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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 76 Rorotkovs-, P. I. Sources and loans of Spreading Black Leg of Potato Dok. 14(5):39-45. 1949. 20 Akl Translated from the Russian by S. N. lonson Black lug of potatoes is a bacterial disease of which the inducer is Brwinia phytophthora (APP) Pergey. The bacteria destroy potato tubers, then penetrate into the stems, causing infection of the root nook and finally the death of plants. The distribution of black leg is fairly wide. Oblasts of moderate and }Hasid climates, especially those having heavy clayey soils, are most favorable for the development of black is Kany researchers have engaged in the study of the sources of infection and the manner of its distribution, and have established that the inducer of black leg is resistant to low temperatures and able to winter in the soil. Iaohevaki (1) indicates that bacteria is capable of wintering in potato tubers that remain in the soil after harvesting. Naumov (2) considers bacteria causinC black leg as typical soil organisms. Be therefore recd mends forestalling the appearance of the disease by alternating crops in such manner as to return potatoes to the same field no earlier than every 4 - S years. In the years 1933-34 we engaged at the Leningrad Zonal Potato Station in work on ascertaining the eifnifioance of soil and need material for the distribution of Liam black log disease. Two Plots were set apart for experiments: one had formerly been waste land, where potatoes had never grown before, the other had previously yielded a potato crop. Diseased foliage was plowed into the second Plot in the fall. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Irorotkova .. 2 - Both plots were planted with tubers of the EPICURE variety taken from both healthy and diseased plants. The latter were planted in whole and in out tubers, the cutting of the tubers being done on the day of planting so as to prevent the formation of a cork on the cut surface. In addition, tubers were planted so as to have the out came closest to the soil (cut downward), in order to effect a closer contact with the soil. The rest of the work in caring for both plats vm,s the same. The results of the infection of plants by black leg are presented in Table 1. Planting of healthy whole tubers 0 ill Planting with diseased whole tubers 18.0 16.0 Planting with healthy cut tubers 0 1.0 Planting with diseased out tubers 19.6 19.9 The data indicates that despite the severe infection of the second plot planted with both whole and out healthy tubers, the percentage of dis- eased tubers was insignificant. The planting of diseased material' ?howevor,: independent of the plot, produced a conaidereible ea cunt of infected plants. The cxpcriment was repeated in the follo+rring year with tro varieties, EPICURE and GREAT SCOTT, of which the tubers were planted on a plot severely infected with potato foliage and tubers decayed from black leg. The results Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 F orotkova ... .. 3 - Our observations conducted on large industrial plantings of potatoes at the same expcrimnt station also showed the close connection betreen the appear- ance of black leg in the field and the quality of seed material, I.e., its degree of infection. Varieties infected with black leg invariably produce a large amount of diseased plants, Irrespective of the plot and its predecessors. At the Leningrad Potato Station potatoes were frequently distributed on a clover they were bad, crhoree under the prevailing crop rotation Ict returned to the same plot no earlier than after 7 - 8 years. This long period, according to Ieoheveki, is ample for clearing the soil of infection, and the potatoes planted on such plots ^coree not supposed to become Infected by black leg. Actually, however, the degree of infection of several varieties planted on clever beds was significant, as seen fro: Table 2. Table 2 Bel ladonza Wohitn Cobbler lapioure Per cent of Infected plants The difference in the degree of infection of varieties on this plot depended exclusively upon the infection by the seed material, since all the remaining conditions vreree the some and all varieties were equally susceptible to infection by black log. After oxe fining hundreds of diseased plants we came to the conclusion that Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 the infection of potato plants is only possible during the presence of the maternal tuber. Without it there is no infection. This explains the abso- lute non-infection of seedlings of the first year, an well as of potato seedlings. Our observations, confirming the above, are submitted in Table 3. Table 8 ('entifolia Variety 421 Variety 43.4 Planter inn tubers 8.3 The infection of potato tubers in the field may take place in different ways: bacteria nay penetrate from diseased stems through etolons and young tubers, "hare they produce darkening and decay of tissues. The characteristic feature of such infection is considered the presence of a dark, depressed spot in the stolen part. An analysis shored that abet 10 per cent of these tubers decay in the soil prior to harvesting, one part of them decaying during winter storage and thus constituting a source of infection for other tubers. The infection of tubers may also take place through contact with dis- eased foliage during harvesting. In this case bacteria penetrate into tubers through various injuries. The result of the activity of bacteria is usually unobserved, but such tubers, when transplanted into the field, produce plants infected by black: log. This possibility of the infection of tubers: proved in the following manrert Tubers from healthy plants were taken; one group was mixed with the diseased foliage of potatoes, the other served as control. Both of acted plants r.oed out ktot pricked out Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 groups wares stored under the same oonditions. In the following year the re- sults were an follcwrss tubers infeoted by contact with diseased foliage pro- duced 52.9 per cent of infected plaritz, while the control grew completely healthy plants. The appoaranon in the field of plants diseased with black leg is observed throughout the vegetative period, Eras the time of sprouting to harvesting. An exceptionally widespread is noted in the second half of aurmer. Iachevski (1) indiostec that during wane rainy weather the disease is widely distributed in plantings pausing the destruction of plants within 3 to 4 days. He attributes this to the results of the secondary infection ob- tained from the spread of the disease through tireworms and other insects above- ground. According to data by Pronioheava (I) nematodes may also serve as disease transmitters since by Injuring the tubers they facilitate the penetration of bacteeria. In order to verity the role of above-ground insects as potential transmitters of infection, we experimented on a plot possessing a rather thick population of wiroworns. Healthy and diseased tubers were planted in one hill. Both healthy and diseased tubers were next transplanted alternately oheakerwiee. The infection of plants grown from diseased tubers equalled 15,7 per cent, the infection of clumps obtained from healthy tubers and transplanted into the same hill with diseased tubers, amounted to O.; per cent. No infection of plants was observed in alternating diseased and healthy tubers in checker order. In another experiment (an a plot planted with healthy tubers) artificial foci of black leg were created by planting diseased tubers. The infection of such foci a zountc to an average of 27.8 per cent during the summer as compared Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 1!orotkma ... 6 -. with an infection of 1.3 per sent fbr the remaining plot. The appearance of black log in the plantings was not limited to the foci alone, but was observed all over the plot, irrespective of their proximity. The possibility of the transmittance of black leg by underground insects may not be denied, although are believe that their role in the general picture of plant infection is not significant. In examining diseased plants via became convinced that the period of ap- pearance of black leek; depends upon the rapidity with which the maternal tuber decomposes. Tubers in which decay in rapidaandraomplete produce a large number of diseased atoms and show the disease much earlier. Rapidity of tuber decay depends in the first place upon zeprological conditions. It has been observed that in rainy years infection of plantings increases substantially as compared with dry years. Under Leningrad conditions the appearance of black leg proceeds more Intensively during the second halt of the vegetative period, usually associated with more abundant precipitation. The rapidity of tuber decay depends also upon the variety. Such varieties as Belladonna show early and close infection. Centifolia produces its largest number of infected plants towards fall. Apparently this is a matter of the physiology of the particular tuber and its resistance to decay. On the basis of numerous observations we established that apparent traits of the disease (ohlorosie, wilt, etc.), take place only when the entire above- ground part of atoms is decayed and the clump practically destroyed. The entire period preceding the appearance of the disease remains unobserved. This period we named "hidden." Because of the bidden form of the disease, potato Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Korotkova ..4 plantings always possess a certain degree of black leg infection which may appear in severe form during a rainy season when the decay of infected tubers and sterna is particularly intensive (Table 4). Variety ob ding stage Io of infected plants apparent bidden form form Wlooming stage of infected plants apparent hidden form fore Harvesting % of infected plants apparent hidden form form Thus black leg develops primarily not from secondary infection but as the result of its hidden state follo%xing a primary infection of tubers. The cutting of planted material exerts considerable influence upon the increase of infection by black leg. }y applying this method the infection of potatoes increases several times (Table 5). Table 5 Varieties 't'1ohltmann i a jestia Hare nevski Epicure Great Scott Rud s inaki P1 er cent -of infected p tine of out tubers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Borotkova ... - 8 - Thus, by cutting tubers, among icb there are also diseased ones, we are transferring the infection onto healthy tubers. BY piling up out material a still greater possibility for infection is created. Increases in temperature and moisture which are observed in these piles create particularly favorable conditions for the subsequent dcvslopurnt of black leg. Our estimate made in 1935 indicated that among a group of varieties planted with out tubers, the number of plants which did not mature was con- siderable. One group of tubers perished without producing shoots, in. others the shoots decayed before reaching the surface (Table 6)* Table 6 Percent of recip itati Variety Planting with whole tubers Planting with cut to ere Variety 414 29.0 iforenevski 26:8 Cobbler 19.0 The cutting of tubers may prove harmful only in the event that the seed material if Wonted* 1. The principal source of infection of black leg lies in infected seed material. The influence or infected soil as a transmitter is not con- n ide ratle . 2. Distribution of black leg under field conditions may take plecHe during the caring of crops through iemplements. The possibility of contamination by above-Ground insects is also not excluded. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Karotkova .. 3. The infaatton of seed material in the field any occur in various .ye. Bacteria my penetrate through stolcros from diseased stems into young tubers bearin and produce ar, infection within the tuber xxxxt e characteristic symptom of a darkened, depressed spot in the stolen of the tuber. Bacteria may during harvesting also penetrate the outside t issues of the tuber, when in contact with diseased foliage, and not show any risible signs of infection. 4. The cutting of infected seed material is one of the principal factors sovoreiy affecting the degree of infection of plants by black leg and it is equally rosponosible for the reduction in yields. Literature: 1. A. A. Iachevski "Haoteriozy of Plant:," 1935 (Pacteriolysis) 2. td. A. ZTau ov "Diseases of Garden and Vegetable Plants," 1936 3. 11. A IDorozbkin, L. Ii. 1hre Anikov, A. S. Favdo "Diseases of Potatoes and '.:a thuds for Their Control," 1934 Kazan Govornrent Station relivered to publisher May 4, 1947 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Luk' ianov, M. 1. Prevention of the spread of potato canker. Sad i 0 orod 1948 (9): 12-13. Sept. 1948. 87 Sal Translated from the Russian by 8. N. onson One of the results of the tee iporary occupation of the Ukraine during the war rae=n the importation and the distribution in the Ukrainian 'Eepuhlio of a quarantined disease, that of potato canker. The daana&ea caused by this disease is exceptionally large. Infected areas rer{ain unsuited for potato groe'rt, for many years. The rot de- xaendable rethod of stoppinC. the development of potato canker is the pro- duction of canker-resistant varieties. The Goverment Ccrirnission of varietal experi'-enting on potatoes, vegetable and melon fields, and forage root crops of the Ukrainian republic arren ted for the followingreegionaalization of best canker- resistant potato varieties on the baste of three years of experimentation. or the Xiev, Chernirov, Zhitoe ir, and 3:, ensts-?odolsk oblaste - the -varieties l'rimel, Cobbleer, Clktiabrenok (5-144), Yu1iel, Parnassia, Cornea, and Ostbooat; for the Vinnitaa oblast - Y rur; 1 Courier, Cobbler, Oktiabrencik (8-144), YuLel, Psrefassia, Coza, Ost oat, and Priska; for the Chernoviteksya oblast - lrtima1, Cktiabretiok (8-144), Yu el, Parna sia, C'renldmark. Corhea, 3sthoat, and Prinka; for the Rherson, I ikolaev and Ise lsk oblasts - Courlyer, Cobbler, Oktiebrendc (8-144), and "renxmark; for the Odessa oblast - Courier, Cobler, Cktiabrenok (8-144), Lich Mick, and Gredimark; for the 8tanislavasky oblast - lrume1, Oktiabrenok (8-144), Yutal, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 buk ? tanov, L. I. / v/ / / Parnassla, Grens ark, Cornea and Gotboat; 0,/' for the Dro&obyohsky, Lvov, and Ternopoisky oblasta - Frumel, flktiab ~creno (G- , Yu el, i'aratassia, Phytophthora-Res istsnt (5-87813), 11-11 GrenKmaxk, Cortnoa, 0atbo .t; / for the Rovno and Volyn obiaats - Fruusel, Cs -' 3or, Oktiabrsnok (8- 44): Yu'bel, Parulzsaia,, Cornoa, and O*tbooaat, in order to betablish seed funds of the most valuable canker-rosis- tant varieties of potatoes in other oblasste of the Ukraine, the Govern- ant Commission reoot ends to propagate those varieties in amounts ade- quate to meet the demands of the arose of seed plots, in 1954. For the Stalin, Voroshilovgrad, Saporoshie, Dnepropetrovsk and KirovoCrasd ob- V' / lasts - the varieties Courier, Cobbler, Oktiabrenok (3-144) and Grek mark; for the Poltava. Sumskaya, and Kharkov oblasts - Frue1, Oktiabrsnok (G-144), Liao b11ok, Gren rk, Cornea, and Prila'ka. For the dried swampy areas of bottom and low lots (the zones: of the Polesssie and forest-steppe) the Government Cosaaiesioh recommends ,thee following canker-resistant vartettea of potatoes: i'rissel, Oktiab>~isnoic i (844), Yubel, Berli ingen, Cornea and Vekeagic, and of varieties s. we V non-resistant to cankers gpron, Stekhanovots (8-3893) and Polesski (8-38), as varieties producing the highest yield under those conditions. For the Southern Ukraine it 'reaosnoase:sds the canker-resistant varls- ties Courier, Cobbler, Oktiabro k (8-144) and Gre rk, and for dried swampy areas, bottom and lore-landa the non.-resistant to canker variety Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426ROO9900020001-4 Luk'ianov, L. I. - 3 Epron as well. The yield of regionalized canker-resistant varieties of potatoes in the Ukraine varies within the following figures for the three post- rear years (in centners per hectare) - Frumel from 113 to 279, Courier from 102 to 170, Cobbler from 106 to 200, Oktiabrenok (8-144) from 165 - 230, Lichtblick from 160 to 240, T'ubel from 182 to 277, Grenzmark from 219 to 459, Cornea from 182 to 381, Cetboat from 182 to 269, Phytophthora- Resistant (S-8670) from 214 to 264, Priska from 215 to '380. In 1947, at 4 Ukrainian collective farms the following areas were approved and accepted as varietal, that were planted with potatoes of canker-resistant regionalized varieties (in hectares)s Framel - 3,5; Courier - 425.8; Cobbler - 89; Yubel - :3.166.8, Lichtbliak - 24.5; 13erlichingen - 4, Priska - 638, Parnassia - 6,675.7; Cornea - 611,7; Ostboat - 115; Sowings of other canker-resistant varieties of potatoes were also passed upon by approvers. In the Spring of 1948 the Experiment Selection Stations of the Ukraine transmitted to seed nurseries of collective farms, 1,460 centners of elite canker-resistant varieties of potatoes. In 1948, all spring sowing of non-resistant to canker potato varieties was prohibited on farms located in populated areas, known Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426ROO9900020001-4 -1, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 OV, 11.1. - 4 ? as nidus (nidi) of potato canker, as well as on farms which closely adjoined those populated areas. A plan for the summer planting of potatoes of canker-resistant varieties was established for collective farms, peasant households and lots adjoining fame lands, as well as for privately owned gardens of work-ore and officials, which represented 900 hectares altogether. Peginning January 1, 1948 eighty control border quarantine posts were established in the Western oblaats of the Ukraine at principal points of c+ unication. 0hemicala were brought into locations where potato canker was prevalent. The threat of the distribution of potato canker obligates Soviet agricultural organs, agronomists and collective farmers to keep account of all available scorings of canker-resistant potato varieties and use them for seeding purposes. Goverrment Commission on varietal testing of potatoes, vegetable and melon crops and forage root crops of the Ukraine. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Luk' ianov, H. 1. Prevention of the Spread of Potato Canker. Sad i Ogorod 1948(9):12-13. Sept. 1948. 80 Sal$ Translated from the Russian by S. fl. Monson One of the consequences of the temporary occupation of the Ukraine during the years of the Patriotic TXr (vrorlai Car 21) is the introduction and spread in the Ukrainian 5SR of the quarantined disease-potato canker. The harm done by this diceare is exceptionally great; plots affected by it remain for years unsuited for potato cultivation. The safest method of prevent- ing the development of potato canker is the production of canker-resistant varieties. The Government Commission on Varietal Testing of Potatoes ("Gos- cc mmisasia"), Legumes and Forage Root Crops of the 'f krainian SSR has approved for regionalization the beat canker-resistant varieties of potatoes on the basis of three years0experimentation. For that Kiev, Chornigov, Zhitomir and Ramencts-Podolsk oblasts: varieties Pr{imelles Cobbler, Oktiabrenok (8-144), Jubel, Parnassia, Cornea and Ostbote; Vinnitsa oblast: i '&elle, Courier, Cobbler, Oktiabrenok (8-144), Jubel, Parnassia, Cornea, Ostbote and Priska; Chornovits oblast: Frdmelle, Oktiabrenok (8-144), Jubael, Parnassia, Grants- mark, Cornea, Oaatbo to and Priska; Fhereon, tiikolnevsk and lzmailsk oblasts: Courier, Cobbler, Oktiabrenok (3-144), and Grant smaark; Odessa oblast: Courier, Cobbler, Ctiaabrenok (3-144), Lichtblick, and Grants- mark; Stanislav oblast: Fribeile, Oktiaabraenok (5-144); Jubel, Parnassia, Grentsmark, Cornea, and Ostbote; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Drodobyah, Lvov and Tarnopol oblaste: FrE -aelle, Oktiabrenok (5-144), Jubel, Parnassia, Phytoplbthora-Beeiatant (5-8670), Orentsmark, Cornea, 0lstbote; Rovno and Volyn' oblastn: Frtimolle, Cobbler, Oktiabrenok (5-144), Jubel, Parnassia, Grentnmark, Cornea, Os tbo to . In order to create seed Aids of the most valuable oanker-resistant potato varieties in other oblasts of the Ukraine, the Government Commission recoeratends the propagation of these varieties in a volume which would provide for seed plot. areas by 1950. The following varieties were regionalized for the Stalin. Voroshilovgrad, 3aporoshiee, Dnepropetrovsk and firovogrsd oblasts: Courier, Cobbler, Cktiabre,nok (5-144), and Grentsmark; For Poltava, Sumy and Kharkov oblasts: rr Belle, Gktiabrenok (5-144), Liohtblick, Orentsmark, Cornea, Friskay For the drained, ee ampy plots of bottom lends (Poleseie and forest-steppe zones), the Goiarxment Commission recommends the following canker-resistant potato varieties: Frtiraalle, Oktiabrenok (5-144), Jubel, 13erliohingen, Cornea, and Vekeragis, and from among the non-canker-resistant varieties: Epron, Stakhanovete (5-3593) and Poleaskii (3.36), as those bringing the highbst`?yieids under looal conditions. For the southern Ukraine the canker-resistant varieties Courier, Cobbler, Ok- tiabrenok (5-144) and Grentsmsrk are reconwnded; while for the drained, swampy plots on bottom lands also the non-canker-resistant variety Epron. The yield from regionalized canker-resistant varieties within the boundaries of the Ukraine varies within the following limits (ceertners per heotare) in the three post-war years: Frdmellee from 133 to 279, Courier from 107 to 170, Cobbler from 106 to 200, 0lktiabrenok (5-114) from 166 to 230, Liahtblick from 160 to 240, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 dubol from "182 to 177, Orentsmark from 219 to 459, Cornea from 1.82 to 381, Ostbote from 182 to 269, Phytophthora-Resistant (8-8670) from 214 to 264, Priaka from 216 to 380. The following canker-resistant regionalized varieties have been approved for the collective farms of the Ukraine in 1947 (in hectares): Prrmelle 3.5; Courier 425.6; Cobbler 89; Jubel 3,166.8; Lichtblick 24.55; Berlichingen 4; Priske, 638; Parnassja 8,675.7; Cornea 611.7; Ostbote 115. Approved were also plantings of other canker-resistant vaarieties. In the spring of 1940, 1,460 oentners of elite caanker-resistant potato varieties were transferred from, experiment selection stations of the Ukraine to seed nurseries of collective farms. In 1948 spring plantings of potatoes of non-canker-resistant varieties yore prohibited on farms located on territories of populated regions recognized as focuses for potato canker, as well as on farms immediately adjoining these populated sections. A schedule of summer potato plantings of canker-resistant varieties was established for collective and peasant fame, for individual plots of collective farmers and the private gardens of employes and workers, representing a total area of 900 hectares. Beginning January 1, 1948, eighty control quarantine posts were eatab- fished in the western oblasts of the Ukraine on the rain roads of communica- tion. Chemicals ecre brought into the sections infected by potato canker. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 The threat of the spread of potato canker obligates Soviet agricultural organizations, agricultural specialists and collective farmers to estimate their supplies of available canker-resistant potato varieties and use them for seed purposes. Oovernuent Canmiesion on Varietal 'bcperi entation on Potatoes, Legumes and Forage Root Crops in the Ukrainian SSR. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Rozhdestvenski, I. In Selskokho:iaistvsnnaia entsiklopsdiia rlgriculturwl $noyelopsdia). vol. 3 )ioskva,. 1934. Translated in part by 3. s. Monson POTATO LISEASE8 AND TJ-EIR COXIMOL (p. 29-31) The tubers and leaves of the potato are easily infected by many fungi and bacteria which cause potato dines,". The principal diseases and those causing the greatest harm are listed in table 4 (p. 293(1. (This table - In photostat form - is attached). In the years of the greatest distribution of diseases of the potato, Iosses in yields reach 34 percent= one half of all these losses.results from the Potato disease caused by pbytophthor*. In aoditior,, the tubers infected by phythophthora easily succumb during their winter storage to fusartum and bacterium., which occasionally oanplstely de tatoss (see the spread of phythophthora in the past years p. 29- . Smaller losses in yield in the central belt and a drastic ion to yield in the South are produced by a group of virus diseases. At a high rats of daamge by virus diseases (crinkled mosaic and curly top)' even a complete destruction of sowings is possible, These diseases are transferred from year to year by seed material. Other diseases are not of as destructive but the harm they cause may be considerable in sore areas. A pathological condition called "kudriash" (leadroll), which alters the appearance of the plant (in severe oases its leaves lose their incisions (T) ["rassechennost"1 and only the &d lobe remtoe which greatly increases in size). Leaf roll reduces the yield of eo vnercial tubers considerably. Y5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Roahdeatvensk#,, lip .Potato Diseases and their control. in order to control phytophthora1, it is necessary to spray the potato plant with the Bordeau mixture at the first sign Of a disease*,, Repeated spraying increases the yield 10-20 peere?nt, as compared to the non.sprayad potato. If the leaves of the potato plant carry traces of disease at the tie a of harvest, they have to be out and removed from the field 7 to 10 days prior to harvesting, otherwise they will transmit the phytophthora to the tubers, Finally the replacement of non-resistant varieties (for instance# Early Rose, People ?a) with varieties of higher resistance (Loroh, Woltman) also helps in controlling phytophthora To control virus diseases (Bacterium solanacearum and leaf roll) the diseased plants have to be pulled out from the rows, especially on lots of sear plantings and on seed farms? To control Rhysoctonia? scab and Bacterium solanacearum, it is necessary to plant potatoes in such rotation that they should not return to the some location any earlier than every two years or even the third. There is no potato cancer in the USSR. . The principal enemy of the potato is the Colorado beetle, spread in the USA, but not found In the USSR. In order to prevent the introduction of cancer, the Colorado beetle and other diseases and parasites to potato areas, the quarantine administration of the V KZ of the USSR has estab- lished control procedures for a potato quarantine which were confirmed by the Collegi s of the NKZ of the USSR , dated May 19, 1932. According to these regulations the potato provided with a certificate is permitted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 ? Rozhdes tv.nski, NE: Potato diseases and their control* to be imported from abroad only at specific points where it is subjected to special inspection., In border areas speotal oaneer-resistant varieties of potatoes are selected for propagation, such as absl, Greatecotty Parmssie,, etc, End of urtol?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 8hchegole', V. N. 8.1'sko1rhoziaistvennaia entomologlia; vrcditeli eel'skokhozinstvenfykh kul'tur i mery bar 'by s nimi [Agricultural entomology; pests of tam crops and asures for their control],, Ed. 2, rev, and *Al, Loekva, Ss1'khozgis, 1949. 764 p. 423 Sh2S Translated in part by :. 49. Monson P 1f'AT0 ':STS (p. c97 - 608) Over 60 species of insect-pests of potatoes have been identified In the tJS?S1:, but the lartoct z a jori'ty of these are accidental end non-specialized. Pests specific to potatoes (nspeoinlizirovttnnvo") have so far not been die- covered in the USSR. Of primary importance are insects which injure the roots of potatoes. Among these are wirewormc which represent )Armful posts; tubers damaged by theta are not destroyed but are 11l suited for table use and unsuited. for pro- longesd,ctoring. The second group covers the above-ground sucking insects. They have little effect upon the ultimate yield but act as transmitters of various. chiefly viruus, potato diseases, i.e., leaf roll, mosaic, eta. The green grass bug and different species of cicadas are constant inhabitants of potato plants and their robs as transmitters of virus diseases has not been taken into account sufficiently. The third group are the leaf-gnawing insects and carry little significance. Pleas and primarily caterpillars of highly-poisonous butterflies are found on potatoes. They are seldom found on potato plauta in mass quantities. Among this group only the 28.-spot potato ladybird (Ppilaehna Vigintio Punctata F.) 97 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sbcbegolev, V. N. - 2 is of significance an a post in the Far East. Stem pests occasionally cause damage to potato plants by injuring the inner part of the stem; i.e., swamp stem borer. Thus the fauna of potato pests In the USSR differs rad ical ly from the fauna in other countries, particularly that of America, the birthplace of the potato plant, where many dozens species of insects live on it as parasites and of hicb arany represent pests specific to Solanaceae. The introduction of these posts into the Soviet Union should be retched out for and in this connection the potato quarantine acquires great significance. Among Insects which carry particular importance for quarantine is the especially dangerous Colorado Potato Beetle and the Potato -'oth. COLOR,AJ=t1 POTATO FEETU - Leptinotarsa deoemlineata Say (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) The Colorado beetle or, as it is also called, the potato leaf-eater (Illus. 221, p. 599) is the most dangerous potato post. It does not exist in the USSR. It represents a quarantine object. The beetle is of chart-oval shape, pronounced bulging, shiny, vividly colored, reddish-yellow with lighter upper wings, and dark spots on the head and front back. Each upper wing has five black stripes. Its length is 9-12 z. The eggs (larva) are almost smooth, shiny, reddish- yellow to light orange and orange In color, elongated-oval with rounded ends. Length, 0.8 rim. The larva in flat below and protruding above; the body is particularly bulging in the central part, fleshy, viscous, sparsely covered with hair. The basic coloring of the body Is at first ora%o-red, gradually turning orange-yellow. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Shchegolev, V. B. The head, front part of back, the elongated rows of warts on each side of the body, the last tergites of the belly, and the logo are black. The adult larva to pear-shaped; slightly curved.. Length 1J-16 =. The pupa to free, of pink or orange-yellow color,, reproduces the shad of the beetle. The birthplace of the pest is .i!exioo, where it dwelled first on the spiny Solanum rostratun (buffaloburl with whioh it slowly spread north- ward. In 1824 It was described. as found in the Rocky i`ouctains of Borth America, but did not appear to be haantful at that time. In the early forties when pioneers were turning west rd and planting cultivated potatoes, the potato beetle slowly spread from the west. In the late fifties the meeting of the beetle and the potato took place in the State of Colorado (hence the name given the post. From that time on its rapid distribution. and dangerous effect became known in America. Mthir, 16 years it spread to the Atlantic Ocean, traveling 3,000 miles (moving at the rate of 185 km. a year) and penetrated into Canada. Beginning with the seventies the beetle was repeatedly brought into Western Europe (Germany,, England and Holland), but these countries usually managed to destroy It. During the First World 'Bar the beetle was carried into France (through the port of Bordeaux). From that time on it became acclimatized in Europe and moved, traveling at the rate of 160 to 400 kn. a year, all over France (1918-1938), 13elgitum (1935-1930), S)vitzerland (1935-1941), Luxemburg (1936-1938), Germany (1936-1946), Holland (1937-1940). penetrating even. into Spain (19366), Portugal (1943), Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Italy, England and Poland. Thus, at present, the beetle }stn come close to the boundaries of the USSR. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 8hchegolov The basic food plant of the beetle and its larva is potatoes; it feeds in addition on eggplant, tomatoes, and among the wild growing plants, on black, spiny (butfalobur) and bitterest nightshade and several other repre- centattvan of the 8olanaceae family. The beetles + n.ter. In the spring they leave their wintering dwellings at different periods, depending upon climatic conditions, as well as the structure, t speraturee and moisture of the soil. High temperatures contribute to their early appearance on the soil surface, i.e., early and middle of April. As soon as it appears, the beetle begins to food, with particular avidity during sexual activity. Following a rather lengthy period of additional feeding it mates and begins to lay eggs. Both fertile and sterile eggs are laid but the latter do not develop. In the warmest periods the beetles fly distances of tons and hundreds of motors, even kilometers. Mass flights take place in dry and warm years; the rapidity of a flight reaches 8 km. an hour. Egg laying, which usually takes place a month after the beetles leave their wintering abodes, lasts throughout the entire vegetative period. Eggs are laid on the l r part of potato leaves, eggplants, tomatoes, tobacco and. other colanaeeao, and are placed In heaps of 25-30 at one tire. The total fecundity of a female averages 54X) eggs, but them are cases when one female lays over 1,000 eggs. The embryonic dovelop font depends upon temperature anc' moisture; at 16?C. eggs hatch in 5 days, at 12? in 17 days, at a temperature below 12? egg laying does not take place, nor do eggs devealop. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Shobegolev The larva begins to fend on leaves immediately and completes its develop- ment within 15 to 22 days. Pupation takes place in the soil, close to the roots of plants, at a depth of 10-12 cm.; 7 to 8 days later the beetles emerge. The life duration of a beetle averages 12-14 months; some specimens may live two years. During the summer the beetle may be found on potatoes in all stages of their development, Within one year one to three generations may develop. The beetle and larva are both injurious. One hundred larva can destroy up to 80 hectares within one month, while 100 beetles within the same time will injure 424 hectares of foliage. Beetles may however live through con- siderable starvation periods; this should be taken into account in appraising the post es, uarantine object; for instance, beetles which ire not given any- thing but water stood thin diet for 11 months. The rapidity with which the Colorado beetle spread in the USA testifies to its vast capacity for active settlement; it spreads equally fast in a passive way; cases of the transmittance of a beetle by man through clothing or their introduction by various means of transportation, wheel wagons, boats, steam- ships, automobiles, agricultural implements, i.e., spades, rakes, are not in- frequent. Domestic and wild anirale may also contribute to the transporting of beetles, especially the long-haired specimens. Of considerable importance for its distribution is running water, but the greatest danger lies in Intro- duction through soil s}wrein there are beetles, larva and pupae. In the USSR the Colorado beetle could, judging from its areal distribution in the USA and Europe, if introduced, got acclimatized in the Crimea, the Cau- casus, Central Asia, the Ukraine, and even some of the northern regions. The above makes quarantine measures in the USSR highly advisable. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 shchegolev 'aETPODS OF CO1JRROt: For the USSR quarantine measures and complete em- bargo on the importation of potatoes, the prohibition of the importation of rooted plants with soil, and the most careful examination of everything that is imported from countries infested by the beetle are basic requirements. Since the possibility of introducing individual specimens of the pest into the USSR and the formation of isolated focuses is not precluded, it Is imperative that careful observation of potato plantings, particularly in regions adjoining the Vestern boundaries, be made to cover literally every planted area. It is essential to acquaint the population, of villages primarily, with the Colorado beetle through the medium of films, radio, press, etc. DV T is used among insecticides for the destruction of the beetle and its focuses to spray the above-ground parts of plants, as well as calcium arsenate, Paris green in common dosage; for the treatment, of soil carbon bisultids (20 g/m2), dichioretan, and watering of the soil on the infected territory with poly-chlorides of bonsol. To eliminate the focuses of the beetle all quarantine measures established in the special instructions of the t part nt of Agriculture of the USSR have to be followed. POTATO 07H - Phthorimaaa oporculella Zell (Lepidoptera, Gelichiidao) (P. 601-603) The butterfly is silver gray, with dark spots on the back border of the front wings are fringed, shorter and narrower than the front wings. The belly yellowish-ash-gray on top and grayish-white below. The male has at the base of the last segment of the belly a clump of hair along the sides. Ring spread of the butterfly is 12 to 16 mm. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Shchegolev The eCg is oval, pearl-white in color, sieve 0.36 mm. The caterpillar cream-white, rose or green, its head dark brown; size to 12 mm. in length and 1.5 amt. In width. At the base of the prolego ("loxhbye") a black thorax projection with throe bristles ("shohetinki") in a row, On the second see rent of the belly the third bristle moves towards the belly. The pupa is in a silver-gray cocoon (Ilmue. 222, p. 602). Distributed in America, Australia, Africa, Asia (India) and the islands adjoining the respective parts of the world, as well as in Italy, Spain, France, Portugal. It causes damage to potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes, and other solanaccae . The potato moth accts as a potato pest under field and storing conditions. In the latter it propagates constantly if the temperature and moisture are conducive to it. Under natural conditions the moth flies out in early spring and is active usually in the evenings and at night. The butterfly deposits two to three eggs on the lower surface of potato leaves and other aolanaceae. In storage it lays its eggs in heaps, principally over the eyes of tubers. Caterpillars emerge after 5 to 30 days from eggs; at a temperature of 27?C. the entire cycle of development is completed within 25 days. In the southernmost parts of its areas of distribution the moth may produce from 6 to 8 and more generations* Under field conditions the caterpillars injure the above-ground parts of plants; they bore into the leaves and undermine them; also Injure the petioles, stems and fruits (tomatoes and eggplants). In storage they make pathways Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Shohego lev within the tubers; a few days afterwards a pink coloring on the tuber marks the place of their penetration. The damage caused in the fields is relatively much smaller than that caused to potatoes in storage where caterpillars have full opportunity to destroy the tubers. The potato moth as a post is second only, to the Colorado beetle to damage caused to potato plants. I HOtS Or. C "ROL are very, difficult. In countries where the moth has had the opportunity to develop deep planting of potatoes (15 to 25 cxn.) is recommended, destruction of *veds, especially black nightshade, early, harvest.. fog before the drying out of potato foliage, and the destruction of the latter. Cathorod potatoes are Immediately transported from the field. It is not permissible to cover them with foliage. All potato residue, foliage, injured tubers, should be immediately destroyed after harvesting. tmong the most effective chemical methods are fumigation of potatoes with carbon bisulfido (3 s) and exposure for forty-eight hours at a temperature of 20-220; at a temperature below 15? there may be no fumigation. During the winter two to three fumigations are made. Than discovered, the post should be immediately destroyed, together with the plant, as should all seeds of the uol ceae family. End of Chapter k Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianskaia, N. D. [Author is a "candidate in agricultural sciences; equivalent of MS degree.] Resistance of varieties to potato canker. (in Russian). Sovet. Agron. 1947 (6)s 92-93. June 1947. 20 8o34 Translated from the Russian by S. ]5. Monson none is known radical qu .ranti ne measures are undertaken to prevent its Canker is an extremely harmful potato disease. In the countries where. introduction or to localise its loci, aiming at eventually eliminating it. Until recently the production of canker-resistant varieties was con- sidered the satont and most efficient method for controlling potato canker. The problem of controlling the disease appeared relatively yomplicated, so long as it was thought that the inducer of canker lacked biological races. Towards the and of 1942, the oldest German phytopatbological journal, the Eeiteohrift fur Pflansenkrankheiten, (vol. 42, No. 11) published an article by Ch. Braun in which reference was made to biological speciall- cation in the inducer of potato canker, the fungus 8ynochytrium endobiotioum (. shi-Th )-i'ers: ratifri a+F:atei that in ' huriagia, in the town of Giasubler, canker had appeared on the German foanker_resiart&nt"varieties- EDDA and 03TB01E, the purity of which was considered beyond doubt. In control experiments of artificial infection undertaken at the Government Biological institute (Berlin-Dahien) of the infectious material from Gissubler, these facts were confirmed. The race G. (Giesub1er) proved extremely virulent and almost all varieties succumbed to it which up to that time had been considered canker-resistant. Only two varieties proved I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianskaia, 11. D. - 2 - q M resistant, 11W1 and 1 RIM UORRCIER. The segregation of biological races in the inducers of potato canker, along 'with the reference concerning the particular aggressiveness of race G., which affected varieties certified by Government varietal testing, (in these experiments 148 varieties Vero affected out of a total of 105 **oanker-resistant" varieties) evoked con- ctderable* and understandable excitement among selectors, specialists and practical potato grocers. In 194 appeared an article by Dr. CchlO"berger - "The Authenticity of fixperinants of Potatoes to Canker-Resistance" (Forsohungsdienst, vol. 16, to 5), which briefly cited the course of experimentation on potatoes for canker-resistance. The object of the article was to prove that 4" concerning the possibility of infection of varieties by canker, certified as as er-resistant in Germany, should not shake faith in the recults of government e%perirents in potato varieties with regard to their resistance to canker. The segregation of biological races In Inducers of potato canker is not to be vied as something extraordinary, since in recent years consid- erable variations in. the degree of infection had been occasionally observed during tests. This had led to the belltef in the possibility of biological specialization in this fungus as sell. The appearance of this particularly aggressive race of a gradually increasing virulence is easily understood in a mountainous region of very high humidity; and in .mall individually- owned households which grow potatoco year in and year out on the same locations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianskaia, N. D. The experiments for canker resistancewere conducted simultaneously at d n many points; in Germany at Dahiem near Perlin, at l"unster and Lubeck; in Britain at Ormskirk, Phillipstown near Edinburgh (g'ootland) and at :ilkiel in florthern Ireland. A variety V' TLs considered certified for canker- resistance only when the results at all these, centers eorrespond?& every point. in 1931 the Polish researchers Lechchenko and Gerbovski (;corks of the Department of Plant Diseases of the Government Agricultural Institute of Bydgoshohi) pointed to the circumstance that canker had been introduced into Poland from Germany. Its spread in Poland and especially in Germany was caused by the production and distribution of not immune but pseudo- immune potato varieties to canker, as a result of which Germany became the locus for the distribution of potato canker on the European continent. This is explained by a laxity in they approach to the evaluation of the resistance of potato varieties to canker. The application of a more "minute" method in laboratory experiments (P. Glynn - "Infection by Summer Sporangia") which permitted the discovery of the initial stages of canker infection, established that many varieties considered until then immune to canker did not actually possess this immunity. In Britain control experiments of varieties, considered canker-resistant, confirmed this factor in the majority of cases. In Germany, they did not desire to take into consideration the results of control experiTentc of a more detailed nature, and in their official listings of varieties recommended as oanker-resistant, varieties susceptible to canker continued to be listed. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 ., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianbkaia, N. D. - a. In connection -with the fact of the absence of canker resistance in many varieties, listed as canker-resistant in official listing Germany began to distinguish among "fully resistant", 'ulrsost resistant" and susceptible varieties. As the result of the distribution of the "fully canker-resistant" varieties, canker was spread all over G=ermany. For Germany, almost entirely infected by canker, it may possibly not have fzLd any significance, since under those conditions the matter of obtaining high yields was paramount and could be ensured by the pro- duction of lightly susceptible varieties. The problem was entirely different in other countries where there was no canker and where it was the of/utmost importance to prevent its penetration. For those countries and areas the situation with regard to potato canker, as created in Germany, should serve as a serious warning. ?polish authors provide a list of 37 pseudo-immune varieties. The works of lAshehenko and Garbovski or experirents on canker-re- sistance of potatoes are rather outdated at present (1931-1932) but they preserved their significance ("aatualnost") since prior to the war, canker loci in the USSR were restricted only to the western M'kraine, and at that to very few places. At present it Is necessary in testing potatoes for canker-resistance to consider another most significant factor, the presence of the bi ologioal race in the fungus. In Germany infection occurs, as evidened from the article by Dr. Sohlumbergor, in tests on canker-resistance by the mixture of infectious +e " material from different infected locations In Lubeck. Munster or Dahlem Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianskaia, N. D. - 5 - (the Dahlem mixture being the most aggressive). Consequently, one may not speak of tests on the canker resistance of a variety, with reference to a single race, since a mixture is responsible for its infection. In confirmation of the correctness of the method accepted in Germanys Dr. Sahlumberger mentions that during tests on phytophthora-resiatanee the work is also conducted with a mixture of infectious naterial of different origin and that the particularly aggressive race (Stamm S) is not being considered. It is flarther indicated, however, that newly produced varieties must be teettd separately on their resistance to the race G. (Giscubler), since some potato varieties have proved resistant to this race. It may appear that in mass experiments conducted for production pure poses it may ohly be important to establish whether the given variety is susceptible to canker and that it may not be important by which of the races, that had entered Into the compound of the mixture, it is affected. In practice this may not be the case, It is possible that canker races, as do the phytophthora races, will differ slightly from each other in their respective virulence. But if among phytophthora races in Germany there is an especially virulent race S, while ours will be the Arzamaaskaia, then the race Gicaubler in canker will be the more aggressive. There exists the danger that when working with a mixture of races, individual races may be overshadowd. The correctness of the .method must be established experir,..entally by Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sigrianskaia, IT. D. studying the virulence of the races separately aeaid in mixtures. The recultu of the unsuccesaeful control of potato canker in Germany should be taken into consideration in our country with regard to selection and teats of potatoes on cankcr-rosistancd. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 10\ 3inakina, V. A. On Wilting of Potato Plantings Sad i Ogorod 2960(7):74-76. July 1950. 80 Sa13 Translated from the Russian by S. V. Monson In the May issue of "Sad i Ogorod," 1949, in his article on "Potato Degeneration and Methods of Controlling it in the South," the author, V. V. Arnautov expressed the opinion that potato wilting is caused by the stifling of the root system of potato plants, the result of au extremely close-grained and saturated moil. Our experiments conducted in 1949 at the Sunzhen Experiment-Meliorative Station (Grozny oblast) established that the principal cause for potato wilt in summer plantings is their reaction to high temperatures. Date concerning the potato viold of the variety LOME for the different periods of summer planting is furnished in the table below. Yield Dates of Planting In a h n per cent June 20 0.5 0.0 July 1 14.8 8.6 July 10 33.5 19.6 July 20 171.2 100 The soil was well prepared for all variants of the experiment and all plantings were given the most attentive care. The plot designated for the experiment was autumn plowed to a depth of 25 cm.; in early spring it was harrowed in two rows ("aledy") and several days later (April 8) gone over with a tractor with web-footed (?) ("lapohaty") cultivator; on May 15 it was cultivated again and in another month fertilized with super-phosphate (5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 8imakina - 2 - per hectare), and the soil again plod to a depth of 20-22 M. The plots of all variants were watered 2 to 8 days before planting and as they grew dry ammonium sulfate (S c/b) and potassium salt (potash) (2.28 o/'h) added; then the soil was cultivated to a depth of 16-18 cm. with a horse-driven spring (coil) cultivator and herrowed. Vernalizeed whole tubers of medium size were planted under the spade. All variants showed good close growth on the 11-12th day after planting. During the vegetative period the plots were v,atered, cultivated between rows and weeded. Despite the goad preparation given the soil and the thorough carer accorded the plantings of potatoes, the variants of the first three periods showed mass infection by wilting and produced a poor yield. The first period of planting failed to produce any yield. The variant of the fourth period of planting did not show any wilt and produced the ieighost yield. On the basis of this experiment it is possible to draw the conclusion that wilting of potato plantings occurs generally under the influence of high temperatures. Proper periods of suer planting, combined with other agricultural methods ensure a si.gnif leant increase in yield under southern conditions. Sunzhen Experi ant Station Ororny Oblast The problem of causes of potato vdlt has not been solved. r:'e agree with Comrade Slulna concerning the importance of high temperatures as baelo factors causing potato wilt but consider that under definite conditions the strangling of the root system is also of significance in the distribution of the above disease. The most careful observation of the entire complex of agricultural methods in an essential requirement for controlling potato wilt. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 ,ukhov, K. S., and Vovk, A.VL. New data on atalbur of potatoes. (in Russian). Sovet. Agron. 5(4)s 72-75. Apr. 1947 g,b 20 So84. - Translated from the Ruesion by S. IT,, L"on$on having in 1921 studied the problem of potato virus diseases in the USA, Iachevakt began his observations in the USSR and came to the conclusion that crinkled mosaic was the principal cause of potato degeneration in the USSR. His conclusion was based on his knowledge of the cultivation of the potato in the central oblasts of the European USSR, but the potato degeneration which prevailed in the southern regions of the country remained outside of his field of observation. In the meantime the idea of the decisive significance of crinkled mosaic in potato degeneration was generally accepted by phytopath- ologists and in explanation of the degeneration of the southern potato as ?rA The argument concerning the nature of the degeneration of the southern potato, begun in the 80'e between Lysenko and the phythopathologists, resulted in recogniqing the considerable gap which existed in our phytopathological science. Lysenko claimed that in the south many varieties of potatoes degenera within a short time after repeated reproduction even without the evidence of crinkled mosaic. In accepting a high temperature of the soil during tuber formation as the principal reason causing degeneration, Lysenko proposed to use the method of summer plantings as a practical measure to control the situation. The p ytopathologists, however, attributed the beneficial effect of summer plantings to the change in conditions unfavorable to the spread of mosaic. re have in the past two years conducted a study of virus diseases of the southern potato which established that Lysenko had been right in his main point. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 /dL Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, K. S., and Vovk, A. M. Our research proved that for a series of varieties, such as Lorkh, Veltman, Korevski and a few others, crinkled mosaic is a factor of secondary impor- tance; still, these varieties degenerate in the south after one to three years. As shown by our experiments, the potato variety Lorkh, consistently grown near Krasnodar, was "freed" of crinkled mosaic in five years, but in spite of this almost all plants degenerated. The problem of controlling crinkled mosaic has since been solved by our selectors who produced the variety Lorkh but the struggle against the degeneration of the southern potato has yet to be won. Such varieties as Early Rose and Epicure, most susceptible to crinkled mosaic, suffer more from it under southern conditions because they react more strongly yet to the new, powerful factor of degen- eration which exerts a damaging influence even upon varieties resistant to mosaic. This new factor in the virus big bud (stolbur"). It was first identi- fied by us in 1945. In periods of severe epiphytotic diseases infection by big bud of such Solanum crops as tomatoes, peppers and eggplants amounts to 100 percent. Sections where the quantity of diseased tomatoes amounts to 25-30 percent are condidered safe? The big bud virus is not transferred by seeds. The'degree of infection of annual plants depends therefore upon a variety of conditions which control the preservation of the virus in 'seeds and the propagation of its carrier - the cicada. The situation is different in the case of the potato. As established by us, the big bud virus is trans- mitted through tubers to succeeding vegetative generations. This leads to the fact that in regions of an "average" distribution of big bud, potatoes degen- erate altogether in the course of two to three years. During severe epiphytotic diseases identical results may be obtained within one year of reproduction. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sukht v, R. S., and ' Vovk, A. ?', A similar picture is observed on potato seedlings during the first year of their growth from seeds. In this instance the term "degeneration" is difficult to apply, since under degeneration one usually understands the gradual reduction in quality of an organism which occurs under the continuous influence of negative factors, In appraising the conditions of reproduction in the ease of the southern potato, no one could take that particular disease (big bud) into oondideration. Its harmful effect entered into the 'general evaluation of potato degeneration from ecological causes. 7,e consider the main task of research in the nearest future to be the separation of these two factors and the establishment of the independent role of either, with respect to potato degeneration in the southern USSR. The data we have at present permits us to review several problems connected with suer plantings of potatoes in the south. The tentative information we secured concerning the periods of carrier migration, relating to the distrib- ution of the potato virus "big bud" among potato sowings and other crops, prove that the most dangerous months are those of June and July. The duration of this period may change, depending upon the weather*, In 1945, during a moist and cold spring, the development of the carrier was delayed. The planting of potatoes done on June 25 proved infected by big bud 50 percents Astute Hyalesther obsoletus could be found even in the beginning of august. In 1946 spring was early and hot. The winging and migration of the vector took place earlier and as a result June sowings showed a low percentage of attack (about 3)? A considerable lowering of the degree of infection was observed on control plantings and other Solanum crops. Pepper, planted June 20 was infected 7.2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, K. S., and iovk, A. M. percent, eggplants 2,4 percent, tomatoes 7.8 percent. Tomatoes planted in early August were infected only 0.7 percent, while plants adjoining the plantings of of this crop, planted in ray, were infected 20-25 percent by big bud. This data proves that in years of an early development of the vector, the potator summer plantings are preserved from considerable infection. In the Krasnodar territory June 25 is considered the period for planting seed potato of medium and late ripening. But In years of a belated development of the vector, this planting period proves unsatisfactory. The variety Tiolunan which we studied is a late variety, hen planted on June 25, its tuber formation took place at comparatively low temperatures of the soil and as a result one did not expect a "catastrophic" degeneration of its tubers from ecological causes in the first year of its production In the south. Nevertheless, this variety degenerated SO percent in 1945 because of big bud, This example provides an explanation for the fact that in some southern regions potatoes planted in the summer, drastically degenerate. The premature wilting of the leaves is a characteristic symptom of the appearance of big bud on potatoes. Wovikov and Bordiukova point out that " with the spread of summer plantings of potatoes, beginning 1957. It was learned that the pre- mature wilting of leaves was observed on summer plantings in the south". In many southern regions premature wilting of summer planted potatoes represents the most harmful type of disease. Observations have proved that diseased plants frequently do not form tubers or only a small quantity of tiny tubers. A considerable spread of premature wilting is observed on summer plantings in the Ordzhonikidze territory where it caused much damage to the seed growing of potatoes. During June sowings (June 20), in the years 1937-1940, a premature Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, 1. S. , and Vovk, A. 11. wilting of the following varieties was observed on the Individual farms of the territory: Early Rose, torkh and Woltrsan (from 8-46 percent) ... An identical situation was observed in summer plantings in the Crimea. rremature wilting of potatoes planted in the suer takes place in the Rostov oblast, as well as in other regions of the USSR. Koroi wrote concerning the potato disease of summer plantings: " In 1939, in many regions of the Ordzhonikidze territory, mass disease of potatoes was observed with premature wilting of leaves, causing considerable loss to potatoes planted in the summer. This disease was noted In the succeeding years as well, though on a reduced doale. Its cause has not been established difb - finitely.,. In the most severe cases the plantings are affected within several days by wilting 80-100 percent... The diseased plants either do not form any tubers at all or form one or two weak tubers..." Our own observations and the data provided by lovikov and Koroi convince us that if periods of summer plantings of potatoes are advanced to July 10-15 there is a drastic reduction in the development of big bud. (See table 1, p. 74). On the basis of these observations one would suppose that the planting of seed potatoes no earlier than July 10 would prove a radical means of controlling big bud. We drew this very conclusion in 1945. However, our observations of 1946 have complicated the problem.. On April 23, 1946 we planted the potato variety Lorkh at 1 rasnodar, obtained from the Krasnodar Vegetable Station. This potato had been propagated for five years by late July plantings exclusively (no earlier than July 8). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 6 - Sukhov, X. S., and Vovk, A. M. It was natural to expect that there would not be much big bud on it. Nevertheless during the period of blooming, at a time when symptoms of big bud infection were lacking in that year, a mass infection of the tubers of these plantings (up to 42 percent) took places This experiment permits us to draw two suppositions. That in the course of the preceding five years there had been eruptions of belated big bud leading to a noticeable infection of July plantings, or that prior to the July planting the potatoes had already been considerably infected by big bud, The question of the significance of July planting, as a radical means of controlling the disease, requires, therefore, futher experimental checking. During the corresponding tests an immaculately pure seed stock material has to be used. The beneficial effect of July plantings upon potatoes grown from infected tubers has nevertheless already been established. While tuber-big bud of spring plantings reduces- the yield and the commercial value of potatoes drastically, it produces only a relative lowering of the yield of July plantings.: The characteristics of the variety appear distorted in July plantings as well; thus, for instance, in spite of their large size, tubers are greatly deformed, frequently misshapen, but their gross yield may reach 10 tons per hectare. This radically distinguishes the development of diseased plants of spring and eurmer plantings and clearly demonstrates the influence of ecological conditions upon the development of the diseased potato. Observation of the tuber-big bud of spring planting showed that even in the early stages of the potato's development the virus remained in a latent state and barely accumulated in the tissues. Only in the blooming stage an increased reproduction of the virus took place, the tissues gained a noticeable Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, K. S., and Vovk, A, M. degree of infection and external symptoms of the disease appeared simultan- eously. Thus, in spite of the fact that the virus exists in the tubers from the very beginning, the development of the disease statte only after a long incubation period which terminates in the blooming stage. The incubation period of big bud depends in the strongest measure upon temperature. An experimental deliberate infection of the tomato made in early June produced external symptoms in 24-3O days, while during an infection made in the third creek of July the incubation period of the disease was extended one and a half months and more. The late development of potatoes of July planting and the longer incuba- tion period of bt,g bud of tuber origin cause potatoes planted in July not to show any external symptoms of the disease. The absoe of symptoms or their very late development point to a latent condition of the virus and its weak reproduction capacity and activity. If the concentration of the virus is limited and its activity curtailed, the harm it will cause will naturally also be -low. Plants grown from infected tubers planted in July show consequently a radical increase in yield. It is true that this circumstance does not free the germinated tubers from the virus. Only the "depression" during the period of tuber formation is lacking.. At subsequent spring planting the reproduction capacity and the activity of the big bud may prove high enough to cause severe 4nfeetion and a strong reduction in potato yield. It is equally likely that a part of the July tubers may escape the infection since the virus is not present in large amounts in the tissues of the maternal plant and is unevenly distributed. The solution of this problem requires further special tests. The above data shows that Lysenko's method, provided July plantings are Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, K. S., and Vovk,, A.. Lei.. kept up , represents a powerful means of increasing potato yields in southern regions that are distinguished by a wide spread of the disease? it is,, nevertheless, essential to point out that this method is not sufficient to preserve all varietal qualities of the potato in oases where the tubers are infected by the virus. The solution of the problem concerning the protection of July plantings from big bud is an actual problem and demands special investigation. The elimination of big bud on late July summer plantings will result in a rise in the potato yield in the south. The situation is different with regard to varieties sensitits to crinkled mosaic. Observations show that such varieties as Early Rose,. for instance, are subject to rapid degeneration when infected by mosaic, not alone in the south but also in the central oblaate, and not only in spring but also in summer plantings.. The rapidity of the processes of degeneration varies in different latitudes.. It is lover in the north.- and higher in the south; in. the central oblasts such varieties suffer greatly also from mosaic, In this connection the problem of selecting resistant varieties is important and should not be delayed.. t=:e still do not possess early varieties that are resistant to mosaic.. They have yet to be produced. It is also necessary to widen the work of selecting varieties resistant to big bud. Here we may point to the success achieved by the Scotch who already possess varieties of potatoes resistant to the virus of leaf roll which closely resembles that of big bud. le ourselves possess such splendid varieties as Lorkh, resistant to mosaic., If on this basis new varieties would be produced, proving equally resistant to big bud, the problem of southern potato growing will be solved. Varieties Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sukhov, K. S., and Vovk, A. I% of tomatoes have already been developed possessing relative resistance against big bug - these are the "shtambovie" tree tomatoes. The resistance of the tree varieties is so far not too high but they represent good initial material for the selector to start from. It is essential to determine the varietal Wk reaction of the potato to the big bud viers and to segregate the most resistant At the Krasnodar Vegetable Station we observed the planting of the peren- nial wild potato - Solarium giberulosum. Plants of this species grew without change on this lot for three years and among them were observed only a few plants infected by big bud. Simultaneously, annuals growing at a compara- tively close distance from them, i.e. tomatoes and poppers, were infected by big bud 60-70 percent. It is possible that among the wildings there will be forms which when hybridized with cultivated potatoes will produce varieties resistant to big bud. The significance of genetic work with potatoes has to be propagandized. Interesting experiments are produced at the Krasnodar Vegetable Station by N. X. Rubashevekaia. She is testing the hybrid Brigitte X Solanum boecense, of which two-numbers (4-29, Kubanets and 19-51, Krasnodarets) represent ultra-early varieties. The potatoes of these varieties produce easily two yields in the south because the tubers collected early from the first harvest when planted in the. soil grow well without any special cultivation. This offers the opportunity of planting these varieties in periods which escape the infection by big bud. For this purpose the first gathering of the crop is done in June and the second planting at the end of July. The methodical approach to the working out of measures of controlling the ecological degen- eration of the potato and the virus diseases of this crop should vary. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 - 10 - Sukhov, F. S., and Vtovk, A. Y. Unfavorable ecological conditions are overc?ne by summer plantin-; in conformance with Lysenko's methods. To overcome the harmful influence of virus diseases on June plantin;s resistant varieties have to be produced. In this case additiohal methods may be used, specifically, ehenical methods designed to destroy the vector. The utilization of effective insecticides against liaulesthes obsoletue nay have wreat significance for annual 5olanums which by the nature of their crop do not tolerate late plantings. End of Article Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Uspenski, E. In So lekokhoziaii.ctvennaia enteiklopediia gricultural, Encyclopedia], vol. 3 Moskva, 1934, Translated from the Russian by S. N. roeson TER ORGANIZATION OF SCIE?TIFIC-TESEM Ch O ?K or PC?ZATO GROWING (p,, 32) Scientific-research work on potato growizng in the USSR is conducted by the ViIIEII (All-;Union Scientific-Research Institute of Potato Economy) and its network. The, institute was founded in 1931 at the former $orenevo Potato Selection Station (village of Korenevo, Ukhtonzaki region,, Moscow oblast). Five zonal stations enter into this system of the Institute. They are - the Leningrad, Minsk, Voronezh, Ukrainian, and Central Volga stations. Each station serves its corresponding zone. The t!!oscow zone,. the West and East Siberian zones, the Fa.r East. ( ), the Northern Caucasus, Trans-Caucasus and Central Asia are directly taken care of by the Institute. The zonal stations in turn have their bases at state and collective farms which conduct practical work on potato growing in accordance with agricultural practices,, and also take care of seed growing, seed testing. mechanization, control of disease and storing. The principal problems concerning methods in scientific-research work are solved by the scientific council of the VNIIKR Problems of planning and organization of work are subjected to consultations at the All--Union Potato Conference which is called once every two years. Skilled cadres of potato specialists are prepared by the VNIIKH ("aspirantura'")Ipersonnsl )O3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Uspeaeki, B. The organization of soientifiof5research..., the medium level is trained at spsciai potato teehnicums, frequently Located at the tonal stations of the VITIUCH. The lower padres (approvers, examine", seed growers) are given special courses arranged by the VNIXKR and at all zonal stations, of article. Bibliography:. Afanaaiev, 1. Handbook on the application of fertilizers for potatoes? toe cow-Leningrad, 1933* Veselovski, P. Potatoes. Leningrad, 1930, Klapp,, F. Potato Variety .Growing. ,"oscow-Leningrad, 1935, Rozhdestvenski, No and. Uepexsski, 'g. Potatoes and their Storing. oscow. Leningrad, 1931? Sobachenkov, P. Storing Ensilage of Potatoes, r0scow-Leningrad, 1931, Present Conditions of Potato Growixig. toscoer-Leningrad, 1-931. Potato Approver's Companion. Vosco -Lanixrgrad, 1931, ? The York of the V!TIXEH, 1-54. Pose ow. 1933. Chernishova, 0a, How to protect Potatoes from Diseases. iloscorr, 1932. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426ROO9900020001-4 Uspenski, Be In Selskokhoaiaistvennaia enteiklopediia. Agricultural Encyclopedia). vol. 3 Moskva, 1934. Translated in part by S. W. IFonson TIDE STORAGE OF POTATCP S (p. 31-32) The rational organization for storing potatoes is of great importance. According to data provided by the Oosplan, losses from storing potatoes represented 12 percent of the entire yield in the years 1929-1980. Accord- ing to tests made by the VNIIEH# performed in 1931 and 1932, the natural loss in weight during storage amounted to 7-8 percent, while during the winter months it averaged 3 percent a month, increasing by spring to 2 percent. Stored potatoes must be dry, healthy, sorted, not damaged by frost and without rough mechanical injuries. Healthy potatoes, if properly stored in warehouses in the fall, will not require any further sorting during the winter. Different varieties of potatoes show a different reaction to disease, and mixtures of varieties therefore keep. worse than identical stored uniform varieties of potatoes. The largest percentage in loss is Incurred from the tuber disease - water and dry rot, The freezing of potatoes during untimely harvesting or inadequate transportation aids the spread of disease. The normal temperature of a warehouse should be kept at 1-3? without drastic fluctuation, in moist air - close to 85 percent, An adequately equipped incoming-outgoing ventilation system serves (aside from the heating, where it is necessary) as heat and moisture regulator in storage /04 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426ROO9900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Uspensici, E,, The storage of potatoes. places,, air being supplied from below and extracted from abare. The bin should not-be filled over 1.6 meters. Theare permanent and temporary potato warehouses. Among the first are special storage-_plaoss, transit storehouses, large railroad storage iss where the loading and unloading Is done during the winter (illustration 13), basements, cellars, etc. To the second belong mounds ("burtii"), holes, ditches, *too Permanent storehouses must be equipped with bins having a grate floor that rises above the ground. Tba walls between the bins must also have double grates. The most suitable site of a bin is that holding one oar- load. Prior to loading potatoes in bins, the storehouse is disinfected with sulfur, in the proportion of 20-40 g.. of sulfur to 1 m2 of the area of the storehouse; line is also applied within? It is advisable to add to the lime some copper sulfate (1 part of copper sulfate to 20 of lime).. Mounds ("busty") may be above ground and deep.. Their depth depends upon thee ' Iswl of ground waters. The usual width of a mound is 2 meters. The height of an above ground mound is I as and of a deepened one, I.e. 0.5 m., should be 1-1/2 m. The length varies according to the need. Ventilation is by vertical and horizontal wooden pipes. The covering of 11 a mound should protect the potatoes from freestng. In the Central sons of the USSR the covering consists of a layer of 50 cm of straw and 50 an ------ ---- of earth (illustration 14). Per the temporary storing of potatoes (2-3 months), one may widen the mound to 3-4 and over meters (if potato manufacturing plants are available). The temperature within the mound or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Uspenskl ,, E The storage of potatoes, hole is observed by dropping thermometers into the ventilating pipew. A rapid rise of temperature during the winter, of above 60, points to the beginning of rot among potatoes, Rounds or holes have to be opened without delay in such oases and the potatoes transported into a cellar;. Considerable losses are experienced in the transportation of potatoes* The potato is a product not adapted to transportation, winos it contains about 80 percent of water and easily spoils in transit. 'The loss of young potatoes in a transportation lasting 4-6 days say amount to 40-60 percent. According to data furnished by the MSPC for 1928.29, the losses in'Pall transportation amounted to 12-14 percent. It is therefore advisable to bring the potato areas as close as possible to the points of consumption and reduce railroad transportation to a minimum. End of artioler Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian A. V., an. Rhachatrian, O.A. Tranal. 195: Potatoes Virus diseases of potatoes cultivated in Armenia. Akad. Nauk Armianskoi SSR. Izv. Biol. I Sel'sk. nauk. 3:3330344. 1959. 20 Er4 Translated from the Russian by S.N. Monson. Considering the economic importance of potato production and its cone- siderable impairment by virus diseases, a study of the spread of three diseases was undertaken by a survey of potato plantings in different rt.. gions of the republic. Surveys were made in three regions which differ ecological conditions: Echmiadzinak, Stepanavansk and $irovakenak regions.. The results revealed a considerable spread of mild mosaic, necrotic mosaic, and diseases of yellows. Less prevalent were aucuba-mosaic and gothic. In addition to the above diseases, observations included.necrosis of potato leaves and leaf roll of lower leaves affected by necrosis. Studies showed that the spread of virus diseases in the above three regions differs. Diseases of yellows are more widely spread on low lands (Eehmiadzinsk region) where the percentage of diseased plants amounted to 2.0 to 2.6, while in the mountainous region of Stepanavansk, it amounted to 0.4 to 1.3:/,Wrinkled mosaic (necrotic) was found in low regions where damage amounted to 2.7%. Leaf roll of lower leaves with necrosis was also hone;?frequent in low sections. Such diseases as mild mosaic (5~ injury) and leaf necrosis (60;) have a wider spread in high mountainous regions of the republic. In order to determine the relative impairment by virus diseases of the different varieties of potatoes tests were made at Erivan, on. the former experimental plot of the Agricultural Institute, on the varieties Lorkh and No. 34, as well as on the Leninakanak experiment field of the same Ineti9 tuts, on the varieties Lorkh, Kalitinets, 17oltman, Seven, Phytophthora- Resistant, Narodny, Imrkhan, and.No. 34. The results of these studies Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian A. ii., and Khachatrian, G. A. Transl. 1.05. proved that the varieties Irrkhan, Lorkh, :':'ottman, Seven are more affected by yellows. The pereentage among the above varieties was 2 - 7. 7rinkled mosaic aff*ated primarily: 34, Lorkh, Kalitinets,Woltman (3-7,p'). Mild mosaic was largely spread among the varieties Immkhran, Lorkh, '."oltman, Narodny, and No. 34. Leaf roll with necrosis was noted at Erivan only on Lorkh. Leaf necrosis was particularly noted among the varieties Imkhran, it Bevan and 34. The varieties are listed in the order of the/infectivity. to It is important/stress that the potato variety Lorkh, substitutitd in Armenia for many local varieties, succumbs in some degree tr other to all ping Experimental work on determi4virus plant diseases was conducted in the following mannerv: 1. artificial inoculation of indicator riants; 2. planting of tubers of diseased plants in order to obs,.rve the course of the disease from year to year. Young plants grown in vegetative vessels were artificially inoculated. Indicator-plants were: potatoes grown from seed, tomatoes, poppers and tobacco. Inoculation was by tubbing in the juice of diseased plants, as well as through the host-insect of virus diseases, the peach aphid. In inoculating with juice, the leaves were crushed in water in a porcelain mortar, previously sterilized for tan minutes, the surface of plants then carefully smeared with the extracted juice. Inoculation by insect was by feeding the peach aphid on diseased plants in small test tubes; into the.i latter young leaves of tested plants were placed for 2-3 days. Aphids thus transferred infection upon healthy plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian A. V. Khachatrian, G. A. Diseased tubers were Lathered for planting from suburban zones of Eschmiadcin and Leninakan and planted in the second and third year on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute at Erivan. In addition to tests made during the summer, a record was kept poi` ie 8a'iP ge tuber yield from one clump. Plants of apparent health were also submitted to virus analysis; first, to act as control, secondly, to reveal the latent "X" virus in them. Below are publishel the results of the analysis among healthy plants and those inoculated with various virus diseases, TESTS MAMS r ITH !T'ALT- ' POTAT0rS; Leaves of ealthy potatoes of the variety Lorkh were taken from potato plantings of Erivan and Eohmiadsine. Table I presents the result or 4 ei analysis in artificial inoculation with juice of healthy plants. According to these figures, no infection was observed as a result of the test. But in inoculating with the juice of potatoes brourht from Echmiadzin, symptoms of the disease appeared in the form of leaf necrosis and mosaic on potatoes, mosaic and ring spot on pep- pers, in addition to distortion. Control plants occasionally showed symp- toms of the disease. This circumstance must evidently be ascribed to the fact that our tests were mostly conducted without isolators. When peppers diseased with ring spot were inoculated a second time, the plants exhibited again the symptoms. Inoculation of plants through the peach aphid showed that the disease is not transmitted by the insect. Virus obtained from a healthy plant was tested for resistance to tem- perature and propagation to identify it. The juice of the diseased plant (pepper) was for this purpose submitted to a temperature of 60-70* for ten minutes and both peperS and tomatoes were inoculated; uninfected control plants Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Airakos ian, A. V.' 4 Trana 1. 105 Khachatrian. G. A. were left. Results revealed that the virus becomes Inactive at Testing of virus at 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 dilutions showed that the virus becomes inactive at dilution of 0.0001. Studies of healthy potatoes lead to the assumption that the potatoes were infected by the latent "Xn virus (Solarium virus 1 Orgon), (K.Smith classification), although the temperature obtained by us differed from the temperature of inactive OX" virus. Table 1. RF.3ULT OF ARTIFICLkL I}?OC.LA?I W' OF HI-ALT-J-7 F-LANT 1TH JI ICE Location ? Infested plants No. of No. of $'ycpucs of disease where plants infested specimen plants was taken from potatoes Control Tomatoes Control Potatoes Control Necrosis and imy$ng of lva. z s08aee on one plant. None Tomatoes 5 3 Necrosis of Iva. Echmiadain Control 2 2 Necrosis of Iva. Popper 4 5 Mosaic, then ring spot with Necro. sis and drying of leaves. Control 2 d3 ?one Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Xirakosian, A. V. 5 Tranal. 105 Khachatrian, G. A. WRINKLED MOSAIC,. Virus diseases are rather prevalent in different regions of the ArienQ Ian SSR. Typical symptoms of the disease are: mosaic, wrinkling of leaves, necrosis, first along veinlets of leaves, than along the entire leaf, dry- ing of lower leaves in upward direction, bare stems, and in the majority of cases rapid death of the entire plant. Analysis of potato viruses No. were performed with specimens of potatoes/34 gathered from the plot of the Institute of Technical Crops at Echm.iadzin. The result of this analysis of diseased potatoes bearing symptoms of wrinkled mosaic is submitted in table 2, Table 2 RESULT OF ART "FIC.IIAL INIOCUULkT IOr WITH J1ICE OF 1u13IASrD POTATOES (WRINKLED MOSAIC) and APHIDS"" Inoculated. Summer of Number of Symptone of Number of Num or of Symptons of Plants Plants infested Disease Plants infested Disease Plants Plants Mosaic, leaf necrosis, one plant dried soon Necros&s of leaves and stems Bone 2 0 None Peppers 3 3 Mosaic and 2 2 Mosaic and leaf necro- leaf necro- sis ais Control 2 M Noma 2 0 None Mosaic on new one Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Khachatrian, G. A. This disease is also transmitted by juice and aphids. Repeated inocu- lation with the juice of diseased peppers gave the setae results. Trans- mission of the disease by juice and aphids and the -ature of external symp- toms of the disease bring it close to necrotic mosaic, especially wrinkled mosaic, originating from potatoes infected with "Y" virus (Solanum virus 2 Orton, classification K. Smith). In addition to tests of artificial inoculation, tubers of diseased po- tatoes were planted to study the degree of transmission of a disease by tubers from year to year. In the first year, i.e. the year of tuber gath- ering, the disease exhibited the symptoms described at ova. Results of No. d tests on the development of wrinkled mosaic in potato/34 in the ssccor/year and the record of its yield per clump are presented in tabIc 3. Table 3 DEVrLOP ;T OF SY*'PTOW OF 'r2I2ilL 'DD 11'OSr1IC AND POTATO YI.''LD Average Yield $6. of plants per Clump Location of Symptoms of Symptoms in gathering disease in second year Total Producing Number of xeight 'f. of potatoes first year yield Tubers in re. Erevan Healthy Healthy 16 (tubers Plants Plants obtained from seeds Leninakan Mosaic, r.rin- l!oeaic, 53 klin j; . *v., wrinkling aierosie, dry- necrosis, ing lvs; bare dwarf'ess stems chlorosis, drying; bare clumps 12 7 137 100 39 4 34 25 Eehmiadzin Mosaic, wrin- Mosaic 13 klin of Iva, wrinkling necrosis, dry- necrosis, ing of Iva; dwarfness, bare stems chlorosis, drying, bare clumps Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian, A. V. Thechatrian, G. A. 9 Transl. 105 In both forms diseased plants die soon, reducin, the yield consider- ably. Injury caused by the disease is more severe from tubers &btained at Echmiadzin than from those grown at Leninakan. In the third year the . disease carried the ame symptoms but the plants dried out sooner and &:d not produce any yield at all. Thus, aceordin to results obtained from our tests of artificial inoculation andplanting of diseased tubers, it may 'be assumed that this potato disease is typical of Mb wrinkled mosaic. VIRUS LEAF ROLL At the plot of the Institute of Technical crops at Echmiadsin a clump of potatoes was discovered (1946) of the variety Lorkh, in appearance normal and green, but with rolled leaves, especially upper, and dense foliage. Ar- tificial inoculation of plants with the juice of this potato (and aphids) revealed that the disease apparently belonged to necrotic mosaics. Results are presented in tale 4 . ARTIFICIAL INOCULATION `'WITH T J+JICt 07 DISEASED POTATO(LEAF ROLL) AND APHIDS JUICE PEACH APHID Inoculated Number of Number of Symptoms Number of Number of Symptoms of Plants Plants Infestations of dis- plants Knfesta- Disease ease tions Control Contro Pepper of Ive. 5 leaf necro- sis, 2 plants dried, 2 leaf necro- sis leaf necro- sis mane crosis, one plant dried. leaf ne- 2 otosia Necrosis 5 none lea? ne- crosis; sale & later chlorQ osic & green spots on Iva. Ions 2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian, A. V. Khachatrian, G. A. 8 Transl. 105 As will be seen from table 4, necrosis and mosaic appear as a result of artificial inoculation by juice and aphids. Repeated inoculation with juice was made on peppers and tomatoes, as a result:, of which necrosis, drying of lower leaves, mosaic and stunted growth were observed in peppers, and on tomatoes ? stem necrosis, drying of petioles and defoliation. According to its symptoms the disease may be regarded as necrotic mosaic. The potatoes were evidently infested by one of the "T" viruses. MOSAIC; NECROSIS, CH,LOROSIS. In the above described diseases, we discovered several variations in diseases of potatoes. Although they undoubtedly belong to necrotic mosaics, their external symptoms are not alike. These diseases were not submitted to artificial inoculation. The external symptoms, how- ever, transmittance in the second and third years, as well as the consid- erable loss in yield support the supposition. Tubers of diseased potatoes of the variety I.vrkh were gathered chiefly at Echmiadginfrom the plot of the Institute of Technical Crops and planted at Erivan. In table 5 the symptoms of disease are described as gathered in the first fndrsecond year; the average yield per clump is also indicated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Xirolros laa n, A. V. 9 ?ransi. 105 Khaceb am, 0. A. '.SSI;'.ASF Oil "''Lk TE 0-,,VIN t PUNTING 'PERS O) Di 5F ?tk TS 8ymptaus of Disee*to Healthy Disease in 2,P0 vvar M031t and necrosis o:a se iarts Prod_oir,,g caber of Weight tabsra a. _&o. Dsarfnesae i11 I've. Light chlorra via. ssecravis l rFreaoae, mosaic Chlor. Oslo, ztecroeie along vaeialrets Mosaic and necrosis Dwarfness, *cssiio, ",ofor ed 4 dense reli.aa ;ee leaf roll desse, s u.11 deformed 1v a. mosaic n"ro. Dwarfness. leathery iTa. Jlaxsaaerdtr to to .1e v, the i"irxt so& are sess-h ,e each other in their ?s.t.rn.I ?y ptomss {d rt'?~aeaasa, d.rors ti.on, roll, and almost identical r.ductZon i- yield). Leaf roll rss,i detorsaussd allege app*Sr in ther seovnd Year* krt1ficial iasc cal$ticn of has and touat**i bV tha peach & hi.d revealed that thtat dissse, is transmitted by ine"ts and atpposrs *A Potatoes in the fora of assns, o:: tomatoes as loaf roll 4knd dsfo_rand leaves. Results of a srime.ntss or the folio,I two disease* ls"tn, ;juptomas and aoc rots tr &oste rather sev re i,esJcsry and I.*** Jr yield &I in"' i*tion Of Nie ti*n* luti.eosss. (tetsr*) with th. Sv. a of .se diseased punt, affected by mosaic and iiL;ht srinklta. ; o,_ leave, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kirakosian, A.-V. 10 Hhaohatrian, 0. A. Transl. 105 the glutinose produced mosaic with severe necrosis of lower leaves, begin- ning with the upper leaves, Which led to "wr rapid death of the plant. Simp liar symptoms were observed on inoculated tomatoes. The tubers of the above diseased plants, planted in~he third year, produced plants with the same symptoms but no yield. The study of four diseases of potatoes, indicated in table 5, leads to the belief that they are all the result of infection by different genera (Stamre) of the "Y" virus, transmitted by juice and aphids, wh,ic yield ons$iderably. In necrotic mosaics of diseased pata9 toes, ?XD virus was apparently present, in addition to "Yu virus. Com- bined action of the two virusesstrengthens the disease. DISE SES OF TIM TYPF 0? T?LI.r't'S" LEAF ROLL OF POTATG"S' In the Echmiadzin region and farmrs of Leninakan and Erivan a disease it frequently met resembling leaf roll. According to authoritative data (1) the disease in~he sewn shows symptoms of lea- thery leaves, delicate and generally chlorotic, occasionally becoming reddish and violet colored because of the presence of anthocyanin in them. Leaf lobes roll around the central vein, infection spreads upwards. The disease is not transmitted by juice but by aphids and grafting. Leaf roll of potatoes is recognized Is literature as one of the most serious diseases. The disease discovered by us resembles the above described disease, i.e. potato leaf roll. In our test of artificial inoculations with the juice of diseased po- tatoes negative results were obtained. Potato tubers from plants diseased with.leaf roll were planted on the plot of the Experimental orchard of the Agricultural Institute at 'crivan. Seed stock was obtained from ':chmiadain Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Xirakosian, A. 'V. 11 Transl. 105 Rhachatrian, G. A. for this p urpose. Data on the development of the disease in the second year and the av- erage yield from one clump are presented in table 6. Percentage of slants which produced yields and the volume of the lat- ter were very low, testifying to the severity of this disease. In the third year diseased tubers did not produce yield at all. The typical symptoms of ria.scase and degree of injury make it evident that the above dteeaso is potato. leaf roll. LEAF POLL 4? LOWER LR&VES OF POTATOFr' We stated in the beginning that in some regions in Armenia (Paartiou- larly lowlands), potato leaf roll of lower leaves is rather frequent along the principil vein and that considerable spread of necrosis prevails on foliage. Tests in artificial inoculation of a diseased plant with juice brought negative reai'lts. Planting of potato tubers, however, obtained from diseased plants, revealed that the disease is strengthened in the second year and reduces the yield, as show in tactile 7. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Hirakodian, A. V. Khachatrian, G. A. IUFUYENCr OF L AF ROLL UPO`T POT&TO HARV7 ST Nos. Symptoms of Disease in Quantity of Average yield diseases 2nd Year Plants per C1uas Total roducing o. of Te ght f? yield tubers in grs. Healthy Leaf roll, chlorosis, dwarfness, leathery texture Leaf roll, chlorosls, necrosis Mosaic, ne- 15 crosis on some plants d -arfness chlorosis, leaf curl, undersized; mosaic Chlorosis, If. curl, pink antho- o anin on upper lvs. Symptoms of Disease in disease 2nd Tear Healthy mosaic and necrosis of some plant. Leif roll dwarfness, of lower Iva. chloronis, necrosis If. curl, necrosis Quantity of Average yield Plants per Clump Total Producing No. of eight yield tubers in ;re. As seen above, the yield from plants affected by leaf roll is rel- atively small coruparead to the control In the second year the disease ex- hibits other symptoms. Closer study is required for the final determina- tion of the virus and infective nature of the disease. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Xiruh-o ,icr, A. V. 13 T'ranal. 185 Khachatriaan, G. A. POTATO "It! In the past few years a potato disease beoaime widespread in Armenia charsoterized by wilt, yellowln,, of entire plant, and drying, be- ginning with lower leaves. Tubers of diseased plants appeared stunt3d. This disease causes large losses in yield. In order to determine its nature, a test was made by Inoculatin;; with juice wilted and healthy potato plants, specimens of which were brou,ht from Laninakan. Popper and tomato seedlings served as indicator plants. The teat did not succeed. In showing the infectious nature of wilt. But it testified oncemore to the presence of the latent "I" virus in potatoes b*cause of the appearance of ring spot, leaf, stem and petiole necrosis, in places s ttunted growth on peppers, and or tomatoes,leaf a.nd petiole necrosis in slight degree. Studies made by K. B. Sukhcw and A. M. Vovka (4,6,e) established, however, that potato wilt is of an infective "stolbur" nature>, transmitted to healthy plants by certain species of oicaades and grafting. On the basis of data furnished by these authors, we bean tests of grafting under Erivan conditions. 13raaftings were made with petioles of wilted and about to wilt potato plants on health lants. The inoculated potato ex- hibited symptoms of milt, as seen or, ill. I. On an inoculated (by grafting) tomato the disease produced sywcptcass typical of etolbur. (111. 2) Thus studyof wilted and dried potatoes in s Erivan seem ,'o confirm the stolbur nature of the disease, although addiQ tional experiments are required for final conclusions. A Survey of potato plantings and study of virus diseases in Armenia resulted in the following conclusions: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Sire kosian, A. V. 14 Transl. 105 Khachttrian, G. A. 1, In different surveyed regions virus diseases of the type of mild mosaic, necrotic mosaics, yellows, aucuba-mosaic, gothic, etc. are spread among potatoes. 2. Tests with artificial inoculation and planting of diseased tubers revealed the identity of wrinkled mosaic prevalent in Armenia with the e.aa& disease described in literature. V any diseaeer, were identified bars; which in their external symptoms differ slightly between themselves but apparently belong to the type of necrotic nossica and are the result of infection of potatoes by v-.rioas "Y" viruses. 3. Virus analysis of apparently healthy potato plants testifies to the infectivity of healthy potatoes by "R" virus. 4. Yellows were established as leaf roll of potatoes, appearing with typical sympt-csn of the latter disease, as described in literature. Plant- ing of diseased tubers revealed that this disease is transmitted from year to year and severely reduces potato yields, occasionally oarlsing its loss. 5. Leaf roll of lower leaves of potatoes with necrosis is apparently also a disease transmitted through tubers, although for confirmation of this statement additional, detailed study is required. C. Potato wilt distributed in many regions of Armenia is not trans- mitted by the juice of a diseased plant. Grafting of wilted and dried out potato plants, discovered in Pr van, established nevertheless, their infeo- tivee nature which resembles "tail; cBud" of tomatoes. Institute of Phytopathology and Zoology of Acadei y of. Science, Armenian SSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 $irakosian, A. V.- 15 irsnsi. iva Shacha.trian, G. A. Bibliography: V. L. Rythkov Q Virus diseases of plants, 1535 V. L. 2yzhkov - Principles of theory on virus diseases of plants, 1944 V. L..Ryrbkov - Phytopathogenic viruses, 1946 K. Sukhov - ot. al. Big i d of So1acaceae, 1946 A. It. Vovk - Stolbur of potatoes, 1946 A. M. Vovk Virus of Stolbur, 1947 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 KRQLODNYI, N.G.E.A. Timiriazev I sovremennye predetavleniia o fitogorasonakh, [R.A. Timiriazev and modern ideas on phytohormones] Moskva, 1946, 34 p. 464.36 K52K Transl. 106: Growth Substances. 'translated from the Russian by ",Xxftx #*Xx R. Dembo. The study of phytohormones is one of the youngest branches of contemporary plant physiology. Twenty six years ago, the year of K.A. Timiriazev's death, it experienced the last stages of the original collection of experimental data. Based upon these data, a conception soon aroused of "chemical regulators" in plant growth and development and a basic similarity has be di en scovered, from /0(0 physiological point of view, between these substances and the hormones of '- animals. The most significant works in this field which served as the starting point for further close studies on plant endocrinology are the works of DZR. Leb, G. Gaberlandt, A. Peal' and others. They belong to the period of 1917-1921, i.e., to the last years of Timiriazev'as life, when news concerning the newest achievements of West European and Anne rican science scarcely reached our country which has been cut off by a blockade from abroad. Therefore, it is not sur- prising that in K.A. Timiriatev's works we do hot find any references to these first achievements of the new branch in phytophysiology. But the scientific ideas, especially ideas on a large scale, which in- fluence considerably the development of any branch of science, never originate spontaneously. Each of then has its own more or lees complicated and long "Prehistory", the period of accumulating factual material and individual con- clusions which are the necessary premises for the conception and development of the new thought. The idea of hormonal regulation of living phenomena of the plant organism also went through such "prehistory". Long before its final and quite well-grounded formulation, various assumptions, more or less probable, were expressed. These assumptions indicate the' fact that the scientific thought under the pressure of facts by whimsical curves, but consistently, makes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 2 ?rand. 106. its way towards this new idea, vaguely trying to guess its ability of unifying, elucidating and enriching the vast domain of various experimental data. The beginning of this preliminary opoch could be attributed to the and of the eighties of last century, when J. Sachs (1887) and Y. Beierink (1888) al- most simultaneously and independently from each other expressed the thought of the presence in plants of physiologically active substances with a regular function. U. Beierink arrived close to the conception of phytohormones in their present meaning. Proceeding from his studies on the development of "tsesidii" (gall) which originate in plants under the, influence of cynipoids and other gall forming insects, Beierink arrives at the conclusion that even in a normal mor- phogenesis of a vegetating organism some specific substances should play an essential role ?- "growing enzymes", according to his terminology - which are the product of life activity of the protoplasm of the plant itself. It is necessary to note, that analogical thoughts, and considerably earlier, originated, possibly, from Ch. Darwin who attached great significance to the chemical substances in plants as one of the factors of their normal and path- ological morphogenesis. It is interesting to note that Darwin also arrived at these thoughts by his observations with galls. ffe also planned experiments (but, unfortunately, he did not realize them) on the artificial obtaining of these formations in order to start this way the experimental study of irreg- ularity law. In referring to these thoughts of Ch. Darwin, X. A. Timiriasev indicates (Works, volume VII, page 562) that they manifest the "outstanding perspicacity" of the great biologist. This remark of Tmiriasev points out that K. A. referred favorably to the first attempts of the experimental study of the influence of various chemical agents, including substances produced by the plant itself, upon the formation of vegetative organisms, It also might serve as an example for those numerous and always interesting ideas in which Timiriazev gave a critical evaluation to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Iholodnyi 3 Trensl. 106. various directions of scientific thought and individual studies which prepared the foundation for the development of the study of phytohormones. The analysis of these ideas against the background of the contemporary stage of our knowledge about hormonal substances in the plant organism is of great interest for the history of science, and is the basic problem of Tini.riarev's Interpretation. It is necessary to keep in mind that K. A. himself did not work experi. mentally neither on the problems which are directly connected with the problem of phytohormones, nor even on those problems which were preparing the ground for their formulation. The absence of his own experiment could not, of course, be replaced by any experiment of somebody else, and this circumstance, as we shall soon notice, influenced many conceptions of Timiriarev in this domain. Some of them are, undoubtedly, mistaken; others require corrections, But all of them reflect in some way the peculiarities of his brilliant analytical mind, his passionate, violent temperament, his intolerant adherence to principles when it comes to defending the basic conceptions of that .scientific, strictly material- istic and Darwinistic ideas which he gradually developed in bli his works. That is why even the mistaken interpretations of this greatest scientist thinker often manifested positive influence upon the development of our ecience,drawing to it new young scientists and encouraging them to concentrate their attention upon those problems which K.A. himself was unable to solve, because they were not a part of the basic stream of his own experimental studies. II The last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century were marked by a speedy and fertile development of endo- crinology of animals and of man. X.A. Timiriaeev who followed during his entire life-time the progress of scientific thought and the c widening of our knowledge in all branches of Biology could not, of course, ignore such an important Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 4 achievement, as the study of inner secretion and of the physiological signifi- canoe of hormones as the regulators of life phenomena of the organism. In articles which summed up the latest achievements of science he often dwelt upon the most important facts from this domain and expressed some ideas, for instance, concerning the role which the endocrine glands were able to play in the evol- ution of organisms (Works, vol. VII. p. 462-465 and others). As a follower of Darwin, K. A., of course, shared Darwin's conviction in the unity of the organic world, in the absence of principal quantitative differences between animal and plant organisms. This is indicated in his chap- ter before last, called "Plant and Animal", in "The Life of Plants'". Here Tim- iriazev, after having analyzed the basic functions of typical representatives of both domains of organized nature arrives at the conclusion that "the difference between plants and animals is not qualitative, but quantitative; in both the same processes occur, but in one domain predominates one type of processes, and in the other - another type of processes" (Forks, v. IV, p. 296). It was natural to spread this conclusion over the activity of the just dis- covered, physiologically active, hormonal substances. If they are the permanent part of every living organism, if almost every process in them depends, in some degree, on some chemical regulators - the products of secretive activity of cells and of tissues of the very organism, then the question arises: Tlou.ld it not be possible to find similar phenomena in the domain of plants, do not plants possess substances vrhich are similar according to their genesis and to the activity, to the hormones of the animal organism? There is no doubt that K. A. did discuss this problem and that he gave an affirmative answer. We arrive at this conclusion based especially on one passage in his lecture "The Historical Lethod in Biology" (;corks, v. VI, p. 174). Dis- cussing the problem of the effect of the "reproductive property" - male sexual Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 5 calls - upon the maternal organism and pointing out the causes of origin of so- called xenyl, whose nature became clear only after S.G. Favashin discovered a double fertilization (the fusion of one male testicle with the testicle of the egg; cell, and the other with the testicle of the embryonic pocket. K. A. writes: "Still less clear are the influences of the reproducive property upon the more remote parts of the maternal plant. Some scientists even reject them, but they have no reason for it, taking into consideration all the experiments (for in- stance those of Gil'debrand), especially since the discovery of hormones - sub- stances which develop in organisms and which cause organic changes from a distance. This remark of K .A. Timiriasev is worth consideration from two points of view. First, it indicates clearly that K.A. considered the possibility of the exibtene of hormones in the plant organism. Second, it once again indicates the scientific perspicacity of K.A. In this case he somehow guessed the origin and development of one of the moat interesting branches of the contemporary study of phytohormones. At the present time there exist a series of works which indicate, that in floral plants during the pollination a certain amount of hormones enter into the maternal organism. These hormones are formed by pollens and pollen pipes, i.e., by formations which belong to the paternal organism and that these substances influence considerably the growth and development of several tissues and organs of the maternal plant. G. Fitting, studying post-floral changes (which follow pollination) in the flowers of orchids, indicated in 1909-l91C, that some of these transformations are determined by the effect of the active substance which exists It, pollens and which is also produced by pollen pipes during its growth. Here belong, for in- stance, the postfloral growth of the ovary and stigma and the thickening of the gynoval ("ginostexuii") i.e., the organ which was formed in the orchid by means Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 j rolodnyi 6 Trans1. 106. of fusion of the core with the stamen filament. This same factor affects the transformation of the coloring of perioarp and, in many cases, the life cycle. It is quite possible that all these phenomena are exptlhlned by the formation of auximone - the most spread phytohormone in the vegetative world - from pollen and from pollen pipes. Later on, various authors discovered the presence of an active substance of the auxinone type in the pollen of most varied plants. It is true, in all described cases until now,the source for phytohormone is, appareini:ly, not "the reproductive property" in the strict meaning of this word, i.e., not the male sexual cell. But is it quite possible that even the latter introduces into the egg cell and into the surrounding tissues of the maternal organism physiologically active solutions which are able to influence their growth, development and exchange of substances. The prdrblem of future studies - is to examine more thoroughly all these phenomena and to elucidate their role in the presesses connected with reproduction. The physiology of reproduction is a domain which has not yet been studied by our contemporary phytophysiologists. Here they are faced with a tremendous and most important task. The thought ex- pressed by K.A. Timiriasev concerning the production by the male sexual cells of hormonal substances capable of influencing not only the egg cell, but also the cell elements of the maternal plant which surround it, will at the beginning, be the guiding point for this work. III In the development of contemporary study about phytohormanes a very import- ant role was played by the explorations consigned to orienting motions - tropisms - of higher plants. The start for these studies was made by Darwin's work, "The plant's ability to move", which was published in 1880. This was the last important research of the great biologist. It considerably influenced further development Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 -.._ ..., , r Trans l . 106. in the physiology of motion and growth of the vegetating organism. But its Significance has been underestimated or wrongly evaluated for a long time. should dwell more circumstantially upon the causes for this circumstance, in order to elucidate the ideas and critical remarks made by X. A. Timiriazev, in regard to this work. The Biology of the second half of the nineteenth century has been developing during the victory of a new conception of nature, the historical and mechanical. The historical principle was introduced mainly by the works of Ch. Darwin, the mechanical conception reached much further, based upon the achievements, wkkk ie4~ar~rx In other branches of natural sciences, especially in physics and also in some branches of physiology, with his assistance. These basic features in the development of biology during the indicated epoch were many times re- ferred to by '.A. Timiriasev. The role and the significance of the two mentioned principles in the science of nineteenth century were, however, not similar. The historical method, which has been so brilliantly displayed in the genial works of Darwin and which .acquired immediately a wide recognition, was nevertheless a comparatively new, slightly tested instrument in understanding nature, and its further expansion often encountered on its road serious obstacles in the conservatism of biolo- gical thought. On the other hand, the mechanical principle which had in the past considerable raarits as the source of guiding ideas in its research of the most variable phenomena of inorganic, and partly organic nature, disclosed an obvious tendency towards the penetration into such domains of natural sciences where its rights were quite disputable. And while the historical direction in the Biology of the nineteenth century was a factor which was progressive in every repect, the mechanical approach began to play/somewhat reactionary role as long as it checked the further development of thin science and deviated it into the wrong direction. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 8 Tonal, 106. Thus was the role of the mechanical principle at the and of the nineteenth century in the explanation of plant physiology to which Darwin consigned his last work. The predominating conceptions in respect to the motion of plants did not excel the frames of purely mechanical schemes. The dislocation of parts and of organs of higher plants caused by the effects of light, heat, weight and of other external factors was explained by the changes in growth and the tension of tissues in the place of direct effect of these factors - based upon some physical laws. The thought of the explorers in this line did not go further than the primitive, mechanical conceptions and did not consider the facts which indicated a more complex character of phenomena which occurred in the vegetating organism. There .s no serious attempts to understand the nature of the strange "regul- arity" of the observed motions, to Live it some kind of a scientific explanation. Darwin approached the study of motion of the vegetative organism from an entirely new point of view. For hid, in this domain, as well as in all others pertaining to his special explorations, the leading point were two basic ideas of his evolutionary study, namely: the idea of the natural genesis - based on selection - of all manifestations of the adaptation of organisms to the envir- onment and the idea of genetic relation between all the representatives of the animal and vegetative world. These relations are caused by the common conditions of their origin and are basically similar in their structure and physiological processes. These two ideas fully determined the general direction of Darwin's work in regard to the mobile capacity of pants. On one hand, Darwin tried to explain the veeys of evolution of this capacity starting with its simplest mani- festations common to all vegetative organisms and ending up with the most specialised manifestations Which carry in them all the signs of adaptation re- actione. On the other hand, Darwin aimed to prove, by means of physiological analysis of the most varied movements of vegetative organisms, that in some cases these movements, in their complexity, are not inferior to the movements of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zholodnyi 9 Tranal. 106. lower animals and, consequently, could not be placed into the frames of those simple, mechanical schemes which satisfied Darwin's predecessors and eontem poraries - specialists on plant physiology. These two problems were successfully solved by Darwin: the first - by means of genetic, correlation between all the forms of motions with its complexity whose wide spreading in the vegetative world has been determined by Darwin him- self; the second - with the assistance of a series of fine experimental surreys which disclosed the space differentiation of the sensitory and the motor functions in various organs of many plants. Finally, a deep ecological analysis enabled Darwin to elucidate in his work, as in his other research, the winding and climbing plants, the certain adaptability of many motor reactions in many higher plants under observation; and based upon this, to Live a satisfactory explanktion of their regularity, so miraculous at the first glance. The work of Darwin, in its general direction and in its specific con- clusions, differ from the established opinions of the ma'prity of botanists, - physiologists of the nineteenth century. Therefore it has been received un- friendly. The head of the German school of phyto-physiologists,. !U. Sachs in his "Lectures on Plant Physiology", published in the year of Darwin's death (1882), in explaining why he never mentions the works of Darwin on plant move- ments, writess "1 an sorry that the nano of Charles Darwin is written at the title. The experiments which he describes are carried out without competence and are poorly explained, and the good which is slightly mentioned in the book, is not new". Sachs also gave a negative criticism to the orienting motion in the cir- cled nutation. Sachs limited himself to the open criticism of Darwin's work without trying to explain to the reader how he explains the mistakes of the author. Another great German physiologist - n1. $izner - appeared already in 1881 with a more Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kbolodnyi 10 Trans 1. 106. circumstantial criticism rich he tried to verify by his own experiments. Tin- like Sachs, Vizner does not hide the ideological motives of his attitude to the criticized work. For "sound natural science", according to his opinion, the natural scientific explanation should coincide with the "mechanical", and many puzzling phenomena in the m.ovenent of vegetative organisms could be sued up to simple mechanical processes. What was Timiriazev's attitude to Darwins research on plant movement? A basic purely evolutionary position of these explorations stimulated in him a vital admiration and approval. Ee discusses it circumstantially in the last chapter of his book "Ch. Darwin and his teachings". X.A. gives a positive evaluation of Darwin's idea on the origin of various types of motion frog the circle nutation. According to his opinion, the question arises, whether the circle nutation could be considered as an autonomous phenomenon (thus was Darwin's point of view) or it is based upon the effect of a sum of exterior factors. Y.A. writes further that "Darwin's unquestionable great merit is that he discovered many phenomena which were not even suspected before". Which are the discoveries of Darwin to which Timiriarev is referring, we shall learn frcm his other book - "'"he Life of Plants" where we read the following (T orks, Y. IV, p. 212)t "The ideas of botanists concerning the correlation bet:eeen the growth of the organs and ex. ternal influences should become more complex after the outstanding, most original explorations of Darwin. Ho proved that the place of the effect of the external stituulator and the place where this effect is manifested may not co- incide some time". Further, he discusses Darwin's experiments with beheaded roots which cease to react upon the effect of gravity and with the sprouts of grain which, after the darkening of the tops of their coleoptiles (feathers), loose their capacity of turning towards light". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 11 Transl. 105. Thus, the entire content of Darwin's work concerning the plant movement, including those divisions which were re jested by German physiologists, has been highly evaluated by K. A. Timiriazev. Nevertheless, this unconditional approval waer mixed with the feeling of bitterness in regard to one unsuccessful thought of De.rvrin or, as it would be more correct to put it,- Darwin's tendency of underlining all those peculiarities of plant movements which indicate the im- possibility of a simple, mechanized explanation, and which at the same time enables us to compare the motor reactions of the vegetative and animal organisms. 'Where are the roots for this bitter feeling or dissatisfaction which dark- ened the sincere admiration which K.A. had for Darwin's work concerning the motor capacity of plants? We may indicate two sources which nourished this feeling. In "The Life of Plants", directly close to the passage which we just quoted, in which Timiriazov evaluates highly the "brilliant and ori;inal" experiments of Darwin with the roots and eoleo;Niles of grains, the author writes the following (Works, v. IV, page 213): "These factors were sufficient to assume at the. edge of the root, of the grain feather, the existence of some special sensitory organs which transmit to the plant their impressions and cause their deformation." Thus, according to Timiriazev's opinion, these experiments of tarwin with the roots and coleoptiles served as the guiding point for that direction in plant physiology which at the beginning of the twentieth century reached its highest development, especially in Germany, where it was named "the physiology of stimulus" (Eeizphysiologie). In the foreword to the English edition of "The Life of Plants" (1912) K. A. Timiriazov, speaking of "this contemporary flood, quite dangerous", of this new direction, indicates that it is acccrarod to tim brain, because by rettoviug; It, certain deforcaatiat~a do not occur or do not occur drastically. This metaphors (Which does not find any analogy in the aninal or%anism) Was contradictory to that basic idea of Darwin which encouraged him to concentrate his entire scientific activity upon plants, since in ther* he was able to roint out the existence of selectivity without the presence of conscience". This "unhappy s!etaphore", writes K. A. further, appealed to the Texan botanists. "A series of German botanir,tew tried to develop the thought of Darwin concerniu& the root conscience (underlined by N. Rh.); from here originated to study of sensitory organs in plants arid, finally, of its soul". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Rholodnyi is Transl. 106. A little bit further (page 114) K. A. again returns to this questions "botanists, ? he writes, - without any reason, try to find instead of the strictly experimental method, some psychological parallels, absolutely un- founded, empty guesses on "memory" as the basic property of the organized sub. stance, the capacity of the plant to "study" and to act accordingly with the acquired knowledge, on the growth of some organs from the "root brain"; such example is not even mentioned with animals". ezev he f o - - . .tea ... , t wvaj, o Darwin concerning the motor capacity of plants, not only contained factual material, later utilized by the phytopsyohologists for their purposes, but also gave them an ideological support in the form of "a thought on the root conscience", which, of course, could easily be developed as the thought on plant's soul. In summing up all the ideas of X. A. Timiriazev, concerning Darwin's work on plants' motor capacity, we see that K.A.,while considering the great scientific value of the experimental data and basic conclusions of this work, insisted at the same time upon the fact that this theory is based upon a mis- taken thought which was the guiding point for the development of phyto- psychology. Then the question arises, how well founded is this "accusation" against Darwin by his convinced follovier. A close study of Darwin's work concerning the motor ability of plants leads us to conclusion that this accusation is based upon a misunderstanding and that there are no bases to consider Darwin being responsible for the mistakes of the phytopeychologists. Really, let us analyze the final words in Darwin's book which, according to Timiriazey's opinion, "had such a harmful influence upon many botanists" and served as the guiding point for the development of the teaching of the soul of plants. Here it is: "It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the root edge which has the ability of directing the motions of the neighboring parts acts Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 14 like the brain of the lower animals which is located in the front of the booty which perceives the impressions from sensitory organs and which direct various motions". We see that not a word is here mentioned about the "root conscience". But, may be, this thought was expressed by Darwin in some other part of his extensive works? But our search would be in vain: nowhere and never did Darwin insist upon the thought that the root or moms other part of the plant possesses "conscience." It is hardly possible to read that thought "between the lines" in the concluding words of his book. Studying them quietly and objectively, without any prejudice, we will not find there anything, except the intention to prove that the movement of plants according to their peculiarity of interior "mechanism", according to the degree of differentiation and complexity of physiological phenomena con- nected with them are not inferior to the motions of many loner animals that possess a central nervous system in the form of a primitive brain. Such in- tention is quite natural, if we recall that, according to Darwin's words (see his autobiography and the letter to A. DeCandolle of iIay 28, 1880) he always enjoyed "lifting the plant to a higher level of the organic ladder". Each new fact which indicates such a possibility, according to Darwin, proves the con- sanguinity of all living organisms, the basic similarity in their construction, the unity of roots of the entire organized nature and, therefore, should assist in the victory of Darwin's basic principles. How did it happen that such an excellent student of Darwin's works, as Timiriazev, who understood better than any other scientist the spirit. and the essence of Darwin's teachings, made such a mistake by attributing to Darwin - in a problem of greatest importance - a thought which the great teacher never even expressed? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Rholodnyi i5 Transl. 106. In order to reply to this question, we must remember that the remark con- cerning Darwin's "wrong thought", by which he attributed conscience to plants, was expressed by Timiriazev at the pick of his argument against anti-Darwinists, neo-vitalists and phytopsyehologists who often borrowed ideas from Darwin's book for the benefit of their mistaken opinions. Darwin's "unlucky metaphors", as ?imiriazev calls it, - the comparison of the root edge with the brain of lower animals - was for them a real find: The brain is considered the organ of phychological activitys This seemed so convincing that Timiriazev himself shared the point of view of his adversaries. .1eanwhile, as we shall see, he could easily disarm them by referring to another of Darwin's remarks. This remark has direct relation to those experiments with roots and coleoptiles, and proves irrefutably that the thought of the great biologist was directed not towards the attempts of explaining the movements of vegetative organs of the psychological plant activity, but towards the purely materialistic ideas which later on received ex- cellent confirmation in the works of a series of authors who continued this to- search of Darwin already during our life time - in the twenties and thirttesof this century. Let us see, what was Darwin's' real point of view. His experiments with. roots and with coleoptiles of cereals proved clearly that from the tops of these organs "some kind of influence" is transferred into the zone of its growth. This influence causes the organ to turn into some direction during the effect of var- ious external factors. That is the nature of this influence? If Darwin would turn to the trend of thought of phytopsychologists, he would pay attention to analogies with the reflex of the nervous stimulation in antral organisms and, maybe, to even more risky comparisons with the simplest psychophysiological pro- cesses. We don't find in Darwin anything of this kind. In discussing the more pronounced facts of the reflex of the "Influence" - in sprouts of canary seed - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 16 wraps:.. tvo. Phaleris canarieasis - Darwin indicates that "these results, obviously.y cause us to assume the presence of some substance in the upper part (ooleop'tiles), upon which light affects and which transfers its effect into the lower part". tote: Ch. Darwin. The Power of Iovement in Plants, 1880, p. 486 (London). Thus see that the miraculous Influence of the upper part of. colesoptiles which is sensitive to light upon the lower zone of the growth of the same organ, according to Darwin, could be explained quite simply - by the spreading from the top of some substance. This brilliant guess found its oonfirmatis:i in . series of experimental research after forty years. it became evident that the!1oo1e0ptile edge secretes phytohormone - auxin, and its distribution in the vegetative tissues affects the motor reaction - the bending of the organ Into some dir-'\ action. This discovery gave a mighty impetus in the development of the entire contemporary phytoendocrinology. Darwin expressed his assumption only in applying to the coloopti le Pha 1? 10 But is it possible to doubt that for other organs which he examined, including roots, he would look for another explanation? The movements of all those organs represent a full analogy with the movement which is observed in Phalal is sprouts. it is evident that it is possible to ascribe to Darwin the tendency to phytopsyohological thoughts only by ignoring (conscientiously and unconsoient- iously) his real points of view, strictly materialistic which found its ex- pression in the remark concerning the substance which regulates the effect of ex- ternal factors from one part of the plant into another. We could hardly suspect Timiriazev in a conscious distortion of Darwin*s real points of view. T#.miriasev simply did not notice the thought of Darwin, so occasionally mentioned, concerning the phenomena which occur in the coleoptile during the phototropical stimulus. Any new thought has the necessary effect only in that case if the ground has been prepared for its correct understanding. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 17 Transl. 106. There was no such ground for the understanding and further development of Dar- win's idea during his lift time nor during the succeeding decades. This is verified by the fact that even those explorers who repeated Darwin's experiments (Visner, fotert, Fitting and others) did not pay any attention to his brilliant thought. It did not correspond to the "spirit of the timed; the end of the XXX and the beginning of the centuries were the periods of flourishing of the idealistic physiology of stimulus. The representatives of this flourishing of the idealistic physiology of stimulus. The representatives of this direction naturally sought and found in Darwin's work only the item which was contributing to the development of their points of view. The "metaphors of the root, brain" was helpful in their requirement and did not contribute at all to the ma er;ial- istie idea concerning the substance which support the physiological Bonne pti:on between various parts of the plants. Nevertheless, neither the followers of the ideological physiology of \Iatim- ulus which tried to explain the motor reaction of plants based upon the dads of \ nerve physiology of animals, nor the phytopsychologists were able to utilize Darwi.n's "metaphors" in order to strengthen their teachings. It soon became known that some parts of the central nervous system of animals have the functions of endocrine glands. The brain appendix, or hypophyte, of vertebratesjproduces a hormone which regulates the growth of animals and, consequently, according to its physiological significance represents some remote analogy with the root edge or with the coleoptile tip of cereals. Thus, Timiriazev'e argument which in- dicates that in the animal world we do not know any examples of brain effect upon the growth of an organism. Referring to the problem of Timiriazev's dissatisfaction to Darwin's work concerning the movement of plants we may say here that this feeling was nourished by the incorrect idea on the significance of Darwin's few experiments and con- clusions in the domain of plant physiology. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 iholodnyi 18 Tranel. 106. Another reason for Timiriatev's duality towards Darwin's experiments over the movements of plants is closely connected with that peculiarity of Timiriazevrs scientific points of view. As the typical son of the nineteenth century which Timiriatev, along with hol'tsman, called the century of Darwinism and of mech- anical understanding of nature, Timiriazev himself was inclined to overestimate the significance of the latter, the mechanical principle in the development of biology and especially of plant physiology. This characteristic of K. A. individuality scientific dIMW t r explains to us that preference which he always gave to physiological processes, at the expense of chemical methods and models. In his own experimental research Tim:iriasev was first of all a physicist. Note: "Physiology, - writes I.A. in his lectures "The Historical Method in Biol- o g - is only the physics of living organisms" (Works, v.VI, p.41). This characteristic of Timiriazev has been bluntly expressed in his attitude to the physiology of the movements of the vegetative organism. Here he also was inclined to the physical model of the surveyed phenomena. The perservergnce by which he defended in this field any attempt of "mechanical explanation" of the physiological processes was intensified by the realization that here the mat- erialistic and Darwinistie ideas concerning the organic world are threatened. According to X.A.'e opinion, the rejection of mechanical ideas in this domain of plant physiology would support the vitalistic theories. In the foreword to his "Life of Plants", (1912) of the English edition Timiriazov writes "I suspect that many among my botanical colleagues will find some ideas of the seventh chapter out of date, but I must sincerely admit that the reference to the sound ideas of fait (Knight?) or DeCandolle, Diutroehe or ffofineister is desirable during the spreading of Reisphysiolo~ tr ioh could become quite dangerous. I an con- vinced - he says further - that the models similar to those suggested by DeCandolle for the explanation of the phenomenon d heliotropism or by Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 !holodnyi 19 fofineister for geotropism, of course, if applied to the growing requirements of science, would renew the study of the mechanism of growth to the promising re- search", (Works, v.IV, p.22-23). And in confirmation of this point of view K.A. refers to the authority of the physicist G. Thompson who insisted that "even in the higher scientific spheres" the mechanical models are a powerful instrument for research. This conviction which he borrowed from the physicists on the power and the prospective of "mechanical models" was the reason by L.A. defended in his chapter "Life of Plants", which discussed growth and tropism, actually in- sisted upon the points of view which occupied a scientific position during the first half and the middle of the nineteenth century. But at the same time he was unable to realize that these old attempts of mechanical explanation of tropisms is impossible to reconcile with the new data in this field found by Darwin and by his followers. In order to overcome this inner contradiction, it was necessary to reject the primitive schemes of llofineister, DeCandolle and other pioneers in the physiology of movement of the vegetative organism. But, as we already pointed out, rejection, according to Timiriazev, would mean loosing the position to the followers of the idealistic Reizphysiologie. He was unable to foresee that the science of the twentieth century will find a third road, that the problem of tropisms would be solved neither by physics nor by the physio- logy of stimulus, but by chemistry and by plant endocrinology, according to Darwin's assumption about the exittence of auximone. The realization of the impossibility of applying old mechanical schemes to the growing requirements of science which was based on Darwin's discovery in the field of tropisms was, from our point of view, the second source for Timiriazev's dual attitude to these discoveries. K. A. Timiriazev died just a few years before that drastic change in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 20 Tonal. 106 development of the physiology of growth and movement of the vegetative organism which occurred around 1925. Then the question arises: low would K.A.'s attitude be to this great event in the history of plant physiology, which evaluation would he give to this new hormonal theory of tropisms and to the entire doctrine of phytohormonea which within 15-20 years developed into an independent depart- ment of phytophysiology and biochemistry with wide perspectives both in the domain of theoretical problems and in the domain of practical applications. We have-already seen with which kind of interest g.A. followed the develop- ment of animal endocrinology and which hopes he connected with the possible spreading of the doctrine about hormones upon the vegetative organism. The first steps in plant physiology into this new direction, interesting data ob- tained by Fitting, 0aberlandt, leb and others before 1920, did not receive his attention and, possibly, were unknown to him. But we should not doubt that fur- ther achievements in this young science - phytoendoorinology - which led to a radical reconstruction of our conceptions concerning the mechanism of orienting plant movements would stimulate in I.A. his usual enthusiasm and hot approval. Really, the first and natural result of this reconstruction was the cabling of Roizphysiologie, the physiology of stimulus, so hated by X.A. The wide domain of phenomena - the entire doctrine on tropisms, from where the physiologists of this direction drew the material for their speculations, re- ceived an entirely new and strictly materialistic interpretation. Analogies with psychophysiological processes in animals became now impossible, and the oonplerx ideology and terminology of the previous physiology of tropisms be- came absolutely unnecessary. Instead of attributing various forms of sensi- tivity to the top of coleoptile or to the root edge, we now speak about the production of auxin in these organs; instead of referring to means of moving "irritability" or "stimulus" from the aensitory zone into the motor zone we Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 'holodnyi 21 Transl. 106. will examine the ways and means of the auxin spreading in the plant tissues, etc. The real nature of the phenomenon which has been called "perception", or "pertseptaii" became clear. It became evident that the external factors (light, gravity and others) during their effect upon the vegetative organ causes in the living tissues of the latter an electrical polarization. This electrical polar- ization causes the change in the growing hormone into any direction, depending on the direction of the light energy or the tracting power, etc. Changer in the growth of some parts of the organ which are hidden in its motor "reaction" come to the mechanism of auxin effect upon the growing cells. The speed of the growth of these cells in some plants increases the concentration of this substance, in others decreases. This basic change in our conceptions about the nature of tropisms and the growth of plants according to their tendencies corresponded to the general dir- ection in the thought and scientific conception of K.A. Tixniriazev. He would find satisfaction in concrete materialistic schemes and models which enable him to re- duce complex phenomena of the living organism to more simple physico-chemical processes. It is now, that the physiology of the growth and of tropisms finally found its correct road bettowed upon us by the clawsice of natural sciences of the nineteenth century with Darwin as the head. Timiriazev always aimed to that road. Could we doubt that he would greet with great joy this historical event? Darwin's research on the movement of plants were the first attempt to approach some basic problems of phytophysiology by ideas and methods of the evolutionary theory. An we have already seen, this attempt of the great biologist to elucidate the origin and the development of the most varied movements of the the vegetative organism from/historical point of view received Timiriazev's high evaluation. During the succeeding decades, the evolutionary ideas slowly, but firmly penetrated also in other dvisions of plant physiology. The evolutionary trend Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Trans 1. 106. in the study of phytosynthesis and of plant breathing achieved high success. Phytpendloronolouy which originated in Darwin's work on plant movene"nt cannot stand/aside frcei this penetration of evolutionary, Darwinistic ideas into the Rholodnyi 22 phye$oloiy of the vegetative organism. In Larxin's doctrine, it may find necessary po ,haste in solvin contradictory problems of principle which spring up with the growth of science which gradually embraces more problems. Science should make use of this doctrine in selecting ways and methods in colving its problems. It is possible and necessary to consider the problem of the initiation of ;hormonal substances in the vegetative organism from the evolutionary point of view. 7'e know that the chemical peculiarities of every living organism are caused ,by natural selection in the some manner as its morphological characteristics. In our case, various organlcal compounds which originate in the erichange of substances in email quantities are the material for the productive activity of selection. Among then we may differentiate useful, harmful and indifferent for the organism. The chemical nature of these compounds changes gradually depending upon external and internal conditions. Natural selection, while being active against that back- ground, Faust strengthen those changes in the processes of metabolism which are followed by the production of useful physiologically active substances. In considering from this point of view the initiation and the development of sprouting substances, it is not bard to see the process of their gradual oomplicatioi and perfection - u;; to the production of those chemical instruments which act accurately and quickly, like auxin, heteroauxin, vitamins and various other physiologically active compounds with regulatory function. The problem of the causes for the wide spreading of auxin in the vegetative world requires special attention. It is interesting to observe that a great amount of other biologioal]y active substances which are formed in the calls and in the tissues of plants, for instance, all known vitamins, are of great significance also in the life of animals. Auxin does not belong here. The few data which exist in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 gholodnyi 23 Tranel. 106. literature and which indicate that auxin regulates the early stages in the-de- velopment of some vertebrates are seemingly erroneous. Other surveys which deserve more confidence determined that this substance does not have any physiological effect upon the growing cells of typical animals and it is not formed in their body as the product of their own metabolism. Auxin, which could be arrays found in the urine of the human and of herbivorous animals, penetrates into their organism through the vegetative food and without being exposed to changes, secretes through the kidneys. This is, seeriinws ly, the fate of hater- auxin, which is secreted by the bacteria of intesting microflora and which does not manifest any influence upon the physiological processes in the organism of animals and of humans. Thus auxin is a specifically vegetative substance with a regulatory function which, is widely spread in higher plants. In some respects, auxin, consequently, represents something analogous to chlorophyll, which is a specific vegetative pit-ent with which it is connected in Ito genesis. How is it possible to explain from evolutionary physiological point of view that ciroum- etaree, that auxin acquired a great physiological significance only in the world of higher plants, while the organism of animals is indifferent to it? In order to reply to this question we should discuss the differences be- tween the typical plants and animals. This topic often attracted Timiriasev's attention. If we sums up briefly his ideas in this field and also what could be found in other great biologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, we arrive at the following: The basic distinction between typical animals and plants "consists of the fact that a plant, being connected with the substratum, aims to develop the most possible surface in its continuity with the environment from which it ob- tains food, while the animal, forced to move in search of food, on the contra", aims to the maxinal decrease of his surface, to the decrease of the size of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Nholodnyi 24 Transl. 106. body and to the formation of parts which contain organs important for survival". Note: W. G. 1hclodnyi. nfarwinism and evolutionary physiology' Publ. Arm. filial Academy of Sciences USSR, 1943, p. 42. This basic distinction between the typical representatives of two branches of organic nature, far divided from each other, determines their other morphol- ogical and physiological peculiarities. As to the higher plants, the immobile adherence to the substrate which does not permit them to move in space in tote limits their movements by bending their parts and organs. These li*nited move- ments acquire more significance,, since only with their assistance is the plant able to distribute its parts in the environment most regularly, i.e., in a manner to fulfill its life function. As it is known, these movements are divided into turgor movements, or variation movements, and growing or nutation ones. The first ones are observed in leaves which accomplished their growth and in some parts of the flower. The second ones are spread more widely and are intrinsic to all organs of higher plants which have the capacity of growing. An important role in the life of higher plants are playing tropisms, i.e., the growing movements which direct their parts in a specific manner in relation to important external factors - light, tractive power, humidity, heat, the con- tent and concentration of nourishing substances, or of harmful chemical com- pounds, etc. In the enviro. nt. The mechanism of these movements has been clarified quite fully at the present time. As we already mentioned, they are based upon the ability of living growing tissues of plants to react upon the effect of physiological polarization, i.e., the emergence of some difference in the potentials in the direction of the effect of the external factor. Auxin possesses the capacity of transferring to the direction of the growing potential. Accumulated in specific parts of the growing organ, directed by external power, this substance causes here the acceleration and the retardation of growth Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 25 Tran s l . 106. depending upon the nature of the organ and upon the reached Mncentration. As a result of this process, a bending originates which has any direction related to the factor which acts outside. Of all physiologically active substances, known, at the present time, which are produced by the cells and the tissues of higher plants, auxin, It seems, possesses in highest degree the ability of diffusing in the growing tissues in the direction of the electrophysiological gradient. This explains the factor why natural selection attributed to it the role of the Principal chemical reg- ulator of growing phenomena in higher plants. If use now turn to typical animals that possess the ability of free movement, then we can easily see that, due to constant transposition of their body, the electrophysiological polarization of their tissues under the effect of the en- vironment, if It occurs, yet does not have the same significance as in plants. In this connection auxin is unnecessary as a regulator of growth. Only the sitting forms of lower animals (for instance hydroid polyps) which have, like plants, the capacity for tropical bendings could serve as exceptions. It would be interesting to examine the problem about the presence of auxin in these forma. Thus, the primary significance of auxin in the growth and in the growth movements of higher plants is closely connected with their evolution which is re- lated to the peculiarities of their nourishnent and the absence of capacity to free movement in the environment. As we have already indicated, Timiriazev his of the opinion that "the diff- erence between plant and animal--is not qualitative, but only quantitative" (Works. v. IV, p.296). It is, therefore, impossible to overlook the fact that upon higher stages of the organic ladder the quantitative differences become qualitative. The basic difference of typical representatives of the animal and vegetative world is, naturally, reflected upon their entire organization. For Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 26 Trans 1. 106. higher animals is characteristic "the higher grade of anatomical and physiological differentiation...., the more refined and perfect specialisation of their in- dividual parts, their organs, the presence of a series of complicated mechanisms which assist in the speed and accuracy of the motor reactions". (N.G. Kholodnyi, 1, p.42). In the process of the evolution of animal forms "complicated'borrel- ations between various parts of the organism caused the necessity in a perfect "relation service" which occurs in animals with the assistance of hormones and the nervous system. The presence of the latter, on the other hand, caused new complications into the hormonal mechanism by enriching it with substances which assist in the work of the brain and of the nerves. The same might be told about the digestive organs, sexual reproduction, eta. In connection with the pro- gressive changes of any of these oysters the entire mechanism of biologically ao:ive compounds produced by the anii l itself developed and became more perfect". "We observe in typical plants a different picture. The specialization of functions of individual organs and of tissues is here expressed less conspicuous than in animals. In reality, almost each living part of the plant at some degree possesses all the qualities of the entire organism and under favorable conditions is able to give it a start. The relation between various organs is also de- veloped comparatively slight. According to the amount and the variety of the organs the vegetative organism, even the most complicated, is always inferior to the animal. Sone functions, for instance the nervous function, are absent or could be disclosed only in the embryonic condition. Thus the structure of a plant is characterized by loss differentiation, by the concentration of a larger amount of vari--us morphological, physiological and biochemical potentials in each organ, in each tissue and in each cell". N. G. Kholodnyi, Z.S. p.48-49. These peculiar characteristics in the structure of a typical plant corres- pond with the peculiarities of the complex of biologically active substances - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 F.holodbyi 27 T rane l . 106. phy~tohormones. In comparison with the hormonal mechanism of aai.nale, this com- plex ins inferior in its structure, and Its individual components are less apecielised as to their functions, The best st6died phytohormone - auxin, which at first was oor_sdered the f;rawrth hormone, but which regulates the growth of cells during the stage of stretching, appeared to be the universal instrument of higher plants which has the capacity not only to influence the growth of all organs, but also on the division of cells, on the processes of morphogenesis and develosnent, upon the exchange of substances, etc. This peculiarity of auxin which could be called its physiological polyvalence has no analogies In than animal world. In su.r".ing up the above concerning the hormones of aniUnals and of pknts, we come to the conclusion that, if we like to consider the problems of phyto. endocrinology from purely Darwinletic, evolutionary point of view, as Timiriarev always advocated, them we have to keep in mind not only the characteristics of a basic similarity between animals and plants but no less basic differentiations in the structure and in the functions of typical represen:tatives of these two branches of the organic world. hero arouses the necessity of being very cautious in all those cases when, as a result of the first and superficial acquaintance with some new group of hormonal phenomena of tho ve) ;etative organism, ve notice an analogy between these phenomena and soi:'e physiological processes of higher animals. Tin.iriatov often in connection with the initiation of the physiology of stimulus in plants, of phytopsychology called our attention to the fact that such analogies, comparisons, may be quite dangerous and might lead to undesirable results, to ideologically and methodically inaccurate and unsound ideas in biology. unfortunately, the necessity of such a careful, dialectical and evolutionary approach to the problems of plant endocrinology has not been considered by all Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 iholodnyi 28 Trans 1. 106. explorers who work in this field. In this domain originate various ideas which represent a considerable and doubtless similarity with those aberrations of biological thought which were criticized by Timiriazev so bluntly and correctly. We are referring here to the tendency of many contemporary phytophysiologists to attribute to higher plants the ability of forming and applying many and various, in chemical sense, hormonal substances with a specialized function. The first manifestation of such tendency was the idea of "tropohormones", i.e., specific substances with the help of which various motor reactions of plants - heotropical, phototrapical and others - are carried out. They assumed the existence of a special substance for each motor form. This assumption was rejected when it became clear that the basis for all tropisms is the acceleration and retarding of growth caused by the same substance - auxin. To this class of "plant anomaly" of contemporary phytoendocrinology we should also add the restoration of the old Sachs idea of organ forming substances which has been made fun of by Timiriazev,who found in this idea a basic similarity with the ideas of the alchemists and physicians of the Middle Ages concerning special "powers" present in medical and other substances and which determine their effect upon the human organism (virtue dormitiva, virtus pur,ativa, etc.). The sane "alchemical, aftertaste" is present in all rhizoealiri, caulocalin,uernalin, antogene and formagene, which are mentioned in many works dedicated to the hormonal phenomena of the vegetative organism. K. A. Tiririazev often repulsed the attempts of our own and foreign vitaliets to explain the movements of plants by their "instinctive tendencies" or by similar causes. Thereby he indicated that such attempts indicate "a certain mental laziness" and "readiness of lulling one's self with words" (Works, v.VI, p.44). It seems that the adherents to hypotheses in specialized phytohormones and in organ forming substances are not free from such shortcomings. Really, it is easier to admit the existence of some "formagene" than to start on the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Thol odnyi 29 'ran s l . 106. complex road of physiological and biochemical analysis of the oossplieated complex of internal cord it6ons which are necessary for the realization of some stage of normal. morphogenesiz or for its change. in the development of science such pseudo elucidations play, undoubtedly, a negative role. Fooling by their seeming sim- plicity, they lull the thought of the explorer and divert his attention from the problems which der;and a deep axid varied study. I'or those who are sell acquainted with T niriazev's points of view, there could be no difference in opinion in the question how would be E.A.'s attitude to the flourishing of "physiological alclzenistry'2 which roes witness at the present time. There is no doubt that it is not new in its essence and represents further development of Sachs' idea. But it is not enough to judge any phenomenon; it is necessary to find its causes, to understand its origin. Tim.iriazev taught us, that in the development of each science and of each branch in science there is its logic, that the springing up of any scientific theory, the temporary supremacy of any trend is always a result of a logical and dialectical process of the evolution of ideas based upon the widening and deepening of our factual knowledge. And if we try, fm,-, his roint of view, to approach that course of con- temporary phytoor docrinolo y r+,ich we were discussing above, then it will be easy to perceive that it originated as a direct result of outstanding progress achieved by eheriistry in examining some natural and synthet"ieally obtained sub- stances of a tremendous biological activity# here ve have before us a quite common example of an a xtre^se infatuation by a certain idea, by a definite trend of thought, which are at the first impression outstanding discoveries. in our case, the discovery of auxin and its analogues gave the impetus to the "scientific agitation", or rather, "golden fever" in science. The most zealous "`;old hunters" hurried in making .many "reverts". And rocs should not doubt that the majority of the latter will be reports on empty sands. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 3o K. A. would observe another negative peculiarity of many contemporary studies on hormonal phenomena of the vegetative organism 8 t narrow chemical approach, the underestimation of the purely physical understanding of these phenomena. It was Tfm.iriazev who expressed the thought that physiology is first of all the physics of living substances (orks, T. VI, p. 41). And if we look closer to the wide group of work dedicated to the phenomena of photo. periodism, then we would be surprised by the absence of the physical thought in this domain. But the living green plant is not only a complicated chemical laboratory; it is also at the same time an extremely sensitive physical instru- ment which responds to each external effect by more or less drastic changes in its physical and consequently, physiological properties. At the present time, much attention is given to the photoperiodical stimulus which occurs in the plant. It is very possible that this phenomenon is connected with the transfer of substances of the phytohormonte tyes from the leaves to the vegetative stem tops. Yoe know already that the movement of the phytohormone - auxin - in the vegetative organism depends upon the distribution of electrical potentials, i.e., the pure physical condition of the organs and of the tissues of the plant. But, when the spreading of the photoperiodical stimulus is examined, we usually forget about the physical side of this phenomenon. If our physiologists should follow Timiriazev's suggestion, than their main task is to elucidate the problem from this very point of view. V. In January 1890 in a lecture on factors of organical evolution delivered at the general meeting of the VIII convention of Russian natural scientists and physicians, K. A. Timiriazev mentioned the origin of a now branch in biology - the physiology of form or the experimental morphology of plants and predicted that this just starting branch of science will reach its peak during Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 31 Transl. 106. ff the twentieth century. This prophecy has been realized and tae works. of Fochting, Lobel, Klebs and others laid ?a firm start to the experiment&l plant morphology. K. A. highly evaluated Flebs' research which explained the possibility of arbitrarily changing and regulating the processes of formation of forns and of the entire life cycle of higher and lover plants. Py acting upon the developing organism through some factors of the ectternal environment (light, temperature, moisture, etc.), changing its intensity, quality, the length and the time of the effect, or applying them at various combinations, it became possible to direct the processes of form production, according to the intentions of the experimenter, into any direction, retard or accelerate sexual repeeduction and even cause the initiation of now formations and new fors which did not occur with the given plants under regular conditions of its existence. It is not hard to realize why Y .A. greeted so wholeheartedly the first achievements of the young science: they were excellent confirmation of his basic conviction that "at the last instance behind the sorphological facts should stand the chemical and physical properties of the substance" (Works, v.VI, p.381). hat great significance K.A. attributed to the experimental morphology could be noticed from the fact that he placed it along with Darwinism: "Darwinism.. and experimental norpholagy... - we read In the same speech - are two branches of science a shich are of equal ri; hts and which sutually supplement each other. We expect a complete ansvmr to our question concerning the relative role of factors of organical evolution from these two branches. "( works , v.V, p.141')* over fifty years have ,gone by, since Timiriazev mvote these lines. The progress achieved during this time by the experimental morphology of plants is great, but still it does not jutkify the hopes of Tirtiriazev as to this new branch of biology. It is true, the 1irection which has been outlined by Klebs' research received further fruitful development, especially in our country where Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Yholod nyf 32 ";'rans l . 106. the foundation for stare analysis of the ontofenesis of higher plants has been laid. But the study of the stage development, of its present condition does not ccply with the requirements of X .A. to the future ffphysiology of form" of the vegetative organism. Here the border which divides ecology from genuine physiology has not been crossed. Under genuine physiology understand the one which is based upon the knowledge of "chemical and physical properties of the living organism" and changes which occur in that organism, during the process of individual development. One of the reasons for this stagnation which occurred in experimental morphology of plants after the first outstanding achievements is the One-sided approach to the problems connected with it. This narrowness is expressed, for instance, in the prevalence of the interest to physical factors of morphogenesis - at the expense of the chemical side of the phenomena - and second, we don't de- vote sufficient attention to the internal environment of plants, while that very environment and, mainly, its actives chemical components directly change those qualities of the living organism upon which depend the morphological, physio- logical and all other peculiarities of each organism. Already Darwin noticed the great significance of internal chemical factors. Fe indicated that "great and secret changes in the structure of the organivr_ could be a difinite result of chemical changes in the nourishing juices or in the tissues". Oh. Darwin. The variation of animals and plants under domestication, v. 11, p. 271, N.Y. 1899. This very conclusion which, in applying to vegetative organisms, Darwin based upon his observations of galls, led him to the idea about the possibility of experimental study of transformation with the help of the effect upon the organism by various chemical compounds. The defiance to the chemical side of 'r.orphogenesis of higher plants is explained partly by the fact that the basic mass of nourishing substances Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Kholodnyi 33 (plastic and enerjeti.e material) is little active in the sense of their influ- ence upon the morphological qualities of plants. Therefore Darwin's thought was directed towards a specific group of substances which possess the ability of causing a considerable effect under slight concentrations, i.e., of the physiologically active substances. Darwin knew only about active substances secreted by insects. At the present time we possess wide information concerning chemical regulators - phytohormones which are uroduced by the plants themselves. We also are able to synthesize many and varied substances which resemble phyto- hormones in their physiological effect upon the vegetative organism. Thus, we possess much more material In solving the problem which, according to Timiriazev, "tms initiated by Darwin with such outstanding perspicacity". And we may insist that now is the tine to begin those surveys which were only outlined by Darwin. The first experiments in this direction indicated that here, a new wide field is open for the exacrimenter. This field promises a rich harvest in the sense of widening out knowledge concerning the laws of changes in the vegetative organism, of 'enetrating into the secrets of the mechanism of morphological phenomena and of finding now methods in directing the form organization and the development of h!L;ber plants. For the survey of the data obtained already in this field, as for instance, oolohioin, we would have to write another article. In order to avoid passing beyond our theme, let us diecuse here a .few examic-les which pertain to the experiments with auxin and with, so called, e?nthctio grow- ing substances which, according to their physiological qualities, is similar to that typical representative of the group of phytohormores. The first data -Which revealed the influence of auxin upon the structure of plants were obtained by the author of this article in 1931, when he succeeded in causing the formation of a considerable thickening in the apical part of the tip of the growing root of corn, by introducing auxin in that part, and also to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Nholodnyi 34 Transl. 106. stimulate the initiation of side and supplerentery roots. Then followed a series of work of other explorers sraon; , which our special attention should, be given to the numerous experiments on the stimulus of root formation in grafting various wood and bush varieties which gave us important results, as well as the research of Laibakh and Wai (1936) on the experimental obtaining of anomalies of organ formation within some higher plants. Acting upon the axil buds of the grafted young plants with heteroauxin, the authors discovered in the leaves which developed from these buds a series of deviations from the normal morphogenesis. These deviations caused the si?aplification of the form of the leaf, the growing of several leaves into one and also other changes. Still more outstanding anomalies of the organgenesis were recently described by the American explorers Chichkov and Tsiruserman (1942) who applied "triidobenzoinyi" and phenoxin acids and their various derivatives. These authors were able to cause blooming, where usually only vegetative buds appeared, by applying the above mentioned substances. in order to give to the reader a more concrete idea on the amount and the characteristic of the trarnsfoniation in the morphology of the leaf which could be obtained by means of the effect of physiologically active substances like auxin upon the leaf sprouts, we are giving here a few schema from the work of the author of this article with hie assistants which has been recently published. N. 0. } holodnys , D. laroshenko, A. L. Takhtadzhan. To experimental rorpholcsg v. 29. Issue 4, 1944. and teratology of leaves. botanical 1 agazine USSR* on the scheme 1 is presented a leaf of a linden tree (Tilia cordata) which developed upon a ter sprout which appeared at the base of the trunk of the old tree when the top of this sprout obtained ,froze outside of heterouuxin for some time. This leaf has the form of a funnel. Normally such leaves never grow neither on Tilia cordata, nor on other linden species. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 pholodni.'i 3 V'Z i canal . 106. on the scheme 2 we see a normal triple leaf of legume (bean?) (phaseolus vult;aris); upon the sehor.:o 3 - abnormal pinnate leaf of the, came plant, with two pairs of leaflets, which was formed from a leaf sprout upon the main spindle of the plant whose top has bean covered with lanoline which contained heteroauxin. From the moment of applying lanoline until the photographing and etching of this leaf only 20 days passed by. Sohe?ne 4 presents a leaf of beans which consists only of two leaflets, whereby the right one, which is larger, was formed by the blending of the uneven upper leaflet of the normal leaf and of one of the even lower leaflets. This leaf has developed during, 50 days frog the axile bud which was covered with lanolin containing alfa-naphtaeidic acid. In order to stimulate the development of the axile buds the plant his been decapitated. Finally, on scheme , we See abnormal leaf of the same plant which has been developed also from exile bud covered with a paste which contained the heterauxin solution. This experiment lasted S5 days. flare both even leaflets almost completely blended with the leaflet of the uneven, and as a result a simple ?e[att cannolate leaf was formed. It is interesting that this leaf reminds the leaves of the bean sprout which appear immediately after the cotyledons. Thus, we are able to cause in beans both the increase and the decrease of the division of the leaf plate by applying the sale physiologically active substances. A. very close analysis of the described oases Indicated that the in- crease of differentiation results from the effect of more concentrated solutions of greying substances upon the leaf sprouts which are advanced in their develop- ment, with the direct contact of the latter with the paste. On the contrary, the decrease in the differentiation of the leaf is caused by a pror)longated diffused (general) contact of weak solutions of the some substances Into the leaf sprouts during the very early stages of their development. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 :holodnyi 36 Trans 1. 106. From the described experirents we may arrive at the conclusSon that under normal conditi.cns the riorphogenesis of the leaf depends in some degree on the concentration, distribution and duration of the effect of auxin and of other phytohormones upon the tissue of the developing leaf sprout. Timiriazev, folio ring Darw;ni, attributed great significance to the research of the grafted, or vegetative, hybrids. TRecently, i4 connection with new ex- periments in this field, zany examples of deviations frori the normal .Corns structure, under the influence of foreign eitbstances which penetrate from the leaves of one plant into the 6r,owth point of the other which belong to another species, becrune knorwn. The fornatisre transformations which are observed during these experints could not be explained by differences in the chemical nature of the basic assimilators; for instc.r:ce>, carbohydrates and albyrers, since these sub- the stances are not active in/sense of their influence upon morphogenesi.s. The just mentioned data concerning trans forrsauioris caused by the effect of the hormone reechan3.ym in the form structure of leaves and of o t, ,,her plant organs enable us to ascume that the mutual ihfluence of drafting and of wilding could be, in the first place, sum red up to differences in the struoture of the natural complex of phytohormones whz.eeh is cveeif i.c for any of the giants under experiment. This problem was not: yet corsidered by physiologists and is waiting for its explorer. In the same speech concerning the factors of organic evolution, indioating nemerous exaoples of significant transformations in plant structure which could be caused in its ontogenesis with the assistance of physical factors, K. A. consider that the above is sufficient to justify the con- dition that physiology already starts disclositn; the mystery of the foi: ation of growth forms, that it learns bow to direct the formation of such forms" (Works, v.V., p.136) . "e see now that, a few years after the death of the author of these lines, physiology made one core step in the, same direction, that it begins to reabh a now Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 trltoiadnyl 37 Transl. log. _ _ .....,, -4 4A%7Y V suj+tztesnz 01. the growing organism by chemf.rc, re tt?at:orm tF:ess k~kteno ,e: a whose effect is more corapicuou than the influence of physscaj factors. Chemistry 1 dE t now into the; more itx- tixate proc*.e3+ s of the l ivrirc crmr nian, it pr+c iaos to disclose in the very near future those "` re ti e.jt3 4rr,re t tr n4 for_ ,:aui cans" in the structure and content of then livin organism w}. cr '~o}ks arwizz anc: .:~iriat a oorsi, e~-ed as the beeie cause for all chain of M01-0101olical pi=omen a vrhich represent only they external expreGa rtn of these iflt r?ra? ci. n,~e,. . enterlit, this now and aromist g road, we should recall t#et it bi~ =me acceuelble to us only due to the tre ndous and fruitful work of Ttarrrr1r, and t;:ett: I;is x+ost tKlert6d iustsian follower (disciple), Timir'iazov, caller us ccsrpt.;t nt3,r to tthti:, road. '43fcsar fdeee of Bat-win and of 1"imiri.azev? - wgii Alen September 6, 1951. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 M. Maksimovioh In Selskokjosiaistvannaia entsiklopediia [Agricultural?. oyclopedia1. vol. 3 Moskva, 1939. j Translated in part by $.B. Monson PROBLEMS OF POTATO SEFD GR(XING (p.26-27) Prior to the revolution seed growing work on potatoes was practically nil. The individual cases of importations of-4agortations of potato varieties from abroad by landowners' and kulak households were of a non- systeaatio nature, and lacked records concerning the quality of the imported variety and its suitability for esonoisic and soil conditions of the rasp active regions. Mixtures of different varieties prevailed in peasant sowings. Following the October revolution selective-seed growing work developed on a much larger scale. In 1927 potatoes were included in the GOSSORTFOND (Govt..Varietal Fund) and the subsequent distribution of the seed material proceeded according to a plan of vh iah the principal aims were the standardisation of potato varieties, the establishment of a rational system of propagation, the delivery of seed varietal material into collective and state farm fields, and the regular (systematic) replace- meat of non-varietal potatoes with specific varieties. The system of potato seed growing is based upon a three-unit soheno. The "reproduction' of selective varieties of potatoes is taken care of by the VNIIXB (ALL-Union Scientific-Researoh Institute of Potatoes) and its zonal stations located in five areas of the USSR. The material for the first reproduction is obtained every year from the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Lakes imoviah, 11. Problems of Potato Seed Growing. varieties selection departments of these institutions and represents the top, ested in a variety Of conditions throughout the country. The entire yield of the first "reproduction" Is transferred to the second "reproduction" which Is taken care of at special send growing state ferns of the Narkomss m of the USSR. Each Oblast has several of these state farms. The entire yield of the seed growing state farms is next transferred into the system of the third "reproduction" within the oblast seed growing collective farms united under the Mrs (Machine Tractor Stations). The varieties of potato tubers are further transferred from the third 'reproduction" stage, by way of interchange,, for mass savings at collective and state farms. At -present the Institute of Potato Economy and its sub-divisions have issued tens of thousands of tons of valuable selected potato varie- ties which have been transferred through the seed growing network to the ooer ztercial sowings of collective and state Perms. Conditions for Intro during changes in potato varieties have also been created under the second Five-Year Plan. All varietal seed growing sowings are under the special control of the 051 (Government Seed Inspection) which gives its approval to the selected potato variety for field growing (examination of root). The approval establishes the varietal purity-and health of plants, and if the varietal mixture and the number of diseased plants do not exceed the norms established by the standards established for seed potatoes (OST 4630), these sowings are given an approval certificate which testifies to their quality and suitability for seeding purposes. In order to identify the varieties of potatoes most suitable for the different regions of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 2iaksimovioh..:#i. Problems of Potato Seed Growing. country, a geographical testing is performed of the most potential varie- ties of potatoes (about 200 varieties at 120 diverse points of the Union),* As a result of this work the best varieties were established, i.e. those most suitable for wide propagation within the boundaries of the .ifs. On the basis of these varietal tests in different regions, the VNIISA has worked out the following schft* of varietal regionalizing of potatoes in the USSR (Table 3). (See photostatic illustration of this table, attached.) In connection with the moment of potatoes to the extreme north the question was raised of propagating potatoes from seeds, since the trans- portation of tubers to these regions is extremely difficult. Tests of growing potatoes from seeds are undertaken on a large seals. in different border areas of the USSR.- It is planned to grow potatoes from see 4s on a plot of 1000 hectares in 1934. End of article. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Veselovekii, I. (Professor) D6 Potatoes in the Altai Territory Sovkhoz. Proizvod. 6(2/3):$0. Feb./Mar. 1946. 20 3065 Translated from the Russian by S. N. Monson In organizing seed growing of potatoes in any area of our country, the ocol.of;ioal conditions of tho_gsrrt o b: rt a e aave_tra_be 1ways borne in~. min_ Under these conditions potatoes are healthiest, i.e., free from die- ease, degeneration, and from so-called virus diseases. Generally speaking, moisture is a primary prerequisite for highest possible yield. Highest yields of potatoes were obtained on irrigated (?) ("polivnykh") lands (Arne rioa) . 111neral substances (potassium, phosphorus, sodium), as basio fortilisers and additional feeding are best absorbed by the plant when moisture is present. It is known that at a temperature of 29?C., the transfer of plastic substance from leaves into the tuber is delayed and that at high temperatures it stops altogether. The Altai Territory is extremely varied climatically. Meteorological data has established that the regions provided with the highest degree of moisture are Oirotia (to 900 mm.) end Slisk (to 400 mm.). Kulundinakii region has from 160-200 ism, of precipitation. Oirotia is a high mountain region. The railroad network is but lightly developed, and the introduction of potato culture consequently restricted, particularly with respect to transport. In addition, potatoes freeze even as late as the end of June in the high mountains of the region. Earliest / varieties of potatoes have to be moved here to take advantage of the brief vegetative frost-free period and prove productive under the circumstances. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Voselovskii ... Potatoes in the Altai ,. a rritory Vernalization will equally be of considerable aid to the artificial lengthening of the vegetative period, since it will permit the tuber to begin its life course no lass than one month prior to planting and the transplanting of potatoes ton days before the last front. k region is particularly favorable for potato growing because of Its high precipitation, fertile sails and regular relief. Among the beat locations in the Biisk region are the fields distributed close to the swain crater line of the river Obi. In the future it will be easy to move varieties of potatoes dove this navigable river in exchange for oonrnon local varieties, ording to data furnished by the nest-Siberian Vegetable I:xperi ont Station and the Pushkin Agricultural Institute in the Paviovek region of the Altai Territory, the best canker-resistant potato varieties are BERLICHIU EN and of the earlier - COBBLER. Considerable attention should be devoted to the introduction of carer-resistant potato varieties to the tsltai Territory. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001~-44 Zaitseva, N. 1. (Y\ Starting Material for Potato Selection. Selek. i Semen. 17(7):3l-S7. July 1950. 61.9Se5 Translated from the Russian by S. N. Monson The manifold and responsible tasks that confront us in potato selection demand the widest study and utilization of starting material, not only of cultivated but also wild potato forms. Our selectors have already succeeded in obtaining new valuable potato varieties and seedlings by hybridizing culti- vated varieties with wild and primitive species (institute of Potato Industry, VIR, eta.). Bel= is given a description of some species of potatoes. which may prove useful in selection work when dealing with starting material of diverse species. The enormously rich data obtained from the collection of potato apecias gathered by S. V. Bukasov and S. V. Yuzepchuk served as a basis for the above According to the system introduced by Eukasov, the section Tuberarium, to which potatoes belong, is subdivided into the following froupsa Cormersoniana, Cuneolata, Tuberosa, Articola, Aceulia, Andreana, Conieibeocata, Lignicaulia, Juglandifolia, Deem icsa, Longipedicellata, Cardiophylla, Bulbokastana, Oxycarpa, Polyadenid, Pinnatisecta, Borealia. Of greatest significance for selection are the groups: Tuberosa, Cemissa and Acaulia. To cultivated species of Tuberose belong: S. tuberosum, S. andigenum Jut. at Buk., S. pureja Jut. at Buk., S. Pybinii Jut. at Buk. and others. To the wild species of Tuberosa belong: S. araco papa, S. leptostigma, S. molinee, and others. S. leptostivna and S. molinae are closest to S. tuberosum. ,Among other groups of greatest significance are the species: S. demissum Lindl, S. semidemissum Jut., S. punae, S. depexsum Sohreiteri, S. Jenesii Tor, and several others. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zaitseva - 2 - Vithin the limits of the group Tuberosa only S. tuberoscm forms tubers well on a normal day. The remaining species of tuberosa, as well as the rest of the species enumerated above, produce tubers under our conditions only in a short day (8 to 10 hours), a circumstance closely connected with the history of their origin. Close to 3,000 selected European and North American varieties belong to the species of S. tuberosum. Selected varieties possess many valuable economic characteristics. In some instances their yields produce 128 tons per hectare and their starch content amounts to 28 per cent and over. The production of inter- species hybrids of high yields is therefore hardly possible without the participa- tion of selected varieties. Satisfactory results were obtained also with regard to tests on early matur- ing, resistance to various diseases, canker in particular. There are indications in literature that the varieties Chippeva, Katahdin and i:!essaba are resistant to individual viruses, the variety Phytophthora- Resistant and others to phytophthora, the varieties Lorkh and Wohltman to ring rot. There are varieties which combine resistance to canker and phytophthora, such as the hybrids Camerasu. To S. tuberosum belong also the large number of diverse forms, imported by the members of the Expedition of the All-Union Insti- tute Plant Industry (VIP) from Chile, South America. This collection, judging from its description in literature and our oin observations possesses a group of forms which are very close to selected varieties, such as f. roseum (close to Early Rose), f. palmeta (Up-to-dato); corailla (Sossis(?) rouge). In their total mass they are distinguished from selected varieties by the considerable variega- tion of their tubers, lower yields, low contents of starch and poorer keeping Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 quality. The yield per clump is somewhat smaller than in cultivated varieties, although the yield of several forms reached 2.0 kg. per clump in some years. Several forms of S. tuberosum from Chile possess very valuable qualities. Thus, according to data provided by P. A. 8ovikov, Elegans latum, Villa royal, 8855 ohilotauum, indianum 881, caballera 8911, Liza 8901 withstand dry soil and the influence of high temperatures. Of 24 tested Chile specimens, 22 proved resistant to canker, among them Chilotanum (8829, 8832, 8835), Viride, etc. When artificially infected with ring rot and black lei; severe symptoms of infection ware observed. S. andigenum Yuz et Bak., as does S. tuberosun, is represented by a large diversity of species and forms (hundreds of varieties, according to S. M. 6ukaeov). Its characteristics distinguishing it from S. tuberosum consist in% the stem usually lying during blooming, almost all leaves provided with axil runners; internodee arc elongated; leaves erect, sparsely placed, their spines almost straight, leaf lobes narrow. Peduncle is frequently widened into a lightly fluted base of the calyx; the anthers ill developed, the majority of forms produce berries; S. andigen has good tuber formation on a short day but several fors, an indicated above, form tubers without shade; stolons are mostly long. The average yield per clump during a long day is approximately 80 g. Individual forms, however, produce good yields, such as K-40, variety calvacia (1886), variety longibaccatum (1433). The starch content in tubers of this species is 8-24.6 per cent; the percentage of albumen varies from 1.4 (Mexican chalcoence) and others to 5,0 per cent (variety lataeungense, etc.). As indicated by G. Kovalenko and I. A. Veselovskii, crossings with S. andigenum produce in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 progeny seedlings of excellent yields, starchy tubers; they clearly prove the best components for purposes of obtaining high yields because of the ease with mhich they cross with G. tuberosum. This species matures later than S. tuberosum, is distinguished by considerably later sprouting,-budding and dying of the foliage, and also has a much lengthier period of dormancy. The latter quality may prove valuable in the selection of varieties which do not grow in hot weather (see table). Dying of Foliage from day of planting Sprouts in days Madding in days 115 days 150 days Korenevo Rostov on Don 1orenevo Rostov on Don orenevo ]Rostov on icon Tuberosum (14 selected varieties) 14.0 ' 20.0 36.0 43.6 75% * 55% Andigenum (14 forms) 19.4 28.2 47.0 66.5 28.5 32.1 *This data _appiies only'tp two selected varieties. The resistance to onn er is observed in the majority of tested forms of S. digenum, ouoi as Tarmense v. latiue (8112), var. tenue (8121), ibag (8289), etc. According to the data obtained from an analysis concerning 41 forms, only two forms proved non-resistant, Lima and Liliacinoflorum. S. DL*3ISSU 1 LI9DL is represented by many forms. Its characteristics are a clump of rosette shape, a thin layer of downward lobes and a lightly pubescent leaf with truncated end. The recept ?le is short; the lower part of the pedunolc shorter than the upper; calyx smal. with abort sharpened lobes; corolla small, blue-violet, unevenly colored, more so on the outside; anthers small, orange, on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zaitseva .. 5 long threads. Fruiting abundant, berries more frequently elongated. Tubers white or white-blue, smooth, small, on very long stolons. Their yield produces 3-60 Z. per clump; starch content 9 to 20 per cent; albumen 2.5 to 6 per cent. S. demissum Lindl is relatively resistant to frost. lany forms are resistant to phytophthora; tlapechualcoense Buk. (024, 029, 022/01), xitlense (09), tilmoren (0249/056, 037, 0245/S-9, 0232/S-4). Seedlings obtained from the above forma are also resistant in their progeny. The forms xitlcnse (010, 063) and the glaxpexualcoense Duk. (014, 023) are resistant to phytophthora but their progeny succumbs to the dis- eases There are forms resistant to phytophthora of which the progeny has not been studied: tlaxpeohualcoense (022/8-6, 026, 030, 0222/012, 0223/S-5) and demissum (0250/028, 0220/010, 0241/S-1, 0248/S-9, 0233/8-91). This species is easily crossed with selected varieties and used for the production of phytophthora- and frost-resistant hybrids. The Institute of Plant Industry possesses many hybrids which when artificially infected over a period of three years did not produce symptoms of the disease. Aside from that, the species is resistant to the Colorado beetle, not affected by wrinkled mosaic but is susceptible to mottling. When in- fected artificially by black leg and ring rot symptoms of the disease were observed. S. SEMIDEVI8SUJ, JUZ. Tall clump, pipented stem; the morphological characteristics of leaf resemble that of S. demissum. Receptacle, peduncle and calyx strongly pubescent and pigmented, corolla dark blue-violet, strongly pubescent on the outside; anthers orange, small, pistil protruding. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Under conditions of a moderate zone this species does not produce berries but at Pamir berries were obtained from it through cross pollination and crossings with cultivated varieties. Tubers white with blue shading, large, peeling; yield per clump 6 to 20 g.; starch content to 24 per cent, albumen 6.8 per cent. The species is frost-resistant, not affected by phytophthora. Many hybrids obtained from crossings with the variety Snysloveki (A. S. yilippov) did not get infected.or were lightly infected by phytophthora. S. semidemissum Jua. Is susceptible to mottling; when artificially infected with black leg it proved resistant. S. CUTTILODUH JUZ. LT DIM has a rosette-shaped clump, strongly pubescent leaf with pronounced veining and very lightly serrated. Corolla large, blue- violet; occasionally produces berries. Tubers white with blue spots and smooth skin; yield per clump about 50 g.; starch content 14 to 24 per cent, albumen 3.7 per cent. Resistant to drought and frost. Tinder severe northern eondi- tions produces frost-resistance hybrids in its progeny but in the Leningrad oblast its frost resistance is not high. This species, according to Kovalenko, produces from crossings hybrids of high starch content in its progeny which cross well with cultivated varieties; non-resistant to phytopbthora and wrinkled S. PUM JUZ. has a rosette-shaped clump, small-leaves, sparcely placed, downward directed lobes with truncated ends. Peduncle colored, its lower part very long, upper short; calyx deep, green with short, sharp tips; corolla small, blue, with very short, strongly pubescent tips. Anthers yellow, small on long threads; stigma very largo. Produces berries in abundance. Tubers white, round, small. Species is most resistant to frost, standing temperatures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80R01426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zaitseva ? 7 - to 80. Crosses with difficulty but lately, aside fron the hybrid of Blagovidova, the Institute of Potato Induotry'has obtained by the mentor method a group of vegetative hybrids by utilizing the mentor of cultivated varieties which produce seedlings that are resistant to frosts in the progeny. Non-resistant to phytophthora and lightly affected by mottling. The species S. A TIPOVTCIU2, according to 8ukasov, is resistant to phytoph- thora under field conditions; according to the data provided by IKK8, the forms of Antipovichii album coloratura (471/1214b) and others are severely affected by phytophthora. In artificial infection with black leg and ring rot a large part of tested forms is severely affected. The form I 0-AMIPIPOVICHII (0272, 0276/018) did not show symptoms of infec- tion by phytophthora when infected artificially but proved susceptible to mottling and spider-web tick. 'i'orphologically this form is distinguished by its white corolla and lobes of leaves with sharply extended tips. Berries drop easily. Of poor keoping quality. S. AT}iTOPOVICHII variety lartineoii is non-resistant to pbytophthora but resistant to canker. S. L!OLINAP has a tall clump, vigorous, strongly leafed with .pigmented stem. Leaves are very large, lightly serrated; lobes wide, wavy margins, very long petioles; receptacle tall with light green peduncles, corolla blue with wide white stripes, very large; anthers orange, very large; on long yellow threads. Abundant bloom, occasionally form berries; tubers blue, smooth, long; yield per clump 30 to 390 g., starch content 13 to 19 per cent, albumen 3.5 to 4.8 per cent. Species is resistant to drought and canker, non-resistant to phytophthora, mottling and leaf roll. When artificially infected with black Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 leg and ring rot was severely affected. S. LEFT 0STICi'A has tall ;ride clump; stem pigmented; leaves very long, strongly serrated; lobes narrow, sparsely placed; margins wavy; receptacle strongly developed, occasionally has upper leaflets; buds green calyx has narrow sharp tips; corolla white, not large, strongly stretched tips, occasionally double-petalled; anther4 yellow, of regular shape; pistil very long; ovary round; forms berries; tubers rose or whitem smooth, lone, many eyes; yield per oluirp 30-220 g.; starch content 12 to 20.6 per cent; albumen 1.6 to 2.6 per cent; resistant to drought, non-resistant to phytophthora, mottling and leaf roll. Men artificially in- fected with black leg and ring rot in affected by them. S. C0117!ERSOUTI TJUIN. has green stem of sharp pigmentation in the leaf axils. Leaves lightly serrated, wide lobes on long stems. !nfloreeseence not forked, receptacle tall, calyx'has short, sharp tips; corolla star-shaped, white with blue star; anther threads are long; stigma long; berries long, flat. Tubers stark white, smooth with numerous eyes; yield per clump 15 to 100 g.; starch content 13 to 19 per cent; albumen S.7 per cent; crosses with difficulty with selected varieties; resistant to Colorado beetle; some forms resistant to frost and canker. S. CTISWCAJflI'' JUZ. ST BUK. Stem green, brightly colored in azils; leaves smell, light green, with strongly sharpened tips; wide end lobe, serrated; lobes sparsely placed on long stems; corolla large, dark blue-violet; anthers small, on thin threads; stigma large; fruiting has not been observed under our conditions; at Pamir, however, has fruited, but the percentage of germinated seeds was small. Tubers on short stolons variegated, light blue, colored eyes on surface; yield per clump 20 to 60 g.; starch content 9 to 11 per cent; short dormancy period; early maturing; affected by phytophthora and wrinkled mosaic. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 S. JrUPCZUKII JUZ. ET BTl7;. Clump rosette-shaped, peduncle of not clearly defined joints; calyx reCular, small, corolla blue-violet, resembles u. demissum, small anthers on thin threads; no berry formation; tubers small, yellow, oval, smooth, colored eyes on surface; yield per clump 10 to 100 g.; starch content 8 to 16 per cent; crosses with difficulty with selected varieties; resistant to frost. S. A0LJCH03T10 A. Stew green, leafed, narrow ribs and sharp pigmentation in axils; leaves large, long; lobes narrow on long steps with wavy margins; one to two pairs of small lobes; receptacle tall, at place of junction of podunole a ring of pigment; corolla white, star-shaped; anther threads very long; stigma double-bladed; at Pamir this species formed berries; tubers oval, white-blue, spotted; eyes not deep; yield per clump to 250 g.; starch content to 19 per cent; albumen front 2 to 3 per cent; very poor keeping quality; resistant to drought and Colorado beetle; non-resistant to phytophthora and diseases of degeneration; affected by mottling; most resistant of all species to verticillium. Teen artificially infected with black leg and ring rot shovmd no symptoms of these diseases; very poor keeping quality. S. PUREJA JTJZ. ET BUN. Tall clump, lying, strongly branched; pigmented atom; leaf lobes narrow, small lobes round; Stem of leaf, receptacle and peduncle pigmented; corolla of peculiar regular blue-violet coloring, tips pubescent inside; calyx fluted. Anthers orange, threads very long and thin; berries form seldom by self-pollination; tubers elongated, variegated coloring, from blue to white spots to beet red, numerous eyes, deep and colored; yield per clump 20 to 100 g, on a long day; starch content low, 7 to 12 per cent; albumen 3.2 to 5.3 per cent; good keeping quality in majority of forms, but several forma showed losses of 16 per cent; early maturing; non-resistant to drought, frost, phytophthora; severely Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zai tseva -10 - affected by wrinkled mosaic; majority of fornne resistant to canker when artificially infected with black leg and ring rot, the forms 8072 and 8096 did not show symptoms of the diseases. S. 5'TF1:4'TO:UZ! JE1Z.ET BIM. Stem thin, pigmented, small leaves, strongly serrated with small, narrow, sparsely placed lobes on long atoms; corolla light red-violet, calyx has long sharp tips; tubers bright red and blue, numerous deep eyes; yield per clump varies from lr to 100 g.; starch content 8.3 to 20 per cent; albumen 2 to 4 per cent; fdountain hydrophyte. Resistance to canker has not been sufficiently studied; severely affected by phytophthora, and r S. CALIF I:SE J4'Z. ET BU1. Stem croon; leaves have pronounced veining and are lightly serrated; margins of leaf lobes regular; corolla white, with short blunt tips, on peduncle a ring of pigent; anthers re;;ular, yellow, threads short; produce" berries; tubers yellow with rod eyes; yield per clump 20 to 254 g.; starch content 10 to 11 per cent; albumen 1.4 to 2.0 per cent. No indication of being affected by wrinkled mosaic; non-resistant to phytophthora; very lightly affected by mottling and spider-web tick; when artificially in- fected by ring rot and black leg proved affected under observation. S. RYBINII JUE. FT BT?. 1ulti-stemmed clump; stem lightly pigmented; leaves light green with characteristic veining; end lobe of leaf is considerably larger than side lobes, lobes of first and second pairs run downward; receptacle not tall, on peduncle ring of pigment; podunole and calyx colored; corolla white, not large, with short, blunt tips; anthers of regular shape, yellow; bass of anthers has sharp cut-out; ntemcfpistil straight; stigma lightly protruding; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Zaitseva - 11 - berries seldom formed; tubers white, round, small, have short period of dormancy; yield per clump to 300 g.; starch content 13 to 15 per cent; albumen to 3.2 per cent; poor keeping quality; non-resistant to drought, frost, phytophthora; severely infected by ring rot in artificial infection. No wrinkled mosaic ob- served, nor was infection of black leg noted when artificially infected; used in the production of early varieties in the south. S. BOYACEIISP. JUZ. ET BIIK. Stem weakly pigmented; leaf lobes round, sharp veining, light serration; first pair of lobes runs downward; distinguished from 8. Rybinii (Bukasov) by larger serration of loaf, longer tips of calyx and red- violet corolla; berries form seldom; tubers rose, smooth, large; yield per clump averages 50 g.; starch content l5 per cent; albumen 0.5 to 2.8 percent; poor keeping quality; early maturing species of brief dormancy; non-resistant to frost, drought and phytophthora; affected by mottling. S. ET.SSF;L BREt:t RIX JUL ET BU)S. Leaves have very small, sharp veining, shiny, lightly serrated; corolla red-violet, evenly colored; bloom abundant; tubers bright red or white with red spots; small, of smooth skin, numerous eyes; yield per clump 70 g.; starch content 10 to 15 per cent; albumen 1.7 to 4 per cent; early maturing; non-resistant to phytophthora, affected by mottling and leaf roll; strongly affected by spider-web tick; when artificially infected by ring rot and black log no symptoms observed. S. rnw.AScVII JIZ. Tubers white, round, small; yield per clump about 10 g.; starch content 14 per cent; forms berries; crosses with cultivated varieties; re- sistant to frost; affected by mottling and leaf roll; supposed to be resistant to canker and scab. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 8, JA TSII TOR. Stem green, sharp pi aentation in axils of leaves; leaves small with downward running lobes; calyx has lore, sharp tips; corolla white, star-shaped, blue on the outside; pistil very long (double the sire of anthers); stigma needle-shaped, ovary elongated; authors of regular shape, yellow on long threads; berries infrequent; tubers white, smooth, oval, small; yielr:, per clump 2 to 120 g.; starch content 12-16 per vent; albumen 4.2 per cent; species 1.s resistant to canker and Colorado beetle; no sy=0toms of degeneration were observed; when artificially Infected .th ring, rot and black log no sy rntoms observed; non- resistant to phytophthora. institute of Potato industry of RSFSR 3-5-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/03/22 : CIA-RDP80RO1426R009900020001-4 Gera, A. P. Potato Varieties for Penza Oblast. Sad I Ogorod 1948(8):70-72. Aug. 1948. 80 Sa15 Translated from the Russian by S. 11. Monson In 19.39 the following potato varieties were regionalized for the pent& Oblast on the basin of data obtained from the Anuohin Experiment Station, the Petroveki Government Selection Station and the Grabovskii Distilling Platt. They mere the basic varieties Lorkh, Early Pose, Snezhisks P?t= ii Yubileiny (Jpbilee), Epicure, and the temporarily admissible varieties Wohltman and Smyslovski. In 1945 approved plantings of varietal potatoes, both standard ------------ - and permissible, occupied 2.320 hectares or 97 per cent of the plots devoted to varietal potatoes of a total area of 2.390 hectares. Of these, Lorkh, Fart sr. A. albus Casp., etc. The hars dons by this disease (of w atever form) consists in the change of consistency of root which hardens. It has been also established that roots infest d contain a high amount of harmful nitrogen. The disease is spread through infested root-seed materiel, other root crops susc:eptib'l.s to the disease, and also potato tubers. Damping off of beets also contribute to the development of the disease, as do excessive moisture of the soil and alkaline reaction of soil. Control masursst end initial soil treatment and cultivating bitween rows-(to aid aeration); introduction into the soil of potassium cyanamide