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July 11, 1951
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /i La4&entvlk., P71 J RGAr 9 sZ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Savzdarg, R. 2ashchita urozhaia ot vreditelei --boleznei (Protection of the harvest from pests and diseases]. Moskva, 1947, 72 p. (Agronomicheskie besedy no 7M 464.4 Sa 9 Fror2 the editor Topic 7, Table of Contents Trannl. 186: Plant Protectiox Translated in part from the Russian by R. G. Dembo tection of ffarvest from Pests and Dise s 1. Loss of harvest from pests and diseases 2. Posts, their development and propagation 3. Diseases of planta and their causes 4. Yethods and measures-in controlling pests and diseases 5* Main poisons against pests and' diseases 8. Pasts of field crops 7* Diseases of field crops 8* Pests of vegetable crops 9. Diseases of cabbage and of. otatoos 10. Pests of grain and disekses of vegetable during storage Topic 60 CareOf plants 1. Care of minter crops: 2. Care of spring crops Pecomtended literature 11 July 1951 7 11 le 18 21 25 37 47 52 59 ? 62 66 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /86 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chuvelchin, V. S. 4116?,. Posobie pe bor'be velwr, bolezniami seltakokhoziaistvennykh kulltur (A guide to the control of pests ? *nd diseases of agricultural plants]. ? Ed. 5 Hoskva, 1945, 484.4C472 Pests and disease Profs Tran 1. 167i Plant Protection Translated in part fromthe Russian by R. G. Detbo agricultural plants cause a tremendous harm to agriculture. This harm is especially great duritg the years of mass spreading of pasts and diseases. In Tsarist Russia there Were years, when locust destroyed crops of hundred thousands of hooter, when mice Used to destroy 50-80 (IA of grain crops in many raion(s) and would =age fruit crops intensively, when the inter? worm would destroy crops upon the entireSurface of peanPussia. According to thepotimation of the entomologist A. G. Lebedev, the yearly sum of agricultural losses of pre-revolutionary DuBoia amounted to 1.430 millions of gold rubles from harmful insects alone. During the years of Soviet Power plant protection grew in the JS&R conspicuously, and the loss of agricultural crops decreased considerably; but they still continue being quite high, and the struggle for their decrease should be .carried out persistently and systematioally. During 1938-1942 the eurygaster caused a tremendous damage to agriculture. It infested several mitUons of hooters of grain crops. The cotton losses in 1941 amounted to more than 48 thousands of tons of cotton-rev material in Uzbekistan alone from one disease--vericillicse ? Pests cause great damage in storage economy. Hence it is quite obvious that in the struggle for the increase of crops of all/agricultural crops and the increase in total crops the measures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /g7 9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Chuvaki4ti v s, protection should be gi early organized -cot treat attention. tly and effectively carr control of pests and die cases along the entire infooted territory the cropetnotli-only could be -protected against damage, but the - pests could be destroyed as tell. The task of this guide is to turnIsh necessary agricultural biowledge colllective farm instructor and also' to the d leaders, to-assist them in aciOiring.the methods in controlling pests, to acquaint them with the recip48 and applications of the chemical means, rules COD erning the usage of jpotaons, equipment etc. Ined for the readerts attention has been expanded in comparja4 to previous editions. In this edition are mentioned the following ide plants and their utilize of many control, simplent measures in recogn and di 4206 of rice,pests and diseases eagyi, pests and diseases .of oil plants. agricultural ing chemical substances, of dding plants, pests :These divisions will assist the reader in acquiring many important repies to .qu.utIons hich occur In the practice Of plant protection. , *lthough this guide is destined primarily for the European part of ? but it includes a lea of "basic agricultural pests and which are spread in -.Asiatic part of USSR.. Ti71 data included in the guide concerning the productivity of equip.. / Mont and the / for the achle ement of h 4 penditure of labor -are exemplary and should serve as initial 0. in the control of pests and diseases. In controlling iqrleulturai pests and diseases the early and correct out of agrotechnicol. measures applied for the euittvation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Cbuvakilin, V. ? freed Cr roccepe ion. es iy .1sportant In theon(s he years of occupation, egrioulturs In those raion(s) declined. Large fields or land vex ined unplanted and gra in those places, where sovieg has been done. the agrotechnique was very low since the maohine production of the Ifachine Tractor Stations and of collo kve farms use destroyed and the simplest agricultural inven- tory during the years of occupation either be mme unfit or was destroyed by fascist aggressors. The &Crease of .p3anting fields and sharp decrease o1groteohnical I Greeted favorable conditions 1w the apreadri of posts and diseases were conducive to the formation ?t riui?oua xew ilia.' La connection that there is a threat for the agricultural sowing fields which are entered. This threat ecu erted only by carrying out sgrtcul tural rk and especially by the soil cultivation at a high sgroteohnical level, p peci y by a thorough weed-control,: and and other.teasur peat -destruction. by means f chem The measures of high agrotechnique creating the best condition for he development of plants simultaneously decrease drastically the number of agricultural pests and therefore is recommendedof their control measures. In order to avo d repetition, only the most zportant agr.otechnicai measure applied against each pest and disease are indicated in this guide. Therefore, when indicating the ma urea in controlling pests and diseases the agrote hnlcal and agricultural measures are connected under the term aprophylactio measures". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chuvakilin, V..3. In order to find in this guide the neeesary&nforations concerning measures of controlling pests and diseases it is necessary to know upon which plan the said pest or disease has been disclosed; then it is advisable to find in he table of contents thedivision in Which the description of pests and diseases of this plant is given and to compare carefully the disclosed pest or disease with the description and illustrations included in thie division. Pests which damage many plants are described only in connection with that plant for which they are of reateat significance. In those cases when the pest is of secondary importance reference is made to the page where there are more informations concerning it. Special divisions of the glide are composed and supplemented by? the following authors: Part 1 has been reprinted from previous editions by V. S. Chuvakhin. Part II has been reprinted from previous editions and partly supple mented by B. NA Pastukhov and V. S. Chuvakhin. Parts III and IV are composed by V. S. Chuvakhin. Part V has been composed br S. D. Popov and partly supplemented by V. S. Chuvakhi (Tractor pollinator-cultivator OED and attractant D-2) Part VI as been composed: about gophers, mice like rodents, field slugs, lcuat - by P. V. Zarin; about the rest of grain and legum pests - by D. N. Pastukhov and partly supplemented by V. S. Chuvakhin (wheat nematod, millet moth); 4Tisesses of grain and legume plants" by K. S. L stnikova; "Pests and Diseases of rice" - V. S. Chuvekhin. supplement? has been Inted according to previous editions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chuvakhinw V.'S., VIII has been composed by Chuvakhin Parts IX and :X are composed by V. S. Chuvalichin concerning pests and diseases of cotton pests of kok-nagyz and oil plants; A. U. Nikiforov and B. N. Pastukhov - about the pests of sugar beets, flax and hemp; K. S. Nixshnikova - about diseases of flax sugar beets and oil plants. In present edition the division of pests or sugar beets has been revised byB. N.. Pastukhov, on pests of flax and hemp -.b S. Chuvakhin. Division XI has been composed: by B. A. Gerasimov - about pests of ? vegetables by MUshnikov - on diseases of vegetables and partly supple- mented by V. S Chuvakhin (pests and diseases of carrots). Part XII has been composed by B. A. Gerasimov. Revised for this.. edition by V S. Chuvakhin on pasts of orchards and vineyards, by K. 6. NUshnikova - concerning orchard d vineyards, Part XIII composed by K. S. Wushnikova, Part XIV composed by V. S. Chuvekhin. All remarks concerning this book might be ad reseed to: Uoscaw, 0.46 244+ Orlikov str. 3 Sel khozgiz, ( ) "Agriou tural Publishers, editor of agricultural literature. End of Article 25 June 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _ _77 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 us4010,, J. A. Tranel. 186: Plant Protection Bolesni ael'skokhosiastvennfth rastenii (fitopatologia) [Diseases of agricultural plant?PhytopathologY)1 1940. 464 N222 Foreword Introduction Table o Part ont nts Translated in part from Russian by R. O. Dembo ODERAL . "0 IATION C0NCERNl10 PLANT DISEAS Chap. 1. DiagnoBis of plant diseases Tho incipa1 exterior signs of plant infestation (7), The neceseity of specific definition of the cause for the disease (13). Diagnostic significance of signs (13). Stating the diagnosis In phytopathology (16). Chap. 2. The basic characteristics of plant diseases Definition and causes of plant diseases (17). Comparison between the plant diseases and diseases of men and animal (18 Principals of classification of diseases (19). The trans- formation in plants as the result of pathological pro- cess (21). The meohinism of damage caused by diseases (22). Consecutive phases of the infectional process (23). Phases of plant diseases (25). Types of plant diseases (27). The wintering of parasites and the problem concerning inherited plant diseases (28). Chap. S. Nonparasitio plant diseases . General oharacteristios (30). Surplus and deficiency of meleture in the soil, the effect of low temperature (30). Chap. 4. Vino Plant Diseases 34 Genera characteristic -of virus diseases (34). Degree ,of constant symptoms (35). The intentional character of virus. diseases (36). The wintering of the virus under various conditions (37). The character of lootalieation 1,,,sn .of virvees (30). Centemporary lens rIg the nature r D o virus OW). TAO nature ILn degree or virus immunity(40). The spreading of the virus on the plant '(41). $O ??? f I Gs ri ri Annrnved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Noutnav, Bolesni seltskolhoziastvennykh aetenii (fitopatologia).,...4 . 5. Bacteria as plantparasites The si nificance of bacterial diseases (43). CauseS for diseases and conditions for their development (44). Types of pathological processes (45). Basic meahures in co trolling bacterioses 47). 43 ? ntinomicetes as the cause for plant diseases sent pointe of view concerning the systematic con4itte- actinomieetes (48). The role of actinomic tee in scab diseases of potatoes and sugar beets (48 hap. 7. Fungi as plant parasites General information concerning fungi Systematic location of fungi and their origin 60). The structure of the vegetative part of _fungi (51). Forms ? of existence of fungi originated from mycelium (52). Types ? of vegetative propagation of fungi (64). Reproductive propagation of fungi (66). Distribution of sex with lower - and higher fungi (60). nCiplOe in fungi systemisation hort survey of fungi system (61). The characteristic of he most important systematic groups (64). Peculiarities of tho cycle of fungi development (75). Questions concerning the variability of fungi, significance of adaptation cases of mutation, hybridization and heteroce.riousness (79). idea concerning morphological species. specialized forms , and races or of biotypes (85). 60 61 Chap. 8. General physiology and ecology of fu 86 Peculiarities in fungi food (86). Parasitism and saprophy 18131, classification of intermediate categories (86). Itypotheses Which explain the possible ways of evolution of parasitism (88 Adaptation or speoializatin or fungi (88). Buis for the under- standing of specialized form and biotype from point of view of specialization (90). The possibility of growing and preservation of fungi in the soil (91). The gravth of spores with fungi and the conditions involved (92). The mechanism of nourishment of ecte- and endoparasites (93). The influence of exterior conditions: 0 n the development or fungi (94). The ability of fungi to endure unfavorable conditions (95 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-7 i/;) ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2015/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 VILUMOV, N.A. Bolethi selldkoOoziastvennykh 411 rastenii (fitopatologia).... Chap: 9. Bigher (angiosperms) plants- ae plant parasites 97 ? Parasitiah among higher plants (97). Peculiarities n . nourishment of green and non-green parasites (97): The : most important representativesof parasites (99). Chap:-10. Ecology, dyne:Mice and forecast of diseases 104 elegy of diseases Thesignificance of the anvironmeiit during the development of diseases (104). The significance of temperature and of moisture during the development of the parasite (106). The afloat of light upon the fungi (106). Dynamics of diseases ? ? Areas of the spreading of the diseases (106). The ?spreading of diseases in the direction from bidi (109). List of diseases imported from America into &trope and vice versa (110). Attempts' of determining the regularity of the spreading of parasitic fungi and bacteria (113). Dietribution of parasitic spores by aerial movement (113 The share of insects in the matter of spreading of ft (116). General conolusione (119). at for diseases Tho significance of tore? forecast (121).. Warning t (120). Various types of 24). 120 thiip. 11. Bsctc information about the immueity of plants ?126 Susceptibility and immunity of plants (126). The possi- bility of finding immune species of plants (126). The change of 'specialisation anal aggressiveness of the' parasite duringmutation/a&Ing hybridization -(127). Biochemical and other qualities of plant0126). The - characteristic of inheriting immunity through inter- breeding (129). Problem of acquired immunity of plants (132). Conditions of enviroment (134). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -Doloshi sel'skokhosiattennykh rastenii (fitopatologia)..... p? Part I/ =SODS OP corfRomano PUNT DISEASES 2. Gonex;a1 coneideratLons concerning the methods of control. 135 Categories of measures (156). Systems of measures (136) Selection of possible measures (137). The significame of immune species (138). Conditions for decrease of degree of significance of parasites (1$9). (3uarantine meaeures and the government's quarantine of plants in USSR (140 Preventive meaaures of control (agrotechnical) (142). Chemical measures of control (144). Chap. 13. PrInciples of the chemical control method Role and significance of the chemical method in plant protection (146). Idea of poison and toxic chara?rtsttca (147). Dissociation and toxicity adsorption (150). Definition of various types of toxicity (151). 146 , ' Chap. 14. Spray.xig and pollination General Information coerning spraying and pollinati The principal purpose of' praying (164). TimsHand schedule of spraying' (155). Comparative evaluation Of the methods otspraying and of pollination (150. Spraying of plants Machines for spraying (157). Compounds for spraying (1 Individual c)aractorietios of fluid fungicides (169) Most known groups of poisons Fungicides of copper groups (162). Fungicidee of ulphur groups MO.' Fungicides of arsenic group (157).. Other fungioides.(asseMbly greup).(176).- Combined- compounds (179) 154 16/ 162 Pollination of plants General demands for powdery fungicide (179). urvey.o most widely spread dry fungicides (161). The effect o the fungicide on the plant (182),.- Influence of the presence of traces of fungicides in nourishing preduct (1 119 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Boleeni selsakekhoziatvennykh rastenii? (fitopatologia) Chap. 15. Disinfestation of seed material, soil, buildings 164 Disinfeetation of seed material ?Peculiarities of the dig/ate:station method (164). Machines for disinfestation(166). Primary and secondary effect of fungioides (167). The necessity of applying the thermic -disinfestation (168). Disinfeetation by the chemical method (189). general ideas concerning the dry and non. dry method of poisoning (193). Disinfestation by the thermic method (194). Disinfestation of the root system and of young plants 19 Disinfestation of the soil Disinfostation by the chemical method (196). Disin- festation by the thermic method (200). 196 Disinfestation of cultivated buildings and storehousos 2oe Disinfeststion Of cultivated buildings (202). Mein- festatipia of storehouse* (202). Norma of the expenditure of fungicide in various fields of agriculture DISEASESOF FIUD P1$ T3 p. 16. Smut of eerea a . 206 general information concerning *mut Harm caused by diseases of cereals (206). Causes for smut (24). Biological characteristics of smut fungi (209). rays of plant infestations (210). The significance of the amount of intectional origin and other factors (211). 2mut species affecting wheat ret or malodorous smut - Tilletia tritici (213). Dusty smut - Ustilegp tritici (216). Stem smut of wheat Urooystis (Tuburcinia) tritioi (218). Species or sMut effecting rye Stem smut of rye 7 (kooystie (Tuburcinia). occults: (220). Vet smut of rye Til etia_secelie (22i) 213 220 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 uaumov, v. a. Bolezni oellskokhosiatvennykh iastenii Species of smut affectingbarley 221 flard smut of barley tietilago Jensenii (2 1). Dusty emut or barley - Ustilago nude (222). of smut affecting bate sty Smut of oats Ustilego-ave (222). ? d it of oats leVie (228) Species of smut affecting corn ? Vesicular smut of corn --Ustilago sees )228). Dusty smut of corn - porospOil*Reilianum_(224).. Spedies of smut affecting panic grass Smut or panic grass . Ustilago panici.militee 2 The system of in controlling smut Chap, 17. Rust of cereals General information. conoerning rust Causes for rust, p?ouUsrit&e8 in their development ? and parasitising (228). List ? of rust fungi parasitising on cereals-(229), Amount of losses from rust (230). rechanisM of harmfulness of' rust (230). Peculiarities ? of oontrolling rust (281). ' Species ef.iUst Linear rust of cereal Puoeinie graminis (232) Crowned' rust of oats . Puceinia coronifera (240Y. ,Brown rust of ? wheat . Puccinia tritioina (244)-. Brown ret of rye - Puoqinia disperse* (248). Yellow rust or cereal . Pucoinis glumatum(260). Dwarf rust of bailey Puoeitia anomaia (2607-84ge4f4sonee-ef.smuse-opeeitee.4e. 'Significance of immune species in the, mat of oontrollin rust of cereal The method and technique of .eradiatthg the temporary hosts of rust The significance of the chemiesi method of controlling rust or grain 226 228 228 232 8 259 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 E10102ril set w szoicnoztavvennysn rastenii (fitopatologie.). Chap. 18. ravenous oro tie on cereals 262 Earmfulness of the dig09100 and general evaluation(262). Morphology or the parasite and the symptoms of infes- tation (262). 6Pecia1isation of the parasite (264). Ecological peculiarities (264). Various harmfulness of gangrenous ergotism (266). Measures for controlling gangrenous ergotism (2(6). -Chap. 194 Fusariosee of cereal gee Various types of manifestation Sweating of cereal - Fusariumnivale and any other species General picture of the development of the disease (269) Causes of fusarioses (270). Infestation of various species (271) Drunken cereal [Brown Fool; Rot and Ear Blight, Fusarium herbarum, F. Graminum,. . avenaceum (F. subulatumi, F. culmoruml and other ?ote?nfesting spikes - Fusarium greminearws General picture of development of the disease (272) Causes for the disease (273). The significance of climatic factors (275) Control measures against fosari- oses (276). Fusarioses of corn - Oibberelle, Fusarium and others 269 272 277 'COnsral.evaluation and symptoms at infestation 1277 ? Control measures (276). Chap. 20. Mildew, holminthosporium a.d bacteriosie of cereal ? '279- 1ildew of cereal. - Brysiphe graminis (279). Helmit ho. sport= or cereal . Belminthosporium gramineumi. H. tares, H. sativum (280). Baotoriosis of cereal spikes . Bacterium transluoens var. undulosum and other species (282) ?Baotericais of corn - Alpanobaoter Stewartii and Bacillus - A e (266). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 NAUMOV, N. . Bolensni eel sakokhoaistvennykh rastenii ( Chop. 21. Diseases of fodding plants (cereals and legumes) 265 Present condition of the problem (285 Diseases of clover 286 Clover canker - Sclerotinia trifolorum (286). Floral mold of clover - Botrytis anthophila (287). Anthraonosis of clover 01Ceoskorium caulivorum (286). Fusariosis of clover - Fusarium trifolii, F. redolens and other speoies ? (289). Rust of clover Uromvces trifolii and other ? species (290). Mildew of 7=7.-- rrysiphe communis (290). Peronospore of clover - Peronospora trifolii=arvensis..and other species (290). Spottiness ?of clover leaves - species Ascochyta, percospora, Pseudopezia,'Phyllostiets ahd 'other ipeolea (291). Bacteriosos of clover- Bacterium trifoliorum, Bacterium radiciperda (292). Dodder on ()lover - species of Cuseuta (292). Diseases of alfalfa 293 Brown spottiness of alfalfa leaves - Pteudopetiza medicaginis (298). Peronsopore on alfalfa - Feronospora aestivalis (294). Dodder on alfalfa species of Casouta (292). Diseases of meadow cereal 296 Part rv DISFASES.OF TCNICAL PLANTS Chap. 22. Diseasee of potatoes 800 General information (500). Potato fungus, or potato rotteness, potato mold, phytophthora Phytophthora infestans 3-1). Virus diseases of potatoes Rolling of potato leaves Loaf roll (all). Curliness o potato leaves - Crinkle (512). Striped spottiness - Stipple-streak. (i8). Mosaic of potatoes (514). Aucuba - Aucuba ( 314). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 10 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Us Bolenzni seltskokhoziaistvennykh rastenii (fitopatologia)..,.... A Bacterial, diseases ,of potatoes Wet rot (315). Black lag of potatoes - Bacillus phytophthorus (316). Bacterial wilt of potatoes e Bacterium solanacearum (317). Cirole rot of potatoes - Bacterium sepedonicum (Aplanobacter sepedonioum)(317). Brown or ferrous spottiness of potatoes - Bacterium solaniolens (318). 315 Fusariosie of potatoes 318 Wilt of potatoes (verticillose) Verticillium albo- atrum-(320). Black soab of potatoes (rhitoctinia) Rhizoctinia solani, basidial stage - Bypochus solani (321) Spottiness of potato leaves: - Naorospoiqum solani (321) Yellow spottiness of potato leaves Cercospora ooncors(323) Canker of potato tubers? Synchytrium endobioticum (323). Scab of potatotubers (329).. Dustlike Boa of potatoes Spongospora subterransa (Wallr.) Johns. (syn. S. Bolan/ Brunch) (351), .Analysis of potato tubers in search of canker, dustlike scab and rhisoctinia ($36). The system of measures in controlling potato diseases ( 36), Chap. 23. Diseases of sugar beets . 389 General information (339). Root eater of sugar beets (diseeSe of complex character) (340). Rot of sugar beet pith - Phoma betee(342). Cercosporose of sugar beets - Cercompora betiCOla (343).- Virus diseases of sugar bests (3461. dlitgatnalau rot (a complex disease) and organi- tation of preserving sugar beets(347). The system of measures in controlling sugar beet diseases (351). Chap. 24.. Cotton Diseases 353 General information (353), Bacteriosis (hommoz) of cotton - Bacterium malvacearum(354). Tracheomisis of cotton - species Vertioillium and Fusarium (.362). Curlineas of cotton, leaves (virus disea8e)(636). Rot of cotton roots (367), 'Canker of root nook - Fusarium bubaricum(368) Anthracnosis of cotton Colletoripum gossypii (Syn. Glomerella gossypii) (369). Diseases of cotton bolls and,of fiber 070). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - mmulavvi 1. Bolentni seliskokhoziaistmennykh rastenti Chap. 25. Flax Meows 373 Genera. information 373). Flax anthracnose Oolloto richum linicolum (syn. Coll. lint, Gloesporium lint) (374). Fusari- osia of flax - Fusarlum lint, partly other species (F. graminearum, P. sp of the section Gibbosumil (377). ?Brown spottiness of flax stems ("frangibility of stems"), poly- sporop less correct - "drying") - Pol s ora Dying of flax stems (ascochyta of flax Ascot:10a lint-. cola ($81). Flax rust ("drying", "mukhosea) - Melempsura lint (381). -Flax bacteriosis (384). Flax disease "pa8amo"- 1 ctaena 11-icola-(cyn. Soptoria linicota), marsupial ascomycete e Weosphaerella linorum (Ur.) N. Baum. (385).? Flax dodder 0Uscuta epi1iuum (386Y. Measures for corkrolllnx flax diseases (388 * * Chap. e es of Sunflower General information (395). thite rot of sunflower, Bolero- tinia - Sclerotinta Liberttana(395) Rust of sunflower Fuccinia hetianthi (399). Orobanche on the sunflower 7. Orobanche cumana and 0. ramoaa (401). Verticillose of sun- flower - Verticitium dahltae (401). Ohap-gb, Diseases Tobacco and mskhorka (Tobacco rusticanal 406 ,General information (05). Black leg so other disease of seedlihge (405). _Black and grey-rot or seedlings .- Alternaria op, and Botrytis Oinerea (406), Black root rot of tobacco - Thielaslopsis basicola (407). Plate rot - Solerotinia Libertiana (408). Fusariose milting of tobacco ..'Fusarium Oxyopprum mar.-nicotianae (408). Mildew of tobacco - bnrst.heoichorearuief.nicottana (409). Bacterial spottiness (410). Bacterial wilt of: tobacco -.bacterium solanacearum (410). Virus diseases of tobacco (411).. Orobanche on tobacco Orobanche ramose. (413). Non- parasitic diseases of tobacoo,(413J. System of measures in controlling tobacco diseases Diseases of Hemp ? -(kral information (391). Branchy oroba.nche Orobanc a (391). Mite rot Sclerotinia Libertiana (3931. spottiness of hemp stem - Dendroehomm Mmrconii (393) 391 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Solenzni sellskokhotiaistvennykh raatenii (fitopatologla Part V 'DLSEAS GP GARDSD ADD MEWS PttLD. CROPS . 29. Diaea?e of cabbage and other mustard family.416 General information (416). Cabbage hernia (416). Dis- eases of seedlings of cabbage and of other mustard family (black leg and similar cases) - Rhisoctonia. Phytium and others (424). ftrenospore on cabbage - Perenospqra brassicae (425). ? Chap. 30. .Diseases. -of legumes 426 Rust of legumea -,Urotypes pis* and U. us(426) Anthracnose of beans -,Gleosporium Lindem len= (42?). Spottiness of fruit and of peas - Ascochyta_ pisi (429). White rot of peas (430). Grey rot of beans and peas (431) S. Chap! 3j, Diseases of Gourd plants . 432 Perenospore or oucumbers - Pseudo ro os or ubensis (432). Sacterios of cucumbers Bacterims n 433 . Mosaic of cucumbers (434). Mildew of gourd plants - atinymumtat fulisinea and Erysikhe oichorsoearum (434). Mite rot of gourd Sclerotinia Libertiana (435). Grey rot of govrd family - Botrytis cinerea (485). Anthracros of gourd ("medianka") E9J1.2Lt2tr..LpLg_iu.mlaenari_um (436). Smoky said of cucumbers and their other diseases in hothouses (437) Chap. 32. Diaeases of P and other pzte of the carrot family 439 acterial rot of carrots and other plants (439). White rot Of carrots, parsley and celery - Oelerotinia Liher- tiama (440: Chan. 33. Dt.seese of.oni Perenospore Of onion, - Onion smut - Driecystis White -rot of onion - Se The 578teD0 of measures 442 onospore Schleidenii (442). uburcinia) cepulae (442). erotium cepivorum7447). in controlling diseases of onion(447 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Naumov, 5. .11? ? Bolenzni sel'skokhoziaistvennykh rastenii Cahp. 34, Diseases of tomato s 449 ? Brown spottiness of tomato leaves - Cladosporium Ally= (449). Rot of tomato fruits (449). Virus diseases of tomatoes (461). Bacterial canker of tomatoes - Aplanobacter michiganense (452). Wilt of tomatoes (454). The system of measures in controlling tomato diseases (454). OF FRUIT - BRRIES . 35. Diseases of the apple and pear tree 455 General information (455). Fruit rot - Sclerotinia (Stromatinia) fructigtena, Lonilir fructig?iia7Tr5T.- Scab of apple and pear tree - Venturie. inaequalie, V pirinu (Fusicladium dendriticum, F. Pirinum) (460). Bacterial or root canker (3i7Wpody of roots)? Bacterium tumefaciens (466). Rust of apple and pear trees - Gymnosporangium tremolloides and G. sabina (469) Black rot (black canker) - Sphaeropsis maloram (471). Mildew - Sphaerotheca mull Burr. (Podosphaera leuco- triche. Salmo nj (475). Diseases of trunks and of branches -f fruit trees (frost-hit, drying of the top, 4 the fungus meroullus, hollow, etc.) (475). The system of measures in controlling diseases of apple and pear trees (476). Chap. 36. Diseases of. stone fruit 478 General information (478). Grays or frui , rust. - Sclerotinia (Stromatinia) laxa (S. cinerea),tonilia IrX;-TE-JfneraTTBqO7--Pocket Plums Exoasous pruni (480). Illtches broom on cherries - Exoascus cereal -CM) Crinkle of cherry loaves - minor of peach leaves - Exoascus deformans (482) Mildew of plums - Podosphaera tridactyla (483). Naldew of Peaches - SphaerotWica pannosa (483). Spottiness of leaves and c- fruitsof ttohe ft-aft plants (alto hommoze of fruit trees) - Clastorosporium carpophilum (484). The system of measures in controlling diseases of stone fruit plants (486). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 No.4mov, II. A. - -Bolenzni eePskokhoziaistvennikh rastenii ? Chap. 37. Diseases of g apes General information (487) Mildew of grapes Plasmoparai viticola (487) Oidium Unoinula necator Burrill (syn.1 U. Spit-alio e r.k et (urI17377a). Cerecsporose of vine, - Cercospora Roeslerii And C. vitieola, partly also other species (490. Anthracnose of vine Gleosporium ampelophagum (494). Chlorose (495). '.Grey rot or vine- Botrytis cinerea (496). nits' rot of vine Coniot diplodpella (497). The system of measures for control- ling vine diseases (497). - 487 Chap. 38. Dis ases of berry pieita 499 American mildew of gooseberry - $ haerotheca morsuVae 499) Anthracnose of red currant - Gl000sporium ribis (b03). Rust of currant and :of gooseberry - species of the genus Puceinta (505). Rust of black currant Cronartium ribieola (506). 'Chap. 9. Diseases of frit and of vegetables during: storage and transport Ecological peculiarities of storage (508). Basic parasite diseases of fruit plants (511). Baeic parasite:,t diseases of vegetable plants (515); Measures' precedng storagp (519). 508 index of the basic and chapters appliedatare to indiv index of nsmes of diseases and their causes epics ?. 52l ? 547 IndeX of Latin nanes ? or fungi, bacteria,? their na- mitters and parasites of higher (floral) plants 552 END Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 Dunin, Phytopathology on a new track. 2ashch. East. 119-14. 1935. 421 P942 The fact that plant distas - cereal, technical plinte, It is sufficient to CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Trans'. 189: Plant Protection Translated by R. G. Denbo: 'cause great losses and low crops of - ?fruit, Vegetable and food plants is well known. ntion dozens of per cents (and in some 04606 All 100 o,/o) of pbtato tubers which ro for instance, as .the result of infest* - tion by the fungus Phytophtora infestans.. In the past, under the oonditions of capitalistic "organization" of production, under the conditions of cruel nal disasters. One of such disasters was mentioned by Engels. Ht. speaks.of - the starvation which occurred in 1847 due to the potato disease in Irelan4. As the result of such catastrophe was the death of ono million Irishmen and a forced emigration across the Atlantic of two millions who lived on potatoes or almost only on potatoes. ("Dialectics of natur Moe ow, .193S, page 58). We may also mention the infestation of cereals (wheat, rye, barley and others) by fungi of the genus FUsariun., As the result of the activity of exploitation of the working class, this fungus caused greatest these fungi the crops lost its economic valu population was forced to use ; in those cases when the such breed for nourishment severe mass'dis gees developed. Such a situation occurred by smut. Besides the 0 as a result of rye infestation when the harmful activity of agricultural diseases was obvious, a greater number of cases should be taken into emsideration, when the disease is very little notice or unnoticed at all by the unskilled observer, nevertheless destroys A great amount of drops.. The socialistic reconstruction of the entire national economy of USSR, the collectivization and the construction of Soviet farms entirely ex ludis Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dunin PhytopathoIogy on a new track. at the nt tise the possibilit a of such -.Oharac-. ter and size to which Engels was referring. Nevertheless, in spite of all our achievements, we are far from, that position when it would be pos ible to say that the socialist agriculture does not have great losses in agri- culture. And 1f the increase of the quantity and the improvement of the quality of crops upon the fields of collective and Soviet farms, in collective and Soviet farms, orchards and gardens, is the central problem of socialist agriculture during the second Fivo-Year=Plan then t in quite clear that for the practical solution of such problem, placed before the country by the party and by the government, the study of plant diseesea is of primary and often of decisive importance. Already in previouo years, as a result of phytops.thological r?arch widely expanded by numerous scientific institutions in various corners of the Soviet Union, the Soviet phytopathologists su?oeeded in introducing into Produotion a whole eries of most important and often entirely new and very effective measu I don't consider it as my task to summarise the results of this pork, but it is necessary to mention the following facts. In Tsariot Russia the losses from smut alone according to most modest account, amounted to 10 Of the total crops. As the result of utilizing poisoning of seed . grains in collective farms, Soviet farms and in individual farms those losses were reduced several tithes in 1933 in comparison to pre-revolutionary conditions. This progress s achieved in huge collective farms and State Of course, even =Mt the losses from snut are quite signticant. It is necessary to - farts with the help of hew, more effective and cheaper mordants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dunin Phytopathology on a new track. work hard to invke these lossen entirely unnoticedin our socialistic economy. Nevertheless the given figures indicate undoubted and great success resulting from the great organizational-tecbnical changes in controlling /n the field of protecting potato drops from most dangerous diseases we y speak now of the most essential results mad primarily of the fact that in the very near future the collective and Soviet farms of the raion(s) which are most Infested by potato disease will obtain species immune to . this destructive disease, and which at the same time yield high crops, with high contents of starch, with good taste good form of the tubers, etc.. From disconneoted neasuree to a system of measures. We might mention the fact that as the result of a successful collectivi- zation and construction of huge highly mechanized Soviet farms, the initia- , eries of very tive of Soviet phytopatholegiste manifested itself in a successful attempts of shifting from individual and: disconnected control measures against diseases to whole, completed systems of measures, both prophylactic and healingdestroying. no doubt, the future belongs to such a type of work in the field of practical phytopathology. Nevertheless, it is necessary to note, that in this precious 'work, Soviet phytopethologists:vere forced to construct projects of similar systems based upon old data obtained under the conditions of pre-revolu- tionary farms or even in foreign practice which took place, it organiza- tional tochnioaj conditions, which differ considerably from the conditions - of our collective and Soviet fa the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Durtin Phytopathology on a new trac Now thisgap should be fii d In the shortest.time. Basic attention to all species of prophylactics. The Soviet phytopathology ahould pay in its system of attention to the division of prophylactic work. It is not necessary. te prove that ththr work provides the most reliable, the most simple and most access Dale measures against ali, including the most dangerous and the hard eradicated diseases, For a practical phytopathologiat, this c/a* that in his further measure spec al work in constructing and improving complex protective systems, he should pay apecia.l attention to the creatg of an organic relaton with Agra- technique,. During crop rotation of real cotton, fruit-vegetable and-- other collective and Soviet farms concerning problems of pre-sowing 411 preparation of the soil about timing, depth and mays of ploughing and in ? a whole series of other problems of agrotechnique, the.phytopathologicai point of vew should find a constant end ntif ly-founded productively - effective reflection. During the second Pie-Year-Plan, the field of Irrigated agriculture in the men increased considerably. Phytocathologie ahould fulfill a series of special research,even here, in theirrigated raion(s), for new pIsnts so that theArrigated agriculture, as a result of corresponding prophylac enures should yield not only high but Immune crape as well, insured against "unexpected epiphytes.. Other possibilities of prophylactic are closely related to the ro- technical side of the work of phitopethologiste. I have in mind. the probleiof immunity of agricultural plants to diseases.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dunin Phytopathology on a new track.. !I?reit is necessary to distinguish two roads whIch open scientific research wide vtstas which are of great significance in soc alistic agriculture4 The first road,, partly assimilated, ts the active participation of phytopathologists'in the work of cresting immune species. Although, as v6 mentioned already, we are at the present time at the beginning of introducing immune sp cies of potatoes to phytophthora, although there'are species of wheat and of oats immune to rust diseases., although vegetable crops has few species with high 'immunity to various diseases in the field and during the storage of yield yet it is necessary to mention that the phytopathologists of USSR are in a very insignificant degree drawn to this work. To a grater extent he participation of phytopsithologists limits itself to occasional expertisa. At the same time the phytopathologists ? who utilize the newest Methods snatomoomorphologic and bio-chemical research should become constant participants of spats* matte work along with selectioners and should assimilate the new species along with the seed growers. The second course, whose revolutionizing possibilitiev is hard to evaluate today i he immunisation of plants. It is entirely outside the sphere of attention of phytapatholegists. Until recently many authorities 'denied even the possibility of immunisation and at present time there is no lack in such expressions. Nevertheless, the farther Ile advance, the 'less there s decisiveness in such statements because many facts indicate the mistake of such affirmations. It is necessary that the Soviet phytopathology? without anydelusion about the absence Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dunin PhytopathoIogy on a new-track. of complications should undertake a further working out of the problems of artificial munizatlon of plants, at assimilation of that.factuahmaterial present time and which does not permit outstanding field of phytopathology. field would be ting the 'work with: a critical h has been accumulated atthe- ther ignoring of this new and the necessary attention this ble to develop into an independent scientific discipline as it happened with the study of Immunity of animals and :man Until recently all the attention of Soviet phytopathologists was directed to the study of those disco which -caused great damage to various 'fields of socialistic agriculture. The phytopathologists wholForked with these diseases ad not pay almost any attention to those diseases of agricultural plants vhieh don't even exist in the USSR. Two principal oiroumstan ed escaped the attention of the scientists; first that these diseases in a series of countries and damage to foreign agriculture; second, of the cause of these diseases did not Individual countries caused great that the biological peculiarities exclude the possibility of their penetrating and spreading within the borders- of USSR. Such sever lessons as the spreading ofpseudo.mildew of gooseberry and especially potato tanker (In *stern Europe) illustrate quite clearly hat could happen when there' is nb'sufficient attention to this group of diseases. Therefore in the future for. the development of our ecrk, we should take to the point of departure .the following -condition: the maximal attention of the Soviet phytopathologisti should be concentrated not only Upon economically important diseases which exiSt in USSR, but upon those d&eessea As well which don't exist at all in the Soviet Union or those which exist Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dun in Phytopathology on a. new track, -_ but which their harm/ oilly in a few raion(s) of the Soviet Union. A thorough and wide study of diseases of this second group necessary condition of wilfounded and effective applicatio measures. Stepchildren of phytopatholo y the objects of phytopathologioal research, as a rule, nonparesitic diseases, bacterloses and virus diseases occupy an insufficien place* Such a situation should be chan should attract the same attention for. instance, the diseases of petabolism. It is necessary to recognize 'as quite abnormal when the pathological processes, caused by the incorrect regime of mineral food, unpleasant physical intlue c etc. are studied only by agroohemists, physiologists climatologists, etc The phyto- pathologist with his specific point of view could and should introduce Into his own methods and results of study this important group of diseases. flare -we must count the experience of foreign p ytopatologists who along with fungi and bacterial diseases dedicate great attention to those plant diseases which are caused ,byintarior and exterior unfavorable conditions rOpect to the plant). According to the tradition of the myatilogists who head the phytopa ho- logical work vre devoted until now little attention to that important most ? -tire y. ..!poparasitit diseases- :o noninfectional diseases; -group of diseases which are caused by ler -organisms. and are called bacteriosis*: It is possible that our cotton tame, citrus orchards, grain and legume crops and other Plants suffered much less from cotton hommoze, from such diseases of citrus as, for instance-, "citrus bl4st". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Dunin Phytopathology on a now track. and other species of bacterioses, if these diseases would have occupied a corresponding 'Aloe in scientific research. - A group of virus diseases of occasional character (sometinies-subjective) catch our attention only in individual aion(s) of ussn and not because these ralon(s) these diseases have arOerious economic significance. , Potatoes, legumes, vegetables, end. in recent time also cotton - all these diseases are infested by virusdiseases, whose spreading and harm . - are Jeer aeing con tantly in a series of cases 4.special character of virus diseases, the peculiar ways of their spreaeing should become the subject of widely organized, systematie research. Only in this case: :could ue expect the -working out of a series of effective protecting measures against all important manifestations Of virus diseases upon important plants, . Chemization and mechanization of controlling plant diseases Based upon the results of phytopathoIogicel research and ,according to'organizationaletechnical work conditions in collective and Soviet farms-, the applicationf chemical methods of plant protection, in connection with the, inprovsment of corresponding machines and equipment, should be expanded. Until recently the initiative of4hytopathologists vas insufficient. . As the proof ofthis shortco&ng mould be considered the fact that, for instance, -the most powerful apparatus - the airplane - has considerably re limited field of application in controlling dIseales than it has in controlling pests; the fault lies in the specific peculiarities of the controlled objects. The main, idea is that ee forgot the special role of the aviomethod in socialistic agriculture, the Initiative given to engineers, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Dunin Phytopa y on a new mechanics, pilots and other workers. It is superflous to mention that the representatives of these qualifications have a harder time in grasping phytopathologioai problems than the phytopatholegists themeelves. The phytopathologints should expand in the future a more intensive and initiati!e work than it hap been done before, placing the engineer- constructive thought at the appropriate place. Improve the organization and the methodology ,of eoonomica -research. In the p aotiat of phytopathoIogical research for economical rea o various inspections occupy an important place, and sometimes even consume u great part of strength and means. Nevertheless this vrkshould be considered insuffi?lent with many items. The main reason for poor results is the break and dis-harmony an the work itself, Registration, economical systems quarantine organize institutes, Stations for Plant Protection, and finally even separate specialists often work as if in a race, catch separate fragments of problems and thereby constant* leave something unfinished; this has been told by all the_personnel which proceeds with the same problem, Along with the organised confusion there is a great deal to be done tior-the simplification, increase or accuracy and first of I in the objectivity in the registration methods. Phytopathology and the biological method for plant protection. After the Soviet phytopathologists 'turned their fkee to production, they concentrated their scientific research irk upon the problems of destroying parasitic fungi, and bacteria, causes and agriou tural diseases. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 10 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dun in Phytoptithology on a new track It would b advisable also to take into consideration another side of the work - the possibility of utilizing some fungi as allies in . controlling pests and weeds. ? 4.. More attention to theoretical problems is not my task to construct, the program of phytopithological ' having the possibility of .discussing all problems, I consider it necessary to say a few words.about the burning question. The "feel0 that question; they relie on that question and often delay their work on account of that question. Those who work on immunity; or in quarantine institutions, phytopathologists who study the diseases of new plants, professors of uhiversities and of other agricultural schools, andstudents 4nd finally (end foremost) the mycologists of the Soviet n on - all of them feel it. . Mat is licking in the work of phytopathologisto What its ne easary to create? A good "flora" of fungi and bacteria; the moist needed defini- tions of fungi are lacking. The majority of p.hytopathologiste and students do not know he old Russian definitions, and moreover, various foreign "flora"; those Which are available are old and do not correspond '.tO the development of Soviet phytopathology mycology and bacteriology. This topic should be discussed in more detail in a special article; the concrete most important details and means Of solving this problem ohould be discussed more circumstantially, but even here this burning problem could not be overlooked. This problem could not be solved by "one phyto;pathologiot alone, but by orgatised efforts of a group of them. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dunin Phytopathology on a new track If there will be organic tie between phytopathologie research and producti If there will be an organized and methodically correct collective so ution of basic theoretical proble be confident that n a then e could. ry nhort time the Soviet phytopathology will come into existence to replace the present separate, e.lthough somehow valuable, phytopathological fragments. 16 July 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. Methods of control used against the sugar beet sob worm (Loxostege stioticalis L.) with an estimate of their efficiency. Zashoh. East. ls 103-114. 1935. 421 P492 Trans'. 190s Plant Protection Si6 104 Translated from the Russian by R. G. Dembo The registration of economic 7 effeotiveness of measures is the basic organization in oentrolling agrioultural pests. Only 'with the availa- bility of this registration shall we obtain the possibility of rationally constructing plant protection against pests, directing the losses in such a manner as to obtain the best result from practical measures. In 1933, the year of mass propagation of the Sugar fleet Web Worm, we made an experiment in registering the effectiveness of control measures applied to this pest in productive conditions of the work of MIS (WIC- ). The registration has been done upon sugar beets in Semilukskil. ralon of Voronezh ?blast' in the collective farm ICamaomolets." I. Registration of the effecttvoness of chemical control measures. For the experiment, six fields were put aside: three control fields and three for experiment. The average size of the field in the experiment equals 4 hectare. The registration method.--Upon experiment fields in 5 places, along the corners and in the center, the amount of caterpillars upon experimental fields of 1/4 of a square in. were counted; thus, the average density upon 1 square m. was obtained. SiMultaneoUtly, the percentage of damage of sugar beets leaf surface according to 6-ball system was registered. Thus, were determined the density of caterpillars and the intensity of darage upon all fields before and after spraying. The time of registering and spraying are indicated in table I. The result of the experiment was counted d4rihg the harvest by weighing the entire crops. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /90 0 CD CD =Pi (D CD 8 CD -n CD (T) CD (D n.) -10.) n.) . . 0 0 -0 co 0 0 n.) -10 n.) Table Wolio of Fields Men and by Mhioh Compound Sprayed ? Time of' PeLatrat&on , Field Sprayed Fteld COntrolled Number of cat. on 1 c.? m. (WO of damaged leaf urfaoe Yield from 1 h-; Va. of cat. on l'sq. ,Av/io of damaged .lenf eurfaco Yield from 1 h. I Copper 21/1/ 21/VI before - 217 0,1 -- 160 0,1 aceto-arsenite spraying . 23/7/ ,23/1tI after ISO. 5,4 -- 260- 6,1 1 spraying 26/7I after 111 -21,2 366 19,9 -- 2 ePrayinge ? 26/VI 28/VI after 79 41 324 504 85,8 142 S sPrayings II - Arsenio Caloium 21/VI before aprIkying 240 0 05 .. -- J58 0,01 -- Oxide 23/VT after 485 11,0 . -- 395 18,9 -- 1 spraying . 21/11/ 25/VI after 121 :. 24,3 -- 644 54,7 -. 2 sprayings 28 28/VI after 100 58,5 299 337 88,6 220 2 sprayings . Arsenio , 21/7/1 Sodium Oxide 21/VI before spraying 111 0,2 - 217 0,01 -- 25/VI after 1 sprayinc 56 2,0 -- 24/ 1,5 .- Copper 24/VI 23/11I after . 88 8,8 -- 1031 30,7 -- Aceto- 2 sprayings III arsenite 28/VI after 84 28,5 383 584 90,1 120 4 sprayings ' i. the. apraythg upon the III field was don on account of the bad weather._ 4 VI by bari oh ?ride, but unsuccess CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Pethods of control... It is evident from table I that the yield of sugar beets upon the . cultivated fields is higher than upon oontrelled (unsprayed). TIAreby, the density of caterpillars, which at the beginning of tho spraying were in their second, stage, reached at the average 111-240 pieces for 1 square meter. The plants were at this tine in the phase Of 3-6 pair pf leaves. The eeneral increase of the cost of fodding sugar beets or,1,1, rubles for 1 oentner during the year 1932 i4 expressed in rubles: upon one field were collected from one banter 322 centnere, counting a yield of controlled, untilled field, we obtain an increase from an heater 322-142 r. 180 eentners which, according to the prices 'of 1932,. consists of 350 ? rubles. Counting the cost of triple spraying of Paris 'Green (C0PPer. aceto-arsenitegaccording to the calculation of MIS OBV 1932) 10 rubles 46 kopek X 3 = 31 r. 38 k., We obtain an econoric effect of I field cost _ ? equals 328r. 62 k.'. .On the second field from 1 heotar was collected 299 oentnere at the harvest of controlled, non-sprayed field of 220 centners. Increase of yield 299-220 equals 79 centners or 138 rubles. The coat of work is expressed in the sum of 31 rubl. 32 k. Henee the economic effect from the Second field equals 126 rubles. 68 kopek. On the Third 'field, the yield of 383 centnere during the yield control of 120 c. Increase of 263 c. or F26 rubles. The cost of spraying this field is expressed in the sum of 18 rubles 24 k., and the economic effect equals F07 rubles, 76 kopek. Taking the averace of the three data (on I, II and II/ fields), we acquire an eoonoric effect for the operative work in the sum of 321 rubles. 02 k. from one hectar of foddine sugar beets. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Vothods of control... II. The effect-of agrotechnical measures. Besides chemical' measures of control, of great importance is the agrotechnical metho4.among which a field of weeds occupies a primary place. The control of reeds ie applied not only as a self-aim, but at certain times, it Is applied as the method of controlling the sugar beet web worm (Loxosteue sticticaliaLCombining these two qualities, the control of weeds in the system of measures a,ainat web mem plays a more important role than the chemical measures. According to our observations it 1932, the spreading of butterfliee of the worm on the plantations during laying (and, conseeuently, infesta- tion) depends upon the availability of weeds of goose-feet and amaranth. Item the, field has been weeded out and did not have any weeds, with-100 strokes of the butterfly .net, 30 butterflies were caught; nearby, however, on unmeeded fields 1g0-200 pieces mere caught. The fields of sugar beets, which perished from web worm, were covered by goose-foot and amaranth; but on fields free from mueds, i.e., .at the moment of laying upon seeded fields, there was no laying and such fields almost eid not suffer from the rub worn. . The time of seeding plays a very impqrtant role in controlling the web morn. For the determination of dependency of infestationove made the following experimeht. The auger beet, evenly overgrown by weeds, was divided into sections which Imre 'weeded at various times: 1) before the mass flight, i.e., before the laying; 2) during the mast; flight and the mass laying; 3) during the growth of caterpillars and 4) during the second' growth of the caterpillars. The obtained data are indicated in table 2. ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Fivovarov, V. 11. Methods of control... Table 2 NoNo Fields Time of Weeding Number of Plants Number of " Weeds Sugar Beets Caterpillars on 1 sq. m. 1 11/VI before mass flight 20 70 10 2 15/VI mass flight 15 70 80 5 17/VI hatching of caterpillars 12 65 , 92 4 20/VI second stage of cater- pillars 10 67 457 .ot weeded 915 -- 93.5 The best tine for -weeding out in respect to controlling the web worm could be oon idered the time before the rase flight of the butter- flies. It is also possible to perform the wading during the mast flight, laying of eggs and the hatching of caterpillars while they are in their first stage (with somewhat worse results), but by no means later. If the density of caterpillars during the weeding at the time of the first stage remained 1,2 pieces, then during the weeding of the second stage, the density upon 1 plant vas already 6 pieces. This sugar beet died in spite of spraying after weeding. The same data were obtained in 1932 and upon the Ramon zonal experimental station (see tah1e-3). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 rxvuvaruv, V. .. Methods of control... Table 3 The Influence of Weeds Upon the Infestation of Sugar Beets by the rab Worm Place of Registration Condition of Plantation Time or Registration Quantity of Weeds on 1 sq. m. . Quantity of eggs of w.w. on 1 sq. m. 0/0 of decrease of ie. eggs of w.w. Exper. field Broken, covered with weeds 17/VI 52 72 -- Broken, and weeded out 0,0 0,0 . 100 .Selection field . Broken and covered with weeds 12/VI 60 417 -- Broken and weeded out 9 74 83 Agricul- t ural field Broken, covered with 18/VI 60 316 -- weed!: ' Broken and weeded out iefta 13 82 74 Agricul- tural field Unbroken, covered with weeds 18/VI 77 264 -- "buketirovano" ?18/VI 36 160 . 40 ' As to the time of the determination Of weeding, our data are in harmony with literature indications; but in connection with the time when to start weeding, our data differ from the recommended time of most authors. Alekseenko (3) recommends: "As soon as the eggs are discovered, it is necessary to cut and to weed out immediately all the weeds from the field and the garden. It is necessary tofulfill that work on time, as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, Y. M. Methods of control... soon as the laying of eggs came to an end." Roshkin (13) recommends to start the weeding from the moment of mass laying. Zhukovskii (8), Norol'Icov (11) "after laying eggs," Arkhangel'skii (4) "at the end of the flight of the butterflies," Pliginskii (17) - "after 3-4 days after the end of flight of the butterflies." We see that a series of authors recommend to start the weeding for the control of the web worm during various times - from the moment of the discovery of eggs and ending with a very late time - after 3-4 days after the end of the flight (at this time caterpillars already appear). A. Baishchev went even farther, recommending to destroy weeds, as he expressed himself, "in case of mass appearance of the worm," which is evidently not correct. If we consider the weeding only as a method of controlling the web worm, then the time of its fulfillment becomes very rigid (hard). Svistunov says that an early weeding gives positive results, a very early one and a very late one is .harmful." A very late 'seeding is harmful, because the caterpillars attack the crops and destroy them. A very early one is harmful because before the laying weeds grow which are suited for laying. It is necessary to take into consideration that from the moment of the appearance of web worm until the laying the flight of the butterflies continues for uncertain time, since in ease of the female's sterility, the flight might last a longer time; and,on the contrary, a friendly, short flight of the butterflies usually is a sign *which indicates the appearance of caterpillars. Yet there are exceptions to this rule. In 1929 when Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _ Enthods of control the flight wee delayed, the damage was great. Generally speaking, the period of weeding in case of the a penrance of fertile butterflies of the web very short. In the year,1932, this period lasted 6-4 days, counting from the beginning of the flight until the hatching of caterpillars. But if the weeding could be started after the end of the flight or after 3-4 days after its end, as it has been recommended by come scientists, then under such coneideretion Of the problem there would be no possibility of weeding, since at that moment there will be already caterpillars; 1. e., the beginning coincides with the end. Our observations.00nfirm in this case the correctness of the practice of the farm kainsugar, that the beat time for weeding is the time before the flight begins (Bel'skii, E). A doubt could emerge that the sugar beet crops or other crops which are free from weeds will be infested directly upon the plants. But our Observations and the observations of some other authore - Pliginekii (16), Keppen (10), Pokrovakii (le) indicate the contrary. Esterberg says that "as an exception the butterflies lay eggs upon crops - clover, carrots, sugar beets:" Alexandrov (2) gives an example when a somewhat increase of laying vas on the sugar beet because during the laying it has been weeded out; but yet the mass laying, according to his opinton, was seen on the weeds; and, therefore, "the weeding of the fields prior to the laying of eggs will be of greatest significance, as a preventive measure." Carrying out of weeds.-4uring.the weeding the problem of carrying out the weeds is of great significance. Our observations indicated that the gathering and carrying out of weeds with the caterpillars of the first Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. U. Uethods of control... stage gives good resulte; but the carrying out of weeds with caterpillars of the second stage and especially of the third stage and of older stages does not give any results. During the weeding, the caterpillars fall quickly on the ground. The results of registration are given in table 4. Table 4 Stage of the caterpillars Density of caterpillars before weeding on 1 sq. m. Number of cater- pillars upon the weeds taken oct o/o of the remaining caterpillars 1 23,9 21,0 0,7 2 28,5 13,8 61,6 $ 30,0 0,4 98,7 Thus, according to our data, the carrying out of weeds with cater- pillars of the second and the third stage, although useful, is not able to guarantee crops from loss, since the majority of caterpillars remain. upon the field. The carrying out of weeds with the caterpillars of first stage under the conditions of 1932 was the main factor in protecting the sugar beet (weeded during the first stage of the caterpillars). litleding after the appearance of caterpillars.--As soon as the cater- pillars appeared, the interests of pest control and the interests of /wed control as far as the sugar beet is concerned are contradicting each other. On one side, the weeding could be dangerous for the beets damaged by the caterpillars of the web worm (with their great emount), on the other side, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. U. Methods of control... without weeding the =gar beet, is under the danger of death from the effect of weeds. The possibility of a new weeding occurs only after the departure of the caterpillars into the coil. In order to determine the length of the pause in weeding, we are mentioning here the phonological .tire of the development of the caterpillars of web -worm of the first stage in 1932 (Smmilukskli raion): 16/VI.- when the hatching starts; 18/VI - mais hatching; 101 - the appearance of the second stage; 21/VI - the appearance of the third stage; 23/VT - the appearance of the fourth stage; 26/VI - the appearance of the fifth Stage; 29-30/VI - caterpillars of fifth stage; 011 - the departure of caterpillars into the soil; 4/V11 beginning of oocooning; 6/411 - mace cocooning. tie see that the pause in weeding should occur from 16i,I8 of June until July 6th, i. e., 18-20 days. X.I. Streliteov (22), K. V. Nostrovekii (12) and a series of other authors indicates analogioal data concerning the length of the' development of the web worm. But if we take into considera- tion the fact that with the beginning of weeding (i. e., after 18-40 days), this weeding will be finished not in one day, but will be dragged out for a long time, especially if we take into consideration its low productivity, since large weeds grow out, then it till be clear that a considerable part of the :Alger beets will stand in weeds longer than one month. The sugar beet which stood in weeds for a long time yields a very low harvest (even after weeding), or dies entirely. Besides, after a prolongated pause, the weeding costa are high - 90 labor days for 1 heater (since it grows heavily). Under farm conditions in many Oases the weeding is not dome on account of lose and of oncoming of other important summer work Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. methods of control... (mowing and ethers). Thus, a considerable part of the beets (if not the entire one) caught by the caterpillars of the meh worm and left in the weeds will perish. In the collective farm nKomsomolets" of .the SemilUicak ?elan, as a result of a pause in meeding, 5 hectars of beets were lost. Thus, a complicated- situation arises: both are dangerous, to weed (when the caterpillars appear) and to leave the sugar beets in the reeds. In this problem poncerning the loss of sugar beets, there are many serious controveriles between the entomologiete and atronomists. I found the solution for this situation. With the appearance of caterpillars even in a threatening amount, the melding could and should be Continued, but it has to be done by rows. The new method of weeding 411 consists of the following: the infested sugar beets by the caterpillar is weeded out only in rows; the width of the weeded stripes should be 15-20. cm. Upon the boundaries (between the rows) the weeds are left unweeded. Thereby, a double purpose is accomplished: 1) the beet plants ? are freed from meads, obtain a flow of tar and light and grow freely; without being crowded by meads; 2) the caterpillars remain upon the weeds (which ti-ow on the boundaries) and do not transfer to the beets - thus the beets are protected aga'net the e ,terpillars. After cocooning, it is necessary to meed once more, Including the boundaries. The experiments gave the following results. 1. Upon the weeds left in the boundaries there mere 1.909 caterpillars for 1 sq. m., and upon the beet plants 36 pieces and yet the caterpillars did not transfer to the sugar beet. 2. The percentage of damage of 10111 surface upon the field weeded out in rows and left unmeeded is almost equals upon thefirst there are Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 12 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. Z. Zbethods of control... 29 o/O, and cn the second - 28,5 p/o. 3. The harvest, depending upon the weeding method, varies considera- bly. This enables the selection of the best method and best time for weeding. Table 5 The Harvest Depending Upon Time and L'ethod of teeding. Rollo of fields Weedingethod Time of weeding Phonology of web worm Harvest from 1 hector v. ts. Cost of crops from 1 h. in rubles 1 Weeding In regular manner 1I/Vr Aass flight 144,1 288,20 2 'Reeding in "rows" 20/VI Caterpillars. of First and 170 340 ' leading by regular manner 20/VI Second stage Caterpillars of First and Second Stage Weeding after d0000ning -- Caterpillars cocooned 40 80 nue, the profit of the Introduced measure of the weeding by 'rove" is expressed in the sum of 2.50 rubles for hector or 130 centners. If ie take into consideration that the weeding after c0000ning does not occur on account of logs, then the sugar beet perishes; the profit of the measure is expressed by the sUm of 340 rubles or 170 cantners. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Fivovarov, V. r. rethoda of control... Something similar in the idea, but in a different form, we find with Zverozomb-Zuboskii (9) who furnishes the example, when a"sowing of plants was recommended between sugar beet: rows in order to divert the insects to then." In our oonditiona this, of course, is inapplicable. A weeding (in .regular fashion) could be combined with spraying; thus, the weeding time could be lengthened also. ? It is necessary to underline that the method does not pretend to be the main method in-system of measures. It has to be applied, as has been said, during a delayed weeding, 1. e., if the caterpillars appeared upon weeded crops of sugar beets in a threatening amount. It is clear that with the early measures against web worm, the application of measures will not be required. Due to the short weeding (ay a control method), there are great difficulties as to labor power; hence - delay in weeding. Therefore, we rust devote great attention to the organization of weeding. First of all, it is necessary to determine the alternation in weeding, taking into consideration the threat for various plants from caterpillars of web worm. The practice had shown that the web warm is most 'dangerous for sugar beets, soy beans, "koriandr" onion, carrots and late sunflower. The weeding of these plants should be given primary attention, as soon as butterflies appear. Such plants as cucumbers, early sunflower, cabbage could be weeded out later. Finally, the plants which are little and rarely damaged, like tomatoes and potatoes, could be Weeded last. Plouhing cocoons.--In controlling the web worm, the ploughing of those places where the caterpillars went into the soil requires attention. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. r. Methods of control... During ploughing, the cocoons thrown upon the sur ace will die. The majority of.specialists recommend a deeplloughing of the field in early spring or late fall. In 1932 the ploughing under our conditions could not be applied, since all the caterpillars at the time of departure into the soil were infested by parasites; therefore, we were not able to consider the effectiveness of this measure. Concerning the problem of the location of cocooning caterpillars, i. 6., in the places *doh are supposed to be ploughed, we find in litera- ture contradictory opinions. Sakharov (20) insists that "the caterpillars of the web worm prefer friable soil for their cocooning." In fall, 1929, and in spring, 1929 (Trnmelinitskii sugar combinate and Panin raion respectively), I Observed cocooning upon soft soil." Nstovtsev and Pospelov tell us the opposite: "for the cocooning the caterpillars sereh for soil with hard soil." Alexandrov (2) and Silant'ev (21) express an opinion which is the most correct, that "the cocooning in its main mass occurs in the places of food (sugar beets, transplantation, clover)." The problem of the places,where the caterpillars hide for winter, is of prinoipal significance because the majority of the caterpillars hide in places of food or mainly upon ploughed fields and on stubble (Dobrovoliakii. 7); the reploughing or harrowing could be coordinated with other farm needs, for instance, ploughing in minter, spring ploughing, etc. Only in sueh a combination could the reploughing, as a control method, be of some significance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. Methods of control... The time of sowing.-- There are in literature some indications upon the time of sugar beet sowing as a method for controlling the web worm. But this problem is treated by various authors in a different ray. begracit (15) recommends late sowing, but Bilskii (5), Aleksandrov (1), Bogoiavlen- skii (6) and others recommend early sowings. According to our opinion early sowinge of sugar beets are more immune against damage by caterpillars since a mass of leaves of the early beets are more than with the later one. Late sowings which do not sprout at the time when lob worm's laying of eggs (consideration that the sugar beets is not infested) are of low her-goat because of the agrotechnical method. Mowing of weeds.?In the ?cyotem of measures in controlling the web worm the cutting of blossoming weeds is given a considerable attention; it (mowing) is prescribed as imperative in controlling web worms. This measure is given the following basis: it has been fixed that during the flight butterflies accumulate Upon blossoming and high weeds for feeding. After the maturing of the eggs, the butterflies fly upon the. nearest plants and infest them. Thus, the blossoming and high weeds are sources for infestation. The foundati n of this measure corresponds fully to common sense; the results of the analysis in 1932 forced us to evaluate this measure differently. We to I; a field with typical weed spots under our inspection. Upon this field wo observed a. great flight of butterflies and there were dead fields. The latter has a conformation of the soil with conspicuously expressed straight boundaries. If we compare weed spots with dead fields, it Immediately appeared impropable that Om cause for sugar beet loss would Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 16 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Jietods of control..? be the influence of weed spots. If they would influence the intensity of infestation br web vo-,rm, then there should 'oe a ctronger infestation which decreases with the increase of distance, since around those spots were conditionn seducive for egg laying. But it became clear that there was no reltionsllp Cetweer .he distance from the weeds and the infestation degree, i. e.; the role of weed spots as the infestation center was not justified. This led to the idea conoerning the expediency and effect of mowing weeds in controllang the web worm sa,d of the necessity of investi- gateg tie problem. First of all, let consider tYe fact that there are many places of web worm butterflles accumulation anel that they vary. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Quantity of Butterflies Caught by SO Strokes of the Net in Various Fields Table 6 Date Looation Gen. Amount Liale Vera le 13/v1 14/VI 1F/1n s/v x cin sftz 1 Oa Field of weeds, shores of the river Veduga On weeds, in bushes, in hollows On onions On the crops of sugar beets On winter wheat, oovared with blossoming? weeds On fields near a park In a garden protected by .a high abrupt elope At the edge of a forest . On weeds, in fruit conservatory on. elevation In, protected against wind' Around the river Veduga on weeds The same place, on nugar beets Th a same place, en zeeds ? 220 41 121 291 187 157 Individua 45 _ 270 1 70 25 43 _ - 40414 flight 0000 56 Noticeable flight 167 420 175 ???? 30 Oft 410 75 57 0/?44% 40.40 41541?11, 44 41040, .0.40 Z-I-000 I-00000 1-019Z171-0108dCll-V10 18 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V.11. Ittethode or control... The accumulation of butterflies are fund not only on weeds, but on plant oropa an well, whioh is imposeible to-mow so that the butterflies would not aoeumulate ,there. Therefore, Puzyrnyi (19) 'says that a partial destruction of blossoming. vegetation could not influence the deo .ase of butterfly nourishment and, consequently, upon their fertility, nee butterflies fed themselves on tht; blossoms_ of the linden tree and Cme fodding grass end other plants. "The problem of mowing becomes more ookplicated with the condition that, besides "pa Sive" flights (according to the wind) the butterflies of the web wpm according to Llubotudrov (14) Make "active" flights at the distarcc of 3 kIa; in search .for appropriate layinc place, they- fly e farther. Therefore, for the full protection against infetlitin. of crop by the eggs of the web worm, it is necel .:ry to destroy bloasoming weeds around threatened plants' t & rad/us larger than three'k. Taking into consi'exation napy "nidi" and also the tact that "nidi" are not only weeds but crops as rell, it' is quite liaprobable, if not even impossible, to create conditions which furnish a guarantee of mowing blossaming weeds. It has been confirmed by the observationt of previous years that the butterflies of the web worm lay their eggs on small weeds which ' just started to sprout, especially goose-foot, spat, bind teed end otharsv end on large weeds, which are to be mown, the egg tre not laid. Our observations in this problem indicate the following. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I Number of Disclosed Eggs and Caterpillars of Web Worm Upon Small and Large Weeds Table 7 Date On Small tbedslin ? (1 and 3 sm. height) Larger Abode . . . ? Number of Number of Average Number of Number of Aver. . plants on eggs or on 1 plants on eggs or for 1 . Remarks 1 eq._ in. caterpillars on 1 sq. m. plant , 1 sq. m. cat, for 1 eq. m. plant . 17/17I 700 847 . 1,2 . ...- -- . -- . . . 18/VI 813 896 1,1 Samples not taken ' 15/VI start of egg , ? 19/VI 915 915 1,0 - 93 not disclosed 19/91 dtart of egg hatoh. ? . 21/V1 1189 1250 1.08 95 5 , 0,06 23/91 Y79 1945 - 2,5 OS 4 ? 0,04, . . Z-1-000 I-00000 1-019Z171-0108dCll-V10 . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. riethods of control... It in evident from table 7 what a great difference there is concerning the nudber of caterpillars upon small and .large medal upon arall there are 1,000 oaterpillars or even 2,000 for 1 sq. d. and upon large ,ones 4-5 pieces. The obeervation of Nograah (15) is -interesting. Be says: "as a rule,. the butterflies try to lay their eggs closer to the eurface of the soil, and consequently bind weed, sput, "kalachiki," and sprouts of such plants' as goose-foot, wormwood vere infested by eggs. Bind weed, which twine on coreals,.or on ether'planta,an rell another hil;11 plants which do not have root leaves, eons almost free frod eggs." re see a coed example that not only the species of the plant, but its height 89 well affects the laying of eggs. In our experiment the field of peas wee characteristic there blooming weeds yeri growing - 'camomile, hemp nettle, etc. Aocordingto literature dlta, peas are infested first of all. We could insist that peas would be eaten sinoe all the factors were available, which indicated that fact - the flight of the web mord, fecundity of the females, the vicinity of blooming' meeds, etc. But yet tLat assumption was not justified, peas remained undamaged. Butterflies were searching for small, just sprouting plants; they did not lay eggs upon high plants.. Thus the discriminating ability of butterflies has bedn determined. They search for rall weeds w ich are hard to now, 'which, therefore, have to be yeeded out. We see that from tris point of Vier' .th, mowing of high blooming weeds in grooves is of no use as a control measure. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. Methods of control... The mowing of large and blooming weeds as a control method did not give any positive results according to our analyses. That does not imply that mowing is entirely unnecessary. Aocording to the requirements of agronomy, we must control weeds. Mowing is one of the measures in controlling weeds. It Beene, it is irrelevant by which trothod we do our mowing - by eentamological or agronomical method - but mowing is absolutely essential. It seems the various points of view give only a formal difference, not an essential one. But it is not so. As a matter of fact, the new approach may produce better possibilities for the acceleration in weeding as a . control method. 178 know already how short is the time of weeding; it is counted in 4-6 days; and therefore the mowing of high and blooming weeds would be done when the weeding is a rethod of control as it was applied in practice, but at a different time (before or afterwards, this is the problem of agronomy). During those 4-6 days, it is necessary to pay attention mainly at the weeding campaign (period), without weakening the weeding due to mowing. This could be of great benefit, since mowing requires 3-10 o/a of man power at the most responsible moment. These ren could be utilized for weeding, which is used as a narrow place in the system of measures against the web worm. Catohing of butterflies.--We give sufficient attention to catching butterflies by drag nets during mass egg laying on crops. The effect of catching depends upon the width of the grip of the butterflies by drag nets. According to data of rainsugar, the catching of butterflies with drag nets give positive resulte,provided they are used Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. Itethods of control... on a wide belt. We are giving here some data as a result of catching obtained in collective farms. Two drag nate rere waled in our conditions. The width of the grip wac 20 m. The catching was done during the mass flight (200-300 pieces during one grip) and macs egg laying. A part of the sugar beet vas left as a control. On the same field, approximately 2 ha., the catching use done during two days. The registration indicated that from 250 plants of the controlled field 107 were infested, and on the tested field out of 250, 104 were infested. The density of infestation in one as in the other case is the came - in average 5 eggs to one plant. During the hatching of caterpillars a difference in the density of infestation on the field, where the catching was done, has not been observed. Thus, the catching of butter- flies by drag nets of 20 m. appeared to be ineffective. ConclUsions 1. At the density of 100-200 pieces on 1 sq. m., the Caterpillars of second stage, during the plant phase of 3-6 pairs of leaves by spraying with copper amtp-arsenite and with arsenic aodium oxide, the profit amounted to 321 rublesfor 1 hooter of sugar beet with the coat of 2 rubles for centner. 2. Its freeing of plants from weeds during the flight and egg laying of the web worm is a good measure for protecting crops against infestation, provided they are destroyed by weeding. 'Melding, as a control measure, should be accompliehad at the beginning of caterpillar hatching. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2017/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Privovarov, V. IL Methods of control... .3. The seeding of sugar beets with the availability of the second and highir stages with the density at the average of 150 pieces and more for 1 sq. m., during the phase of plant cromth of 34 pair of leaves, even with the carrying out of weeds does not save sugar beet drops from perishing. In such oases, the weeding could be done only in rows of .15-20 outs width (on the borders, the seeds are left as attractants for - caterpillars). With such a measure of weeding, the, sugar beets are freed from the depressing effeot of weeds, obtaining a stream of air and light, develops more or less normally. The caterpillars remain on the needs and do not transfer on the sugar beets. After cocooning, a11 the weed' are 'needed out. The profit Pram the introduced measure - the seeding in rows, in comparison with beets weeded after cocooning, amounted to 260 rubles or 130 oentners per 1 heater, 4. Taking into consideration the Short time for weeding, mainly . because of labor shortage, it is necessary 'to need sugar beets, soy beans., "koriandr," onion, carrots in the first place, late sunflower; in the second place - on early sunflower, cucumbers, cabbage. On tomatoes and potatoes which are hardly affected, the weeding could be done last. 5. Eeploughing ae a method of controlling seb. tot= will be of . serious significance if it is considered as an obligatory measure (winter ploughing, spring ploughing). 6. Early sowing of sugar beets are more immune to the damage by caterpillars since the mass of leaves with the early Sugar beet is larger than with the later sugar beet; therefore, the early sawing of sugar beets could serve as a method with the swab worm. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Privoyarov, V. M. Methods of control... 7. Mowing blooming and high weeds as a control mettod did not show good results, and therefore this could be considered only as a method of controlling weeds. This enables us to weed, not at the time when weeding Is the control method, but to transfer it to a different time (carlier or later). This corrective might give an essential profit, since the mowing at the most responsible moment requires 8-10 o/O of labor which could be utilised during weeding, thus increasing its tempo. 18 June 1051 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 S ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2673/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 rvwvmuwv, V. m. Methods of control used against the sugar beet web worm (Loxostege sticticalis L.) With an estimate of their effroiency. A List of Quoted Literature. 1. Alexandrov, L. A., K biologii i ekologli baboohek lugovogo motyllka v raionakh Kurskogo otdel. SekharOtresta. Materialy po izucheniiu lug. mot. The biology and ecology of butterflies of the web worm in the raion(s) of Kursk division of Sugar Trust. Materials in study of web worm. Voronezh, 1930. 2. Alexandrov, L. A., Lugovoi motylik i miry bor'by s nim. The web worm and the measures of controlling it. LIvov, 1930. 3. Alexseenko, N. Ehk borot'sia e lugovym motyl'kam. Bow to control the web worm. 1932. SKEGIZ (c)cm Agricultural State InstitUte. Moscow. 4. Arkhangelvskii, W. N. Lugovoi motylek i mery bor'by a nim. Sallie B. Sev. Kay. Kr. Stazre (CTUP4). The web 'worm and meaeurei of- . controlling At. Series B. of Northern-Caucasus Krai.of the Station of Plant Protection. Rostov an the Don, 1930. 8. Bel'skii, Lugov0 motylek 1. Irak Uberechlsveklu ot ego gusenits. Web worm and how to protect the auger beet against its caterpillars. Kiev, 1930. 6. Bogoiavlenekii, S. G., Vrediteli sekharnoi svekly lzd. ritommuna." Pests of sugar beets - Voronezh. 7. Ddbrovaliskii, B. V., 'Web worm in Northern Caucasus, Biull. VII "lees. seezde pa zeshoh. rest. Bulletin VII of the All-Union Congress on Plant Protection Ur. 5, Leningrad, 1932. 8. nukovskii and Boevskii. Vragi ogoroda. Enemies of the garden. Izd. "Kommuna." Voronezh, 1932. 9. Zverozamb-Zuboskii, About the periodical appearance of web worm and about some of its other peculiarities. Sbornik I UNIS. ()Wilt). 1931. Kiev. 10. Keppen, F., Insects which harm the sugar beets. Sel. khoz. i lesov. Agriculture and forestry. 1880. No. 12, pages 422-423. U. Korol'kov, D. M., Borth& a glavneiehimi vrediteliami Gado i ogoroda i nekotorye vrediteli polia. Control of main pests of orchards and gardens and some pests of fields. Moscow, 1920. 111 12. Kostrovekii, K. V., Web worm in the vicinity of Verktualachesk Selection Station of rnion's Sugar in 1929, Sbornik UNIS efFil40, 1932. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? PA Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pivovarov, V. M. Methods of control... 13. Koshkin, S. I., Lugovoi motylek i mery bor'by s rim. Web worm and measures of controlling it. Smolensk, 1930. 14. Liubomudrov, I. S., The dynamics in the development of web worm in 1929, in the Podol'sk raion of sugar beet planting. Web worm in 1929-30. Sbornik UWIS otehic). Kiev, 1931. 16. Negrash, K. A., Concerning the laying of ego by web worm in 1929. The web worm in 1929-1930. Sbornik MS. Kiev, 1931. 16. Pliginskii, V. G., Lugovoi motylek v 1929 g. v raion. evekloseianiia Vostoohnogo otdeleniia Sakharotresta. Vaterial po izuch. lugOvogo motyPka. The web worm in 1929 in the raion of sugar beets planting of the Eastern division of Sugar Trust. Materials for the study of the web worm. Voronezh, 1930. 17. Pliginskii, V. O., Vrediteli I bolezni svekly, bor,ba s nimi. Pests and diseases of sugar beets, their control. SKETIZ. (C)C770) Voronezh, 1933. 18. Pokrovakii, E. A., Pests of agricultural field plants in Petrovsko- Razumovskii, in 1921 in connection with the meteorological peculiarities of this city. Otd, ntom. Entomological Division of GIOA. (AW,#) //. 1932. 19. Puzyrnyi, S. 0,, The web worm in Khaekov division of Union's Sugar in 1929. Sbornik UNIS aftifq 1932. 20. Sakharov, N., rpoiavleniiu lugovogo motyl'ka v Chernoiarskom uesde v okrentnestiakh VladimiroVki Tsarevskogo uezda. The appearance of the web wont in Chernoiarsk uezd and in the vicinity of Vladimirovka of Tsarevsk uezd (county). Astrakhan, 1915. 21. Silent'ev, A. A., K voprosu o merakh boriby s luEovym motyl'kom. The problem of the measures for controlling the web worm. 22. Strel'tsov, I. I., Materials in biology of web worm in levober. steppe and the results of experiments in controlling it. Sbornik UN/S. (yvig). Lugovoi motylek v 1929-19304,g. Web worm in 1929-1930. Kiev, 1932. 25. Esterberg, L. K., MOb worm in 1929-30. Zashchita rest. t. VIII. VIII, No. 3, 1931. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 elk Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 sobutski 14. system of controlmeasures age net pests and diseases in the ,sottoft=growing regions of Central Asia- gaebab. Rasta 2; 35-44. 1935 421 10942 Trans'. 191: Plant rotectoz Translated by B. C. Dembo Prom the Editor recently the measures in plant protection were used against individual pesta ordiseases (for instance mut, corn moth* sugar beet worm etc. Beerthelessin protect one speci g any plantega nst damage deal not 4th , but with a aerles of species of pests and diseases. In connection with that the working out of complex systems of measures in plant iirotectlon is the most important problem. The solution of this problem represents groat difficulties. Separate researchcarried out without ary definite plan hamper the compilation of a complex system of meaeure Yet, ail these difficulties should not interfere in the working out co- ex systems of measures. Viva the first version, although imperfect, helps in elucidating all and to correctly utilise the achievements already available. Without any critical summary those gaps are difficult to discover. -The article of N. I. gosobutskii is the first attempt of composing a single system of measures in.controlling pests end diseases of cotton. The editor and the author himself do not consider the published system a perfect. According to the opinion of the aditor it has nor the character of a Schedule of measures. lb doubt, series of problems In Sesobutskii system is indicated in general formulationsand requires further detcile and more expanded research. There are few Concrete data concerning the raioning of immune forms Of tton, the problems of cotton quarantine are not discuesed, the problems of the ng time the amount Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /9/ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 KoohatskLi li. I. 2 and the tine of wate g are not differentiated; there are few Oncrete data and normsin connection with the depth and the time of ploughing, there are no de.ta on fertilization. No doubt, in, the system of measures there should be tndictod. the problem: of location of pests and disea es and an analysis of factors vhich influence the change in the amount of Pe theseand a aris of other import (Intel solution. In I.935 In particul problems require the be main problem of the socvion V/ZR is the working out of 1c,anura foa Concrete ralori(o) along with the division of plant protection of the All-Union Cotton Institute and of Central Asia tatton.of Plant Protection of the Alloanion Institute of Plant:Proteetion. publishing the article of or tions connected with cotton gro chara.oto okit the editor asks he g to furnt eh theft' ideas and itie n the, cycle of development,behavio f damages canoed by Cotton and alfl fa pests require that in the struggle for the pro tion of cropsa.tnt pests . and diseases llot :only one specific measur in individual case would be apiplied but all possible measures would be utilized during the enti rear. tem Of meaoures should inelude: a) a wide utilization of basic agrotochnic I measures for' pest and disease control, spring plouCling the cultivation of cotton between rows, .0 and control of weeds on cotton and alfalfa fields, the utilization of crop rotation the selection of immune species etc.; b) the utilisation of the chemical control sea Tare pollination spraying, setting poisoned. attractant 8 etc. * Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kotobutskii* NI. I. 3 Of course the system of measures cannot limit itselfn y with the group of agrotochnical and chemical methods, and in many cases the physleo-- mechanical measures, as Well as the biological method should be included. ZeneciallY, in the system of measures in cohtrolling cotton paste a few mechanical control measures should be included which did not have any. significance in some raion(s) until recently (collection of caterpillars of the corn earvormehlorideaabseleeal, mechanical control measures of locust) and also quarantine. The editor Chemical and agrotochnical control measures in controlling pests an di sea ehauld be carried out in such a manner that one measure would supplement the other and that each mealare would be applied at definite time when the Deets and the diseases are most vulnerable from point of law ofeffective eontrol. It in hard to foresee at which time and where the defin te pest or disease would appear and therefore it Is still harder to give specific scheduled ties for various measures. BOCSUOS of that the total of chemical and agrotechnical control measures in the yearly system of measures has been divided into four periods more or less differentiated from each other according to the character of work, and namely: spring:period (Marchallay), summar period (June-Auguet). fell period (September-rovember) and, finallY,. the winter period (rovember-Pebraary). Such a grouping of measures according be periods in relative, but this relativity would increase if the measures would have been grouped according to menthe or to definite timing. It is hard to forecast the%ime of appearance of pests and dieeaseg. for the entire year, and etill harder to forecast for various years in various?raion(e) of Central Ata. It is absolutely necessaryte?accept that individual measures and the entire system will yield thetepected effect only when they will be carried out and practiced daily in collective- and Soviet farms. It is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kosobutekii 14. I. 4 neceemary to include in the productive plants of Soviet and collective farms the meas.-met; of controlling cotton and alfalfa pests and diseases with such a rr-liner that these measures would be carried out according to a rim. For the published system of measures in controlling pests, diseases and. Wee'13 in cotton reion(s) of Central Asia materials were compiled since the organization of the Centre" Station of Plant Protection of the Central. Asia SQL ntifie Cotton Institute, i.e. since 1929. "nat7, of separate exneriments were united into one system of measures only 7.t. Vie end of 1933 and only es the result of inseection of a ore- limineaa- 3;7- 5; tem at large collective farms (gamaganskii kozeolex, Tur, mnian exnedition, Tadehik expedition, vatich were orgenieed in 1933 by the Station of lent Protection of Central. Asia Scientific Research Agri. culturl InItitute, the expedition of the All-Union Institute for Plant erotection etc.).* * For ar.-angir, the syetes of measures in the way as it is publiehod the followine meterials were used: I.) V. V. Ialdlontov according to hi.; work in fiaar?-rudin and at the StRtion of Tlant i3rotection of the Scientific Research of Agricultural Institute, mainly in the connection of pests ,:rith weeds. 2) A. A. Tibilova according to her work in the SAtr.'eA lam crA3PA H 4 ) . mainly in the biolocer of. web worn. In this part ere also need the materials of IU. A. Piontleovskii and the materials. of NamenghInskii complex, mainly in bioecology. 3) P. P. Rogaeh in his work at %tree aliink of sTAZRA SIMI, mainly concerning ekaredrine. 4) L. Ce Vitkovskii and M. A. %min*, mainly concerning corn earworm in the work at the farm Vakh- ste In !a.dzhikistan. 5) K. I. Kosobutskii, in his work in Seleit and STAZPA MITI, mainly concerning the economic si,p.ificance of nests aryl diseeses and technic:1 and economic effect of the measnres. 6) A. V. Veeinger Alektorova, specialists Sisykh and Vitieeva - materials concerning the profilectie of watering and agrotechnic in controlling ecede. 7) K. IT. Zavodskti and V. V. Iakhontov concerning the measures in controlling plvtanotiu.s. 8) P. G. rstifeeva. Serbinov, ane Vasiltev concrIrnigg wilt, homraoste and adhesive bacteriosis.(Lately it has been aoterininod that the cense for disease is not a bacteria, but an lfalfa lug). ? 9) The works of S. A. Itharin on alfalfa seed eater and on the intro ...action into practice of arsenic compounds in controlling mites on 1.0-ciffs. Besides1 for the system of measures were used renort3 Of op,IrLting organizations end all literary resources on rests, diseeee 3 and weeds which exist until now. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 AT.I.BOULtura;44; n* 4* Thepublished system ofmatures could not be considered as something undieputable and. 1.711C angeabie. According to the change of concrete environment, -under the conditions of socialistic reconstruction of agrid. culture this first system of measlzre will have to change, supplemented and improved 1. Spring period (Kerch-May) ring he Spring period on cotton raion(s) all. basic p field cultivation, the replanting of cotton into conservatories, ng planting of cotton in the ground (by seeds or by plants from eonservatori are 'done. Daring this period the following pests and diseases appear: a) the' root mite, the field cricket the need dividing stage of hornmoze d root. decoy appear ii consorvatoriesarid damage the young plants; b) upon alfalfa_ appear the c flare of the beetle phytonomus (already in the first -days of March) and ka.radrin caterpillars (at the end of May): ) the web rzlte and cotton aphids appear and epread widely upon weeds along the boundaries, on slopes and edges of the irrigation ditche on curbs of fields and roads. On uncultivated spacer, the hatching and the di3velonment of Marode graeshopper, iktbace.rkan? and at the end of KV appeoxe also Oasis grasshopper; d, the cotton itself appears acaeia aphid, 1710tnikov aphid the big cotton aphid, seed dividing stage of homrsoze; during /Immo summers with warm spring appears also the web ? mite. Hero are incli.cated the baste pet e and diseases for he given period, but here in a possibility of the appeurance-of other pot and diseases. 2. Per a correct and early organieation of Controlling pu 5te and diseases during spring the following work should be carried out on cotton farms; a) inspection and remodeling of sprayers at the beginning of f.larch, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 losobutskiii j. 6 and also the preparation of poisons and equipment; b) brigd1ers of ? collective and Soviet farms inspect the cotton and alfalfa fields (especially their ed 9) at least once in five days, they note the field and the pest which appears md organize an early measure which would be indicated for the given pest; with the same purpose the brigadiers of collective and. Soviet farms inspect (once in six days) the weeds located Close to cotton fields and with the availability of grasshoppers and aphids they orgtulize the cohtral of these pests on weeds as it is indicated below: d) along with the inspection of cotton fields the bri diers of collective and. &Met farms note the degree of weeds on, each field in order to compose a plan R5f hilling which would carry out the billing on the weeded During the spring ploughing it is necessaryavoid places on ccuslate. On fields covered: in previous year by rhizome weeds manual .veding along with ploughing 10. errors/1.21g by spring which weeds appear rapidly where pests carried out, and. also combing out rhizome by means o harrows, epring. cultivators, grubbing large rhizome by aketmen.11. 1alt2 Mes ? may lie in soil not. on the entire field, but Toy nidi (Curtains), in this case the combing of sect curtain is carried out separately in order to avoid the spreading of rhizomes all over the field. ? 4. Along with ploughing and preparation of the fiLoid for sowing he planning'of tton fields is carried out with the aim of eliminating detrefis.ionfi_Iwhers 41C etutulates and conditions arise which fo stet dieaes and which also encourage the development of such weeds as CyperU e Aefizo,podium notiagrariai, ?adzhirik14 and. others. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Irosobutskii, X. 7 Immediately after plouaing 0 sityultaneonsly,i with it & deep ? diggin:; f ll plca covrod by wedds (boarders ? curbs of cotton fields e t c . aleo ;Sowing of weeds by sketnenin on slopes and edges of irrigation ditches with the z..-.1r4 of de easIng the amonnt of pests by depriving., them the usual nourish-MC.72u awing tize ctcai spring period. 6. During the planting of cotton in conservatories the soil should taken at the place': :there Was. The soil' homnon pr ha! bo: inspected: and al the rodent pete (larvae of wire worms larvae darlaing beetles cockchafers, cater lers of winter:owletcAgro etc.) are should he poisoned n out and destroyed.- Seedg planted in glitesoo below). 7? tn case of the appearance of root lites in conservatories, whicb noticoble by drooping and drying pleits, or of crickets which is noticeable by gnawed leaflets or by the presence of the cricket itself, following measures are u a) in controlling the root inite - an intensi ventilation of the conservatories, b) in controlling the cricket eke mannred attractants are thrown in the conservatories.' in pltzt Lag grafted cotton Into soil it is necessary to note the plants diseased b became infected destroyed so that the disease-would not case there ishomm If in the glass one pl of three this plant has to be taken out from 'ground and i n the other plants. In the glasses should be destroyed. In case tho majority of plants is infested than the trans- plantation should be discussed in each individual ease ronodst id MTS ) Maohine ftt?r Station. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kesobutakii, M. I. 9. The polain of cotton seeds against hommoze before transolentrAian into the soil. The roisoning in carried out in a concentrated sulphuric ? . filmedl acid(125-150 g. acid upon 1 14 bare socdo and 175-200 g. upon 1 kg swollen cotton Seeds) or in the solution of formalin (99 litres of rater to one litre AO Percent formalin), with the consumption of 17 to 20 litres of solution for 1 centner of seede, or, finally, by pollinator NAV (for every kg of needs 12-15 gramme of the compolind 11.011 ie used). In case of seed poisoning in concentrated sulphuric acid the seedamaet be carefullg washed in running wtter and should be carefully dried. 10. It is necessary not to Plant any other olants (cornownash) on cotton field in order to avoid theeccumulation of pests (mites, nkorobochni1:11, aphidi etc.) and their transfer upon cotton. .11. la fertilizing cotton fields it to necessary to exclude from the fertilizers all the wage left from the cleaning of cotton on cotton plants. 12. During the sewing of alfalfa it is desirable that new alfalfa would not be Placed directly near the old alfalfa in order to avoid the transfer of 11hvtonnaus from the old ploughed Alfalfa upon new alfalfa crops. 13. In case Of the apPearance of caterpillars of winter owlet, tAProtie sesetuat or of larvae of wire worm and of darkling beetle, it is necemry to plece mill cake or green poisoned attractante upon the infested fields from the mowed weeds or alfalfa (the weedg or plfelfa are reintened with 0.3. percent solution of arsenic .1nCium ovla, and is placed in piles between rows upon the infested field). The mill cake attractants are placed under the cotton buShes and are covered by soil. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 solAtt ? I. 9 '.en the cotton startr, to ..r,raut it in hecesT-1.;? in th., first u1e.ce to re7luve the pinto ..ihida are infested by hormlo!!e with tr,r,nso%rent sots on t%0 3eed fivielni; leaves and to destroy these plants in order to roroid infct tion of thc naiGht2oring sound ?1,-,nts. . order to dec=1;e thl =mut of rftitm the A-1r7 of the et,-.7,a,..nce of mites unon cotton an a consid^rable ecrease of the field, it in 1-7.cury to sta.rt the control of miten on thole 1;cedn which surround the field. In the first place it is necessary to pay attention to the yueds under nulberry, wee's, elone to "dav:31all, and weeds on the border nr alfalfa. In this cese, carrying ont the coltrol on the *Jouni!'.:-L'1, it is Nirisable to include also the edgm of alfalfa in the width of 1-1.5 m. control is c%rried out before the cotton is moved by sprlying with n7 :F.1cuate (14.5 percent solution) or netrium !sulphx te (110-15 plAcrrlit solution) sulplmr-oxide emulsion 3 ( 5 percent solution) or, fin lly, by the waste of petroleum industry flemnlsionsli (2-3 nercent solution) rith the consumption of 759-1000 lit pro hectar in all cages. 15. :or the control of ac2Ci?. sips* aphids on cotton the followin,; ihould be applied: a) spraying by slosp.lariabazine or soap nicotine solution (4 c soap and 1 g anabazin or nicotine fer 1 1i wrtter, wi%h the consumption of 75C-100 liters of eolutinn pre hectar); b) nollinF.tion with anabalent or nicodest; for 97-95 kg lime-bloom or wood dust 3 tn n r ...:7c?71n with the consumption of the dusty equi -Tient from 30-40 ::Jx) ha. is taken. For the accelar;Itir,n of aphids for the polinri,%1;eyer it is poseible. the application of an airplane is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kosobutskii, K. I. 10 Siallateneously the spring inspecting registration of the nidi of the holothurian of grasshopper and of Karocco locust, the compositicm of the plan of locust control, preparation of fertilizers, the transport of poisons and of equipment to the given places - all this has to be carried. out. 17. As soon as the web mite arToears on the edges of cotton fields, it is necosscry immediately to carry out the edge cultivation including the protected belt in the field, with the width of 3 to 5 m. of boundaries, curbs close to the cotton field etc. In the first place the infested borders of the fields which are acme to mulberries. Iduvalau and alfalfa should be cultivated. For this work the following is used, depending on the presence of the pests: a) pollination with Vaorsuiskii concentrate of First sort (20 t-4. of the concentrate and 10 kg. of wind-blown silt or-liake at the beginning of summer and 25 ? 15 kg. wind blown silt or lime pro hectar in July and August); b) rollination with ultra sulphur (40 kg- at the beginning of summer and 50 kg. pro hectar in July-Augast); c) spraying with 4 pn-cent solution of soft soap (750-1000 liter per beets)* 4) solution ISO (0.5- 0.75 percent according to Born with the consumption of 050-1000 liters per heater). In case of further spreading of the web mite into the cotton fields it is necess ry to carry out a nest or a fall cultivation by the same equipment's.. 18. Forage alfalfa considerably infested by the larvae of phytonomus should. be mown at the very moment when the larvae enter the stage of open life. %then they are not locked in buds, but are well noticeable on the alfalfa plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02.: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kosobutskii, M. I. 11 Sath a. mowing is usually done 5-12 days before the first mowing. The mown rlfrlfa is harvested immediately and is carried to new places for drying (vide curbs of irrigption ditches, yrrds of collective farms eto.), and it is desirable to spray -the mowed alfalfa with 0.3 percent of solution of arsonic-mtrium oxide with the consumntion of 750 to 1000 liters solution per better the very same day. The purpose of spraying - to kill the lerw-s of phytonomus which fell daring the mowing. With the slight infestation of alfalfa by phytOnomus the firot mowing is done at the usual time, but for the rest- the same witk is carried out. 1.4. the mowed alfalfa is carried fro' the field, ut the ,alfalfa is sprayed by a solution of arsenic natrium oxide. ? In case of a serious infestation of alfalfa seeds by phytonomns the latter "to rolinated with arsenic calcium oxide with the consumption of 10,12 Iz perimeter at the moment When the larvae enter open life. 19. Controlling the Morocco locust Olocioetsuruemoroccanus, by spraying arsenic calcium oxide (upon uncultivated grounds) with the con- sumption of 3,-4 kg. calcium per bectar Or by means of mill cake attractant ( in the nl:mt, to avoid burns, only attrectants - for 24 kg. Mill cake 0.5-0.6 arsenic natrium were used). The control of Moroccan locust and.natbasarkan should bo completed before the appearance of the 4th stage of larvae, since after they get wings the control becomes more complicated. 20. In case of mass appearance of caterpillars of ukaradrina0 upon alfalfa their control is carried out to prevent the transfer of the caternillrrs upon cotton and licuidating the damage of alfalfa by the Ilk? .caternillare. On forage alfalfa the control is carried out by mill cake Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kogotru.t it, attrictent (for 32 kg of mill cake 0.7-0.8 kg. sodium areenite, and upon need alfalfa by pollination with arsenic calcium oxide 15-18, kg. per hectar)., 21. The control of ?atbasarkan in places near cotton, the field cricket on cotton and the mete cockroach in places covered with weeds and on the cotton by applying mill-cake manure .attractants (for every 24 kg. of mixture of mill cake with manure 0.3-0.4 sodium irsenite)? In every kg. of mixture there should be 750 go of mill cake and 250 g. of smnure. 15-18 kg. of attractants is spent for one hectar. 22. During the first hilling of cotton along with the billing' the cut reeds in the rows and. between the rows are collected immediately by individual portions and are carried away from the cotton fields to prevent the transfer 45"/ pests upon the cotton plant. 23. The mowing of, weeds along all the irrigation field to prevent the seeding Of weeds as well as the liquidation of reserved weed qualities. The motrin; has to be carried out before rain along the klopes, curbs, and edges of. reservoirs. Per drying the mown weeds are carried beyond. the cotton fieldn to prevent the transfer of the pests from them upon the cotton and alfalfa fields. 24. In case of the aPpearance of the fikaradrin" caterpillars, the cultivation of the infested fields is. done .by pollination with arsenic calcium oxide -(young stages) or, if there was no pollination, by throwing attr ctrnts (older stages). This chemical, control is carried out before weeding, because in c'm3e of weeding without orelimiwry control, the ilkaradrinan caterpillars tranefertte the cotton plant. In the same manner ? as during the billing, the pulled werde are carried out beyond the cotton fields in order to carry out the Nkaradrinan young caterpillars and ages Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Hosohatskii, 14. I. 13 along with the weeds. Besides. on the fields damaged by the okaradrinn caterpillEreaad extra watering is necessary to promote the growth of the damaged Plants. II. Wilmer period (Iand-Augast) Airing this period all between rows cultivations of cotton, watering etc. are carried out on cotton fields. The following pests and diseases 'could be found upon cotton plants during that period: a) almost before the end of June the mellon and cotton aphid develop and damage cotton, and at the . end of the period the fall generation of aphids start to appear; b) at the beginning of Vey the caterpillars of alcaradrie of the first generation, and at the end of June and the beginning ofJuly appear alpo the caterpillars of the second generation; c) the caterpillars of corn earwerm of the second ? and third generation start to damage cotton; d) on the fields appear the leaf hoMmoze and at the end of the period - the stem hommoze; e) the ? harmful ectivity of the alfalfa bag starts upon the cotton crops: f) wilt apPeare on the fields; g) at the beginning of the summer period the ossie cockroach Continues to dmmege cotton; hYthe web mite cTetranychus pxticmel spreads intensively causing not only edge infestation but nidi and massive infestation PS well. As fcr as organization is concerned in order to wanly the correct system of measures, the collective and Soviet farms are confronted with the following tasks: a) the collective and Soviet farm brigadiers continuo their observation of pests and disersed On cotton fields. By mo,als of periodic inspection they registertthe infestation fields ? they organize and carry out those measures which Ere indicated for that period. The registration of infested and cultivated fields are carried Out according Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 losobutskil. M. I. 14 to a special instruction of Registration Division and with the assistance of collective and Soviet brigadiers; b) upon all the cotton fields covered with the pottoned seeds against hommotei the technical effect of poisoning is registered e) in the same manner, with the assistance of collective and Soviet farm bri Otero, is carried out the registration of the tecIlnical effect of vark against aphids, web mites, Ilkatedrin, skorobochnie and others; d) according to special instructions of the Registration division with the !-.3sistance of collective and Soviet farm brigadiers a special pereonnel registers the deposit of the holothuria of the Morocco grass- hoopor. cocl:roach, fatbasarke and other locust pests.. Fro7, the general system of mez.suree during the slimmer period the following measures are applied; 1. The cultivationoCall fields infested by melon aphids by spraying with soap-anabazin solution or by polinetion by Ranahitdests" upon lime or road dnnt. These cultivations ihould be emmleted at the time when the *plaid under the influence temperature depression or pests and parasites will decrerae. During the appearance of sumer period of the fall generation the control is carried out on the .infested fields by the same ways, by spraying and pollination. 2. The end of the method of mill cake nure attractants agrAne the oasis locust rcallibtanius, 3. Control of the okaradrins caterfallare ull*Malcotton*ropm;AWthe begiating of the period the control of the caterpillars of the first \ generation, and at the end of the period against caterpillars of ,the second generation. The control is carried out either by polliwitiop of the cotton with arsenic calcium oxide (15-18 kg. pro hooter) or With Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kesobutskii, M. I. 15 attractant poisoned by mill cake (:30-40 kg. per hectar)? The pollination is applied against the younger caterpillars and the 'attractants - ngainst the older ones. Upon the fields infested by ukaradrin" before the weeding or before the elternate billing the same rules are followed as in May, i.e.first of all it is necessary to carry out a chemical control of the "karadrin" caterpillars, otherwise the unpoisoned caterpillers would transfer upon cotton after the weeding. 4. The second and third sowing of weeds on edges, slopes and curbs of reservoirs, along boundaries, curbs of fields and. roads in order to prevent the seed producing of weeds and the liquidation of their reserted abilities. The .second mowing is done on June 20 - July 10, and the third. July 20 -Joaaust 10. The mown weeds are collected and are carried far from the cotton fields in order to avoid the transfer of the pests from the mown weeds upon tie cotton. 5. Control of caterpillars of the corn earworm upon cotton crops at the bezinning of the period of second generation, at the end of the period with the third generation, by means of pollination with arsenic calcium oxide (18-20 kg. per hectar) or by attracte.nt of dry preparation (10 kg. of small sifted mill cake to 1.5 kg. of arsenic calcium oxide or 1 kg. elite powdery aritenic). on - one heater 30-40 kg. attrattant is used. Pollination is applied against young caterpillars, and the attractants- against the older ones. In both Cases for the acceleration of the an air,lane is advisable. 6. The operating work against the web mite is carried out in the followino monners a) edge work against the web mite are carried out on .s1.1 those cotton fields, whose edge infestation began in June. Dunn;; this Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 KosobutsIdi, Mo I ? 16 edge ror the cultivation of weeds is done sinraltaneously, farst of all .on the boundaries which belong to the alfalfa along the field., and blown weeds (poisons and doses are indicated in the spring period); b) nidi or entire work is carried out on all those fields infested by the web site where the mite ? -.7e-rar, e,'ring the spring period, but there was no edge weeding done, or it hs been done, but appeared to be unsucceesful. Daring this work, besides the fields, places are cultivated which are covered with weeds. For entire cultivation the Shorsuiskii compound tirst degree is used, if it 13 available, and ultra sulphur, and also ISD. Upon all maps with massive infestation for the acceleration of work the application of an ? airplane 13 adlisable; the nidi or lease cultivation of fields against mite with the Irma .compounds of all' those fields upon which the edge infestation occured during the simmer period, but there were no edge cultivation, or they sr without success. The places of weeds are not cultivated. Cultiv7tion against Mites should be completed before September 1. In separate raion(e) and on separate fields depending upon the cotton vegetation the work' could be continued. until September 10. 7. The additional first and. second billings are carried, out and. the end of Jay -md August upon fields heavily covered with iweeds of root sprouts and rhizomes. 8. Alfalfa heavily covered by root sprouting weeds, intended for ploughing, are ploughed in fall or better in summer, immediately after the third raowing, at the beginning of August with the parnose of drying the weed roots. 1;ith the same purpose the fields free from cereals are ploutted it the middle or at the end of July. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kosobut skit p M. I. ? 17 9. Daring the June. July and August hillings of cotton simultaneouply the cut weeds are accwsulated and carried out from the cotton field. in order to prevent the pests to transfer from the drying weeds upon the cotton. At till; tithe of the second and third hillings Ngumain forms auxiliary rhimes not deeply rooted. Vith the purpose of decreasing weeds it to advieable,to dig out those auxiliary rhizomes, to carry them out from the cotton 'fields and destroy them. Besides, on the fields heavily covered with weeds one or two supple- mentary hilliw;s are done so that by carrying out frequent hillinge the covering.fielda with weeds would decrease. On seeded alfalfa a periodical mowing of the weeds liketeguiain, alcsyl-hi Lel:" and ?nsolodkal., is done. III. The Pall period (September-November) Daring this period the ripening and harvest of cotton crops occurs, the fell preparation of fields' for the sowing of cotton for the next year etc. In or6arizational sense during that-period the following work is done: a) registration of. the economical effect of poisoning Of seeds bry sulphuric acid, formaline and by various dry poisons according to the special instruttion.of the Registration Division, by a special personnel with the assistance of brigades of collective and &mist farms; b) reais- tration of economical effects of controlling the web mite1 cotton tlphids, ftkaradrinao, fil:orobochnik" etc. by registering the harvest on weeded and unweeded fields. The registration is carried out at the instructions of the Regisial?-tion Division by a special personnel with the assistance of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Hosobutskii, H. I. 18 bric..dicr.1 of collective and soviet farms; 0 the report of every brigadier on the ql,lort history of the given fields in respect to the seasonal in- fegt.ltinn pests and diseases, and also by very harmful weeds; d) a fall verif:Ting registration of the deposit of holothuria encroaches, Merrenco rr' rPr .ocnst. Registration is carried ant according to Epecial instruction of Registration nivision, specie/ personnel. with the ansis'7.-nce of briff-diers of collective and Soviet farms. larinL; the fall the following measures are cerried out: 1. Irr,e onitivetion of all fields infeted by melon aphids causing the widenin:77 nf fibers. Control of the fll generation of aphids by the serf-lying nethod should he determined before the mass opening of bolls. tht: control. from the mor.ent of the )e1.l mrturing, when a 11..-:rt of th,-; is el r-ody onen, only pollination is possible bee-a/se s-rciing would spoil the fibers. In case, if the spraying is necessary becsLuse another po..c:on is not available, then the some is admissible only after the preliminary collection of all the open bolls. 2. the first and the following harvest of cotton the mu PIPterial (blrpk or yellow skin) is harvested.seps:rately and is separately sent to the fr,ctor7 with the inscription *widened". The raw material of the pl !nferted by ho-..triose is harvested separately and is sent to the factor:: rjti the inscription *infested by homneze". In cotton fsctories the infeFterl sand widened raw material is -'reserved and cleaned sikparately. 3. Immadittely after the heIvest "gam-pais is harvested in the rollowing order: a) on fields intensively wilted !.nd homed am-1sta is dt.f; out with the rot, and en the other fields e manual or machine harvest is carried ont. The vended gnse-oda is token to the yards of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kesobutttii, M. I. 19 collectivo farms or is hayatecked far from the cottonl fields. -Upon all the infested. and. 'seed covered fields fall ploughing is carried out first of .4. naring the fall ploudaing the manual digging out or vach1ne conbin.: t4,4tf ir'nec is carried out on the fields vhich are heavily covcrod by rhilene veeds, then carried out beyond. the cotton fields. 5. Sicallte.neously with the harvest of gaza-pai the clearing of leaves under the trees along the reservoirs. the .skirrting of foliage in piles and. burning then in order to eliminate favorable conditions for the wintering of pests li2:e web mites and. other!). IV. Winter period. (Decembisrh.PebruarV) During this period the poets and dioceses are in a papause. In ? mature condition or in the stage of cocoons or larvae the pants are in the soil, covered with ground, in soil fracture, under fallen foliage, in weeds etc. According to these locations the following measures are carried out during the winter period. 1. Clearing the trees from foliage, raking it into piles and burning it in order to destroy the wintering pests. 2. Digging of boundaries, curbs of reservoirs to create conditions unfavorable for the wintering pests. 3. The burning of weeds on curbs of reservoirs to destroy the wintering poets. The burning is carried out only on each reservoirs Where there are no trees, otherwise the burning spoils the trees, especially the younG ones. 4. The straw and places obtained during the threshing in Which the alfalfa seed eater is wintering is given as feeding to livestock until. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tosobnt M. 1. 20 the en,1 of the Onter reriod. The unnocestmry vrnstt not good for the I ivet,c1 4 burned in oreer to ellmin. to the snrePdinf; of the send el--..ter. 5. Durg the winter ,er,tering of the fields infested by pests, horimorli anf.pflt, hetvily covered by rhirome, yards must hev:, It 1. 0. -x?blo to cry out the irrirtion by flonflinr. C. ic nape as foal of in rni other rae-to obt-inrd. on cotton factor-5,-. -irt order to destroy the rent available there. The WaSt 0 not rs fnel P.t the beginning of the srtring n,nriod (birch) i.a Awned to rrnvent the rests to trsnefer uron the cotton crops. July 16, 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 IKVESTIIA. - August 17, 1951. No. 192 Translated by R.D. p. 1. soviet Health Care. (Ed.) p. 2. Experience in industrial construction at collective farms. Voronezh; building. ' August 18, 1991. No. 193- ' Translated by R.D. p. 1. To introduce more rapidly the new, irrigation system (Ed.) Peforestation at Lower Dnepr region. Kiel*. . p..2. "Viatka-2", new frost-resistant variety of rye, of high yield, produced at Eirov Institute of Agriculture of No.Eastern USSR under the guidance of well known .selector Eudnitskii. V Ttenslated p. 3. Among tree shelter belts. Kuibishev obi. August 19, 1951. No,. 194. Nothing of interest. August 21, 1951. No. 195. , Translated by R.D. p. 1. Grandiose construction on the Volga. (decree 8-21-50 to construct Kuibishev Hydro-electric Station on the Volga. ?(Ed.) p. 3. Entrance examination at WIZ are completed. . August, August 22, 1951. No. 196 Translated by R.D. p. 1. Cotton harvest begun in Moldavia. Kishinev. August 23-, 1951. ro. 197 Translated by R.D. p. 1. New method of raising cotton. Tashkent. Translated Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kozikov, F. V. Transl. 1921 Platt Protection On the methods to be applied in record Service. Zadhch. Rast.- 2:129-1334 1936 ? 421 P942 Translated in fu: K. G. Dembo by The notes of F. L. Kozikov, L. V. Koloukhin and F. S. Pervukhin discuss a most interesting question concerning the methods of work of ' Registration. Despite the absence of concrete suggestions the editors publish these' notes in order to stimulate an exchange of ideas on this most important problem of plant protection, especially since this fall VIZR (13141)) The All-Union Institute for Plant Protection plans to have a special convention on the problem of the method for Registration. Already, on the first convention of the workers on pest control, which took place in December 1951, a resolution has been accepted which clearly formulated the responsibilities of the scientific research organizations and of the operating network in oon ction with the economi- cal significance of pests and the evaluation of the effect of measures in controlling them. By a serIes of decisions and of conventions of the workers in Plant Protection, it has been determined that the problems of study of losses and effects of the me asures should represent one of the basic problems in the work of research organizations. Nevertheless, by reading the latest literature, both the popular and the one which pretends to be scientific in the field of economical significance of pests and diseases, we, discover indicatin the losses to the following inde 6 per cent* for medium less that 20 per cent, authors, an exclustv that the figures which are given by the authors in.: ottinue to be of the usual standard which sums up the decrease of harvest of slightly damaged plants damaged . 10-15 per cent for heavily damaged, not. whereby in theta standard. data with individu , conspicuous difference exists which is expressed in ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /92' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Eozikar, F. L.. On the methods to be applied .in record service. hundreds f thoucanC hectars or lost or damaged crops; if these losses are expressed in money-- they amount to hundred of millions of-rubles. Undoubtedly, this indicates the fact that a majority of authors who did not pursue any circum tantial study in this line indicate figures whith are far from roality and vd:ich are of subjective and quite orienting nature. At the same ttr the amount ? operating measures which increases .every year should have had more conerete,econ mit b s s for the. Assumption. It would be erroneous to persist that some workers did not ake seriou .attempt to study the losses from pests and diteaces; _have in this . direction some results which give us the po ibility, especially from the methodical point of view. to approach more closely the study of losses from individual pest s and diseases and of the effeets of measures. Of great value we may consider during the last two years the works' of the coworkers of the economical sector of VIM Xosobutskit and others. Being the result of. research work acquired as perimentso these data could not be of_maes productive character, but represent a value as methodic 1 materials, which is necessary to utilize on the widest Scale. The first-source of acquiring the mass materials concerning losses and the effects of measures should be the etwork of Division of Regis-. tration of VIM (!3OP) All-Union Plant Protection. This was really the main task of the Department Of Registration organized by the Division of Pest Control. Unfortunately, this work of the Department of Registration was not developed,- expanded nor introduced into a normal channel result of which the systematio accumulation of materials and their work .did not progress in comparison wit 'the past. Without being unfounded, let us bring separate excerpts froth the opinions of specialists ent ale- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 20-13/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kozikov, F. L - On the methods to be applied in record service gists-economists rho fu Registration concerning the lasso pre-revoluti on the, work. Of DivisiOn of Cron certain harmful nary years and during the period of the first ects during the For Instanoe Briantsev writes:: he materials during the revolutionary the ,First Period were ot sufficient, especially during the last year Five-Year Plan and the first year of the Second Year Plan, in comparison with the best materials of pre...revolutionary period, but at the same time they are till far from the requirements for an authentic loss registration. The basic elements he fields infested or damaged by pests, the intensity of their infettation; the data damage mere absent most of the time or uere insufficient. Therefore in respect of registering fields and the degree of their infestation, it was ry to use the methods of extrapolation and interpolation, as to the data on damage it was neessary to give them a provisory ifican e!.. From the opinion of another specialist,vie notice that: The data of the Division of Registration indicate that there is a disproportion of possibl losses from individual and group-locusts. While usually the losses from the individual and from the group locusts are f the tame kind and the losses from group' locusts require general attention, the data of the inspection indicate that the. possiblelosses from the Asiatic and Moroeto locusts consisted in 5 3 ofo in 1952 and in 1933 - 9, 2 o/o. If th is the oasis, then the centre of. attention should be transferred to the Individual locust although we could dispute It .9 In general, all the data on losses of 11 pests are subje ive and do not differ from the data indicated byother authors. Such a condition is not casual. The methodical handbooks which ere publishedby the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Eozikov, P. L. On the methods to be applied in record service. Registration Division even with an ideal application in the work could not turnieh iore concrete data on the losses caused in our agriculture from pests and diseases. The content of these handbooks sums up to data of losses, although ? in some parts they are not void of tendencies in applying- the analytical method. The grouping of plants into slightly, medium and heavily damaged when the difference between the categories is cps Med from 1/4 to 3,/2 ? of the infested or damaged plants could give-only the idea of damage, especially since the infestation degree is doterthined by the eye. Under such conditions the data of the observation points could hardly be utilized s materials for statistical work, and if it is used in our work, then it ? is not surprising that the obtained results are close to the data on losses acquired by the eye. The handbooks of the Registration Division are Insufficient and elementary if we intend to study the losses by an analytidal method when the damage Is counted as a function from the coefficient of the harm, the intensity of infestation, the number of pests and the duration of their presence upon the plants and when the influence of other factors should be considered, which is as important fo&r the damage as the intensity of infestation. From nll materials offered to the osCrtin points as guidance in lesiaregiatratiOn,: the best it the instruction ritten by the specialists G. U. Iaroalavtsev, A, I. Karpova, A. V. Vyrzhiko kaia and P. B. C4lakhov for the field entomologiCal observation points of the Registration Division. But it is -doubtful whether thie in truotion is acceptable in the work of, the observation points, and especially with the qualitative personnel at:the: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kozikar, F. L. On the methods to he applied in record service. present t the authors of this instruction write: ?!poet dfticult to obtain information concerning the influence of damage Ilion the amount and the quality of the crops. The complexity of the problem of. the influence of the damage upon the crops on one hand Is -explained by the variety of conditions of growth of plants in various raion(s) of the 'Union in different years, and on the other hand 7 by the biological peculiarities of the same plants (species, qualities). Only i small pa of the pests,damages,the formed fruits and the seeds her the size and the quality of the crops are in direct relation to the degree of the &triage, . The majority of pests damage- not the productive, but-the vegetative organs of the plants, often during the period when the'fruits and the seeds were not formed. In such case the plant reacts to the damage labile the reaction and the ability of the plant to restore the lost organs depends upon the? age of the'plant 'at the moment of damage, conditions of nourishment soil cultivation, fertilization, heat, moisture, etc.), drought 'immunity, ripenest of plants etc." Of ciourse it ie; Impossible to argue against such an approach, 11110-M10e only with a profound study of the factors which influence the amount of crops is it possible to epee); of :the possibility of obtaining if not complete figures, at lea8t quite close to: the actual Ones. It is only incomprehensible her would the observation points be able to furnish us with those figures without experimental work and without any detailed research of the indicated factors. It is therefore doubtful whether these data will differ from those figures which are Obtained by individual persons by the eye, especially since the instruction recommends to use all the of slight or heaVy damages couldthen give the average loss.... Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : DP8OR01426R010000010001-2 A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Kozikov, F? L., On the methods to be applied in record se ice. ? Without going into the details of Individual points of instruction on the loss registration, it is necessary to note that as a whole, it is too huge and complicated: the style i not accessible to the wide masses of the workers in Registration: muc)-1 of it is the official ideas of the workers of the central?offiee who are very 1tttleacquinted with the working conditions of the observation pointaand st 11 less with the preparatOn of the majority of workers in case they ate required to fulfill this work. According to these ideas the instruction could not be used in practice at the majority of observation points, and therefore is unable to introduce anything new into the solution of the problem. It is necessary to note that the Instructions dispatched to the fields suffer from essential shortcomings in their counting of losses of damaged plants. This has to be aonsidered in .a special article. A problem which Is also important and essential is the one which considers the effect of measures. Vas it solVed at the present time? It is possible to say definitely that its solution is not at its best. It is impossible to deny that the Registration Division undertook measures to acquire the necessary data, but the idea of effect in publishing the Anstrwitions was. of somewhat peculiar character. For instance, the zonal instructions in regittering pests and disesses.edited by the Registration Division in1934 suffer of those essential shortcomings that under effect: Is understood the influence of poisons upon p sts and diseases,and-it is possible to obtain, the data of the effects of the measures according to the amount of change in the plant infestation. No'doubt, we could not look the fact of the effect, but at the tame time it is impossible to ov riook other fa tors related to it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Kozikov, P L. On the rt thods to be applied in record service. to It is known that the applied poisons do not remain neutral in relation e plant, but it.produces either a depressing (burns) or stimulatin effect, *hereby the SflfllS poison under different conditi produces a different effect.- This situation ?requires fron us to consider the 'idea "effectft more broadly, on one hand - the decrease of plant damage on the.- , other hand .- the influence of the poison on the (3o dition and the damage of the plant i In reality me observe a lob of 90 per cent and at the first glance the effect is equal to 90 per cent. Along with this there are plant burns up to 60 per cent with the inten?ty of l-2O per cent- thus it seams that instead of protecting the plant we oppress it nose severely than even the pest itself.; hence vie don t obtain any increase in crops as & result of the applied measures. The destruction of pests is sufficient either, because there might occur the death of some percentage of pests but still the increase of crops might not occur, More circumstantially is worked out the problem of obtaining acme exponents of the effect of the ieoiires under the same instruction of the Division of Registration which we mentioned above, but the latter will not be acceptable neither in registering the damage and the harmfulness nor as the -registering the effect of meatures for many observation points on accoun of the fact that the study of e.couomIo effeat is connected with a deep analysis of other factozt-requiring the organization of -special experimental work. in order to obtain more Concrete data according to the exponents of damage and the effect of measures against basic pests t teems to us that the essential work system should. be constructed in such direction that Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 On the be record service* the study of th questions which are insufficiently dwelt upon and which demand more research is essential. From the available network of obser- vation points it is necessary to form 30-40 control points of various direc- tions which should carry out. the work of the corresponding experiments. The number of controlled points is: determined by the position that in each basIc &man of agriculture (seed, cotton, orchard, sugar beet, etc.) is necessary to form four points in various territorial zone(s), of which two will indicate the loss, and the other two the effect of the meaeures. The materials Obtained from the given control points are the necessary correotives to the these problems in mass order. It is necessary to complete the personnel of the control. Pointe. fly the supervisory one by highly qualified persons who Were 411 occupied in the pa twiththe work In this field. 2,11 general, the personnel of the control points could be completed by persons who are graduating from colleges., taking into consideration that many of thorn are graduates in topics of economical dgnificance of pests and the effectsof the measures against them., For the methodical supervIsion and a conOtant control over the work of these control,points in the central apparatus of VIZR (V30 the All-Union Institute or Plant Protection is necessary to create independent groups to register the damage and the eftect based upon existing regis- ? tration sectors or registration and eeonomi s who would perform the theoretical work of the methods along these problems and to give a deep analysis- and direction for the entire work of the Registrgtion These are the present conclusions in the problems of work in registering sr the losses and the measure effects in controlling agricultural pests and diseases. 16 July 1951 neclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/04/02:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Stepanov, K. M. Dissemination of infective diseases of plants by air currents. Zit:shell. Rest. . 3-86. 1935. 421 P942 Trona.. 193: Plant Diseases Translated in full by R. G. Dembo ? (Fret the work of the Ecological Laboratory SF VIM) ? ((PP r1/131)) In the phenomena ofd ssemitation,of diseases, the question of the distance of their motion in the air is Of the most theoretical and practical interest. The understanding of these individual factors of the spreading and of development of diseases, especially their development in locations where the sources of the original infection (for instance, rust) are absent, depends on the solution of this problem. On one hand there prevails an opinion that infectional diseases may spread in the air on very long distance hundreds of kilometers and more). Often such an opinion is supported by corresponding facts which were determined by numerous analyses of air filled with spores of fungi and by observations of the timing of the appearance Of tbe disease in places emote from the infectional sources. Thin le proved the possibility of the rust infesta- tion which arrives from Uanch)Ahuria into the Amur oblist -(Shitikovs... ? Busakova, 1927), in America - its drift from Southern States into . Northerm States and into Canada. On the other hand, there- are data concerning a limited Spreading of Separate diseases by air streams. According to the data of Jonet and Bartholomew (1928) the rust of apple tree which appeared in a considerable degree in orchards close, to weede of juniper, produced slight infestation in orchards removed from the latter on half a mile or more. Orton and Beattie (192$) describe a ease in Columbia where in one place during twenty years neither the: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 193 2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Stepanov, N. IL Dissemination of infective diseases of plants by air currents* apple tree ner the juniper did suffer from rusts while at the distance of ten miles in that locality rust was violent upon both plants* Butler (1917) in his summary brings a aeries of historically verified facts of the spreading of such diseases like Mildew of grapes, gooseberry and ma others and arrives at the oonclusion that the wind is not able to sprea dISSaRSS on long distances. The indicated facts and many others vim ar to them do not imply . any doubts, but require some clarifications. In reality, the Spreading of disease by air is a quite complicated, pheneno?, which depends on various moments during which sometimes the diseases are spread at a long _ distance, in other instances - quite limited distance. Naturally, t question arises - how is this explained, whidh are the rer;ularities? - To determine the latter - signifies the possibility to determine in each separate case the zones of the .spreading of diseases, and corresponding deductions derive from them. Although there attempts made for purely mathematical determnatin of the epreading boundaries of the , infectional origin (Schmidt, 1918), our task is to determine the regulariu ty of spreading infeetional particles by the experimental method. The given work was the principal division of special research carried out by the Laboratory of Ecology in 34. As the method of experiments mentIoned in this arto1e,,se aceepted the follew ng: In the open air (the island Elagin and the vicinity of Leningrad) the spores of Tilletia triti I were dispersed cleaner in mixture with Bovista plumbea. Bete were placed on the field of the experiment. The glasses glasses re smeared with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Stepancir, K. Dissemination of infective diseases of plants 4111 ?by air currents, ? gelatina-glicerine, in various paints, whose coordinates were determined as to the 1 cation of the spore dissemination. After a certain tiros, the glasses were covered by integumentaries, and then the sports were rated. he height from which the spores The direction and the speed of the wind, were dispersed and their amount were determined during the experiment. As the.result of several of such experiments, the following regularity of spore dispersion has been determined. It is expressed by the following equation: y= a + -where y is the distance, ex is the number of spores ax set on the given field (for instance, upon: he in egument ry glass), c and a are constante whose significance is determined by the conditIons of tl-te experiment (the speed of spore motion their amount, the wind epeed, eto .) 1 The character of the dispersion e the relation of unchanged in all oases (excluding those when the dispersion is prevented by barriers - forest, mountains). The practical significance of this ? equation consists in the fact that according to it1 it is possible to determine the zones of spore disperlion in each case for which it is sufficient to evaluate the deposition of spores for one unit of surface in two points differently removed from the source of infection. An example of such zpnes of dispersion is the scheme presented on drawing The given equation enables us to determine the zones of the dispersion of diseases but it nsufficient for the determination of their appearance. It is necessary for this purpose to know some norms of air infestation by s s 2 the size of plant surface which 143 threatened by Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ot,Fin!.uvv, n. M. , ? Dissemination of infective dneasee of plants by air currents. the carrying of infection.from far, the viability of spores the amount of infection and-the conditions of environment (temperature, humidity,. etc,). Nevertheless, ?under corresponding field observations, the determined regularity could be utilized in the work after the availability of ? :.additional data for the determination of the mentioned problem. We have in he registration of the appearance of spores and the observations of the first manifestation of the disease upon various distances of the source of infection. This could be explained by an example taken from literature (lambert, 1929). Spread by the wind from 175 bushes of barberry heavily infested by rust, during 20 hours the following amount of asoldiospores set upon the 411 field of 1 eq. at at the distance of 1.-8 meters - 1737, and at the distance of 21,6 meters 11 spores etc. The observations done fter 12 days *ben the disease should already manifest itself) indicate that rust spread somewhat farther than 1,5 miles.- Bence, we may accept that- at the distance of 2 p lea (5, rust did not appear. According to the equation indicated, above, we deternine that at the distance of 3,3 km.- the average of 0, 1 nscidiospores aettled upon 1 sq. cm. 01' 1,000 Upon 1 sq. m. Therefore, such an overcharge of the air by eacidiozpores under the, given ecological onditions,did not present any economical danger. With similar observations under various conditions and in various locations, the "home of infestation could be determined. Knowing the latter, it IA easy to determine the zones of spreading of various diseases. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 g ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Etepatovi- Dissemination of i fective: diseases of plants by air currents. - 1t us explain it by another example of similar field observations, a maximum uredospores of brown rust of idlest has be that as the result infestation by edivhich under the optimal conditions for the development of the disease does not excel 1600 sp ? or 1. sq.. mile (or 9,15 for 1 Sq. cm is neoessary to determine could a, wheat field infested by brown rust, at the sie of 100 h. spread the infection Under maximum conditions. We register the settling of, the uredospores in two points differently removed from the field long the line of wind and we determine that under the iven infestation degree at the distance of 200 m. 'at the avera at the distance of 00m.S -.6 spores. lio* far ettle on one sq. cm. and under the given conditions,. should the settling f the sare uredoepores occur with 0,15 'spores on I sq. cm?, According to the indicated equation, we determine that this 'norm will be met at the distance of 6 1/2 km. Consequently, at the given anent this field represents a threat for the infection for other crops In a radius up to 6 1/2 km. Further, the =fount of spores will increase in c nnettion with the increase of the field infestation, and according to t at under similar conditions, the zoneS of infectio al effect upon that field will also widen. If we de vensine the dependence between the settling of spores and the degree of field -infettation (i.e., the amount of spores on the field) and of meteorological conditions, then such zones -could be determined based on those data without any registration of factual settling of spores. Many such examples could be indicated In nature phenomena are much more complicated, and It 'necessary to tke various moments into conaiderstirn. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ag. Dissithination of infective diseases of plants by air currents Nevertheless, spreading of t a more effectiv Y P maple ofdeter disease remains the same. the distance of the order that it could have significance it is necessary to develop in the produ environment expanded mork on the dispersion of spores and of the distance of spreadingof the disease with the registration of the main conditions of the environment. The obtained materials will elucidate the regularity of. the dispersion to Indic infectional particles and will give concrete exponents the boundaries for the spreading- f any di ease: The Important problems in this respect are: nonfleU or air infeStation by spores, the ? amount-of infection, its onsumption in time1 the influence of the environment upon the dispersion-of infeCtional orIgin, etc. Similar work is of considerable praotical significance. Its basic purpose is to determine a erlterium for a spgclfic evaluation of any source or infection In relation to time and the distance or its harmful influence.. This* in turn, produces scientific foundation for a series of in controlling plant diseases: the destruction of temporary hosts of r.Isti the quarantine boundaries, mlere-raioning of measures, organization of the sowing field* to. hark this directions planned for the year 1935 mainly in tion to rust). note I. The mathematical analysis of our da Prof. IU. L. ,Pomorskij. In using the AZ been performed by t data, this equation as given by Dr. ILA. Naamov in his textbook "Diseases of Orchard and Garden Plants," Second edition, 1934, page 100. It has been shown in a short report of 0 scientific research work of the All-Union Institute of Plant Protection neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 bsopanov, a. U. Lissemination of infective diseases of plants by air currents. for 1934," pare 84 where a visprint oocurred: instead of y = c 1,1, should be road y ss c - 4 ? sx Note 2. I. e., the maximal number of spores settled upon one unit of surface during a specific length of time 'which under the given ecological conditions will not cause the development of the disease in an economically perceptible amount. Drawing 1. The scheme of dissemination of spores Tilletia tritici. Ficures 100, 30, 10, 3 aid I indicate the averacp amount of spores settled upon a field of 1 sc. am. The mind speed during the experiment from 0 to 3 mA. 2.109 spores were disseminated. ScLle is 1,6 mm. - 1 m. 16 auly 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I - Prokor,ev, A. A. Additional Factors of Growth and their role in the life of plants. Uspekhi sovremennoi biol. 261943..948; Nov.-tec. 1948. 442.8 Er3 Transli 1941 Growth Substances , Translated from the Russian by S. N. Monson In the second half of the nineteenth century the dispute bctween ? two Outstanding scientiets, Pasteur and Liebig, attracted a great deal of attention. Both scientists had Obtained completely different results in studying the conditions of growth and the enzymatic capacity of yeasts. rhile Pasteur claimed that a synthetic medium consisting of ammonia salt yeast ash and auger vas satisfactory for the growth of yeast, Liebig, in. repeating Pasteur's experiments invariable obtained negative results. Since the authority of both scientists went unchallenged, the disagreement remained an unsolved aoientifio riddle Znr many decades. Only in 1901, Wildiers succeeded in proving that the addition of insignificant amounts of some organio growth stimulator, named "bios",,, was essential for the normal growth of yeast, in addition to mineral salts and sugar, The study of '!bios," conducted primarily by Vigi and his school (KOgl u. nasselt, 1936;07,Ogl u. i'obnia, 1936) established that "bios" contains various compounds which stimulate the growth of cells. The group which dissolves in water proved to be the most active part of "bios" and was given the designation "vitamin B." Elements of bios possessed exceptionally high physiological activity and exerted marked action even in infinitessimal concentrations. ThUs, for'instance, according to KiSgl. and IGnnis, the componeht biotin visibly accelerates the development of yeast even in a solution of 1: 40,000,000,000. Robbins established the activity of similar weak concentrations of thiamin, another part of "'bias," upon the growth of isolated roots of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /94 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Additional lectors... tomatoes. In the light of these facts the historical dispute between Pasteur and Liebig was solved. According to Wildiers, Pasteur may have introduced into the nutritional synthetic medium a relatively 'aro, amount of seed stock which enriched it with elements of "blots." Pasteur consequently observed a normal growth of yeast lacking in Liebig's experiments, who introduced a small amount of yeast cells into the medium. It follows thus that in contrast to any other elements used by organisms for the construction of their bodies, the above substances are required in very limited amounts. They resemble in this respect hormones most of all, of attich the most typical representative is, for instance auxin, the growth hormone. So long as the participation of these elements in the metabolism of plants possesses a definite characteristic, it is expedient to segregate them into a separate group. The designation, "additional growth factors," given this group appears, however, moat inappropriate and unsatisfactory, in our opinion; we shall have occasion to (Nell further upon this below. The diversity of adeitional growth factors, at times specific- for a limited group of organiaMs, equally determiies the vast diversity in the metabolism of various representatives of the plant world. Be shall restrict our review only to some of them, those most typical and of greatest significance for manifold classes of plants. GROUP VITA= B. racCallum and Kennedy named the soluble growth factor Vitamin B. Subsequent studies established that an entire group of elements is covered by this designation. At present 10 substances of diverse chemical composition and physiological activity have been segregated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Prokori.ev, A. .A.. Additional Teeters... knong these substances those most thoroughly studied are $ Vitamin B1 (thiamin and tuiervin); Vitamin B2 (riboflavin); Vitamin B6 (adermin and pyridoxin);. nicotinic acid and its amide. vivAnn B1 (thiamin or tuiervin). Attempts made to cultivate is3lated roots of different plants rapidly led to the.conclusion that a medium containing only water, mineral salts and serving as a source of carbon, in the form of glucose or saccharose, is insuffioient for root growth. An entirely different result was obtained when autolysie of yeast was added to the. above medium. nobbins, (1922), established, for instance, that the introduction into the modified medium of Pfeiffer (containing sugar) of small amounts .of yeaet-autolysis substances produced definite,. positive effects in cultivating cereal root ende under sterile conditions. Later White, (1934), developed the perennial culture of tomato root ends. (Lycoper sioum esculentum L.) by adding extraot of yeast. In his experiments Iihite weekly transplanted cut root ends into a fresh medium. The total length of the entire grown root system in a similar culture amounted to, tens and hundreds of meters. In applying a similar method', nit? (1938) also successfully cultivated roots of many other plants, such as, mustard, white clover, petunia, sunflower, etc. Bonner simultaneously succeeded in establishing the efficacy of the action of yeast extract upon the growth of isolated roots of peas., Thus, at least with regard to some plants, the necessity for stimulating the growth of isolated roots by elements contained in yeast extract was established. Other researchers established the same with respect Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release -013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Content ri LJL 0,108 0.0148 0008 60m 10nm. 0mm. I II III I II III Illustration 1. Correaation (relationship) between content of thiamin and subsequent growth of tips of pea roots in vitro. I - tips, distant from growing seed; I/ - corresponds to rootlets that grew in vitro in one meek; III - rootlets that grew in vitro in two weeks. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8ORO1426R010000010001-2 Frokorev, A. A. Additional Factors... to lower plants. In this connection the extensive experimen a of Sohopfe and his assistants who established the outstanding significance poasels10 by additional growth factors in the life of vegetative organisms with regard to many objects (particularly the fungua Phycomyces) is espeoially noteworthy. Subsequent study of yeast extract established that the aotive growth faotor resembles in its attributes vitamin Bi or thiamin. 7-eit$ of crystallized thiamin, 48 an additional growth faeter, performed on diverse objects indicated that the latter clearly exerts an exceptional influence upon growth. On the above diagram (i11.1), secured from the work of Bonner, (1938), it is evident that the reduction of thiamin content at the. tips: of pea roots reduces growth. Complete withdrawal of thiamin aupply stops all root growth. It follows that the expenditure of thiamin determines the rapid discontinuation of growth of isolated root tips under conditions where thiamin is lacking in the nutritional medium. A different picture is obtained when yeast extract or pure crystallite th&emin is introduced into the mtdium(Table 1) Table 1 RAPIDITY OF oilorm OP CUT ROOTS OF PEAS kIN 71ILLI1ZETERS PER ROOT); DONNER, 1037 Experiment I II III rv Nothing 66 10 0 0.01 o/o of yeast extract 64 4.5 45 ' 'IC .56 0.2 gamma/Cm -meOumr1 65 72 65 66 65 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Prokof *ev, A. A. A.dditional Factors... ? According to table I, roots develop identically during the first meek, irrespective of the content of thiamin in a medium. But already at the second trial, during the seoond week, a radical difference is noted betvmen the variants. Roota which do not receive thisurtin from the outside grow poorly, rapidly discontinuing all growth (third stage while .roota which are fed with yeast extract or crystallized thiamin grow energetically, 'with uniform rapidity from stage to stage., Similar results were obtained by Robbins and Bartley (1937) in' cultivating tomato roots. The above authors cultivated in successive staee out ends of tomato roots over periods of five months in a medium which containea. in addition to essential silts and saccharose, various suounta of thiamin, proving that nnderthese conditions unlimited growth is possible. Isolated root plants serve only as one of many examples of the significance possessed by thiamin in the life Of vegetative cells. Numerous work on the culture of organisms has proved conolusively that thiamin- is absolutely indispir.sible for many fungi, yeasts and bacteria, 4n lila most carefully executed work on Phyoomyoes blakesleanue, Sohopfer (1934) proved that the normal growth and development of fungus occurs only Mben thiamin is present in the medium. Different oombinations of mineral and organic salts variations in conditions of cultivation, etc., are incapable of ensuring the growth of fungi without thiamin. Similar results mere obtained by.Burgeff (1934) with Pycomyees, ratans van Tiegam plus and minus; Chaetocladium macrosporum Fgff plus, ,and Pirasitella simplex Bainier ptaa and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 20-13/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Weight of fungus in milligrams to200 t0250 ' A' 0.125 0.25 0.9 Thiamin x 10 1.0 7 Illustration 2. Growth of Phycomyces in nutritional solutions containing different concentrations of thiamin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA7RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Prokoftev, A. A. Additional Factors... The dependence prevailing batmen thiamin content in a medium and the growth of fungus (Phycsomyoes) is illustrated with sufficient clarity - in the curve (111..2) secured from the work of Burkholder end McVeigh (1944). Judging from these curves, the growth of fungi .is directly dependent - upon the content of thiamin in a medium. It is necessary to observe, however, that some other fungi, Mucor rimed? hiene.lis, and U. rtucilasineus did not react upon the introduction ?of thiamin into ,the medium. Subsequent work of Soviet and foreign researcher established that various representative plants of the vegetative world react differently upon thiamin. To some the presence of thiamin is an absolute prerequisite, while others are able to dispense with it. (Yeruaalimakii and Bulatkin, 1945; Odintscrva and Velma, 1941). The success of the chemical property of thiamin which led to its synthesis permitted to teat, along with thiamin, the biologioal reaction of various derivatives and separate parte of the thianin noleaule. It seemed (as will be shown below) that ? many organisms do not require an entire molecule of thiamin but only particle's of its composite parts. In order to understand the situation we shall examine the chemical nature of this combination. The final construction of vitamin B1 was established by the end of 1936, following which its synthesis was performed by different rethods. According to the formula proposed Ly Williams, thiamin repreeents a combi- nation of pyrimidine and thiazole nuclei' connected by a methylene bridge. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof,ev, A. A. Additional Factors... 1514P\C 2 "" t- un ?C I 11H._ 2 II II 3 CH3? C\\11 11\s/ C112.CH2011 Pyrimidine Nucleus Thiazole Nucleus Tests of various groups of thiamin meatoule established the following to be active: In the pyrimidine nucleus the group NH2 and in the thiazole nuoleue the oxyethyl group CE2CH2OH and CIL The blocking of the above groups inactivates thiamin as a growth factor either entirely or reduces its activity radically. The acquieition of chemically pure thiamin was fcllored by numerous experiments directed towards determining the influence of thiamin upon the growth reaction of various classes of plants. The amount of scientifio papers dealing with the need of thiamin by bacteria, fungi yeasts, individual organs, and antire groups of superior plants is at present numbered in the hundreds. These studies, rllich cannot be enumerated here, established the different reaction to thiamin on the part of various vegetative organisms. It was disclosed that an entire group of .plants while existing under usual, normal conditions does riot react to the external introduction of thiamin. Since the presence of thiamin in these plants was, however, established, the conolusion could be reached that rimilar organisms ? - are capable of syhthesizing thiamin from their usual sources, carbon,' nitrogen and ash. Contrary to these autotrophic plants, there are come altbgetter incapable of synthesizing thiamin. The e:riatence of these Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 201-3/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof sev, A. A. Additinnal Factors... organisms is possible only if thiamin is present in the nutritional substrata. Apart from these extreme groups, there are also organisms which acoomplish synthesis of thiamin from its components pyrimidine and thiazole. Some of them are capable of only uniting thiamin and thiazole into the thiamin molecule; others poetess the capacity of synthesizing... one of the oomponenta and require for additional "feeding" only the remaining lacking part of the molecule. Thus, it is possible to arrange for a certain classification of vegetative organisms, by using as a basis the capacity of plants to synthesize thiamin.'(tablo 2). CAPACITY OF VARIOUS GRObPS OF PLANTS TO SYNTHESIZE THIAMIN Group II III Iv V Normal development in medium containing: al. ON thiazole pyrimidine thiazole and pyrimidine thiamin Table 2 Some Representatives Green, photo-synthesizing plants; some moldy fungi (Aspergillus niger; A. flavus; A. orizae, Penicillumbh, 47-1:70? Isolated tomato roots; some fungi (Phyaomyces ramannianus, Nucor rsmannianus) Many fungi, parasites and saprophytes (Phytophthora fa o iri, Pithium Butleri. Solaro um doligia77. WUfirs.) acetone-ethylio bacteria Isolated pea roots; some fungi (Phyoomyces Blakealeanus, P. hitens;) yeasts (Torula Laurentii, T. fermen- tati); b3aina (Staphylococcus aureus). Some fungi and parasites (Phytophthora oinna momi, P. capaioi). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2613/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 rrQLu 5V ? A ? Additional Pastors... As shown in table 2, the entire group of green, photo-synthesizing plants, as well as some moldy fungi do not require normally a supply of thiamin.* Representatives of group II are capable of synthesizing pirimidine and require therefore only the addition of thiazole, building thiamin up themselves; various fungi belong to this group. Group III includes organisms which synthesize thiazole and therefore require pyrimidine in order to produce tLiamin. Many fungi, parasites and saprophytes, acetone-ethylic bacteria belong into this group. Representatives of group IV have very limited synthesizing capacity. They are capable of producing for the thiamin molecule only a combination of two complete nucleii, pyrimidine and thiazole. This type has its representatives in all classes of plants, beginning with superior plants (roots of peas) down to the lower (fungi, yeasts and bacteria). Planta of group V require for their normal growth prepared thiamin molecule Which may not be replaced by any combination of components, wrimidien and thiazole. Several parasites (Phytophthora zinnamomi, P.,capsioi), that are supplied by thiamin synthesized by the host-plant belong to this group. The measure in *doh components 'of thiamin may substitute for thiamin is demonstrated in the example of cultivated, isolated pea roots. * According to Maevakii (937), nicrobes that produce abundant growth on ordinary media possess a high oapaoity for synthesizing substances of the Vitamin A group. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Additional Factors... 1110 (Table 3). ? Table 3 ACCORDING TO BlIFICER, 1938 Growth Factor Additional growth in tam in one meek above the control molar concentrations 10-6 10-7 1 10-9 I 10-11 Thiamin Pyrimidine plus thiazole Pyritaid inSal one Thiazole alone 40 ?40? 34 40 0 0 43 0 0 36 0 0 10 14 .0 As seen in table 3; the addition of thiamin or ad mixture Of corresponding amounts of pyrimidine and thiazole. produces a similar effect. Separately, thiamin and tbiazole do not influence growth at all. Table 2 shows that closely related organisms differ occasionally in their reaction to thiamin and its components. To illustrate this statement further, ee shall refer to data on yeasts of the -genus Torula, Obtained- by Robbins, 1936, ani Odintsova, 1940, (Table 4). Table 4 rEED 01 men Ant ITS COMMENTS BY 7ARIOUS mcirs OF TORULA MEC IES POSITIVE REACTION TO ADDITION IN IgEDIDli Toruly, kefyr ^ cremoris It laurentii ? fermentati ? rosea Pyrimidine plus Thiazole ? sanguinea Pyrimidine ? latvica Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof lev, A. A. Additional Factors... An analogous picture was observed by 8ohoPfer and Blumer (1938) in their studies of different species of the genus listilago. Among 10 studied species 7 developed normally without thiamin; 1 was weekly stimulated by thiamin; 1 was satisfied with a mixture of pyrimidine and thiazole, and finally, the species U. scabies& depends for its develop- ment exclusively upon thiamin and does not grow on a mixture of the latter's componente. 4 ' Table 4 shows that within the limits of" one genu it is possible to find representatives of almost all groups. An uneven reaction to thiamin on the part of isolated tomato roots or peas takes plate frequently within the limits of different raced of one species. As noted above some plants do not react upon the addition of thiamin to the medium. Is it, however, possible to draw the conclusion therefrom that the given organisms, specifically plants containing chlorophyll, are able to get along without thiamin? Illtuay studies convincingly established that all -green plants_ contain in their tissues perceptible a-....ounta of thiamin. Thus, Schopfer (1936), for instance, in analyzing the leaves of 134.8peoies of plants found that all provided for the development of the ftingi Phyoccetes, e., contained thiamin. In his stmpary Bukin, (1940), oites data concerning the content of thiamin in different plants, the presence of the lrtter being apparent not only in organs filled with chlorophyll, but also in roots, fruits, seeds, etc. An analysis of the body of low ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokorev, A. A. Additional Faotors... vegetative organisms whioh develop beautifully in synthetic mediums that lack thiamin indicates that in this case the plant tissues contain thiamin. Sohopfer and Jung in adding to the medium extracts from various species of moldy fungi (genus Aspergillus) established that the mycelium of all tested species contains an adequate amount of thiamin to ensure the normal growth of the fungus Phyoamyoes. Thus, there is every . opportunity to believe that thiamin plays a substantial role it the metabolism of any vegetative organism. RTE or THIAL7D IN ITTABousm. The .excepticinalcignificsanoe of thiamin for the life of animal organisms produced numerous studies devoted to the determination of the mechanism of its action. Here one should first of all note the work of Lohmann and Schuster, 1937; Stern and Hofer, 1937; Tauber, 1937 and 1938, who proved the prosthetic group of the enzyme of oarboxylase; 6. e., cocarboxylase is a pyro-phosphorio ether of thiamin. According to Engelhardt and Wenkstern, 1943, thiamin in the living cell consists "either ih its initial, non-phosphorylated form or in phosphorylated form as the part of the enzyme proteid (in yeasts in carboxylase, in animal cells in pyruvo-dehydrase.)" In the latter case, 1. e., as a prosthetic group, thiamin participates in the,oxidization of'pyro-racemic acid. So long as the significance of pyro-racenic acid and its transformations in carbohydrate metabolism is known; it is possible to assert that one of the functions of thiamin is in its capacity to participate in carbohydrate metabolism. Subsequent work in the field of animal bio-chemistry, however, shoved that the role of thiamin in the metabolism of cells is considerably wider and touches upon Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 IS Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof lev, A. A. Additional Factors... fit and protein metaboliam, in addition to carbohydrates. The work of Kritman (1940, 1943) whowed that thiamin "enters into tie composition of different enzyme systems which are responsible for the various transformations of alpha-keto-acids.ft The experimental data of Kritmnan and others indicates that during Bl avitaminose there is a slowing down of those transformations of anino acids which are connected with keto acids (regeterativesminisation and trans-aminization). Thus, the lack of thiamin leads to the disruption of decarboxy- ligation and oxidation, as well as of reactions of condensation of alpha-keto-acids, which fmve a "determining influence upon the use of keto-acids in the synthetic phases of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism" (Kritzman, 1943). The above explains why the leak of thiamin in rations of animals causes so many different ill effects. Evidently this equally applies to plants. A good argument in support of the latter is the absence of growth of many vegetative organisms in mediums lacking thiamin. A series of papers written by Soviet micrObiologists (Odintsova, 1940, 1941, 1941a; Eeisel, Trofimova and Lisovskaia, 1945; Meisel 1940, 1941)'shOwed that the introduction of thiamin into a Medium not only encourages the tempo of growth but reflects equally upon the morphology and physiology of the vegetative cell. Thus, for instance, cells of the yeast-like fungus Endomytes magnusii are enlarged under the influence of thiamin, the expansion in size extending also upon the nuclear apparatus of cells. Simultaneously an accelerated deposition of glycogen is observed, similar to the accumulation of glycogen by animal tissue which received thiamin Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Prokorev, A. A. Additional Factors... and glucose. The writers observe at the same tire the accelerated enzymatic capacity of fungi under the influence of thiamin. This served as the basis for the supposition that thiamin should be viened as one of the primary factors which determine the enzymatic function of the cell which develop in the process of adjustment to aneorobio conditions of existence. (Odintsova, 1941). Proceeding from the importance of thiamin in plant metabolism, attempts were made for additional feedings: with solutions of thiamin of photo-snthetio plants, cultivated in Sandy or soil cultures. rover, except for the experiments of the Formers, Bonner D.' and Bonner J. (1940); Bonner J. and Green,(1938) with custard and mom which gave positive results, the remaining studies (Ninnum 1941a, b; Swart., 1941; limner, 1940; Templeman and Pollard, 1941) did not disclose any effective action of thiamin upon the growth, general habitue and yield of plants. The analogy with the growth of the fungus Phycamyces was complete; supplied by thiamin, through introduction into its medium, there was no further reaction to increases in thiamin content. This leads to the conclusion that a normally photo-synthesizing plant is capable of supplying itself with the necessary amouLt oi thiamin. Organs lacking chlorophyll react altogether differently. As shown above, isolated roots are unable to grow in a tedium lacking thiamin. A similar need is felt by entire plants placed in the dark. ,Ia this case all material data adequately testifies to the fact that the absence of an external supply of thiamin leads to the rapid exhaustion of its stores in the organism and results in discontinuance of growth and 4111 death. The degree in which expenditure of thiamin takes place in this Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof tev, A. A. Additional Factors... connection is shown in the work of Ovcharov of the Institute of Plant Physiology of the Academy of Science, who studied the change in the quantity of thiamin in connection 'with seed. germination. (Table 5) , Table 5 irARIATIOD Ill &OMIT OF TUMID DIIIDO SEED GEPXINATIOR OF 17FIEAT (1945) Duration of germination in days' Amounts of thiamin in Gamma Per gram of dry matter Per 100 plants 2 8 6.95 4.38 3.32 3.12 15.40 10.50 6.68 6.07 Table 5 proves that during Geed germination of wheat there is rapid expenditure of thiamin. One may suppose in this connection that the additional feeding of superior plants with tLiamin, while it May produce positive effects, may take place just in the phase of hetero-trophic feeding, 1. e., feeding at the expense of the supply of seed or organ. This consideration may be accepted as a basis for different methods of seed nhorr3onization" (Tovarnitskii, 1937; Tovarnitskii and Rivkind, 1937). The degree 'in which treatment of' seed by thiamin may reflect upon the growth and development of plants is shown by studies made 'by Oveharova, 1946. Thiel writer treated wheat seeds before planting with a solution of thiamin and yeast extract and obtained a more rapid grcnirth of treated plants as compared to the control. In the final summary Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokoftev, A. A. Additional rectors... "vitaminigation" reflected upon the increase of yield of the entire mass, as well as the yield of seeds; in addition, one may poiht out that treated plants produced larger seeds. (Table 6) Table 6 :mama or TREATITNT or SEEDS BY THIAMIN AND YEAST EXTRACT upr:: TEE YIELD OF Ina (1946) VARIAFT Above (pound mass (bulk) Weigh t of 200 seeds o/o in relation to control F o/o in relation to control Control (Water)... 18.8 100 4.6 100 Thiamin 26.9 143 5.8 126 Yeast extract 25.3 136 5.5 119 To quote another example, one may refer to the experiments of Went, Bonner and Warner, 1938, who showed that peduncles treated with thiamin, when exposed for some time to the effects of Ind-ale-acetic acid developed a much more vigorous root system than peduncles (stalks) treated only with hetero-auxin. The study of the connection between the mineral feeding of plants and the synthesis of thiamin in them points to the close connection between these processes. Data accumulated at present testifies to the feet that an increase in potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus feeding of superior plants stimulates the synthesis of thiamin, which in turn does not fail to react favorably upon the tempo of growth and yields. As to the siEnificance of thiamin for crops of lover organisms, it is indispensable for the majority of these. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .17 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof'ev, A. A. Additional Factors... VITAYIN P (Riboflavin). Among other substances of the group Vitamin 2 B2 oocupies a special place. Despite its relatively complicated compo- sition, its molecular structure was established precisely. As determined primarily by the work of Kuhn et al., the nucleus isoalloxazin is at the basis of the Vitamin B2 structure, combined with acarbohydrate derivative of ribose. This led to the naming of Vitamin B2 "riboflavin," a term now commonly accepted. 0R2 (CROR)cm2CO 1' Riboflavin Riboflavin Obtaining flavins from different vegetative products indicates that they are widely spread in vegetative organisms. It is true that the majority of plants contains a 'relatively small amount of riboflavin and Kuhn, for instance, was compelled to process three tons of lemma in order to Obtain 0.6 e. of the subetanoe'. The peculiar characteristic of riboflavin consists not in the extremely small content of this partioular class of -compounds, but to the contrast with other substances of group Bi and specifically tt,iamin; the characteristics of B,-avitaminose 4 were not observed among larger groups of animals and plants. At present the curtailment of growth among rodents is not disputed whenever riboflavin is lacking. Numerous attempts to influence the growth of various plants by riboflavin indicate that in the majority of cases Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Prokoftev, A. A. Additional Factors.... the latter do not react upon an additional feedini, of vitamin 82. Thus, Burckholder et al., for instance- note that none of the 110 species and "races" of yeasts studied by them required the addition of riboflavin. Similar results sere obtained by Rogosa (1943), who also experimented with various yeasts and by O'Kene (1941), who studied Staphylococcus aureue. Bonner and Deverian (1939), in cultivating isolated roots of peas in media containing riboflavin, did not discover any visible effect from the introduction of the latter. Evidently, only bacteria of lactic-acid fermentation and some pathogenic microbes (species of Streptococcus) among the number of studied organisms require riboflavin for their normal development. With regard to green plants, additional feeding with riboflavin does not produce any apparent effect. The studies of Marburg, Christian, Teorell, Baas, at al., indicate that riboflavin represents a component of certain respiratory enzymes, forming their prosthetic group. "Enzymes of this type act the role of hydrogen-transporters in different oxidative-metabolic processes of the . living cell as a result of the ?xi-reduction in the alloxazin cycle." (Ruzin, .1946). Thus, there is no doubt concerning the importance of riboflavin for the metabolism of vegetative organisms. The limited response of the predominant majority of plants to riboflavin may be explained by the fact *According to Yerusalimakii and Neronova (1946) acetone-ethylic bacteria do not react to the addition of riboflavin to the medium, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ,Prokoftev, A. A. ? Additional Factore... that its synthesis is easlity accomplished by the living cell. All of this leads to the conclusion that the influence of riboflavin upon superior plants is no longer a prospective problem from the standpoint of practical use. ITITAIIN B6 (Pyridoxin or adermin). The structure of vitamin B6 via.0 established in 1939 by Stiller and Kuhn, working independently of ench other,. cli on ne it,1 \ 47 Pyridoxin . AS ' seen from the above formula, pyridoxin represents a product .of pyridine. The physiological role of pyridoxin is practically tuiknawn. According to Knight (1946), pyridoxin represents a ca-enzyme of tyrosine- de-carboxylase. Knight's statements provide only the most general information concerning the role of pyridoxin. in the metabolism of the vegetative cell. This is equally true with regard to the work of the group of American authors (Lyman at al. X1946), who shoved that pyridoxin exerts a favorable influence upon the growth of"Streptocoocus faecalis in oases when some amino acids are lacking in the nutritional medium. So long as the beneficial effect was increased considerably by the enrichment of the atmosphere with acetic acid, the authors expressed Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Prokof tev, A. A. Additlanal Factors... the opinion that pyridoxin may enter into enzymatic systema which parti-. cipate in the fixation of acetic acid. Simultaneously, a series of experiments point to the favorable effect of pyridoxin upon the growth of various plants., Thus White, for instance, who formerly 'as very sceptieal about the necessity of using pyridoxin .for the cultivation of isolated roots, later (1943) established that pyrodixin represents an effective addition to thiamin and glycine in growing the tips of tomato roots. Robbins and Bartley-Schmidt also observed the favorable effect of pyridoxin upon the growth of tomato roots. The above authors after testing various nutritional media came to the conolusion that the combination thiamine and pyridoxin will produce a noticeable increase in growth. (table 7). Table 7 INFLUENCE OF B AND B b UPON TSB MONA OF CUT TOMATO ROOTS s and Bartley, 1039) Robbins 6 Added to FO et0 of nutrient solution Weight of Root in mg (average from S roots) Nothing Thiamin 5 gamma TheAmin,i.gamma Vitamin B6 (1 gamma) Thiamin (5 gamma) V1tamint6 (5 gamma) Vitamin B6 (1 gamma) Vitamin B6. (5 gamna) 0.4 3.4 16.1 15.7 1.8 1.3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof'ev, A. A. ? ? Additional Factors... A similar conclusion with regard to tomato roots is :Ade by Bonner apIDeverian, and with respect to isolated carrot roots byBonner. (1940). Judging from the results obtained by Many students, pyridoxin exerts its greatest effects in combination with other growth factors., primarily thiamin and nicotinic acid. Attempts to use pyridoxin for stimulating the growth of normally vegeteting superior plante were very infrequent and tie results obtained from them contradictory. According tO Bonner (1940), . the introduction of pyridoxin into irrigation water (the experiments were conducted on sandy crops)- Increased the accumulation of the bulk of mustard.. The greatest effect was produced by pyridoxin upon the growth of roots. A still more signifioant effect was obtained from additithalci' with feeding 1 pyridoxin of the plants cosmos and cotton. Other results were obtained by Einnum (1941) in experiments with sandy crops of radishes and cauliflower. /n applying pure, crystallized preparations of different vitamins, including pyridoxin, as wall as their combinations, the author did not observe any effect. Thus the problem of using pyridoxin for practical purposes remained completely unsolved. NICOTINIC ACID. The influence of nicotinic acid and several of its derivatives (especially the amide) Upon the growth of microbes was established with complete certainty (Knight, 1937; Dorfman, Racer and Saunders, 1938; Suunders, Dorrman and Kocer, 1941). Itany pathogenic microbes react particularly well to nicotinic acid. Thus, for instance, almost all representatives of the intestinal typhus group do not develop Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof tev, A. A. Additional Factors... at all when nicotinic acid is lacking, or show scanty growth. The study of the activity of various derivatives of nicotinic acid indicates that a favorable reaction was produced only by those derivatives which are easily converted into amides: Amide of nicotinic acid. The latter circumstance is explained by the Net that amide of nicotinic acid specifically enters into the composition of enzymes which fulfill a significant role in the oxidative-metabolie processes of living cells. As a part of the prosthetic group of enzymes dehydrase, the amide of nicotinic acid undergoes a reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, which result in the transport of hydrogen. The importance of a similar reaction permits us to consider nicotinic acid (in the form of its amide) as a necessary component of any cell. The reaction of any organism to nicotinic acid is therefore determined by the degree a given organism is capable in synthesizing this pyridinio derivative. As &lawn in the work of American students, chiefly Addicott and Bonner (1930; Addicott.and Deverian (1939) Bonner and Addicott (1937 ;1939); Bonner (1940), nicotinic acid represents an essential factor for the cultivation of isolated roots of many plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokofiov, A. A. Additional Factors... table 8 servos as an illustration of 1c nfluence of nicotinic acid upon the grarrth of roots in a s:mthetic medium. As seen in table 8, only a combination of thiamin and nicotiniq auid-supports the growth of pea tips with constant and sufficiently great rapidity. In a medium?containirg only one Growth factor, the rapidity nf growth drops from trial to trial. ' EFFECTS OF TBIArIN AND DICOTINIC ACID UPON TIE GRO7TH OF CUT TIPS OF PEA MOTS (ArDICOTT, 1941) ' Table 8 EAnDllY OF GOTH It Mq IN A Y 'EK _ ADDED TO /MILT 1-10 6-10 7-10 8-10 0-10 Thiamin plus nicotinic acid , 734 81.0 80.3 78.2 82.4 Thiamin -- 77.4 sn.9 32.2 17.8 Nicotinic acid -- 79.1 53.8 22.2 8.2 *During the first 5 weeks roots wore cultivated in a medium containing B1 plus n loot ini c acid. It was subsequently established that roots get thin for lack of nicotinic acid. 'Microscopic observations indicate that under those conditions the size ane nunber of cells in the root are reduced; 1. e., not only is the activity of the meristem disturbed, but also the growth of cells formid by it. In considering the activity of nicotinic avid upon the growth of out ends of roots, experiments were made for. additional feeding with nicotinic acid of entire, normally photo-synthesizing plants. The _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Prokoflev, A. A. Additional Factors... majority of these experiments (see, for instance, the.aboVe mentioned work of Minnum, 1941) did not dieoloae any effect which undoubtedly testifies to the fact that green plants are capable of synthesizing under normal conditions the amounta. of nioOtinio acid essential for them. It is evident that in the case of thiamin, the supply of nicOtinio acid from the outside may produce testate in the pytnt only at the moment of hetero-trophic .feeding of the organism. In this connection it is necessary to dwell upon an interesting experiment oonduoted by K. E. Oveharov, member of the Institute of Plant Physiology of the Academy of Sciences, performed jointly with his assistant Virsobskala of the Inning Botanical Station M. I. Vatvee* at Tadshiitan. The above soientists treated defoliated runners of Bokhara almond with solutions of nicotinic acid and obtained a rapid unfolding of buds and an accelerated growth of leaves. The results of these experiments are of decisive interest since they testify to the possibility of stimulating Growth processes with the aid of hiootinio acid in superior plants as well. tb have hardly exhausted the Group of additional factors of growth. Of undoubted interest arcing them are equally biotin, adenin, Uracil and many others. The data presented above gives uknevertheless, an opportunity to draw certain conclusions. The principal question Whioh may be presented here consists in thnfollowing: wherein lies the exceptional aotivity of additional growth factors? Vhy do disappec.ringly small concentrations of these substances produce such exceptional effects? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof'ev, A. A. Additional Factors... The solution of this problem lies in the field of the metabolism of the vegetative organism and the explanation of the role played by additional growth factors in this metabolism. We have in our review continuously attempted to stress one peculiarity concerning additional growth factors. This ieculiarity consists in that they all are oomponents of some enzymatic system. This applies equally to those additional factors discussed in our review and the majority of those not reviewed here. They all enter into prosthetic groups of different enzymatio systems which evidently accounts for their high activity. Table 9 provides some understanding of this connection between enzymes and additional growth faotors. . - ADDITIONAL CROMMTACTORS - corpormiTs OF ENZYMATIC SYSTEMS (Haight, 1940 Table 9 ADDITIONAL ?MTH CO'PONENTS OF SOME SYSTEM' FACTOR Thiamin Riboflavin Pyridoxin Nicotinic, acid Biotin Cocarboxylase; thiamin enzymes Various flavo-protein enzymes Co-enzyme, tyroaindecarboxylase Pyridin enzymes This close connection between enzymes and "additional growth factors" undoubtedly deserves the moat careful attention. It seems expedient to raise the question of a meaningful terminology for this group of substances in this conneotion, a terminology which should reflect the bio-chemical Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 PR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokofvev, A. A. Additional Factors... essence of these factors and would permit to draw a precise boundary between different metabolites. Terms used at present, such as "additional growth factors," "substances of the bios group," "undisputed metabolite," etc., are extremely inappropriate and fundamentally wrong. Is it possible, for instance, to consider thiamin an "additional growth factor" for organisms wlich are unable to exist without it? Or what is comprehended under the term "substances of the Mos group"? It suffices to raise these questions to realize the vagueness and inaccuracy of these terms. Taking this into consideration we propose to name this group of substances "procoenzymes" (pro ooferment). This term reflects the basic, unique characteristic of these substances, their connection with the enzymatic systems of the organism. The prefix "pro" indicates that these combinations represent an incomplete part of prosthetic groups of enzymatic systems. A similar term appears to us more convenient and appropriate than those used at the present time. The second point upon which vie consider it necessary to dwell concerns the reasons for the different reactions to organisms upon any procoenzymes. Above we have cited examples of similar distinctions among lower plants (see also Ierusalimakii, 1947). Here we shall therefore limit ourselves to only one illustration taken from the field of culture of isolated roots of different flowering plants. (Table 10). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokof?ev, A. A. Additional Factors... Table 10 NEED OF GROWTH SUSTANCES BY ISOLATED ROOTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES (Bonner, 1940) Reed in growth . substances Thiamin Thiamin and Thiamin and Thiamin, nicotinic nicotinic acid pyridoxin acid and pyridoxin Species Flax Fees, radishes, Carrots Tomatoes, sunflower, alfalfa, clover; thorn apple (Datura cotton stramonium) An. seen from table 10, the isolated Plant roots vary in their capacity to synthesize procoenzymes. Tibile one of them (flax) is capable of providing for its essentials with the aid of thiamin, others (tomatoes, thorn apples, sunflowers) require the external introduction of an entire group of procoenzyres for their growth. A large number of examples can be quoted in this connection. It seems to us that a similar variety of the synthetic abilities of vegetative organisms is the result of an evolutionary process. The varied relation to procoenzymes not only by different species and varieties, but even individual clones within the limits of a variety, indicate the pronounced variability of this characteristic. Numerous facts in the field of microbiology testify to the adaptability of microbic cella in the process of a prolonged culturing with a lack of individual procoenzymes, which undoubtedly is connected with the acceleration of the syntl-esizing capacity of microbes with regard to these substances. The intensification of the growth of cut root ends in the succeeding stages also speaks for the possibility of similar adaptation among superior plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prekorev, A. A. Additional Factors... All tbis permits to.,7,onsider proeoenzYmes to be a most effective weapon in the hands of a bioloi;ist, al1owint ior the influence, upon the most varied stages in the life bf a vegetative organism. Simultaneously, the reviAped material provides the opportunity to express the supposition that the action of pr000enzymes will be at its peak of effectiveness during 4: noments of the heterotrophio phase tf nutrition of superior plants. The possibility is not precluded, for initance that a pre-cowing treatment of seeds by the appropriate substance will contribute to .more rapid germination. The combining of procoenzymes with synthetic substances of the type of heteroauxin also appears to be most expedient. The use of similar coMbinations in the vegetative propagation of plants appears to tie particularly promising. One should 'consider that the application of procoenzymes must be based upon the detailed study of their need by a given organism. It is regrettable that similar 'studies are almost not being made at present with regard to superior plants, despite the fact that their importance is not didputed. End of article 20 July 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R019000010001-2 Prokof'ev; A. A. Additi,nal Factors... References: (In Russian Bukin, V. N., Ierusalimakii, N. D., Ierusalimskii, N. D. and Bulatkin, A. D., 191.0. Vitaniny. (Vitamins). WL. 352 p. 1947. Verr data on growth substances of microbes. Microbiology, vol. 16, issue 3, p. 255-271. 1945. The influence of growth substances upon acetone-ethyl bacteria. Microbiology, 16: 107-111. Ierusalimskii, N. D. and Neronova, N. M., 1946. Influence of growth substances upon acetone- etb:-lio bacteria. Microbiologia, 15: 303-311. Kritzman, M. G., 1940. Trans-aminisation and avitaminose Biokhimia, 5: 281-287. Kritzman, M. 9., 1943. Metabolism of animo acids and vitamin B1. Blokhimia, 8: 85-96. KUzin, A. M., 1946. Khimia i bitkhinia patogennykh mikrobov. (Chemistry and Biochemistry of pathogenic microbes). Medgis. Maevskii, M. M. 1937. Synthesis of vitamins by bacteria. Dapekhi zootekhnich. nank; 3: 157-174. Meisel, V. D., 1940. Morphological and physiological changes of the cell under the influence of vitamin B1? Akad. Nauk. Dokl. 29: 127-129. Meisel, NI. N., 1941. Ft:notional-morphological analysis of the significance of vitamins for microorganisms. Influent* of vitamin Bl upon the structure and several functions of Endompes magnusii. Microbioloa, 10: 649-669. Meisel, M. N., ? 1943. Vitamin effect of aminothiasole and streptosole. Referaty robot uchrezhdenii otdela biol. nauk. AN SSSR. Papers of Dept. of Biol. Sci..Acad. poi. =PR. 1941-43, p. 127-128. Maisel, M. N., Trofinova, N. P. gad Lisovskaia, P?, 1945. Growth substances and their influence upon the structure and viability of yeast organisms. Microbiology, 14: 191-201. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? 30 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Prokofsev, A. A. Additional Factors... Oycharov, K. E., Odintsova, E. N.', -Odintsova, E. D., Odintsova, B. N., Odintsova, E. N., Odinteova, E. N. and ? Meisel, M. N. Tovarnitzkii, V. I., Tovarnitzkii, V. I., and Rivkind, T. L. 1946. "Znaohenie tiamina v shim/ rastenii." The significance of thiamin in the life of plants. (Thesis, natuncript). 1940., Influence of vitamin BI upon the propagation of Torula utilis (Torulopsis utilis). Microbiology, 9: 253-266. 1941a. Influence of vitamin Ba upon the fermenting . function of microorganisms. Licrob*.ology 10: 670-667. 1941t6 Influence of vitamin B1 upon the formation of nuclear apparatus in Phycomyces nitens. Referaty rabot uchrezhdenii otdela tic= nauk-AN SSSR. (Papers of Dept. of biol. sot., Acad. Sal. USSR) 1941-43; p. 130. 1944. Amcgmulation of vitamin Bl by the yeast cell. Akad. !auk. Dokl., vol. 42, No. 3. 1841. Yeast-like rungus Endomyces ma nunii as a biological indicator of vitamin :eferaty rabot uchrezhdenli otdela Biol. nauk. AN SSSR. (Papers of the Dept. of Biol. Sol. Acad. Sot. 'SSB) 1941-43, p.129. 19$7. Plant and hormones. Uapekhi sovr. biol. 6: 130-142. . . 1937. Ebrmanization of seeds AA a possible agxo- technical method. Akad..NaUk. Doti. SSSR 16; Nos. Engeltgardt, V. A. and Venkstern, T. V., 1943. On the correlation between the 4,rosthetic group and protein in the composition of enzyme-proteid. Biol-himia; 6:96-107. The balance of references is in, English and refers to foreign authors and their work. (p. 957-956).. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Trans], 195: Plant Pro: Liubishchev, A.A. tection Princiales of estimating losses causes by field crop pests and diseases. Dashch. Past. 4: 12-29. 1935. 421 P942 Trans. by Rf G. Delabo In this article I intend to make a short survey of the methods of estimating losses caused by pests and diseases. The article is a preliminary information for a wider methodical handbook prepared for psblication. Because of .the width and complexity of the subject matter and. of the small size of this article, the composition appears to be conspective. Without repeating the ideas which were already dis- missed in my previous articles I will not illustrate again the degree of present backwardness in respect to the economic significance of pests nor the necessity of obtaining actual (not exaggerated. or underestim.ted) data concerning their economic significance. If at the present time the necessity of exact informations about the losses from pests and. our udsatisfactory knowledge in this field. are obvious to all the workers concerned vitt/this field, yet the problem of finding the basic methodical principle for the solution of this problem is far-lrem -befit iiolveet: 'ilia-lopinion is widely spread th.:..t this problem could be solved by& centralized instructorship of an unprepared personnel. The latter would furnish information according to one method: The obtained information could be summed up by the central apparatus. Without denying the apnlicability of this method for some individual cases, esnecielly in cases when we deal with a stable, widely spread and easily definable pest, we may cueetion its general applicability. Its shortcomings are the following: 1)a huge Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A. .. Principles of estimating.. amount of forms as soon as we try to include all pests; 2) the impossibility of obtaining numerous comparative data for pests which affect for a Short tins; 3)absence of sufficient, knowledge concerning many pests. This fact hampers in forming rational standard forms for registration; 4)the most essential - the impossibility of utilizing materials gathered according to a different method, especially of old materials. At the same time, for the economic raioning data are necessary for 15-20 years, therefore, a complete ignoring of old materials hamperSthe problem of economic saioning. These considerations compell me to believe that the problem of reg storing losses will still be mrinly the T)roblem for research and not only inspecting, and that it is still hard to solve ethant tro cahditions; 1h ,h methodical preparation of the lower pet sonnel who would be able to understrnd independently the complex phenomena rnd critically evaluate data which arrive in the, correspondence; 2) the multiplicity of methods of approachtfor the mutual verification of deductions and for the possibility of summing up all the materials obtained by various methods. I will now discuss some basic ides and will mention that by the term woestn is understood animals and plants ae well. Losses; harm from pests expressed in money units, damage - in economic ' sense (counted on the field unit). harmfulness - for one plant or a part of a plant or upon a post unit. Infestation - the presence of signs of the activity of the pest upon the plant or on a group of plants; disease - the presence of the pest itself. The necessity of differentiating all these terms in important for the following reasons. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -3- Liubichchev, A. A... ''rincimles of estimating... The necessity of determining the losses is obvious during the calcul -.tion of the occured harm, where there is no other unit except the monetary, and also in individual cases when it is impossible to find, the damage in economic units; for instance, a slight deformation of the fruit form influences its export value, but often there is no economic loss. On the other haild, it is expedient to confine ourselves to the determination of losses and indicate damage in economic units, since there are cases where damage gives a better estimation of the economic significance of the pest than the loss: due to the fluctuation of nroduct prices, the decrease of production might cause the increase of the cost of production and therefore we might have the impression that the pest does not have any economics significance which is wrAng. It is clear that in these cases it is necessary to utilize some stabilized prices while for exported goods the prices have to be calculated according to those of the world market. t.,:he differentiation of damage and harmfulness does not need any explimation. A series of pests indicate a direct damage, while others could be determined by their harmfulness and propagLtion. But even there, vhere the damage is possible directly, the definition of harmfulness is important for three purposes: 1) for the inter- polation of data and the linking with the data of mass inspections; 2) for the forecast of the possible damage during the early phases of the pe,t development; 3) for the rating of potential damage. The harmfulness is expressed in percentage of crop decrease for a unit of infestttion intensity or of the disease (the coefficient of harmfulness) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -4- Liabilahhev. A. 71-7.1ples o!' estimating.. or thn bsolute infliction; the amount of production Which could be dr_maged by one peat. In those Oases When the harm is clearly defined and there iS no proportion between intensity and bans, the coefficient of harm ihould be replaced by the principle of the dependence of the harm to the intensity. Inlet tion end disease are not closely related. afe7tstion can not bohiiher than the disease, for instance in case of stinking smat caries,. When only a certain part of the infested plants *hew signs of infestation, or during the earlk otnges of infestation by the Nedish fly tOscihaaoma frit,. When the external siol$ ware not manifested. On the contrary, the disease is higher than the infestation for instence, for insects which transfer gredwAly from one plant to the ether (spring owlet cAnamea nicticans) locust), ana in gener-1 in those cases where the peat abandoned the plant. It ie more convenient to determine the harm according to disease ?ince the dive is easier to determine and, as a rale, it kept loner than the intestntion, but to be able to determine dmge according to infestation is also necessary for the following reasons; 1) in those cf,ses wn the infestition does not manifest itself comeletely (stin)ing smut) the proseuce of a hidden harm is possible (Bortgardt) and the deter- of harm according to disease would be smaller; 2) the deter minntion of infestation is easily controlled in mfimy cases against possible mistake ; 3) for the forecast of possible harm it is necesr:, to determine the damage from infestation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubiatichev, A. A... -5.. Principles of estimating... Must, eccordinc to the degree of the eroblese the wive of deter- mining losses could vary: 1) a direct estimation of lonses is done oft/7 in thoee cases when there is a cualitatire damage, otherwisP, the damage is eetimeted and multiplied by the cost of e product unit; such a aivlsion is expedient already because it is easy to revaleate losses If there is a change in the nroduct value; 2) a direct estimetion of harm is easy when the entire illFnt 11 s been destroyed (for inst,:nce, cleering from winter eelet rAltrotis seeetuel) or where the nest is distributed unevenly, but, as we shs.11 see further, it Is ponsilile elo in other more eorrliceted ceses; 3)duxine the diffUsed spre,&ine of the poet, low infestation and compsratively ccnstent harmfulness it would be more expedient to carry out the work by eltieatin the harnfulness (releted to the unit of infestation intensit:/- cr to the disease) and the spreading of the rest. During all means of exrinining the prohlen there are specific difficulties, but at the same time, it ie elwsys lossible to find moans of overccming those difficulties. Basic methodicj d'ffictlties are: 1) selectivity of paste; 2) the reaction to the demags and 3) irrecalarity in the distribution. Selctivity in the broad meaning includes all cases of 4iff,?!!ncs in the factual crons of ninfested nlante or fields and the rotential hervelt of the diseased plenty or fields, i.e. would be the hervelt if Us pest ettlt? be:absent,. It is necessary to differentiate; 1)the active selectivity, i.e. the actual (of course, unconscious) selection of plants by the pests; for inetence, the Hessen fly almost dons not lay its eies on oats and, if it is able to select. it /ez-s its ftg3s Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .1.1111101SacneVe A. A... l'rinci les of estimating... on the secondary stems; 2) passive selectivity,11A4 the result which to be a selection, occurs only because of the -bnence of the definite ;)lert. For inst-nce, on winter crops the rninen fly infests ver; ofter briely the first -tenn, pbecibly bncmine 4,,rior itn ri_,,t the: ;te'.s Tie. red on'y p.'tly. Tr,r th- ac+4re Rnlectivity we lfiz -;3f the old t-rn of selectiveIlhilit;', nd tbc, rallIve could be nen,:ld d'fferenti-1 effect. Thc coaination of there tvo .liffnrent n'Pra-rna info onr, non- encl. tuic is :):, edient Lecuse: 1) %et often re 11-'le to deterne without s-eclk-1 detailed res,3arch which kind of s-,lect!vity ts.1 discle,, ; 2) ,,ith the statistical cultivation of the -ter1.12 the sf thrse kinds cf Jelectivity %Le 1.1,r mnt:-.:';c-1 nrinciples of rennin, the camuflaged influence of both tines of ?,electivit:, e.rn e-senLi4lly alike. -,:lides the di:ferentiftion. tilt. Tie earets acsrding to thE&gr e of estla_t:nb the probl!TA, la sheul ;1,to diff,,i-r*i..t', the -Iv-Tee of solvInc, Uri- nroblem. In ny previous uork I indicate?: thr-e b-,sic ustdels of rcsearch: - ? trae stionai re and exTrrt. Al]. the three i.iethode have the rt for exisilence, in inrrovertent and su '1.0mett each other. In each rf thnn in possible tn eliffn;- Mato F.;72ros,ches according to the (loupe of the nrefilem. The ?oat :ier-ect coulA be rp:mn5 e grf,du'l-cr1tical in 4,,i7f.ded into two 1r,sic directions: 1) to 7,gr-_nh1c,11 11.. the 7lethod of biological record which is apjied not nyly for the 5irect det-rmination ofrmfulness. of the quentitative reristrption of 1-7:-An f^r the solution of series of problems of ecologicel nature; 2) analytical method - by means of evaluating the harmfulness. The successive - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -7- Liubidhcher... Principles of Estimating... critical method does not exclude the existence of other methods, but, on the contrary, should include it into one system. Of special im- porttnce isthe method of questionnaire - the data of numerous corres- pondents; without those data it is impossible to carry out statistical regionalizing nor the filling of the intervals between data of comparatively few points with qualified observers. Here at the first place a pear the problems of correcting the data obtained from various dtstricts and their interpolation into one unified system. Finally, the exper, method will le of great significance since the estimation of all pests is a process for ay years. In spite of all its II7Wtians_ the expert method still furnishes a series of improvements. In its primary, unsatisfactory manner it represents a sketchy judgement of a person who had good experience in the given problem. His 1100051vement goe,klong the following lines: 1) the increase of the number of independent experts; in selecting experts according to ie territorial di8A we proceed with the questionaire method; 2) documentation of expert's proofs, not of a simple orienting ouinion, but substantiating it by all available materials; 3) determination of the upper and lower limit of the damage. The third point of view in classification of losses is that of nationcl economy. Here we differentiate direct and indirect, actual and potential, liquidating and non liquidating losses. The definition of these terms is indicLted in another work CLiubishchev. 1901 b). In addition to the ideas expressed in that article, I will limit myself by indicating that whale the problem or rating the actual Losses permits Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 t. Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubi,.hchev, A. A... ?11? Principles of estimating... only one decision, the problem of definiespotential'losSes. permits innunerble solutions. It Is impossible to discuss potential losses from any pest in general; certain conditions have to be considered for the solutionof that problem. For instance, in discussinglocuAwe -map:madder the potential losses by securing the hapsoetrueture during the conplete end of Control, or during the change of fare conditions, (cultivatien of virgin,seil, new methods of agrotechnics, planning, etc.) and the reeMrvation of control, etc. according to the artificiality and remoteness ro? duction, ve may differentiate experimental and field methods for the rating; of louse. Here we have a'wide Wale. of methode stetting with purely experthental damages or artificial infestation of plante in ' vegetating vessels up to pure observation nhder undisturbed conditions. the tri_nuitions are; the method of model plants, method of isolated field?, method'of.field isolators (see Shchegolev, 1934). In all these CSO s the very fact of differentiating, noting and isolatinga Causet , unexpected changes in the conditions of plant eprouting.. Disclissione concerning greater or minor value of the field and experimental method take place in all ecienceo. The widely spread opinion concernifig the prefererce of experiment over the observation is in general void of sufficient evidence. The main reason for the tr2nsfer of scientific research to a higher position is the introduction or a qualitative,epproach to the study of phenomena; the significance of the cmperiment fluctuate depending are-the'concrete nature of the problett. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -v- Liutishchev, A. A... Principles of estimating.. For estimating losses the experimental method. could not be leading, on account of a series of considerations: 1) diversity of factors yhich influence the harmfulness of the organisms, causes to build a great amount of combinatione which makes the approach tooclumsy; 2) the transfer from laboratories to productive conditions regattas special work, since in the laboratory it is hard to create conditions similar to field conditions; 3) for mazy plants ,an artificial cultivation under laboratory conditions. Although in principle It is possible, but for technictl reasons 14 not feasible (clover, perennial plants); 4). fins). y, a series of divisions of the general problem of estimating losses might be solved only by the field method, by theoretical eittr- polation of the data of field observa.tions and finally by complicated statistically-economic research. Here belong: quantitative regis- tration of pests, its complications are often underestimated; the estimntinz of potential losses, when the experiment has a limited application, and in some cases inapplicable at all (hardly would any one recormend to stop the estimation of losses atter the control is done); estimatitt of indirect losses etc. Therefore, I think that the experimental method is of great significance as a secondary one for the elucidation of such problems, where the application of the field method would bring us to our end only after a great experiment: 1). the solution of the problem concerning the presence of the positive effect in so mn complicated cases (for instance, thaftedieh fly).and not Just the selectivity of the pest; 2) the general theory of the reaction of plants upon the damage (the method of artificial damage); 3) specification of ecological relations etc. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A.!. Principles of estimating.. Topogrephical Method The topographical method or the method of biological survey has not been sufflci4ntly worked out and began to be applied only recently. As advantages are numerous: I) it may indicate data of damage directly without dividing it into elements; 2) it is indispensable for a mass application and doesi not -regain any special equipment. If, despite such advantages, the method did not acquire recognition (althouea the attenpts of its annlication are of long duration), we could explain it by the fact that its advantages were underestimated and the difficulties overestimatedl Its underestimation rested upon widely spread opinion that there is a comparative regularity in spreading of the majority of pests under specific ecological conditions which could be different only according to the number of the pest and could be compared according to bther signs. But the comparison of ecologically different fields might cause great mistakes ,since we consider usually the differarce which in explained by other factors. In reality an immediate study of pests indicates that as a rule the distribution of rests is =even (examnles are indicated in my article: 0Is the Army of Paste Legistered?" The Ilanual of rint 1.3 P 3* Ito. 3, 1932 and, in the chapter "The Methods of quantitative Registration of Pests" uhich is under prinl; on the other hand, although the- relation between the spreading of the pests end the ecological conditions is beyond doubt, but it is of another nature than the relation between the harvest and the ecological conditions, and, desiring to determine ? All trnion Institute for Plant Protection Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _11_ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubl*chnv, A. A... Princi-les of estinating... the relation between the pests and the crops we are able to remove the camouflaging influence of selectivity by meant of a thorough analysis. Besides. the IMO topographical method is an excellent measure for thl study Of ecological dependence of pests; by determining these relations we tiad the basis for extrapolation of the data of the observation point Olrer the entire salon. I will bring here a few examples. Grathevoi appliee the topographical method in fixing the harmfUlness of tha crown rest enceinte coroniferai; the disease and the crops decreased according to distance from the infestation source ? ferests with wo4s of buckthorn (Mammal cathartics.). By this method the distriation of rust was determined by ecological conditions (the distance from the infestation source), but these ecological conditions did not Influence or influenced the crops differently. Such influence can Itor instance, the bushes of buckthorn could be found mainly upon lol. places of relief or the forest could cause the decrease of eropa e.ue to a highly de/eloped root system (this has been found) etc. .It is net hard to control this by means of registration by surveying th relief and other characteristics and by measuring the, signs of tho plant independent from the given pest. In case of rust they will be: the number of buihes to one field unit, bushiness, the height of plants before the ei7Taearance of rust etc. If these sig kil independent from rust will not indicr:te any systematic differences according to the dittnee from the infestation source, then we may explain the difference In crops by rust. But if any relation will be disclosed, then the research becomes more complicated and the solution of the problem Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liabishchev, . trine/mica of 'Estimating... might be found by comparing the fields found on. the same distance from the forest, but .which differ 1?g the presence or absenceof the. basic source - buckthorn., Basically, the topographical method (or the ecotopogeaphicel ? etcm-rfling to Bartseli, 1931) imIlies that all the exanples taken are indicated on a. plat., upoil ihiehare 'indicated some basic ecological data:, relief, field boundaries, bonnds, nearness of forests, rivers, ravines, etc. Bow many specimens should be taken, how-to register then, ? WhiCh.ecologidel signs should be taken - all this will vary in each ? .concrete case and will depend upon the peculiarites of the studied object. The Main methodical principles will be the following: 1) the direction' of lineeaccording to which the specimens ars taken should result from our kno;ledza of the given pest; -2) Where we expect a greater infestation the Tlecimens should be more eften,with a smaller infestation they Might be cora rare; 3) in determining the average infestation we take into considerttion the distribution of specimana? but not the' average figure. Let'ushave an example. Vit'tnow that gophers live upon unplaagheC field with thin vogettion4'along the roads, hille etc. ConsequentlY, during inspection these sign should be indicated in the plan. In inspecting infestation of fields, we must draw perpendicular lines along the field bonndery, clone to the field, Whereby the.atemnt of npecinens should decrease according to the distance from' the bounlary. Revertheleis, with the assistance ofrare specimens the entire field sbnuld be covered from one end to the other (for instanced after' 2.3 Crossings of the field in the width of 3-5 meters). because. first . of all came amount of gonhers are also in the center of the field, and. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchnv, A. A... Principlea of estimating.. second, they form sometimes large colonies in the center of the field. When ye discover such a colony it is useful to inspect it in perpendicular direction with the aim of indicating ,its lines upon the blueprint. Of course, it would be absolutely incorrect to take Just the arithmetical meen of our specimens and consider it as the typical infestation by gophers and their economic significance. The first is obtained by. extrapolation of the obtained data from a field, the second - the combination of distribution of gophers and th:nt of the crops. 'For the solution of the first problem the density of the goehere upon in- dividual ecological fields: ravines, roads, hillu, desert lands with heavy and rare vegetation etc., is determined. The relation between the density upon these fields and to distance is determined; such a relation could be ?a positive one-the plant attracts the gophers, negative one - due to the control in a related field. In the last case, we may extrt-polate our data directly upon the close field?, in other cases this extrapolation may be sufficiently reliable only when a wide zone near the plant h?s been sufficiently inspected. "ith the eresence of positive or n'egatilre relation the amount of gophers will decline or increase according to the distance from the crop field until it will reach a definite level, ,ihere it will be stable, or will indicate uneven fluctuations. Only the data of this stIble level could be indicated upon the field, the data from the field of the aedreasing or of the increasing/Urn/ties might_ be extranolated into ennlogical zones in the given raion. This means the basic differ:ace between the topogrt.phiw-1 epproech and the generalivation in tin pecimens which was practiced until now. Until recently Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ila*uhrea. 0114111.4170r ? 0 ;A, ..ogrw Principles of estimating.. many vorkers considered pest registration mainly as te indication of th number, tho distribution of specimens and the method of using them so that tho rvorage mount would indicate the clear idea concernisg the mount of pests in the ratan i?cb is under inspection of The observation point. :Prins our point of view, this approach is entirely incorrect: due to the irregularity in pest distribution the tAting of specimens enable usts find the nature of the inspected field, but without any registrc,tion of the pest distribution on the inspected field no extra? eolation is oossible. ror the fixing of the economic sivaificance of gophers or of other rest,. two .7rurveys should be e-Ispar d: the distribution of tho ;pent,,. and. t&t of the crops. The relation between the amount of the post and. th.t of the crops indicates the date. concerning loss if sufficient criticisTa is applied. I will explain by a few words how the mount of crons could be determined and wh!,t we consider a critical approach. ao amount of crops mit be wagered by the most variable methods denendini; u-ion the scale of research. If we, for instance, posses data conceraing sane large cereal Soviet farm of the site of tens of thousand.s of hectars, then we, might- over to with srveys on a routt scale, for isstasice on a scale of division-, of 400 hectare. Every div:11) im ehrrActpr4v^R infaiirtg,Ait.n r-ed ernee (economical data) end thoze dtt are used for compt,rison. If the scale of inspection is more nar-i-ow, then it would be more expedient to apply another registration metho4 for crops by threshing individual fields according to tones (on tr_fferent distances from the field boundELry), if threshing equiomsnt is or by obserw.tion of the combine work, if those necessary Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Linbishchev, A. A... -15- Principles of estimating.. equipments ere not available; the crop renistration in the work with the combine ed.gat be accomplished by rating the amorcnt of crops upon a specific field, for inetance so many kilog:rams end. liter (or soms other meaeare unit) four a leundred meters or on the contrery, by the distance at teach the combines are filled with grain. Finally, with the MO t etiruto reo-,rosch it is possible to register the distritation of esoarate holes slid the distribution of crops (in specimens, for instence, upon one se. neter) at definitodistances from Che hole. It is wrong to aseume that we should give any preference to a specific methoe Which would distirt4uisen by its higher detail and more accuracy in rating. Rsch method_ h its merite and Ito -shortcomings and the greatest iflflity - of our conclusions will be ac4uired when the results of various nvithode will be in harmony with each other. According to the difference in methods by registering, cerepe the comps.risou of both surveys and. the neture of a critical utilization of dats will differ. in general, both surveys could correspond and 'lei should comp. re the crops cud the infestation of the identical locationa* But wIsz,t do we mean by identical locations? If we take it literally* it moans that the lines for the infestation specimen and for crops should correspond. This requirement is buriening (it is required either to indicate a great number of marks in the field or to hang line 3 \rith C.crinItegeodetic instrument) and often unnecessary. The degree of conformity of both specimens should correspond to the accuracy of our ,sethod. Tor instance with a wide survey", each field is characteried by the average of several figures for infestation and one flail-a for crops. if se have a eufficient amount of inspected Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubitiachevo A. A... Principles of estimating... .fields (for instance 60-100), then every field is one "point' of biological survey. 41 inspecting according to zones. a "point" aight be considared a field edge of the .width of 25 meters and length of 100 meters and we compare the data for this "point* disregarding the place oi! the "point" where they were obtained. Only with the regis- tration of the crops distribution near. the individual hole, a definite mark with the indication'of their quality is necessary: inhabited, cbandonned, family, poisoned, etc. traon we use the critical approach we should. o c4Urse, take into censidoration all the phenomena of the selectivity of pests (passive and nctive). Tor instance. it is known that the gophers prefer to settle along ravine?, hiLls but on the other hand. they avoid prec- ipices, on the ploughed field they usually prefer unploughed parts, location with disrupted soil (tie. Depending on natural-historical 'conditions this selectivity nay boo both positive and negative. Tor instance. Implonghed, neglected,par'te of the field. yield poor crops even without% gophers in comparison to the rest of the field. Therefore, the simple etnaparison.of crops in connection with the distance from the hole mit?jit give a mistaken idea of the harmfulness oi gophers since all tho differences in crops we shall explrin by the gophers. On the contrar?-, if the ploughing of the virgin 'field centimes, then ths_ild fialds midot stand: farther .from the virgin field and enrqequently will , be less infested than the new fields which, 'due to the** freshness. ? ii111 yield higher crops. In this instanee, the loss will be camouflaged by oontroversial factors and. we shall obe,in low loss axponente. How could we avoid each mistakes? We shall need signs. independent of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 LanY.shcb,Frr, A. A... Princi-,,les of eetinstting.. pest and the relation between the crops an' natura-historicel con- di?tions. For instance, with the rt,O.str,tion o: crops arnund individual holes it is necessary to classify holes according to their char-cteristi.cs: 1) tiLeir relation to the uncultivated soil etc.; 2) he,btt-,...ble and in'latable condition. :tor each category of fields it is necessary to determilt7 the difference in the average productivity: with a full absence of crope, for on unplouji-d. part of the field the ty.Acal amount !Ind the frequency of loes; for places not inhaSited Sr gophers or wIth igtinkmbi.ted holes it is necessary to determine Vail character of harvest decrease from the center of the uncultivated field to its perirheriee, and. this curve of the decrease in thfuniahabitea fic1C, to corro eith the curve of decrease in the inhabited. field. This *eV' we are able to remove the camouflaged influence of selectivity. Daring the work at a larger smile, in cossr.ring the infesttion and the crops of various zones of the massive of different time o utilization, the des7ee of heLsrogeneity of the rmesive is detor:4ined bw- the evaluation of grass land in the locelities not infested by go'-hers Tsud by the determination of the aver,,ge crops of spOme. with a suicient amount of the Siessire it is possible to elisclose places with varied settles/nests (i.e. in the kunderies of a field of homogineous time length) which could be directly cowl:red with ez.c'h other. The registration of topogiephical relations helps us in early canes to avoid, wrong conclusions based upon insufficient erit5 cal e.Trelicet ion of veal-I:ion statistics in mixing systenatic and occasionc.,1 mietc,Res. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A... Principles of estimating..., Let us give the following example (taken from concrete reality): the Infestation of seede of cauliflowers by bacteriosis appeared to be considerablybigher for mulched plants than for unnulched plants and the difference is absolutely authentic. It it possible. to conclude that. mulching assists in infestation? The study of topographic relations ' helps in solving this problem. /f .the mulched lots would alternate, 4th the unnuldhed lots end would indicate a strtistically authentic difference, then the hypothseio of the influence of mulching would be possible to Condider substantiated (without solving the problam WIxtber the mulching influences by itself or because cil!* special conditions). In reality there is an ummulchedsfield along with the mulched one. Therefor:, individual mulched plants 'could not be cobsidered independent repetitions, but arc connected parts of the same evidence. The study-of the infestation locality indidttes ttrA we have 4 gradual' increase of infestation from one end to the other and that thwreneof, acme to the mulched one does not manifest any difference in infestation. The inspection of topographical relations rejects with complete safety the hypothesis which seemed poesible without registratioli of dis- tribution of specimens. Definition. of Barehlness The definition of harmfulness is necessary When Ai direct definition of harm appears too clumsy, difficult to realize due to the relative regularity in the Ispreading and to the relation with ?ecalogical conditIms. But this is beneficial also when there is a full pos=., oibility'of direct definition of damage by the topographical method. In such case, the damage is defined indiredtly?by the meansof registering Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 fly A. -19.- - krie.e71::leo for estleatiej.. the s-.:reading of pests. The expediency of such a definition is clears knoein.k.:. the bErnfulness and the amount of the pest we are able to !Gann the ii ont1,1 &Image. Urtil recently the definition of danage by harmfulness was CODm tiered. the tot reliable measure, and the basic method of definition or harafelnces was considered the method of vegeteting vessels. We indicated *hove 0.4e -,:rincipal objections egninst the vegMtetive method. A closer stadr c: individual work on definition of harmfulness convinces 10.4 in the ,.3iett the vegetative method does not furnish tbet accuracy of reset cleien,Z 1K7 its eueeorters. A detailed disenssion of this work will hew) to he enetponed due to lack of place. at if we consider the field method RS the best for definition of herfelnees, then we must eliminate all the shortcomings which ere inherent in it end metre it not lees relit/ae and at rate then the vegetative method. 'an basic quality of the vagetetiTe method is the fret that infest and not infested pleats are alike in everything before infestation or before the diseeseq the fact of infestation or of disease causes the only difference end, consequently, the difference in yield could be expl,:ined by this distinction. In field conditions there Is no each a corrison, home:Lee due to the selectivity at the morntt of infef;t%tion* the infested plants and those uninfemted are different and, th-refore, Rs R. rule, the future yield is not ideeeicel.. Bat it is cemitc o'mlous that we are able to obtain cooperative plants if vie shall select pltnte within the boundaries of hoteogeneous category according to the sign irrelevant as to the pest. Kardiumov WAS one of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Principles of estimating.. the first among the advocate? of that method Who, for the definition of . harmfulness of the grain sew fly Orachelus tabidusi compared not simply the weikht of infested. and uninfested stems, but of etetle Whose length is similar. With a gradual development this notho4 adds up to the comparison not of separate groups of stems, but of lines (so called the line f rrtression) of the relation between 'the yield Characteristics (weight of the grain. the average weight of one grain, the amount of grain, etc.) and the ch,?racterintic independent from the pest. This way wc arrive tt a .definite coefficient of harmfhlneos in comparison with the pri,1:-_ry, the rough ones Bat is one definition of a coefficient of harmfulness sufficient by Which are tossed upon one independent principle? Definitely not, because re often munt verify Whether the inOeuendent charicteristie is real1Inaependent from the pest. For instance, in CIltd with the -grain dew fly :Iirdinleav taken the length of spike as the independent. Character- tette. ant are We sure that the larva of the saw fly does not inf- luence the length of the :pike? ?or the solution of similar problems the formr#tion of new lines of regression between the characteristics Which ctue rny doubt in its independence (for insttnce, the number of - slikee in General; the number of developed spikes,'etc.). 'Only in case .of their actual independence, the, lines of regression for .any ptir of such cherreteristice will be identical for the infested and uninfested steno, Dithough the arithmetical means, dna to selectivity, may not coincils. Therefore the coinciding lines could be coneidered as a . proof frt. independence. - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 L A... Prieciles of estineeing.. Azother nossible source for nistakee night be the c.rcuatance that ee ai, not conaider entirely the selectivity of the peat. For inet Let , Le my work on the grain eaw fly (Liubishchev, 1931) a simple Comp, eon of lines of regression according to a chazacteriotic inde:nn, et from the pest (the thickneee of stems, tho lnngth af the eeilee) 11 not remove the cseouflaaing influence of selectivity until enothee i,;/-ee of selectivity- the dieeaee of thu firet etore has on reeovee. 1-.en could we be assured that the select! ity is exhaueted? We 0.11 cef: ust it when all the methods nrodeco Lhr sane reeulta. Tel th?ezetioned cese of the 3PW fly, the nresenee of one mistake during the first tae of work is cr from the feet thet the av -tion varieles eethean of rating the coefficient of hernfuluees resulted in dzast.c fluctuations of the obteined amount. riaa.11;, , the research could. be considered. comeleted , bedded of ebt :eine a series of noncontr7eictory eeeences,--, .es sun up our eete In co 'este a8reoment with all our knowledo -f petheloey end rhysiology of the di sad elent.? Of course, if besed oneeur well aetlyzed data we ceee to e result which contradicts our data acceeted ir. conternorary plant phriolo, then it does not mean thet our eal wereeeronge- the 4iS aka be on the part of ehysIOIogy; but until we.* rifyethe conteaeleLery affirmations of physieIogy we must consider the eluestion still unsolved, Thi; athodoIogy has been worked out in many eases. reem tines tt leaas t e :.teic:te satisfactory solution of the ereblem for instance, in Case eiVe tile rye thick flyOsosoma noxieles (see 1-!e1iakove 1932) or with clee 31 weevil (un:ou3liehed data of T. A. Vasil 'ev). In other co.sea Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishche7, A. A... Principles of estimating.. the wor17 is complicated, bixt finial/ it leads to our and (see ce:eal say flie. Linblihchev, 19151 and unpublished date of 7. I. MAkaiov,3!:a , European corn borer asrayik nubialit according to unpublished data V. I. Telitekli, flax rust according to date nre,ne,red for V. Vesterova). There -re, of course, cases when this e_oes not lead to a definite solution because we msy find a layer of v,riou getierations of the pest of uneven ham n (unpablished (1ta of G. Titov concerning the Hessen f1). In this ease (for instance, the :-A.ze ef the cocoon) it is im.ossible to define the harmfulness of each roe:tion sem_mtely. Since it is imccssible, we should consida' the flucturJion of the ebtined coefficients as a dat because it indic,:les the real fluctuation of the phenomenon. The above indicated general method of comp rine the lines of re,:rsaion in its primary stage (obtainine &It% during the moment of harvest) could peen ina2plicable for pests which infest the pl7Int early and which cues such a deep chngs in the plant thet at the moment of harvest :1, sien is left disregarding the pest. This we twve, for instace, euring early infestations of the Swedish and tissen fliee. "re, the method of regression lines is aoplicable, but only in applyinc model plants ..!eich we observe from the very beginning of vegot'tien. Ere we notice eigns independent fro* the pest, for instance, the ti.;:e of s7roating (counting 'k twenty-four hours or part of the twenty-four hours) the number of leaves before the infestation by the (7.13h fly (the beginning of infestation could be determined ay analinif the nlint* gehich ar., in the vicinity) the length of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Princi-,les of estimating.. longelt leef etc. Thiel wsy we are bble to determine the splectivity of the '-,1,0(1.: eh fly and to avoid its ct4nouflecing influence byteans of cpm-,ring the lives of regression of harveet detti, according to signs dcter-ined bePre the infestx.tion by the r,ediela fly. Thie measure, 7:f course, is inconveniont and, uossibly, for the Stedilh fly It ,- n7alto to mch the enkby means of applying the teloz;ralphical apnroadh. Umlly, then we determine hermfUlness, we should teke into consi!lprtion the possibility of comPenerAton of the dempls Iv the develo-Awnt of undiseased prirts or Plants. In thele ceses 'Ann tha comrclinzAion occurs within thP 711tnt ttpelf (for inet,tce, nclw stele to re-1 11'.P A.P,troype! onpn) the Ilrat Should be determined not by ti o 7tT, but by thc nlnt. 13ut wtth infestption of the entire Plant (flr instance, the ressen fly in vinter crops, or dry lat) the reaction of neiehboring rl,,nte which compensate the h-rvet is The determination of this eoproansationary reaction differs in it liicultyoccerftng $o the th!nonienon whether the trIces of the disc;,.sr0 -,71trt are preserved ftring the moment of h'rvest or not. The firlt case we have, for instnce, with the dry nrut. Tv this c-,se the nre-,-f.ence of compensation could be determined J:7 ne1171 of studying the relYdonship between the harvest of individual Ilents ecroraing to the riimoteness from the dl set nlant. It is clear that, If cow-- nenwtion takes place, then the plants ne,lr the diseaeed ones would yiela hither crone than the remote ones: but if there is no eirference, then, ,re't live no right to evek about con,-env.tion. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Isiubitchev, A. A... -24- Princt acas of estimating.. )?or the Fessen fly upon ainter crops we have another, more con- plicatnd CALM: at the time of harvest, as a rule, no trace remains from the ,1_ rt which died during the winter. But in this case, the death of tli 1 it occur so early that the influence of the death due to the ]i05 Ben lay could be coma red to any other factor (unlike the arrillt %ten the p1: rt lives long and ceaaee to as:4735.1:M shortly before the .f the spike). Therefore, the influence of the blanks in F.11 could be determined. Or we could determine the e. ependence of t'a?. '_verage loarvest of one plant from the amen:au Lae number of the rremained plants upon a definite field. - 10. 15 or 33 running cm. we may deteruaale quite accurately the harmfulue ,; simiL r -1e3t2, end those corrections in compensation which r.-e have to alio% 7 ' ,riLa various degrees of infestation. Since for the same }teaseli fly on winter crops we may determine the damage by the trapograahical method or by utilizing the aateri.4 accra.(liag to ,43rms (.f sowing the c:..rra5.aortaing cultivation (the camouflaged influence of the terms of sowin._; coulcl be removed by the introduction of coefficients of correlation), then the problem of selecting the method of research is solved b;) erarining concrete &Etta and in relation to time and means at Our dispoeal. Therefore, depending tk: n the ;leculiritia f thc ata,t, it is rec. e s v.ry to modify the nethod of study its damage and hornfulnesa. In order to arove the variety of pests from thia methoical punt of view, 'ancient to indicate that we are able to perform this division Ly various means. vs Bre able to differentiate: 1) the priaa.ra lests. the ones which infest the sound plant, and th94econdary, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 s." ? ? ? 2rinc -.11s ri-C estimating.. the ort-s 1,hich infest the diseased plant: 2) diffused ones uhich 37.1read co-.:ii).!.rtivey evenly, and contrasting on: 3 which are spread 1,11f"Tr'`!1 4? 1' ? ? ? one tr.'s of dflaage or with several tyoee ofds,Nr:ttle; --JP>r-rment or alternate intensity of infest:A:on; 5) direct ones the h!...rvent directly, anr indirect ones which affect through ti' tig organs (it is not necessry to confuse with direct and Inct7.,-:;ses); 6) pest i.:hich 6.r.raz4;o in their early and late ste.cee; 7) -(.:71.n:; %left moving; 8) wist,, which leave behind con- ',7,7,-.cos of their activity end the once t'37 P) =, which ce.use obvi.711,1 ...;:-.mage or hirlden; 10) with the ,oloctiv!,ty, L. .tin Iect;v1t;.- or vithout 7.1e,33 oteriotics could often combine ytth er,.ch other in such conelder%ble :mount of CO inntionsrob vz.ricty of 11.: !?;? ,:- 711%r:11Q1to Trip tt, LOY of the econnnic gignifc1ce of ,pestaoit is necessary 5.ts nortaining to sone 43iv1sion rdin to the algae :aid to 01).tlir.r., -71rn "or r4,3e!?rch ,acc.erlingly. To ineicate tho nethod of dotr i. h rrfulacgrio without te2s_ing into _ation the nect-o; -4,_1-17s of the pest this mesas to formulate such e huge scheme t-thich t1' 'be h,.rit to figur^ out end to opnly. -1 it !?oui. ? reqw.ire 1.-c.kric end moans for its fulfillment. Itring the d.eterninttion of the coeffici-mt of hi fulness it : or.7311:le te forecs It ell roseible cembin,..tiote of footers Th*ace the hitrmfuluess: it is necessary to choose comblirttions Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A... Principles of estimating.. which are more frequent. This approach will be successful depending on the degree of our familiarity with the pest and, of course, e.ccordini; to the investigator's experience. According to all these data, the result will be of more or lees clearness. The Definition of Losses The problem of defining losses is 6 synthetic one - the drawing of 's. picture of the economic significance of the pests based upon individual elements of observation. We mast include here all data of definingbarmfulnees, damage and the distribution of the pests: all the mass research materials obtained by the inquiry method should be connected with the above data and the regionalizing, the pest in . locality and in time should be rated; not only the maps of Ito spreading,. but the frequency of ite mass manifestations. Therefore the entire - problem, besides of the discussed one is divided into four basic parts: 1) the quantitative registration of the pent: if the definition of damage is found by the topographical method, then this problem is solved simultaneously, but if we define it by harmfulnest then an independent definition should be found; 2) tying up data which are obtained by a specially prepared personnel with mass data obtained by the inquiry method; this problem includes the introduction of correctives into the data of mass correspondents, extrapolation and interpolation of data; 3) the regionalising; of the pestihich is divided into several parts (we shell mention this below); 4) the general synthesis of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubi shchev. A. A... -27- Principles of estimating.. 1. The quantitative registration of pests.--Tbe basic difficulty . of the quantitative registration of pests is the irregularity of the distribution of pest even in the boundaries of even ecological con.. ditions or under ecologictl conditions Which practically seem to be elusive. These difficulties could be overcome only by the topogranhical method and by the study of the structure of the pest distribution. The ch:pter *The method of quantitative registration of pests" (in AY book under print ',Me methodology of post registration" with the assistance of M. I. Eosobutskii and I. P. Stepantsev) will furnish the details, and here I will just indict.te that thii study of the structure is carried out by three basic methods; 1) determination of correlation of ' infw:tr".tion of neighboring fields under various scales; 2) defining the coefficient of distribution tinder variable size of specimens: 31 com- paraieon of the distribution of empirical and theoretical Curbs. *Ch a study Will permit to determine the degree of deviation from the etatisticallyunifokmed and furnishes the basis or such an approach for the distribution Of and taking specimen*: This 'MY we roach a conclusion which Is obtained on the obssrvation'field of the entire ration. 2. Linking, extrapolation and interpolation of data. -.4extra,- polation is understood here as the judgement of losses in the entire - raion based upon data of one observation point, under Interpolation we underst..nd the counting of temporary data between neighboring observation points and the points of mass observations. In those cases where all data furnish an even picture of gradual changes of degree of infestation and of disease (for instance, on the maps of diseases from winter owlet; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubi sachem, A. A... -28- Princilles of estimating.. data of I. iilipsev). interpolation does not represent any dif- ficulties and the picture could be considered quite reliable. But if we have drastic differences or jumping fluctuations, then we need a (=Meal analysis of the obtained materials. There might be various cases. The first one, and the simpleet, consists of systematic dif- ference (increase or decreaim) of data of mos correspondents in. comparison with the data of a special personnel., ,The reason for a . difference could be realistic (for instance, if ..the observation points are loca.,ted at old experimental stations, anditte mass correspondents -acquire their informations from newly constructed Soviet and collective farms) or is explained by mistakes of mass observers. An itinerary observation of a few locations by the personnel of observation points will e.seist in finding the causes for differences and to make corre- sponding conclusions. Thus, if the testing indicates the reality of' the differences, then, the data of the observation points could be generalized only by the regional fields, for mass conclusions the data of the correspondents should be used. Often there is a difference based on inaccuracy of observations; the correspondents either do not pny attention to the peat or. on the contrary, confuse it with other pests and overestimate its significance. The reason for such an overestimation is often simply the camouflaging of agricultural shortcomings which caused a poor sprouting, the development of weeds etc. After having defined the presence of underestimation or over- estimation it is possible to introeuce corresponding corrections into the data. A more frequent case - the drastic fluctuation of data. Fere also might be cases of real fluctuation of pests or it is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .Liubishchev. A. A... -29- 1111 Princi-lles of estimating.. based upon an insufficient attention of some correspondents. Here the problem is determined bY observation of several locations, for in.ltance, the itinerary between two points, of which one indicates the abgenee of the post, the other indicates its presence. In case the visit of sueh Re-aptyp point would disclose the pest and such a result would .repeat itself we have the full right of indicating the infestation upon Vas nemtpyil points as well. Such a case occurs with smut. This disease is spread quite regularly and therefore the difference between infested and non-infested, fields is lx.sically provisory: depending on the assurrition which percentLgs of infestation we would, consider uninfected. In the given case, even without inspection we my spread data of approbations for those fields where there was no e.pprob.tion .or informations are not available, and we should not proceed as we used. to, for ineance, to consider all fields which were not under observrtion as not infested.. On the contrary., if the observ- tion will manifest n real drastic difference in infesting the neighboring points, then tho itinerary will permit to indicate whether we deal. here with the attactment of the pest to definite ecologic:]. conditions or with the nidi distribution of the pests. In the first case we are able to extrapolate our data according to corresoonding ecological dif- ferences, in the second case to study the structure of the distribution of the peat (the sice of the nests, their location. etc.). In case this problem would be too complicated. then we will find the average infest .tion, but with the indication of the fluctur.tions and with the fixing of any shortcomings in any direction. This is achieved by the method Wirt for the fixing of the lower boundary we di sOuse all points Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A... -30- Princinles of estinating.? ? from -here we do?not have any informatione whether it does not disclose any of this pest, bat for the definition of the ,main boundary we shall spread data obtained from the points of observations to those locations Where, no informations were available. 3. regionalizing? The general problem of economic regionalizing is divided into the following parts: a) statistical regionalizing i.e. the indication of the basic zones of the harmfulness of the pest by means of utilizing many informations concerniztg. their appearance. Such maps exist in america2 literature, partly also in our country; thus. Volt skii used the data of 34 yearn published under foThe year in agriculture., for the draft of a nap of winter owlet cAarotis serntumi (see r. U. Troiteldi. 1.922); / prepared a map for the HOOSett fly (water ? print). raps indicate purely empiric.l regularity wich formulate and are in need of corresponding theoretical foundations; b) regionslizing the hernfaness is a problem In itself. The first regionalizing is based upon the summary of questionnaire materials, and it does not reach any quantitative conclusions in respect to the harmfulness of the pent. In several points the harmfulness of the peat is determined. In many cases several definitions provide clear differentiations of harmfulness according to raion(s) (for instance, for the Kesses fly upon spring crops in tbe 'Ukraine the harmfulness is considerably hieeer than in Northern Caucasus), but, of course, a few points are sufficlist to indicate general regional setion of harmfulness. This can be determined after having evaluated the relation between the harmfUlnees and the complexity of ecologicel conditions. Ye now arrive at the thirt rroblem- c) the theory of the distribution of the pest. aegioneliving would not Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubi shchev. A. A... Princi-nles of estimating.. , be complete until we give a theoretical interpretation of indicated dis- trnution and until we indicate the satisfactory quantitative correlntim between the theoretical lines indicated bY us and the empirical data. Sach theoretical accomplishment provides an aesunnce in the dependability of our conclusions and will assist to carry out our work by a more economic manner. Finally such work is of great significr_nce against quartntine pests: the fixing of zones of potential harm of a pest which was not?;,-ot imported. Attempts for such theoretical maps is atailable in foreign literature. The construction of such a theory requires, first, fixing the dependence of the pest and of its harmfulness on a series of .conditions, , and second, to find the .deroendence in production." For the first deter- mination the experimental method will be beneficial in many cases, the concrete data which were first used as hypothesis during the for analyst? of field conditions; the work of /A. I. Prints could be a good example of such application of the experiment. As to the con- sideration of determined relations in production; we face here 9005 serious technical complications consisting in the necessity of a radical reconsideration of the available ?meteorological data. The regionalization of the pest, of course, depends mainly on temperature and. moisture during specific phases in _the defelopment of the pest: but regionalizing the harmfulneas depends on the character of phenology of the pest and the plemt. Therefore, even if we admit that the character of dependence is determined correctly, we are unable to utilize the isolated lines of usual meteorological atlases; except under minimum and maximu.m tem- perature, bemuse those lines are constructed according to calendar data Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 L1110i sacnev a ? A. ? ? Principles of estimating.. and not according to phenological data. On the other hand, the relation between individual pests vary. For some, the time of temperature's increase is important, for others, ae with the grape mildew, the definite combination of minimum and average temperature with a definite quantity of rainfall. Therefore, often in observing meteoroloecal stations, we either don't find any similar data or their rating in a complicated performance. Therefore. it As not surprising that such maps which fulfill strict requirements are not available. Nevertheless, the practiel significance of the problem does not pereit us to retreat on account of these difficulties. 4. The general synthesis of losses.-- The simrlest method of synthesis of losses is the acquisition of effects of harmfulness unon the sore-ding and cost of one unit of production. In determining the average da%age the averagez-amount of losses is taken (or recomeended) and it is tultipaied by the average yielding capacity. Of course, each a nm.sure could be anplied an first approach. Bat, since the harmfulness is often connected ivith the amount of the possible yield, We ma;,. corlmit error.' Here is an example: the Swedish fly is khovn for its :pecific. hermfUlness under poor conditions of sprouting during the first period of vegetati,m: in such cases it is able to destroy the harvest coripletely, bat without the Swedish fly under the same con- ditions the hrrvest might be slight. For instance, with a good development of the plants ever a hundred percent infestation might have no influence upon the crops. Therefore, we my construct such a table, althouh artificial, but which corresponds to general real relations (in all c...tes the hundred percent of infestation is tr'ken into con- sida.-ction, hence the infestation and the damge coincide): - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liubishchev, A. A... es of estimating.. ? Potential yield without the Average ' Swedish fly (in centners) 1 10 20 10.3 Harmfulness (in percent) 100 20 0 40 1',_ctu.91 yield (in centnere) 0 8 20 9.3 Thus, the average of yield during these three years coaeists of one centzum from hectar or. 9.3 percent of the possible harvest for three years; leeanwhile if we multiply the averaee harm- fulness by the average potential harvest, we obtain a decrease of 4.12 centners or more four tiries the real one; the mistakes..., as we -see, in not small. The general method to avoid similar mistakes is to obtain averse :lapses according to the potential yield. .1 will limit myself to these short considerations. The problem of rating the secondary and potential losses will be put aside: here ? the methodical work le still in more backward. condition than in respect to direct actual lessee. As to the category of eradicating and non- , eradicating lossas, the botuidary between them varies depending upon the perfection of the control methods. Before we obtain definite informations in respect to actual and potential losses the determination of eradicating losses could be performed by the expert method. Zxpert Method As it has been indicated, the acquisition of definite informations in regard. to losses of the Okiarity of pests occupies come time cal reclaims an important, specially prepared personnel. And since pro- duction requires on the part of research Organizations some indications of harm from the pest then the expert method has the right for estence. Such a critical expertise might provide a reliable, althanch inaccurate Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 1...tuulsauz1uv 11/ A, ? a? ? ? +44w Principles of estimating.. answer by-means of coordinating various data. For instants, for the den/A. of the theory "white spot" it is not necessary to wait until the problem of ht-rmfulness of the Swedish fly will be iolved in all its accurLay. The comparison of data: 1)decrease of wheat sewing during the last decadee,afterlhe development of railways; 2) a higher yield cappcity of vheat in this reion in comparison with Southeast; 3) the absence of correlation between the yield and the, percentage of infested bushes vhich indicates that the amount of the Swedish fly does not by itself influence the yield etc.. The given hypothes13 is absolutely incompr;tible with the factual material. A more circumetential analyois (gee Srbernik Vra Ho. 7. 1933 and the circumstantial article. along. :with :L 14. roz1ov4 sent to print) discloses the causes for errors,, and the ceordimtion of all reunite permits us to reject the regionalizing inflacnce of the Swedish fly, although its economid significance remtt.ins indefinite. . A good example of the 1-4oplidetion.of the critical exnert method is the work of 17, T. Aristov Along the economic significance of apple floner eater (Anthonomus-pomoram. seen. T. Aristov, 19S2). and also a series of :Jerk of German authors. Thr harm of Anthonotas remains indefinite, but by comparison or all data we are able to determine the density of hrrm and, to regionalize its practical eiinificance. 7inally, as an example of a more indefinite. expertise I will indicato ny ratingsAccording to general losses from gophers and locust (Liubishchtv, 1933). Here we proceed with the expert evaluation, analyse it, indiate the availability of errors and their minimum eignifid-nce tnd arrive at the boundary of the potentisl damage. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 LinbirlIchtv, A. A... Principles of estimating.. In this articlo I was forced to abstain from the analysis of , concrote data and to discuss the available literature only superficially. But I do hope that, in spite of the Complexity and the multiplicity of the problems connected with the evaluation of the economic significance of pents, the matter is not hopelessly complicated and with the efforts of ell ,,orkeri the problem might be solved successfully. Samoa 1. The complexity of the problem of the economy of pests requires a high prertretion of the personnel and the utilization of all Various ways of solving the problem. 2. The meant of study the problem of losses vary: a) according to the character of division of the problem into elements (damage, harmfUldess, disease, infestation, etc.); b) according to the degree of the arourrey of approach: gradually6critical. questionnaire and expert methods; c) according to national-economic point of view; d) according to the degree of artificial method. 3. in production we must pay special Attention to the applicatin of tha to2ographical method. Its fihortconings and camouflaged influence might be removed by introducing supplemented signs and by a critical di scussion of topographical relations. Without the registration of topogra!)hical relations it in easy to commit an error by taking parts of one repetition for individual reretitions. 4. During the definition of trrmfulnest by the field method quite reliLble results could be obtrined by observing three basic mnthodical rekuirements: a) comperison of the line of regression Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Liumencnev, A. As.. Principle a of estimating.. according to the sign independent of the pest; b) agreenent of data obtlined by various independent methods: c) agreement of data with our knowledge according to the physiology of plants. 5. The definition of losses, besides the immediate registration of hermitlness, includes the diviaione: a) the quantitative registration of pests (recording to the topographical method eimaltaneously with the definition of damagm; b) connections. extvpolations, and interpolations of data of the field with the data of the presented region; c) region- alizing which is divided into three parts: statistic_l regionalizing, regionaizing of harmfulness and the theory of zone divisions; d) anti:teals of losses Only during the first approach Which Could be replaced by a simple multiplication of elements.. 6. The expert method vill for a long ties preserve its significance, but, if we apply during the expertise all our data and by coordinating it into a unified noneontradictory system. We may. obtain Conclusions thich are reliable and which could: be of practicl significt:nce. Bibliography 1. Aristev, N. T. 1932. The harmfUlnees of an apple tree flower case r* Trudy po Zaehchite Eastanii (Works on Plant Protection) rar. 1, No. 6. p. 1-30. 2. Liubishchev, A. A. 1931a. The method of registering the economic effect of pests. Trudy po Zaihchite Eastenii (Works on Plant Protection) v. 1, no. 2. p. 369-505. 3. Liubishcbev. A. A. 1931b. The problem of defining the amount of losses caused by harmful insects. iMehchita Eastenii. (Plant -rotection) v. 8, no. 3-6, p. 472-483. LiubiShdher, A. A. 1932. Is the army of pests counted? Sbornik VIM( 3w5P ) (Collection. All-Union Institute of Plant 7rotection) no. 3. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lihchov, A. A... ?37? Principles of estimating.. 5. Liut:-:chev, A. A. 1933a. The effect of measures end of loss re3etration. Sbornik TIM, no. 5. 6. !Aabisl,chev. A. A. 1936b. The problem of the white gpot and entonology. Sbornik VIM: no. 7. 7. Neelnkova, 0. V. 1932. The economic significPnce of rye chalcid Za ehchit a BR stenii ( Flant :?rote.ction) Sbornik. no. 1. 8. Trof.takii, N. N. 1922. The prolem or the Derioglicrl mass pro- - nF, t int of harmful insects. Izvestiia Otdela Prikladnoi Entomologyi (Bulletin of the Division of Applied lntnmology) V. U, D. 87. 9. 'cSolevo V. IL, Zaammlikti, A. V.. and Bei?Bienko, O. IA. 1934. :Tasekomye, vrediashchie po1ev7m kulltaram. (In3ects which harrA GIZ (State Agricultural Institute). 10. E? 7011 F. 7. 3.931. Bcotopographical maps: their use in 6,litalto1ogy t.nd nvithods of makin;;. ? Journ. T'con. Enton. 24, no. 1. p. 151-157. July 7-34, 1251 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sellskokhoziaistvennaia Akademiia imeni K. A.-Timiriazeva Timiriazwv Agricultural Academy, Moskva, Selikhozes, 1946, 390 p. 106 M6525e Trans. 19R1 Institutions Trans. in pprt by R. 0. Denbo The Department of Genetics and of Cytology' (p. 224-232) The Department of Genetics exists in the Timiriezer Agriculture Adademy since 1929 only. This is due to the fact that genetics is only 3-4 decades old. Is our country the science of genetics started to exist only after the October Socialist Revolution. The Department of Genetics and of Selection hae been organized in the Academy after the October Revolution, and it existed In such a form until 1927 (the year of death of tho chairaan of the department S. I. Zhegalov). In 1929 the Department of Genetics and of Selection was divided into two departments: Department of Genetics and of Cytology aid the Department of Selection and of Seed Growing. The formation of the Department of Genetics and of Cytology took place in 1931 When A. R. Zhebrak (active member of the Academy of Sciences of BSSR) has been appointed the supervisor of the department. Before 1937 the scientific work has been carried out only with the ,groups of students Who soecializeq in selection and in seed growing. From 1937 the course of Genetics with some elements of Cytology has been introduced into all divisions of field and vegetable production departments. The curriculum of the department consists of lectures and of laboratory work OR Geheties and on Cytology during the winter, and additional practic%1 studies during the summer. The studies in Genetics consist of discusaion on crossing, on herbarium of beans and wheat, and also of LtiIvidual experimemts by students on the nri An roved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 /9(0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev Agilcultnral Academy... ' -2- Drosolhila. In the Drosepiala exneriments the students study the unifsrmity.of hybrids of the first generation, splitting in the second generation, the law of the independent splitting of Characters caused by genes localized in various Pairs or chromosomes, end also heredity signs of flex. During the summer, studies the students acquire the methods and the technic of crossing legumes and cereals and become ac,inainted with the elements of genetic analysis of vegetative material in the field and in the vegetlqive house. The 7cytological- work aims to the students with the technical preparation of cytoleilical eqnipment and of the study of basic stages in cell division, and also the survey! of cytological equipment of various agricultural plants. ale staff of the Department of Genetics carries On research from the very st.rt of its organization. In 1934 the department solved the erobleti of the interrelation between phenotypical changes and. Ole changes in genotype. This problem is of great methodological sicnificance. Until then the opinion prevailed in literaure th,A the genptypical peocesses do not depend on the Changes of the phenotype. It has been determined by the Department of Genetics that even slight phenotypical changes Which are caused by the aging of the organisms, by temperr.ture etc. influence the processes Which occur in the genotype. The con- dust las along these studies are new in genetiC literotnre tn6. 'ore discussed in a doctor's dissertation presented by A. R. rhebrek in 1936. Tro experimental works on this .,roblem were published in the oBulletin of Academy of Scienceso. \ ' i, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriezev Agricultural -3- Academy... The second problem which has been discussed in the department-- is that of mutual' influence of graft upon wilding in grass plants. This problem has been discussed by I. V. Midhurin. After Michurin's research the department applied the method of treneelantation of grass as the method of vegetative approach of various species and genera. After having carried out a great amount of experiment? in grafting for the purpose of crossing beans, lupinus. vicia, soy bean, vicia faba, lentils and other plants, the department did not obtain any hybrid seeds of peas with all the indicted species and genera of the legume family. There were not obtained any hybrid seeds from crossing Peas with other species and genera of le6gmes without grafting. In the process of study the character of grafting development it has been deteruincd that a series of phenotypical.signs under the influence of grafting is changing. Based on these results the department came to the conclusion that during transplantation various changes of pheno- typical kind occur iihich could be canoed by other factors of the environment, but during transplantrtion changes which would produce the crossing of these genera did not manifest themselves. Daring tr..-neolaatetien vegetative hybrids do not occur according to.many authors who carry out such experiments with other grasses, because for th? formation of the vegetative hybrid the blending of two genetic cells am& the formation of a new organisetwith the chromosomes of both grafted com,onents are necessary. Three works of A. B. 3hebrak on this topic helve been published in various editions and one work is prepared for publieLtion by the assistant A. A. Fedorov. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev Lgricultural AcadeM7... Thc next question studicd in the department is that of the nature of the effect of intorspecies crossings with autopollinpted plants. the 2uperimental stations of the Union arlksorking and worked during recent severel years on that problem. The experimente of the department were carried out with peas and wheat. The department considers the experiments with peas as completed. The obtained experimental data indicate that the effect from interepeciem crossing sums up to modified changes which disappear after 1-2 generations. .Usually the seed material obtained from interspecies crossing propagate under best agro- technical conditions. These seeds are of higher weight and of better nourishing qualities. Therefore, by sewing mach seeds the breed ie better than by usual seeds sown in inferior agrotechnical environment 411 and we acquire an impression of a positive significance of inter- species crossing. In reality the effect of intersnecies crossing results in a better raising of plants obtained, from deeds of inter- species crossing. In its experiments the deprteent aspired for a similar raising of the experimentrl and control material and did not disclose c,ny effect frminterspecies crossing. This conclusion corresponds to the data of other author on other plants. Me study of a long inbreeding is also quite important. During the process of working ont'this typic it has been detzmined that durinj a long inbreed the processes in genotype are different from that without inbreed (candidate dissertation of A A. Tadorov). The department studied the problem of inheritance in the length of the veestative period of peas. The practical remit of this roth is exlressed by the fact that new speedy pea species were acquired. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev Agricultural -5- Underv... According to the decree of the Committee on higher learniwg and the -1'eopleis Cosseiseariat of Agriculture of USSR the ?lairlaser Agricultural. Academy has the task of raising irimune species of winter and nrine vilest for the ?blast's of nonblack soil. This problem could be solved by hybridization of various species of wheat and. by obtaining new breedings in the process of mutation. The most effective method, according to the department is a remote hybridisation, i.e. the crossing of various species of wheat and the crossing of wheat with other grain products of close genera. It is necessary to use the crossing of various species of wheat, because many valuable qualities of wheat are spread among various species. The combination of these qualities in one species le possible only by hybridization. The department of Oenetics shifted. recently over to the work with wheat. This could be exnlained by 4111 fact that wheat is the most importrzt agricultural plant manifested by various species, with a varied number of chromosomes. Therefore, the int er species crossings are interesting not only in solving a series of practical problems, but also in general theoretical sense since they enable us to grasp the evolution of the most important agricultural plant. wheat. ..4il species of wheat, as it is known, are divided according to the number of chromosomes into three in groups: 14-chromosomes, 28-chromosomes and. 42-chromosomes. The number of chromosomes are strict1:7 constant for each species and it can exist only with the presence of a definite number of chromosomes. Therefore, the number of chromosomes are the most essential distinctive peculirities of the species of plants and. of animals* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasee Agricultural -6- AeaderlY6-. That ie why the geneticists search intensively for various methods by Which it would be possible to increase the number of chromosomes in plants au:, first of all in crops. According to contemporary genetic-evolutionary otinions, all species of Wheat originated from a common ancestor. Nevertheless, the beundaries between Various chromosome groups of wheat and species are quite real and are easily disclosed in the process of crossing. Thus, for instance, by crossing the Wheat species with 14 chromosomes with species of 28 and 42 chromosomes we obtain hybrids almost entirely sterile. By crossing the species of 28 chromosomes with the species of 42 chronceomes we obtain either sterilsor slightly fertile hybrids. Coneeciuently, the number of chromosomes is the real indiestor of the boundary between species. Thia fact confirms the conclusions of conta:.ilomry classical genetics pbout the spectra role of chromosomes in the process of inheritance. It is true, not only the member of Chromosomes are the signs of the -species boundaries, but the structure of the latter as well, becuase within the boundaries of thep8 chromosome group arVvarious apecies and some of thee, even with the impel number of chromosomes, differentiate considerably. Thus, for instance, Timo:eev whest with equal number of chremosames crossing with other speCiOS of the same group result into highly sterile hybrids. In practical sense this species of wheat is of seeciel interest for selction, because it is characterized by the immunity to mee7 Wheat diseases and pests. It is known that Wheat diseases and pests cause considerable damage to agriculture. According to data of the sedition of the All-Union Institute of Plant Production, the loss Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev Agricultural -7- Academy... from rust alone reaches 10 percent of the grain yield. Therefore, the raising of immune wheat species is a most important problem.. The solution of this problem is possible by crossing cultivated Wheat species with the Timoftev Wheat.. Nevertheless, this problem could not be solved until recently by hybridisation with.Tr. Timopheevi because this species is genetically different from other species and produces hybrids highly sterile. In order to includeVILetkeeA.m into the selective process it,is necessary first of all to solve thetheoretical problem in resorting the fertility of hybrids of the first generation between Tr. Titopheevi and hard and soft wheat. The individual seeds obtained from the hybrids of the first generation do not solve the problem of the synthesis of new wheat species because in each plants the process of further Gaining into other species occurs. In the following generations either ?pures hard and soft wheat breed or Tr. Timooheevi.- The litter is the resat of the absence of homology of chromosome complexes of these opecies and thie hindera the combining valuable qualities of one 'species with valuable qualities of the other species. The solution of this problem is possible only by means of overcoming the sterility of 'hybrids and of the synthesis of a new wheat species which combines the complex qualities of basic parent species. lacte were observed in genetics when by doubling the number of . chroncekimes with highly sterile hybrids their fertility ie restored. Such a doublinG of the number of chromosomes in sterile hybrids occured often and caused the restoration of fertility. Therefore the problem of restoration of fertility could easily be solved by 111 coubling the number of chromosomes. Since already at the beginning Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev Agricultural Academy... of A. R. Zhebrak's work in 1936 it became known that the hybrids of hard and of soft wheat with Triticum Timopheevi are sterile. A. P. Zhebrak, when starting these crossings, simultaneously discussed the problem of the doubling the number of chromosomes within these hybrids in order to restore their fertility. Starting with 1936, began a persistent search for methods to restore the fertility of highly sterile hybrids of wheat by doubling the number of chromosomes since this is the only method of obtaining fertile epecies. Por this purpose the effect of high and of low temperature was tested. These tests were c( done before by American authors to obtain polipboid within corn and in other IA tmts. But the method of temperature effects used by A. E. Zhebrak uith the purpose of obtaining amphidiploids in the hybrids of hard wheat with the wheat of Timofeev did not give positive results. This fact could be explained by the fact that the exper!ment was not carried out on a sufficiently large scale. The work of American authors Blakeslee and Avery published in 1937 on tha application of colchicin aiming to increase the number of chromosomes in plants attracted the attention of many geneticists of USSR including those of the department. In 1938 the department had the hybrid seeds of the following combinations: 1:1',.. durum X Tr. Timopheev, Tr. durum X Tr. monococcum, Tr. nolonicum x a. durum, Tr. persicum X Tr. Timopheevi and others. After having cultivated hybrid seeds of the first generation by the solution of colchicin at the concentration of 0.1 percent. A. B. nebrak obtained already in 1938 individual normally fertile spikes from first combinations of indicated hybrids. Thus, the fact Declassified and Approved For Release 201'3/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev Agricultural -9- Academy... Of the appearance of spikes with seeds in highly sterile hybrids indicates amphidiploid, i.e. the process of doubling the number of chromosomes. ;Poe to thin process the somatic number of chromosomes of ' both parents were united in the hybrid. A cytological Analysis enabled us to disclose 56 Chromosomes in the somatic cell of the first combination and 42 chromosomes of the second combination, i.e. a.cytoloecal analysis confirmed the first assution. Consevently, as there:mit of experi- ments of 3.938 A. E. Zhebrak obtained two new amehidiploid sliecies of Wheat. The first of these species belong' to an entirely new group of chromosomes, and the second - to the hexaploid 42-chromosome group. Ve.did not succeed in obtaining similar speciesrof wheat, although' =my scientists faced this teak. Experimentally created 56-chromosoMe amphidiploid species of Wheat is characterized by the following peculiarities: by high immunity to Mildew, dense bushiness, large grain Which exceed the grain, of the parent species by close threshing etc. According to the character of fragility the new species of Whert occupies taa intermediary position between the prrent species. According to this chLracteristic, as the investigation or 1939 and 1940 indicateo. a slicht splitting occurs, and among the second and the third generations of amphidiploid was possible to disclose species both with fragile spike and less fregile snike. The fertility of the amphiAlploid is lower than the fertility of the hard wheat, but higher than the fertility of TriticUm TimOrheevi. Possessing greater bushiness in comparison with the bushiness of hard wheat and also immunity to some fungus diseases and to petits, the ar.?hidiPloid opeCies which hassbeen celled by the author Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev Agrictiltural -10- Acaderay... Trtticum 9oveticum - the Soviet wheat with a slight negative selection represents an Immediate practical interest. The basic significance of the work consists in the fact that due to amnhidiploid it was nossible to include r. Timopheevi into the selection process. Nith this amphidi loid A. R. Zhebrak made in 1940 crossings of c. snries of btber valitios and epecies. The second, amphidiploid between hard wheat end monograin (*odnosernlankaw) Wheat has 42 chromosomes and s ccording to the number of cbrommemmes it does not differ from other species of the 42- chromssons group. According to systematic signs it is clossr to hard wheat. This amphidiploid is characterized by hada buShiness and ?unyisldins threshing. Besides, in the second generation it wts possible to disclose forms with a not fragile spike. This species is of some interest for the further work both as the selection method and the crossing method. This amphidiploid enables us to understand better the process of the origin of the entire group of the 42-chromoeome Wheat. Urtil recently two different opinions exist along this roblem. The 42..clsromosome amphidiploid species indicates that all the other 42-chromosome species could occur by hybridization of 28-chromosome species with 14-chromosome cereals by doubling the =mbar of chromosomes. .11:he nethodologY of the effect of colchicin uron the seeds wprked out by A. R. 7hebrak in 1938 has. been applied to hybrid combinations In 1939.end in 1940 and produced positive results. ? In the process seven new amphidiploid qualities of wheat have been obtained, and in 1940 their number reached 33. During the 1940 season the amphidiploide of Tr. Timopheesi were obtained. These facts indicate the high effect- /VOW ss of the method worked out and applied by A. B. 2hebrak, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriarev Agrlcultnral Acaderze... ?or the production of amphidiuloid around 106 various crossingn were performed in 1939. 'AMong these Combinations were obtained hybrids of the seeds of the first generation Te.tieum Timonheevi with the following species: Tr. vuldare, Tr. durum, Tr. turgidum, Tr. nersicum, Tr. orientale, Tr. yokmican. The greatest number of hybrid combinations was obtained with hard wheat. According to this combination, all species of hard Wheat known in UTAR are included into the crossing. The author believes that an m=y aaphidiploids it will lm possible to produce the most valuable qualities Which could be included into production as new species after a slight negatiga selection. In 1040 this kind of crossing has been continued and many new hybrids were obtained, but the cesultsef this crossing were not worked out. From crossings of 89 combinations in 1939 were obtained hybrid scrds of 59 various combinations of the hybrids Triticum Timonheevi with hard, Soft and other Wheat species, were cultivated by colchicine. In 33 combinations amphiploids are already obtained but a supp)ementary cytological analYsis is reqp4red along this line. During 1008, 1979, and 1940 the department obtiAned amphidiploids along the following hybrid combinations: 1. Triticum durum, v. leucuram Tr. X monecoccum 1) Triticum durum, v. lecurum, c. "Sary-bagdau X Tr. Timapheevi 2) Tr. durum, v. leacurum, c. eAk-bugda" X Tr. Timomheevi Z) Tr. Tirophsevi TX. durum, v. leucurum. C. Hak-bngda* 4) Tr. Timopheevi X. Tr. durum, v. melanopus 069 5) Tr. durum, v. melanoius 069 X tr. Titor)heevi 6) Tr. durum, v. melano-ms falcate X Tr. Timorheevi ?) Tr. duran, v. melmovas X Tr. Timemheovi 0) Tr. Tiaopheavi X Ti. darun, v. hordeiforms 0189 9) Tr. durum, v. hordeiforme0470 X Ti. Timopheovi 10) Ti. Timopheevi X Tr. durum, v. hordeiforme 0432 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timirta.7ev Agricultural -12- Acaderr.m. 11) Tr. clurrm, v. ha:dein-rine,' (v..71 X Tr. Timenheevi 12) Tr. dur11.1, v. herdeiforoe ?27 T Tr. Tino-hoevi 1n, Tr. durum, v. hordeire)rme (27 Xr. Timonheevi 14) Tr. Timophoevi X Tr. taruo, v. :.ordsiforne CIO 15) Tr. durum, v. hordeife.rme okrmrttas X Tr. Tipopheevi 16) Tr. Ourum, v. eritnromelen X Tr. Timorhsevi 17) Tr. durum, v. iicum 16P40 1:Pr. TimoTheevi 18) Tr. durum, v. ,Jorino-letcarum 1142 7 Tr. Tinonheevi 19) Tr. durum, v. leucomelein 16233 X Tr. Timonheevi 2C) Tr. durum, v. Schehurdinii 16491 X Tr. Timorhoevi 1) e0i Tr. persicum, v. stminenDI 35C.2 Z Tr. Timopheevi Tr. Timo heevi X Tr. persicum, v. rubiginosum 11891 1) T. orientele, v. insigne 15992 X Tr. Timorheevi 1) Tr. rolonicue 7 Tr. Tinopheevi 2) 1"?. polonicum, v. villas= 23562 Y. Tr. Timopheevi 7) Tr. polon!cum Y. Tr. Tinovheevi 1) Tr. turgidtm', v. rubriF:trie Tr. Timonheevl 0 Tr. turgidum, v. herreras Tr. Timo-heevi Tr. tt-A-Eielmr, v. Dreischnum X Tr. Tinorheevi 1) Tr. polonicum 7: Tr. durum, v. melanorms 069 1) Tr. vulgnro, v. lute:scene otlerquis" X Tr. Timopheevi 2) Timophcovi 1 Tr. vulgare, v. lutescens otiarquisti 3) Tr. Timooheevi X Tr. vulgare, v. alborubrum aSandomirkall 4) Tr. Tisonheevi X T. vulo re, kolckolamst-Idaw 5) Tr. T:mop 4:evi X.T. vnlgrre, v. erythroseermum 2411 6) Tr. Timoteevi X Tr. vulgar, v. nlltutum C553 7) Tr. Tinonheevi 7 Tr. vulare, v. lutescene "Tetchero Besides thy! munerated rnrhidinloids there exist others with RIX v riot s hunhero of hard %heat from the collectir,n of the 4110Union Institute of Plant nroduction 'whose variety has not been determined. "rom the obtained amphidirloids four enecirs coule be considered as new, five-ncv subsreciel, end the ret - new varieties me r,cee. Among thee pi1otd wpecies we heve three various chromosome grouns: 42-chr(0Elps, 56-chrenosom4s and 79-chromonomes. The first of them, 42-chrl-e7smmr.s, rxi.sted befnre rnd therefore the amphidirloid of hard wheat ')rneuced by A. R. Zhebrak enables to disclose a procese of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Ttsirtazav Agricultural -13- Academy... origin of r11 other 42 chromosome species. The last two, 56-chromosomes . and. 70-chromosomen are produced by A. B. Zherbrak by the experimental method. To the 56-chromosomes group belong the following amphidiploids: Tr. Timopheevi with Tr. durum, Tt-.:..turridum, Tr. rqlonicum, Tr. persicum, r orientale. The first amphidiploid obtained by A. B. Zhebrak of hard uLae.t and Timopheev wheat has been given the name' of Triticum ,soveLicum,. Consequently, in a short time (2-3 years) A. B. Zhebrek produced a. new species of wheat with a series of varieties and re.ces. Me greatest number of amphidillold species was obtained from the crossing of Tr. yimopheevi with hard wheat. A special attention has . been Given to the crossing of various varieties and. species of hard wheat bsCr.nse;ticelzusplitpleids of hard wheat with 7riticum stintorheevt are of ' immediate prretical interest, because according to the grain quality it is close to hard wheat and in its bushiness_it exceeds it. In i=runity they arp close to Tr. Timonheevi. The limiting circumstance in the introduction of new amphidiploid variistia4f wheat into agricultural production could be explained by its low fertility, because amphidiploids are less fertile than hard. , wheat1 but according to this basic characteristic the obtained amphidiploids differ depending on the recies teken for crossing. Thus, for instance, amphidiploids Tr- Tisorheevi X Tr. durum X gprdeform 0189 are closer to hard. wheat in their fertility. All the amphidiploids have spikes with average num. ber of grains higher than 3, and the majority of spikes hit:a. inetheir small ears not less than 4 grains. 'In general the fertility of amph.idiploids is lower than the fertility of hard wheat. /n agricultural practice the decision how to utilize maul' amphidiploide of plants (including amphidiploids of wheat) depends upon the degree of fertility. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001.-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Academy... The department worked also on the improvement of polyploids and amphiclitloids in cotton. This topic has been discussed by the candidate Razev, assitzted to the chair of Genetics of the Azerbaidzhan Agricultural Institute, under the supervision of A. B. Mebrak. As a result of this . work 3 ar.12314diploids wore obtained from the hylarids of species of cotton vith varied number of chromosomes.- This result indicates the fact that the ap-;licat'ion of colchicine enables us to obtain amphidiploids and. polyploids in a large number with various plants. In ll these works it is important that the obtained results are achieved. by the effect produced by colchicine. This refutes the opinions of old tutogeneticiets who considered the seed. plasma isolated from external conditions and immune to external influence. This also refutes the naive LamarrLue conception concerning the adequate change of genotype under the influence of e specific factor of the environment. The work of the department indicates that colchicine specifically affects the mtorial inherited structure of the cell .in increasinz the nuriber of chromosomes. This work confirms the dialectical unity of tho inncr nature of plants with the environment and the interrelated processos. with external factors. The ap lication of colchicine is important by the fact that this is a. very effective external factor. The experimenter is able to reconstruct the available species of plants and to produce new ones. By combining hybridization with the effect of colchicine it is posaible to create new species in unlimited number which did. not exist in ntture and which it was hard to obtain before. The recent experimental work by -.pplying the hybridization method. and. the effect of such Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timirtazev Agricultural Academy... factorg like colchicine ind.icptee thlt conte?Incr4rL, c1ciaetintics cptvinered I:17e nethrd. of ervolrition and la n_bie not only to er.)lain the flvnliation4.--ry 1)roCes-2, but even to -produce new plant varieties.. July zz:, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ?gr, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sol '81,:okhoziaistvennaia Akaderiia imeni E. A. 'iimiriazeva [The Timiriazev Agricultural. Academy). ?parrs, Sel'khozgiz, 1946, 106 1852 Se 390p. , Translation 196:Plant Protection. ? Trans lated f non the P.ussian by R. Dembo. The Department of Selection and Seed Growing Of Field Grope (p. 232-237). The first work on the selection of agricultural plants started in the Timiriatev Academy (then - rnscowAgricultural Institute) in 1903 by the assistant, of the Department of Venom,: Agriculture and Goil Conservation', D. L. Rudzinskii, with the assibtance of the superintendent of the Department, academician V. W. Miliaria. This work did not beloe6 to the program of the subjects in the depart- ment, and their initiation could be explained only by D. L. Fudzirskii's interest in plant selection. In order to evaluate the historical significance of this ,undertaking, we should take into consideration that it started at the time, when Russia did not 110, have even a 8 424 le aeleotion institution, when only a few seed farma of this huge .country took care of seed varieties, whereby their material was the varietieo from abroad. Then there were no courses on selection in' ahy of the agricultural schools, but even the word "selection" end the ooneeption "variety" were entirely strange to agricultural production. Therefore it would be net exaggeration to say tat D. L. Dndzinskii is the pionecr of selection TfOrk in RUssia, and the Timiriatev Acadery is the berth of - this work. In 1903 began the work with poitatoea, minter and spring wheat, pats, and somewhat Inttr (in 1906), with beans. In 1903 all the'imiseries occupied 240 square "sazhen" (2,154 meters) upon occasional fielda. Two small rooms with a total space of 30 Square "uazhen I" served as a laboratory. The budget fluctuated from 400-1000 rubles. The entire personnel conciated of D. L. pudzindkii and two workers (one of them - R.I. Xhokhlov is working in the Academy until now). ? neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev re '9- I ral. 1,56. 7udzinAli's ,Lroue aimed to five the first praetical results of selnotion and thus tn st4n.rt c..diertising of selection in Fluids. Ns to Pudrinskii's extrenre4,rar:. erc-r,4 and efficiency, he succeeded to give after six yenrs, the Pussion selection varletieu of potatoes, winter **gat, oats and benne, even in such poor riuhrtur., 11/4,1thout the necessary equipment, under very modeet oon- ditions and ,r!tt. a 1,1,ry poor budEet. Some of these varieties will re-eir 117 to the presert ti,vtal.:.,1;rL.Ized tor wide adore (the Yosoow oats I-31g ()courier e field of over r hectars). Ti toe ratov Se/eotion station was opened. After n veR-, the T*26.rtlet iujue oripnised the selection station at the Vogeow 1.7r1- oultrmlTrutt. 14.?'.3. :4 budget of 3000 rubles. Starting with January 1117, FIrdenP1.!1 aiwcihted the head of the selection station, and 8.I. alov .:?rarAitioner in I.U)9) was appointed as his assistant. The r:ouncil of the 4:11.t1C :;6C,4Yerti 1..5 'desisting." of land for the selection stet, r. In coiri-ctim w1th the casual characteristics of the initiator of seleOltortry i4t. Lite .i.osouw Selection Institute, the work of licizincifti ;.;roup eta nnt !Ave Cirect colAeotions with the educational activity of the Tnstiute for el:: ye.nrs. 1:,l1' 1..JOJ did the situation improve. From this tire or, tie select!o!. A.0";:ts:: out alothods for selection, the study activity and the pr&O-icn1 ::oltfALo4i oJ vurleties tor the sone with non-black soil. selection 108 COLSidered as al non requIred au"!%letrU; there r ? tlearte.:1, it,r it, und the seleotion station carried out i4 rnrie' only durir7 ulth bane students and agronomists. A short cov..rsc selection vals ,ivrn urini; 15-IL hours. Tn Inn% %. 7.c,7,art-o of :oeleot,ion and tal' one bias of Agricultural with a recl'rod co,,wnt: ihit:Lated. As its first head was. appointed Prof. S.I. negalov who vas also entrusted with the headinc of the selection station a the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiri.azev ? Acadezv. ? 40-q Tronel. 194. j. . L.164/..1ov a. series of woe,: oz. selection of rye, wheat, ,Lrasr, the ,r,' tics of oats and otl-Agrs. !-..e lay the foundation for the Holtion of tp.rdou pluLts ata.;.1 ;turtiri, with 1920 he heed the department of f; DOC. r0Lic111 leve1opi4t: thc nark at tie selection orchard- s. I:2. selectionery work ? vitt, .rarden 71ants at the fnrr, h';',rillovo", which Ins beet. reorcanised into ti-lec.! ion ;ej1v t jttd ts. Cade ":he irtroduction to the &election of t.Lrirult,:ria 1:ants", bilic4tecs-te the aasic manual for colleges erv3. "ivt,rsitlos, u.r alsc. r.:+r evek:ione Tito ?rorked in the tion.aiu of selection and :ttirt depo.r4.-op.7t ".4.0:340 ? Lfte! the death of 3. I. Zhelov, the tette of the mt,, licaule a part of :`osccra ;1-:e1cction C'enter in 1932 and t.ti,sed 470 x:t1tjLs L CrpEtr44,:l: Li itiCL fie -reseurctnstituticti. After three tor:Lif. L. LL1 station renewed its activit,1 . rror: ty or Ll.c existence fa' this station, the selection worv, Le tLe se lee:ion depart:A-a t, cor.centrate a:Laic r the incie?enclent ds. ice; f ti t;Lttich. f1itiily, the selection divn has been corfirmed , t.!!s d!..vlsion tas heatZeri b;?,7 the assistant head of t;ie depart- mtn 7. bt the :7reeert tine, the; selection work on field plants rr nt L t:lc 1,erartr:ent c So. 1 ectior arcl 5.7eee Iroduction a clonc tstItanz.r-e-cf t:-,e anlectian diion of t'qe field station. The course on -,tnetict,has Lco:l net off as a serste dertirtrient. Po,,,'114:erf f.hc z,":.on have vox-IA.1C out a seriea- of questions which ikarc, Ix, ft :1=r7onsco of ?ruLt..cir., L?4 dropa?al..inl; new varieties of field props. snt reentkon "The Cytological Analysis of Meat and Vetch (75 04 sative.)". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev i 9' Transl. 196. b Nikolasv and Sveshnikov, "The Theory of Eybridication of strange varieties", by Zhegalov, Earpechenko, Sweshnikov, "The Study of natation Changes", by Megalov, Ivanov, "The Llethod of Selection of (Vain and Vegetables", by Pus- sinskii, Zbegalov, Timofeev, eta., "The rethods of flax selection", by ratveev, "The Physiological and rioohemical Causes for the Frost /=unity of Mater Meat", by novorov, "Problem of the biology of clover", by Lorkh., Lisitsyn, Selavri, Lieitsyna, Fedorchuk, Samsoncar, as the most important works published during the indice.ted?period. At the present time, at the department of Selection of held Crops of the Academy there is still carried out pedagogical and exploring work. For the pre- paration of speoialists in the domain of selection and seed nroduction there has been organised at the Academy a special division of selection and of seed produotion which is included into the field production department. At this ? division, the profile of the student-selectioner is determined by a series of courses, namely: C4snetics, General Selection, individual Selection, Production of Varieties, Seed Production and, finally, Agricultural Ecology. The practical work is carried out by the students during the surrer between 3 and 4 courses. A six month pre.otice is carried out between 4 and 5 courses. The productive practice le carried out upon 13 best selection stations of MM. Starting with 1929, the Department had prepared 300. specialists who work at the seed production wyetem upon selection stations and in Institutes. The course measures occupy an important place in the preparation of cadres. Fifteen thousand approbators and about six hundred agronomists-seed producers were prepared only for the last five years. rot less than one thousand persons went through the qualification courses. The experiment of the Department's work is utilized widely in other colleges and universities of our country. During recent years the methodical approach of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev -kr .,-t!) Transl. 196. teaching and. the pedagogical process itself are olosely misted with the scientific-research and production work which are carried out by the?Department's ?workers. Students who yearly carry out work on 10-13 topics are of great assistanos to the ,Department. During the lett three Pive-Year?Plans.individual instructors obtained valuable results in research work which were. widely applied lathe NatiOnal 1 Toon*ny of the Soviet TInion. The Academic P. I. Lisitsyn is the firet organizer of the Soviet Socialist Seed Production for which contribution he was given the title of the honorary worker of Science and Technique. ? The manual written by him became the foundation, for guiding_ courses on s ed production in all agricultural educational in ? 110- stitutions of USSR. ? He also 'worked out the pethods in selection of clover. The ? works of Lisitsyn an Biology of clover, on the study of the basic material (wild .? clover) enjoys world fee. The clover variety which has been Produced by Lisitsyn goes through state testing. The varieties Of riddle Eussian Clover, rye (Lisitsyn) and oats ShatilOvek 56 produced by Lisitsyn occupy on the fields of the collective farms three millions sim hundred thousand heaters. P..I..Lisitsyn Carries out at the present time a groat part ofr-his re- search wOrk at Alemandrovsk Selection station (Ivanovek Oblast') where he works Out the following problemsi ? 1. Nitrogen dynamics in the root system of clover. The results of this wrilt were used by Lisitsyn as the material for a report in which he discussed the necessity of surveying the 'existing measures in utilising the clover turf (sod). ? 2. The change in the ? nitrogen. content in the clover, part whioh is above the . ground'. According to obtained data, the food. value of clover might be deter., mined not by the,percentage of the leaves, as it is practiced t the present time, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 43" ) ?renal. 19ft, but by a direct chemical analysis. The correlation between the percentage of leaves and of raw protein does not exceed 0.3. This fact changes 'the all- accepted method of clover selection upon one .of the most important economio aiGns. 3. The effect and the duration of heterosis with rye with free and com- pulsory crossing of standard varieties of rye on non-black soil in pairs, in threes and fours. 4. The process of segmentation of hybrids of standard rye with local samples of rye of the Far rorth. 8. The production of non-lodging Lisitsyn's rye. 6. The Agrotechnios in the seed production of winter vatoh,(Vicia Sativa). At the Aleksandrovsk station P. I. Lisitsyn carries out the propagation for the production experireants of varieties of wild clover which are most teresting in regard to frost resistance, lengevity and ability to resist the spring floods. Candidate V. E. Rhokhlov worked out the methods of selecting flax. carried ? out an extensive organizational work on the system of variety control, began the organization of seed production of Coiathern and riddle Neaten hemp. The varieties which he produced, flax-"dolgunets" 1)83 (growing upon 120 thousand heotars)., seed flax E48 and E39 (occupy a field of 300 thousand hooters), buck- wheat "Bogatyr" (occupy 93 thousand heaters), are widely circulating in pro.. duotion. Rye, rosoow "Viatka" is also introduced in produotion. Two sorts, of higher winter wheat which are awnless and of 16-20 percent/yielding capacity than the standard variety 2411, and one variety of buckwheat are at the stage of pre- liminary propagation. Candidate A. P. Gorin worked out a series of problems in the biology of spring wheat under the conditions of non-blacik soil belt. Two perspective varieties of spring wheat .are contemplated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev Transl. 19C 411 Candidate Walygin handed over four varieties of oats to the state for variety testing. Candidate Kharohenko worked out methods of selecting hopswhich have been accepted at a series of stations. Two prospective varieties of vetch which are now under final. testing were produced. The academic Lisitsynts clover group Works in the department. This group carries out its research with agreement means (The Institute of Forage and the Lenin Academy of Agrioultural Soience). The ?hied' scientific worker of this group, V. F. Fedorchuk, carried out a tremendpus work on the ombriology of clover which enables us to determine the causes of instability of yield in seeds of this plant and the beginning of the selection of clover upon the, seed yield by means of selectionof.plants with a high percentage of bigrain legumes. . In this group Veprikov (PJ.) carried out work in respect to the yield of seeds of red clover, depending upon its production and conditions of spraying. These works were published in 1936. The chief scientific assistant V. I. Lisitsyn worked out the method of artificial infestation of clover by canker and the selection of clover for the immunity to canker. At the present time she is studying fUsarium. The chief scientific assistant, S. K. Selavri, is studying the causes for the destruction of clover from unfavorable winter conditions. The Obtained results indicate that, although agrotechnical matures do increase the frost resistant)e of clover, yet they are unable to guarantee the preservation of clover savings under unfavorable winter conditions. It has been determined at the same time that some varieties of wild clover winter without any losses during the severest winters. Finally, the scientific worker, G. Z. Nankin, produced among the represen- tatives of wild clover same Varieties which are resistant against spring floods,. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazsv a?3 ?maul. 14i.'0 i.e., which are suitable for meadows, submerged under water. Before 1915 the scientific works of the selection station used to be pub- lished in "The Works of Selection Stations" which were edited annually. Sewn issues appeared altogether. Between 1915 and 1929 works used to be published in "The Vows of roscow Agricultural Institute", then in "The rem of Timitazev Agricultural Academy". After 1929, eighteen scientific works of the Department's personnel were published in the magazine "Selection and Seed Preuotione. Besides, the following books were published: One book (on ?lover), two textbooks on selection and seed production for colleges and universities, one text-book on selection for technicums, one textbook on variety studies and , one manual for the practical work of students. ? Under the editorship of P. I. Liaitsyn the Agricultural State Publishers published a guide for agronomists-seed producers and for brigadiers-seed pro- ducers and a handbook on individual selection. ? Al? September 7, 1951. End of Chapter. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04;02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 K. A. Timiriazeva (The Tiniriazev Agrimiltural )91'skokhoziaistvennaia Akadaniia ineni Tranal. 196, Cont. .1., Academy). reeky*, 1946, 390 p. 106 r852Be . 51 Translated in part by Rosa C. Dembo The Department of Agricultural Chemistry (p. 174-183) ? The independent Department of Agricultural Chemistry at the Timiriazev Agricultural Aoademy exists somewhat over ten years. Nevertheless, the instruc- tion of Agronamioal ChatIstry as well as.tiLe.dtvelopment of research in the field of agricultural chemistry, has a longer history and began from the very first years of the Academy's existence. At the Petrovak Academy between 1865 and 1690 in the Department of Organic and Aeronomical Chemistry was offered a course of Agricultural Chemistry which was given by Professors of Chemiatry, first P. A. Il'enkev, and then G. G. Gustayson. Prof. P. A. Illenkov was then first translator of the famous book - "Chemistry in its application to Agriculture and Physiology", by Liehig. into Russian, and G. G. Guatavson ras the author of "Twenty Lectures on Agro- nomical Chemistry." In his course, G. G. Gustaveon discussed the problems of the circular rotion of substances in agriculture, soil chemistry and.ferti- lizing chemistry; he organized well the practical work along the agricultural analysis. Nevertheless, this Department, not being agronomical, did not carry out any experiments with fertilizers (these experi.lents were not included into the program of experiments at the Department o General Agriculture). The course of Agronomical Chemistry offered by G. C. Gustayson until 1890 'has been eliminated from the teaching schedule, when instead of Petrovsk Academy, the Yoscas Agricultural Institute has been organized. The reason for eliminating Agrigultural Chemistry from the schedule was, that parts of 111 Phyeicao6y, offered by K. A. Timiriazev. Agricul- ture. same reason was given for the elimination of a course of Plant this course were included into silica courses (Botany, Soil Science Agricul- -I) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tiririasev 25 ? ?renal. 196: Institutions The absurdity of elirinat:ng Agronomical Chemistry from the curriculum . of Figher Agricultural Institutian is now obvious. But it was not easy to prove it at that time. K. A. Timirialev, who has been removed from his office at the Academy, with his usual determination ailvecated the instruction of Plant Physiology and of Agricultural Chemistry. In his article 'Plant Physiology, as the B!ksis for Eatianal'Agriculture",. he *rote: "How could be explained the scientific. progress during this last century ? which was reflected upon agriculture, which transformed its entire oharac- teristica, which transformed it from incoherent collection of recopies and from a blind imitation of successful examples Into a coherent, intelligent activity? Of course, by the emergence of two new branohes: Agronomical Chem- istry and Plant Physiology," And further: 'Agriculture became what it is only due to Agronomical Chemistry and Plant Physiology: this is obvious a priori and is proved br the entire history. And is it not strange, that in our country, from the tire when us started to speak about the pro in scientific agri- culture, these two scientific, foundations disappeared as independent subjects from our higher Agricultural Institutions? The future Vistorian of the devel- opment of scientifio agriculture in our country will, certainly, have diffi- culty in explaining this anomaly." This "anomaly" continued, nevertheless, to exist and for rore than thirty years the course of Agricultural Chemistry was not included in the Academy's curriculum and there was no independent department. Ilevertheless, despite the elimination of Agricultural Chemistry from the curriculum, the instruction of the aame and the research work in this branch of science Imre highly considered at the Academy. It is possible to say without any exaggeration that during the last half a centany the Academy Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 26 Transl. 196s Institutions ? was the basic place of the preparation of highly qualified scientific agricul- ? tural chemical padres and was the center of the development of agricultural chemical scienoe in our country. The aeademio D. V. Prianishnikov who could be considered the founder of Soviet Lgiroultural Chen!stry played the nost important role in organizing this course. A student of K. A. Timiriazev, P. A. Prianishnikov, from the very firet steps of his ev!tivity at the Academy, carried out a persistent, urgent struggle for the rights of Agricultural Chemistry in the curriculum of Agricultural Institutions and also organized the instruotorship and wide agricultural chem- ical scientific-rermarch work. In the matter of further development of indi- vidual branches in a3ricultura1 chemical preparation at the Academy, its supervisor, IA. Deratianov, played an important role. D. B. Prianishnikov who headed the Department of Individual Agriculture started from 1895 the course "Study on Fertilization." In order to obtain the right for offering that course (in the Department of Individual Agriculture), there was some kind of an exchange by the parts of the course with the Depart- ment of General i&griculture, and namely, V.'S. Tilliams took upon himself the instruction of readow Production, and D. N. Prianishnikov - the Instruct!on on Fftilization. Since Ve study on fertilization was based, according to D. K. Prianish- nikov, upon plant physiology and Boil chemistry (chapters on absorptive powers, etc.), hence the course was given into the direction of agricultural chemistry (and noOnly in the direction of fertilization). In the same year, in the De- partment of Individual Agriculture was organized the laboratory research in which exploration has been carried out an the correlation between the soil and fertilization and on chemistry of plants (the transformation of substances during the growth). SirultaneouSly, D. N. Prianishnikov succeeded in obtaining Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 27 Transl. 196: Institutions a nursery (vegetation house) from the Department of Botany. This nursery which has been organized by Tiniriazev seemed to be useless for the Department of Botany after Tiniriazev's resignation. Later on, TiTiriazev donated another nursery which he built for the Nizhegorod exhibit. Timiriazev often expressed his admiration for the experiments which were carried out in these nurseries by Prianishnikov and by his students. Thus, starting with 1895, definite divisions of agricultural chemistry were included in the. Department of Agronomy. were was also organized the basis for research work on plant chemistry, soil chemistry and fertilization. Prianishnikov attracted i great number of students to this work 'which was of great significance in the life of the department. The students' work on vegetative experiments became the new link in instructing Agricultural Chem- istry. It is necessary to observe that before the foundation of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, the students had practical work in.agrioultural analysis in the Department of Organioal Chemistry. Under the supervision of Demtianov the instruction of this subject was well organized. Thus for a aeries of years the instruction of agricultural chemistry at the Academy has been gradually realized, due to the initiative of Prianishnikov and Dem'ianov, at the time, when even the word "Agronomical Chemistry' was not recognized as an official terminology. Prianishnikov, boOing the assistant director of instruotion, introduced in 1908 into the curricula of Agricultural institutions of higher learning diploma dissertations; this requirement forced the students for experimental scientific work; simultaneously, there were carried out measures in eliminating many courses by introducing sections; the first sections were ugricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 28 Transl. 1961 Institutions chemistry and soil study. The num';er of dissertations in agricultural chem- istry was quite high during that period and they became another link in the preparatlon of agricultural chemists. Finally, 1910, PrianIshnikov started a course on the chemistry of plants, at the beginning voluntary (at the request of studentev circle), and then the course has been added to the cdrriculum. Tremendous efficiency and tireless energy were conducive for Prianish- ni14-ov, for over thirty years, in combining the Instruction of Indivioual Agri-. cultene with the course "Study on FertilivItion" at the Academy, as veil as the lectures on the course of Agronomical Chemistry at the University (and one tine - at the Bigher Institute for Women), and at the same time to develop research work in agricultural "chemistry. The basic significance in instructing Agricultural Chemistry and in prep- aration of agricultural cadres Wad the orfenizing of the section of Agricul.- tural Chemistry and Soil Study at the Agronomical College which later became & division, and then it became the College of Agricultural Chemistry and of Soil Study. It is quite interesting to observe that the section was organized earlier (1908), which fact made it possible to organize a separate Department of Agricultural Chemistry (1928). Only under the Soviet Regime, when numerous new institutions of hiL:htr learning sprang up, some of these institutions introduced separate Departments of Agricultural Chemistry (Krasnodar, later Form'), although without being approved by the statute. The rain CommIttee on professional education inc14d In 1920 agricultural chemistry into the curriculum of agronomical schools, yet that curriculum has not been realized. But, according to the development of chemical industry, with the realization of great prospects in the wide chemise.. tion of aWonal agriculture of rssR the agricultural institutions oItigher Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 29 Transl. 196: Institutions learning accepted in 1928, as a rule the existence of the Department of Agri- cultural Chemistry. An Independent Department of Agricultural Chemistry has been organized at the Academy in 1927, in connection with the impossiblity_ of uniting in one person the supervision of the courses of Individual Agri- culturesind Agricultural Chemistry after the departments were enlarged. Stetting with 1930, in connection with the increase of specializetiol. , besides the general course in Agricultural Chemistry, the department organized the following divisions: the methods of agritultural-;hemical research, physio. logical bases for applying fertilization, fertilization systems in the farms of various specialization. At that tire was worked out a wide prozram agricultural chemistry which was offered in other institutions of higher learn- ing which have special Colleges of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Study. In 1911-1932 the Department acquired the means for increasing the volume of laboratory-practical studies in agricultural chemistry and receives equipments for new laboratory premises. In 1940 the Department served four colleges ( Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Conservation, Field Production, Fruit-Vegetable Produotion and Economics), the Division of Absentee Instruction, Division of Agricultural Education, and carried out tremendous wort in preparing: and improving the qualification of -workers of Socialist Agriculture. At the Department mere offered in 1940 the following courses : 1) neneral Course og Agricultural Chemistry (Academic Prianishnikov) 2) Yethods in Agri- cultural Chemical research (Prof. R. A. Golubev), 3) biochemical bases in applying fertilizers (Cand. A. G. Ghestakov) and 4) systems in fertilization (Cand. V. Kleohkovskii). ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 30 ?renal. 1961 Institutions resides, separate courses in lectures on Agronomy were held at the Col- leges of Field Production and Fruit-Vegetable Production (Card. O. F. !Wray- Zikhman) at the College of Economics. The workers at the College of Agricultural Chemistry wrote a series of textbooks and manuals which are used by students of Agricultural Chemistry"- - not only at the Academy, but at other education institutions as well. The scientific-research work of the Depart7.1ent of Agricultural Chemistry has a great.history starting with the first years of Prianishnikov's work at the Arndemy. Scientific works of Prianiahnikov and his laboratory made him world famous and placed Soviet Agricultural Chemistry at one of the first places in world i3cience. Starting with 1896, Prianishnikov's Department became si-lultaneouely the Agricultrual chemical experimental station. During the first period (1896-1908) the scientific work has been organized only by the means and strength of the Department, without any additional personnel, bul)y drawing a considerable number of students of senior standing to this work. The organ- ization of research work of the Department which has been realized at the be- ginning by Prianiahnikov in institutions oPhigher learning consisted in drawing all students of senior standing (then about SO students) to vegetative exper- iments, but not in the form of a simple acquaintance with the methods, but ty means of permitting every student of carrying out his own experinent, even if small, in such a manner that it would become a certain link in the entire outline of the Department's work for the current year. But, since it is impossible to draw definite conclusions from experiments taken separately, each experiment wns carried out parallel with other students. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Timiriatev 31 Trend. 196: Institutions At the outset it had been assumed that, if only 50 percent of the experiments corresponded in accuracy, then it was possible to achieve good results, due to a great number of experiments. But reality excelled these expectations, and the 'first period of the existence of the Department-Station was to rich with results, that, so far as vegetative experiments is concerned, it is hard to require anymore. As a result of such research, it mars posdible durinc the first years to bring Olarity into the phosphor(' problem *high had been so complicated before, due to the disintegration in the. study of the role, of the toil and that of the plant and of the phosphorite qualities. Further, it has been given atten- tion to fertilizers, 'whereby new data were obtained not only for ammonium sulfate, but for ammonium nitrate as well, which data chanced entirely the conceptions on the physiolojoal characteristic of this compound. During this very period the first experiments were carried out with the mixture of various doses of line upon various ground which disclosed the re-o eity of a thorough approach to the problcm of controlling soil acidity. To that perIed also belong the experiments with Iron phosphate and line soil, experiments with potassium minerals which manifested aealmilability of potassium in nepheline, and also the first e-periments with nutrition mixtures, which caused the origin of t new variation ("Pfianishnikov's nixture"), etc. On a series of problene which we are unable to discuss here, we obtained new results which are not only of locol sicrificanoe, but significant as well, in connection with Prian- iehnikov's famous laboratories. The second period of the Department's existence Which began in 1E08 is characterized by the fact that the repartment Wan to obtain means for the organization of research work and for the invitation of a special personnel, ? neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 52 !renal. 196: Institutions so that an experimental station sprang up within the Department, although without a special statute and definite personnel. If the first work of the Department Pertained pr!Imrily to the study of such sources of fertilization which are accessible to Agriculture without the assistance of chemical industry (phosp:orites, lie, ashes, potassium minerals, components of dung, etc.), then, during the second-period an important role lee played by the products of chemical reproduction of phosphates (superphos- phate simple and double, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate), whose methods, in applying to our raw materials, underwent a thorough study for the first time. Here was proven for the first time the erroneous opinion about the inef- fectiveneas of all our phosphorates for its reproduction into simple super- phosphate; further, were discovered reasures for extraction of phosphors acids, the conditions for precipitating conditions for infusion prepared of various phosphate raw material etc. ewe examined. The first works of the Technological Division of the Scientific Institute on fertilization on the production Of phosphorates were based upon these data. The scope of problems worked out by the Department was very wide. Thus, besides phosphates, the sources for nitrogen were studies (the nutrition by ammonium compounds, cyanogen; a series of work map dedicated to the problem of utilizing turf nitrogen), further - was studied the problem of nutrition with iron, of the significance of calcium for plants, of root secretions, of the intreluction of anions and cations, of nutritional mixtures in Lenora', the methods of sterile plants were studied in applying them to higher plants etc. Besides the work on plant nutrition and fertilizers' study, a series of work has been carried out on soil chemistry. Thus, the measures in determining Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ' Timiriazev Treuasl. 106: Institutions absorbed Substances (potassium, ammonium and calciuzn) by means of elimineing neutral compounds were studied. reasures were arplied based u-on research carried out and developed by K. K. Gedroits and by other explorers. Factually, the erection of an experimental station was not followed at the beginning by a formal action or by the supplement to the statute of the Agricultural Academy, partly because the organization of agricultural chemical work at that Department of Individual Agriculture was not easily organized; therefore, aiming towards some kind of solidafity with the problems of the repartment -the' name was given:. "Station on problems of plant nutrition." The agricUltural chemical station has been formally legalized and obtained status later, namely, in 1920. At this time, a new perlod began in the life of agricultural chemical - experimental station (tiring wh!.ch time the work has been expanded and many important scientific works were published. For awhile the station at the Department became factually the chief center of work on the problem of ferti- lization (until the Scientific Institute on fertilization, whose agricultural chemical division was organized in 1919 based upon the repartment and its stations and which was entirely based upon its cadres, acquired its own buil- ding, and nurseries were erected Opon the "Tolgoprudnyi" experilental field). Means for the development of its work during this period were acquired by the station as subsidies from.a series of rani organizations and of research institutes of the Iiiher Soviet of rational Economy. The most important problems on plant nutrition and soil chemistry were at the centre of attention of the station's work'. The se problems were connected with the branches of chemical production which should serve agriculture. Thus in connection with the development of production of synthetic aornonia, an Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 34 !renal. 196: Institutions ? extensive work has been carried out on the problem of utilizing ammonium ni- trate for plants (the works of D. N. Prianishnikov and V. S. Ivanote, I. G. Nikusar', etc.). In connection with the disaovery of Solikamak deposits, new data were obtained for the physiological cherecteristic of potassium compounds (works of Prianishnikov, V. V. Butkevich and others). In connection with the problems of liming, the forms of soil acidity were studied (the works of Druz- hinin, Golubev, Aakinazi. Iarusov and others), and also causes of uneven rela- tion between plants to the same degrees of acuity upon various soils (works of B. A. Golubev, and others). Newmdthods were introduced in the study of nutrition mixtures for plants (especially for technical). These measures ensured more the immunity of the solution reaction (works-by Y. K. Domontovich, T. T. Demidenko and others). Further, they paid their attection to the role 111 of microelements etc. Thus, in the foreground always stood the basic 'problem of summing up physiological and chemical bases by the fertilization method. The chief results of the Department's scientific work are reflected in sixteen volumes of reports and in numerous articles of D. N. Prianishnikov and of his assistants in a series of magazines, here and abroad. But besides the immediate working out of a series of scientific problems, the station was the school of research, influencing favorably the Department's activity. Thud, if about 30 students close to Prianishnikov new are heading departments of Agricultural Chemistry, Plant Physiology. and Agriculture at Agricultural Institutions of Higher Learning of USSR, then their education of course, ve promoted by research work Which developed widely in the Depart- ment due to the establishment of the stations. At the station the following professors began their scientific R. R. Shreder, V. V. Inner, N. K. Nedakuchaev, V. S. Butkevich, E. K. Valiushitskii, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 55 Transl. 196: Institutions A. C. Doiarento, I. S. Shulov, A. V. Iabediantsev, I. V. Iakushkin, A. A. Val- uzhskii, A.E. Sokolovskii, 0. 0. Petrov, V. P. Bochetkov, A. D. Eurinov, V. I. Sazanov, F. T. Periturin, F. V. Chirikov, B. A. Zhemchuzhnikov E. V. Bobke, A. I. Smirnov, A. A. Stollgane, 4. F. Tiulin, D. V. Druzhinin, A.Z. Lambin eta. Besides of institutinas of.higher learning here originated cadres for research institutions which were initiated later. Thus, with.the erection' of the Scientific Institute on fertilization, its agronomical divisionoffered and the instructorship to those who studied at the departmentAk at the station.. Menthe Central Institute for Sugar Production cr;(4,inated, that for the for-! ' nation of its agricultural chemical -division ten professors were expted among , the workers of the station and among the candidates of the department. Besides YascOw,,a series Of institutions in other cities- have personnel which etudied 411 at the same Institute. And, finally, when the All-Union Institute few Ferti- lization, Agricultural Technics, and Soil Study has been established in 1931, the agricultural chemical station was included in its entirety in the insti- tute, as the starting cell for its erection. Among the Department's and Station's workers who worked here during var- ious periods, and now are oarrying out the leading scientific Work in other scientific research institutions, we may mention the following: E. V. Pobko (Doctor of Agricultural Science, supervisor of the laboratory on miorob fer- tilization and assiatant of the Head of the laboratory of mineral fertilizers of the All-nnion Institute of Fertilization); A. F. Tiulin (Doctor of Agri- cultural Sclence, Head of the laboratory of soil colloids of the same insti- tute), S. S. Iarusov (Doctor of Agricultural, Science, Assistant Bead of the lime laboratory of the sane institute), Doctor of Agricultural Science, Prof. F. V. Chirikov, Prof. I. C. Dikusar, Prof. T. T. Demidenko (Bead of the Labor- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ' Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriasev 36 Transl. 196: institutions atory of Physiology of the All-rnion Institute of Oil Plants in Krasnodar'), D. L. Askinazi, Z. A. Logvinova, V. V. Butkevich, Z. I. Zhurbitskii (Nead of the Agricultural Chemical Division of the All-rnion Institute of vegetable production). In 1931, the All-Union institute on rertilization, Agricultural Technic and Agricultural Soil Production acquired not only the personnel, equipment, and the building of the agricultural chemical experimental station of the Academy, but the entire staff of candidates. It is clear that this could not be reflected on the scope of the scientific work of the department. Neverthe- less, soon afterwards the scientific research work of the department restored and gradually reached its large scope. Starting with 1933 candidates were admitted to the department. At the present time the number of candidates at tin department reached ten; the entire instructional personnel of the department participates in scientific research work. During recent years at the department was intensively studied plant nu- trition, according to the growth periods, in conneotLon with biological chemical processes in the influence of fertilization upon the quality of the crops. The results of the murk which have been carried out at the department in this direction (I. G. Dikusar, I. V. Culiakin, A. 5. Kalinkevich, A. V. Viadisirov, I. I. r:unax.And others) became the foundation for a series of recommendations accepted at the present tine in applying fertilizers (basic, regular, and feeding) for individual plants (sugar beets, kok-aagyz, etc.). Important results mere obtained in the study of nem fertilizers, which mere not aprlied at first: termophoaphate, blast-furnace slag, glaserite and others, (work of A. -9. aestakov, 1. ). Koechkovokii, and A. V. Vladi- morov), the significance of sodium in the composition of fertilization for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sb Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Iiniriazev 67 Transl. 196: Institutions a series of plants - sugar and fodding beet and others - has been explained (work Of D. 7. Druzhinin, A. G. Shostakov). In the domain of studying ttte problems of chemical amelioration of soil, the (significance of mobile aluminum in the soil, vitae ie one of the basic conditions for the decrease infrops of individual plants upon acidic soil, has been proved (work by B. A. Golubev): the apolication of lire fertilizers and of line tuffs which contain magnium has been widely examined (O. F. Nedrov6. Zikhman and O. E. Kedrova-Zikhmen); a series of new facts concerning the con- dition() of effective application of fertilisation by boron and copper (work .of O. F. and O. t. Redrov-Zikhman, A. O. Shestakov, D. BOhulin). New nethods of utilizing pent and peat soil in the raions of peat 'production are introduced into production, for instance, the application of peat-slag and other fertIliters (work of r. T. Bakhulin). Of espeoially great iignificanve is the scientific-social actiVity of - the head of the departnent, academic-prize Winner, I. -N. Prianishnikov. Along with A. V. Ban, Prianishnikov as one of the initiators of the . -establishment of a committee on chemization of national economy of 'USSR and partioiliated intensively in its work. With the assietance of the Committee on ()atomization, in agricultural institutions of higher,learaing of USSR, startiLb 1928 mere established independent departments Of agricultural chemistry. In his work D. n. Prianishnikov devotes considerable attention to state planning for production and for the application of fertilizers. In 1921 he delivers a report at the State Plan Commission on the topic: "The - 'immediate problens in the field of production of mineral fertilizers" in which he emphasized the need of agriculture of USSR in phosphates. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Timiriazev 38 ?renal 198: In s ti tutions Prom 1922 until 1929, as a member of the State Planning Commission, D. N. Prianishnikov participated aotively in determining the prospects in production and in the fpplication of fertilizers in rssR. Without limiting himself to the work in State Planning Commission, he delivers a series of reports and publishes a series of articles which attracted the attention of all the workers of industry, agrticulture and the entire Soviet social interest to the problems of fertilizer production and its sig- nificance in the increase of crepe. In some works Prianishnikov advocates the rilitary strength of the Soviet Union, indicatin; a close relationship between the needs for tefenee and the problems of chemization of agriculture. The most active part is played by Prianithnikov in the working out of Five-Year plans in the development of the national economy of USSR. le pro- moted the idea of planning all fertilization reeourcea of the country, encourages the unification of the measures in the agate= 6f agriculture and of chemical industry aiming to ensure the necescary growth of crops. Pointing out constantly the necessity of the iligheot development of chem- ical industry and of maximal inorease of production of Wneral fertilizers, Prianishnikov sinultaneously points out to ths workers of socialist agriculture, the problem of adding nitrocen at the coat of increasing the, tiowing of clover, alfalfa rtl other legumes, at the cast of a better conservatiln of dung, at the cost of better utilization of peat and of other %Inds of local fertili- zers. Already in 1925, in his speech "Pal,tus and Russia", Prianiehnikov, op- posing lial,tus theory, proved that in our country there are great potential possibilities for the increase of crops indicatine, as prJmary measures, the shift to crop rotations with clover and plowing plants and the application Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 . Tiniriazev 39 Trans'. 198: Institutions of fertilizers. He insisted upon the fact, tat at the time, when the pop- ulation in our oquntry will double up, the agricultural production could be doubled 6-7 times, and with the extent of plowing land, even 12-14 i1mes4 The Stakhanovites of socialist agriculture indicated in reality the limitless possibilities in the increase of crops. The great attention of Stakhanovites in the application of fertilizers is the best proof bow great is the significanre of fertilizers in the increase of crops. Prianishnikov's work in the field of plant nutrition had not otly an applied, agronomical significance, but solved basic problems in general physiological sense as well. In 1929 Prianishnikov was elected active member of The Academy of Sol- ences of USSR. From 1935 he is active member of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Lgricultural Chemistry-and Chemization of Lgriculture of the Academy of Agricultural Science which was established with his initiative. We must also mention Prianishnil:ov/e wide activity in representing Sov- iet Agronomical Science at various scientific conventions and congresses abroad and at international scientific organizations. His scientific reports and public addressee at international conventions have been always a striking illustration of tie prmess of agronomical science in our country. In 193G, at the International Congress of soil surveyors, Prianishnikov has been elected President of the Fourth Commission (soil fecundity) of the International Association of Soil Surveyors. As the greatest scientist with a world name, Prianishnikov has been elected honorary member of a series of scientific organizations abroad. Prianishnikov's contribution to socilist motherland has been often men- tioned by Soviet social organizations and their leading organs: in 1926 he Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: LAwA,Anzov 40 ? ? received the Lenin reward for his scientific the chemization of national economy of USSR. In 1936 Prianishnikov has been rewarded CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tranel. 196: Institutions work, and in 1932 - the reward on by the Order of the Labor Red Eanner and in 1940, in connection with the seventy-fifth anniversary of Tim- iriazev Agricultural Academy - with the Order of Lenin. Academic Prianish, nikov received for his scientific work "Agricultural chem stry" which is a textbook for agricultural institutions of higher learning the Stalin prize of First degree. . The basic problem of the Department's personnel and of its Head is the preparation of highly qualified cadres in carrying ow-the tasks of Socialist Agriculture which, in the decisions of XVIII Congress of All-rnion Communist Party (b), were reflected in the following point: "To introduce in collective and state farms a correct system of. organic and mineral fertilizers paying special attention to the rational utilization of dung and of other local fer- tilizers, to eliminate losses of mineral fertilizers. To introduce widely the liming of podsol soil and the gypsing ofsaliferoue soil." The scientific basis of measures on the re4lization of this task and the preparation of cadres for the carrying out of these measures represent the basic problem of the Department's personnel, as well as of all Soviet agri- cultural chemicists. Xnd of Article L.A. B. 9-11-S1 neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 -A1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 11110 -Sal sicokho alai st ennaia Akademia lung Trend. 196: Institut ions X. A. Timiriaseva clhe Timirlasea Agri- cultural Academy,. 390 p. Moskva, Sel' khozgis, 1946 106 Kasas? Translated by R. G. Dembo Academic Williams' Seed-Control Station (11252-254) Seed-control production originated in 'Russia even earlier than rr. Robbe first station was founded (in 1889).? In -1864 at the Riga Politschnic Institute the work on seed anrlysis was ?lionized for the first time. Officially the firat station vas founded in Russia in 1877 at the Chief Botanical Oardern. Starting with 1881 A. A. Fatter organized the seed control in the Department of Agri- culture of the Peter ,Acadessy. Later, the entire supervision on seed analyses was entrusted to V. R. Villiaas who then was the assistant of Prof. A. A. Padeev. Cu 111, June 11, 1896, V. R. Williams and S. IA. Demlianov apnlied to the Depart. ment of Agriculture for the foundation and organization of a station for ? the research of soil, seeds and fertilizers. The Department of Agriculture permitted to found a station *which had to carry out analyses of seeds, soil and fertilizers and of similar work, as experiments, according to private orders...II During this period of its activity, the station serves mainly the, Agronomical Divison of ti. Moscow (Marais District Council and some more remote Councils from where about 200-300 samples of seed material used to arrive. One part of the samples passed some control. During this period started the basic collection of weed seeds, which is at the present time at the seed-control station where 1982 seed varieties according to 109 .families are registered in the catalogue. This collection includes almost all species of weed seeds of the eitire Soviet Union and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - - teed-Control Station Transl. 196:Institutions ? partly obstructor-seeds which were imported with seed material from abroad. Later, from the station of soil, seed and fertilizer research, a need control station has been separated Which carried out the seed analyses up to 1932, acting simultaneously as an arbitr and as consultant. Tiro m 1916 until 1923 the control station participates in the pre- paration of personnel of agricultural workers at special institutioni. In /*raja Of 1931, in connection with the reorganization of the rcaderay, the seed-control station was transferred to the Departnent of? cameral Lgrieulture. and in August of the same year became a part of rOCCOW Oblast' Station which was reorganised into Moscow saectioa centre. The transfer of the seed-control station factually excluded frou the program of Agricultural Institutions of Elgher Learning an entire division "Seeds: which, undoubtedly, reflected negatively upon the pre?aration ofper- eonnel of specialists of Agriculture-agronomiste of higher qualification. Thus, from 1931 the Academy lost a station, and its students wear., unable not only to pass a normal course of seed .production and of seed control, but to become. acquainted Witha well-equipped station as well. On the other hand, the absence of such a station deprived the Academy of a scientific-. rescarch base for the course of plant production. In &member, 1934, the station was again transferred to the Leedom,' end became a part of the Department of Plant Production. From 1934 a special division *Seed Science and Seed Control*. Which youree is required from all students Who studied plant productlon, has Doan inaugurated. Besides, the course on seed-production has been offered at the majority, of courses in improving the qualification and the pre- . paratioa of the agronomy personnel Which are organized at the Acadany. In Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 4!Teedo.Contral Station Trait el. 195:In3titutiiens ? 1938, 1939 and 1940 the control station took direct part in All-Union courses of increasing qualifications of the directors? and inspectors' personnel of seed-control network of the 'anion. Thr this pur-.c se the station. vox/red out a Series of equipment and of manuals. V. 7:bbrokhotov wrote a handbook on seed production. Trom 1934 the station been research work. The basic problem of the station's /*Search sums up to the 14?orking out of cotplex mechanical and biological neasures which influence the improvement of seed char4cteristios aiming to -increase crop yield. TO ihe basic works which have been acoovolished at the statior, from 1VZ4 'which have been published entutillred In production we it alr', the following: 1)the study of 'morphological and physical characteritles of standard varieties of cereals in connection wi h various relons of origin; 2)tho study of ueed qualities of olovelo vc.rious raions of origin; Z)qualitative evaluation of po?vi',.rs for magnetic of f.c?? r nt and foreign production; 4)testing of cotton seede(working out methods of seed :=nalysis of cotton); 5)testing the maturity of raw-cotton and of eottoi- scads; 6)the working out of the method of delinting cotton ete17., with hydrogen chloride and the itudy of the influence of delintir?:. seed qualities of cotton seeds; ?)the testing of the giet1304 Of .06c1 sprouting with din robensole (A. A. Gurevich' method) on grains and the working out of s. ,ethod for determining cotton seed sprouting; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 44 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 comirum.youbruL 7AWW11,1UU A. 61.4 ????? ? ????? ????? IA MI ? 8)the testing of seed cleaning at the Ehomutov se-elating plant; 9)agrotechnical evaluation, of seed cleaning machines; 10)testing of seed-cleening machines (work at the 'Departments of Plant Production, itechanizetion and Control need. station). ? 11)the study of the size of plant seeds in. connection with the working out of sieve standard. An ianortant place in the work of the station occupy the productive tnalyses of seed?material. The station serves the field strtion of the Lcallemy; a series of scientific-research organizations. The st.Al'on carried out the evaluation of seed material which arrived at the All-Union 'Agricultural Exhibit. The amount of, terieties which passed -through the station from 1935 _ .up to 1940 inclusive, reached 7781; 19755 analyses were cnrried out. _%irting towards rationalization and precision in seed research, the per- soanel of the station worked out a series of devices. , ADt-9-27-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Tumenov, Enikeev, S.G., and Lizandr; A.A. Primenenie rostovykh veshchestv dlia povyshen- ita urothainosti kuloturnykh rastenii (Utiliza- tion of growth'substancea in increasing the yields of cultivated plants). Sovet. Agron. 4(7)1 26-32. July 1946, 20 3o84 TransI,198: Growth Substances. Translated from the Russian by S. I. Orison'. been Sixty five years have already/Spent on the study of growth substaliceS. Of these, over fifty mere spent on purely theoretical research. The possibility of applying physiologically active substances in practice was established only atter 1934 following the discovery of the Dutch chemist togl thatindoleacetie acid represents one of the growth regulators (heteroruxin). This acid the chemists produced in their laboratories synthetically. Thus physiologists obtained'al)reparation which reacted upon plants. Sub- sequent studies of compounds resembling indolosacetio acid disclosed that many other chemicals were growth substances. Over one hundred of these OoMpounds are known at present. They are the derivatives of indole, naphthaline, napthole, phenoxy compounds, and benzoic , acid. It becams possible to oeleet from -among different growth substances those most aotive,..whioh penetrate rapidly into pIents, and are inexpensive and. easily applied. In practice the follawinggroWth Substances received the widest application: naphthyl acetate, indolebutyric, iodoleacetie napthoxy- acetic, dichiorophenoxyacetio, ohlorophenoxy *patio eoids and their derivatives., Physiologists and agronomists have Studied the application of growth sub- ? stances in plant industry for about ten years. The above preparations were used with success for various purposes: rooting grafts, obtaining seediest fruits, preventing fruit drop from apple trees, delaying growth of potato t e ? in storage, weed destruction, and for solving tany'other practical. problem', There were nevertheless failures. Direct application of'growth.eubstances to -? increase yields proved unsuccessful. Such attempts were repeatedly made. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tnmanov, I.T. 2 Transl. 198. Attempts were also made to increase yields of cultivated plants by treating seeds with growth substances. Already in 1936 Kholodnyi had recomrended treatment of seeds with hormones before planting. The potentialities for in- creasing yields in this manner were so tempting that similar tests were made by many people on different plants. At first, information based on thie work told of some increases in yields, but subsequent, more careful and broad studies showed that this path did not offer any prospects. Tie refer for confirmation to one of the last papers on this subject. Stewart and Hamner, (1942) had tallied field and vegetative engaged in on a particularly broad scale experimenta/by the US Bureau of Plant Industry, Seeds were treated with different growth substances in liquid form and also mixed with talcum. The most diverse plants were subjected to this treatment for better yields: radishes, oats, turnips, sugar beets, soya, squash, carrots, buckwheat, corn. Teats were conducted on many soils and under different climatic conditions. Their conclusions agreed with those of many other studieas treatment of seeds by growth substances did not influence growth and yields of cultivated plants to an appreciable extent. Irt the present time, this negative conclusion can be explained from a theoretical standpoint. According to data agreed upon by many writers, seeds themselves contain giteM112:x1MINWeleang a large amount of growth substances. Kholodny in 1935, applied moistened pieces of corn endosperm to one side of an oat coleoptile and obtained significant growth curvatures. If seeds are rich in growth sub- stances on their own, (Hatcher, 1945), adding more of the latter is super- fluous and at times even harmful. Among many other attempts to influence plants, we began (1943) to study the influence of growth substances upon yields of alfalfa seeds. The first tentative testa were made in 1943 at the Kirghiz Selection Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, 1.I. 3 Trans3.. 198. Station on widely spaced rows of field planting of 3-year alfalfa "Tpkmakskaia The plants were sprayed in the -evening with a solution of indolacetic acid on. one blooming, variant, and on another in the fruiting stage. Concentration of the solution was 0.0001 percent. Spraying was done-with a garden sprayer 1 liter Of solution to 1.m sq. meter). Because Of their poor solubility In water, growth substances were first dissolved in =OA quantities of ethyl alcohol and water was then added to the solution ug to the necessary volume. The estimate of yield of seeds from one linear meter, repeated three times, is presented in table 1. 'Yield of seeds for one shoot for one linear nete Period or epraArig g percent ?g per cent June 5 during bloom 0.41 153 49 189 June 18 during fruit- ing to'.28 87 29 100 Control 0.52 100 .29 ?100 At a later treatment at the beginning of fruiting) no increase it the - production Of seeds was observed. The report Concerning this variant in. dicated that it vas maintained under lees favorable conditions with regard to watering. The last result required therefore further checking.. Ti*, success of the tentative experiment prompted further work in this direction. /12-1944 a field experiment was again conducted at the Xhirgis Selection Station but on another wide-spaced planting area of 2-year alfalfa nTokmakskaian, on the second mowing. ,This pare higher concentration of in. doleacetic acid (0.005 percent) was used. Spraying was done with a solution of 70 on to 1 sq. meter. This was done twice, during budding, on June 19,, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 TUM/1104, I .1. 4 Trarrsl. 198. and during blooming, June 29. To prevent rapid evaporation of the solution, spraying was done in the evening. The action of growth substances was determined under different watering conditions; the number and periods of watering varied. Figures are presented in table 2. It may be seen that treatment of al- falfa with growth substances resulted in a substantial increase in yields of seeds. Table 2. Yield of Seeds Variants of Test For one shoot rt_ per cent NO watering 0.24 195 One watering (bloom) 0.33 as Two vaterings (budding and fruiting) 0.35 175 Three eaterings (budding blooming and fruiting) 0.39 Four waterings (growth, budding,blooming?fruiting) 0.50 Average For one linear meter per cent 20 200 32 110 35 233 179 32 1 159 1 138 51 159 0.36 1 140 34 1 162 Even during lack of water, treatment with growth tsubstances had affected increase in yield of seeds. In 1945 tests were laid in two places* At the town of Frunze, in field testa, and at Macaw in vegetative tests. At the Khirgiz Fruit and Vegetable Experiment Station, field tests were performed on a two-year wide-spaced row planting of alfalfa *Tokmakskaia". Success in work with growth substances de- pends in considerable measure upon the concentration of the solution. One of the tests studied therefore the influence of indoles.cetic acid in different concentrations. Plants were sprayed at the beginning of bloom on the first Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tcmanev, LI. ? 5 Transl. 195. 410 and second moving. Three concentrations were testedt 0.005 percent; 0.0005 per cent; 0.00005 percent. The data is presented in table 34 ? Table 3. No.of seed pods of ilfalfa of ? ? Variants of test Wei ht of seeds of first mowing second moving On shoot On 1 linear meter On 1 shoot On). linear meter , g percent g 1percent items percent Items percent . Control 0000005 percent 0.0005 percent 0.005 percent 0.38 0444 046 0035 100 116, gto . 91 :,26 29 28: '72 c -, 100 98 248 1 ' 88 , 54 53 66 66 ' 100 98 322 122 ',6666 i 5184 6777 7392 100 111 '130 14.2 ( I Remarks Because of injury ,caused to alfalfa by the beetle Phytonom s variabilis Herbst.), the yield of the second mowing vas estimated by the number f seed pods (ebobiki"), ? The optimal concentration of indoleacetic acid in the first mowing proved 0.0005 percent, in the second 0.005 percent and 040005 percent. A higher con- centration of the solution for the second Moving is epparently less, dangerous, since shoots are tougher by that time. Tho choice of preparation is of considerable significance for the efficacy of growth substances. At Prune , naphthylacetic, indolebutyric and indol- eacetic acids were used; (Table 4). Plants were sprayed et the beginning of the blooming period. Solutions of 0.005 percent of indoleacetio, indolebutyric and naphthylam. cetic acids failed to increase the yields of seeds. of alfalfa of the first moving. At this high :concentration it vas not possible to compare the activity of the different growth substances. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 6 -Tranal..Avo. Tumanov, ? Growth substance and its concentration Yield of seeds from djne sEoot one percent Control Indoleacetic acid ? 0.0005 percent Indoleacetic acid .0.005 percent 0.35 Indolebutyric acid 0.005 percent 0.35 -Indolabutyric acid 0.0005 percent 0.38 100 0.86 226 Naphthylacetic acid 0.005 percent . 0.40 Naphthylacetic acid 0.0005 percent r OD 92 87 let mown near met pert:so Table 4. Ko.of seed pods on 1 shoot from 2nd mowing Items percent 100 721 26 90 29 100 IND 54 100 248 66 122 OD 105 ' 37; 128 irD 67 37 122 70 116 ?215 51 9.5 178 It follows from the Woo*e data that idaolebutyrio and naphthyitacetic acids possess the. best "prospects" for treating alfalfa during blooming. Of .importance for the efficacy of growth sub-stances:upon. the yield of -.cultivated plants is the proper selection of the period of spraying. The first tests revealed already- that treatment should be applied at the blooming stage. By spraying fruit trees at. the proper .time, it is possible to prevent fruit drop in apple trees. Following spraying, fruits of many varieties are retained more securely on their branches because of the delayed formation of the separ- ating layer'of:the peduncle (Tumanov, 1946). Spraying was also used towards the end of fruiting of alfalfa to determine the possibility for reducing losses of -cced poc n harvesting. It was proposed to increase the stability of attach* ment (prirostanie) of young fruits. In spraying with the colution indoleacctic acid (concentration 0.005 percent Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, 1.1. 7 Transl. 198. on wide-spaced rows of bunched and nest-like planting i of alfalfa, we did not eetablish substantial differences in the action of growth substances for various methods of planting. Table 5 therefore presents only average figures on 'prayinga of alfalfa with 0.005 'percent of Indoleacetic acid during cliff. ent stages of development. Periods of Spraying , Harvest of seeds Table 5. No. orbobiki" (seed pods 1 shoot I linear meter 1 1 linear meter g 'percent's , percent phoot percent ? percent Control 0.05 100 34 100 71 100 5215 100 Beginning of bloom 0.79 120 SI 148 84 118 6364 121 Eeginning of fruiting 0.77 118 44 129 60 84 4978 95 End of fruiting AD OD 77 108 5633 108 Fere spraying was also most, effective during the bloaming stage in both the first and second mowinge. It was important to verify the possibility for increasing yields of seeds of alfalfa by treating plants with growth eubstances in other regions as well. This was done in rosoow in 1946, 'where vegetative-and not field experiments were set up. For the treatment of plants triiodbenzoio acid was used, in addition to indoleacetio and naphthylacetio acids. According to Zimmerman and Hitchcock, (1941), this substance possesses a "formative" action upon plants. In using a solution of this substance, Turtannv erd Lizandr (1946) radically altered growth of alfalfa. It was inter- esting to establish vdiether "formative" substances were capable of increasing yields of alfalfa seeds. The preparation triiodbenzoio acid was synthesized for us through the courtesy of A. E. Guseva of the Institute of Biochemistry Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, 1.1. 8 Transl. 198, ? of the Academy of Sciences of USSR. During the Moscow experiment a change in method was introduced. It was of interest to establieh the influence multiple treatmients by growth substances have on the same plants. 8 to 10 sprayins were therefore applied every five days. The results of the experiment with 2-year alfalfa, ilkrainskaia blue Vo. 257, are presented in table 6. Growth substance and its concentration , Dry weight of aboveground vegetative parts on one shoot Yield of seedw per shoot 6 percent g percent7 Control 2.6 100 1.4 100 Indoleacetio acid 0.0005 percent 2.5 94 241 150 Indoleacetio acid 0.005 percent 4.3 165 2.3 164 Triiodbenzoic acid 0.0001 percent 2.5 94 1.6 114 Triiodbenzoie acid 0.001 percent +3.2 123 2.7 192 Saphthylaoetic acid 0.005 percent 5.2 125 0.9 64 Figures obtained from Table 6. Weight of 1000 seeds 1 percent? 1.86 100 2.16 116 2.14 115 2.01 108 1.96 105 2.15 116 vegetative experiments indicate that spraying with growth substances increased visibly the yield of seeds of alfalfa. Indole- acetic acid in oonoentrations of 0.0001 - 0.001 percent increased seed pro- duction by 10-64 percent. The "formative" substance, triiodbeneoic acid pro- duced an equally positive influence upoh the yield of seeds. A comparison bc. the concentration of trilodbeneoic acid of 0.0001 percent and 0.001 percent revesled that in treating alfalfa with the latter substance the yield ? of Deets was increased 92 percent. The latter concentration affected the "formative" action upon alfalfa Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 TUmanav, 1.1. 9 . Transl. 198. ? at a concentration of 0.025 percent; 135 aker solutions of this substance failed to produce visible, hanges. The highly active naphthylacetio acid was applied in too strong a con- centration (0.005 percent) and as a result the yield of seeds was reduced by one third.: A oompariton of experientnindicates that repeated treatments are not ?neeeseary. A single spraying, noticeably. In addition to alfalfa, properly administered, increases the yield etative tests were performed in roscow in 1945 with butyric flax, running beats (Lopata) and summer wheat, tutesoens 062. In table 7 the results of the influence of indoleac tie acid upon the yield of flax etudrfashn) (curly flax) are presented. (We4ly spraying with a solutian of 0.0005 percent beginning with the blooming period). Conditions under which tests Were made Control - 0.0005 percent of 1. doleacetio acid to.of bolls on shoot 13.9 21.7 100 156 12.6 '? 14.6 Table 7. Yield ofripe seeds _par shoot percent l00j 0.60 i 1160.77 1 100 128 ight of 0 seeds g percent ? 6.10 100 6.80 .111 I It rill be noted that spraying with growth substancea of plants during their blaming period increased the yield of flax seeds by 28 percent. The experiments were conducted simultaneously with. those made with running beans. This object vas of interest to us bedauxe the latter is a plant of abundant growth but, poorly fertilizing beans. Only one experiment was made in this instance, the plant being treated rekly with a solution of 0.005 per cent indoleacetio acid The results are seen tn table 6. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, Conditions under tt..'.0-h tests Imre made Control ? 0.005 percent of indoleacetie ? acid 10? Dry :weight of plan ercent 86.2 97.6 Under treatment the 100 11 Transl. 198. Table 8. Total length o. of inflo- of lents reecens ield of beans re OM 1267 Dry weight of beans rose s.cnens s.roent 100 31 100 38.6 per cent 100 1551 122 1 37 119 31.7 82 ie d, but the eg'etative growth int:Tea/ad by 22 percent and the dry "'eight of plants in a slight measure. It was not possible to increase the percentage of fertilized beans. In working with wheat we tried to Obtain a more productive stalk by applying growth substances. Spraying with growth substances was done weekly during stalk formation and four times between the booting and blooming stage. The results are presented in table 9. Conditions under which experiments were made. . o.of stalks r _plant No.of Lrains per 1 stalk per ce n t spec. per cent spec. Control Indoleacetio.aold 0.005 percent Triiodbenzoio acid 0.001 percent r'rlicu4brnzoio acid 0.01 percent 5.4 6.1 4.4 4.8 00 24.2 113 22.8 100 - Table 9. Weight of Yield of grain 1000 graIns per plant rcen 36. 100 4.8 100 ; 4.8.: 94 4.8k 100 82 i23.5 1 97 40.5 110 4 85 89 23.7 98 ?39.01 106 4.4 SI As seen above, the application of indoleacetic and triiodbenzoio acids did not increase yields. This result may be compared with other data obtained from publioations on weed control, achieved through growth substances, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, I.T. 11 Transl. 198. (Bamner?and Tukey), (1944); Slade, Templeman and Saxton (1945). Considerable variation in the sensitivity of plants to growth substances was established. Among all plants the group of cereals, cultivated, as well as uncultivated (weeds) and meadow crops radical/Yr stood out. They proved cam- pletely non-sensitive to growth. substancee. Even strong solutions of acids Which easily destroy weeds did not have any effect upon cereals. It is to be ? stressed, nevertheless, that triiodbensoie acid led to an increase in the size of whest grains. Treatment with growth substarees increased the imight of 1000 grains to 39.0 - 40.5 g, as against a 'control weight of 1000 grains equalling. 36.7- g. We further established that an increase in yield following treatment with. growth substances is accompanied by an improvement in the quality of seeds. Several American and. British researchers sprayed plants during their bloOm 411 with growth substances. They sunoeeded. in obtaining positive results with tomatoes, strawberries and blueberries. In the USA tomatoes were sprayed first during their. blooming- period to obtain seedless fruits. In the process of the work it was noted that tomatoes treated with growth aubstances developed 'a larger'nunber of fertilised fruits. In additilinn, their ? initial growth was more rapid. As a result of the ins 'ale in yield the num- bar and else of fruits also increased. Thus in one experiment an increase in yield of 33-30 portent was obtained from spraying toratoes (minter) and their fruits were larger in size. ,(17Urneok Witten:. and Uamphill, 1944). Because of the earlier germination of fruits and their faster initial growth, the first ripe tomatoes were obtained two weeks earlier. Increase in yield, as a result of the increase in percentage of fertilised harries, following treatment with naPhthylaoetio acid, was Obtained in straw,. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Tumanov, I.I. 12 Transl. 199. ? berries (Simabrick, 1943). In blaokberries, spraying with liquid solutions of naphthozacetio and chlorphenoxyacetio acids increased tbe size of the berries 4S-99 percent (17arth and reader, 1944). Thus foreign reeearohere were able to increase production of tomatoes and some berries, while we demonstrated the possibility of raising yields of seeds with the aid of growth substances among field crops, alfalfa and flax. The number of flax seeds on a plant inoreases radically following treatment with growth substances.' Upon forming a,certain numbtr of bolls the flax plant (untreated) discontinues its growth and formation of new buds and gradually dies. Treated plants, on the other hand, act altogether differently. Their growth and the appearance of buds do not stop. The size of seeds is also increased as in the case of alfalfa. All available data indicates that increase in yield, resulting from treat.. 111 ment with growth substances, takes place at the expense of the formation of the number of flowers and.infloresceneee, fertilized specimens and fruits, and strengthening of fruits and seeds. Future study of the theoretical bases for the increase of yields through application of growth substances will not only assure the practical use but also permit penetration into the inner life of plants and extend our knowledge of physiology. The eXperimente mere perfornied at the city of Frunze (1943) by the scientifio assistant, A. r. Franke, the candidate in science, S. G. Enikeev (1944 and 1945), and the scientific assistant, A.A. ilzandr, Moscow (1945). The plan, method, supervision and literary Presentation were the work of LI. 7sarino-7. =mislays 1. Three.year field-and vegetative experiments with alfalfa revealed the possibility of increasing the yield of seeds of alfalfa by spraying the. plants with a liquid solution of growth substances. neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 :-Turtanov, 1.1. , 13 Trent'. 196. 2, Among the tested: solutiOns indolsbutyrio, naphylacetic, and triiodbentoic acids proved most effective. Plants may be easily injured,by an incorrect concentration. In our experiments, solutions of 0.0005 percent of napthylacetio, indolebutyric and indoleacetic acid proved most effective. A higher concentration ves r quired in the case of triiodbenzoio acid (0.001 percent). The best time for spraying proved to be the period of blooming. 4. Frequent eprayings did not increase the action of growth substances. Evida. ently, One or possibly telo sprayings re. adequate. 5. Sprayint, during blooming with a solution of grovth'sUbstances may increase the yield of other plants as vell. Positive results were obtained in the case of butyric (oil) flax. It vas hot possible to achieve any increase in the yield Of cumner *mat by this method. 6, Increase in 'yields by treating plants with a solution of growth substance is based upon the inCreASO. in the number of flowers on a plant, the per - centage of fertilized seeds, the eise of the latter, and the 'growth of vegetative vigor in. plants. AIT August 50,r 1951. End of Article. L_ 'P.-, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 I. V. I Is mnogoletnikh rabot po selektsii svekly as Ramonskoi stantsii. (From work of many years on suzar beet selection on Ramon station). Vsesoiusn. Akad. Sellskokhos. nauk ia. V. I. Lenina. DOk. 1947. (11)1 20-22. 1947. 20 Aid. Translated from the Russian by R. G. Denbo 199: Sugar Beets Sfe.??Auk At the thirtieth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution were completed 25 years since the work on sugar beet selection on Ramon experimental station started. In determining the problems of sugar beet selection, when the station was founded, we pointed out the following: 1. The existing methods of sowing sugar beets based upon the non productive consumption of large seed masses require improvement, specialisation and repro- cessing according to the basic atm of the sowinzo the acquisition of material 4101or the plant, mother (foundation) material, reproduction material, seleotion material. 2. The sowing of selection material has to be carried out by various methods of two basically different purposes: for evaluation and for reproduction. 3. For the industrial plantations as well as mother (foundation?) planta- tions the sowing methoa with interruptions (broken, pointed) is recommentiable for experiment during which the normal density of the rays could save up to 50, of the seeds. A special application of sowing machine in the direction of returning half of the seeds in the seed box for a second sowing. fel? 4. For mother (foundation) plantatiems it would be necessary to recommend more regular distribution in both directions, or, it would be neoessary to de- crease the distances between the rams up to 27 am, by increasing them within ilors raws up to 18-20 cm (instead of 36 and 12-15), aiming to the square form (the form accepted for selection nurseries). By keeping the previous density Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 'iauanxin, i. v. x Transt. 199 within the raw', this measure would lead to the extermination of a smaller amount of plants, With the decrease of density, it Would lead to an increase of the root. 5. For mother plantations' the iowingi of small density (around 20 pounds of seeds for ndeiiatinan [2.70 acres]) should be taken under experiment. 6. The ideal:distribution and even sprouts; necessary for selection nurseries (destined for a repetitive selection), tn the Eaetern ratan, with a dry spring, are' impossible for 'manual sowinse. It'is necessary to equip the stations with small sugar beet sawing machines. 7. For Original selection-plantations, it is neoeisary to care not only about the regular standing, bni about a free development of separateiplants as well, which leads us to interruptions 'on long diatanoes and simultaneously to the drawing together of the raw*, therefore a machine sowing with the sue- weeding square distribution of plants is imperative. ? 8. The individnal'registration on individual plants permits the carry- itg out of study of varieties (relative infinitesimal) on a amall amount of nests,- summing up the di-vision to one root and increasing the number of rep- etititns up to 100 or '150. By this amount of repetitions, a high degree of accuracy is ensured (the poisible error below 1.5 percent). The reproduc- tion Of yaluable posterity should be -carried out independently from the rare machine sowing withthe most limited interruption. During the years of folunding the station, its activity wasconsidered of little use for the augar'beet plant in general,'ind especially for the production and cultivation of selective varieties of sugar beets which would be valuable for nobewhat wide part of sugar beet belt. The availability of , " large quantities Of nitrogen and humus in Voronezh black soil, the short warm period (late spring and early fall) forced the farmers to produce varieties - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Iakushkin. I. V. 3 Transl. 199 which ripen quickly and varieties with a amall amount of nitrogen. But the selective methods for quick ripeness were unknown at that time and the pos- sibility of changing the chemical structure by selective method was doubtful. In one of the succeeding reports, in 1928, we observed that the Ramon station, as the most Eastern of sugar best stations, has been called to produce local varieties of sugar beets adapted to various climatic and soil conditions. IS then pointed out that, if there are no Felon varieties of sugar beets, we must produce them. Already during the first years of selective work at the Ramon station was indicated the possibility of high saccharinity and of high weight of the root. At the mime time in Western Europe t?si achievement of such a valf?- uable combination was denied. During the succeeding period of the station's activity the point of view, that the sugar beet plantations near Voronezh are able to produce only sugar beets whose characteristics are: the low weight df the root and small sac- charinity, has been rejected. when the Ramon station has been foueed and during the first decade of its activity, when / was supervising it, in subar as most i portant the following basic positions: tion according to the complex of characteristics; a low percentage of jeneral zation of their second year ing to my point of vier, is beet selection I considered 1) the development of seise- 2) production of varieties with and harmful nitrogen in the roots; 8) the utili- for selective purposes (the planting year, accord- irreplaceable for the solution of a series of problems, especially for thibroduction of early ripening varieties); 4) the application upon selection fields of wide food fields which promote the sprout- tug of individual peculiarities of plants. According to our opinion, it would be quite Important to combine the seleotion for the structure with the formation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ( ) % (-4; Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R01000001.0001-2 . Takushkin, I. V. , 4 Transi. 199 . , of -varieties or of materials not only of high quality; but for good conserve- tioft Waren. 'Itring-the sacceeding?three.Piwo.Year-Plans the Selecqve -workwith Sugar.bsetswhiOh are.arried.out at.the.Ramon station,undev.the supervision, of the?IXt?ndlfseleOtioner, the laureate of-Staliesprise, Avedikt , ? ? /AV ianOvieh lumov; gave outstanding-. results,' . In the,- state testings with varieties the RaMoncverieties occupied the: first:plade-many a _title leavingbehind a- series of other firstfelasit So iet7varieties. - ? ? 2 - The Ritel011 varieties are the ir ar eties:_of wide belts. The as far &St as Altai- krai, and in. the West. ',on the Right galore of,BnePrs At the, present, time- the ,Rsmon'svariettes occupy the- fourth place susar, beet plantation in the,.SOviet Union.- At the.#anot station is recorded t e supremacy of _seed .blendings which are the product of intervariety crossing,. The aelectien of materials for such hybridisation. .e-,one of the,unat perspec- tive methods of sugar. beet salectiou.(acoerding to?the analogy with corn and rye). ' ?Natiumov also_determined that the -etntr.sowina:arc, a perfect _means for the elimination of the blooming formn. fromAte_mle,rieti es. also worked out methods for long- conservation (tiro winters) dr -sugar- beets for the production of varieties immune to fungi and bacterial diseases. - Good progress vas achieved by the station in the crops of sugar beets seeds. Under the supervision of Maclumov were successfully developed the ez.. periments in pinching which started at the station already in the twenties. ESAlumov also indicated that the best results are obtained by the cutting off the upper bud in fall. The Ramon varieties distinguish themselves by high seed productivity, by large seeds, and some of them (No. 1537) by large cotyledons. The Ramon varie4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 . Iakuahkin, I. V. 5 Trend. 199 ties are characterised by high evaluations in industrial posterity. Thereby is confirmed the expediency in the reconstruction of the sugar beet structure with the transition from a great amount of varieties to a limited iiumber. But the control of many variations in sugar beet production is still in elementary stage. Meanwhile, one of the results of the work of Ramon station for a quarter of a oentnny is the conclusion of the necessity of shifting from the yearly production of new varieties to the improvement of the best varieties into genuine varieties which should undergo systematic Improvements, but should not change yearly. 'Oath such a reconstruction there is no necessity in carrying out selection work on sugar beets at several neighboring atationa, for instance, at the stations of the right shore of the Dnepr. Some of these stations could be assigned new tasks with other plants, and for the perfection of sugar beet varieties five stations would suffice instead of ten, with the conservation at sugar beet stations of that wide scale of work which has been and still remains typical for the Soviet sugar beet system. At the thirtieth anniversary of the Ootober Revolution the Soviet sugar beet selection is able to evaluate proudly the results achieved by it. Many Soviet varieties are higher than those from abroad. L.A.B. 9-4-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 SAVChTNRO, E. V. The new sugar beet pest. Sovet. Agron. 5(5): 66-68. Vey 1947. 20 So04. : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Transl. 200: Sugar Beets. SV131'0 Translated from the RU1185.1121 by R. G. Denbo. Until recent times the sugar beet undermining "miniruiushohaian moth lax known only in the countries of Southern Europe (France, Spain, Italy), in the Near East (Turkey, Palestine) and in Northern Africa (Egypt, Norocco). In USSR its individual nests were first disclosed in 1945, in Transo-_, - darsk krai; in st=er of 1946 it embraced the entire sugar beet sone of Ruben'. On the majority of fields the moth had infested from 80-100 percent of the plants; in the more infested South-Eastern part of the krai the amount of the moth caterpillars reached a few dozens for one sugar beet root. On ir.dividual tarns, already at the beginning of tituic,8 percent of sugar boots %verc destroyed by moth caterp!llars. The study of the biology and of control nr, asures against thc zioth under the conditions of USSR was almost equal to zero, which feet increases the danger for our national suipr beet sowing. The undermining sugar beet moth is a small, insignificant moth which is 12-14 cm wide in the wing-spread; on itt reddish gra" y front wings there are several black, eye-like apots, and the wide tail wings aro gray and AIM edged with fringes of long, densely set bristles. The mature noth ?etc:1411er ,reachee 12 mm. in Ionzthe is green, with a light head and with characteristic long pink lines upon the aides or the backa rztornally it reminds Partly the caterpillar of the well known cabt.age moth [diamondlmok moth, Plutella rtaculipennis]. In the caterpillar stage, the post winters upon :sugar beets in separate plants which remained undug, in auger beet waste after harvest, on the surface of the ground and in the upper layer of the soil. The cocooning or eater- ; pillars ocerars? early spring, in the place where they wintered. The butterflies Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000610001-2 Savehenko, 2 Tranel. 200. of the first generation fly out f cm the cocoons in the middle of April; their flight lass about one and If months. The active life of the moth begins in the evening, before the a et, and laste up to sunrise; at night the moth likes to fly towards light, during the day it hides in rosettes of plants, under the soil and in cracks of the ground; -the frightened moth flies suddenly away and hides again. The proteoting dark color makes the moth al- most unnoticed upon the surface of the soil. The second generation of the moth flies out in the ported between June 10 and 20th, the third - during the second half of July and the fourth - at the end of August; based upon the comparison Or the climatic conditions of !tree- nedarsk krai with the climate Of other countriee, where the biology of the moth has been studied, it is possible to expect in ruban, the development of the ? fifth generation of this peat. The sugar beet moth begins its egg depositing soon after the flying out ? of the butterfly from the cocoon; one female is .depositing 10-100 eggs, at the approximate average 25-40; very tiny pearl-white eggs of the moth are dis- tributed individually or in amnia groups on the sugar beet rosette, Upon the petioles and on the leaf bases, or some timee directly upon the ground. The sugar' beet meth is capable of deprsiting unfertilized es which are able to produce life-ready caterpillars whereby the energy of its propagation increases considerably. ------ rue t6'th5-intensive propagation of the sugar boot moth, in -placed whore at the beginning of sumer it is Yard to PIO any traace of it, aft6r 1- 1 1/2 menthe' already 00-70 percent of plants oould be already infested by it. The moth caterpillars appear from the egg on 4-7th day after thelr do- ? positing. The upper leaflets become interwoven by a web around the buds into a compact nest, in Which a few caterpillara of the moth (some time 8-10), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 d ? s Savehenko 3 Transl. 200. ? which feeds on the bud are hidden. The, damaged plants are easily noticed due to the blackening of the flower buds, and later, after the destruction of the buds, at the sprouting of rancorous secondary flamer-bearing stems which change the entire appearance of the bush. On the flowering seed-bearing parts, the cater4il1ars damage flower-bearing stem*, which deform on account of that and become yellow above the damaged place, and individual green tubers into which the young caterpillars penetrate; the damaging of rature tubers has not been noticed as yet. The leaves and the petioles of the seed-bearing plants are damaged more seldom. Upon the sugar beets of the first year the moth lives and feeds itself first between the web of the covered leaves or under the turned edges of the leaves; the damaged leaves usually beceme black. Many caterpillars irrrodiately penetrate into the leaf tissues, breaking winding mires into the tissues; the young caterpillars underaire the central 're ins and the petioles of the leaves more eeldcm. According to their growth, the caterpillars disclose a tendency to go down upon the root tip; here they damage the bases of the lee petioles, sprinkle the root tip and often penetrate into the top at several cm, gnawing through its long passages, which are filled with excrement. The *user beeti of the first year, damaged by the moth caterpillars, stop growing, the leaves blacken and then rot and die; sore timea upon the damaged plants 1-2 leaves are left. Ae the result of the inner damage of the top which facilitates the infestation of the root by various disease organisms, is the in- capacity of the root for conservation after the harvest, and the root's rotting in the field, which results in the rotting of the entire top. For the young sugar beet in the stage of 3-4 loaves, the appearance of 4- caterpillar. upon one plant is critical; for the mature sugar beet during the ? period of closing the raws - 24-25 cailerpillars are critical. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Salta henko (:) According to the data of foreign literature, the saccharinity of the 4 Transl. 200 sugar beets damaged by the moth is able to decrease at 25 percent as compared with the normal beets. The caterpillars of the undersnining sugar beet moth damage the fodder and the eatable beet as well; under natural conditions, the caterpillars obtain 4 r their nourishment from the wild sea beets. The undermining sugar beet moth does not develop upon the goosefoot family [Chenopodiaceaej nor upon the amaranthe.ceae families. It caterpillars, when placed upon those two species, parish of starvation not touching these plants. Therefore, in Krasnodar* krai, whore the wild sugar beet grows very seldom, the only food for the catorpillars aro acme sugar beet roots which are left undug, and Which started to sprout. The moth infests, apparently, the normal plant of the seed-bearing sugar beets only from the moment of plant sprouting, and the sugar beet of the first year, after the appearance of 3-4 pairs of leaves won the plants. The caterpillars of the sugar boot moth finish their development and " cocooning after 20-50 days 'after their appearance from the eggs; during thia period they pass five Stages; during starvation, the caterpillars of the third and the fourth stages are able to cocoon. The -cocooning emirs in a loose silk cocoon upon foddering plants or in the soil nearby. The cocoon stage lasts 7-14 days. Thus, in the Krasnodesrsk krai upon the development of the undermining sugar beet moth, a few species of the ichneumon-fly Caphelinid parasite, Proepaltella beriesel are parasiting, but this infestation did not exceed 20 per cent during the surzser of 1946; now the insignificant mortality of the caterpillars of some other definite disease could be noticed. The basic measure in controlling the undermining sugar beet moth is the pre. ventative measure. Into the complex of fall-winter Preventive measures are Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Savohenko Transl. 200. ? included: the preliminary digging, :the removal from the field and the delivery heavily damaged sugar beets of the ateettexbastaxtteskyklepoisatiesed to the industrial organisation's. The in- fested sugar beets should be reprocessed at the plants ID the 'irst place,. regular and forage beets whioh did not loose its couriehing and fsraze value should be utilized withOut leaving it in the ground too long. In eonnection with this, the peaking of the beets into "kagatc" and "hurts" requires a strict scrutiny of the infested tubers. Not a single sugar beet tuber should be left in the rield; even a short conservation of the infested sugar befits in field heaps is undesirable. The sugar beets infested by the moth cater filers could be cleaned by frustrum or by straight cut. The cleaning Of the Sugar beet at a frustrurn decreases the infestation of the fielde, destroying a great amount ef caterpillars. On the ? other hand, in this case there is a risk that the spreadint; of the caterpillars from the roots during their censer-vatic:EA in the Neld, derin6 Lransportation, leading at supply stations, during the na.ollng into lcagats" and "hurts" and their conservetion. If the sugar beet is out stra%;ht, a great weount of caterpillars which are in the tots penetrates into post-- rarvest waste and could be easily removed tram the field, but the gross gathering of the suor beet raw material deer:Wises. Disregard the measures of aleaninz, euipr beets, it is necessary to gather thoroughly all the post-harvest *las te n the end of each labor day, remove it from the field, and feed the cattle with it, or silo it, and in some oases, where it is impossible to destroy it, to dig it into the ground at the depth of not less thae 0.5 m. It is reoczei.lended that the iteste which is thrown into a pit should be poisoned by polychlorides of benzol or be covered with calcium ? oxide; durisk; the charging of unpoisoned pits it is necessary to pack it thorcughly. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Savohenko 6 Tranal. ZOO. Immediately after the digging of the auger 'beets, the infested field should undergo a thorough plowing with the obligatory application of plowing machines which mould ensure a complete turn of the soil. Beeides of the sugar beet waste the mother sugar beet could be the source ' from year to year fore repetitive infestation of the fields by the. undermining sugar 'beet moth. Taking into 'consideration the thread Of moth. and the re- latively small specific gravity of the Kuban' sugar beet seed produotion, accord- ing to the general scale of the Union, it is appropriate to discuss the preblem ? of temporary interruption of sugar beet production in ZUhan,. In the future, the method of disinfestation of the roots of the mother -auger beet .by means of spraying gaseolle inseoticides should be tested as applied to our conditions: This method. of controlling moth would permit the, plantinz of auLer beets by non* 411 infested roots (tubers). In case of preserving some sprouts in sugar beet crop rotation, it is im- perative to isolate them locally from the sugar beets of the 1'1mb year. This might be accompliehed by means of planting the tubers into the field of crop rotation. The expediency of such mescure ie confirmed by the fact that the butterflies, of the undermining auger beet meth do not fly far, due to rhich the ' Auger beet of the first year is less infested the further :Lt is from the old suzar beet field. The isolation Of the first year auqar beet plant's is ex- pedient also in the interests of controlling the disease of sucar beets through "peronesporogn. During the spring-summer period,emong the proventikve. measnres in con- trolling sugar beet moth, all general agroteohnical measures rhich !norms(' the immunity of sugar beets to damages ehould be utilised, a thoreh loosening of the soil.between rev's, and also the removal and the destruction of individual infested plants or of their parts during the appearance of the first- caterpillars ? of the moth in the field: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 V. ?de Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Savehenko 7 Tranel. 200. Among the chemical measures, the spraying of :sugar beets during the period of the moth flight by a 0.5 percent emulsion of the compoUnd DDT,gave good re- sults. The spraying with the compound DDT and the application of regular con- tact and intestine insecticides yes ineffective. The fact that the undermining auger beet moth has been discovered only in Krashodarskkrai which geographically has been isolated from the rest of the sone of the sugar beet sowing in the Union, compel ue to. pay more attention to the quarantine measure,. Kreanodarsk krai should be placed under quarantine; the ex- port of living non-conserved and nen-fumigated tubers and seeds of all varieties of sugar beets beyond the borders of the krai, and also saepIew of soil should be oceipletely prohibited. By means of quarantine of the Vinisteriut or Agriculture of rSSR, it is imperative to inspect in the shortest time al/ the ?blast's and republics shich are close to Zrasnedarsk krai as far as the undermining moth is ? concerned; all those places should be inspected where this peat is spreading, at the expehee of regular and forage sugar beet. ? Unfortunately, the system of measures in controlling the undermining sugar beet moth which has been suggested by the All-Union 3cientific-tesearch Institute for Sugar Pests already in 1946 has tot yet been confirmed by the rinieteriume involved and ham not been realized in practice. Despite the fact that the sugar beet in Kresnodarsk krai practically ?burns" of that moth, the teohnieal measures necessary for the strengthening the control of the meth have not been imported as yet. Ie can not tolerate such a situation any longer. If, in the very near future, the situation will not be changed, than will the sugar beet production be en- dangered not only in Kuban', but in other raione of our Union as well, velars the ? sugar beet moth is able to spread easily. The elimination of the undermining sugar beet moth is not a local, but an All-Union task. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Transi. 201: Sugar Beets Orlovskii, W. I. (Professor) z - 4111 -Selection of sugar beets in USR. Selek. i Semen. 14(12)1 3248. Dec. S%- 1 194'. 61.9505 Translated from the Russian by S.N. nson ? Prior to the Great October Socialist Revolution there wag not a single scientific-research ins itute in %testa for the study of suo...r beets and sugar beet productilnk_ Nor was there any planned organized chain of selection stating. The few in existence were privately owned and spreae without plan, 772;7= _ - - chiefly on the area of the so-called South-West krai;_they supplied_certified _ ? seeds of suar beets for 2S-30 percent of the entire su-ar beet area which at that time amounted to slightly above BSO thousand hectares. _ _ A considerable part of sugar beets was tomtimis 2.111" with imported seeds, purchased for gold valuta, or with local reproductirms of 1-ported _ seeds. Only few sections were planted with local "non-varietal" seeds of sugar beets. The pr!ncipal task in the first years of Soviet rule WRS con- sequently to es,Ablish a domestic selection-seed industrial chain, provide it with personnel and modern teohrical e,..u!pment. In the first two to three years the chain of 'election stations and vol- ume of varietal work mere reviewed and reorganized; vurlatiENANNIdrel--poten- __ tially 1,e8t selection stationsAextended and e..uipped anew (nladovsk, Verkh- _ _ niacLesk, Ivanovsk)! Simultaaeoualyladvanced special courses mere or,anized for selectors to train them as spec:lignite for these statione. /n 1922 the S(,ientific Insti- tute oteleotion began work at Kiev; it was subsequently named the All-Union _ Scientific-Research Institute 01 Sugar reete. Its staff, jointly with the Vert- __ . _ --------- _ etal-Seed Administration of clavsakhar (Chief Adm!nistration of the Suer InduftTy),developed standares for the sugar beet seed industry add other 1111 crops un6er sugar beet crop rotation. These plans in varietal production z Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, I:, I. !renal. 201: Sugar rests received the approval of several all-union oonferen,7es held between 1922- 1926, in which the foremost specialists-selectors of the Soviet 7nion partic- ipated. A special chain was or_aniled for so-called collective varietal testings of slava:- beets (similar to Government beatings) to decide upon the choir!e of the -et valuable local initial stook in further varietal-ineustrial work: The highest grade varWm1 stock Ws- widely propagated in a short space of time to meet current needs of the beet see inftatry. Laboratories of the Institute (Kiev) studied seleotion, anatomy, physiology of sugar beets and other agricultural crops. Yajor achievements performed in varietal work on sugar beete_in the first fe% years were: 1. Reorganizat!on of varietal-industrial seed chainsto conform with the _ needs of the sugar beet industry and the organization of to new stat!ons: relo-Tserkov and Ramona. , 2. Development ot- standards of Soviet au,Lar beet varietal inAl4try; Establishment of he.!: initial stock; acceleration it.. propazation and improvement o elite seeds of sugar beets; 4. Complete independence of sugar beet pl ntin,s from 4orei,n sources and diecontinuanre of imports ol mother varietifAs :V' sugar beets from ab-oad; 6. Development of many theoret!cal problems on selection and the biolocy of beets and other crops under sbgar beet crop rotat:on. 6. Train!ng of highly skilled personnel as selectors; Subsequent tasksin varietal pra-luction consisted primarily in solving problems connected with the Stalin 6-:ear plans of that period. The pm- lapel teaks with res;:eet to sugar beet varieties were: ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 'I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, R. I. 3 Transl, 201: Sugar Beets a) further development of beet planting in the principal areas, particularly the now regions (Northern Caucawie, TSCHO, Povolzhie, Western Siberia, Central Asia); b) increase sr gross of crops of sucar beets and improvement of their ? , . W - quality; c) extension of chatn of selection stations; - ' ? d) intensification of scientific researbh and improvement of sugar beet , 'varietal induStry. In solving thece aims, the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar ? i; " . ? 4 poets tocether with faro organizationsisithin its area accomplished the follashag: Improved selection selection and.seed growing based on the regional adjustment of varieties of elricultural plants, etc:cording to Darwinist principles, as against methods of cosmopolitism advocated by Xestern Etiropeen scientiats who proceed ' - from metaphysicar concepts. Plans were'Eieveloped to' set up selection stations . ? and ill_thilLsg'Thnumatione to sing'stetions re organized: Pervomaiskkjia, VeseloPodolianakaiia;WgOlvakaiia.; end Biiekaiii, and Frunze Point, in addi- _ ^ _ ? _ - ? -- ???- tion to 52 varietal plots. ' fi ? Regional and Coverren?Cirarieta.i-testing dtations of sugar beets -sere also established. The orcanization of e Chain ofl-sclection stations arid varietalpibta;maiab-rding'to e plan, and that of government and regional varietal 'testing points; psnmitted first to verify the regional adjustment - - ofeeugar beet varieties and secondly; to propelY regionalize varieties and set standards for varietalOhangea. The introd'uctienOf scientifically regionalized crops into indhstry shouIa, bited'On the Most-"conserVative estimatespre'vidi t'he-gOviet Union with nonlesa than 1.'5"centners'in addi- - tional sugarfrem each hectare of planting. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Orlovekii, N. I. 4 'Trans'. 201:. Sugar rests Multiple government tests of Soviet and the foremost foreign sugar beet varieties proved the superiority of domestic regionalized varieties which produce an additionnl overage of 5-6 percent of sugar beets per hectare, compared to the majority of foreign varieties. Special studies, as well as government and regi-mal vrieti1 testing, in the USSR jaELVe now proved the insolvency of statements of foreign selectors asserting that the limit in sugar cantent has been reaoted in sugar beets and that $t is impossible to combine high yield with high sugar content i! one variety. In contradiction to this, SovietSelection Stations have already transferred many varieties to induatry that'eombine a high degree of produc- tivity with a high percentage of sugar. Among the hest representative vari- sties in this :roa:p are V-1513 and \/-23 of Verkhniachski Station and L-1939 of 1,9gov Station. The Institute and selection station have developed a plan for preventing regression in sugar beet varieties in seed propagation and ensuring thereby their prolonged use in industry. On the eve of the Great National liar about 500 thousand centners of high grade varietal seeds were grown annually, an amount adequate to supply the area of sugar beet planting of the USSR, including the reserve fund; an amount which places the Soviet ram at the top in sugar beet seed worlyroduction. Dozens of hIgh grade beet varieties have been transferred to industry by many selection stations; the best varieties are: Uliadov Station - 1T-1030, r-155S, U-1716 and r-552; Verichniachsk Station - V-1025, 7-1408, V-1513, V-1612, V-23; Belo-Tserkov Station - BTS-12-6, NTS-1150, 13n-16n, BTS-135; Veaelo-Podoliansk Station - 113-206; Ivanovsk Station - 1-1305, 1-1531, 1-1745, 1-502; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? \,. /Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 " Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, N. I. . Trans'. 20It, Sugar Beets L'gov Station - L-1037, L-16.50, L-1749, L-406; Ramona Station - R4337, R-47, R-306, R-407; -Pervo-Vaisk Station - P-1144; P-473, P-475; -- Biisk Ltation - P-J51 B-309, B-Ml; Frunze Point - F-234, F-302; Ialtushkov Point - 1.51-476; In the rrocess of producing varieties many statIons developed their orig- inal methods of selection, such as selection by seedlings, reaction to ferti- lizers (L`gov Station) selection.according. to biological characteristics (Ra- mona Station), eta. The principal achievements in varieties al sugar beets consisted by the out reek of the areat NatIonia War prirarily in the ,followings the establish- ment o a varietal chain conforming ti a plan, which included in aPition to the 'ceding Institute (MO, selection stations, selection points and several dozens of varietal plots. The need for pure seeds was thereby fully taken care of. Proper regionalization of sugar beet varieties was introduced into ' practice; -and lastly major problems of the theory of aelepticn and the biology of suzar beets werch-thcienuchly studi14. At present V178 and selection atations are engaged in a number of theoret- ical problems; these will.bedwelled upon in this article in brief. Individual, group and maw:, selection was developed on sugar beets; (7 baeio principles were established for inter-species, inter-ver'etal and intra- varietal crossings. rethods'of *selection and evaluation of sudar beets were devel ped accordint, to special traits, speedy ripening, non-flowering, drought resistance, law content of harmful nitrogen and ashes, increase in superior quality, loss of woodiness, resistance to a...Senses (peroospore, root-eater, . ? - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, B. I. 6 Transl. 2O1s Sugar Beets mound-storageirot, eryeiphose?), reaction to different elements of nutrition and temperatures. On the basis of T. D. Lorsenko's theory of stage development of agricul- tural planta, a stage analysis for sugar beet varieties was developed. tef- inite production schedules vow() set up for every selection station, supposed to take into consideration ecological and industrial characteristics of the individual regions in Sugar beet production. YOthode to *epeed selection were developed by planting freshly gathered seeds and seedlings in summer and fall and by making use of hothouses during_ .the 'winter months.. The significance of agro-technical methods and crop rotation in Varietal work and selection was studied. At present varietal work on sugar beets pro- ceeds basically along the following lines: A. BBLECTION ) Stages of work: I. Selection of pedigree or super-elite groups in selection nurseries, their partial clonicity and,tevelepment in nurseries and hothouses. II. Growing of seeds haft pedigree plants or their croups by-mmtual crossing. /II. 2-year evaluation appraisal of descendants of pedigree plants at station varietal: testing IV. Propagation of rere valuable descendants (ambers). V Additional evaluation of these mumbers at station and regional tests on varietal plata. Formation of new varieties from record-breaking specimens. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -11117Declassified and Approved 'For Release 2013/04/02: CiA-RDP86R61426R010000010061-2 ovlov Ult*, N. ,the It Ooyer,nmeht test eeondarr Troptigation ;? is-of,:totterriiiient tests) ticti-of - tindtfatrial 7: ft-Male, 261i Bet. MED (41014-1EG-. , Veriet,y,-to:Obtain Ute.A tio t. regional: Vsrai test an or ',deo db--,bynt lee chain:- la- Arati other ? plot otz ot her -,-be:ete tsf '?reeord:, Ner tette s seed growing state farms for the pro- aevern -t,-.ztests tria1'seed Delivery stilet seed abeve, d Wi. naturally- . selee tion le,.our-rently appdregwit 01104 7 :re'S 17,97_ Pro7e e4tiPP-1 aile'extensitre? reenteets I "With- ,Etellentif o, reh.75,netitu, es nosier vari- eties otatINtateil end wi1d,:tbrms..16 tleets-, ere ed) and:: .0t46ied W The pbthlbi 11t iidra tahlierznestP,tients end mangoide,laras. prove& in ? Drat t ice tbgether ulle.:r-ofTtran wii8 TOrm0-':autat :beet,30' for, ant1ohi9e-initti. Eitook,:neeetearrl'Orthe,produetibri :of varieties,' of b,igher fIe1s aTdtkx.gat od.ntentithat alstityoseess elleb epeolsa:use.fn1 aroughtand froztr;:r0.11??tanxift, re.a.i.e..tange.,to,--oero-opporel epundi-stoyage:rpt an other d Saease 8. VariablIity-an arity:,4 r la tine,t0Mloal?-?and, biologleal tra'4.ts ,.0f. sugar beets: :::!...74The.intermedia (dominanttend,Jieterosis? tent -was saturated beets' - oreaty ef; sug tab 11 tb1c1-. zetandard s ,:taT1A. -L40 otiis ',mete !Ile-we:loped for lie rpho- ntf rtvartistal ?and re,gard to sugl,r ?477,7" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? - ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 a Trans.. 4%m otabmg Orlovakii, N. I. ? A new hypothesis of the origin of cultivated sugar beets and the hybrid Origin of beets (from tam crossings between root-fru !t and folbage beet-marigold) was developed, based on detailed universal study of the large variety of forms of beets, products of crossings. Regularity in the heredity of single and multiple seed of sugar beets,(soplodia") and a new form in beets (single- seedling) were obtained. The adoption of many forms of forage, table and uncultivated varieties of beets for purposes of hybridization permitted the development of new, vari- eties of increased productivity and sugar contents that equalled those of cul- tivated beets. These hybrids are at present widely propagated in industry. The laboratory of selection and genetics of vins, together with rrunze Point; developed methods for planting seeds of beets without transplanting for the benefit of" the central..asiatio sugar beet regions. The cytology of beets was etudied with reference to bloom, fertilization and the embryonic development of the plants. Causes of auto-sterility of beets were established; factors determining auto-fertility; methods and technique of artificial hy- bridizatIon; methods of Obtaining seeds by self-pollination from euto-sterile races; and the cariosity of the greater part of knomn spe^les of the genus Beta. kvbrids*B. corolliflora, P. lomatogona, B. maerorhuse B. trigyna of sugar beets were studied at the genetics, laboratory. The laboratory of anatomy of MS conducted interesting tests to learn the inner structure of various crops and uncultivated beet forms; the development of sugar beets in the first and second years and their most important organs, i.e. leaf, petiole, root, stem and seed mere studied In detail. These studies engaged in jointly withphysiological and bio-chemIcal laborator;es helped Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, V. I. 9 Transl. 201: Sugar Beets ? establish many characteristics of root structure and their heads, connecting passages ("Fluter') 'which determine the movement of sugars and their trans- -r-Sormation, Positive and negative points in root structure and uncultivated types of beets were also established for purposes of hybridization with cul- tivated species. Of major interest is the latest work of the laboratory of anatomy. The etudy of the transformation of chlorophyll grain, the anatomy of root and leaf growth and root of sugar beet when not transplanted, as well as the influence of vernalization and heat treatment of seeds upon differ- entiation processes of merismatio tissue, growth points of eugar beets, and fillually, the influence of various elements in nutrition (P,K,F, etc.) upon the transformation of anatomic: elements in beat growth. Laboratories of php:iology and biochemistry of VNIS studied processes of photosynthesis) tering, mineral nutr:tion, -breeihing of various beet varie- ties, sugar formation and growth under conditions of external environments. Many biochemical connected with fomentation of beets were studied extensively. By applying original equIpment and methods of research it was established that during noon hours and hot days the water balance of beets is disrupted because of the break between evaporation and supply of water from the soil; this ie accompanied by a reduction in the absorption of carbon acid and its LIP simultaneous escape connected with the loss of previously accumulated dry substances and retardation in growth. Ey applying specially constructed equipment to the study of breathing processes, characteristics in breath7ng of different organs-of beets in the various stages of their development were established under manifold conditions with regard to mineral feeding and waterinL. Varietal characteristica of nprlaRsified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, R. I. . 10 TranaL. CALLS QULUJ- uyouo IP- bcets'sere also deterMined. Extensive studies of sugars in leaves and roots of beets sere aixexatatatmixa engaged in, as sell as beet growth under different, ? mineral feeding and?eatering: The negative influence of nitro,en upon beet groWthwas determined prior to the photosynthotie action of its assimilating apparatus. The developrent of the latter which accelerates nitrous feeding, in . necessary correlation with other elements of mineral feeding contributes to more virorous 'beet growth. ? Important ObsorvatiOns were made with respect to the distrfbutidn of a sugars in different tissues of roots/64g the various forms of beets. Thus it was found that vascular ktots of the inner root part of beets. vontained,more saccharose than the corresponding layers of inter-node parenchyma. In contrast mangald parenchyma contains -more saccharose than do modes? ("puchki"). Special studies of oropsing beets with other root crops and beets with mangolds point to ,the poidibilities of increasing the sugar content of parenchyma layers of beets at the expense of the absorption (**espriatien by hybrids of.the corresponding charaoteriatice of_mangolds.' Of particularinterest to selectors is the role of foliage and root in accumUletin:; sugar in the root. Contrary tattle farily widespread belief that the root is "passive in this respect and acts only as a source for the flow of sugar from leaves, slAcial tests estediahed that this is far from true. TiSSUBW of roots, as 'es proved by biochemical study of grafts of beets upon forage and vice versa, actively participate in the formation and accumula- tion Of sacoharose in roots. ? Extensive experiments have been conducTted lately on sugar accumulation under different ao!ls, climates and other factors of external environment., The tole of harmful nitrogen and ashes is under study, as le the development of methods to reduce these substances in beets. It is particularly desirable - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, I. I. 11 ?renal. Vls Sugar Beets to stress the work of VNIS and its system of varietal work on hi eta during the Second World ez. At the beginning of the war, in 1941, rladov and L.vgov stations were evacuated to Blisk Station, Altai territory. The remaining stations incluein VNIS itse/f, were evacuated into Central Asia to Frunze Point, which became the main base for sugar beet proeuotion and suar beet planting between the years 1942 and 1943. leading selectors and other specialists were also evacuated to these points together with the mere valuable seleeton stooks. . It is natural that during tl,ewar (before the Institute and stations returned) many special laboratories . of the Institute and stations discontinued their operations and devoted their maIN attention to essential propagation of the evacuated stock and the pro- vision of seed beetfunde witl the ..7est varietal taserial. Sciontifio staff members of the Institute and statione took active part in introducing ewer beet seed plantings at collective farms; an average yield of seeds was obtained 14 1942 in the beat sone of Central Aida that amounted to 15 poods per hectare. Celeotion proceeded in addition on material received from all selection stations, selection nurseries, tutting stations, planting plots of elite seeds, regional and government testing stations. As a result of the devoted labor of all selectors, the evacuated seed stocks were not only saved but propagated to an extent which permitted the stail-o-WWW7-tbetr-return_te;:years later +.45 fully restore the pro-war scheule in their respective localities. Seed stock of industrial varieties of beet,* was also propagated to meet requirements in seeds of ell sugar beet zones of the rssn in full measure, including regions freed from the temporary (3erman. occupation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Orlovskii, R. I. 12 Trans).* 201; SugerEeets In Central Asia new hybrids of VETS beets were propagated along with forace and table beets and severatuncultivated species. Considerable study was encagrd in on the phsiological and blocherical properties of beets in ? Central Asia, specifically, at Frunze and Issyk-Kul'sk ?blasts and Uzbekistan. -------- A new and effective tethod of planting sugar beet steeds without transplanting was developed jointly with rrunze Point. Fgscist inVadors caused enormous ? losses to Soviet varietal Sugar beet proeuotion. no joint efforts of selec- tors and biologists under the leadership of the Party and Government succeeded ? nevertheless to heal the wounds inflicted by the enemy in a comparatively shor t tire and reestablished completely (by 1946) pre,qaar seals of output in the Major- ity of the principal branches of varietal production. The principal task.until the end of the fourth five-Year plan, to which ? is subordinated varietal. worls, is to ensure the entire USSR of sugar beet plantings with pre seeds and rem improved varieties of sugar bets. The prerequiSites for thls task are already at hand. Accomplishments in selection in 1946 are adequate for otaining pure industrial seeds. revertheless, much . has still to te done to improve vrrieties in the nature. Success in accomplishing the task depends to a large ertent upon the accuracy of main prerequisites upon which future varietal work is based. These 1. organism and extcrnal environment are continuous in their correlation(?). External environment vleved in wide concept (citrate, soil, level of technique, methods of caring for plants, eto.) affects to a certain decree the transforma- tion Of properties of the organism, population, the course of complicatecipro- ceases in natural selection, the efficacy of artificial selection. In this 410ponnectioe varietal work Should atm at keeping the selection process on an im,,,I,ccifiari and Annroved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 orlovzkii, U. I. 13 ' Trench 2013 Sugar Beets ? agricultural level that includes crop rotation, fertilization, height of yield and would be Typical for advanced farce at the time new varieties are introduced to industry. Thus agricultural technique at advanced farms must already reflect the superior background in subsequent five-year plans. 2. Selective processes will be more effective if not conducted on poor, narrow-generic initial material but on richer, rore diverse, initial stocks. In sugar beet selection hybridization should therefore be used on a vast , scale, specifically In combination with 'directed selection. Eybridization disconnected from systematic selection "chaotic"), without rat;onal regu- lating in pollination may produce average material, epecifically loss in regional adaptation of .sugar beets, i.e. loss of the positive results in ecological selection. Particular attention should also be paid to intra- varietal crossings in sugar beets. 3. Selection and seed growing cult be inseparable. Propagation of seeds mist go alongside selection and conieibute to systematic improvement of the variety. In seed growing intra-varietal croscings.of the components of varieties trained under differentNenvironmental conditions must be widely used. 4. Along with this must go on universal biological study of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology of sugar beets, genetics and cytology. This is essential not only from the standpoint of stirulating increases in sugar contents and the yields of sugar beets but for speeding ripening, ing" developing drought-resistance and resistance to diseases, improvviquality, aiming ultirately at increasing sugar output per unit area, Better knowledge of sugar beet crops will in turn contribute to further improvement in selection methods and seed growing. All-Union. Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar Beets (VNIS) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Sigrianskii, A. M., ed. Tranel. 202s Plant Protection Spravoohnik agronoma po bortbe a bolezniami sel,skokhoziaistvennykh. rsstsoti jAgronomiet's manual on control of diseases of agricultural plants). Moscaw, 1936. 615 p. 464 812 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Translated in part by Anna Antik Table of Contents (p. 611-615) From the Editor 3 General Conception of Plant Diseases and measures to control them 5 Reasons causing diseases and their recognition 5 Conditions determining plant diseqses 29 Determination of damage caused to Igrioulture through plant diseases 33 Betio tasks of practical phyto-pathology 34 Basic purposes of measures in the fight against diseases of agricultural plants 35 Yeasures in the fight against diseases of agricultural plants 38 Vethods of ohemicil fight 39 Thermic method of fight 40 Systens of measures 40 Outline of exposition of data accepted in the handbook 41 Chapter I. Diseases of Grain Crops 42 Destruction of winter crop germinations 43 Destruction of developed plants 46 Meat 47 Bye Barley 87 Oats 93 Corn 100 Sorghum ("dzhugara") 113 Millet.. 118 Italian millet (foxtail millet, bristly fox-tail grass, getaria italica, "mogar", -"kunak" 117 Rice.. 121 ruckwheat 126 System of measures in the fight a,ainst grain crop diseases 126 1. System of measures in the fight against 6rain crop mildew 127. 2. System of measures in the fight against .rain crop smut 130 3. System of reasures in the fight against grain crop fusariosis 133 4. Spreading of smut on cereals 136 Recommended methods of seed treatment against smut.. 140 Spreading of -rildew on cereals 144 Economical characteristics of standard wheat varieties 146 Chapter II. Diseases of Forge Grasses 152 Eiseases of cereal grasses 152 "Mager" 152 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sigrianskii, A. V. 2 Transl. 202: Plant Protection :Page Sorghun 1c2 Sudan grass 1c3 "Pal-tam" IRS Cultivated rye grass and Voistervolid rye grass 174 Timophy 106 Brame grass rbezostyi" 158 Agropyrum and American couch grass 15.9 readow-pasture grasses 160 Diseases of bean family grasses 164 a) Annuals (vetch-sprin and winter crop-, feed pea variety and feed lentil 164 Feed pea variety 16 c Spring ard winter crop vetch and lentil 164 b) Perennials (red clover, alfalfa, esparsette, sweet olover) 166 Clovers 166 Alfalfa 174 Sweet clover 177 Esparsette 178 Lotus 178 Chapter III. Diseases of Technical Crops 179 'Fibre crops (cotton plant, gumbo hemp, Chinese bell flower, ramie, Indian hempo.flax, hemp) Cotton plant Mambo hemp Chinese bell flower Ear" ie Indian hemp Ilax Eemp 011 producing crops (sunflower, mustard, false flax, sesame, castor plant, soy-beam, peanut Sunflower Mustard and false flax Se sane Castor plant Peanut With nut). Soy-bean Tobacco and naYiarha (law tobacco trade) Plseases of seedlings Yeasures for the fight a-ainst tobacco diseases in nur- series 1,:easures for tle fijit a6ainet tobacco diseases IL t!e field Poppy Fuller's teazel Tops sugar-bearers Jerusalem artichoke Chikory ? 179 179 193 201 201 203 205 213 21c 21c 222 222 223 224 226 212 212 233 240 241 244 246 247 247 248 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sigrianskii, A. M. 3 Transl. 202: Plant protection Page Ether oil producing plants 248 Oil rose... 248 Lavender 253 NUskatel sage 254 Geranium 256 Peppermint 262 Coriander and anis 265 Perna' 267 Vedic:nal plants.... 268 Pelladonm 268 lienbare 269 Valerian 269 Thoru apple 271 Digitalis 271 Pubber producing plants 272 Yok-saghyz, krym-saghyz 272 Tau-saghys 275 Chondrilla 274 Tea shrub 276 Chapter IV. Diseases of Fruit-berry Crops, 'rape Vine and hlit Fruit 282 General diseases of fruit-berry crops 287 Basic, reasures to keep orchards in healthy conditIon 296 Diseases of seed varieties 297 D seases of stone varieties (peaches, w:Tioots, plums, cherries 313 Diseases of gooseberries, red and black ourrente 526 Diaases of raspberries 332 Diseases of garden and field strawberries 134 riseases of figs 336 DIseses of olives 340 Diseases of the rIllberry tree 342 Pisea es of the citrus fruit (tanger5ne, orgnge, lemon) 345 Diseases of the crape vine 350 Diseases of nut-fwult varieties (almond, pistachio, "fundue, walnut, chestnut) ? 167 Almond...... 367 Pistachio tree 367 "Funduk" and European hazelnut 368 Walnut 369 C estnut (edible) 372 Nursery 174 Agenda of measures in tl-e fiEht against diseases of fruit-berry crops ? 378 Standard expenditure of po!sons 382 Chapter v. Diseases of Vegetable Crops 384 Potato family 384 Potato 384 System of measures for the fight a:a nst potato diseases.. 404 Tomatoes 407 Diseases of egg-plant and pepper 423 Diseases of sweet potato 424 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 46/1..anakit, A. M. 4 Transl. 202: Plant Protection Diseases mustard?faily plantsIroabbage, turnip, radish, eta. %gl Diseasesof finiOiLand'.gaillic...!....%:' " " "4-4. 446 Diseases of the gourd fasiiIY OOOOOOOOO ***** ******** ::::::414????-?.:::44:;00* 453, Diseases of t'betbeeid:faMili::,::::.:,.'.:::::::.::: ..:.::..,:".:..:. 463' DieeeSei,of-the carrot familY (carrot, parSleyT ;41ery; parsnip ..... ****** . **** 04.410 474 Diseases of beet.... .********** ******** 478 Diseases of asparagus ***** .... ......... 484 Diseases of rhubarb........ ****** 04% 0 489 k] Diseases of spinach.. ......... * . * ..... ? ?.??????? 0 466 , ..? . Diseases of lettuce . ***** 0040 .. 487 Systems of measures tor the fight against diseases of cabbage, on- ion, tomatoes and cucumbers. ** . * .............. 4?414,....???? 488 Chapter VI. Diseases of Fruit and Vegetables whfle in Storaco.... *** 491 1. Vegetable rot . ****** 0.4.0"04,00.16.01110.44.00. **** 491 Rot of cabbage and other mustard family crops.: *** . ... ... 491 Rot of carrot.. . ....................... 494 Rot of beet .00.00?..000...0 4.0101.........? 495 Rot of onion...?. ** . ****** ..... ..... 406 ? 496 Factors influencing development of vegetable rot...... 497 Production quality.............. **** . * .. * .497 .... Storage conditions...........................?... ***** ..... 498 2. Fruit rot Sw.11.0....e04 ' *silo.. ***** .411A9 900 Prief description of rot...... * ? 41,0,0....04,064 **** S. *** 501 Facts influencing the development of fruit rot... .0.060i. ***** ii. 504 Fruit quality * . **** . ** ....... ........... *** . * 504 Fruit transportation ,bisi?o4,410 SOO, 505 . 505 Outline of measures for the fight against rot in storing fruit and vegetables ....... 507 and dilI). ** * Rot of potato..... .-0000040-0410 * Storage conditions.... Chapter VII. Fungicides.......... * ? 508 Chapter VIII. Machines and Equipment for Grain Treatments and Dis- infection of .??. * Apparatus for.dry grain treatment................:.. Apparatus 'Apparatus "Ideal"........ Apparatus "Urozhai" ??? Apparatus "Pobeda" Apparatus "OBV -1" ? ? ? .530 530 631 532 534 537 Machine for wet treatment ofgrain--"ekstra"....... ***** 00?064.0 644 Combined machine for grain treatment,--"P-2"....... * . **** .. * ...... 547 Equipment for thermc disinfection of seeds (with hot water).... 557 Installation for thermic sterilization of grain 559 Installation for treatment of potato tubers with hot formaline............... 1,410 562 Installation for sterilization of cotton seeds with sulphuric 'Mid 563 Machine for treatment of cotton seed with sulphuric acid.. 966 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sitrianskii, A. 7. 5 Transl. 202: Plant 1-rotection Pe Equip 'lent for tLerric son clein:ection 566 Equipment for oterlioal soil direnfeotion 669 Literature '572 Alphabetical index of Eussian nanes of eineases ane crops, subjeat to injury 581 Sept. 12, 1051 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 AO 3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh. P. . Tranel. 203: Sugar Beets Utilization of roots from the Bummer Cougar] beet crop for transplanting.. 0 Selek. I Bonen. 17(7):60-70. July 19g0. 01.0 8e5 ZA3-Lk`A Trar.elated from the Russian 'Ni R. G. Denbo ? The experipieuts which we carried out upon irrigated fields of Garda- bantk steppes with the stubble plants-of sugar beets indicate that the intro- duction of this meaeure on the fields of collective farms of Eastern Seorgia will considerably increase the base for raw material of our sugar industry, since one hectar of stubble sugar beet yields at the averaLe up to 2g0-300 centners of roots. Votes Sh. Chaniehvili and V. Varsanova - Effect of surer sowing of sugar beets in Oardabansk raion. Informations of, the Academy of Sciences - of Georgian.SS0, v. VIII, to. 3, 1947. $1. F. Chanithvill - Sugar beets and potatoes as stubble plants. Topics ? ? of report at the Third soientific session of the Institute of field produotion of the Academy of Sciences of Georgian SP, 1948. Besides, the toots of the sugar beets yield :from the stubble field Uould be easily utilized as transi.lanted plants. According to the results of limper- inents, although of one year, Which we described below, the tubers of sugar . beets crops of stubble field are preserved better and lose affected,by "kacat" rot than the tubers of the harvest of regular spring sowings. It is well keown, that the conditions of Agricultural technics and of fertilization, especially boric, influence the ability of preservation and promote the itprovement of the quality of tubers which are used for mother sugar beets. Votes r. I. Utvth., The influence of fertilization upon preservation of sugar beets. "Sugar beet field production", Kb. 3, 1938., ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01-426R010000010001-2 ? ,4 ? 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh. 2 Transl. 203: Sugar Poets 0. Y. Ledrov-Zilchman, O. E. Tedrova-Zikhman, A. N. Yothevnikov - The Effect of boric upon crops and the quality of the seeds. "Soviet Agronomy", No. 3, 1346. D. alaid*. - Preservation of Tether suar beet. "Soviet Agronomy". Ro. 2, 1948. Prof. I. A. Yubin Loviet biochemistry in controlling losses during the preservation ot vegetables. "Soviet science", No. 8, 1940. This eorresnonde to the teachings of Vichurin and Lysenko on the transfor- mation of the hereditary ability of plants the influence of the condi- tions of the environment. The more negative is the co-plex of the envirorment under which the growth and the eevelopment of ; lants ocaurs, the stronger is the transformation of the p1ant14, and seed material to tie worst. This has been proved especially conspicuously by the academie T. I% Lysenko in determin- ing the causes of the degeneration of potatoes from spring planting in Southern raions of USSR. Sugar beets, as well as potatoes, are depressed in Southern raions of USSR in July-August from extremely high temperature and low relative air humidity which is expresed in more or lcse.growth checking. Based upon the study made by acad. T. 1. Lysenko, we may looeume th%t the roots of sugar beets of spring sowing wtome rosettes with its buds are influenced by high summer temperature should possess worse characteristics _ - in the mother sugar beet than the roots of the summer stubble sowitv.s which _ _ - are not influenced by these factors.? Paged upon this assumption we started an elsperilent in 1916 at the Tnsti- tute of field production of the icademy of Sciences of neorgian FSE for sur- veying for the mother sugar beet roots which were selected from the spring and summer sowinr,s of 1948 which crew under similar soil conditions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, 8h. F. 3 . Tranal. 203: SN16ar r cats For. planting were selected Where of similar weight - at the average of 400 e. The tubers both of the spring and of the stubble yield were kept under similar oondit'onst in baaement, in stacks, covered with sand. respite the fact that during the harvent of 1948 the auger beet tubers of both the spring and the sumer sowing contained approximately an equal per- centaLe of water (about 63) in spring,, on March 1.7, 1949, the tubers of stubble sugar beets contained ?8.07 percent water, and the spring - onlp 73.73 percent. There was still a Greater diffei-ence botVieen them before the plantilg on rarch 23rd; there was in the roots of stubble ;sugar beets 75.3 percent iter, and in the spring sugar boots only (39.3 porcent. The titers of the stubble sugar Incite lost altoLether 7.7, percent water during conservation, and the spring sugar beeta lost 13.1 percent. In connection with this the percentage of loss of sugar in the stubble beeta should be less than in the spring ones.. *See the works of L. italaida and Prof. P... A. P.ubin which were mentioned in the preyic .e note. We must also add that the percentage of wtste from mound rot amounted to 68.3 percient in the tubers of the spring sawing, and !n the harvest of stuble sugar beets there we only 20.2 percent of ptirtly damaged tubers. The better storage of the stubble sugar beets in comparison with the roots of the spring, cowing could be explained? apparently, by the difference in the stae of their 6rowth during harvest'.ngs the tubers of the stubble sugar beets are of a younger so than the sugar beet crops of. the spring sowing. The sugar beets were carefully selected,. and the sound undamaged tubers were utilized tor .C1eld and vegetative experiments according to the schemes 1) planting of tubers of stubble crops and 2) planting of tubers of the spring crops. In the field experiment the general field was 35.64 m2, the registered ? field - 2$.76 m2; it his been repeated four times. The quality of the sugar Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 t? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh'. F. 4 Transl. 203: Sugar rests ? beets itoth variations - "Verkhniachka" 10-25. The. tubers are planted on ? ploughland on arch 23 with between raw of 90 cm; 60 on, were left between the plants in a row. The mother sugar beet has been hoed twice,: :!ay 14th and June 1Sth; it has been watered four times: April 27, Ley 18, June 6th, July $ed. It has been harvested on July 30th. The observations made u on the er erimental field indicated a consider- able advan aa of the plants Of the stubble Gu ar beets in cam arison with those of the spring sawing. The advantage was manifested in the following: 1) in a more quick forms.tion of rosettes, 2) in a smaller percentage of the "stubborn" ones which did not form rosettes, or of rotten tubers, 3) in a o nsiderable superiority of both the seed yield /ram vath field and of the ?productivity of, one plant, 4) in the improvement of the seed quality - a higher weight (see tables 1,2,3). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh. F. 5 Transi. 4vo: ouGar uumws Development Phase The Course in the Development of Plantings Planting of Stubble sugar beets The initial formation of 1//V rosettes Vase formation of rosettes The initiation of sprouting rasa sprouting Initiation in blooming Uses bloomin3 Table 1 Planting of spring _suxar beets Pootnbtet For root planting from the harvest of sugar beets of spring sowing are mentioned only the dates of the initial phases Since only 65.7 percent of the roots formed rosettes, so that 'there vas no mass initiation of observed Pieties. Percentage of plants vilich formed rosettes on Vey 18th 29/IV Table 2 Type of experiment percentage of plants vilioh formod'rbisettes According to the quantity of plantings In relation to the plants vtleh formed rosettes Planting of stubble sugar beets 69.8 84.1 93.7 Planting of slags"' beets of spring 'sowing '553 29.5 53.1 --- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Type of experiment Wo. of planted tubers nc. of plants mfitch formed rosettes rercentage in relation to planVng ro. of plants 8;rout- !nr reroectaLe tothose wWoh formed rosettes Y!ele -f seeds (in centeners ;Ter hen- tar) Absolute we!ebt of tubers Table 3 ,.:411,4 of 1 ,Aant (in g) (-) p 0 m 4 t-- ? H. Planting of stubble sugar beets 44 38 86.4 35.F; 03.4 28.01 22.94 188 Planting of spri.E suoir beets 44 20.7 47.1 14.c 70.C; 7.62 21.76 12g Footnotes The difference between the amount of the tubers which formed the rosette and the amount of the plants vf,ich started to sprout is explalned by the fact that some number of plants with the rosette VD id wilt later due to various reasons. sgoed .162ns :03 0 0 -0 co 0 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh. P. 7 T-ransl. 203: Sutar Pests ? . It is evident that the plantings of spring sugar beets were behind, according to the growth of the stubble 1?.eets; the formation of rosettes spread during five weeks. Mile on 'Vey .18th in the plantings from the yield of sugar beets of sprint sowing, in four repetitions, only 55.7 percent of tubers which formed 'rosettes were counted at the average, there were 89.8 percent from the stubble sugar beets. (see table 2). During the vegetatiOn of the rother sugar beet strong winds negatively influenced the growth and the development of the plants. On April 12 the Rosettes of young leaflets of the plantings suffered from a strong, rorth- ? etstrrn wind which out the leaves by the ground'particles. As a result, the leaves dried out alrost corpletely, and later new leavei had formed. Later on, strong winds eaused lodging of plants which were strongly developed and the loss of ace's parts of the t4bers. respite of that, the mother sugar beet yielded quite high seed crops (see table 3). The data given in table 3 indicate that the plantings from the crepe of stubble sugar beets yielded almost four tines as many seeds as the .plantings of the tubers of tho spring sewing. This is explained not only by the lamer percentage of the plants which formed rosettes and which broke out into blossom, but by the high yield oflndividuai plant as well. One plant from the stubble sugar boot kielded 168 g. seeds, and in the plantings of spring sugar boots there were only 128 g. Besides, the absolute *Wight at seeds in the first case is somewhat higher than in the second case. The results of the vegetative experiment gave a ai-ilar picture, although the difference in the yield between the plantings of the stubble * and the aprini.; sowing is trailer than in the field experi7ent., which is quite clear, since during the vegetative experiment the conditions of growth ? (moisture, nutrition regime etc.) of the plant:: even up considerably (see table 4). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? 4 Sh. F. 8 Tranal. 203s Zutar Eeets (D 0 CD (/) Table 4 (D CD Types romation of rosettes Sprou.ting rasa bloominc, ease maturing Yield (in t) Absoluts for e vessel weicht of seed ( -0 -0 traria', Plantings of stubble 30/C: 1/7I 10.23 17.SO -n sugar beets Plantings of i;71-ing 8/lV 15/V 4/VI io,ki 18.38 17.72 (T) sugar teets CD (D n.) o) co n.) . . 0 0 -0 co n.) n.) . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Chanishvili, Sh. F. 9 Transl. 203: Sur "sets ? Table 4 indicates that root plantings from the stubble yield of sugar beets sprout and develop much faster than the pleuitino from the sprin, sowing. The reason is tha'., at the time of planting the tubers of stub-1e sugar beets had a much hher percentage of moisture than the roots from Me crops of spring sowirq,-. ry the way, the surveys made by ? A. Tubin and by other Soviet scientists Indicate that the decrease of the amount of water in the cell protoplasm', due to wilting, "causes a drastic in,-rease in ty riodlo activity Of/fermentations 'both of carbohydrate and of nitrogen compounds, i.e. the !ncrease in the activity of the factors of disintegration." Conolus?on ? ? 1 1. The tubers of the y'ald from stubble sugar beets utIlised for rlan- ting are considerably super!or in their quality than the tubers harvested from Burin, sowing. - _ 2. The tubers of the yield of stubble sugar beets durisw storage are ^ rarely 0!maged by "kagst" rot, *Ile the tubers from the sprin, sow in are damaged con3iderably. 1.ealdes, the first lose leas water and ilastio sub- stances than the se(:ond ones. _ S. The percentage of 1)7.t.,_ whioh don't forr rosettes in the stubble sugar beets Is con:vide:ably limaller.tham in olantin-a from spring sowing. - 4. According to lift eds from a field unit and according to the produc- Vvity of one plant, the tubers from stubble suor beets are conethlarably. ?higher_ than the tura from _sprin_ sugar beets. _ L.A.T. Birstember 13, 1931 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Bordonoa, r. u. Transz. cue: eugar recce Sugar beet fors producing one-seeded balls. Proc. Lenin Acad. Agric. Sot. rSSR, 1941, GR74,9-- (11): 3-4. 1941. 201K1 (Lae been preserted by Aoaderic I. V. Iiikushkin) Translated by R. G. rembo All forma of cultivated and wIld our beets of the variety Beta vulgaris L., as a rule, have multi-seeded balls. There are no varieties of sugar beets (sugar of fodding etc.) which are characterized by one seed t-lbers. The multi-seediness of the aur berit tuber banlpers the rechanitation of sprouting because from each tuber appear 3-4 or more sprouts whi.o. are dif- ficult to separate from each other. The multi-seediness of the tuber increeses the amount of mnall plant sprouts, and consequently of the tubers as well. In America attempts were made already in 1903 of_produoini one-seeded - ? _ _ _ varieties. Put this 'work 11113 not successful and baa been abandoned. All the attempts rade abroad in producing one-seeded sugar beet variety were directed towards the sorting of seeds, aecording to the number of blossoms, instead of producing ner one-seeded biotypes of sugar beea. The selection work in USSR on the production of one-seeded varieties of sugar beets began in selection stations Fein-Sugar. In 157,4 hu6e masnives of sur beets plants were inspected and among them were discovered indivic'ual plants, all of which or the greater part of the tubers were one-seeded. The seeds collected from there plants were the basic material for our wurk. These seeds were natural hybrids between one-and multi-seeded sugar 'oeeta. All the transplanted seeded plants, as well as from rair crossings in Isolators had multi-seeded Were only wit- more or less great quantity of one-seeded fruits. Entirely ore-seeded plants among the variety F1 were not disclosed. According to their development (blossoming tire) F1 plants did not differ from the regular multi-seed sugar beets. The one-seediness under_reguler conditions of sugar beet sprouting is recessive. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pordonos 2 Trowel. 204: Sugar Pests In F there is a division between one- and multi-seeded fruits. In F2 ? the majorit:: of the plants which are mainly one-seeded differ eoreiderably _ according to their appearance from the multi-seeded_plants, be!ng characterized _ _ by a strong vegetative development and peculiar form of the bush. Locording to various hybrids, the amount of the slitting ono-seed plants fluctuates from 20 to 30 peroent, including one-seed variety which don't blos- som during CA: first year of life. Along w:th the egitting, according to the number of blossoms in a tuber of F2 hybrids with one-seeded sugar Loots, a sharp division occurs acoording to the blossom time, whereby the chief characteristic is their early riening. The plants of a labor croup are in their majorit:, one-seeded. One-seeded plants are characterized by late ripening of the nlantings, _ but vary in the blossom time. The latest forms of one-seeded plants appear to be "upriamtay" (stubborn) during the second year of their life. The numlier _ of "uprimntsy" among some numbers of hybrids is very great with one-seeded sugar Ivet. Py artificially lengthening the vegetative perlod (in a nursery) these "upriamtsy" bloom and produce one-sprogt seeds. The one-seeded plants are long stage forms. Along with late maturing one-seed forms in F2, a small number of one- seed plants differentiate whioh, according to the blooming time, don't differ from the regular multi-seed plants. Usually the same hybrids F2 Produce a smell Pereentage of plants with many seed fruits. One-seeded plants which bloom simultaneously with many need sugar beets yield normal crops and well germinated seeds (table 1). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Bordonos 3 Transl. 2041 Sugar Beets The Division of Hybrids F2 of One-seed Sugar Beet According to , the Number of BlossoMs and Time of Blooming - ? Time of No. Blooming ' Seeds1,O 1-19 1 --- -- Table 1 umber of blossoms In tubers ,25 ,50 1,75 2,00.2,29 2,90 2,75 3,00 3,29 3,0 5,7s 15..30/V1 --1:, 11 4 r-,1s/V1i ? -.... 89 3. 49 1?IB/Vu! --- 17 19-30/111.1 --- 1 "Fholostiaki" 100 "Upriaptsr.. 39 elf ?????? 1,3b 16,t- 71.4 aim eV. - - ? I 191 331 65 64 38 22 2. 4 64R 41 150.30 21 3 11 - 2 - 349 1, 2 2 1 ? 2.- - 58 1 . 4... S .- 18 MP. .. - a. - 1 aft ??? - - - - 100 ..? . 39. ?143 484- 97 87 32 33 ..6 4, 1213 The posterity of one-seed plants selected in the second generation, oh-. tamed by group and pair crossing, appear to be one-seeded. Thelchar oteristic of one-seediness is preserved by Crossing one-seed plants of various origin *blob enables to avoid the close oroswing when producing one-seeded variety, of sugar beets. While the number of blossoms in the tuber with regular one-seed plants varies, by eecreasing the number of plants under poor Conditions,of sprouting, one-seed plants are characterized by high resistance according to the number of blossoms in the tUber.. We were unable to change the number of blossoms in one-seed plants in the nursery at entirely different plantin,nd nutrition time. Thus, re obtained straight lines according to otaxilmripomix*Tx flexmkstxxx one seediness. By selecting the plants according to early ripening, Ile ob- tained one-seed Sugar beet varieties which are blooming at regular time. We carry on further work with these wrieties in or' at tolobtain aonstant lines according to the early seed ripening. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 . ? 44, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Bordonos 4 Tranel. 204: Sugar Beets The study 'of hybrids F3 aeoording to their one-seed forms present an in- terest, aoeording to their low blot:leo:tins. The study of seed weight of one-sprout plants !ndicate that the seed wet ht which shells from the tubers of one-seed plants surpasses considerably the seed weight of the multi-teed tubers. (Table 2.).: Table 2 The Average Seed Weicht in One Sprout and tulti Sprout Forms of Sugar Beets One-seed Plante Type of the tuber one-sprout bieprout three-sprout early ripen late ripen- ing, 1 sprlut ins: AL sprout Seed weight On re) 1,8 2,7 37.3,6 It is interesting to notice that the seed weight of late ripening of one-seed varieties is not Inferior, but on the eontrary somehow highar than the weicht of the seed Of one-seed early ripened plants. Presented April 8, 1941 The All-Union Sugcr Institute., Kiev, Laboratory of Ceneties Sept. 12, 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sokolov, A. D., comp. Trans'. 205i Plant Protection Sbornik postanovlenii, pravil instratsii po karantinu sellskokhoziaistvennykh S rastenii. (Collection of rules, regulations and ,instructions for the quaran- ? 111. tit.? of agricultural. plants). Leningrad, 1934. 84 p. 464.5 So3 Translated in part b: R. Dembo Table of Contents Foreword 3 On the organization of unified quarantine service at the People's Commissariat of Agriculture of rssR On quarantine measures in Leningrad oblast' The situation of quarantine oontrol for the import from abroad of agrica/tural production and living plants into USSR Regulations of quarantine inspection No..20 of cargos at harbors and porta 8 10 15 Quarantine Control 19 The order in handing out seeds which are imported from abroad to their destination 20 Grapes quarantine 29 411 Potato quarantine 53 Regulations on the content of quarantine fields of potatoes imported. from abroad 40 Quarantine regulations of importation of seed and trade potatoes to tho territory of USSR . " 46 Orchard quarantine 49 The establishment of orchard quarantine in Leningrad oblast' 64 The order of realization of importing ,plantin3msterial: fruit, ,:rapes, berries, forest decorative and other living plants 65 Regulations of accepting for transportation of plarendi Material and of , living plants along various types of motor transports of 'USSR . Elucidation of the order of transportation of planting material and of living plants at USSR Illegal export of decorative plants from the raions under quarantine Order of printing materials on infestation of plants by quarantine diseases and pests (circular for all quarantine inspectors 15/V-33) 68 84 85 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko, P. A. and Predit, K. I. Trend. 206: Suva. Beets Conditions contributing to the propagation of the auger beet flea (Poecillosoet tus.eo status Fieb.) and smaller flea? (Chaetoonema , Breviuseu a Fe d. u Phyl otreta vittula tedt.) and improvement of methods for their control. Vsesolus. gauch. Issled. Inst. Sveklov. Polevod. Rauch. Otohet 1941-1942: 192-115. 1941. 06.9 V963. ? Translated from the Russian by S.N.Yonson The sugar beet flea (?) the most dangerous auger beet pests. It prevail. in all sugar beet areas but taunts particular injury in the Altai , . krai where it destroys or severely injures annually a considerable part of sugar beet fields, necessitating repeated plantin:.s. Existing control measures egainet these pests, both large and small, did not produce the neceissary results, 'each caused TXT7EP to include the bio- ecology of theae pests and methods for controlling them into the recearCh program of the laboratory of entomology. The present article is designed to give a brief description of that work as conducted in 1941 and 1042. . Studies mere engaged in under the aUpervision of Prof. P. SViri- denkt; K. K. Predit, A. A. Ge;seimova and G. C. Annenkov participated actively in the work Field tests and observations mere organized at Altai krai, Rubtsov ex-. :.periment field, and at the collective farms, imeni Kirova and Voskoia, of Rubtsov region. The development of sugar beet fleas (?) add their quantitiis more ob- served at station plots, *hid', included all principal varieties of soils. Various species of plants mere examined to determine the minterin abodes of pests in early spring and fall periods; soil and vegetative layers mere analyzed. Simultaneously with determinating the phenology of rests, actual calendar . periods for applying destructive control measures under industrial conditions Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and Frodit 2 Transl. 206$ Suva. Feets at collective farms were studies and compared. The action of various insecti- aides was observed at laboratories and under field coeditions. The assembled material permitted the determination of several In ortant points in the ecol- ogy of pests and to lan measures for the protection of sugar beet plantings even before the completion of the erogeet. Conditions under which the Sugar Peet Plea Propagates Three species of 1.1.jurious fleas attac sugar beet plantinge in the region are under study. They mem the grey flea (Poecillosceytus cognatus Fish.), vegetable flea (?. vulneratus Palm.) and the green flea (Orthotylus flavos- parsus 8h1b.). The most widely spread and dareLerous was the grey flea. 1-his species injures, (in addition to sugar beets) also CompositO, oilbearing plants, perennial legumes and several bast crops. The grey sugar beet flea lays its eggs upon many uncultivated and culti- vated plants Which serve as food for its larvae. In the Pu tsov region of Altai krai the biological connacti n of this peat with 26 species of plants was established (egglaying, feeding of adult insects and their larvae), primarily among the families: Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae, Papilionacese and Composite.. Larvae mere four, to feed on only 19 species and egglaying was Observed on the following IS species: hedge mustard f Sisymbrium), rape [Freesia& napusl, field mustard, alfalfa, common mormwood firthemilsia absinthium); Lrthenisia Sivers, bindweed [Convolvulus]; potatoes; sugar beets; saltwort [salsola canine); knot meed [Polygonnm aviculare); oraehe [Atriplex lacinatum]; and pigweed fChenopodium album]. The sugar beet flea develops and feeds to P11 appearances on several other plant species as well. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP. 80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and Predit 3 Transl. 206: Sugar l'eets It shows, however, a definite selective capacity for some plants; thus pigweed, saltwort, alfalfa, rape, cOmmon wormwood were pfIrtioularly infested by eggs of the flea. The peat developed more rapidly on pigyeed than on the rest. /n the winter of 1942-1943 eggs were distributed among plants in the following degrees: pigweed - 22 pereent; saltwort percent; alfalfa - 4.6 percent, bindeed -1.5 percent; common wormwood - 1.5 percent. Principal sources during tks spring infestation of sugar beet plantings boundaries areienes of roads and irrigation canals, keiledettee, and other plots where pigeerd and saltwort predominate. From these sections winged posts fly over to sugar beet fields. Following their settlement, the density of the flea population in its diverse stages becomes somewhat beveled. Date on quantities of pests and observations on their dovelopment'under natural condition:: during the vegetation period reveal that propagation of this peat in the summer stii takes place not on sugar beets but on read boun- daries and irrigation canals, covered by various species of weeds, chiefly pigweed and saltwort. The Grey sugar beet fleasevorely populates alfalfa; on other crops-and fields carrying stub'lle of rt. 'rt, rye, eta., the pest appears only when these are covered with weeds, especially pig:weed. ? Quantities of the grey sugar beet flea vary consieerably throuGhout the different seasons and years. In 1941 they were enormous; in 1942 the density of populat!on deeressed drastically. According to surveys, density of pop- ulation in 1941, in the different stages of development, varied fror 0 to 2.960 specimens per 50 strokes-of "saohok"; while in 1942 it amounted to a proportion of 0 to 785 specimen?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and Predit 4 Transl. 2061 Sugar Beets ? The number of pests fell !.n 1942 because of weather conditions (lower terperature of air and increased hum,.dity) and in connection with the mese propaLation of the parasite-nnaesdnik" which destroyed all larvae of pests. restruction of pest larvae by larvae of the parasite amounted to 70 percent in the surrior of 1912. The oyole of developuent of sugar beet fleas at Altai krai lasts 25 to 55 days. During the stminer the pest may, produce three to four generations; the latter are, however, extended and overlap, which makes it difficult to recognize them under natural conditions. Fertility of femalea depends upon the type of plants they feed on. In feeding upbn pigwood aaltwort, hedge mustard, females lay a larger number or egce than when feeding on other plants. ? In the summer females lay ems chiefly on lower and upper surfaces of leaves of sugar beets, mustard plants, etc., in the fall on stems of pigweed, gooscforit, baltwort, bindweed, wormwood, rape, and hedge mustard. The pest lays eggs from,tio to six tines. According to counts made in the fall of 1942, the -quantity of cj1 egg-laying varied; let laying produced 18 to 20 eggs; second layinc - 14-16 eggs; 3rd laying - 10-12 eggs; 4th laying- 6-8 eggs; 5th laying - 2-4 eggs; 6th laying - 1-2 eggs. egg; of the flea .are highly resistant to frost. Dry and warm spring -weather offers the moat favorable conditions for the development of the first generation. The rapid devellpment and good survival of larvae of the first generatiOnlusuallyaljfollowed by sacs flights of the pest to sugar beet field? and their subsequent inpry. At Altai krai spring has limited precipitation. Plants upon which larvae of the first generation feed are neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 - Sviridenko and Predit " Trend. 2064 Cugar Feet. hardened by the time the pest is arimj,d; this prahpts the pest to migrate upon young plants, the sugar beet sprouts. Large areas of vitu;te land and other soils covered by vegetation and favor by the pest, as yell as spring loather cantributing to the development of larvae, are the male reasons for repeated macs appearances of the sugar beet flea. The adult flea Of the first generation is moat harmful to sugar beet plantings. Ears is here control is moat essential. !less appearances of the Auger beet flea are determined by the migration of ttes pest from its air:tering abodes (place of all egg. laying and develop- ment of larvae of the first spring generation). Of deoioive importance is consequently the control of initial infestation of sugar beet plantings: destruction of wintering eggs and later of their larvae. Sizes of land plots on which fleas lay their eggs in the fall and oly?hich they teed and develop larvae in the spring are, on the whole, considerably shallot than plots of subeetuent.infestation by adult fleas of the first gen- eration and the latter's future progeny. It is therefore expedient to organize pest control at initial sources of infestation to protect sugar beet plantings and conserve poisons and material; to effect this veeds should be burned it late fall, plots plowed over, and in the spring insecticides used against larvae. Teat of Pyrethrum and Bilious Preparation In the Control of the Peat ? Preparations of pyrethrum and bile solutions taken from cattle (refuse obtained from stockyards) are tested under laboratory condition', as a means of controlling sugar beet fleas. As &result Of tests of different dosages Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ./ ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridertko and Predit 6 !renal. 206: Sugar Beets of pyrethrum, it was found that mortality of lervae of fleas was high as a result of use of liquid extracts of preparations of 0.006 percent concentra- tion. It was subsequently established that under identical conditions alcohol extract of pyrethrum -produced a higher mortality (91.4 percent) than extracts prepared on transformation? oil (76.2 percnet). A study of bile of cattle' revealed its inset:ten:deal properties. It was found thmt bile exerted a high contact taxi? action upon the sugar beet flea. By spraying posts with 1 per- cent solution of bile an average mortality of 52 percent was achieved. By applying weaker so,ations mortality was lower, 'Int still high; 0.5 portent solution destroyed 50.4 percent of specimens; and a solution of 0.25 percent - 39.6 percent. - Along with high contact-toxic properties, bile spreads well on foliage 411 and body surfaces of pests. This property is very valuable, since the efficacy or varicus insecticides used in pest control depends to a large extent upon' good regular spreads by the liquid. The addition of bile to liquid solutions of inseaticidea must increase the efficacy of not alone obit:Lot poisons, used in peat control, but also poisons of internal action. ruring complete coverage of foliage with poisonous solution, the plant is better protected and lose affected by insects. In attacking plants the latter are swallowing deadly dosages of poison more rapidly from a smaller area of injured leaves. The addition of bile to a liquid solution of pyrethrum greatly-increased the toxic action of the solution in our tests; The highest-mortality of larvae was obtained from an application of 0.006 percent solution of, alcoholic extract of pyrethrum (1:1) and 0425 110 percent liquid of bile solution. In spraying weed vegetation (pigweed and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and rredit saltwort) upon which larvae of fleas had settled, the average mortality vas 94.S percent. The temperature of the surrounding environment had considerable effect on larvae treated with pyrethrum; important is also the leaf structure of sprayed plants. At a temperature below 17-18?, toxioity,oliquid Pyrethrum is somewhat reduced. Mortality of larvae on pigweed leaves is lover (when sprayed) than on saltwort. We also tested the effect of powder/Ake Pyrethrum which exhibited a high toxicity with regard to larvae of sug%r beet fleas: Dimany laboratory exper- iments mortality of fleas varied from 7.0 to 24.6 percent. Dusting various weeds in the fields (air temperature 20?) resulted in e mortality of larvae of 99 percent. Thus Pyrethrum In liquid solutions and powder ie _a completely reliable method for destroying larvae of the Grey sugar beet flea.. The addition of bile aids ANWPAGOActhe spread of the liquid on the plant and body of pests, the contact of.poison-with the delicate bodies of larvae, and in addition, because of its ovn contact activity, toxic properties of the combined insecticide are significantly increased. Conditions for Proptgating Sugar beet-and Striped fleas of ry reGular observation and control/ell stages me esttblished 11 species of =all fleas("bloshek"); of these only three species are dangerous to suGLr beets, the common sugar beet flea (Chaetoonema concinna EIrsh); the southern sugar beet flea (Ch. breviuscula Feld.) and the striped grain flea (Phyllo!. trete vittula Redt.l. There are numerous references in literature indicating that the small striped flea is less dangerous to sugar beets and that this species represents only an insignificant specimen among the MAAS of sugar beet maall fleas. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ./ . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDID80R01426R010000010001-2 Sviridanko and Predit 'Trend. 206'; Sugar Pests ? ? Our observations further established that the striped email, fleais a ? most harmful sugar beet pest and apparently chiefly responsible for the Vast injuries caused to sugar beets in their early stages of development, repeatedly Observed in Altai krai. ' The harmful activity of the striped small flea is of the same nature as that of the large sugar beet flea, although the striped pest attaets miser beet plantings earlier' than do coon and southern sugar beet fleas. In 1042 the striped small flea attacked sugar beet plantings in early when June, at the time/there mere no gazer beet fleas. The latter began to settle upon sugar beet fields only in the third week. of JUPO ? Observation stations of the record Service, in establishing their pros- =See of past appearances, drew attention only to auger beet fleas, as a ' result of *WI the danger threatening sugar beets was always .mintrised. In addition, yeasuree for -the control or fleas 4ugar beet plantings were Usually adapted to the period of activity of sugar beet fleas, while striped sped- mane made their appearance much earlier. rstimates of pests wintering in 1041 - 1942 revealed thet, the largest number of cucar beet fleae was distributed along bourdaries of irriation canals ("aryki") overgrown with grass. Vire the density of small fleas was largest; then came plcte alOnt; boundaries of old sugar beet fields, overgrown with weeds; the Old sugar beet fields themselves, and barren lends, as well as road boundaries. On other land quantities of stager beet fleas were small. Mintering striped fleas had a differtnt distribution in 1941. %bile density alleg irrigation canals was enormous, a large =dant of poets was also concentrated an winter wheat plantings. Thus the principal location for winterinc and the foci of masa settlement of sugar beet-and striped Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svirieenko and Predit 9 Transl. 2061 Sugar roots ? fleas at Altai krai are primarily at boundaries of irrigation canals overgrown with greed. The sugar beet flea winters in vast numbers- on old st:gar beet fielde and surrounding weeds, road boundaries, irrigation canals and on empty plots, while the striped pest prefers plantinz,s of grain crops. In early sprint the striped flea tligrates after wintering to suGar beet fields where Ito nember ins:wearies rapidly. Liter th:s species settles among other plants and thair quantities are, therefore not inerensed ?Auger beet fields during the Gunner, as are the quantities of sugar hoot small fleas which fires=user:Lep.Mul scemrShat later mule reach their peek when the new summer generation appears.. In addition to settling on plantings of sugar beets, the sugar beet small flea attacks plota aTrercrown eith weeds, espe- cially pigweod, saltwort, hedge mustard. The 'quantity of fleas in diVerent stages varies depending upon seasons, ?and is determined by ti,eir propagation and migration. In the reeond half of sutror the number of sugar beet fleas is reduced oribest fields and increases on edges of irrigation canals and empty lande, overgrelin by weeds, primarily by pgweed, saltwort and hedge mustard. ' Concentrations of small fleas are observed first along edger; of canals situated near sugar beet fields, where V-eir manber is large. In June the population decreases when pent, migrate to sugar beet fields. reginring Au- gust, irrigation annals again attract pests as winterine, hideouts and tteir nuraber increases there. In order to prevent stairs appearances of small fleas on sugar beets, pests should be exterminated on fields in the spring, as is 'usually done, and on their wintering abodes in the winter and early spring. tettlement of petite during the winter and their quantities throughout the vegetation period point clearly to the necessity of' burning' weeds around Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 41 ? - Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 , Svirdenko and ?reit lu IFSUO14, 4.ww? plantings of sugar beets and the eradication of weeds in Edges of irritation cenals are particularly apt to become overgrown with weeds, along with boui.deries of roads, waste lands and roes where, agricultural and wintering hideouts machinery passes. Teed vegetation in these places serves as food/for pests throughout the entire vecetation periNi.ismAxesxwiattekesxki,4110,a Liperienee has shown that burning of weeds in the spring destroys 0 of the pests. Uurning of weeds in late fall when the dry grass burns partic- ularly well, is even more effective. Vase 'injury caused to auger beets by email fleatoin the paqt years at Altai krai is the result of not only Snadequately conducted cuktural, mechan- ical ane chemical control methods, but also of the law efficacy of the mea- cures tbemoelves, which to a large extent ie due to lack of coordination and poor correlation of control measures wr3th periods of appearances of pests 110 of the first generation from their winter hideouts and flighto of adult . pests of the secnnd generation as well at the inadequate attention paid- to foci of pest accumulation: Infestation of small Fleas by Parasite', In l542 a hiEh degree of infestation. Of mall flees by internal para- sites, the larvae of "naeednie of the family F-raconidae was noted. Striped small fleas were infested by thece parasites in small measure (2 percent) and only in June. Infestation of sugar beet fleas, however, isradually increased and in September amounted to lg-S0 parent. Fleas Infested by larvae of this parasite perished as soon as the larvae of the parasite made their appearance. Laboratory observati-me of the parasites established the possibility of their propagation. In addition to the parasite-nnaesdnik", pests were infested by nematodes.. 1111 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svirdenko and Predit 11 Transl. 208: Sugar Beets Vegetative Poison. in the Control of Small Fleas Injuries oaused to sugar beats by email fleas in the earliest stages of plant Growth cause greatest harm. Pests feed then on the pulp of coty- ledons and first leaves, frequently injurknc GNI growth points. Insecti- cides of intestinal fluorides and arsenic preparations and contact-nerve- muscular action (nicotine, pyrethrine and amtbasine preparations) ere applied in post control.' At the time of initial plant Growth the foliage surface of beets is so email that spraying and dusting poisons are penetrating the soil. more than anything else, without any benefit to the plants. Only a small amount affeoga.the roes .or plants in places *we injuries src mused by pests. This interferes with Pest control and frequently obstructs the effort. ? In early spring, during the formation of auger beet plants, fleas .are attracted to plantings not only because these represent forage to them, but because et micreelimatio conditions prevail on plowed fields. At that tire the plowed black soil layer absorbs more sun than do adjoining places covered by grass under which peste over-wintered. The diffeeence in temp- erature between the surface of black fields and adjoining boundaries of roads and irrigation -canals causes the pests to migrete to sugar beet plantations even when there is no adequate food there. then temperature of the 'air drops in the evening and on windy days fleas look for cover under Clumps of earth or in dense rose of planted sugar beets on which they feed. This mioro-climatio factor in the earlier migrating of fleas upon sugar beet fields and the limited forks resources on plantations during early per- iods of the Beaton mere responsible for the development of the attractant method of control. Oreen weed grasses; were used as attractants, especially those most favored by pents, (hedge mustard, penrycress, rape, saltwort, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and Predip 12 Trans]. 206, Sugar Beet, gold of pleasure (Camelina sativa], etc.), which were distributed on fields in small piles (220-360 g). They were chiefly placed in checkerboard esaittion at a distance of about 2-2.5 m. from each other. The attractants were dusted with nicodust, pyrethrum or sprayed with nicotine-sulfate Or lijuid solu- tione of pyrethrum prepmocab*cm. The green attractants drew pests an forage and cover curing cool weather; here fleas concentrated, were poisoned and destroyed. testruotion.on attractants amounted :to 06-90.7 percent. Attrac- tants dustud with pyrethrum rroduced a higher mortality than those ducted with nioodust. Pyrethrum evaporates more slowly and attractants treated with this preparation drew more pests to them. It wan also observed that the effect of Pyrethrum in piles of vegetative attractants lasted longer tLan on uncut veotatiOn: The method of oontr011int; small fleas with the kid of-attractanis rep- resents a caving in expenditures of poisons and permits exercise of control at the earliest period of sugdr beet browth. In addition, green attractants detract fleas fro n sugar bent fields, reducing the amount of injury. 'In addition to vegetative attractants a nixed liquid 'pmeparation OP pyre- thrum (0.048 percent), bile (2 percent), and molasses -(1 percent) wan tested. This preparation results in a higher porcentaLe of destruction (65.7 percent) than obtained by nicotine-sulfate (42.7 percent).andsoditm fluoride (TO 'per- cent). tile in this preparation contributed to the formw.ion of stable erml- eions while moleenes improved the adhesidn'of the inceoticide to insect surfaces' and in additioc attracted small fleas. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sviridenko and Predit 11 Trans1. 206: Susar Feets Conclusions 1. The principal source of spring Infestation of auger beet plantings by large and email fleas is their wintering hideout: edges and bonn:aries of roads and iiiigation canald, waste lands, and other riots overgrown with weeds; 2. Sugar beets are injured most in early periods of srowth when not hardened and lacking large foliage surface. Sap sucked from young plants by. floes, Injury of cotyledons and growth points frequently Causag complete destruction of plants. The adult flea of the first generation is of 'greatest injury to sugar beets; it goes through Its larvae stage on Weeds and uncultivated plants in places of egslaying in the fall. Sugar beet fleas are attracted in early spring to plantations not only by plant sprouts but chiefly by favorable micro- climatio conditions. 4. Control of both small and large fleas is usually exercised on sugar beet fields when plants are injured during noticeable concentrations Of petits. For better plant protection and non-admission or mass migrations of pests from their wintering abodes, as well as to saw poisons, control should be applied not on eugar beet fields but at the pests' initial accumulations, I. 0.: their winterinL htdecuts. -This maybe accanplished by burning weeds in the fall and applyins: chemicals and cultural treatment in tti6 spring agiinst larvae (overplowing of wintering places). 5. Bile of livestock obtained in large quantities from stockyards posseeses high.toxic properties as a contact insecticide. Mile toxic,. .bile is also a good emulgent which ensures, in dombination with other insectio foliege aides, a good spread of poisons nnAlfurfaces and bodies of insects. The addition Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Tiridenko and rredit 14 Tranel. 206: Sugar Beets of bile to solutions of inseoticides increases the efficacy of their action upon 4nseets. ? 6. Tho liquid preparation of Pyrethrum 0.046 percent), together with nolassee (1 percent) an0 bile (2 percent), leads to a higher percentage of destruction among pests (Bc.7 percent) than did nicotine-sulfate '(42.7 per- cent) nnd codtur4f1Loride (70 percent). 7. Croon vegetative attractants (which attract fleas nost on voeds), treated With ni ()duet, nicotine-sulfate: or pyrethraa attract fleas as forage ?and cover durini; co 1 evening tenperaturet. Crean attractants permit appli- cation of control durincearly stns of sucar beet grorth.wten greatest in- j ry 3s caused by poets, le sprayin6 or dusting writh chemicals of entire fields:do not'produce proper results. This method, upon being tested under industrial oonditions? nay be widely introduced into practice for the control of sTall fleas. D.L. Tverskoi., candidate of aricultural sciences Bunina, sr, soientific worker. L.A.F. 9-13-1 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 A I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla (Feet). In Sel'akokhoZiaistvennai ?Entsiklopediia 11%-2, V. 4, P. 90-99. Neskva, 1940. 30.1 3a42. Translated from the Russian by S. N. Noma Svekia Peet [Beta vulgaris 1.4 is a biennial toot plant of the goose- foot family.(Chenopodiaceae). The uncultivated beet has a coarse branched root of email weight and usually insignificant sugar content 10.2.- :6 percent It is found on:the shorts of the rediterranean. Black and Caspian Seas, in Transcaucasia, Central Asia the Canary Islands, and in California. An Un- cultivated beet was found in the Mountains of Azerbaidjan F. macrorhis stem. a perennial root, Weighing frequently to 10 kg., sugar content to 12-16 per- .TransI. 207: Sugar Peets cent.. From this wild sugar beet were obtained, following Many years of Se- ? lection, forms of cultivated forme and table beetvarieties.: Sugar Beet(R:Vulgaris Ver. Saccharifere) was evidently produced from white varieties of garden table beets. It has arefitively large root (from 330-600 g.'to 1,500?2000 g.) and Contain:: 17 - 20 percent:of Cane sugar. Individual roots contain 24 percent of sugar; the industrial: output repre- sents 16 4. 20 rercent of the weight oflmOoessed.sugar beets. Normally only Vegetative organs, i. e..follago, roots and root bodies are. formed from planted seeds/the first year. In the second year flowerbearIng stalks are formed from buds of planted toot fruits -which produce seeds towards the end of the sumrer... Under unfavorable meather conditions, i.e. spring frosts,(the latte4affecting plants in their early stages and leading evident* to complete vernalization); isolated beet:: develop flomerbearing runners and flower ("ts tukhal in the first year; the result is a coarse beet of little sugar content. This characteristic appears in many varieties in dinerent degrees. Occasionally plants do not produce Any stalks, and seeds even in the second year.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 STekla 2 ?renal. 207: Sugar Deets Flavors are bi-eexual with 5 cu-like perianths, 5 stamens and pistils: flowers are in groups of 2, 6, 10; ovary uni-nidular (?) (nodnognesdnoe") with one? cotyledon resting on a receptacle with which it unites in ripening. Fruit is nutlike. In ripening fruits aggregate forming clumps at their bases, so-called seed balls. ?R;aoh fruit consists of remainders of the perianth and the seed, a shiny brown structure oe white starchy content. It repro.. cents 50-55 percent of the total weight of the fruit body. The outer seed cost consiets of the folded embryo; it surrounds the perisperm in the center . in an incomplete ring ("albumin"). Two cotyledons are formed in the seed ball, the cotyledon "elbow" and the embryonic rootlet. The chemical compo- sition of seeds changes depending upon variety and conditions of cultivation. Content of major substances varies within the followik, limits (in percent): water 9.5 to 10 percent; raw protein - 20.15-23.25 percent; raw fats - 16.88 ? -23.10 percent; non-nitrous substances - 44 -54 percent; cellular tissues - 1.69-4.54 percent; ashes - 3.74-4.42 percent; amount of phosphoric acid in ashes is ab. 45 percent. Nitrous substances consist of 65 percent albumen. Carbohydrates are represented primarily by starches (to 37 percent). Normal growth of seeds produces no less than 150 seedlings per 100 bodies, of which no less than 75 should produce seedlings in turn. Large fruit bodies (not any smaller than 3-4 mr, in diameter) produce large average weight roots and high yields, compared to small bodies. Seed sprouting begins at 40 and proceeds more rapidly at 25?. At first seeds smell, absorbing 150-170 percent of water conpared to their weight. The sprouted seed first develops a rootlet, then cotyledons :each turn green. Planted at average depth (2.5 cm), (in dry weather - 4 cm), into friable, normal, motet soil of ? 8 - 10?, seedstalks shruld appear on the 10th of 12th day. Following the appearance of real leares, cotyledons die off. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 3 Transl. 202: Sugar Beets The initial structure of beet roots differs from that of a mature plant. In the cent ,r are vessels, at the sides of which is the parenchyma with the initial cambium and fiber. Ballwin the fiber and endoderm .of the original col* there is another layer of cells - the pericambium. The mature beet has con- centric rings or zones of vLeoular-fibrous bundles which do not resemble the original structure. The transfer from primary to secondary structure is very coMplen. An acoelerated 2rowth of the pericambium causes the root to develop in thickness; this tikes place so fast that the initial cork tear!: and is shed. The root is closed by a second cork formed from the pericambium. In the secondary cork secondary cambial rings are formed which in turn produce vascular-fibrous bundles. After this process a new cambial ring is forred in the cork, at a certain distance from the first. This again fortma vaacular- fibrous bundles, etc. The spaces between rings of bundles are occupied by sugar-bearing parenchyma of -which the cells continue to grow even after new rings have formed. At the crown leaves are distributed iniipirale, young ' leaves occupying the center, old leaves ea the periphery. Thus vascular-ft- brous root bundles, which continue in leaves, must cross at the crown. The mature beet is composed. of three regions: the upper part, i.e. the crown; the neck, which connects the crown with the lower and most important part of . the plant--the root. The neck is formed from the cotyledon knee (bend) and does not have any lat.ves or side rootlets. Root or root body is cone-shaped, flattened on two sides and often grooved; two depressions form a spiral and contain lateral rootlets arranged in two double rows. The root system ex- tends in the soil to a depth of 1.5 - 2 m. Important links in the root sys- tem are the short-lived haired rootlets (1-3 mm long, 0.08-0.14 mr thick). In addition to the aharacteristics of the root structure, external morphological Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svek la 4 Tranal. 207: Sugar Beets characteristics of leaves and root bodies are important from an economic stand- point. In type of collage plants are divided into groups: the so-called "lying" and "upright" close spiral foliage., Under conditions deficient in insulation, plants with "lying" foliage are more productiveuthery absorb sunrays in greater measure, Of similar significance is the intensity of leaf coloring and shape of leaf lamina, whether smooth or curly. Curly leaves and intense green col- oring permit a plant to absorb more sun when insulation is inadequate. Roots are elongated, cone-shaped, truncated (best yield, slightly lower sugar content) and cylindrical (medium sugar content). Aside from yield and sugar content other considerations are connected with the shape of beets; ease in digging, losses in harvesting because of tearing off of tip, etc. Root and leaf shapes are inherited characteristics and are important features in selection. Cromth of foliage, and roopts during the vegetative period is irregular. Schematically, the course of sugar beet growth may be divided into three periods: In the first period the plant develops primarily its foliage, while root growth falls behind; during the second period the root body is at its most active. The development of leaves continues but the tempo is slower than that of roots. The third period of growth is characterized by a slowing do mn in both leaf and root growth?instead there is intense accumulation of sugar. loeaf growth is practically zero and gradually stops. In contrast, roots continue to gain weight well until late fall, although the speed is. gradually reduced. Reduction in weight of .foliage noted at the end of August dots not indicate discontinuance of new growth. .The latter continues through- out the vegetation period; having reached. the stage of the tenth leaf, the plant produces a new leaf every day and a half., Beginniagduly leaf dying is more noted, and in the middle of August, the quantity and area of dead leaves Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 5 t*ansl. 207s Sugar Deets exceed the amount of new foliage. The above characterldtics in the process of leaf and root growth strongly influence the relationship with regard to weight in the first and second periods. In the beginning of the vegetative period root weight represents only 1/10-1/5 Of weight of leaves, while during harvesting, it exceeds the weight of the foliage one and a-half tines. The most 1-portant composite part of sugar beet, sucrose (or cane sugar), is forted from monosaccharides (?) synthesized foliage, transmitted to the root. Synthesis of cane sugar in the root at the expense of monosaccharides is accomplished by fermenting invertase. The sugar content of roots is constantly increased during growth; the largest accumulation takes place in August. Increate in sugar content con- tinues through September and October. Sugar content is irregular'in various root parts. Among the above mentioned three parts, the root is richest in sugar content. Invertical direction, sugar content increases from the top of the root downward towards the bottom of the upper half of the root, which usually corresponds to its largest diameter. Then it diminishes, reaching its minimum at the tip of the root. Despite the reduced sugar content kt the tops, it is, nevertheless, adequate to warrant their industrial processing. In cleaning beets of leaves during harvesting, the tops are therefore pre- served on the roots and are equally processed. In a crone-out, the area between the eentral ring of vascular-fibrous bundles is richest iiisugar con- tent. The latter is reduced as it reaches the periphery of the root, as well as its center. There are inOications that sugar content is connected with the size of cells of parenchyma and that larger cells usually produce less sugar than smaller cells. The advantages of the beet root, however, as a raw material from which white crystallized sugar is obtained, are determined not Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 -411111. , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svexia rrunal. 4Vfi ouGar oulaud only by their sugar content. Of considerable importance for processing sugar beets and sugar production is the remaining part of dry-root substmees called "non-sugars". The degree of use of sugar from the root depends upon the amount and quality of composition of non-sugars and the possibility of obtaining sugar in crystallised form. The libber the quality of non-sugars contained it the toot, the lover its quality. The. harmful action of non-sugars is the result ol substances that belong to non-sugars and interfere with the crystal- lisation of sucrose. For reasons of a physical-chemical nature, sucrose is retained in the solution, a part of it remaining in.molasses. Among the most harmful non-auger molasses-forming substances are the diluted forms of nitrous combinations, i.e. amino-acids, organic bases of salts of nitrous &cies. Among ash-contsinipgelements, potassium and natrium are of major significance In this connection. A certain conception of the quality of sugar beet root is derived from the so-called "Good vanity" whIch refers to the percentage of sugar content in the dry substance. Thus 88 in "good quality" indicateg that 81 percent of dry substances apply to sugar and 1.5 percent to nen-sugar. At an equal degree of sugar content, the more superior the root, the better kw its "god quality." The transpiration coeffioient(?) in sugar beet is not high (300-310), but because of the enormous evaporating surface, the total amount of water needed is very large. It is conecnly believed that the normal dev-lopment of a plant is taken care of by O) n." of precipitation during the vegetation period. Of greater significance, however, is not the total amolnt of precip- itation but its distribution throughout growth periods of beets. In the early stages of Growth plants not having an ettensive leaf surface have but Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla ti ? Transt. 'U( ugar teems The best predecessors for beets are minter Cereals, especially minter wheat, planted on clean fields fertilised with manure, and perennial legum- inous grasses. Growing beets in continuous culture, even with ample manuring loss of of the soil results in depressed yields and/sugar content. Under crop rota- tion beets favorably affect yields of other crops; they specifically serve astgood predecessors for spring wheat. Cultivation of tl-.e Soil should be therough and deep; only in that case will roots develop normally andlOain proper shape. The latter circumstance is of Great significande from the ;cent of view of yield and the possibility of light cultivation of beet*. Deep plowing is engaged in in late sumter or early fall. Stubble disking should precede it. The latter must be done imtediately following passage of the combine and simultaneous removal of hay, and if ordinary machinery is used, prior to transportation of sheaves after they are distributed in piles. Depth of main plowing should be no loss than 27 am. with plow and foreplow. Fields plowed in the fall are.not har- rowed. In the spring when first driving into the fields, the soil is culti- vated with scrapers or is harrowed twice with heavy equipment. Cultivating and harrowing before planting is done according to schedule and by methods suited to local oanditions. If the soil, hardened because of flood and use cannot be made friable at proper depth, the soil is worked with shares with- out moldboards. Fertilization of soils at-sugar beet state and collective farms is decisive for inoreating yields of beets and other crops under crop rotation. Beets carry away a much larger amount of nutritious elements from the soil than do other plants under crop rotation. Kutritious elements are absorbed by beets throughout the vegetative period, most of all during July and Aug- ust. In recent years studies of' domestic and foreign authorities have Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease201_3/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 9 Tranal. 2071 Sugar Beets demonstrated conclusively the inadequacy of the ten "classic" elements of nutri- emts for sugar-beets. It was established that absence of boron in the soil' produces in beets rot of the "heart", (usually on eons of alkaline reaction), , and that lack of manganese leads to leaf spot and lee roll. Experiments' made with nagnedium phosphate shoved that they benefit yields of beets more than super-phosphates. Of speo'fic.significiance for beets is natrium. On leached and vigorous chernozem it noticeably dieclotTes positive action. Thiaaceounts for the advantage of-ueing potassium nitrate in place of cal- cium, and established that potassium and nixed salts (10 percent) are superior to concentrated potassium fertilizers. In estinating the norm of mineral fertilizers it should be borne in mind that the percentage of apolication in , the first year is 2.510 for phosphoric} acid,30-170 for potassium acid end 60-80 for nitrogen. 'latching the charfeteristics of beet nutrients, fertilisers are intro- duced b:1-three methods: 1. basic fettilizers (manure., Minerals or their com- pounds) are introduced under deep ',lowing; 2. raw fertilizing - parallel with the plantinglof seeds by combination planter; 3. additional feeding-- in-between rove during hoeing, from the end of cultivation until the foliage grows dense between rows. Beets develop slowly in early periods of growth and their root system is incapable of absorbing food elenents from fertilizers introduced deeply during plowing into the soil; row fertilization is of significance, in this connection, consisting -of-super-phosphates, potassium salt and potassium nitrate, which tat better for beet crops than di) nitrogen fertilizers. .Using ammonia salts. on northern chernozem is not recommended because beets absorb Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 . Svek la 10 Transl. 2071 Sugar teats them poorly when young, if the soil lacks alkali, while absorption of ammonium by mature plant is evyal to that of nitrites. Depending upon variations in soils, rev fettilization'is introduced in the following tentative dosegea (kg per hectare), U-10-15; P2Or 20-0v K20 - 10-20. - It is expedient to substitute the usual technique of Introducinz row fertilizers (airost to the same depth as seeds and: closely adjoining them) with the distribution oi fertilizers alongLeide seeds ,and below them.' Beets develop better from the start when fertilized rather than without it; they develop resistance to diseases, pests and ;unfavorable weather conditions. Additional feeding with well diluted and accessible fertilizers of nitrogen., potassiugand phcsphorus, as well as liquid and bird ranure increase beet Avowth considerably, improve retarded plots and.elivinate former eeficiencies in fertilizing.. Additional feeding is given upon ohecking after thinning, at times even prior to the njoinin,." of rove. 1:orms of fertilizers in addi- tional feeding and.the very nature and intensity of this method change depend- ing upon soil conditions, *he course of meteorological indicators, previous fertilizing, and quantities of additional feedinLs, as well, an ace of plants and technique used. This measure need not be uniform. As an example one pay refer to dosages of elements for additional feedings recommended by Cliv- svekla of AKZ of USSR. The increase of dosa6es of nitrogen and potassium in additionai.feedings should be applied on 1IGht Grey and grey "opodzol7 soils, next on leached and "opodxorchernozem. On vigorous and ordinary Obernozem it is expedient to iscreale the amounr of phosphorus. Larly additional feedings should con- tale nitrogen which contributes to leaf Growth. Later introduction may injure. root quality because of the increase of the content of non-albumen, of "harm- fur nitrogen. Late introduction of P204s, however, beneficial. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2. $ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR0142-6R010000010001-2 Svekla 11 Tranal. 207: Sugar Deets ? Dosages Of Introduced Elements of Food under Poets in Additional Feedings Additional feeding Ddpth in Distance from om. . row (in cm) Ink-/h .6 First 10-12 ? 10-12 10-12 16-30 1rs-30 , Second - - 16 and -deeper 22.5 -- 10-20 1G-30 lc-10 , Application of additional feeding of sUcar beets in our country is the result of the spread of the Stakhanov movement, credit belonging to goals of "five hundreeand "thoUsand"reeords attained by laborers. In 1935 U. Dem- ohenko and ?Ver. women field workers of the "600" group, which attained these goals, began introducing this method for the first time at their ferns and. obtained coed /insults. At present their exaMple is followed by other col- loctive farms. Additional feeding ickmdt despite its positive action should. neverthelese,not riplace'basic fertilizing. since the latter still remains the decal:Ivo thomical method in. boot growing. ForMs and combinations of basic fertilizers depend upon yields, type of soil predecessor, qualities of fertilizers nn a periods for their introduction. For mnure the nor k has been established at 18-40 tih: for miner4 fertilizers (in kg/6) at 60-123 at 60 - 180 P205and from 60-200120. In combining wanure and mineral fertili- zers donagos of the latter dre corresporditLly decrewed. The efficacy of fertilizers is closely onnneoted with the quality of other aro-technical t methods and is raised under improved agricultural standaels. I has been established that on different soils the efficacy of niizogon and potassium fertilizers a measure corresponding to transfer from ordinary' ohernozems to vigorous chernozeme, and from the latter to northern chernozems Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 12 Transl. 2071 sugar geaue and grey forest-steppe soils. A(ditions of phosphorus are increased in reverse order, reachinc their maximum on vigorous chernozems. Aside from the increase in yields, all fertilizers, except nitrogen, increase (and this only when introduced in raised norms,-without adequate quantities of phosphates and potassium) the suer content in roots by 0.3-0.7 pert-ent and even by 1.5-2.5 percent. Of particular importance is potassium for increasing sugar content. Residue of beet industry and muck may be suocessfully utilized on many soils as lite fertilizers. Prior to lining soils, of increased hydrolytic acidity, the super-phosphate may, when initially introduced, be replaced - by phosporite? flour! at double the amount of phosphoric acid. The combination of organic and mineral fertilizera in initial introduc- tion and additional feedings May radically improve the balance of carbonic acid in the aboveground layer of air.. In high increases in yield(ot record breaking plots) the. daily increase at certain periods reached a colossal 'amount (30 c/h). During periods of vigorous developdent beets may require CO2. In that case the amount of carbenio acid extracted from decayed organic fertilizers Is particularly significant. Tests have shown that phosphoric acid and po- tassium of manure are more fully absorbed by beets than from corresponding m'.neral fertilizers, since phosphoric acid of manure, together with organic elements, is gradually mineralized and not subject to retrogression. Eitro- gen from manure in absorbed by plants in much smaller degree than mineral nitrous fertilizers. Planting of rests IC done only with row planters. gest planting has , not become popular yet. Planting is usually by tractor-driven caibination Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 13 Transl. 207: Sugar Beets with inter-rows of 445 mm. The average norm of planting is 30-12 kg/h. Pfter planting rolling is essential to make moisture Eore accessible to seeds and even field surfaces. The latter aids in subsequent field work. Planting must be in straight regular rows, otherwise mechanical work in care and digging is impossible. The advantage of. early plantinLa (together with raw planting of cereals when the temperature of the soil is 5-6?) is indisputable. Too early planting is, nevertheless, worse than normal planting. To ensure high den- sity of crops regular and close sprouts are essential. Vernalization of seeds of beets, jtAging from e iments made in 1936-38, is of considerable industrial significance. By speeding the appearance of sprouts, vernalization aids elnELIstio_grorth_tt only in the initial period of development, but also in subsequent months, a circumstance which reflects favorably upon ultinate yields. To prevent flowering, it is recommended to plant vernalized seeds when the, tenperature of the soil is 6-7?. Vernaliikion is done 10-12 days before planting,__100 kg. of seeds require moisture of in four 14 percent kw supplied/doses in the course of 48 hours, and 90 liters of 'eater. On the 4-S day there should be 3-5 percent of sprouting seeds. Later the temperature of seeds before planting is kept at 5D70, achieved by regu- lating the thickness of seed layers. The number of sprouted seeds before _ planting should not exceed 10-15 percent. Aside from vernalization the practice of moistening seeds of beets has gained popularity in the past years at state and collective farms. This is done 4-5 days before planting, the proportion of water being equal to the weight of seeds. Etter is added grad- ually, 4'or 5 times, as absorbed by seeds; the entire procedure should not take lainger than 24 hours. On the 3rd and 4th day temperature of seeds 410 reaches 18-250, which contributes to their fast "awakening." Temperature Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 15 Tranel. 2071 Sugar Beets hoe the soil, destroy weeds. After checkirg, as Weeds continue to grow, corks form on the soil an a result of rains; 'ming between roue no less d,than vhm. 3 cm. deep follows to the dflith of,smain parts of the plant. (12 on. for VICS-1 and 16 cm. for.VBIISP-SK). Deep cultivating between rows must take into con- sideration the condition of moisture and firmness of the soil and growth of beets. In periods of close stand of beets weeding must be done by hand. Ad- ditional feeding is succescfnlly combined with cultivation between rows. Special plant feeders have been constructed which permit the introduction of fertilizers tO proper depth,(in solutions and dry state). reohanical in- between-row cultivation is done by the tractors nrniversal-2". Harvesting is begun in the middle of September. The Party and Government have set definite periods for the end of digging, the completion of whisch must be strictly observed. Equally compulsory is delivery of beets to indus- trial plants immediately following digging. Delay of either is harmful to yield and increases losres. In establishing the order in which beets are to be dug at different parte of fields the following must be considered. The first and second weeks in September produce an average of 2 Olin additional growth of yield on roots and increase the sugar content by 0.1 percent. Digging must therefore start at plots of the most mature plants. Here additional increases in weight and sugar content of roots are amellebt. In addition to external symptoms of beet maturity, it is recommended to observe increases of both weight and sugar content an many fields in order to develop proper plans for harvesting. Beets ripen more rapldly on plots where they were planted before, where not injured by pests, if located near winter crops, where less fertilized by nitrous substances. On plots heavily manured or fertilized by nitrous chemicals, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 16 Transl. 207: Sugar Beets if planted late and adjoining perennial legumes, baste grow vigorously in the fall. Roots must not be injured during harvesting, as this impairs their - storing quality. Tractor beet elevators dig in rows; toots are gathered by hand and beep implements. Dug up beet roots are cleaned. of soil and rootlets with the blunt edge of.a knife, the foliage is out off, the crown cleaned to conio shape, all buds (eyes) removed to prevent their sprouting in storage. The top (crown) itself is left on the root. Cutting the top flat is not permis- sable, since this leads to considerable loss in beets and sugar. The bottom of the root is out at the point where the diameter does not exceed 1 cm. This cutting is done on special benches and by band. Cleaned beet are placed into boxes (without bottom or top). Transportation goes on at time of dig- ging. In urgent cedes horse-and mechanical transportation is used. Beets not carried away from the fields are covered with cool soil (taken from lower layers) (5-10 cm) to prevent wilting. All roots should be dug up from the fielC, none left behind. Foliage shluld be fully gathered, made into ensile and used for foraie. 1.? A remarkable change in yields of sugar beets Sagan in the USSR following the achievement of'"500? workers who in 1935 gathered 5006630 o/h. Members of the Politbureau and the Government awarded medals to these women workers and their feats were mentioned in Stalin's speech at the let All-Union Cbn- ference of Stakhanov rorkera, brigades and units, who between 1936-39 succeeded in setting similar records. Unheard of yields of 1,1000 to 1,3000 to 1,400 centners Of beets per heaters were gathered, 'which exceed_ by far official international records of 950 cA on irrigated plots in California. This ex- perience is extended to sugar beet fields on large areas. Hundreds of collec- tive farms and state farms average 300-450 e/h and more. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 17 Transl. 20p Sugar Beets Stekhanov-euger beet growers achieve high yields because of their devo- tion to work, proper organization in production, high labor discipline, and mastery of techoique. The essence of agro-praotices of stakhanovites consists in the proper application of the entire complex of agricultural methods which ensure maximal correlation between all factors that influence growth and aid' yields. Hiving mastered the prevailing technique of growing beets, stikhano7 vitae have added many new methods to both agricultural practices and chemical means. They introduced additional feeding, additional cultivating between rows, erplied local fertilizers, increased norms of mineral fertilizers, deepened plowing to 27-30 am. Stikhanovites have actually created a new sys- tem of agricultural practices in beet growing. Their achievements were demon- strated it the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition. 411 Seed Growing of Beets. As cross pollinating plants beets are easily regres-' ? sive, because they lose the positive charaoteristics acquired and fixed by selection. Uninterrupeed selection is the!!!!!!_n!!!s!!!._!!...?.7777_vane- ties; this is_phe_task of selection stations of Olavsakhar ( Chief Administra- tion of the Sugar Industry) of the USSR which produces highjpgaityr mother seeds for state farms. State farms propagate these on all sugar beet fields . _ _ _ -? ^ (state and colleotive farms) of their respeotive regions The pToduction of sugar beet Yarieties is regionalized tn.d...e_s into consideration the complex of natural (soil and climatic) conditions of regions for which the warieties are grown. Soviet sugar beet selection has provided industry not only with varieties which equal those of foreign pro- duction but are oonsiderably superior to them. This has been confirmed by many international varietal tests. Sugar beet planting in pre-revolutionary Russia was based almost exclusively upon imported mother seeds. Successful Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 18 Trans". 207: Sugar Beets aton 'pork of Soviet selection station4has not only freed USSR from the import/of mother seeds of beets but has provided our country with the opportunity to export sugar beet seeds on a large scale. Certified mother seeds are produced at the following Soviet sugar beet stations: Uladovsk, Ivanovsk, Ltgovsk, Ramona, Verkhniaohesk, Pervo-Yaisk, Belo-Tserkov, Veselo-Podolianak, and Altai. The cleanest and most fertile plots of sugar beet field wedges are assigned to plantinLs of mother seeds; norms for fertilising are supplied as in the ease of industrial deed, and depend upon soil and climatic conditions. !other seeds are planted by raw planters, m4dth between rows is 36 on. Period of plantings the middle period of industrial seed planting; norm of plant4ng - 16-22 kg/h. Superphosphate and nitrate are introduced into rove at the same rate as for industrial ud:. Care is alike but thinning is at 9.11m, and on particularly well cultivated plots ampla supplied with nutrients and moisture even at 6-8 cm. The state farms of Glavsikhar usually provide one heotare of mother seeds to 3-4 Imo- tares of industrial seeds. Applying, high agricultural technique and careful storing, beets obtained from one hectare of mother seeds may by spring produce 200,000 roots and over. Digging of mother seed beets is done by beet eleva- tors which cause fewer injuries to roots than manual digcing and is of impor- tance in storing. Early harvesting in 'warm weather is not pormissablo. Roots are kept stored Jr/underground piles on the fields at 2-3?. A higher temper- ature eauses\scoelerated breathing in roots, expenditure of sugar, lovers resistance toldiseese, etc. Treshhes are dug for piles (kagat) one month before harvesting to cool offxsalia the entire depth of walls to 2-30. Piles - (in m) are: length -20, 'width-0.7; depth-0.9. Foliage is cut off immediately \IP Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 STekle. 19 Transl. 207: Sugar Teets ? from dug-up beets (resting buds are carefully preNerved and 5-5 am. of peti- ole s are left); 17amediate1y after cutting roots are layed in accurate rows In plles. Before olac.Ing roots in pies, their bottom is laid out tritb a layer of porous soil, 10 em thick. The beets shuuld not touch each other. Every layer of roots is covered with moist soil (20 percent moisture) to separate it from the succeeding one. After filling,the pile is covered with a layer of soil 20 cm. hit,L. If temperature in oiler is 2?, covering is hlEher. Total thick- ness of cover is 1.1 - 1.S m. To localize possible rot in piles soil parti- tions are bult dividing the pie into sections at every 4-S m. r,anure and mineral IsAilizers are introduced under mother seed beets; fields are deeply played (25-27 cm). Preparation of the soil in the spring (harrowing, cultivating) is doneearly and with nnrticular care. Prim,' to ? planting the field is marked in all direction (70 x 70 cm.). Every root receives (in adfltion to initial fertil1zers)_1S07200 grams of humust_10-20 g. _ of superphosphate and 5-10 g?. of natrTum-of sulfate of ammonium (all ferti- _ Users are thoroughly mixed with additional planting only healthy beets are used, removed from piles immediately before. Every beet is olanted vebtically and firmly surrou reed by soil; the soil layer above it is 1-1 am several day later, when beets begin to show growth, the soil is raked. Lately seeding machinery has been put to tests. Considering thArbees are cross pollinators, seed beds of carder oh forage beets should not be any closer than 203 km. Care or planted material consists in cultivating between rows, (in both directions), weed control, aeditional feeding and pinchin6 or tops of flomerbearing stalks to increase si7e of seeds. In view of the irregularity in ripening of many seed varfetier harwstirg up to the pre:ient nna-Inecifiari n c-i Annroved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 20 Transl. 207s Sugar Beets time was dons by band. Cut (slumps are shaken over canvas (to colleot the most ripencd sow's), tied into sheaves of 30-40 cm. in diameter and left to dry in piles of 4 in the field on previously prepared platforms. Dried sheaves are covered with stmilr_paay). Storing in piles is not psrmissable. Threshing follows harvesting and dryinr. Seeds ale cleaned of remainders of cut ktaIke and mixtures and aired. Freshly threshed seeds should be properly aired; they are kept under a is r 20-30 cm. thick. Sugar beet seeds acquire resistance for storing not before one 'month after threshing, provided their moisture is below 13 percent. Even these seeds should be aired. The hygro- scopic nature of seeds is very tigh and they should therefore be stored only in extremely dry quarters, not on earthen ground. or under sheds. Advanced workestledinobtaining record yields of sugar beet seed of 40-50 Principal 1.4;ts of Sugar Beets. 1. Nematodes Heterodere schachtii) their larvae (length ab. 0.4 m.71) penetrate into yOung rootlets and feed. on their jvice; beets exhibit a char- acteristic %artiness'', entire bodies are Covered with short hairy rootlets. In severo oases yields are reduced to zero. Methods of control are: long rotation and eteriliang of soil with ohlorpicrin. 2. Caterpillar of cutworm moth (Agrotis Segetune Schiff) 3. Caterpillar of Sugar beet webworm (LeXostrge stieticalis) which feeds on foliage and roots; 4. Sugar beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctivel4/12_Lemt) deStroya ,young shoots, while its larvae gnaw at roots; 5. Sugar beet flea (('haetoenema breviuecula fald.) destroys the pri- mary leaves; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 21 Transl. 207: Sugar Deets 6. Sugar beet beetle ("ave)loviohnaiia shchitonoeka") [Cassida nebulosa L.] feed e on leaves; 7. Sugar beet .(maggot or miner) "Klopik" [Poecylosoytus cognatue :lob) (EemiPtera) sucks sap of leaves and seedling stalks. . General methods of controls ,L. digging up last year's beet fields and .new plantations; 2. weed destruction on adjoining lands and roads; 3. prop- agation of peat parasites (trichogremma). Among control methods for indi- vidual pests the most important are: 1. .catching butterflies of outworn moths on rolasses; 2. catching butterflies of sugar beet webworms and in.. sects of Peocylosoytue cognatus nob. in cheesecloth nets; 3. attract and open destroy butterflies by keeping/fires at night; 4. gathering weevils and cater- pillars of cutworm moth by hand; S. spraying of infested plots with poisons (against caterpillars of webworms, weevils and moths); 6. catching moths with special nets; 7. spraying witt. tobacco ereparations and soap-kerosine ? emulsions (against Poecylosoytus cognatus Fieb.; B. digging small ditches. Among chemical measures the following are ap9lied: 1. against weevils - spraying with ?arts green (e5 g, 70 g. lime, 10 1.. or water) or with sodium fluorite (100 g., 100 go of molasees, 14? liters of water) or with sodium, fluorite (70 g. to 10 liters of water) or barium chlorice (400 g, 100 g molasses, 10 liters of water); dusting veth sodium fluoride (10 kg/h) or calcium arsenate (8-10 kilh%. 2. against fleas: dusting shoots with calcOum arsenate (8-10 kg/h) or sodium fluoride (8-10 kg/h) 3. against Cassida nebulosa L. ("shohitonoska") - spraying with so- dium flouride, (70,g to 10 liters of water) or barium chloride or Paris green ? (20 g, 40 g of line to 10 liters of water). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : 'CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 22 Trensl. 2047 Sugar Beets ? Principal Diseases of Sutar Beets . ? .3.. Rapt Eater, disease of early shoots of beets. At pre ,light brown moist ears ?above ground .part of cotyledon knike?,?sthieh grad-". ually e ands ? ? n o . ant by a ring/ In eases; of severe infestwe tion and rapid spread1the plant dies within s., few hour. In such cases the auger beet field aay change. in appearance within, a few days and form empty , space u the disease proceeds-store slowly and if/attacks only the, cork of the germ, plants may heal by forming additional rootlets.? The disease is caused bt_a_esimplex of fungi (rusarium homa, AlternarIa and foitkimm). These microorganisms develop primarily on weakened Shoots o brats susceptible . ? to infeatatior,i. 4Sctste, of these fungi are carried by seeds in planting (Phoma), others.are carried?in..the soil or on vegetative. residues. (Vu.sar LUM, Alternar is.). If infestation i. no more than 30 percent it does not tffect the rowth -of plants tbo severely and. yield may be normal. This Is emplained by 1., the fact that not all -injured shoots are ,destroyed; 2. -healthy plants remain - af ter ?thinning; only where., sev-ere ,the disease becomes dangerous. It is ,at it on poorly, aired acid-a.nd rung .off soils .the combination of low temperatures end ample preolpitation.contributesto the moms ,spread of the disease. The most effective Inethod ,of controlling it is good cultural treatment; of particular.eignificance .is titie,ly and adequate cultivating of the soil before planting and healthy seed -planting over mineral fertilizers,_ as le 11 as early rolling. The,ideme of infestation is weakened by lining. Proper treatment of the so 'before planting Is necessary so seede,may enter , _ . _ ? friable1 porous soil. (lood airing aeaemplished by repeated cultivating be tween rows is most important in controlling *he, disease... Thinning should be as close as posaible,theiroment.of the of. initial leaves. 2. CercospOra, leaf spot, caused by the fungus Ceroos Spots are small? ashy-grey with purple margins, forming primarily on canter Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 2$ Transl. 207: Sugar Beets leaves that have completed their Erowth. Appears in the middle of summer; _ develops stron;ly towards fall under conditions of increased humidity. Causes mass drying of leaves. Spread in the summer by spores which form a grey fan on spots. Winter as dormant mycelium on vegetative debris. Infestation of the foliage depresses assimilation and leads to the growth of new leaves at the expense of reserve substances of roots reduced in sugar content; it pro- longs ripening and deteriorates beets for storing. Yeasures of control: harvesting of clA foliage (ensilage, digging-in), deep fall plowing, crop - rotation, rolling, seed control, repeated spraying or dusting with Paris green, preparation A. The initial spraying or dusting must be of preventive _ _ - - type and start long before the discase makes its appearanoe. _ _ Mosaic of sugar beet is a virus disease which causes irregular leaf col- oring. Along with normal green foliage, light areas appear in the form of spots of rolnd or indefinite shape. It may begin towards Oahe end or early _ _ July, increasing in the fall. The disease is transmitted fro in plant to plant _ by aphids. The infeotioss origin over-winters in beets stored for planting. - In the spring it is first observed on plantings from which it is transmitted to-bee.ts of the first,wear. Several weeds may also serve as sources of in- fection. The results of the disease are: reduced yields of seeds in mothcr beets and lover sugar content in beets of first year. Control: Considerable distance between plots of mother beets and industrial beet fields grown for seed. Use of plants from uninfested fields for seed stool; control with - mosaic transmitters, particularly on seed stock fields; weed destruction; early planting and application of methods ensuring vigorous and close devel- opment of beets, especially during early vegetation periods. 4. Other less prevalent diseases of beets are: Of rot of "heart*, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? S ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 24 Transl. 207s Sugar Beets chiefly resulting fron lackfif boron lithe soil; b mildew; c pseudo-mildew; d) rust; 3) root canker; f) root scab. Forage beet. (Beta vulgaris'L.) differs from sugar beet in its larger water content and lesser amount of sugar. Raw protein of fora,..6 beet rep- resents 2/5 amide -aoids? and only 1/3 albumen. In shape forage beets are divided into the following 6ro1pss 1. long, straight or bent, deeply placed in the soil ("maMmut", "steer horn"*; 2. conic-shaped, elongated-oval; 3. cylindrical or bagl:ke with root extending, above soil ("Ekkendorf", "Armin -Krivensk"); 4. round varieties with ball-like root ("Yellow Stern - dorf", and "Red Oberndorf");. the half-sugar (white and rose) beet approaches closely forage beets, except that its sugar bentent is higher, it contains more dry substances and shape of its root is conical. Long beets are richer in dry sUbstances,mhile.round and shorter beets contain more water. The largest yield among root crops is derived from oylindrical varieties. Lengthy and ball-shaped varieties produce smaller yields in beets but have thicker foliage. Half-sugar beets are inferior to forage beets in yield but have greater drought resistance and stand winter storing well. Beets are at a depth of 1/4-0 in cylindrical and round varieties, and in harvesting they are easily pulled out b: hand. Theyadapt to lees deep soils and easily stand transplanting. The best varieties are: "Yellow Eckendorf", "Arnim-kriven - skaiia"; "Barr"; "Mammut" (Mammot); "Ideal Eirsche", and the semi sugar white and'p'nk beets. Yield of forage beets depend upon cultural treatment. In 1937 average yields amounted to 150-200 o/h, although several advanced farmers obtained yields of 2,000-2,500 oih. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 25 Trensl. 207s Sugar Beets Forage beetstake second place in farm crop rotation after potatoes,le gumes, hemp, tobacco, and other crops which respond to fertilizers and deep cultivation. in field crop rotation forage %ttets may be introduced only in well cultivated soil. In order to obtain high yields ample manuring is es- sential in addition to mineral fertilizers. Density and planting of seedlings are siLnificant. Uormal density is 75-80,000 plants per hectare (50-55 am x a9 an); planting of seedlings is particularly important on heavy and raw soils. Large increates in yields are obtained from additional feeding (pro- vided there is additional watering) timely thinning (if planting ras by teed) and adeqUate deep cultivation. HARVESTIEG of_forage beets is done before early frosts when lower Leaves begin to dry and rows are more noticeable. Forage beets are stored in special ? storing quarters ottit holes dug in fields. The foliage of forage beets represents a nutritious food item. CAET:IXBDETS (Data vulgaris L.) Two kinds are grown. Beta vulgaris var. esculents and the foliage rangold, (Beta vulgaris war. dole). GardeMpeete are used in soups, sauces, garnishings, pickling,mixtures of dry vegetables. They take second place among root crops after carrots. The fleshy fruit develops in concentric rinos from Upper part of the root. The color is red or deep red. Eingolds have strongly developed petioles and large leaves. Beets of the most valuable table varieties are characterised by smooth rings and even intense red coloring. To determine ring shape the VIR scale is used. The best varieties are: 1. flat and flat-roundt "Egyptian" and "Crosby", (early varieties ripening in 80.40 days); 2. rounds "Bordeaux", variety of Soviet selection, good yield, even coloring, no rings, "Eclipse" (100- 1 110 days); 3) long varieties: "Erfurt" (150-1E0 days). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? 'of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Svekla 26 Trarsl. 207: SuFar T'e.ets CULTITRAL 4iC.TICLS. In crop rotation Larden lAmts are ir the second year planted on fresh organic fertA.Lsers (if soils are poor, Faso in the first year). Venting in the central sone must 1:e done no later than by May 15. Planting is ribbon-like, in two lines, distance between ribtors r0 nm, between lines - 2 am.; 6epth of cover is 2.0 -15.q am. horm of plant!rc is lb kg/h. Slrouts appear in 3-12 days. Care: tirely thinning; wef,dirg, when necessary, ault!vation between rows, additional feeding. linel distance between plants in rows - 6 top cr. Larvesting berore car14 frosts set in. Loi, varieties are plowed with beet elevators; rol)rd wrieties are pulled out by hand. Selected beets arelcut short, sorted an peaked into bags containing SD kg. In the winter beets are heaped in piles, trenches, or sl-..eds of vee- table storage bins. Record yields were obtained in 107 at the collective farm ineni Illicha, Kuntsev region, koseow obla4t,, by C.0 brigadc headed by comrade ghaemova (1,400 c/h). YrNGOLD is grown In the same manner as other forms of beets. Spinach varieties are: "Swiss", "English-eternal", aud petiole-verietios: "Yellow Improved", "Lueullus.. Thinning of first crops ii IL June, of secone: crops in early September. rangolds are also grown in hothouses. Special beet varieties are: "Yellow ChAe" ad "Red Chile", which are of ornamental interest. End of ertiale L?A ?B ? -18-1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: Alekseev, V. S. Problems of the sugar-biset state farms in 1947. ? Feb. 1947. 65.8 8.2 Translated from the Russian by R. G. Dembo CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Trans'. 208s Sugar Bests Sakh. Promysh. :20(2): 1-7. Tasks of the sugar-beet state farms in 1947 [Translatorls title] Before our Great Rational War the state farms were the leading highly mechanized agricultural enterprises with high crops of sugar beet and of csK,,reale??grasses and with a well developed productive husbandry. They Ilere a good example of correct and skillful farming and promoters of progressive agricultural teolpic among the surrounding collective terra. The German invadors caused great harm to the sugar-beet state farms. A great task we were facing in restoring these fa From the very first days ,since deliberation from the invadors of sugar beet raions started a strenuous work in restoring the sugar-beet state farms. ? In 1945 alreadylmany sugar-beet stets farms gif:n_sr uite a good harvest of suziar beets. and of cereals, fulfilled the state plane a tremendous work in raising productive working cattle. unfavorable oonditi-na, in a series of sugar beets state early, carried out In 1946, despite farms where an in- tensive bolshevist struggle has been carried out, Where high agricultural teohnic has been applied, good results were also obtained. 011shansk sugar combinate nr the Kiev sugar-beet trust collected a harvest of cereals 18.5 OA& and fulfilled the grain production of 101.5 percent. Aleiskii sugar _ _ - combinate of the Altai trust collected a harvest of cereals 17 ciha, and sugar beets seeds 22.5 oihas Taldy-Rurgansk sugar combine Alma-Atinsk trust received , cereals 20 c/a, sugar-beetsseeds 21, plant sugar beets 291 o/ba, etc. Hundreds of progrersive workers of field production and of husbandry succeeded victoriously in restoring sugar beet state farms and tleir further ? development.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev, V. S. 2 Transl. 208: Sugar Beets The'traotorist Panenko (Lenin sugar combine of the Kharkov trust) had . . plown during the first half a year of 1946 with the tractor CM 916 ha. The group of tovo-Bykovsk sugar combine of comrade Ibriapa had grown 24.6 cAla of sugar-beets. The calf dealer of the Krasno-Iarushek cattle farm, comrade Shahan& had grown 26 calves with the average weight gaining of 800 g. in 24 hours, etc. And yet many sugar-beet state farms did not fulfill their tasks during 19661 they did not carry out the outline on sugar beet seeds, on sugar beets, on cereals, grasses and are indebted to the government. Therefore during 1947, the second year of the new Five-Ycar-Plan, the responsibility of sugar-beet state farms is increasing as to the production of high yields of sugar-beet seeds, of cereals and grasses. This year the sugar-beet state farms along basic divisions and indexes must lift themselves up to prewar work level, revive former glory of the progressive farms. The basic requirement of Stalin Five-Year Plan should be fulfilled: "To ensure a model production in the state fcrma, to increase consiCerably the crops of agricultural plants and the productivity of husbandry, to increase the produc- tion on tractors, combines and in other agricultural machines and to decrease the cost price of agricultural production." Mat should we do in order to fulfill these tasks? Already in fall of 1946 the majority of farms advanced along the road of improving agricultural technics - deep plowing and tillage were carried out, the seeing of winter crops on fallow fields has been carried out on time. The basic factor in growing high crops of all field plants is the strug- gle for accumulating and storing moisture. This measure is especially Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev, V. S. S Transl. 208: Sugar Beets" 111 significant in connection with the lack of moisture lakt year and the small ? amount of rainfall in the first half of winter. The state farms must first of all stop the snow fall along the fieles destined for sugar-beets, on winter sowings and on grass seedlings. Each centineter of snow cover on the field of one heater yields abou1.5 thousand pails of water. The availability of a great amount of plowed land creates the prOblem of storing moisture in spring. Therefore, there should be renovateo the old equipment: scrapers, plought, cultivators and also produced new ones in a great amount. Haw significant is a scraper in concervi. moisture and in increasing the sugar beet crops is well known from the experience of Stalin state farm. In this state farm upon fields where the scraper has been applied the soil moisture before sawing vas 1.5-2.5 percent higher in conparison with fields where the scsaper Was not applied. According to the data of Verkhniach selection station the scraper increased the sugar beet crops e. 5-11 percent higher as compared with two passages of the plough. It is also necessary to pay attention to the preparatIon of tractor trailors Which enable to carry out an aggregation of the agricultural inven- tory and to fully utilize the power of tractors. There are many examples when, due to int:Ion:eat aggregation, the tractor power has been poorly Mtilisod. After the :ear in many sugar-beet state farms the level of small mecha- nization decreased which, of course, was refloated on the crops. In 1945 for the production of 1 h. of sugar beet there was spent SO percent more labof power than even in applying the simplest mechanization. Some workers tried to explain the absence of mechanization by lack of a necessary agricultural inventory. Of course, it is not so. The reason is that these workers underestimate the significance of small and medium Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ?? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev, V. S. 4 Transl. 268: Sugar Beets mechanization, they do very little in restoring hoes, plougha, and they do not try to utilize with maximum effedt the existing equipment. Let us take as an example the sugar-beet state farms of thelhartkoy sugar-beet trust. In 1941 at the trust of the sugar-beet factory less than one friability of the soil between rove has been carried out, and the digging un with hoes was done only on 6.4 percent of the entire field. Quite/satisfactory was the mechanical ploughing of plantings, for instance. Podsarednian sugar beet state farm carried out the ploughing ones and obtained a harvest of 8.2 c/ha, and the Parkhomovak sugar-beet state farm which carried out the plough - lug three times obtained high crops of surr -beet seeds 14.1 c/ha. These facts do not need further explanations. If we were able to restore almost from scraps many tractors, combines, threahera, then we may say with assurance that with the same success me are able to restore equipment of medium and mall mechanization. In 1947 the sugar-beet trusts and sugar-beet state farms must make the decisive step for the introduction of various types of mechanization for sugar-beets. Without mechanization it is impossible to achieve the intro- duction of high agricultural technic, the increase of crops and the decrease of expenditure for labor and net cost. We should take into consideration .the fact that the conditions of 1947 require urgently a drastic decrease in labor power for the production of sugar-beet plants. A successful introduction of meohanization is closely related to a good technic of sawing. Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the presowing tilling of the soil would even out the field surface, so that there would be no furrows, bald patches, huge clods, that the sugar- beet rows would be strictly straight, and the between rave would be even along the entire field.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev, V. S. 5 Transl. 208: Sugar Beets The second year of the Five-Tear-Plan should became the year of a def- inite lift in sugar beet production, in the yield of sugar-beet seeds, factory and mother beet. The state farms must secure perfect quality of sugar-beets, that the yield could be an example, the pride of our work. The duty of sugar- beet state farms is to head the struggle for a high, rich harvest and by this example to attract the neighboring collective farms. Each yorker should unders:and that only as a result of a drastic increase of sugar-beet crops are we able to 'secure a general increase of crops of all plants of sugar-beet crop rotation. Mat is most important in the fulfillment of this task? In connection with some shortage in sugar-beet seeds during the last two years and with the increase in sowing of sugar-beets in collective farms the program of planting in 1947 has increased. At the average they will occupy 50 percent of the entire sugar-beet wedge. Many state farms mill beVe mainly plantings and mother sugar-beets. Such a great amount of sugar-beet seed production requires a serious preparatory work, a well analysed outline, correct organisation of all work starting with the plantik, and ending with harvesting. This year a high crop of sugar-beet seeds; the advanced markers intraudeed many new ideas, enriched agricultural technic. For instance, Orekhovskii sugar combine of Poltava sugar-beet trust had produced at the average in 1949 upon the field of 300 hectare 26 cAla of _ sugar-beet seeds. Individual groups obtained unusual yields the eds.& of comrade Oladkikh produced 42 cAla, the tam of comhade Belonoshka 40 Cjila. As the experience of the last two years indicated, in order to obtain a high yield of sugar-beet seeds, the most important is the evenness of the no- -- ther material, a careful Treparation of the tubers before planting. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev, V. S. 6 Trans'. 208: Sugar Beets The progressive sugar-beet state farms practiced in 1946 the digging out of the tubers 8-10-days before planting, with a careful aorting and dis- carding of the unfit. The tubers which were dug out were kept before plan- ting in heaps covered by a layer of ground of 25 am. which enabled to select better tubers and with a repetitive sorting before planting to discard the tubers which did not give any sprouts. This caused the growth of tubers up to 100 percent, increased the crops in individual links of Siniavik sugar combine up to 18 o/ha. The participation of tieats during the planting of tubers upon their field is of great signifioance. In 011shansk sugar_combine, where the planting was without tdgm, the yield was 11 Oa, and wherever a team did the planting the result was 13 o/ha. The introduction of ferti- lizers gave good results. Thus, in Smeliansk sugar combine the link of corn- reds Goloborod,ko which brought in 25 t of dung in fall and 4 T dry sand accumulated 14 o/ha of sugar beet seeds. The task is that every trust or sugar beet state farm would follow the experience -f the advanced workers in high crops of sugar beet seeds, would teach the methods of the agricultural technic applied by them to all briga- diers, links and would introduce those meLhods next year in all branches, in all fields. Quite instructive is the example of struggle for a high yield of the Novo-Bykovsk sugar combine of the Chernigov sugar beet trust whose work has been recorded in a special order from Dinister, Comrade Zotov. The director of Dovo-Bykovsk sugar oombine, comrade Kitkeriko, organized and attracted into active participation the workers and the employees of the plant to the production of high yield of sugar beets. During two years their Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev,- V. S. 7 Trend. 208: Sugar Peet.. they harvested 18 o/ba upon a field of 40 ht. The workers of the plant, without jeopardizing their regular work, received additional salary in money and sugar and cave the country hundreds of oentners of bigh quality seeds. If tle workers of other sugar combines would follow the example of Eew- Bykovsk combine, this would lighten the problem of labor power. 'This year the state farms have all the possibilities of producing high crop of factory and mother sugar beets. It is necessary to ensure Lull sprout- ing and to plant upon ont.heotar no leer than 100 thousand roots at the mo- ment of digging_t_ All agricultural technical measures should be utilized in 'tte filfillment of these two exponents. WI do not knew yet what the meteoro- logical conditions will be this spring, but, even in considering look of roisture in the ground from last fall, we are Ole to say that we should not to delay with the sowing of sugar beet:: even for an hour and it has/be carried out in a very short time. It is necessary to indicate that in 1946, under conditinns of extreme drought, those state and collective farms which have fulfilled strictly the entire complex of agricultural technic obtained at the moat oritical moment of moisture deficiency strong sprouts of sugar beete which endured the drought and yielded a good harvest.. Experience of many years and mainly the experience of cvanced workers indicate that the density o: planting, sugar beets after sprouting of 116- 120 thousand of plants for one hector and of 100 thousand at the beginning of digging with the ppplication of elementary agricultural technics will yield 250-350 0/ha upon large fields. The faisous sugar-beet grower, comrade Parmusina, harvested in 1945, 1003 o. from one ha. At the beginning of dig. ging she preserved 127.5 thousand tubers per ha. The leaders of trusts, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseet. agricultural worker. 8 Tranel. 208: Subar Peets bricadiers and teAms mu t urge this year a struggle for Cense planting upon all fields of sowing of factory and ttother sugar beats. The experience of the Eakhmich sugar-beet state farm of Lenin Order on the rationalization of sugar.beet work 443 worth mentioning. In this sugar.. beet state farm instead of entire sprouting, is carried out the sprouting across rows with t,he simultaneous light digging of the sprouting roes and by leaving r-6 bouquets on one meter. A final Working out of the bouquets occurs after the ascend digging of the field. The entire plantation breaks through the rot, loosens aimultaneously and is dug twice a fast as during the full breach; during the breach .and the survey the sugar beetreceives four broaches. During thie method of cultivation,there,is considerably less depression on the part of weeds and los of moisture; only to 42 men per hooter.. In. 1945 the BakhMach sUgar beet state farm,:by?applying this method of 'cultivation, obtained a yield of mother sugar-beet on the field or 211 hoc. tabor paler amounts tare 2g0 0/ha and factory sugar beets up to 200 Ala. In 1946 the sugar- tat tate farms of Chernigev sugar truSt,worked with sugar-beets according to the method of:Beichmach 'tate farm upon a field of 450 ha and obtained in all instances good results for instance, Nosov sugar-beet state farm obtained: about 290 alha on a field Of .92 ha of mother sugar-beet. Numerous exporimental data indicate that by carrying out all the agr cultural techniol measures, directed towards the improvement of winter and food regime -of the soil the Coefficient of moi tureutilizition increases. Under these conditions, for instance, for :the ferhation of 1 o of sugar beets over 1. n, of Moisture is consumed; fpr the formativg of 1 d:Of sugar-beet seeds Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev 9 ?renal. 2011r Sugar Beets 14.6 mm. of moisture is consumed. If me figure out that the average amount of waterfall in the raiona of the distribution of our sugar-beet state farms is 450-550 mm. this indicates the necessity of posing before the state farms the task of increasing ne t year the struggle for the sugar beet crops to 300-350 cAla and sugar beets seeds 20-25 c/ha. Without correct grass rotations it mould :be impossible to achieve an increase in fertility and in obtaining hich irmune crops of all plants. Therefore it is necessary for the sugar-beet state fords of carrying out considerable work on crop rotation during the current ycar. The sugar- beet wedge and Lrasses should in 194? reach the prover level. The law of the Five-Year-Plan requires that in collective and state farms should be introduced correct crop rotations "with the application of grass sewing using widely grass mixtures - legumes (especially clover and alfalfa) and of cereals of many year grasses." -The basic agricultural technical requirement of grass field of grass systan of agriculture - is the cultivation of mixture of many year grasses, reanmhile, many sugar-beet state farms are upon incorrect and wrong road of sowing mainly of only legume grasses.. They forgot that the structural-form- ing potential of the mixture of perennial grasses is much higher than of only legume grasses. According to the data of Ivanovsk, selection station, the percentaie of structural elements in plougl'.ing field is Oe.25 cm. on clover plus cereal grasses 5 percent higherithan on pure clover, with eaparsette plus cereal graaaes higher by 9 percent than on pure espareette. According to Vorkhniacheak and Ivanovsk stations on grass mixture, the crops of the succeeding plants increased on siring wheat up to 4 o, sugar-beets up to npriassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev . 10 Trans'. 203; Sugar Leets 46-50 c and sugar beets 'up to 3 a from 1 be; the %ixture of?grasses in com- parison with the sowing of only legumes yield en increase of Crops of hay up: to 25,percent and its quality improves consideratay. In 1947 the sugar-beet state farms Must carry out important work In introdupin;? he ra& rotation systems, critically survey crop rotation and correct the errors conmitted before. In prop rotations of sugar-beet state farms fallow land occupy a great and important place. Falloi land is the second link in its importance for correct crop rotation. Pefore the was; Mary sugar-beet state farm showed elamples of good ultivation of fallow lands. Plack April and Ila:.fallow lands were of'conaiderabli. amount. repet- itive underlayer cultivation of grasses dUring the. summer, its Weeping up before sowing in ideal cleanness with a constant loosening and Mulching the upper soil layer- were law in the work of every specialist ix sugar groter. 17i'e must this year fully foster? the system of ciltiveting fallow land as it existed before the war., Almost .a full. insurance of auger 'Lef t state fs.rms by plasm land and along with this the posaibliti of aoconplishing the stirinwork quickly enable u$ to use the fallow land in April and May and ? tb build still a titronger foundation of a high crop in 1948. ? Responsible basica are beiore the sugar-beet state farms in the field of hulibandry. According to the outline of 1947, the increase of cattle per capita amounts to 21 peroenttp gi - 11 percent, axes - 25 percent, horses 8 portent; it is forecasted a fn ther increase An the productivity of ?cattle, in milking 10 percent increase is planned. ?A.,r1 organizatirn of twenty new husbandry farts of 'cattle, horsey and pigs is planned. All thi$ could be fulfilled only based upon the or,anization eta strong fodding base. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev 11 Transl. 208; Sugar Beets ? It is necessary to introdune nost thoroufhly correct fwdin? crop rotations sh!ch would produce the necese-try arount of green rase, hay, tubers, silos and other jioy foddinr. Th.!.s won. houlv. be done rainly tractors, comb!nes and .y other ecri- cultural ma&nes. Three quartet-es o$1 work en sugar beet state frre will be carried out in 1L/47 b, tractors. ,pod work of the tractors will decide the succese tie erterprise. :n 104c and 1946 a series of trusts (Coroneth, Kurer, Mitomir, Chernigovek) have pool' utilized the traotors wtich led to the leta;Int.. of a6ricultural wor1,-; Cue, the Borinsk sugar comittne of Noronesh suLar-osettrust, as a result f poor tretor 'work, carried the sowinL 60 _ days and accomplished it orlly or June l. As it showed or the rsultrive are able to see fro .-1 the following, most ineicative data; barley s,vin before I.ay 5 yielded l c/a, no before June 10 perished; -oats and spring wheat 411/ sown before Vny yielded 11-/3 cOna, sown before June 10 - 4 oAla. As a r.le, the state farns voh delay spring sown;, not on1y lose in oroos, but inter:ern 'r the succeedin,: unrks the and tilling of :-*allow hind, the sowlng or wirEer crops, etc. The experinent of progressive workers in utiliz;ng tractor prArks techs th,.t thT success., caAd be secured not only b:r h'ghly qualified re7odd1ing of tractors, but by a correct organization of exploitation of the tractnr perk as -ell. 7t is necess?ry to follow a careful technical ca-e for trac- tors an for att ched atTioultural eactines. For this purpose it is necessary to instruct mcotanics, brigadiers, traetorists, hookers the technical metIods in tan g care of machines; e.-pty spots shotld kot be overlooked, hence the tractors should have 4 well planned r^ute; correct aggregation for the full loading of' power of every trae.or should be organised; it is necessary to ensuwe ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010061-2 Aleketsev 12 Trans'. 2083 Sugar Beets two shift of tractor work for 20 hours a day. For this purpose it is nece- Geary to Ontroduce a corresponding arrangement of the Working day in brigades and to control strictly its fulfillments it is necessary to liquidate entirely the standstill of tractors on account of their poor eervice, tr14;gani2e the? charging of tractors by fuel and water at the station, and y seeds during its running; to organize in the tractor brigades good food, living quarters (tractor booths and others), daily atria regiatration of production, expen- diture or fuel and of the quality of accomplished"Work fighting decisively bunglers and trcuble-makers; to orv....nite widely socialistic competition among the tractoriets, brigaded, links. By following these basic rules of explei- tation of machines the tractor 'a productivity will increne conilderably and will yield higher crops. . . Along with the.acoomplishment of great production tasks, in the center of our attention should be the problena of i4roving the life or workers and of specialists sugar-beet state farms. Our community housea should be always kept orderly and clean, as well as our dining. roma, clubs. Each department of the sugar-beet +vete farm should by its external appearance and order in all corners reflect high organization and (natural life of a great socialistic enterprise. ror this we don't need great expenses, only daily care is requirad on the part of supervisors, of high -and low rank. ror the creation of a strong provision base there shoLld be reflected in the plans and in the work of 1047 the 'development and irproverent of work of additional branches: apiculture, pisciculture, poultry raising, pig feeding on the waste of aomman food, orchard, production, garden production. 'AS must pay atteotion to the organization of wateeng gardens, using for it local res- ervoirs, the erection of the sitplest pump station and also free energy Of already constructed hydraulic stations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : 61A-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Alekseev 13 Tranal. 2081 Sugar Pests Thus are the basio tasks of sucar-beet state farms for 1947. Eo dote-t, a treat army of workers, specialists of sugar-beet state farms will -ive all ti,eir power and krowledge, so that next yr the would vould be able to advance on tile road Of restoring sugar-beet state farms and their further devel-Tment and will honorably accorvilish ter rrrat tase. .L . 9. 17- si ----------- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodstvo (Sugar beet Growing). In Selvskokhoziaistvennaia Entsiklopedila, 2, v.4, p. 98-100. Yoskva, 1940. 30.1 Se42 Translated by S. W. Monson Transl. 2091 Sugar Rests S4- ao The culture of sugar beets began in Russia in the early nineteenth cen- tury. In 1914 the planted area of pre-revolutionary Russia consisted of 753,584 hectares and was concentrated primarily in the Ukraine and Kursk, Voronezh, and Tambov gubernii. Limited areas at Orlov and Tule gubernii and Ruben' ilso grew sugar hest crops. Within the boundaries of nssR (as of' August 1, 1639) the area planted under beets amounted to 646.7 thousand heoteres of which private land and sugar refinery owners possessed 499.6 thousand hectares, while peasant households, practically all under kulak omn6ership, held 149.2 thousand hectares. After the revolution the need for sugar increased drastically in the country and areas of sugar beet planting were considerably extended. in 1938 the area planted with industrial sugar beet at state and collective farms comprised 1,180.3 thousand hectares (indluding 1,127.8 thousand h. grown at collective farms). The number of state farms producing sugar boots was 180, at collective farms 21 thousand, all serviced by 930 machine *rector stat:ons (YTS). Sugar beet planting in USSR represents 35.4 percent of the world's area of beet planting. In plan- -- ted surface USSR ocsaupiss first place among ell countries in the world. At present beet crops in the 'rSR have been moved into such regions where beet growing was Unknown before the revolution (Rezak SU, !ars' - SSR, Georgian SSR, Armenian ssn, Altai and PrLoonski.i_kraliaa_Saratov_and__ Novo-Siberian oblast' and Bashkir SSR.). Soviet agronomy demonstrated that sugar beets could be grown at'Arkhangel'ek, Vologda, Kirov, Omsk, Miens- - binsk, and other northeastern regions. Yields of beets, as a result of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 83744?70d tyo .2 "renal. Mt Suger Beets special sieleures onderteken by the Part and the 'Government, ere..lincreasing steadily from year .to year. .fol.lowing after ,the -first:years colleotlyization (see yield). At the 17th _Convention :of .1/1cp(b) cbrnrade Stalin: disclosed in port -the .cs.uees, f :the?above decline ststiog 'orppe ?suffered onirslight .variations retaining their ,high yields ;compared to pre-war levels, auger beets in the regions where reorganization of agriculture *as proceeding -at its highest tempo, entering the reorganization per iod--1.astri suffered the great- - - ? - at elump in the last-yeti-of riorgenize.tion,-1.13:-19$2, ind-brotight produc- tion Amor to--below'pre4ar Ulna, gross-yield of a 1937 amounted to o ?Oentners as Compared-to-109.0 millions 'or coaxers in 191.S:.- in' grois yield " ITSSR-:Occuplea first' place among sugar beet Planting Colntriiii; The -refative ght of MR' in world production 'of sugar-teetie"amikants'to-airperCerit: ? / oThe thf-nd? five-year- plan, donee rned with the aeijaiopmerit -of haticnef economy, wrivisszed by 1942 a yield of up to -282" mill:lode cif 'cintniri, at the rate of-,235 c/h. ? .The rarty,end Government undertook vsitouo tfeasuree to annum 'collec- tive farms planting -sugar 13ests with the -Wost modern:Uchnical equipment; to promote the.. cpncmic organitation of farm" and, itioreaseleutar'_beet 'yields. Contract terps Isere altered. The new contract agreements provided that whenever the net amount (norm) in delivery of sugar beets per heotare is overfulf tiled, the collective farm receives an Add it ional compen sat ion amounting to 400 percent of the basic pay for its purplus. The agreement takes into consideration the correlation or social interests at a colleative farm with those of individual collective farmers. All farmers raising sugar beets Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodatvo 410 are joined in groups of links which are assigned fixed plots for beet grow- Ing. The yield of beets is computed separately for every link. One half of ? the additional premium payments earned by the oollective farm is distributed among links producinL the highest yields, on the basis of labor days spent by every collective farmer. Farmers receive in addition auger, beet puflp, molasses, in proportion to invested labor days. Table 1 .Equipment of Sugar Beet 'rowing Collective Farms with Modern Technical Beans (quantities of items) Name of chine and u t 1934 A. 1038 Tractor- plows 18.868 Sugar beet planters(adjusted to 12 roles) 7.500 12.597 Inter-row oultivatorc(adjusted to 12 rows) 215 12.818 Plant -feeders 10.965 rioultural e uipment for pest control 7.034 . 11.884 Sugar beet elevators(?) 2.707 17.764 Collective farms aro equipped with modern technical tiplements. The heaviest and most labor consuming tasks i+ugar beat production are mecha- nized. The degree of mechanisation at collective farms and its expanse in the past few years are presented in table 1, while level of mechanization is listed in table 2. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodstvo 4 Trani:1. 209: Sugar Poets ' Table 1 Level of Mochanigation of Principal Labor Processes on Sugar Beets at Collective Farris (in Percentage) Designation of Work done by Tractors. 14, 1937 Sugar beet planting 6.7 - 84.3 . ? Inter-raw cultivation 12.6 52.4 - Additional feeding 59.2 Digging 9.2 78.5 Transpertation of sugar beets 26.0: 32.1 Over 70,000 tractors and 35,000 machine:1 are at work on sugar best fields of collective farms. Creative Stmbition is, however, not satisfied with theca accomplietictonts. Yeug Soviet -engineers, teohnicians and collec- tive. farmer-inventors labor persistently to produce a sugar beet Combine that may permit digging, ?Cleaning and cutting' of anger hoots iiitgAhleast expendi- ture. Ingtheer Koren tkov designed a machine which digs and piles sugar beets.; Inoteases _in trained personnel equal levels attained by tech:int- " sation. ? (table 3). , Table I Special Agricultural Personnel Employed at Sugar Eiet MS. 1934 ' 147 .kroncr iota _ 4.048 ?5.549 Teohnical personnel . .3.325 5.968 Cot...tine drivers (perators) 7.693 Tractor Drivers (Operators) 29.006 106.104 Chauffeurs 6.996 18.888 N. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodstvo LIMU1514t flir%?wi a7.uvis uwwym Application of fertilizers under sugar beet crops increased from year to year. (table 4) Table Introduction of Vineral Yert lisers under Iger Feet rrops (In Tons) Years Total amount of inc1,-eirg rineral fertilisers Soluble phosphates nitrogen potassium 14 7,? 20 (3/0 40% ? ???????MOOMIIMOS1110111. 1934 382.9%8 362.70 11.7es 633.124 944.930 97.743 1936 T98.921 FC2.400 103.040 1937 698.627 639.384 131.646 8.44c; 30.401 131.481 131.497 22S aro-chumical laboratories were established to improve the appli- cation in etoring of fertilizers at Ili! engaged in p1antin4z sugar beets. SuEar beets are grown in special rotations wit perennial grasat.,,e,Lrain . _ crops, Roe cereal-legumes. Further success in sugar beet production is con- nected with t)!e inlitroduction of proper crop rotations and planting of perennial grasses. The following problems should be solved in sugar beet crop rotation: 1. Proper development of principal branches an crops at collective farms to ensure the fulfillment of government assignments In devel- oping agrioulture in every region/ !n extending the area of perennial d.asses it is necesst.ry to preserve, whererer possible, and to et- e areas of cereal plantings. In introducing crop rotations conditions essential for increasing yields of crops under rotation must not be obstructed. rroos must ka include those essential for collective farms, i.e. grain, legumes, potatoes. 2. The establishment at every collective farm of a firm forage base ensuring development of sout husbandry and productivity of cattle. The required amount of planting of grain-forage crops must be detcrmined for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodstvo 6 Transl. 209t Euzar rests hay and green forage of this purpose and the neoesscry ares established for/giving consideration to to increase in soil fertility. In deterrining upon summer keep of cattle, it is necessary to fix the anount of fern crop rotation. 3. Ensure-increase of soil fertility and definite, uninterrurted srawth of yields. This requires assignment of the necasscry area of planting of perennial grasses and establishing their role in rotation. Sugar beets and winter wheat should taxAtaxtlemdmTiexexbe provided with best predecessors.first. Rotation should proceed under agricultural measures and fertilising that ensure high yields. The volume of' work on'the .respective crops should cor- respond to the amount of available labor and Means of production at collec- ? tive faro* and UTC, NO that the most irportant agricultural methods may be carried Out. Proper sugar beat rotation must ensure the fullest Use of labor and moans of production at collective farms and ITS in separate basic agrioul- turaperiods. In introducing rotations shape and direction of fields under crop rotati/n and of brigade plots rust be determined with the view of cre- ating the most favorable condit!ons for the best use of maohinery. The average yield of sugar bests throughout the Soviet Union is growing annually In connection with application of fertilizers, mechanical means and the raising of the cultural level of collective farm land. 1935 will go down in history (of roviet sugar beet planting) as the first year vf.'In the Stakhanovite practices ensured drastic increases in sugar beet yields. The promise given by tansomolka M. Demchenko to comrade Stalin at the 2nd An-Union Conference of Collective rarrerShock workers, to secure yields of sugar beets no lower than SOO c/h, served as msignal for the ex- pansion of Stakhanovite speed-up. The promise given to comrade Stalin became a matter of personal honor not. only to E.' Demohtitko, but to hundreds of other uomen-farmere. To attain the goal of SOO IA hundreds of women-farmers formed links all over 'USSR. 42 other links succeeded in attaining the goals Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ' Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodstvo 7 IransL. 4VV: PVV a 0 of c/h. Laxly advanced farmer beet growers earred the h'ghest award, the order of the rnion of SUR. In 1035 the "no" graders proved that yields in sugar beet :yawing regions of the rnion could be produced In amounts of 650-700 c/h. In 1936 the women "1000" graders obtained yields in sugar beets of 1.100 - 1.300 and 1.400 c/h, yields which surpassed all known world records In capitalistic countries. Competition is growing steadily from year to-year, placing into the fore- ground outstanding farmers-"Stakhanovtey" who attain world records in yields of sugar beets. In 1938 over 150.000 links, about 30.000 brigades and over one half of all collective farms yore in competitions. Socialist comoetition and Stakhanovite methods at work in tens of thousands of nets ensured during ar extremely dry year (193E4 yields in sugar beets which exceeded even those of 1935 and 1936. Stakhanovite metLods are used at present notOnly in indi- throughout 410 vidual links and brigades butfalt entire collective farms, )TS and even admin- istrative regions. Thousands of collective farms have attained high and stable yields of sugar beets. The average high yields are given vivid illustration in tabll 5. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , Sveklo*Odstvo 8 Transl. 209: Sugar Eeets .' Yield of Sugar Poets At Advanced Collective Farms in 1938 Table 5 in C/h Name of Collective }'arm Area of GlIcar Peet (in 14) Yield Inept Leninn, Cltemerovets region, Kamenets-Podol'sk obi. ' . 143 * . 394 "Chervonny Prikordonnik", l'ampoltit regjon, Vlnnitsa obi. 150 :Le. Tuibiebeva, Shathkov region, Kiev obi. , 282 270.: "Do Fammuny",' Yampollek region Tinnitsa obi. , 240 305 . Ian. Kuibisheva, Saltaki region VoldavianA8e1Z 40 , 4C0 "Socieichi Fantsk region Eirgit SCE . 65 475 In toldaykn ASSEtin 1038 close to 20 collective farms obtained Yields above 300-0/h. At Fame4s-Podo1'ek Oblast' over 200 collective farms succeeded ' in producing over 250 o/h. Uore than 20 collective farms at Kantak region, Kirgiz so, raised an average of 350 c/h of sugar beets. Smialiat oompotition directed towards attaining high yields in sugar beets epreed over entire administrative regions. Nia orTesn recorded the following highest average yields enng the individual administrative regions: (table 6) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Sveklovodst*o 9 Trassl. 2091 Sucar reets Table 8 3ft!H1'jihestaveeYieldoi?PeetsinitieeaY_szidRe,ions of (it c&j. Years Oblast' and republic, Region AVera-e Yield 4.14=???????????10.110....MOMMIlii*O.WOMMII0101????14. 1933 Voronezh, R31SR V. Flavskii 14 1954 ;iev, ta:rsn Kumenskii 106 1455 Voronezh LSI SR V. rhavski 217 1a56 Vinnitsa, prsn Yeell Vek 29C 1237 temenets-Poeol'alt T 7olochlisk 32 1938 Kirje SSR Tan tak Even hIgher Chan the total yield of sugar beets wes the amount of sugar obtained per unit of area in the part years. The average sur content of beets in ''CrIL in 193.R amounted to 19.14 peroent, a record level. Stakbano- vitas succeeded in inoreasing this f,t;ure. Thus, Naria Pipipenko (colleo- tive farm "Chervoba Ukraine, Losov region, Xharlkov oblast') reified beets containing 19 percent of sugar from a total yield of 1.140 c/h; Trine Lit- winova (coll. farm "granny Pakhar", voroneeh 014-20.1 percelt of sugar. Ulle regions of sutar beet planting are known to produce hither suor content. The avvrai.p yield of :Aets at Kazakstan and Lir4ie?LiSR exceeds tie rnion average, *bile sugar content of beets is 18 -19 percent, in individual collective farms even larger. At relovodel region (Tir6ie LsE), (collective - farm 'Teri !'r.x") sugar content of beets was 190 percent; at. rennin collec- tive farm - 10.2 percent; at !runes collecUve fart - 20.8 percent, at "Gorr y siotovoe - 21.2 pereent? etc. 0-14-cl Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 A 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R0100000100.01-2 .! rolsoit. NI. E.' Transl. 2101Sigar Daats ? S'- , ,xasures to increase the-yields of sugar beets. V.:h. Promysh: 20(4);- 3.7. Apr. 1947 1110 66.8 Ss2 BD. September 13, 1951 Translated from the Russian by R. 0. Dembo , ? The resolution at the lebruary plenum of the Central Comnittoo of the al-Union Communist Party(b) "On measures for increaslngagricultaro daring the post-war years" indicated'a program for a speedy restoration and lift of agriculture, for the production of abundance of foodstaff for aur population and of raw material for our light industry. to increase of yields of agricultural products and the expansion of gross harrant of grain. aucar-beets and of other plants is the most important task of eociallet ogrlculture and in the first line of its leaders--the state farmr. The plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party(b) ordained wide meaenresin transforming state farms into model high-producing fame, ono of the heel(' conditions for the growth of harvest end or the ca?ansion of gross harvest, especially or sugar-beets, is the tido util- isation of the achievement of advanced agricultural science and the intro- duction of the progressive experience of the Stakhanovites into production. CI' course, we_should not overlook the unfsvorable meteorological canditions of 1946, nevertheless they should not justify entlroly the law yields which were obtained. The real reasons for such low yieldo ,,2ere not co ma the meteorological factors as the defects Which occurred in agri- cultural technic and with a better organization of labor and of production meaeures harvested this year better crops than their neighbors tho did not lhlfill the requirements of agricultural technic. Who were unable to organiee correctly labor and man power in producing high crops. The result? of the agricultural season of last year indicate that many of our state farms are still depending upon external conditions Which le the result not in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 41IP Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 M. K. Transl. 21013zgar Beets lacking of mans of prodnctions, but mainly of not having utilized them. This has been confirmed by data of yields in state farms and. in trusts during 1946. The state farms of 9amsk sugar-beet trust (Manager, com.Ponarearenko. chief agronome con. Enliantsev) obtained the average of 7.9 c/ha of grains. 120 gib' of sugar-beets and 5.9 c/ha of sugar-beet seeds,_A.rihis yield is _ _ eves for 1946 too low, especially for sugar-beet seeds. Nevertheless the First-of-fiay Super-Beet State Farm of this trust obtained a yield of 11.2 c/ha of grain, 235 c/ha of factory sugar-beets and 9 c/ha of sugar-beet seeds. This means it doubled the average crops for the trust on sage-r-beets, and it increased the grain and sugar-beet seeds one time and a half. The Elroy state farm of this trust which has similar soil-climatic conditions the First-of-Nay Sugar Beet state Farm and which is located nearby harvested `411 5.2 c/ha of grain, 1.9 c/ba of sugar-beet seeds, and stored the factory sager- beet for planting, since as a resat of the low harvest of moth: r sugar-beets the storage plan has not been fulfilled. This is not due to lack of resources. On the contrary, this state farm is provider, by energetic resources which is much better and the producing program of the spring sowing was lower than e.t the First-of-May farm. ? First-of-May State Kirov State Farm Farm The sise of the plowed field 3161 3555 The number of the divisions 4 4 lib. of tractors counting in 15 E2 13 17 Horses 59 41 Matlock' (Dees) 66 101 Used plowed land for 1 BP (in ha) 11.7 10.6 It seemed as if under such conditions the manager of Kirov sugar- combine, comrade Xrutsev and the chief agronomist, con. Nikolsev should have fulfilled considerably earlier their field work than their neighborl Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 S - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 41114,* gellnik. H. K. Transl. 210: eX:r Beets the First-of4/.ay state farm. In reality, the sugar-beet state farm delayed intolerably spring sowing and the production of sugar-beet plante and ful- filled thiv work one month later than the Pint-of-Hay state farm, The Kirov State Fhrm delayed still mere the production of sugar-beet olaMts and the plyaghing of follows and other fieldwork. The work of the Tractor Park was organised exceptionally poorly. %Ile at the Firpt-of-Hay State Farm many tracterists achieved hiei pro- duction, for inetance. A. K. Oudemenko at the tractor ME produced 604 ha, the tractorist Dilute-658 ha. A. S. Litvinovskii-494 ha, A. S. Shapova1ov-4/0 ha, V. S. Shevchenko on the tractors-2,-39212s; the tractor brigade I. K. Gladneva fulfilled the plan at 134,percent after having worked out with en0.15 HP tractor 543 ha of soft plough land; at the Eirov& state. farm during the last two years only one tractorist I. A. Zhitniak surpassed the norm, after having worked out .398 ha of soft plough land with the tractor of WM. One of the basic factore in otr attempts to obtain high yields is the strict fulfillment of the entire complex, of trartor work. Without early plowing, without early and clean fellows, with the dislay of spring field work and of the production of eugar-beets, as we observed it at the Kirov State Farm, we could not even dream of obtaining Med crops of grain and of Sugar beets. The decisive Condition of a suecessful work of the tractor park Is the well-prtpared cadres of tractorists, tractor brigadiers and the correct organization of their work. The Kirov sugar-beet state fans is located 25 km of its aask trust. 0 This is the closest state farm of the trust. We should not doubt that manager of the trust, cos. Ponomarenko and the chief agronomist com. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 14431411k, M.h. Trowel.. ;310: %gar Beets Kuliavtativ often visited that state farm. And unwilii.ngly the q.uestion arises: have they not seen th:? ugly job of that state farm during the lest two years and. could not they assist that farm in correcting its work? iie discussed the work of iCirov State Perm and. of Sumer trust at such length because such viork during 1946 could be observed also in other treats end state frras (Kiev, Vimaiskii, Livov trusts). At the same time at those very trusts and even sue.."1-r beet farms the advanced workers, rthiLhanovties, schieved high crops. Over 70( c/ha of su.gar beets obtained the field tears laer of the Red Amy Susir Combine of the Poltava suoir-beet trust, the hero of $scialist labor. M. I. Geta noon a field of 2 ha, the field teem leaders fib. Terebillo Itzta A. GAnnets obtained with their to:L:1'a a yield of over 600 c/ha. Me flail tv1 leader of Veselo-Podoliansk sugar beet 3tRte farm., the hero of *.bciAlist Labor, . audsento, obtained a yield of sugar-beets 672 c/ha ona field of 2.7 ha. The team leader of Sosnovetsk combine of Vinnitsk tre-A, F. Saulko obtained a wield of 580 c/ha fluor beets. trader difficult conditions of Kirovogras ?blast', with a complete absence of waterfall, the tais _ leader, comrade Brik obtained 511 char of sugar bet. In the Xiev treat r,inaivsk sugar combine the team leaders M. I. Iakianets obtained f..,35 _ _ c/ha of sugar beets, end A. P. V0lchan-514 c/ha. A high crns of sugar- beet seeds were obtained by the team leaders of Orekhovek stae r... of _ Pal- tav "'apr beet_ trust, T. B. Gladkikh, c/ba from a fiel:i or 5.6, the team leader of gew-Bykovsk sugar combine of Chernigev inwar-beet trust, A. ralriapa. 24.6 c/ha from 2 be, the tem leader of 3estetathinsk sugar combine of 1,:masen Oblast., E. Bulycheva, 21. c/ha from 3 ha, and others. As a rale, the density of planting upon all Stakhanovite fielis of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Mei silk U.- it. sl:; 210: ar.3eet, tion gner,than 100 the sand oota er bactr.on- oved-platiting densit the moment of dng- i-.tuters ?per.hectar siith'thtraverage i&?t of th tither $36 g; 0 -thantsuid tubers-vire obtained by ? this seeders ae tea Oslanets. Terebillo. did t. e 'teen ;lender Ste. All :of ,then leo:toned:Us tail bet aprifared,-, they ,eng Teraund!fthe'rsuatr.bee t .the e ' %ea kitit -leaflet' at 16 en .deep, after "the atggl2tg they looserea the soil, itfter- taiting they astragal:I; ? least tio be s.after t 'diggings and aftrt,the testble; ais feeding:they-Introduced: gni* 11.5 ei potassium nitrate 2.2.5c. sndl-1?.2 pettiitsinta ?apPlying-adv.anced acrienituratecnic. ? It le -etiperflons to ear that ench:4gr f our state 'ferns." Ilvervtigrononis the dielsion ore: brtattorre of their irork that under equal n?er. at the brigade' fitildl.scitte" , enae-Poor reitIts. If, folloving 'waited tonscientionsli tectrac?is accessible ;1 t fern who is in Conirinced.. by the aae Soviet obtala ypod t le of %drank*, aSaulko;,;the,other.teesie vattld 'work-at consci3rttio1G1y, than they nag ,4orkers spirt- the principal- task is necessary riot only to vide advertise the esperiente of thesthrtolt.; but also', try to apply cold. obtain, different . ? Atte- An Oti Tia,tulti.cxpandt of this eidingworkete of 0144r-beet ?t&te feriae; in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 4, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 1,:altnik, I. U. ? Tranel. 210t Sugar Beets ' from the leaders of party, 3oviet, and atgricatural institutions a. systematic and skilful leadership in aviculture, the oliminatio'n of bureaucratic, red-tape methods of management which is usually manifested in giving' tasks without their organi.zational daily assistance and toryting in fulfilling the tasks. tie should not forget that sugar-beet state farms, as the h:11.'s for advanced agriculture end the nurseries of the best work measures, should exert wore and ponithre influence upon the gni-rounding collective fame, should show them an example'. ?What kind of an example could be iYervtahln, lazhne-Tavolshnnsk or Sotnitskii auger beet state farms which obtained a harvest of 30-40 c- of sugar-beete Ind 2-3 a of grains from one hooter, In 1947 the sugar beet state farms possess all the necesrary conditions .for the fulfillment of the take placed by the Tebroary plenum of the Central Committee VICP(b). The fall plowing for sur-beet a end spring plants has been fally carried out and even earlier than in the preceeding years. The provision Of .mineral fert. ilizers state-farturizarelsed. slid also the amount of applicatIon? of local fertilizers. All the ? premises are utilized for the elimination of droucht and for the ratti 71eld of all plants in 1947. The year 1947 should be marked in sugar-beet state farms by increase of agricultural production, by. introduction of grass crop rotations. by ths Improvement of the quality of field work. by mride development of Gtakhanovito movement. In order to *obtain high end brume yields of all plants the sugar- best state farms ahead successively apply the entire complex of agricul- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 H. Z. Trans'. Sugar t tura technical measures indicated by aCienCO tad by eitalchimovite ::sractice. 7ere belong the correct and early tilling of the soil, the ap)11c:..tisn of fertilizer Se care for plants and controlling ?.gricu.lturel pests fU3e.t.a3e5. early harvest without any losses. Out of this co:.11A-c, in orler to obtain a high yield of anger-beets, the most decisive are agricul- tural measures which ensure a full density in plant in whio% c:ntk Lu - riot less then 100 thonsand roots per one heater. The aviriples uf Cludseao. "agonul'ke end of other Iltakharovites sax? harvt-!3teti at least 110415 thousand tubers are a 4001 indication that such densit;i? .)ossible. The density of planting depends not only upon dense sprot.t, c,orsts respects, ttp-le the %weeding tilling, thorough clearance or fields froz1 weeds and pests (sugur-beet weevil, flea. bed-bog). 3e81,:es. raring thei second sprouting (second pair of letflets) and during the eiVearanc? of rosettes it is necessary to pay more ftttention to the nowerZ;.1 7"ovelim c?ment of the sugar-bets and leave those plants which are 'Jest eliminate those which are weaker. Plants trhich P..t the :30 r second sprc-ating are strongly developed will yield during the harvest P.. he vier tuber. ;.cording to data obtained by our experimental stations. the m1E:hex-beet yield obtained by our experimental stations, the sugar-beet yield olitainod earing cecc:nd srrouting of large sprouts, in ern:vex/son with the yieV has been obtained after leaving small plants surpasses 80 percent. Thus. .:-,he quality of the pleats which are left in the row daring the second sprtluting is the basic factor for producing a high surr-beet yield. Along with the normal density of standing (one hectar for 100 thousand roots) the leaving of powerful plants during the second sprouting Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - - -0- - - - - - - - ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 nelinik. N. E. Tnnel. 210: Sugar Deets and the testing of the rosettes will ensure a considerable increnee in crops. The search for a high yield of sugar beet seeds and their qunlity should begin with the arranging' of best conditions for the yield plantings of best quality. If we will be able to obtain planting of good quality with the average weight not lower than 250...300 g. then we 411 pronota in some degree a high yield of sugai-beet seedt. Tit recent years the sprouting 'of the planting material due to decilts of the agriculthral technic of the .mother sagar-beet, haft been rodnced. The root quality also deteriorated. The second eproutirr, of the mother Itagitrk;aiiiit shOuld occur at a distance of 1042 on co that at the moment of harvest the plantation, yieldt at leatt 140 thousands of roots one hector. Darihg the second-sprouting of the mother sugar-beet, it in necessary to strengthen the contrel of the labor quality. We mast keep in mind, that the second sprouting of the motherengarzbtet is decisive for the yield of the 'lotted material0 end, if the identity of .the planting for the production sugar-bees_an_inctor for abtainins high cro s. then for the sowing of tiother_Ingar_bests_thie significanckincreaste _many times. The significance of an early highly qualified planting in order to obtain high yield Of sugar-beet seeds is well known. We should mention her. ? few IhetteUres in nursing traisplanted material. One of the peculiarities of the transplanted material is that. in' comparison with sum?r-beets. the roots do not _penetrate deep into the ground.- Due to this fact, the transplanted plents.use only the moisture of the upper part 'of the soil (up to 50 cm) and ^ take very little moisture from deeper areas; the leaves of the transplanted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Vallnik. H4C. . Transl. 210:Sugar Deets plmnts evaporate during one tine unit more moisture comparing vith. the leaves of the sugar beets. According to the data .of Ivanove?election station, daring the ripeui. tag of the transplanted plants 70 percent of the. root system (1:t lleight) are spread 0.50 cm in width, and in the depth some roots reads 0.3 far as 150 cm; during blooming. 'when there is a =tibial expenditure of noisture. the roots of ths transplanted plants reach only 105 cn in depth. he root system of tho first year stigar..beete reaches during baprvest tint 244." cm in deptb. According to the data of Damon* selection: station, the le:ves of the transplanted plants during the. same length of time loge considert.14.7 tore moisture than leaves of sugar-beets. For instance, the leaven cf trune- planted plants love 10.7 percent moisture in two hours, but the ati,ar-beet 3.eaves-.7.6 percent; after '4 hours the leaves of transplanted plant3 lose 18. 1, and the leaves of sugar-beete--11.1 percent; after six hour il the first ones 21.7 percent and the latter 13.8 percent; 'after 8 hours--&.r and 17.8 percent; after 22 hours--58.2 and 31.7. ' Due to these peculiarities the tilling of the soil is axtra7.cly importents the upper layer of the soil should be loose and thus allow the air and wnterfnll to penetrate into the recite. The loosening of the soil also prevents the growth of weeds and, loss of moisture through evaporation. Ilat,t is why the introduction of double cross looesning, of the soil around transplanted plants and constant control of weeds are so important. Sags.r.beet state farms are able to carry out at least four double cross looseninge of the soil and the necessary weeding. The execution of the rest of aLricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _1 ft_ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ?,. ? )1.t. ?renal. 210t Sugar Beets ? technics in nursing transplanted plants (feeding, tying up the bushes) and gaily harvest without losses will create the necessary conditions ? for 'obtaining a high yield of sugar-beet Seeds. It ii ieceseary to mention that the Stakhanovites during their work t.rith so.gar-botets.paid special attention to the normal density of planting. selection during second sprouting of the stronger plaits, and during their we* with transplanted plants they paid *Attention to early loosening of the soil between rows and a most? thorough control. of weeds. Of the measures in nursing cereals let us discuss the harrowing of the sowings. It is well known that the Stekhanovites (Bfreecrer reingeT) applied in their work a double harrowing of spring wheat. Time, ItTrescv harrowed the first ties before the sprouting of the plants (with a deep ? placing of the seedsi ant the second harrowing before the iippeazsnce of ? Stems. The application of this measureftnorsassd the yield Of .spring "heat up to 5 c/ha. ?The best tins for 'harrowing pring wheat is the be- ginning of the appearance of the stews wheretrl It Is necessary to take into consideration the soil condition. It is necessary that the soil would crtuable =der the harrow and would not produce lumps. The one could be said con- ? corning barley used for beer production. The harrowing after sowing results In sten sprouts and, according to the data of the experiments of Eostov..on..the. Don agricultural station, It increased the yield in 2 Gibs. The most important stearnre is an early weeding, especially of sowing of spring wheat, barley and aillat. Dor. ing the first stages spring wheat de- telcPe 'ftry slowly and therefore upon fields covered with weeds it refired from the weeds considerably. In order to create better conditions for wheat ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Trend.. 210s Sager' Beets it is necessary to begin the weeding as early as possible, as soon as the sprouts are strong. the same could be said for barley and millet. Special attention should be given to the seed fields 1:T:on. which the carrying out of iach simple agricultural technical methods promote considerably the it1C11111110 of crops. All thee. eiricaltural technical measures were carried out only under. the Conditions of good labor organisation.. It is imperative to ensure in the state farms the organisation of team wark, to register individual labor executed by each member of the team; lack 'of personal responsibility should tiot be overlooked and the regeneration should be according to work; there Should be socialistic competition between brigades, team* and separate members ef the team. It should be mentioned that _before the lair over 14 thouimad Stakbanovites and 16 thousand skilled workers were working in migarw.beet state farms and sugar combines. Now the wave of the Stakhanovite movement and of Socialist competitions for hiet Stalin yield. in irngar-beets and other plants reaches widely the 'workers of wager-beet state 'farms: The managers of sugar-beet state farms, party and union organisations should advertise this movement and promote its development. In 1947 the sugar beet state farms should achieve high hareest not only of sugar-bsets, tat of other plants as well, by introducing pre- gressivo st4^elcultarel technic. correct .organisation of labor and of pro- duction meaenree. by promoting socialist competition, by the 'moralise in labor production and the strengthening of labor discipline; this would ensure the execution of the tasks ordained by the plenum of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party for the lift of socialist agriculture. A.D.T. Septenber 17, 19. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , ?......---- t.,_ . - ,.---- Golublititii, I. N. Trauma. 211: Phytoncides fffect of onion phytoncides on the Germination of pollen grains. Priroda 38(3): 67-66. Ker. 1949. 410 P933 ID. Septeaker 140951 Tzenelated from the Russian by I. O. Denbo. At the present tine there exists alemmoir quite a rich literature about the ;aortal volatile effect of phytonoides upon nieroorgenisms which were discovered by Prof. B. P. Tokin. As it is will looses the most effective phytoncide are produced by various varieties of onion and garlic. The research made by pavlova. (1944) indicated that the mortal effect of phytoncides of anion and of garlic coul& reflect also upon a series of higher plants (water thyme, legume, twtuash, corn etc.). This indicates the universal effect of phytoncides upon the cells of both higher and lower organisms. In 1948, before I was familiar with the discovery of Prof. Tokin, I discovered accidentally a strong parenting effect of flying fractions of phytoncides of a simple onion upon the sprouting of pollen grains of plants with closed seeds. In carrying out experiments in producing pollen grains in artificial environment, I obtained a demonstrative confirmation of indications mentioned in botanicel literature about the presence of peculiar secrets in pollen g,rains and, in the stigma of pistils which stimulate (or, in some cases, cheek) the sprouting of the pollen (Golnbinsidi, 1945-1941). Widening the experiments in growing pollens, with the intention of bringing closer the conditions of sprouting to normal Conditions, I decided to carry out the sprouting in the presence (i.e. in the atmosphere) of the flowers of the OM or of another type. Tor this purpose, at the bottom of a Petri cup upon whose covers were placed drops of growing medium, were ? placed flowers of corresponding type. The experiments really produced a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I. N. -3- Trend.. 211:1hytoncides positive effect and the preseace of flowers of the ,same plants as well as of other varieties often stimulated the sprouting of pollee grains accel- erating the process, increasing the percentage of sprouts and the length of pollen Pnither it mas planned to study the effect of volatile substances of fruits and in the first place, of apples. whose Influence upon the ripening of other fruits end upon the development of plants has been mentioned in literature. Not having at our disposal any apples, we decided. to 'sake the experiments with some vegetables anti as the first we used staple onions. Th first first experineat in germination of the pollen in the Petri cups over the circles of onion ?bulbs rhich were cut across gave each unexpected ! ? ? restate that they immediately attracted our attention. Really, the pollen of a series of plants sown upon freshly cut onion refused to sprout, while simultaneously it geminated well in control cups. Repetitive attempts of germinating the pollens and including into the exoeristents the pollens of new vtrieties of plants gave the sane results. Daring this experirentias been determined that the presence of the pollen sown upon the nourishing parts of the cut onion not only checks the sprouting pollen grains, but kills them entirely, since the transfer of the pollen into fresh air, after having been five minutes in the atmosphere of phytoncides of onions did not save the pollen grains and they lost their ability to sprout forever. It is characteristic, nevertheless, that the phytoncides of onion kill the pollen only after its sowing upon the nourishing parts for sprouting. The Phytonc ides do not affect the dry pollen (fit least during the effect of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 , Golubinskii. L. Tranal. 211:Phytoncides 24 hours with triple onion shift). The pollen of any of plants under experiment (about 15 varieties) after having been in dry conditions during twenty four hours in an atmosphere saturated by the phytoncides of onion and sown later for sprouting sprouted normally. The mortal effect upon the sprouting pollen is indicated only by a freshly cut onion. When we sow the pollen4 upon en onion thich haa been cat half an hour ago they sprout normally. laple Onion bulbs which were not cleaned from their external teals meeifest a peculiar effect upon the growing pollen. A few, small bulbs A44 7'. were placed into a cylinder, at-the-eleeriIt about 150 cm. In order to create in the cyliner a humid atmosphere, some water has been poured into the bottom. Ihe cylinder has been covered by a glass plate into whose interior some drops of the nourishing medjws with the sown pollen were intro- duced. The task of this experiment was the study of the influence of whole, uncleaned bulbs upon the sprouting of pollen grains. It has been clarified that in this case, although the pollen grew somewhat normally, the thickness of the tubiflorae was inferior to the control one. Besides, in this case the medium and the tlibiflorae somehow conserved, remaining unchanged up to six-eight days (under the temperature of 20 percent). It is quite char- acteristic that neither in this case, nor with the sowing over tho cut onion was it possible to observe ftuigi mycelia which were developing stronkly in su.,r solutions which serve as nourishing substrate for the sprouting of pollen grains. Especially powerful effect of phytoncides upon the sprouting pollen tubiflorae is derived from the onion juice, whose minimal ;aixture hampers npclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Colubizpkii, I. U. .4? ?renal. 211: toncidee their sprouting. The testing of the phytoncide effect of other plant varieties h.e.d. confirmed the date of Prof. okin end of his assistants. Like other e.r7Jeriments with microorganisms, the phytoncides of other plazas Lffect the pollen less than the onion phytoncifles. A.D.V. September 14, 1951 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Puzikov, D. N. Variety breeding and seed production of sugar beets during the Soviet period. Sakh. Promysh. 20(11): 43-46. Nov. 1947. MS Sa. Translated from the Russian by R. Dambo There was no sugar beet seed breeding in pre-revolutionary Russia. /n this respect the auger industry !vas at that time depending upon foreign seed breeding firms. Cancelling their methods of selection, organizing oleverly seed trade, the foreign seed producing firma, especially German, acquired mo- nopoly upon the Russian seed market. Tremendous expenses, required for a serious organization of selection work, failures which are inevitable during the first stages of selection, and unsuccessful experiments at our own selection laboratories which were organized at our sugar factories, all this frightened the Russian sugar manufacturers of selection work. Sone individual selection tatir,os and-seed producing farms existed in a poorly manner and were unable to co-pete with foreign firms. After the Great October Eevolution the situation along these lines changes considerably. Even during the Civil War the VSSR started the estab- lishment of its own selection-seed producing station. /n 1920 the private selection stations and seed growing farms mere nationalized. In 1922 was Tranel..2122 Sugar Pests established the eeleetion - seed growing Department of Yain Sugar; the scientific-research selection institute van. The inheritance acquired by rain Sugar was not rich. The majority of ,selection stations and of seed producing farms had been destroyed: selection )archives were taken away or destroyed, the laboratory, living quarters and offices were burnt down or devastated. Qualified personnel of selectioners which consisted mainly of Poles left for Poland. The seed fund also de- creased drastically. It vas necessary to start the selection and seed.groving , ?.anew. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Fuzikov, D. Y. 2 Transl. 2121 Sugar Meets The first stage was the collection of the most valuaule variety material which existed in the country. It was necessary to restore the work of the best selection and seed-groming stations which were active before the Fevolu- tion. This task has been fulfillee sin::oessfully ix. quite a short period. In DU already were morl:ing 16 stations: ;ladovsk"t(a, "erkhniaoheikaia, 4 FelotserkovSiaia, tdychesksia, Il'inctskala, Sitkovetekals, Ikemeronenskala, Yanhinskaia, Ialtushkov?kaia, 71ronovskaia, Ivanovtiala, Kharikovskala, Berezotochskala, Khoroshkovshaia ard Tetkinskaia. 'ihis year the Lamoinsk selecton station has been added and mull- organized for the aallstance of sugar-beet seed sown g of Voronezh, Tambov and Fensen oblasts. A summary of the first steps of Soviet Selection stations W4S mac;e in 1023 and in 1924. Variety testing which was oarried out in 1923 in 13 parts -__ of the 7krainian S$U and in central black-soil ?blasts evaluated the entire variety fund of sugar-beet seeds which WAR available in Lussia. Twenty-seven varieties of rational selection which were and five foreign varieties were bested. The testa proved hopeful results: the national varieties produced upon 14 selection stations occupied ten first places on sugar beets from one heater. According to sacoharisnity, the national varieties also Indicated good results, although the first place was ocoupied by ultra-saccharine variety of the Polish firm Iatash. In the foreign testing of Soviet varieties:two outstanding Gdychsk _ van- sty which ocoupied in Halle (Germany) the second place on the composItion of the sugar and the sixth on the collection of sugar. In all of these tests not a single :arman variety had such high productivity with the high saccha- rinity (18 percent) of the Soviet varieties. The variety testing made in 1924 confirmed the evaluation of 1923. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Putikov, D. K. 3 Transl. 212: Cuger Ieets Based upon these variety testings it was possible to come to the conelu- sion that there are in the country good selection material and that the beat of them mere collected. The distribution of selection stations in the form as it existed before _ the revolution did not correspond to the planred distribution of sugar-beet _ seed breedIng aed to the tasks of producing varieties which are best adapted to the soil-climatio conditions of the most important zones of sugar-beet sowing. Therefore, a network of selection stAltions was inspected. Udychsk, Vitkovetsk, Kallnikekela, Il'inetskaia, Beresotochskaia, Yhoroshkovikala stations mere closed, and their material has been transferred to other eta- tions. liew stations are erented: hamons%ala in Poltava oblast', Veselo- Podolianskaia in Poltava oblast'. Then in 7ursk oblast'was erected L'Alvskaia station which aoqu!red the material fro- Tetklsk 0-ation, the re,ation of the ilrst-of-May for the service of sugsr beet sowing le Trasnodarsk krai. The reoranization of the network was accomplished by the ere-tion of tiiskaia selector station for the service of sugar-beet sowing in Altai 17ral, ane Frun- zin selection locality for the service of irricated sugar-beet sowing in Kazakhsk and Yirgiz Simultaneously with the reorgarization of the network of selection sta- tions they are provided with a -edern laboratory ecui7ment, new laboratory, living quarters and service buildings are erected - elevators, nurseries, vegetation houses, electrostations, shorm. All selection stations are pro- vided with tractors, living treating Tomer, with new F..ricultural machines, inventories, mineral fertilizers, e;L;rarian massives are regulated; correct crop rotations are introduced. The Soviet government inl7ests tremendous capital into the construction of selection stations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Puzikov 4 Transl. 2128 Sugar Deets The experience on selection of suvr -beets accumulated during five years of work (1920-192S) indicated that by selection of sugar beet tubers, according only to their saccharinity and to the weight of the tubers, it is difficult to achieve any progress in selection. work with sugar beets. There- fore, the Soviet selectioners began to base their work upon a complex, all- sided study of sugar beets as a living organism. It 11148 necessary to produce sugar beets the most adaptable to the conditions of specific zonee. They had to differ by high yield capacity and saccharinity by small percentage of nitrogen, speedy growth, small content of mineral non-sugars, by a high juice percentaLe, immunity to fungi and bacterial diseases in the process of growth and during storage by non-blooming. For the solution of these problems mere encouraged selectioners, biologi- cal chemicists, physiologists, agricultural chemioists, field producers, micro - biologists, phytopathologists, entonologists, agrophysicists, matematicians and other ppecialists. Bach station transforms into a huge eaperimental-se- lection institution Which inoludes, besides the selection division, a series 'of other laboratories and divisions. The scientific-research institute of selection is reorganized into an All-Union scientific-researeh Institute of sugar-beets. The cumbrous labora- tories: microbiological, agrochemical retesroh, study soil and meteorological conditions of the raions of sugar growing, work out the methods of field exper- iments, execute methodical guidance of scientifie-research work of the experi- mental-selection stations. The network of variety breeding fields and of experimental points which embrace all the zones of sugLr sowing is strengthened and improved. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pusikov 5 Trend. 212: Sugar Peets The best qualified personnel is attracted to selection-research work in the Institute, at stns, variety fields arrl experimental points; the best personnel is seleoted amonF, the youth who t;raduated from higher educational Institutiars;the preparation and the perfection of personnel is organized. Si ultanenusly wittlthe organization of material basis for selection work tlt r.eoaration of personnel of nomeroue specialists-selectieners, work in organizing seed producing farms is widely carried out. Two hundred tsodel _ seed bree,iinz sugar beet Soviet farms mere newly restored. These fares pro- duce yer,rly mD0-600 thousand highly qualified seeds of sugar beets. A network of seed factories and seed bases is created. ';:(1?ipped accord- ing to the latest technic, the seed factorice_alonwiththeir send bases _ _ mere tble to produce and to stnre such great amnunte of euger-beet see 's that it was able to provide for the demand of the entire owntry for a year. _ ------- _ _ _ . As a result of measures adapted by Main Sugar, the auger industry of rs!..F. fully freed itself from foreign dependence. The ver:etl. composition of sugar beets had changed. FeplacinL tLe foreign varleties wMoh were dominatirg in Tsarist Pussia, now appeared new varietiee of sugar bet e of natinnal selection stations pro- duced by Soviet people. Already durinL its infanoy (1923-1970) the Soviet selection 7roduced a series of first ?last: sugar beet varieties (as far as productivity is concerned) which excells the varieties or foreign selection in sucar production. The practice indicated that the needs of the b(st Soviet selection is capable for better yield than foreign varieties. At the first place, according to the amount or yield from hectar, stands the variety of the Charkov station; _ the second place is occupied by the variety of Ramonsk station, but according _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 VUZ11(1211 to the saccharinity 7.t. '13 7.2 percent hij,er tIan the Ttartkov wriety and is the best ir slicer carte/It of all crop varieties. '"le Tarietits of 1.10vskii, ITanovell, nlaeoveko!, 7e1otserkorskoi raid IPi1et6koi stat:ans productivit;;. The sl-ift fro- aur setds to tYe i11ot n of orop ftrietios In 1%;l which hat been carried tr.A. la 1=4-1, yields to our ratical toono-y 2-2.5 percent of aJeltional suLar fro" 0 1 .;ectr of suzar-et plantin6. Te foreioa crops writWes Tippc, Kleintantsleben, ,loerainL, trube are oonsicerbly Lrferior to Soviet crop varieties accordInG to t iold of succi- from hectar and are not sLI;erior saccharinity. Yxperi-;ents Which uere cLrried out ir rola, r , during re- crnt provtd the proLuctivity of soviet var:eties ot? sur-'ueets. A treTeneons rork in oreat!k: a notAork of Soviet selectiAl stations, seed factr.ecs and bases and in providlnL them with aded ftchoic has been _ carried oi:t In the years of the Fir rIan. First Stalin iive-Year Thin war a LenAine revolutionary recnnstruotior of variety-seed produc- tion In the field of sugar-beets. Not a sissle oapitalist co_ntry possesses s11,117 , 7nwcrfu1 -;ar!et-seed produoint? system as me possess In our soLsr ireustry. The sucar 1:-.(1ustry of .2sarist lussia dur:ng tLe 11C years of its exis- terce elle to sugar-beet see s of rational selectivn only 1/4 of its reguirerent. The Loviet sugar Ineustry in the first ten years of its existence already produced all the recess ry amot.nt of highly qualifiek: selection seeds of tationsl or! !n. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Puzikov I Transl. 212:. Sugar Beets In comparing theta twO historical factors, tfe advantage of the socialist system Of national econ'Omy.OWer the vapitilidt ayatem la-Obvious. "hiring the years of.thoSeCond.Stalin Irive-Yetr-Plan the Soviet sele6-1,- tioners ind'seed-beeedera:stakted with the eiedutiOn of a net:great twat:. - ,to produce subh-sugar-beet"Watietiea whiCh Oauld be adapte&to the soil- elimatie end productive conditiehe of ihi-Mnet important zonet of tugar-beet :Weds in USSR: ' ? ? - ? In order to adapt these varieties into he most remote places with most variable conditions of olimate, soil, agriedltd.ral tezhnic, the capitalist seed firms 'pooduced a-theory'of'cOspopolitism of sugar-beet variety, i.e. equal validity Of'the.Varietk diteeiarding-thO'locality of its pioduCtiOn. This theory was well founded as lani as the imported augai-beet seeds were' ? 111 superior to those sugar-beet aedda of thecolintry which impoited.them.- But? we know sinee Darwin 't time very Well that all organisms changeunder , . the influence of the environment. The SO4ieteeleistors and-seed-breeders who were guided by the'progreasiVe theory of Baewin did'not accept the' - anti-Darlin theory of cOsmopoliiidm. " The 1MprOvemeht of methods of selectin:died.pioducing Work and.accumu- lotion of Material in variety-testing assiaied'in'prodUcing variOds'evalua- . . ?.- tion of tke same varieties in different zones 'of aniar -beet planting already in the middle of the first Five-Year-Plan."-This fact boodle mete obvious in ? - ipite of complicated conditions caused by the fluctuating meteorological ?eanditioni. This caused theproduction of virietied according to their indexes in those 'mei of sugar-beet seeds where they are prepared for sowing instead of general evaluation of the varieties along the entire network. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ruziVov 8 Teansl, 212: Sugar Pests ? Of laie;est theoretical and productive significance eras the production ?Fa series of first class varieties Which pre-erved their valuable qualities not only in the first, but in a series of succeeding generatiors. Such first _ variety wee I 1105 which hae been produced upon /vanovsk station. Formed in 1930 from a series of carpeting and individual selection numbers, t1 .is vari- - ety, after propagation in 1931 and 1972 has been for the first time included into variety testing in 1933 and obtained perfect evaluation is a great number of sugar-beet ranee acoordirg to it high sugar yield. The variety of Varkhniachesk station V1025 of normal direction, the crop varieties of rladov station - 7 103r, Llgovek L 1057 and L 1053, of Ivanov station - 1006 which were under experiment in 1935 yielded high sugar _ ? ? , crops in a series et zones of ugar-beet planting. The first and the second generettens of the indicated varieties "reserve their valuable qualities in ? the tones of temperate ell- ate (?) in 1938-1941. The testing of the third and fourth generations in 1045-1946 indicate the considerable productive value of these varieties within a more limited number of zones oF sugar-beet growing where they continue to appear. ? - The varieties; from Panon selection station - P 1537, from Ivanov I 1531, _ ? - _ _ Lfgov L 1535. 'eleteerkovsk PTS 1551 and_etters which were produced in 1916?distinguish temselvee by a high generative irmunfty. _ The fact of g:Ilerative iemdlity of a series of perfect Soviet varieties is a great even in the field of selection of sugar beets. It signified the birth of sugar beet variety as such. The sugar beet variety production of the best seed enterprises of the capitalistic, countries Cid not Lnow and does not /rrovt reliable, generative Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 . ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Puzikov 9 Transl. 212: Sugar eets ? ? ? immure vnrieties of sugar beets. In thE best case these firms brie selection raterials Which preserve their value only in the first generatiln. The Success achieved in producing generative immune selectinn materials placed u:,on a firm basis the problem of :roducing such sugar beet varieties which are best adaptable to tile conditions of tne main zones. ;it the present time a aeries of zones of sugar beet plantinz vhich em- brace over 50 percent of all sugar beet sowings in t:e country has already E;gh productive vqrlaties whioh are aLaptible to local conditio:s. The other zones also have good varietica. .lieverthelessi considerable fluctuations of these varieties according to van i us years indicate the insuf:ioiency in their adaptability be local donditions. The best raion varieties ate those produced by seleotimner A. L. :az- lumov at the Ramnn eta ion - P 11.37 am4-iL3tX,. These varieties yield in the Voronezh and Tarbov zones of sugar-beet Jawing an increase of 6-3 percent of sugar. The Ivanov station provided its sugar-beet growin, zone (Sumsk, )flar'kov oblast& and the Southern part of Poltav oblaat') with good ratan varieties I 1745, / 1111, I 1501. These varieties provide the inorea-e of altar at I-% percent in their zones The Uladov station produced high productive varieties IT los% 1115 which yield 1-6 percent more sugar in its zone (Zhitomir oblast and the Tor- them n part of Eamenots-TO:oltsk and vinnits ?blasts). L'ov, Pelotserkovsk, 'erkhniaohesk stations rroduoeC a series of rairn varieWs. One of the greatest echievements of Soviet seleotimners 15 the elimina- ticln of the yearly crop rotation. Put in capitalist countries they are still Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 / Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Puzikov 10 Transl. 212: Sugar Beets using in sugar beet production only the seeds of the first generation of the seed Onto which are aubstitoited by new selection seeds. The production of high productive, generative immune varieties which are adapted to the conditions of concrete sugar-beet zones in USSR permitted .the majority of raiogs to Shift to sugar beet sowings of the same varieties for a series of years. The basic: problem of selection seed producing work is for the near future the provision of all sugar beet tones of our country with productive varieties of sugar beets which combine high yield with high saccharinity. The cultivation of non blooming varieties for all miens of sugar-best ? sowino where the sugar beet blooming is noticeable Ii quiteimportant. The cultivation of ultra -saccharinity varieties of sugar-beets is of ?great interest for the selection work and for 'productive sowing of. a aeries of miens. A speedy solution of tee problems will lift still higher the authority of Soviet selection and Soviet seed production. End of article ? L.A.B. 9-18-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Foofilaktov, Vs y. Root-.Torning growth, Lenina Delsakokhos. Trud. 5021?1-182. ' Trans1. 213t;Orovith Substances substances. biokkov. Orden& Akad. t, F. A.Timiriaceva, 1045.- 106 /,952T The author is the head f the Peparthent of Inorganic cd analytical chemistry , Translated from the Russian. by R. Dembo: Endocrinology, the science of the inner secretiOn of animal glands, whinh becam an independent scienee based, mainly, upon the work of Frown- Sekara (1889) discovered the study of hormones (starling, 1905). Hormones:along with enzymes, vitaminea and Inductors (organic e), in the contrary to energpplentio aubstapaes ( Ibumen, carbohydrates, fats lipoids). are preented in the organism in small quantities and, manifesting its oligo,. dynamic effect, provide a normal development and a normal life activit: of the organism. The chemical nature of the aniral hormones has been determined in a s of oases, The chemical synthesis of some of them.-thyroxine and aarenalin (the over kidney gland) and some representatives of the group of sexual bar mones--has been realized which fact permitted to use these synthetio comp? for serving medicine and husbandry. The study of analogical substances has started in the vegetative world somewhat later. Already Darwin, who discovered (1880) the Atenomenon of the transfer, from a distance, of geotropical and phototropical irritat'on, expressed the assumption of the presenoe of some substances at the top of the vegetative organ (root, stem) which spread along the ortan and transmit the irritation thete. Later on, Sachs 1887), "Beierinks; 88) fir-pressed the idea of cheitoal regulation of morphogenotic processes in.plants which obtained later the devel- opmeat ia the work of 'Etter!' (190q) and *Fitt' G-ft nedlassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Fiofilaktov' 2 Transl. 213 Further works of the individuallbotanists who tried to apply the ideas of endocrinology in explaining some of the life phenokema of vegetative orga- nism (Feliubov, 1914; DE. Leb, 1917), and also fundamental res-arch of Kholod- nyi(1918), Eibetland (1913, 1925), introduce us into the contemporary period of the development of vegetative hormones --phytohornones or growing subitances. In order to explain the plant's reaction upon the nechanical damage (wound), in order to explain the phenomena of tropisma(geo-photo-electrotro- , pisms) in order to explain varions morphogenetic effects of the explorer, the existence of ipeoial material fectors has been assumed. Thus, Eibetlandt admitt the exiatence of wound hormones ("necrobormone", "Travmatin"). Stark, Grendmann?-tropitm hormones (trepohornones"). Vent and ?there- -horibte, of morphogenesis OA "kalipans "risokalin"which forms 111 roots, "Kaulokalin" which forms stems, "Karpokalin" which forms fruits, phyl - lot:aline 'which assists in leaf development; as factors which determine blooming are considered phlorigen (Chailakhian), "vernaline" or "anthesinen,"antogenes" of other authors; in sprouting cereals Ifni a;sumed (Kholodnyi) the presence of rblastanine". The chemical basis for this Wen was furnished by the work of Hegel (1930 who explained the chemical nature and composition of the sprouting substance - - auxins "a" and "b" and hetero-auxine,. which aro widely spread in plants in small quantities and which are contained in quite considerable quantities in the urine (of man) from valets they were at first developed, and auxines ("a" and rb") are.still derived. The number of such compounds has increased after the discovery of "blots" (rVildte", 1901) which is so important for the development of lower plants Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktov. 3 Trans1.213 4110 (yeasts), the disclosing of its complicated nature (Fiultmern, I923) the fixing of its main parte: "mezoinozit"--cenCeEastoott, 1927), aneirine (tiamine, vitamin (*Williams) -qtompouede known previously, and biotin.-- ail 1.8002s(Kecv 1952)*; and finally, pantoten acid--C9B17W05(ti1liams). These data assist the ahem/cal method in proceeding with the study of phyto- hormonal phenomena. *According to the latest discoveriea of American authors-- V. du Vigneau and coworkers--biotite has the oompound C10160310 (see below). The conception of some explorers (Kholodnyi and others)jwhich is based upon the nphysioligical polivalencen of these subotances4?auxine, heteroanxine and also their non-specification and which is Of Less pluralistic character/ is quite deceiving.. Thus, the inereased concentration of auilne in the fields ? of coleoptile accelerates the growth of these parts, 'but delays the growth in the root tissues; the solution of teteroautrine in connection with the concentraf tion affects the root growth either In retarding or accelerating fashion it became clear that heteroauxine has the capacity of causing acceleration or retarding of thrice:11 growth in their length, with other, plants it stimulates the cell division which may cause specific morphogenetic effect?root forma- tion, thickening of the stem or Of the root, etc, or the transformation in the form of the developing leaves. It became evident that the root requires, evidently', for the geotrepiCal reaction, the same sabot:knee which is the growth regulator and which dotermines the phototropical and geo,?tropical bendings of coleoptile and of other plant organs which are above the Lt-,und. OM the other hand, this sUbettInce is not specific: the tops of corn coleop- tiles which were planted upon beheaded roots of blue lupine Caused distinctive geotropical benango. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2_dAll Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? The'polivalent character of these firmly determined growin7 substances in their combinations or in various concentratims explains many phenomena of tropisms and morphogenesis, without going beyond real faCte, end this will out the list of various Wins% tropohormonss", "phlorigenes", etc. As the cause which produces the inequality of concentrations of crowing substances in individual parts of the plant organ which are influenced by tropisms se muet consieer the physiological polarization of tissues which sums up to "electrical polarity", i.o. the presence of a definite differentiation of potentials beteeen the eidee'pf the organs which are variably oriented (Kholodnyi, 1929). Thus, Prauner (1930) discovered a soicalled "geo-electrical effect"--the',, a presence of an electrical gradient in plant along the vertical line (the inolise of the potential downwards). The photopolarization of tissues under one-eided light is expree,sed as- cordinz. to Kholodnyi (1927), Miller, frauner (1927), also in the creation of potential differentiation..-the becones electro-negative in relation to the non-illuminated one. It has been known for a lone time that' the struck cpot becomes electro- negative in relation to the neighorint, non-struck fields; some increase of the positive oharre of the eolle which are located directly under the surface of the wound should correepond to this factor. Auxine, an evidently,.beteroauxine also, according to the data given by Vent and Kholodnyi, rove along the living vegetative tissues in the direc- tion oPthe growing potential (anion). This explains the change of auxine con- , oenteation and the tropism phenomena,(geo-photo-electro..) and wound phenomena which are produced by it. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktov 5 Trwsal. 215 The academie Kholodnyi thus formulates the real position of this problem: wOut f the chto of factual material, gradually stand out clear contours of a theory which promises in the near future to unite the multitude of the most varied experi--ental dats based upon one principle and to bring them all into definite order.' Such is the position of the phytohormone problem in general terms. As soon as the phytohormones became accessible, some of them obtained practical application. Indolyl-acetic acid was known to the chemicists before its role an a, phytohormone hes been .detcrmined. The chemicists also knew the methods of acqutring it synthetically. And this .suhstance has been prac- tically applied first by grafting of various wood species and in applying to in:rimier species vrith ich vos were unable to produce root formation by the well-known methods. The summary of the foreign and of our national experitent wasgiven in a pamphlet or r. Kh chailakhian? end B. 4 Turetskala which was published in 1942 under the editorship of N. A. Miksimov who worked a great deal in this fiel6 Due-to a tremendous interest in such substances and also due to their small amount in plants, where their presence is manifested by special extremely - sensitive biological mett,ods, and due to the practical :Impossibility of acquir- ing them by utilizing vegetative material, the question arose Concerning their chemical synthetical acquisition, at least of some of them. Let us recall that in Order to obtain auxin ("aft anC "b"), up to now, urine has been used as the batio material eearating from it hormones with, great difficulties. -- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 reofilaktov 0 S.111.4441, SW OW ??????, Out of the Mentioned phyto-hormones there is a specific composition for auxin (iv). (I), auxin re (I1) heteroauxin (II) vitamin El trst), "mesoinotit" construction of biotin according to exploration of V. du Vigneaud, K. hofmann and D. Nelvill (1V42) is expressed by the formula V, the texturb of pantomorphio mold by the formula Vie cr3 cHc-cE2 fH-t11-02-CH3 RC C-all-C.tl1-h-COOH I I I OE OH OE II NE CH2 -COOH CH -D -EC1 C===C-CH2-Ch ON I CR2-N CH Cl CH--sIII - CH3 CH2 CH3 CH3-CH2-FE-hC CH-91-CH2-CE5 -1E-CE2-CO-CF2-000E I' OE IV )P\ NE KR CH3 OR I I \ I Cit ) -COO ; CH2OHI-CH-CO-NE-CH2-CH2-00011 I I 4'4 C72 C113 VI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Feofiitktov ? Trawls:. 4.1. ? The atteMpte for ::a synthesis of the auxin NO and "b' are unable to ? that promis/goed results, taking into coneiderationikhe presence in the molecule of seven and in molecule /1--of five aasymetrie earbon:atoms enablesthe for- mation of the compound I 2.L 128 stereoisomers whose:division- aiming to 4 -so- late physi,ologically active isomers, became ttiFclEgilalmest hopeless). Beteroauxin (indolyll.acidic,aoid),has been _synthesized before: now its syntheses are considerably improved (rai ma, Khoshino) (V. 58, 2037, 1925)! The organic ohamicists tried experiments With phytohorMonnl effect and with sane other substances which are analogs Or homologs of heteroauxin,"since in anizal physiology the fact has been determined that not only the compeund 'which hap been discovered inanimals possess tome physiological affect, but often the homologs and analogs of the given substance, for instance, in the group of sexual normoldi.-andkosteron, eistroni in vitamins--a, D1 and some of his analogs, Kl and metilaaphtochinon and others, as well Physiologically active are the following analogs of heteroauxins ir-naphtyl-acidic acid. These compounds were utilized in practice of plant productiln. These substances, not being:phytOhorMons in real sense,- but being their substitutes, according to their effect, in acme eases surpass natural hormones. Thus, for ? instance, the indolyl Oil acid 'which has:not been_dieclosed in plants sun!. passes several times (soma times 18 -times and more) heteroauxin in its effect Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktov 8 "Trans'. 213 . for.. root forming. and therefore 'retiresents' a special interest. The application of this substance assists in:OodUcing.a.gabi- development of the root syetem in such plenty which either are unable tb pro:Paget:, by grattihg tooniferofue needle treat:, the majority' of cifirus trees, be fruit plants), or with euch . ? _ plants .-with which the grafting indulcites ?wly and iribecurely (gooseberry, -quinine tree .and others). ? . Therefore, the-iimplification of -measures of synthetic acquisiton of indolyl oil. acid, 'in order to use it for ;tarioue-brano?iel in plant growing, represents a task of great 4mpoitance. , ? :Literature indieatce tib Methods of obtaining it. Jackson and taiike (..T. An. Goo., 1930, 5029) Tialiieethie eynthesis-accerding to the scheme: CV2 1( co. -011110e1 '1 H2 00H 47-480/0 ? 804V/0 " 42 -000C2H5 H2 O0C2Hg CH2-114,11H?Ce5 ? CH2 - 100 -CH2.CH2.CH2.COOH -COOH CHg0H ..2R7577 ?CH2CHiCH2?CO0C2H5 -C9002E5 curcE2.612.c000n3 IR .cli2cA24cEi.coce . . Al it is ishoen 'stage I -Ir'is quite SitiefiOtoiy (60-81 percent), but' stage II-III( the locking of the'indoly1 ring) yields an unsatisfactory re. eult: after cleaning by distillation in a vacuum (7mm. under 238?) the out, come is 47-48 percent of the theoretical. After having obtained dicarboxylic acid (IV), after disarboxyling, the authors transfer it into methyl ether (V), destillate it in a vacuum (2300, npHassified and Aooroved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktcre 9 Trowel. 213 ? 6 mit) obtaining 74 percent of the theoretical1 because, according to their experiments, a direct'decarboxilling (IV-VI) yields a product (VI) which is hardly cleaned. The eaponification. of methyl ether (V) into indolyl oil acid yields '(VI), according to the authors, the necessary acid, which is cleaned with difficulty and which melts under 1240;the outcome of this stage (V-VI) is not indicated. A4"S In 1941, the academics-S. S. Nametkin, N. A. Dtbanovskii and A. C. RUdne* (DAB USSP, 1941, volume XXXII, page 533), in observing the considerable com- plexity of the above indicated synthesis of. the American chemioists which up to the recent time is considered the only method of Obtaining indolyl oil acid, described the of obtaining it based upon the synthetic method 43 of indolyl acidic acid which were given by Japanese explorers Wiz and Rho... shimo-(v. 58, 2037, 1926). C211511g] C1CH20N em??????? NAM. owe N-d112-0N ???????1100???1> NH nitrate-Pindoly1 acidic .acid NH -CH2-00011 R-indolyl acidic acid Utilizing this method in obtaining indolyl acidic acid, according to the scheme indicated below, S. S. Nametkin and his assistants applied it success- fully to the synthesisflof indolyl oil acid by replacing nitrile of chloride acidic acid by nitrile 71f chloride oil acids Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktov 10 Transl. 215 C1CH2411241124N t, -(cE2)3com The stace of obtaining magnium-iodine-indole from indole and from mac- nium-iodine -ethyl (1=.-41I) as well as the interaction of magnium -iodine - indole with nitril yof chloride-oil acid (IT?HI), is realized in the sphere of anisole; nitril (IV) which was obtained after the analysis of the compound (III) has been cleaned by distillation in the vacuum (2 mm, 210-2].8), 56.2-36.5 percent of the theoretical escaped. Its saponifiCation yielded the necessary indolyl oil acid (V) with the escape of 83.5 percent of the theoretical atter cletninc vhich melts under 124?. Not a single of the described measures promise the formation of indolyl oil acid by an accessible compound in the form as it Is given. The measure of Jackson and kinske, although it is formed by cyclohexene- carbonaceous ether and aniline, yet it yielded to the authors not high dis- charge; in some stages the cleaning of temporary products through distilla- tion in a vacuum (III and V) is required; this method includes five stases. The method of the academic Nametkin, although it includes less stages (only three), but yields also a low escape (discharge?) (36.2 percent; 83.5 percent), requires vacuum distillations (IV), the main things is the complicated accessibility of the initial substances: indolyl has been hardly accessible until recently and mill not be for some time an accessible sub- stance, nitril yof chloride oil acid (which le obtained according to the scheme: glycerin, allyl alcohol, chloride allyl, chloride bromide trirethyl, nitril yof chloride oil acid) is not easily accessible and requires the npclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ..orilarcov 11 Trans'. EIS ? ? 110 application of ESN at the 'act etas,: the reaction of maLniumiodine-indolyl with nitril requires iodine ethyl and anisole. With systematic research of reactions of aromatic diazo compounds with alkyl acetic aoideio ethers, whose results were published before (see "Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR*, department of chemical saence, 1941, page $21), A. A. Ivanov and tyself studied the first stage of reactions: CH2 CH2 47 11 011:! CO C6H5N2C1 C12. 100H CI' CII - C0002115 CH2 Cz C00C2115 '11-2BC6B5 CH2 CU2 The escape of the Proftot II appeared to yield 95-90eroent of the theo- retical under repeated experiments, i. e. it MRS more'thaniAmerioan explorers (80.41 percent), and, besides, this substance has been obtained in two-stere- oleometrio fonts eich has not been observed by American explorers. Besides, by studying thy capacity of aryl-hydrazones in looking into indolyl derivatives under the appropriate regime of theaction the following scheme could be obtained with a qualitative escape (see the following infor- mation)s C112-C112-02-00011 ,C-CO0C2115 Too nephth-hydrazone ketoadipin k-mbl 2 .2 -CH -CH -COOC H C-COOC H -2 RH etyl ether naphth indolyl-S) acidity 2-oarbetoxin *Propionovs Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktov ,Transl. ,213 This indicates that the escape indicated in the article of Jackson and,. Manske even at the stage (II--111). at 116-48 percent, are not maximal. and could . , ? - be increased. ??.! ? :' (. Besides, the distillation in, the vs.cuui . which has been described by these scientists as substances necessary for the cleaning of substances, atcording wo? ? ? ? ? ? , to our estimation, were not absolutely necessary. Based upon the experiment of Jackson and Manske on yexious stages of . _ the synthesis and also realizing the critical remarks,expressed above, - worked out the following, scheme of the synthesis (ses the formula on page ?.. 180). Cyclo-hexanon carbon containing ether (I).?mbich,is obtained from .cyclo hexanon (the preparation is anfollows: phenol--cyclohexanol7cyclobexanon) and from oxalic-ethyl ether, n?combined with,chloride diazobensol,(from anilin _ N ? ? ? ';" r . . and sodium nitrite) in alcohol-water medium in an open glass vessel at the coling up .to +.1 CH2, I, - 0112 CO . ? _COO CI CH2 COOH CH2 CH-CO0C2B6 . ' \/ - CH2 . 1. C-(P2)3,-!COOH cp2. c.tcooc211 /e , . Ni, -NH-C6HS ? CCOO 1,70 94) -H " 0-950/c> ? (.2 H2) rey 12E COOC 87-940/0 C-COOC 11 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - Feof I laktcrv 13 Transl. 213 Phenilhydrazon of acidic ether (II) escapes in the form of orange-yellow crystalline product (mixture a- and forms). Escape 93-98 percent. With- out any oles.ning, by boiling it for several hours in an alcoholic solution of sulphuric acid and by pouring it into freezing water, we obtain ether (III) with an. escape of 90-95 percent of the theoretical, the temperature of melting is 76?; its saponification with alcoholic solution KON,under cold temperature, without any preliminary cleaning, yields quantitatively K-sodium chloride ? of dicarboneted acid (11/), the acidity of It-sodium chloride yields a lose dioarbonated acid with the escape of 87-94 percent of theoretical; this .acidity without any cleaning,, yields, by heating on oil bath, decarbo-oxidizing, the expected .indolyl-oil-acid (V) with the excape Of 60-70 percent of theoretical, and only in this stage a cleaning is required--one-or double crystallization ? from water (with the addition of carbon) yields a clear indolyl oil acid (temperature for reltinG is 124?). The advantages of the worked out method are: the accessibility of the initial materials--cyclohexanon, oxalic-acidic ether, anilin, alcohol, metallic sodium; among them there are no poisonous or hard accessible (indol, nitril, -chloride oil acid), stn./laity of apparatus formation: .alrost all the op-, orations are done in open vessels: glasses, flasks: the most complicated-- vacuum distillation when obtaining oyolohexanon carbonic, ether, tti!) boiling of the alcohol solution with a reverse cooler, with the looking of indolyl cycle starting with oyclohexanon-carbonic ether, there is not a single oper- ation of the cleaning of temporary products (netther crystallization, nor ? vacuum distillation); the cleaning of a definite product--the crystallization from hot water with carbon. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Fe of i laktov 14 Transl. 215 ? The following are the high discharges which me obtained; stages 1-II 95-98 percent, instead of 60-61 percent with Jackson and Vanske, stk." II-/II up to 93 pc reent, instead of 47-46 percent of the same authors, direot decor- boxylizing of decarbonate aoid (IV-V) with the escape of 601-70 percent (which could, be 'increased), . Instead of indirect say through methyl ether of indolya- oil acid?all these are the distinctive peculiarities of our variation from the methods of Jackson and Lanske. With varioue modifications of this basic variation Ile synthesised this spring up to 6 g. of indolyl-oil acid which, after having been handed over to the experimental station TUNA (Timiriazev Agricultural Academy), proved to be active as a stimulating root forming aubstance ii,on grafting of cherries, white cedar '(Thnja), potatoes at the concentration from 0.02 up to 0.0025 percent in -eater solutions. In order to draw the perspectives which are drawn in case of the acces- sibility of this substance, let us recall: the polivalent character of the physiological effect of similar substances with the example of heteroauxin. Under certain conditions it causes the acceleration or the retarding of the cell growth longitudinally, under othrr conditions it stimulates the cell sion div*m which leads to a definite morphogenetic effect?root formation, thicken- ing of the stem or of the root; its solutions affect the root growth either retarding or acceleratin dependint; upon concentration, whereby the sensi- tivity of the root is very great. Thus, Fidler indicated that by diluting up to 1), in I liter, the toot growth in water 'plants is checked (20 percent in comparison with control). Nevertheless, with further diluting se observe growth acceleration; 0.1/' in 1 litr accelerate 50 percent (i.e. the dilution of i mg. in 10 ta of water). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Feofilaktow 15 Transl. 213 Oeiger-Guber and Burlet indicated that the maximum acceleration of corn root growth occurs under 0405 r for ,1 litr, e. 1 for 2000 t. water! . The atpve ground organi--steme, leaves?are much less,responeive to the effect of those suestances. In order to stimulate the disturbance in normal morphogenesis of these organs, considerable concentrations are required. Thus, the grafting is achieved with the concentration of 0.00S-!0.01 portent of heteroauxin. It is interesting to observe that not only stems leaf petioles., but even the basic wino of the leaf blades react upon the Intensified supply of grovtng substances (heteroauxin) by the manifestation of the root forming a0.- titity. In those domains of these or6ans, *Lars theconcentration 6f the growing hormone .reaches a definite sloe, there begins an abundant foundation 411 of additional roots, they reach a definite length and tions are able to fulfill all functions intrinsic to normal roots. lihen heteroauxia in introduced under the bark of a willow or of a poplar,. it oaue a noticeable division of cambiu (eden). The. academic Kholodnyi (106) obtained the increase in. the growth of veg- etative or6ano and increase in fruit bearing by cultivating oats seeds with heteroauxin (0.01 percent) for twenty-four hours. Timin and Len (1i738) ob- served the same uhenomena when carrira out analogous experiments with oats. and wheat. Amlong and Naundorf (1937) stated the in ease of the. root mass with radish and sugar beets after hormonlemg.with hetoroa4in. Stair and Diu-tat (1038) observed a higher fruit yield after havik; oUl- tivated tomato seeds- with heteroauxin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 . Peofilaktov 16 ?renal. 215 . ? Amlong and Naundorf inform about a successful distillation of early lilac by moistening its buds with the solution of heteroauxin for a week. Thus, in many cases hetcroauxin stimulates the development of seeds and of buds which are in a condition of natural rest. In recent years various explorers in USSR and abroad carried out a great mmo nt of experiments by hormoniting grafts with heteroauxin and with other synthetic compounds. The success of these experiments was of inch significance, that at the present time this method begins to 'penetrate in the horticulture practice. Among the Soviet explorers we should mention the work of gcmissarov (1930 who succeeded in inculcating the grafting of pines and alsojof N. A. Vaximov and Gogolashvili (1937) who obtained good results by cultivating with hetero- auxin the graftings of oranges, mandarins and tune trees. The tank of the chemiciat, as the collaborator in solving this most im- portant theoretical and praoticel problem, is to make thistle magic substances accessible to physiological experiment, to experimental and economic applica- tion in various domains of plant production. And for this end it is necessary to work out more simple and oheap measures for their synthetic acquisition. Our experimental work is directed towards this aim. Conclusions Progress in the field of biochemistry of planta enabled the scientists not only to separate several "growing substances" or phytohormones, but the determination of their chemical qualities placed the question of their syn- thetic accuisithnn for utilising them in plant production. Among such growing substances of greatest interest are the growing sub- stances which stimulate root formation. neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? reof laktcre 1? Transl. 215 Among these, of most practical importance are indolyl acidic, naphtha acidic an indolyl-oil acids. Altho gh the latter has rot been fo,Ald in plants, but ac-ording to the power of the root forminG effect it surpasses many times the natural phytohormona.-indolyl acidic acid by affecting plant traftings with the conr!entration of 0.01-0.03 oeroent and even (T.10101 percel)t. Two syn- theses of ilrfoly1 oil -rid are k- own: 1) JacVson and lianske (LAM?composed of lyclohe;mnon carbon containinz ftcie and aniline; 2) academic S. S. Nametkin with assis,arts (1.941)--obtained it from indolyl ane nitrilerchloral oil acid. Path these methods, or dus to the oomple,ity and hard accessibility of the initial Taterials, indintte the fact that indolyl oil acid is not an acces- sible corTound. Le the result of our research, we.are able; to simplify considerably the ? realizati?In ot enparatn stager of the synthesis, based upon the scheme of ? Jachson and !;.orsko, to inoreece ocnsieerably the solutions according to the stages, an, as a whole to um the nethod of the synthesis ot inc!oly1 oil acid froT1 cycicbexanon eurbon-oonta!n5nes, ether and aniline which are ow-paratively accessible. The co-na:ind indo171 oil acid 'shish has been obtained by this method, after hwrin: been analyzed at experimental s'ations of '11EA (Temeriazin ALricultural Academy), indicated conspicuously the expected root formine effect un plant 'Tatting. L.A.B. D.2F-n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 lrauces. Dobrotvortseva, A. V. [(VMS) (All-Union Institute of Sugar beets - Kiev)) Pelleting sugar beet seeds with fertilizers. Stich. Promysh. 25(2): 39-42. Feb. 1951. 65.8 Sa2 Translated from the Russian by S. N. Monson The first period in the development of sugar beets (from the appearance of sprouts to the formation of the third pair of leaves) is the most critical. The establishment of conditions Contributing to joint, full and healthy sprouts represents therefore one of the major problems for increasing yields of sugar beets and the basic) prerequisite for the mechanization of methods for their care. The principia cause for obtaining thinned sproutings.consists,in our opinion, in the common use in industry of the type of sugar bee* sliding coulter which does not meet agro-technical requirements. To begin with, it does not meet the chief requirement proposed by Williams concerning the planting of seeds on a firm, settled and moist bed. This type coulter firms the bottom of the trench but its construction is such that the companted layer of soil introduces the fertilizers into rows and not seeds. Fertilizers are covered with friable, dried soil through side indentations and sugar beet Reeds planted on the friable soil. Thus there always is a friable layer, no less than 1.5 am thick, between seeds and the compact toil layer. The thickness of the former layer may be even larger if the surface layer is dried out. .This condition - may be eliminated in two ways. First, by constructing a sugar beet ooulter of another\type to meet' agricultural requirements for planting seeds and secondly, by adapting the available coulter for planting sugar beet seeds. This may be done partly if seeds will Ve planted on the layer of soil firmed by plowing, though this will interfere with rows. Planting of seeds together with mineral fertilizers, in prescribed dosages, will lead Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01000001nnn1-9 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva 2 Trans1. zis ? to, an increase in the concentration of salines around sees and may Cause depressed plant growth during the initial period-of it development. re set , ourselves the task to find a better method for iMprovingAnutrition of sprouting seeds by pelleting them' before planting, with bacterial andorganic-mineral. fertilizers. Laboratory and field tests were undertaken for this purpose. in 1949. Ditrogeni as.a bacterial ftAtilizer; euperphosphate (granulated and? neutralized) as a mineral: fertilizer; peat-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. as an Organic-mineral) and humus as an organic fertilizer mere used to pellet sugar beet seed's before planting. Nitrogen, of which the reaction is based ? on the Use of the microorganism 4Ititotobactern, vas? taken in the form of peat substance. Igtmus ius taken from it nursery, dried and turned into powder.. In obtaining neutralized super-phosphate, wood and hay ashes, and superphos-! thi$E. phat5Imere turned into dust, etrained through a- fine sieve, mixed and left to stand for Several hours. Ashes amounted to 10 percent of the weight of superphoephates. :Peat-phosphoruspotassium fertilizer? of the brand IIUIF 'contains: $0 icent or peat, 20 percent of 'IQ percent of lt20. Granulated superphosphate and concentrated peat-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer had a neutral reactien.end contained more than one-half of their phosphoric acid in soluble form. Nitrogen and humus were taken in amount* or 20 perdent,Thosphates-40 perbent of P205of the weight of seeds, i.e. practically 4-5 times less than the dosage accepted for row fertilization. The technique of pelleting seeds involved moistening the seeds in water before treatment, rad airing them to a point where fertilizers would cling to them without dissolving. Seeds were then gradually and:evenly dusted with Organic and mineral fertilizers and carefully mixed with a wooden shovel. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Transi. 214 Dobrotvort Ba before tr a needs. Qua plot of podzol soil ( on 0 3 with trogen The planter hosphates of pelleti.r.g seeds befor superior grade practice on poorly nourished soil rmed in a darkened place planting, one nourished planting-treated made' to Study h was performed acaoidlia oil (test I) the other '(test .2) d in table 1. VA 0 TBST Beet yield Percent of Yield of 3eet yield Percent (in o/h) sugar , sugar (in /h) of sugar Control, seeds moistened in water VelIeting ecede with ilitr PeIleting seeds with nitrogen and 'peat-phosphate Pelletinz -seeds with granulated stapori,phomittabe Pellating *mid ? with nitrogen.& neutralized super,-,' phosphate Pelleting seeds with pest..phoephorue. Pelleting swede with humus 20 cg/PL P205 10 ?15 TC20 in row -d of gar 1445 143.8 16.07 25.1 34.2 43.1 154:0 15.73 24.2 51.7.4 14.3 277.5 282.7 29863 1460 14.2 3869 '40.1 42.4 ,162.9 '7 26.1 22.8 15.33 25.0 VIM 16.71 Z3.8 23.8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R0142614010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva 4 Transl. 214 In test I an additional yield of 27.7 *Awes obtained fror. pelleting seeds with nitrogen, while pc:listing seeds with nitrogen and peat-phosphorus produced an additional yield of 41.7 c/h. Pelleting seeds with peat-phosphorut alone increased the yield by 22.6 c/h. In test 2 the highest increase of 23.8 c/h was also obtained from pelleting seeds with both nitrogen and peat-phos. Py pelleting aeeds with nitrogen alone the increase was 10 c/h, while the comdined treatment of nitrogen and neutralized waperphoaphate resulted in 19.1 c/h. Reduced fertilization of the test field reflected upon the absolute yield and the size of additional yields. This may be attributed to the accel- erated bioloLical activity of azotobaoter on better cultivated soils. In test 2 attention is drawn to poorer resdlts fro n row fertilization compared to pelleted seeds before planting without PK. Row fertilization gave only 8.3 c/h., any researchers repeatedly indicated that "azotobakter" is unable to develop and absorb nitrogen without soluble salts of phosphoric acid. E. V. Dianova and A. A. Voroshilova concluded, for instance, following a atudy of the cause of absence of azotobaker in clativated soils, that "azo- tobacter,, when introduced into soil without additions, is unable to survive. and that tho introduction of phosphate creates conditions favorable for the development of azotobaoter. (Scientific-Agronomic Journal, No. 7-8, 1927). Pelleting seeds 'with nitrogen and subsequent pelleting with a small dose of phosphate will consequently contribute to the increase in the biological activ- ity of azotobakter. The positive reaction of pelleting seeds before planting with small doses of phosphates together with nitrogen was confirmed in field tests conducted at experimental points: Rorovinets, Taltushkov, Bershadski4, Federovka, Shovohenovo, Rakitianskianekuld 2.40Witehino. (table 2) neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvorteeva ? Transl. 214 ? Experimental points! Variants of tosts! VPIC into rows I - told of Poroent boots ' of in aih) - auger itorovimm YALT0S0KOV 111:11S11ADSK FrOKOVSK 241 15.9 Yield of tluznr 38.3 I 329 Yield PerOont Yiold of ' of of beets sugar Sugar (in 0,/h) (tno/h) Foliating seeds with nitrogen i% neutralised super-phosphate -01 Pelleting seeds with nitrato granulated super phosphate 37 -??Fa.1., mom. Foliating ?cede with Granulated auper phosphate ?fik ????? ????? EPK into roma Pelleting seeds with nitrogen neutralised super-phosphate 01 03 7.41 27 17.3 M." 4.1. ? 6.2 I 18 7CELTIC0 ,232 10.9 9.0 -0.1 Pelletint seeds with nitrate granulated - super-phosphate 2.1 9.2 Pelleting coeds with granu&ated super- phosphate 2C.9 1 'lleld Porcont Yield. of of. of 'cots Sugar Cugar.. (in o/h) '-(in_o/h ?330 119.8 65.3 377 17.2 64.8 1 3.6 12 -01 -01 9.1 ' -10 001 5.9 1 10 t -001 - 1.4 11 .; Yiold Peroent Yiel of of of Ueets Suer Sugg in ?A) (in/ 1.7 1.7 02 -2.0 1.3 02 r -01 1.5 RAErtlArrl ?Tmilmaro II- 43,0 I 285 s18.3 52.2 lp 162 ' 20.1. 0 3 03 AVBRACC 1 .18.2 51.0 1 - 3.81 i r,-,_ 4.6 i 23 0.8 2.0 1 29 0.3 2.1 23 -01 -03 32.6 280 3.8 18 - 5.6 13 4.0 14.4 03 .--m????? 3.3 0.13 15'2.86 I 008 ..74 .1 0 CD0 CD (D CD 73 73 8 CD -n CD (T) CD (D n.) n.) . . 0 0 -0 co 0 0 n.) -10 . o -10 n.) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva 6 Transl. 214 At Fedorovka, Utevehenkovo and hemetehino best res its mere o tained from phosphorus introduced in the form of granulated superphosphate; at remaining experimental points-from phosphorus introduced in the form of neutralized super- phosphate. Additional root yields amounted to 11 to 48 oA; sugar yields-- 1.7 to 7.4 a/h. Oranulated superphosphate introduced together with seeds increased the yield or sugar beets by 7 -32 cA and of sugar 1.4 to 9.9 cA, as compared to the introduction of a considerable amount of F20+nto rows (20-2c kg), even though combined with 8 - 12 kg. of 1.1 and K201 End of article L.A.r. 9-2g?ga, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 IIlir ', Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 jihibrotvortseva, A. V. dzi [(VNIS) (All-rnIon Institute of liugar beets - S CS- ll'i Pelleting sugar beet seeds with fertilisers. Sakh. /110 Promysh. 25(2): 39-42. Feb. 1951. 65.S Sa2 Translated from the Fuesian by S. N. Vonson ? ? Tho first period in the development of sugar beets (from the appearance of sprouts to the formation of the third pair of leaves) is the most critical. The establishment of conditions contributing to joint, full and healthy sprouts represents therefore one of the major problems for increasing yiel.A1 of sugar beets and the basic prerequisite for the mechanisation of methods for their Oar** The principal cause for obtaining thinned sproutings consists,in our opinion, in the coinuse in industry of the type of auger beet sliding coulter which (ides not meet agro-technicel requirements. To begin With, it does not meet the chief requirement proposed by -allisms concerning the plantinz of seeds on a firm, se4tled and moist bed. This type coulter firms the bottom of the trench but its construction is such that the compacted lRyer of soil introduces the fertilisers into rows and not seeds. Fertilisers are covered with friable, dried soil through side indentations and sugar beet seeds planted on the friable soil. Thus there always is a friable layer, no less than 1.5 am thick, between seeds and the compact soil layer. The thickness of the former layer may be even larger if the surfs.? aver is dried out. This Condition nay be eliminated in two ways. First, by constructing a sugar beet coulter of another type to meet agricultural requirements for planting seeds and secondly, by adapting the availible'coulter for plantieg sugar beet seeds. This maybe done partly if seeds will los planted on the liver ol soil firmed by plowing, though this will interfere with fertilization in roes. Monting of seeds together with mineral fertilizers, In prescribed dosages, will lead Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva 2 Trans 1. 214 to an increase in the concentration of saline? around eseeis and may cause ' depressed plant growth during the initial period of its development. We set rh E. ourselves the task to find a better method for improvingAnutrition of sprouti seeds by pelleting them, before planting, with bacterial and orgenic-mineral fertilizers. Laboratory and field tests were undertaken for this purpose in 19494 Nitrogen, an a bacterial fibItilicer; superphos hate (granulated and neutralized) as a mineral fertilizer; peat,phoeptallEmitp!!!!sium fertilizer as an organic-mineraly and humus as an organic fertilizer were used to pellet_ sugar beet seeds before planting, bitrogen, of which the reaction is based on the use of the microorganism l'azoto-bacter", was taken in the form of peat substance. Fume was taken from a nursery, dried and turned into powder. In obtaining aeutrnlized super-phosphate, wood and hay ashes, and superphos- Jtiltsso phateA were turned into dust, strained through a fine sieve, mixed and left to stand for several hours. Ashes amounted to 10 percent of the weicht of suporphosphates. Peat-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer of the brand IMF contains nO per- cent of peat, 20 percent of P205, 10 percent of N20. Granulated superphosphate and concentrated peat-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer had a neutral reaction and contained more than one-half of their phosphoric acid in soluble form. Nitrogen and humus were taken in amounts of 20 percent, phosphates--20 peretnt of P20qof the weight of seeds, i.e. practically 4-1 times less than the dosage accepted for rem fertilization.. The technique of pelleting seeds involved moistening the seeds in water ijoirnra treatment, and airing them to a point where fertilizers would cling to them without dissolving. Seeds were then Gradually and evenly duated with organic and mineral fertilizers and carefully mixed with a wooden shovel. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva Bacteriazation of seeds with nitrogen mac performed in a darkened place before treatment with phosphates. The planter was set for planting treated' seeds. On a plot of ,podzol ot1 (viIS) two experiments were Made to study results of pelleting seeds before ,planting, one of which was performed according to superior grade practices, on a well nourished soil (test I), the other (test 2) on poorly nourished soil. Results are submitted in table 1. Test': 1 Test 2 VARIAETS OF TrsT Control, Gees moistened in water Pelleting seeds with nitrogen Pelleting seeds with nitrogen and peat-phosphate Pelleting seeds with granulated super-phosphate Pelleting seeds' with nitrogen neutralized super- phosphate Pelleting seeds with peat-phoephorus Pelleting seeds with humus 20 kg/it P205 10 15 120 in row Beet yield (in o/h) Percent of sugar Yield of sugar (in ofil) Beet yield Percent (in c/h) of sugar Yield of sugar (in o/h) 271.1 14.5 39.3 143.8 ? 16.07 23.1 303.4 14.2 43.1 154.0 15.73 24.2 317.4 14.5 45.4 187.6 15.56 26.1 277.5 14.0 38.9 146.7 15.53 22.8 282.7 14:2 40.1 162.9 15.33 25.0 298.3 14.2 42.4 air ? 151.7 15.71 23.8 152.1 .15.67_ 25.8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 4? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotvortseva 4 Transl. 214 ? In test t an additional yield of 27.7 c/h was obtained frcr pelleting seeds with nitrogen, while peateting, seeds Witt nitrogen and peat-phosphorus produced an additional yield of 41.7 c/h. relleting seeds with pent-phosphorus alone increased the yield by 22.6 c/h. In test 2 the highest increase of 23.8 c/h was also obtained fron pelletiir, seeds, with both nitrogen and peat-phos. Ey pet/sting seeder elth nitrogen alon, the increase 1MA IG c/h, while the coroined treatment of nitrogen and neutralized superphosphate resulted in 19.1 c/h. Reduced fertilization of the test field reflected upon the absolute yield and the size of additional yields. This may be attributed to the accel- erated biolocical ectivity of azotobacter on better cultivated soils. in test 2 attention is drawn to poorer restate fro- row fertilisation otspared to pelleted seeds before planting without, PK. row fertilization gave only 8,3 c/h. Nany researchere repeatedlY. indicated that ,"azotobaktern is unable to develop and absorb nitrogen without soluble salts of -?hosphoric ? acid. r. V. Dianova and A. A. Veroshilove concluded, for instance, following a study of the cause of Oltenia* of azotobaker in eyttivated soils, that 'azo- tobacter, when introduced into soil without additions, is unable to survive and that the introduction of phosphate creates conditions favorable tor the development of szotobacter. (Soientific-Agronomio Journal, No. 7-8, 1827). Pelleting seeds with nitrogen and subsequent pelletirg with a smell dose of phosphate will -consequently contribute to the increase in the biolot,loal 'tette- ity of atotobakter. The positive reaction of pelleting seeds before planting with small doses of phosphatee together with nitrogen was confirmed in field tests conducted at experimental points: Norovinets, Yaltushkov, Eershadekft, Pederovka, allevehenkovo, Rakitianainatma ZetaAthIno. (table 2) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Dobrotrortsesa Experiments. tT3 Variants of. es 011 Transl. 214, Yield of Percent Yield beets of of n o/h) sugar kigar Yield Parcae ,of of beets sugar 'in Percent Yei of ' of SUgar: Su* 0/0 lit to rove 26.9 377 Pelleting seeds with nitrogen & neutralised ?.phosphate Polleting seeds with ni granulated super phosphate Pelleting seeds with granulated super phosphate 48 ta 37 7.09 ? NPK into rows Pollsting seeds nitrogen tt neutralized super-phosphate Polleting seeds nitrate & granulated super-phospbate Pelleting seeds with ranu&ated super- phosphate 2.0 29 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Dobrotiortsert 6 Trans'. 214 At,Fedorovka, Shevohenkovo and ritohino best resvits were o...tained from phosphorue introduced in the form of granulated superphosphate; at remaining experimental points-from phosphorus introduced in the fora ol neutralised super- phosphate. Additional root yields *mounted to ll'to 48 eih; sur yields. 1.7 to 7.4 Or ulated superphosphate introduced together with seeds increased the yield of sugar beets by 7 -32 c/b and of 'Sugar 1.4 to 5.9 c/h, as compared' to the introduction of a considerable amount of P2061into rciws (20-25 kg), even though combined with 8 - 12 kg. a 11 and 1201 L?A?D ? 9.,415-61. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Misevich, Z. A. and Zakharchenko, A. I. Transl. 215: Saaar Rest* Downy mildew of sugar beets. 'Xkh. PromYell. ?5" 20(a): 31-34. June 1947. 65.8 Se2 Translated by R. Dembo The authors are scientists at the Verkbniachesk experimental- selection station. himinz to increase the yield of one of the most valuable plants of sugar-bect mites- sugar-beet plantings, we must concentrate our attention not only an the requirements of agrotecImic, the achievement in seed. verieties, bat upon the quality of the planting material as well. The irr)rovement of elanting material should start with rejecting of mother plants in the field, not so much in regard to the size and form of the tubers, bit according to the presence of diseases. c!ach vegetative diseases, like downy mildew, rust and mosaic disease _ _ of saep.r %acts, by negatively influencing its development during the first year of life transfer upon the plantings throne: the mother roots. Downy mil- _ dew has an emuscially destructive influence upon the development of islantings. This disease has been first discovered upon- the beets is the nierii a of en century in the countries of ',Testern Zurope. At the beginning of the XIX tury it becnne widely spread. Thus, in Saxony in 1894 downy mildew of sugar- beet =Dos mached 40, clement._ jn Rnes_ia this, disease appeared_i_n_1215. In 1927 downy mildew was discovered at the Verkhniachesk Selection _ Station of -.,ziev oblast' where it has appeared yearly. In 1941 this disease has been found on 22 farms. airini; the German occupation the development of downy mildew has _been especiallw 2_4ticeable. According to the data of 1945, the disease embraced 40 percent of veer-beet farms: about 20_pez_!_cenl_of creels ani alitrat 25 percent of plantings have been infested. The disease is _ ? found most often u2on young leaves. The manifeetation of this dlksease is er:.sily Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ??? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Misevich end Bakbarchenko ?renal. 215: Sugar Beets seen by an unarmed eye; it has a film of dark gray color with a violet or yellow shade upon the lower (weaker upon the upper side) gide of the leaf, at its base. At the infested places the young leaves thicken, the edges of the leaves turn down, are friable, their growth stops. In rainy years the infestation is noticed upon old leaves In the form of yellow spots upon the upper aide of the leaf, with a dark gray film of Nrceltura upon the lower side. With planting plants, downy mildew infests the leaf rosettes and the sprouts of the early stage. When the sprouts are infested by downy mildew, separate btanches, bracts, tubers 'are affected in various degrees. The plants affeeted by downy mildew obtain the quality of *prodiferatsila? (proliferation ) during the first and second year of their life. According to our observations, in 1945 the disease was disclosed upon roots,, especially with Borne varieties, by changing the root form from cone shape into spindle shape, in conspicuously expressed ribbing and the lengthening of the root top. Meteorological conditions influence considerably the development of downy mildews wet weather is conducive to its development and, on the con- trary, dry, hot weather hampers the formation of spores and the development of conidia and stops the development of the disease. The large mother sugar-beet could serve as the source for the initiation of the disease. The roots of the mother sugar-beet which are infested by downy mildew, according to Verkkalacnsk station, yielded 55 up to 90 percent of the plantings ? with external symptoms of the disease. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Kisevich and Zakhsrchionko The dismiss could easily t ?natl. 215tSagar Bee sfer frost the infested plantings ta the moths sugar-beet, 4if both plants ars closely situated. In order to eliminate the harmful influence of downy mildew upon plantings, we removed 426 sugar-beet tubers which were infested bydnony mildew. The tubers were subdivided into five group, according to the intens- ity of their diseassi(ss Table X, page 4) The diseased. tubers, stored with sound control tubers, were stored 170 day.. 162en diseased tubers were taken out from storage rooms in spring, 1945, about 4.2 to 23.9 percent perished. Most of these tubers perished by the decay of the central, Al]. tubers which we serration. About n percen perished at the very perished ones has been n served. ed after spring rejection were un r of the roots, at the average along all groups, t vegetation. A larger percentage oft ht ed with plants which were Infested later. Atong the plants which ,formed items. about 13 percent fruitless About 44 percent of tubers diseased in theifirst year did not indicate any symptoms of disease upon plants. Tb.e manifestation of the 'disease upon plantings of plaits which wars infested late in their first year of life has been explained as the later phases of development. These very plants yielded a larger amount of plantings with definite symptolie of; the disease which corresponds to the conclusions of Terkhniachesk station in 1939. The plants with definite tome of the diseasivielded in the second year considerably less crops than the plants which were planted with diseased Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? The symptoms of the disease o f :no the r It percentage of tubers which per- ished in storage ? percent qp percentage percentage ,of tubers of fruition* of whidh per bushes tubers ,ished at which did the begin- not pad .ning of any Crops vegetating Table percentage of plants with ' dineese nv4ifestatioa the roe- At the generative Otte stage stage ? Leaves without fibs 4.8 14.6 6.2 20.8 33.3 66.7 Leaves with filo Upon the lever side 9.8 12.8 17.2 30.0 38.3 63.7 Individual dying of leaves 11.5 11.8 3.9 15.4 38.3 64.7 Complete dying of the central bud 23.9 8.3 . 21.5 29.8 : 46.2 83.8 New. *mad. but &termed leaves grow 4.7 7.3 14.9 22.2 83.4 16.6 The average 10.8 10.9 13.7 23.6 48.9 53.1 ti ? a fei? a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ./ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Lieevich end. Zakharchetko .s. Trane].. 215: Omar Beets ? tubers, but which externally did. not manifest any disease. (See Table 2, page 6) Comparing the seed. crops from diseased mother tubers (from bush.. With distinctive symptoms of the disease in plantings, from bashes without distinctive symptoms of the disease) With the crops from sound, control tubers, we may come to the conclusion that downy mildew decreases considerably the seed. yield in some 6110,11 up to 35-45 percent and even more. A yield equal or close to control is obtained from those diseased pleats which are diseased in the second half of the sumer of the first year of life and externally they did not manifest any diseases upon the plantings. This has been confirmed by the data of 1946 as well. This year especially harmful influence upon the plantings of mother tubers resulted which recurred. three times. Our research of 1944 and 1945 over the diseased sugar-beet of the first year of life throve light upon the causes for the decrease of seed yield. 13esidee of losses of some parts of the buds, including often the central part, the diseased plants have a low sacthr.rinity and a lower weight of the tuber in comparison with the control sound. plants of the same variety. Tills is seen from table 3 which is composed, based upon the analysis 327 of the raion mother sugar-beet on April 29 and infested bythwoy mildew 24.26 of - UV, (Bee Table 3. pace' 70 As it is seen from the data of table 3 the wagar yield for one plant drops at 30 percent under the influence of early disease of downy mildews The repetition of the disease reflects upon sagar-beet crops by decreasing tie yield some times twice, as it is seen tfros the data on table 4.(page 73) The shortage in crops of sugar and of seeds, due to the infestation ?of surar-beete by downy mild" causes considerable losses to sugar beet farms, especially seed producing "ones. (See Table 4, page I.) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 1 The symptoms of thsi:,ercentage The average weight of the sees 'Percentage The average weight of seeds = W. i l i disease of the 'of bushes , . from pus bush of buihes from abash mother wager-beet :vith deft- from basheif 1 ,without bushes withj- , ' g ,nite sym- with con- ' ,in percent-, symptoms out deft- 1 in percent- m? iptoms of spicuwas ' control age of of the nite AMP- I control age frog dissase 'symptoms (ia g)! control 'disease toms of the tin g) control n cb of the die.. tin percent) disease Alas* (in 14 i 1 Leaflets without , film 25.0 : 98.0 Leaflets with film , upon the lower side 35.5 90.0 138 71.0 50.0 166 54.5 . 33.9 153 68.5 19.2 140 68.8 84.7 i I 148 87.9 61.1 151.0 lb() 100.3 120.0 125 96.0 128.0 134 0.5 136.0 151 88.5 112.0 176 63.5 Individual dying of the lemflets 65.4 105.0 Oomplete dying of the central bad 15.5 1 88.0 , New, sound, bat 1 deformed leaves arei growing 16.7 130.0 ! 1 1 .1erLSSL.?.?_31.2..cL1 -12.4.22-148r0.?...;_6L_L9---..43.28.?.L.-139-t4..._;,.14.2.tt288s8...., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Table! 3 0150 The mutt- bar of plant e lee of infestation Average weight f tuber Ancrant of sugar in peroen smcAr fre 1 tuber Smor yield in poreolit) .t ti. 3.90 June 312 1649 62.1 '73.5 103 314 16.43 73.7 3 44 327 17.08 .67.6 81.0 200 Sound tubers 90 15.68 70.9 100.0 Table 4 S..4 Variety Aiqetght n once diseased by dor" mildew twice - 1308 Ivanev stption 23 Vezighniaehsit Station 390 027 32'0 29). 336 4 (D 0 CD =Pi (D CD (D 2, (D (T CD (D n.) o.) o n.) . . 0 0 -0 co 0 0 n.) 0 0 0 0 8 64 0 0 it" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Xistrrich and Zakharchenko Transl. 215: SagAr Zoete ? 7 The history of the development of downy mildew at the Vorhbriachesk ? station indieates the fact that, by applying corresponding measures, it is possible to eliminate this disease or to check its development for a long time. A. considerable development of the disease which occurred in 1937 and in 1`...-38 he., been checked in the :succeeding years by couplet isolation of mother suzinr-beets from plantings. A new outburst of the disease occurred only as a result of planting diseased plants upon selection field during occupation. The shifting of plantings from the mother migar-beets at a distance of several kilometers (after the Oliberation of Verkhniachesk station from the invadors)eaused almost complete recovery of mother sugar-beet crops. Based upon our research and upon the experiment of Yerkhniacheak station We would. like to recommend. the fella:dna meamxres_in controlling downy mildew: 1. The shifting of reproductive sugar-beets from plantirg pl snta. _ tions at a distance of at least 1.5 km; without changing he existing crop rotations and the distribution of pleats, this measure could be _ realised by means of planting reproductive sagar-beets upon a winter_ _ _ field preceding plantings (method TN'S). 2. All the after mowing waste upon the fields planted. sugar- , bests, and especially upon empty fields and. near them, should be estemeinated. 3. We should observe constantly the planting of augar-beats, especially of reproductive sugar-beets, for an early removal of the diseased plants of the first nests of infestation. Young plants are most susceptible to _ _ the infestation of downy mildew. 3efore the removal of disea sad tubers, it is necessary to spray the entire sragar-beets by one percent Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 3.sevisch and Zalcharchenko .9. Transl. 21.5: %tar Beets ? Ceaux mixture anseoticid4 with a radius of 10 m from the ? iditht considerable amount of irfested plants, before their shifting* it 1..s necessary to spray.ith Bordeaux mixtnre the entire field. Syststic removal of all plants infested. In, downy mildew, provi-.Thd there iz V2Etal P41011nt of them, could save the entire plantation.. he :0-Aing of this olrration until thc4 beginning of digging should not 1.Ye unit ted. under any circumstances. The dugout 'diseased plants fihould be ulaced into pails with the solution of formalin or into double sacks moistened by forestlin: diseased nlexits are iug into the same field. at the depth of at least G.5 n. 4. The leaves of root-bearing plants are *nosed at the place of the plantations where there yea downy mildew disease. 5. The plowing of the field upon which the infestttion of downy mile.ew has been noticed should be nlown at the depth of at lea9t AD1-9-25.51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 , Trend. 2161 Plant Protection Yee so iusnoe *So andarstvennos Ob' adinenio po ? Borst* c Vredit(eliani Boleanieui ? Bel' Oros Lesnom Khosialstva Postanovlenlia. pravila I instruktsil po karantinu protiv vreditelei I bolesnei eel' skokhosiaistvennakh kul etur '(M/solutions, rules and regulations on quarantine in controlling agricultural pests and diseases). 2, p. 1933. 464.9 V962 Translated in part by B. 0. Denbo TA3L2 0./..?'COITENTS Yoreword The organisation of a unified quarantine lorries at the People's Cos.. - 4 miessriat of Agricultuv of Imo ? The order of delivery of seeds isvorted from abroad according o destine. 6 tion. Vin? quarantine quarantine against phylloxera, ? 40 Instruction for inspaction of phylloxera on grapes 13 quarantine raioning of the territory of grape production in IlSSII 18 .21 a ? Braes for registration of vineyards Bales for founding vinsyards, ths acquisition and the delivery of 23 planting material - ? Roles for giving permissions for delivery and transportation of vine 25 planting aaterial Instruction on disinfestation of vine planting material with boiling water Instruction on fumigation of vine planting material by hydrogen cyanide 29 in staple disinfection moa. Temporary technical instruction on cleaning vineyards which are infested 32 by PhYlloxera through the- mechanical nethod -Cotton Quarantine. The quarantine situation in controlling cotton moth and noodle worm leshipovatyl chervil ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R. 010000010001-2 VseaouLentrepo- Trans/. 216:Plant Protection Potato quarantine The situation of potato quarantine 38 Instruction on disinfestation of potato tubers and of soil in con- 42 trolling powders scab and sponge wore "subterraneas Rules for keeping quarantine MIAs of potatoes ,which are importod 46 from abroad Orchard quarantine. tosolution of. the council on "Arden quarantine which was caned by quarantine nenagement of people's Comniesatiat of Agri- -culture of USSR.. on September 3. 1932 The introduction of orchard quarantine 'The situation Of orchard quarantine Instruction for daterminizig the ratans Of free farming service so Instruction in stathorizitht the right of permitting the transportation 62 of planting material (for quarantine inspection) ? 52 Instruction for farm supervisors in permitting the transportation of 63 . planting artd of seed materia3. Instruction for preparing reports on quarantine inspection. 66 quarantine in Controlling the dapanes? Beetl? qpitssntine measures in controlling the Japanese beetle 88 . quarantine in'Controlling the Bean. 8??8* qlzarantine measures in controlling bean (lemmas) seeds 69, ADV-9-25-61. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Aft ifProva. T. I. Utilisation of gl,? aceth substances in the propagation ? of fruit and berry crops. aml 1 Oprod, 1946 (4/5), 71-76. Apr./May 1946. 60 6'13 transl. 217:0rowth Substances Translated by H. 0. Dembo Among the agricultural technical measures which accelerate the growth of planting material of fruit-berry crops the application of growth substances is of great significance. ' Growth substances.phytohormonss or growth hormones--are present in the plants themselves in small quantities and influence greatly the growth process. In the Ebviet Itaion,as far as studying the physiology of hormonal phenomena of.the vegetative orgiumiiim is concerned, the academic 11. T. Eholadnyt played an important role. In 1931 he discovered the a tiamilating influence of auxin phytohormone upon the initiation and development of side roots in corn sprouts. This observation has .been also proved by foreign explorers. The American scientists Zianermann and Hitchcock. of Bois-Tompson Institute. proved (1935-1936) that the effect of auxin-tater solution upon plant grafting accelerates their root formation. Further they succeeded in separating from some mold-fbngi a substance which is similar to auxin and which is called heteroauxin. Hetero-auxin is similar to betadadolyl-acidic acid. Three growth substances have been discovired: auxin A. auxin 11 and heteroauxin. In order to obtain auxin (A and 13) the urine of animals and man has been used, as initial material, but it is difficult to separate the hormone from urine. Heteroauxin (beta.. indayi-acidic acid) could be prepared by synthetic means. The following substances proved to be physiologically active: beta.. indolyl-propionic, alfa-naphtyl-acidic acids. These substances, not being phytohormones, since they are not found in _plants. In Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 legorovak, V. I. -a- ?rang. 217i Growth Substances ? many eases surpass natural hormones (heteroauxin). Figaro 1. Currant grafts, Versatile white, a Donth after planting in the norsery. From left to rights. two grafts covered with indolyl-oil acid during six hours; 2 grafts cultivated. during 12 hours; 2 control. The indicated growth substances are a powerful meetenre in directing plant growth. They acquired wits application in working out ueagures for the acceleration of fruit-berries grafts and of other agricultural plants. The basic work in applying growth substances in the Soviet Union are c--:.rried out by the Institute of Ph,ysioloa of the Academy of Sciences of USSR condor the supervision of prof. N. A. Maksimov. The institute worked out methods in applying growth substances.' 3. Challakhian and It. ZN. Turetskaia? *Short nethodical indications on the application of synthetic growing. substances for the rooting of grafts*. Moscow, Pub- lications of the Acaderky of Sciences of MIR. 1942. 4.0.0?10...??????????????woommiroomn In these instruction is given the description of the technic of applying growth substances sad a table is given of the restate of their application during grafting of individual plants. Valuable results in grafting forest and fruit crops were obtained by Fonisearov (1938) at the 1?I;k1ngrad Forest-Technical. Academy, 908o1oshvill (1937-1938) at Batun Ittanical Garden. Lochershenko (1939) at thektuni Central Selection Station of Subtropical Plants, Carasenko $t Timiriatev Moscow Agricultural Academy and others. At the Moscow Frperimental Selection Station of Main Consery of the ginisterium of Food Industry of US19, in working out measures for the acceleration of propagation of fruit-berries crops, the growth substances were tested in 1944-1945. In 1944 heteroauxin was teste& in relation to tho Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 S 7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 orova. V. I. ?repel. 217:Growth Gabstandes acceleration of grafts of various varieties of black, red and white currant. Esteroauxin Wag taken at the concentration of 0.01 percent (100 mg for One int- of water). In connection with the degree of graft ii 1ct1oD, a voried e;sosition vas accepted (the tine length of the effect of the solution of the growth substa:ace)t for the lignified grafts of black carrent.24 hours: for lig:lifted dafts of red and white current-48 hours: for green 'rafts of black currant-4 hours; for green. grafts of red and. white current-8 hours. The lignifiod grafts wore taken at the length of le an. the cren crzfts were token at the length of two internodes. The grafts ut5r,).ound into bundles of 30-60 'pieces and placed in the 'heteroanacin solution of 2.3 =depth. About ten thouoend, of ligaifiei =extant _grafts were treated by hoteroauxin. The experiment. has boon carried out under industrial con- ditions. Me positive effect of heteroinuttn upon the lige. ified grafts plented into the ground in spring hae been determined. The treated grafts, d4..-pending upon the variety, formed roots 7-12 days earlier thrum the control ones. Daring the unfavorhlo spring of 19? which was famous V a.drought, the grafts which were treated by heteroanxin formed roots sooner than the con- trol ones and produced the sprouting .of two year sprouts with all currant varieties. The sprouting of two year currant increased along may varieties of treating the grafts with heteroauXittAt 12.50 percent. The f,v.neral condi- tion of plants treated with heteroaaxin, was different from the control ones during the first year of their life. The treated grafts grew faster and yielded, big bushes. In 3.945 we extended our experiment and besides of heteroauxin we tested ? tho effect of indolyl-oil acid. Growth subotances were tested iron green Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Zgorova V. I. -4. Tiling". 'VT.:Growth Babstances ? grafts of currant!. ,gooseborry and ,cherries.. The treating of cumgant and gooseberry. grafts .with growth substances wal carried out in. three terms: June 25.. July 15, And August 1; on &orioles oncs--July 3.. In the .experiment with currant the following varieties were taken: ? ? , . . the black currant-"Liia raoderednaie egoronatsiae; red currant-sTarsheviCh!. nellentU White currant -Ver04110.,English.? Three varieties of gooseberry . wore taken: Manton*. green elfinike and Ragiish yellow. line varieties of . . ? cherries were taken, including the old Rassian varisties-rladitairskata. Liub. skate, gentskaia, of the Nichurin varieties.Plodorodnaia Miehurina Emu'. GOYIM, taiirpotreb cbernsta, iubtleinata, lionomart and Ihekharayslx.ia.. ror currant and zooseberry-the growth substances were applied at the concentration of 0.005 percent (50 mg for one litr water)! The exposure for currant leas. accepted 6, 12 and 24 hours. and for gooseberry-12 and 24 hours. The green grafts wore cut in two. internodes; in order to decrease the to.ter evaporation through the leaves, the leaf surface was decreased in a half. The green grafts were taken from the currant bushes six years o321, the grafts of gposeberry-fottr.. years old. The cherry grafts were cat in the middle of the cror of trees six years old. Altogether .1.0 thousand green grafts were cut and treated with growth subetances. The planting of grafting. was carried out in nn.rseries where tomatoes previously grew. For the rooting of green graftings we .may utilise nurseries previously used for cabbage. The graftings of current and of gooseberry affected. by the growth substances fere roots such faster than the control grafting.. Daring this treatment the growth of roots accelerates and, their power increases. Figure 2. Currant graftings of Selland red, one "tenth after planting in nursery: from right to left: 3 graftings treated by indolyl-oil acid: 3 control.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Epripme V. I. Trine. 23.?: Growth 9abstances ? As a result of an intensified development of the root system the growth of the over ground part, aces/orates. The plants obtained fron graftings which were treated with growth substances grow faster and develop a more powe3?f4/eaf sUrface, as, fbr instance, lath the acceleration of grafting, of Versaille white currant. Le it is indicated upon the drawing I, the most effective was the 12 hour exposure; the roots were more powerful. The con- trol grafting. did not form any roots at that time. Indolyl.-oil acid was physiologicnlly more active than .heteroanxin. bie Must mention that heteroanxin, besides or being less active; disintegrates easily end losse its characteristics liFtickly. Therefore, before using hoter-- .cauxin, its physiological effect upon the plant should be tested. Tho following results were obtained on June 25 during the treataent of graftings of currant. English white variety, with indolyl-on acid (0405 percent): with the exposnre of 6 hours 41.0 percent roots. with ? the exposure of 12 hours-73.7 percent. Me- control graftings 473Vel roots 38.5 percent. The variety Inglish white, when treated with indolyl-oil &Ad, with the exposure of 6 hours, gave the best relate. The amount of the root pro- - duoing plants increo-ses twice in comparison with the nos-treated plant s. The currant variety Holland red which produces roots with 'Jiff!. culty fo,raed roots after its grafting. were treated with indolyl-oil acid (0.005 percent): with the exposure of 6 hours-26.6 percent; with exposure of 12 hours-73.3 percent. The control graftings accelerated 17 percent. The best result :was obtained by treating the graftings of Ilona:id red 'with indoly1 oil acid for 12 hours; the amount of plants which formed roots increases more than spur times in comparison with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -Tgorova;' V:I. Trend. 217s Growth Eabstanoes ? the non.treated (figure 2). The grafting' nf black currant form of the sane amount roots ,,,bether thew were treated a growth subetan.ce or not. But those which were trev.ted? form roots faster and develop better during the first growth period. (figure 2). tinder the influsece of indolyl-oil acid and of heterosurin, the green grn.ftings of gooseberry form a rP.-ot system 7.10 days sooner and nape powerful than the control onee. Asa result of an accelerated root growth, sprouts are formed. Mae to the fact that the roots with the green currant grafting* tally ere formed with difficulty, the apllication of growth mbstzaces Is The indolyl.oil acid at the cnncentration of 0.005 percent at the em. rosure of 24 hours had a good effect upon the root formation of ,-?;0.7:seberry grafting". (Figure 4)t Gooseberry grafting* rinik green 50 days eXter the planting into the nursery. Irma left to rithts 2 grafting* treated by indolyl-oil acid. for 24 hours; 2 control graftings. The graftings of ghauton variety treated with indolyl-oil acid, Iorad roots 77.4 percent and the control ones 59.5 percent; the treated gr!-..fti.ogs of groan *Finik" formed. root* 56.7 percent, the control-37.8 percoat, treated yellow 'Prtf,lieh-44.2 percent, contro1.27.0 percent. Best results in root formation were obtained frcoa early graftinge-Zune 25. The verst results were obtained with the gr,ftings on July 16 and ..ugust 1. observing the irt.ture of root formation with the cherries, -umder the influence of indolylroil said. it has been stated that all cherry varieties in propau.ting by mesas of &ren crE,ftings are qble to twine rota. The percentage of root fornin ^ltzte fluctuate trith each ariety. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I. Transl. 217: Irowti: 'Zubstances ?VrnIaia, airpotreb black and itonoluakh form roots easily. 1.:,entakala and Liubekaia form roots with difficulty. With the concentration of indolyl- oil acid at 0005 perms:at. best for the majority of vezit;ly.Lea was 12 hours. Under this exposure the green ev-aftings of cherries accolo their root formation &ad roth growth in the length.(Zigare 5). leisure 5. Cherry graftinge variety Liubskaia 15 (bye after planting in the nursAry. rrom left to right: 2 aaftings treted by indolyl-oll acid for 12 hours; 2-control. /hen Green grertings of cherries were exrosed for 24 hours in a soiu. Vou of indola-oll acid. (0.005 percent) this was destructive for 0Viirpotrabsw. nubileintiaft, "Plodorod litichurino whose leaves became soon ;,,t-now tig ? Lind instead, of roots a callus was formed which require-4 a Great ? evend.iture of the nourishing substances of the i;Telting due to which it VeuLens, roots are not formed, the bud door not open and tho 6xsit perishes. The experiments which were carried out at the koecow az)-rLdeui4'30. selsotion station enable us to arrive at the following conclusions: 1. ale trp.Aication of heteroauxin in lignified gruftin.:.!s of karious varieties of currant erased the acceleration or root Corwation in 7-32 days. The grafting(' which were treated with heteroauxin accelerated the sprouting of two year plants 1240 percent (depending upon the varie)y). 2. Indolyl-oil acid has a physiologically active effect twon the root formation of currant graftings. Under the influence of this acid the root formation accelerates and the strength of the root system increa,ses as a whole. 3. The basic and. determined moment in applying growth so., tances is the best concentration and the duration of the gmfting ex yours in the 111 solution. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 rramosim4-V... ' Tranil. 217:Ctowth SUbstanees ? The application of acid in the con: entration of 0.005 percent (60 mg for a litr of water) increased the percentage of the root formation of the green currant graftings. Thus. for instance, with varlet, English White When treated with indolyl-oil acid (July 'for 6 hours the number of root ibrnizig planto increased, twice in comparison with Control plants. graft 1C enroll:Ltd red .(bard root forming) the number of root formin+lants, in comparison with control, increaaed 4 tines under the effect of indolyl-oil acid during 22 hours. 4. Green graftings of gooseberry are greatly affected '47 indolyl- oil acid. Indolyl-oll noid in the concentration of 0.005 percent with the evosnre of grafting* in it. solution for 24 houregive good results. The root formation increases 1740 percent (depending upon the varlet) in COM"' parison with the control ones. 5. ITnder the influence of indolyl-oil aid upon the green cherry grefti"..the root feration is accelerated. The green grafting, of the vallority of cherry varieties reacted well to indolyl-oil acid with a con- centration of 0.005 percent (53 mg for one litr of water) for 12 hours. MINI the exposure in the indolyl-oi/ acid solution lasted 24 hours, the reaction of the varieties: black Itirpotreb. Iubileinaia, Flodozodnais Mich:rina and rentskaia, wan negative. ADV-9-25.51. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - - Geller, I. A. and. Khariton, G. Transl. 218:Sugar Beets The utilization of nitrogen bacteria and. other microorganisms for increasing the yield and sugar content of sugar beet. Sovet. Agron. 9(3):65-68. Mar. 1951 ::20 So84 Translated. by R. G. Dembo el'he authors are connected with the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar-Beets) Root secretions and dying parts of the root system are the source for carbon and. mineral ash nourishment of many organisms which inhabit the root zone. According to the calculation of Krasillnikov, the weight of micro- organisms of the plant root zone (rhizo-sphere) reaches 60 c/ha, while in the rest of the soil mass their weight reaches about 20 c/ha. The amount and the content of the microorganisms in the rhizo-sphere are fluctuating during vegetation rephing greatest density during the initial growth phases and during blooming. ? The high density of the micro-organisms in rhizosphere indicates that these very organisms influence in a considerable degree the activity of the higher plant, neutralizing the products of root secretions and plants and taking direct part in providing the plants with the elements of ash and nitrogen nourishment. As a whole, the life activity of the microorganisms of the rhizo- sphere is a favorable factor for the growth and the development of plants. But, there is no reason to believe that all microorganisms which are found in rhizosphere affect the plant equally favorable, since the products of substance exchange of various organisms are of different kind, thereby affecting the plant in a different manner. This results into a practical problem: to fill the rhizo-sphere with ? microorganisms which are useful for the given plant. Of the rhizosphere Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. and. Xhariton, E. G. Tran81. 218; Sugar Beets microorganisms, according to numerous experiments, nitrogen fixing bacteria (in particular. Azo'cbacter) improve the conditions of the plant's life acti.. vity and. by this the introduction of Azotbacter with seeds directly into the soil is of great agricultural importance for the increase of yield and the improvement of the quality of the production of agricultural crops. In respect to sugar-beets, our research indicated that the saturation of sugar-beet tubers with Azotbacter increases both the yield and the saccharinity of the sugar-beets. The data of 1949 concerning the yield and, the saccharinity of subar bests after the experiment with azotbacterin are given in the table 1. It is most important that with the increase of soil fertility the effect of azotbacterin increases. Thus, for instance, at Zemetchinsk variety field without fertilizers we acquired the increase of yield of sugar-beets from azotbacterin-13 c/ha, and. by applying mineral fertilizers the increase due to azotbacterin was 46 c/ha of sugar-beets. (See Table 1, Page 3) Analogous results were obtained by A. V. Dobrotvortseva at the experimental field ? of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar Beets in the experiments with azotbacterin ? Upon a soil which has been treated with sulphur and SOW ashes she obtained a sugar-beet yield of 144 c/ha and an increase from azotbacterin.4.0.2 c/ha; upon a field with a higher level of fertility she obtained the same year a higher yield-.27.1 c/ha and the increase due to azotbacterin was 32.3 c/ha. Airing the experiments upon black soil, by adding mineral ashes, at the Umansk Selection Station of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar-Beets, in producing sugar-beets upon the nourishing field of 45 X 40 cm, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80IR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. and. raariton, E. G. Transl. 218: Sugar Beets Table 1 The place of the experimen Yield of tubers in ciha Saccharinity CONTROL AZOTOBACT CONTROL AZOTOBACTE The Verkhniadheek experi- mental Selection Station of4 the Order of Labor of Red Banner Ivanovsk Experimental Selac tion Station Korovinetsk Variety Field.. 349.0 383.0 204.0 Shevehenkovskii Variety Field 228.0 Parafievskii Variety Field 285.1 Kozhanskii Variety Field.. 336.0 Dclinskii Variety Field 159.5 411 Batyeva Mountain (Experi- mental Field VNIS) 215.0 371.5 387.5 239.0 255.5 306.8 385.8 173.6 236.0 17.7 18.1. 15.4 18.3 1 17.5 16.7 1a.0 17.8 v/ 19.1 15.8 18.5 17.5 16.9 18.2 14.5 15.6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. and Khariton, E. G. Transl. 218: Sugar Beets we acquired an increase in yield from azotbacterin?56.5 for each tuber, and while producing sugar-beets upon a field of 45 x20 cm the increase in weight of one tuber was at the average 3.3 g., 1.e. the effect of azotbacterin increased considerably under the best conditions for sugar-beets. Thus, with the increase of the soil fertility, the effect of the meas. sures of applying bacterial fertilizers will increase. Along with the increase of the yield it has been determined that sugar-beet seed bacterization with azotobacterin increases the saccharinity of sugar beet as well, The data given in table 1 indicate that in the experiments of 1949 the increase of sugar percentage in sugar4beet butlers by applying azototecterin was 0.3-0.5 percent, and in individual cases reached 1 percent. Due to the importance of the problem of the increase of sugar-beet saccharinity, the research in this direction has been extended. The influence of Azotbacter upon sugar-beet varieties-its yield and saccharinity has been experimented upon various nourishing fields. It became evident that the influence of Azotbacter upon sugar-beet quality depends upon variety peculiarities and upon the conditions of variety production. The data of 26 experiments with black soil, which has been treated with mineral ashes, at the trmansk Selection Station (the experiments were carried out by A. F. Ilikolaeva) indicated that the sugar-.beet varieties of high saccharinity react positively to Azotbacter during vegetation, but at the end of vegetation this effect becomes hardly noticeable or even negative. For sugar-beet varieties a drastic increase in saccharinity has been noticed at the end of vegetation. In table 2 is indicated the increase of the percentage of sugar from 411 aaotobacterin. (Table 2, page 5) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. and Marlton, E. G. Transl. 218: Sugar Beets Table 2 Number of the nous- ishing fiel Sugar percent- Increase of sugar from Azotbacterin in percentage Varieties in cm age 5/VII 5/VIII 5/IX . 5 450 or-C-0-1,1 f- .1.0.6 +1.6 ..---7 4 45X40 18.7.618.9 -0--.4 +1.1 +1.2 8 45320 v . (+0.1 (+0.7 \-. ,/ 9 45X40 +1.05 +0.9 /-' -0.15 / It is advisable to apply azotbacterin first of all for varieties, as for yield, undeAractical conditions of collective farms and state farms; and. the problem of applying azotbecterin for the varieties, as to saccharinity, is necessary to work out by the experimental method. The experiments indicate also that it is possible to increase sugar- beet yield as well as saccharinity by means of other bio-compounds. In our research we tested the effect of mold fungi Trichoderma ligaorum and. Pennicillium chrysogenum. The data of three year experiment indicated that the saturation of sugar-beet seeds with the spores of Trichoderma lignorum causes the increase of sugar-beet-:yield and saccharinity. In our experi. ments we compared the effect of Trichoderm and of Azotbacterin. The results of the experiment are given in table 3. (Table 3, page 6) At the average, the increase of sugar-beet tuber yield from azotbacterin during three years of these experiments is 17.3 ohm, and from Trichoderma 18.5 c/ha. The increase of the percentage in sugar content is at the average 0.3-0.4 percent. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Table 3 ? The place of the experiment 1 Year of li Control Trichoderma Azotbacter ezperi- root ment ?; yield in c/ha sugar in percent yield in c/ha sugar in perdent yield in c/ha sugar in percent Zgurovsk variety field , 1946 141.1 16.0 161.2 16,3 159 16.0 Zametchinsk variety field 1947 200 17.7 233 18.6 213 18.4 Deriuginsk variety field 1 1947 190.6 19.5 191.8 19.9 193.3 19.9 Zametchinsk variety field . 1948 148 18.2 171 18.4 179 18.4 Deriuginsk variety field 1948 212 17.9 217 18.1 219 18.0 Bershadsk variety field 11948 303 17.3 323 17.4 325 17.3 Dolinsk variety field 1948 179 16.0 187 15.9 187 16.0 Table 4 Fertilization Control Trichoderma Penicillium yield in percent sugar in percent 16.9 17.4 yield in percent 103.0 110.1 sugar in percent 17.3 1717 yield in percent 106.0 106.1 sugar in percent 14.4 17.4 Without fertilization WPK 100 100 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. and. Khariton, E. G. Transl. 218: Sagar Beets Practically the same results were obtained in our experiment upon gray soil of Batgory (experimental field VNIS) Which has been partly treated with mineral ashes, in comparison with the effect of Trichoderma lignorum and Penicillium chrysogenum. In table 4 is indicated the influence of Trichoderma and Penicillium upon the sugar-beet yield and saccharinity. (See Table 4, page 6) In the experiments of IA. P. Podtykan Who examined the effect of all bio-compounds indicated above upon the soil of Batgory Which has been treated with phosphor-medium mineral ashes, with the yield of control field 422 c/ha, the increase of crops from azotbacterin was 23 c/ha, from Trichoderma-24 c/ha, and from Penicillum-28 c/ha, and the sugar content from azobacterin increased at 0.7 percent, from trichoderma,-0.2 percent, and from penicillium-la percent. Thus, the saturation of sugar-beet seeds with useful micro-organisms causes yield increase and improvement of tuber quality. The basic problem then is to introduce widely these measures into collective and state farm production and to work out means for further increase of the effect of bacterial and fungi compounds. The possibilities in this direction are tremendous, applying, for instance, the complexes of useful microorganisms. Taking into consideration that the mon fungi Trichoderma and Penicillium improve the life activity conditions of the sugar-beet not at the expense of soil wealth connected with nitrogen, since they do not fix nitrogen in noticeable quantities, we may expect that by applying them with Azotbacter the effect of such a complex Should increase considerably. Without making any decisions a-priori, we Should take notice of the fact that the problem of regulating the life activity of soil micro-flora, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 C-eller, I. A. and Ithariton, E. G. Transl. 218: Augar Bets according to Williams' theory, is of great practical significance. The further development and application of Williams' theory should be extended by an active interference into the biological life of the soil, and., particularly, by wide application of a series of biological compounds which are used under specific soil-climatic conditions, with the consideration of the biological peculiarities of various varieties of agricultural crops. ADV-9-26-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 I 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 4 - Geller. 1. A. and Xhariton. 3. Transl. 218:Sugar Beets 4 The utilisation of nitrogen bacteria and other microorganism: for increasing the yield and. waFAr content of sugar beet. ? Sovet? Agron. 9(3):68-68. Mar. 1951 20 So84 el'he Translated by R. G. Denbo authors are connected with the All-Union Scientific-Research institute of ftagar-Beets) Root Secretions and dying parts of the root system are the source for carbon and mineral ash nourishment of many ore/misses which inhabit the root sone. According to the calculation of XrasilLnikov, the weight of micro-. Orms of the plant root tone (rhiso-sphers) reaches 60 ciha, while in the rest of the moil mans their weight reaches about 20 0/ha. The amount nnd the content of the microorganisms in the rhiso-sphers are fluctuating during vegetation rmehing greatest density during the initial growth phases and during blooming. The high density of the micro-organisms in thisosphere indicvAetthat these very organisms influence in a considereble deEree the antivity of the higher plant, nentrali2ing the products of root secretions and -lents and _ taking direct part in providing the plants with the elenents of ash and n it ro gen nouri shment Ae a whole, the life activity of the ricroorgenives of the rhiso- sphere is a favorable factor for the growth and the development of plants. lint, there is no reason to believe that all microorganisms which ars found in rhizosphere affect the plant equally favorable, since the products of substance exchange of various organisms are of different kind, thereby affecting the rlant in a different :manner. This results into a practice' problem to fill the rhiso- sphere with _ ? microorganisms Which are useful for the given plant. Of the rhizosphere _ _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? ? - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ()eller, I. A. and Khariton, B. G. - ?Tanta. 218: Sugar Beets ? microorganisms, according to numerous experiments nitrogen fixing bacteria (in particular, Azotbacter) improve the c^nditions of the plant's life acti- . vity and by this the introduction of Azotbacter with MIMI directly into 1 the soil is of great agricultural importance for the increase of yield and the leprovement of the quality of the production of 'agricultural crops. In respect to sigr-beete, our research indicated that the saturation of sugar-best tubers With isotbactior increases both the yield and the saccharinity of the sugar7beeti. .The dita of 1949 concerning the yield end the saccharinity of saber bests after the experiment, with azotbacterin are given in the table 1. It is most important that with the 'increase of soil fertility the effect ? of asotbacterin increases.. ? ? - I J ,?? Thus, for instance, at Zemetchinsk variety field without fertilizers we acuired the increase Of yield of sugar-beets from azotbacterin-13 c/ha, and by applying" mineral fertilizersthe increase due to asotbacterin was 43 c/ha of attar-blot (See 'Table '11-page 3) Analogous results were obtained by A. V. Dobrotvortseva at the experimental field of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sager Beets in the experiments with azotbacterin . Upon a soil which has been treated with sulphur and some ashes she obtained a sugar-beet yield of 144 c/ha and an increase from azotbacterin-10.2 c/ha; upon a field with a higher level of fertility she obtained the sane year a higher yield-27.1 c/ha and the increase due to azotbacterin was 32.3 c/ha. Daring the experiments upon black soil, by adding mineral ashes, at the Umansk Selection Station of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Sugar-Beets, in producing sugar-beets upon the nourishing field of 45 X 40 ea, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. end Ishariton, L G. ?renal. 218: Sugar Beeti Table 1 The place of the experiment Yield of tubers in c/ha Saccharinity The Verkhniacheek experi- mental Selection Station of the Order of Labor of lad DaAller ............ ......... ,CON11201, Ivanovek Experimental Selec- tion Station ,crovinotek Variety Yield... Mierchankovekil Variety Field Parafievekil Variety Field X**tomtit Variety Field Dolinekli Variety Field Batyeva Mountain (Expert ?? Ile tal Field VMS) 349.0 383.0 204.0 228.0 285.1 336.0 159.5 215.0 AzoiroliAtcrat, 371.5 387.5 239.0 255,5 306.8 395.9 173.6 236.0 coNTRol. Azac,BACTE1 17.7 17.9 18.3. 19.1 15.4 15.8 18.3 18,5 17.5 17,5 16.7 16,9 Ift.0 18.2 14.5 15.6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 'Geller, .1. A. and Marlton, E. G. Transl. 218: Sapr Beet e ? we acquired an increase, in wield iron azotbacterin-56.5 for each tuber, and while producing sugar-beets upon a. field of 45 x 20 cm the increase in weight of one tuber was at the average 3.3 g., 1.s. the effect of azotbacterin increased considerably under the best conditions for satp,r-beets. Thus.? with the increase of the soil fertility, the effect of the mem- sures of applying bacterial fertilizers will increase. Along with the increase of the yield It has been determined that sir-beet seed bacterization with azotobacterin increases the saccharinity of agar beet as well, The data given in table 1 indicate that in the experiments of 1949 the increase of Nagar percentage in sugar-boot tubers by applying azotobacterin was 0.3-0.5 percent, and in individual cos rched 1 percent. Dee to the importance of the problem of the increase of sngtr-beet saccharinity, the research. in this direction has been extended. The influence of Aeotbacter upon sugar-beet varieties-its yield and saccharinity has been experimented upon varicras nourishing fields. It became evident that. the influence of Azotbacter upon sag...?r-boet quality depends upon variety .peculiarities and upon the conditions of variety nroduction. The data of 26 experiments with black soil, which he.s been treated with mineral ashes, at the Umanek Selection Station (the experiments were carried out by A. F. trikelaeva) indicated that the sugar-beet varieties of hich saccharinity react positively to Azotbacter during veepte.tion ? but at the end of vegetation this effect becomes hardly noticeable or evert negative. For sugar-beet varieties a drastic increase in saccharinity has been noticed et the end of vegetation. In table 2 is indicted the increase of the percentage of sugar from n ? azotobacterin. (Table 2, page 5) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 /4 ( ? Declassified and Approved 'For Release 2013/04/00 : CIA-REFP-801R0142-6R610060010001-2 Table 2 romber of Varieties 5 4 8 9 the tow- Omar , Jibing fiel percent- ca age ,.15/VII sugar from Azotbacterin in percenta&e 45120 18?3-19.1 +0.6 v 45X40 -0.4 +1.1 45X0 19.9-2/.2 +0.7 ? +Oa 45X40 19.6-21.0 11.06 4.0.9 .0.3 -0.15 I. advisable. ly axotbacterin, first of a13. far aitettei. a El for yield, underactical conditions of collec farms and state far and the problem of amly ng asotbecterin for the varietio , as to sicchar is necessary to work, out by the experimental method. The experiments indicate also that it is possible to increase sugar-! 1t.v. beet yield as well as sacchariaty neans of other bic:.compounds. In our research we tested the effect of .mold fungi Trichoderma lienorum end Pennici/lium chrysoeenua. The data of three year experiment indicated that the saturation of sugar-beet seeds with the spores of Trichodervia lienorum causes the increase of sugar-beet.jield and saccharinity. In our expert- merits we compared the effect of Trichodera and of Asotbacterin. The results of the experiment are given in table 3. (Table 3, page 6 At the average, the increase of sugar-beet tuber yield from axottecterin during three years of these exoeriments is 17.3 0/ha, and from Trichoderra- 10.5 eiha. The increase of the percentage in sugar content is et the average 0.3-0.4 percent. L,\ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 a ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? "eller. P. rytti 11-inritrm r. rt. ?ran al . 21R: SucAl? leet Table 3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Ake . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 . . Geller. I. A. and Marlton. E. 0. Traria. 218:r Poets Practically the same results were obtained in our experiment upon gray soil of Be.tgory (a:wise:A*3. field VSI.3) which has been partly treated. with mineral ashes, in comparison with the effect of Trichoderma lignores and Penicillin* e.hrysocenna. In table 4 le indicated the influence of Trichoderma and Penicillin* upon the -engar?beet yield and saccharinity. (See Table 4. pace 6) In the experiments .of IA.' P. Podtykan who examined the effect of all bio-cempottnds indicated above upon the soil of Eatgory which has been ? tror.-ted with phosphor-mediwi mineral ashes, With the yield of control field 422 c/ha, the increase of crops from asotbacterin wee 23 c/ha. from Trichoderma-24 chns, and from Penici3.lun-28 c/ha, and the suclr cts.ntent from atobacterin increased at 0.? percent, from trichodertta-0.2 percent, and from penicil'ina-I.2 percent. ? ? Thus, the saturation of sugar-beet seeds with useful nicro-orcanisme 'c:_usee yield increase and improvement of tuber quality.? The basic problem then is to introduce widely these measures into collective and state farm production and to wort out means for further increase of the effect of bacterial ?end fungi compcninde. ? The possibilities in this direction are tremendous, applying, for instence, the complexes of useful 'microorganisms.. Taking into cousiderotion that the mold fungi Trichoderma and Penicillin's improve the life ectivity conditions of the sugar-beet not at the expense of soil wealth connected with nitrogen, since they do not fix nitrogen in noticeable 41xentities, e gay expect that by applying them with Azotbacter the effect of such c, conplex should increase considerably. without making any decisions a-priori, we should take notice of the fact that the problem of recanting the life activity of soil micro-flora, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Geller, I. A. end i.hariton, Z. G. Tans].. 218:Aagar Beets according to Williams' theory, is of great uractical significance. The 11irther development end application of ?11111.ams' theory ihnald extended 13) interfqrence into the biological life of the 3111, particularly, by 'vide acolication of a series of biolofjcal n.13 nhich u.aed under specific vil?climatic conditions, %-itb, thevoaa....-.1extion of be bio1ne;icz.1 peculiarities of various vri3 of qvicra1ti..1.r.3,1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .16 Edellehtein, K. 4. External ? preharvent feeding of Inger beets. ziekh. Proleysh. 24(5)139-41. May 1950 65.8 SI 02 ? Trans's 219:Sugar Beets Translation by B. 0. limbo 'During recent years, in the field of olent feeding, the orineirle formulated by the academic williame, that the plent itself sbo-.14 be fed said not the soil, ecouired more imolortsrce. In the system which has been worked out we may consider the external feeding as quite effective. By means of this meseure we free ourselves from the tempor,try correlation between fertiliser and soil and we obtain a stronger effect upon the slbstence exchange in plants. T. D. Lysenko sayv that the *cause for the change of the nture of t lng orgtnism is the chance of the tyre 0! assimilation, tbti &' nee of metabolism.* By notismly interfering: into metabollcm we are able to their tore. A leaf is the orcan where the initiating !emotion of an Orville sub- ntence occur, where the peculiarities of metabolise are most cons-Amens. as well ts the connection of irdiviihtal metebolisms which determine the processes of synthesis and the disintegration of the organic substance. Therefore, the externsl feedire, i.e. tie introduction of nortehti.? elements into the pIrnt throulth the levee is of gr-'t interest. vs7,,privents with externel feeding were cerrie4nut in the eoviet 'Mann by P. lieleznov. Domantovieb, Whatenov end L. Tnrfell. In their a:Aperiments the yield of pug- r-beets ',noreaLemit by 65 percent. :.,1cording to T,7,1 d,ita of the Institute of inger.Beet Production, the root feedings increased VA" sugsr-beet yield by 25.40 ettut, which forms an increase of 16 percent. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -a- T.deltehtein, U.K. Trend. 21919oler *lets ? The sugsr-beet leaf blades contain 4-5 percent 'agar at the time of harvest Which constitute between 10 to 15 percent of its Senora anti- ability of the entire plant (leaves plus root). Thus, within the leaves a considerable part of sugar produced by the plant remains unutillwed in sugar protection. It has been determined that the sugar which exists in sudar-beet leaf blade in the form of saccharose runs into the root as simple sugar-nonee? For a long tine the separation of saccharose into sonomagba" has ? been possible by means of hydrolysis which occurs, due to the effect of the fomentation of saccharose of invertase. According to contemporary conceptions, phosphoric acid a de- cisive role Inc arliohydrate metabolism of plants. Along with the Pro- cesses of hydrolysis, there occurs in the pleats a process so Celled. ? phosphorolysis, i.e. the joining of carbohydrates of phosphoric acid to the molecule, as a result of which phosphoric ethers are foraed. These compounds (glucesophosphates) have a considerablY higher potential. The eintheele of complicated carbobydratee-starch, saccharose. could go, 111001111.110.,, only by means of preliminary phosphorolising of sugars.- On the other hand, with the interior cell. decomposition of conplicatsd carbohydrates into mono- sugar, phosphoric acid has to be added. Thus, both the synthesis, and the decomposition of complicated carbohydrates could occur only with the pres- ence of phosphoric acid and is catalised by a specific fermentation- pho sphorylo els. It Is well known, that phosphates and potassium, when Introduced into the sell, assist in the accumulation of aigar in the roots. tibiae* according to the data given by academic I. V. lAkushie in his text-book ? *Plant Production*, phosphates introduced under sugar-beets (basic fertilise- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -0- 1:dellshtein, H. H. Trans1.219: %gar Seats tion plus planting in TOWS end feeding) increase the saccharinity of roots from 0.36 up to 0.7 Percent, and rOtanSitalip from 0.4 to O. ..,ercento depending upon the type of the soil. Taking into consideration the role of phosphorus and. Mtassitw, we ce.rried. cut experiments of external of sugar-beets with the solution of phosphoric acid and potassium during preharvest period at the TiniriezevAgricu3tural Academy under the direction of the Ac-Idemic I. V. _ Iskushin. Our basie_p.rob1em was_thr, increase of s,..acharinite? of the sugar- -- beet tubers. _? As sources for phoenhoric acid ant potassium were ap-lied sw,erpbosphate and potassium chloride which are 'widely used on farms. Yor the solution were tat, en ten parts of water for one weit,b1 part of superphosphate which contained I.? percent of P205. With each. correlation ? we obtained an extract '&10'1 contained P206around 1.? percent. he solution concentration of potassium chloride WAS 0.6 percent. For spraying we used the kit sprayer alartomaks. l'he external feeding was carried out during non-rainy deyee because a rain which would cone after spraying would wash down the solution which Was placed Irril the leaves. The best hours for spraying are from nine in the ulornlng and from four in the afternoon until seven in the evrning. since the leaf must Preserve the solution drops at least for half ixa,11-,o;.,r, it would be meaningless to carry out a feeding during helnours of the day. The escape of the solutions for I el 2 was 0.3 litr. In 194? we carried out an investigrAing experiment. The au.g- r-beipt sipraqing was carried out in two terms: Ir0013 one field on lentelduer 19, and trews another f ield-Sept ember 28. The percentage of sager in sugar-beet tubers (saccharimeter) yielded restate rhieh are given In table 1. (Page 4) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 _ 74. M. Tranel. 219: Stior Beets Table 1 ?????????? Time of Time of Spraying Analysis Percentage of sugar after feeding September 19 September 26 September 23 actaber Control water) 1 Extract superphoe- nhate Iblution KCI 13.90 14.92 14.22 _Wrote the data of table 1 we see that the preharrest externa feeding of sugar-beets with the solution of??phoephoric acid and with the solution.' .._____._... ?____. ? ? ________________,___________. _.... _...? ____. ..____ of potassium chloride yielded a considerabletnorease An wactr percentage ._ _...._. in the tubers (about _2 percent) in comparly.....n with control tubers. _ . In 1948 this experiment has been carried out three times u,ot a field of 600 m2. The experiment scheme: 1-control, perphosphate mixer. 8-ootassium chloride. 5:U sprkving of sugar-beet leaves has been carried out on September 15, the sugar in the sugar-beet tubers 1M5 dotcrmined on the fifth day after spraying (engsrmet Table 2 Percentag? of sugar in the tubers .!-..xperittent Variations Average 1. Control 15.45 15.30 '16.05 16.C1 Fuperphosphate 16.15 16.35 16.60 16.7 totassium chloride 18.10 16.80 16.20 17.00 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 " 7dellshtein, M. X. Transl. 219: gager Bente ? The data of table two indicate that 1)the amount of eager in the roots eoreled br superphosphate solution, Is 0.7 percent higher than in the roots of control nlants; 2)in plant roots Which received a folf!iine with the solStion of potassium chloride there is 10,33 percent more sugar than In the tubers of control plants. The conspituous difference in the offset of external feeding1 according to the years (1647-1948), could be 1,2bIained by the difference of temperature conditions during feeding. In 1946 the end of the summer and the fall was cool which Oneumered the penetration of the volution into: the leaves which negatively influenced the fomenting pre- cesses Which occurred in the leaf. In 1949 the experiment was repeated three tiues Upon S field of 600 O. The subdivided fields were SO up; the field was divided into two porter,' the - spraying was carried out In two terms (the first field on Angost 29). lour days after sprayirg there was in the sugar-beet tubers the following amount of sugar: (sou table 3) fable 3 1;xperiment Variations Percentage of sugar in the tnbers XI III Average 1. Control 11.13 10.85 12.16 11.39 2. Superphosphate 12.92 12.33 12.8D 12.69 Z. Potassium chloride 12.34 12.54 13.06 12.65 A. we owe from the data of table 3 after spraying the le-ves with the solution of 2'205 contained 1.3 percent more sugar than in control tubers. end 111 1.26 percent more than in the leave, which were !prayed by potassium chloride. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Ziel'shtetn H. K. Trans/. 219:3meer Netts ? The feeding Upon the second field was carried out later-on neptember 18. Sugar percentage in the Where was determined six days after the feeding. In this C401, the sugar percentage in the roots incrqesed in comparison with the tabors of control plants: by 0.56 percent from the feeding witheolution Pes, mai by 0.69 percent from the feeding with the solution of potassium chloride. Thus we may say that a later spraying (later than the second half of. August) yields an inferior effect. The suger-beet crops werehervestel on October 3. In comparison with control amity, the smear percentage In sugar-beet tubers which were sprayed on August 29 with the solution Pes increased by 1.68, and in tethers sprayed with the solution of potassium chloride by 2.289. The tuber yield has increase (qamparison with control plants) by 9.1 percent due to euperohosphste feeding, and by 10.9 percent due to 411 potassium chloride feeding. Sager yield from the field which was sprayed eith the extract of superphosphate surmises& the control field 441.5 percemt, and troll the field wprayed bypotassiUm chloride by 26 pereent. In 1949, we carried out at the Ramoe Selection Station en experiment, in collaboration with the workers of Agricultural Division of Civilian Aviation, with external preharvest feeding by spraying vegar-beets froa an airplane (I ha). The feeding was carried out on September 10, end? the sager percentage was deterained six days after spraying. The super- phosphate feeding of wagar-bests from an airplane increased the sugar content in the roots by 1 percent. the yield was 42? chi' while the yield from control field was 392 In order to decrease the censweption of the sprayed solution, the eoncentreion p2p5 of the extract ems increased up to 6percent, and its ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -Ale3.1shtein, M. ?i. Tranal. 219: 8usir Beets consumption decreased by 800 litre per hectar. It is necessary to notice that, by spraying fross an airplane, a thin and equal spraying tff the iolutinns is achieved. The indicated results fron airIllane feeding of sugar-beets onnfirm the il'Ittp obtained upon the Held r:rrerinental Itation of the Tiniriasof,r Academy. It Is necestary to indicete that the 7/apartment of pint-.F-?-xalAction _ of Tivdrianfre Agrioultnrel Itca.1e17 carried out in 1949 an exteraz1 feeding of mg/tr.-best seeds which also caused an increase in seed yield. _ Vor two years (1948- and 1)49) we carried out experiments with mrternal feeding of wheat with -,hne,horic aeld at the molient grain etArted to fill. Al a result, we noticed an increase of yield 17 the increase of the absolute weight of the grain and the decrease of the arount of undaveloned ears in the lower Tr.rt of the ...heat ear. This con- firms the positive role of nhosohorus in the movements of carbohydrPtes within the plant. Conclusions The external prebarvest feeding of sugar-beets with this solutions of ohosphoric acid and of 'ID te ssim chloride increase 3 considerably. totvar ercentaae in the tubers and the yield by up to 10 percent. The nreharvest external feeding of sugar-beets should be carried OWt in the Recant decade of August and not later than t ditys before the halvest. nr-9-27-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Iommako, T. D. Tranel. 220:37stematic Botany News in science concerning.. biological species. Akad. Rank STSR. estn. 21(3)1 6645. Wart111931. 511 Xrallit Translated by S. . son (Report presented at the annual meeting of the Aoadeny of Science of USSR on Feb. 2; 1951). Up to the present time biological, science has no clear understanding of the term fenecies". This despite the fact that every biologist who observes living **time, and especially practical agricultural workers dealing in?plaats, animals and microorganiems, are first eonfronted with the circumstance that all -interrelated orgenic.nature consists of eepusts forms distfit in quality. ? It is recognisable in agricultural practice that among snivels, the horse, Cow, at, sheep and. others represent individual forms of animate, distinct in qual,ity; while sang plants, i.e. wheat, rye, oats. barley, carrots, etc., the saps applies to then. This is equally true in uncul- tivated, wild nature that eurroundeus. nveryone is able to distinguish netwsea en oak, a bin& and a pine tree, all representing separate charm. teristic forms. Interrelated living nature consists; As stated above) ofindividual forms of plants,. animals andnicroorganioes. These forms oforganisms which under normal conditions do not crosser de not produce normal and fertile progeny if crossed i.e. are physiologically incompatible* are called 9/0,01010. In agricultural practice and especially in natural science special forms that do not cornonly cross and are distinctly 4ifferent, though close, are frequently referredto by the sans name)i.e. plant and enociie? Thus the designation wheat is applied to common soft whet, haniwheat, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko, T. D. rand. 220; Systetic Botany ? onemertin, two-grain, etc. wheat. The mine dandelion is !Also *united to sate non-crossing separate forms distitiot from each other, i.e. species. To fix the concept of these forme, (1.e species) botanical. and 20404ga1 science has leng ago systemrtised (Linnaeus, 1707-1778) duel tlealiPatisee for species in the Latin language. rime, rtticu vnara carmen, soft 1,tients Triticututom - hard wheat; iticu oneargrAned %Ainat, etc. The first part of the name is the. noun indicating the genus =mon to all reltted species united in practice and science (systematics) into one genus. The seeord ?;nkrt of the name is the adjactivfl, such. as Comm nralgaree or hard, 411,6, indicating the concrete fer,-, of species of 1-dant or animals. then dealing in uractice with ono species of a plant or -77seies are designated only Sy the gpirag nape each as, for inst:1-tc wheat, e, or horse, sheep. goat. In dealing, wever, with severe/ reltted species a dual desir-Aation is used, such as carmen wheat Trit1ew7 vulgare. etc., or one of the species is named by the genus (connon, sort -4}Lept is neually referred to as whertt only) and the other species, i?n? ritacum elcocust. given another designation, name The very structure of living nature consist!ng of grouns of eneeies resembling eLch other but nevertheless selerate, distinct, non-orosning under ordin- ary living conditions, served as an indication to naturalists that species originate from eneb other, that related species have much in comron end that this similaalt, reflecting unon the unit (tie) in their ca-140 points to a common genus. Xeture itself forced duel des1.43,3_tinni. for spe- cies upon science. Pre-Darwin biology maintained a metaphysical, anti-scientific view Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lyeenko. T. D. Tran sl. 220: Systematic Doteny upon a species. The belief profane that forms of species are unalterable and not connected with each other in any way in their respective origins end developments. It was asserted that species cannot originate from each' other, that they supposedly are created separately and are independeat of etch other. ' Lamarck and particularly DarWin rejected the erroneous claim of meta. physical biology vlih regard to the perpetuation and inVarlability of forms of species and their independent origin by establishing their theory of evolution. Darwin proved in his evolutionary theory' that all vegetative cnd animal species originate from each other.- Re thereby established that living nature has ite histery, its past, its present and its future. Therein lies one of the immortal services rendered by Darwin. Basic &Iranian, however, is- only one-sided, flat evolutionism. Darwin's theory of stain- tion originates from the acceptance of mere/euentitative chaneas, it does not recogoise conpuleion', regulafrity in transforeation.?ehanges from one qualitative condition to another. But without the transformation of one qualitative condition into another, without tho originating of r.,,A7 quali- tative conditions from the depths of old conditions there is no develop- tont, bit only increased or diminished quantity: only what is cooly called growth. ? Darwinism confirmed in biological science the concept of the origin of acme organic forms from others. Development in living nature was inter- preted by darwinism only asacontinuon,. itiinterrupted line of evolution. A As a result biological (pittance (not practice) stopped considering species as real, separate, qualitative cenditions of living nature'. In his "Origin of Species'. Darwin wrote: 'It is evident from the above that I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 tc? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Im'pout?, T. D. . Tsars-11. 220t f7ateestic Botany consider the term 'species' altogether.arbitrary, invented for convenience. ? to. designate groups Of specimens reitembling each other and not .distinct from the term 'variety' designating forms of lesser variations in their diem- ? toristless The term .'variety' le eque117 applied arbitrarily, corirred to individual distinettons and is used only for convenience." E. A. Timiriasev wrote on the same subjects *Variety and cocoles ore only 'distinct. (differing) in time; any boundary IS unthinkahle.* Thus according to the theory of dareinims, nature should, not possess tc,tural limits and interruptions between speciet. According to this Cleary the development of the organic world is redaceCto tm3triCoVehanges. .ulth no originating of new elements from the depths of the old, vitheut further developttent of Ivor qualities as other aggregates (asons).Of .char- c,o toll et 1A38. This theory claims that a long stretch of ,time is required to obtain one species from another,- that in the course of human history it is net possible to observe the inCeption of some species from others. Organic nature;has existed.for a long time, horever. Ono could . therefore assume that the lengthy period of conversion from one .species to =other has been gone throtigh and. that It may be possible to oh,-;orve the birth of new species in our time as the result of prolonged treys- ' formations. lbe theory claims nevertheless that 'there are actually no boundaries between new and old IIVICIOS .from which the 'former originate. - Lr. d that for this reason it is not possible to observe the ince:Atom of a new species from the facetis of the old.. Contrary to the theory of continuity, which does not recognize inter- rtretions in development, the conversion of one quality (trait) Into another indicates that there are no boundaries betvems species and thrt such boundaries' sctually exist; every naturelist has been aware of these long epos To Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 tyseblco ? T. Trend. 220: Syetematic Botany ? explain the break between species darwinian Ults compelled to invent the so..called intra-species coupetition and strut/As. According to this theory all intermodinry farms which eareeosedly filled the breaks between species. constituted thus an ainterrupted line ilk organic nature and were dropped as less fitted in the struggle for sarrival. To lemoothen the apparent non-conformity behet n the theory of evolution and the actual development of the vegetative and animal world. LUrvin took recourse to the reactionary pseudo-scientific teaching of galtints concerning intra-epecies struggle. This struggle is supposedly caused by the fact that nature always produces more individuals of one species than are warranted by available living conditions. rwin used this as a basis for his theory of the divergence.of characteristics, i.e. the formation of an uninterrupted line of organic forms of breaks, facets, as a result of which species of pleats and animas, easily disiintplshed among their respective groups wire supposedly obtained. ascot* and breaks between related species were consequently, according to darwinisn, obtained not as the result of quali- tative changes (transformation) and not as a remit of the concept of qualitatively new groups of organisms among species of pleats or aniaals, but as a result of mochanbeal elimination, wawl destructton of forms, not differing in quality and utijoining each other in an uninterrupted row. This accounts for the conclusion arrived at by all followers of the theory of flat evolutionism that spiectgl are theoretically not the result of a PPADCT:SS Or YPHT OV LITIk NATURE discovered by science and practice but are conventions invented for the convenience of clessifleation. The apparent contradiction between theory of evolutionism and actuality i.e. the development of organic nature, thus remained in existence. It is ?supported by the fact that darwinian was able to explain the deiveloyment Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko; T. D. ' Trona. 220: Systematic Boteny ? of the Organic world only this and in no other way. The arlianation cold not serve as a workable theoretic- al bade for practical tramsformation, vas .inable to ',serve at a theoretical basis for. the planned traneforsation of living nature in the interests of practice. The foremost biologist, E. A. ?Timiriazeve a fervent fighter agaisst ? .idealiers And reaction in science,' althoieli curable to surmount the evolution7 imm in Darwin's theory in his lifetime, reoogaized clearly that sr,ecies were not et:inventions bat real, factors in nature. Ea therefore wrotOt tZhese facet!, torn links of an organic &app.-were not intrOtucad into Maturn by men btit mere forced upon him by nature itself. This genuine Vet rseuires a realistic erplanation.? It vat however not possible to provide 'ouch .a realistic epAlnation from the stananoint of flat evolutioniea, end E. A. Timirle,e0 hiVenif confined himself to the incorrect Darwinist explanation of this fact as reeulting from supposedly "intra-species cevostitioa. Ca; in our country where socialism is vict4ons, where ti a ao,lrant concept le dialectic ceterialisn, as dEveloped'in Stalin's cloths. real ' biological facti.erECIES0.-vere given the opportunity to 1,1moviali a genuine emplanation.' Collective and stnte farm agriculture provides for nnlinitid develorment of materialistic biological science, i.e. Eichurim theory of creative darviniam. I. T. tiichurin wrote: NYe have As .yet no ?roper and eshaustive concept vs to how nature has.created and to this an,;r centimes to' create innunemble species of plents. , e-re at present much nor* concerned over understandini; that we have entered the stage of hittorical development in which we are capable to interferirpereonally to naturets activities and AND /FCEXASV NUMMIt Or FURS :1? gplIC/ZS ? aPircnnepuzeT DIVEST THD SilitiCTIJX!1 OF THE= wAterins r;To ;)1eyilps Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 f7seioko, T. D. Trans'. 220 r listentAtic .110t4147 ? 4,1.1.4%.%); N. We ehould understand that working Jointly with imture resents a very valuable step ehead, represents a fact of univeriAl that Wi1 beeone apparent in the future develoneent of thie work, t,owhieh was provided by the c3owerfuljelt of our resfolutinll which wkoned nillions of loviet minds, permitting a consider .blopext of the population to improve actively and deliberately earrounding :dchurin e teaching is creative darwinism which views dev61.0.,..ont not a flat evolution but as the coneept of ft new quality emerginv; from the deptbs of an outgrown contradiction of its origin, which suffs;:od the gThdullil uxorical accumulqtton of its characteristics and it the atJi ,fith the old 4-...0.11,ty was tratreformed into new, deliberntely different tiger to of clzracteriatice equipped with their own contrasting law for surelvel. Dialectic materialism, developed and raised upon a new heidat (level) by tlav writings of conrade Stalin, represents the most inb1 ndpower- available to biologists and Vichurinites,i'or solving tteoretioel weapon farrossiietegoirdrelfeMAlletegrinetcprebieriptivilesie)tx involved biological problems, 3bielegintexandxktekierinitesci including the problem of the oritiwting of sate epecies frosi others. In nature as in agricultural practice there are always rill tIve, not co4nletely defined facets between orpecies. understend under rel4tive but fully defined facets (border lines) such distinctions whtc! llow for a difference in RoZCIES and. resemblance among species, separatinc: orgtuic nAture into qualitatively distinct but nevertheles mutually linked n: The uninterrunted row of forms between arrecies as varied deflaito terisj conditions in living matter remains unrecognized not bevuse continuously joined forms have become extinct as a result of tratu 1 corsoeti- tion, but because there ,,M11 ne,t and cnnnot be any such continuity in nature. 1111 :Ai.ttire does not -lessees uninterrupted contimuity; both reguirrik, and interxvrtion go together. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 IZYseilko, T. D. ? " Traria. 220 t Systematic Setany SPECIE3 IS A SPIMIAL taTiALIZ+71VIMY 7Lfl (DIST,I1D7.) c. 07 07 LIV/P0 rWl".2211AL rortHs. 717131TE IMIZA-SPXOI7g11171.ATInlallIPI .A crubtacsnaisTio or riskr2 Jm A1ittAL"3.11C1-3 Cir.:MIS:IS. -These intra-species rale.tionshiplo are distinct in ;:cialit;/ from ? the relationehips between individuals of various species. 4r.tititc:%IvE , r,13Mirton ZETUEID Dir2P.A-rkeZilES Raartf:5SFIr5 At) 1:7-12."4:112:1 Mt or val Mosi2 Ilevatwrit, CPIITSTA 7014 PrIPMS ell ..,r7r,d/Es pfl?l VADIETISS. The statement..that 'variety is the beginning of a rjecies i?-,nd that ? ? 42eeies is a draetically expressed variety is wrong. in proceeding from this erroneous. formdlation it appears Wit there are no qualitativo distinctions and &este between vettes and varieties and that a species does not .real. 1st/tally exist in nature. but has been invented for. the convenience of classification. systematics. Here, as hes already been et.ated. 11 hidden - on of the fundamental eontrldictions between) the theory of flat evolutionism . and the reality Of an organic world. There are no internodif?to v..rieties amen erAcies not because these variotisi were dropped in the process of an intra- species "true., bat because these intermediate varietlee were not nrodnced by nature nor will they be produced. Varieties are forms of the existence Of a given species and not steps directed to its transformation' into another species. Wealth of varieties is ensured by the matipie ecological adJustment of a given species which contributes to its production and preservation. The lar' ger the =ober of varieties in 'any species, the more varied are intra-speciee populations and the better provided for are roast Alities for the production of species and ali its varieties.(i.e. by means of cross pollination). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ' ? ? 11W Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko, T. D. Trend. 220: Systematic Betm4, tetra-species rolationehips among individuals are, as stated above, distinct in quality from the relationehips of individuals ofvorious species. The concept of a species in biological science is therefore different in principle from other botanical and zoological concepts, such as Genus, family, etc. It is easy to note that relationships of individuals of varioue species of the same botanical or zoological genus fail not only to contribute to the development of given species but on the contrary, are in competition and ante. _ conistic. In nature and agricultural science it is therforeusulliy diffi- cultto find !samples for prolonged co-existence in mixtures of individuals of varied but related species, i.e. of the same botanical genus. Coexist- . . ence is frequently observed among vegetative species but these are species di... tent from each other, belonging to different botanical genera. Coexistence among species of the same botanical genus is possible only she? individuals of every species are distributed by scartainse, nests. The concept of a genus in botany and zoology corresponds therefore not to common related bonds such as intra-species ties, but tells only of the immediate bond in origin of species of the same genus. The concept of a Genus should ehnzooterize the morphologically related but qualitatively distinct species. Individuals of different species of the same genus, deepito their ex. ? tercel resemblance, do not cross under ordinary conditions, nor do they provide after crossing normal fertile progeny, i.e. they are physiologically incompatible. In addition, the relationship of species of the same genus is, as stated obey:), competitive, mutually excluding. Species are links ins chain of living nature, stages of qualitative leo.' ltionesteps in a gradual historical development of the organic torld. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko T. I). Transl. 2201!Systematic Botany ? 'tains* in the past years from research on formation of species in the stage- . tative world supports this view. Xxperimente made In 1948 by T. X. larepotian disclosed that during - winter planting of the hard wheat (28-chromozome).cr, nea, ono ? part of plants is transformed in relatively sho* tine (2-3 generations) ? into another species, the *oft 42.chronosone wheat. Triticoa vulgar*. Proceeding Ira the previously established Michurin biology of genetic difference in quality of the body of the Vegetative organisms it-toste decided to search far seeds of soft 42-chremosone wheat in stalks of htrd wheat of ? plants under test. The result was that isolated seeds of soft wheat were . etWily found in stelhs of ht,rd wheats i.e. seeds of botanical ./rpecies in stalks of another species. In planting seeds of soft wheats 11. vulgar*, ob- ? taped from stalks of T. durum, plants of *oft wheat. 7. Toler% were pro- diced as a rule. In. searching caretUlly it is :possible to discover every year seeds of soft wheat among sone stalks of hard wheat on ordinary Indus-- ? trial plantings in many regions. In 1949 search for seeds of 'rye In stalks of wheat were be on fieldt of pre-nountainous regions where plantings of winter wheat are. frequently Contaminated by rye. The initial cause for wheat contaninatirn by rye ? in these regions has not been learned to date. farepetians H. N. Takubtsiner, V. N. Gronachevskiis as well 6.e many other scientists, egrononistss and students discovered in fields is pre-mountainous regions isolated seeds of rye among stalke of both hard sad soft wheats. In 1%9 over 31)0 seeds of rye were found. Thee* seeds were planted on the ezperinental field of the All-Union Acadesw of cultural Science. taunt Lentos. at ?Lenin Hines upon the initiative of. the Institute of Genetics of the Acadesy of Science of USSR, and on fields of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - ? Lvocnko. . D. Tran41?220:Systematic Botany T the I. A. Timirialev lb scow Agricultural Academy. The All-Union Lendeay Of 4'-igricultural Sciences, Went Lenina.also obtained from those regions unthreihea stalks of soft and hoed wheat. These stalks were threshed at different biological scientific. institutions and different individuals 63117eiated seede of rye. In planting these seCdo of tire, developed in stalks Of hard end eoft- tteat, diveres but novartheiese typical for rye plants were developed. ulth eftallimeeptiens. Only in isolated Cases were Wheat plants obtained fron rie-type geode. In *AI nbove listed cases where seeds of one epecies uere found in stalks of another, tho plants themselves, as wall ao their atone Could not be included in sone intermediate forms on the basis of external characteristics. They were typical; ordinary ?talks of hard and mat wheat. The internal Condition of these wheat plants was, however, no longer common or uniform in quality with regard to species. This is proven b7 the fact that these wheat plants produced not only Goode of 1,cat but isolatea seeds Of rye. i.e. ends of another spOcieS. In 1949 the Lenin Agricultural Medea), also received a speelmen of oats r. Lu the panicle of WhiCh, along with soods'of oate, were isolated seeds of noveuign. Arena fatua, i.e. *vena eattve had produced isolated seeds of cnother species, )vena fattia. Instances of finatage of Arena fatue in pure strains of oats have been repeatedly reported in doMestic and foreign literature. In producing branched Wheat Triticum tureidas on the experimental fields of the Lenin Agricultural Academy, as will as in several other plaice, conterination by mixtures of loftand hard tineat.'oats. 2-and 'e-row. barley. ee utell as epring rye were observed in plantinge of Wheat. Our observations (7) led us to the conclusion that the primary source for the appearaco of these Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko. T. a. Tirana. 2201r: stemetic Betio, mixtures is the beamed whent (tam itself. In 1950 plants of berley re-oresenting mixtures in plantings of bravoed wheat, ft. turglitat, showed that they had developed from seedor which in oatv?rrd anpet,rtInce did not differ r3 all from seeds of whet 21 Surrasitinti has been repeatedly made in nrectice concerning the trane. fortastion or amelioration of one snecies of various f-gricultn.ral rtints ,Into vnether such as for instance the transformation of wheat irto rye. he.d. given rise to a lengthy discussion in our natiforil literature the firsthalf of the past century. Cases of the transformation of h-rd wheat into soft .41ta-,t or the trans- formation of hrd and woft heats into rye 're arnarently not hc.v. The abwre Env Met*, however, were obtained deliberately or disclosed try deliberate Vert cases had corteisted in the followino Isolpted Tawas of soft whelA vcrt. found among olentings of bard wheet; these rropageted more aNi more is farther planting, gradually difghlecing 13..rd wheat. Similarly, PIrlorg niantings rf sinter wheat isoletedplents of rye were observed.In subsequent -lentings of Feeds from yields of these fields rye rronagsted raoidly ft.10 :ilylodred atm:to All these instances of tiiscovering some snecies of vegot.,tive forms ir -ilantirgs of other species scientists refused to regard as resuits of the trateormation of one rectos into another. TAW doubts werr always :resented. It was not estr.blished whether the -Tillery cline of this coutemination was a common, frequently observed mechanienl mi-ture. There y44,2 ?lc: assurance that among original seeds there hadnot been an isolated seedas mixtures of ntiother soecies. &entrance thot in the fiold of 1,trtine, seeds of other reties were not ct,rried over by water, .4.16. or ? vo esqurence that seeds of mixture Sneetes in a given -11.-nting bad not bees in the soil for a long time. etc. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lysenko, T. D. Transl. 2200yetematic Botany This explains sty on the basis of past oases it is not possible to prove that primary sources for various mixtures,and several conteminators of ,plantings, aside from mechanical introduction, may also have been originating vegetative forms of one group of species from other species. All enumerated arguments against the inception of other species may be rejected with regard to the above current test., IsOlated seeds of rye,. discovered in stalks of wheat which had Gruen for several generations under definite conditions, can actually not be attributed to 'introduction by .birds, man or any other means. Those-seeds.were produced by wheat plants and had developed in wheat stalks. .The supposition of the hybrid origin of seeds may be equally rejected. , . It is knout: that Sbeet,may be crossed with rye, though this occurs seldom. In those oases a definite rye-wheat hybrid is obtained which in external ap- _ pearance is easily distinguished from, both 'sheet and rye. In addition, rye-wheat hybrids aselk rule, selc-sterile,,do not produce seeds, end nay produce these:only if pollinated with the pollen of one of the par- ents, preferably *teat. In thi above case seeds of rye derived from stalks . of 'wheat produced ordinary plant*s of rye of normal fertility. Ihey did not exhibit any hybrid characteristics. The same may be said concerning the rest of facts mentioned above. ? The examples we mention concerning the originating of some. species 'by others are valuable because. analagous facts may be observed on.cor- reepondinglielde in any: year. These facti may also be obtained by growing plants on special fields under experimental conditions. Factual data obtained up to now concerning the formation of species ap- plies to the vegetative 'world only. Lecessary data.on the process of forms- tion or species in the anitalwarld is: leaking eo far. It ie ,nevertheless, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -Lyienko, T. Transl. 220:Systematic Lotsay entirely possible that the development of rAcburin'a biological theory will soon furnish provisions for assembling factual data, analogous to that of the plant world but applied to zoological objects. Laterial available on the saject'of the formation of species in the vegetative world provides graved fOr the belief that several existing plant species (if not all) are capable of producing anew other species at preterit and are frequently produoing them under /suitable conditioned. The same vegetative species is cap010 of producing different related spedies. Thus bard wheat, Triticum durum, may produce soft stoat. T. vulgar., and also rye, Seoale cereale. Changes in in external environment, esaential for specific species of Given orcanils, are 'sooner or later forced to ,ohange their specific characteristics and as a result same species will produce others. Under the influence of changed conditions that may have become unfavorable for the nature (heredity) of organisms of growing plants species, Lerma of the body of other species are originated and formed in the body of species conforming better to changed external environments. Zsch variation in quality in the 'body of the same vecetative organism, characteristic of different species, owl in sOre instances be observed with tbs naked eye. Facts of multiple originating of some long emi4t445 species from others to also explained by the emergence of varietal dis- tinction in quality in species under thei4nfluence of corresponding external environments. If plants of .a. given species, in acme manner or other, get into conditione relatively unfavorable for the normal development of their specific characteristics as species, a forced transformation (chants) takes place,I.e. the originating in the plant ortanis0 of a given species of germs of another speciee, the oharacterisiics of which are better suited by Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 , -*dank?, T. D. Traps1.220:Systenatic Botany the now environment. The production of isolatedspecimens 6f another species within the, old epecies, to meet conditions better, leads to rapid propagation and the capseity to dislodge under theca conditions the species front 1014oh they ? oricinated. If this ocOurtin nature, the originated epecies completely dislodges the Old Spec:lee in that area by rapid propagation. The situation id different In agricultural practice 'where cultivated. plants are protected from weeds by cultural methods. Ccienee hai known for a long time ,that many species of weeds exist only In agricultural practice; under natural conditions there are no such ' ,species, nor are they able to exist there.. Thus If a field eontaminated by many epeoles'of weeds ie left fallow, it will over a period of time. after Boma 20-30 years, i.e. rather soon, be completely cleared. of many Species of weeds. Suoh a field 'will, no longer produce species' of weeds . but other'species peouliar to ordinary virgn and uncultivated plots of that recion. Speciee Of weeds are products of cone esistincapecies in nature, as RT e cultivated plant species; for instance thlmost harmful weed novsuig", Avena fetus, ray be produced by oats. ' species of plants peculiar to virgin soil will find suitable _conditions for its norral deValoment on plowed land. The species formerly grown on virgia land Will therefore sooner or later, change into other epecies better adapted to Conditions created by soil cultiva- tion. This appliedequally to cult:vetted plants when Ulay heppen to get into unsuitable climatic and.egro-technical conditimrs. rilley will Slowly or more rapidly, but invariably transform into other speoles:to ?set prevallinr cmditions. . Some species of 'weeds have been cultivated.lonc ace. Thug rye, originating under certain Conditleas from wheat. acts to Om oln.* 41.41 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R01000001000112 .? Lysenko, I., D. Transl. 220:Systematic Botany weed by dislodging wheat from fielder In such regions special methods . are applied, i.e. cultivating and i.thipning, cleaning of wheat seeds from seeds of rye and generally protecting wheat fren being dislodged by rye. Zr. other regtans rye has been introduced ei a crop. This also applies to soft wheat which frequently originatee from hard wheat and ' 'and in such caseSacts.ns oontaminator. Revd wheat is protected by cul- tivating seedplaritings. soft wheat has beenintroductd as a crop long ago. any other species of cultivated plants equally originated from other' sp'acies of .culture crops. This explains shy 1t has not been possible to find wild initial species for many cultivated plants. Poor agricultural practidee that do not establish necessary geed conditions on 'fields for cultivated crops deteriorate the nature of these,plante with regard to yield and lead to the impairment of its quality. Simult4Cously, poor agricultural methods contribute to the development of a variety 'of meede, seeds end other germs of which are in the Soil or are carried in with poorly cleaned seed stocks.. Finally poor agricultural practices may also create conditions for originating Isolated gaits of many seed by cultivated plants. . The establishment of. Initial sources for species of weede'and the disclosure of environmental conditiore determining such origin represents one of the most important task's in agronomic biology. Scientific work applied, in this direction will not only facilitate geed control on fields where weed, prevail tut will permit the elimination of the possibility for producing some species of weeds from other weeds and cultivated plants. By creating nel4ondit5:oni for organisms or eliminating the influence upon them of existing oondItiona in an external environtent it is possible to establish new plant species useful to agriculture and prevent the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Lyeerko, T. D. Trant1.220:Systematic DotanY ? dew. lopatent of weed vart.tea harmful to our econory. Therein lies one of ths practical atd important tasks requirinc theoretical study, the prolaer of the formation of species; it is far fron be the only one. End of Article A17-9-20-51 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 TOpchiev, A. V. Madam:Jut/a results of the scientific activity and of the introduction of completed research of the Academy of veiences of U.S.S.R. for 19130. Aad. lama $30/. Vest. 21(3):36-65. !cr., 1951. 511 Ak.1.4V ?renal. 221tInstitutions Excerpts translated b7 5. Munson (The wathor is chief scientific secretary of the Presidium, lor,der.7 of ?clone*s of the 1;531i. This report presented at meeting of Ye). z, 1951) Viith regard to the complex problem on ',Obtaining higAaxtit., sae solelde, the Institute of flint Physiology, inert E. A. lrisariu.:_?nv. Ca.lvacyped and introduced into practice an effective methoct for curt,-,11ing.. Ce growth of potato tubers in storrge, a a ea sure which reducf:s tz.1 loss in tuber weight during prolonged sterago by 3-6 tines. ? IA not method was developed to prevent the drop of cotton balm, mbieh raises the yield an averLIge of 25; it passed the induztriztl test. 'hith respect to IlOsoutchouk enct guttaperchao. the Botanical institute created ne highly productive forms of rubber bearing plants. The vast and usethl work performed. b the .Botenical and Zoi1 Institute jointly with other institutions in compiling soil, geo-botadies1 risTs end other data deserve? mentioning. In line with the above a.chievements, It is necessary to 7,014t to tome ?inbatantial deficiencies in the WO rk of soedertnente. The Zoological Institute did not complete the fourth volure of the ? lizatbook sAnittal liorld of 1/531/6, nor was the field uvrk on the ,,..ubject ?',Insects injuring seeds Of cultivated clover and alfalfa', nerfor3aed. its ? equally applies to vorlit on silkworms. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Ionstantinove P.N. More attention to be given to experiatatal work. 'mt. Agron. 4(7) s 11.1 8. July 1946. 30404 ? Translated fres the Russian br 3.1%. Monica. (The author is an active member of All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, lineal Lionise) The USSR has accomplished a great deal in agricultural experimmatatios 'but the work metres farther improvement. The entire complicated *retest of experimental institutions, subordinated to various ministries and their respective alsinistrations which are haphaserdly distributed throughout the territory of the Union calls for fundament?al reorganization. The enormous network lacks unified scientific and operative supervision. Distribution of these institutions is most irregslar throughout the country and while planned production requires complex experimental institutions, superfluous specialisation is frequently the case (cereals, cotton, *nor 'wets etc.) The lack of coordination in subject matter, contradictions and detachment from demands of agricultural production are noted in practical actuality. They reflect upon the expediency of the work of agricultural experiment institutions. lead to delays In sorting actual problems and unproductive expenditures. Muky institutes are known to undertake unneces- sary studies, such as VIII studying problems of mechasisation. The Odessa Institute of Genetics and 'election also studies mechanism. time and planting *twister wheat on stubble. Institutions frequently duplicate work and interfere with each other, with the result that they ors known to advertise all kinds of "discoveries" of things long discovered. Specialised institutes, such as the Institutes of 'las and Hemp Industries, and recently the Institute of Bast Crops, maY have nee& for subjects like mechanisation and even the construction of machinery (who but a plant grower is bettor equipped to observe details ? in this narrow field?), but in stellar instances these institutes should Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - 2 - goastentiacv Trend. 222: Institutions provide regular sections in aechanisation. Selection stations are devoting scant attention to agricultural techniques; in some places old and prolonged rotations of crops were discontinued. Bseential problems in agricultural methods are usually overlooked. Many objeotionable features in programs of research institutions could be enuaerated. The establishment of a single scientific and operative, center is imperative for purposes of unifying the activities and increasing the expediency of the work of agricultural experiment institutions. ? The All-Union Academy Of Agricisltural Science,. lama Labiaa, should become such a center. This will call for the transfer of all agricultural experiment institutions of the various ministries to VASIBIL. The latter should equally supervise the work of scientific-research agricultural Arzi ? (hither educational institutes). The role of agricultural Vila in the ? experimental field must be stressed. VAStlitilL should in this connection organise the following departments: *) a departaent of agricultural reorganisation with sections of economics and organisation of agricultural production; sections of natural sciences (soil, climate, flora); crop rotations; distribution of agricultural production with the following sub-sections: distribution of agricultural crops and of varieties of domestic animals. b) ? department of agriculture with sections of irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture (ogre-chemistry. selection, agricultural meteorology), plant protection, microbiology, e) a department of husbandry with sections on species of domestic animals, and a veterinary section; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - 3 - Non stent inov Transl. 2221 Institutions d) a department of forestry; e) a attp".7.'tmert of vegetable and fruit greying; f) a den/Art.:lent of agriculture/ mechanisation with sections for use of machinery, repair, regionalization of agricultural machinery, equip- ment, pinening and development of new machinery. V17r.a. 1.1ould also be given control over mealy institutes of the nation aoadenleit the Botanical Institute. the Institute of Oenetics, Institute ofMicrobiolef:,7, and the Institute of Agricultural loll lIcience. The eztire territory of the tr3r should be divided into an adequate number of economic and natural zones. It seems f'easible to consider the establish:tont e ems 24-26 zones. on then 3-3 non-chernosen, 8 chernezen, 3-4 foreet-ste -me. 3 Siberian, 4 zonee of dry egricelture - (dark chestnut ehestralt sails, ltht chestnut eons and solonets soils); sub.trenicel. ones; 1 zone for Cettral Asia, 1 for the rex Seat, etc. Agriou3.tura1 experimental institutions in every sone should be lanced? =der tho suporri 14023 of the major ernertmental institution in their sone (zonal tus.itute or oblast, agricultursl experiment station) where a igOrStl SICienttfic councilShould be sot ttp. Me central link of the network should be rn:)re !ranted at republic, krai end eblanto complex experiment station3, relare eepartments on wicultural economic and the organisation of egrioultnral production, mechanisation, sell science, meteorology, chemistry, etc., should be set up or strengthened. These large ste.tions would enencmte closely with local land institutions and wepervise the work of re4ona sttttions and fields, and the lower network (ffrl, cottage laboratories). No other experimental institutions should conduct expert- ciente on ?-i-xicultural production above the planned lower network. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Moustantinov Trend. 222:, .lustitutions Selection station of SDITUPRA (varietal aduluistratious), together with other stations should be transferued Sato coupler stations. Mb geed *elector or agro-ohemist will lack knowledge to agro-techuiques. Iconorics and agricultural practices represent the basis far everything. The prednuissting role slier selection as a subject matter at several large stations is permissible, superfluous specialization at many agricultural experiment stations should, however, be done sway with. Agricultural VU2Y'should head the work of large research institutions (lastitUtee, ?blasts stations, )M) . xperimentson varieties of-all crops should be united under a single governaont commission of varietal testing, to beattached to the Council ,of Ministers of USSR, with separate sections on cereal, technical, forage and vegetable crops. An institute for varietal testing and regioaalizs tien-ef.e,Wicultural drops should be organised. The ears institute Omrald deal with problems of agricultural regioualisation and distribution Of agricultural crops in cooperation with TASMONIL and with s ewascil whose function it will be to study the productive (creative) capacity of AM' (Academies of Science) of MR. The Mist expedient arrangement in subject matter at the upper, *Ultra sud lower links of research institutions is possible only when agricultural regionalization of U$SR and the productive spocialisation of separate swims ? and suer* and micro-regions will be determined. . The accorplishments and deficiencies of the two-year expedition or the brigade of SU of USW, made under my supervision, Which dealt with . the distribution of agricultural crops in Siberia (194143), as well as my familiarity with the work of concrete experimental institutions support .this view. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 6 - ? lonstantinov Trans'. 222; Institatiens The eftornaus et:totemic sigaificance of the proper distribution of agricultural crops is hardly subject to controversy, provided thle dis- tribution will take into account the demands of industry and the economic and natural characteristics of separate cones, oblast(s) and regions in individual areas. Inadequate operation of planned crop rotations testifies also to their inadequacy cum farms. At 20.5% of collective tarns in the Zest, given crop rotation schedules, only single percenteges or parts of ? percentages met these requirements. Complez agricultural regionalisation creates maximal clarity in subject natter at scientific research institutions. It permits sears.. tion of .perspective and rejection of all Incidental subjects that do net meet currant needs of local agriculture. It determines the distribution of labor euang research institutes, *blast' and regiolial stations, and simplifies cenerallzation and the effective use of the enormous scientific material, both old and new. The adninistration of work planned for the lover netmork (MS, cottage laboratories) will also be helped. Proper regionalisation mays nevertheless, be accompliehmi only in . the event that sone of the major local research institutions, in collaboration with YASKENIL, will independently carry out agricultural regionalisation in their novas according to plan! Sections In agricultural economics. studying jointly- wit) planuing organisatime the general probloms in agricultural economy, the organisation of agricultural production labor, etc., should be organised at every one of these institutions. They should provide for the economic evaluation of typical crop rotations at their respective zones of ladividual agricultural methods and crops, provide Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - 5 Eonstsmtinov ?mil. 2221 Institutions for the proper distribution of ,agricultural _crone and domestic animals, region.alite agricultural nethods in their souse, etc. are fa7.111ar with the principles of plant growing in crop rota.. tient and are almost unfamiliar with their economic basis. In planning for crop rotations at any region fron an econonic standpoint, we would aid and provide for" a closer agronomic foundation. Sammie and plant industrial ?ses for crop rotations are inseparable; they supplement each other. Economic considerations should be leading,. however, a circumstance frequently overlooked. Itherevar possible it is also necessary at present to. introduce schemes ? -of typical, crop rotations to stoat the direction indicated by local economy and to aPpraise their relative value. Such crop rotations should have appropriate sectors on plots in order that general equipment end nachinery of a heavily mechanised fans can conveniently be used for soil cultivation, planting, care of crops, weed control, harvesting. Crop rotations nay be also organired outside of the territory of the institute or station. Economics of crop rotation say be studied at available large farms where crop rotation is practiced. It is imperative to stress the critical evaluation of planned crop rotation and its introduction into industry. It. is also essential to devise *chases for the study of prods:col:sore, bearing in mind that without crop 'rotation proper agricultural practices, cultiva- tion, introduction of fertilisers, weed and disease control and effective selection are not possible. Ons should not be content with a situation where nurseries of initial material for selection of field crops are die- tributbd on a variegated (randomised?) plot located on the outskirts and auay trmn crops ender rotation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 &on.tantinot Trend. 222: Institutions Agricultural regionalisation requires intensification in the sttdy of soil science and agricultural meteorology on the territory of the institutions therieelves, as welt as on territories of the Bones they serw The hydro-thermic program has to, be practiced directly on sectors of crops under rotation. with established rain-gauges. ? variety of thermometers and evaporators in the fields. The stu.dy of pure-stanCplaatings and grass ai,tu?ei is ?graphical cross section is acute, so 19 the Cultivation of their layers and turnover, layer plants, the cultivation of hard and soft wheats on hard and soft soils. Soil structure is closely connected with this problem', its eircnOnic signi- ficance, the possibility of increasing the structure of the soil by cultural treatment, the introduction of fertilisers, etc. It is hie' time re detached outselvse from the hypnosis of the pre- dostusat significance of vise Mutters, with regard to pure-stand plantings of grasses. Their careful study in a geographical cross section will without doubt refer to their diverse agronomical significance. Thus in dry regions of extensive agriculture (dry steppes primarily) in grass field crop rotations, where grasses are used, for a prolonged period (54 years) grass mixtures pia/ an hipOrtmult role in controlling field contamination end a lesser role as reconstructors of soil structure. Despite the enormous significance of Vass Planting (grass mixtures, pure-stand plantings) this has unfortunately been inadequately studied in geographical cross section.. Itsperimental data en the relative erpediency of pure and mired grass plantings in geographical cross section is very ecarce. Mechanisation of crop. and varieties in geographical cross section has also received -Inadequate study. thus, according to Professor Yekubs, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - U. Ionstantinov Trend. 2223 institutions it would pro's expedient to devote attention to several problems: a) adjuitments for deep soil cultivation (fore-plow and its construction; soil digging machinery - methods and depth of cul- tivation of furrow depth; t*.row plows; deep plowing, methods for their use and equip- meat; hard-pan breakers and mols-dsainage); b) , deep cultivating without turning over of layer; chiseling to sub- stitute for spring plowing; c) control of crust; , d) rolling of soil in geographical cross section; rakes of the rolling ? t7Pu; narrow-roved, combined and nest-like seeders, one-grain seeders with different attachments ibr planting grain and small used crops:* ? f) ?equipment for inter-row cultivation and plant feeding:. g) harvesting machinery (among them those with wall reach for experi- mental stations); universal use of combines; adjustments for harvesting lodged grains; special harvesting 'machinery; h) threshing machinery for special crops; 1) . sorting machinery and selection of sifters. It is understood that expediency in mechanization, agricultural tech- nique and oil science will be higpest when these phases will be closely correlated. The solution of the problem of optimal programs for storing selected varieties of different crops is urgent. She study of physiological- . ? biochemical characteristics of every variety under optimal and ordinary industrial programs of storing must be given careful study. She influence of the origin of seeds of the owe variety, storage program, the physiological- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 gonstantin.ov Trend. 222: Institutions biochemical characteristics of seeds upon yield are enormous. Differ- ence in yields may anount to 40-60-80. Standards for pleating qualities of seeds should include these new points. lorrHoPsOP AGRMILTURti, 1117tRIMIZOTAL 1104 Methods for precise lehoratory experiments (objects of special laboratories) hive been more or less set up. The establishment of vegetative tests with various living Empalme on specific su.bstrats: is more complicated. Here extreme care is essential. The choice of a plant for experimentation ensures accuracy in conclusions. Yield experiments are still more complicated. Correct result* are determined by basic factors: the object under test, optimal agro-technique, optimal end minimal compression in space anti tine. Accuracy in conclusions is *neared by the selection of si uniform variety. Thiel is usually a regionalised variety. Accuracy in conclusions is also ensured by a typical and even plot, with respect to its predecessor, by relief, hydra-thereto program, uniformity in soil cultivation, planting, nary, harvesting, establishment of type of equipment and machinery. Severe contamination and differences in degree of contamination, disease mfeetation distort results considerably. Accuracy in conclusions is &leo ensured by typical conditions throughout the year and the individual mmeons of the year, as well as the most important periods of vegetation, the stages and phases of development, the type of plant under test. *ext come types of seed qualities in plant- ing material physiological maturity of seeds, purity, germination, metabolism, absolute weight, nor* of planting, origin of seeds; t7Pinni development of onto- and phyto-pest etc. The ability to typify condi- tions of the environment. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Xonntantinov Transl. 2221 Institutions The very list of nuaerous factors that zingers accuracy in conclusions alone speaks volumes conc.. ruing the anonyms complexity of methods in field experiments. A good experimenter must be capable of analysing the multitude of conditions facing himwhile he conducts his experiment. He vast also possess the ability to generalize ?broadly and synthesise the . data secured and be able to analyse it. The problem of typical years in their entirety, parts of 'years, etc., confronts the experimenter with difficulties. It is important to develop a method for *typifying* years and certifying data. It is not possible to trust any accidental figure or stereotype averages derived occasionally from very variable data of repeated occurrences. Here the experimenter will be confronted with an entire series of disciplines on general knowledge and supplementary special disciplines Marxism. Leninism, soil scien-ce, tftl) r11010g7 ? agro-tectudque, plant indust17, agro-physice, microbiology, agro-chemistry, selection, physiolegY. phyto- pathology , entomologi, mechanisation, botany, etc. An el:per/neater ,must be yell supplied with diver's* knowledge. The road to knowledge leads, however, through systeas and methods of study. Methods of the agricultural experimental field indicate stages and lays - for the acquisition of entire groups of supplementary sciences. An experimenter should, in addition to his narrow specialty, possess a knowledge of many agronomic sciences, agricultural economics, the organization of ? agricultural production. He should know soils well and the climate ef the territory of his experimental institution, his region, should possess a clear general idea of the soils and climatic sones of the Soviet Union. The experimenter should, I repeat, be a good agro-technician, since without agre-technique there can be no effective work done in agro-chemistry, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Arim lenstaninov Trenal. 1322: Institutions selection, plent protection, etc. The ecology of agricultural plants and disee,---.ea i.cu1ct comane his particular attention. 1:e should always restember t ield testi.; must be conducted under conditions of modern improve male eization, a circumstance equally not.eppreciated, especially in stuiyie ? cizr?craic a and productivity of crepe under rotation. The actual lelustr-lel condition in mechanization should, neverthelese, not be overlooke.l. ii t:.L.oes not preclude sensible specialisation and differentiation of labor ,oue, epecialists of experimental institutions. These should well pre-eall. Scientific coordination between ecientists is however pos- sible only ii both specialists know each other's :subjects well. The work of en exp?:rieen:.or will acquire greatest expediency under circumetances ehare close colleberation is eetablished with related laboratories, where an experi- confers mentor r.a .i t0-01,CS and testicles most frequently with the entire group. Isolltee. 'work. of experimenters - selectors, workine on winter cad spring wheat, -..leter wheat r..nd rye-wheat hybridization, Agropyrum-wheat hybridize... tion, the zALction of perennial wheat, etc., mey serve as examples of obiectioleiJte 9Lreale1iem. Zue aeove cells for the revision of subject matter at allied laboratories and for ti-e establishment of necessax9 contact in their work. Zn t 1L ht of the above, the complexity of factors of external environmentss they reflect upon results of field experiments, endless talks caeca rning sirppo sed3.y universal methods of conducting field testy, the siue of let their replicas, without regard to the object under test and conditions of environment, appear positively negligible. inastioes such as, "%het ia better .. large or email plots? 2-10-12 replicael Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Yonsteninov Transl. 222: Institutions Under oetinel testing conditions duplication may be preferable to 10 replicas weer non-optimal conditions, i.e. under very irregnlar, imflr urtural teckground and poor cultivation of the soil. There is no optimal rtet.hod ccording to regions as yet. In some instances men with- out a tree of emberrasement take plots of 36 m2 under three replicas in regions of varici7tecl soils. The results are not comparable, as may be expected. ..:Icond point to be consieered is siolti-variation of tests. 'Ivan St zonal ir.titutee tests are shamelessly conducted in 7.0 or lore variants on varitcd-Jeclrig.ounds. The optimal number of variants should be made more precise (specific) in different schemes depending upen zones. The third riolnt concerns the application of mathematics .in processing experi- mental e-tr Vho only uses it and in at manner? It le &naiad in proceseinL; "both valid and invalid 0/3servatians- An agronomist-a:Ter/mentor, poorly verl*._ in mathematical fine paints will frequently evaluate correctly the results of his labors from en agronomical standpoint, will reject one v,irient, lye r r Old ttle eWrat lea to another. !chile any nathematicien will tell bin ...hat either all tests are valid, or sal invalid, depending upon the correletion of the number of good and poor variants in the test. The 80.calle5 average eingte trnerelised error in tests (standard deviation), obtained from foreign sources, proves a veritable scourge, especially for young be6Anners-experimentors? rt 13 tie that some agronomiste-ezperimentors have no desire to yield to genuine mathematicians. Here or there one may come across a method with trlecific (precise) indicator, either aisofiriao or Iambic or deotyllic method (aller-Arnold), Kostestkil method, etc. fell, all in all, comae- titian between agronomists and, mathematicians deserves better application. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 - &la ZonstantinOV Transl. 2221 Institutions Distortions in applying mathematics in processing test data continue. In order to remedy the situation / decided in 1941/2 to recall the ancient grandfather method of ordinary processing and evaluation of experimental data to experimantors in my article on variety grouping. To overcome distortions in results of tests with regard to irregularity and variation in fertility of soils is one of the major problems in field experiments. The comparability of test variants of varieties in varietal tests, as well as the correctness of their grouping, depend upon the degree to which this influisace may be ellainated. The effect of irregular, frequently chaotic: variation in soil fertility, according to zones, covers up all actual dis- tinctions =Ong varieties. The properly conducted *pairings method, as recomaended by me, raises comparability, while neglect in this instance will frequently wipe out its advantages. The attempt to find a method for grouping varieties, not according to actual yields, which frequently differ in individual replicas, but according to less variable, =re constant characteristics, is therefore warranted and plausible. It may be the place occupied by a variety with regard to its rank In yield or a. test in each replica, more or less uniform with respect to soil cover, relief, contamination, etc. The tendency of better or poorer varieties (variants) to occupy within the limits of individual replicas the best or poorest places in yield is more constant and less mzbject to variation than are actual yields. If therefore tea Croups will indicate within the limits of every replica their rank in yield, the derivatives of elementary rows of rank orders for each variety (variant) and all replicas will, provided superior treatment le applied, ? be less variable. Grouping of correlation (in percentage) of every Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 '?? 1.4 Zonstantinov Transl. 2221 Institutions variant from the standard would be still better. Poor results are obtained front three replicas at 100 sq. a. and less. In conclusion I wish to limit myself to a few good wishes to research institutes and largest agricultural experiment stations. I.. Assign unification of the scientific asthod of supervising all experiment institutions to the reforaed All-Union Academy of with Agricultural Sciences and ccusider it connected/1w the Council of Rini eters .of USSR. 2- itliainate *dualism* (duplication) in the administration of expert - gimbal institutions on location. The director should be also its scientific supervisor. A well qualified scientific supervisor may be .03119 scamps who is in charge of personnel and Stands. This will Increase the Mee of responsibility If U director for ills entire ?realization. An aide should be assigned to deal with economic- asbdnistrative duties, and a scientific council organized at the directorate level. 3. Organise sections of agricultural economics and organization of agricultural production in 1945, where there are none. Where these are available, their work should be strengthened. 4. Organ. Ise in this connection, study on the productivity and *canonics of crop rotations, as they exist in large mechanized agricultural industrial wilts, as well as at those newly established on the ter- ritory of the experimental institution or beyond its typical rotation of crops, using modern mechanised agricultural production methods. Study the cause of inadequate application of scheduled crop rotations. 5. Intensify the study of soils and climate and their regionalization. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 -15- onetst1nov ran s1. 222: Institutions 5. rhe existing organisation of scientific *loath:me and labormto se of experimental institutions should be reviewed again from the standpoint of proper differentiation of labor and, cooperation in work, as well as complexity in stibilsot matter. 7. Provide subject matter for new sections and make more precise that of present sections in this connection. 8. Intensify the study of mechanisation by organising a network of ? machine.testing stations. ? 9, Process the method of agricultural experimental wort end of field testing, as based on this data. 10. Organics their scientific certification througtt the Institute of Agriculture by introducing agricultural methods and other achi.evemeet? into industry. Organize the work of egricultual regionalisation and the distri- bution of agricultural crops in a serviced raglan; the gttpifyingis and. regionalising rotation of crops; distribution of varieties, agricultural stothsde, anima genera, etc. All these projects should be coordinated with? planning organisations and VASUNIII. Zed of art S. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovskii, E. A. Vey preparation Tranal. 223: Insecticides. for the control of injurious insects. Sovet. Agron. S(1):90.93. Jan. 1947. 20 So84 A Few Cceipound in Controlling Ilarmful Insects The author is a candidate of Biological science. Bexachlorooyclohemane or benzolhexaohloride (C6B6C16) is obtained as a result of pkotochemical ohlorifying benzole with the illumination of reactionary solution of actinic rays. The mothod of a constant countercurrent of the photochemical &aqui.- sition of hexaohloroycloheyane has been worked out at the Institute of Fertilizers and Inseoto-Fungicides. The compound represents a mixture of isomers of hexachlorocyolohexanes alfa, beta, gamma and delta and of other substances which are formed cUiring the process of ohlorifying benzol. The preparation of hexaohlorocyclohexane consists of four simple ? operations The simplicity in preparing it, the possibility Of a fast mass output and the low cost will promote its wide expansion. At the entomological laboratory of the Institute the following application of hexacholorocyclohemane was studied: for the treatment of fruit trees and of berries before the spring budding, as en insecticide of contact and intestine effect, and for dusting grains. 13esides toxicological testing of hexachlorooyclohexane upon insects, experiments mere carried out with aiming to explain phytooide qualities (plant burning). For a more thorough study of hexachlorooyelohexane, the institute sent the compound for testing to .the roscow station for plant protection, to the All-Union Institute of Oil-Plants, to the All-Vnion Institute of Tabacco and rakhorka Industry, to the Voronezh Oblast' Agricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovsky, E. A. T renal .223: Insectio ides 411 Experimental Station and into the Laboratory of the Botanical Garden of ? ? the Academy of Sciences of USSR. Bexachlorooyclohexane was tested in the fonn of five- and seven percent dust. Its effect was compared to the effect of a five percent dust of diohlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT, compound *Gesaroll which is an Insecticide .of high effectiveness and which is applied in Various mays. Besides the dusts of hexaohlorooyolohexane and diphenyltrichlorethane. the insects under experiments were sprayed With talcum in order to deter- mine the effect of the filler without the active ingredient. Each variant of the experiment as repeated at least three times, 'with three the experiment. For the experiments of early spring treatment, before the opening of the buds, were taken apple-trees 'which mere infested by eggs of apple sucker [Psylla mali]and graftings of black currant which were abundantly covered 7ith thorax of spotty scale undek which its eggs minter. The experiments mIth eggs of apple sucker [Payne malt], carried out in laboratory and in orchar, indicated that neither hexachlorooyclohexane nor agezarol" kill the eggs, i.e. they are not ovioides. The amount of dead eggs upon branches treated with dusts hardly surpassed the amount of dead ones upon control branches.. Both compounds, by killing the sucker larvae 'which grew from the eggs, reduced the infestation of apple buds by half. But the effect of both compounds is hardly sufficient, if we compare it with the effect of the compound Selinoi-aei especially intended for early spring spraying and which cleans the buds from the larvae. The seven- and five percent dusts of hexachlorocyclohexane and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 :_CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovaky, E. A. Tranal.223:Insecticides "gesaroln 'did not kill the 'eggs of the spotty scale which rate wintering under the thorax. During inspection, 16 days after the birth, there were very little of living, larvae which 'develop normally and which form thorax. There was a great,emount of larvae upon the branches 'stitch were not treated ,at' all or treated with talcum. The compound "Selinon-nein which contains I'dinitrokresol" in the concentration of 1 percent caused a complete destruction of the eggs. The compound dichlorodiphenyltriohlorethans which is applied as an emulsion "Lemzeto" at the concentration of 1 percent did not kill the eggs of the scale, but later on it caused Com-)late destruction of its larvae. Obviously, it is necessaryto find a method of applying hexa- chlorocyclohextute for early spring sprayings in the form of emulsions. As a contact insecticide, hexachlorocyclohexane was tested under the conditions of laboratory experirent upon four species of aphids: cherry, apple, cabbage and chrysanthemum. The registration of the experi- ments was done after twenty-four hours. The results are given in Table 1. (page44) Fiexachlorocyclohexane was in all cases _highly toxic, causing complete destruction of all aphid species. The high effect of hexachlorocyclo- hexane upon aphids makes it superior to dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane. The Institute of Tobacco and wilekhorka" Industry tested the dust of hexachlorocyclohexane in controlling poach aphid which is very harmful to tobacco plants. During experiments which, rere carried out by repeating twice upon 664 insects under laboratory conditions, the 5 percent dust of hexa- ohlorocyclohexane with the consumption of 50 kg/ha resulted in the 9c.6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000610001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Table 1 , Aphidspecies . 'compound conaump- , Aphid destruction from :compoun (In percent) hid destruction(in percent) during control experiments tion "'kin kg/ha) 5 co/o. dust ROWE* T We ? dust Haat* esaror -5 o/o DDT Cherry a hid... . ... . .... , 10 20 40 . .96 94 95 100 100 100 92 90 91 Centre .._.. ... ... . ... .. ......6o c Talbum:20 kg/ha. .. . ... 120/6 Nicoduet 5*6 20.k ha 92o/0 , . Apple aphid.........:.. ..... 10 20 40 100 99: 100 86 .98 99 87 97 96 Control...v....4.... ....4...8o/6 ValCum 40 kg/ha 4400 Nicodust co/c 20 k a 96o/o Cabbage aphid......* ...... .. 20 92 ...... . 'I Control...... ..... ,...... Talcum 20 Ticodast 5C/C-20 k- a 88o/o Chr eanthemum aphid.. .. .. 10 20 : 40 a9 73 86 . 69 ? 80 94 49 - Control7-7-717/37- Talcum...- - .0.4F70/* Bexachlorooyo lohexane Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovsky, E. A. Trans1.223:Insecticides percent destruction of the pest on the third day, 99 percent on the sixth day--and on the eighth day--complete destruction, in comparison to the 2.5 percent of the aphid mortality upon control plants. A ten percent dust of hexachlorocyclohexane caused complete destruction of the aphid during the same time, but on the third day after apraying already 93 percent of destruction has been observed. In comparison with the compounds of dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane, hexachlorocyclohexane demonstrated higher toxicity upon both the larvae and the mature insects of peach aphids. Thus, while the compound "patrol" caused 100 percent of aphid destruction on the thirteenth day after treatment; hexachlorocyclohexane caused complete destruction under the same conditions and the same concentration on the eighth day. Hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane affected the tobacco aphid comparatively slowly. The elucidation of the duration of the compound's effect indicates that diohlorodiklenyltrichlorethane is more resiitant and maintains its toxicity longer than hexachlorodyclehexane. Fut the resistance manifested by hexachlorocyclohexane and longmaintaining of toxicity, at least for two-three meeks, which it not natural to any of the insecticides of contact effect mhose activity usually it lirited to a few hours which requires direct effect of the compound upon the insects during spraying. The same institute tested hexachlorocyclohexane as a contact insecti.- aide upon tobacco thrips [onion thrip, Thrieidae tabaci]. A five percent dust of hexaohlorocyolohexane caused the destruction of 98.6 percent of larvas and 100 percent of nature insects after 24 hours; a ton percent dust caused a complete destruction or thelpest after 24 hours. Fiverpercent dust of dichlorodiphenyltriohlorethane caused 93.5-95 percent of larva destruotion and 97-100 percent mature insect destruction after twenty-four hours. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovsky, L. A. T renal. 223:lesecticides According to their toxicity upon tobacco thrips, hexachlorocyclo- hexane and diohlorodiphenyltrichlorethane proved to be .of equal value, but they were by far superior to the most effective insecticide of contact effect-anabasinesulphate. The 5 percent dust of anabasinesulphate mixed with kaolin caused after tlAsnty-four hours the destruction of 42.3 percent of the larvae and 56.6 peroent of the maturv insects. The plants were not harmed by the spraying with hexachlorocyclohexnee, but the tobacco was not good for smoking. texachlorocyclohexane dust demonetrated high effectiveness upon grass bug fl4gue pratensiej which is a serious pest of all plantn. Lxperiments proved that themortality of the bugs reached TD percent after the ai,plication of 5 percent hexachlorocyclohexane duet or "gezarol" with the consumption of the compound in the truant of 20-30 k During the experiments which were carried out witr the Intention of burning plants, the dusts of hexachlorocyclohexane and of getarol, even with tbe consumption of 100 kg pro heater did not cause, any burning uron the plant. Thus, the testing of the hexachlorocyolohexane duet, as a contact poison upon the insects with sutorial quality, proved ,high end resistant toxicity of the compound. texaohlorocyclohexane proved to be high effective during the experi- ments with rice weevil [Calandra oryzaelby dilating vheat grain (100 g. dust to a ton of grain). The grain was thorouoly mixed with the compound for thirty minutes, and then the weevils were placed upon the. Five percent dust of bele- chlorocyclohelene caused full destruction of the weevil after three days, and 5 percent dust of "getarol"-after seven days. . Talcum in the amount of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovskii, L. A. Trans1.223:Insecticides 1:19100 of grain after seven days cnused only 5 percent of the destruction of the weevil. Mith the control plant there was no mortality of the Weevil. There is some reason to assume that hexachlorocyclohexane affected the weevil as a fumigant as well. At the rosoow Station of Plant Protection analogous experiments were Carried out With grain mite fTyroglyphys farina.]. The results are indi- ? cated in Table 2. (Page 8) in controlling relies a?greater amount of the compounds were consumed than in controlling rice weevil, whereby hexachlorocyclohexane as more aotive than d1chlOrOdipbenyitrichlorethane. The mites belong, to those insects which, are isslune to-various poi- sons. Their egga do not parish even by fumigation with hydrogen cyanide aoid and with chloropicrin. he absence of rites in dusted grain in- dicates that, lf their eggs were not even the compounds, the larvae perished anyhow. The dusts-did not affect the grain aproutt. t five percent duet or hexaehlorooyclohexane was tested upan'cater- pillantas a contact and intestine insecticide.. As a Poison of contact effeot the cOzpound was tested by spraying it in btepanov's equipment, with the Censumption of 10, 20, 40 kg/ha (the batch of the instrument it of 40, 80, 160 mg) in controlling caterpillars of gypsy moth (Porthetria displOand of apple moth. tive percent hexachlorocyclohexane duet caused almost the complete destruction of Gypsy moth rith.the consumption of 40 kg/ha; dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane caused the came effect with the consumption of 10 kg/ha. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 PokrovskiS4 B4 As Trans1.223:inseeticidera Table 2 Compound 4esu1ts of .the compound upon t Bexachlorocyclehe, ft tiva04:04???? After: 25 deys there was no mite 20? t fl After 80 days individual .After SO days no niths After SO days I IIdual mites er 30.days no mites ring tho entire experimon here vas a gre&t amount of mite Dichlorodiphon aria orethane The same.. . .. ?*****404.4*** Gesarol ***** * a. * * 4"ea? ? ? ????016?? 'Talcum. * Contre14.4 *** S ?. a-i..e***** *******. Compound Table S Mortality In percentage during consumption Rexachlorocyclohe zane n percent dus Dichiorodiphenyltrichlorethane44 5 pereent dust,4,444 ?4!..? ? .444,.,4. Gezarol a 0********? 4 .. 89 6 BO Calcium arsenate 3G percent.... .. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 POkrovskii, E. .&. Trans1.223:Insedticides Tho effect of hexachlorocyclohexane and of dichlorodiphenyltrichlore- thane upon the caterpillars, i.e. upon gnawin,; inieots is most important. Poisons of intestine effect are applied in controlling them: usually they. are compounds of arsento which are poisonous for warm blooded animals. The possibaity of replacing such insecticides is of great importance. ?Al. sides, the possibility of applying the same insecticide is controlling both insects, auctorial and ?gnawing, makes this insecticide universal. The'duste containing 7 percent of hexachlorocyclohexane and agezaroll containing 5 percent of dichlorodiphonyltrichlorethaue were sprayed upon nests with caterpillars of the second6neration of apple moth. After twenty-four hours the destruction of caterpillars from hexachloro- cyclohexane reached in one experiment 85 olo, and in another 97 percent. After fory-eight hours the caterpillars perished completely. Sesarol caused the destruction of 57 percent of caterpillars after twenty-four hours in one case, and in the other caae-83 percent. After fory-eight hours their couplet destruction followed. ' A five percent dust of hexachlorocyclohexane was tested byiulfur method, as a poison of intestine effect 4 ix controlling the caterpillars of cabbage owlet moth [Barathra brassioae] with the consumption of 20 kg of the compound for one teeter of the surface. The results were nega- tive, while ngazarol" causedcanplete mortality of the caterpillars. Eexaohlorocyclohexane had a repulsive effect upon the caterpillars: they did not touch the attractants. Similar results were obtained at the laboratory of the Yain Botani- cal Garden. of the Academy of Science of USSF by the coworker Perdennikova ? S. P. 111th the comumption of 25 kg of the compnund for 1 ha of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Podrovskii, B. A. ?renal .223 Insect 'aides surface, 23 percent of the caterpillars died on the third day. "Gesarole nailer the same conditions caused the death of 95 percent of caterpillars. and 5 percent dust of dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane caused 69 percent, and calcium arsenite-43 percent. Five percent dust of hexachlorocyclohexane, proved to be highly effective already on the third day upon caterpillars of the third generation.; t, as an intestine poison. 'Eut still this compound was inferior in its effect to dichlorodiphenylchlorethane. ihis is well proved when applying a smaller norm (12 kg/ha) of the compound. (Table 3, page 6.) During the eXperiments at the Voronezh Oblast' Agricultural Expert. mental Station, two hours after spraying millet lots (size 10 m2) infested by millet mosquito Nayetiola destructor], a great amount of dead mos- quitoes were discovered upon the ground and upon registration sheets. Flying mosquitoes were Observed in individual specimens. Upon control lots there vas an intensive flight of mosquitoes. Dichlorodiphe41- trichlorethane were active more slowly, but they yielded the same results. Luring the sprayirg of raspberry and of apple trees with 5 and 7 percent dust of hexachlorocyclohexane there was no burning of the leaves. The laboratory of the Botanical Garden made experiments with 5- and 10 percent dust oehexachlorocyclohexane upon cherry, lilac, rasp- berry and apricot trees, whereby for two weeks there was no burning of the leaves., rut, on the leaves o0ucumbers in conservatoriee turns were noticed. The literature on applying hexachlorocyclohexane as an insecticide is insignificant. The compounde of hexachlorocyclohexane have several names. 666, three six, tammekean". The latter name pertains to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Pokrovsky, B. A. Trans' .223 Iisectie ides compounds of tammaisomer hexachlorocyclohexane. In USSR this compound is called Roxachloran. "Gammeksan" proved to be highly toxic for insects and for some other jointed animals. According to Dr. Slade, a poisoned attractant of 002 percent mixture of the isomers of hexachlorocycloheaane caused the destruction of 62 percent of flying locust during two days, while diohlorodiphenylchlorethano at the concentration of 0,2 percent caused 57 percent of its destruction, and Radium arsenitecaused 57 percent of locust destruction at the concentration of 0.4 percent. The larvae of the 4th and 5th stage of the flying locust sprayed with the hexachlorocyclohexane dust perished within twenty-four hours those sprayed with "gezar 1" did not perish. The first experiments indicated that: 1. Hexachlorocyclohexane in the form of 5- and 7 percent duat mixed with talcum proved to be a highly effective insecticide of contact effect upon aphids, flea bugs, thrips caterpillars of younger generation locust, upon rice weevil and cereal mites during the spraying of grains. 2. According to its effect upon aphids, the dust of hexachlorocyolohexane is much superior to the diohlorodiphenylch orethane which, in a Aeries of experi- ments was little effective in controlling aphids, and according to litera- ture data, is entirely ineffective in controUing aphids. 3. As an insecticide of intestine effect, hexachlorocyclohexane requires further study upon various gnawing insect species. 4. Hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane are not ovicides. runIni;,the?exkriments with haxaohlorodyclehexane dust neither burning offset upon the plant nor upon the sprouting of wheat seeds could be observed. 5. Hexaohlorocyclohenane is a univerei insecticide which preserves its effect for a long time and in effective in controlling suotorial and gnawing insects. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Pokr?1111Ws, E. A. ? 23 Insecticide a It could be ommended for aide experiments s ti 7 percent dust o for spraying iran?s. In controlling ustorlel and gnawing insects grains if it will not contOtot the sanitary re ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP801401426R010000010001-2 El Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 .04 41.46144.4 ? .1.,4? ? 4T ? A413141104.4,,f0MilVW4W1W4UWO . Whys of investigating new herbicldes4' Leningrad.- Inst. Zaeoh? Rest. Sbornik: 5I61-67. 1933.. 464.9 L542 Translated from the Russian by S. N. (From publications of Sector of Weed Control Of VIZRa) One of the major factors in the control of weed vegetation by chord- n eel method the selection of the most actits herbicide. In selecting a herbicide one is net guided by activity alone, The Substance mist also be inexpensive, obtainable represent a product of domestic production, manufactured from ordinary available raw material, ? i.e. must be chosen after all technological economic reasons have been considered. Table 1 presents major basic substances used in weed control abroad and in our own practice. This table does not exhaust the list of herbi- cides. Several substances found in literature, such as boron fluoride, mercuric chloride, etc. have, been deliberately omitted from the tibia since they cannot be used extensively in our country as herbicides or becau e of their high cost (boron is available in the Soviet 'Union only in eery limited.quantities), or yet because of other negative properties. In addition, substances have been omitted from the table *Moir representing by-products of principal industries, such as sodium bisulfate, residue from the production of chloride, obtai ed according to the old method through the action of sulfuric acid upon common sodium chloride. - The active element in acid sulfate is sulfuric acid, the content of mtdch determines the degree of activity.of this -herbicide'. In studying the substances we consider only pure concentrated herbidides whiCh produce maximual active effects. The use of by-products containing active sub instances compensate for the lack of full-bodied herbicides, but in the ay in ny Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Elmanovich. W. Translt 224 Herbicides 1110 'majority of oases wastes possesSonly local limited significance in view of ,. , .. ? their low concentration (from much dilution With water) And large volumes awn - weight (50/O of alkali, for instance) which require unwieldy containers un- suitable for transport. Occasionally mates containing large amounts of a0- Ave substances do not, provide opportunities for their,apPlieation in seed control because of limited quantities or high degree of contamination with injurious substances harmful to the soil. TABLE! P!IrCI?aL SUBSTANCES APPLIED I 7EED CONTROL (EE S) ACIDS: 1. R2SO4 2. 8.803 3. EC1 Re04 S. 80rt-H20 MALI: 6.-"Na0H- 7. KOH 8. NH4OH NH3 H91. AS203 SALTS: 10. fpo80475ej [CuSO411. ? 20] ? 12. %HMO's 13. Na24204 14. Oa() As203 IS. CaHAs04 16. CaCN2 17. UgC12 Kel ? M012 ? 6H20 X01 ? V004 ? 3H20 -EO1+,11004 ? R20 18. NaClOm ? 19. Ca(C10)2 204 Bia105)2 EC104 25. K2Cr207 24, Ne2Cr207 25. NaP Organic Substances: 26t RCOR?tRsCOR 27. %%OH, CH C6H4OH' 28. NH2C6R5 29.(C611012) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Nlmanovioh, Ns Trans1.224:Nerbicides As seen fro table 1, herbicide's maybe' divided into the following groups: Is acids; 2.alkali; 3. salts.; 4. organic substances. All acids are herbicides bees se of the presence of *active hydrogen ion in these compounds which act toxically upon plant (living protein Substance of the cell.) However, the problem remains, Which of the acids should be applied as a herbicide for volume work?. Parallel tests upon the activity of various acids (sulfuric, hydro.' chlorie, 'trio. Phosphoric, sulfurous) performed on a mass scale on large areas under uniform conditions, which take into conSideration economic effects, were antortunately'not conducted,by u4; they will be d?alt with in subsequent eXperitents; if the're lotion is the same from Ida dosages in weight (which is doubtful), preference should be given, which it lest expensive andavailabIe not only at present but with an eye to future Chemical Industrial outputs in the second five-year plan. Sulfuric acid, meet popular with us and abroad, is currently the least expensive substance. Its cost it 015.00 a ton (29 gold rubles) in the New York market. Obtainable In the domestic market at 85 to :100 rubles per ton now, its price will drop to 55 rubles by the next plan. The chemical is nevertheless not plentiful and may be used for weed control at the expense of the amount allocated for the preparation of super- phosphate fertilisers. If at present our cost of hydrochloric acid is equal to that of sul- furic aeid (costing also 85 to 100 rubles), it may be obtained in the future in larger quantities from an expanding industry of organic ohlorine compounds when its price will undoubtedly drop to 15-20 rubles per ton. It should be borne in mind, however, that hydrochloric acid represents approximately 40 lab of solution of hydrogen chloride in water at a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Elmanovich, N. Transl.Z24therb ic ides pecific gravity of 1.19. In In America the practice 1000/0 gas in cisterns, i.e. hydrogen chloride tram transport pure ed through pressure into liquid state. In such case hydrochloric acid will evidently prove more profitable than sulfuric acid. Nitric acid developed synthetically from itrOgen and hydrogen is of especially gr seeds: C significance for controlling interesting base of the mixed action? of this ,substance. At first nitrous acid acts? upon weeds as an acid and herbs aide, later as nitrogenfertilizer for the soil (table 2). An analogous picture is obtained in the case of phosphoric acid. First it acts as herbieide, then asa fertiliser. In view of its considerable output based on Iihibin apatites,' its cost will tentatively be about 155 rubles per ton. All soluble ]kaUea possess do acids, high 'herbicidal eharacteristicss because of the presence of hydroxyl group ON. Table 2 CBES-PERT Nitrogen ertilizers: 1. 141?3---ga(N?3)2 2. Nh5 __3U7102--->11N0 ---->ea(1103)2 2. Potassium fertilizers: 3. KOH ---;L-slt2CO3 -7 5. 113PO4 ---1CaRPO4 .fi. P09,33->CanI)044-CAC (2P0rns+ sito ? 61101-4-2E3PO4) 7. PC15 ---7CaPPO4 -1-4-,Ca0121 (2PC1e-61120e/OP01-f-211 POO 011 8. P205---,115PO4 -1'000304 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 ? Simanovich, N. Caustic 'soda represents a very valuable economic product in view its vast application. it will hardly' be possible to pply it for parUcularly'eire?ts price abroad Trans. 224:Berbicides weed control in large quanti (1:thot'OS0.00 per. ton)and at home will net be breatly reduced, end may not be any less than 150 rubles per ton. Caustic potassium is a more valuable product in view of the &eater value of the raw material used in its product an; it will equally be of dual action, tirat herbicide, and later. potas ium fertiliser. This dual action of the substance requires very thorough processing in mess exPeri lanEe size ments on emommeonacte pldts, a circumstance wtien should be: includedinto .the plan of researoh. work in the following year. The group of s1tc produces large amount or herbicides. In the USA copper salts, compounds of erectile lead, i.e. salts of heavy metals e extensively used. This" groupof vats industry, particule log in our nemly developing pounds of copper, essential for the electrifi- cation of the country, is altogethoi'unsuitable for introduction on a large scale in the apacity of herbicidesand cannot be depended upon in the r future ? Considering that abroad the appearance of herbicides from he group of salts takes place upon the initintive of private individuals and firms an enormous amount of these appears on the market, representing mixtures of the principal active substances in different variations ilth dmixtu-es of different fillers. ' Among the principal herbicides contained in patented mixtures are chlorates. In 1922 In France there appeared a pateM.. of the tcyer plant and the chemAcal society de Massy Fabaiseaa Reunis (F.P. 666459, of August 24 1922 published February IS, 1924), ehich was offering chlorites and perchlorates as a means for weed control; it wan recommended to mix the substance in dusting with sand, talcum and other substances. In the Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Zlmanovich, N. . Trans1..224:Iferbic5.dea mane year. B. Teppet P. 547599 of January 31, 1922, pub.'. 1)e c. 19, 1922)recommended the use of sodium chlorate and pbtassium chlorate as herbicides, indicating that both sere supposedly to be applied as such o with the addition of sodium or potash, especially :odium or potsieei,um diebropiate. Falph Nelson Cipman (F. P. 660:265, Sept. 19?j928, publ. July 9 1029) suggested the use of a mixture of 3 parts of sodium chlorate and 2 arts of potassium chlorate and recommended its use in powder form. B. Teppet (P. P. 644.166, Feb. 21, 1927, pub)... Oct. 8, 1928) proposed chlorates of all kinds for weed destruction. According to the patent, the principal composite part is sodium chlorate or potassium chlorate, as such or mixed with other substances, particularly sodium or pdtash. Jean Sohneebeli (Swiss patent 129.209 of ray 1, 1928, pub/. Dee. 1 1928) proposed a solution of sodium chlorate subjected to electrolysis, i.e. sodium perchlorate It folio-ea that in all this group of liBted patents the principal active substances were chlorates (potassium, sodium and calcium),,the re- maining mixtures were of no particular significance in action and served only to warrant the patent. The preparation Unkraut-ex", issued by the firm Seholte and Dharlier and petented in Germany, differs from pure sodium chlorate only by its attractive label and the addition of 0-15o/o of soda; an almost inactive substsuace. The application of sodium chlorate in DSA tucreases steadily from year to year; thus in 1019 it amoUsted to 17.7 m.; in 1927-693.9 in.; in 1929 3513.4 in. at a cost of 154 dollars per ton). Let us note that the manufacture of sodium chlorate in the USA is not established and that this product under the designation sodium Chlorate is imported from Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Eimanovich, N. Tranal. 224:Herbicides - Germany. Potassiun chIorato is as effective as sodium phiort 0. Its application is particularly recommended on acid ?soils. It is easily obtained: by chlorinating milk of lime at a'temperature of 4040i0 and represents an intermediate product for obtaining potassium chlorate Chemically; to separate it' in pure form, hoiever, is difficult in view of its llygroseopio nature. In the USA potassium chlorate, under the designation "Atlasite" with the addition of substances stabilising this 'salt is produced in solid form and is a solid product. its cost it naturally lover than that of. Oodium chlorate. An analogous preparation, magnium chlorate, s altogether . unknOvn in a dry state; it could alto eervea a herbicide. In our search for new herbioidee attention vas driven to ohloribe pre tions.-(table TAULE 3 Vow Lerbicidea?strongly active (chlorine groupand chem sm of their action. I. (G12-1- H20 = 21iC1-1-0) 2. (2$2012-1- 21120 = 4HC1H-SO2 +-38) 3 (2444 -HBO = 41101-1,- 2502+2S) 4 (so2C12-t 2%0 asT 21101 i-B004) .5?(81.014i-2fl20 = 2}C1 *S102) The results are meet favorable; they established the particular aoLivity as herbicides (see table 4). The action of indicated chlorine preparations is based on the fact that they decompose rapidly into hydrochloric acid and molecular Sulfur .(in applications of? chlorine and bichlorine sulfur) from moisture in the airand plants The second group of ezperitentS searching for for this purpose, herbicides uses liquid chlorine Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 (6- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Elmanovieh, N. Trans1.224:}ierbieides It is known that chlorine vegetation, but it is unsuited ercises a strong burning action upon or use as it disperses in the air and the percentage of application is negligible. In addit5on, it is dangerous to conduct work with a gaslike and pdWonous substance that may be directed by wind anywhere. I therefore suggested to test the action of chlorine dissolved in chloride-organic solubles, snob as 4-chloride hydrogen, dichlorethane, tetrachlorethane, ete. The application of a liquid for the above purposes in place of as makes the work easier. (See Tabi. IV) A mixture prepared of carboyl 4-chloride and liquid chlorite in the proportion of 11, had in iron cylinders a pressure of about 3 atmosphere this offering a significant advantage since the mixture vas easily thrown from ? itatxef the cylinder:under pressure without additional forcing. The exuding liquid has low temperature (to 100 C) and asidefamits burning action may freeze vegetation: The inadequacy of these mixtures lies in their severe poisonous action to the environment which cells for particular care'. In comparing the above herbicides with chlorates, ve h*.ve to stress that they may easily replace chlorates, since large ernunt of chlorite is used for the production ofthe latter by chemical means, 1.e. to one part of chlorite 5 partUtor the formation of potassium chloride vhieh kepresents vast*: /n dosages which do not exceed dosages of ehloratee -chlor-products have possibilities for partially rePlacing ehloratea; the work should therefore be conducted on extensive fields to judge the technique of application and economic profitableness of these substances, compare to other herbicides (chlorites)* With regard to spraying methods, they have been 1-studied and only Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 EIMAIMOVIOA, Be A nm.. ultimata's RESULTS OF =PRI TABLE rir IN CONVECTION 'Z11 SEARCH FR Rafe of Herbicide Dosage for . in Cr. 4-Carboxy 0 0 ? ft 0 ?* t.?... V oo.* O e O ? ** .oe Sulfur diohloride...... O a 2-Sulfur ? ? 4Carbonyl 4 .Sulfur dichloride ? 4-Carbony1 ohlorid ' a A A 25 60 00 25 50. 21 SO , Field BO 100 10 SO .111-On Field ?? SO 100 110' 160. Chloride in 4-oerbonyl chloride. * ? * ....... A A - n n * 0. Sulfur . ft0 ft 2..5u1fur bi*,chlorite. O A ?4444.44 A*44 0044044 *4 ** V ** 041.49.AOSP ft ? ft ft ? ft ? ft tf Neatogenat of ' *4.* . 25 SO 80 100 10 20 30 40 SO 60 20 30 40 60 Concentration of applied so. lution in o I-In Wurseriee 100, 100 7.100 '100 100 100 100 100 of 1 sq. m. 100. 100 100 100 of 5 pg. f4 100 100 100 100 104-10 104-90 104-90 1041.90 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Under other tested substanoea me 1Y-tinder Rurtery conditions: potac.u..' ft S. Xantogenat of potassium It n ii se Wastes-SA. yellow oils O If ft ? -Key desigpatio ID* 25 SO Field plata 21 SO SO 100 14O 10 10 of 1 n4.m. 10 10 100 100 100 plant death to 20 0/6 g. plant death to 10 0/0 3, plant death *bore 90 0/6 'CMS Effect of action according to established coal 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3. 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3.2 2 3 5 hall__ refer Rornarka Plant death-100 0/0 death.10 0/0' PI t de:at/1(.60 ?A lf ft ? m 70% ? 90 o o ? 90 0/0 10 0/0 m 100 0/6 lee olio " 100 olo Contaioe,aldehyde of uperlor grade-100.155? Plant death-100 0/0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Le vdr Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Eltenovich, N. Istrans1.224111erbicides points connected with the seIe t o of material for specific appara have to be learned. In view of the severe action of those substances upon plants, control shot ld be directed to destroy weeds in the fall and spring up to the tine of planting of cultivated crops destruction of vegetation on arable (wpary") fields and sections of particular contamination for burning. Such is the field for the application and potentialitiesirt using ? chlorine and chlorine products in agricultural practice for weed control, . In considering the importance of the chemical method for the control of weeds on fields vegetable and flower gardens, forests, etc., it is essen- tial to recognize that it development may be based o 1. sufficient supplies of substances-horbioides; ilriong these substances najor attention should be directed to the production of concentrated active herbicides of Which the manufacture should be steady expanding to correspond with the needs of greetm weed control; 2. use of wastes from industrial production which in some cases replace, valuable substances, though they are of local and limited significance in view of low concentration, large addition Of water, volumes and weight, which makes thorn inad iesable:for transport where appropriate oontainers are lacking. S. It is necesaryto reduce constantly the assortment of active sUbstances ,to . while searching- or-tewmore'effectIve herbicides; and/consider such factors as canonical value, simplicity in manufacture from available raw material, and the possibility ,of mass output. 4. Inview of the special active characteristics of chlorates as herbicides particular attention should he devoted to the manufacture of sodium chloride of standard quality; simultan ugly, search for methods of produo g other, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 LI 46. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Blmanovieh, III Tra I.224;Herbicides .s expensive solid chlorites potassium-and magnes ium chloride should be speeded since the latter nay along with .chlonites of alkaline metals exhibit the same action at lover cost. S. In conducting masa experiments on fields in onnontion with weed contr special attention sho, d be devoted to the *oice of ubtancs which exhibit dual actions first herbicidal then serving as fertilisers for cultivated plants (potacclum chlorate, potassium Yanimidel, nitric a id ammonia phosphoric acid and phosphorous anhydride, chlor-phosphoric compounds, etc.) 6. To direct attention at mass experimen oxi fieldsto t2is.ptrt1ou1ar action produced by chlorite and chlorite products. ADV-10-2- Si End of article Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Vsesoiusnoe Gasudarstvennoe Ob'edinenie Trans1.225sPlant Protection pre Boebe s Vrediteliami I Bolezniami v Seltskom i Leen= Ihoziaistve. Postanovlenlia, pravila I instruktsii po karantinu prottv vreditelei I boleznei seltskokhoziaistvennykh kulttur (Resolutions, rules and regulations on quarantine in controlling agricultural pests and diseases), 3 40 p? 1935. 464.9 V962 Excerpt from the Introduc Translated in part by S. N. Vonson Oni (p. 3) The material published in this col tion of directions reflects the qualitative changes.made towards intensifying the development Of the present stage in plant quarantine in the USSR. It should, as did the two preceding teems, serve as a practical guide for fulfilling quarantine regulations in the interests of further development of 400a/et agriculture. (Signed) Quarantine, eietor OBV Section headings& Release of seed stock and Iiv harmful scales S.. ng plants from regions infested by 4 On cabbage and tomato seedbods(seedlings) p. 4 Decree pronouncing quarantine at Gori region in cistern 4reorgia p. 5 Yeasures ensuring he introduction of quarantine against harmful scales on territory of GeorgiahrepUbl a p. Practical quarantine measures against harmful scales...p. 6-7 Unlawful ,export of ornamental plants from regions prcounce.d under quarantine p. 7-8 Rules on moving seed stook: fruit, grapes, berry, timber, ornamental, and other living plants...... p. 8-10 Rules for accepting seed stock and living plants for railroad transport 111000n USSR.... ........... . p. 10641 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2 vsesolutnoe... Transi.weatriant vroteotlon 41111kRulee on tr by USSR en area k end living plants of all specie ? * oe * OOOOOO ?00,..041.?04,0-0-0.? ? 1243 Instruction on supervision during transport of se and living; plants.... OOO . O OOOOO ........ OOO . OOOOOOO c Coction I. Enloe for establisbing degree of infestation or non- infestation of plantinge-eubject to quarantine OOOOO p. 4 Section IX. Rules for lesuing and annulling quarantine documental Section III. Vegulationp4n treatment of seed stook and r1&ving plants........... OOOO . ** .......... p. 24 ? Certificate Uo.....(eample) ? requisitio ...for...(cample) Decon o4unrantine inspector no.... Permit a* ? 4-16 Summary on release (sample table).. 04,40.0***10.044 plants, form Do. 104 ***** ,400441?****.054,4,,,S#i Report on export end import of need stock, seed -potatoes, .republice, krai(s) and Oblast(s)....(eample table).... lisbment of quaran potatoes [5 on o - quarantine i * 25 througheut 410, * 26 event of appearance -of loose scab of r 1 r snd...todee (to all . . a.. ?,s.s a **** * sea ****** .....p. 26 )Quarantine survey of cotton ....p. .44****s ** * .-*** *ir*.AP* 40.4. 29 'Orn5.zatlon of quarantinesector for potatoes at Leningrad oblants.p. 29 To all senior quarantine inspector (instruCtions on procedure).. ..p. 3044 To connect un St of QBV elth specific quarantine laboratories.. (enumeration ter).......... ****** 34-3S - reference guide on agricultural export by P. IA. Derber and A. Poltavtaeva, p. 35-36 ?1933) issued by Zelenukhin ODV administrator (subsequently /rector of VIZra)..p. 36 Instruction to ell quarantine inspectors (ray Aseicning of personal responsibility for the fulfillment of de MK (Central committee) of YIP (b) and DK of RPI(Regiona Ions of cm.) -140. * * . * 44b,w00.60 0.0,41?44.400,c0,44;464-0 p. 36-31 Typical a form End of Pamphlet . ADV- 04.2-51 Or- *** ? ? * a..p. 37-40 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010000010001-2