the transcript to Witch yours, 4. far your in#~arr~ticu~, the ~om~ission 3s d~telc+pinq $ ~o;ll-u~, study }plan which the staff m~rhers will pursue. 1 knt~r tht~t ane area tm which they would like a olea~rer fix is inert action. 5. I rec,cx~end that you sign the attached lett?r tv A~,'bassrrd~+r ;~1t~r, tr~itting the sanitized text, Y wixl ca~rry- it to the G~ssi~ when I ~o to mark their transcript. 25X1A a~~tzcec~ Afi.tar~~nt as Slated Dc~xlrc/cs. 19 Feb 74 Distribution: t}ri~. -addressee 3. - DDCI. 1 ER 1 - CS chr?no ~- D Approved For Release 2002/11/2~,,Lw~~P80M01133A001000060015-6 ~~~elease 2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 An Open Invitation for Chan~c >~ s wF trove pointed out an other occasions, a new Commission has been established by Congress "which will submit findings and reconlnlendatiolls to provide a more effective system for the formulation and irnl>}ementation of the Nation's foreign policy." The three foreign Affairs Agencics.thenlselves have been studied almost unceasingly. The l]enter Commission, the VVristor] Commission, AI~SA's "Toward a A4odern Diplomacy," tl?]e Department's "Diplclmacy for the 70s," and innurnerabic academic studies have sougJlt to determine what is wrong ea~ith the three Foreign Affairs Agencies, and what should be done about it. Unlike rill of these earlier studies, the new Commis- sion, with the unwieldy title. of "Cornnlissiorl on the Organiz~tian of the Gavernment for the Conduct of Foreign Policy," has a far broader mandate t}ran just Foreign Affairs Agencies. "!'he Commission is cnl- powered to "shady and investigate the organizatian,- methods of operation and powers of the departrnents, agencies, independent establishments and instrumen- talities of the United States Government participating in the formulation and implementation of United Stales foreign policy." The Commission, generall}~ referred to as the "Murphy . Corllmission" in honor of its Chairman, Ambassador dtohert tilurphy, ~=iii not sirrlpl; confine itself to the three Agencies or even the Executive I3ranc.h. While it wilt ;nvestigate such questions as the role of the intelligi~nce community, the Defense Depart- ment, the NSC staff, and the domestic agencies, the Commission will be the first to investif~ate the rote of Congress and Congressionat-Executive Branch interac- tion. Equally important, the Commission will look at the broad challenges facing Americ-an diplomacy ,in the coming decades, and the implications for the future con- duct of foreigu policy, and witl even look into the policy pracess itself, In short, this is the first commission given sufficient power, a sufficiently broad mandate, and an intellectually penetrating and challenging approach. to make :a .full scale investigation of the prob- lems o# formulating and implementing foreign policy. The Commissioners and the Commission staff have made clear that they are interested in obtaining the views of AFSA ass the professional organization of Foreign Service personnel. VVe believe the Association is in a unique position to assist the Commission, and we Have already been in touch with -the Commission staff and wilk cpntinue to be in the course of this year. T}]e Association] ~Nill formally testify before the Com- mission same time this year. Already, the AFSA Conl- mittee on Professionalism, headed by Brandon Grove, Jr., has begun to prepare AFSA's testimony. At the same time, an AFS.-~ group in AiD, headed by 1Valter Furst, is looking into the specific question of the future of bilateral assistance and its rose in American foreign policy, and of tll~; futrirc of :llD. The USIA Advisory Committee has similarly established a group, the USIA Professional Interests Committee chaired by AI 2 FOREIGN SERVICE )OURNAL./G/IGQfy, /974 Perlman, a form?+' A1'SA Board nlcmbcr, to make a careful study of ihc. role of information and culture in foreign pok]c.y aru the future of USIA, andto prepare r'eGa111l1lendationS far AFSA's and the Commission's consideration. We already have some idea of the. basic {fines of what we will discuss evith the Commission. We intend to give the Conlrrlissian our best thinking-hopefully as good as Duly v;-~ork done outside the ~Scrvice to date-on the kinds of problems which will face American diplomacy in t11e next 20 years, and the kind of organization of the government necessary to carry out it-rose tasks. We intend to invc;stigatc and d1SGUS5 the nature of the policy formulation and paticy inlplcmentation process, and the steps ee~hich can he taken to improve that pracess. \'t'e nlay discuss the role of Congress and Congressional? Executive relations, 1,'e will naturally discuss bureau- cratic and organizational problems (such as the exces- sively Iarochial and client-ariclltcci approaches of some agencies, or the unnecessary prolifcratioll of nan- I~oreitn Service personnel overseas, etc.), but we do not bcheve eve should concentrate mucl] of our efforts on internal organizational changes in the three Foreign Affairs Agencies, as that alas been alrcadyaver-studied. Ancl. r,vith the possible exception of ill `~, we certainly da -not intend to place any emphasis on the deed for changes in altowanecs or personrlcl polici:s-we. are changing those now through the negotiations with the three fl~~encies. In short, we intend to take a broad loot: at the kinds of concerns facing the- Cam:nission, and not-just camnlent an matters of parochial interest.. No final decision has been made ors any of these points, and we have anky now begun t>> work on the details of our sug;estions. One real probem facing the Association will be our recommendations on the future relationships among the three Foreign Affairs Agc:ncles. Should All? Auld USIA reran. their ,~rescnt status as separate agencies with a substantial degree` of autonomy? Should they instead renlai:l as separate agencies, but be brought far closer under the overall guidance of the Secretary? Or is this the right time for the three Agencies to be amalgamated t.c:;~ether and, if so, brow? N~hat AFSA says on this issl;e may be of critical importance to the future of the Foreign Affairs Agencies. The existence of this Commission has presented foreign affairs professionals with a unique opportunity to help shape our own destiny. What is needed -now is a massive creative effort on our part to provide the Commission with our hest collective ttlir.king on all aspects of its mandate. 1'4'e strongly encourage you to take a few moments and give some ttrou~;ht to the general problems facing the United States Gavernment in foreign affairs, hoee~ we go about farlnulating and implementing foreign policy, flow the government (not just t}]c Executive Branch) should be organized to carry aui."phis function, and submit to us yotar analysis, iden- iiCication of problems, or recommendations concerning any aspect of the C;ommission's activities. if we as pro- fessionals rive this subject the urgent attention it deserves, we are confident it will have a profound. impact in coming years. Api}tiroved Fo~~Release`2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 X12'7 2/11~22~ C~1~~R F~>'~O~IO~~~~~JAA(~01000 !' i C' '' r r.~ ~ , . 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Q~ f.Ci~1 `.3 7'!?~Y. .,?i i.~' ? - E:CiC.`lv.'i ~4X' ~~ii's~ i-'.C~i11i17. ~"s;~>.i.f.~S ~ '~ :~. 43.Cf Y" ~ .. .. _ P~'.A;y ~~{}f( i7 9: ~~ 3,71'1 i tt A~1. ~:.~~ L..- F.. 1; L~ ~. ~i :'T;. l.f , r'tit try"~~,~' r 1: C'f11 ~7 > .';r,, ..~ . x}?. ~ Approved Far`R~iie~s~?2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M011'33AOa10004600'F5-6- Approved For Release'200~f11f22 :CIA=RDP>~01~1101133A001000060015-f~^~~2~~ ~` :~ i on car. }~ .. x ~>:cl : ,.z ~: I ':.~': ;:~ ~-c*. ~,?~~; , ~ .'. }~ i ri ~z i i.~>~i- ' ?`.' ~.~ ,?l F ^d < . ,. :'i1~Y C'rt~r~~ ~ ~:~'_n~~ nth ...k?,, Appr?ved For Release'2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001~00060015-6 r'r1r 1 ":' :~_ ~ j'1 ~, r;'s~'i i lii .L. _.. ~- ~ i . , a i;,,. f ta?:_y ?~I:'~.C"3Lt ~ ~y i3C: fs`..tat~?tr~. t+:.~Lf G?.S COG/I'I' D3 Approved(FWIU~~~1~~~ ~~~ i4~+1A_~,~~~1~~~1t~~~~~15-6 F C'Ft "I`!-9C COiidC~l~C`>" ?`~F F CJRt 9Gf~t ~'OL.lCY 2025 tai S"I"R~ET, N.Y~. WASHINGi~OP~o f~.C, 20506 THL COMMTSSTON? S STUVTPS P12OGRIiT~i r1'he document attached describes the Study Program au~.tharizet~ by the Commission on March 25, 1974. That Pragram should evolve as the Commissian?s deliberations and the research itself suggest new issues ar revised priorities. Pending such revisions, however, the studies to be underta}~en by the Commission are those autlined hire. Pete L. Szanton~ Research Director March 26', 1974 Approved For Release 2002/11/22 : CfA-RDP80'IVI0113'3A00'f000II60015_~ Approved F F~le a 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 ~M S5~Z~.N 0~! TF~FM OtiGAI~!!~~'t"ION OF= THE GOVERNMEPtT f-"OIL ~ F-I` t:~ilVUUCT GF F(1ilEIGt~ I~OLlCY 2025 M 5'( RT_El , N.1Y. WASNING'TON, D.C. 2050G l~i~~.r'C11 26 y 1~7~4 TiiE COMMISSION ` S STUDIES P12OGRAM The purpose of the Conul~ission on the Organization of the Gaverrunent far the Conduct of Foreign Policy, as set in its. authorizing legislation, is "to submit findings and recomrnendation.s to provide a more effective system for the formulation and implementation of the nation's foreign policy." The statute makes plain that those recommendations should apply not only to the full range of Executive Branch agencies concerned with foreign affairs, but to means of improving the ability of the Congress to carry out its own responsibilities in foreign affairs. The Comrnissian is responding to that mandate in several ways. It is taking testimony from current and former execi.xtives of agencies concerned with foreign policy, and from critics and observers of those agencies. It has undei:- taken a systematic canvassing of the attitudes and desires of members of Congress and will pursue these in future hearings. It may sponsor a number of conferences and seminars. Finally, it is commissioning a number of special studies. mhis paper_ C~11t1,J_J"1.P~ the Grono, content and timing of those studies. Approved For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A00'1D00060015=6 Approved For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 2 Sever. a1 introd~ictory conuncnts may be useful . First, the pux"~aose of aJ_1 of the Conunission's activi- ties i_s to make clear how policyma}:ing might be improved through changes in organization; it is not to examine the substance of policy. Accordingly, the purpose of the research program is to provide the Commission with a factual basis for determining whore current organizational perfor- manc'e ~-- especially within the Executive Branch -- is-most in need of improvement; what kinds of organization change seem, a_iltie7_y to prove most beneficial; and how such changes migl~it effectively be introduced. Second, in this document as in the Commission's work generally, the wards "organization," "foreign," and "policy" are all used broadly. "Organization" refers to the ~ar_ocedures, personnel and resources applied to the determination and management of, as well as to relative responsibilities of the various governmental entities invo,Lved. "foreign" policy is understood to involve the whol~u range of issues which may substantially affect the relation of the U.S. 'to other countries, whether t,~ey also have major domestic implications or not. And "policy" is takers to mean that range of f_unctians which includes analysis of the external world, and of U.S. interests with respect to it; er of foreign governments. Attent:ian will be directed onl~~ to apparently successful arrangements which seem appl.i~:~~~b].e to U. S , conditions. Examples are the British per~,onizel and commercl_al functions reformed as a r_esu].t of t.h~, Plawden and Duncan reports, the recently rear.ganize~~ Foreign Offa_ce of the I'edcral Republic. of Gcrrna.ny, and the I~'.r_ench administration of ave.rseas cultural and economic assist.anc:e programs. Approved For Release 2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015_6. Approved For Release 2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 Pk3ASE II: SUI3STANTI~IL S'.CUDII,S Phase II, embodying the major por~L-ion of the Carnmis-- si.on.'s research, will. begin in April 1974 and lie subs~L-a.n- Bally completed by December ]_974. Soma Phase II studies will be performed by the Commission's staff, otYzers by consulting scholars. The studies are outlined tentatively here; full specification of tl~ei.r coverage, appiaach and level of detail awaits completion of discussions with their prospective authors. A. The T~ffectivenessY of Organizational Ch.anc~e Th.c:re exists no formula which accurately p~~edicts the .full effects of changes in complex organizations. One :reason why the pr_oY?~~sa1s ifarmations of the foreign aid program, 1949--1962; changes in the State Department associated with Under Secretary Crockett; creation of the CIEP. To each of these cases, three main questions would be posed: Approved For Release 2002/11/22 :CIA-RQP80M01133A001~000060015=6 (PI#~pp~o~tl)For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 10 . What benefits ware anticipated from these changes? . Vdhat l~eriefits -- and what costs -- were actually experienced? . What general lessons for organizat7..ana1 change can be c~.erivcd? F3. The 1~dequacy of Current Qrganization The Cammissian. must abv:i.ausly attempt to assess the adequacy of current argana.zational arrangements far. the conduct of fa~:eign policy. It cannot canduct researcl~i on all such organi~ationa7_ arrangements, however. To supple- ment other evidence concerning the manner and ef_fectivencss with which the government manages the wide va.r_iety of foreign palicy pro}al_ems, the program enpects to examine in detail the adequa.ry of current organizationa.7_ arrangement with respect to four or five foreign policy problems of the highest priority. The purpose of each such study is to determine whether current organiza- tional forms, jurisdictional lines, staffing patterns and operating procedures are fully effective, and to suggest whether specific alternative arrangements (drawing especially tan the models outlined in paper I.F') might improve matters. The studies in each such area will pi?oceed by examining, asa nearly as possil-~le, all maja.r_ decisions made by the t1. S. Gove.rrunent of a particular kind over roughly the past five years. This procedure will present for review a Approved For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015^~ ~ ~~ (Pl~pprove~For Release 2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 11 his-t:ory of poli.cymaking which will 1.nclude c-~ses of crisea as well as routine decisionma}~j_ng, issues resolved a~t dcpa.rtmenta]_ as we1.l as Presidential levels, and successes as ~,re11 as failures. The deci.sians which, in retrospect, had unfortunate or unexpected results wi11 be compared with. those whose consequences were mare .f_avorable ai: more clearly foreseen. `T'hese compara_sons will seelc to 1.11umin.G.te the causes of inadequate performance ar_d to i.dcntify bo-t:.Y:~. the organizations and the functions (co11_ection of" informer--, devel.apment of alternative courses, etc.) which appeared mast iz~ need of strengthening. The particular foreign policy problems tentatively chosen fox. such intensive reviews ar.e the following: 1. r.['Y~e zn'ceractian of U . S . and Foreign Economies . In addition to sL~ch issues as the U.S. textile dispute with Japazl, 1969-74; preparation of the 1973 trade bill; and U.S. actions respecting the problems of the international monetary system, attention wi11 be given to decisions previously thought of as being domestic but which have a major potential ar actual. impact an foreign relations (e.g., U.S. crop acreage allotment decisions and their relation to world grain prices). Approved For Release 2002/11/22 :CIA-RDP80M01133A001000n60015=6 _ (P~-z~g~ro~gl For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-61~ 2. National Security~Issues. 'i'bis study wi11 seek to assess the adequacy of current arrangements far balancing the full rancre of relevant considerations - foreign policy ~_mpli.catians, economic and budgetary impact as we11 as national. security requirements --- in deC:l.SlaI1111akillg with. respect to defense budgets, weapons acquisition, base requirements, troop deploy- ment, strategic dr~ctrirze, anal the prepara-Lion of positions cancerninc~ international arms limitations, 3 . Coordination in Campl,ex_ Setta_ngs . Thi s study ~,ri11_ examine the capacity of the' U.S. to maintain caord~i.- nation between a l.are7e number. of policies impinging on a single fareicn state, or region. It will both survey the totality of U.S. foreign policy activity with respect to a single region or sma11 set of countries (e.g., the Federal Republic of Germany, or India and Pakistan) over roughly a five year. period, and examine in detail a case in which the combined effect of U.S. policies had important unintended consequences (e.g., pressure on the Erhard regime just before its fall). 4. Multilateral and Global Issues. This study will review recent U.S. actions with respect to the diverse but increasingly important issues which are inherently multilateral or global in scope. Often, they present Approved For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001b00060015=6~ (I'l~~ovTe~)For Release 2002/11/22: CIA-RDP80M01133A001000060015-6 both d.amestic anc7 foreign policy implications, cross traditional jurisdictional lines, and involve important technical components. Such issues include the oversight of multinational carporat.ions; deter- mination of seabed policy; and actions respc~ct.i_ng world envir..onment, polaulation, and food production. C~. i-1in:i_miz~:n~g Trr_ationa_lity Recent work in sever~~l disciplines provides new in~~ig)xt intc,~ the tendencies of personal. and :~ureaucra_tic factors (and in the case of crises, physiologica7_ and additional }psychic factors) t.o distort the judgement of decisionmakcrs. Drawing on recent work in the political, behavioral and psychological sca_cnces, this study would addr~~;;? two questions: (1) to what extent are current organizational, procedural and staff arrangements unnecessarily vulnerable to p.r.esstires; (2) what alternative arrangements might eitYr~.r_ shield decisionmakers from such pressures ar open their deliberations to others less likely to be affected by them? Answers would be sought as to arrangements both for response to cr~_ses, and far more routine decisionmaking. D. The Conduct of Routine Relations The adequacy of current organizational arrangements to mana