Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 27, 2016
Document Release Date: 
March 14, 2013
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
January 1, 1946
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5.pdf24.3 MB
Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~oscaw. 2+auchtio-Isaladpvs~tel'akii Itaetitut ~'a~rtoi'cl'no~;a phflziaistva, ;~s~navodat~ i aprobatsiis 4-arwofel?r~ ~I'roduotic~.n and oerti- ffe~.tian of sued potAtaes` `'oskva, 19~iS. 2n? p, 7~ 4~f388 Trama la tgd ire art by ,. fit. l:ar~ton ;~'T2~Jy~;CT'I~~ Tha irk an the "hraduotion arad ~ertifiQation oP Potatoes" is publlshad. ugos~ tba au~estion of th,~ L'epRrtr~en : oP Agriculture of tip ~Sl ~ and is deai~eed to serve ns ~ hasrd'hco~ on the seed grovriri~ and mertifio?,tion ("spro- bate!.a."1 of nate.toae Par tho berretit of the agaroucmiata rsf lend s~r~;$ni- r,atiana, oa2:.tctil*a and stPite f,and affiliated organs. The book provides ltadi~ and iaetrurstiva sa-teria2 an the proper organiaNtian of seed groarLn~ oi' poti+toes in oorit`orsrax~ee xith the decree no. 162Q of the Sariat of Paoplas ~ae~miaee~re of the itSSF, dated ??o~embsr 2g, 1944,. unCar t2a~v kreadirig "G~ Irspro~ring Patatt- Seed Grosrin~,~, e-nd it relates to problmme of seed, irariet~l work, the stara~e of sued material anc the ~atho~ia oP oontrollin~, d4.a~eeaee and potato Bests. It rapseaents the ~orl: of se~verRl staff rrmbcrs of the Institute of Potato Ittduutry. The raapecti~ae- ahagters trere coc-tributed ~iys 1. ~T. ~. l~aximoviah - "Grcrxir~ deed Potatoes" ~. i4, n. Zaites,~r- - `~I~esaription of potato varieties sand methods far their detex~iziatian" 3. U. H. Ch~ernlshova, Sr. staff member and L. P. ha~halin - "Diseases "` and gtaats of potAtoms and ?~etl~a3s for oontrollin~; them D. I. Zhukovsl:~, Sr. staff^tarber - "Potato Storing` Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 "osoo~r, 21.X.1.:.?Iz. - 2 FNIzT X ? u ~U GfiflT;Z2;t3 OIL' PCYt?~it~8 chapter "~ The ~iignitSasnae oP tYre Quality ai' weed interial and the i'ethads tar Smprovi~mg '~c~rierticQ IsiPiuenoe of quality of deed mtezial upon yie18~ Znflusuae of soil oonditions upon gnaaity oP see8 zzttlues~~ of agxioultural technique upon quality of seed s-aterial ~leanin;; anal mss selootioa for purposes at i~prove~arit P? 9 Ckmpter II f'.ethads and Ten~iques oP Clanal Seleot3.ot~ p. ~S The3 3lgniticar~oe og cslnnal se2eaticra ~Can8ltiona seto3t~ to inoreccso t}~ efPea~tivs? Haas of alanaA selection TI9a teohnfque cif olonsl seleotian j'urthcer ~ror2c se~leatad olones Chapter 112 Speeded Propagation of Potatoe~e p. ~S Tts~ sigaitioaaoe of tlaa aethods of speeded propagatiaa I?ethads ?or speeded propaSatiot~ fieohniqu+o tar obtaining shaded seedlir~;s and fording sprouting Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 i*ascar~r. t~. ~. Z.~.~kt. PI~R~ II - ~BC~IIt?:~ (!ir V?I~i'S ~I~ PAB A~:~3 i~~4tJ~ i'Li~? ~I~ ~~~i~ It3II ~hapr '~ 8~rot~metic aharaa~erieticas ai` ~ratata aari.eties is. 45 ~"~thoda ~'ar detar~inl:rag pa~ata varieti~a ~Tariet~2 traits Fier Pisnt {"~uab'~) tuber 8ee~dling ~arr+e lati c~r~" +D~rderz~ a~ detvz~is~ix~ 'v~arietiet~ Gha~ter Ii ~ear~.~tian pxtd trccmc~ai~t aharac~teristSae ci' x~~iazzalise8 patata varieties p. 6D- 88 I~e, of potata varialri,era ?~haraa~ria~ios a~ re~ia~li~ed patata vvr~--rieties C~aa~tar IXI tae Or~arxi~atian of Certifioa~ia:a ("ApProbatsia") si' varietal piaatSnge aP Fata~aes ~.. 9~ ~err~iPiaatiaQ r+~guira~vs~te ~'ar patator~s Certit~.+aa~~.os~ Par p~.aatir~~ .Asalytt is of patato tut~+~rs T'i91d Certi~ioa~~dn Ar~a~.ysiti ~~` tubers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 L~osoc~. ll.~. i.R.i~h. - 4 P1~~' II1: - DI. ~~s&~S F'~T: 4F i~+aT'h~pE~ ~i~ ~:2'~?C?F),~r F'~ T~Iit C :~ OI. Cl~epter parasitic diseases of" pote~toae (2"ux~~,i diset~ses} p. 3.03 Pota canker p'~,yt~aphtl~dra Dty spax a~' Ieavoea P,~tatcr milt ~hiaootonia rot of poto gibe re I~u~t scab of ~"Porvsl~iataya pars}~-"} Ccxtt~son sash off` potato ~ r~istributed ~~ 3ass +da~rta~ixag diseeees C2~ptsr ~I Parasitic ~'otatb l3iaaes (~aot~crie~l Diseeses~} p. 332 Rini rot o~ pafiato ~i~ i+e~ ~ rtsC of tubers C~,pter` ~Ii ~~~--i'arae~iti.cs t7ieeases De~eneratio~~ of ~-ed potatcee ae ~ result ~~' h3,~h tez~pez~atu ree 8piadie tuber {~othic~ ("v~etretattovid,noet"~ I,~rsf curl virus (~ariu~ aaisni} t~ra~,, +ohar~e i,n ae~sd material aauacd by a deficionay 3,n nutrition ("ltan#~e) off' tubers ash the Y`o~ation of "t-abies" ("de tlci"~ ~a~tiax~ of small tubers tsn eeec~ potato tu3aers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 'C.>aaac~. ~'. ~.l.~.l~b.. I ~tlacsk rQ~ Px~ t~ sma~hr~r?.~ag ~?) o~ ~ubera ~arkenix~~ a~ pulp crf" 1ru2~r~a I~n:~~ Qeueed ~ tnt~or~ by ~'~rost Ct~.p~ 1'V p4ta~a Pest Galarar3a bc~tt2e 28..apcit lady-bird (~oco~:t~el~.i~~,e~ 'dire ...{?j ("pra~~.c~ch~ie+~in) Harare ~"savkl:~') Ccc~kvhe~`er~, ~sy be~t2va ~?), ("k~-r~ash~i") p. 254 Chepte,r X ~i~aii`ic~ace of proper enrage c~P pot~toe~ p. 1ST ~tze exis'~it~ ei.~uetian ~ri~h reger~d ~a storage ~itiln~;ical ahar~ter~stics of pa~atoea Tras~sfart~tiax~ (changes) ~.a pa~a'~c~~s during atat~ge Chapter Il Prc+pnratiab o#" patataos .~t~r Starage the hee2~~ oar~iti,orx ref tu'~exe ~rea~aant ref F~atataes Cand~itiaxu~ aF s' pip+~r:eas o~ tubers Cl~pter iIT rFt of PO'l~~des ix~ e~zage Ueutil~zti~axt '~'~t1rAwi3Y`e ixi stara~~ p. ICfl p. I63 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ?~aecox. ~. Z.I.If.Kh. 4b~cervat~.on and Dare in storage 2A31~8 R#1[f 1~~Fitri3S l~ THE SPLEC~ZON OP POTATOES Appendix: I. ~'ha situation with regard to growing vlita patatoee p. 176 ~ Y 2. Liut of scsior~tii'fo f.nstf~utions to which is . assi,~vd the wor3: aP growing elite potatoes p. 178 3. Eegionali~ation of potato varioties in tha 1`iaASR, as oonPir~od in I~42 by the Govern- ment Ca~ission ("Goekot23.ssia") ors Ve,rietal besting p. 1g0 ~/~. I2$gionalisation of potato varieties in Soviet republios (outside ref the &Sl'SR, the Latvian, Lithueniasz and. ~:gthonian S$R, the Ffestarn oblasts of the Ukraine (USSR) aad '83SR {~hite- I?ussia), as of hpril 1, 1945 p. I82' ~. List of variet:fes rr~gione-Ii~ed in republics and oblaats of tho USSR, as nP April 1, I84S anal their brief oharacteristiaa p. 1Bg 6. ~'eble cif the principal d5.stin~uiahing tram of potat? diseases p, l88 7. Certifioatian of varietal potatoes form ~) p. 13G t3. Oeoree of certifiaatiou of potato plantings (farm 2) p. igg 9. List of varieties enterod into the description p. 2001 t~oree oi' the S.t"~ (Soviet ~farodnykl~ Canx~issarov) p. 200 of the USSR concerning the "Improvement ref Seed i~rowth" Potato l~II~SI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ '~. 5~~2 ~ ,~ ~osaaar, Ltauchna-Iesledovatel~aki~i Itzetitut ~21~ ~-' Rartofal~nogo Rhotiaistva. Semenovodstvo i aprobatsiia icartofelia (ProdEZation and certi- fication of aced potatoes} l:aak~ra, 1.846., 2~7 p. 75 i'858 'translated in part by 8. 2~ l~onaon C~~A'PT11R II ~ D15S~RI~If3IJ .Aim RC~1ip?.'.ZC CHl1R1~C'3'Rp:I~ICS i7F REGIC31'~.LIZE~ 1'aT~TEt VARi~?IES. p. 6U-62 Ftegiarzal ization of Potato Varietie s The av:silsbility of numerous varieties of potatvea, differing ezten- airo~ely f rcr~ eaat~ other is their ecoac~aia, tI~eir demands upon soil, oliaate, eto., compel one tci approach the matter of selection. oP varieties for the different regi.ona and faz~raing sections Frith the greatest caution. As new varieties are produced, studied under conditions of produetiQx~ at aollecti~ra acid state farms, the matter of reaosa~ending varieties for spraifia regions and farm lands becomers a still more responsible teak. As a general rule it 1s neaeasary to take irate acoount that there are no varieties that give equally good results under all ecological conditions. In order to establish t23e suitability of a variety for a concrete anviroment it has to bs tested. Qnly the experi~eatation of a nev- variety under co~litioss~ of production in aotne region or other, roahen compared vrith a control variety, (the beat varietiss in local conditions}, 9rS.ll demonstrate its suitability under presvailing cotxlitionsa Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~oucosr. Id.I.I.K.~th. - ~3 ? ibis stork iu basing pesrforxiesd by the Goverment network of ti'ariesta3 ieettinf; (Gassortget'} an apeaially earganized varietal plots of vrhich there arcs seve:ra3 in etaah. ablaut, territory artd republic and whioh take in the most i~portarkt soil-Qlimatia changes i~ conditions in the teepees-- . tiY*e areas. Depending upon the rmeu3ts of the teats performed at the Varietal testing plots oi' the ~ossortaeat' same varieties rejeatee~ as unsuitablq, ethers arc, aeseespted for intraduation into aolloctive-state farm~raduati on . The variati+as receiving favorAbly appraisal by the Government _____--. Corunisaian on Vaarieta3 Testing er+e inc3.taded rota the list ofi reaomsnerdad varieties Par a givr~n Oblast, territory or re>publia. tha the basis of this data. obtained ftcs~z the testing of varieties at col3ective farms of the different regions by 3aaa3 laud argani~ationes, a distribution aP varic-tias rrithir~ esaezh ob~,ast is zp~-de to serve the 3eatter's regions and oa33eative f'arxss. Qf' a3~. varieties posaeseeci by the D'SSR (over x.000), cf foreign and domestic se leeation, fif''ty (:50) varieties haves been sags- gated. a~rui rag,ianali~ad for territories, ablasts and republics as a result of the3:r respective studies at the Institute of Potsto Industry. ~~ tabl?s attached (appendix ~ and 4j at the end of this valume refot to the ~?egionp3i~ing of potato varieties. ,~ppeadix ~ refers to the distribution of varieties in the FSR8R, as esta.bliahed by the Govt Coannaisaian an Varietal Vesting in 3942. Apparnlix 4 lixts the distri- bution. of varieties in the r~zaining republiaes of then USSR, exclusive Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 of Beaoarabia, the abla$ts of the ~'eate:rrz ~rairze and t~e,~tern ~'hite ~.ueaia, and the Latvian, Esthonian and Lithuanian republics, as of April 1, l~fi. The varieties reaa~iving the vridest distribution nt the present time may eventually be replaced by more valuable varieties in the order ire whiesh the latter nc~nr varieties are produced. All varieties are divided into three ,groups acssording to speed of ripening: RAPIL ~'A7"iIAIHC, M~DIIRf lI~A`~URI?iG, ADD L~.TE tdATUA'ING? In sash. -~-.r-. of ttieoe groups there are table stock and t?ehniosl varieties. It is difi"fault to esta~.b3ia~h ouch distincstion in a fear (table ataak .and technical} since soap possess goad tasting qualities along, with a high starch content, i.e. qualities which Quit table requirer~anta as wall ~xa technical prodoction var. 3,or{~h). Z'h~e selection of new varieties at collective and state farms is coxtduotad on the baffii,ar cf 1. :+ proli~-inary testing of a ae~r variety at a apeai#"ia farm. and comparison with the host e.vailable varieties; 2, taping into consideration the rsethoda For the utilization oi' potatoes ~caepted an the farm, i.e.~where a potato industrial plant is lcaatod in the vicinity, technical varieties are aasi~ed to the parti- aular location, while ahem consumption is involved -tab lc stock varieties grill be selected. In either instance it is accessary to introduce all three groups oi' varieties (rapid, medium and late maturing}. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 a~osotrer. ii.T.I.~'.Kh. - 10 - In addition, in order to pre~*ent the contazaination of Tariaties at the fazes, it is necr~saary, rorhesraver possible, to select varieties. diff~rring in color, i.c~. oae red tuber, another vrhite tuber variety. C;ovar~~nt Regionalisatian divides all varieties into three groups PRI~CI'P,~I. ~?'1NI$1'ig& which have been suf fieientl stsdieed atsj, of greateett economic vaxue~ udder given conditions; P(~'~h'TI'AL VARI.ETIR$ which., otx th?e basis of pres~.iminery testa are of high qua2lty but Fxave not been c-dequately studied undesr c~onditionQ of pro- duction; depet~ing upon their perPor~zance undex practical conditzona they are being trane;ferred into either the pripcipal: group or aro re3ected; ~'R~'i?RAf~1LY AA~ISSI~LF YAilI~'TZFS xhich Rhile distributed a-re less valuab3,e for their economic quali.tios them are the principal varieties; the formQr x111 e~ntually be replaced by prinoipal varieties or bast potential varie tie s. bong the regiaxasl.izesd va.riestiem there is a group of cetnker-resistant varfdtims; these are the v~sriotieess '~ubel, ~'arnasaia, Cobbler, Besrliehingen, Na~estic, Great 5eot r, ~alev, fiberdeen:-~`avorite, Courier, i'h;~tophthora- Resistant, haul '~a,~aar, and ~4ungla. In vi?x of the particular danger of the potato canD~er disease, the vanker-renistuzzt varieties should receive the veidest distribution, eape- cially in the i5aeztcrn ob~.asts of the onion. `TAo ex~atian of an over-all pratesetive belt of plantings of canker-re!aiatant vaerietiee; iu the ~'estern oblasta of the onion represents one of the most importaezt methods for the contzrol ai' this disease. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~t~8etylt. N.I.I.$.1Ch.. - 2~. s Chu,racteristios mf ltegionaliaed Po#~.ata Varieties I~~+1-~'AgO~?~P. Frodueetd by Sutton in Briti;io. ~aaneraic quelitieas sxe8iutc riprrring table stock vr~rierty, of gaou taste; high yield; strsrch con- term ~erlicrc~; lc~erpixig ~uslity gad; r~rsi$tant to cr~nYsr. Fla~rt ererct; stem a1' ~radiusz pi~sntatian; foliage digs early. lea! dark ~r~en, lsrg?, 1.c-ng. estr~rngly se~rafiesd, lobes large xrith ertetttled poin~Es; proncsur~cod rosining; lastioles short. ploaniug gcod 'but arhart; buds piazrted; calyx of flc~wsr grs$r~. k'l~rs white, ncrt larga; tha l~xcue of ~uuatictx ie raised arad slightly' plicate; auuth.~srs are yerllr~-green; regular; stigiaa rzQt pro' Tubers shits, largm, rourxd, akin slightly ~vlis~g, eyes on surface; pulp white. Sprouts hal#=eti+platc~d, rrsd-~iol+gtj ~prauta exposed tc~ light) h+aroo a hall-Like o~va.l base, pinS~, slightly pubascerz~t; top lerngtnened, close:, lig3ft-~r~:nk:-green, slightly pubsscernt. ~A1~A YATtIE~'X. Pr4dt~aed in Gerrm~y by ~ixabe.l ict 1904 f rcaa the crossing aP l~eLr2y Surprise x Erst van Fresn+sdorf. Sy~aany~a ~#aincr?p. Scanomic qual- itissf medium te~bls stock ve?ri:sty csf roery gcscx3 t?ssting quality; yield, starch. content ~d kaeping qua3ity tare average. Flarst tall, lesafage dies rsradiu~~later; stem g,rraen. I.eaY dark gr+eers~; logos rou:xd, trval, Frith ~swanly beat ~:argins, slightly serrated; veining, ar~ediuz~.. ~12ocrm and fruit formation good. Peduncls and as.lyx gr+satn. Flovaors erhita, large, with Sang sharp grainta; locus crf ~unctiorr of lobes trt corolla rsfulur; antlers regular, oranga-. Tubers de-rk, ehr~llow-ava?, smooth; esyerz Sev- on surface; pulp a~hitet; bu.d-eye cluster class. Sprouts -not ctialatctcS, red-viaxet; ffiprouts {ex~,oasd ter light - bss? el3ipticsal-round, broxr.-pink gr~ec~n, scsnt3~ly pubescent; top Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 lIoscsc~Mr. t~.l.l.R.~h. bluntly cla~~rd oz' half of An, ~raen; ~.~ raot ~~exal:t,~; cc~~verin~ leaf" ~$dg ~F~LXf;II.l~t~3~ YA.~t~'~.'Y. Prcr~uced in Gerz~a,n.y by the 1'rra~rani?sa ;end. Gro~ir~ ln8urtry Sn f,923 fry thes cro$sirr~; Qt Pepo x C~rntifolia. ~,eor~c~tio qualiti+anr ;,aediuttz tabl~a t~tortk variety, v#' ~ocxi taste; yield high; etarc3~. content eaddir~s; keegf~a~ ~,ua29.ty food; tsat~ikar resi+ctaat axtd rele~ti~+ely resistant ~ scab. Plant ~ka2.l, ~rlth multitude af' leaves; stesz an,~ular; pintation ~re~;ular or in spout; ~3aa~as re~u~:ar, green. .seat not lar,~e; petiole, a~cils, sty, stsl~l~-tu and eair~s pi~er~ted; lohds round, d~.~stributed sgarsely ox~. Ions stal~rlets; end lcroe round nth heart-egged bxase; slightly serrated. 131a~a pratut}e; Fruit f.ox~tte.tian, ouaerved; receptacle h.i~h; upper le~s~aa ob~- served; ,~t locus af' fusion oaf pe~~cr-elr~ e. alaar x~3.r~ ~of pi~mez~t, upper part of peduncle ~rsry shorts aa3.~rx ~rea~n, pistent+a~3 ba~e~ aor~ a~ol.-shaped sharp eras. emery lar6v, deep aned-violr~t ~rhite tips on the out~aide and trh3,te e~.s`ips {"pros~et~) sin tkte inside. Oacsaa~ionaily double- petaled isas3.da; t~aa k~asa oS` peta,],s timt~,d; anthers large, or+~.n~e. tubers 'red, of t egular coal sh~epo, peeling slriz~; eyes ors surf'aae, csolored, carer than bas~:+~ bacs~rc~und; gulp vrhl.t+at bud-eye cluster chase. Sprouts hall"-abiolatt~d, rest v3s2et. ~prcauts (l,i,~ht} ball,-life, red base; toga half open, ksrv}refl; rc3ot tuberc2+ss cdorad. ~~1R1"tSYi"~ ~rh~`'~'. 3~rvduccd in Auser~.oa by 'Ck~hm~as (~~ in 1865, it ins aoru~idernd that thti ~rar~.cty rep3'eseuta a sprout f row the zsati~ra3. polls. nation cat ~'aa~ax~ lh3te the pollen of 6ar~t Chile. Econo~xc c~ualitie~az Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~reep3,rtg quality Marty ~b1e st~vek variety; yield, stash oontent and ~'lethkost"}medium; ressmble~c Early Rase in .ts morp~,Qlcrgi+ral traits. Plant not taigh; at+e~a thSck, straight, t3e.~fc green; loafage dies early ? I,ersf dark green, medium or Largo bloom parofLtsd; inf'1c~rescenca close; ca3y~t green, abu.ndetntly pubaec- acnt. Flo~dre largo, trts~.te. ~uhers dusk pink, long, lame; matey eyes, ~prout~ distr~.'t~uted over eA'tira tuber; skin sz~ooth. ~~.#x. - ha,lP-etiolated, aprvuts rock-violet; rsutec'.3.i~s. {light} deep red-vic-let base, strongly pubescent; tc~p htxli` opened, groan, pubesce+nt~ 4~OitI.T~?1tP1T~ ~'1`.I'cZE~X. 1'r~uced ire Germaxzy in l$9~; by CymLal {7} from the orosaing of i'~ber ~ Erst van i'raramdorP. ~ynonyt~e: Riab3.nka, Xuetsrka-, Eruue3l, Lozovket, Profmsmark.a, Ikact~tr, 1~o3.ftsan, Rcslf~aan, Elt~rein, Alkliovka, pad ,SRtbinovY~t, pyzr.~tia, I,atyetcka, 8a~:hur3~.. Faauc~ia qualitieeo large keep istg qua li t~y industrie.l vo~riety; hi,~,h yield and etarcah +~orit+dnt; ~"~.ezY~oet?}good; in pracstiQO remiatnstt to ring rot. ~'lsnt tall, atrotigly branched; foliage dies ?ate; stern strongly ~xititesd, angular. i~oai' di.reated st sharp angle; axilm, veins, artd stem of leaf' pigmented; lobea aarres~r, long (length double that of ~idt3c}, beret along; cesater vein; base of vnd lobe ivedge- sti~ped; sdrratod, lightly veinmd. ~llott~x medium; rte fruit fora-atiau ob- receptetc~le aer~; ~~ee~~ere-~as~ese not pronouztc~ed, strongly pigmented. pale- red-vio~,et, xith ~rhite t~ips~; anthers yellcr~, fre~}uetxtly irregular; +sva.ry colored, gear-shr-ped, T'ubet~ pink or red, ova]..-angular, skin ligh'~ly; buff-es et cluster clue eyesa ou surta.ce light, t..~p~.at3, sfioloxta lang. ec~~n~~ h~-lf-etiolated, sprouts red-violet; ilix~ (IS.g~xt} b,n1l-1Ske, deep brow-red basis, not pubeecetst; top ealased, eznall, pink, tnon-pubeg~aent,? rt~ot tubercles - 3; cover' pink. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 t"_osooer. ?S.1.IRK.~h, - I4 - I~'tQ V1~ItII:; Y. ~'roduced in ~rrun;r by +Cyssbal ire 1$95 fraru a crossing at I?aver x Erse von F'rrgdorf`. Ecoxro~ic qualities: late tab la stock- kespisag qu~-Iity in~'ustr`n' ~rariety; m~sdium yield; hSgh ~tarah content; ~Iezhkost"}geol. I'Iant tall, strongly brasached, smell lersfed; tol.iage dies late; step strongly pigmented. Leaf dc+.r~c green, ?argQ, petir~les end v~erins ~ign:ented; f requr;ntly found "i~ry-leer~rd", 1obr~s large, Bride, '~rlth re~,ulsr ~argirs ; r-odium vcinin~;. t3laort ;~aod; i'ruit ford an not obe~nrvad. k layers red- violet s~ith trhitd tips at bath in-?uxd outaidc. ~nthera orange, regular; ovary lightly aolordd. xubers sad, round, peel,it~g; eyes on surtaee lighter bud-ay~a cluster close. Sprouts tlisn be~sic baebgrauad; f?uIp w3~ita,~iisst-g~~~cit~ue.., Ss~-@lSa~~ - half- sprouts trtialat~ed, rod.-'~ielst; ttaad33s~s-(light) ball-like, dark: browrx-red, non- ,pubescent basc; top a2aeed, small, pir~, nos-pubescent; root tubercles ? ~; cover leaf pink. C,dLI..ANDSKx {HQL:..6?;~j V~Ip~~. 'produced in Holland by Van iiutsen f ram the aros a i ng of Pri.~a x F ranche. Syxsonyms s ?bode I, pau 1 Kr~;ge r. Ecanae~ic qualities: very late variety; yialci and sturah content medium; keeping goal ity ("le~hk4st'~;and; resistant to diseases ark dagmneration. plant tali, sitrarzgly br,~nahed, well laaf'~ed; folir:ge dies Iota; eteu:~ is ~ee11 pigmented. Imai' dark gx?~er-A, very Iar~;e; lobes large, oval with regular margins; Iabau small, serraticx~ lights veining sharp. Blos~tn profuse; Fruit ob- sernad vary salda~; ixrfloresacrsem spread, reeaptaele taighly pipented, upper leaves xxotioaable; veinir~ sharp; ~ialyx. of bud strongly punted; Flowers v~sryt large, ps,I+e rsd-violet; erith white andffi fro~- in-and outside; line (kacus) of fusion of l.abas of csorolla regular; anthers regular, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 orange, larger Tubers ~ri~ite3, ratxrtded, x~itk~ thinly pereling akin; ayes as bud-eye ciuater cl+vae aurfaae; pulp t~hite; nelct-gregartana; stolaz~a long. 3prauta partly-etia- lated, red-violent; sprouts Might} ball-likes, pink, pubescent base; top blunt, olased, pink-~reextl; froze 2 to 3 rout tube roles; aaverin~{ lest small, ~arirle, green. ~tA~IA FA~t~Y. l'raduaed itt Poleztd by ~3alkavsky in 1895 from the arossixr~ of Andersesn x pe~isshskanxler. ~cc~namic qualf.t3ess late indus- trial variety; yield and atarah content medium; stron,g2y suacexptible to mastsia diaeasess? Plant, lc~~r; branching ar~d foliage good; foliage dies late; stem darkly pigmented; cringe li~;kt#t, s1i~;Yatly plicate. Leaf sot largo; medium veining; margins of lobes plicate; slightly serrated; atea~a punted, on the first pairaC lobes frequently a split; last lobe re- veyrse-ovoid. Sloam asediu~, inflorescence loose; produces fruit oacasionaliy. Flom!-ras not large, rod-violet, r~ith small ro~hite each oxz the extariara rapidly burxzizag cut ~7); the ycaat~g f lags hsa~s red ~vainle:te arous~ci the carcalla star. Tubers dar"~s red, round, geeling; ayoa light, flat; pulp ~hitej; laud-eye tsluater aloes; stalans long; tubers difficu~.t to detach, Sprouts partly-etiolatesd, rod-v3.salest; sprout (light} ball-like, de+ep red non-gubee"cent base; tipper part ~,raen, scantily p+abesaex~t; iop olaaed or partly open; root tubercles 3-4, not aolarad. G~A~.' SCt7P VAR7.$TX? p`roducencl in gngl~and by l:`ayer in 1906 fraaa the crossing of lm-paratar x Champion. I~aoa~aaaics qualities: ~table+ stock, stedita~ maturing; medium yield; atarssh ct~antent leer; taste goad; keeping quality {"leszhkost"~ goad; re,aistant to aenker. Plant tail, sparsely Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 "aracavr. t7. Y.I.FC.~h, leafed; foliage, dies medium to lstea; stem stre~.ght, spatted gir~asentc~tion? Leaf dark ~;raen, shiny; a}r.~ lo'oe round; first a~ soaandsry label gngular; strongly serrated; ~rodfusr veining. Blocsrt wed; buds Ball off easily; receptae~ld gram, short; pedancle pi~acnted; aalyz strongly pi~entad. ~loxsers ~rhite, ;aedium; +ax~tt~e-rs y~llarw-green; pistil bent, z~at prorsircent. Tubers Mite, round,? top and stalan iu a de-pressiot, ~"vpadir~a"J; ,shin araooth and large-t3et'~esd; eyes flert, oonoentrated e-t top. palp trriites. Sprouts partly etiolated, red-vialest; sprout {light} ball-lore, bro~n- red, pubescent base, pubesoeynce claps; tap open, gresen-pink, light pubes- cence; root tubercles - ~; cave ring leaf wide, green. LFf3T3AAA VATt]~`i'Y. Pradgce-d in ~rtnany by 'liaetaek in 1913 t'rc~ then creasing, of Jubdl x I~eutsches Iteieh. Loone~ia qualities: c~ediu7 maturing tec:~le? ?~taak variety; yield ar-d starch corstent madiam; keeping duality ("lashkast") geed; estrangly suscepi;ibla to ring rot. Plant tt-11; good foliage- ~r~xicsh d5.c:. late; ete~. argot, irregularly pigmented; avings lightly glic~ate:. I.aaf dull, dark yree:n, le~.rge ~ttargius regular; $ta~tt lightly pig- rae~nterd; veining et~rp; l~,bes oval, large; rscdiuttz serrated. 33laom profuse;'I.c~rascmnca loose; bears fruit; recurptacla lightly pigmented; upper lesvos f'requdut; lamer part of pdduriole at:art, F3.gntcd; upper part of padunala and cs.lyx green; center vetins pigmdtxtad. ~'lawars red-violet; with white tips on the inside and white strips~a an tla+c euterior; +anthera oranse; tubers ter}site, large, esvute; umbel (depresse!d); ey+ss shexlloter; pale white; bud-eye cluster olose? Sprouts pertly etiolated, rad-vialat; rsproutQ (~,3.g}st) anal, raei-viola t, lightly pubat;esent base; tap closed ar partly apeu; brawn-red; 5-d root tuberclers, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 "~'ELLf~l9 Rt~:~ i'AItS~"TY. ~?oazeaatirs. Synvnym~s flue Plertrer, ~'ara2itfk, paloaerka., ~nreaa,+~taia, Sgar~hev~.. ~ccaao~xic~ qua3itl.os: yield and starch czvs.ton~: a~edxum. P3anb rat tall, wa;t1 lea#'e:d; leaave-s die I,~te; sLetm strafght; ~aigmented; tt5p of estejm has dark ~r~i,~n; wxx~~aa p3icate. I,ee~f not large; labea ox+al (obvvate}; n~arg~.t~ pl~.cate, treinio.g li.~ht; stogy oP It:f, gestiole~ e,tzd ~eains p3~~rnentcd; slightly merreted. Blvom food; in- ~`Ityrestse~naea apreaad; reoe~ptaale and lvwe~r part afi pet~uncler gigmesx~tesd; baote of oalya~ greett. pla~rear not Ltrge, read-~rl.olet, with roehite; stripes on tlae taxtexior .and rrhf.tea agnta on the inside; er-ds of lota~aa~ ox" coral],e very short; axthers ora.n.~;t~, f'r+~quent~.y a~a.sahapen; ovary kari~htly ovlored. irre~,ularly cao3:ored, gink at tog, e.t u~mb:s~. ~?} ~(" pugcvina")yellow; of lirze+ar, irresgular s2^.e-pe; eyes med~.u~a d+~pth, pulp wh~..te. Sprouts partly eetiv2ate:d, recd-violet; egroutc {light} ball-1i3~, red, 19:ghtly pu~aeisgeat be-se~; top pig:.-gram, c2r~sed or partly ape:r~; 3.4 tubercleg~ I~AII}It!!. VA~I~~X, prroduced in the USSR 3-u tha 1'?lar ~epsrtme+nh c~i' the ~l1-'~nian Institute: of Pl:flt lnduatry by i. b. and ii. ~;. ~easelo~~y ixa 194 Pram the caroaeit~s of Juber}, axu3 Solanum ao+3i~esnram (~odanu~-}. Evvnassi.cs quali.tie:a: madi.~, ripening, te-biet ~ve-rieaty of hSgh yS.e~1.d; e~edit~ ste-rch tsoriterttt; rclexti~ly rersista~tt to phytcaphthrsra; resistant to tranlGar, 2'3,axst root tall, measliuaz sproad, etroxagly leraPed; stem thick, gigmeatfo~t ieztersgcarse+d? Lead I.arga, me; serxa.teact, with large lobes, shiny; getioia ar~d stem vi~anL-ead. Bloom ,grat`usrr; inf'loreascenae~ vearg larger, tight {olosa}; rc~aegtwoie:, peadunole and oulyx atrvn~,ly p9,~ntsd; anthars yeallvx, reagular. p~.ea~rs weary 3.a,r~e~, deep red-vS.aleat, aomple+te,ly col+are8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Losacnv. IJ.I.I.'~.Fh. - 3.E3 - on the iz~iao, ~h.ita tips ran tha autaide. Teabera ~rhi.te, flat; eyes t'lat, pink, akin s~soath; pulp whito-ye2lQ~r; bud-aye aiustesr cslose; sprouts partly etialatee3, red-?violet. ~t#LFV VAIfI~Y. l'raduaed in Esthania by [~.i.sep in 1933 t'ro~a the arose;ink r1i' 1'+apo x Edaell hlu+a. ~aontxsia qualit~,es; medium rigenin~ table stock variety, of ~avc tm,ete; hi.~h yield; mesdium starch evnte:nt; kes~eping quality ("leahkost") ~rovd; canker reuistant; racist aus~eptible to vn?inlsSed mosaic ursd rinS rat, Plant wide, r~alS leafad; foliage dies medium-early;. stem lightly pi~texsted. Leaf hs.s rvurd lcbas i~afraquently placed Frith ~tmali fitting" ends; brio ot` esnd lobs heart-shaped; petiole Ivng; slifht eerratian; veining .lar;~e, shArpz ~lotrs proflases; no fruit fvresatian; reoepte.ale high; sharp tips of calyx short; buds ~raen. ~`laeers neat Same, red-va.o2et, vrith short su}iite ends on in-and outside; anthers vra~z~e; stain areot; ovary 2^rsua8. ~`ubesrs kites, rout.d, parsnip-shaped; $kiu poel4ng; faa+ eyer~ of ~zesdium depth distributed at top; pulp w2?:it~s, bud-eye clusttr nlvae. .Sprouts partly e~tivlated, recd-violet; eeprouta (Ii~ht3 t~sll-Silca, brown-red, li.ghtSy pubaacent base; top lvn~, partly opened, brcmn-~reacz; aide vove,ring ].eat'. Q(7gF~Il3R VARIE9"Y. Iaxtroduarrd trasa America; noaaibly a sprout of the Early Poeei Eaanomic qualities: early, table stock variety; yield and starch content medium; keegirr~ quality ("lazhkaat"} poor; cankex? reRistant; nou-rea~sio~tarat to rises rot. Plant raids, strongly Seafed; leaves die aarSy; atom stran~;ly pig~sented. Leaf lama, abundar~.tly pubescent; base tat and loge heart-shaped; lvbaa wide; small lobes lame, li,sear, angular; strongly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 serrated; veiniss~ c.on-?hrzrp. }?loc3nz profuse; ini"loresceacse tight; Fruit far~r~ation i~ai'requet-t; lower p?~rt at pcduaaole is one e.nd a half ties lar~ar than then upper part; csrorm of aaly.x pignurnted; buds pigmented. ~~lom+rs rest-vialvt ~+r2zitF tips, large, burning qu~.tskly; ar3thers la~rges, orange. l'rabera white, round, skin door rant peel lightly; eyes ehal?Lorr, pulp erhita; bud-czyo alter close; sprouts partly etiolated, rvd-viola t; sprouts ~li.ght} ball-~.3ko-oval, pink base, atrang3.y pubescent; top tigl~~tly cslflSed or gart~- opened, pink-grecr~; brcrrrn tubercles - 4-~; covering leaf e'lon~s.t~ad, green. Ii(3~tBhFVS$'~ VARIETY. Produeed in the ReSB at the- Horenev Selection +Sts.tian in 1922 frnm the oros~ing of S~tez~z~Symslavski (~'tirsta~rkrc;ne), Eoanamia cfualiti~ss; szedius--late i:nduetrial variety; yield end aterah eon- font high; keerpir~ qual3.ty goad. ~axat tail, strongly branched, moll leafed; laeves dSe laL?e; stem angler, green; Leaf lame, dark greerx, abundartt2.y pubescent; lobes large, ak~avtttcscratal, xith regular margins. Label centered, -directed da+wrtwnrd; li ht serration; sharp veining. Hlaant good; ini'lar~nsrsenaa sprerad; Fruit tarmation not observt~d; res~ptacle high; ~4~ 1-~~r part at peduncle green, upper part pfgsseratod (in oomtrast to Larch); zaa~ority of buds hams star on tips.Flaar~rs bri.~ht read-vio3et, ~3th cloarly noticea#ale ~'hite sgats on in-side and wYaitc~ tips orx outside; anthers arauge. Tubers wh3:te, round-ovate; skin dose ,net peQl lightly; eyes of medium deptk~; pulp ~shito, when sliced brawn; bud-eye crlu+eter closo; staiotts fibrous. Sprouts partly otiolated, rod=r~,olet; sprouts rv~.~.,~ht) Bali-2ike~, bright Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 rod beam. tedium pubescenoca, straight hair; top aloaed, pink-green,; teat tuberal.cs f`aur or five; covering leaf' pinks?h. CL?~ti~CALLIS VARYF~'~Y. Produced by Lambert.; arigin unkna+m. Ecanomia qualities; table steak medium maturir~; vari+niy, yield arEd stareis content medium. Plant tall, ~.}. Ieafcsd; st+~~s pf:~mmnted. Ler,f dark grfson, emery lame; lobes large; atrax~Iy sa~rrated; Iii;ht voicing. 6loons good; in- flaroeaex~a+e base; bode pigmented. Flowers largo, red-violet, vrith ~rhite tips an thlJ insidd o:nd tthitQ stripes ore th~a autsicle; locus of fusian af' labor of oaralla plicate. ,AzxtYaarffi regular., yello~r; pistil straight; sti,~ma larg?, protruding, daub le and triple-lobed; tuners ~-hito, of rragula.r agal nh~-pe; skin pam18 fi,x~!ely, eynn orx surfa:ae; pulp white; bud-aye cluster closr~. Sproutxt partly etiolated, rmd-viol?t; sprouts (light) anal, br.own- tees base, tedium pubvt~aenae; tap ~rpon, pink-green; root tuborales 4 and 5; oovesring les~f' txlar.~a.tod; RRIt31iQC,LA~h (T?F~ .1~~F:) 'SrAitlFfiX. 1'rodnomd in ~`ranae in. 1864 by the Agricultural Institute ttoauvais (i3avee) arsd rms~ed Tnatitute Be+~uvais (~ovee); synonyn9ns Tu~.~-, i'luiehka, Livaneki, Firolcen, l~del, ~3eloslanka, 5naahinka, BoluLnx, Prenah, Austrian. ~aanoa~io gtaalitiegx medium suaturing tabim variety, medium yield; low starch aontant; keeping qual3.ty fair; susceptible to leaf f'aliage curl. Plant tall; ~.a~-~eg~+ dying taedium-late; stem slightly angular, lightly pigmented; gtarchinoea plicate, ("1~ra~~ixcx-Iimtoat"} . Leaf' shiny, groan, thin; rind lobe drooping, coining li4ht; li~,ht1y serrated; label linear-oval. Veins and seam of lobt~s pi~rentad; small saber ~,lon~ted, oenteredi J31oom f;oad; inf'lareaaonao epreadt non-f rust bearitxd; hairs ereot; tip dark br. tern-red., lot-g, pertly open, soamtly p~eacant. SEiAIgF:Ti~ Vt,P~TY i?41~i9 s~2f3 (years ~'rttctZOed in the USS~2 at the Ix~titute of Potato Industry and the ~ovosy'b3tovaky 5oleotian Station its I52EI f row then oroesiag o!' the varieetiae3 iSruger a Smyelovsky. Eoonomic: qualities: r~cdiu~-early r.~ituring tab3a stock veu-iety, of good tasto, high ySdd; maditss starch cozxtarzt; good keepixsb quality; a:ot such affected by disaan?. Plant ovidv, strongly leaf~ad; stem grea~sn, knea-life. leaf ~rery long, under ri.~;ht ang3aa ~. vinining and pubesceccer light; bate of end, lobe ~oedge-ahapedi f irnt pair of lobes slightly direacted dovnra+ard; tiro pesirs of ema21 lobes. PXo+~ good; irflQreseenco loose; lover pert of peduaalo pigmented; ~;resn buds ~'lo~ers red-violet, with white tips on tha inside +and :erhite stripes on the eraterior. 1'~.~laers ~rhite, long, Frith numesraus eyes, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~:~oSaa~Pw ~.,l..i.~.ii~. .. ~~ ~ rzot deep; smooth skin; rhi~te pulp. Sprouts partly etiolated, red-violet; sprouts (light) base ball-oval like, lightly pubesaeat, brarm-rase-greerr~; tip partly open, green-rase; covering leaf olongated. SgI,A'TS 1~4 - i~F~IABIi~Bt3K. Produar~d in tl~ II55E~ at thm Petrovvsky Selection Station iri 138 fro?; the orosei:ag of Ss~yslovsky ~ Aza. ~aanomia qualities: early table stoc'~-industrial variety; medium taste; high yield and stash aor~tent; good keeping qual~.ty. Pleat not tall; agreed; greets stem. Leai` desk green, li;;ht veining. Bloom profuse; fruit bearitxg. ~'lo~aers pale rt~d-?v4.olat. Tubers ~hit+e, round, do not ge~al lightly; bud- eye aloe ter algae. Sprouts partly etiolat~,d, red-violet. .. SSAIAIETS 2to 1. - YUTciIL'~Z~C. produced icx the iTSSS at the Petrovsky Selection Ste,tion ixt 15~:~3 from seeds obtained frogs the natural fruit of I;piaure;, Synonyms Lgioura- So 1. Eaortc~etia qualities: early tab to stook variet;~ of good taat+a; ,good yield; medium staraks aantetat; k+~eping quality ?,aad. Plat ~v+all leafed, of tttedium hsigttt; st+~m slightly gi;gase~szted. Leaf dull, atrangly sterratad, with slightly plicate t~argin8, right atsgle. Bloom good; fla~rg pale rod-violet. Tubers white of typo of "Spiaure~ but larger and ayes lvsa deep; buc3~c-ye oluster aloes. Sprouts partly etiolated, red? violet. aEIABgS 359. PPg1lU~El3 :r. the USSR at tho ~'iav Eaperi~zent Station in 1928 from the aroasirtf; of SCruger x #~syslcrvaky. Eaoaoslia qualities: smediuc~-early maturing univrsrsal variety; high yield; medium starch aantetat; keeping quality goo~t? Plant loan, lightly spread; stsra slightly pi~aeated, thin, knee-likes. Leaf lar;;e, shiny, dame greon; tstediur~ serrated. Itafloresaencs Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~re~r~r3.ous; blao~ pra~lise; rece~atassie hi~,lx, pf,teu~rd. Flaaera o~vhite,. lar,~e. fiubers white, raund arn3 e7ougated; akin +aoth; bud-eye cluster closa. 8praute partly atialsated, rad-violet. B~IA~~'8 722. ~`raduced in tha iJSSI~ at the ~'oroneah zonal Station of the Institute f`ram thc~ orc~sain~ of ~ru~er x S~yelo~re~ky; ~canae3ia grzalftiea: asedium early table atoak :riety, of ~,ood tauti,ki~, ge:ality; ield etid staz~h aanta:~t load; kacpix~ quality ~aod. Plr~tzt tall, pawerful, loaBe; stun k~nere- li.i:e, sharply pi~sented to spats. Leaf lame, ~adiu~n nerratiacs e-xu3 t~eiuing; ~rgir:s o#' 2abea regular; end lobe raund, lame. I~laa~ ~oac:; infloresoence ~;rcgariauffi; no #'ruita. l'lo~rr~ red-violet, large txith ~ehite stripes on in- artd aut~side. fiubr~rs ~af.t~i, round-nvalt deep eyes; ~nooth akin; white pulp; bud-eye alxtata~r ~slaaa. 3pr4uta ~rtly eltittlltted, red-violet. 1570. P'raduaed in th~+ ~SSF st the pelarus~eiax~ ~electfan GrQizt Station iu lpi2 frasn the crowing of 3iodel x Al; ~aanania qualiti~rs; esrl~,~~rrediur- maturing table-stock-forme variety; good gield; ~ediu~ rrtarch cor~tex~t; ket,pix~ quality tedium. Fl~-nt tail, dark greeza, ~re13 Ieafe~d. Leaf large,, pride; dorard Icsbe~s onto stems observed. Ini'3.cresaenaa lipsited; bloom 1i~;2it; saw fruit. Flower ~chite, spat large. 2'ubers~ red, fiat-round, Sprouts partly etiolated, red-violet. :~IAl~TS S6. Produced i.n the U:~S at the l'alea+aky A.griaultura3. ~Sxperi- ment Statiott is 1828 1'r atx unlsrsase~t creasing. &ynanyrsis ~ary~aharzin. Bcansszic qunlitieas ~edius~ azaturnix~ table stock-forage variaty; high yi+elsi; ae-dium etarc~h content; ke+epin~; cuality good. Plant ro~ell leafed; ~ste:n al~eat atr?ight, lightly {Si~++snted ins the leaf axil~t; Leaf' very large, bright green, dull; mac?i~s srrrration; lobes larger, ar~ull lvbsa raund; ataxy pi~+ented. Blov~s Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 3:'os8oer. li. S.I.I~.Rh. - :3F3 ? prof'uee; fruit beering; recnptsales high, thick, gi~sented. Platers white. Tube3rs large, r~l:ite, rovitt~ pink tint, rounded; eyes of z~edium depth; ~rhite3 pu2g; bud-eyo cluster close. Sprauta partly etiolates, red-violet. S?I,A15 7'~. Produced in tYss t~SBI~ at the I~ningrad Zaraal Station of thee Ir~titute of Potato Industry irc 3.932 t'ro~ the erasing oi' Epicures z. Centifolia. Ecana~eio que.litiesst rae;diu~?ear3.y matur~in~, tab3ct stook variety, good tasting quality, high yield; good starch content. i31oa~ profuse,, floaere white; tubers ~itv, ovals oyes sxsall, ski~z peseling; Sprauts partly etiolatesd, red vialet. SEIA~ETS 24Z.~261. Praducesd in the ~SS$ at the Uliano3rs~ Zoncl Station o~ the Inet~erer a#` spraying with ltordereux liquid in ct~ntralliag phytapbthare: ies can#'izxned bey want' Pasta. Zn ,f~aeriaa, Ira the state oP ~`exruont, sprayed plantings of potataors produaesd ~~~ uczits i.u yield art etigairrest 159 units Pro~r utsepray+ed plots, Ire the motherlands spraying resulted in an incsresase of shout 5t3 percent in yield. in t3erraany bsst~reen 2928 e.nd 1429 spraying iru:reaned the potato yield of early varieti~ss S~l.~ percent, of medium maturing vari~sties 13."' percent and late maturing ~rearietieer 3.35 percent. 5prt-yLng oT potatoes in the various areas of the iTSSft produced the following rdeults. ~ 5e~ tatsle 13.E Bq}~?EAU~C LIquID (exac~ardirsg to data oi' ~ far 1935} Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 TABI~: 13 rr,..r.....,~.rrwsww.+rr..r...,,.rr,,.,rwn' s:..~.w rwww ~Qaation of Ix:areaae of yield in ~arir~us ~aarietiesw{inwperaent) s ~prxy~ing _....___,.......__.._w___w___...._____..,.__ Sar3.y ~ediust Date ~laturiz~g l~QSa~ Ohlre~4t 8 lf~ Leningxad t~ble+-st 2tJ 7 fie larura er ian ~S~ i 8? gl Siberian Forests 75 22 ' increase in yield is anused by the fact that patatoea sprayed with Bordeaux liqu~l Qr dusted +rrith !~B_p~~.are_.nai~_..i~t'eatad by phytophthora or wry r13.ghtly inf'eated. 1'he plants remain green until the end. vi' the vragetatlve pvric>d atxd aorrtinu~r their inareaas S.ts y3.sld. -- ~ V the thought of utSliaiz~ the plant itself i"or cantrollin~, phytaphthora oaaurred almost sitrtultaneously the spread oi' the disease, S..e, about one hundred years ago. Zt eras obs~ervred that di.i~#'er+rttt v~arietiea ot` potatflss reacted. BS.f'i'arently to the infe~ation by p3ytophtho~ree and that the difl'erenas in the degrere of inf'ectiom Brag retronger bn the tubers than on the- foliage. S~.nae that ti.ste msx~y r?+searal~rs 3~av+e pursued axtd continue to pursue thri- task of producing ~ariet#;es resittstrxt tQ phytoght~ycrra. At First the 3cnonn cultivated varieties were urtrd #'or the purpose. ]iher~ the wild tuber -----_ bearing ~speoien oi' 8alanut~, resistant to phi-tophthora 'rare discovered, i.e. ~al~ d~~i~~umi, X01. ~re~i.+~e~sisgu~, ~~~? ~tipgg~,ctgfi, they ware used as paramts in arossin~;a with cultivated vari At the present ti~re~ $esveral eaanos~.aally valuable hybrids have already been proc~uaeci ~vhioh are rresietant to phytophthora. Revert +ass, it rorould be premature to discontinue they Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~~ ~csrk ~ritks exfsti.a~; csultivated ~ari~eties. '~rsy Esf tlsem passees a~e-luable erscsnc~sie qualit~~rs, area ai'feat+sd by phytaphthssra ?sn2y 9.t~ a s].~.,~ht d+s~ree ~~ tubers in t~arveating. I/39f~il at~3 are proaervad veiEth a ~isiim~- o~ lass. QP rah 1;ntervet in this oon- tre,atit~xi is tYs* data of 8~rc~~o~~ ~egel~e~sZe ~'e~taty Experireut Fiv2d ~"ar 1~3~7. ~rirs~, a aev~sr~- apre~ad of the d3,~sease its that ~-ar s~dt a17. varietiet~ +~uf,~ered irs the same de~roo, (Sea t$ble- 1~.~ It ie alt~c~ s~xeaessE-r~t to dirrect +~tt+~tatian tQ tt~ airctmstanaes tl-:st the irzfe~stion ~n tuts fie3d cs~ ~~e~vess ~tf e+~r'ly war~.+eties +~csurred izs t~se smote degree entl t~aa e~~ra~uated by t1s+e h~.~hest mark, i.e. 3. ~ spite c~~ this the eraridties Fpiavre std ~~ror~ d3.d rxs3t produora any diseased Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~c~~c~ror. ~t~tu~~ttp-~a~~led+av~t~l's`~iS. ~rte~fttxti ? I~~rtaPei ~~c~~o ~hosi,~~~ve. ~z-t~vod~~ ~. ~-prab~t~3.i~ 3~a~e~.ia ~~rochao~io~ ~ ~erti~ '~~ss8lAt~d iri p~tY`~ '~~ ari. '. ~'{9A8C~ e.s~r-~,?r.w.n sarswrw~r..w+n~r ~..rr.~.~a. ~w~sss~r~ i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 soo~st. 13.I. S.~.Pfh. ~~ x~A~ s~a~ ~~.~r,~~s~c~ts~ so~.~x ~Z,,I,., et rtu~T. Axy lack' spot is also oali~dd ms~tsroAporiu~, aiterr~mxia, e~srly potato rot. fic~r a lats~ time this di.sea~se eras oansidored of iittle~ barn. There ia, novertheless, Buff iai+~~t data to m~sert the roverse. ~aoordiu~, to ~moriaan data the d3.sease reduada tba yield 2.ra p+srcent. tythar data paints to the usatis~2y dying oP plants and their cos~r~lata c'estruotiocs even on irri~tad plots. I?ry lee~fs spot ~sccri.eua~~,~ur+ea sprouts and our, +~e X11 as .for?i~t~ se].eotor~a, caul it thrarafore the tcocaur~~e o#' aelet~tion. i'he disease r~!'feote potato lpe~vvs. Tub+srs ~dt infaoted x~ben they have a toncfer skin xbiah pa~sls off during hax~estirt~. T3ry spots of roundish-ivy soaps appear on t'kta leav+QS. Against the d+~rk-'brca~ beck~rou~ off" t2aa spots staztd out oontrio (?kontaentriahes~ia"~ rims, eepeaially Ali seem on large spots. the agate, disported in disorder over the aatirv icsaf' star~'atte, ~;1rou, unite, artc! ia~td to thm csor~piats dying oi' the l+sai' (sea illustration ~, p. 114~~ . 'the dieesaa~e~3 tubvre have rie-rk, al~oat blaok, alightiy dep,reseed spots oa thei.r aurfaoe ~rhiob in ao~ c~aeas ~xtancl to third of the tuber. rule, the spots do not dxceed 1 cttn. in diarseter. t'~an aiiced, a dark- brown, ltry, hard iiaxe oi' rot is seon through the spot, ~rhtoh penetrates r-6 ~ into the pulp of the tuber (illustratican ~'5, p. 144). The tubers ati'ectsQ by maaz~poriwaa are exposed to attaaka by saprophyte, t'ungi and baoteria, and decay oo~xplate+ly. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 I"bsac~r. ~.I.~.~.Xh~ - - 1'n tho fields th+~ c~i~aease usually appears its the middle ar by the} end o? June as~d desrelaps throu~haut t~:e entire suer. It s cabsera~ed that hat dam alterriatisa~ r~ith ~rarm rains aa~d r~e~- nights e~re3st+~ fayarable crnaditic~ns i`or the deve+lopa;ex~t of the disease. dry leaf egAt straza~3g aPfeats patataegs 'during aflntinuous eulti~atiaa. 'Ihe glance: frequently dry aut ata irrigated plcte if af,Cerafi~ed by the disease. I3ry lee~f spat is eprvad primarily in then eentrs,l ar~d southern ps.rt~a a~' ti2ao USSR, i?+~. the P~aaeao~r, ~ur~ak, '~aranerh, ~harkaq, k'C+ltage-, and atheyr ablasts, but it iu alsa i'aund in t~uah places ae Pamir , tt~ Sala Penis~s~ula. 3'cs cs~oretrgi the disease it i~ essa~ntia~, to gra~r patataes irs proper Drop anti 3.t is alsca neeegsary to gather end defstray tht veget- aGS,ve residue fo?.lar~iz~g then km~rvesting of pot:xtaes. Fasiti~ee reie3ulta csx~ro obta9.ned f the epreyix3,g of poteetaaee i3csrdesux mixture at the i'irst gign t~f disease. the reaatica~x to the disease mi' many varietiers dif?era radically. i`her varieties I.arkh eYtd 1~'ahltr.-e.ran ores lightly of feotesd lay "it, Early Ras+s aa~d Phytcsghtk-cyrc-R+~aistant arer str~aagly aft`+eated. Into thS.a group kaelr~n~ disensea che-raeita3riz~fl bir ei genfrral trait - the: eailtia~ csf let~ves and etcros u~td their I-remature deetay. Indutiers are the tLznS,,i '~artic3.Iliuri e-~,bn-strum Eesiztkea a~ Aerth and ~'uearium. ~ILfi ~0~~ VER~ICIL3~It1!?. Rhin disse3~-se affe3atix~g potatoes prevails ahi.efly in the ee~utla-eastern a#ic! ct+r~tral gaits of the US6R. In theses l+~amlitiehe it ~saus$es visblo looses in yield. Accardiz~g to data provided Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 by thr Ulianov ~xperimsntal 3tatiox~, a~eraga losses in yisld of di!'farent varieties o~+ar ~s period oP threte ~aarae et~sctuntea to 26.8 to 40.E percent. ~osoorr. ~.I.I.R,Kh. '!'he dev~elopaeat o1' the diexzaffie ie hrlpsd by a te~psre,ture of 2Q-23oC and the continuaua, uoints+rruptad cultivaticur oP pot+-toea. It first th+s margins oP lea~-a get alightlyyirllow et~d izx~ividual. Iaawes sad lobes gilt. 1ll~tt si~rultanaouerly with tpe rriltittg, which grtmrs wars marked froau day to day and r~praade to rx~ Iaa~rg encl +~tama, the laa~aes kiagin to dfa when on their margisar appear brawn spots. Finally the a or the entire plant daeuty. In moist cnrditlons a thin, vrry t*nde~r, xhl~tish fi2+~, acaeistiag o#` the Fruit-basting bodirs of the fungus, appearA on the d+~ad parts oP th+~ plant, first cc thrt~ petialae. 101lting its f'requet~tly acccmxpaniad by the brc~cning aP t~ cu3ar burdlas cat' thr etam. In doubtful cases it is raocrt~ad to out pieces ofi' tkla bass of atsm aznd place them in a dank room. If varti,ollli~ is present thGr charaoteriatic taadar, hardly noticeable files wi11 appear iz- 3-5 days. the safret way to astabiie~h the disease ie to e:ca~ine the i'ilm uadar the a,~.oroscopr sines it e~oatains the fruit-basting bodies of thr fungus. {~na smRy dually ?zatnirx+ the thin lateral outs taka~x Pra? the bxta~e of the stem. I~' aft'etited by ~nrrtiei3i3um~~ the roe-soular and ~egiral rings of thsr ~rteen at+r filled wi'~h mycal.ium (illus- tration 28, p. ll6) . It ~s oonsidsrac3 the-t vartioillium was incapabia of inuring the tubers. $cme point to t~.~s browning of the rung s~ guided by thine feature dabertyaina the infdatlnn of tubers. 4tt~ar}wrs, howavat, deny the dependence cf this fact upon varticil2lum and olai-r t~aat a high temperature arutl low huwidity are capable of causing tbs bra+,saYiz~; of the 4e-soular ring of the tuber. It is aeaaeasary to direct attention to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~`eu~t ~hn't the brcrnni.~ ire the ~a~+~ ~i' the v~.~cu2ar r~is~g ia~ z~at cc~~x~te8 nth ~;~ ~eaey o.~ t~ tu~~ guT?p ~nd dae?a s~flt rei`~~tat ax~pot~ the ~,~,ttsr'a~ ~~~ f i,1 ii I` 13, ~ ~'~.rrst had t~aaeartrally be oansidersd an essential beoause it produces conditions unfa~+orable far the penetration of fusariusa into tubers. itrying should be dons in the wind, under covers, or im barns, in places protested free the sun. 1'he drying of freshly dug potatoes, especially those xith ur~d~rnloped striae, in the sun Por a period of ~w~a to three days leads to burns xhich, as X40 other in~urias, result irn the rotting ut tubers i`rca fusariua. Cases Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 a~ ]cnoyrzt wl~e-n t~a~ere i~e~rzred by the sun during k~ax~estiag in August crr ear>garias~.zs practice arc valued accord ingly t~ucsh la~-r. '~~:~z trantmiasicsn aP dis+cases t~traugls tubers anri the aYin of diseased tubers introduced ~.nta tine sail indi+ss.tes tl~e pe~fre~sitia ataera.ater of the clis~raE~+. Aaaide frrs~ that, mf:aroarganisas called aatissa~syces, r~anzed light futsg3~, users frequa~ntZy s+~gregatecs from the pustu3.ea (ulaere~~ crP dised~eed tubers. In I~4Z the Inutitutd ai' Pats.ta Industry segregated l4 races (; o:' aatis~or~ycetes. These arganis~s 9cere introduced into dicsirfected sail along pls~xatings of healttsy, trested tubers. I,n all Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 p'c~caw. ~t.I.l.~.~h. - 7Fs asses, axaept one, the tabera ware irk#`eoted by sanb is a sevwre degree, while tfie potato yield on caz~trol plaskts re~aia,ed beeklth,~r. Ia spXbe of the a~;e of the pr~ohler~ ~ the vast e~ourxt of trork C~tdUat!!d GI! oae~-ara st3sb, Chore era today t1d oorrplete3~- effeotive meaei~res oi` oazktralling this di~aeas~, oa t~aavily Xafeated pla~:s. It Xa therefore essex~t3sl that a s~-were i~aotion of the sail by oas~on soe~iosa, diea~ed #'~+>oP and .fat; sir=;ult'.e~neously (Sea illustration 2~a. ~, p. 3~~.) ~'he drwap3.x~ end falling oi' wilted stems #:a eharacteristio Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 '!'asoorr. ~.a.T.~.vh. ~ al - for bsoterial ~rr3lt. In fungus gilt l$av'es droop but the steers preaerva their erect position. "~f~ tk;e infest: orl i>; of a Ii.~;ht uature-, 3.t is eaanetimas difficult to eatablish the cause of Ixa doubtful oe+sas area ~a~,Y use then r:icro- scrape. ~lra r3tdm uncar suspiaic~tt is pulled out, tkie soil cliugiag to it ra+~l~ed ofF tend thin dia;^aetrica2 slues e.ra zncxder on it frc~n the raat neQk{~} i;}~rarda. One shrruld atteapt to ina3ude or., the slice the ~rasaular Y_nots appearing in the forx- of rorh; t9.sYi or y~ello~ish paizrts iz1 tYia green tisane oi' the stagy. in aa~etr of b$ate-rial gilt in t'~es vartcular rims rand spirals a mass of baatcri.a is observtcl uxzder the nictrvaaapr wh; ah prec~;its ad- rzise~.on oS' ?Sght to tbd vassela by a ,~raruZar, cloudy err ye+lloxirrh films, t~acaaionally the ~r~os oP bt~otcri.a Ss ~atlrered only in s part of the vs.sclzZar rin;,, alone to its t~iZ. kith respect to haateria, ~+ri3.t fe al~ys accompanied by the decay of tubers ~ehich startt~ i~t then f irrld under the ir1~t. Tt~e decay off" tub+~ra of the ne~rt harv#at tatces placb vhrtiug,'r! the ata~lons oi' the diseaaaerd ple-nt, ts'~iah in turn ~zr ini`ssctetd by the r^~z.ternal tuber. khan baoteria,. pazaetrwtiz~g iota the }iaung tuber throw: the stolen, destre~y the ~ar;culaz? eysterm csf then tuber and t?~ f3.e,shy sr.reae ^shich closely ad~air~ it, a typical ring rot is Fasted. xn en?zer insLatteas tPa+~ brxcteri.a genetratd frog tYse etolot~ into tees csora of t!>e tuber, prcrduoin ; decay. ~7ceasiQna3ly over rra;~ Find tscr*:mle:trr3y r~saoa~d tubers urade~r a plant. 'f he mean iafeetion of tuberr>a by ho]e rat scours during, the ~,ethering off' patatoet~ ~:zt dsmP ~ee,ther, r?f psrticu~ar seyeri.ty i$ the ini`estation of irstba,ture tubers undeveloped shin. #~ixrg rot is cartagious and trasas- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Losavw. ~F.Z.Z.~.~;h. nSt~~ ~~ hct~lthy tU~aer~ b~ ~aer+~ oot~~tttct ~rrath dic~e~ised ~'otia~e~, deoal-esc! tubers, hands aid carctaincrs. ~~ csrc~~,zzc~ry star~.~e aandf.'Gic~s tk^e dtee~e cfcre~:cgs s~.cnrly. ~rzbers i.ttfctste~cf ~n tfi+n f`at? duriz~, har- ~e~tfaG dc~ i3v'~ a~chibit ~y ~i.~~ df" hole rat ut~t~I ~gri3. In :Aprfl the 2~Ss+se~t~- be~S.tts to adds apace ~un~er tk~e ~~4t~ e~c~t~d in wcidth ark degth and at h~.~h t~,pe.z~ature and hums@9tt~ tub ~~to cr~vitias eP~als~). tz~ order ~ t~etexr~~ts thr~ d+~grea a~ ~nf~tstation of seeet got~-tca~a b~ hflte r.ot, ~~ f,s ~~ssa~ to rst~;e an e~t3;s.t~is off' tha tubexs by re:~ov~~ng their sskius ~ the ~ To c~+~ternYine t}1e da~re~ (f.zt tl;e f,"osco~r nbtast in ,~pril ar may.} rat i.~astatf.on the awe tvber~ babe to be sti.aed i~a 3;e~1~`. t~ suQk~ ~otez4^inat.~~ds~ hag to be Made at as c~c., f.ta Fvhr~aary nr T~a.rch, tube+z~s user teat shc~.:~.c~ be 3~egt at Y5-18?~ i"or ~ to ,t; days a an ~a~ysis ~'ox hofih rixtg ~s~t a~ ho2a rc+t zee. ~x~rrsal ~end~.ti.~zt~, ~as~txzr~+ a~ z~tristwar~ its p~zrt3.cuXar, glay A c~c~nn~,dcx~bl+t rr~te~ ix~ the t1~sv{alcipt~nt a~` the disease. '~aweria sepe- c2r~niaa~, fhe tr~c~ucer ef' ri~~ rot, deve~to~as beret i~ sure culture at 24- 25?C. 2n'~..e:z~e ~eilt and de~sa~ cif tubers izx the fi~e~.d occur ire t~.d d~:p locations car ~l~z~ there ire ranf'alt duri~, t~ period of tabor f orr~~t3.a~. ~r~bars ,het tnf"eeted ~s~ ~s~e rvt u~d~r ~coiet ~:on~;i.tisrz~t, a f't~ct ~r'~.z~red by Q. U. ~?+nlt~~ und+~r crrrnditi~r~t~ taf grc~duotinxr. `?'able ~l~ , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ESC`` tip ~~~'R +Ct}3ii?~'1'~~i8 ~~S ~A;E~~T~3 ~~t P'~AT+O ~'iJ'~~R ~~CT~t~ &3'~ S01,E p~ t} ~r~" ~t'?~~~+a b~ I~ar~~ea~. ~~' ba3c+ rcpt an tubers :3p~~ 198 Spr~.aag 198 fa2lo~r#.n~, ra~~r ~'a12 3"a~I:n~i~a~ dx~r ~'ati Early Et~se ~~.~ PhopbtIf~c~rA-l~~sit~ 3~t3b 23.t~ S~viat s~~. ~.~ ~ilr~~sle l~q.L3 S~mlyslcs~~4 48.+w'D ~~ harvos~?i~ a~' grat.~tae~s a ~'~~~, at ~:9~? t~aa~ saac~psni,ed lay r~-~,ufall. la b sprfsxg ca? 1~~8 bal~+ rah ~s abse~rv,~d tsoas~darobla t~uaat~ oAd l.~i peroe~-t. of milted plants ~'rt~tr ~e sons a~ ~eholea tubers uad ~ a~td 1?! porc~t~b. a~` ~SXt:ad plus ,~r+vm~ sae~i:n~ at ssub bubara. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Lcscso~r. ~i.~.~.~~.~?'h, - ~~ ., ~n+ar~~,eed~,e rsGaumu~,atpd ~.~ rac~rrrzt yaara oonaerrai~ the mar~raer in ~n3ah riri~ rot epread~s and tY~yc~ under ~k~i~sh iic dev~e.lop~ pesrr~it u~ to ag~roach ~ eolutioxz a~ tho prtablert ai' ~atl~od~ desi~;szed tts cor~tral th~r ~3i~eaeb. ?'o ~re~in +e~.$h, ey~tatic a~antroi of seed pot?staes ie c~uaezttiul, a~ira~s3ast~.zi~ of ~nsgeatic+x~ off' p3Arzti~,~~ i~ t'he i'3~etd a~ ttao ~.s~geat3otz oi' pat~:ta txabers i~ tha Pall. and .agring. Inspection oS' tut~ere ix~ tktts P`aIl -- tp v~tablieh the f.nfcatiox~ of seed patatoc~s by ring rot, iat ~crhich use tke tubers are ~2lrxed in ht~2F; axu3 ir~cpaatiox~ t~aa springy rinioh defrerc~f~es tixe de~rao of ir~Pe~stior~ 3a ptubers by ~ufi~, yt,2.~ i~ca~s~,~. cn~nd oxter~xa~.,t,.~drs~~4,,a~.r` rfj~y,~rat.. ^~utera are 1~~~~ pee ied, ~".~.!l23, 5~~4l~t~a 4s'o11p8 ~TJ1' pk}ta~f3 txlbf3re ii6i64 ~.~~ l.~JQl~~r 3aP~+oted a~a ocxspe.~d with t~ao s~ndard eetx-blfehrzrl ~'rrr Deed po4~astoee are se~icote+~ Par plamtf~g. If tubers ~Ferated by rind rot t~rc d~scrnrered ~.~ groups a~` potetoes, these ehc~t~ld nat fse out Por emrln,~s . Only healthy gotatoe~s clay be aut, this opcr+ntion to ise parP"os~sd best in the ~'iel.e~ on th~+ dexy of p3antir~, when Qut tubere~ are g3.acsed dit~dtl.y into they oonta3ner ~'r~ ~rhich the pl.tu~ting is done. Cut tubers e2;t~uld na* be dried in the n car e~ust~@ ashes, enlfabe, eapex~-phoag~te a:rx~ other g+ere beaa~use. th~-ss ~:ethncis incre~-se the gs~sefbi3Sty c~P in- Pectior~ az~d re+~uoe tt~ yi,el.r~. After etrory tuber the knife sboukl be inat~rtad in a ~ percent. solut~.+an s~P 3.yeo1. In thc+ ~ie~id aII d~.seeused plants shcsuld be rerxa~red together with t~i.r tubers ixt order tts prevent i'urth~er'eotiox~ in hargestixag. I}iseased p~nrats 1~-.~re to be eegre~;ate~i tt~ or ~thxa+~ tir~ea~, be~ixcnia,~ ~~ the end of the 'bl~-a~in,~ ~ror~s~c3 tea the erzt~ a~' tom, ~etatfve periocT. Tf~,eeaeed Polia~e ar~9 tuber ehau3,el be entirely remo~d P~ra~ the field. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ar~.+r9~~~s~ ~aOY~-r~~i~~e.tx~ '~Q ~3,,zt~ tat tl~h?f1d~+t~ brS' g~~h~rad ~~ dt'Sr ~~~~Mt rst~sx t,i,~ ~'c~~1~~~ ~ dx~y ~~~ ~~ ~kS,~ a~ 1~b~z~~ ~~ k~c~ ,~ comae ~ ~c>u~hes~, ~~ s~u~ tub+~r~ ~hQU~:d b~ c~r~ed. `~1ni~ ~~,~u1d b~ dox~ ~~ ~rnaa P~sr ~ex~~1 hours ~f~eir gr~ts~riaag, ~~ ~~, X~-v~nt~.~er.~~d b~rrs~ ~~3 ~ndar c~~~r ~'~~ ~e~~x~1 da~rs. nec~c~ss~~, g~~~~~ ?~k~~1~ ~~~ ~~ h~ pav~r4c~, bud x~c~t. . pca~bc~ ~~25,~~~. Oahe tt+a~e.t~a~3~ ft~tet~~rd vrar.3aa~1~~ ~-re Ear1y Rose, ~sp3eur~e, b1er, 13acrddx~-, 8cnr~.~r~s~;~ ~~r+ ~t~le~iee ~tc~k~~.fx~aan, ~+ar~h, aid tie a~edli t~~ ~ ~Jliesao~l~ ~r1~t~~~1 8te,~~.ot~ ~.~~#-14 a gr~v~icu~~.1y x~a~c5~eian~ to ~~ rdb. Ccu~o3.~er1 #h~~ ~~.~~ ~?~ is ~.ia1~r ~aE`ea~~c~a8, Glsd aon~i~r urger b~ +~iseo~seci pca~~o+a~t should be ~i.siat'acs~ed by ~ gerc~zzb. solu~lc~z~ ~a~ lyc~ol ar ~ p~eroa~t. s~alutian of ~o~-pmr sutli'a.4~. 8~a~ra~e pc+ra~szz~a~s ~~ad ?~,~~~~ ehc~~x~d ~aa~ be b4~ high; ~a+~r~1 aS.l~ia~c~ ~hau be r~itci~ed ab X11 bps 3aa storage. R1aa~Ieg iaa a ~ide~Iy ~.rrz~ d#:?saaser, ~hc ~f~ ~.~ ticscur~s gr~.~ai- 3.~y is hhr~ ~sern+~x~3 ~+~r~i~sern eent,3,oz~ ~~' bl~ c~a~xtxy. Ire tie ~~s1dr ~,~ us~us:l~.~t ~~ f`out~ t~ ~,~ rrrh~srs, ~r~ c~nea by ~hrc~ percez~!~. .~^~ ~~ s~ao ~frer, ~~'~st', ia2s~see ~.r~r 3~.-~3enx Q~ ~z~. extr~et~ ~~svere. a~flic~t~ia~n u~f go~~t~es by blacl~l~+,~. In 1928 i~ fi;he RiYkaleki-Us~ruri~.s~i ~gft-a po'~a~;t~e mere ix~~'dta'~d 1ty~ pnrae~~. by ~~+ta~~~.~Ye~~~e. y~Z~ 1'~S4 ~ +d'.~6~te r~-e~4std W~ f V ~i~~La 1Mf~ ~f'tEr~ ~kk iL}~i i Qb~~~~, 1s ec~vez~e ~aees b1ac~1~~ oauee~z +~~~re~r~a ae~,~r. ~3i.s~tasdd p'l~c~te Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 oit~r da n~at ~t~oduc~e- ~sy yS~+~2cR ~~ a~,i, ~ pz?~u+aa ~evt ~m~-1I tube~~. T~~e di~~xast~ m~~~x~ ix~ ties ~,e$d at ~~ tf~e a~' ~e~r~in~$i~ 1~~~ u~0i~ ~ aid ~f ~o~e~~.~itr~ ~~a~3.?d. ~ i'r~~r~s ~f~~rd~d ~iy 2~1ac~k~:e~g. x'S~i~A;~ de~aay: ~&~ r+~pr~sr~u~s ~ll~a ~mst t~cs~~rc~c:~lve `rarer c~~ '~~a#~rr r~~. Tha sp~ex~z~ta~ea ~ diae~ssae~d ~d i~ ~~~~ cs2~rac~tet~- i~t~ia. ~hv di~+~~~e1~ +~ta,~ tur's~, ~,~gis~e a~ l~s~~ rcrl.a up~a i'az~iu~ ~ lzro,3a. ~~a~~ a~ad 'base c~P ~~~ de~~y, bieo~a r-u{~ as~~'~t+~; diaesese~d ~~s ads aasi~~ pu~iec~ citt~ of a sail. "~ decay ~zay de~ve2?p on ~xbers ~rherev+~r thaw are 3~n~~rS:es~, c-oc~siax~7.Iy ~~ a.~re wP ~i't~re >~~aasya. ~T~ae~ll,y decal, ie by the e~utian of art Q~'~'~-~za~i~ oz~ar. ~~ha flacayei~ ~iasua cti` ~~ tubas ire ~:ite, 'bra~m x~~ axe ~-lacak. ~~ d~.a~-eas i$ csau~ed by ~ao~ri b~hc~rum. ~avter~a ~t~ca~r best in ~rurr~ cal~a~a ~~ ~~-~?G. It .~.s ea~l~le cat' ~er~trat~.~ fates ~- fslac+~ ar tubes ~~,~ tlar~a~ft ian~ua*ecf skin ~~ lenticels. ~~seFriex~ce ~s ~sha~ t~.t; tfae ts~ac~~la;~ iz~dur ~.~ aa~fisle ai` re~ainf.r~g an ve~ri~s.tiv+t rer~3~s~eacs 3.r~ ~ e,ail until tf~s ~~s~:lcaa~irs~ aeaacs~a. t~bse~rat:3.vz~s ~ttda~ ~~~1 c~a~itic~~ xskas~cf s. rcuat- at:rsxu~ax~ t~e~lcap~az~t c,~ c~S~aae~c~s on ~3~~s stul~i~-'~esd ux~it~`x~apted3~g, azst3 n ~SC:tc~ec t+e:,~~ heavy. mrsiat arai2e. liar scs~rir-~ pcst~~ae csaz~tribu~e~t t~ar~ ~c~ara~sly tQ tt~s dl?ret~sr~, ocpecRr~lly amass them a+ra paarl~y a~a~red. xr~f'est~tiata; t~ekes ~Slaca ehi:m~f`1y ~rs~a ia~"`ea~+~~I a~nri~ ~+o~~?a tuberas. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 C~. U. Pe~,n~ estates t~:at blaokl~s~ ~reguent3y e.ccon~a~t~.e~s r3.t~ r:it. ~~~~ re,t baot+~~'~~- ~t~e't~r~~r the tuber ~~r~t aa8 black3eg tae;~C~+ria ~esllota. Chas ?'attssr t~eve~,v~a :Pastcr~ a sappress t~ tlevee3.expexsemt of rug rot. 83aeskZe~; c~volesps a2~o can tubers 3.tsf'egtad ~' ~2tytex~hth~ra dazns~e~rd by ~'resst. estsmtra3~~.3u~g b~tsk~.e~, care ehcs~a~e3 be te-k~xa to prevazxt~ ~tr~tsere fresm Abe oesntrr~2 ts~ pb~to~shtho~- 7~e there~tor~e eac~~ratS.a2., the of the n~on~ thy, a:cssxt~res3. vP r~~ rest a~/~trov~rt~.:on/~`~rae~f~~ eaf tobet~~. Utz hejusek~ea2e~e sevFrreR~ a~f'eesi by 1~~acsk~ra~;, ses~sag r~atex~5.a~. sbou~r] .asst bey cub. ~~~. ~lant~rz~ s~se3u~d be Ada ~5~th bealth~ sec~e+e;tes~ ~cert~.~'} tu~sars v~der ~sra~se~r. ores~s ~restatiera. "~,~ tie e:ours+s oP t1~ +ser it ~.~ necs+seeary tes cs~aa the ~`~~~~# a~ diaeeeeed, plants tare err three t~m~+s. '~,'he P~.rst alea~ ma~9e~ aesnx~ a~'~r, the eaessor~x3 darSug than bxesom~e,~; a~' ~otECtcsee. ~ry~g eye' ~sesta.teses~r duri.x~g harv+seti~.; pre~a:~~catimts eat' stcara~;e~ gz~t+srs, proper stvrlrs~ ozanditiatae m-re tsthar ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ :es t rest is a tsts3.~~itsti~r ~. ~~ sl~if ies a,~y k3.nd o~ ttaber rest tit is ee~~+am~aaa.3.ed by they taru~dat~csm ~' ~ 31e~ule! esr a~i.~. ~ t~i'~ere uscsa3~.y .~~ a ,~el3~r~-Iikea aa~~.eteatsy esr represent +~ slung mans c-P c-~'~`e~u,sfva csu~-r. the tissue o~ they ta~e.r ~~-ttt brar~, e~.~~,y ~~y? crr e~,~k. ~'"~t crest dti~ro3.ape ~sn tubers ~a~ured by ptiybssPksthore, rxn~ rat, blecs'klag, ~aszd lore csr hl~ tes~xpox~-tc~res. ~t ~aig;2a spe:rattxree a~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 humidity dars$y dero~,laps rapidly. 'phis Ss the moat destruvtive farms of rot ~.3eh under Pa~arsble aanditiaa~e ms.y ra9ult in the entiro lass of a pate~ta yic~Id is tyre caurae- df a?~rax~l Jaye, ihc- cif bacteria aausin~ t rat is var~.adi tha r~a~arity axe saprophytaa 'vhiah 1i'ae anly an in~urvd tuba. It is nortpae~sible to IQak far na~a r~r~uler~.ty i~.t2 the do~lopment of the diseaes, It de~-laps ~ahvrecnsr therrct acre f"avare-b?,e cancl~.tian~s: high te~per~sture arnd maieture az~d Che prcaar~a+a oi' tubes suecyesptible to gift d~-aay und+~r tke, influ+snae e~f eapraphyte~ ar~anS;~~. lk.*ap~ each tabors a~ thas+e the-t are averaaoled, averhasnteRd ar in saz~ manner in~urod. het rat dose nat enda~a~r hsaathy, unin~urad tubers stored izz propmr aanditipue. "fa prevent thv disee-se #'ram apreedin~ i.t is neoeseary to aantral such diaeasea as phytapht,#~ax~, rix~~ rat, blaa~leg, and to pretest pat~-tosa fraz~ in~urfes duri~ harv~aet~g, tresu3lt, lasdin~. ,~ grapey etare~;s system e?h3ah love nat parn~it ovor-hmatinr, ar r-vc~r-~aaa2izt~ of tubers ar the acautauletian of moistEire in gatataee is a~ primary l,t~partsaae . ~.nd a#' Chapter Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 CH14P`~ER 1lI - t:4N-PApA5IR1G ~2~ASS3 E'Ct~2iEERATIt}?~ 4F ~I) Pt7~'AT(} AS ~ ~tESt7LT OF ~ZG~i TT~'~RAT ('hYir-lcled ~Aomaia, bottling, Striped Mosaic) As is knot, the original birthplace of the potato ~.s in the high. r~ountainou~a tropics oP South AtWzeriae, rrhera the climate is distinguished by urtuaually aadl aumz-zers. ~~aderute temperatur+da in tho hottest sumt~esr in these tra~sias aro lo~rer than moderates +ruly temperatures in the oentral k:~urop~sarc part of the Soviet t~aior~. Although the natara of potatoes ohangea in the proae+ds o? cultitiatfan, its requiremettt of cool suers .for suaaessfu2 grow'Ch 3s vlesarly apparent in presesnt-day aultl~.vated potato plants, It suxfiaes to paint tQ the follc~eistg faat~ tuber formation coace~a at ~9QG. Sro~rth and develop~snt a? patatoe~a in the ffiauthern TJSSFt, as sell as durSAg c3ry and hot auzu~rs of the adrttral belt, ins aacaetpaniad by tegative ohan~s in tine nature of the plant y~ier~vor tht tetmper+~tura Ss higher than the rztsctseary optimuat. These o2-,angr~s gradually strengthen Sn the pragany_ax~d result not only in a reduotion in yield, but in the aaurses of ti.~ses alter the morphalo~;y oP plants. Thb Negative ohanges in the natures of the pt~tato, incurred chief ly e-s a reetult of the groxth and developtzseatt of tubers under high soSl temperaturets (25-SC?oC) art transmitted throug~~ the seesd m~-te~rial +and ores called "degenaratian of potatoes." degeneration of potato tubers may aaaur not only during ~;rcrwth iu the field, but also during sstarirag in ~carm quarters, especially wf;en immature Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 li~osauw. ~. Z. Z.~.K~h. - 8D - potato tu'Gars are exposed to trim type of storage. Degeneration of patatoeo may aacur therefore equally in northern oblaets if talaers are i~aproparly stored. Individual varieties crf potatoes differ radiaolly from each other; de~Iopa consa+~uently in diPfarent mays ss a r~ersuit of hi~i te7~ratures. Thus during dagenarat:on resulting frazs high temperatures, ~rrinklc~a mosaic usually develops in early motoring varieties, chile medium and late varieties presduce striped riosaic . The third fortz~ of degeneration -- .wattling -- is vridely spread. This form of degeneration develops as a tranaxtory strap bat~san A normal plant end ~rrinkled r~osafo, or as a resrult of the "aanltation" of ~rrinkled mooa~fo when the latter farm icy oLelt3.vated throughout several generatiozaa under o001 gro~+rth canditians. All these farms of degart~oratian (arri~tkled raosaia, rattling and strSpod mosaic} gore known long ago but xere can- ( s Sde re d, and zeany aotat ir~ue to Dons ider the~n~ s ti 11, as bolanging to in_f"eotioua virus diseases. gapirire*nts conducted at the Institute oP f'otata Zczduntry did, not aanfiral tho infaetiouansss of these diseases. the ~uio? (~+) of the degenerated potato c:ay not iafeat normal potato ~-~' plants. ~4RIti~L~7 ~OSAZC. ~rara~led z~osaic develops principally an early potato varieties ~rhiah have a shorter ~rr+,~etative period axed of which the tuba~r .formatl.ou corresponds to the hottest suer gcriad. In view of the above popularity the eariy var3etie~s ors lean resistant to degene- ratiAn. t1~inkled s-asaip is ~+ri.daly distributed in the south. ~'ollvwing drou~,ht and h.ot years, and in the central belt of the So~riet, it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 x.~osotrrr. 1i.1. T.~.~h. - 91 - is 8iff~.oult to find glantin~;s of early varieties .fares from ~nrinlsled mosaic. ~Yiazklad ~sosafa tsauees an. average reduction oar` ~ percent. d, txnd at s greater degaree of degeneration the rdduction ra~aches ~5 perar~nt. aazd ~~igkx~ar. ~rinklc~c~ moaaia limits the dir~tributioa of raarly vari+aties in many a0oalitieas. 'The disease ~+oxaeists in the lea~ress~ of gote,toes 'bcsoc~iaing ^arrink~,ed, tender, the tissue betereen t~se vekaas rolling up~rnd-rds, mile the r,!ar~;ing cai' l~s+aves ral~. dovrra~arda~ (3ee illustration. 150. 34, p. 143.) ~~ entire islant ie stuartte+d iaa growth, st~rgs blaamiaag or produ~s~++~ insuat`aC'iciesnt bloom. 'the plants3 a# feated bgr trritzkled t~osair~ produce tubers reach and die azar~.ier tY,an sxoraa3 ones. tubers of? mosaS.a plae~ts ray not be distinguished from norma3 ones. ~sri.etiers having, cflloread tubers sho~r a distinct lt~ss in tsoloar then afaPeoted by 'the disease. uT'FtS~I} 2'~l.",A,1C de~v~-3c~g~ chief ~y ors rzdd ic~~ s~tsd 3ate~-r.>atnri~rzg TheaQ 4arietSas farm tabors costly in the aCall duriax~ a ot~olar period of the year. indium and varieties are thereai'c~re r.*.ore resistant to degeneration t}ian are i;2ze early* Striped cvsaic iffi, cones- cuantly, bass agreed tt~aa~ :.a ~ritakled ~rosa3.a. ~hv 'forsnar is accompanied by tgndermses oa" leaves atui stems, al,tho~agh in the first year thcrre i.s a~.o ~arir;t~3in,g of l+aavas. striped ~aosa~.e ias characterf.zed by the dyf:a~ of tissuesss aaP vesin+ai 0f 3sav~ss its the f`~,r~ aS' stripes, as vsr~ll as the dying of leaf tir~~suc ica edges bati~vrc~~sr~ gains (sev il~.ustration 150. 3:~, p. 1~4~~. ~flliage dies prematurely; yield is considerably reduced; tubers do not canary any e+~idenae aaP 'the disease, but when e?s~d prs~duce in the fc-llowiaag year plaaato that harvrr ~r3.aakled leaks and are ;greatly depr+asse~d; there gs practically nm harvest QaP tubes^s . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~crsca9c. I~.I.I.~:.~h. - 92 !'EYiTLii:(} is the most pre~~mlont f~-rau of dager~eration resultL~,g f texts high temperatures. ~~ indio~tted, the disease davelaps in tyro rya; 3.t is either ~ tzryanaitary step ~'rcxa nc~rrnal pleats to ~rS.sakled mcxsatc ar frcxm ~rrfnls~.ed. zaasaio to mottling, xskiex~eve~r masafc plants are ault~vat~ci frcxm yeast tca year iu cool arid. ~zaist e;oxrditiane. The lose isa yield tror~ rtottlirtg reacshes 15 percent. lf' its aide spread. in taken ixzta caasideratiozx, time gill appreciate the negative efFecat of the dxseaso. ,.tattli;ng staaws in lighter cxoiored potato leaves, r+rf,trt dif #'used spats. These 'beaarse more nextieea`blo 3.f a~ plaoea .e~ piec~- of vrhi~ta paper un~ter a leaf. 4Rattl3~ng is usually observed betc-ra blaotningj dur~rrg at}xer pesriac3.g diseasee3 plants ray sxat axe tal8 apart frcrn healthy ones. l~"f'~gTaa QI' Ct}~~Rt7I.~,~:'G I~E~rB2~F.:F.XTZC?2d ~c~.1~7.fLTl~?C~ ~'p0}'~ hTGh T~~?IiT~E. Potatoe+~ in laoalities of hot $uramere e}xauld be rxo~red irx the su~nsr. Pe.x~ticular attanticaax should be to stora~,e csxnc~it3.vns for arxed, to lxrev~dxxt grcx~th of potatoes for as larig pos$ible. fibs ditch k+icsthad far stari~ag pate,tt~s txy aav+ering these ~-3 th Dearth ~.s the mast s~ctiePeeotary far thta purpose, 1~henever there are i`er~r degenerated plants, the treed plots of eprixrg ass Drell tts srua~r pleretielga should be. aleaxeed df c}ega~aerate,e~ slumps. If there are rxdre tharx 34 perra~nt. of de~;eneararrad potatoes, it &s advisable to enga~ in plant, :~arkin,g t}.e healthy pleats with thread ar stinks, tstic., arxd aeagre~atin~, i:he:fe fcsr rased purpase~s. Such imprc-vcd selertian may be ucacm+plis}iecl by a sixrgle ~ethad. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 :tasao~, ti.Y.I.~:.~h. - ~3 . It is el~ays possible to fled a tsmez in harvosting s~tyan the foliage of ddgeneratad plants is alrrrady dry and. that of normal plants has remained green. In such mfxnner it is po~ssibla to segregate for tread purposes th+s nat~-da~;erierated green foliag+o plants. In the aantral Halt of the US~3 spring planting, aside from sinter planting, ccay be rttaamt~ondad for early varieties . ,sad plots should, however, in those caser~ bo laid in oultivatvd sails in rivor valleys (bottom land), an properly dr'! ad-out peat bogs, sad preferably an oaf is of rho garden type mere ttte n~oiaturd of sails ie higher and sur;~aer tc~mporatures are la~ar than usual. To protest the sail an shall plots of elite eotirings from. ctvcr-boating, nulching with a.tra~r ~.s reaosmeaadad fo7;la' the gormizta- an of potato sa+~de. Qrt seed plots potatoes should be planted morn densely {50 to 5!i thousand plants par ~ia~ztare.) ~aliaga affere better s-halo to the. sail wk~rx thickly planted, prateating it from unnecessary aver-heating. ~benavar tha number of dagart+erated plants is large (about 53 per cant), rotes of gacrd plots should be planted ti~ca as thickly. Veen germinatic~ is over, all dageneratea plants should ba eliminated. Suah early cleaning radically raduaes lobar exparnlitura. Zook of central of degeneration of arced patatoe~s in southern and central s:anas of the Sevier tlnian mill interfere with high yields of early potato varieties. Conditions oauaing various farms ?t' spindle tuber are not kno4m. (~bservatic~ns havo established t2tat epint9le tabor develops faster isa an improper, unbalanced nutrition of plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Thos r3iseaaee pr?duaes stuate~d ~ro~h in. pl.esnts; lames ax~er csharas's- tex~#~esd by slendesrx~ss a~ uprightness {"gcsthie;"~ e~sad a~,i~ esloeer t? strsrs than nontzal plant. the tips cif yg lea~ras ergs usually r~rilsd. ~'he deseerribesd traits are trot dully prtrsesnt an leave$ of al,l ~.rie3ties aced a safer res~ognition is tkesx~fore found in the extesrnal, e-ppeesrareae oi' tubers. '~'hhe: ~:~-tter ha~aer es tetadaney to bee longer, the t~uxaY~esr of eye? is larger ~saa fllum'~rations dos. ~s and ~'7, p. 3.47. fihe co3oz~iag; af' plants af'f`'ereated by spindles tuber is less bright than that ?~~' nnx~mal g7.aats; potato y3.a1:d 3,es redue:e9d by t~~tes-hs,lf'. the variet3~,s ~Taj?estio, early Fte~sa anei LorJ~h arts ~-east frequently a~'fbcted by spi~zd le tuber, xri ordesr to control then disesaee, tubers ?~f oval-roundish shape ahoule3 be selected f'or plantfrzg anr3: all elox~ated tubesrs a. large numbest of eyes re~eatec~. ~,nevear then ch~-rac~e,riestie;e~ of spind3.s tubers are ~aa21 de,monstratesd e:n the ?ali.age, a csleaning of a13. gothiee plants on then se!~sd plcst is in ~ardasr. Leal' curl ies ono of the ~i.desmapresead forms c#' desgrene:rtztian, eyf' whie:h then ezausas lesadit~ to its development are: ntat kno~eoze. 'the number of afteetesd plantE~ amounts in lama housesholds to 2C}t7 pesrcant. C?iasesrva'tieuas aonduested on many d~.ffesresnt vs:rietie:s of patatoess indicsabes that the df.seasa re~ducses t~u~ yield 13 to 53 pesrtsent. 3zsz~trnaliy lesaf eatarl di,fPers radically fro~a nc~r~tal ~a3.antes. Tt b;as a gresat aany thin gtesu~sp ita laavea arcs ~iimpler thaw thhae off` normsi plants; then cad lobe of the lesaf is ;~aradually ~aa~iar~ed ~,eee illustration ~a. ~~, p. i48} . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 lief csurl produc+~s warty sma31 tubers arn~ nay lame cttes. I~ ~.arge tubtirs are planted the diserxee disappears f'rQ~x the plots. ~3saniasg ~~ rtaad plate is also t-n e~i'acti~re t~+aeture ?ar aarttrA~.lin~ lead' aura. t~G,~~.'~ CF~Ai~i~ IN U '!,'~~i.IAt~ ~~SSJLTZ~Cr ~`3tflDd 33E~'~71VE I~~~pl~l~3~ (9rc~wzt spt~t, stte~. b3acke~tiza~, Iran spat of tubers, and bronse lee~i"~. the resQuation itt the y~.~t1d of seed patntt~es, ~ swell a.s the appear~-nce c~P patholo~ios.l Qk~araaterS.atios ~+re rse-uatd rtat +ortly by ~aigk~ temperatures ' but ws3swe~ by the iaipraper nutrition of potato plants, this being parti- c~ularly daatamirtg rrhe,n the dei`icaiextaies ara ~antinuous from year to yes.z`4tlr Plants posrtess a se2ectiv~a capacity in t~C+air raatim~ sy~ta~; but under field aultivatiart t1~-e avai3,able plant i'otad frequently ^~r3es radicsal3y i'rr~~t platrt requirements, and the plants, in spite of their seleeti~rer abi3ity, sett in a sne-ztner dif?erwrt~t i'ra~t that of previaus gextartttiaxte. ~uriztg ~vsgetative propagation this cirau~tstaxtce reduces the yield of the seed raatarin3. At ties the d~,Ciciextaie~s aP nutrition ara +ssa etraxtg3y msr~:ed t}aat not aa3y the y?i.r~ld of the saed material is af!"ecsted but ~eell proxtcunced ~,thalc~gi~sal charac~twsri.stics are abeer^ned. Let ass ctoneiddr m~dte of the most pr~rvn3extt disee.aes caused by improper xtutrit~;~in. H3~t'~t 5Pt7~ (D~t~'TLl'~i~3) QF ~~~~ (soe il~.uatra.tiaxt ~o. 5J, p. 349). In the beginsting of t]ae ,te~;etetivar period the plant ties a lighter-Qalored #'aliage first stsgsr of disease; duri~ the seactnd pert cP ~Tu3y nr in early August brawrrt, eslaxtgated spats of dead car3c tissue appear can the stelae. These spots itaareaese in ei~e, the 3r~atas die, first the lc~wer~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 than t~ua upper oaaeatn ~aera dry, thrsy rer:~xirr hangiea~ vn the eteres (aeoaad stage of c3ieeaes.~ 'Meld. fa redt~aer3 ba+esuse oi' the pre~sraature dyfaa~ of ~.oa~a3. Tubar~ o~ disaa~sead plantar da xatr~t sho~r disease checraatea~i.a~tias but the p~:arats that are pz~oducerd by them arc ~ Itswr yield az~d mtla3h aaore eaasfly a~'~'aasted by spottir~~ tha~ta plants s~btaia~a8 ~ra~ra. tubaars ~rf healthy plct~tm The ea,oond d #.acas~ traaad to 3.aap~roper tautritioa~;. Il~(7tiS ~~'~.Itif~ ~Sl'C~S'~IISS~ Qp '~~R.`~, produoes areas of brown-co~.vre~d tlasue oP d~.ffarent eshaa3ae ~f?thix3 the tuber. These spots era a~eeaa in el io3ng; they are off' hard ?oa~eiagtanncy aa~d ewer decay. i'ha d iasense does not praaduae any oyl~ptomss era tYae laa.~a~;et, b>at it reduoea ttae yl~ald grad the pcrasxttagas o~ stta.raxh aoe,'tv~saat 3.ta tubers, a~ad aspo~.les tYaa quality off' t~se seed. ~apropasr nz~trit~:on ie? the reaqult oP the t+rashfa~g caf a~oil lay heavy rain xhicah daps-3.vee the aa~tag arbdasua~eas ekaould ba uradea^taken to eaa~etrol theage diaseseaas: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 2:osco~r. ~- 97 Sz~.orc}e,se cat the ca~-plex of lig,~t sails by the introduction oP orgt~aic~ fertilizers, tt~~-rl or young %'?} .limasstanrr. 1"he addition off` mineral terti.lizere to manure on Light sails to fertilize vat~ietiess nan-resistant; to s~Pc-t:tix~ess, such as Lorkh, 8tcs.; potassium is best ix~troducsad ixa the fay of good aBIZEre or in the farm of pote~esium salts of high perteentage. In using lour peresenta~;e C~-~) Pptassiu~z salts, potacee~iura bisulfatee sl~:au3d be added tabaut ~tJ ~~;. per YieOtaD."C-.~ Potato Plante, severely attaoI~ed by stem t~pot, should be re~toved item ceded plots and under nee aircumstaz~aes bd used fcr seed purposes . RRp2~:!? I~AF of potatoes i.s caused by laal~ of potaedsi~um oa pasty and virbin soils. Leaves oi' diseased p3.e3ats area rrrinScled, Part of the tissue betaeesn veins ,gets gradually broom, aid e.~s the disease progresses the lagves taped oxe. a bronaeti and die prematurely. ~t.'.the first sigr~ of diseaaese+ the potatoede should be given a supply of manure liquid or a solution of potaseeiua~ salt. Local feyrtilixedrs rich in pgtassium (manure and ashes;} or other mS.neral fert:ilixerrr uhauld ~ introduced an affe~cdted pl+at;e. Its order tc- prevent yield reductioa oi" seed araterial beoause oT iatproPer nutrition, i.t is essential to plant pc~tedtaes ran plats having so~Ts.:Af .~zigh zzatural fertility, Seed plots should be fert;ilixed Piredt of a~.l With looal i'ertilizers oontESining all nutritieanal elements. In using unbesle~need minedral fertilizers, it ie3 neceaasary to aone3.desr the redquire:msnts of plants in reutriticanal elements for then given plot. An . abundances ot~ some of the nutritional. eledments, as Drell exs t~:e lae~ of soz~re, redueeas then yield in seed material. ~~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Zasoaw. - ~8 (3Rf~'-TN 6)p `~LiflEktR 'FRF ~?'C~t~ATI(3}~ OF "E1~lIR5" Xauizg tubc+rs aaoasianally farm str~ians during gro~rth on ~rkxah new small tubers (t+uberales) germizeato. fh~.s aond~.tiaxt is csalled (JVER-GRt3'"R of tuYaex~s. $t ocours as a result oi' interruptions ar ^aea~s3aing of the phdtasyntkres~,s in hat and dry rather. the c~apaaity of yaung tubers to . graar during interruptioa~s l.te the ghatasynthe~is daez~ net lest 3,oag {about ten day~.j rn that tis~ thr~ young tubers laa,re a ahanae to mature in such degree that their ti.sreues lase the aapaaity far future gra~ath. mien rain falls, hcns~ver, and the hat period changes to coal days atzd ph?taoynthesis is resut~ad, the latter is products dari.~d #'raxn the f alie,g+e for the bereeiit aP tubers may ego "tangy suffice for the grawtke of pre~iausly formdd tu'aars~. Rtolons era produor~d i'ran eyes of tubers ixeaapable of nara~al development; the ex tai tubers germinate from the etalana. Th~+ i.r~tarruptian (~ea3renirag~ of phatasynthesis under brat surer aonditioas. acaurs scm~timcs repeatedly: ,. The reesult is the forme.tiaza of tubarczles (small tub~sx~s) t~f the first, seamed, eta. order, appearitag in the rshape of a Qhain. :Cf during the interrupti+sn of phattagynthesie all ti?reues of the young tuber have xeat had time to mature and have, re4rea~+e,r, last their capacity far develap~nt, the leant mature aseong them, ~..e., the upper apes at~d these al.osest to the eyes} acmtixtue their gra~rth ~oith the resaumptioxt of phatas;mthe,si.e, thn rdsult ie deformed graorth an tubesrs, referred tc~ in our literature as '~babiest~. 1~urfaag as abux~daut supply of prcaduats of phatasynthesis, a r~sz3umption ref the growth of the tip ai' t~ tuber, tubers are farmed in the shape of the figure eight. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ksx~ ,plashed ~ thrr suz~ner, tuners ham tht appartunity tc~ develap irs caaler weather; there is therefare na Sszterruptiort in phatvayrtthe,sis~ Qaz~s?quotttly, aver_grcmrth arul t`armatian +~f "babieaa" are also lading. FtlRl~~'Clt?33 pF TU~1tCI~S {J~d ~.E~ P~l1',~t9 '1'UHI?R:l a 1luring the spring small tubers Form at ~G.i.s~s in etar~bine, as well as ire the sail, ire cif sgrauts. the Sarmatian cif th+ase ~sraall tubers on mather tubers usually cxsaurs beaeuse af' tt~ absence of aanditians ro-hiah e:taaurage the graph of sprauta~ at a time ta+hen t~ze tubers are filled with ~atuble ttutriticus elexaents. ie kstararn that a ldwerr t~pr~rFxture is required far the farmatian +~~ tubers than Far the davelapraent of stems and sprauts. At a temperature xcr than plus 5aG', cif #.ha tuber is full. of soluble elezaea,ts}, aprauts ~oill net ~jr+c~r but tubers t~.y sti13. fort. Ccreeguerstly, in planting tubers. i'i21ed with ttutriticnzs alemestts in call gather (~-6?~), the result is the f'artaatiott of sz~s.ll: tu'bors and not sprouts. ,Atxathcsr cs3.rctsastrznce has to be Further tin frtt+a consideration. It is ~n+ca~n that tubers breathe much less ircter,sely than dtt s~rrauts. Liars air ~.s required Por the gravath aS sprouts Chart t`ar the grc~erth cif tubers. Scrnet~.mee there Ss sa little e~ir in 'th~r sail that sprouts are unable to grate, ~Ys#.le there ~.s +es:ough tai contribute to th+~ far~sati?szt of sasall tubers. As a result, ~emall tubers e~r+~ able to farm ixt the so3.1, as treZl ae 3:n storage, ~heanaverr air is and tk~e tesaperatura is high. Pe,tatoes x~ost #.rtcl3ned try farm small tabors era thane which suff?red marry bruises in hsrveetirtg axtd trans3.t in rho ,fall. T'ha breathing praaoss of these Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 tubers is more intense, with the result that staroh is transfornsd mora rapidly into sugar. Korm~-l oonditions of potato storage and tic-~rly glanting in way wsath~er prevent the ag~araaoe of this disease. BLACK BOT CAUSED KY STItA~G'DI,ATIOK OF Tt1BKpS 'I~hen high tsm+psraturs and poor vsntilatian pre~tail in storage the internal tissues oi' tubers die frogs strangulation. The dead tissues turn blaok. Gradually the external tissues die also. Good veatilation and piling not highsr than O.b st. are essentials in storing potato tubers. A/dRKE~tYNG OI' TUDER PULP Cars less treataw-rtt of tubers during t~orvssting and transit pzroduoes in a dew days dark spats frith light outlines of different sire on out tubers. Ooow+~ionally thae darkening of the tuber is distributed along the ring of vasoular knots wt~ is erraaeouely referred to ae ring rat. lie wish to stress that the ability of tubers to react in this manner to bruises is not frequent. It dspeAds upon the pwrtioular voriety, ferti- lizers and the weather prevailin6 during potato growth. I;arksning of the flesh results frost the produotion of so ids of dark ooloring by tyrosine (one of the wmina-aoids of the tubers.) The aoidi- Piawtion of tyrosine ooours in the prsssnos of la rge quantities of reduosd (?) augwrs (gluoose wnd fruotoss.) Ths amount of sugar in tubers is 7Rrge when the latter ors harvested in wn irts~ature oondition or when potassiue was looking in nutrition, resulting in the dsle-y of the golys~eri- nation of staroh from sugwr wnd the aooumulation of 'sugars in the tubers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 3~vsco~r. I3.I.I.J~.Kh. - IOI - xn addition, aoidi~'icati+aaz its tubers la acc~laratad by bruises roaei~rad in hervestin~ and transit. the ping tt~refore, as a rule, darkens Po2la~rirs~ harvast#,n~ and traasisartation oP tubers. Aar~xnin~ of` tuber Plash spoil$ the taste qua2itirzs of potatoes, and ~rhen severs, reduces Chair wind qualities. xt also reduces the yield 1~-22 percent. I'.essuras of aontrol: In cultivatis~ varietiuea inclined to dark3en because of bruis+ss (var. ~ohltu~as~s1} it 3s rtdaeesary to v~ait until the tubers era fully Mature baPare hat vesting. Inoreaaad d+naas oP gotaasiutn fartili~ssrs ehauld be introduaad in fertilising potatoes. A particularly geed rasction is obtained Proza vrood ashes and high garaer~ta~e potassiu~a Fertilisers. Sax potassium aelts shau3d ba avoide$ in ~artilizi~ag gatato plantar. $ztreema Data should be dxareised in handling potatoes in gathering, transit, hauling, and stora,~e. TUB~~i Il`~Ji1RI~8 CAt1SED ~tY ~TOST Frost injury scours in the Field prior to har~srostin~, as Drell a+~ in storages. Severc+ly Frozen tubers baaemse soft a!~'tar thawing, the ,~uica is eaeil,y erquc~esad has a sponge +squdasad of ~rs-tar~ :tnd their deoay is rapid: ~ {3+aaas of light fraesizq; era f.'raqucnt.t'r7iaa tha~ad the tubers gra+serro~+ their healthy appearances but ame soon not leas bno~. spots an Dote Mich usually extend Pram the skS~n end. frequently are tal~en Par iaPe:ataticm by ghytophthora. Such tubers lose tY~air testa qualities and era unsuited as seed material. Erases tubers that terra never tha~ad >say ba used fvr food, iP in seeking they arc 3r~^zcadiataly plunged in bailing mater. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Lbscsr. ~fi.S.I.~i.~h. - 3gE CF~~$ ~'~' - p(3~d~1'13 pES~`S ~4I:~T~ADG ~~~ ~(Leptinatarsa dec~cmlSneata '~ Golr~rasla beetle ar pt~tato Iasi'-aster is at pressat rridospread in Aaaerisa arni 17aa~tarri ~ur~rge~. ~n s~?3.ta cf the xtvst energetic measures to e1.S.ninata the past, it finely eatablishad itse~.P is yrance, psaetratpd next iseta (iera~y, ~algitmt, Lu~!~bur~, 8witaerland, a~xd the i~etherlarads. Tn tha t~88f~ there are na Calaracic~ baetles fit present but there is danger of ths3:z~ introduatic~n. ?he rapidity of the spread raf Haas ies~`-as.tez' is aaplainecl by that facet that it heaves with eaae~ Pr~rm pI~-ae to glace. It spreads through Flight azad is alas iutraduced by transpartatian faai2lt#.ees, i.e. stear~- aeroplaxees, etQ. It sass aerriesd 3.xcta ~~esterxi ~uragea by the latter means fre-~n llzaerica. The baetlo and its lane fced an leaves of pcrtata plaxets. Pvtatoees gplante rapresexet its princf.pal fa+~[, ;the prcgsx~y of one beetle consumes p~+r year three hccatt~res of potatca~aa. nal3y the gc~tata loaf-eater is very csharatsteristia. ~~ ceYal shape ~d ra2ativoly s~all ei~es ~,ts upper wings of pate yalla~ tra alay_ yellow ssa~c~rin,g h~ve~ ten ~tlaeek, a ~.antated stripa~s ? z'tee w~.ngs are a brS.$ht ~ai,r~~-~re~d. ~i~spersed c~r~ th+~ ~'rdxttal part ~a~ its bac~~ xra 1Z t'reque~atly spots, of which the central E~21l~, this largest,fresse~~bles the Roman figure S1. 'Phe larva has a thick bellyy reaches 15 rat. iu length when acature. t'tYuan yaureg, ~.t has a caddish cclar, ~,irr-ing to orange-ye~.l `the head, breast Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~~osaaw. ti.I. i.K.'~h. - I4~ - ya}aie~.d (eovesr~, arzc~ a double rax cyfi ~:rts o~ e~aes2z side of the body are b2yxCk:. It pupates ire then so3Z, ~chgre they beetle also xinters. The ~olaredta beetle= 3.a tsapable o~ z?apfd prapa~s.tioza, Braduaing ons to three ,~etzesratio>as a year, Although t~ra ge+axeyrat3ans are more typirsal. Thera it praduae+ya tx~Cs ~,erteyry~tians aar~ftians ara maayt favory~ble. ~hils t~:e beetles zr3.thstaxyds radical chan~cs in temperature;, it develops best at Ifi-uC1e3G, ~ta~r3,ans of dietributi.on ?orreys~yarsd therefore reygiazas g~' pots~to prcrduatian. ~~ to the altitude of the lcaatxlity, it prcfe,rs settlirt~ na higher ~:haya 1,740 to 3.f300 m. abovey sea Ieval. x{300 m. reapra- seyats an unsurraauntabla iimftatiasy (he~.~ht.~ Control consists in sprayi.n~ p~stataes ai' intestitzal action. lax eylizz3,r~t3.ra~; the first Iasi. {of in~etzti?n~ thQ beetles ~zud tizeir larvae; are fZlc3ced t"rom. plants aa?t~ ygo3.I, thG soil is treye;te~d with mordaatys azac' the pt~xtxts deyy3tro3red. Sizntyltax~ouy3ly, ata jaini.azg potato plsaats are sprayed several tisr:ey8 1-ith ~ZOlsnzas cyP ixytoy: tiiy:yal acstiata. In reyaeynt yva~rs track I~ae bsy~an undertaken to prsaduoe va.r9.etiee resistant tt~ ~aatata Iesa~-dater. ~'~,e i'o1.3,crrorftzg varieties arcs at preaeat reanya~yendeyd for se2aaticaxas ~alanum de:~3.asuya, Sad.. polyadeyzyi+um, S. hfrnrii, u. ,Iasyesii, aza aII czf ~zia21 the ~.rtsecta perish Stx the larvae st~~e. ~xpari:~e~nt;s yore 'txsirtg aazitinudd oa!1 aryl. acaule, S. aorn,~zcry3on~.i, S. z-erru- cosum, :3. aharsoense, c+n trizieh the 3,nseczts ixt the z~~arity of ray;esa periy;h tsfiile t~t+~y ~zupates. ,~^an~ cultivattsd vs,r~.dtias tF,a ~se-xs3c~er-res3.stant vtiriestiess Al', ~eslt~artuxder, ~'ras~z, acid the Wort-carxker-a'a$is~nt t-arf.ety Yooh],'tmanyrt possess rhlative reyista.nad. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~'n~ccxvr. .I.l.~.~h. - 14~ '.f'~I~7'~?~It~h~ ~~~? ~3YI?~~2.I~ - ~'P.`~.S?AG~~,~ '~~~7T~f} Pt~~~sl-Tl~ ~`. ~~~.~ inm~ot is ~pre~d iz~ ~4r+~a, ~~ina, ~nrskxux~S.~, Ja:psatz, ors ter :t~nda ~~ J~,roa, ~oy3~~, 3.~ ~'~ar ~atith ~~~.cs {Auatara3fa}. ~,~ the f.t i# i`~aux~d ~tt tl~n ~~r ~~, the T3s~ur3 abia~t, ~+~ Pri~or~iry Ord ~ha- be~ruv~k tie~rrritori~~. 7radyb#,rd~ 3.~~ure ~a~t~tn~ss, ssaya~, brs~ns, '~~~l~xts, tan~.toe~. ~h~y ~'~~d ~ the ~tsf. t party o~ let~v~zs, a~s~v3.r3~.ztg thy. ~~~. ~~#'~ated fiel~de have ~ .ked ~ppe~x~zr~sa, sis~oe i~2 p~.aa+~ 4~ ~r~~y a~~~,etnns of ~+e~aa rer?t~~,~a. 1'he pran~ip~l die is ca~zs~c~ by? ~~tr'v?so ~hnse hax~ti'u2 ~ati.v~.ty i~ interr~zpted ~sy .~rtt~t. ~hes ~re~tl~ i~a broom ret~, ~aP pratrud irsg ~hapea; 28 hlao~ t~pst~ are daatri'~tx'~esd ts~ bath ~~~~~. '.~ i~~ctta prod~Qa tbrar~ g~rt~erat~.axaa ~. year. E~~~~.ay~~ be~fti~ the ea~d o~ ~~y ~,~~ 'e~~a 1e~id ~~ ~rc~t~prs of 15 to ~ en the ~;xideraide c~P lasvea~. ~+~,~ daya~ latir~r ~.arva+~ appear; they t~t~x~ ' . S.z~ts~ P~P~ ~n i~,aves car at~cs~~ ~d i~ ar~cat~~er a~ek 'the ~~ature boet2~s ~~~a i:~re,fr appearax~aea. 1~he beetles err ~ the ~oi~, czr.~?r ~.eav4s, be~izaaa.a~ Saptietzber, phis pest is s~aread Sx~ al,l etta~r-c~ ~~' deveiaz~t by seed' .., snatex~ia3. ~.~3.'ia~3S ~?~" t~{~'F~t?1~I,IPsCr i~3I?~~". 1'u~i~atiQr~ of infested p~tat spray~.n~ pari~c ,~re~+~s, dusti.xz~ wftia l~Iuosili.Qic ~sod3.~ sr o~ileium arsenate. ~nrrr, othtr~iee ~d "kcsstit-n3.1c", a~ ~ 2.arvae o#' the :toTfol~ be+al,le." ~ha Larvae area harii to th+~ t?ursh d are ec~ldre~d yellcr~r, less Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 3~Oacmror. H.I.X.&.Rh. - lp~ - frequeAtly 'broom. lilts are in~ur+~d by le.rvae. These gnaw mt patata sums a~tzd enter tha tubers, paving thel.r excram$sr~ts there. ~f present in large quantities (8(3-x2C1 p#;eces to I, m4~ the 3:ervae c2e~ttroy +~ats axe. potatoos 1i~0 percent. Tltc cond3.ticn t~~ the upper har~.zan a~` the sc+a:l influences tha number o~ ~~ runs. Ttu+ir r~uaber can st~f.t, alcl plcr~ed lands is reduced tt~ a negligible degree; lint, as s+~~ as the soil l.s left waste, tkteir nufab+~r ragidly incres.see. dire ~~s are present 3.n much larg+~r numbers can plats of heavy, moist smi2s, that are in humus, tha.ra ran pl~rts of Light, sandy ar ,sub?sandy .snii?r. The pmsts create tl9eir greatest ciams.go in the f'i.rst thrta+s t~ t'eur ;{ears after tha cultiv~aticn ?~ the lay9er (stratum}. A~tang all recommended ineasurt~as fc~r the cantrcrl. of ~rire ~r~ns, princfpa~. attenticA t3P~ould be directed 'tc+ a~ri,culturogl techniques the caret`ul cultivatia~n cif tha sail, ~ersd ac~xitral, blacsJ~ Pall+ deep plcnaring. "Savka g& lts mass spread ~8 noted in l9'12, 1522 and 1928. ln~ury is cauee~d by the catax~aillsr ~hiah ~;ssaws an leaves. Patatees ~-ra l.n~uroei its years oaf vrideBpread pr?pagation of tl~ ,pest. tho varfety LQrkh suffering particularly P attar~k~. Phytcsn~etra gam L, is a lautterfly c1' erhich the fr?r~t 'sri,ngs are +deep_ ~irsran ai.tla s silvoar mark rersemlaling the uree?~ letter gamtaa. ~'he caterpillar Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 he-a l.2 2egsp its aalar is green or ,~reezx-yelloe~ ~'Lth indiatinet ye3lcrRish stripes oz~ the beck and a psis elAngated stripe on the aides. The bady (pupatin ) has cl,earZy ttaticeabZe emirs. xhe ~`ormation of ~ chrysa7.~s ` ; oac~urs as the plaza ar ox: the surl'sae o~ the so3~l, aattr~ng alumpa t:i' earth and vegets~ti'e~a rr~sidue. 'the aoc:cron is silky, Iooae, tramapQ-rac-t. ~fet}~ods ai' control: off" waede, the utilizat~.aa oaf caterpillar x~sta, spraying or dusting of p3atrta with poisane o~ izftestinal r~etiozr. t~hyto~tcstra ~g~g~ (epc~gryzauchc~hie~"} g aaterpil2ars graawr the yczung ptatato spraut~s, oc~aasiana3ly peszetrate iztta etcs~s egad eat ul- their or~x~e. In tuberb they .gziax hrsles, oi' eraoath regular sx-argine erhiah are 3"recluex:tly oo~ered Yrith tY:e rsaaaina of the uneaten s~izl. lzs digging tubers in hales ane xrtay frequeatTy tlieaaver aaterpi~.lars under the remaining skin. ~`~ cazytrol at these pests ins wry. dii'fioult 3reaause they g~naer et plants early is the nornitzg a~ dieapgear izt the soil far the z~ast o~ the day. T'he planting of r:at+ah crops is reaommexa8ed, the l,r~traductiaxx into the soil of tr~+uted attraote.;nts, ~ ~ ~, aontro~. of ~reeda and early oP f ie~3.ii~s . Saarabiadsue is the lararae of that 2day beetle. lsraro-a inure tub~ars, gnnrrira~; htsles cif resundis~a ~az~ o~ irz~,~ular borc9ers. In aozatrast to llepidcsptera, their hakes are span and have zao residua of skis. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~'a~oo~r. ~` - x.07 - ~;;~trior~s aaC a~ntrc-I r~cnand+~d at pxv~s~nt t~r+~ ~~'~ ei't~ctivr~. ~~srr~ effeati,ve- ara 1:hes g~~hori~g ~i` ltzr~ae, i'ai.lo~ria,~ ~laorit~g, guthmring of ~etle~s during the period a~' ac~t3itiongl czutri.tiar~, tn~ dusti~~; of gle~cxts e~ith i'luarina cca~sbixt~tiorz~ Burin, additior~t~l ?eeflix~, the pa~r~t~ction of birds tsatiazg thcso insects; the trr~+~tttzent o~ soil Stith r-ordants. Lx~d cs~ ~heptcar. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 -108 ~2.-ss 1'ooaoror. l~eursht~a-i$sledavatel'skii 3a~stitut ~artofel'tto,~a Khatiaistva. Se~uex~ovadstvd i aprobt~tttia kartai'+alia (Praduction and cserti,- fication of seed patetoes) i'asl~vu,~~.9~. 2017 p. 7 ~ 1Sf~8a;3 Appendix 2a List of Sofenti?ie. Institutions to ~'hfah is aesf~ea th+d Srawing at' Rlit~e 1'atataes, p. 178-17i~. '~rru~slated ix~ part by S. M. l"'onsar~ ~Isme~s of Institutes Republics, Terrztaries 3eleatiou and Experiaxsxst anc3 iRylasts: ~atations: 1. ~zerbaic~z3irrs Sciesstifia-Roee:sresh Azerbs.idzfsan SSE Inn ti to to o#` (~ rein l'ndus try Z. >~ihite-Ruasis-~n Soverni~nt Selection ~hit~+ Russian S5R Steffan ("IIelarueskaie") ~. All-Ilnfon $eiexstf~f io-Rc-$,saroh Ixzstitutd Odessa Oblast of Gesaetioa and Seleotian ~, CearRien Selec:tian Stx-tian GearSis SSR ~. Kirgia Vegcttabla Experi-aent Station Kir~is :iSR 8. I,enizsakan Se lent ian Station Armenian SSS' 7. [ll'sbek '~eSetahla I~apsrir~ent Station C3zbok SSE n. tlral Itixperi~e:nt Statian ~ie,~akh SSR 9. 'Turk~n,Ve~estable Sxperirr~ent Ststian ~'urkmen SSR 1?. pharkav Agricsultural Institut+s Kharkov 43b3.ast 11. Aloksandravsk Selecstian Statia:z Vladimir lz. ~3as~kir Agriaultura3 Experiment Stations Ras~ir A,6SR 13. Valuisk Agrioultural Expbr~,cient Statian Sfal3.:s~rsd ~blas'~ 24. ~larane~;h AErfaulturel Institute Yoranezh Cblast 15. Varaneah Potata ?xpariment Ststior~ {lrlov Qblaat 1S. Carki Agricultural. &xperiment Station (3arki {)blast 17. Gareki Seleotiass 5tfstion l~arth-Ussetixs A~u"SB Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 itcseaotr. ~'.I.I.K.~Ch. - 109 - i~pp~aadix 2 18 vrirent Station 1Khabarc~k Territor etable Ex -pastern V Pa . p y eg r 15~. '~st-Siberian Vegetably l;xperimeat ~~? Station ~9anav t~blaat ExprarimesAt 3tat3an ~ilta.i Territory I~ranov Qblast 21. ~ataa Agricultural Institute ~'artar ASS 22, Kalinin Oblast Ex~ri~nent $tatian ~aliain 4blact 25.E ~Camalinsk Experiynex~t Station Rrasnayar Territory ~4~ ~Kirav (~pzlernmerit ~e~rlOCt?1gx1 Station 25. (Falen~i) Xrasnadar Vegetable Experiment Station Rira~rr Oblast K'raanodar Territory ~ 26. Crimean Vegetable Experi~?ent Statiga Crit~ea 27. Kt~rkir, Seleatioa Station Yalagod Oblast 2A. Leningrad Potc-ta Exiserimynt Station Leningrad flblaet 29. Miausir~sk Ex~rizaar~t vtation Kraangyar Territory 30. SGientiPic-xeaeare~h Institute ai' ~l. Potato Industry Stsientific-I~esearah T.nstitute o~ ~.;a~Qaw pblaat i *~2. Crain Industry of the South East I~ovasybkav' Agr#.aultural l:xpe rirsent 8aratov t~blaet ;~~. Station Nova-Siberian S,eleQtion ~3riansl~ Oblast Novo-8fbdrian gblast :54. Novo-Siberian llgricsultural Institute i~gva-Siberian ?blaet ~5. Petrava~ Seleatian Station Peaty tJblast 36. Sverdlovsk Agricultural Experiment 3?. Station SfLvrisn Sciyntifie-~tesearch Zastitute 5verdiorrag C?blast ;~6. of Grain. Industry Tulun Selecstioa Station +?msk Oblast IriCUtsk Oblast Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 .Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bukaeov, S. ~. Eul'tura kartc~folia (Pote-to aulturo~. ieningrad. Leningradekae Gaxetnd- Zhurnal *noe~ i Knisi'uzc~ lzd-va, I94f3. 288 p. 7 5 B 86E Tratislatr9d Pram the &ucsian by g, ~. l~ansan T,~iI~: OF Gnli'~'E~iT' ~ae3ce af' pn--~ -~r_ ~ _ PAGE S S Chapter I ggricfultural ~eahnique far potato~rs 6-s4 Chagtar TI Gulturo of Early Potataett 66-72 ? 5??60 Chapter III ~sQr~}~.4ni~s~tian of potata Grcr~ring Ghapter ~V pat~'ttr Varieties in tn~a 1,~niu -r+xu uVi-.~~ - - T~ogi~nali~atinn Ur ~fa.rieties ~ I Koy ,~'ar ~etermir~atiorn of Potata Varieties in the Fiold; ~f;i?nalised and Oi+~tribu~d ~.~ Plantings. ~~criptkion of 'Pc~tats~ Vc~ridtias Chapter V }~rdlustian of Potato Varieties Id6-345 r Chs.pter VI .Bead Grawrin~, of P?tataes 146-175 Ghapter VI1+ Dia~+ases and Waste aS Patatcu+s 174-202 i~iseasas of ~'otatoes caused by rungs. ~ ~1 c~terial Dgseases oP Patataes ~`~~}iseases a~' pg~n,Bration ar Virus ~i+st~aeos gf nf~ Patatoeo Ph~-sialagical In~urioe of 'kutx~rs Pa~ata Posts Chapter VIII 5tariag ut' potataes ~ z' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 t3ukasav, ~. l`. ]~ul+tura ka.rtotelis (Potato aultura) . Leningrad. I.eningradsl~c~ Gasc~tna- ?hurnal'atse i 1KnixF~nc~ Isd-vo, 1948. 22$ p. 75 B86l~ Translated in part by S. 2e. mean mASxs ~~ ~os.~~a Qx~~rx~~ (p. ~-s} I'otatacjs represernt t2~a most important food and teahnioal culture (crap. ~'he law conaarning tI~ reaonstruation and development of agri- culture ft~'r the years 1948 tp 1950, and the decrees of the February Plenums of the GC of the 9gP(b~ of 1947 devote considerable attention to the re- aonstruoticjn and further riso of potato growth in our country. ~'or agriculture in the I~nin~;rad Oblast patatoes, slang with other vegetables, pras+snt a leading crap., 3'he main tas3c of potato growing in the abla$t ie to obtain grass harvests of potatoes that could fully meet the desna~nds of the population at Lc+ningrad, inhabitants of the largest indu~atrial and cultural cerxter of cur country. This task should be salved in the nacres oi? the next tex yejars by widening sowing areas and especially iucreasin,g-the yield of potatoes. By 19x00 the demand tar vegetables and potatoes et 1,~ningred should be satiatied to the eunount of 68 - 70 per cent through the production of thi? valuable toed item vrithin the Oblast. Zn arder to st9:.^~uiate aolleativt~ Sarmers, rror~Zers of b'T3, state (arena aril additional households to strive for high potato yields, the Presidium of thcr Sugre~ csviet a.S the U: Bp icy 3.ta hearse of September 27, 1947, or- dained high awards far advanced wor~ears in potato growing, i.e., the designation o#' I~ro of Sotzieliet tabor and the av-arding of medals of the: U88'R. (Omitted $Er lines} Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 They heningrad ablaut is situated ib the roue were co~apule~ary pradua- tiara of a~~r-rvaistar~t patate vari?ties has bsem fixed. 8y 1854 the ablest is abli~;ed to earn exclusively aarilcvr-resistant varieties aP potatass. The variety x'e~rlichin~en which ig canker-resistant s,x~d he-s eonsequsntly (arced _____- aut (dislad~vd} ether variative, paaeeasess, meverthaless, aoasider~bl_ e_ sho~rt- aami~x~;e, the saast i.mportar~t ane of wfiich is its ~suffiasptibility to virus dis- -___--~ +ssava. As a rseult, along with tho svarah far hee.lthy alax~es of B~riichi,ngen end the planting of ite superelite seed, nerr aanksr-resistant varieties, pris:arily of they early 'kind, are to by icttresduced. At preasnt a group of varieitiees of dpmvstio and farvfgn praductian are .being tvste~d and intraduasd into praducticjn. Leningrad obla~st passesuve at the cams time a sufi'iaisntiy pram.izient tttatian abase} far a potato of its asna selection ~vhiah stands for ttav mast radical r~tem~net of nct Duly patate cank+ar but then co~ebat- ting of virue mead phyti~phthora dieeases. This cax+ beg e-ohiev+ad by producing new varieties af' peststoras, resistant to both canl-rsr e~Ad phytophthara. The feat that the All-'~mian lsastitutt of Plant Industry {the cemtral point far patbto sealecticx~} ies locatee4 at i,ri~nir-grad ill unsure the salving of this teak in a short spaao of tins. prisaery ixepartamce in patate grasrisxg will bas the praductian. of early patextaes,ta be aided by the ixstraduation at state and callsctiv+e (arena of the oblust of surly canker-resistant varit~ties eud the csancideration given specifies agriaulturel methods roquired by early patataes. It e3eemsa appropriate to refer hesre tp t}~ts large tale played by early potntoeg in i#d3.vidue2 gnrdeuing, so xiuoly deveslened ~san~; the warkiag ~16t3tSbs of S~ningrnd and its mb'1ast. itndvr conditions of individual Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 $uka$ov' ... POtGttSS Culture gaxdeaiiag ouoh impartaut agricultural mat~iads 3.n the sulfate of early potataea~ tas vernal5.saticz~ oP tubers end thn preprxration of potato ~"rassada'"~ are r~vail+abla to the individual gardener. squally se?silable is also the motrt profitabler method of har~resting early potatoes, the gradual "under- di~;gin~;" ~,"~oroahui.i"} as Gommeraia~ tubers me.ture. t7ue should ales remember the ~minor~ poi~tte, which at times appear of little signifiaa~tae is~ aiding at high potato yields and their prolonged etoriu~; ~thout losses. It ie knoerzt., for inetazrae, that potatoes are bast stated in ordinary ~srotsd+en bax+ee. Ixa spate of it, this method Tor storing potatoes is not ~ridely practised. tlert~,lizatioM of potatoes i~x boxes i+s also oP adroiantngcs, sincr- in that c~xse the gerriittatsd seed potatoes do nc~t have tts by transi'nrrad but may be trr~nsparted directly to the ?felde Far ooar- ins. {3r lvt us take such a 'minor" paint as the installation in the field of ta3nporary ordinary shads f+sr the drying csY' potatoes af'tr~r harvesting, a ~aeure that Sa of ms.~+ar irzportstice in gathering iu damp areather. All these anti other tnir~or pa~r~ts gill 6a'v~9 thousands atxd taus of thauaands of tons oP potatoes Pram loaeq,e which occur yearly e,nd regularly with ue. In raising; tho level of our potato graxrirzg tyre oarut~t afford to overlook these nSaor oc~siderations. ~'he simplest measures, Smpr+arred se a result of rational prnotiaes, should ba aaoorded ,necessary attention slang raith the latest act+iavemente in agriatiltural sciez~ae and teahnic~ue. 8nd of Chapter Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bu~+asov, 8. ~. ~:ul'tura kartoPelia (Fatah, aul*uro) . Lettixsgr~cd, Lanir~~ras~slros t~asmtnv- Zhurnal'noe i Knisht~ae Ind-vo, 1948. 228 p. 75 hE3~$ 1: end 22 of Aerlichingen and Great Scot tubers respecti4ely. bloom medium, cx~scasiox-ally scanty; reneptacle a-nd peduncle colored; corolle- pale rrad-violot nth more ir~tensf.~re red mar~;l.r~e aroand rays of star; sharp tipB era white und+arsz+aath and ~nrhite spatted above; anthers yellow or light orange, irregulrxrly co7.ored; no natural Fruit #'ormation. 'T'ubers red ~undar. elfin) round-vvrsl, acaasicnelly i-ith shar~ned tips; eyes of medius~ depth, lighter than. the original backgro~ad of tuber; px~lp ~rhite or cream. Fcanomic qualities late, indur~trial varicsty, of high starch content; medium yield; ,good keeping q~aaXity; tton-osnk~errr resistant. GMAT SCCYi' Vx-RIFTX. 1'laz-t tall, stun Breen, slightly colored in leaf e~xil$; 3.tsaf atrt~t3~;1y s+erre~te~d; loges dark green, saaooth, shiny, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Chapter 1V vf.i;h small waxy t~a-rgixus. ~l>,t~m scanty or altogether absent; bode ~rrhen uncl?~xaped fregca+~ritly full off; flamers poorly degolopeci; corolla vrhite, Frith rlerr~r lobes; anthers yella~a ax yellow-green, n,~rraar, almost na pollen; stig~rst large; stem ususclly bent; xao natural #'ruit foratation. Tlluetratiaz~s ~0 23, ~4 and 2!5 Great Soat, ICala+v, Cobbler, respectively. p. J5? 1;ubers n~t~ite, round ar raundiah-ovt:tl, sli~,htly shallov~, with bluxit, t'regt~ntly degreased tips (gaup ~i" upper eyes is deep), and slightly depressed stal,ans; aide t3yes not deep, > long, clearly forafed eye bro~+s; pulp w~hita, tsgraute (light} have bres~m-red, half-opened tap, brawn-green, short neck Arad red oi.ole~t baste. ~conamic qualities: medium maturing, table stack variety of goad taste; recitrtoint to leaf roll and .QCad.ic; keepirsg quality mediums reaistarzt to canker. KAI~Y VANS~g'X. Y'lant xaal#' spread, ~diura leax?ed; Leaf slightly e+errmted, dark green; lai~sa largB, almost round with pronounced veining, ehiry. xnfiorea+cence scanty; not spread; peduncle short, gre+gn; corolla (in y aurtg rESd-violet, vaith white sharp tips sbavn,/'i'lovrer~ underneath), occasionally double tlovrered; calyx grecaxi, antrcr column. conical; antY:ers arrange; >;tigtna net largo, doubt?-la~,od; stem of mediu~z thicknross, not Ion6, about the cite of ranpltcher colut~n; fruit f.'carr~ation occas3.ona1 but not abuadant. Ttabera yellow, round, ahallo~r, frith blunt ar depressed tap; pulp r~hitta, darkens its slicing,. ~prauta {light} have narrow top, short, aloaed, red-v3alet% neck dark:-green, shixry; bnsa at firer greaxi, ~e rcd-viola to mt~thooyanin appears; brv~, tubvralatua A11-L~nian .... - -~- It~atitLx'ta crf ~i,~'~ irsdL~atr~r (''1~'iR~ c~rarai~+dd 3rz i~~~ ~-r~ i`ar t purpass. This expe~ditinn, ut~dertal~en by ~ukaado~ Bind ILtaepohul~, csrossed thc;Lia~wds ai' kf3ar~tsrs in the him ~zauz~'Cs.ina~us re~iaas v~' South egad ~xiac~, ~r'hiah hari rac~eiv~rd little atv~dy, ~~ eaaesaible Frith di1'i'i~lty, ar~,d inhat~ited bar rndiana ~t2zc~ had graaer~d the oL~lture anc~ pc~tatc+ ~rarieties of pre-Ca~:u~tsus days. The experditian a d th~tis of pc~ato a~pea3:~za~a~ gz~c ~'r~x oe~xtur~.e~ b~ the nativ~s~, as -__.~ ~re7.l as nLi'a~rs 's'~.Id patataas. Alte~~;ethar xteor valuable ahara?teriatias ~aer~+ c~~.aaavvrad a! potnto spaaic+s prerrimusly ur~x~orrn to soienee. 'gild patatc~s resai~tant to pctata rat tphytogD~xthc~ra~ and ~rc~st, pra~ucing yfields a ye~cr, and ~resiste:nt tc~ the moat ~ar~gexaus pata~tt~ peat, ttae ~o~.arada be+etla. ;~peaimens aa~.leat+od key the exgeditia~a sera sub~eated ~ study usader various caud~:tiat~a in aubsaquent 3~ears. f7z~ce th+~ mild pat~Lto varietiQS had been examined, x~hi.ah repraseated the f ir~ot stc~~a Sri' tl~ ~rark, the next st~~cr vie att~ptetl, i.e~., t4 hybrir7l~d ~ildix~~a Frith aLrr culti~r~-ted v~uriaties ~ orsier to pr~cvide the 3attar with the valuab~.e aharu~atc~ri~at~.aa a~' the stow plants. tiybridizc~tinn ariRr3 ~aatataes ~.s an ?~xaeptiana~.lq campli~zated tasl~. ?l~a arescrslx~~ spur aultirra~d ver2etiea o~ fruits ~en~uina xf ldin~s fl~ the same p3mnt epeaies,~ ~rritar~ l"iahurin, "it ~.s ~cessary tc+ take into acaauat tkaet the letter, in via~r b~ their lengthy lire end ri-- sia~.aae paeoes~ ~e partireularly ~strang aa~aaaity t? transact Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~3ukaa~ov ~hprlova their uh~-rao~ricti~cg to their Pra~a~Y turd that, es ~ ro~u~t hybri8e off' the f3.ret acquire prcdomfr-arat3,y the c~z~acsteriz~tica~ of tt~i r Sd. ~crre~'ath+~re." Alvin r~r~th the 'va2uah2e tra~.t~ po~seea+~d by ,3din~s, t~ PSrst pr4~aay ~e+cssrati~c~x S~ en~3a~et~ ^eith harmi'uX tr+~~its, cuGh a~ pear y~ci, land ctolc~~, ~r#;a. Thie deadc to t3~e '~hir~! ~ta~e of t3~ ~sczrk. ~~,are ~ichut~3~n e~te~e `*~'hQ mt~at isapc~rta~zt task S~ prcd~~a~,tz,~ ~~ ~srSstir~c off' ~'ru,3.ta Se the t~aird tcethad, thct a~' the arepe~.ttr3~ csra~~iasg at' hybri~~ with tl~r best au3ti~a~ted ar~d S`or~cirt ~~ a~pplyin~ this methac3 ~re may pracstzcd in C~za ~E~r+~o~Giax~ a~ expedisnt tra3rximg iu c~evelt~z?~ Sn~ r~e+~dl ia~~." Al's saP bke~ vaark sxf VTIt, a3.t~x rdt~pact tca ~+raduc:~x~ g2aytophtk,ara- resi~at~,nt potatfl ~xieties, a~eet~ Fully the pri~aciplcs ~tgtah3ishod by t~?mhuri~. '~~I? praduoed a graup of phytaph~ora-r+~~iestsxat pctata ~riet3,ea: F+amara~ 3, ~ras~a-~fimsk~:i, ttra2,~1~iS,, etcs. 1;a prade~cirag the abava ~arieti~~ the 3.~ter-sp~civ~ cc~ethac~ ar hybr~dltcatias~ +ers-s ap- ~ali+~~ pcstato x~.lr2~ga f"~ram ~'vxioa, Sala3zt~m ~.emia~e~, folla~red by ther seabsequaxtt trsftzit~ v~' k~ybr~d ~e?~dlgag~. '~hu~ Se~viet aclox~ti~ts ao9.ved r~xie of the s~aa~t 4.r~porta-nt tsetcs is pot~+to ~.nduat~ry, the ar~tat~.rat~ of ~arietfea r+~si~h~rat tES phytop~:t~+~re. ~ht~ ;~es~ax~d te~3~ ixz potato ~~leotic-n ~ creat? vm.risties ~`or the axtrot~e ~vrth. hie a aSaa ~al~~ itt the So~3.rat t~n3ar~. T'he ~rark oi' the ~aadamic#.a#a 1. G. ~;iah~oltl ~l~aro~d the pg~~fbility A~ ~rrr~g and c~bta~img hie potaba y'ie~.dr~ is th~a ~`ar North. 8e~rera olimatir~ c~ar-~itfane Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Butieao~r-~,obs+#a~ cat tl~ab re~ioxt reacted uttt~nvzxrab~.y upon tha gc~elity o#' northern potataea. Whey rcf of ~ ~rs.tery, Paar~.y ta~tSn}~ quality. ~~.'!.CO, 3~:ichnri~n'a te~aah3~r~gs eeme~ to #~e roa~ex-rehers' aSd. P~~r_r_P_essor I. ~. ~ Vea~elo~al~ii ~aic~c~l~r appli~sd kr~#x~r-~spaaia~ #t~Zr9,di~~ti.~+ra of ~ralt9~v~,~sd pc~~st+~ pmts Frith the South .riasn potato speoies Solen~ eu~cligenura, kx~o~ra for Sts hi~,h starch casateat. Succeeding diret~ted trainiz~~ of hyt~rid seeQlin~e, o~t~a~ed #m c+~r a per#cx~ oaf years usader ee~rei~e o+~ditiaxta~ of tfae esxtr Narttt, a3.ded by high a~rivultural pre~atic~es, produced varlet#es t-f rnt~a ty~aas f"ox r~4rthern rags?t~s . Ti:eee ve~rieti~ee - Odra, z~nr~ii, etr~., x~cr~ t~oduae yields uga to 4CK? ~entx~e~rffi per hecste~re a~td Over. 'hay pa?~seee gad fast#ag aru3 leer~p- ---~- ita~ qual#tiae s+rad ~st+~Cl Imx~gthy traraspartatic~ ~a2#,, ~ #`sctr~r ?f con- siderahl.o iznpartexk?a the ias~rabl~ spaces of our forth. Tt~ay are ae~v~ rr3.da3.y ~.ntr~uced into grrst3cxation. 'varieties trs#ced wader severe ac~rthern aot~itic~s pa,es+ass rs certain de~re~a of f'rcat-ree~.eteiace ~-~ tt~e aapac#ty ~ ~;ra~~ xx~:+i~tly Sn iastunt~s where et~rly frosts doetroy fol#age. ~ the extreme t,oz'th, the teaahiA~a of a. V. ~~chur#n cad his talented ~upi3 ?~. ~. Lysenko also ae~tia~ted is eol~riag they th#rd tag in se#e~stioa, the~t of praciuaing ~rariet#es giving twa yields a ytear. ~sr_olou~e~d ~r~~atatiwe per#oc~ ixa the e3outh of our os+ux~try, the --~---- Cr ;reaa, r,~uzoeeue wt~3 Ceutr,~l Asia, ie lang eaou~h #rie~ld t~xrca herv~rets er~ually. 1"A ihe~at~ re,~i,ru~s potatoes plenteci isa early apriag ripen by ~3ua+e. hie ~,el~ve38 four moxeths ?~#' ~rartts v~ether et#3,1 fe~rore~ble f`rar potetes growth unutiifscc~d before e~+arly frosts stet S~n. 'her Ju~,y heat lat~arf+er+ee, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Pukm.mav . Lr~bedsrr~- however, Frith fihe ~;ro~th of caerl~t potato gsrf.aties, ceueing t#'~r fo3is.~e to dry csut. The he~a,t ooantributes a~mo to t~ tle~relopmea~t of moatte go- t~to cfiaa~nmets. ~`he r~i~aian~ Yo2ia~e of 1c+te potat~s rrcarrietios ~i.2ts 8csda~tas+tr ~~ tt~e }mat, ae is the ee~ae i~ the ~orther~a ~a~aamsuaa. Hover, e~an !!~ iate vrari~rties a,ra made ~ sur~? ttaa~ hot aacsoths at` the year muooe,~~ri'uiiy, t~~si.r yiaid v~9:3.I a3ti11 not produo~a euitab3e a~+eeds i~eoauae potato tuberm f'orined duri fast months d+s~eaareria-tt~ sand produce, ~?ara . pl~ent+eQ, ahrive3ed a~pscime~m of inci~nitiaaxat ~=3cild. Lys~ra~ca noted the degeuc~ratic~m of pot~-toczs a~,t hi h~t~+mparatures of the aoi1. kie i:stroduaed v~ritia-scales surer pl~ting6 into produo- tion. `Y'uhearta than resceived a ohanve5 to Foray in oooi fall months acid 8e~aaeraticm sfo~aped. the mun~er plgtatir~; of ~actatoe~s radiae:liy imprav9ed the seed qu~a~,ity of` potatoeaa. Ia addition, gie:ids Sram pleatati~z~s tica~asioru~3;Ty e;:caeedead thoso of aprf.n~ p~.azttixag,~ ecr pl~tiaa~s, thore- f'c~r~, reprejseanted a vvsrite~bia revo2.utio~n fn the southmrn potato industry '~lte~ ia~trQductia9~ of sum~ae~r p~.aratin~;s twaise~d a series of ~~, prob~.eama~ in frotato oultivs.tlaan.. xt a s7scesse~ry to s~sa.raZh f'nr new methods im a~r~cuitur~a]. prc~aticsets, psrtiou~rly rxith res~ct tca potato storing. "the stora~e3 of` mead, a~r+~ra prior to aprin~ planting, hack bra d~.f?fioult. It r~~,uired carsf'ui sorting, good a~torages t`acilities, properr csaro during stox~~xgex. It ~s still more dif'f'icult to Moro seed gotetoeas prier to suzrar~r plantic~~;, i.e:., teafore thes r~iddley of tl~e su~rner vuhen ewer p3arttin~kbaagi~. ,~11 theme tiif'fioult~.ege ire orrereazaea by spe~oial methods d.avelaped by Lyee:nga in s~,oritag sauced pvt~a~toera~ pri+~r to suer p2entia~gs. 3vearthcXa~ss, it reamainec~ teamgtin~; and. wore prof it~-hle t'?r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 hausaholde rlrst ca prenerve the presniaus year't~ pata'Carrs ?'ar suauaer plant- . ings but i.nst+sad tta use potatoes tai" spring p1.entings if these mere harvested ixa the, steer. ~`he plantira~ a~ patateea In the auger vaith f"rashly barveeted tui~era saraved a caam~aiicaated taatr.. ~rrssh2y dug potato tubers do raat gesrmSnats i'or a Zan; time beoausa they spend c4rlsidcsratale tip ir. a dordarat state. :'abets off' early va,rietiss requirrt~ pmrticularly lang riprraantsyr, althou~,h 3.t ~tmuld aa+~ th+dy ~suld germinate earlier tharx Zate varieatiea. It f~s true tit springy tuDaerrs of early varieties gc rminate earlier than da trabers of late varieties. 'fin ~r?at~1.y dui tubers are glanced 3:ra the aume~er, h~ever, early varieties ~ar~airiate even Inter than Zac~, varieties. In p3.aratarag i'rQShZy dui tubers ir! the suc~ex', tir~e is conses~ueratly lost ~rhich t'.w plant could spend cars ~rc~rth and the aocussalatiax~ at" yield. Scibratists have r~s~aatedly tried to i'itad aaeaszs to r+sduae the drar~aricy ;pariad in pc~tacra tubers. Chemicsal sulbstarioes mere diaoavered ~rh3ch ~rheta applied to tuberc reQuaed t~ze dorznaut abate. but these chemifla3 at3r~u- lants ~arscuZsratar. c) ax's zavt prac~ti.aal fcrr us+~ ors s pa?aduative sc+a3e because+ aF t}~e c~ea~glicated trox~t~axtt they' Iri sesrehira~ ~`c~r a sir~pler ts~thaci i`or reducing dornfanay ira potato t+lbera I.ysara~a grrap4sed to cut f r+sshly har~sted tube re. But this a~thod alas Pied its di~eadvcaratagas. In cutting, disease is unavoidably trens~ittcad and port ai' tt~e tubers era destr+oycd. Ira. additicsn, this zc~ethod requireu rauoh ti.rae argti a,gaae. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Thy. ~rob~e~ th~r~sforc;+ e~r~$c~ ~c~~r its tp x~ether ~t~:toe~ +as~u3d Arat ~~ ~~l.~zted h~ u~in,~; #'re~~s~y'-dead; tubers, i~~nedi~s~rly ~al~l~i.cag hx~r~rest- ing, ~ritka.catzt ~re3.iaii2~ry~ tre~at~er~t caf tI~ ~e+~d ~aeter~.e1. F'2.arztin.g of t"r~s~hly hur?w~~d ~+~t~tc~ tubers .tlnc~ut pr~t'~i~ni~a tx~a~.'kanea2'~ hid snot beep ,~Cra~~p'ted in r~s~y Lurc~pe~ +~~ua~try, r~e~r iii the '~, 17~a3~ oaf ~~ thoua~a~x~da: a~' t~xeu~a~ ~re~riet~.es_bei~g ~eaited ~Qr tk~e ptarpas~e. The lacslr ~~' ~u~~esas ~ sx~laine~d ~ vr~r~~st~.~~ ?}arc~alu~ed ~~t ~uro~ ~d ~e ~~~ ~'c~rrbis c3aes mot indirsate that rather ~zethods, such as se~rege~tiaa, do not play arty roie in cantempcrF-ry~ seleaticsu. Th+~y 1~,v~a aot beoa~te obsolete, ha~re sot lost their e~:~~if"faattae, but ~:n the oreatfcan ot" a~~ furae~ mf nRa~r l~ereclity they ~~-imtai,n a subarclinate male regard to hybridisa- she primary stad~ga iu hybridisaticau is ttra aa3.ocstion oP gartintal pairs Pcar crassin,~, ~ ?+~Xvc~tor ehcauld ncai~ crops imdiscsririnsately "all ~it?a +gveryth3.r~;" its the hr~pe that he may uc~~ere ~'it~ e. t~itable Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~esov , . Lebecierra a~b3.t~,~tic~ off' ctse~'uI tr~aite. ~ha~i2d, fix~,st cif all, clet~rly determine the type of irasant h+~ in~r3ds to produce, ~ .its ~roditq ~t~ould be, ro~hat priaa3pal charaafiari~sti,as the ~~ ~ariet~* ~shoul~3 possess. "~hvn only, daiieru~ir:~ ~.:pou theme e~ims, tha e~pcrimez~ter ~'1ac~t:t pia pe~xttal plants. `:,a obtain, for, a fret-r+rsistant potato a~.riety, it is riot posaf.b3,e ~ use excsl,uai~u.llr cultivated plants irx a~roe,~irk~, ei~a~ce rrox~e of. ~M~~a p~rsaa~ra i'rcrst-raei~ttnccec~. ~~ ~aqusllg ~ppliae t~ they produ4tion of variat#es rosistaat to the Col~rredo beetle. ~`hez~ it is ~rc~t~~riary ~ ts~c~ reoourse to c~ro,~~sin~o off' mild potato spetsies ~S:th .selected ~xriotiee. ~"hQ f+as~er, as rtlroady ir~c3icated abo~re, groom ixx ~~ South A~eriou a}xc~ l?a~ioa. ~umerot~e spc~cit~cer~s of ~rildirrgs attd primiti~re au3.tivatec~ epeciv+s of potatoes ~rrz bract otrer by Sc4iet expadl~tians iz~ tk~s yaars 1925-1927 ac~c~ in I9E2. lrg t,}reir rtati,ve aawcttrg, ~ril.d po- t?-to r3paate~ ara~ hard eds. ~oT~ potato ~i ldixtgs there is ~ grauir Qf fz~oat-reais~at varieties, gaaulia, vrhioh itaoTudee the follo~rin~ ~vivs~s Solarium Schreiteri. #~. ~ar3al, ~;. depexu~z, of ~ioh the falia~e --~... #s frost-resis~nt to ~~us 80 ~'hare- are ale, spe?ies re- t to the ~al~acio beetle, tk~ ~rctup c~i' species Gorscz~iax~a (Solum h&,bb+er~7~e~au~ S. ~,r~a ~:~ ~~~,~~i~}, d#at3.n,~uiehe~ eb ~-e e tlme by a str ~ ~razz~. ~ u 5or~s mild spee~it~e are ttistfiuish?ad by their r~-sig#~nce to phyto~?~- thara (Sela~rium dem#asum, 3. an~tipo~riohif)~ btzt all potato species possems~ slcrag vrith ~valuab2e and d~ssirable ,~ualiti+es, sc pr~rraoun~d ahortcc~- irk; tix+3.r yield #s irssi~nitic~at, the tubers ,~a21, thy? cluster ex- tzly spread., atcslox~ sometimes 1 ~. long, ~,itbars at" iaoc>r teet+a. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~u~saeav ... t~ebedeva - l,5 - f'he sar~rnc~ parent plate should be se3~cted ?rtsm aulti~ratec3 varieties. It i4 t? bg ~gpt in ~it~d that eznon cultivateed vari.etiea sterility Ss widel3r sprr~Ad. the Alen of these varieties are nan- vi,ab'le i.n the majority of eases c~nd may not ha used S'or ps~llit~ntiaa. 8uah varieties may server only as trat~ar~tal z~lents. xn araesin~s with frost-rae~.stas~t species ai` the+ ~cs~-ulia grc~zp it iar e~rec~antial t4 select the seaoa~d gent f rays the ~rc~up of ~'ertile~ a~al.ti~rs.'~ed var3etf+~s sfaae the abt~ve Wrest-reaist?~nt species izi arc~ssit~~ts with cultivated vr~rietias nr~y not be used as pollintrersr their short paller~ tubes (7~ do net rea~th thfa ovules of culti~tcd varieties. In additicm ft is desirable to select i'ar oroseit~~s only cankor-r+~ai.stt var3etfas beae~uee nc-n- car~t~er-rer~fstarr~ts vari~sties are scheduled for r~lacea~ent by aanker- resistant rietS~,s f.n different regions c~' the Gfinisaxt. rho hybrid progcsny unually pr?duaas tuba~rs that ere too late in fanning, and it is therefcsre xteaessary to select predarrsfnaaitly early aultivatec3 i'ar arossirags with vr'l.ld speaiee, thc? latter, as a rule, hav- ing a lc~n,~, vegetatSv~e period. la ahaasing a aultiaated Ry~roducer," attention has to be BSreotec3 to the sire ~zd shape of the tubers, the a}~pa +aud depth at' their eyes, the oalarin~; csf the skin, ttre len~,th of stal,os~s, the color t~~ the tuber flesh, the. peroe~ntege at starch content Sn tubers. Zt is desirable to use in csrossin~ verS.etiee of 1.~-rge amac,th tubers, small ~syee. ~'referenoe should be gi~ren white or Xi~t colored t;abers~ varieties v-ith dark-aalored tubers produce a ~Zigh per- oentage of lass in hurvestfng, l'~-ite flesh vaarieties e-re preferable. the verSety selected i'ar oroeain;~ should ha~re a aaznpaot alustex~ in ~-hiah #~.e tuisers era olustereei an sham s'tolons. "LFariatxea~ having Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 spraESdiz~ c~~,u~starzz should be a~roida~i becatzsa lybride t~bts.isaad frt~m their orcrssing ~~it~Y_ ~ri2di~ngs~ usually also d~av+e z~eaza-cat~aps~t sa~,u+~tar~. Spread- fn~ olustars cause araz~sider~b~.+~ ~at~rraniezaae and umaeaas$,ary+ leases in harvaeti~a~. A Ihigh perc~+~sta~e of starch ocmt+~zat is ~ desirable of~arsatc~rietic~ 3.n a producer pmt sizsoe st+~a~chiaess azseures hi~~h ~ti.eld of dxy subs tazzae . Ia hybrie~isativ~t t3~e hiator3:ca.l pmt of every psrc~t is taken 3.sato csanaidaratic~n; ~..e., t~ cc,zadYtiozxs ~.zx aah'~ch er~toh parent had c3evttlaped over ~ p~rr:~ad of zany decnz3er+a ~atcd ern c~tzturimas. lic~huai~t advises to uQ3c~of~ grants Prom distant laaatiat~s to ava3.d a one-aided trax~sfar of h~+raditery ahdr~-e~tari.stics irs the ~y~ari.d p3.~t. , pa s~z~at+sa "~'~~e~ Further are apaz-t ~ pairs. ai' cz?osse~+~ prodtaaar piar~:~/i'roz~ rah other iu anc~ envircarent~l conditic~e, the easfer will hgbrid seedlin~,s ad~uet t4 thv +~z~rc+nr~t of tt~ zao~ loczo~ticaza.." f}f utih si~ni~"iuaueza fear the heredity of` the hybrid. is the ale oP tha potato varitsty. '~trv yautx~ar t9~ ver3aty, t}~a lease etrexa for haredirlr trsnsz~ittarsae aru? ftzver?sa3y, older posra+asz+ ~rarstezr etrsz~~th tear haradita.ry trs~st~ittsactae. find pate~to speoivs e,re utron~est icy tr+~sz+aitti;n~ their k~r+~df.ta;'y Qhaz?aotarietios tea hr~brids. Xt ie i'~arther of iraparta~nce as to which p3.azat ixt a ~,ive3zx pair is ahea~n as m f`+~zale ar zaza~Cea parent. ifiot~urin grate eaeaacerzafx~~ this: "Yn s~elraQt~xx~ a ca~ataixast~,c~st ai' pairs of p~.ants far ct~asaings, the frams3.? ra7,e ahnuld tie t-sa~,~aed to speoimaz~~s oi' ralativeiy batter s~ualities ba- oe~use tY:e Pesr~3.e plant usua3ly tra~z~its 3,ts ahe~re.atarSstias to tars hpbrid in greater ~ea?~ure." Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukasaY ~bedeva - .~~' .- Chnaa t27e ~-reutal pai.ra Nava b~a~ seleate}d arosa~g, ~'olTo+r~s. Sande o? ttee xild patatts eptraiaa arose ralat3.vely etail~r aeleoted cultivated '~'orriatiAS, sucah ae bhe ail~d g~hytophthora-ra~sSatsut apeaios Sa2auum da~dissum. Thin gray equally ha said o~' they is~a~az~ity af' prSmitive c~ultiaated upecies. bier entire, suooesa Su csrasait~ga withr those apacsiea depeada primarily u1~ the teahx~igue of crooning astd the conditions under xhiob the araasiidg takes . 1+altby, ~eell draroelaped giaIIta era t~e-laated ?`ar creasing, ainca this Sa thre grimy preraquSsita Par obtaSning h~a?d1,tY~y, vietble pragax~. ~`be ~.. lerstad oy~ car bur~ah cif fXcarers+ ahoulc~, mot 2~t too yaung~ a portion of the buds should alreadyt be ogntd. t?lder bode era s~al~-ated tar aadasaulaticsa. and arosaitdg bacsauae ii' a built 3.a ton young Sts atia is .not prepax~dd for re- caiving the poi.~.exd, it is too teudar oud in e~rsaaaulatixdg may easily dry out; a21 youth bode are tberafare removed. ,~ att~ll parvh~ent label, on a fla~,da thread. irj tl~ean affixed to the eta1k aS' the cyme and the Hama of Cher matert~e-1 variety rrrittezd on it, the date acrd hour of the oraasit:g, and ttae number of pollinated buds art tbc, apes. ~dAt ~ollaxs the emasculating at buds. 'Ph~e operatcsr haZds tYds bud at its point aS' atteak~ant to tlae peduaole Frith his left hand, bin right hsai:r3a the torcerps dS.pgded in alaohai. petals of the bud era gently pushed opetx acrid the atdthrsrs resaa~vod ono after the other. 0 shoulrS cdaretully s~bservre smother the anthems sire cZaaedt if they are open, pollination tray already havr~ taken glans and ouch bud must then ba e3.i~xdateci Pr~n the cycs~. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ a~soule:tisag oars ehauld be exera~isad xaot to parslit the i`c~roepa or needle tee taua~h tha stigpna, aa~ eawa a a3ight tauaia n~-y cause it ~ dry out. The naxt strip follcrr~3t~g e~,soulati~ ie to iaadiately place the pollen upo~t t}~e stig~s of tlh~s e~sculater~ buds. a pollen is pr+e~ricsusly rihake~- frara; the anthers ci' 'her r~a~.e pe~rwst plant n~ad ~e-thered f.ntc~ a. Chita ;ghee tub~i or, ~iah is batter, ab~aker~ upon ~atigna of aa~aaaou'1e;t~rd 'buds dYreatl~r f~~ the actthers. in ~sol2inatin~ this sti.g~a attitiuYd t~wt be touczk~d. it is advisable to duct the polletz at a di.stt-tacte ssf ~-~ from the stigas. the ti,a~ uhor~bn, for Vrzrt~st;3tag, fs al,sa #stportaztt. (7ur +~xpsrSenae hoe s?i~rn that the largest pera+sttta,ge o~f ger~ia~atd&, barrigs occurred f rc~u pai~.iaat~.csn S:r~ th~a a~onizxg hours (~'ra~a 5 to iC~ p.~.~, a mua3~ that stellar peroentr~ge during the mo~nittg hourt3 ~,8~1~ ~+oo~j wad/only rare #"ertil~.satiozz fraa~ pallinatit~ tams plaaa batw$eri 7,2 p.m. amd 5 p.r~. Can cloudy, foggy' d~-ys tY=e tiz~ r~Y" orct~six~ is c~' wr si,gnit'ics~os. ,~ pa-~hcsae~nt "ieo?aate,r" itt placse~t~ upon the ~tillineted tslrmcrs, Whia3a is tied at thQ"rs~c~" a thix- rtrire. ,~ftc~r 1-12 days the "sealatotr" is ra- mo'~ac4 anal the fertilisation of the ft~ax3t vsri.fied. ~urisag the as it?-12 days the "it~olator~' should ha apeaed t~titse fair +sir~.rig. ?"~' tha berr~.a~ x~re fert3.4iEacs,~ t'he Yso~.atotr $ht~uld be replacsd upon th+e cy~e beaaueas the barrios oi' eQme speoias and aaeily drop, espa~cislly befot-e rtpeaitag. 2x~ the fall. tha berr3.ea arc re~aved wid t~atf~f erz'+ed ;nto a as~'~a pi~-ae csf raa~a, ta~~~~~tu~ w3~r+~ they oc~a-- plete their rlpaniug. 1~'t?en tbv berries arts s?~ft the seed's are e~treater3, dried n~ placed in p~ax~aga; . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ac~u3ca,t . Trt~itt~t~eva .. 19 +~~' ~}~ gild species at? potataasa oress Fo~"~y frith ccaltitrated eel ~ titre v~ietlet~. x~{; thew ire the Proat-rc~.eis~ant speesias ?~ the group l~e~aculia-, ~;ol~ ~ahreiteri, S. pu~i, ~. i~eprrxumt the species of the ,~r~-u~a Ooru~r~n~xi-, ~ibb~rct4~e~u~. ~5. ~rs~ii, S. s;~h3.~c~ci~.i,~ ~. entipovicshitt, ~d any others. ~ha peraeaatag~ ot` aYaaaees 3n dietesat ot~asain;gar le sc~eEi~s sa X3.1 that there is tot c~uPi`Soient material for ~sleation an~i ~'urthar aeletstivo ernxk. ~'~ark dox~ oven ~ period of e+rrtnaral yeacr,~ ~rlth arilt~ ape~oiea ~scy, +acc~-aionac2.ig, ia~ atpite t~~` thouearu~s o~ perl'orc~8 aroeeitz~e, zcot produce th+a +~sired r+s1 ?i' ezu+ah ai~rciPi- t~aince izr pott-to ,se3ecticxc ie therei'orfa the probxe~a of tnreroc~rafui~ non- croeeabili~- bat~r~ trill a t+ultivett~d potato epecles. *The meat ef- tiai~snt metho~f ie ttxs ill own ~'3ohurin method +~~' pre~.fmir~ary ~s~e~- ti~ "ra}tprooherne~nt." V$G'~'I'~ai'~ .rR~i~~~~":;h~." parexct ~rle~nttra aeletttaad t"or vroeai~t~g are i'ix~a+'t ~;rat~d one each other. ~'or 9.aata, if e~ce ~iahe~ t~ ~aroee~ a~ of the ~~ost?r+~aista~nt apeofea ~rittr, ao~s +~u3ti~tec3 selective veriety, the slip {autt3:ra~~ dram ~- ~3lfliog is gra~'tad o~ato t~3ae au~2titrated plant +ar, ort th+a ooa~trs-.Ty, the ~attfra.~ oi'' the tfariety dratted aaatc~ the trild- ing. 1~Zan blocenita~ prrriad arriv+ss the stook p'3.ent is uroased frith the Your ehc~o~s (~rs!'t~ or vine raa. Gra~'ted ir~.anta develop at eeoh artheg'a expexrsar the atc~k p2an,t act th+e expanse, ctt the young shout cr vice versa, depeaEtin~; u~snrt hctrr the grsi't1a,g tree doxNV aat~ tA?, e~i~reati?b lu trhioh either t~+~ tr~airxe~d. lt~ bcz9;ldin~g its body from n~rtriect substazcaa~e prroduced by ax~ather t~css,pattent oP ~;he grect?t, thee+a ~atock plaa~ts ar eciozts ch+~t-ge their Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 baei+a by apgr+t~aabistg ana aoa~patieaat is~ s oharaotearistiass; ess a ar~?sult of this they aa~aee with ~roatsr etxs+~. Crrassin~s r~rs csonduatc~d +mr3i.~,h.ian the l.imit$ of ane grafted plant: the saiosz is ~,~ollisuatr~+d ~rii~I~ tt~ ,~lleaa of ~ etoak p1e~t oar the a~taak planet is patlirze,tad vrith t~;e p~rllssa caf the scion. La~,y in c~asos zt tf~ra ire xxo simultaneous blaaxaing of stao'k pleat and saiasx aaa os~e graat'tc+d plant , the pollen aS az~athcsa^ sirrsi~.?~arA~y grafted plattt is used: the ~lld saian of the first ~rr~fted plant is pollina~.ted roa"Ath the p~ol.leaa of the aultivat+~d staa~ plant ar t'hat aaF asa;ather ,~rai~tvd pioaax, ~ah#~t+e this aultivatc~d stocl~ plant of tt~e first plant is pa3.lizaote~ with the ptsllesa. of the ~ilt~iag stao~ plash or the saian o#" tl~ aet~ancl pra>f'tESd plc~xat. Several methods of gs-+~ftfng a~ 3aaoan. ~I1~3~R ?z~i~4!'IttC, ate of ttas ~idbly used metk~ad~e. Trio tubers are 3ainacl ~- ~:/ fore plenti.n~ ~.aa the grou~ad. 1`+.ibsare of tiro @iff+srent parsxa.t plants are out ha~laP, vortS.csally or haari~antally, i.u z^t~ruxer that the out arass~ee an eye. flee half of oas parazzt p3.aa~t ie pls.~ced sect to the half' af' tYx~ atiier parent pleat axar3 bath h~.lvc~a are tf+~d firmly to~thar. ~3ae rest of the eyes era remavsd rsn both 'kubear 2aalv~es? This olrerc~tiars is pertcaxsze~d several. day>~ or av+sn ascnths priaar to the plant3.x c-~' gr>~fted tubers in the soil. I'he other method iszvrrlvss the autt.isag c~,-t ~-f a mall piece of the flesh, inalndix~ once ere from the tuber oaf ~ parent plant, reprasentir~~ the stors3~ glasat3 the rest flf the eyes sacs alas rezaaved and into this ,spgae ass +oy~- of the athor ps-xeut pleat .~~ :ha sal:osa's~ 3.e pl.saed anathsr pieaex c;~d etocL pleat etnt3 the rrmdfea of ~ha se4an fn e,aterod 9.ntca the die of th+~ a~sl2ding. ~':~ dta not rt~cclrund this ~rat3~od be~oauee- all nutriert subste~ncaae of t+~ae3 atcaeal~ plant iQ this^ ctir+~otcad tx~c3s the tin cat` tba p~,atat~e cm-th, grad ~'h3.le the ' ~ ld ink ~ror~e rapidly, then sai an recea ive a only ~ iresi~,nil.'t.eaant e~ount aP sautri~rsat subste~ue:es ~nc3 caaatesaezaaa proceeds alrn~rly. ~, rah g~f tiz-. r~vaz~ pr~3uass s stresx~,~, s.~.t~q ~-#.tu~t. ~'hea ~r~tfrx~ opearntican ehoxzld boa best prsri'va~ect t.n the, ba- asuse c~urita~ ~ hot day the young; stsiatx rae:y ir~^edis~.t4aly ~+ilt aesd taw intarfor~a .th ev~y' err~aleast~snaea. ear three ~ealrs n#'tear ~ref`tSu~, the tH+~t tube is re~aav+ad ^tfae end a~ the ecait~n vat ~t th+~ pleo~o ot" ct>~3eazaaenas. Aa alxetdy ic-diezated,. flee m+athe~d is aelnptatt t"ar tscark with p'lant+s ~"carrm in tl~ f 3e~d. xt his, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bukaso~r 1,t~3~vc3ev~.t hcrt~e~+ror, many diss~.dv~aatsgas? 7''t~e slip csf thF soioxa left ire ~rateir in ~a fast tube era~atixtues to be a?uriehad by tester and dod+~ nat treasfsr to the pr#avide+~ by the stook plant; 4au2esc~r,ua+ea e,leb praae~eds nuoh slae~sr; t~:e smiox~ beCO;~Ess exheus'Ced er:~ is not able td prc~'uce a healthy goad plant. ~^~ health;, can~itiaa rat bath cvaspvnents is, ho~v+~r, the first a~ssursnrsc~ of ~uac~as, ,~sid~ tiara thaat, ao~.~:escea+aa Sa not ron~Saa~~ fa this mathad sad r3cc~are i'r~rquently Only in s;sC-ts en c~i?t`eren.t pltaaes of tha ezut (slit) Mich i.tlt~srforos le.ter Stith the9 fi1x12 exahan~e bet~eea stock pl.snt e,ttci scion. ?~caasianally gtaftin~ is peri"orned ua~ar t'ies2.d anrtditicus with the cc~- tnen raethad af. ~'caed~e ie ae~Z!eat,'~ while the r~cti.nn is c~ovnred rrl.t2a s, garoh- tt~ent isalstvr Chava) to redc~ae "~?+tPrr evspnratitix~ a~ preroatit xS,lti~-g. i'his method, drt the ~~ole, Ss ,not suacdes#'uI. GRAt`"1'~~ FiTTH 5~~3. Sam experim~ez~tare (,~. A. 1~x~kku~agelelcii oi` the ~3lieuna~sk 'pote-tc~ 3t~-tis~a} pr+sat~,co grtxi'tiag utith .germinated seeds S.utn ~e eye, rather iatp the sprout saf the t3at~ta tabor. The sprout of th,~ gvrm3,aa~Led tuber is csut ot't, a slit ~~ndet Qn. the atom and ints~ this slit a +scratcbmd {scsrs~d) rastlot of the germ.iraate~d seed ie~ pls.ce&. fibs tubtgr S.s naxt Silaatsd :.r a pot in such gasitfan that; 3.ts unpQr part aficsr+~ the need 3s~ gra#'tad, reme-3as outsSde. Tha tuner is aa~rvred from above with a ~;IasQ vessel ar aa,u, to protect the seed at th3.s tstr~~ I'ztiom drying out. Ca- alascerxcn coaurs vary tepidly. The you shoat ~hiah dt~~e~.oped frcea tk~e ezoed is e~rk~esecl to d ~axir~ux~ of S~tflttet~ae t~f` tt?~: stook ptant tuber be- ae~~asa of tha cons;cterable di.ffor?~~~ iz~ ag~a batrove~sn them. A small ple.ut Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ulcosov. Laba+ie~rn - ~~ davel~spe ~'rr9ao t!~ ~+ed ar~hioh ie nouri~-hes~ duri~ t!~ .drat ~aost ~.~eportaat ~csaauts of fta lita oo~pYetely of they exponses a#' tl~a stoa~c plant tubas. (~ ^v~Il'l~(3~ ~Y S~,t3l~p'3'A~`IG~N ~T~i .~ SpNf i~t tha bast grafting ~athcrd we used ovor ~ p~-riod cf years ~ioh produced 1tlC?pe~r cent erf.abi~lity ~,aong all garaf'ted p~.ainte, r~asuzdta~, of the sa~ae tis~ the xis~eat fuf2u+rncse ?#' one con- panont apcan the otter #n a desired c~~rect#.nn. '~ha plontit~ cf r~rild ~speaies of a~eads intcxu~ed for grafting iat dons in bc~xaa ~-t the nursory net later than by tho end of Y~-roh. Shoots ~gpdar tro sneaks le~ter ~iob a~ tara~neplanted into pots. Sdedling~r of r~rild apecfou +~re tea be pr,efex~red for graftiir~ 'beer~se tk~ir tissues a?rrr ~aungur (~.n stnge~ than the tissues of +~te~ gra~-a S'ro~ tubax~s tk~sy au~scsuob eaeior to the ini'2ue~tae~ of cultivated eixaak pls-nts a~td saiotui. 'tubers cf oult.S;v+ated v?-riati~aa sx~a +~isaultatxeouely plated ixito baxea. t'arli~-s ore presf+sr+~b1X chosen i'c~r t~+ purisose, as i~xdiae.tad ab~re. In c~r+asainge ~atit}: gild frt~st-reMistant d~caulia spaciea~ cultivated riatiers ahpuld be cf the ferti?at+ ~ bea+ause aildings aaur~e+at b* utilized as pollfns~tare. Rhea the eprauts (shoat+~} of s~ultiva~ted vari~tiae appear, cuttiage ai?a 1ra3ceu i'rasr the rich wre transplanted is~te pots bs- aause in grat`'tfeg a ~-$t+~d cslu~rap is awabernraa~a a~ it is dssireb3e~ to have ane stea- prefearabl~r separat~sd f'rc~a tt:e a~oti~r tubas. Cultii~vated ~y ba sod a~eede. Ire rev+~raa gr~-Ptittg, i.e., ~vtran gild spaa~.oa eea~ as ataclr plnnte, it ie ~ea~,s3,er to grn-ft sead- lings of csu2tRveted varieties c~-ato theme s~.thar tai tk~ cuttings grc3~i from Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 tubers. La thin vas~+ the nae~ix~g rrt seeds of oultivatad varieties is clcme sa.~errhat earli+sr than is the planting of seeds of ~orildings (l-Z ~eks). In utilising the seedlings of cu.ltivatvd plants it i s essential to con- sider that thane seedlings da net repeat fully the parent variety axtd frequently diff'ar from it ire all cha,raat+aristios. It is therefore impera- tiva to grcrar for contras purposen every from w3aioh a outtingS of t}aa scion has bees tal~en. i?enpita the varie~;,ation of ' +eeedlfng off- spring; of cultive,te+d varieties, the ezropping;rapacity of these naedlfrrgs is,ganarally aloes to that of Solanua~ tuberanum srrd aoaae~u~sntly exceeds radically the crapping capacity {yialdl oP r-ildinga. Their utilitatian for inter-specien gra4"tit~gs serv+s the purpose of providing the trildi.ags with the cropping capa+a3.ty of cultivated ple-nts, grid this ai~a is fully achieved. The advantage saodlings have over plants graael Prone tubers acn- nuts aisd in the ease in +rort-3ch they coalescse and their healthier condf.- ti on. guber plants easy occasiazzally be degenerated in hidden f'arttc. At the art' a f April or early L*ay ore may begin the grafting of Sri ld pota-ta species to eultivsted gari.eties and vice versa. ~'hs cultivated. varieties era by that tine vigort~us axrd xe 11 develolred plants, while the trildixegn era meek ntiaa~g bearing ~-3, occanianally 4 ~.?af].ets. Thin difference in tho de~loprsent of th+s respective pl+xrats serves to ,~iroa predemninanae t4 they irsf'luenae cu~,tivated plants bear open ~ : wildings. xt is to be noted that plants ahorsen for graf r~hould be healthy amd strong; and that their shoots should be p4riodically fed t~ith ~alr ealutior~s of nsineralasslte. It is bent to use for this purpose 2 grams taP potassium citrate to aria i.itar of mater. The shoots era infregnantly fed ~l:th a v?eak solutiorx of aarnara (1s~C1~. This feeding; may be given secs ovary 2-~ days. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 LIG~I . . r L0'bede~ ~ ~~ fibs upper ps.rt at` the ~sLem ias aut aft' the stack plat I a~-. above thta axi 1 scrcaz~d nudes, rorhile frame the lamer part a~.l/rurnere (Paeush~aye9} arr~ re- rsdvad to prc3~'attt the draining frt~ thaxz~ of autriant substatic~es. The upper aut paxt +cf thc~ stack plant is rc~atdd to Ctrs sciaa far cc~tral. Tbg atuttp at' tl~ stacsk plaxat is split alcsz~g the stem 1.5-2 am. Frith tkm blad~af a c3ielrif'aat$d t~afefty ras:a~r and aria cif the a,pl~:t hal~res iea sharpe~d midge- . l iker (Illua!z . ~, p. ~ fi} . The tip c~i' the ata~, 2-~ +~. iea l+er~gth, is aut Oft frt~s the plant in- tended as a eaian 1 cx~a. belo~r tfie later Wade. of ttse'e tap the lcr+~r ,pert of the ec~icsn is reserved far oarztra2~. ~5irail?+r slits aro cut an the esuttir~g aP the eacfari, as dace can the strick pi+ants so that itz a~Idi- ti~sn to th~r ,sk~.t~piat~vd ~re~dge which is ent~-t~d into the slit of the- s toak plaixt, the ~saiara #.~lsa has a "tara~ue" e~ich is ,~a3:x~erd to the cut side surfaaee of the eta at. the steak plot. TI~e midge of the steak, plant etrsters bet~e+en t~ "tanguex" and the w~sdge at' flee sc~iar~ (Illus. ~, p. 26). The place of graftir~ ie then firmly but teat v+~ry tightllr boaxnd with a clean strip of dry g~use and the graf"t~d p3,a~nt placid in a molest ahe~ber. t}ne ar t~ leaves acre left an the steak p1e~t. it is xzat ar3vlsabie to But thh~ steak x~laut in t~uah mar~r ae to leap e~, stump ~3.thout lean+es, because is that seas the cirau~tian at' sub~etanaes is it~terferod with in t2ie st~k pltn.-t ~$ thes le~:tar may perish. The selita an stock plant and sate era pre ~'ej tab ly made int a the leaf s~ rk ~ trace) ~ "sled") , since3 there are a mss' nizr~ber crf vcsseele hate and ttav t~irculatian of substeiacea fram Ie3ef 'Ga le~ef is inteaxzeit`3.ed. Beaauser of the presence of bhe lame smt~usit of tnrtrie~nt sutastarresss, ovatesaermca takes pleas more rapidly. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukasav I.ebedcrva ZS - A mix~imuts oi" leaves is left ors the scion at the tire of grafting, best of all one, the sr~llest, dust uafaldiug leaf. ~'hia ~ri11 protect tho salon from ux~rteoos,sary evaporation rind ~rilting. fibs same aim is pursued by placing tho graft ir~tcr a moist chamber. Such ~aoiatt chamber spay be e-rraraged under a frame (rack, stand) in the nursery. Its malls are linerd all around Frith txa layers of ,fause; a layer of moss sphagnum (35-~f! gs~.thicsir) is pla~aed unc~arzbere:th, whi;csh ie r~t911 ~ratsrecl. 'The gauze is elan ]~ept constantly moist. ~hiler tk~ea ple~r~ts aro 3n the moist chamber Choy arer not watered, to prevent grater frog getti~zg into the slits ending, decay, If they pots dry aut, the soil rxlox~e is vratered without touching tktie ateat. Fare the plants r+amai.u one meek. They are then transferr8d under a frame varhere moisture is considerably lower but where the plants are, r~everthslass, protected from diz~ect sunrays. Ia l0 days the gloats are placed outside the frame. They usually have s^hievod ~roase growth by that tirtte and the bandage is removed. In another f+aw days the grafted plants arc transplanted into the open grauud. Thv described ,grafting method ensures the bast coalescsence of stock plants and scion. Caalesaence may bo so close that by fall it may be diffiavlt to locate the spot wher+s graf tiny; had taken plaoe. G G~` p7C "VSTAV~~." 4'a increase they`luence of any of the Cnmpasztsnts in a grafted plant one may make the graft by the "vstavka" method. The gr~zf'ting in performed by the method described above, tut when coaieseence tapes place and the scsiae~ starts to grog a slip of the stock plant is once more grafted onto it irs thQ name manner. "Ystavkan is called tho small section of the stem of the initial graft rKhiah is aa,e included bet~en Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~3ukta~ov . Lebed+e~ra - ~~ w two faa.rtu o,~ tha ~rtack. ~'allo~ing t2~e ssaand greft~ng aperetf.axr ~#;~ plant 1s agaitz plesed intfl a ~ciet a~n~ir and the praae~ss cat' nt-t~~.eeoaooa e~ aare+ of gr~+f?t nantinued in the usual r~aru~er. n'Vetavka" should, t~+~v~ cr l~a~s L?h?~n t node~t~, i.s., it shau~.d bs a slip (cut ai' thcs stare on wh'iah thane ara leaves.'Phis s'nall nutting af` th+~ etas of tks ~vsta~a" ~f.3X axpcsr~.anao a deuble 3.afluc~trese~ f ram the other camran~-nt, from its rant syste~, as ~re21 ors trt~~ tY~; t'alisge arxrPacse. 'T~ strum a~' rnttrietyt crubetm~t~s, bad do~rd c~x~i upward going, derived t'rc~ the trtiao~: fxl~-~1t, pareses thrau~r the "r~atavka" (111us, 4, p. 2~~. D~I.b~'t:,~~1' QF {}Rlll"~E~ PLI~T~TS. Thv grafted giaa'Ga arcs tr~aneplanted iota trpen ground e~hen the da~ngar taf early f casts has passed (io I,~sz~f~rgrad by t2sn eac3 at' ~'.sy ar t~egixutixrg of dune). Attaur trcu~eplazrtitrg and rer2'atrzs a amtrupt of grar~t~ shags, the side ruxrtrers (~.-2} ar0 ltsf't as tyre stack plant in ?rder to ~,ravida ~ flc~errs iat oraasinge. Ta strer~tt:en tha i.zrP7.ue~ao+~ of crultg~rterd varieti~~rs ~upart 'ei.idStzge, the lama t`rt~as t2r+~ Ts.tter acrd the eafans ar?~ rt~travt~d bvfare buds wear. Csre ha:s to ba a~rorafsec~ rzat ~- ia~ure '~1aa a7d.l lesPbudc frcmr eksiah ayr~e$ ~i3.1 dav~,slap. Oazaa the buds have appeared leevag are as 3,c~,~ar r+~~raved far fe~nr af' asuaing ~ buc3e to drop. ~ ~i'ldinbta a~ mild srai-ans ehaw~, na~rerthelsss, a ~-rtiai drying a3' irr this peducrolcr, ri~,e~thn aatrtra~, plnnte of surak~ ~'~srti~s ~~.ldings as rraaulie ar de~?isst~r, eua-ry 1" praduce~e a ~serry. .;(~ $aan ae tkre gra#'ted pls~ts beg~,ta to grax th?~r eaoo develop saw peaulisr o&arars~~rf.etias csamparec~ to aantr~sl plaute. In our ~anrk in t~rne- ple-nticeg gref"~c~ plants i~zta ope~r grcruz~c~ it yeas dlsvavareri that i~z the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 group where tho wild speafa~o Sola:ou~u gibberul+~su~, S. para~3ii and 3. achickii wore utiliLed as stock irlt~nts, all species 'without exoeptian produced tubmrs 20-25 d~aye after graftfng unde+r the influe~nca of aultivr~ted eofon ~re~riaties. 'xha tsetttrol p~.ants did az4t arhaw any tubers but Duly pro- duced la~ag stc~lana (Yllus. g, 6 ~d '~, p. 34} . ~ order to prove that the reamtian of tb+~ cs+altivs~te~d scion varieties h~-d been exerraised here anr3 not the efft~ot of tkw grafting; oration ftself, slips froze ether epecient:s of the serz7~s xi.ldic~zi ~+ro grafted onto soma control ~rildings. Tubers d?ro+elop~scl cnly- lsa:te 3n the fall affi a result of these graftings. ptild stook plants anti soigne aubsequez~.tly reavhed highest develop- meat in the gr~rup of g,rafti,s~gs ~fiaro tho enumerated species of the Gom~+ersonianz3 group: were ua~ed ns etcxsk plantz3 and eaions. They saermed to suppress th+a cultivated varieties and exceoded control plar~tz3 czf tha aar~e z~paoies in de~+alapnent cif folir-ge l.5 to ~ ti~se, rsachiag a~ hdight of 2 zrx. Fertility waz3 at the sane t3rye csonz3iderably reduoed. 4rznt'bed plamte, w~zere wild fraat-rr~z~istar~t epeaies of the baaulia group - S. sohrt~iterii, 5. putu~e and S, depe~ ware tslreu ass z~toclc plants and aeiaz~a, d+~velopoii s~xae~rhat dii'ferently. Whe-a trr+~xzaplanted fnto th+e ground the wilding-stook plantz~ did teat have any tubers yet, ~rherea+s in the fall thz~se dev+arloped in lz~rgd nuzsbers. ~;tiery cluzt~g prociu~rd 104-24? grate of tutzers, while the control ~zngra~ftod pla~zts, within the eager period ~~eptvzsber~, did net Shaw any. {3n the Qantrary, atoak ple-zate of oozes csultivatead ve~riet:es, especially thos~s grrnrn from the seeds of apron, Ballydoon, Katahd~.n did not gr~r tubers under the influence cf xild stock platats but instez~d produced growing etcslons, as xith ari.ldinga (lllua. 8, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~. S2}. All to ~#oh ~~.ldita~s Pad bean ~rs~`ted sh+~d ooasid+xxable belat~dateas in tub,ar aeavalrx~mcant ao~:pared tca rcou-~,rafte+e csluarpe. Tk~r gild saioxas, ag mell ~,~ -.. ,. rurat~rrs ~.~ mild stciak plattte~ ~ho,~ed, whaxl ~rt,,~'ted, lat~,thi+~t' intarxzc~dee ca~p~rvd to rsraxtrtsl plants. 8 {~raPt- it~s cai' tixx Acauiia group dif~?earad rac~iQally in (heir derrela~nt fru~ +acn- tra2e eX1~i t~seanbl+~d 3sa tttair appaaranu~+ ~o first sexva2 ~e~neratioxz. abtait~d free vx've~3ts~;e o.~ tk~sse frost-rseisteat apec~ie~ vaith +c~ultfvated plat,tQ. weds c~bCuit~d fry s+al~'-pc~xlinat3.att st' ~raf'tea plants 8. S+ahr+~itsrS.i, sS. pur~ae ana S. flepoxum ~aer+~ t~ne- anc} ~ ha2~' times ~~ lar~- es the seeds ab- taisusd from e~ti`-~peS.ii.~-+d r~+ozatra~i plea c+i' t~ Beans s~ao~.~~. Ae eaota as the ~ra~!'tit:~s blo+c~s, usu+~lly i>a .Tuz~, ornesin~ +~#" ~~.ld speoies cult~:vated varieties be~;ir~. c~xr +axperi~sa~ce in pallitzatin~ c~ulti~ratea astoak plants att~# ssaians t?~e pU11et~ taf ~'r~e~t-~rseista.~t spsaiee ~sf the Acaulfa ~;rcYup, ~rnfted entn ots3ti~rated varietiers, ghtd that trot + xats graducsed. ~'hfs remora i'ar this ie S`~ourid 3.>Y t~ ~ax#~rttal pec+uliaritiss df the flcr~sr~ c>~' ~o~.enu~, tubertssa~ arm the abo~ sri,1B eg7eci+~s, i.e., stiles ar the f3era caf 3. ttaberasuex arRo apprc~ir'sxtely ~,.!~ tb 2 tines 2an~er tt~.~a ~tht>tsse of flcreaarta caf tla~ ltcsulia ~,raup. ~'431sn tabaar are acata~squantly shorter is tt~ ~-aaulia tht-t~ in ' tuberosum arsd the pol~.en bf these arilclitt~, after g?rminatix~~ trn thes s'ti~na of the eulti~rated ~ariet~`, does xaat reach the agile, thus pr+awczn#ain~ fertili~atxo~q. ~a varii'y t~ abav+s the follotvin~; expr~rizu+aut rrcae pet~fttmesl. ~ultivatsd ~Qrie~tfc~s havix?~ stature, relay to apeta buds. ~~- eme.sculated, the stylus the>~a aut {alit) through t,~o-thirds aT thefi.r thic~ttass at ablaut tote center, beat and the ~ouutia pctlL~tz plaa~ea u*~c3xt the tatat. 1`hs styles sere theta rn~-de Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 8ukasa~r Lebedeva ~ ~ - to resume their forgser erect pasitian and the cyma rras covered with an "isalatar." ~'roa~ a~aang one hurx3red floro~ers pall9.nnt~+d in this manner only tyro produced berries. The percentage oi` success a-ay, undoubtedly, be urge since this method rer~uires further exploring. It seems that many in3ured styles dry out bnfare tho goller~ is able to ~er~ainate. It is to be noted that oven these two berries appeared only om grafted plants and that they control plants did not praduce~ atty, which is understandable ginee the shortening of the style itrrslt is unable to stis3ulat~e arossin;g. HRSUL~S ~3R V~C~~A~'IV~ ~tA~~'RtlC~E6T. Vegatestive rapprach~en~ent is pata-toes, i.e., the palliriatiatt of vrildi~s and scian$ xith the pollen at' cultiQated plants, also taken i'rom grwftings, produces vcsry good results. C~spo~zents Por crassSag are if pass3.bla takem i"reszs one gra~'ted plant, i.e., t2~e floraers oi' a wild ataok plant are pollinates with. the pollen of the cultiro'ated seian oi' the same gra~'ted plant, or the flavrers of the wild anion are pollinated raith the pollen of a caultivatsd steak plant. t)nly in the absence of e~.mul- taaeous bloamittg of the atoak plant and acian, the flowers of another plant or si~ailr~r ~;raftQd plant are utilised. ~e obtained in our experiments the folla~wing results froxa the crossing of frost-resistant sgeoies with select~-d varieties, by al,plyin~ o prelie-inary veg+etati~re rapprochement. As a result of the pollination mi the Fiowrcxs of the apscies 8. s}ahreitrarii, grafted, onto gultivated varieties by the pollen of these cultivated stock plants, 9S }per coat of all pollinated flowers produced berries. In a re~veratr distribution of the grafted compont~mts, i.e., whom flawera of the sane specio~d, used in the capacity of stssck plants for eultiv~-ted varieties, were pollinateQ ~-ith the poliem of aultivatad scions, 75 per cent of all pollinated i'larrers also produced berries. At the name ti~oe, numerous eo.ntral crossings failed to produce ?+~v~en one harry. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bukesov Lebt~deva .. 33 atl berries obtained i'rom oroesinga by vrsgetative rapprochement bear one to six aeoda. T2~ berries of self-Po3linated central pleats hacl "~00- 400 seeds in eaaoh berry. Rerriee~ Pram crossings produced in the beginning aP the vegstati~re period (June) bear 4-8 seeds, rhile berries of fall orossings had only ~. to Z eeecls. In the vegetative rappr+~chement of other frost-resistant species of tt~e same Acaulia group nubariaaily close results ~rere obtained. S. panes aho~d succossPu3. crcasirtg in fi0 per Dent; ~. dePcxwu - 6~ per sent. ~`lild potato~ra of another group Oammersvnisna, resistant to the Calarado beetle, praduc+vd a sorreronhat latanr percentage. S. gibbr,ruleaust 53 per sent, 3. paradi.i SS per csent, b. sahickii 46 per cent. Vane cf the control ar~~~- 3nge rare S'ertilised. pollen far golline~t#~ng gild stag plants card ?aioas rare taken only from graftinga and not freely grorn slumps, i,.a., vtsgetative rapproohement era s tea-fb 1d . PR~LI3i~AR~ TRAI~II2yG t3F GRi~SSSD FAIRS. Another extreme~ective asethod y ----- Per vvarcc~ifng non-c,rvssability is preliminary Pf ~oth parents an the ssmn stock Plants. l'hia method ~.s first applied by us in 1948. tJur stock plants ~rere mature, already blooming tvmata pl~snta (var. Bizan). To saese of these nerd grafted young se+sdlings of rill s,peaiss, to others seed- iinga of cultivated Pat~ato varieties. Thy leaves Pram the ac3vns ire re- moved prior to bu8diag ao that they develvp+~d exclusively at the expense of rn~triQnta provided by the tomato plant. Iduring the blooming poriad the gild scions (;~. panes, S. gibberulesum and ;~. sahiokii Deere crossed with oulti- voted ve~rietiea grafted unto tomatoes. In assns instances the success from Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 +arcra~e~n~e~ e~a:bu~nte8 to ~pt3 r e~+nt ~~~2ue. ~, ~{~. p. 38, 3~). ~iacaut~a cry t}?~ c33.stant re2r,ticm~h~p e~f` the parents ~xad #~~ arsneider~sb~ dif~'ara?.ae ~ ~~;~ bei~~een the tQS~ata stcal~ p2aata aid the potato-eaione, ~ ptredcra~~.t.~-t~n;~ i~`Zuar~ aP tha tos~to upan the potato ~ ac~h~.e~rrsd. ~'he testa ~s2~,tters thc~ ~~area~.tary Das~~ sat ~-ult~.v~ated yaristfse, +~~ it does ~ , #k:a aat~e ~-~` ~:9~d spt~c~3.+~~r, ~ e~ rssu~lt af` ~hioh sslvatlv~ty to cc~nc3iticm~ of ext~rt~ts-~. cu~v~.roxnt ~e x~uaod, speaiP~.ce11.~ sel~sat~.vit~ ~~z ~'ert~ ~iestivn. 'rater-epea~e arnee~ are thex~-~'Qt~rry xelat9:~re3~ sut~aee~t'u1. ~taak plat~te mar ~o ageaiee a~' ~"~~ earns venue, t3aou;~h may belot~ to ether ~cies c~~ the ~~nua Sc~Ian~ua, ~ iah arilc~ ar~d ault4~rated potato apea~es it-- a'~uder~ ~ th+~ ~syatt~ica 7'uberari~~ gaup bs~c~~;. It is true that the volu~e o? t3~ Tubarar~.u~? group ~aaa~CS.ranj ~a tet~'~a[cbi~v+e. 1~'e aataaider that t~peaSa-a nc~t eto~.Qr~ aac~ nat Por~ir~~ tufi~ear,s, and tha~fore csa,3le~! Ftubernga (?} ebould bey +~xoxuded frcxa the actual ;~rc~up bt' pc~tatc?ea, 3. ~., tha 'R~'terarium ~rr~up. Tha ~tub~srvoa ara ne-~xt}wleas phylo~~enetically aitreaet ~ patatae~a. A.1x x~~in~.:~~ spo~sios of the ~et~u~t So3.r~x?, stsab as tha r~i~htshadea: S. dulga~atar~a {Ritter-aatj. ~. raf.~~n, ~d hu~r+~de off' oths~?:~ 2ese 3cuv~ species are ler more dgst~aut Sro~ patatc~ea. ~'roi`c3es~ax~ 8. V'. 'iua~epc~huk, tt~d ~aar~xe oteto s~ratt~ti+aia~, czcinaidera t>~ entire S+alum ~ee3ue artifiaie,~: ate! ~cantendn it ehc~uld bs di~ids8 irata e+~~rerai, ~',eX1~1"~t, of fah one aho~xld become a cua~ p4ttlt0 ~Inua, the "fiuhet'al"iuffi. ~R ig po~tsSble that tha ~#,de +s~sr3.~sa a~? inter-spvaiss gra~tixxgs ~ri.ll~ Pam ttn~ ~rtxy ~yyt{4t,~~, t~iv~t3gy~ cs~'3,~o~a~u~y. apt aI].y~ ~eyem,,~ th+~t ~.~stor-epea,}i~,ee ,~/ra~~,.cwr~za. ~u~h ~~- ~L~W~~ ~;rai"ted ~4? 31~~yh~BhAd!!8, $tt0u~.t~ ~+9' lk3O.r8 ~}~t,~rL1-117 VLI~~ .i,+~MV ~'u ~;eaertcs arossinga, i.e., po~Goee r~ntw ts~te, tobaQao or peppers, sta. in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 '~u~l~ttrm . ~ebedeva - ~~ praatia+~, ?ncr~nver, ~r~aftit~a at` pot~-toaa onto ta~aatoaa r~tt~r the unto ni,~htshaclea are t~o~ must Fre~uazct~.~, ei~tae try arcs mare vi~at~ous, ge ~ha~m on ex~serimeztt~n ~rfatr.~~ ix~ 1952 bs~ ~. '~. ~rkav at the A~.1-t~aiar~ I~tetitu~ of Plant Ir~du~try ash N. A. 3~bedo~ra at the Petrodvoret~ ire 19~l1. n ~, of patatc~r~ tt~ tho a~,vsaat ~pet~ie~ ai" ~:tuberosa showed a vsaker de~vla~xt than to tcta~+s. ~ o~*ao~ pie~rat~, T7ature~:: ("dunn~.n'~) and ~~,~Iaclor~ ~hisah, t~ tto, bcolax~~ to athor ~ener~ 03' the ~ai~ht- sha:da i'a~i~, pote,Ea anions devela~Q less ~xs~.l that's as tcs~toee. Ths c~ave2ap~ent itr sti21 afar an irlaorax. I'armatiaxa af" soedad berries iu tha oase of pr~tatoes ~s abserved ant' the tc~ato at4ok p~axat, tt~o biacsk. ni~'F~hnde~ dad #;a~asra (~dux~r~"~. ~th+~r a stack p~sa.ts prtx~uaad borrles but that' ware i'r+~+~uen 2t' ~ac~~ess. ~'he above data is teo:ta.ti~*e and, does nab pr~luc~o the ~asaibility of t~bte-inireg t~ttsr. rt~t~ults. Aotua2ly, ravesx~se ~,ra~tin~s ai' "~elladant'aa ax~tc patataas pra~u+~e atran~ ~S~axtta a'tundant ~e3~tQo~ana~ ~'olia~a and patata tabard . Siz~ilsr plants are ~abt~ir~vd i'rc,~ tcrbrscco ~raPted onto pctatraea~ (Tl?us . 11, ~. 37}. F'crtunia @evralopa saa~crnvh~-t ~a~er an pots.toes ~~. g. Leb~tdsv$~. Ytxtor-Ps~i3y ~,x~af tiA,~s nre also ~ns~n, Hach as ~ratntc+es onta steak (CruoiPez~aes~, ~~panul~- +~ Srao~- +:ranthae~eal. '~OhLI23~,TIt? T3 I.a?';I3 i'01.L~. 1:t~ arcler to overoa~er non-sraa~sa'bility, ix9cah~urin ~rori:ad cut a pa23~stion aathod v~ith ~ixod pailen ~wrhiah is +~quall~t usablt~ i'ar ~at6tfii7s~#. ~'o~' ~olli~natin, ~32t~ ~cpeaie~s o#' thm .Acsulia gaup by bha aultivatad varit~tiea ~ pollen m~.xtura is prepartsd o~ the ~aet ~'artile Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 cultivated varieties, t~uoh aa: Ra~hahdix~, ?~rle:iae~psllydos~n, Cabbla~r, Sh~er~era.~is, the hybrid "~ts~t+~ras X, eta. 'the pollen of all variati~ae is takest ian egt~al quantitic~a. It~'ta~r a e~areful mixing t}~a ps~lle~a mixture is plar..ed in a fi:123.n p,la~as babe rsvr~ed at one +~nd. 'Fo unsure the ucii~"ormitq of tl~ra m3.xt~re it is adv3.mable rust to shsk'e the pcllet~ fa~a all flt~rs a~ one varietq ab ons~o, but tti tad one i'l~~sr ox ee~ah variety, thee. iz~ the same ardor one ~'Iaraer at a tic^e cif t2xi saw varit~t*as, eta. 'Cho ~sota'tp pc+llmmm preserves its viability to seven days. put ~rhen acfutainas9 in tt~a thin glass #~be it ztay bq asphyxiated aucl loos its r+iabi~.ity. It ias thcre- ~are advisab~.e to u~ze the proparvc~ c~ixture the sage daq. The palms is shaken from th+~ ~,9,nss tube upon. the stigxa off' smasau- latad buds of ~'~.Xait~s ~sc~ a dist~unae of ~- mm. abva'e the sti;~aa. '~~ mish to repeat main butt toutih,~xg th+~ ~tti ~? either thv ~;3ass tube ar !"arcapa r~r any gth~sr instrument 3e to be sbsalutely ,~vaidc~d, b+~aauae tb~is severely r+adu!n~as the percente~a ai' orossabi.lity by casttributiu~ to the hreak- ink vP the ~s~ c~~ th~a style. fur work iu pr~2linatin~ i'rc~t-resietant sp~re#.ea cry' Aaeulia with a pollen mixture of au3t3vated varieti$s resu9,ted ire aver +~ per csrdr o~ all ptillinated i"i+oa~rs praduoin~ berries. lr~ ptsi,linatit,~g the 1rS~ld Caaaareaniana speoies, resi~+tsnt to tl~ Calaradca belle, with th+e ~aall+en a~ixtura csP saultivatc~d varieties rra obtained 2C1 per +~sut of i'orti2isvd berries #'ro~a all polliBr~ted i'l+~ra. Gontxrol aro:~sir~~s of mild spacia$ rears canduated r;rith the sere six varieties Sror~ tlrr ~la~ra of r~fah ths~ pall+~n miactura toad been pre- pared, only sash variet~r ~s taican aapa~taly. h'~nmerous caontroi arosaiz~e ~ailod to produo+~ t~ aixa;~lo berry. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Au~rasov Lebedeva ~ g7 _ ~eepitd the fairly high peresnta~;e of success and the ecumgarati~e sass in apglyiag this method to overoasna non-arossa~bility, it is to be noted that the ~rcantage of ~eucaesaful crossings is relatiq+e in this iflstanae becauss of than extremely small ausnbvr of seeds in borries,rarsly exceeding 1-2 seeds. Th4 b+~rries of potutoea frequently do ~':ot produces most "Baluab~la" .i.';s ("palnotsennyen) seeds and era only filled with capsules not containing gcsrr~s. ~#?ttar x~c3aults arv obtained ixz this reapeat frcr~ the method stress- ing the influence produced. by stiguas of the paternal male pls.nt? I~F"I,UEii~F CIT` Y#'AI,g 3TIt3l~k8. 1. '~. ~liahurin wrote about this method as followsa " .... oocsasi.anally ... inter-sfaeaie,e or inter-genera crossings are utzeucoessf'ul and I then made use of o apeaial a~ethad, i.b., idiutely prior to fertilization I place a part of the stig~a fros~ the pistil of the male parent a~nto the pi~ltil of the flower to be pollinated; this stireulates the sativit~~ oi' the pollen tubes on the alien genus {~) {ahutherodnii) of the female pistil and inoreases the results of distant crossings." ~fo applied thin t~aethod to potatoes. Ane nay pieta a piece of the male parent,a along with i.ts pallext onto the stige~- of the feaale parent.. ghe csti~ae must be mature, ~ehich aen be told frays their shine and ~riscosity. #~~ stay crush the sti.gwe-s of the s~-le parent and deposit the mixture ('"l~ashi`tea") tosether with the pollen in mall amounts onto tlx- stigea of the Bale plant. mother method is to crush the mass of male stigaas, gather the squeezsac~ liquid into a. pipette and deposit a drop of the liquid. on th? stisna a#" the female plant, along the maps pollen. the fir,et taro methods produoe, Ilowev~sr, better results than dose the bast. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ukasa~ Lebe~da~a T.hsx'~1~g the #~r~ter-t~pot~ies hy'bx~fdisatic~n of pcitatoes '~~ f'ertilisnt3,ola oi' try using this ~~;ht>d aolda~t Q~axedad ~:Ct~-~~& par cant, but a~~, bat~rias Qerrg~rd soeds and their znue'ber. araausat~ad to #"ro~ a-6 in each laarary. Crosa4.~ags in tl7ls meths~d ehou~.d he z~adfl tu~2y in the c~~aaing or in ctiauc3y gather, heeausd during th~r dey the pia+aes c~~ stiff rar their stiattar+~, ns well ao the liquid d+sr3ved ~r~ the 2s~tter dry aut q+xiakly egad tho ap- plieatia~x~ has a~ e~'~ac~t. The beast t Par e#.t~ilar orvs;ain~ is frtez ~ tc- ~~ p.a3. CO*.i~L'~ l:~~li0s~. ~h~ au~ctaese nf` +~r`ossir~gas gay' bo i'urtha3r incr~zaeed if the mathodas nre not appl3t~d asepa~~stely but ~aiutly. ~hua; fn aix-la~ thq any fluenae thraus >~ela pasrant astigms~ nth prnlittti~ry veagetastive rspprc;Kal~e- eaant, costa is a,~ble to t~ataiaa b+arri+~sg with ~ Isrg~a >caas~ber of seeds. ~f basrrit's>3 au~ler tha preli.r~i.rtary veg+~'tati~ ra~ppr~alxez~at praducae~ an a~orage of ~-~6 seeds, they 'hee:~ 2t~-~4 .seeds frc~a than edditicutal a~ppliQas'~ioza a~' the male paareztt ntis. 57~7'~~Il~`cY ~:~`1TiJI7. In r>~til~.>Ci~ag the +r~at~aad as third a3~ft33.ead is i~atroduaed inG~, ~hicsh carnasses equa3lq ~~.1 with cultivated ~la~tztd anal ~ri'id asp+s~aiett, tha havas-t~dity o~ the izttes~tsea!:lasry e2esa lass its effect. ~'c~r r~ro:asia:t~a~ with frost-rea~lssfiant speaieaa of the ~,asulia grQuP t>ned may ta'~,e+ than ~wi ld ptay'tcaphtYat~raa-rms ia; ts'-aa t ~otastta speai~rs Solaz~sm demise, of v3~sieh the ~'c~lla3gay ias als+~ #?rt~st-~aistar~t up to aninuag ~S-~'~ Centi~raado. ~. d~isasum crcasaes traxsili+ ~:th cu3.wivaated vrxri.etit+s and with axli~htly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Lukas ov . laaba~de era - ~~ - ~raater diffiau~.ty Frith apaaies of the l~caulia ;~rc~p. ~,ybarids ob'~iaed ,fra~t the oroaaing of A+otaul~.a ~demiasx~ ure arosssd t3xe follcr~ri~ year vrith aultivatad ~a~eties. P~rim.~.tiv~- ~3pc+eies, suoh +~~ ~. kc~saelbretua~xii, +9ttS., ~ttay be used is t~x~ ra3e of ir~tart~ndiary; they cross relatively aasiiy Frith Acauliai ~~ spacriaa Ca*raar~ia~aa, rc:sia~nt to tt ~olortido heatla, sad cultfvmted varSsties. Crar3ain~s ?i" the fresst-resistant Acaulis, mith ~. ~sselbxpnnerrf i produce s healthy, vigot~aus hybrid pro~~V saisi+x}~ is usually t'ertile+ atad oaaaaiana~.Iy steril8. Perti2e t~ride aa;ai2y flroas xith culti- vated varieties . I?JTLA-i3~tT~' TiY13RZDX?.~l'PIt#~. In order t4 "shatters tk~,s ~ x~di tart' f oundati~.csu (ar3.gic~) gat' x~ildia~r, csrsa a~ay arran~a for cross3n,~s ~ri.thia groups, S`or instanctr t1ic~ Aoaulis or Go~reraaian?~ grips. ~'ar six~ilar 3.x~tar-,gaup aross- ir~gs its ~ Apulia group ~e ~ullv~sria~ ao~bfnat~.ons are psmeibies ?;olaiuc~t ~ahr+~S~terii X ~? 'e 8. " 7!* ~3. dapexu~ ~?. iaua~ae ]~ ~. aa~hreiter3i ~. depaau~ X ~3. pug, etc. It is passible to raal~s crasa~ix~~ of apsa3~ee of dif fe,~z~t soups, for iz~t~-zlc~, Aoaral~.a Ca~userao~tit~, of ~hiah both bsva ~1,iY'fiaulty its arc~asing ~#~th S. tuber~um. grids abta~.xaac3 i"ro~ elol these ar^ands anuah attention. Zan araneing with goaulfa epeoieas app3.ied s z~e~r type of it~r~l+atSon vfiioh in tae ma~or3ty a~ oas+~e ensured the sutstsa0asas of the araaaa3iralg. xhe entire plant vase isaiatsd. ~'he ieole.tor is a Loden frame~aar~ an Sharpened lugs, the side malls of ~hioh era severed with oellophane, vahiles the uppior wall is made of parahz~ont, ixs ardor to provide tl~e iasalated plaszt soc~ si-ade. 'rho plant desigaa,ated for orosgsin6 is prepared in the following manner: All oponvd f lavaors 8re removed, ate v~el3 as all small bud$, and only those buds are left mhich are about to open. next all points of growth are re- moved on the planet bece>~use they carry sore unde,a+slapad buds vahiah vaould opeaa while the plazata rer~ias in the isolator alb could pollinate the bud r;; intasanded for csraasirsg. the rema~aaiaag, mature buds are emascul?+tesd. If an Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bukaeov . . Lebedeva .~ 41 - any of them an opsrz pollen a~sa ("porn") is ~`ound an the sntt~r, the bud is eliminated, otherxise it Rauld be expoend to aolf-pollination. the pollen of the male parent is deposited ou tha st3~na of the e+masaulatod buds acrd the ctillog2tana isoletar then planed oust the plant,? {this structure should bo of euoh dissension as to e-11o~r frea movement t'or thfl plant); the large of ti}~e arr+re dui iz~t~t t}~s essfl and tha structure fS.xa~ly set onto rho soil surface. It fe kcspt over t}~a plant #'or 1Q-12 days, and then raamoved. A note is made aancserning the cz~bar of ~'a~rtilised berries, .and the ple,nt permitted to grog Praely (.plus. 12, p. 4S}. finder the cell?pha:ne struoture there is alRays raaieture, the temperature ?s more atr l+~ss uniform throughout t}~e day and night campsr?rd to the temperature. In the early morning ~~ a.m.) thn temperatur~- ai' tha outside air Uegins to mount, while the temperature ~utxier tho i~aolator falls bahia-d than tampere:fiure of the outeido sir. At lQ a.s-, the temperature under the Isolator in 2-3 de- grvas belay that of the temperature of the surrounding alt. 1n, the evening ~r}~gn the temperature of tha cutsit~as uir drops rapidly, it falls but very little under the isol.c-tor and is highor than the ter~peraturd oP~ the surroumd- ing~air. lncsroased moia~t~xre and eac~re ut~ii'arm daily variations in temperature ore+ette favorable candf ti~aa i'or t ha gor~ninatio~z of the pollen ors the etig~-s of t}~ glent. 'his Rae oont'irnted In our ezperi~aeots by the ia- arnaosed Pertiliration of berries., r~ompared to t~a? c~rdin,~ry pe~ro}e~nt i.eolator placed upon the cytna of a giant. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bt~av . ~ebad+~~rn. ~t ~s passible tea abts-fn a pate,t~a_h~r~d t>roE:anv ~rithput $ea~~ araecs- irc~,. Anathvr .par~ul ~aa~ns fc-r abta~.nin~ hybr~ide, used in seleatian, ~.,~ ve~atst3vn~ Y~,ybr~.d~.~atia~t, i.e., 'by ~mesns at) ~raftis~, tvhicah daes nat di.f~'ar i.tx prin~ipla Sram raxunl hybridi~rxtian. I.ysoaYo ~iteo about this a+~ falla~: ~';at~xtlve hy~aride da no's dffPar b~s~.aally 'ram hybrf~s abt~ain~ad by t~exu81 ~eanffi. Arty vhare.ctaristia ray be treena- rai:tterc~ Praia ana rasa tti anathar try ~~, ea mix as ~aexaal Vegetat~va as mall ae e~exua3 k~ybxidi,sation ~+~ e~aa~apani~+d by tha segregation n;7~'"- -~ ~-~ ~ "rns~p'iez~f~ ~ ~ ~'aatc-r ~n ?t grb~any 3:,s ai` a ec~atio ar ~~atetiv!e nafixtreg 3..Q., a?~e-z~aforfstioa of bath g,araut glan,te e~ppe~r ea~;neausly axz ono t~~saitnat~. 2'h~ts, ~;rat'tirt~ a blue-tuber potatti ~rar3.aty atzta ~x whitQ??tubar ~r~.+~~ ui~.l praduaa Chita, blue, anal ,r~-ri~s~atsd se re ation tabors in ? p~.+aat'a P~te~Y? 8~amatia eg~;k~, aocarding to ea,rarax authors (I~-af. IS. V'. ~'urbin~, civossic~,lly +~~ place ita sax+u~~. hybrid3.~m- i~r ve~st~tr~i.rr~a ~;d sext~~. hybridi~at3,ram, faotar oaf h+ateras~.s in the pra~eny ~~ nat:e8 (:.norc~asc~d str+~n;gth a~ v~.ability of hybrids) ~d thc~ fao~r a~` th~a shatter~~ aP tha heradity, as a r+~sult of rich the prcrg+aszy of hybrids has reduced st~leeti.vity for aondit3az~ of ax- terns-1 envirE~rnt . va~etat;S:v+~ hybx~.da are praduc~sd ~~ a x~esu2t: of eh~-agas, aausad by ~;raf t- in ttra aaurish?i~r~t ~rf a-ny ~aa~mgaa+az~t, 3.v., ~hnn~,a in ~atsbolisu~. Vv~eta- t:iwe+ hybr~.ds tn~-y serer as ~'c~r tkie grcuiuatian ai' riew vertatiss. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukascrv ... ~C-b+~de~ro~a ? 4~ Pv~a~c~,~, a~:ern~ ~~ o1;r ~a~.a~o+, 'awe far l?l plants. ~x'umeroua ap].es off' cshan,~esa i~a r~ld spc~caiee ~~,~ desn#~ssum mnd ~. acsaulia) are rs~.teei by Vii. S. ~~io~o~.v Yca].'l.sri5.~ ,~s+~f`t?~~a~, ups~ra cxt~ltivated ~irietie~s. ~. ~, 3olodo~+x~i~o~ ~,raf`tesd .slips aP t~-~ ~x~3ety Aim ante ~. dsro~isaurn, ~~ stcsc~ pmt Ptsr3ae~d runr~rs trh~,ah mere sep~-rgted fry the etaaks ar~d plsntcac~ sep~-ret~ely into ptyts, As tha~se cuttings grew s~ de~relopesd, ~ #itPerent degree ref rshazigeability. ~'a~rrsriz~g bhc esultiva~d ,eclicsn, bees cpparent. Osze v~` the autt~,ztgs t'orma~t txabcr. ~ 82 days in advanacs ~~' the ooatrol (~i. demissu~) . i'ubors o~ thYS c~tttin,gs era e~:so ~tevesre,l tizaes as lame. Sts~.te e~varo off` elongated shapes, av in then variety ,Alma. Three cuttings had each dB ohra~o-~ scx~as, tiq iu the ~. tubesra;dt~z, to ~-hi.oh tha scion, the va~'iesty ~lca, txsleu~ed. 8. de~isez~ has ~'~ ohr~t~scxaes. ~lagaus data ~ars~s oh~id ~ c-ur o~ work at then exper3aatetttal staticr~ VIA 1n the pity cs~ ~'u~ {' rrbitast~ . Lxnc3~ar the i~z~fluence t~~" aulti- vested saiaz~s aXl mild spegies of ~ethivh the tubers wed anxy during chart days, produsaed ~;erstinated '~uberre~ s~urixFg long days. 'fh$se tubers r~vre- ~-~ tixaea ae large ae t~v tuberm ea#` ca?trol ~ildiz~~;s ,gran duri~ag shcsrt days. Tha gre,~trsr the d~.~'~'ere~nce~ in age bet~seeta thv salon and sto~ak, the stranger the ia~tf3.uenc~s cu~efi exerts upcan the crt3aer. ~'hei young organics o~ needlix~gs is mores ~es~ci2sle a~.l easi+er to it~"luextc3e 'khan the mature atzd a3readg filly Ported c~t~gen grooms From tubers. in gra~'ting mild species to vu~.tivateci vsri.etiese, turd ~n ordar to atreugthen tl~x~- SxsPluernae a? the latter upon ^~t3,ldilags, it is advisable ~- +uae oulti~ted va~rietien lees toilers anc3 ~3'ld mpecsies in seedlings be~sausa ~r5,ldin~ possess a ~+are ooseservative~a her3.taa~ end ~,rer~ter Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 strength far transmitting this heritage than do nultivs.ted variatieg which are xrolatively younger in orir~in. In obtaix~in,g trogatative hybrids the quatxtitative correlation bet~en the aasirtilati~+C leaf ear?acd of saian e~sid stock has equal aigni?iaaaae. The component ~ to chan~,ro ixi a apeoS.fic direction should be left with a tnit~isttum of leaves, ~rhiah shau}.d be cut as they unfcsld. I? ire wish to ah~-ng~s t}ie atoak, all its 3eaves should be +~ut oi'? s-Pter the graft has be- aosye .fixed. 'fh~, ?ir~rt side runrs~rs sheering from sail buds should be agso re- moved, because later runxters will ahan~,e is ~ large measure. I? th+s ,atsion is to be changed, its top is replaced by grafting ,~ slip taken from the atodk. (}n tt:a thus foraged "vtstavka" a3,1 Leaves are removed. Xt is also neoeasary tt~ r~aove at the begiuniag; all lea~res an' appear- s ng a id+~ ranee ra of the r~ tavka" (Il lus . 4) . ~ : S ids runners on tba "vs tavl~a" are aaat to be removed singe they have only twm nodes, ~rhiah mey produce o~tly tiro runners. lg these are reszaved, the "v~stavka" may not be able to praduae ally runner. ~ made aeaeral graftinga vrith sprouts of wild frost-resistant ape:ziea oxato cultivated varieties and observed aonsiderable ohanges. ~a-re is a bri~af description cif thase~ gra?ts. an 1!'ay :~l the tero-week-old seedling of the wilal frost-resistant potato apeaieza S. punae waza gra?t~ad unto the three-week-oid sprout of the variety l3allydooa, separated f.rara~ i.ts tuber. 'ohs steak (Ballydoon) heel 5 la-aves, the anion (S. punara} ozaly 2, and only 2 cam. iu s~.$e. It eras cut along the oatyledoa Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 e.sov ... Z~bede~t u~ itr~ ~.o~ar pmt s 3ei"t for oaeatral. 'rho rat'~~.t ~s done by th+~ "cleft 'ton~uet' method. ~a the eaapox~~aute of t~ ~r~t ~re~r tsrgether e~ ae th~a g'1~+~ oct~atin~ed to ~rcr~r, t~~ ~,e~n~os ~rrrior to buddia~) ire removed Pru~m the ac~~on, ~~a ttaa .stock plant ~,ivrsz~ e~?ory .opportunity tt~ develop freely end prc~ducsa eido ru~xerro. Soon after~mrdle chun~ee ~asre oDgarvgci 'beer- ecioe and at~ntrol. 1~he t'oz~er hed elt~tted intex~no+dee (aomparac~ to the caoratrol~ lar~c~r, ~atror~er, pit3netec~ ~.eevc-e. Zc ^~bamgnent ~ro~ath these distinotions arc still mare eee~ntus,4~rd, t't~ as~ic~za ia~c3oeie~ en orect etera snd reechixzg a haf~ht c~~' ~~ +em., while thc~ cc,xatrol p2anta bore a typ~aal Par the Aesulis rosette end th~air hai~ktt d~.d tint exceed 3'~ ttsa~. frc~ the ground. ~+pdi~`ioatian ~e obr~~ar~d txot el,one in ve~ettative but oleo ix~ roprodua- tivt~ or~ene. lxtettred of "eittin~" oe a ehortexaed receptacle ~S,thout apparent ,~c~ir~te ~ "ec~ah:lanen on tl~e pedur~v2e (e +ahs*rsc#~risti.e of S. pure), tt~s eoiun dove7.~ted ot~ it~i'loresctesxs+e (oycae) 2~.a`ri~g n reaaptaa2e cif 10 cm. end cslenriy dfetix~ietabl~r ~aix~ts an pedunr~les. f lcy~ers o#` tY~e scion rare stnzaat lamer tl~t~ t~io,ae oi' ttte otsxitt'ol, stxd ~tc~ne oP thew ~oxz~inetad borr3es trc~sn ebl.P-polli~tatipn, mile in tie control ~svary S'lo~aer prrx~uced a ~'ertilisec3 berry. The entire pl+~nb r+scce~b~.ed ixt aap~arar~oe the Pir~st scsxuel ;generation ob~,itnec! ?rcra the cart~e~,n~; of ~rawxlf.e: Frith cu'itivated variet~.~es.rCX3.lus, l;~ $ttd 1+~, p. ~?~). In e~nining, t~ irollen of thQ ecti~an uxtder the r~icroaccape it s obeex~ed that tb+~ prol~n graine pacsass~s~ a s+ame~het t2~icsker caet then tho aontral. Siar~~lar c~lvan.~s ttxcrk platse i.rz t~eo other rsftod glanteg ire one ix~strt~ t~Es ~vo-s~~r?~-nld seedling ~S. put~ne erns tst~z~ es atc~c~ ex'-d ~- thrva-,~e3c- old ser~dl3.ctg ~f tihe moiety ~3allyd~otyn a~aas ~re~'ted to it; #.n ttxo +athsr ce~ea a tiro Lek-old eeedlin~ S. sahrc~it+arii served ear steak and a three-Lek-Ald Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Hukasov - l~bed+dva - ~ seedling o~ the variety ~atahdisa rr~-a~ ~;raPtec3 Data ft. ~3either of the tmco stock plants produced lease its s3.x ~arecks, nc~r did they have side rurnzere. Side runt~era ~rh9.dh devslepad otaiyt in the setsond hAlf of July {graftin~s sera tide Pray ~~~ rosermbled the xiret scxusl ,genere~tSam frt^+m the aroesi.ngs of species ~erith crultivatod varietf~effi ~Iilus. lS, p. ~@~. In examira~.x~~; t3~ raot2ete o~ these grafted scld cor~tz~c~l pla,nt~s, it appeared t~-,at the ros~t~.ete off' the oontrc~l 8. pux-ae had tightly joined six- earnsred cells one Bucleue ("iadra"}. Dividing x~e22s have, a4 a ruts 48 ohraa~oscmee ~Illue. l6, p. fly. nee ~Ese grafted onto the ~rari+~ty ~allydoa~x there ~orae a marked difi'erenae 3.n the -numtrer oP ohroe~osomes on the outs of ~l~e rootlets of tt~ scion, ~.nett-ad of 4~ {aontrol}, th~ra ~r+a ~-6fl, se~raral cells having pro- duaed tiro nuclei. The outs od' th? roatlete +of -c stocsk pleat of the seac~nd gra?tt~c~ plant shorted a ~zass of Multi-nuQlauo s~eli.e, the cumber of nuclei is some to ~i. Tt~a bcr of chrcmos+~s mcs 56 to 60 end h~.ghar { I l ius . ~,?, p. S2) . Tl~se remarksblo i`acts indicate that its ~. pute~, because oP t~,e d#:f"ferent type ref itaa metabaliem praducad by greJ`, the ahromosomai appar. etas, alar~g ~. th the rest t~f the Pla~-t marts had been subjected to cher~ge. Ct~s~uently, ~.t ~e not the ohronoso~l apparaturs ~it}r its defisaite ~ttlaesr and struatare of cshrc~ueamen that had determined the ontire type of gro+artth auto c~evelc~pnent ~of the pl?~r;t, ~ac~b tho an~iraam~nt aching through bhe ,metabolism datermlziea th~- extert~a~, type of c~aeelo~aent of the organism, and also tbg devalc~nt of its ohrornosomax apparatus. ~'m~,etative hybridizetian Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 i3uke.scxv' - I~bedeaa - A9 npetzt~ x~ic?er perspe~ctiv+as for potato eeleotioxt than, does sexual hybridi~aticn , a,iaae it drays into s+tr~eotion all varietiea~, irrs~speotive oi` ~ksethex' they ar+e fertile c~~r s#aeri~le. It is ~no~en that t#~ t~a,~~arity of e,~rly pat~xta ~-rietiea era sterile, saa~ of then dnn't even blo+a~a attc3 ,trap h=air bode, r~iah makes 1t imposs3.ble try use t~a+sm ua s+~ls~stS.on. t?n the cattier band, u~ray ~rieties ~rhich prcti ~ poliinator~r erv altarether uasu3.ted of their ec~canomio goal it . lxt ~~tative hybr#.e~i.satiot~ all +~arly varfe~ticas ata~y used in sel+~otic~, as ill am the roast valuable aterilct tedium a~ ~edi-late var~.c+tias. Iz~ addition, ~~etati~t hybri~9i~ation c~ft`ers t~ oppcartunity oP training sexu~-i, hybrids tattd aha~is~ their ah?xrac~tear3.eticss in the direatiob by gra~'t- in~ hybrids to exay var3.eties. il~~.,~CE flF ~.,3stERi'i,~S~ ~GT~0~1~ mark off` sel+~otors s~aee nctt eta with t~:e prc~luctacaxa of hybrids. ~: hybrid repras~rats an or~;eniaaa ~ia2i inokt~d?as they taapaoty t~f rvsemblir~g eith?+r orze aP its parents. 'ether ~y potentialities de?v+~lop depex.~ds to ,~ large axtezzt upcaa the ability at` the ~~.eotor. As a rule ttaose pvteatie.litie-s develop xahicsh fia~d r~aaitable acandf.ticansc in their extt~rtxal +ex~v~ircu~~eut. Th+g rest regain nunprcaraaunoad# in the hybrid car~aiam and itt a hidc~eu state. 'his is What i'inhur3.n ~rotea "`~2~e iaafl~xaae of the entire a~,gregate o#' ex- tc~rnal facstprs upcaas the structure oaf the orgaania~,n is granaarally so lame that in thv taa,~carityr of gases it subordi~tcrrt the rea~stlan a,f the hereditary trans- tnittarxos 4? c}ualities of the paraatal pianta. #3uvh fa~fluettce is particularly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Decla~!ssified and Apyp~roved For Release 2013/03~+//25:CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ap~ant iu the csr~,nditiar~ of tho ~at~arl plant curi..n,~ this t z:hr~a the ~Qr~s of tp~~ i?uture hybrid ar~aza~. ero be~.n~ "Ie-id'" { ?) thrau~h tha sea~d r~truatura, snr~ ~-Asv un the reeulti~n~ hybrid in Sts eer~,i?~st s~ta~s of de- veiap~aait, :in ear. end presex~tin~; ~ u~~r~au-~tahle abe~:aala far thra appenrac~ce of ather h~radit~-ry trEt~,te..," Garissgtaently, tk~c~a+s parantal ehar~tctsri~etios ar~~ qualities sra de- ~c~?o~d pct ~ hybrid fcr ~rh~.ah tarrar~zblo en~r9r?rs,~r~taT aanc~9.tians have existed during; the aar'~y st~?ro of ~.#:~ ~ra~th. ~e~ e~cteraa~l surraa~di~c~~e are uaderetatx'f c~as~3it~.oas pertaS.x~iz~~ t4 tha ac~mpouiti.aa~ ai" thm aai3., air ar~c~ sc~i~. maisture, te~.peratux~ of Boil uttd ai.r? d~r~rts~r o,f ~~.~ht, etc, k~ased tin tht~ ebcrve, ane mint aandes~ th~a , ref same ~alaatvrs im ovrsr3cralr~,t~~ tke inPl.uet~tze a~' exter~~, envir+a~a- ants upon thn farmatiaz~ t~f the herecsltq o.f the hybr~,d argaaidQ. 'thus itt c~btrd.nir~; hybrids of frn~t-reslats~zt ro~ild , attatr~ speoie~s ~Str cultiv~atr.+d v~,r#.eties and ~ ,~rcxrr9.n~ th~-m i.u z~ur+~ries, than tr~t#'?rrlt~~, t2~rRr.. rota cold trentas an,d traae~2.anti~ them c~~ly in .fuarxe iat?~ tip ecri9., the se+leator i,n~cxluut~xrf~y rad~agea t3~e Brost-resistana+~ of his hybrids, sir~ae his ahareateristic~ doas z~crt t'inci a~aaditlans tieaeasary for .its d?~lap~ent ira they exterzu~.l e~rrv~.rats~ent. All selactivxt work should be aax~du+ated sm a hi~,h a~r3t~u1'tura~, le~l, r~r praatiae mark det~anding Q~r ~ va,, aap,~b'La ai' rfeetln~, h9.~h ~sta~adsrds. ~y 8tnkh+ax~a~rtsii he:~re i~r11y etloptad r~erous +~~riault~ara~, pra~csticas ~chiczh enr~ure high potato lri~elds. At greBetat our agri+cul,ture is in x~sed of pa'katt~ ~xarieties ~rhicsh waulci net the aba-nc3 a~r3.aultural tt~-thods. Sn order tt~ prod~aca a ~rariety that is syaaponsi.~a to ?~ high: agr~.aultural +st~ard, it is ~x0clls8ary, haxye~ne tram d h~ri.d rzerablc~ Pram the bs~~ing an a sitailar 1e4e1, in order ------ that ,~tt._,may develop, t~ da~ud f+ar this standard #.~ its heresditAry faurada- ~._ t~nfi_ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukasav . , . ~berc~e ~; .. +~~ , In ac~di, to +~reating aertn3~z~ en~v~.r4~sntal aanditians, +~ paa~erf`ul a~+~thcx~ at tra~iniz~~ h~rbrld pra~eni~s !~ the tnantar method, pra~a~~d "e~ne~nar the hybrid dAica~~, Iac~~s eox~dur~ae (3~ardix~a~s) it ie a~ace~- aary to ~aut~it i+~ ~~ rep+~s~ted 3,a:~'Iustuse va the part of the ~srant ~ioh in a~ra~s~.rt~ p'iayed the rates at trsasmitter. Cuttin~e at ~aee+dlit~~ a~ tberaFara ~,r~-Yteed (i'or t~ ar thrr~a y~+ars) onta tk~ aarawm (7) at' this ~-aren~G, ahiah #~n thc~a aaae-s serve~e era ~ neresa~- esary m~uatar tray i~aaresasi,ro,~ ~~i~taaae ... In ~#~ i`ir,~t y~sars ai` ttte i`ruit ai' a ~rarx+mty I ~a~ able ~ c~orrant eats delSbat~ S,z~ !the quality at" fru~.~ by ~~ avatar." Ib faller tt~t they mentor is a trsfaesr. lxt the oa~e of patataers~ the: a~utor say be tfi+e ~riety u~tm ~h~.ah a hybr~.d saedlin~ ie ~raf"te~l, ar the c~ae- ~rafta~d trnta the hytsrid ~+ae~dl~zg, aertesin characsteristiaa at` ~biah ~.~ iet deeit~d to tz~a~temtit to t~se hybrid plant. if thcs rae',~ltir>~r, hybrid patata plant doers rrat pradu+ne tub+ar+~ tar ~- 7.on~ tia~. it i~ poa~ible to speeRd ug tuber by ~ra~'tSr+;~ aarly pvtaba 'r~rietias ax-ta tt~er hybrid saedlin~,. It is rs~silarig passible td oksac-~;e thn uxade-eirahxe! aa~;aring ai` tubers in patatn hl+bricis. by ~raf't ~ehite tuber ~rietiea unto bl~ End ariolmt ~bor hybrids, it is pc~ssible- to ~rodu a white tuber hybrid pro~es~-. thve may +ea2ffia c~,iat~e the ~ +~~' tubers a~ a~hape at eyes, as rre-21 ae many athe~r tt~af hys. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~a hybrid phytophthara-resistant s+sec3liz~gs, possess+_~, seed eaanaaic qualities but insnPfiaient`ly resistant tc~ phytophthara., it is necessary to grst't ~i.ld p3~ytophthars,-resistant species to s#:ras~~thttn their resistance. ~~ eamo ~ be daue with re~aarc3 to frt~atr-raaietance. In abtainiag hybrids i'r~ra tsros~~,n,~s, rec~ietant to the Cai,vrado best2e, t3~ sexetitor ~hauid, far one thit~,, t~rest+a pinta Frith a vp2us.bie aar~plex of oaoncgalc qua},~.~tiea by trainSr~, o-nd an the ?sthesr hazu~, sksc-ttld traim hyt~r~.d aeedl~.ngs an arild~,a~e resistant tc- ia~uries izifiiated ~by the Calarada beetile. it is kne~m that many ald ~ar~:eti?s ~ ~ri3d ~rpeaie.s of pot~-toes ~.~'~~c their arvd3.ty 3.n graf'tir~g, t~iul tPei+s inf~uenae is aanaequent3~- ~reetar +sben applied to your hybr9.d s~oedliir:gs, aonsideriu~ that hybrids passesz~ a a~:s.ttered t~reditary fAUnc~ati nri. ca~r~a~~Lz~~ ~~~z gt:~.LITTE~ ~P* 5~-57) The prQbls of trainft~ hybrid seedlings in distant hybridias.tiran of pat~t+ses nre. ffitill insu2'tiaier~t~.y studied little has been dens in this directic~x until nay. t? era in a ppeitioyu to pr+ssent here csnly the tentative Qix~ratlon .io~3 future war~C cancernin~ central aver dominatian in hybrid patatra prag+eny Trey take rc~~c~rd to various oYaaracteristica. Let ue azzalyz~r it un axi exexap~ di` tk~ praduat ?t? f"rant-resist hybrids abtainad fram the er?~seicz~ of frast-resisfiaat spaa.ies Frith cultivated varieties. Yn the first plate it is esseAtia2 to ostab2ish ~rh~.ah periad in the life at' #'rcrat-resistant species ~-osaeBSea ~reatc~st frt~st-assistance in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~3uYe,eav ... Laberd+~va arder to apprei~,e the paeai~silit~:~s f+ar the devslapmeat ref phis charso~4ristio in the hyt~rict pra~ny. It Ss ~'urtherr ue+cesamry to e~etahlish tha t~3nimsl tcp~zrature under ~rhS.ah weds of the c~paa3,as Aceulia germinate anc3 the m:.air+a'1. t;esnpart~.~.ia~e under ~rrhiah their tubers grow. +~nly than is one agile to tre,ix~ the heredity oP a hy~sr3.d or,~saism. ~rbrit~ aeadn chau~.d 'ba sawed at ~ tss~rh~t 3awvr te~pa~rature then tlhet ~ae.asery fvr ~teada a~ ttnt~ .~cc-ulie ap~s~zitrs. Smsll shdata at the 2-~ leei? stsge+ era tra~aplsntad ix~ts span grauxxl d not into a .nursery ar sold Prs~., tt~ea plcce a:t defiait+a perfodsD i.xi I~miz~rsd, bagir~rsiug April 15, ono pert at the h~rbrids ~y be trsneplanted an that date, e,ttother ~i days la~x~, the ~'o13v~riag another ~ days lata~r, ato. '~hia is dasse to pratec,t the bybri+d sartorial Sn c~asea u~" as~rerer lets ~aata. IInder those oanditiarza derriatia~n iu the utsv?slostst aP hybrS.d~a Ya poaai`ble, such as theSar I~sasaing acxapletoly taaaerd:~ ~i.ldings, .rxot a3ar~ in trosC-resistsflae tit also in athes^ chax~-cteri~ztScsss, giuaa i`roat-rasistatsce is indiroctly caruseate@ vrith at2zar ~re-S.ts of the orgstafasn. In order to ofYg~rt this ctavis.titsn spua~.rzl attesation fs directed to soil prepared i"ar the transplasating o~ ahcwta. 'The sail has td pomaeae ~aaxinuasd fertilityr, nutr9~ertt clss^?sntsa zshcxx3d ba isx c~ condition oasi3y absorbed (sa- nvsal.hle) by pl~tsa. It .ahculd ba~a't aaxsaist oi' SC3 per cent huss-ua. ~ur3ng aubsec{uent gr~'th and de~la~s~+nt of hvtrr~.+ras thoy~ should, be periadScally tvd. Addi.tSaxte;l foodis~g ahauld tea z~iS`; st~sts aseadlingss sshaul8 be gSvoxs mineral fertili>c~as~o s~rSth a predtsssii.r~ana+a ai' nitrogen, oth~erss Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukneo~t ... L~t~,ddava pr+ad~fx~afr~s~,y ~ataseit~n? the thfrd - phosphcr~, ~ thm fourth pro~i8e~ Frith carsplet~+ ferti'Ti~~erm. ~itro~e~, a~ Ts ~n+mrn, r~oduoos fr4st~reo~is~tssaae~ in the pTer~ts but aantributes to t~;e strvngdr grate of the v~ag+atetir+~ ms-;as of ~kz~ ~Tera+~. Pot~~~oT. ~;r~~er~~~+er~ Pra~t~-ree~.elaxz~+~, i'Te pha~phorus nide~ ttre devaolap~nt c~P the repraducst~.?ve plant arg~uros. T,arly vrs..ri~aties sh+auld be ~,~'tr~d a pert oi" tt~ 1?~ybrids, leav- ing the atk~r p~+rt ungref'tecl t'c~r ac~utrol. '~2frattglavnt t~ eatiro veg~tatisra p~,ricul t~vcry rslt~:ap sht~rtzl~d De 3s~pt urtdear oTaee observ~+st3.on mad the shrnxld acm~equox~tly xwt be th#Q~ (olase). ~."~], czlx~p~, bath gr~f`ta8 turd tu~rttftet~, s~iauls3 be t^sr~ed for their b2acmit~g pex~ic~d, Mbar ?at~xtntion, sta. ita the i`alI h~ar~rest~.t~g is done sep~r~ta~.y by alums ~d thy, yrlel~l cif +~~vary ~-lumir d+dtar~.f:x~e$. Tn the fa31o~.- ing yb~r the tuber sa~terial is tre-x~api.anted at Tyr t~smpsratnrea than those c~' tubers p~ the e~rik~ speaiee ,f~aa~slie.. s7n2y tuDsr~ of the best c~3umps ers p3anted . I?lr~nts grown fry tabors ors ;~r?s~'ted ~ansae mare to esrTy ou2tiva~d ~rsristier~. ~t is po~ssi'b2o th$t rapc~atad crosairsga with auTtivatvd mmy ~ re~uirvd in csrdc~r to rrbtain a ehattaz~sd hybrfd PxQge~Y o.~sin a~ad to direst the t~sa~nita~ a#' 'Che h+sradity oP t~ hybrid progeny. S~~LT:Ct3T~ ~P? ~ ~'t ea~tantiaT r~a~en t is the ~mork ai' sr~Teotion. Can;aideri~ tkset thet'~ arcs no tsa idantio~3 or~nisma i~zt ~tures,~ ue +~h~ll ne~rar ba e~b~,e to rrbk~in Prat orsass3.n~ a tsvsagletely +~e-~rasz~nT ~?~ grageny ~~th ~c~ id+sr~t~.c~d~1 c~aa~ins- tioua off' sl.l its aharsctcsristias. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 i~uitaect~r ... ~sbedo~ - 5!~ Z. '~. ~'ichurit~ statesm ".... iii results i"r~-~ ttze ~s~ssin~ nP t2~ ae~r~.+ parQt~t~I pair r~e~ror t~pt~at tt~rrl^~ree, i..e~., ~~ e~rc~ss t~~o plaits ,~xd obtai.~ hybrids Frith a oesmbi~imt#.on o~ e~erti~~:n aYu~raflirergetfcss, s3:~ll, nevertk~csl~ae, roomer obtain ~ t~eJa~s struc~~ o~ hybrids, no muter ht~r ta~y- biros i~ay repeat csrvr~l.n~s ~ithita this pair off' plants. ~~n steeds t'rs~ the sis} ~~it i~bt~.:aed #~ carcyssing produt ~+~- tinge ~ltag,~thor c3iP~'erent f'raa~ c~~ah crtkuex. 10~ture, it seas, Sn ~sreat3xxg ~za~ ~'e~rms af, livis a~rganis~s prc~ides ~n cendles~t ~ra~riesty and ,nearest psrmitirr rv~tit~c>n..." ,And i"urthhFsrs ~fihe ~r~,antor shcaulrf +~ttemapt tt~ prespar+e fn ~darez~aa by hyaridizaticrz~ eaad #~zd.~vic~ua3 se~.eatiQn it riot hutadt's+ds of t~aousands, is,t loatst tons caf e~~red33n~t caf arz approsz3.m~tely +9~asira8l~ strraaturo off` gr~axii~~, imprcxare~ tt~es~ by c~t~'3~a3~n~ tra~,r~in~ oud iMs~ tl~ir l~-r~oEt .asz~.bear aralur~isly nnc~ u$ef'tal ~'or m~afs uso." ~ selc~at+~r by ue3tig, I.nd~.rrida,~-l saleaetii~aa should szhoosr~ this best potato pls~ta math tp~ scant d~asirab3v camb3:as.tiot~ of ocsazic~n~.cs~ll~r ~a3i1ab1e aht~rai~- tsrf.st3.os. ".'he ear?~~.a~tion oi` staec3linga with x~ex,gsr,a to theca a~aoa~t araluatrlm oo.~bitaat~.vxuy ~~ ahsrm~clteristicss shc~u~.d ~rtaaade the salocti?a ~osg hybriTt me~ad2.ings ?~' ~ili~ts passess~.n,g the host tscs~tbirt~t~:cm of ecauanicall~r ia~- porti?-nt tri~3.tx~. ,this ta~luccti?~ c~hai,t`id be msda in the #"i rat ~-ewetsti'~ pericx~. ~3aginn~.:s~ ~~ith the i'irst sts~as vi' the sscdl~tag~a grs~rth, it is thereafaro neaeisesrlr t:r tsandaxat the Est czarot'ul tabt~exvz:tann oa-ar thy. '~'he- t?l~as~r~ix~g per~.vd df ae,edlixtgs ~rac~u~xes ccmaidera'~le atterrticsn u4taocs eerly sxtd cY:ort bli~aez:.n~, i~ ~ptsctds~ is usual~.y indication o~ ocrliaacis. It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukae~mr ... T,ebesdeva iffi Further itapc~rtssnt to rioteY the b,~git~iug, oi' tuber Fr~rmatian irx ~sc3lir~~a es~nd tt~ i,s~tarzaity of 4,he tubers: ~;ro~rth. Tnsris~ bb4 Pirat ha~swa~tix~~ period ell clumps Frith deformed and c~i~s- esaaed tubers, those with long a~l4sxe, olu~p:4 vr3th vory f.rza~.~CtiPica~nt tuber y~.eld, cslumps: Frith a potty tuber ~~pet + drip eysasa, ae "~~ as *u'bora with dam czo~.csresrl tubesre should be re~eoted. Isx sseleati:a~; For ghythtrphthnra res:iotaace all clu~gs~ yssi`eated b~ thrxt disease are re~eotesd izt the i'irab year. Szt Far Prtst-r?aie:Letnt~e a szaturs-1 a~eet~.on pf plaints ~sf is~sufS"1aS.essxt frost-resiatenc~e tsa place nt as:rly 'rwranap~.a~xtin~. ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ossx~cs (~. s~-~), fn spite off' seleetiata grid traisxi~n~, ~axsy ailc~ ehara~stesriaticss ,~ acsntixtuv to dms~iszate in Talaxsts, l.e., apree-d alus~ter, small tubers, 5.s~sadesc~uate tuber yrl:alc~ par olnater, +a'~Ct., wh~.cth is explais~d by the atrctag hertsdi+~s.ry translmit'~~g pt>QSar taf ~.3d aper~f.os, as compt-red to they yttus7~er is~ nr3.~in cultivated ~r~-r~.etiea. rttaoh ;veer tk~ 3,ntlu+~a~cte of diraote8 using beta les;s si~Ztii'~,aaat, a~is~e + :~lrrsady deal x~at ~5.'th seedlings but tubesr, ~tF ~iah tshes tisasuea are alder i~ their stages ~d mstre dit`i'S- cult to inil.saaneae. It is, ho~+re~r, ittadvis~s~blo tt~ use a aeaond Breed ger;era- Lion ~rdsitsks is3 al~rys~ poaretr ~ qualit;~ than the First, +~ t~irous~atsaruce supported regard to potatr~es bar bbe esnt~.ree e~perizr>ental experiesYCS+~ of ~ITR. Ise ~uoh crass it ie neaeasaz~y to uses reepaatad crosaS.rtgs~ crf` hybrid plEUate Frith oultivutead varieties. ~icshurin r~r:tess "F'i.rat in fmportaricse ~.n produaicsg Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 D~eyc,y~las~sified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Herr ~riet~:e~ of i`ruit plants i~ the third xz-eti~od, the xn~athod of r~g~etad aroeo3.r~g v~ith beat ou~.tivt~ted end f?rei~a varieties." ~iichur~3.a ,ad~rocatee the ~~~ t~f t2u~ h~-2irid plant as the maternal parent. During regeatcr3 crascin,~ tte hybrid, e~ s much ycrun~er plant than t3:e cu~.tivatec~ v~riaty, c'sae~ not produce a one-sided trans:~sittaxaoe of ~rodita~ry ahnraoteristi4~ in try progeny. ~ hybrid progexry obtained frc~- repeated oroae~.n~e i~ agairs sub,~cted to direatecl training tsnd segregatforo. ~rr~~:rzvE.~~~~~ ~;n ~a~~~v~.~~r c~~? ~t~~o vr~z~r~s (~. ~s-so) The mark of producing potato va.rietiee dtree not each in stsleating a sgacirnen grodutztrd b~, hybr~.diaation, alotull seleotian, etc., at~i trained is the rrraesesry direatioa. In the aouree raP its furtk~r e~istenoe thr+ ~rariety ie steadily subjected to ohat~gee dram envirormente-I aorzditicns. 5oare of tl~eati chnx~;es ar?~ not apparent ors the ttur~ace eicxcse they concern yield., early ripesnin~ (maturing), ato., mile ttzQ appearr.Aae o~ the aariety rc~a9ns appra~i- t~teZy the sty. In ether inataaaavs ~:h~ agpearaoc+~ of tl~e var3.ety ie so~erhat ck~nged, but aaly ~.n tsertain aharacaterietice, for exeu~pl?, the vigor of the clump, the naturo of bloom, etcs. piz~ally, the most eridea3y di.etributed ak~anges emote gcstatc~-e are ka-o!en as degeneration. Irt potato seleotion tlssre sere t~ cnt~sgariea taf degeneratiarx. Ira. saw cease de~,s,rsratvd ple.rats nsay appear a+s a result o~ cuter-epeeists hybridirat~foa~ aao~ th9m, t'or inete~uae, chlorotic, lae ~,ra~iz~, siefarmQd plants. frequetat~.y obser~red iu ~rlaatin~e of eeedlia during tllc~a i"irst year. In other ttaeve c~aget~eratiora as the re+ault oi' i~apropar ,~ro~l.n~; of seed potm~ea. T2aeee cases are partiaul,arly t'rsquasrat in sel+eatioa and need gro~rvl.u~; gractioe . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ukaso~r ... 7rebc-da~va .. ~$ I,yeer.~ra~ oo~acsQr~nizzg this: "i~otata p~,aats arb sen#itive to aondi- tior~ of ~ro~sth nth regard to sshar~g~ss i~t their ~rietal race. 1e ~aprayiaag oi` plexats rtith ~,+4-~ +af a +aaaaea~tration 0.015 - O.RSp psr aea~t arzd in the smauttt of lQ to 2K~ mI. per square yard. Tike increase or decreaa~a o!' tije valxame of the soluti,rm led to the laraerirag of the eft'eativoness of the rematioa. oP herbicides in re~at3wely large drops proved mare efaCiee-cious. Th+e application oap such insignitioaaat volumes of herbicidesz s,s ~ to 4 >:a2. pear sq, ys:rd is possible but desaanda~ a progareaaiw iuc~rsase of the ooncantratic~~z of herbicide to l.5 - ~ per cent sew a carre,~goaading inflreaaa aS' the total use of the grovrth >qubetaaace. The it~'luence o>T raiaa f~llia3g s.P#er the sprayia,g of p3.ante vas pa,rtiaularly studied to fudge the pas?a;ibi2ity ext herbicide use in raixiy weather. Xt established thst oily salutiraz>:e of 2,~4-D r+~nais~~ fully - effective arhan rain fell. fms~ediately follawirsg the applicatiaa;~ of the ieerbioide. ~,tgr ss~Iution proved lefiaa staksiar. Rainfall, ~ev?n 24 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 hears later, reduced thm ePficaey of herbi+afdes oonaider~cb3y. in so~+a casos the arra~ting action o~ herbicides upon plasats bs~;ins to show alreasdy within one hear after their apgliaatian. the greater ps.rt of the abvre eaperi~snts was made upon bean aragst soya and kidney beans. ~iests of at2~+r craps mere of particular interest. It vra~a found that 2,4,5-triahlorophenoxyaoetia agcid ante possesses a seleativ~e "disari~inatory" aatia~z upon potatoes, whiles 2,4-I3 and 2-methyl- 4-ahloroptsenoxyt~aetia avid, at~d aza entire sorica oP other caapauncls suaceesfully used in controlling w~aeda, do rat have any harbic?dal affeot upon potatoes. ~tne rsarrth after spraying potatoes with 2,4,~- ~1 triohloropheno~.ys~ebia amswbnia (srater so2utioa, tD.l g. in 50 mI. of water per square yard.) the height of the plants was measured sad two m?ntha later tl~e aeeight of tubers taken. 'rho graerfih of the foliage was reduoed by halt, while the average weight of tubers had fallen tram 84.4 g. to 9.& g., the tub+sr~i were covered 'ari'Ch warts end scabs. Ths 1n~ury did not penetrate deeply into tho tubers. In the ?u~er of 1945 the experitnetsts were transferred into the fields. T'4~ie established the high efi'icaoy of th+e application of oily solutions of 2,4,~R which reduces the yield six flees. Mater solutions, while riot reducing the yield substantially, radically 3.n~ure the quality oP tkar tubers by oausin~, injuries to tho upper surface. It is of interest to Hate that ail solutions 2,4-D and 2-methyl-4-ah~.or4pherioxyuaetic said, tirhile not e,ffeating the quality at tubers, radically reduce the yield ix~ aantraat to the water soluti,ane which hams no affect whatever upon potatoes. Prelimir~~':y rasea-rch indicated that th.e herbicide3 action of 2,4,5-~' is equally efi'eative if introduced iota the soil,. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Lobee~e~v, D. t~'. A z~ubsteaoe possessitt~ oansiderable h+~t'bioidsl aotivity upon craps was ales disflavered. ~e~i~anin~ 1329 ec~e Qs~ri~nters ?mod stud~.ed the influex~oo aS different oc-~abiastians flf urethe~ aeries upe:n p2eaats. ;he rflr~t effective off' tl~~te was feared to be fsfl-gropylp~.~r~;~lcarbe~a~, ?'irst applied by ~o^-ple~ax- mad Seaton. l~so-Propylpl~nyla?srba~ate, aflderd in liquid fora to tl:+e soil is tL?e ~:+rrattt flf ~ ~,~.iah pounds pc~r sore, ca~nletely flurtaiis the ~,rc~th of barley, ms X11 as flf buc~at, bnt des nsrt have a~ QfPect upoA the ~rh of so~~s baeng ~ tilrAlps. A 8ir.11.a3' dose of 2,4-n arss3 2-methyl-Q-chlorophenooeb~.c ao~.d stops tl~ develc~ent o~ turr~i,ga e~ soya; ~2iile it rifles riot intarPere Frith thc~ development of b~-rley azsd buoet cec~d8, although th8 ~roe?th flf your; plsrits is sa~ehat delayed. Tkrs expvrimentsrs be~s- t~refare a se .rr~h far the ~aet eotiao end uni~rersel aixtures flonsiating of herbioidea a#' 'bot2a types. In furt~:er e~~pc-,r~:~nts the ?~i.i'icanaa of t~ ti*~ o? introduc~iara oP iso-propylp2~~rloarba~te into tl~ soil ~saa atudiec~. In introduoing the herbioidsa simultaneously the so~3.t~? flf oat seeds, pmthola~;icel feotors care flbservESd frogs the bo~innfs~ of graph. ~e aoleoptile ~s shorter e~ thi.o~?r the-in nar~3,, its tip bad to ~t bro~t, ,ems tha+ r:eorfl8io processes epreat~ from above dots. T`he TMa~arity of pleats ~risYsed etsd flssly ~ to l~ per cent survived, tho esvera,~e ~sigl,t of tl~ r~urviving ptatxts remching assly l+i per oeut of firY:~ir normal ~irht. tit Q Iatsr intraduoticts of herbioides, chest t3see ycur~ p].essta ire acme 10 c:~. high, then raaotfon ~ tsat iedietely peroeptible but shammed is the resit Leo or three Jaya. ~r+eaty-throe days later ell pleats perishe8. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 o Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Control axpor3arrant$ ire pertorenod of t~ze sensitivity o~ variowa Lebedcv, ~. V. Drape to isc~propylpl^.eaylc~-rbamate. In these tests orni+on In~tat~at~; c-~' plant Industry u+~aaterad upon 5trar~gtherti.~ng eat suppar'~ ~,i~rc~n tia~s incr~xaaa of resaurQea of pt~c~duc~tian and s~:pplies of e:griaultural ram ~a1-,sria3 ^~i.t;h3.n the ca;znt~. In die ~sonrrecstian a as?siderable part of t}1e porsc~ns~3. o!` tha Ixisti.tu~ and i.ts hranchs~s k~az~ assigned to callecti~e azzd statc3 t'arma ~'or e.~,;r3.csultura2. Ai.?i esnving and harvouti~g ~trS:dds. ~'ith re~spact tra tha stuzl,~ anti practicm3 uti.`s;i~~-t3ax~ of wand ao~.lec~tiana of cultivated i7la~xts, at'~sntian .s primarily de~rctted to the lar~;aret pama~i.b]s ar~ourxt of seeds of bast r~g#.una:3ized nor i~~a~~nti.e~~. ~rar~s bars gravrr~ ar saluted 1~y thy` Institutes t"rcm t~ aLa~srt+ QakAect3.ans, as X11 as tit variaFl~ies of which elite ss+eda had to ht~ ~r-awu a~ ,part of aaa asai~;nz-,ent placed by the. arl~ar~xe~ a~' t~- anion.. ~'ith resp+act tai tlxs ~reatar part of crops 'lht~ s~axdd of t~ c+w+lle~atian avers li~:ited to ttx~ last stages of ,, i.ea. the saa~l.cags of ptatentierl :~s-terS.e~i tar pre7.i~- 3z~e-ry study a-r~d prc~pagati.trn, to it$ transftsr t+a the Gav+sr~er~t netar~ork fl~ Varie ts.l "'~ ati.xzg. The aoursa ~-f' aFrar earaen~Cet radi.oully cat~angerd the erariF at' the part of tl~e Institute end t~-a.t of its e3~perix~ntal baae+~ distri:btated an thee 7~e~aingrerd region wiaich in septarhar 1p~I ~`ound itself in the xp,t~e of c~ireat warfare. ;~ 2arg+e part of pl~yeri.aa.l~.; c~:paolt~ s~~'i' r;rea~trEsrs a~' tYse Institute partiGi.pated darcatly, begin- r~fr.,g Ju3y of that year, in th+a aarsstruction of` defe~nsi'~i anor3ca on the appraaahes to Len9.n,grerd a~ within the csi.ty itself', mile anat~sr group ac~ncentrated an r~a- serarah aYax~r. ai' $ epac3t'3.ce.I.l~r defense nature. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 fiikhfel'ds I. G. In the Pali. at' i.941 cr?~sthc~ds ire r~evelc~ped ixr t2zo chAmica7. ].abaratary of the Institute !'or produoing plaar~ceutiaal tannin. from extraata and leaven of Cotinus i,~ill, {"ekumpia"}, widtal,y used in treating ~rauuds. At one at the ~nimgrad plants ~rhore f'3vn staff ~aembcr.:~ of the Lnwtitut+e ire steadily ?rngagr~d in work, the first production in thv ~3Sk~ oi' raaclictil tann;.n ~a begun and its output reached saxo}a dimvnsxans t}iat it fu21y ~aet the rcec~,s of the I,enisagrad front. Qpan a sp+ecsial affinign~netat a3' the tier I.apartmarzt t}as laboratory cleve2oped mothads far aaloring th~a tissues rota l~haki uolar using lacsl vegetative dyes. these ,rer+es subsequently traras^~itte~r3 to praduotiax~ and ~ride3:y used by I9~1. The xork was perfarr~d by the point staf'f' of the labarat~dry uncigr tlas guidersaa of i;r. l'. 1~. Iaki.rsav. Ixz conneotian th~+ csritioal food 3.n the blocaded oity resear~ah of valuable nutritional elearents was an,a~,ed in an f'nod rutd industrie.l rorastes and tive re methada far their extracstioxt/i3everi,oped. 2'his x~rk was performed under the super- vision of Jr. 2I. I. Y;nia~,in3.chev. C}n an assigntc~nt from mar organisations the agro-mateorologioal department of thQ Imstit:~te+, uztclor the ,guidsnoe of Prafessar G. T. Selianina~-, di:c~ preliminary ward ors prc~ble:~s nanrieested. ~t#.t'h the c~*andcxat oS militaa?y operatiaas ar~d transporta- ti an !turir..~; di'veree e+reatt~er and soil rsondi.ti.s~ns. At the ins ti tuts the r~ork never stopped even. during t}ae most difficult days of the bi.ocsa3e ~v:scsn the ~appi.;~ o'.' ~vaty: a:3d alnctric#.i.;y ~c~~re out and the tempera- . work. tare in 3:r,.t~oretarieo dropped to l5 - 2i7o. lust at the,t timcy consid+~rablmlwsa per- formod on preg~aring the mast valuable part of the xarld aolleatian oP plants for transfer eaet~sarr3 and oS the; part far prolonged staring. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 1rluring the sew poriad the $tr~ff ai` tho lnati.tuta, under th~+ gu3.d~snc+~ Hof ttza acade~nicimn I. G. Ei.~hfeld, asarked an thc~ expar~aian of sawing arose of 3cak-saghyz, #"3ax-"cialgunets," Lir~ua- indehiscent (Lehr.} Slav. at ~~.~., potrtoea, medicinal plants, canned vegetables, melon, grain and legu~ainaus Drape, of ~rhiah the main sa~ring areas ^srere in regions already invaded by tt:e enemy. In ~avember-Ceasmber, 1941 studies were mailer an the detenuir~atiaa of agra-Q].imabia possibilities for ex- panding salving; arses of t2~ main teahniceal and food plarsts in the Asiatic part of the ~.-1S":;R (Prop. G. '~.+~].iani~aov.) f,at;a va the tra~zsi'Qr ~`ast cf' ernrirags af' f'aad and technical craps roves submitted 3n 3lecember to tkxs C~antral Co:~ittee cif thb VKF'b, t2:er t3assplan and I~'arkcamze:n of the L5~1~ l`or practical action. The praposod measures were subser~.zesstly carried cut 4'ar many years in t~:i Saerdlovsk oblaat and. at the Ce~ntrci.l li3f.aatic Experiment Station. Ire connection c~ith t~ ut~nduct of TM~ilitary operatiana ire thfl rs:~rrema x~orth- rrestorn tiS~R, t~ze matter of transf'erri~ag ir3riustr;al plants gas~t, anal tl~ avurlasdetd tranapart s itua flan, the problen of a feed and forage supply base of our assn in the ?ztre~ne north end iri t3te drought anal desert regions aP i?s.xakhstan and 7urcaenia became amore real. The paler and Pr8-Aral LxpC'srimoizt Stations attenptod to salver these problems, ae did the t!arabogazgalsk F~aae. The Paler Experi~+nt Station ~~iireatar T'. S. l*an'~av and cmndidst+~ P. !-. Turners) in 1941 194 ~+rarked on the expaana~ion of t!,e area a.xd the irccreaae of the vidld of sotHe craps at the f`urman ablest aloes to tYx~ front line. Eespite the praxir,.ity cf tho franc, and digi iou2tias experienced in labor rand parsannel shartag4, the vol}}r:_e 'mark at th~o Station an~;~ sa~s*iz~~, areas ixrrre~sac',, inc2udin, that of propagated varietal mataris.l. The station argenizod its oven soe-d produe- flan at the Z'urr~ansk Oblast ,Rhere it far~rly had been i~~arr2l~r developcsd, except for farc r, roars . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 F3.rthfel'd, I. Ci, Zn the opting of 1942 the station trsuluforrad 71fY centners taf aaad potato for prapa~ting to farx:s esf '~'urmansk cab lam t, in addition tta aYaaut 1(Tti kg. crf elite seedr~ ui' vegetable +~rops, 2fiU kg oS elite scads 4S` forage crops atad 42 cantr~srs oP grain crops. mho I'urrxans~ Oblast i,s pt prest~z~t tho only one possessing sowing plats Lalantcad tcith noi;txtsaes a? oarly, ssru~Yi+sr-rasista,.:t v,arict;as, sets a result uf' propa~;atiort a:i riaties aroctuaod 'ay they statitsrr. ?!urmt~~ask. Oblast max nasr ba re- gard~-d as t~ main ragiott capab3,a of` supplying varieties oP c~r~3rer-re~sistaxst pGtt+-ta~s sc~acz thus oap~-tala of aiding; csonsidprably i.n raconstructin,g a ~'erzee of ~alantin~;s of aartker-rasic Lz~.t varieties along tuts narth~rcastarn boat~dary. The ie~proved varieties oi' table ak~gar heat, '~~gipets~:aia 249" {2gyrptian) asad "Ear^ta~imt~vy shat" 2~, ancY t~ aarrat variety "''early YiarnTM arere regicanali$Qd iu 142 for ~~.x oYsl:zsts by thv Gaveartr~ent Cu~:~issian on ?arieatal ;'e-stix~g of Legumes. "ln 19+45 thrvo rae~r hybrid varieL?ias ax' ptatAtves (PChibiny 3~?tY, ~ibYny 11f12 e,rtd #~hibirry ~.ll l6 ~? ~ssd t~va hybrid ve~riatiee tax oats ~Y;iibiny pl and ~hibiny 02) era trana:~.itted to tht: ~overrmte~at .t~cstwvrY of varietal teetircg. urizzc; the war ~erY:aci tF:~ etaticn aatnpleted t,'~e c~evelop~test~t of a series of important ogre-tacahnirsl problems. Scar pre-polar a~rioulturo. I~ngther,?iQg a:C' the fi+zl~' vrar.~ season ern: off` the vcg;otati~ poriod o? a~ricul- tearul craps i , of ~;raat ignifiaancc in the ?~xtrasae rtar'th. ~h~ Statiac therefore davt~lcapad particular ~nee~surur~ for the irut~sae.ns~: oblaat far csRrlier than usual large Beale snair re5ncaval by rsowin~, in the spriragrsuis~rixed by residues of then apatite industry which at the aama time also cervc as potash fertilisers. Aga ee~rlier than usual sno~r removal permits stsrtini; field ~r:~ 1~ - 1Ca clays earlier than usual and spc+r~ds up the ripunin& of gz'aixe craps by ? to 6 days, as aamps-read Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ?ikhfel'd, I. G. to customary ksaz~iada~. Cc+tzsiderable in.areases in yield rears else obtained iron this procedure, apeaif'ioally, orith regard to the hay "zimofeevi~a", [15.1 centners per hectare (32 percent} and seeds of 16.;~ rs~h {24 percent)j. In 192 tk~ Station ~,re~rwr 622 o+cntners af` elite seeds of ve,rious ~sraps a3nd star?d 4I thousand seeds of rregntable crops. It also provided e~riou~.tural teohnictil servi.c~ fvr cvi.lective and atatc~ farms and prepared anck trained perrsonnel for this mark. $taaff ?~mher~c of then ~`tatior, marked in. 1942 an thg fourtP~ aditivw oP "A~ro- directions far the ~urr~ans3~ Qblast~ e~paliaable to rra;r n~ra;ks. The Pro-Arai ~:xner~ent Stat4an {dirQCStor i'. h. "altrigin) extended. plgnt ~aroxirxk; to desert and part-desert regi.ana of 'Kaze3rhstan, rrl:ere prior to the revplu- tio~a aCrioulture k~c] spat bean derrelopesd. In the ~vno serviced by the Stat9.on (Chellcara~, Irf,iz, Fiai~ranin a~td Qilsk r~sf;icrns of the v'hlast) saevi.nS areas in 1q~2 amauatad to $.~,+,Qt~ k~sotsres, of t~hiah a~rioultural to?hniq~tea davelvpod by the Station vdere applied an 6p,0~ hectares and varieties planted racammendc~d by th8 Station. In 1~2 tho regiat~a.l aolleotive and state seed i`arms received 76 cen.tners of seeds oi' gain and fpra,~e oropz~ improved key sele~otian, 35 centrzers of varietal patataett, and 4~,C7CK7 saedlin~o oi' different crops. 'ihe variety a? millet "1"r`k~its "~e,les," improvocd by selectio~l methods at the Station aaad cutstandin~, from ac~on~ the plantings aP Ghi~anak ~~ersiev, a laborer decorated for tk:e aceo~g3Sshmant, deserves special ~sention. Un axperirrsental. fields rf trc ;tabor. arsd the irri~-ted fields of the aollaotivo iarnx "'Jean Gurliss" oi" the Srghix region, f,t produasd 184 eeratriera Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Rikhfesl'd, ~. C. of grain par hectares an a plot of Q.~ heata~ros and yieslded SAC1 cantners per hectare on a plot off' ld hectx-res. 'phis variety is propagafisd the view of cowering all irrigated t'ielda in tkse Chel~arr~~ and xrghi~ regions with plantings vt this millet by 194;x. From its yio ld of 194. the etat3.on trans#'erred lax 1942 l.St3 centsaur$ off' variestal seeds improved by se3esctioa far s+sed gra~aring purpoa~sa. The method of utilising s?Pt ground waters in trench csultivat3.esn +~P leguminous, des~volopesd by the Station, beeat~e firmly ranted in this Aktubinsk obla?~t rorhere the genere~l spread of trenches c~as 2Q kc~. t'ethods for ensuring moisture plasatizsgs itt tre desert ire x~kdely i.ntroducad; of theses the most importarst method is the sorghum link ~'allaw.(2?} tshich increases the yield of snillat 4 timers. compared to the usual blao}~ t'allo~, as Drell as snox retention by a tail stubble oi" the prede- cessar crap. ender the guidance of the parsaz~ue3 aP the stat3.on '.5~,6C~0 heestarrss of grain and forage crops Fere planted in the spring ai' 3,9#2. wring then ai.nter months 8A2 men were trained for work at cours+as ar~;esni~ed at the Station. 3CARAi3QGA2Gt3I~S~i FfA 'tset~en 1943, - 1942 esstablieihed its ororx~ legumirsous #`ields these} et the industrial poste of the 4're-~asplacz desert. Usader its supet~ision supplos~entary J'arms df industrial enterprises Freres set up ~srhic2~ grasr legun~inoua and melon crops by agricultural trenoh rz?thod, d?vesluped at the shave bass far con- ditions csf the Prv-Caspian dessert. Then total length of trernahea ors farmer ryas 38 km in ].942. ?he base selected rrarietiess ;3uitable for treaoh agriculture, arrostg rvhioh the well 1cno~n "~rbent''` wta.termelons and melanrs dase-rrxes partioalar attontian, einoes they produce high. yields under trench cultivation. TIC CE~`R11I. ASIATIC ~:3tP~Rlt*EF'T STATIt?I] diretictec~ by the Gavt...of then U~be~ SSR, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ikhfe 1'd, I. ~. conducted together erit?c the L?abek branch a vast amount ot` v~ark ob re+glonali~ing agricultural crape (S~. ~;. Kultiasov, dotter It. S..Pangala, and i%. S. Ventslavavich) by introducing new crops in Central Aeia and developing methods designed to increase the yield of gain, leguminous end oil craps. In the ?Eamangan, Andizhs.n a;nc~ Feri;han ablasts, aided by the ~`arietal Seed Vegetable Institution, work. proceedwd on seed growir~ of vegetable crops for car~- ning to compensate far loss?s connected the temporary oacupatiosa of regiaxxe where the latt+~r crops mere formerly gro,~n (peppers, eggplants, tarsatves, carrots) and seed, 4#' the best local varieties. Aided by the All-Cnfen Institute aT Genetics and Se le~ztion agrb-technical research is conducted on sugar bast anti its varieties studied s~ith respect to cbtxiitions of C+sntra]. Asia. 1'he best varieties for t3?bekistan, oi' the mast 1~aportant toad sr~ci technical craps, i.e.... grain, leguminous, vil axe melon crape, of which elite seeds are grate at the station, are deve2operi theme. .Among these are- several craps gro~rn only from products of elite seeds prociuoed at the Stations. Yn oannection with extending sotiring areas under ,grain-leguminous and cereal crops at i3~bekist~, the Stetson increased tl~ production of elite seeds of these particular crops. (t7taitted refercrszce to legus~inous, merlon, cotton, oil and, other crops.) p.9,la. t'hI1:4P i~i~~~~ t3F DIS~ASEy 2L3 ASCEi~~`A123 R~:G[1L~.R1TY Y~3 L.~SB PRtlPAGATZt~~J Ate'? E:3~'A,F3LTSH PPdG~Tt7S1S. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 H,P~SIS i`~ ab~eat of the t~rrk is to ; turfy re~uleri.tfe:t in mesa prapagatiaa grad spread of df,aeasas, based an analyai:c bf ini'luenrse external factors have an the develapatent of fungus aad the reaatan c+f the organism to their development. Al~'IC~'A~l? RBj'iL7` IN 196:5. Ca:npilatidn of nar~agr~ of the appaarc~nee and prapagatias: of d$aefi8~a llaT371~Sd t3~~0`lir. fiction 1. Int`a.uerscse of climatic aand5.tions upa2~ the devela~nent of phytophara of patataes. l[ethod of 1~a'ork: ~ciesntifio praaesaing ~"~arneralnnia~) of data of field obaar- nations over e. }aa riod of many years. ~xperimentar: ifiaumova, ~i. A., seniar spaaial~;st ir. scferzce. ~'e riod : ,Tanuary to ~e cembe r 193 ~ Seat~,an 2. Regularity in the develaponent of yella~ rust of ~rheat, dependent upon metearalagical aand iti,ane. ~etYsad of Starke Rxperiments ~xt nurseries; field observations and statistical rescsord ittg. Rxperimentora: ~aumava, ~. A., sr. aspecialist in aaienee. Period: January to l~~+cember, 19:55. Section ~. Regularity of develr:p~nt of arsrrea rust t:f eats dependent upatz meteara- logical nand itians, Yathod of fork: Rxperiments at nurseries; fie id observastigna ar~d statistical reuordirzg. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Experiaentore: ?'arlaad, A. G., sr. speoialist in soienae, Kuprianova, D. I'., laboratory asst. Periods January to Deoember, I93 S. Bastion 4. Study of re~uiaritie s of devalopsaent and tho epiphytes of apple sash, dependent upon seasanal variations in the ~soather e.nd t}:e nature of primary fafeatios~. 1'ethod of ;or~t Saientifio processing of available data on the development of diseases sad weather ooaditioas. Experi~aentor: 3tepaaov, K. ':., sr. speafalist is oaieace Periods January to Decemb?r, 1935. Section 5. Influence of teraperatura and moisture of air upon the infection of wheat by smut (vstila~oj *,sethod of ?orks ~xperir~otatation in thsrzs-o-chambers 1'xperimentors Position vaoaat Period : *.iay to I?eaembe r, 1935. Seotion G. Establishs?aent of boundarf?s of sources of infeotioa of har+rful effect, dependenS upon the degree of their vigor and ecolo;iaal conditions (rust). ~~ethod of forks Field experiments, observations and statistical reoordinS. ~xperimentor: Stepanov, ~. ".. and netvrork of observation points of SP.R. Periods January to Dacenber, 1955. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Sectiar~ ~, Cevelopasent of m~rt~:ads for regulating the climate in nurseries on the basis of re~u2ari.ties in t2~ develo~aent a~ punt diseases. l'ethod or ~'orkc gxperiments in multiple thermostats, nurseries anal, hothouses. Statistical recard~g and observations. ~xperianen$or; aspirant #talashnikav, ~. ia. I'oriads January to Uscember, 19~s. Section 8. Fia-ecology of cabbage club root {"~ila"}. (Plasa:odiophgra brassicae lYor.} l~bthoci of TMQrk: xperimentati?n a.t laboratory end nursery. Experizaentor; t~spirant Fedorinchik, }~. ,S. Periods January to l7atvber, I935. responsible brigade leader on the sub~ecsts Stepanorr, ~, ~., sr. specialist in science. I:xper~.mentors; YlZlta, Instigate of Potato lnduetry, ~T?roaesh STAZRA. Period: '~oriC begua in 1~4. $ubjecat transitory, perennial. 4. STtS~3Y OF GC~M~'C3SZ~'I02i Ali) I}Y'NAAiiI~S f3~' i3I0Ct'~~t~BSS DTI ~ilili g~'i! 2~~,Y Rg- CLt~IkElt F.AItI~S. (iTtilizatiora f'ar glowland, plo~ring of steppes, taelio- ration in non-black ?arth belt oP northern regions, drainage of swamps, and irrigation of 2avolz~la ('~cslga re,~inn~. BASIS. Decision of the Acrsd?my. The necessity of prtrvifling a prognosis aoa- ceraing change is interre3atiattshig between the basic cslements of biacoenasis aaatl the esstablish;nent of causes for mass flare-ups of i;ncsect invasions i.xt cases where Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Lankngract lasncn. oast. .. 1~ - soils are claimed far agricultural arse, s:s mell as in connection xith chasages ix~ climatic farctars for the subsequent ddvelapment of a system of measures. AT~'tTCIPA7'ED ~tESC~I,~` 12t 1955. Segregation of a graug of sp~rcie~r capab3e o~ ~rav- ing dangerous on claimed lands for use under agrieulturai crops, as rr~ell as an. snalysis of cozu~itians under ?rhich similar outbursts may take place. Soctian 1. :;turfy of oompositp~.r~n trnd dynamics of biocoenosis in the black earth belt, in connection with utilization oi' virgin ~eails cad pastureaa ~'othoc3 of "'orks Complex research of difP~rent t3rpes of successi~re series 'by means of mass-statistical rc~cc~rdings of insect fauna, 'biological surveys and ecological tcstffi. Stationary and trans-gonel observatiots, Lacperimentora ~3ei-i3lenko, specialist in soiexsce. Periods January to I~ecemb~tr, 193:5 S~eaticn 2. i7eter.~i:nation of pristcipal qualitative rsnd quantitative cha?ges is the fauna of insersts, rodents, and the micro-flora in the podzol sane, in cozuaection r~ith tha utilisation of near soils end the melioration of svrampy ar+eae ? Method of Mark: Recording of fauna in tea types of successive seriesa 1. faresst, uprotsted field, sa~ring~ u. swampy plat, drained Blot, swing, by parallel biological surveryirsg ~incl the taking of tests. Stationary and trans-zonal sttrv~3ying. ("is,sledavs,nlu") ~aperimantars l~oscovr S~'~,~A P~~Yt~is Januaary to ]~eceraber, 1935 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Responsible brigade leader an the tsub3ects }'ei-}3iex~ka, G. Ta., spaaialist fa science; participants s ~'XZ}ta and }'asaaw STA~A. Period: To begin in 1935. Sub~eat perennial. het}lad of research to be dev~+l.aped in I93'~ and aua~Iysis made of ca~;~+~s3,tioa of biocaenosis. 5. 5'~UDY f}~' PARASITIC p'Ut1(iX A~)A ~3ACTRRIA Q~r~ FSA1~'UL INSEC'~S ATE 2'HEIR CASTS: nearee of S}~ USSR. (Caurzcil of Peoples' Coamiissars). Pecesaity of study of inf luenco of parasite tr~r~~. and baetoria upon }:arast'u~. 3,naoats sad their utilization in the control of agricultural pasts. A1~'TTCIi'AT'RY3 FthSiil~' IN 1935. Tntraduatian df xalm methods in insect control. Leterminatian of possibility of using pathogenic fungi in the oontral of citron soale (Cacaida+~) and San Jaso scale under USSR aanditiona, as vas lI as tha use of sparidifaraus bacteria in aantralling the Darn borer and ~.eguminous pests. Section 1. Study of fungi found on harmful insects scale of lemon trues, locust, Laxostoge $tioticalis L. (~lugovai >:otyle}cp} and tests an the infectiat~. of scales and other insects with Fungus cultures.. ~athad oi' darks 1+ar}: is aaraductod at laboratory ar~d nursery. t'icro-bialogiaal abservatian of diseasod insects, tYa- obtaining of. culturos of ilzngi, and the setabliahment of infeatian experiments tArith culture derived fraffi hateful 3.nsoots.. Experimenters Prof. V. P. PQapelava Periods February to necember, 1935. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bastion 2, Study of bacterial disr~ases of insects and use of sporidiferous baa- teria in the control of harmful iz~seats {caterpillars of pests of leguminous and orchard plants.} Lfethod of P~orle: Tab+oratary sad field work; appliaatiotz of bacteriological saethod and field tests which inolude infection of caterpillars of butterflies with cultures of bmateria. Lzperimantors: Khedaturo9a, F. A. and ~itseva., A. Period: 3!arah to December, l9?~5. Responsible brigade leader ors the sub3eat: Prof. ~'. P. Pospelov. l'artiai- gating in the rrork aci.ll be one work~sr i'rom tree observation point of SiTR. Period: Ta start in I934, to end in 3.937. Subject transitory. 6. DFsTERl323~t,~Ti0~1 OP RACIAL G~l~'4SZTl?3}~ OP R~.fiST, S?~,'UT, Ft3SARI'C?~ OR CE&gAL lS9SISs Decision of the Aaader~y. Conducted fpn the purpose of utilising im- n:uraity ixe the control of fungi diseases mast dyriramic izc propagatioat. AIfl'xCIPATF.,D R~StTLT; Ilevelop~nent of diagnastia traits ~aharaateristics of re- sistnnae and ostablishnsent of methods for i.nereasing resistance to try fo3.2aorirxg diseaeass rust, smut, fusarium and phytophthora. I3evelop~ment of methods for reaog- Wising rust ate, smut and their virulence (in Soviet Dnionj. Aecurnulation of data on racial composition of rust, smut, and conditions of their racial formation in the Soviet union. Seatiarz 1. Development and evaluation of r~ethads far reaogn.izing the racial Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 cor~pasition of rust (1'ucafnis triaticina.) and smut (Tilleti~a trictioS), method of fork: Relntivc evslun,tion aP different x~ethods (phyai?log,icsl, bio- ohamiaa.l, serologiaa3, oitoiogia$1, morphologioal) in xork xith 15 ra-oea oP root and smut,. I"xparimentora: Rashevskaia, V. P., sr. speoialist fa science; Barrxenkov, ,~. S., ar. speoia-list in saiersce; Butner, v. S. of the Crinzenn Covera~.ent Oniversity (apecinlist Strolin, ~. L.), Period: Junue.ry to ~seembar, 1935 Section 2. I~eavelapstent of diagnostic ~xethod in recognising rralti-pais4naus scud apa:oia3ired species of fuseriun:. ?mthod of 'dark: Physiological sad biacshemicel study of 2d species and 10 races of fusariu~. Experizaentorss lieselova, ~. L`..,. specialist in soienoe, periods ,Ieiaua:ry to i)ecsember, 1935. Seotian 3. Development of methods for recsognizing viruses and determining their speoializstior~s. Method of i~ork: Developanent of serological ~testhod in recognizing spesaialisa? tioa, activities and pathogenesis of 'ciruaes. 'ark oanr~uctod on 8 viruses of potatoes s~ tobaoao, ~xperizgentorss }~estsulevich, B. P,, .sr. speoialist in science ez~d Institute o? "Dist Sub..tropics (spvaialist Lobik, A. I.). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Period: January - December, 1935. 5aation 4. Aioaher~ical determination ofl nature of icuaunity in x~heat to rust. i'sthod oP dark: Analysis on phenol and tannin combinations at different stagos of davelapment of 5(7 ants speofee of ~rheate+ Fa~perm+sntar: Itargopalava, ~~. id., sr..' speei.alist in safenae. i'eriod: .January to L`eaembvr, 1fl33. Seatian ~, ~eterasination of varietal resistance ?f p2ante according to in~ana- bialagiaal properties of fibre. 1~'ethad of ~:'c~rk: z~erala~;ical analysis of` resistant and eusoeptibly 95 varie- ties of adxeata, hats and 3.eguminaus to amut {far cereals to fusarium and virusaa). ~xperimbntars: ~edatova, ~. Z., sr. sgeoialiet in saience, sprtraialiet Vedeneeva Central-fisiatia ~'AZRa) and ape-cialist CTlianishchev ~AsSTAZIi1i). (Szerbaid~anu'iA~~} Period: January to I3ecambdr, ]~~~. Section 6. 1"ethac~ annd taahz~iF.guc~ a;P sc~rala~;ioa1 research on ir.~nuuity of plants.. r'ethad of - crks Relative avaluatic:n of adaptability, suitability at' sera- lrrgical methods (kna:+rn in medicine) far vegetative imanu:aology, th~rir isaprove.? went and c~etailedness. Experimentor: Taaaarinsc-n, sainntifia ~rkera Feriod: January - Uccember, 13358 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Section '~. Detartoination of racial ccposition ai' rust in acnal orpaa-section of tgathod of i`tor~: Tarts on artii'icia7. infection of va:`iaties by local rust populations. ~stablisluaant of races .according to intensity sad the nature ot" inSury csausad to varieties (Ju~arican standard varieties} and the varieties from the varietal x~.~ttwc>rk of true ~; fi~nion. Ceallr~otir~g ?f material and f. is troatsnt nt. ~aperimantora: I3ashevakaia, V. P? sr. specialist in saiencs; ~3arsnankcyv, .A. ~., sr. specialist in scienc8; SfR(Sactar oi' Statistical Pecording and Regianalisation of:All-Union Inetitute of Plant Protcetifln}, Proida, P. A.i VZR, Spanganb~erg. Period: daauary, 193 to ,Aprf.i, 1936. Section 8. i3eteruiination o.? racial eompasitian o~ ansut in zonal ermas-section of Method of ~ork3 Gollectix~; ox' specimens (samples} and, their treatment by labarat?ry riethod. Experimantors: Hashavskaia and Labc~rntory of SystamatiLat3~on, Gutner, L. S., scientific ~rorker; SUR, Proida, P. ~. Faraod: JAnuary, 1936 to April, 1956. Respansibla brigade leader an tY~e sub~acts Fedotova, T. I., aoientific speci- Participators: VZZFia, natt~ark of ;T.~ZPA, Institute of foist Sub-Tropiae, SU$ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Period: Psarly 1935. 3ub~ect peretanial. 7. C~ITIGA~ LVALU~,TIQ~t A21I~ 121F'1tCfZ~~ 4F J~IiCm9 fly' STA~lS4`IC;~L }~;CfJ~DINC ~" it3SSPS F'ROti At3RlGt4Li"t7RAL PEST3 ADD DTS~.S~3. DASIBs Decree ot` l.arkar~gem of the Soviet tlnfan. F~ece,asity far developing methada of rec~ordisag lessee from pasta and diseases. At~ICI~'A~"EI3 ~Si~LT I23 1935. Systematic ,guidance an methods and technique of statiatica3 regarding of leases. Section 1. Development of n~thods to determine lasses.. Lethod of barks Scientifio pracesalug of data. Introduction of biolagiaal surveying by producing maps an the diatributiaxz cf pasta and yiei.ds. ~xperimentar: Protesaor. A. A. Lubishchev. Periods January to December, Section Z. Determination oP losses from rusts of c+dreal cropso ~:sethtid of forks Lathematical treatment ar~d literary prdsentatia~n of collected data. Field method in dusting and applying artificial itifectia~a aozsbined with the 3.ndividual method; typographical surveying and statistical recording of degrees of infecstiaxs acoording tts season. Experinxsntarss Sr. Specialists in science Shitikova and Ageerra. T'eriad: January to I~acember, 1935. Section 3. Developamnt of r~ethad of statistical recording of damage caused by lessee Pram fungus diseases of flax. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 I~th~ad of Ytar~r ~athematiaal-statistical tre;atanaut and literary presentation of accu~ule:ted data.. ~reparatian of maps an the distribution of rue t. Ap- prasimatc statistical retard of 3.eseas an flea-'~d4lgunets" !(flax rust(Y} melampsdra lini tRers.} iu iTSSR cr~rss..sactic~n. Biological survey. i.z:tra~ duation ai' marphal?gical anc~ technical analysis darn to then fibre. Rxperimentar: Scieatffio ~crrker ?~eaterreva. Partiaipatings Institute of Rlax. Period: January to tta~re:mbar, 1935. Raspamsible brigade leader on the subject: Prdfcssor A. A.. Lubishchav; parti- ciparat nor~cr of VIZRa, net~ark of S.U., Institute of ?Flax. Pe rinds Sub3ac~t transitory, ts~ end in 1935. Scotian 4. Physialogioal oharaete;ristio of erilt of oattaa to determine the merahan- anism of this factor (typical}. ~.".$thad of 'forks Vegetative fiast erith artificial 3:nnfaation anc~ subsequent phyeialagiagl analysis ~xperrimantars Eakin. period: January - Daoembcr, 1935a Seatian~'sw Physiological study cf milt of caftan ~?tracheomf:sosaa'~~4). L~cthad of t7ark: Vegetative tent inc3udiazg artificial infection axtd subsequent analysis. . Ezpariraexatar: :~aientific ~rarker Saburova. Pcriads Llarch tv December, 19:5. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Section 6. Anatomical study of wilt pi` cotton {typical wilt}. methods of. fiPork: Vegetative and laboratory tests ~.ncluding artificial ini`eotion and subsequesnt micraseopic analysis. ~xperimesntor? Soientifia wor3car Iablokova, Period? 1~arch to I9eoember, 1935. Seoticn 7? Physiological basis for tho damaging effect of rust of highly resistant xhoat rrarieties. 1"ethod of fork: Vegetative mrsthad to include s.rt3.ficial ic-fectian and sub- Sequent physiological analysis. Experi~-entor: Sciex:tif is arorker ~`el tnichenkc?D ~iakoaova. Feriodz ~+ebruary to i)eoember, 1935. Section 8. P'hysiologioal study of tobacco damaged bq mosaic at different stages of development. Z'ethod of 'ark: Vegetative, artificial infection and subsequent phygiolagical analysis. ~xperimentors: Donnikova and Fokin. Periad~ January to i~eaember, 3935. 8. CRT~ICAL EYAL'UA~Ii~N A~ I1'~PItt~V~.t' lei ~F ~l'I~f}11S Q~' 3i'A'~iS'~TCAL RECCY2~bTNG t3i~' Tst'FZCACY (}F ~'~AStJR~S I?1 ~'RE G4~18T~~}~ aP At3RICULTtIRAL PES9`S A?dD DZSEA~S. AASIS: Ideaessity for developing methods for reaordin~; the efff.caoy of measures sad the presentation of appreximste norms, in oonforaiaa:ce with the decreer of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Savnarkam of the ~T35H. ANTICZPA7PE3~ RFStTL~ I~t 1935. Systematic guidance on statistical recording osa, et'fiasoy of tneaaures desigaad to contro3 pasts and diseases. Seatian 3. I`,eve3o~ent of me?thads to determine efficacy of applied measures. 'method of ~;orks Scientific processing of acaumulatad material; experis~ntal ~eork at observation points of StIR and statistical treatment oP produced data. Experimentoras Pervukhin, Centra3-Asiatic STA1l, ~smagan observation point; i~aerbaid~an S7'AZIiA, Voronezh S~`A~ltA, statistician Chernava. Periods January to Tecembe r, 1935. Section 2, 'technical-economic determination of types aP fungicidal dipping snachin- ery ("protravochaye") and the establishment of camplexee of machinery for grain. ~Sa ~'ethod of forks Patablishment of preai~se statistical recording during the operation of machines and their tractive pourer by phatographin+e the a-orking day; and recording the individual processes and operations of Yrorl~. The latter covers the entire tisser the machine is in operation through the organisation of 3ia3cs at permanent bri~;adea at co3lective farzxa; technical efficsacy ie recorded in ,subsequent mathematical analysis of accuxsu3atvd figures. ~xperi~aentora: sr. specia3ista in science ~asikhisa aad 4garkava Periods January, 1935 to January, 3936. Reapanaible brigade leader on the su`bjeat: datsent Pervukhia, F. Sa (VZZRa)a Participating: Centra3-Asiatic A2RA, l,enSTAZRl1, observation points of Si1Re Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 V.rVSC4v auc+aa~~:~t? lawaw~ - 4w - 1'e riod s - ub~e~ot trans. Lary, to ~snd in 1955. 9. CRI'~'1CAL FVALIIAiIflN AN~i IT.'.P&t}VL1:~~'C (~F 1"~BflD flp SUI~X'I1:G A3~D STATISTIC flAIr itECflRl~I?~G OF t?ISTRIBUTIfl3i A~7U 2IF3?~ER #~ I~A~'UL I~SLGTS A~;D ~3ISEA5~8. SASISa Ifeaessity far carreotfng existing ir:structir~ns, in oonfar~r.anae ,pith VASK~iIL decision. Laok of hantiboakffi on statietiael reaort3ing of pests and diseases of underground legumes, coil pests, and aarrection of existing instructions. AIi?`ICIP11'~~D RT;SULT. Camgilation of instructions on {etatistias,l} ret:ording off' pests arad di~reases of legumasaous underground stops, soil gestm, revision of exist- ing instructions. 5eotian 1. fiovisian of r~tkzods of ~rark of observation points of B.Q. Ya be per- formed in the active erase of lavisnsk, Primorsko-gkhtarsk and, Amapa observation pointu, with regard to the Dore. borer, grain beetles, szaut, rust, leaf beetle, gummosis, red Spider Tetranyahur~ urticae Koch and }iadnoptera {"ilia?} an cotton, apple anti pear Saab, leaf taller moth {"plodozhorka"} Graptalitha, mildexr and aidium of grape. t~athod of ~;orks stationary statiatioal reearding sad surveys in acstive regions at observation points. Trans-$o.nal routes for surveys. Sxperimentora: Sector of Statiatioal fieoarding Service of VIZRa, Slaviansk Qria~orski-Akhtarsk and Anaga observation points. Period: April to Doaember, 3955 and first quarter of 1956. Bastian 2. Establishment and improvement of existing method For testing sa~mplee in quantitative reaorc3iugs oi'r soil pests, spider tick, Tetrauyahu$ urticaa~ Noah, rust of meat, {ergot} spurred rye {Claviaeps purpurea}, gummosis Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 of cotton, phytr~phthora of potatoes, apple scab, mildew oi' grape. 2dsthod oi' York: Hio?-survey vrith subsequent ~rarietal~atatistioal treatment of Bata, in order to determine size, number and distribution of samples on th+e plot, depending upon the lattesr's size, area, ecala~;ical conditions, and tk~er nature of distribu.tian of psst,~ and d~.seases. Fxperiaetsntors: 1~xynavir, 8inal+hikav, lfinai:, ~elich, Oral?abserwation points, to b+s supsrv3sdd by Iaroslavtsev, Xorov~?ins,, the Sector of 8piinning Crops of ~'IZRa, under the leadership a?' Gs~lakhav through thes net~rark of observation points, Period: April to Ileaemt~er, 1J~~ and first quarter of 1936. Scotian 3,, development and improvement ai' Method of prognosis an rodents, locusts ~,~cri~ dadee:~, gras~happer~, ("Pros"j and ~royptera microptara ~'. fit. ~~ ("krestavnia kobyllcn"); pests of Crucif+rras; flax fleas (?} Ph. aruci- ferae Goese (Y); loose smut of wheat; ergot. iiathod of fork: Fuld studies sad aampilation o? systematic handbook based on obtained date. Stationary statistical recording of quantities xitb an analysis of asftsorologianl conditions. 9tatistiaal rsaording of production. Fxparimentors: ?.aalogiasl Institute 1 ai' i.~OtT (i~asca~- Gaverrmi` spraying; principle of oil (vapor-dust zasahino). 1'~othad of forks Study o#' literature on the canstruatian and preparation of labaratary equipaa~tnt i'or the study of th+e principles of spraying. Labaratary teetisig crf the principle and search of Pacts far the cwxistruaticn of exper3nental specimens, Ezperimentarsr sr, specialist in gafonae ensineer (#rushev~ski; participating "Chemseator"` (Chemical Sector) (specialist in science Nemiritekii}q Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Leningrad Ins titu'be 2ashch. Rast. - n~ - Period : February to August, 193 5. b) Selection of types of manual sprays rs ? Method: Laboratory testing, field tests of types of sprayers, Theoretical research on results of t?sts; compilation of report with all necessary facts for the selection of a type of manual sprayer. Experimentors: Prof. Iatsenko; sr. specialist in science Abramson; Period : February to December, 193 5. Section 2. Construction of new machines. Preparation of test specimens of vapor- Method: Development of sketch plan of nodal and working parts, specifications and disabled machinery. Consultation at plants. Experimentors: sr. specialist in seienc? engineer Snigur, sr. construction engineer Grushevskii and engineer Ternovich. Period: August to December, 1935. Responsible brigade leader on the subject: Engineer Khoroshkevich. Partici- pating in the work of the plant "Vulcan". Period: Beginning 1935, construction of long range nozzle, mixers and conveyers; work to end by 193fi, @7ith regard to pumps and ventilators, work to be completed in 1936 . 20. TECIINO-ECOP10bRIC APPRAISAL ANA ESTABLIS"~i~t1ENT OF TYPES OF R',ACHINERY FOR TflE CONTROL OF AGRICULTURAL PESTS AND DISEASES, AS RELATED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF BRANCIi INDUSTRIES. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 BABXS: fieaessity for relative appraisal of machines an,~ recommss~dation of fundamental types for the various branches of industrya ~ievelapment of noxzas and rules fsar their carer t?) ~.tt9'ICIrA~`~U itESE-I~' ITS 1$S5a I3eterc~i:nation of type and coasple~ of zaaohiaes for L'T3 ~sf grain regions of bla?k earth belt, sa arell as far old cotton regions; develop- went of rams and rult;s for the care of these raachir;es. 5ectian 1. ~elsctio~a and foundation of types of maa~.ines far treating seeds of Lfethad: 'besting of ma~zhinas 1'gr use eu3Puria acid and P.arnlalin., IIsual meahanioal ~+pecial phytopathalc+giaal tech.aiquc;. F:xperireents>rs~ Vl~ta {sr, specialist in saienee h`eisakhavich}i ?~k.ITIR~3Io Period: January to Ju~.y, 1935 section 2, 8aleetion and establishment of machinery for ar;ti?laaust rsark? Method; Testing of po~rerfal machines far auto?.broadcasting and ants-shiftinga P.xperimentc~rs; VIZRa {sr. specialist in scienoe passki3} and Central-ltsiatic "AURA ? Period; Jaxtuary to December, Ip35. Seatior~ ER Refection and' establishment +~f field machinery for cantrollir;g Bests and diseaseer of cettcno ~ethcd; Testing of. horse-driven, sprs~yer ~'ZAFtA"; the tractor spraycjr Vulcan," and bores-dr?ivan sprayer "'9ulcan'~; rho tractor haadeii sprayer TN 2Q Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Eigeri~nentarss ~'I,~ga, Sltii,i., C~s,ctrai-Aeiatie 3fIKA'ia F'e riod s ~:iarch tv ~ece~rbe r, 39~ 5, Sactivn 4d. Ganspilativ,n of isastruativnr~ for the cvl2ectin~; and carp of m~,ohines Tii 2 sad C. D!a~hods aciezntific prvice~~ita~;. ss.tvrss YIZRa {er, c~csia2i~t ~.~. rscessce : c~aitlt, sr, er~inoer i~rushevski. , Feriodz January to T~eceta2aer, 19~5~ Secticta ~~, Se~.eatiflz~ v.rsd +~stablishmes~t of t~tpo of treatraeat machinery for drY, 1rta1~'-dry ar~d ~t a~ethcds vP irk 3.a grain iridustrya, ~etkwds ~`esting of ~naehine~ "ideal," "~ar'vest,~ ^Eztra," "Pobetta," $orah~-r8 and Papov,~ xgerisnentvres ~l~a ~sr. specialist in science Davyd,av), Vvrvncs$h S~'A~Ao, $~o r iod : Fab ruary tc~ ~davember, 193' S o ~e~ctican 6, ~i3.ection of ty~gc a~ e~'ttsb~,ishzneat cif ~rthsr machixaery for contro3lis~g agri~su]~tural pcets and diseases of graixa vrops (for the cvrstrol ref grouted squirrels, tsaetle~traps, sprayers, duster, +eta? ~ethad: '~etst~Eng of squints ~'isto3.s ~?~ ~?tliaremkv, ~#alltvv, pistol 014~V'Z~Ra ~'Aept? Qf ~.Sechani~atiam}. ilo.ages for sulFur?ic slag {?}? gr+apara- tir~n of ske tcah of beie tle trtsgo E~perisaet~tvrs ~l~Ra ~i!irdncsv,}. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ,yvwn nn+~Lir.~.ti ,i.n.,v ~r~~. wv yrvwsra~~ ~~wv'/9 ~ vw _. Period: January to U?c+smber, 195, fiespansible exgerimsntar on the subjects ~'raf'. Iata+enka and dotsent Pervukhin. f'exticipating are Cantral~-~siatia S't`A2~lx and ~laraneah S`fA~~, Period: ;~ab~ect ie transitory, ~srprk to b4 ca:apleted in I935 ~n ccmplez aS machines is ev:b~nitted to cotton and grain. indtastries. 21. SfiIrUY OP t~01Sks dF AC'TI42I OF Z21Sk;C~C???l~t7t {~ICIDES UPQ~F INSECTS, Ft134GY A~Il PI~At~T3 At't~ ~'~ B.~SIS C?F ~'P.FT~t RESISThfICE TO p~ISCEN!,~ BhSIS: bhzmmery of scfentific basis far the establishment of regularities of aannecting toxiferaur groups of inseota-tunf;icides Frith the nature at their in4 f'ectian of insects, Fungi and pianta. l~tT~TCIF'~'TED ~~tI.T ~ 135. Tk~oratfcral basis aP chemical method. Section: 1. Tixamisation of conditions of appearance of taxi~a actiasa of differesnt taxiferous groups of intt+stinal insecticides upon insects atta plants. IPsthads: Physiological e.r:d toxico7.ogical research of the aoti+an of insecti~ aides upon insect axul plant. Zixperimentar: Specialist in sciez:ce Dodoxrav. Periods January to I)ecembar, 1935. Section 20 Chemical study of insecta-i':zngicidee for time purpaae of ogtsblishing iE_"ethoc~: Study of several inargauic {sulfur, arsenate) and' argaaic ~deriva- ti~rc:s of anabasine) compounds of toxicalagiaal action from the standpoint of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 understanding their chemical nature in cons:ecstfon ~rrith their affecting insects under laboratory and Meld con13it3.ans. ~xperizRentar: prof. ~;, lf. Daahgevich. Period: .iaauary, 193 5 to February, 193 . Section 3. Study cf aond#.tios~s cis toxic action upo~s t'ungi ~ri.thi.n the grain. Method: Chemical-toxicological study stf fungicides upon i'uragi and grain of ~vhaat~ Experimentor: Kholodniu~C4 Period: February tt: IJeoember, 2935. Responsible experi~entor on th~a eub~?ats Prof. ~1. I~. I3ash~tevicb. Consultation on snethoda of sntomo?toxicological research of contact poisoas, specialist in science 2~eriritshii; on me thuds of entomo-toxicological research of intestinal poisoas, specialist in science I~odonovs on methods of physioa2-chemical research S. ~, f3liaks~an; on asthods of ~aiao?toxicological research, Prof? t~. ~, 2Jaunav; participating is the ~rarL arQ: SdiZRa ae~d Azovo-Blaa~ Sea S"?~Zc~A., ~7ork to be~;ixi in 195, caenp3etion of entire eub~ect in 1837 BASIS: I?ecrea of St~l~ of tT35R. ~3ecessity for substituting for urgent deficit paieonsm arsenic, Dagger, formalin. ,~23TICIPATgD RESULT T11 3835. I.~olation and reaommondation of iaseoto-fuagiaides Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 and th?ir introduction into nroduotior~ {aulfuri.o acid, oyanide, derivatives of naptha; poisonous plants; Broad gas tar; {"katrelny {?}) dust, Seotion 1. Introduction of cyanides of Union production rota the fit~ld of plant protection, ~'ethoda Labore.tory research; field expari~ients; organiiatian of praduatian tests under field eoaditions; scientific processing of material. Ezpsrimentars: Sp?aialist in saienoa Iltinskii; participating: VNIIYS, Slaviansk O~IIS, Central I,abaratory on rodents ire ~Rinteriag Places. {"ui:aovniki"). Institute of Sugar Beet Industry; Institute of Caautchouc, t:ruzlZRA, {Georgian) TJYPZ, .~'f'I; to particigato .quarantine laboratories {abkhaz and Baku).,. . Pv ri od : asy, 293 5 to tray, 1986, Section 2. lest of sulfur slab in i:he aartral oi' ground squirrels under diffvrant typioal conditions of production. ~ethoda Experimental treatment with mordants of dafinitfsly estrxblished hales of g,raunci squirrels with su7.fur slab oP.differen.t milling; laboratory study of extraction of hYdrogexa sulfide from slags under given moisture aonditioas. Fie3.c3 ticlir~ by ahronoa~eter. Experi~entara 1`~rkhange3.skii {,~:sov-Black Sea ST~~. Period: B'arly 1334,. to sztci August, 1935 ovation 3e Extension oi" branches of application of hydrogen sulfide method in the fie ld of plant protection. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~xpe ri~eutor s Bpe cia 3is t ~ sc 3.ence ~r~angs lski' Period: early ~.~J34, to eni~ December, 2935 i;~.zov-Blacg Ses. $1'.AZAA) e Sectiaa 4~ ~sce$tanon o~ hydragen sulffEte m~sthr~d i~t prc~ciuctiex~ under various sson- ditions at storm places cf ~lif'ferent types as applicable ia, cox~trol- li~tg .gra~.n tick ~mit~es} ~ ~) ~ 1'eth~ads lndustria~. ex?~eriz~en,ting under aoradi,ti~ans of grain s~ariti~, i.~ rare- houseso. Bscge-rimentar; ~fdelman (Azov-Bleak Sea '~~A) Period. 194 to er~~I Ik~~ttbaar+ 1936,. 8ectioa 5~ Study of susct~ptibility to hydrogea sulfide of sees of d~f~'er~er~t crops a~ varieties. l~ethodt Laboratory trysts. Fxperimentort t~i.dela~an, ~,o~-Black ;ea 8'1"J~~) ~'eriod~ 193: tc ea~d ~ceszbex', x.936. Section 6? ti?~s-ballt~a~x equiprn+~nt axtr3 technique gf obtaining liquid hyllrogsn ~sulfideo 1*ethcsd: Laboratory tests. ~'r~ientif5.c prcaessing of material? Sxperimentars. Pry Arkhangelskii, sided by ~7ovikovs engineer ianin ~~,sc~v-Black Per3.odz Early 1934, to end ~foveatber, 193, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 uv+a~.u~ya cz~u +~a,w a.r.v~tvv awsauc~ai. na~a va ~ vv ?? ~t~tioxt 7,. 33gvslsapment cs#' equipment and dQSagee of (fri~-b3~} 3r3csc,; l~nthad: ~laaorebiaa]. study off` isr~sble~-; acienti?ia processing o~ plans; preparaw Lion of eaperia~sa'I;aI part; testing o? mtydele under laboratory cs+anditions. Feats utxder industrial aonditionso Exper,imeators: YFovikov, nanstruatian enginaer unit: {Aaov-Black Sea ~'A~Rtl), Fer~,od: early '1934 to end July, I9?i~. Section 8. t~btaining oP' hyd.rogen sulfide ~`r+~m aluminum aulPur and magnesium. ~ethcd: Lsboratory tests.. S~pcrimentors: ~ovikov az:d engineex lonirz (A~ov-Blau Bea ST~ZF,A)~ Feriod: 3deginning July, end I3ecember, 1'~'S5e " Section 9. Study of absorbent ~qual5.ty o;4' grain and methcde cif degasification of grain sft+sr treatanent with hydrogen sulPide~~ L'.ethods Chamber ,gassing raith subsequent analysis o? gra~3n products, Industrial eatperin~ents, Fxparimentors Frof. Arkhan~lskii (Aaev~-E3.aa~ a ~S`A~A), Period: January to Oetobar, 1935. Seotion la. study of ins?cta?f u~icide aat3.s~n and reaatiaat upai~ p3.atits vi' residda~s tai' oil-diatil3~ing faatori8s, in aor~ection with their chercical composi- Lion attd phyaioal-chemica3 properties and. the ma.nufaoturing of standard preparatiosas frog, 'these resi8ues, based on tyre study of their co~tpasi- tion and charaote,ristioso Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Method: ]~velopment of basic chemical method end its r+~tionalizatiaa and ap- plicatiam in the system of ~cthods far t~ ~surpase a~' substituting t'cr imparted and roost dQficsient poisons, and the eatablishcttent of optimal dosages. Fxperimentara Ulianishchev. Periods January to t?otober, 1955 Section ~ll? I~evaiop?neat of formulas and methods for obtaining caterpillar glue. Method: Laboratory and lab,-field tests of specimens of glue and experimental ~roxic for ~ob tainit-g new fors~ulae of glue o . Experimentors Astrekhantsev, p. I.; participating YIZRa,, Periods C3otaber, 1955, Section l2. Study of poisonous plsrate from the chemical-toxicological standpciut to substitute far lacking inseato-fungicides Methods Laboratory experimental ?rr+rk ,a+ith subsequent testing under field conditions, gatpe rimentor; Pra~f a Lm~shkevich, 3'eriod: Janusry, 195de Sac'tion l.So Study of industrial residues far the purpose af~ utilising tl~m se ra~r to obtain insecto-fungicidesQ L3ethodo Laboratory vxperimant r~vrk ~xperimentar: Polzik? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ger3.od: ~3anuary, 3:il3faa ~eatir~n 24~. Securing dxy cyclones ~+~eatr3fuges} from .gas-liYc 4~fo Method: ~atais3.i.aknmant of c~gtis~al degree esf mgisture fc~r the asaturati.on cif carriers ~?~ PormaTdeh~rde. 1;+~tablish by mt~a~ts of curves the disintegra- tive caf cyclane8 at di;Pfertsnt degre+~s t~f saoisture a:td temparatura. Tgxic4- logical testing. Apprpval at laboratories and under field conditions? lyxpe sr ia~ez~ for : F3lumbe rg, ~. k3 . ~6Z`~~.E~d?. idovetnbf?r, ~~ ~~. SeotSo:a 15. Securing prep~-rations cif sulx'ur and its concentrations iz~ small anounta. 2dothod: .'Laboratory aed field expexis~ents,, . Ex~arfinentar: I'rAf..i~ashlce:vfah, H. 1t. Period: 1~o~vember, 19358 Respoesible brigade leaders on sections o? s~ab~ectss cyanides, gl'inskii; naphtha s~i~.s, ttliani,shchev; hydreagars au2f~,des, ~rkhangelshi~.; participating: 1t1ZRa, ~IP~I, Central-~s. STA~'A, A~S'IAc~P,A,, Atovo?plac3~ Sem sTA~s Institute of ~Ilu~inum; Ins titute cai` Azov 2~aphtha. Period: ~ub~ect transa:tnry, to begin in 1934, to end in 1.935. 2S.P 1~C1~EAu1: Of gFFIC,F.C~' AI3I) ~'!P~OVE~t~i' Ak' T1;CIi~I@Li1 Q~' Ai'PLIC.A.fiI~32~ CAF` INS~sC~O-1~e the: re are a series of ~'aes- tars, whiesh are rsble to cheaok the ey~cessive prapagrstic-n of ixssccts and ~:f.ah keep 'them wit}-}irs tlae liss#.ts of harta~.eaIISnexsa. ~SUt as s~aon as these conditic~sse chan,~e in. then directiAn begnei'iufal fcrr :het pesrtts send diseases, then cascara rapid propa~ntiean: aetd slides e3istr3bution of pasts a3td of diaeaases and the ~:nter.sii'icatida. of theYir harr~Pulness. ~'he abaue iudivatcd unc#t+rliriea th:s rsecasesity o? ceez~pleyx all~sfdad i,nveati~;esticsa. ~hes eecadesznicie~n ~. R.. ~7illies~na ies ore crt his esrticlees iA 1938, "A~;ai~+at the cra~rli~ ~:apirissm ~,u thes scientipic-$.xsveatigatir~~; ~3rk," l;rabds~ Y+o. ~~2, 13~~1, l93$, wrote: n~oientif io-research institutions ?~nd,y e+atperi~e~it atastiat~s ug to receett timers igttmred than indisputablez tattitudes of e3ialescticist~ that ell they ce~nditicrns or i'actoru ire than life r~? p~.s~xstc as ea tsr~anirall~ imterresle~ted and that a mesahanieal dap car ar, uzu3c~re~st~.~sestion oi" ot~ cif then .~aators results is~ serit~us change}s, ~rhioh 8ie:taro the gna3.#.tntf~a and ciuantitati~er e~xprassian of that car vthesr proce8a.:, xnespt fc,r then ese~pla,xft~r i~z thes csor~atrucstian ?i' blue-prints of the esxplering ~" works, it is iaiparratisre to aspires to~rae~cis a detailerd uade3retarsding c-i` the e;c~nditieyner Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 of mass propagatiott of fists and ref di8aeedm. the macs apgmaranca o:' inanot~a q,nd thR+ development oP diseases uoually daces not originate at once, bat gravra gradusl?,y. Zt is unc3mratood that then rtee~-sures far che;a?~in~ moat bee carried aut sat ozxly in the yoara of their mass appearance, but first of all in th,r years anci .ice the districts s~hen thei peaty and. the: disesasas ;just, begin to tz~res,teyn thm crags. 'the liquidation of peEtz~ and of disoea$aa is rse:pacially valuable far practical roasonez, khan it 3s oarried out 'in place~e of their first ret~or'~ratians. Iu cana~ection xith this the work of prognosis is of m.dst asnpartance, explaratians of the thae7riea of mesas props gestf.ons ~d of the r~thad of registration of insaats and of diseases. The na~t pres~-ite ~auat be t}u-t the chmcking oi? posts and diaoasaa ahQUld first of all have a proghylactio oharactmr. por an efficient of those ar other maaaurea for the eims of prophylactirs it is xseaecsesry to knox isz detail the xay of life exnd thw davelapmesnt of various pester and disaessea i~a order to direct tna cheakin~; measures against tt~a vulnar?-blr, sides of their life in time. Tak1r~~; into cosasic3sratiou the above ixtdioatiDd 'task approaches, the glen of a~aiQUt~.fiG-roaearah xork of VIZTt (,ill-'Lnion Tnatituto of Plant Protrectian) provides: 1)n deep study oP causes and cotaditiox~a~ of mays prapage3tion ar~d of dissinutian cf especially raclti-poisotaaua pelste~ and ciiocopses, the aim. of ffsidin~; measures of ohe4aking theca and of inareasin~, effsotive measures; 2~ the ~rorking out of affiaient methods of chdaking pets and disaasbs of ~ngrioultural crog~s and 3} t~xe instiilatian of mechanisatian into all proaass;~ss of plant-protection. Based on that, the ple~n xS.l1 be built during then third five-year-plasa aaaard~ ing to the f ollarr3ri.~; bamies problems s 1. A chap bia-maalogioal e~tploratian for the ascartainmant of causes and of oanditions of mesas prapA~;ation of pests and diseases asxd far the basing o#' measures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 r. a~u~wa v, ~ ? s- ? - acv - fQr their ai~t~iciz~g. hs the result of ~aroriciesg csut this ther.~e~ at the erzd +~~` the Fiva- Tear Plan, t~loi~g witi~ the af'#"irmation of causes and eouditiozss of mess prQpagatioa, there $hauld he fcaund aonczrete aezd radical measures for oheSicin,g, sad also should be obtaiaeed srame data ou spreading sad thet harmfulness vt' 'basis pests atsd diseases. F.sre should be ~seari=od out the rs~thvd?tlo.~;,Y off' ra long;-range forecast of the appearancse oi" most ~tportant, yeast dan~;ertaus pests ar~d diseases. 2. Iez+sti llaticn esf se biolcagaic~a3 tae thQd oi' checiKireg~ QP putts and diseases, a theoretical foundation and a i'urthar working out oi? this metkeod. re trust that a ar3,da application of such liarasittte axtci peatts, as i'r3.sahogramma, Telereoasus, Chilo- aorua, ~r,~ptolaesaus, Coccieeellidaes, rind also baoteria~of the gallery type sad others, after a scientific exglaration astd ee aide S.nstillatios till ,give enough et'fdctive re- sults #,n the decreeese of the 3crsa cf craps from pests. :5. the study of possibilities of applica.ticra cP physical agents far the check- irxg of pests acrd diseases of agriciturai ercps. Eer+e ~e ham in mind tmvastigation with the airy cal'; pasts attd diseases by such, physical ag;eerts set light, therx~al energy, electricity, various types of r~iatiQr~, ultra-sonic vibreticsns, etc. It is iatez~legd to evaluate the e~f'fectives~ess pf t~ i,zzdioatec3 agents in tine matter cf checl~ing pacts sand disea~ces of various a,gri+c~ltural cresps sad as to sepre- rate iriur3s, to test ti~em its the saontrol o!' r~e~-da~r-n~cth, v~ri~t.ter crop owlet math {Idoct~xiJ, Phylloxera; fruit-pests, storage-pasts, etc. 4. R'he study of print;siplbs of ac~tio~c of ahao~iaa'is upon, i.nsect~a, fungi. acd cultivated pAasets, a arcaricing; out artd estalalish~zaest caf new inseotofuxagi.cides, ~rhiah are pFC>~ided by ra~r a~eeaterial baxte its tisSR and +~rhich haves a ccsnplex actioa. It is irsrtetzded to cor~eerctrate the attention. mainly upon plaxct poisozee, c?ndensates, cater- isillar glue, coal-teen atsd mizeeral oils, etc. In thv ffcld of imprc~viseg ~sethads of ~~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 applicsation of insecticides it is inte~ied to tetra into consideration the applica- tion of colloid solutions, improved preparations, i'ora~ation of clouds, etc. Spacial attention should ba givax~ to the tttudy of a chemical method of cheelrin~r soil plate by msat~a of depth and surface sail fumigation. ,All the insecticides and fungicides have to be wielely approved undor the conditions of production, their xtandards have to k,a worked out and sgscified. ~. 'The installation into production of ~tex approved aonatructions o#' ms,chines is the ehaeking of pests and diseases of ~-gricultural flrops, the utudy of msehanisms, of action of aeparats units with t}ra aim of oreatirzg t e#'feetivs constructioms. In particular it is interx3ed to pay attezation to the installation of near types of mordant machines, tractor-sprinklers, ne,r types of paint-protsotore, of autoaaatic- mixers and scattarera of baits, refine~aetat and approval oP universal pollinators, creation of new perfect and affsctive complex cortstractions. 6. ,~, thaorotical fouadatien of salaction based. on the resistants of agricul- tural pL-ats to pests aryl diseases. Rased on that there should be made explicit the principles and methods of evaluation and of alteration oi` various varieties cad a acient~.f is foundat3,an c~` resin tes~ca of va-rie ties to various types of d3seasee should be given. ?. Coordination of all-union and world. e-xpsrieuce on separate matters which have a considerable rYegative ,~i~ificazlos. bare is i,ntendsd to ccs~poss a series of monographs asad sciarltific appliances and is the first plats an covered {?) crud; loose ss-ut, fusariuse, guzsaosis, diseases of vsgatablss, sugar-bast ~rssvil, surygastar, F'hylloxsra and others, in mechanizaticrt, in chen~ital as3thrds of control. Ef. 1lri: 3anpartant division irz the Mrorlr of V'Itb~t is the iratradtzttior~ into the 1 prcduttiam oi' available aahievamsuts in past worlr, such e.~as ix~ biological method Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 of aantral sad, ospeaially, of rzechanizatfaA in the matter of plant control, ~rhere VI??B has already at its disposal a aansiderable material ~Yciah has been ~+arked nut and verified. Suoh is in general features the plats vahiah hag to be mrar'ked nut by the net of YTS in the third Five fear Plat. That plan aan be ea~eauted sad thus att aasr~er to praduatian aauld be liven, if in the exeauti+an of t}~es r,ost important divieir~ns the oamplex methcjd trill be roalized. On all saieatif ia-research rvarka it is abaalut~rly ttaaesaary to tame are ali- union plea, in ~hiah the rrar~ of all ar~anizatians far pleat aantral (~X2~t, branch institutes, statiaas far plant prateatian, aeleatioa ztatiotte, unirrereities~ should be united. 2n the hark of all saieatifia research there should be a sgeaifia di- reatian. In the presettae of suah indivisible all-union plea of soientifia rasearah ~e undoubtedly rrlll liquidate the dupliaatic~a trhich often takes place. 4~rer the oreatian of` suah a unified }clan first of all a~hauld evark the .8eatian of Plant Pra- tectiot~ of the All-ITnian Aaadrmy of Agricultural Sciences named after V. Z. Lenin. Tt is i~parative to glace at the pr?per lerrel a teet~ark of estinsatiag servi+ses. ~i,th the airs of fareaasting arad r~sa-rniag of the develagment as~d pragagatian of pests and diseases, ~ridely iaaarparatin~ iota this nark the Iabarataries of oalleative Earns. tSg to tzar the ~rnrk Qn calaulatian was argat:itad in sa entirely nnsatiefaotory It is imperative that the operating organizatiams would use the aahievaz~ents in acienae fc~r praduatiaa - in state aind aallective farms - as fags and as baldly as ~=a~ssible. AIi the prabinzts which plant prateatir~tt is faain~ +~re net exhausted by the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 abav+e indicated. ~~ ealutiazz of thase~ prrablsms wi~.l rac~uire ~ sucnmury of u highly thet~reties.l basi,r~. tin the peas of our s~.agazine , it is neoessar3r to span s aide critical disczussian of a series of bas~.c thearatS~cal problems us~darlying than r~attar at` plant prabeabi:os~. It is nacsees~ry to repulsa all thane paeudosciexatifia as~d in reality hurmfu3 thetnriea in p~anb, as i'ar inate,naea the theory aP bialagi- sal equili.bri, etc. ~a ahal2a.sge csur ccientif is w~+r~rs to e~prees t~::~it= ap3,tsians ira these problcmta tan tha pares cif our mg-~ms~a. All the diviai.cros mf science is pl~-t prabaaBiarc eAauld scat isolate thems+blves into lie~ited spbur~s, tk~ey should ba xor&ad cut are a amide ~aneral bioxa~i+ae,l, ?~a tha f'+oundation of tha e~rolu~- theory af' ~ariri.n, .iz3 tha spir3.ti of Marxist-Y~nin dialectics. "Phe +~arkera i~a ,plants ors faced Frith an hanarabla and rr~epar~siblae prab2e~ - to prn~a~e t:a the utmaat the ir~craASC of yield s.t tha a~cpansa of the `~ elfminatian of losses fraz~ pests and dis+~as~es. 1"hdre i~ n? doubt that this tusk `11 ~ x.3.1 be hattar. In the axoautir~n of this taslr, uruiaubtedly, firs near ma~azine~, `~suiletin of Plant I'ratecticrn,-' mill be of ~reat;est i~xpartan.ce. ~ha nza.~a~ine hoe s.s its aim. t2~e strup,~la frar advanced scivx~ce fz~ the field of plant pratevtian. Py x~ean~s aP publicat;ian of '~3~e neax~~t acshie~e~ernt~t in p1~nt prateatiau. obte~ired in e~xplariag i~astiitutes ar~d key stakhanavi.tes on ~callaative farn~sa, the ma~ezine gill strive toward this mast vapid e~csimi'la'rran Pilot] and at co22eat~aa Farms o#' the I{horo~. region; ir~eni tAlina and #!olatova. 'the collection aP salectad varieties and infra-species hybr3:ds eras fslaated during aapring and suer periods. T3e:eatie:s winter in tht+ f'errast under the fa23en .eaves of the previous year, under stonas, in soil crevioos, eta. The flight oP beetles begins usually in the secsond and lnttar part aP i?ay -when tho average daily temperature is estab- lished at 9 to 22Q. ~ipoa la~aving their ~rlntering abo3es the beetles begin to rzate. The feamales differ Prom the males in larger size ane~ the rounder shapes of their bodies: In 1949 the first egg laying began an June 14, send lasted until August 6; thus it urns possible to abserv+e simu2taaeous2y matistg, egg laying asad larva in their different stages. one female laps Prom 200 to X00 eggs (average ~~~~ primarily upon the under surface of leaves appearing ae rt ical2y glued eggs to the leaf: T?~ loa~er~leaves are evidently preferred far aa the ~t+eevelopaent ai' s~;gs since it ie the-re that the groups Are large:t. Eggs area pria,arily laid on potato plants although they +anare ales observed. on other plants, such as tomatoes, pigrrr,ed and burdavk. The first larva h?ld on to the under sur- face of leave+s and then spread along the remaizzing part of the plant, transferring Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Aantipova, L. K. - 3 ? gro~x weeds to potatoes. The larva Iowa Sts color three tunas in the voura? of its development, S.e. it has 4 ages ~rhioh ia$t about 5 to ~ days each. In 1948 the beetles of the' nevr generation appeared nra August 3. Zn the 'flrisnorie epilaahna produces one generation. rioting the various h?ura of the day the number oi' adult beetles on different plants of wild potato species 'varied from ~ to 2iJ pisses, Spec iea where the peroenta6e of in,~ut~r ors the leaf surface of plants did not exceed 1Q tt1 2(l~nrert~ canffiida-red resistant to spilachna. Into thin group be- longed: S. rionegrircun, S. laplaticum, S. deniasurx, 8, xitlense, S. der~issum v, orientnle, S. denissum tlaxpehaulcovnse, S. Garoiae, S? Schickii. Another group of erf.ld species proved df3'ferent in its resiete~nve to cpilachna, i.,,e. various specimens af. plants of the same species were injured from B to 10 percent up to 50 port?nt. Insignificant ire juries among nanyr plants of this group of gild species racy be .explaizYad by their built, general. habit, t!ae distribution of leaves (usually sparse} and their pxabescence. cgs layir~ occurred seldom and in agate orx plants of sparse Iasi dfietr5,bution sad in thtsatr where the leaves stood vertically above the earl surface, vrhile on individual clusters of si~ected potato vari~tiea the Number of sgg layinga reached l~ to 'S0, in sc~e caa+ea ?0. l'ianta of the group of gild species taste inured from !~ to 10 percent. 1`hua 6 mgecsinaene of the species S. leptostigrm~ were injured 10 percent, 4 ageaimens of S. catarthrum 10 !percent, 3 specis+.ene of S. molinae 'lO percent, 9 speesim~ana of S. gib2~eruiosu~ 1Q percent, 5 apeoiaiens of ~. horvvitzii la percent, 4 epscimeaa of S. arxtipov~itzii v. C~ndarae T~ percent. Other specixaene of the same species were injured considerably mare. The differ?nt d~rgree in injexry by epilachiaa of plants of the eemze ~speefes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 'QAntipovs, L. ~~; - 4 ? is e~cplainec' b;,~ the changeability of potato sesdlingag. Specis~ens csf other gild potato gpeaias from tht suae calleatian were inured ':50 to 7b percezzt, i.e., in equal zt~rasure ~ritlh selected ve, Plants of thr. collection of prit~itive potato species and the Chilean specie mans of the skies ;. tuberasi~ arc aff~,cted bg epilachna in the same degree at relecteff varieties, i,e,, 50 - 80 paraent, in individual cases 9Q to 1Qt3 percent.: heigraup of late varieties stead out in rapid renewed groarth of. foliage fol? lowing injuries; i.e., PTahlt~an, Fegina, Ci+ski.nge~n, Condor, and acme others. Early varieties took longer in grrn-rin~; new foliage, at~d s;a did the varieties Frame, Feachhlarr, ~ieltwunder, and aemrral others, Coraplc~x intra?speoies hybrids {S. derci+~su~ participated in the crossings as a phytaphtlicsra-.resistant va.ri+sty ar~d also as r+ssistarzt to the Colorado beetle, and differcczt varieties of C. tuberasum, as carriers of economically raluable charac?? teristics proved susceptible to apilaehna in various neasure. A sariea of hybrids ~s seleatecl ~r}~iah were inured 3.C to 15 pe~rra.ut and up to 3~ ?? 40 percent, t-nd still possessetd thct ability to rapidly reproduce their foliage. Same of thesr~ hybrids proved of high yield. The ezperiznents provided thv opportunity to establish that a~song xild potato species th?re are apeciraens resistant to in~uriea by epils.chna, Complex intre-?spccies hybrids with S. deraissum possess varied degrees. of reaistaare to apilarhna and sore of these are distinguished by a lour degres of susceptibility. Tho resiatanca of potato species to epi2sahna and the Colorado beetle coincides, at least within the group of sneaiet~ tested in the collection. Fad of article, a/e/;~l Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~Arnautov, Y. V. tLaureate of Sta3,in premium F'ot:ato T3egenerat:ian in the South and ~ keasuraa for Control ~.~. g' Sad 3 Qgaroci 1349(5):.72-7~. I;~ay 1949. 8f? Sa 13 Translated from the Ftusaims~ by 8. ld. hanaaa Potato trilt has reached a wide distribution and causes substantial losses in potato yields in a series of southern tesrritoriea, obl~-sts and republics. ~aqy researchers harre for ovcrr tan years been anSsged in studying the nature of potr~-to wilt ar_d the causes pracaptin~ it. Tho real reaaane for produoing this disease re~aain unkrtasrn as yet, nor have ef?erctiv? means to aombst it berm discovered. upon an a~nalyaie and study of the material of different researohers who de- scribe the characteristics, the course of the disease and thv conditions under xYiioh it appears and progresses, 1 have ocrms to the following conalueions the primary cause of potato wilt in the south is that 8tiflin;~ of the root system of the plant produced by ar inordinately heaver voile caked after rainfall and watering, which prevents the- air from reaching the root rsyatecn. F'lazrts of rrhioh the mot-. $yatem have been stifled crontinue to preserve a normal apperaranoe for a ~rhile and thou metabolism, though in roakc-r forts, is continued at the ea- penes of elvzaents of nutrition esxd moisture which are obtained frog the surviv- ing ux~per raatlets. I~rief spells of precipitt~tiou folloteed by clea~x, sunny and hot gather are drrszraging to such plants. Zn absarbin~; rain moisture from the surface of their leaves the pla~ats sharply accelerate their life activity, the process of breathing fa :peedad up and with the arrival of a sunny day enaparation is incs~eased. The weak upper root system is not able to csampansate for the loss of naoiature in the soil, the ~g Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 _~ .. ~x z Arnautov ~ .. normal erahange carz~c to a radical stop and loads; to the final catastrophe, the destruaticaxs of the plant. The sstifl+~d root system of'fors a favoreb2e envirornfiet~t far bacterial fungous parasites (fusariuns, verticillum, etc.1 which genetrate into the vasoular a3-stem and is~creas? the decay of ~ha plant. Thus aa~,c-unds far tk~e rarong impression. ob- tainsd by ms.ny r~seareshers canaernixzg the +~ri~;inal cause of the disease. 7xsray opinion, an effective me$sure of controlling potato milt in the south in sum~,r plantings ~ li be the planting of potatoes cn ,ea-ll prepared eoi.I (piorored in thrs Pali) and. the cs~ntiiaued presarvatiot~ of 3ta upper Zayor is a frisblo Qostdi- tiosa to a depth cif 6?~ cm. of tre field, prior to sprouting aszd stt ~r.ha time of the agpoaras~ce of sprouts is necessary td acecxssfa3iah this; deep cultivati,c~n bet~,een the rt~vra with hares-driven taeb-footed equipsttent (';:) dons no lase than 5-6 ticses; rxitDia the rcrns t+.and hoeing, begixsszing frcrs the time of sprouting to the period of foil bloom. 'phis auitivating should be done after every rainfall and rratari:3g, aspvoially an inunciatad soils arith ca3~md surtaae iu an effort to gravr~nt by every msarae this hardesnix~g of the acil ;n thc~ area of tY:e root syet~sm and the foxaaatiort of` crust even for a brief per3ocf of ticae. ~;d. remarks Considering that th?re px+sva32 diverse vie~rgoints with regard to cs~uses of potato gilt ir. tpra south, the esditor requests soientifia ~rarkers eza- gaged iz~ potatcs sL?udies to eass;e~;e in axperiaxe.nts to verify the conclusions prd- sontad by the 18urmate of the Stalin preaiiust, '~. ~'. J~rn-autov. ~-27-*1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~Q.1'~.aa.a ~/vR r-87vJi i/G vva~4tP, Y. A ? ~ About Rhisactnnia solmcti l~t~ an Patataea in Conca+xatinn with Itadern i~ethoda of Cultfvattian. Akad?miia Rauk. ~ Bataniaheskii Tnstitut. Sbarraik nauchnykh rabat (1941-1943), R~" p. SJ3-3J8. Leningrad, 194?i. 41.1 Akl2 ?ranslated frasti the Russian by S. li. h~anaaa The prasernt mark reprnsentg the result of preliminary experiments made to salvia the probleita of the aign,S~fiaana+a of rhisaato~aia for the culture of patatae>~ under Leniangrad aanditiona, particularly fnr an aaoelerated i~e,thod of their propags-tion. It eras regrettable ttzat it yraa necessary to utilise far. experiments anly ("abezliahennii'~~ unrapreaentative patataes ia~fected by rhisoatoaia. ane pert ?if tho tubers ,raa vornalized fnr three weeks. Their Freight varied between 2fl-2S g. T2ne snit of platy was unfertilised, a light sandy loam fr~.n under clover, slightly alkallat addition]. feeding of ashda waa ps`avided Dace end tx+~.ce of super-phosphate. Zn one aeries 18 taps or l~ tubers vrero pleated on sash plot; in another aeries the young plants gars plantod in groups of Z4 plants. The tops ro~ere taken from state fatYaet from plar~ta prepared iz- the winter. Inspection ^ieaa .made by digging under the yaung plants graven from. tubers aszd tope every 24-25 days fallowing the p1r-ntiaag and in each ease tho degree of infection on enah plant was noted. The yield ~wazi gathered between September 15-18. The re-salts of the first serie>a of experiments are presented in amble 1. They show that at is reduced planting depth of tubers a lighter degree of rhisnatania was abaerved. R'he slightly araali,er yield of patataes, plaz;ted at a. depth of 6 em., in spite of ttx~ reduatiou of the peraantage eaf infeotioa, is ex_ plained by the aircumats~acea of this particular expeariment, sines in a $oil that dries out easily unfnernrable a+anditiona ~r.e~ gr?atad ,for potato grcwing. A le.ter date cif planting resulted in a reduced prarceataga of disease and a sl;~ght increase ire yield, the rest of aonditiona re~aaining the ,same, irrespective ~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 `' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 .> Hcmde~rteewe oS' itt~sr ~~ plar~t~g+~ ~rard of ~rho3e tars ~r c~ly ts~as. xhe txeg~-ti~ ~- fl~aensa~ e~ertet~ by x~hi~+.xytax~ir~ upp~. the yi+~Zd c~P tugs ?~hc~ar!ed ou ~-A6 p~t~ta an aro~r~e vS.s~d ~rf ~f38 ~. ~'r~m eeo1~ it~Peoted oltmtp a~td ~~:~ g. Pram the otantro~.}. tte to ~x~na~~.~atiasx, ~u8girtg Prd~t the sbavc~ a~cperitr~~7it8, ~'~ rlid aot prt~duar euty positive, ePPac~t upon lamer t~ degrae c~P S.~xPeotiaa. 'fhe t~b~e further #.rad~castas tll~,t the t~p,~ pr+~uoed ~: ~si~,tsif icr~t 3.vsa~, e~ h~xd bead a~,eo the case at the strafe i'at~ #'rasn arhiah they ~~ ot-tained. 4f intere~at Sze the c~P snx?rotira of rYci~ootanie o8ta3.aed f"rc~ itk- Petted rr~tox~ie`2 on tuh~sro 3,rz tlis ro~ttst m~a~c~rity of e~eeos. 14'ah~.e ~. il~;G~ICt~t ~~ PQ'~t~2t~s ~IT~ R1E~IZt~GY47~'1~ g~ 1r~q~s G~3gs~i?it~8 a~ pi~P~~Q sta. of S~?"sr~t~ pasu'~s in sprcntt- iu g e ~~e (~'/r~~ . ~~ ~z plaz~tin ,4V ~ 12 irk ~I ;Yes 2 8 i*ay ~ j " 12 ~ IQ ~3 ; ~ ~0 28 Lxay ~ ~ , +o ~ 14 ~y old 1~ 8 f ?day ~:l ~h glen 21 Zv 89 }:~. - ~4~ 1tD ~ ~ - E18 26 ~ 7g ~# -- x+46 1~ 11 4Q ~Q ~ ~C18 '~ 4~ - ~~ 3 **~1nn 3V1J w ( ~ ~L~ g W~t~i ~~ (Gt~~'~4~~ 2p ~f~ :6C 9 ~~ X9(3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Ftor~arks t 1. The de~;roe of in?acticua of plants xas determined ~ri$ually. Sprouts. vr~+re considered severely 3afectad vdlen deoayad under the influence of rhizoctcuzia car when they serried drag ulcers; mvc~erately inf'eated vrhea ulcerated ar having bro~sra lame swots, xi.ghtly it~i'ected Rrhen hewing brc~na stripes and light degree ni` discalare~ti~on, 2. l"t~ yield Pram tYcaee plants uas else i.ncludod iota the average ,eeight o? yield ?rvm the plat ~rhicsh at i'irst examination did not sha^e di~seaoed plamts,t~hile in harvesting a signi?iae-nt part vt' these giants carriers the traces of infaatian by rhisflatvnia an roots and ato2ans. As to several clu~aps vrhiuh subsequently aha~ed black lag anr9 wilt, theses were sot takbn into ccsnsidsrati~an in, the sstissate e:' the averagm yield. SGI.bRt7ild ~~ t3~5'~iitVF~:~ anly do the third ~4 clumps} end #'aurth 43 slumps} of the p3,atg. Thy appcss.rnr~ce Qi' t'he r~iseasa on ~tura piamt~, aside Prom tubers, tera:s liz~itad tc Hares ar less olearly pronounced 'braern spate sad eYtripee~ an atalons sad roots, which che.a~ed t>caasianally into superficial ulaeratians. ~'tzese ia~uries, it trras voted, eavuld have been the recall of the farczatic>n of eaztall tubers. Th~a wag manifestation of rhizs3etania on tubers e3hc>uld be atgcribed to the unfavorable soil aor~ditiaxbs i`or the i'ungus, primarily law moisture, eeinae the remainc2ar aP the etatae seed material capable of suberizirtg frlr~ntad an m ati3.I 1.a~r plot ~+~' pvdzal, clayey eails, produced many inf'ectcd tubers, ire e3cm-e~ ae~mes vrith unusually developed scle~ratia in the shepe3 of Inrgs knateY. ~ aom~plete absence of scle~ratia on tube3raa vgae> Hated on plats ~harc~ the ini'l,ueamae of tkm soil was i~~+ing tested after artificial imoaulatiran by the aea2ture o? thej fungus anc~ intraduatian iia plexnting under healthy tubttres end taps. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bandart86'Aa ~ Qt .. ~`he dryncnss of the soil may aaoaunt t'ar the uaYUSUaITy light desvelapa:srat at tho basidiai stagy of this fungus on exp?rfntal plats ~C?rtiai~n solat~i r ril. vt Tel}. 'phis stage ~s abxervod at the e3nd at` tT~e first ten days of l~u~.tst in the eanaunt of only ?S-4 gar sent. Let ue observe t!~ rosu2ts of our abservations of the yaurag plarat8. Can 3unej 2 thv plants in various degrees o2' infeatfan of raotlota and stews, ahfefly in. Choir later parts, abtainad f"ran nan-varietal patataas, v:ere se- leatstl earui plaratod. 'Thera ire altage3ther faun plats of inf'e~ate~3 a~tztsrial and one oontrol plat: 1. plot of young }slaw 1S,ght2y infeatcrd praduaesd a~n av~srage yield of ll2 g par clasp. 2, Plot of plants ~ mare heavily inteot~ad, 'but t:ithaut ixt3ury caused to grar+ing paint at' tlae :stem; average yield lC}ti g. per clump; 3. Pact of plants rrinere growing point ~.a Sxafeated and aide rurra~rrs ~rerxee aan- stjguently farmed; averago yield. 91 g. par slump. 4. i'lat of plants w3.thaut e~.tesrfar aigr>a of infeaticsa, where soil inocsulated Frith pure aultur$ of rhiaaataxaia hr,+d beren~ iratroduaed under the mate in plant- average yfc+ld 9~ g par clurnp3 6. Control plats nvesrage yield lr8 g per clump. In the begintsing ttto gravrth tree dolayed, 3.t t`ell beshixad that oi" the caratral. Later the autrorard appa~aranae of th8 yaung plrxrita did raat differ fxam the antro2. Salerotia on tu~ri`a menres laal~irag; tY~e infeatimn of uru9ergraund parts eras s3.~ilar to that which ~raa absearv~ed era plate planted with infected tubers, with the exaeaptian that bests a sew~-re bra'ming of the foundation of the ste~z eras obsert-vd mare Pr+oq,uently. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 i3oxzdartseva ~ 5 The rvsulta of our ~rxptirim~-nts Saaci us to than fallo~ring aczzalusions, although in some oases thoy require further applictttion. 1. ~''he prineipa.I dmsaaga b~ rhi~csctottia shows in the infection of sprouts. 2. R'ubers t~rith salerotia df rhizaatcuaia dt~ve-lop infested sprouts; the degr?e of their iz~foction depc:~cis upon a ocnplmx of a var~.ety of factors (te~aperatura and rxc~istu~ oi' the sail, its r~oa~pasition, varietal charaatc~ristics of tke~ plant, eta. ) ~. 7'h? dote oi' the planting rsacts upon the d+~gree and aevcrity ?f the inPec- tiara o? sprouts. At a,n +early planting ~i'ay 8}, the per cazat nt infeateci sprouts rtes l~-rger in avnnect3on with the 1?,~r temperature rtrhich delayed their grc~rth. 4. Amore sid~-ly spaced. ("mei~.aia"~ planting cif tu'D$rs and t?pn reacted favorably ugan 2o~ering the number of infeoted sprouts, Dot an light dry soils it ;.ed to a lor~ring caf tk~e yield, end may thus tae used only on suffiaicntly moiut anti comsaquantTy heavier soils. ri. "Pt,e~ potato sprouts with infested root Seta and stems produced in cur expori- manta a ler~r yield, but. ta~rarde the and +cf the vegetativ~s period there was no apparent dirttinatiot~ bot~en the control and the tested plantings, 6. the bar~ittial stage c-f the fungus eras vbsarvad on individual sp?aimez~s and ciid rzot aorreapond to tk~ Wombat cif pleats with infacte~d sprouts. 7, Salar~sti~- on tubers r~btained frcxa diseaz~ed zaaterial ~spre absa~rved only on. individual olumpe cc3 two plate, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bordukova, }S. ~3. ?yatem of prophylatio measures in the control of Phytaphthara. Sad i t3gorcxl 1J47 {fi) s 25_~a, duly ~ 1947. "1=rana].ated from the Russian by . lJ. Maus an ,~ oonsidarable art of thm grorra and ~,athered potato yield is lost a~ a result of different diseaoas. In order to appraism thmso lasses l.t is suffiaie~nt to t~tatm that lt3-l5 percent of thm loss is vauaed by phyto- phthora mlane. An amount a*nple to supp~y the entire natwcsrk sf Soviet dis- tilling plants for `.~xs pericad of ono ymar. Phytaphthora ins purtioularly sprmad in locatfone having a humid al#:- mete, such as the ~+sl,orussie~n $.iR, this Leningrad oble~at, ~:estern and Rantern Siberia, rind athmr looalitims. ilcrm thm lass in pota.ta yield reaches in separator years stxne ~?fiC9 pmrcr~nt. Fapeaie~lly affected arm plantings of the variat~.e~r Rarly rase,, Svrlicsh3n~;en, uo~imtski, etc. The tuber afPecsted by phytophthc~ra is ver~? hs.rd upon touch; broxan, indd.atcsd spcata are sewn an the surTacm; thm pulp of a diseased tabor is alga brotea. Thy, pk~,ytophthora spat on patat? leaLes f. requmntly r~ppemrs at thm and of the Se~af. blade or an its side {the drop of deYr keeps longer hard than e~n;/whmrm elt~m.) Thm spat is mairtt, t~f dark-brown color. In thm early ?, xhan tY~sre is dQW, a u~iitm, friable pube~scencs {da~rn)~ aanuir~ting of the conxdia of 'the fungus, is seen c+n the loerer surface of the leaf. Tho tubers of the ~~ harv+~st arm infectmd during growth (at tY~e time thm oonidia are vrashod off #'rom diseased plants by the rain and. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 flordukcava, ii. l6. -, 2 . penetraate rota the ani3 al~-n~; ro~ith the rector) and throuk;h contact with diseASed leavens during hr~rvvsting. Tn the first inatanc? the tubers (re- in qusratly rat in the sail,fthe second -the iz~.factian is carried to the surfaoe. fiub,~equently, the canidia alhiah aro an thQ surf~+ce of tuborn, may pariah if s~anditian~s are unfavarablo to thou grar,rth ar, an the can- trary, they rray develop if r~aisture is gresesnt and the temperature adequate, tk~ tuber tk~n getting infocted after the harvp,st. Practice has shorts that patatavs perish Pram gk~;ytaphthora net alxrs~- in tho sail Briar to harve3sting, as muoh as in the i`irst months a? vtinter storin;~. The ghytaghthara fungus is capable of panntr?atink; vary ragicily into thQ pleat tissues. It ho.s bc+~u et~tablished that at l4U percent relative humidity and n temperature of l?-l8a the aanidia are cagab3c of ,~ra~ing in tk~a tir~tt 40 minutes (after being canted onto th+~ tubers) a~ in the folla~rin8 !~ to 7 hours penetrate into the plant tissue ar l~-af'. Ten days are enough to produce ratting of the tub,ar, leafs rotting in 4-5 days . In tha fall then tubers era gatht~rcd fray: the caail in a paint state during harv+~stin~; fraquontl}x they aro laadecz directly i'ra^^ the f.'ie~lds far perraanont staring; the temperature and relative humidity ire staragc arc at tires him The pc~tatac~s are far a pra~.onged p?riad in as anv~iroment fa- v?rablo to tk~e devs~lapcant o1' fur~;i. Once tl~ fungi: p~anetrata the tissues of thcs tuber, applying r~oasures far cantral.litxg the disease is superfluous. lfeither drying nor treatment with a mordant era able to stop tk~ future develapmont of the diaeas~s. ~a prevent damage of the patata by ghytaghtk3ara a syetara of aieaeures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 8c~rduka~rn, ~. A. xhie steeaaa caaasists isa the ~rsllcnring. {~t~~y he,~Tthy pca#atoea e~re+ s~leect+~ ~'or scaring, ~?iseased tubers, it' g2.e~ateed, praduae- late: aa~d di.s? eaea+eeyd ereeesdlin~ ~rhiah ,sppeeur can the ~~ day e-t'ter p3utiaxg. ~y 'ghat tiaeee the pleaxat o~ ~ he+a~,t#ar patedtrs pc^~eaeaeaese aTreeu~y a pca~-rf,~l lees~a~r. +Co~aid ie- ~'oxaae can then late ud disused seee+dl i.n~ uzu3er the sha+dawc of thiat plant and in instatac~a-aa ai' re-ir~ss iaz the- 3si~ta e~tn~aer, or dex arn~ doge, tt~ iea~'e+eatiaax of the healthy plant te+~e}s p~ae. ~oxaaeguent3y, th+d i'are+az~ di~~- easeed tubaraa ~(txith ha~a'dly natiaeablee tr,~itra sf ~isease~ gee's 'the soxing aa~atariwl, the ~~r xi,l3 *ae the xaicti~ o~ si9.sease on potaeto ernr3.aa~s. the verrr~li~ia~~ +~~' dar~.~+ vt~a~ieties to cosatr4~. o~hthora is o~ anaxanoua si~;az.~.~'i.asnoo~ e~+srli+~r an ear3y g,~tatcz rS.p~sns the gres.tar that it x+ill Aqt bee sf'~'erotod by phytophthoraa~. lea thex aliaa~tia aotacitiQas:s ai' they ~entre~'i beR~.t ~ahytaphthora. ari.ll e-p~sar ixa the be~g~,auaixzg ai' August, arac3 try the z~iddlee oP Augucat the veriae~Iia:ed pate-ta xill>sdy bee ripe atu3 ~.~ gatheresd din titre ~'re'~a the i'ie~~ the haro~est spy by thier wry aneetsure tee- ccplete~.y saved i"roa~ Ions (e3ara}. In addit3r~ze, vera~s2i~ati,on' e~idsa in the maraifbstatian cad ,e~,l c3i~dse~a~e ~inalud?a~ phytaphth+or~j i`auxad to a tubear ~ a h.idd+en s'~tea tlurin,~ vecixat~+a? ~etva?aEe. ~'he+ teempC-ratua^~e cf l~-1?c' aids t2x deavelapmea~t oi` di.aaaems atsd all tubers a*ot#;ad duris3g then period of ~rearnalisatiaa~a ashcsuld tee re,~o~d. Then eipplicetioai oi` preaventiroee amensur~es in the apriu~ only does rant ar~u~ Pull aucceees i.n csrantralling phytcphthcars, a once aehauld a~at o~v~et~ca~ thaet this d~easee ~ESy b? traaasxaitte-+i aleeo through en inteacsi'~td soil Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Hordugojra, ii. '~. 4 xhere the fungi hinter in the form of dDZ~aant spores. l'ha life duration oS` th~+se spores ire than sail has not t.s~aen estab2iahod. Indirectly, rse gray essur~m that ~rrintor agoras arc sufi`iDf.entl;~ long-lived baoausa in many re- Mans phytophthorn appears in intervals cf ?ra~a ~ to ? years. ~ thenever, ~---- the Pirst spots of the disease appear on tk~e lea~aea it is neoeseary to im*^ediately dust the Issues of poLatoae on seed plots with the preparrtion AA in the proparti,on of 20-3 5 kg per ~Zeatare,., t)ne z~ay apply the poi son Prom smell gauss bags by eprirt2s~mg, SP sneaial sprayers are lacking. An percent axoellent raaatian is produoed by using s l ~ Bordeaux mixture ~4Q0-f0(3.l per l~otare}, ~hioh oansists oP a mixture off' copper a~ulf'e.te erith unslaked limed. F3ordeeux mixture represents not only a good fungioide but it also $ir*.ultanec~usiy exerts a stimul~ting_ ao'tion upon _the amount of the yield. 1'he Dotting of leaves rraQ usually reDCr~ndad far aoQtrelling phyto- phthora. phis process is, hc~sever, 3abor, aside Pro*~ being also lase ei'i'eotiv~e. The inePtectiveness oP outtiz~g lravas is confirmed by the date preoented in the table published belo~c Variations Df' Expea r ' Degree ot` InPeotion' Percent of diseased' Paraent of ' df leaves 'tubers at har~rest "diseased tu- f Lt~aeres not Dot (eonttrvl} . ? ~ Leaven out 1~ days prior ' to harvest 13.5 SS. $ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Iiordukova, ~dC. A. lesavt+s cut 10 days prior to harvest; aoSl Sprinkled v-ith 1 par- rent capper sulfate The staff rnet~abers Yatsynina grad Roxhdestvensl~i of the Institute of Potato Industry indicats that ciuriag late: outting_t~tet_~ok~toets._are.mtti.ng_~_ anyway because of phytop2,tl:vr:ti and that at ara early cutting there iS a shortage of score 13.7 petrcotat in yield, ~rhich amount exceeds the losses t'ro~ phytoghthora, nne array avoid tranaeaissioxa of diseasas frog: leaves to tubers iss other vrays. A aescorid hiiii?tg aids an iacreaetes of the yield and by extesrzd3ng the layer of the soil srhioh d#.vides then infected hares from the tubers re+duces then number of diseased tubers. The srecvsyd stsd moat eaffeative r~etthod e>f controilixag phytophtkiora is the drying t~3' tubers. In this instessiee the considerable aetaaitirity of the phytophthorsi Puz~us to drS~nees iec tsken advacztage of. d-t 18-190 of 3:eat relative ri ~nidity and 40 percent of oo>aparative nno~.stures of the air coaidia pettish within ass hour. The dryirxg shoti:ld take place i~esdiately following harvesstiag. c}ne: fre.+ciudnt2y hes.ta praotieal agronomists elni;~ thet esvesn dried po- tatoeg e-lero rot :ss a retsult of ghytophthora. 8ucth states~eat i? tract to a certain extant sines sae is uSetd to accespt under thet tersr. "dryinb" any kind of drying prooesss ich aY last from Ones day in the fiend in dry and sunny weathar to 7 to 10 days when potatoes are heapesd in. a pile indoors. Itapia drying is e~ohiez*ed in sevesral gays. In dry, sunny ~rreather the tubers are Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Bordukova, ?~. $. - 6 - plated in thin layers directly in the fia2d. Under the influence of sun revs gotatoes dry qu?o~:ly and the oanidia perish. In oald grid damp ~eath- er one reay staro pote.taeffi in temporary mcsundo lnaated diresetly in the fields . t}t' deoisive i~aportance in this cage is a lover temperature in. firhiah the conidia which settle on the surface of the tutxrrs are iztaspable of growing; the pota.taec placed in r:ouncte 2zsve therefore a aharroe to dry out in 4 - 5 - 6 ~. ~r- day-a. rich tubers after careful sorting stare pert'ectly. phis method ,.. - is frequently used. in $ibsria. Fair result,a have been obtained :t the Institute o, Potato industry in 1945 in plaoing diseased potatoes in mounds at a time when the h~azwestir~g took plaoe~;.n extremely trying c~anditi.ons oi` a cold fall with +aarly frosts. 1'1~ mounds should not be severed with leaves. since the latter {rresorve infection even after frosts. In many oblasta wares Breather with spattered, fine rains prevails during harvesting. 1Cn ttrorse aonditions it ie ciifificult to protect potart+wrs ,.. iron phytophthora. 2'he only solution in those ccrtres is a rapid artificial drying of the potato tubers in grain dryrrrs and special potato drying anaahines. The te~psrarture of these drying Ynachirzes rshauld ~ znaintaixred at 2~3-:SOo. Four :~avrs e~fter drying in t~uoh equipment, the tubers are entirely freed of the parasite. --__ _ __.. __ -- - -- - - -- ttumeraua experir3ents f.n drying potatoes have invariably praduaed pas itive results. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 HarQukou~, 3~. ~3. - 7 .. T1s'B~ IZ ~Y~~ ~ r w~~r ra MlY ~rnwiDM+r w ir1 ~~l~w l~Yiw Y~ ~Mr ~M ~~rMAry~rr s w~Y ~~V~MlMi ~R'~i'~Y ~I~a qtr w~i~lr~er~T ~~~'i~~ ~ ~`wzber cf tubas : ps:rc~ent t~f d#~aea-aed tubers frt~n phytgphthars if dried after under experi~:ent * int~eticm lna 'ls~enadiately in ~ hra ~ ~ hra ' 8 hra ' l~ hrs ' 24 hrr ~....__..__.._..__a..,......,.__....._s. _ ~ s s ._ _ ~.._ _ ....~.__.._.._ _.._,...~__ _ __.._~, _~,_., ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~d ~ Q ~ ~ ~ ~ ! ~~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ : t ~ t ~~~ n g ~~ ~ ~"} f ~.~J ~ !w~ ~ J~ ~ y /~/~ i.W ~ ~ t V ! Q i i7 ~ ' ~T , i(?a ~ {~ ~ ~ ~ l.f! ~ fit i 95 t ! ! ! ! t } 1 14~ Tat~-1 160 ~ f ! t ? T ? r t t ~ f Its perfor~iug t3`~+ latter ts,at the tub~sro ct t~u- ,variaty Early f>tosa v~ero infected deliberately end artificially, an amount of iafecttca applieKl xhich ~aa intended tc result its th+cir beinE in~'act~ad ld~? percent. Table Z1 -radiaaxto~ Ghat dry3.n~; is useful 1~` dotae ctith.ian tIx first 6 hours tc~l~.aetiz~g ix~fectfoa. g wider ea~r3.reat ~~ ea~ucted with xte-turally i~nfrcted s~~-terial. In eseh grrnag tbErre rrerro 7tJC3 tubers. Altogether ttr~ espsr3~ent iavc-lved 4.f~00 tubers of the 4nri+aty Courier inf'eoted under field oor~diticaa 1~.5 percent (Tab3` ~). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 $at'r~Utl~CGbv~R, i~~. ~. ~ ~ ~`,fY~%~ ~'~I twins iii wOr aii laity wYriifin r M!~l+lYwr r ii iwiiw wiwlwaii~Mriirrii.iialii r-'lwiwM 4 F~.iY ~Y4}lwfllYa~i~i M4 w~fM ~W M ier Y-rwlaM TMr~11i Y~r ~1 '~lx- ~.~tms~~xr~ t~et~des~ " ~ra~r +~~' " a~ +dr~i~ " ~ear+~er~t t~f diarne~sed I~~,~~i~t;~~y ~`a~.~a~r~n~ " Af'~+xx ~ ~at~a ter r 5 ~c~ure Attar 8 ~Q~~B A~'t~dr ~~ k~aur~ AS`t~r 2~ hc~ur~ ~~~ " ?~ " rapt x.~ dcay~ itt ~ " wit ww,,, r...iwarri.r w.rry i+ritrrr ?~.iir rw w ,. w'~ w,... ii~~~~~Orr iirr ri+riii+~.wwi iaiw..rir _._ iii wwi r..r rr Aapesrtc~~:~g ~~+~ ~ ~ot~;tt; ~f a~ry~a~ '~ki~+re ~ ~ rad~.c~2 ~har~~a t~ peraat~~n of ~Ser~a~eesd 'tube~r~ S.~ ~u'~~aque~n~ sttaria~ ~u ~~Site a~' fine ft~ot that the parrsenta~e a? ~.~.~et~~e~d tubar~ vr~~r ~~ ~sa~ae (I~4.~ ~+e,ro~nt} sit be~~inrai~n~ at the ea~z~3a~au'~. Ita eu+~~hssr expe~r3~~~ert ~,9C)t~ '~ube~ra mare ~ga~ t3e~,erstai3, 't'~t~;a tans ail ~ppars~utly ~~a.~~y, ~.'thaut epatra. ~'~re ~rere ~ Fraupg ~.n this ~a~gerl.~ex~t, aP 7~ ~b~ra iu each Table "). '~ ~` ri w..~r r i?ir~.r w rrw r?rrr wriiw rrr r. r.nirw rrriia.;r. rw..rww.wwr? rr r ri.! waver r ~.r.. rr..?w.~ w rrr.r~rr.i ~t.0t"'~lti b!ltl~'!llAtt C~~.~t~; r 'd~urstfan a~ ~~~ t ~'raraer~t of ~i~etasafl tube~ra auk d~ys.~ " at 2~l?wti~~ la~~'ec'ted '~~ ~~ay~a~~~a l~rnec~ie.~3y af'ber di~~;3~~ ~ haur~ ~ laaurs ~ haters Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~ordukov~s, ~~. 8. meter 8 hcrure lifter '15 haurt~ At'ter 2d hours Imz~edi~ate ly after d f~fing kept l ~ days ~~ ara~+e ~ ~t temp. cif fi-]:Q ' 9,a 'use tub+et~a t~f tha fi.rctt ~ ~r4upa ire dris~d nth tT~~e aid Qf a v~raeti- latvr; tha tubers t~f tha 7tb ~rc~uP ire &mpt i.n a garage at ,~ 9C3-~fl5 ~ro~nt relative tumidity cotaparative mcs~,eture c-P t}~- air and a temperature 4t 8-IOc C. F`iPteea days ~aers roquired to dry the pate,taes 3n t~xe garage. In that tl~e tkie fungi rax~gsd try pe~brt+te is~ttc the tu'be.rtis, ~Sch e~laina tie high percentage ~a 3csas ~~7.6 peroent}. T1~~e ~atrat aac~eresib~,o and eff+~uti~s azeaas of oontrollis~ phytaphthora is by raisic? s3ryizi~;. if a~alTtictiror~ f+~rn~ xould ba in a position tv ac-netruct aia2 drys, ipment for potatoes they ~ou1d aa~ro yearly hundreds c~P tore in yield+~ and ~c-u~:d is~ the ~`irst year repay ~'ar tkae entire csaet of the eguip~crstt. ~,ap#:d and pr~-~r dx~rirg .of potatae~r is not only is oantroll~.rig p?phthora bttt in eq~ily oatatrcal2ir~ all potato diseases, such ae rln~ rCt, bleak leg, dry rot, etc. Traat~arab by mcrde~ts is sir~il,arly tt~`focstt~tes 3.t' sion+e Boon diggi.~n~,. ~,he experiTsntab perfortaed at tha Expaarl~ztta3 stati~an at G~.enhefm (~r~,latnd} .~~33vated that one ~+ay a.tnast t~c~ertpze~taly e13.n.x.~te loss+~t~ t'ro~ phytcphthQre. prc+vldvd tho need ~atsriai is dipped ~sui~erged} ~,r~randiete].y e~'ter H.~+r~*eeting into a 1 perae nt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ~3ar~ukava, ~. 8. - 1Q - salutian of farsne.ldehyde ar in s neutral mixture of vopper sulfate and asustic soda (appraa. I part of aquatic a~eda to 4th parts at a sa3utian of copper sulfate). - - -- ~ ~- ~xporime?ts sht~ed that tubers thus treated grad vex2. the teohnique of aanducting this irk is vary simple, (!ur experiments in studying the effectiveness of trest?nent by :nor- dents alga graduoed pagitive result~t, (Table S - p. 11}. So far ~ are urabla to recama~end mordant treatment far production purpasas since this methad has net bean sufficiently studied but it ~eeauld be dasireble to test tY~e ectian of this treat.~sent at callesct~va and state fars:~c in experim~nts~an g smell scale. Oae hunctrad liters of solutian ~,ay ba obtained from one hilagra~.n of capper sulfate., an aaiaunt adequate for treating one ton of patataes. Thti I~apar~nt of Plant Prateation of the Institute of Potato Industry frequentl~r r~oeivae inquiries t'raa~ lacatiaras canaertaing the fuagiaidal qualitisa of the pander g,~3 as a mordant far troatin,~ different diseases of seed patataes. ~"e tasted the rea~ctian of this praparatian as far beak as 1939 and obtesiraed 80 pertient of dis~snsrsd tubers. Aside from that, t~ treatment delayed the graaing of the plants an average of 2-~ days. ~,e h~iva therefore no reason for reca~endiag the preparation as a mordent far aontrallin~; phytapht~~ora in seed potatoe+~. + _~- - The Dent results vrere abtained_ Pram c~_peraesnt_of a.apper sulfate and fa~-n1in. 'these poisons did not resat unfsvarably upon the gravrth of tubers . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Eordukova, ~f. H. / t 1 ! 1 1 i : t / 1 1 1 t t 1 t } t 1 f f ! 1 t 1 1 t 1 t t 1 1 1 t 1 ! 1 1 1 1 i t t0 i 1 t 1 t ( i ! 1 ( t 1 ! i 1 1 , Q 1 0 s 0 10 10 14 10 r- 1 0 12.5 t 72 t 100 1 ! s t 1 i r 1 t i 1 i 1 1 i t e 1 t 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( 1 1 t 1 1 f t 1 i t t f 1 t 1 1 1 l t 1 1 t 1 t ! 1 i 1 1 1 i 1 / t 1 r 1 1 1 i 0 i 0 i 0 10 , 0 i 0 Ir?~ .21r- i 9 i 83.3 i 100 i 100 i i 1 l t i t t . t 1 1 1 ! t 1 i i 1 1 Mordant ~Peroent of t?irteased tubers after 2 ~ontha trasts^ent iPeraent of difa- ~_________________________.._-----------------.._----- ,eased tubers in ~PRriod of treatment It~. ~sn ou ~ d~ many yaars ego aaac~ ~~ero ~sttly ~epar~ste stumps s.t~d ~ ~'e~ shrugs h~tt9 re~.~ai.nt~d. ~~ fal3:atr~ t~erefara that scats e.asi~ed for pot~ta grrnrS,~ ahoul8 ba ~~~'ul~~r ~1prcKatad sad alaa,naQ cad shx*ui~s and w~ reruxinders. 'Ttze~w plate ehaaulrl also bey uee~cl far ec r~thar czrog 8urira~, thti first ,year axtd trot fax potato ~rc~rirz~. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 R?esiatanee of potato Varietieea to Black Sig. ~~"~~ Selek. i ;~eea~en l4~lf~}s,",8-65. c3at. 1q4~.. 81.9 ~~ 'Translateri fross the Russian by' s. N. ~toas~att 7'hre prable~n of resiatancsc of potato varieties to black lag diaaaas hoes not bren adequately studied in our literature. ~s kna~= of oxtly one ~rar}c an the subject, that arritten by ~.:~. Izrailekii and L. '~. Runov. ~3ath authors, usfng tte laboratory method, a.ttaciptesd to establish they re- sistax~e of potato varieties to blank lei; by the rapidity Frith inc-cul ted slicees f patai:aes -a ed. ~,caardin to their datr- the variaties~ /~ ay ~" s Z , S'~ffiSZ and GRACI:`A paesesesaed greatest reaistancs~., ~rhile the vesrietiee :ILPRrRA'~C~fi, ._ - RiC}i?gR and 5S'x'IB~BL'BY (3ix-1~seks) mere considered by the>~ esuaceptible to the disease. I In 293 we arg+nnised ossr pro,~ect at the ~:niagresd Zar~l Potato Statiosz, the object of xhiah xae to t;~:es reaiestance of potato varieties to blank leg di.aet~ae. In planning tho outline of the ,rreork ,reef aimed to cover as widely as posaiblei thles avatilable assort>r~cant oi' potatoes at the station, i.e., all cultivated varieties, as ~nrell as South Americrarx forms. In order to eoaduct the work on such es. largo scale a ace3thad of mass inacul~,- tint. of plants hack to be agplicd, ~+h3ch if csasily and rapidly used, would pro- duce esatiafe-ctory results. ~'e were not ~satisfiad vrith the s~ethods of ir2acul+stian described in previous literature, bath dams3stia anil foreign, since in exsminiag it wts !'Quad th,~t a aonsiderables lre~rt of plants growrs Pram tubers :^eaaaie~e-d healthy and thd,t, snor~rcvcr; the suceass in isaoeulation depesnded upon the virulence of selected Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 ? ~orotkova - E. - bacteria intt~ pure culture, the .activity of rorhitsh varies From year to year. ~o ,fudge plant resistance on the basis oP the rapidity with s-hit~h potato slic~,es decay apptaareri to tzs n?st to be th? prapt3r method. ~e 'believed that t}:e pracc~ss of tuber decay in the sail, under hold aonditi*.ans, may proceed differently from. that in the labora.tary. In addition, rro had setae to th,~, o analus inn that the re- sistance a~' a vari~rty xri12, first of all., dspetad upon the sueaeptibility of the fltsms to infection. Na matter host long it took for the maternal tuber to de&~y under the i.ri'luancae tsf introduced irifflction, the appearance of bleak 1?~ on tt:e plant Fully depended upon the ~aenetratiou of the disease into the ST,E~'8. The stran~,-er the rssistrsnoa of the stems, the higher ras the resistance oi' the variety. Tho rapidity with tshiah tubors decay >ra3.7.1 be of aigrtiFicance oniy for the dura- tion nF this vebotativa period. ~7aristies shtsmring tuber re$istancse gill p?asess a longer ixicubation period, i.e., bleak leg disease gill make its appearance at n later data but the degree oP infeatian will be high dust the setae. ~'a shall aonsoquexztly d~rell in our work upon the t'ethod of stem incculaticr~. Y'ollow3:ng a sari+es of studies, ms s~orked out axtd acoopted the follomirg method of inaoulat ion: Dur f tzg the budding s tags a sane 11 { O. fi x~ .) out urea zaade with a scalpel on the bars "root Weak" of plants and a gruel {?) oP diseased stem t3asue {black Log) teas introduced irate the srcuzzd; the mixture mss grauzsd xrith a pestle and eo~bi~zed erith dicttilled motet. `the plants ssscre lightly hil.led after fnoaula- tian, acu? if the grc~uztd had been dry, ire watered the earns day. ~+on-resistant starieties becarze rather quickly infected by this method cad produced typical symptoms of bleak lei; die?ase. Tf thes inoculation sues dons later, towards the end of the blooming period, the sensitivity of the stuns decreased considerably and the nunzbar of diseased plants -sas much x~naaller. SF inoeulation vas applied Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Korotkava ~ S to the central part of the ;atom it developed only a laaalised disease, non- typioal for black leg, nor Brae there any infection of leaves in that case. ~iaeasod tissue wl~s used in pleas of, pure culture because the virulence at' segregated bacteria varios i'rom year to year. Thus the pure culture Fr~rinia Phytophtliora which we se6raSated in 1~5, proved much more active than that of X934. xn order to compare both methods, we infected the same varieties with pure culture of bacteria and with the mash of diseaeesc~ tissue. In 1933 both methods produced identical results, 1.e. of ~.g tastE~d varieties dev3atfons were obtained only in tiro cases. In the following year, 13~-4, the inoculation with pure bacterial culture re- sulted in a z~uch more limited quantity (number of diseased plants), and the degree of appearance of the disease was less striking. Yee, therefore, determined to apply the method of ir~ocuiation with dieeaaed tissue, as one that Baas simpler and still. pitodud~d # ~~feulta. in order to daterr.~ino the resistance of a plot, each aariaty was p~Anted in quantities of !~ to lU tubers. Two to three well developed stems of each oluefmr wore infected. The succeeding ~rork consisted in daily ob~arvation and watching for the appearance of syJaptons of blaok leg. the estimation of the degree of infection ways made by a three mark systems plants of which the eter~s decayed. rapidly ~rere marked ":~", those where the process w$s delayed and did not spread. upon the entire stem vrere marked "2", and plants which did not show any symptoms of infectiast, eaaept far a light Browning, within the atEme, extezading from the inoculated place were ms-rked "l". The latter oon~ dition aauld be establiabed only during tzarveeting b~;~ splitting the steffia le~~$wise. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/25 :CIA-RDP80R01426R009900010001-5 The inaubatir~n prsriod of the first tr~a groups (rated 2 and- 3) rtes determined Erase the masnont of infection to the beginning of the appearance of symptoms ahar- aateristia of black leg disaasr~ (chlorosia, leaf roll, eta.). For varieties bel~ng- ing to group 3 (rated 1), thcs incubatior period was figured i`rom the ~rament infeotian teas introduced to harves~tin~, time, i.e. when the st9sns lrera split $o that the results of the infection could be seen. The estimate of the degree of infection and the deterr~instion of the duration of the incubation period ,care conducted separately for each plant and later the average estissated far t~ entire variety. In order to tort tl~ persssanancy of symptoms of reaistanae, saea4 varieties were infected far two &uoceasivs years. ?his established the.t they oorresponded in degree of infobtion and length of incubation period. ~`hus, varieties whicsh in 1934 sere ~+ansidered non-resistant, received the saran rating during the repeated teen in 1~i3~. As to the duration of the incubations period, it could vary depending upon mercers-~ iogiaa-I conditions. Thus, far the variety ~:picure it equalled 2U days 3n 19,4, and only li days in }.935, a year of hi~;l~r rnoistuz~. I'n spite of these ~srariations the relative length of the incubation period for varieties graved fairly cmnetant. The charaaterietic zuerasura of varietal resistanct~ was based by us upon the fallawings varieties rated 2 and 3 Uelanged to the group of non-resistant vrsrietiea, irrespective of whetha r they }mod a long incubatiazi period. Thaae varieties, in ~epita of the Iota appesarance of the disease, ~+ere still capable of infeatin~, acid material in the field {daughter totters) by penetration of baatsria into young tubers through stolana and the contact of tubers with diseased, r3eaayed foliage. The differeasoe bat~rtren these ve~risties and those w?~re in#'ection took pZaae more rapidly consisted in the late +appearanae of bleak leg (clQaer to harvosting), but all y-ia ld was al~ra.ys aantamint;