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January 1, 1954
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A.4311 (In full) QIN I- ! A PI , Uspanov, Osnovnye resultts.ty 5. ocherednye zadaohi issledovaniia pocky lazakhetana. U'rincipal results .rd investigation investigation of soils Mad; NAuk tazakhskoi ph42..55. Jan. (In Russian) urgent problems in the Kazakhstan]. SSR. Vest., no. 11, 1964. 611 AI6 In the directives of the XIXth Convention oft-the Cazmunist Party of the Soviet Union, in the speech of Comrade G. M. Kalenkov, during the fifth Session of the Supreme Soviet of USSR and in the resolution of the Plenum of TsX EMS of September 7, 2.953 a program was unfolded- for a .eharp rise in all branches of agricultural economy ard for a creation of an abundance of agri- cultural products in our country, so as to satisfy the growing needs of the population of our country in food products and to provide raw materials for the light and -the food industries in the next .2-3 years. A great role belongs to the Soviet science for a practical solution of this vary urgent public problem and to Soviet soil deisme in particular, which is called upon tole solve essential needs of the socialistic agriculture. In the light of the historic decisions of the nth Convention and of the September Plenum of Tat ESS it is necessary-to-review the present state of soil science in Kazakhstan, to critically evaluate its aohievements and its defeats, to find out the reasons for lagging and any erroneous opinions, so as to correctly evaluate all the prObleins and ways for further 'observa- as the soils in our Republic, proceeding from general principles 4nd \ problems of Soviet soil science. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 /1' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .811 Soviet soil science is the scientific basis for socialistic agriculture. Progressive materialistic ideas of the founders of the authentic soil science V. V, Doblehaev, P. Kostychev and V. R. Williams about the ways of studies and of intelligent utilization of soils lead us to the conclusion that the main problem of the Soviet soil aflame is the study of eosential qualities of the soil 4. its fertility, an well as the development of scienti- fic fundamentals for improvements and methods for re.tional utilization of the fertility of the soil. A practical solution of this basic problem seems possible only on a baste of a thorough study of all factors of soil forma- tion in their inter-relationship taking into consideration the leading role of biological factors, as well as the productive activity of man in each specific ease. And the only correct principle for studying the soil is frac the productive point of flew, as in the last analysis, [Begin p.431 the fertility of the soil is concretely expressed in the productivity of agricul- ture. Only such an approach to the study of soil gives the opportunity for scientific foresight and forecast. The Soil Sector, which arms organized in 1939 as a part of the Kazakh Branch of the Academy of Science of USSR (and which became, since 1945, the Soil Institute of Al KazSSR) has worked on the systematization and the sure.. rize.tion of results of past researches of lra.zakhatan soils, and at the some time conducted new soil-geographical researches of unstudied or little explored territories in Kazakhstan. In 1945 a soil map was prepared for the whole territory of Kazakhstan, according to ?blasts, as a result of this. This big generalizing work summed up the researches in the field of geography and mapping of soils in Kazakhstan and proved to be an important step in the history of developient of soil science in Kazakh SSR. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-R6P8OR01426R010300030001-7 -811 \_17e The new soil map of Kazakhstan served as A scientific baSis for a quanti- tative calculation and a qualitative characteristic of land resources in Our Republie4 On the basis of these Oblasts soil maps of taZakbetat4 the Institute of Agriculture of the Kazakh Branch of VASDNIL 4ade a tabulation of the land value of the Republic according to oblaets and by ratans, and drat up maps of 'lands which show the agroproductive content of soil areas which were taken from the toil map; The Oblast. 6011 naps, in manuscript form, are tOtilized by many but the maps are not yet published and, . organizations of the Republictehiefly, through the Institute's fault; _Now they heed some corrections according to the research data of late years. A survey soil map of Kazakhstan on a. scale of it 2,600,000 was compiled according to materials of the Oblast* soil maps; it wad published in 1948; This map serves as visual aid for studying purposes end for learning about natural conditions in our Republic; . Thus, the !compiling of ?blasts soil maps and of survey soil maps of Kazakhstan on A scale of 1: 2,600,000TKilled in one of the essential gaps in the field of geOgraphy and cartography of soils of Kazakh SSR, and the first stage of work on studies of soils and on tabulation of land resources of the Republic, as A Whole, was completed; Simultaneously with soil-geographical researches, in 1930, the Soil Sector of the Kazakh Branch of the Academy of Science Of USSR began coil si ameliorative researches in Dshozkazganskii raion and organized there an ens . periment station for the development of efficient methods for bringing under cultivation and irrigation desert-steppe areas and growing cultivated plants so as to cover the lands with green vegetation and create a vegetableopotato base for industrial centers; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 / . (41 ?rant. As811 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Experitaents have entail t)at; notwithstanding the bleak natural Conditions of the re.ion of Bolehoi Dzhezkazgan, it is quite possible hero to grow almost all agricultural crops, trees end bushes. The methods for irrigation and for growing the agricultural crops, trees and bushes, which were developed by the Dzhezkasganskais. Experiment Station ? now a Research Base of ths Academy of Science of Kat SSR ?? began to take root in production almost immediately. In the region of Bolshoi Dzhez? [Begin p..4411 gazgan branch-farms were established and plantings of a new city with verdure were begun. But this was done on a limited scale and no far from atmdwering the requirements of a swiftly growing industrial center. Through the researches of the institute of Soil !Science in Dzheskaz.b ganskii mien it was established, of late, that between the rivers /tench. and Dthesda, nearer td their junction, 10-.12 Km below the Kengirakii water reservoir, there is a promising area for irrigation and for the organization of extensive fruit-vegetable farm .1- The total area of this region is about spoo ha, from which, for the first round of bringing the land under watts vation, about 1,500 ha could be chosen; they would be uniform in the character of the soil, most suitable for irrigation, and not requiring any special amelioration. Irrigation of this area can be conducted by the gravity flow, by means at obtaining water from the large Kongirskii reservoir; At full control of the flow tram the river Kengir, the large Kengirskii reservoir, according to the latest calcualtions, will have several tens of millions of cubic m of reserve water, part of which can be utilized for irrigation with- out any loss to the industrial enterprises. Results of many years of research, which was conducted by the Soil Institute in the regions of Bolshoi Dzhezkazgan made it possible for the - Government to provide for the construction, in 1952-1953, of the Kotler. skate. irrigation system and for th organization in the mien of Dzheskazgan Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (6) Treed. A411 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 \/' of extensive fruit-vegetable farming on an area of 1,600 ha, utilizing tk the water frail the Kongirskii water reservoir. Unfortunately, certain organizationr3 which were entrusted with the realization of the Gasernment's resolution, did not meet their obligation to ?organize fruit-vegetable farming in the Dzhezkazvan raion and it has not been developed yet. Thus, the two big and important works which were accomplished by the Institute in past years remained unfinishedt the oblasts map of Kazakhstan were not published through the institute's fault and the results of soft-amte lioratiVe research in Bollshoi Dzhezkazgan raion were not 'realized through the fault of tether organizations. Of late the Soil Science Institute conducted soil-geographical and soil-ameliorative researches of separate territories in accordance with public economy problems Of the Republio. The Institute started compiling soil maps of separate oblasts and Miens of reze.khetan, which must serve as a scientific basis for a precise tabu. lation end for a qualitative characteristic of lands in oblaets by raions. Up to the present time soil maps were czokled for: AlmaaAtinSkaia oblast'? for 10 miens of East?b-Kazakhstanskaia oblast', territories along the right bank of the Ural river, for the Eastsitazakhstansiolia and Gursevskaia ()blasts and for the lowlands of the river More detailed maps were compiled for the Xe.ragandinskii and Dzheskazganskii industrial retorts, for the lowlands Of Raft river and for three talons of AlsaWitinskale oblastl. The soil map for the North-Ke.zakhatanetaia oblasto requires yet considerable work before it is finished. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? tg) s.,811 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The finished naps, with the explanation text and the Gagropreduction characteristics of sone, were turned over to the appropriate organitationS for practioal utilisation. Of late the Institute also !Conducted soilameliorative research for territories Which were newly brought under cultivation for irrigation) (Begin p4491 survoyeSoil zap of the territory, which is cervieed by KeylaOrdift, eke% dams was compiled together with Ftylwerdinskaia Scientific Bate of the Aoadety of Science of KUM: sections which should be tbe first broUghtg under cultivation wore preliminarily marked out, the waterephysical properties and the salt content of the soil were etudied'i materials were collected, which were. needed for the toile/meliorating regionalising of the territory, as well as for the agrodhproductive characterictiecof the soil: rTh' On the assignment of "Lengiprovoikbetn, the Institute it 19514.952 has compiled a soil nap of the Caspian Sea region lowlands along the right bank Of the Ural river: Simultaneously stir conducted studio* of waterephyeical characteristics and of the salt condition of the sone; In addition to this a nap wns compiled for soil-ameliorated regions of the examined territory, and tabulation of lands, according to ameliorative groups, was ecoompliehed: All the :materials were passed oat; fliengiprovoikhoeft and utiliecd by them for the devaloptent of a plan for methods for irrigation and supplying with water the lowlands of the Caspian Sew) Results of this extensive work will be summerited, in 1924, together with those of the Soil institute of the Academy of Saint:0 of 09814and will be published in 1955 as a an open monograph on toils it the Casiian Sea lowlands. Part of the data is tow being prepared for publi- cation In the Works of the Institute: In 1992 a study of water-physical properties of certain localities, which were marked for cultivation, were conducted as also ns the organizationcdf branch-farms around Karaganda. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 411 In 1953 the Institute continued the examinations of none in the Karaganda industrial region and compiled soil maps for the newly investigated territictlei-; This research wee conducted in conjunction with a proposed pestege of tate from the river,Irtyeh for irrigation and supplying with water of the Central Kazakhetan. All the data from research will be tummarized in 1954 and passed over to the proper Organisations; In 19524.1953 the Institute conducted soil Obeeevatione in the los/lands Of the river EMba in conjunction with a project for construction of.arala Tinbinskii water reservoir on the river Etba for irrigation of its estuary SM 5 development of a fodder base for Cattle breeding. A soil map wee compiled for the territory serviced by the AralaTiubinskii water rebervoiri research wan conducted of soil complexes of those sections which require irrigation; Date of research were handed over, in 19$2k to the Ourtevekii t Oblvodkhoz [Oblast. Mater Department] for utilization When preparing the plan for irrigation of the territory. The above cited soil-geographic and seilaameliorbtive research, toa gether with the compiling of soil maps, widened our knowledge and defined more accurately the ideas of soil scientists about the zonal distribution and geographic-genetic peculiarities of the soil of separate mien), of Kazakhetan. The Large amount Of the new factual material, Which was collected during the last few years, makes it possible to make more accurate the nomenclature of soils and permits 4 development of a classification of bale in 'Kazakhstan, which is correct both in a scientific and practical. respect; During the prow:wee of research methods for compiling soil maps& were made more precise' depending on their ,designation and scale: Simultaneously with soil-geographical and eoilaateliorative research the Institute conducted routine and experimental research on problems for the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 \ ? (3) Trans. A-611 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (reN, increase of the fertility of the Bourn studied the processes of soil fonmation and the genesis of the soils j microbiological (Begin p.46] processes in the soil and dynamics of the elements of fertility of mils in Kazakhstan. Obserettions were nada of processes of weathering and of formation of primary soils in various vertic* belts of TianeShan, of processes of primary soil formations on granites of Central Kazakhstan, in mountainceadow and moubtaineforent belts of gazakhekiiAltail of contours of agglomeration Of amorpheng silica ihdemertesteppe soils of Central Kazakhstan, of the cote position of the organic substance of the basic types of soils in KaSakhatenj we observed the role of earthworm in the processes of soil formation on Altai and their importance in the formation of the mtural fertility of the soil. Studios of dynttion of elements of fertility of the soil were conducted in the fields of grass crop rotatiOns. Microbiological processes in the collo of Kazakhstan have been studied and are now studied with the aim of establiehing the character of inter& reletions among the toil microflora, the mil and the higher plants, and the effect Of the soil microorgardeme eon the dynamics of the fertility of the soil under tenditione both natural and cultivated: All this remarch was directed for developing scientific principled for efficient utilisation, and for the increase in the fertility of the soils on the basis of studies of conditions of the formation and development of the natural fertility of the soil. Results of these researches were given in detail in reports at a re- cent Scientific Conference on results and problem of studies of Kazakhstan toils. The Conference noted the especially great scientific and practical meaning of the work on studies of dynamics of the elements of the fertility of the soil in the fields of the grass crop rotations, which were conducted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (0) Trans. A.S11 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 by the institute in Akmolinskaia and Alma.atinskala ?blasts? ; Mere I shall atop only on one of the effective and practice/1y important researches' of the Branch Of Microbiology of Soils in the Institute on the development of methods for the preparation and utilization of local bacterial - fertilizers. of or agricultural Grope; MIA work is already giving practical results; % , Experiments, which were conducted during 2 yeara on the fields of khlkhozei in Shortadinskii talon, ektolinekaia Oblast', and in Maskelenekii ? eaten, AlmaiAtihslfais obltstle have shown that the use of asetebaetetin and Of phOsphoroebacterin, which was prepared by the laboratory of the institute L from looal strains of soil bacteria, gives an increase in the yield of grain crepe of 7 to .47% without watering, and up to SO% with watering; of poreh. nisi:gram:les . from 19 to 57% with *Meting. 0004 Mune were obtained after the introduction of bacterial fertilizers under yegetable craps and potatoes; In 1953 the Institute prepared and distributed atotobacterin sodephos. phoroubacterin to Other regions of the Republic for an area of 570 M. Data for calculation of the yield in 1953 confirm the effectiveness Of local bacterial fertilicere under production conditions. Poi instance, In the kolkhoS Ifolotovan in Alma.Stinskais ?bleat', on light chettnot soils without watering, bacterial fertilisers gave an thereate in yield from 20 to sgsj in kolkhoz nim. Kominternen on dark chest- nut soils . from 7 to 29%.1 in kolkhoz 'Tim. 1 Baia". on irrigated eierozems . ? tram 37 to 87%; In kolichos "he. Mahon* ih Shortadinskil nion, Akmo. limits% Oblast', on low-humus ehernozote without watering, joint intro, duation of azotobeetir and of phosphorc.hacterin gave an Increase in yield from 42 to 47%, and this with considerably emaller expenditures (Begin p.47) of labor an outlay per one ha compared to other fertilizers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-Z151D80R01426R0103000-30001-/ -811 At the beginning of 1954 recommendations on preparation and use of bacterial fertilizers for different agricultural crops will be prepared and passed over to the Ministry of Agriculture and of Provision of KazSSR; The Institute will continue work on observations and on making the methods more precise for preparation and utilization of bacterial fertilizers, as well as to check their effectiveness on the fields of kolichozes in Kaskelenskii ra ion Alra?DAtins kat* oblast'. ths light of decisions of the September Plenum of TsK MS the re- search a the Institute on bacterial fertilizers merits a serious attention. In his report at the Plenum. PC S. Ihrushebev spoke about the necessity of a wide utilization of bacterial fertilizers. This research, which is connected with the latest recommendations of the Acedemicianj T. 1)4 lyteilkol about the soil feeding of plants, must be extended: . It is necessary to organise in Kazakhstan a factory for production of bacterial fertilizers and for provid- ing them to the kolkhozes and soviehoses of the Republic. These are the basic results of the work of the Soil Institute of the Academy of Science of Razakhskaia SSR on the observation of Kazakhstan tolls for the last few years; Great and practically very important research of soils in lowlands Of the river &groat*, ia was accomplished by RAyl-Ordinsksia Scientific Base of the Academy of Science of KetSSR. It conducted detailed soil and hydro. geological research in the lowlands of the river Syr-Daria and of northern Kyzyl4hms on an area ever 10 min be. Data of this research are utilized by the planning organizations as a foundation for the engineerineameliora- tive measures for the economic utilization in the northern regions of Ihyl Ordinskaia oblast' ; The shaping and preparation for publication of morto graphs on soil*ameliorative observations in the estuary plaits of Syr- Dar's river and in the northern Ryzyl)kums is being brought to an end. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 4?81.1 (Th This same Base developed, and prepared for utilisation, at agreoomplex which guarantees a fast utilization ofthe rice-grass crop rotations with a rico yield not lower than 60 o/ht. The basic measure for the introduded agrocomplex is a method of deep stirring up of the soil with a chisels cultivator: Agromethode for utilisation of abionchaks under rice,, without any previous flushing were developed and offered to the produeers. Utilisation of the developed agromethod paraitnic brigade nftroia Sotsialistietaskogo Trude t: Tsai" fro the kolkhos nicantonskala /Commune to 'obtain a yield Of rite tver'35'tbfia on in area of 100 M. Previously such lands (solonchaks) were thrown out the fields of cm* rotations. The Soil Section of the GurlovekaitScientifit Base of thoAcadeay conducts research on developient of methods for amelioration and for the increase of fertility of soils of torritbriee adjacent to the city of Gurley, Ind in the region of the AralsTiSbinskii water reservoir in the lowlands of the river Emba; Researches, which are very important in a scientific and practical respect, are conducted by the Soil Section of the Agricultural Itatitute of the Rapkbakii Branch of VASTIAM, in particular* studies of cultivatedsgenetie forme of the utilized soils, the stationary and experimental research on studies of dynamite of basic characteristics and of blame/its of the fertility of the soil in the fields of the grass crop rotations, This last is cons ducted in conjunction with the Section of Microbiology of Soils of the Soil Institute of AN.RaeSSR on Shortandinekaia experiment Station of the Institute of Agriculture. [Begin p.48]. When analyzing the present state of soil science in Easakhstan we must Wluate objectively and correctly the achievements and the shortcomings in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (12) Trans. A..131,1 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 N the work fof soil scientists co as to acourately determine out current problems and ways for the further development of the soil science. In soil dnieb064 as in many other branches of science, it is necessary to develop a healthy criticism but supporAthe leading opinige; The lagging of the agricultural acionoe.geem the demaUds of tha kcikhoz SM toekhoz production, which 's pointed out in the resolutions of the September Plenum of TsK XS, refers also to the Soil institute of AN Kaz$SR: The Institute helps the kolkhozes very little, as also the IITS [machine* tractor stations], and sovkhozes of Kazakhstan in the improvement of agri- culture ant in the increase of the yielding capacity of agricultural TOPS; Zn spite of the fact, that the Institute has done considerable research in studying the soils, in the tabulation ant characterietios of lend resources of Kazakhstan, in the work of the institute there are substantial deft- denotes in the solving of the main problem of soil science 40 diVelopment of Scientific foundatione for the heti? improvement of natural conditions of thl soil fertility, of effective utilisation, and increase of fertility ce Kazakh- sten soils: What are thettleons for the soil science's falling behind the demands of the kOlkhos and eolokhot production? The reasons are of twofold order; objective and subjective: The reasons of the objective order consist of insufficient number of coil scientists in Kazakhstan. Kalakhetan occupies a territory of 2764 thousand sq: km. This Is more thanthe territory of 14 allied republics put together, excluding the RZFSR; 82 times greater than Azerbaijan and 92 times larger, than the territory of Armenia. Only in a single Dzhezkaeganskii raion of Karagan.. dinskain oblast' one can allocate those republics equal in territory to Ar.. mania. But inakzerbeijan and in Armenia there are many wore soil scientists than in Kazakhetan. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .811 This simple arithmetical oompariejonapeaks about maw things. First of an it points to the, great rift existing in Kazakhstan between the need of what must be Oadoompliehed by the soil scientists, and the possiblity 41 A how to accomplish it in practice: The Institute alone cannot adequately SM in good time solve all the problems of the soil science. Shortage of soil scientists does not permit the Institute to unfold the work Of compiling medium-scale and large-scale soil maps, needed for prac. tical purposes. On the other hand1 compiling of' large-scale soil saps for farming purposes is not a direct problem of the Soil Institute of the Act. derv, but as yet we must put up with it A large volume of territorial research doss not permit us to set our soil scientists free for deeper ob.. servations in order to increase the fertility of smile in separate regions. A practical conclusion offers itself from the above aside one must multiply the tat* er of soil scientists in 1takhitsn according to the pro- blems and requireasente of soil science. For this purpose one needs to or. ganite one single Department of Soil Science in the Ministry of Agriculture, and there should be a staff of soil scientists in every Ir/8 and every sovkhos. The soil Institut* a the Academy of Science of Kazakh SSR ard the institute of Agriculture of the Kazakh Branch of VASKIMIL must carry out 5375) tic supervision of the work of local soil scientists on compiling larp.iscale soil nape of their ratans and ko/khozes, on developing tBegin p.49] practical measures for the increase of the fertility of the soil on their sections and on the surmising of the experiences of the leaden in socialistic agriculture. In order to provide a sufficient number of sOil scientists for all the agricultural organization3 and scientific institutions, one needs to in. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '811 crease the contingent of students in soil science in the higher Intl* tutes of learning in the Republic and give them a full agricultural ed? ucation. Further on, it Sc zscessary to change the cool attitude shown* atria, cultural organizations towards the specialists ? soil soientists, so as to develop in them a feeling of professional pride, which matter was pointed out by Comrade N4 8: Khrushohev in his report at the September Plenum of TeK MPS!, when he spoke about the correct employment of specialists in agri? culture. The lagging in theoretical summarizing of the extensive and valuable factulal data, collected by the inetitut,0 is connected to the overloading Of our soil saientiets with field observations and financial processing of materials on compilation of soil maps for special regions in the net ter- ritory of our Republic; The Institute has not as yet complied a large and etimaarizing monograph about the soils of Katalthstan, as a whole, to it is already done by our neighbors for Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, as far at it is possible, the collective of the Institute endeavored ard still tries to develop a theoretical thought arid to push the Soil !Jolene? ahead in the Republic. During the full time of its operation the Institute las published eight issues of its works. At the present time two volumes of the Institutes work on soils in Caspian lowlands and in industrial regione of Central Kazakhstan have been prepared for publication. A. large monograph about the role of earthworms in the practises of soil formation:end of creation of the ratural fertility of the toil hat now been completed: Besides the above cited difficulties ithich stem from a large volume of work and insufficent number of soil scientists, there are other reasons for- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001:7 .811 7-1 _ falling behind in toil science, whioh depend on the soil scientists ? themselves.' ? To the nuaber of such reasons first of all refers the fact that many of our soil scientists do not know agronomy and do not try to master it in that measure ?Attach it is needed by the soil scientists in their scienti- fic and practical work. They study the soil apart from the life of plants: our soil scientist! know that for an increase infertility of the soil it is necessary to develop a struoturt, to accumulate organic matter and moisture in the soil/ and so on. But how to do this in separate specific cases, oxs actly which agrotechnicals ameliorative, or other measures can provide better conditions for the life of plants, about these matters many soil scientists have only a dim notion. We often speak about the amelioration, About control of salinisation and nwampishness, and write, that washing and drainage, as well as a correct system of watering are the preventive measures for salinis cation of soil. But if the etching and drainage can be accomplished, ard or what A correct system, under the given circumstances should hem keep silent about this? In our scientific reports one often Meets a general conclusion that for in Increase in fertility of such Iloilo it Ss necessary to introduce grass crop rotations; Certain coil scientists think that there will be no mistake, If they writes it is necessary to utilite grassland agrioulture. Certainly* there is no mistake there, but neither is there any profit from such a general discussion. All this tells us, that our soil scientists have not as yet sufficiently understood the principle of a production approach to the studies of soils. We often study the coils of separate regions apart from production-economics problems of these region', taking noctinterest in the direction taken by and the pleas for the future of the kolkhotes and sovkhotes on whose territory Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001+-7 ??? l t: we are conducting tlieing p.60] the research. NenAson scientists also work independently of other agricultural specialists of the Oblast' and raion. in consequence of this the results of very useful reaearch of soil Scientists in many oases do not find any application in practice, or are very slowly introduced into production. Zn the future it is necessary to conducts series of measuree OS a con- siderable supplement in agricultural education of our soil scientists, to organize special seminars, and, if needed, also practical studies in agro- nomy, especially on general agriculture: it is necessary to renuire of soil scientists that during their field Observations they would become lei( ?ally acquainted with the economy of kolkhozes and tovkhotes, that they , acquire good understanding of the agrotechnical methods used there and learn what is the direction for future development of these farms. Only under these conditions can a soil scientist give practical help to the kolkhozes, to NTS, or sovkhozes by suggesting certain improvements in agriculture and raising the yielding capacity of agricultural crops. Without such 4 production approach to the studies of soils we !cannot further successfully develop sail science in Kazakhstan: One of the substantial (shortcomings in the work of Kazakhstan's soil scientists is the poor propaganda of the achievements of our native soil science and about the results of their con research: The speoislists and pelictim tionera in agriculture knew us very little, and we are only slightly &cis qutinted with the experience of the leaders of socialistic agriculture; In the absence of a close contact with the specialists and leaders in agri- culture, many of them treat the scientific investigations of soil scientists very (sceptically." Our soil maps sometimes do not find any 'application in us practice not because they are bad, but betake we confine ourselves by just Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-R$P80R01426R0103000-30001.-7.411. pasting them over to the appropriate organisations and are little interehted how they Will be utilised. in our explantapioft notes accompanying the soil taps we do not show the production capacity of the toile* which are shown on the nap. Many very valuable and useful works of soil ecientists in Kazakhstan taks a long time before leaving the wells of scientific institutiong: Por instanose,the Soil Science Section of the institute of Ket.branch of VISIWIL hae a long time ego compiled a map of lands of all the oblasts of Kazakhstan on Which the interpretation was done according to a quite new principle as well as the agroicroduotive capacity of the toils where different typal' or agri- culture are shown in proper zones, where the areas of lands are tabulated ac.. cording to oblast, by miens: where their qualitative characteristic? are given together with dile" zonal agroteohnicque: And yet very few epecialiste in the city of Alma.ata know about this work; The chief executor of these naps, the superintendent of the Soil Scioto Branch of the ZaZakbakii Instiu tute of Aviculture Comrade S. P. Ilatusevichs did not as yet appear in pUblic with A report about this work before a large audience of specialists in agriculture, aid not even before the Scientific Convention of Soil Scientists of Kazakhstan, vitieh only recently took place. This example describes how we, the soil scientists, ourselves temper the implantation into production of results of our own research fearing that nay be something might happen; We should not forget that practice is the cri- terion of verityj we must test more boldly the accuracy of our scientific conelusions under production conditions. One of the serious reasons for lagging in the development of preblemA of nod fertility net only it Kazakhstan, but also in other allied republics SO the survival of a one-sided, purely theoretical trend tBsgin p:61] in soil Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (18) Trans. itaell Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 eoietice: The eupportere of this trend try tottudy the soil solely as a hatural body, independently of its weaning to agriculture: Certain of than try, in every *lye to discredit the progressive sides of the teaching* of Academician V: 'R.. 'Williams, taking hold of his isolated mistakes: As Academician V. 'florin correctly emphasized in his article "On problems of the Soviet Soil Scientist" ("Poohvovedenies no. 0, 1965) instead of a creative developeent of the progressive sides of our native soil science introduced by the coryphaei, V. V; Doltuchaev? P: A. Xostyehevaand V; R: Williesse- a certain part of soil soientists of the Union display* a dogmatism, which Sc expressed in an undonditionel Ocknowledgment of all, even of disputable and erronnousovieve and conditions of sews authors, and in ft not less eharp negetive attitude towards all the wcra of otheri. even great, scientists: Sudh a dogmatism in the epinions. ie to be found also in individual desakhstan soil scientists. The newspaper "iazakbetanskaia Ronda% at the eginning of 1963, pointed out quite correctly a presence in the Soil institute of the Academy of Soignee of Kazakh SUR, of some outdated points of views which were revealed in verbal and in published pUblio addresses of a meoberacorrespondent of the Academy of Science of the Kazakh SS!, Professor A. I. Bozzone', and of a Candidate of Agricultural Sciences A. 11: Muratori: The best* error of A L Besnottov is in his attempt to tsar the Soviet Soil Science away from the socialistic agriculturesand in the nonsteceptanee of the newest achievements in tbe Soviet Soil Science, particularly of the progressive sides of the teaching of the Academician V. R. A. I: Bezeonov erroneously thinks.that after V: V: Doltuchlev soil science did not progreee, but 017411 declined: The Presidium of the Acadety of Science of Kazakh SST, the Bureau of the Section of Biological Soiences and the Academic Board of the Soil Institute found the criticism of the "Kazoklutizaie Pravda" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 h?811 / This basic part, the healthy nucleus, of the collective body of the Institute of Soil Science accepted the criticiem of the Republiots party press trd the'decision of the Presidium of the Academy about the work Of the Institute and made appropriate conclusions for their *scientific) And practical work: The collective body of the Institute developed A business criticism and a self-critioism in its scientific work; organised a creative exchange Of opinions on theoretical problems in soil sciencelif attracted young Apecialistsesoil scientists and effected e proper arrangement of Ws tonne,. according to sections: The scientific subjectswhichwere specified in the plan for 1963 basically sere all acoompliehed: Yet, individual toil scientists up to the present time -continue to de. fend their erroneous points of view, not agreeing with their criticism on the pages of nicazakIskaift Pravdan: They accept the proper criticism about themselves' as a display of dogmatism: The first Sbientific Conference of the #cadeny on the results and problems of study of soils in Kazakh SSR,A-which ran through 16-19 December* proved to be an important overt in the life of the Institute: Lc the work of the Conference besides the Kazakh toil scientist', took active parts Saabs tiete from Notlaceta Utbek, Kirghiz and Siberia, scientists from our Academy and other scientific institution of the Republic. Unfortunately, therewere no representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture, nor were there many agriculturists from around the country: 20 scientific reports were presented end discussed during the con. Terence: Raped...11y valuable for us were the napid reports of our [Begin p.62] guests Professors K. Pi Gorshenin (Omsk), S. N. Dyshov and M:A: Perko, (Tashkent), Candidate of Science G. Roiehenke (Peunso),arol others. Very helpful end interesting were the appearances At the Conference of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA4RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 811 the Chief of the Department of the Organization of Land Exploitation, from the Ministry of Agriculture of KazSSR. V. A. Shoremetlev, of the agriculturist of Illiiskaia MTS, Comrade Memnon, and of the coworker of Almaltihskaia Government Selection Station, Comrade Boiarovich. The Conference panted out that the Institute of Soil Science accom- plished a considerable work in the field of study of soils, of the char- acteristic of land resources, and in the treatment of problems for the in- create of fertility in Kesakbetan. The research of 'Kazakh soil eoieitiete enriched the soil eaten?. with new data; the results of many of their re,* Searches find practical application in Agriculture or the Republic. The Conference also noted the substantial deficiencies which were pre- sent in the work of the Institute and pointed out that the basic efforts of the collective body should be directed to the development of scientific principles for the improvement of nooialistio agriculture and of the ferti- lity of Kazakhstan soils. Thus, the Scientific Conference on the results and problems of study of soils in Kazakhstan has played its positive rolej it gave a push to a further development of the creative thought of the collective body of the Institute and strengthened the confidence of young scientific coworkers of the InetiA tute in their own powers and abilities. Yet, ono should note that the results of the Scientific Conference of Boil Scientists did not satisfy individual soil scientists which were of a Sceptical frame of mind. In particular, Candidate of Geographical Science, S. /. Sokolov was not satisfied with the high theoretical contents of ree ports at the Conference, in which there was no mention about the "dogmatise in the teaching, of the Academician V. R. Williams and in the opinions of 1 his follower's, Which root does, in the opinion of S. I. Sokolov, hamper the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 &81). / further development of Soviet soil science. S. I. Sokolov's report on the subject of "Modern state and future development of problems of classification and of systematies of Kazakhstan soils" did not satisfy the members Of the Conference. All the report contained was a criticism of the modern state of affairs, but the members of the Conference did not hear the lecturer ex- press his awn opinion about the further prospects for the development of soil science: The Academic Board of the Institute of Soil Science discussed the re- sults of the first Scientific Conference of Eatakhstan Soil Scientists and adapted a resolution to prepare the works of the Conference for .publication. In the light of resolutions of the XIXth Convention of the Party and of the September Plenum of MK RMS. the Soil Institute of AN BUSSR must over. come its lagging behind the demands of the socialistic agriculture. The basic effort of the Institutes collective body in the future must be directed to the development of scientific principles for improvements in agriculture and in fertility of Kazakhstan% soils. Moreover one should pay special at- tention to the followings a) bring to light the basic elements, which determine the fertility of soils under specific geographical and economic conditions; b) to study the dynamics of elements of fertility of soils in the fields of grass crop rotations in order to find a scientific basis for separate types of crop rotations; c) development of methods for the creation of a Cultivated plowed layer under different toil-climatic conditions. The /nEtitute must continue its coil-geographical researches (Begin p.63) with the compilation of medium-scale soil meps; in the first place for baste regions of non-irrigated and of irrigated agriculture, as well Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 14- 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .4811 as to Widen the soil?ameliorative research in the most important term ritoriee and of those which wore newly brought under cultivation: also to develop methods for utilisation of solonchak and of salinised soils, and to increase the fertility of irrigated lands; On the basis of all.available data. it Is necessary to work out prim* oiples for genetic and production claesification of toils in Kazakhstan, as well as to develp methods for compiling large-480.1e eoil map* in order to help the local opecialiets to compile such taps by themeelvet. On the basis of a creative utilisation of the notate of scientific& practical researches we must develop a treatment of theoretical problems of soil science, without breaking any from solutions of practical problems for the tocialistic agrioulture. Treatment of problems of genesis!, of productive&getic cleedification of soils, of theoretical foundations for the meet imporiant measures for the increase of fertility of toile must be conducted by taking into contideration the leading role of biological Lao& tors of soil formation and the productive activity of man. In the propene of treatment of thane problems we must improve the existing methods and' adapt the newest methods for soil research, In order to carry out our researched on a high principled level, we must get hold of the Nariist&Lenin dialectical method ? the ably scientific method of learning and of the revolutionary transformation of the world. The Soil Institute of AN RaISSR must establish a close link with scion- ttfic-nanrok institutions of the Republics which work in the field of soil science and agriculture, with the Soil institute of the Academy of Science of USSR, as well as with the soil institutions of Academies of the allied (I: republics, of Branches of the Academy of Science of USSR and of neighbouring Obleseel in order to coordinate the plans for scientific-arrant:4?h serk and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7.411 mutual help. The timely and qualitative acoomplishment of the urgent problems which were set before us requires training of highly qualified 60134 scientists Candidates and Doctors of Selene? with a wide agricultural education; this being the deciding factor for the future growth in the numbers of soil scientists in Kazakhstan. Although our soientific cadres have a great experience and a record of practical works, they attend to their duties pretty well, and also solve important problems in soil science of Kazakhe? , sten, greater demands must be rade of them in conformity with those largo and responsible problems which were put before Soviet soil scientists by the directives of the X3Xth Convention of MS and the resolution of the September Plenum of TOR of 337S$: ArN Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 57 ?, s d Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - -....- ',at_ I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 I; A-813 (In full) vg/A a Potapov, A. Nekhaniziroveth gagman ' eamoletov ledokhimikatami. Neohanizinethe loading of " airplanes with ped.toft otemicaliJ. Zashohita Rastenii at Vreditelei Bolezneii vol."1, no. 6. p.27. Nov.-Dec. 1956; 421 21 (Th6Russiatt) ? The airplane was tint employed ib the control of agricultural pests in the year 1922: More than three decades have passed since. During this time the use ? of airplanes in agriculture has increased notably. In 1968. tens of thou.. sands of tons of poison chemicals were used in the control of peststand diseases of agricultural plants with the aid of aviation, yet, strange as it is, the loading 441 airplanes is still done by hand. Por a nutter 'of yeart, the question of developing an airplane leader MO been brought up annually, but up to now the natter has not advanced barn yohd conversation: nothing real has been done either as regards the techani. sation of loading; or as regards improvement of safeguards for workmen handling the loading of poison chemicals (overalls tkombinezony), spectacles, respirators)f: In the first tissue of the journal R2ashchi'te. Rastenii at Vreditelei 5. 13olester, tcrourishch Starostin, senior fellow of the GOSNII G7P (State Soicntifio.Researdh Institute (0 of the Civil Air Fleet) writes: to reduce the number of workmen and to izaprove the servicing ef airplanes, it is necessary to organize permanerxt labor brigades at Mt, (machine?tractor* .1 t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '80 stational in proportion to the nuMber of planes, and to mechanize the loading of airplanes with poison chemicals to the maximum"; in the second issue of the journal, tot. Satotiatib fellow of the Civil Air Fleet, writest "Equipping airplanes with special apparatuses . mechanical loaders . would reduce by half the time consumed by this type of wore: The question is, who prevents the development of the inquired mechanical loader? Who is to look into it as behooves a natter of States if the OVP and its Institute will not dolt? The need for mechanized airplane loading is determined also by the fact that getting labor or airplane-chemical work on kolkhozes is beeoming harder every year; The period for control of a series of pests that appear in net numbers coincides with the time of hay mowing when every kolkhoznik r in bogy harvesting hay. The airplane P02 has to be serviced by 6 men, and the airplane AN-2 by 15: In addition, there have to be guards and transportation workers for the transfer Of loads from the main base to the periphery: Waters are so many workers to be found? Each kolkhoz must hire a group of several man, and this complicates the matter and delays the work. Apart from this, the loading of airplanes with poison chemicale by hand is unsafe for the health of the workers, particularly co, since sani- tary safeguards against poison chemicals are not perfect: Overalls are nada of a material that lets through readily pulverized poison chemicale (calcium arsenate, dusts of DDT and benzene hexachloride, thiophos (flees), vophatox tvofatekel, etc:).. Hoods should be made of a compact material and should be close fitting. Spectacles fit loosely, the glass soon falls out, and nothing is visible from the sides: Specteoles should be of the type of pilots', firm and with well set glasses. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (s) Trans. ft-4313 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Respirators are of a very inferior quality and heavy: The filter is rapidly clogged up with pulverized chemicals and it becomes impossible twtreath. Respirators must be light, must fit the face well, and must not let pulverized poisons through the filter. The mechanical airplane loader =It be light, sectional, transportable, universal, and its servicing should require a minimum number of worker0. It_ must be designed for loading not only poison chemicals, but also fertilisers: The loader must be considered as airplane equipment. Our aviation industry releases firetsclass airplanes which are ad- mired by the whole world: Could it not develoP mechanical loadert for airplanes designed for agricultural purposes? it certainly can and musts and within the shortest possible space of time. This is aft urgent demand of a growing agricultural production. City of Almamata tEatakh SSR) FROM THE rDrroR In his article, tov: Potapov raises rightly the question of Mechanit's ing the loading of airplanes with poison chemicals. That this question is of vital importance is yoitnessod by letters received at the editor's Office: Thus, tem. Sushko, head of the Samarkand [Uzbek SSR) Oblast Detachment for Pest Control, tritett "In our *blast airplanes of three makes are used for agricultural purposes: the AW-2, taltal2 and PO4k. In many oases freely flowing poisons are used. Yet, there is only one method for their loading in small canvas bags 20 kg oath:" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 113 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-4DP80R01426R010305030001:7 At the Civil Air Fleet they forget that if the P0?24 airplane is loaded with little bags containing 160-200 kg of flawing poisons, then the M.X..12 could take on $60, and the A114 1000 [kg]. This sort of organizing re... quires a large number of workere. If the uninterrupted -work of the PS2A airplane requires 6 loaders, then the ANA must hate five times as manyi The matter of loading the 10(..12 aiplane is even worse: These airplanes enter the service of agrioultural aviation without steplattere which would 'help in climbing up to the neck of the tank. Such nmechanisation't incurs extremely high expenditures, raises the cost of chemical aviation work, and deoreasee the efficiency of the planes. This situation it the adaptatioh of new aviation technics to agricultural production is becoming intolerable. The editor to waiting for answers from interested organisations on the facts of the questions raised. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? e--- A-814 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 vivauswasions literature) vgAI "??? RaSumovikaia, Z. 6:, and Ilitiushova, Vliianie aeratsii cm rasmnoshenie S ?kis. litelInulu deiatelIncatI acetobacter subOxy. dans. : (Effect of aeration on muitiplication and -- oxidising activity of Aostdbacter suboxy. dans). llikroblologiia, vol. 24, no. 301.286470. ay/June 1965; 448.3 ME82 (In Rusaian) Conclusions (page 270) And 1; Intensified aeration of the medium affects both the multiplication and the oxidising activity of Acetobacter suboxydane: 2; The influence of intensified aeration on multiplication depends on the number of bacteria: When largo numbers of bacteria (tens of millions in 1 ml) are introduced into the medium, the Intensified aeration accelerates the multiplication already in the first few hours of the development of the culture: during a depth process the multiplication is completed in 14 hours, whereas during ft surface process of cultivation even after 24 hours the number of bacteria does not roach the maximum. With .e. *small* seeding (tons of thousands of bacteria in 1 ml of medium) the influence of aeration produces an effect may when the number of bacteria increases to a considerable de. gree: Thus, the problem of influehes :motion with the nuMbers of bacteria of aeration must be oonsidered in cont. in the medium. 3; Intensified aeration not only also tells on the oxidising activity of 5 accelerates the multiplication, but bacteria, increasing it both under Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 B14 a? 'conditions of the 'Ilene" seeding, as well as of the "small". 4. Observations have revealed a possibility to conduct a process of oxidation of sorbite to sorbose at a changing rate of thsbassage of air. During the initial period the speed of the flow of air through the medium can be considerably slower, than at the moment of masts increase in the numbers of microorganisms. Leningrad skii State University Received 12. XII. 1954. in the rime of A. A. Zhdanov 1.72VATURE 1. Bazyrina, E. N., and Ohesnokov, V. A.46 Cit: from N. N. Wallow; Methods of pbysiology and biochemistry of plants. Seltkhosgis, 1948. 2. Vinberg, G. G., Intensity of respiration of bacteria. Usp. tovr: bio- logii, XXI, 401, 1948. 3: Imshenetskii, A. A:, Microbiological processes at high temperatures. ladevo AN SS911, 1944. A . 4. Imehenetskii, A. A., and Kusiurina, L.' A, Oxidation of sorbite by rough strains of acetic acid bacteria. Mikrobiologiia? XXII/, 159, 1954. 5. Mitiushova? N. M., Studies of gas exChange of acetic acid bacteria during oxidation of sorbite to sorbose. Dissertatsila L91.14, 1951. A ? 8. ilikhlin, E. 1),, Golyeheva, M. Go's and Xeppen, V. A:, Influence of aeration conditions on the growth of ketogenic acetic acid micro.. organisms, Mikrobiologile, XXX, 621, 1952. 7. Utkin, L. M., About a new microorganism from a group of acetic acid bacteria. Mikrobiologiia, VI, 421, 1937. 8* Epstein, R. 11;# Koslovskii, S. I., and Nikhailovskaia, B. Ts., Oxi- dation of sorbite to sorban in Submerged layers."Xoneulstatsiia pa pishchevoi ptomyehlennosti, V. 2(27)p.25, 1947. 9: Wells, R. A., Stubbs, J. J., Lockwood, L. B., and Roe, Pro.. duction submerged growth of Acetobacter suboxydans. Ind. Ing. Chem" 29, 1585, 1937. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . ? ? ? ..- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A4816 ;Apart) Volkov, S. M:i Zimin, L: S: Rude 0, D: IC:It and Tupenevichs 3.11. Alobom vreditelei 1 holeznii seltskokhosiaiStven? njkhkulitut neohernosemnoi polosy evrbpsiskoi ethastiSSSR. [Album of pest* and diseases of fatzeoropS in the non4hernosem area of European USSR]: Moskva, Gosudatstvehnos ISdatelfave Sellsktkhosiaia stvennoi Literatury, 1955, 486p: 423 V882 (In Russian) Chepter 3 (in full p:32.54) CHEMICAL SUBSTANCESS USED POR THE CONTROL CP PESTS AND DEBASES CP FARM CROPS. Oenetal'Directions ? In farming many chemical castanets are used for the extermination of harmful insects, mites and ticks, slugs, mouselike rodents, as well as of pathogens of plant diseases (fungi, bacteria, viruses). these substances are produced by the chemical industry ins solid and liquid state: They are used in farming in eons, in the form of solutions, suspensions and . emulsions, aerosols (mist), as well as in the font of poison gases or vapors. As it was pointed out previously, they are used ii different stays, such as dusting; spraying and gassing of plants or.buildings (fumigation). mkny chemicals are used for disinfection (treatment) of seeds or for the prise paration of poisoned baits. - All the preparations, utilised in agriculture, basically ire divided into two groupst substances, which are utilised to,00ntrol harmful insects insecticides, And substances, which are utilised to control the pathogens ai Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans.A 816 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 of diseases - fungicide!. Almost all the chemical substances* which are used for the control of pests or diseases of plants,are poisonous* to one or another degreeito nen* animals, birds and plants; on these last ones they cause burrs of the bud** flowers, leaves*.fruiti, stems and roots, or they reduce the germination power of seed material. In connection with this a practice it is necessary to utilise such a dosage of poison, which was determined by science and experiment*, and Which would affect negatively the pest or the pathogen, but would not pro- duce any harmful effect on the plant and its organs. SOIO preparations (copper sulfate, Paris green, and others), which in their pure state burn the plant! are used in combination with lite* sods, soap and other **stances, which neutralize the burning action of the poisons. Often, for a simultaneous effect on posts and pathogens of diseases, combinations of these preparations are made, mixing insecticides together with fungicides (for instance, copper sulfate with Paris green, anabasine with sulfate, and so on). The utilized poison* must satisfy definite requirements4 in parti- cular, dust poisons must be dry and ground fins, should not have any more moisture or admixtures than the established norms. Poisons* utilized for spraying, must dissolve well in tater, and make stable emulsions Which do not stratify. Those poisons are of greater value, Which can be used in different ways (dusting, spraying* and so on) for the destruction of dif? f.3rent pests and pathogens of plant diseases. (Begin p.33) Spraying, dusting, fumigation, formation of mists (aerosols), dis- infection and treatment of seeds are conducted with the aid of various apparatus and machines, such as dusters, sprayers,.generatars, treat- ment rechiner and ftrzigatore of different horsepower. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (S) Trans. A.815 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 r A brief outline on how to use the poisons is given in chapter 2 of this book; More detailed data can be Obtained from special literature and appro- paste manuals on the protection of plants from pests and diseases; CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES, UTILIZED FOR TEE CONTROL CF PESTS AND DISEASES * AB .as a preparation of A. I. Bcrgart. A powder in blue-green, gray or dark-gray color. The active ingredients of this preparation are the baste topper sulfate and copper carbonate. The preparation contains l5.16% of topper and not more than 0 of moisture: It is used for a dry treatment of seeds of non-scaly crops (rye, wheat and baked grain varieties of barley and cad). The norm of output is from 200 to 300g of the preparation to 1 c. icentner I 100 kg;S 22046 MS] of seeds. It in convenient because it cart be used 6-6 months before planting time, and also for the seeds which are reserved for vernalization; It is ale? utilised for dusting the tops of potatoes for the control of phytophthork_infestans and of hmacrosporiose (early blight of potatoes), for dusting the seed potato tubers for the control of rhisoctonia (black Beet), as well as for dusting or spraying of fruit-berry plantings to control scab and other diseases. /t must be kept in a dry, closet building. Anabasine.sulfate. A dark oily liquid; Dissolves well in water: Contains 2040% of the anabasine alkaloid; A strong poison' dangerous to man and animals* produces poisoning even if it gets on the skin. A dose of 0;05g is lethal; ? It is used an apepoiton of contact (external) action: Its poisonous action is increased when anabasinRstlfate is added to mineral oil emulsions. To a water solution of anabasine?sulfate 3-Vg of Amp to 1 L. of solution Footnote * For convenience all the chemicals, which are utilized for the con- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 4815 are added. The preparation can be coMbined with copper sulfate ard Paris green, but then no soap should be added. It is widely used in the form of solutions for spraying fruit-berry plantings, vegetable crops, fodder root crops* plants of the mustard family left to run to seed, and so on for the control of aphide, bud moths, pyres WA, thrips, Poduridae in hotbed., pear psylla and apple sucker, Tetranychus urticae Koch., and other insects with a delicate covering on the body. It is also utilised as anabadust in dusting.' Anobadust is IL efts bination of some filler (for instance, air-slaked lime, ground sulfur, sifted road-dust, and other's) with ankbasinessulfate. Anabaduet is being prepared as a 640% coMbinatioft in A seed treating . machine. DDPs0;5 or in a barrel, which is fitted for a dry treatment of seeds. The prepared mixture must be kept in a tight barrel, otherwite it looses its toxicity very quickly.. Calcium arsenate._. It is a powder of a white or light gray color; It almost does not cake. Is very convenient for dusting the plants: It contains 38s42% arsenic pentexide and not more tban 1$ moisture. It is poisonous to man and animals. It is a poison of intemtinal [Begin p.34] (internal) action; It can cause slight burns on cultivated plants: Delicate plants (peaches and others) can be burned by this preparation very considerably. It is mont often used for dusting, now and then for spraying and for the preparation of poisoned baits. Thit preparation is used to spray technical crops, legumes, vegetables, font plantings, sheiterbelts and nurseries: Can be also utilized for the control of pests of floral plants: It is used for treatment by spraying of fruit trees during the period of fruit bearing instead of the Paris green, which causes Jana ("netting") en fruits. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . l b Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ?"'" 7-? N The dosage for the preparation is 8-10 kg/ha, and for the orchard 2540 kg/Is, depending on the age and the density of the plantings* Calcium arsenate is widely used on berry bushes for the control of spew flies and gooseberry measuring worm moths. This preparation can be combined with Bordeaux mixture, with sulfur, with solutiont of nicotine arid of anabasine-sulfates with mineral oils. This preparation cannot be used for dusting A-dishes, turnips and other root coops and plants which aro used for food. Calcium afloat* (arsenide of Gracia); A white or grayish heavy non-caking, dust-like powder: Burns the plants very strongly* Must contain not less than 62.72% of arsenic trioxide and not more than 2% moisture. It dissolves poorly in water; It is a strong poison for men and animals; It is primarily utilized for dusting forest areas and shelterbelts for the control of caterpillar@ of silkworms, of leaf rollers, as well Sc other insects with chewing mouth organs. It is also used for dusting the wild growing plant* for the control of Lomostege stictioalis L; of meadow out- worm moths, mouselike rodents and fcr the preparation of baits for locuste, for Agr_otie aegetum, for larvae of the harmful Tioulidae. Can also be used for spraying with an addition to the working solu- tion of' a double or triple amount of lime in proportion to the weight of the poison(for a decreased burning of plants): Spraying of plants with this poison must be stopped 26-50 days before harvesting; A doss for dusting vegetable and field crops is 5 kg/ha. For a batter dusting ability calcium are3enite is mixed with chalk* lime, road dust, and so on in a proportion at four times more than of calcium arsenits. Done for forest dustings is 15-20 kg/la: Sodium arsenite (arsenide of sodium); A paste of black or dark-gray Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 415 color with a content of about sp% of arsenic trioxide and 15.2% of moisture; It hardens into solid pieces after long storage in open or badly closed cons tiiners; It dissolves well in water; It burns /the plants very strongly and for that reason is mostly used for the preparation of poisoned baits, and only rarely, in the form of a solution, is used for spraying the weeds to con- trol caterpillars of the Phytometrt gamma_11;, of Lolostegs sticticalis of Agrotit segetum, of locusts, moonlike rodents and of other pests of agris cultural plants* whieh are concentrated in the weeds. For the preparation of poisoned baits from grains of rye, wheat, corn and fromSeeds of vegetable crops 70g of poison are dissolved in 1 L. of water, grains or seeds are soaked in this solution for 24 hours (corn seeds for 40 hourn): If there is an urgency for the preparation of the bait, then the grains should be boiled in the solution for 40s50 minutes. For baits made of bread crumbs, 100g of poison are mixed with 1 kg of OruMbe; For moistening of pieces of broad 1 part of poison is taken for SO parts of warm water, and the bread is soaked in this solution; Inman preparing (Begin p.80) a green bait, the sprouted greens (of mite, barley or other grains) are soaked with 0.1..0.12% solution of the preparation; One L. of solution is sufficient to moisten 1 kg of cuttings. Sodiumarse/lite is sometimes used for spraying gooseberry bushes (Ig of poison to 10 L. of water) for the control of the American parasitic fungus; Bordeaux mixture; It is prepared from copper sulfate, lime and water: It is utilised for the extermination of pathogen' of plantldiseases: The properly prepared Bordeaux mixture is of a sky-blue color. An excess of copper sulfate in the mixture causes loons On plants. in such a mixture a litmus paper becomes red,; During praCtioal work the quality of Bordeaux mixture can be determined by an iron polished article (the blade of a knife, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 /0) Trans. A.8115 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 a nail, and so on)i if the mixture is not prepared in a correct proportion, a red coating appears on the metal and shows an excess of copper sulfate in the mixture. Such a solution will burn the plants. Therefore lime milk is added to it in such proportions that no red coating appears OA the metal when tested. Excess of lime in the Bordeaux mixture makes it of little effect. Usually the mixture is used when it has 05.1% (even A%) of copper stile ? fate with an equal, or one and one half, amount of lime. The solution of copper sulfate and the lime milk are prepared in separate utensils (wooden, clay, copper or glass) and then are poured together while mixing it very thoroughly. The liquid must be used the same day of its preparation: Very often to this mixture are added: Paris green 130 (Ltmessulfur decootiOnis nicotine s or ansbasinessulfats for a simultaneous extermination of patho- gens of diseases and of pests of plants: Of late, the 3.6% Bordeaux mixture is being utilised for the spray- ing of fruit trees (a blue spraying). Methyl bromide: It is obtained fnim sodium bromide, methyl alcohol and sulfuric acid. Methyl bromide is a gas, which liquefies at a temperas tare of 4:6? into a liquid with epecific gravity 1:782. The specifit gravity ? of the gaseous methyl bromide is 3i29: The mixture of its vapors with the air, at a presence in 1 m5 of air of 536s510g of methyl bromide* ignites from a flame or an electric pspark. But in practical work methyl bromide is safe because such a concentration practically does not happen. Solubility in water is 0.1%, Sc very soluble in alcohol, ether, oil, or other organic solvents. It is utilized as a fumigant for disinfecting different planting material, including strawberry (Fragaria_vesca) for the control of Tersonemus fragaria. Aim. In a gaseous form methyl bromide penetrates inside the treated materials very quickly, almost causing no trouble to the live tissues of the plants. In its liquid state it harms the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? (81 Trans. A.815 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 N Methyl bromide Mills tho mites in all their stages of development (the adult mite, the eggs, larvae and the nymph). The absence of either smell or color Ls a disadvantage of thie pre- paration, because that make; its vapors imperceptible even in concentrations which are dangerous to people, which can 061180 mishaps. Methyl bromide is stored and transported in liquid form in iron barrels' steel cylinders* jars or glees ampules. Before bottling it Ss cooled in the course of 2.45 houre in beset, filled with See and salt (10 of salt to the weight of it.). The bottling should be done by experienced people. This preparation is a very strong poison and is dangeroue to men, animals and birds. Acetylene jet is used to determine the leakage of methyl bromide from the thamher Where the fumigation of plants Sc conductedo tBegin p.381 Zn the presence of methyl bromide the flame of the jet becomes greens light blue or dark blue it color" and it a high concentration the flame goes out. If the acetylene flame it not available OM can use instead the flame of a candle, or a lighter, or even a match. Rexachlorano. Bexachlorans preparations are produced in variouo foram for the control of pests of agricultural plants* technical, dusts, and con- centrated mineral oil emulsions of hexechlorarie. The basic tame of hexaohlorate is hexathlorotyclohexane (the abbreviation is OIChToG). It it obtained by passing chloride through boiling benzene in direct sunlight or under the action of rays from a quartt or mercury lamp. The product is a white crystalline powder with a yellow tinge and an unpleasant smell. It is almost insoluble in water, but dissolves well in mineral o 10 benzenes kerosene, alcohol, dichlorethanes and other organic ?solvents; Allcalie (line water in particular) break dawn ataG, the.t ie why Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 416 it should not be mixed with alkaline components; Technical OGIhT0B is a crystalline substance of a dirty 'white color and with a pungent smell of mold; It evaporates when heated. .It dissolves well in organic Solvents and is pradtically insoluble in water. Dusts, mineral oil emulsions for spraying the plants, and mists (for the aerosol use) are prepared from technical MUG. Powder preparation mixtures (dusts) of GRbTs0 are the basic form for its utilization In farming for the control of pests of agricultural plants and external parasite's of animate; They usually contain 12% OnTsG and a filler (talcum kaolin, ashes from the electrical station., and so on): They are insoluble in water and inAcids, they dissolve well in mineral oils, in dichlorethano and in many other organic solvents: Dusts aro prepared under industrial conditions by WOJIM of careful grinding and Mixing of technical hexachlorame in special grinders. Donee of the preparation for dusting are 1540akgiha, depending on the crop* ago of the plant and density of the plAnting: Besides the 12% dust of hexachleranea a 4% dust is also prepared with bete of phosphorite meal or superphosphate to introduce into the soil for the control of 'coil-inhabiting pests. Dusts of hexachlorane are more convenient to use, but are loss effective than the mineral Oil emulsions with an addition of GRhIs0 be. cause they do not adhere so well to the leaves and do not stick to them to good. Suspensions are prepared from kaolin dusts. Hexachlorane preparations are used for the control of petits of fruit- berry plantings, vegetable, grain and grain-legume crops' clover seed plots, fodder root crops, granary pest?, pests of shelterbelts, WA others by means of dusting, spraying with suspensions, dusting the soil around the stalks Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *4316 of cabbage, of berry plots, dusting the seeds before planting nod during the time or storage; for introduction into the soil before plowing or cul- tivation. Ducting the seeds with hexacblorane increases the germination and improves the development of plants. The negative side of MUG is its pungent unpleasant smell, which can affect the taste qualities of products. tBegin p.37). &machloran? cannot be used for treating flowering plants, those with fruits, tot cabbage Since the moment of the formation Of heads and for other crepe which are eaten,in a green form (cucumbers, lettuce, sourgrass, re- dishes, and others). Hexachlorane cannot be used for introduction into the soil under potato tubers and other tuber - root crops. Bexachlorane loses its toxicity faster than DDT from the influence of sunts ray and high terperature. In 15 days it loses its toxicity by 50%. At a temperature of 50? after 3 der the toxicity of the preparation is loot altogether. Dispersed sunlight does not produce any noticeable in- fluence on the change of toxicity of GEhTsG preparations. The toxicity of 01thTs0 decreases faster in emulsion] than in dusts or suspensions. Boxechlorafte does not burh the plants in doses used in practice. It is dangerous to some of the insects which are useful in farming1 and especially to beet. Concentrate of the minaret oil emulsion drith A toxic addition of 03hTs0. This in A thick light brown liquid or paste; it contains 20% of the technical ORhTsG. 40% spindle oil and 40% emulsifier and water; dissolves well in water. Is prepared by the chemical industry and put out in iron barrels of 25450 L. of cubic content. Usually for spraying a 3% working emulsion pis prepared from the concentrate; for this purpose the concentrate is diluted with water (1040g Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (11) Trans 10416 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 --apr of concentrate per 1 L. of water). Water ofy hardness or temperature . can be used. Emulsion prepared in the same manner as the working emulsion of DDT. The effect of mineral oil emulsion with a toxic addition of GEhTs0.un on men and animals is similar to thet of the mineral oil emulsion of DDT. It is used for spraying plants for the control of pests of different agricultural crops: Emulsion with OghTaG has a specific persistent gun,. pleasant odors and that is the reason why it should not be used on trees and berry patches with fruits, and on plants which are used for food in their . raw etate, the emulsion can influence the taste qualities of tho products.. Solutions of the technical_GEMQ in petroleum products for aerosols: In order to obtain aerosols a A% solution of 0EbTsG is prepared in diesel fuel, solar and greet eilb or in kerosene. For this purpose the needed amount of the solvent is poured into a barrel and the technical GEbTeG, which was ground to pieces of a 'size not more than 1 cm3 is added to it: The solution is periodically stirred up to a full disappearance of lumps. In case Of urgency in the preparation Of the solution the oil is betted in an iron utensil up to 4040? and the piece* of OlthTs0 are poured into the warm oil. In order to prevent a fires the oil is bested on a Glow fire and far re:way from buildings: The teobniw cal GiChTeG is dissolved in the green oil to the amount of 16E. When using warm solutions their concentration can be increased about 2 times* but then the average output of the solution must be correspondingly decreased. During storateA especially at a raised concentration or low temperature, GEhTe0 crystals separate out from the solutionj in this case the solution should be boated to a full disappearance of crystals before use. The Mose of the working solution of GraTs0 is from 6 to 40 ml per 1 m Sc Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 316 of the premises depending on the quality of the hermetic condition of tho premises, of the utilized oil and the kind of pest. [Begin p.38] It is used for theccorrtrol of granary mites and of other posts of stored food products, as well as of the ?external parasites of e.ninale and birds. 2 or 3 days after treatment of the premises with aerosols, the pree misses must be aired, all the fallen pests "gust be Swept out, the floors, walls and feed boxes should be washed off with lye. Solution of GISMO and DDT in petroleum products for _aerosols. Mimed solutions are used for obtaining aerosols, tSt is ?MUG and DDT, which are separately dissolved in diesel fuel, oils and kerteete and mixed together before utilisation, so as to avoid the decomposition of these poisons. Ts separate solutions should be prepared only 1.2 days before utilization. The technical 0101Tad a dissolved in diesel fuel, solar oil or kerosene in the amount of 40g per 1 L. of the solvent; DDT is dissolved in 9. similar solvent in. the amount of 100g per 1 L. When on account of low temperature or high concentration the crystals ? GEhTs0 or of DDT separate out from the solution, these solutions met be Sated up to 50-60? in an iron container, far *wily from buildings. A. dose of the solution is 10.40 ml per 1 la3 of the area. Is highly effective for the control of granary pests. Caterpillar glue. A thick viscous wins of a light to light brown color, with a resinous odor. It is prepared from resins, turpentine, rosin and coal tat by means of mixing in various) proportions with flax or other oils and a following cooking: The caterpillar glue must be stable; must not be dissolved by rain, vault not run and dry out in the sun and must not solidify in cold weather: The chemical industry puts it out in barrels of 50.100 kg and in iron jars of 10.12 kg. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 _7 :0816 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIAZP8OR01426R010300050001 This glue is used for glue nbelteni which are applied to the trunks of the trees and to the heavy branches, in order to prevent the cresting into the crown from the earth (along the stem) fby the females of Operophtera brumata t; by various caterpillars, of Sciaphobus_squalidus Gyn.' and by other harmful insects. ,Strips of thick paper, 6e10 cm wide, are used for the preparation of r vino, they Are put around the trunk at the height of a man's breart and .. attached with a string. The glue is smeared over this paper. The output of glue is about 10 kg per 1 it of orchard. The caterpillar glue can be prepared on the farm according to the following proportions' 1) 2 parts tar and 1 part flax oil mixed together and cooked over a low firs for 6 hours') 2) 10 kg of pine tar, 1.25 kg of rosin, 2 kg of pitch and 1.6 kg of vaseline are mixed together and cooked. If the glue dries out too fast a small quantity. of oil should be added. DDT: Preparation DDT is a shortened name for thecraorganio synthetic compound of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The technical DDT in A 'crystalline substance of a grayish yellow color with a slighty fruity smell. It dissolves in mineral oils, in alco- hol, benzenes kerosene, dichlorethane and in other organic solvents. It doss not dissolve in water. It melts on fire and burns with a yellow flames it melts in boiling water also. DDT is 0. contact poison, which &fleets the no nous systems it also has the properties of intestinal poison. After the contact pf the bisect with the preparation, the extremities become paralysed, first of all (in later on a full about 20 miftutee or somewhatc longer),4paralysis follows and the pest perishes. DDT is usually used in A form of a p% dust for the control of pests of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (14) Trans. A415 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 agricultural plantsj it is prepared in factories which use talculier clay as its bagel also as suspensions (at the present time for the preparation of suspensions a dust containing 30% of DDT is put out); in (Begin p.621 the form of a solid substance for a toxic addition to the millers.' oil emulsions, and in the form of aerosols. Industry puts out technical DDT in drums, made of paper pulp, the dusts in heavy paper bags, emulsions and sconcentratin in barrels. DDT is used for the control of many peas of fruit-berry planting4 Of vegetable, grain and grain-legume crops, tubers, root crepe, seed ploti of clover* an& others: A dose for a 0% DDT dust le 10-20 kg per 1 ha of field and vegetable crops, and 2640 kg per 1 ha of the orebard: Preptlaeting dusting with DDT dust of the seed material of grains, peas, clever, vegetable and fodder root crops effectively protects them, as mell a as the sprouts of these wide, from damage by peate: DDT does not burn the plants,it increases the germination of Riedel and stimulates the growth of plants: Dusting the space under the floor of granaries is effective for the control of mites and other pests of Stored food supplies. DDT has .very little effectiveness against mature caterpillars and against elute: DDT is a slowly acting poisonj 1.6 mg Of it WI cause symptoms of poieoning, and 5.40g is a lethal dose for an adult man. It can enter the organism through the mouth, respiratorypassage, or through the skin: The oil solutions are the most dangerous. Aqueous solutions ere leas dangerous:1. If preventive measures are taken (goggled, respirators and gauze bands With s cotton interlayer) then DDT is harmless in work: On account of its toxi- city DDT dusting or spraying must be stepped 2040 days before harvesting: DDT is toxic to insects which are useful in farming, including the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *: . (16) Trans. A-616 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Mineral oil emulsion with atoxic addition of DDT_ it primarily utilised for spraying fruit-berry plantings against aphids, pollee against Byyonameuta malitella Zell., leaf-roller mothedlcurculionidae, 'scale insects, and other garden poste; A working emulsion is prepared from the concentrated mineral oil emulsion (concentrate), which is prepared on the mille of the chemical industry or directly on the farm. This preparation belongs to the number of slowly acting ',aeons. With a repeated use of small duces* the poison is accumulated in the organism and It causes poisoning. The work with DDT solution* is *spatially dangerous because they can be absorbed through the skit. It can be used for pest:control in a combination with Bordeaux mixture. Concentratedmineral emulsion DET, factory_made. A thick yellow-gray liquid, containe 40% of spindle oil, 20% of technical DDT, 40% of emulsifier and water. Concentrated mineral oil emulsion of DDT is prepared on the farms in different waste; i. Technical DOT is dissolved in mineral oil in the amount of of the weight of the oil; At law temperatures of the air, the oil with DDT is heated (up to 40406) in a oast iron kettle, stirring constantly; In order to AVOW ignition of the oil during heating it is necessary to take precautionary measures (heat over A protected the or over coals as Katy frost bnildinge); DDT must be dissolved 14 days ahead of the spraying; After this 0.6 kg of unctuous Clay tehyrnale glint) are dissolved in 0.6 L. of water until the consistency of heavy sour cream, and into the obtained solution, gradually, (Begin p;401 nail portions of oil, with DDT dissolved in it, are added and the mixture is carefully stirred. If the oil ceases to mit, more water is e.dded. When all the oil has been mixed with the unctuous clay and the mit* tun looks likea uniform fatty Imes, the concentrate is then ready for the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ^815 .; tTh preparation of the working solution. In a carefully prepared concentrate there should not be any traces of free oil; A concentrate thus obtained contains 50% of oil with DDTk 25% of unctuous clay and 25% of water: 2; A concentrate is prepared from 60% of oil (in which:6% of techtii. cal DDT was diesolved), 6% of unctuous catty and 84% of water. This concentrate is prepared by putting the mixture through the epray nestle of the sprayer. In practice it is done as fallen. Into the tank of a sprayer (hone-motor or tractor) are poured 102 L. of water and 18 kg of unctuous clay are added; and the stirrer IS immediately put into raotion to mix the unctuous clay with the water; In 26,5 minutes, without Stopping the work of the stirrer, 180 L. of oil, in which 6% of DDT were dissolved, are added. The nozzles an put within the vent of the tank for mixing and the mixture is passed through the atomizers in the course of 2040 minutes, after which the liquid is pumped through the nestles into the barrel*. The properly prepared concentrates from unctuous clay have a uniform appearance without a trace of separated oil on the surface and mix well either with soft or hard water. Zn case of stratification of the concentrate, of separation of the oil and an impossibility of a reestablishment of uniformity in the emulsion by stirring, it is restored by a repeated pumping over through the atomizers of the sprayer. For the preps.ration of the working (1%) emulsion water is added to the concentrate in a proportion oft lOg of the factory made concentrate per 1 L: of water, or 2 kg of concentrate, prepared on the farm according to the let method, per 98 L. of water, or again 1.7 kg of concentrate, prepared accord ing to the 2nd method, per 98.3 L. of water. nen preparing the 'corking solution, water is gradually added to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? i (17) Trans. A.4316 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 concentrate Sc small portions, while stirring constantly until the time that the emulsion acquires a form of thin sour cream: After that the emulsion is poured into a barrel or directly into the sprayer (horsodrawn or tractor) And the required amount of water is poured in: Then the whiner M put to work for 14 minutes, and, after mixing, it is ready for spraying: For each filling of the sprayer, the emulsion in the barrel must be carefully stirred: The working emulsion must be utilized the Sat* day of its preparation, because after long standing a separation might occur: Utilization of the separated emulsion Sc not tolerated because it produces burns on the plants: pee per cent mineral oil emulsion with a toxic addition of DDT without the preparation ef concentrate. It is prepared on faits which have horse.. motor sprayers of OMPalt (nPioftern type) or other sprayers which bate stirrers It Sc rectumended to %me oil with DDT in a form of the so-called 'tank mixtures which is a mechanical mixture of oil and water in the presence of a spreader (protein of blood). The technique for the preparation of a 2% tank mixture of oil with contents of 0.00 MT consists of the following. The tank of the sprayer is filled with 360 L. of water: sot of blood protein are dissolved in a smaIl amount of water (up to 0.24:3 L.) by slowly adding water to the protein MIA carefully rubbing it: Atter that the dissolved [Begin pal) protein is poured into the tank of the sprayer: To each g of the blood protein $g of unctuous clay are added, this improvise the spreading and the moistening of the liquid: Atter that into the tank of the sprayer are poured 4 Li: of oil, there 6% of DDT were dissolved, and the motor of the sprayer is switched on. (TN , By rotating the stirrers for one minute a uniform mixture of oil and water to obtained: Atter this, the tops are opened and the spraying begun. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 315 / A colabined liquid, coma isting of oil with DDT and of .the Bordeaux mixture can also be prepared by the method of tank mixture. In this Cade the blood protein can be excluded, as the Bordeaux mixture, which includes lime* Sestets in the uniform distribution of oil with DtT in the tetra mixtur el For the preparation of the combined Bordeaux mixture and of oil with DDT the tett* of the 01110.A sprayeri is filled with the Bordeaux mixture, then the required amount of oil, with DDT dissolved in it, is added and after 1.2 minutes of stirring the !praying can be started. Solution_of the technical DDT for aerosols. For the obtaining of aero. eels a 10% iolution of DDT in diesel fuel, solar oil* Or kerosene is made. /t is utilized for disinfection of granaries for the control of Podia Ouloidoe_ventricosust curculionidae, moths and other harmful insects and to- dents. It Is highly effective for the control of the external parasites of domestic animals and birds (ticks, bird lice, and others). Automobile generators (table 207) are used for disinfection of buildings by the aerosol method. Preparation and utilization of DDT solution is the same as the hexaohlos rate solution. Suspension of_DDT_dust. For the preparation of a suspension a. DDT dust made with kaolin is used. A 2% suspension (20g of A% dust of DDT per 1 t. of water) is utilized for spraying of fruit plantings, to control apple and cherry snout beetlesj caterpillars of apple moths, pierid butterfly* brown. tail moths, and other pests. Can be used in combination with Bordeaux mixture. A dose f or the sus- pension in the orchard, when wetkin5 with land apparatus* is 1000.1500 L./ha. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .616 When working with a EDT suspension only those sprayers can be utilized which have stirrers: When spraying from airplanes suspensions of a so what greater con- centration are ueed (100g of DDIT dust per 1 L: of Bordeaux mixture). Out- put of the suspension consists then of 260 Whs. At the present time a SO duet is put out for the preparation of suspeftai stops; and suspensions are prepared of 0.24:6% concentration. Dithloroathenejethylene_chloride). Dichloroothens (abbreviated DUE) 9 is a colorless liquid with a chloroform emelt: Ite vaye are 3:6 times heavier than air. It boils at 74-78% its specific gravity is 1:2264.280: It ignites with difficulty, burns with a green flame giving off Smoke. At the begin- ning of burning it is easily extinguished with letters as water produces a film on top of dichloroetheno; But during strong burning of dichloro? ?thefts extinguishing with wator can cause an explosion. It ignites at a concentration of 2000800g and more per 1 0 of sir; Is not soluble in water; dissolves in alcohols carbon bisulfideb and others. Dichloroethene is utilised as a fumigant and is used for disinsection of granaries in a concentration of 2600600g of poison per 1 m% in A hermetically closed building with an exposure of not less than 72 hours: Packing stoke, railroad oar shields, anise on are also disinfected at a concentration of 400400g per 1m3 of air. Is also utilized for the control of soll*inhabiting pests. [Begin p.42) For et disinfection of empty buildings and of plates under the floor, a combination of dkohloroethene and of chloropicrin it utilised with dotes of 7448g of dichloreothene and 8-8g of chloteplorin per 10 of the Area. For places under the floor 92-101g of dichloroethere and 8.9g of chloropicrin are taken. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 nets Caustic_amik._ It is a hard white Substance. In the open sir it atm* bines with carbon dioxide and water vespers, changing into sodium blears, bonitos, and after that intowalthipg soda (sodium carbonate), The bird caustic Soda is easily dissolved in water: Caustic soda can often be bkought in the fort of 4040 solutionii which are industrial wastete It corrode clothe loather, and so on: It is dangerous tomanalso) it protocols turtle on the body: It is stored in titbit, closed iron paokings: It ie utilized for a moist disinfection of granaries, of storehou$011, railroad care in the form of a 10 liolution, and for the disinfection of the floors as a 1246:5 solution: It produces a weak effect on beetle., Si the hard Ohitinoulloovering of these insects protects them well frost this preparation. It ie highly. effective for the control of Pediculoides ventricesus. Output of caustic soda for l al of Avails and ceiling is 60-60g, and of the floor 60-76g. Output of liquid is about ?0.6 I,. per / 112 Of the surface: Green Vitriol; Crystals of a green color. in the air they =Mite and became covered with a yellowish brown film. They dissolve well in water: It is utilised to control diseases and pests of agricultural plants mainly by spraying trees and bushes when they are leafless (late in ttle fall or early in spring before the opening of buds). Trees and bushes which are treated with green vitriol start blooming 1046 days later, than the untreated *hes.. 3 or it solution of the green vitriol it utilised for the elimination Of mosses and lichens on old fruit trees and berry bushes, as well its to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 816 control pear and apple scan, fruit rot, Exossous prod.; Solutions of green vitriol (40-S0g of green vitriol per 1 L. Of Water) are effective against Limacidae when spraying the sprouts of winter crops in the fall the spraying must be done at night when the slugs come out to feed1 as the solution of the green vitriol has the property of a contact action; it should be used without any lime admixture. Croon oil; This is a product of pyrogenous decompoeiton of petroleum. It Sc obtained after distillation of naphthalene oil: It does not dissolved A water. It is utilised only in the form of emulsion for a moist disine festation of empty granaries and other storage buildings for the control of mites and other petite of food etufis. The preparation can alto be used for disinfestation of hotbeds and hothouses for the control of Totranychidae. In order to prepare the condentrate of the emulsion one takes TO parte of the green oil, 6e6 parts of unctuous clay and 26 parte of water and all this is carefully churned. For the disinfection of buildings the osolution is prepared by taking 30-60g Of the concentrate per 1 L. of water. Emulsions Which are prepared with unctuout clay at the farm are leas stable than those made from the factory concentrate; they coon separate and give a weaker effect in the control of poets of food stores, in hotbeds and . hothouses; It it also utilised for aerosols. Lime-sulfur de000tion (130). It is a liquid of cherry red co Or it is prepared from ground lump culture, from aublimed sulfur and quick limo; For the preparation Of the concentrated (mother) solution of ISO inegin p.43] for each 1 L. of water 320g Of sulfur and 160g of quick lite are taken; At first lime is slaked with a email quantityt of water, and into the hot dour Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : ClAiRDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .616 r oreamtlilt zees sulfur in added, after this the rest of the Later is poured in; The mixture of sulfur with limo it boiled 011 a slow fire about 60 minute's: to the liquid boils out water is added to the 'kettle so as to reestablish the original vo/umi. The additions of water are stepped 15 minutes before the end of the liquid's cooking: One should not overcook the liquid because thin it become green and burns the plants. For spraying leafless trees one part of the concentrate it dissolved with 10 parts of water. For spraying trees Which have leaves, 2 part of the concentrate is dissolved by 60 (during sunny weather) Or by 25 parte of water (during cloudy weather). For the disinfection of hotbeds, hothouses, and granaries 1 part of the nether solution is dissolved in 10 parts of water: for and for spraying of cucumbers !of tho control of Tetranychidae one part of concentrate is dissolved in 260400 parte of welter. 130 has insecticidal and fungicidal properties.' It it used for the control of aphids, scale insects, bud moths, psylla, measuring worm moths. It is also effective against scab* fruit rot, gooseberry and currant metes caused by some form of Pueoinia. 130 can be utilized in combination with copper sulfate, tramline and nicotine-sulfates;; nut it cannot be mixed with mineral oil emulsions, !leap , . or Patio green. In such ?palmation,' the solution produces heavy burns on plants. Lime. gulch line is in a format White lame: It is obtained by means of calcination of limestone at a temperature *round 120061. Under the action of moisture it is slaked and it becomes Slaked lime. In the calcined lire different admixtures are usually found (pebbles, non-calcined limestone, and others): When utilising it in the week for the protection of plants this circumstance must be taken into considerations large particles atop up the nozzles of ?prayers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? In) Trans. A-615 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ArN Air-slaked lime it obtained when a emall Amount of water is added to the quick limn. when more tater is added a sour cream?likt mess is obi. tained. A suspension (lime milk) is obtained with a further addition of water into this sour cream-like mass. For the protection of plants one should use only the freshly slaked lime. The lime suspension is prepared by adding 1 14 of water to 12004.20g of lime: It is utilised for whitewashing (spraying or ()eating) of trunks and of bran bee of fruit trees, for the disinfection of storehouses for fruits, vegetables, potatoes, grains as well as of hetbeds and hothouses at a dose of 0.5-1.0 L: per 1 m2 of the treated arta. Air-slaked lime is utilized as filler for the preparation of various . dusts, and in its pure form for the control of slugs. Lime is utilized fort the preparation of the Bordeaux mixture an,f solutions of Paris grain for the neutralization of the acid reaction of these solutions. Calcium hypochlorite mixture. It is a dry white powder with a eh's'. a ride smell. Calcium hypoohlorite mixture is also called a bleaching lite or a bleaching powder. The standard bleaching powder contains 82.35% of active chloride. When stored in the open air it strongly absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide and becomes a moist or even a watery mass. It decomposes quickly with a separation of chloride and of oxygen. That is why it is stored in tightly closed wooden barrels or iron drums. . It corrode the metals, especially copper. That .is why in the building which is treated with the bleaching lime all the metallic, articles must be painted with an oil paint or a solution of chalk and after the treatment must be carefully wanhsd, dried and coated with oil. [Begin p.44]. The bleaching lime destroys leather footwear, cloth and other articles . - and changes their color. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 816 "yaw It is utilized for disinfecting storage places for vegetables and potatoes (1..3 kg of lime per 100 L. of water), of fruit storage places (4% solution) hotbeds and hothouses (5401 solution) as tell as for dies infection of the soil in fruit tree nurseries for the control of bacterial cancer of the roots in a dose of 60-160g per 1 m2 by means of introduction into the soil in a dry state. Soda ash. Crystalline powder of white color. Diesolvet well in water. It is utilized in the form of solutione, Which almost do not burn the plants it can be sprayed on fully ripe fruits And vegetables and even on plants during blooming. It is widely used for the control of American parasitio fungi on gooseberries and of Erisyphe oidium_on grapes at a concentration of 6g per 1 L." of water with an addition for each 10 L. of liquid (for better adherence) of 14 spoons of sugar syrup or 12..18g of soap. In I higher ooncentration it ie quite effective against the spores of parasitio fungi (Erytip)aceaej. Carbolineum or cool-tar oil. Dark brown, oily, viscousliquida with . astron4tar odor. It is Obtained during distillation of coal. It hie fungicidal, inseoticidal and bactericidal properties. It is used chiefly for spraying fruit trees in the fall or in early spring in ft form Of a 8.141 emulsion for the control of scale inseote, and ophids which overwinter on trees in the phase of eggs.. Can be used against dabbage maggot, carrot rust fly and other flies as a frightening away medium. Plants, which are used for food, should not be sprayed with oarbow lineum, because itl?trong smell can influence the taste qualities of the products. In spring carbolineum is used for greasing tree wound4 and also for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Ea6 the protection of wood from fungi damage. Carbolineurs with a greater specific gravity and witlz the most high boiling temperature are held to be the best. Those oarbolineums are utilized for sprayinii which emulsify well in water; as for coating the trees and for saturation of wood those are used which are heavier and cannot be emulsifieth Kerosene. The use of kerosene in its pure form, as .an insecticide, is limited. It possesses high toxicity to animals, mites and mollueksi it also affects the plants destructively, burnt the leaves, young shoots and buds. It is useful for the extermination of eggs of the gypsy moth by smearing their stacks on the trees. Kerosene is also utilized in case of necessity to exterminate conglomerations of pests on weeds. On the whole from kerosene are prepared kerosene-soap and keroseneolime emulsions. Kerosene-soap emulsion is prepared from 0.15-copg of soap and 14% of kerosene. For late fall or early spring sprayings of trees more concentrated emulsions (8010% of kerosene with a corresponding increase of soap) are used. They are used for spraying to control psylla and aphids. On hot days it burns the plants. Kerosenealire emulsion is used for moist disinfection of grain and fruit storage places (per 1 L. of water 100g of kerosene, 200K of lime are used for sprayingt for coating 100g of kerosene, 400g of lime per 1 L. al of water). For greasing the cracks a still thicker emulsion is used (100g of kerosene, 600g of lime per 1 L. of water). [Begin p.46]. ./t le highly effective for the extermination of Fedicsleides ventri. cosue. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RbP80R01426R010300030001-7 316 Output Of the emulsion is 1 L. for 1 m2 of the treated area. Flutistnests of podium. A thinly ground powder of white color with a creamy hue, or of a grayish color. It dates in storage. It contains 96' 90% of fluosilicate of sodium. It dissolves in water to about IS. Almost dots not burn the leaves and other parts of the plants: Neither sodium potash, chalk nor lime can be added to fluesilicate of sodium because with these the toxicity of the preparation is decreased and its burning pro' perties incressed4 Pluosilioate of sodium is a poison of intestinal action and is Used only in its pure state. It is used for dusting, spraying and pre- paration of poisoned baits against harmful insects and mouse-like rodents. Gives a high death rate when used for the control of caterpillars of cabbage butterfly, Phyllotreta oruoiferee Goose, diamond back moths, Agrotis segetum, cabbage cutworm moths, Phytometra gamma L., keligethes semis F., and others. The stirrers in the sprayer must operate during the work with the suspensions of the fluosilicate of sodium, else the poison settles to the bottom. The presence of molasses in the solution of the fluogilitate of so- dium decreases the toxicity of the preparation.' If fluosilicate of sodium gets on the skin it can produce irritation, burns or even sores, especially on wounds. The moist parts of skin are affected the more often. Creolin. It is a dark-brown or brown oily liquid with a sharp smell Of tar. It is dbtained during the dry distillation of coal or peat. It is utilised in the form of 6.5..0.7% emulsion, or as a dust, which consists of 95 parts of ashes and of 6 parts of creolin. Dust (mixture) is prepared in seed treating machines of a type E61%.0.5 (formerly "1 dealn) or in barrels. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (271 Trans . Ae816 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Emulsions are used for watering the plants for the control of cabbage maggot, to proteclr. cabbage sprouts from rodents (80g per 1 L. of water), and for the control of onion maggots 1-2% of the water solution of creolin with a dose of 64 L. for 100 m of onion rows. Dustiest be used instead of emulsion for the same pests. It is also utilised for disinfection of hotbeds, hothouses and other buildings in a 2% concentration by means of spraying or coating; When preparing a working emulsion, water is gradually added to creolin in small doses and the mixture is carefully stirred until a uniform liquid is obtained. A well prepared emulsion shoutd not have any oily spots on the surface. "Brys d (a rat poison]; Anoorganio synthetic substance. It is a brownish or gray fine crystalline poster, without arrif odor; It is used for the extermination Of mouselike rodents in the form of poisoned baits. Before the ?preparation of the bait krysid is groundaand amid with.the bait in a proportion of 5..3.0g of poison per 3. kg of bait; A lethal dose for the gray rat is 34 tag, for a house mouse 0:54;0 mg per 1 kg of living weight. For small domestic animals it IS less dangerous; for a rabbit the lethal dose to 400 mg, for chickens 460.600 mg per 1 kg of living weight. Alkalies decompose limpid. When working with it, it is necessary to observe established protective measures; Potassium permanganate. Dark v&olet crystals with a weak metallic lustre, dissolves well in waters coloring it into dark violet or bright ori- eon color, depending on the concentration of the preparation dissolved in water. It is laced for treatment of seeds of vegetable crops in the form of solutions of different concentration (from 0.1 to lOg for 1 L. of water); Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 % Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 416 Os, [Begin p.461. The Institute of Vegetable Economy recommends a 1% golution of potas- sium permanganate for an additional treatment of tomato smelt to control streak diseases and metal?. V/ZR tAllaUnion Institute for the Protection of ?tante] recommends this preparation for an additional disinfection of beet Geode. During storage and handling of stooks of potassium permanganate it is mammary to onetime precautions because its coming in contact with easily Oxidizing substanmes for instance glycerines can cause an expiation: _Copper sulfate; The pure preparation has a form of crystals of blue calor; Sometime it has admixtures of zinc sulfate, magnesium or green vitriol; It dissolves well in water, especially in hot water. /t is utilized for the extermination of pathogens of plant diseases; The preparation AS is made from copper sulfate: It IS used in the form of solutions only in cotbination with lime (Bordeaux mixture)* for spraying the tops of potatoes for the control of Phytophtora infestam and early blight of potatoes, fruit trees and berry patches to control different diseases. Of lite, the 34% solutions of the Bordeaux mixtatt began to he utilised for spraying fruit trees in the fall or in spring before the opening of tbs., buds; The 24 solution is also used to dieinfeot the roots of the planting material of fruit trees against Bacterium tumefacients. Mineral pile: A product of fractional distillation of petroleum: They are divided into 3 groups according to their physical properties. Light oils a solar, timeline, transformers pyromphta (specific gravity 0:34a0.86)1 medium oil - spindle oil, and the heavy oils a machine and heavy cylinder oils. The last two kinds of oil have a specific gravity of 0;9 and higher; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-eRDP80R01426R010300030001-7. '815 ? The oils have a contact insecticidal action and are used with great success for the control of mites, flea beetles, leaf-roller moths, scale insects and other pests, as well as for the eggs of pests, which ?overwinter on trees. Oils with a lower viscosity are less dangerous for the plants. Oils With a high viscosity do not easily enter into the respiratory ()maw? Of the insects, and they can also burn the leaves. According to the time of use the mineral oils are divided into neummern and "winter. IS summer oils, more refined and less viscous, are suitable for spraying the plants from spring to fall (transformer and solar oils): The winter oils have a greater viScosityi contain a high percentage of nits saturated hydrocarbons (sulfonating substances), and are utilized in autumn, after the fall of leaves and early in the spring, before the opening of buds (machine and the heavy cylinder oils). Improper utilization of oils for spraying in sumer causes the fall of leaves and fruits, and in winter lowers the flowering of plants. Oils are used in the form of oily emulsions, into the composition of which enter the oil, the emulsifier (soap, or more often unctuous clay), and water. Mineral oil emulsions are used in various conoentrationse 1-2% for the summer treatment oils, 44% for winter treatments. DDT, calcium arsenate and Paris green can be added to them; Such a combined emulsion is effective for the control of scale insects, curculionidaS, leaf-roller moths, and other pests of fruit orchards, including San Jose scale; Spraying must be done early in the morning or after the 1646th hour, otherwise there might be burns on the leaves. Soaps are insecticides of contact action, but in effectiveness they are fim inferior to mineral oil emulsions, to anabadine-sulfato, and others. [Begin p.47 Both herd and soft soaps are used for the control of pests of seri- cultural rants; they are obtained by cooking fats with soda, sodium hydroxide, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 13.5 dons- potash or potassium hyd00Zide. In the first case hard laundry soda Adepts are dbtained and in the second case potassium liquid, or green ones. The green soaps are more toxic to the insects. The solution of soap spreads very well over the leaves, it moistens the body of the insect and, covering them with a film impermeable to gases* it hinders their respiration and exterminates the posts. It is utilized for the control of insects with slightly solorouS coverings of the body Or with mouth organs of the sucking type. Soaps are used as emulsifiers in emulsions of kerosene* carbolic acid and mineral oils, as well as an addition to various solutions for their . better adherence to the treated objects in a proportion of 34g per 1 L. of the basic solution. A pure amp solution* which is utilised for the control of mites and psylla on fruit-berry plantings* on vegetable and other crops, must con- tam 86.4g of soap per I L. of water. Naphthalene. It has a form of mitutesehiny, scaly crystals of white, pinkish or brawn color with a pungent ordor: It does not dissolve in water: In a warm building, in a hotbed or hothouse it evaporates comparatively fast. It melts at 80', boils at 218'. It is utilised for the/control of mites and other granary pests by means of dieting the seeds of rye, barley, oats, clover and vegetable drops. Dosed depend on the orbp: It can be utilised to repel cabbage maggots and carrot rust Mee, for this prupoee naphthalene is sprinkled over the soil near the plants. It is also used, with sufficient effectiveness, for the control of Tetranyohidat and of thrips in hothouses and hotbeds. For this purpose naphthalene is heated up to evaporation on lamps in a proportion of log per 1 m3 of the area. At high temperatures it can burn the plants (especially Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .816 "'A cucumbers )j at low temperatures it has little effectiveness. Zn general it is widely used for the protection of fur and woolen articles from moths, as also for the proteotion of collections of insects, birds and animals: . Nicotine (sulfate. A liquid of dark-brown color dismay.? well in water. Contains 40 of the nicotine-base. It is very poisonous to men and animals (0054:16g of pure nicotine is i lethal dose). It can enter the blood through the skin. It is a poison of contact action: it is utilised in the form of solutions (1:54g of poison per 1 L. of water with an addition of 4'5g of soap), or in the form of 6*,74.03*, or 10 nicodusts which is prepared from road dirt Or lime. The last one is prepared in the seed treating machine PSP*0:6 (former "Ideal") where small portions of material can be mixed, and must be used the MS day of preparation as it loses its toxicity vont rapidly: It gives good results it the control of krponomeuta_malinelle Zell.* of mile, of Caliroa litaoina Rots., of Tetranychidae (on cucumbers), of . Phyllotreta vittula, Aphthola ouphorbiae and Chaetooftema brevinsoula Feld:, diamond back moth, cabbage, apple and other aphids. Spraying with nicotine sulfate solution or dusting with a nicodust the plots of Oruoifetato where the plants are left to run to seed, protects them from damage by the cabbage snout beetle: WIUIF*1: It is a crystalline substance (ethy)mercurophosphato) of white oolor: It dissolves well in wate4a nd alcohols and poorly in hydro* carbons and oils. Very poisonous. The chemical industry puts out nutP-1 for the use in farming as a concentrated solution of carmine oolorIc 1:0 in strengths it le utilized for [Begin p.48) moist treatment of seeds of various agricultural crops. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (32) Trans. 4415 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The working solution is obtained by mixing 1 part of the 1.3% solution with 400 or 600 parts of water, depending on the crop or 'diseases of the plants. For treatments of cucumber seeds a much stronger. working solution is used (one part of the l.3% solution of NIUIP...1 for 300 parts of water): The working solution is prepared during the day of its utilization and only in a wooden or glass vessel. This preparation must be'stored in a dark place in A dark glass utensil. 11I0IF.4 is highly effective for the extermination of pathogens Of Fusarium and of AsIminthesporlum on wheat and barley. The autumn treatment of cabbage seeds, which in .highly infooted by leaf spot (Alternaria), also gives good results. The seeds, which were moistened with the solution are nateamede for 1640 minutes after Which they are planted. The seeds can be treated 3-4 weeks before planting The output of the working solution per 1 c of grain mute is 1046 I.: 2 or 8 batches of seeds can be treated in the name solution. For a protracted storage, the seed treated with this preparation must be dried to 14-16% of moisture content. Xgransisanl. Wercurid?organic preparations it conflate of 24.6% of ethyl?marcury...ohloride, 97:446.3% of talcum and 0.64.2% of mineral oil: This is a powdery preparation of a light gray color, it dose not burns it doer not dissolve in acids. It is utilized for a dry treatment of sande of varioue agricultural crops, both of the naked grains (rye, wheat, clever, and others), and of the scaly (oats, barley, timothy), which permits the replacement of the laborious and inconvenient treatment with form:141m It is a generalepurpose treating substance for a complex of patheo gent of diseases of fleet; grains, vegetables* fodder root crops and of ?lover ouch as emit, Mariam, Belminthosporium, Alternaria, and others. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ft.? (33) Trans. A-615 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The seeds can be treated with the preparation NIUIP.2 immediately before planting or beforehand at anytime, but not more than 24 menthe before planting (with the exception of cabbage seeds). The cabbage seeds whieh are strongly infected by Alternaria can be treated right after harvesting* thresh- trig and drying. The preparation stimulates the germinating energy, the sprouting of needs and the growth of plants; this increases the yield of the crop to a considerable degree. Doses of the preparation for treating the seeds are determined de- pending on the crop. For 1 o of wheat and rye seeds - 100g of the prepare- tions for seeds of barley and clover o 150g, for oats o 200gp for vege- table trope 3 to fig of the preparation for 1 kg of seeds. Treatment (mixing of seeds with the poison) is conducted in treating maohined FUol or PSP-O.8. The (seeds, treated by this preparation, are poisonous. NIU/Fo100 (thiophoe). It is a dark ,browt. heavy, oily liquid with a characteristic smell. The preparation dissolves in water only insignia ficantly.. The full name of the preparation is diethylparanitrophenylthioo phosphate. The chemical industry puts out the preparation N Wo100 in the form of a 404660% liquid concentrate and of a 1462% dust. The working solution is prepared from these concentrates. Usually 0.6g of the concentrate are taken to 1 L. of water. It has also been tested for 1( the control of Tetranyohidae in a form of suspension (16g of 1$ preparation and 4g of unctuous olay per 1 L. of water). It is poisonous td men and animals. It is utilised for spraying teohnio cal crops, Which are not used as food for men and fodder tor cattle; it is utilised for spraying fruit, berry and melon patch crops only before the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' 115 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? / fruits set; on other crops spraying is discontinued 30 days before harvesting the yield; Scallions and lettuce should never be treated [Begin p.491 with thiophos. It can be utilized for disinfection of hotbeds and hothouses by spraying. , Paradichlorobenzene. It is a product of the coal-tar chemical in- dustry. The crystals are of white or brownish color. It does not dissolve in matet, but dissolves well in kerosene, benzene, carbon bisulfide. It evaporates slowly, generating noninflammable vapors which are 54 times heavier than air. With an increased moisture content .and a lower temperature eva- poration decreases. It is utilized as a fumigant for the control of many pests whichain* habit the soil: larvae of the law beetle, of amphimallon_selotitiale L., and others by means of introducing it into the holes 64.110 cm deep at a distance; Of 60 cm one from the other with a dose of 7-10g into each hole. Can be utilized in a mixture with carbon bisulfide (1:1), at a rate of 16g of the mixture per 1 zo2 of the area. In fruit tree nurseries paraqie ohloroberzene is introduced into shallow furrows near the plants at a rate _ of 25030g of poison for 1 m of the row. The preparation can produce a harmful action on the roots of plants, thus it should not be introduced nearer than 0..10 cm from the bush or the trunk of the tree. It is especially dangerous to introduce large done under young trees. It is Also utilized for the control of the caterpillars of leopard moths by means of packing into the bores made by the caterpillars pieces of cotton saturated with a solution of paradiohlorobensona. Paris green. Thin powder of a bright green color. It does not dissolve in water, lint forme a suspension which settles to the bottom very quickly; one Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (ss) Trans. A*815 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? . ?:!?? should keep in mind this circumstance when utilizing this poison; when spraying, it is necessary to shake the knapsack apparatus or use sprayers with stirrers. It dissolves in a water solution of ammonia. It contains not less than 51.5-53% of arsenic. trioxide, up to 3% of which it dissolvable, from 28 to 30.8% of cupric oxide, and not more than 1.2% of moisture. It has an intesti41 action, and thus is utilized for the extermination of Insects with sucking mouth organs (caterpillars of cabbage and turnip butterflies, diamond book moths, cabbage cutworm moths, of caterpillars of flyponomenta_malinella Zell., and of the leaf roller moths* of brown-tail motho, Malaoosoma noustria L., and many others. ; VI utilized for the spraying of fruit-berry plantings, of vegetable, grain, legume, fodder root crops and other crops, of oruciferae plants which are left to run to seeds, of decorative bu.thes and trees, of field sheiterbelts. It is also used forkhe preparation of poisoned bait made of out growl for the control of Agrotis sogetum._ Can be also utilized for dusting in a mixture with time, ash, or Other diluent, but this method of use is uneconomical, because thus more poison is expanded* than it is with spraying. When preparing the solution the preparation is mixed tithe double amount of quick or freshly slaked lime, in order to neutralize in the solution the acid salts Which develop and the free arsenical acid, which are the cause of plant burns. The solution is prepared in a clay or wooden vessel. At first the Paris green is slightly moistened and carefully rubbed with 0. paddle. In another vessel a lime solution is prepared .* the lime milk. Then the solutions are poured through a strainer into one utensil and are shaken well. Besides the Paris green, the industry puts out nShobelkovskaian greens it hes a form of bright green powder, it contains not leas than sg% of arsenic Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 415 r.. trioxide and 17:S% of cupric. oxide. It is utilized for the control Of the same pests as the Paris green, but in increased doses of 15.20%.: pyrethrum. Finely ground powder, having the color Of tobacco; It is prepared by mane of grinding the Dalmatian and Caucasian camemile, and of the pellitory of Spain. [Begin p:50]. The poisonous bass of pyrethrum is pyrethtin I and pyrethrin II, of which an amount of up to 1;80 is contained in the flowers and stalks of the plants. The flowers contain 640 times more pyrethrin than the stalks. The preparation is best stored in the form of extracts, because its powder form it loses up to 44% of its active ingredient during the course of a year. It affects the insects mainly as a contact poison which produces paralysis.- It is tutilizod for fumigating hothouses (in a proportion Of 204g per 1 Oh for dusting the plants with duet, which is prepared with a benzene extract of pyrethrum. It exterminates well the phyllotreta_oruci? terse Geese, the caterpillars of cabbage butterflies and other harmful insects. It does not produce any burns on plants. It is utilized in the ?retard, in granaries and on vegetable crops, whose leaves are used in food, such as sorrel, lettuce cabbage. It has but little toxicity against aphids. pyrethrum should not be mixed with sulfur or lime, to it loses its toxicity then, It is harmless to men and to warm blooded animals. ? . Preparation of Profi B. I. Zbarskii. A mercuric-organic preparation, which is a powder of white color: It is utilized for treating the seeds of cabbage, tomatoes and cucumber's. A solution is prepared for treating the moods. 1.2g of powder are dissolved it 1 L. of hot eater) into this liquid are added 2g of purified Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ..?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ins ;.. soditun and it is boiled until the full dissolving of the powder and soda (about 15 minutes), after which the solution should be cooled; From the thus obtained solution (1.2211000) a working solution is prepared for the disinfection of seeds by Means of mixing 1 part of the Solution with 4 parts of water. The obtained liquid (1.215000) is then utilized for the treat- ment of seeds. The seeds are kept in this solution up to SO minutes. Two-three batches of seeds can be dieinfected in the same solution. The preparation is not poisonous to men and animals. Preparation no. 47. It in a liquid of a brown or black color, with an unplettant odor; It dissolves very little in rattan it dissolves well in alcohol, dichloroethant, and in other organic Solvents; It is poisonous to men and animas. it is very irritating to the mucous membrane of the skin. When it gets on the okin it produces a sensation of burning, which passeS very fast. It burns the plants in its pure state; For the extermination of pests it is utilized in the form of clayey emulsions, of solutions in special solvents, as 5-10% dusts made with talcum and kaolin. It is effective for the control of aphids at a concentration of OS% in the form of tank mixture with water. A concentrated emulsion is also prepared for spraying, whioh look's like a thick liquid of a gray color and contains 60% of the active ingredient of the preparation; Protests. This a preparation of a gray or yellowish color, which con. sists of calcium arsenite and of talcum. The standard preparation co/Mists of 9?11% of arsenic trioxide atd not more thin 19C of moisture; It is very poisonous to nan and antral/se It is utilized for the disinfection of seeds of wheat, rye, flax, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 ?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 415 '? clover and of naked seeded varieties of barley and oats by a method at dry treatment in the machines PU4 or 10SP460.6. The home for the expenditures of the preparation depend on the crop: for 1 c of seeds of the grain crops 100g of prams are used, for clover a, 200g, for flax - 150g. One should not use protras for treatment of wheat seeds, which were already treated with naphtalene against Totranythidas, nor for the seeds which are vernalized; Seeds, Which were treated with azotobacterin are treated with protest' Sm- mediately before planting. (Begin p.61) Protras is not being used for disinfecting vegetable seeds. Treatment of flax seeds is conducted anytime before planting, but not more than 8 days, of clover 46 days and or grains 30 days before planting. The disinfected seeds are poisonous, and should not be fed to cattle or poultry: . Sulfur. Sulfur is used in the form of luso* As a powder (lamest& sulfur which were ground in ball mills)* of flowers of sulfur (which are, obtained during eublimation of sulfur), and of sulfuric concentrate (finely ground native eulfutitogether with the ordinary rock with a content of 20.430 of sulfur). Sulfur powders are utilized for dusting the grape vines for the control of oidium, for melon patch crops for the control of Erysiphe graminis and of anthrachose, for alfalfa, roses, hops and other crops for the control of Erysiphe graminis (16,40 kg/ha). For the sake of economy as well as for better adherence it is recommended to mix sulfur with limo, road dust, and the like (1 part of sulfuric powder to 1 part of the filler). The ground sulfur is also used for the control of Tetranychidee in hotbeds and hothouses by meats) Of dusting or evaporation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 315 ? - ed. L',????? Fumigation of hermetically closed buildings is done by burning dry sulfur at a rate of 600150g per 1 14; The lump and the ground sulfur is utilized for the-preparation of the lime-sulfur decoction, ISO. Sulfur burns some plants, and during burning it damages Metallic articled; 0? late into the practice for the protection of plants a ne* effective preparation of "colloidal sulfur" (or paste of gaseous sulfur) was introduced; it is a waste of the gas industry. The preparation is S highly dispersed sulfurewhich contains a sulfide lye as the stabiliser. It is utilized in the form of colloidal solutions as a substitute for sulfur preparations with a concentration of 1.5?2% for ground spraying (output up to 800 1/ba? sod for the airplane method of sprayihg a concentration of 1042% at a norm of output of 50 lf/A. a Sulfur dioxide. A colorless gas with a strong smell: Its specie gravity in respect to the air is 2.28. Sulfur dioxide is easily condensed into a liquid and stored in s tell eye linden': In practice the gas is obtained by burning tulfum Sulfur dioxide it mainly utilized for gassing empty premises, hot? houses, hotbeds, and the like in order to exterminate dangerous insects, mites, mouselike rodents and pathogens of disease. It; vegetable storage houses the dose of sulfur dioxide in liquefied form is 24g per 1 10. If gassing is dont by burning sulfur then its dose is from 50 to 150g per 1 ma of the compartment. Exposure is for 2446 hours, the airing after the gassing should be for 244.48 hours, and of hotbeds and hothouses up to 10 days. One should conduct the gassing of the premises at a temperature of 10? le. Gassing at low temperatures or in humid premises is little effective or not effective at all. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 kin Trans. A416 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The sulfurous acid which develops in water during the dissolving of gas damages the plants, decreases the germination ability of seeds, die- colors the dyes and can influence the durability of fabrics. Carbon bisulfide, It is a liquid of t yellowish tint with a pungent disagreeable odor, reminiscent of tin amen of rotten eggs. The technical product contains about 90% of carbon bisulfide; Carbon bimulfide vapors are 2.63 times heavier than air. It dissolves in water very little. It mixes well with kironene, thloropiorins diohlores. ethane, alcohol and Other organic solvents* It yellows in the light: thegin p:62] - It inflames from any spark, blow, and even from* Strong friction of two articles against each other. It is spontaneously inflammableost a tem. perature of 160.800?. It forms inflammable and explosive mixtures with the air (in a concentration of 32gM and over): For the prevention of exialosions it is mixed with carbon tetrachloride in a proportion of lri (chloride mixture It is utilized as a fumigant for the disinssotion of soils of seeds* packing sacks* as well as of closed premises for the control of mites* their eggs, and of other storage pets at a rate of 220.376g per 1 mS of the premises* depending on the kind of product: Exposure is for 36 to 72 hours. The seeds of clover and peat, the flower bulbs* the Siberian marmot holes are gassed. The germination of seeds is not decreased by the vapors of ears bon bisulfide; At the present time it is used mainly as a chloride mixture; Mercuric chloride; A white, Or grayish heavy crystalline powder with a pilik tinge. An insettofungicide: It belongs to strongly active poiSonsi It is utilised for disinfecting the seeds against fungi and bacterial diseases. It in utilized in a form of agueoue solutions of different.con? centratione* depending on the purpose,peet or the pathogen of disease. For tomato deeds a concentration of the solution 1143000 is used (soak Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .816 ing for 6 minutes), for cucumbers and cabbage . 1t1000 (steeping for 10 minutes); for carrots - 101000 (soaking for 1040 minutes). The needs thus treated are washed in water for 10 minutes, ohanging the water 5-10 times after which they are dried. The output of the mercuric chloride is lg per 1 kg of seeds. The saplings of fruit crops are disinfected in a OAS solution for the control of Baoterium tumeaciens, with an exposure of 24 minutes and a following immediate washing of saplings in clean water. One is not allowed to pour out the solutions of mercuric chloride in the vicinity of wells* into the river or other water reservoirs. Formalin.. It is a colorless liquid; It does not burn. It mixes well with water. Formalin vapors irritate the mucous motet* of the eyes and of the respiratory organs. The standard formalin is a 40% water solu- tion of formaldehyde. The percentage content of the active ingredient (of formaldehyde) in the formalin is determined according to specific gravity by a hydrometer for liquids heavier than water. During storage in a cold place a white or a yellowish sediment forms in formalin, Which is dissolved at the heating of formalin or on mixing the formalin solution With a sodium solution (meshing soda 6g or caustic soda 4g per 1 L. of water) in equal parts (1i1). The 401 formalin, which was mixed in equal parts with soda solution, So 204 strong, which must be taken into consideration when preparing the working solutions: It is a fungicide and is utilized for the extermination of pathogens of diseases of plants.' It is utilized for a wet and moist treatment of deeds* for disinfection of soil, mainly in hotbeds and hothouses, for the disinfection of hothouses, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 816 hotbeds, of fruit and vegetable storage houses, of packing sacks, of tarpaulins, agricultural machinery and other agricultural implements. Formaldehyde vapors are the active ingredient of formalin, tlmt is why the seeds, which were moistened with the forumlin solution, during treatment are oovered by a tarpaulin and left to "stove for 2.4 hours: When disinfecting premises, hotbeds, hothouses, machinery and agricultural im. plements they are exposed for from 24 to 48 hours: For a wet treatment 1 part of the 40% formstlin is dissolved with 300 parts of waters mrs moist I part formalin is dissolved with 80 parts of water. [Begin p.63]; The seeds of wheat, of rye and the naked seeded varieties of barley and oats should not be treated by the moist method: a.n_peo h2222:15.a. A dark gray heavy powder with a lustre and a smell /? of hydrogen phosphide. It does not burn: It does not dissolve in water: . a Contains from 16 to 24% of phosphorus. Its specific gravity is 4:78: It is a highly effective substance for the control of mouselike.rodentss mg of this poison is a lethal dote for st gray rat. It is utilized in various baits at the rate of 2.6% to the weight of the products to grain baits it is attached with a sizing, a vegetable oil, or the like. Dusting with it, the sproutd in hotbeds and the seedlings of tree crops protects them from rodente. Zinc phosphide should not be utilized together with a sour bread, because under the influence of acids the preparation decomposes with a liberation of 1ridrogen phosphide. Zino phoephide's disadvantage is its unpleasant smell of hydrogen phos. phide (the smell of garlic). When utilizing it one must observe the same precautionary measures, as during the work with the yellow phosphorus. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 S. ?, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 815 It ie poisonous to men and animals: Sodium fluoride. Dingy white or somewhat gray powder, often oaking into lumps. The standard preparation contains 82..65% of sodium fluoride: /t dissolves in water: Be lime or chalk Should be added to the solutibn -of this poison as this will lower its toxicity. it is used only by the method of spraying in the form of 0:644* tion for the control of beet ourculionidae, of the leaf beetle, flea beetles beet webworm, of locustidae and many other pests of vegetable crops: For the control of caterpillars on vegetable crops a 0:54:.O% solution is used: The freshly prepared eolulip are especially effective. For A better adherence to the leaves molasses or flour paste are added in an amount of about log per 1 L. of solution. Spraying of fruit-berry plantings is oonduoted during the second half of the vegetative period when the leaves beeoto hardened, as the solution of the preparation burns the young leaves: In the absence of arsenic, and of the fluotilioate of sodium, sodium fluoride can be utilized for the preparation of poisoned baits with oil cakes, flour, out grass, and the like (for 100 kg Of bait take i of poison): It is poisonous to met and animals: Chloropicrin: A heavy, greasy transparent liquid of a somewhet..yellowish color. The technical preparation contains 95g of pure ohloropierin: it is widely used for gassing the soil, of empty, hermetically closed, pre mises, elevators, railroad cars* packing materialist and ships for the control of poisonous insecte? mites, and for poisoning the mouselilce rodents. Chloropicrin vapors are 5.67 times heavier than air. It dissolves well in ethyl alcohol, in kerosene or ethyl ether. lt dissolves in water 1.65g per 1 to. of water at a temperature of le". From a 1 p22 of surface it evaporates at 2.5g per minute at 20', and 5.5g at 506. For speeding the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001--7 n-0 LU Ogie " Ina, ? I 7 ? '1/2.11?1=1, 'mow evaporation during gassing of premises, sack* are moistened with chloro? piorin and suspended on the premises. At great concentrations it produces 4 strong irritation of the =scout tandbrane of the eyes, hampers breathing. A concentration of lg per 1 0 of air is considered to be lethal: During the application of chloropicrin it is necessary to utilize gas masks. When gassing premises, the dosage of ohloropioriu is accepted as 206.36g for 1 mA with an exposure for 3 days: Di. infection with ohlorOpierin can be applied only to that grain which it used for grinding. It it prohibited to disinfect the grains which are intended for planting. (Begin p641. Barium chloride: It is A crystalline substance, which looks like table salt. It dissolves in water easily. It contains 94s96% of barium chloridej not more than 0 of hygroscopic moisture: The preparation is divided into varieties A and IS: The variety A it utilized for the control of pests; it has a fort of yellow-brown fine crystals, which are Bombe what soiled with various admixtures: Variety D is the chemically pure pros patation: The disadvantage of barium chloride it that it is easily washed off the leaven by rain and even by dew. It is utilised during dry weather. It is utilized as & poison of internal action for the control of beet curoulionidae, caterpillars of the beet webworm, leaf roller, of Phytomstra gamma. L.', larvae of leaf beetles. of Athena oelibri Christ., of various Sitona, and other pests. 5.4% aqueous solutions are utilised for spraying. During airplane treatments & DO% concentration solution is utilized with a norm of output Of 60 1/ha. For a better adherence to the leaves 10g of molasses or of flour paste are added to each 1 L. of solution. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 ICIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 815 v The chemical industry is putting out barium chloride in plywood drume or wooden barrels. It is poisonous to men and animals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 / _...? ..... _ ?rant L#416 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 In) vg/M. 2hitravalie G. rfr Olubinnyi siotob Proitvodetva limonnoi kisloty pH pomothchy tribe Aapergillut (Submerged method4 citric acid production - with the aid of the fungus Aspergillus niter]. Mikrobiologila vol. 240 no, Se p.332440. *Intim 1956. 448.3 11S62 (In Ruedian) Deingto its taste qualities and its phisitomohemicalpropertiete citric acid has a wide application in the national eoonomye-and especially In feed industry: In nature we find it in fruits and leaves of various Pants (lemons* orangete Cranberries Iftycocous palustris le black currant's* it the leaves of tobacco tNicvtiana -rustics.), string bias and in other objects). since long ago citric sold vas obtained mainly from lemons, th4 juice of which contain* it from :2 to 6% ti]. But the ever growing demand for ? citric acid and the limitations for Staining it from objects in the plant world led, at the end of last century, to a necessity to find other assume() of citric said; Development of technical miorobiology opened unlimited pose+ inilitieit for the utilisation of biochemical properties of mictoorganieud in industrial !processes: Athos% them was utilised the ability Cif SOW Mad fungi* related rto the genus Asoermilluse to synthesise citric acid on sacchariferous sub. strati. In the Soviet onion microbiological production of (Atria acid came into being at the 'beginning of the thirties thanks to the work of V. S: Buttniviohte d. P. Kontyoliev and of their students. - -1 -1 t. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 9/6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIVRDP80R01426R01030-0030001.-7-16 For the produCtion of citric acid usually those varieties of the fungus Aspergillue Edger are selected which are the most active in acid formation, The specially compounded sacchariferous nutritive medium is seeded with conidia of the funguesabidifier and is poured in& 2.8 cm layer into large, flat veeselt, which are piled up it stacks in et closed compartment s fermentation ()bather. The mycelia which grow on the surface of the solution, covering it with a continuous coating, synthesise citric acid at the ex- pense of carbohydrate which they absorb from the solutiong and the which accumulatat in the tells of the mycelia is secreted into the ferments ins solution. The proceed of aoldsfotnation with the aid of such a film floating on the surface can proceed very intensively. A %renal film covering 1 4 area, secretes under production conditions over 600g, and in Certain oases (c? even 800g of citric acid per 24 hours. The acid fermented solution; are poured together and undergo a comparatively simple chemical treatment for 'the separation from them of crystalline citric acid Nleft producing citric acid by a microbiological method1 the physiological precede of acoumulation of prolate acids by the living cells proved to be more effective, and economically more profitable, than the process of pros duction of acid from lemons: On the one bled, such a carbohydrate rich crop as sugar beets is utilised at its maximum on the other hand the high physiological ability of the cells Of the mold fungus is utilized for icons verting these carbohydrates into the citric acid. Notwithstanding the achieved successes, the production of citric acid with the aid of the film of the fungussaoidifier, floating on the surface. (Begin p.385] has several serious drawbacks. The surface method requiret large production areas, and a great number of flat vemeels1 where the process of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 3.6 WI At' 'gear acid formation is accomplished. The character of the technological equip.* meat in the fermenting shop hampers the mechanization of the labor sr:entitling works and the automatization of the technological process. This method practically dates nat guarantee any sterile conditions for the process arid for this reason, notwithstanding the efforts of the production workere, it periodically suffers from extraneous microfloras which at times lowert very slanay the synthetic activity of the fungus. These defects, as 'sell Gs several others, naturally retard a further development of the production of . citric acid by the surface method. It was a long time ago that thoughts of researchers were directed towards ?denlopment of a more promising ?6. the submerged method of production of citric acid [rib Unlike the natural surface method of cultivation of fungus, during the submerged method the mycelitun expands not on the surface of the solution, but through its whole mess. During the surface method the body of the fungus is not under similar conditions of nutrition and aeration, and that is why all of its cells cannot synthesize equally well the citric acid. Thus* a submerged method already in principle opens wide poSeibilities for a considerable increase of production at the expense of a fuller uti. illation of the acid-forming ability of the submerged mycelium, as well as by utilizing simultaneously greater volume' of fermenting solutions, which takes place vitet MOS flat vessels are ropier:id by large volume fomenter,. ,r Yet the accomplishment of citric acid production by the !submerged Erthod represents a complicated problem both in the biological, as Well as in technical respect. The difficulty of eating it consists not only in r the fact that the aerobia fungus organism must be adapted to the existence under submerged conditions which are urn/cruel for it, .brits: also in directing Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010305030001:714 ger its *Onto life preeminently into the production of citric acid: Under these conditions of cultivation a mycelium of. special structure is formed* whereupon the changes in conditions of aeration and nutrition* as well as the interference of new factors* which are often unstable and very difficult to discern* considerably influence the preens and harper very much the so' Litton of the given prOblem. It was not by aSident then that the earlier attempts to realise the production of citric acid by the submerged methods' had no Mimeos (9). At the present time the problem of Obtaining citric acid by the subs ' merged method has found its positive solution in the works which were cone toted by the laboratory of the All-Union Scientificeltesearch Institute of Confectionery Industry in cooperation with the Leningrad Factory of Citric Acid under the leadership of the author of this artiele: Following the basic statutes of Soviet biologist science the group began the research of the problem by looking for and studfing the physio- logical mechanism of the metabolic activity of the fungus-acid former de- pending on the changing conditions of the environment: The new specific conditions for the submerged method of conducting the process demanded: 1) development of new methods of research and preparing special ape parable, which will answer the physiological requirements of the see merged culture of the fungus-4dd former; (Begin p.5541 2) selection of straits of fungi* which willbe the most active it the formation of citric acid under conditions of a submerged cultivation; 15) work out conditions for nutrition* aeration* temperature regime and other conditions* which will permit not only to find out, but also to in. crease the ability of selected strains for an active synthesis of citric acid during their submerged cultivation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1$ Stirrer* of a rotary type, such as are employed in laboratories, as well as stirrere of an alternate motion type, won utilised with greet Sub.., one at the beginning of research for the conducting of experiments; Later on the researches were conducted under more perfect conditions from the point of view of aeration of the submerked culture, in apparatus with mechanical stirrers set up in 20-1)er glass carboys (figure 1): Title of figure 1. Apparatus for cultivation of the submerged s'cell* of the fungus Asp. Niger. 1. a cork with a packing gland and a rubber gaskets 2- mechanical; Stirrer;.8-entrance for sterilized airs 4. outlet for airs thermometer. Aeration of the submerged culture was achieved by means of blowing through sterilised, dispersed air through the fermenting solution, with a culture Of fungi submerged in it, and with a sy4chroztous stirring of the whole mass with the aid of mechanical stirrers or by roans of Shaking the experimental vessels: One of the decisive conditions for a successful realization of the submerged method of citric acid production is the selection of a biochemi- cally active strain of the funs's...acidifier under such oonditiones its high activity in the synthesis of citric acid can be found out by moans Of creating for this organism the needed conditions of environments nutritiona aeration and others: As a result of comparative tests of active strains and of developing conditions for cultivation, needed by them, several strains were selected, Which were suitable for the conducting of the process under submerged con- ditiones Aspergillus Nentiis strain Os Aspergillus Mars strain no. 82 (D) and no. 90. Strain no. $2 (D), which showed the greatest activity in acid foreation under submerged conditions, was accepted for laboratory research, Ale and later on as turned over to production; It is interesting to note that this strain during the surface method of cultivation was inferior in its Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'acid formation Activity to the best producing strain no. 8/3 from the Leningrad Factory of Citric Acid. But under submerged conditions as it is seen from table 1 the strain no. 82 (D) proved to be considerably more :native* thanetrain no .0,54 From this instance it is visually seen how two closely related ot gnaws, belonging to one species, demand different conditions fortthe realization of their ability for synthesizing citric *cid on the ground of their specific natural peculiarities; Constant morphological and biochemical Observations of the etatt of the production strain to. 82 (D) have shown, that this strain as well as many other strain of the genus Aspergillus have a stepped up tendency for the for- ration of new forme. During seedings on an agar medium one Observes, among the homogenous dark colonies of the initial strain, the appearance of mots phologically different colonies of the arisen newvariant* (figure 2). New forms, Isolated in pure culture1 are ahown (Begin p.336) in figure 3; Form no. 2 differs sharply from the initial strain in the morphology of colonies, *tile fora no; 9 also by a poor ability for synthesizing citric acid. From the initial strain 82 (D) over 30 variants were isolated during ? cOmparstively short period of time, most ofwhion possessed a lowered *efts ^ity for acid formation: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1816 Table ?1. Comparative testing of acid forming activity of straite of the fungus Atpergillus_niger: (Duration of the'experimeht a 10 daye) ? etraine , J1ieIthod I Submerged method _ Citric sold obtains ed per 'easel int_ ratio in% Citric acid Obtained per vessel in g_ ratio lati% no; 0/6. to. 82. (D 87;1 61:8 100;0 68.9 49;6 ' 90.2 100;0 1824 This oircumstanee led to the necessity for the formation of new tech' nology for the preparation of the seeding materials for its basis there was prescribed a timely renewal of aging tratsp)antings and separation Of the strains from newly evolved inactive formes also t limitation of the tuMber of consecutive paseagings of the Isolated culture during the industrial a propagation of cohidia: For Obtaining the seeding material (fungus conidia), eperesbearing fungal nate are !cultivated by the surfeit? method on nutritive media epee:tally prepared by us It was determined that the best density for the seeding during the submerged mottled of conducting the process consists of 000400 thousand conidia in 1 ml of the ferMenting medium., Further tests have shown that seeding of the medium with Oenidia which were preliminatily germinated for 1244 hours* spade up the Industrial preemie of eltrio sold production by the submerged method approximately by 10h. and lorere1. the output of seeding material at least two times: A specific cultivation of the acid-forming Submerged mycelia Wats eitated studies of the natural requiremente of the fungi to oenditione of nutrition:. Ctn on laboratory yet in 1948, as A result of numerous investigation:4 a special nutritive medium DD2 ass develpped; it contained in one WI urea *- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (8) Trans; A.816 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? ? 1.08; 0;8g; g000ne s oasgs mg% s 0.18g; Cl?E0.07g; IhiS0070204, 0;02g; 2n$04:7U20 - 0:01g and 160.0g of beet sugar; .This medium not only provided for the growth and formation, of the most active acid forming mycelia under ebmerged conditions; but also permitted us to direct the pro- eels toward synthesis mainly of citric acid t23; This then showed; in spite of the existing contradictory opinions; the unconditional feasibility of obtaining citric acid by the submerged method of fermentation; Under laboratory condition*, in Vessels; which Were *quipped with mechanical stirrers and contained 10 L. of the medium Mg; during a lOuday oyele of continuoni Cultivation there were obtained 760908 of citric acid from each liter-of the initial nutritive solution; Semiwproduotion testa have Confirmed these results; When fermenting itx.(Begin p.338) a tormentor With 260 L; of the medium; during a ten-day period 80-66 kg of citriO acid were syntheeised; per 1 0 of the initial solution. Eitrogen and phosphorus of the nutritive medium are of especially im.4 portant significance for the formation of mycelia which ire highly active in the synthesis of citric *cid. As the investigations hive ehown; a coMbination of the organic nice trogen of urea with the mineral crease favorable conditions for the nisi trove nutrition of the Obterged culture; The optimal dos* of phosphorus is at a content Of 0.16g of 1E0104 in 1 L; of medium: Our further investigations have shwas/certain thereat* in acid formation in *tit case when mineral nitrogen is introduced into the medium in the far-14 of Nbel03t4); Thus; along with 13132 medium there appeared another; close to it; medium60g: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (sh) Trans: A-818 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' The praceseee of reapiration- and of synthesis of citric Mid' in acid. forming futgisis of courses fullr linked to the conditions of aeration: The very entrance of the food elements into the cells of the orgabIams which is a complicated physiological acts is in close interconnection with oxidising energy conversions ?courting in the cells and thus must also be determined by the conditions: of aeration of the mycelia. This circuratanoe sequires an especially important' meaning during cultivation of the fungus under submerged conditionss which are unnatural for it. Table 2. Mid formation of t submerged culture a the fungus Asperjillue nigers strain no. :82 (13) in various nutritive media under donditions of in- sufficient aeration (an experiment on a rocking device). Nutritive medium Indicator) of WOmmani.:7--.-. Throw B132 4 Yield of citric acid in Ratio in % 2115 68:2 *37;0 100.0 11;r2 so:s .Actuallys by improving the conditions of aeration of the submerged culture, by increasing the aMoutt of the air passing through it; com# bining the blowing with an energetic mixing and thus increasing the amount of oxygen dissolved in the fermented mese& we could uncover sharp ohangee in the relation of the acid-forming organism to the nutritive medium. Under those conditions of more complete aerations we have developed and usids together with the mediums 882 and 802 medium Akis which is still retie effective for the synthesis of citric acid and ie much simpler in its eon, pot This medium has no urea and is :composed of only three salts, 111141103 2.6g, /tgSO4:73120 ? 0:26g and 11:82PO4 048g in 1 L. of 15% sugar esolution: During the experiments on a rocking device, under ()end/tient; of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '816 comparatively insufficient aeration, medium A4 provides for Very poor acid formation by the fungus, as it is teen from table 2, and in this respect is conaiderebly inferior not only to the BB2 mediumy but also to the Wakes manatarow medium (8], which was recommended by the authors eipecially for tubs - merged fermentation and contains in 1 L of 10 sugar.aolutiont urea a 1:Ogg XRe04 a 008g1 Ng304;7B20 a 0:6gt Rel a 0:16gl *004:7620 a 002g and ZnSO4.71120a.0.01g. ? But under conditions Of a more perfect aeration, as can be seen from table 3, together with at increase in production of citric acid by the fungus, (Sentence is :continued on page 337, after table 3) , Title of figure 2. Variability of strain no. 02 ()) of fungus Aen: Among the dark colonies of the altetnate reseeding of the strain, are seat light dOloniee of the freshly emerged form. ' Title ofIfigUre 3. The isolated forms of the variant fto. 2 (at left) and no. 9 (at right); Words in the left figure; strain no. 82$ for 2 (active). in the right figure* strain no. 82, form 9 (slightly active). Title of figure 6. Microphotograph of eight day old, mycelia, grown under ? conditions Of insufficient aeration of the submerged culture. Title Of figure 6. Microphotograph of eight day oldie:pais, grown:Under conditions of uninterrupted otirring of the submerged culture. (Begin p:3371: Table 3: Acid formation of submerged cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger, *train no. 82 Ms on different nutritive mediums under conditions of " a mere thorough aeration from an experiment in vessels with stirrers Indicators Nutritive medium BB2 A2 43 A .6 Coaents a 0904 in g/1 Yield of citric acid in et Ratio in% 0;16 62;74 100.00 1:00 64:69 103411' MO 71;79' 114.43 : 0:26 72;81 118:06 0.16 821/ 150.88 0;08 7632 121;66 )"ootnote. Tomether with the BB0 radium are shown variants of mediumA al. As. Aie A40 A6), containing in al solution of snarl MB4S05 4 2.6g1 ISQs.7id 0.26g and R2PO4 a varying amounts of gran*. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 116 "NI (continued from p.336) which was grown on medium B820 we note a abetter in, creme Of citric acid synthesis by the fungus when it is oultivated en medium A4. This abet of research shows very convincingly, that during insufficient aeration of the submerged culture the presence of urea titrogen is in dispensable in the nutritive medium for the realisation of Synthesis of citric acid: put this requirement by the organism for organic nitrogeh is eliminated with a Change to a more thorough aeration of the submerged my.. celium. From the lent table we See that even under conditions Of thorough aeration the dose of K1tPO4 in the new medium remains the same as in the medium 8/32, that is 0616 g/1 (medium A4) Title of figure 4; iynamice of synthesis of citric said by eubmerged mycelia of the fungus Asp. niwer (strain no. 62 on the *4 medium) curve of the synthesis of citric acid; curve of the growth of loyeeila. Weeds to the lefts citric sold in 100 ma of solution per g. Words to the righte dry nyeelia in 100 ml Of solution per go Weeds at the bottom time shown in 24-hour days. Nedium A40 as one of the best variahte which were developed by our after laboratery,Acareful checking was parsed on to the shop for production of citric acid by* submerged method; By conversion, from each 1 m3 of the initial solution, 90.69 kg of citric acid, were obtained on this medium in the tormentor: On the average, 11;8 kg of the *old wes obtained from 1 63 of eolution during a 24-hour day of the process. Yield of citric acid from the given Sugar IA 88:4%; A aim of the acid formation by the strain no. 82 (D) on medium 5.4 is shown .in figure 4; From the above cited, it in seen that the condition* of aeration have a deciding importance for the processes of growth and Of acid formation by the submerged culture of the fungal. One should take into consideration, that the aeration of the submerged culture depend* on *enteral interdependent moments. partial pressure of oxygen; which it supplied with the air, speed Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (11) Trans. As616 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 of aerationt degree of ttomitatien of the air and the intensity of stirring Of the sUbrorged culture. The amount of oxygen, diluted in the nutritive medium hie a special relining. An insufficient aeration, Which trifle during a door/see of the air supply or a lowering of the intensity of stirring of the (Begin pan) fermented mese produced a suppreeted pathological gratth Of the submergedmycelia with the oharaoteristic bulged of hyphae (figure 6 and 6) and & sharp decrease in the cyanosis of the Sold; From table 4 it id ? Oen how the rising of inteneity ef stirring of the submerged culturab by means of an increase in the number of revolutions of the stirrer?eighten acid formation; stiah reaohee Ste hightail volute at 360 revolutions per minute. Tolle 4. Acid foriation by the strain no. 62 (D) depending on oonditions of 'Unit& the submerged culture (an experiment in vestal; with_stirre 1: )(umber of revolutions Yield of atria acid for 10 daye of of tho Warrer per minute the promise in% from the control per vessel ing ! 160 260 360 460 126;69 419:66 466:44 319.61 6;30 01121 10(1.'00 7046 A further intones of the nuMber of revolutions of the ?stirrer pros a duces an eppression in the cyanosis of atria acid; The factor of airs ring play? at important role Already in the process of the initial grOwth and of formation of the acid-forming mycelia and thus deoides a further eaten of the deVelopment of the acid forming ability which it inherent to this strain of the fungus; During an intensive stirring diffused mycelia a are formed from the the germinating *para. During a slower stirring *Val deloniess often eat condensed and of various sites (from a email part of Nis ei millimeter up to several millimeters in diameter) ears formed. taraually the large globular accumulations of mycelia1 with a ?conparatively exalt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (32) Trans. A?1516 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 surface of contact with the medium, are lens Active in the synthelie Of *aid. Temperature also is a powerful factor, Which influences the speed of growth of the forming mycelia, its metabolism and acid fermation: At a lowered temperature the growth of the living mass of mycelia is retarded, and thus the prooese of acid accumulation in the solution is delayed: The relearehes have shown that the best temperature for the eubmorged precasts ?in obtaining citric Geld equate 304.82.: A further increase in temperature intensities the growth of mycelia,. yet their capacity to synthesise citric acid becomes lower. At that time the content of extraneous gluconic *did increases it the complex of acids in the fermenting Solution, and the output of sugar altio inoreates for the intensified process of respiration. It is necessary to take into consideration that the salterged !Culture produces a considerable amount of heat: A said meter of the fermenting solution, with the culture of the fungus submerged in it, gives off per hour up to 2,500 Of large calorie* of heat and three, in order to avoid over- heating, need' (wont's. All the conditions for the exclusion of infection are present when putting into practice the submerged method of fermentation. Tot* when the principle of eternity is Violated, foreign bacterial ahd yeast micros IC flora propagatee very quick, and the practute of formation of citric acid almost tamp it; depressed: The researches have attach that tbe technology of reprocessing into the crystalline citric said, the solutions which were fermented by the sub- merged method, does not differ from the technology of reproceseing the deo \k-r lutions, which were fermented by a surface method 104 On the basis of such thoroughly conducted scientific reettarchee, It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 416 new technology for the production of citric acid by the sUbmerged method no developed, and its appropriate technological outfitting produced; The new technology *as approved on the semi-production [pilot plant) installation at the Leningrad Factory of Citric Aoid1 when later on, in 1963, a shop for the submerged fermentation sis established and the is aubmerged toothed for abs tattling citric acid as successfully introduced into production. tBegin p.5891. We cite 'briefly the technological "scheme for production of citric acid by the "amerced method (figure 7); Title of figure 7; A technological scheme for obtaining citric acid by a submerged method (explanation is Vend in the test); ?or the preparation of the nutritive medium a sugar syrup is prepared in a digester (1). Which is then pumped over through a filter (2) by a ton.. trifugal pump (8) into the apparatus for eternization (4); After the intro' dation of syrup into the sterilizer the necessary nutritive salts from the dissolving apparatue for salts (6) are alto fed into it. The prepared nutritive medium is sterilized under preesure and is transferred along the sterile communication area into the sterile fermentation tanks for- mentors (8); Then the nutritive tedium. cooled to 3244*, is seeded with (=idle of the fungus, strain no. 82 (D) from the inoculating apparatus (7) or with the previously germinated mycelia (from a special tormentor for germination); After the seeding, sterile sir is introduced along sterile air lines for the aeration of the submerged culture in the fortottor. The air IS delivered by a compressor (8), and before entering the tormentor is steri- lized by pasting through an antibacterial filter (9): Stirring the submerged culture of the fungus is dote by "barbotirovaniian (atomization] of air and utilization in the fermentor of a mechanical Stirrer0 which rotates At an assigned member of revolutions: The process proceeds at a teroperattitt of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 31.6 80e3V: The fixed temperature of the fermenting mast is upheld by means of hooting or cooling with water, which is pelted through the jacket. a a coil pipe in the tormentor.' After Sol? 24-hour days, when the acemolation of the titrattble acidity 'tops, the fermented acid solution together with the &emerged my.* cella is poured from the tormentor into the steam chaMber (10), where the Wcalia an killed by boiling; Thin the whole Mate enterethe filtering apparatus (11). 20 filtered told solution is transferred into the amnia =later (12)0 end the-mycelia are e.dditioicklly waited to rid them of the remaining acid. teeginning p.3401. Acid solutions are reproceesed ihto the: crystalline citric acid in the chemical shops of the plant. Conclutions Scientific research end results of the work on production according to .the new technology hive shown a high productivity of the process in obtain* this. Mettle acid by the Submerged method, a (reduction in the output of sugar per ton Of acid produced, ft mots efficient utilization of production areal, compartied with the surface method, permitted Increasing the production of the fermenting shops of the plant more than three timer. The submerged method for obtaining citric acid Si based oaths utilisation of improved technic's' It permits us to mechanise the labor, contoming works, to automatically adjust the technological promise, which will load tot ameliorable inmost* in the productivity of labor: During the misterged method of conducting the process the losees from Infection Are sharply decreased and the tai culture of production is ArT. heightened: The submerged method In groat postibilities for a further development Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 816 ? of a hoes progressive technology (improvement Of condition* of nutrition and *oration of the sUbmerged cultures improvement of the technological equipments oonVersion to an uninterrupted process on the basis of ate ligation of the experience of other miorobiological productions, and so on). A positive solution of the problem about Obtaining oitrio acid by the submerged method must be held as a news serious contribution to the work of a further develepment of the native industrial microbiology; ' Scientific4esearch Institute of Confectionery Industry laningrad LITERATURE " Received 30. IK. 1954. 1; Buthovichs V; 8,11 Citric acid es a produidt of technical industry. Isw. ISNIBEPP Earcomsneba CM, v; 2.4. 1932. mg ? 2: Ebtravskiis G. I., SUbmerged method for obtaining cItrio acid with the 0 aid of fungi genus Atnergillus. D4R82914 IXXX, Vi 5i 1951 a *I 3; Zheravskiis G. I;s Sporogenesis of fungi* Appergillus higer on Beer wart in ConneotiOn with an increase in it of osmotic pressure. Tr; /Set. neissl; &trete kondit; prom*stis v. 7, 19611 a 4. Zhuravskiis O. 1.70 Obtaining citric acid by a submerged method Of fermentation (Theses of a discourse). Wee. ineta. kondit, promesti S kondit. sektaiia VRITO pishobevoi promestis 11.0 1952. . ? 8. Zhuravskils O. I;s7Retosolovas V.s Elisoevs VulikhmansA;A:s sod Eak7arove4 a. 8:s Production of feed acid*. PiShohepromitdats 1953. - - - 6. 2haravskiis.0. 11 and Terent!evS0 0: Ice Composite nutritive medium lirgutedudes abundant spore formation In the fung*sapergillus .thwr.-Vaes &deal; insta. kondit; pro:Testis v. is 1951. 70 Eiger B?, ?Oman Aunt 4154$ 729, Oct; ay 1926. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 816 8. Itattiw: 13 4 j Mnn S.; Production of oitrio acid in submerged onl? tuts. Ind. a. Eng. Chem.; 39; 821; /941. 9. Wellery. A.; and Ward; 9. E.; Fermentation prooeSsen. Ind: S. Eng. chem.; 31; 172; 1939. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 h- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R0103000300-0117 *,t:81,1 (4u Luis) 4' vg/M. ' Noveselea,-L; Shilova, A. V;$ And Rumba, A. A. Bottle tekhnologlia prigetevlenlia pOsevntgo materials v preitvodstve limonnoi kislety. Diem teihnology toil the preparation of seeding material for the production of citric actd). Vieniutn. Eauch.leiled, Init. Konditerekol Protysh. Iruly, vs': 11, p.138-139. 1966. 889.9 T78 (Zn Russian) Setting up of a guaranteed seeding material reserve appears to be the basis for every biblogical production.' This refers especially to the obtain. ,e) ihg of citric acid from sugar containing raw materials with4he aid of the mold fungus Aspergillus niger, which received its production realisation only comparatively recently (20 years ago): . The technology for the preparation of the. seeding material at the acting citric said plants ()ocelots it obtaining a hydrous spore suspension . from live dporogeneue.filme of the mold fungus, Aspergalue:higer, grown on a liquid nutrient medium in closed metallic flat vessels (Proted,iakenovis flask). The speregenoUs fungous films are grown on wort medium at a tem. perature of 32' in the course of 6.8 days, after which they are transferred to conditions of reduced temperature (10.16?) and kept there up to the moment of their utilization; .At the reduced temperature the metabolic Vraletiee of fungi slow down somewhat and the films can be stored for a period of 7.12 days. A longer storage leads to autolysis of the mycelium, and the eponymous surface of the filn becomes coated with the secondary mycelium oiling to the growth of. spore beide. Thus, at a lengthy storage of spore. omens films a considerable part of the ()pore yislid is loot, and the myu, 4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A 191 Trans. A44317 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 cellist became fragile and easily disintegrates when the spore suspension is prepared, which causes difficulties during filtering. The existing technology for Obtaining seeding material hae many de- fects), among which the most important is the impossibility to create a guaranteed rater* of spores for the production, as the hydrous spore suspen tion cin be stored for not more than 3-4 days, This circumstance impedes a preliminary control of the final stage of the propagation of the seeding material which is used for seeding in the fermentation chambers. Besides this, the storage of sporogenous fungous films in those vessels where they were grown, makes it necessary to have a Large stock of production vessels, as well as aipeme for their storage at lowered temperatures: It is known from literature, that mature conidia of mold fungi, Shtick are separated from the mycelium retain for a long tine 6-10 years the abio6 UV to germinate and form a mycelium, which possesses the properties of the initial culture (1). The ecientifio.research laboratory at the Leningradskii Citric Acid Plant for many .an was occupied with the solving of the problem (Begin p.137), about the formation of a guaranteed reserve of spores in the form of mature conidia, separated from the sporogenous culture of the production strain: As a result of this research it was established that. 1) it is possible to store mature oonidia of the fungus Aspergillue higer for a period of 14 years Whereupon the germination of the spores was 701% and the activity of acid formation was not long, than that of the initial culture of the fungis 2) the temperature conditions for the storage of "dry' spores lie it the range of /26 to is 26': A method for obtaining "dry" spores was developed, Which could be apt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (8) Trans. A.81.7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4" '????? plied to production conditions. This method consists of the followingt sporogenous film of Aspergillut niger is grown on 61. nutrient medium in special insole (ouvettos)? Which are adapted for a subsequent drying of the film by a current :of sterile air, Which is heated to 36.40' and is passed underneath the film. The spored are collected from the 'dried fat onto a filter, made of silk cloth and placed into a special nozzle which is cone netted to a vacuum-pump.' The dry spores, which nettle on the filter, are poured out into sterile boxes or jars with **ground stoppers end are placed into a desiccator to be kept there until utilized. In the following works (laboratory of V111114 1953) devoted to the pro- blems of introduction of "dry" spores into production, details of the condis time are given for Obtaining and utilization of dry spores, such est Clotting up the needed apparatus for this method, temperature and length for drying off the mycelium, interne for collecting oonidia of different strains from unit oft roe (strain 6/3 - 36.40g. strain 90.100g from 1 sq. m.), method and norms of seeding the dry spores in the fermentation chamber (20.30 ng per 1 .sq. m.). At the present time dry spores are obtained ly the above-cited method, under production conditions, at two citric acid plants, which are *gawking on various forms of sugar stook with two different strains of Aspergillus nigerg the leningredskii Citric Acid plant works with strain 6/15, using sugar of industrial grade, while the Rizhskii plant obtains citric acid from molasses with the aid of strain no. 90. Small aluminum ouvettee, the area of the bottom of which is 9.10 sq. dm (decimeter), are utilized as vessels for the growing of sporogenous films. Drying of the films is conducted in email Ogees, where sterile sir is heated electrically (exchange of the air is 30.40 L. per min), in the course of 4.6 hours. The process of gathering the conidia from dried film proceeds very Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans. A4817 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 test and is acComplished in a sterile bench box where sterile air is sup- plied under pressure in order to avoid a drawing under during the work of the vacuum pump. - A microbiologist gathers 6410g of dried spores during oft4ihour. The Cola' looted yield of spores from 1 sq. m. reaches the following amounts. Leningradskii plant a strain 6/6 (Shilova, Novikova, Polotskaia] a 21.8 to 47:1g, on the average 38.5g per 1 sq. mi ,Rithskii plant -strain 90 (Rumba, Gauls, Agafenova) a 81:6 to 110g on the average 100g per 1 sq. m. Thus, at the Rizhskii and Leningradskii plants there to formed a guaranteed reserve of seeding materiel in the form of dry sp6reS, whereupon,: the gathered amount of spores for the Rishskii plant already constitutes a half-yearly requirement for all production chambers. At the Leningradskii plant, where a less sporogenous strain is used, the gathered amount of dry spores guarantees a simultaneous seeding of 6,000 sq. m. of the fermenting areati which comprises almost a twoaltmek requirement for the acting fermenting area. The gathered dry spores are tested for their activity in acid fermatioa, for uniformity, and after that they undergo production tests in fermentation chatters. During the year 1953, and up to the present time, in the experimental ?bather of the teringinskii Citric Acid Plant, whore the area of each ouvette is 6:3 sq. tag production (Begin p.138] testa (L. P. Sandler) Are conducted on fermentation of molasses with dry spores of the strain 90 (by the cons. tiftuous mothod);with_a high layer of solution (concentration of Sugar in molasses was Seeding of dry spores is conducted through the general air-feed with a distribution for each ouvette with the aid of a current of sterile air. Per Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 taN Townsira Ao817 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 iTh6 'tar each 1 sq in of fermenting solution 60 mg of dry spores are sown. The formation of the fungous film proceeds there so energetically that after seven days almost ill the sugar in the molasses is fermented. Thelyield from 1 sq. m constitutes in separate cycles from 660 to 1,088g of citric acid per day, and when the layer of solution is 12 cm thick the yield in- creases to 1,44% of citric acid. Title of the figure. Requirement in the seeding material for seeding 100 sq. in of the fermenting areas under conditions of the acting technology (1); when utilizing dry spores (2). Production tests of dry spores,- strain 90, are also conducted on the Rizhskii CitrioAcid plant since 1968 in throe fermentation chambers; It it obtained there from 1 sq. in of the fermenting area (when the layer of solutioh is 8 cm thick) from 890 to 1,096g per a 24shour day, and up to 1,200g per 1 sq. in with a layer of molasses 12 cm thick. At the Leningradskii Citric Acid Plant dry spores of strain 6/6 are tested on sugar solutions utilizing a multisthangeable method of fermen- tation. Three production cycles were conducted with the seeding of dry spores on the surface of a nutrient solution. . Dry spores, in ft proportion of 26480 mg per 1 sq in of the fermenting area, were taken for seeding. A very energetic and uniform formation of mytelium occultd even during the first day, and the film, in its outer appearance, was ready for the change of the nutrient medium much earlier than ueually. The yield from one sq. m in those experiments, at a 16.18 day period of fermentation, reached 470-670g per day with a yield from sugar of 32$9%. A seeding of dry wares of the strain 8/6 in the form of spore sus spension (into the depth of the solution) was also tested. The nuMber of dry spores, utilized for the seeding of the chamber (area 120 m?), was 6 times greater than for the surface seeding. This amount of spent* never- theless, constituted only 1/4 part of conidia which are used for the usual Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 17 seeding according to the old technology; A very fast formation of a fungous film was also noted in this experiment. Ten hours after seeding a continuous Web of. myceltnft was formed over the whole surface of the solution. Experiments with the surface seeding of dry owes of strain 6/5 on the sugar nutrient solution have clearly demonstrated a great economy in the expenditure of spores when the new technology for the preparation of the Seeding Material was introduced. instead of 1640 of sporogetioue Must which were needed for the preparation of the hydrous spore suspension for seed- ing in the fermentation chaster of an area of 120 sq. m, for seeding by the surface method of a similar area only 64.3.5g of dry spores are required, which are gathered from a single aluminum flask (see the figure). (Begin pate) Cenolusiohe The new teehnology for the preparation and use of the seeding material in the form of dry spores has may advantages over the existing teOhnology? and consists of the followings 1) a preliminary control of the prepared seeding material is easily accomplished, which was not possible with the old technology' 2) it has become possible to store the prepared seeding material for a long time, and thus create a guaranteed reserve in the form of dry spores' tS) the florets of the guaranteed reserve of dry spores does not re, quire large holding capacities and special temperature conditions' 4) a convenience it transportation of dry spores sweetest a reel poso eibility for the centralization of Supply of the seeding material for all citric acid plants' 6) use of the surface seeding with dry spores reduces 16:20 tines the expenditure of the seeding material; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ACa The fast tempos of developmaent of the citric acid branch of pro- duction emphasite especially sharply the need for the quickest staving of the problem for the organization of production of dry spores Asnergialus piger in the to of a central spore station; which will supply all the existing and the newly constructed (atria said plants with the guaranteed sowing material' (1). Footnote (1) During the time of publication of this artiele, the sited method for dry spores and their utilization was introduced ire Leniragradekii and Rizikskii citric acid plants; now they are utilizing dry spores exs? olus ive ly ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 t- I f Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 %Ten cm rust) ? > ;l ? ihuravlevag R; I., Grinfelldp D. G., And Earklinleh,, R. Ia. Rattlional4naia tekhnologichealeis skhoma , proisvodetes lifter/not kieloty is rae1osey-(1). ARationalitechnologidal game_ for production Her citric acid from molasses]. Vsesoitan. Nadch.0Ideled. Inst. It:Miters/col. ProMyeh. Trudy, vol. 11, p.1290158. 1986. 389.9 T78 (In Russian) In the practice of the work of the citric acid plants, two basic sur- face methods are knoWn for the production of acid from molasses. 00101 which wee utilised by the Rishskii plant consists in that the tib* 9t the fungus Footnote (1). This work was carried out by the biochemistry laboratory of VEN/I (all0Union Confectionery Scientific Research Institute) together with the associates . of Deriuginskii and Rishskii planta producing citric aoid. The following Persons took part in the work, from VICNI/ 0 V. V; a? Aloksaftdrove T. S. Deviattva, LV. Wevoselovi, from the Deriuginekii plant 4 L. F. Sandler, A. L. Koraleve,4E; A. fetereviatnikova, Ps I. Proskuriakova, from the Richeltii plant 4 V. P. Agafonova, A.' A. Rumba, A. Probolte A; Paeglei V. K. Gail*. Restate bf experiments are given in the article. At the present time this scheme has been introduced into the Rithiskii plant for (Atria acid pros duotion where the work, conducted according to the new method, gives an overage yield of 600g of citric acid per day from a Square motor 'of the fermenting area. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans 4 Mae Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 atepergillus taker is first grown on a sugar nutrient medium, which 1.attst On Ss replaced by A specially treated :molasses solutions this again is re. tented as the fermentation proceeds; The change of the solution under the fibs is Made 4 to 5 times. The height of the layer of the solution is 2 cm!, With the second method, which bas found its utilisation in foteign refineries [1,2,00 the proceed ie conducted with A permanent, or continuous culture. Tile growth of the fungi and the fermentation are conducted on one and the sane molasses solution with a height of $ om of the fermenting layer; The characteristic peculiarity of the second method is the seeding of dty spores on the surface of the solution ard a continuous exchange Of air in the thither, Which is produced by blowing *sterile air over the eurface of the fungus film; During work with the multichingeable method at the Rielskii plant the average daily skimming; of citric acid from a square meter of the fermenting .-N area equal 680g: The yield of citric acid smouets to about 25% of the in?* troduoid auger of the moldiness With the work by the continuous method, se one can judge from some in- direct data cited in literature [1,2,5], Skimmings of citric Acid reached 650g from a square meter of the fermenting area per day, and the yield rAr -] 60% of the utilised sugar in the molasses; The comprieon of the two Methods, which was conducted under labors.. tory conditions, also showed a great advantage of the permanent method with the utilisation of high layers of the fermenting solution; That is 'why further work of the sesociatedirorkerS was directed to the study of this method g first to taster it, as later on in order to intensify it. We had two strains at our disposal* which were adapted to the tondi* a tions_of work with molasses (dtain_82_And _ Footnote (2). the numbering Is given in conformity with :that Which is used in the museium of pure cultures of MIL Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Both strains, under certain conditions of work on noladees Are highly 'active said formers. (Begin p.1301 Yost, as it was found out, Strain $2 is Mob more dehiitive to a difference in the composition of molasses, shd that Is why St gives better results when it is used it the work on a limited wither Of batches of Stades*. On the basis of thl* we ewes the etrain 90 for the work: In all laboratories and it factory experiments for surfaceseeding on solutions we utilised the dry *pores, which ware petered according to the method of Novonelova and Protodslakonor. The fermenting forte of various Opocimene of molasses. 14 tested 35 specimens of molateets among them 24 speolment from 11 sugar refineries of the Eureka Beet-sugar Trutt produced in the years 1951/$2, 1952/$3 and 1058/$4, and 10 specimens for the same years from Latvian sugar refineries. The obtained data showed a good fermenting force in the greater part of tested molasses specimens. The yield Of acid per day from each square meter of the fermenting area wad for them in the limit* of 700-1,800g0 comprising 60066% of the sugar content. Only one specimen, from smiting the tested ones, did not ferment (mos bests from the Derluginskii refinery, produced in 1962/$5, which was oho. tained from froeen and spoiled beets by an uniettled technological process of continuous diffusion of Kundjuliart), and three other specimens showed a low fermenting faros. The poor yield?, which were Obtained from the three specimens, relate to molasses which were produced during the end of the Operating period, and one of them during the work with RUndjulisolle 6/efts sion. Until the present time we could not yet find out the dependence of the (:: fermenting force of molasses on their chemical composition. This will be investigated ihrtheri Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 B C\ Certain results of the laboratory work on the intensification of the process. lnveetigation of the problem of the influence of sugar concentration, in the fermenting solution on the intensity of acid formation during the work with moleetes by the continuous method has shown that for the greeter part of tested, specimens of molesses0 when the Concentration of sugar ass increased from 16 to 17.540%a the Akimbo of acid from the fermenting arta iterated 16.40%. Moreover, the output of molasses increased insighifiCantlya and in certain caseda seen the greatest increase Of skimming* during the growth of the concentration of stager wan noted, its output oven decreased. lie investigated the question Of influence of the height of the ferment, tug layer daring the continuous culture on the intensity of the process. The height of the layer wee changed in the limits of 34 cm and 845 ems and it Its ascertained theta with the lowering of the height of the layer to 3 cm* skimming:a from the fermenting area decreased by 60%0 compared to the 'skimmings which were noted at an 0 cm height of the layer, tow ring the . layer to 4 em given a decrease in skimmingn to 30%0 and at 5 cm to 2544*0 The itiONMS6 or the height of the layer of the fermenting solution above 8 cm brings a futther,growth in skimmings, which increased especially for certain specimens of moleenet with a periodical stirring of the solution under the film. In individual laboratory experiments aiming of acid from 1 eq, came up to about 16000g per a 24-hour days A technological inntruction On the treatment of molasses end on the conducting of the process of fermentation was workid out on the basis of the (:: conducted laboratory experiments) the factory experiments Were then begun according to these inStructiont. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 818 r`a Results of factory experiments at Deriuginsk-ii refinery. An experimental est-up for the production of citric acid from mo- lasses by a permanent method of cultivation on high layers was outfitted on Derluginakii refinery. (Begin pi131]. The general sellout of the set-up is given in figure 1. Molasses are kept in enameled tanks 1 (holding capacity of each is 5 cnb, m.); from there it enters by gravity the tank thee syrup is boiled* and which is found in the general plant's syrup station. /to holding capacity is 1 cub. in. Mo- lasses, Which are somewhat diluted and heated* passing through ft trap 3* for the extraction of mechanical admixtures* are drawn by a pump 4 along special piping made of acid-resisting steel to* stsrilner of the experimental set-up 6. Title of figure 1. Technological scheme of the experimental *stomp in the Deriuginskii refinery. 1- storage tank for molasses, 2. syrup boilers 3. traps 4. centri- fugal pumps 5. steriliser; 6. fermenting chamber! 7. afortalinnie treceptable for formalinh 6. apparatus for the inflow of air for anti* lation. 4- storage tank for the fermented solution. Words in the figuree product line - a - a - -aa Stearn line water line Total holding capacity of the steriliser is 3 ctibe J. it is equipped with a stirrer* which is doing 15 revikini and spiral tubes for the supply of steam and water. The steriliser is connected* by a pipeline* to the filling system of the fermenting chatter. a In tin fermenting chamber there are two racks with 7 vessels in etch one. One reek is equipped with iron vessels* coated with Rubrax. The experiments were not conducted on this rack, The vessels of the second i" rack are made of acid.resisting steel* ne..1T brand* and their borders are built up* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 118 The site of the male Let length 3.6 14 width 1;8 ms surface 6.3 m. Height of the borders is 12 cm. The chamber is *quipped with an inflow ventilation system (see figure I) with a feed of sterilised air over the vessels; . The tank has a holding capacity of 1.6 oub, mj it Sr graduated and serves as a measuring tank for the fermented solutions; The solution is then pumped over into the chemical shop into the general storage tank; Twelve cycles of fermentation were conducted in the experiment eteamberj five different batches of molasses were tested. The process of treatment for each batehwis established separately in the laboratory (concentration of sue gar, doge of sulfuric acid, of potassium ferrooyanide of phosphoric acid) and was used subsequently. In all the experiments dry spores of Strain 90 were utilised/ Which were Obtained by the microbiologist of the Institute./ L; v. Nureeelove. The Seeding of the spores on the surface of the solution in the.veseels was accomplished by introducing them through the ventilation system. In all the experimentab ibcluding no. 10, the height of the solution 8 - lea 8 em, and in experiment no; 1143 - 11.5 cm; (Begin p.132]. A &vaults of the factory experiments at the Deriuginskii plant* are cited in table 1; In columns 201,8 are given average indicators for the *belabors and in columns 341607 a the beet obtained it the same cycle in different vessels (2)! Footnote (1); Cbeervations were conducted for each vessel 'separately. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '18 Table 1. Results of the work of the experimental chatter ii Deriugintkii refine7 Yield of citric acid Output of sugar for 1 t of in % from the sugar citric acid in fermented so- lutionein t maximum for a venal 1;90 1:61 2;08 148 2.84 1;68 1:61 1;74 1.66 No. of the cycle skimmings of citric told in gieq. m per 24-hour 'day average for the ohetber maximum for a vessel_ average for the _chathber maximum Average for for a the chamber vessel 5 4 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 316 698 646 621 874 744 1088 1440 1331 1366 22.7 953 a 1010 58;0 699 45;6 800 761 32;9 44;0 1507 64;8 1676 66;4 1494 626 1672 63.1 52;3 61;9 48:0 67.6 57.9 59;4 66:4 67;2 64.4 4.4 2.62 2:32 1: 90 5:04 2;27 1;83 1:77 1:90 1.88 Resulte, cited in table 1, thew that etarting with the 3rd cycle, the skimmings of citric acid increased, and in the no. 10 experiment' when working with a layer 8 cm high, they reached 1088g per one 24.hour day from S eq. m. of the fermenting area. Theresa of the height of the layer it experiment no. 11 to 114 cm, when working with the dame molasses, gave a growth in skimmings of citric acid from 1 sq. m. of the fermenting area up to 1440g per 24ahour day with an expenditure of 1.77 t of sugar in the molasses per 1 t of acid.' High yields of acid were also obtained in experiments 12 and 13, which were conducted with other molasses at a height of the layer of 11.6 cm. Data of observations of the yields obtained in separate vessels in the experiment cycles are also of great interest. They give an opportunity to judge about the future possibilities of this method. Already it the fourth cycle, on one of the vessels skimminge of the acid reached 963g, which was later substantiated by experiments at the Rithskii and Deriuginskii re- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Dec!assified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIAIRDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ale 4-1k, Sear fineries. During the 10th vele, with an 8 cm layer, on one of the 'easel* the Slimming* reached 1,800g, and with the 1166 om height ? 1,876g; ?hese figures point to the further possibility for an increase in the average skimmings when condition e for a uniform and a most favorable sit regime will be established. Results of the Dotory_experiments at he Rithskii refinery. Oe production chamber with one rack was re-equipped for the work with high layers for a changeless method of cultivation. The schematic drawing of the experimental, eh:abbe is given in figure 2. In this chamber a fermentation was systematically conducted according to the technological instruction, which warn drawn up on the basis of the first experimental cycles conducted in the Deriuginskii refinery. The work was done with dry spores of strain 90, which was prepared in the refinery according to the method of Novoselova e Protodsiankonev; The amount of sterile air, which was supplied into the ember, guaranteed an 8 to 12-fold exchange; Twelve cycles of fermentation were conducted in the experimental . . chambers their results are cited in table 2. [Begin p.138]; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001:7 ea Table 2. Results of the weft of the experimental chatber at the Richskii refinery No. of the cycle Skimmings of-oitrio acid in g/Sq. me per 24-hour day Yield of citric acid in % from sugar 1 890 46;5 2 1096 52:5 985 41;0 4 1020 47;2 5 916 44;1 940 392 1045 44;0 1032 42;6 9 970 37;7 10 616 29:6 11 636 33.4 12 1200 46;2 13 990 40.0 14 1260 47;6 average 961 41,2 Output of sugar per 1 t of oitrio acid in for. wanted eolu. tions-in t Reterks 2;15 1;91 2:44 2;19 2;27 256 2:24 2;34 2:76 842 3.2 2;16 2;60 2:10 2.48 ourtailed ex. change of air ot account of a de, Let in the ventilation eye stem As it is seen from table 2, the skimminge of citric acid from 1 eq.' m of the formatted Area in all cycle!, except 10 and lls wire in the limits of 900.1,20404.hour day. In *vies 10 and 11 the exchango_of air was insufficient (triple), which decreseed the skimmings to 600g. Title of figure 2. Scheme of the experimental chaMber. Words in figure 2s starting at the tops airapipet According tolteBg upper opening for air exhaust; nutrient lines point of light; opening for air **hetet: discharge line. According to 0 . D heaters remarkss details are not shown on the drawing. (Begin p.184] After that two more double rack chaMbers were re.equippeds which started Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 81.8 toworkaccording to the new method. Tho average data for each chaMbor Separately during the tine of work according to the new method are given in table S. Table 3; Average indicators for the work of chaMbers, working with hIgh inert and the continuous seethed; WOE or the chatber amount of cycles ustrie sow pro ducted in kg average uxammtng OA ; citric acid in gjecia! m. for A 24-hour day.i average vuvuu cm wAr. lasses auger per it of citric acid in t 10 11 Ila 12 12A Total 14 8 8 7 7 44 2072;0 11400 1051;8 11040 978 ;t 6 8346.2 961 on 859 .853 813 ? 890 2:46 2;53 2;148 259 2:78 2.53 Into tin average skimmings cited in table 3, are inserted all the agates, ineluding also those, Which were conducted with a lowered *Ade change of air; kffectiveneek oftraftefer of Deriuginskii refinery to the werlowith mos lasses according to the new technological scheme An increase in Skimmings of citric said from the fermenting ate& wee achieved with the conversion to production of Citric acid from masses with the work dens by a continuous method in high layers: During the existing method of work on auger the average daily skimmings of citric acid at the refinery from .1 eq. in. of the fermenting area for 11 months in 1953 cone etituted 862g. On the basis of the work of the expermental !chamberwith Molasses according to the new technological eerie, the skimmings of acid are eetablithed at 700g for the dompilation of the reconstruction project 4 with a possibility in the future to achieve 1,000g; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 318 r\ With a daily skimming of 700g with unavailable fermenting area of 6200 eq. in, the yearly capaeity of the refinery will be ihoreased two times and will reach 1,000 t. Simultaneously with thi4 with the conversion to the waitwith mo.. lasses, an increase is reached in the yield of citric acid free:the ex.. peeled auger, and, correspondingly, the expenditure of sugar is lowered. At the present time for 1 t of the acid 8.74 t of crystalline sugar is spent; when working with molasses the expenditure of the molasses sugar will be only 2;2 t. The average yearly economic effectiveness for the refinery witha con- version to the work with molasses will constitute 27,110 thousand rubles. Basle indicators of the teohnical0econemidal effectiveness of the deo. version:of the Beriuginskii refinery to the work with molasses aro cited in table 4; table 4; Basic technicalseconomical indicators of effectiveness of conversion Of Detiugleskii_refine tb_thawokisith releases. /unit ? Niue of indicators . of matures sent : With ihe existing scheme Working with molasees Productivity of the plant per year t 500 ! 1000 Expenditure of sugar per 1 t of acid a 8.74 0 Expenditure of Our per year* 1870 ! Expenditure of molasees per 1 t of mad a 0 4;6 Expenditure of molasses per year - i a ? 4600 Skimmings of citric acid from 1 sq. in. of fermenting area per 24-hour day s 362 700 Expenditure of fuel per 1 t of acid t 21:82 15:0 Expenditure of inatipOwer fitifrbdays 125;6 95.4 Coat price of 1 t of citric acid % 100 54 (Begin p;1851 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 118 Effectiveness of transfer of Rishekii plant to the work according to the netteohnological sobers._ _ _ _ _ The Rishitkii plant for citric acid production worked by utilising molasses in a multichengeable method with lar layers. Its transfer to the work according to the new scheme will brin4about a double increase in productive* nese of the flints as well am a considerable reduction in the expenditure Of' 'maenad; The baftic tachnioaleeoonomical indicators of effectiveness in the trans- fer of the plant to the work with a permanent method of fermentation with high layers are cited in table 5. Table 5; Basic teehnioalteoonomic indicators of effectiveness of transfer of Rithskii plant to the work with the pernanent me hod 'Hems of indicators Unit of measurement With the existing scheme Utilizing the pore taunt me* thod Productivity of' the plant per year t 57 100 Expenditure of masons (46%) per 1 t' of citric acid * 9:08 0.0 Expenditure of molasses per year " 3176 570 Experuditure of sugar per 1 t of citric staid " 0i27 a . Parpenditure of sugar per year ". 15.39 ... Skimmings of citric acid from 1 sq. m. of' fermentitus area per a 24-hour day g 346 700 Expenditure of fuel per 1 t of citric acid t 19.6 16.0 Cost price of I t of citric acid $ 100 es Conclusions Sigh yields of citric acid were obtained in laboratory and plant ex- periments at the Deriuginskii and Ristrikii plants when work was done with moliteses in high layers and with changeless' culture.: Stable average daily skitmings of acid of 9004,000g from 1 sq. m of the fermenting area, with a yield of 50.55% of the reassess sugar, were Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Creached under plant conditions; The obtained skimminge exceed two times those obtained now with the . work on illgart which will permit doubling the output of the acting plants; Release of a considerable *mount of sugar for the consumption of the population Will become poseible after a transfer to the production of citric acid from molasses. Reduction of the cost price of 1 ton of acid by almost 66% was achieved through the change from auger to molasses with a simultaneous doubling of the output of citric acid by the plant. The conducted work gives sufficient reason to recommend that all citric &Old producing plants which are Using the surface method, change to the work with molastea; Literature used 1; Production of citric acid from beet molasses in Germany, tntent, tions.1 sugar journal# 1949# 51# 300403. 2, R: 11; Gottwald# 2itronenskurefabrication# &toter, 1952# Bp 300401. 3; 4; L. Ikull# Microbiological production of citric sold, ReSeatch# 1953# Bp $# 06.91. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7? . A.814 ? -(I71?jull) vgA t .Risares, V. E:a And Zhilkina, y. Nakuru& PodmOskovneia, [Podmoskovnaia gaisel? Selektsiia 1 Semenovedstvos val. 21, no: 5, pp?616.53 1956. 61?9 8e5 On Russian) 144 began matte selection work. in the year 1950, in this unfavorable year, as regards conditions of vegetation, ears natured on only SOS of the plant* of the earlier ripening Siberian mite varieties. Sibliiachks, (Siberian) Minn-sinks, Beloiaroe psheno (White Spring Millet] and.othert; in 0 the nonschernorem belt, the growth and development of nsisirprocteeded in' peculiar ranner? In the South, the leaves and Otani dry up teen after the grain of miles halt reached ripeness, yet in the varieties which succeed it maturing grain in the non.ehernenta belt, the stems and leaves renai4 greet and succulent and are entirely adequate for silage, Taking these charao.t Lteristios into consideration, we endeavored to develop a maize variety that would nature grains would grow sufficiently tall and would produce a good yield of green sass under conditions prevalent in the vicinity of Moscow. Rxperimente have demonstrated that Sibirianyariaties would naks valw table material for the production of varieties that 'would ripen in the nons (Antoniabelt. The plants of these varieties were, however, distinguished ? by low growth (from 60 cm up to 1 n) and, therefore, could not be utilised for grain thil eilage;- [Begin p.621 ?1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Dedlassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 19 ?4?449 f-? In the spring of 1950 we crossed losagrowing Siberian matte varieties with tall-growing southertivarieties. The Siberian varieties were pane. nated.primarily with the pollen of the Milan Belaiatbovidnala (White Dent). aternal and paternel varieties were &fawn in a greenhouse. Li that year the Kharkov Bettie Iubovidnala raise seeded in the field did not even produce tassels; . The first generation of hybrids-were seeded in 19810 a typical yetr ad regards temperature conditiobei their veterant varieties bed been Minusitika Shelton/n*1a (Yellow-grained Winusinktis Minusinka Beloternaia initeagrained Minusin)al, Sleivgorodskaia 270 [Slanorod a Slav City) and Ranni;it (garly)s and_ the paternal varieties ittarkovektia Solids Zubovidnaia (Sharkovlihite Dent) and Chakinskaia Zhemehuthina IChakintk pearl). We emended in selecting a considerable weber of ears inthewax stage which completed their ripening in the laboratory. The results of the work, however, failed to satiety umv contrary to our expeotationss the height of the hybrid plants differed but little from that of the *sternal early ripening varieties and did not exceed 157 mt. The ears were also sot lowi similar to those of the Siberian early ripening. The expected flare of heterosis was Scarcely to be observed, apparently* increasing the mehifeea tenon of the saterhal inheritance was stronger.' These observations gave us the idea that to obtain hybrid seed by arousing Siberian early ripening varieties with southern mite varieties., it would be more desirable to use southern varieties as the *sternal forts; tIllustrationls Mate ear of the Podmoskovnaia variety.' The same year we planted seed of the Dteprepetrovsktia vmrietitsit 24 280 27s 28, and 29, sill of the Severianke tveriety) obtained from Prof. B. P. Sokolov. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 319 tn. The plants of these varieties werasufficiently tell and they ripened under conditions of the Moscow Oblast; the Severianka variety which commenced ripening earlier than the others (Septetber 12) was especially outstanding among them: However* under conditions of the Moscow vioinity* Severianka was far from a uniform population. The time of ripening varied in the plants considerably and the form of the an varied also: It is interesting that the plants of the Sever tans variety are short under conditions of the Dns* propotrovsk Chlaete Obviously* the plant& acquired their height under the conditions of the Moscow vicinity as a result of having been exposed to the influence of a long day. We used the comparatively early ripening* tall and large eared (up to 26 cm) Severianka variety as initial material indevelopinga raise variety for the Moscow Oblast, In the years. 1951, 1952* and 195$ the Severianka as crossepollinated (open pollinated) with the hybrids previously obtained* their parental forms and with varieties from the Institute of Wise. Prom the population obtained* we, every year conducted a simultaneous masa selection of tall* early maturing plants with uniform ears* ami with good productivity of grain and green mad: We named thv variety population thus obtained the Podmoskovnaia. According to1955 data* the average height of the plants of the new variety was 166.4 cm (fluctuating from 134 to 210 am), the ear as formed at an average height of St cia (from 24 to 48 cm) and its length averages 17.4 cm (from 11 to 29 cm): we tote for comparison (Begin p.531 't/at the average length of ears of the hybrids (Obtained from) Minusinla nharkova ekaia Dela% Zubovidnaia its 14.5 cm* Pervenets (Firstling) 12.4* the variety Dnepropetrovskaia 26 - 14.5 cm. That year Podmoskovnitia began to mature at the end of August and by September 20 65Z1 of the ears lad attained foil maturity, the rest of the ears were beervested in the railkinitx Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 19 stage* In 1954, seed of the Podtmektenaia variety from the 1953 selection were seeded an the Kolhos itsent Xkkarovs 2venigorodsk Districts *goo* Oblset (experimental base of the Faculty oft Darwinism of the tacos State University)* The summer and autumn of that year were considerablywarmer . than usually and 94.7% of the Mears of Podmosktec;elia mime bad matured in the second decade of Septerber (Sept? 11.401; In the cane of the Voronethstaia 78 raises leach had served as a standard variety in the experiments 82:8% of the ears had ripened by the same time, In developing Podrosktvnaia raises we, apart from the usual selections conducted in 1958 oomparatively important work to determine the variation of such basic characteristics in a variety as the nutter of day* from oft* piste germination up to the appearanee of male inflorescence and of stigmees in female inflorescences height of the plants, height at which the ear is set and also the length of the tar; Three hundred misty eight typical plants had Seen selected for this purpose. three hundred Omuta were measured for mathematical analysis. With regard to the vegetative periods Podreskaveala proved to be a fairly uniform population; The Coefficient of Variation - number of day* fretful/ germination until the emergence of stigmas - in female inflOreeceace - *routed. to 7%s and until the emergence of male inflorescetee to ? 10.0%. Coefficient of 'Variation of the height of plants of the now variety is also *mall - As to the height of ear placement (31 cm), the new variety population proved to be very lacking in uniformity. The Coefficient of Variation for this character amounted to 79%. In the initial Severianka variety the average height of ears Con the standy*1s on the averages 34 em (from 24 to 48 cm).; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (5) Trate A?419 towering of the height of ear placement in Podaoskovnaia is this to the not that the initial variety was croisvpollinated with short Siberian early ripening [varieties) and their )ride) Selection for this !character was not conducted: In working with this variety in the will be necessary to pay special attention to this economically important characteristic during selection; The Coefficient of Variation of ear length was comparatively high v 14:0* therefor. selection for oar length must *leo be continued: Seed from eats selected in the year 1954 (absolute weight 226 gt4 04000 kernels)) were planted in 1956 on the experimental plot of the Institute of Crain Economy together with these selected in 1953 (absolute weight 4.4 234v): the maize was seeded on lay 25 using the 70 x 70 check-row method* leaving two pleats in each hill. Immediately after the planting cold weather set ira, and full germanstion was noted only on June 1$: Podmoskovnaia began to ripen during the first decade of September (Sept: 140): On September 230 matte was harvested one an experimental plot measuring 100 sq; is* The yield of green mass (stems* loaves and husks) of Tedmoskovnaia on a hectare" basis tamtaanted to 151 oentners, ears (without husks) to 59 tentneral 67% of them attained maturity* the rest were in the milk-wax stage and in wax ripeness* . In 1955* Podmoskovnaia maize was seeded for propagation on the Mathes imeni Mskerov* Zvehigorodsk District* Moscow Oblast* and it the Volokolamek experimental field* Institut zernovogo khoziaistva tsentraltnykh raionov necher. nozemnoi polosy. [Institute of Grain Economy of the Central Regions in the lionaChernosem Real Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1.020 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R0103000300;00_1-7eun) C ? NUreanovo AG In 0tvoonie rasteniami uglekieloty chores kormevuiu optima. thosimilation of carbon dioxide-by plants through thafect opts,: Mad; WOMB Met; Pistol; Rest. Ed. ?Writer's; Trudy, no 10, p.150.165; 10115 461 dk10 (Upsilon) . , The subjoct tenpind on in this apart deals with the entry of 00$ and of oartotatoo into the plant through the root irlitlattna Usti; at the first sights sanel direst sonnestion to the guestiom of photorpthesis. Yet, it proved to be that earbon dioxide, whiolivas abscrbod:by the roots, 'entered very rapidly into the composition of orienta oespounis without the partiolpetion of light, was transferred to the aselailating tissues and utilised tbers on a per with earbon dicsAite tram. the air for the roma. tion of augers sniff tether products of photosynthesis. ? dines the time when the ability of groom plants to assimilate CDa from the air was diamond, As wall as to build from it the organic part of their bodices, the studies of this proms pr000edod almost entiroly troathe point of vivo of *ale nutrition of lints, without taking into sonsidoration,the possibility of entry of 002 or of arboottos &maths soil throuetthe root system; , Insuffisisnt *imam of the problem ot utilisation of COA from the soil led to a certain underestimation of that's).* of humus and of the biologisal prosoos in the soil tor the crops, and as troll semi as a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ?want.. sawqo Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 s-o 'basis for a too bilis& an undirstanding of prOblomi and of possibilitios for utilisation of mineral fertilises. lbanehile, direct oxporimental date, obtained far the last 20 years, shoe the passibility of entry of 012 to the loaves through the out stems (Shprevieh, 1,40) and through the roOte (Bergemaseni, 19291 Opartott? 195$, WU', 19291 Ovorstroot, Robson, Omer, 1940). tinfortunately, these works did not draw any due attention of botanists and of agriculturists and remelted elms* Un- known. ? Marry idlislitleh are very rich in carbonates, and whioh also are characterised by an energatio mierobiologioal activity, essentially are on instaustible aurae, of carbon diexids; it is atria:oat to mind, that in the soil air there is sentliesd from 0;5 to 1;21% of 002? which is, on the average, 100 times more than in the fret *it. The soil solution, especially with a neutral rotation, proem to be saturated with carbon dioxide under these eonditions? and, consequently, contains about 1 L. CQ % per each liter of solution. To this one should add the soluble end the insoluble oarbonatoe, shish inoreese many Uses the stores of CC% which are available to the plants, est it sots toms, that it is enough to recall an anolont school experiment with the corro- sion of the polished surf**, of the marble by the plant roots, in order to becomo convinced of the availability of this source of carbon dioxide to the root system. Weald it not then be 'oath's to examine from this point of vier also the liming of said soils, which in many eaves tells so favorably on the yield, (begirt pASIJ as a method, which le directed to the intensis. fieation cloarbonate nutrition of plants through the roots? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .. I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300630001-7a 410 4 ? I' ? Issuing from all these considerations, we began, in 1931, a dev tailed study of the problem of nutrition at plant, with carbon dioxide throughtbe roots. AlreatPthe first experiments (ftreaner, IUsin, hemuls, len) have shown, that the 2340 day old been plants, whose roots were submerged bon to the nutrient solution with an addition oft small amount of MaWag, absorb the earborate with their roots and bamboo:ate it into the Imes and ether organs, ober* 001, which entered through the roots, is utilised in the light in the press ot photesytthesis. The *inasone taxasontaneti of sugars, *Soh were isolated from sueh leaves, ocatained carbon isotope C14, and this served as a direst proof of the availability be the plants of carbon dioxide. Teta the nature ot the cited phenomena needed further investigation and first of all a determination of the speeifie value of this source of carbon in the total nutrition of plants. It would be quite natural to expect that the carbonates or tker free CO2 are eueked in by the roots together with the eciter.atd further on ere earned eway by the transpiration streasito the leaves. order to prove this assumption a undertook some experiment', when for the same plants, Ohne :vets were submerged in a 'elation of earbonates, steals teesously were ealoulated the ammunt or carbon dioxide, abierbed from the solution, and the amount of water sucked in (Ihrsanov, Trulicova? Tartapetian, MO). Tatmples are cited in table 1. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 *atone_ A1/2820 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Absorption Of ci- Table 1. on dioxide by the roots trot the solution and suction of eater c mg or 9 minu 911/ ?Sources of COg Plants : , , contents of .002 in 100 ml Of solution Absorbs ed CO2 1 , -Atter sucked in I Amount of CO2 corns i eponding to sucked In ester Calculated .,C9e__ , Absorbed CO2 IMMOOs Mean* s 15 SY* 22.4 ise 2fo Oa 1E23 old , xincos 7iti5 H2.5 520 0.40 2*6 Nil% Sunflower s 20 &Pi old a 74,4 lid 660 0.42 1t4 . CO2 Beate s 15 dayAold 58;1 7:0 260 1 036 1t53 ' 84.1 5.3 210 WO WO Comparison of these values has shown thet the *count of &barbed carbonate by tin been roots fromwater is tavern! times higher than could be 'expected on the basis of the volume of the sucked in 'wide Absorption by the roots of free COg dissolved in water proceeds, aps patently, Oven faster. All this leads to *ft ittyktent conclusion that the absorption of carbon dioxide end of oarbotated by the rents is an active metabblical process* *hi& is not linked directly to the entry of voter: We utilised sodium carbonate end freermarbon dioxide, tontSining C24, for the calculation or the speed of movement of carbon dioxide It the vitiate. in the first ease bean pleats were San fled by their roots into a 0.02% solution of Sw2 00215, shibh Contained redicestive carbon in the seount of about 0.6 pse per 10 ml, in the mond oats the roots eerie placed in a dosed atmosphere, which contained 34% of peens CO2 with the can radioactivity. In all eases netearts were adopted, chith excluded * possibility (Begin p.1621 of a free diffusion of 01402 to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 IAA efti21411 14420 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Leaves through the surrounding sir, The leaves remained illuas tAtedi while the stamen shade with tin foil. After different in* Urals of tine tram the upper pair of leaves discs we7re out bps borer, 'and they were (tined by t counting tube for the presence of tagged esrboh-; The obtained results can be Illustrated, by tato instances whiCh its cited in Anne 2.4. Table 2, peed of entry of 014 into the leaves of bean pleats through the roots (in eountsimin per lain) Time Sources of carbon dioxide min. MagOing elect time, 6 10 15 Sources or carbon dioxide lis0150g 0i4Og 10 21 7 24 '20 26 30 3$ 21 66 62 'Prez these data It is seen thtt ths speed of transiceation of O14 Along tho plant is such that already int few minute's after the feenttet of roots with the :O*SbOSS1 Sod eispeoitily with CO2, the carbon isotope de disontered (this phrase continues after able 3) Table 56 Distribution of 014 in 1.54api old ban plants depending on the illumis nation of the stet, __-_____ ___(ihoonnte/an per lei Of grin sret(ht) _ arts o plants sten illuminated stem shaded Stem 52,70 1557 Leaf Lower 0 960 middle 360 1600 upper 0 2503 Roots an immersed in a 0 00* solution of gagsleogg duration of the experiment is 3 hrs., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 M Trines 1.120 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ,drn? in the upper pair of leaves* that is in the given casecet distance or 1840 ca from the roots. But the movement of CO2. or of earbonetet into different organs of the plant proceeds unevenly; Zn particular* if the stem containe ehlorophyll (se* for instance* in bean plants) and is subjected to illumination* then the greeter part of the moving carbon dioxide is.Rintercepted" by the green tells of the sten* without reaching the leaves* Then the item is eshaded, the carbonates or 002 pees it un. impeded and rush mainly into the not quite fully opened pair of leaves* and only later on begin to aeoumulate in the grown leaves* which are sit. tutted beneath; In table it cited an experiment with twobeanplants* where one plant hid an liluminited stem* and the ether shaded with tin foil; (Begin p.1501*, Thi accumulation of 014 in the illuminated stem le more graphically sheen oft the radicautographs* whin are Aids fro* plants *MO received a (*ebonite with t tagged carbon through the roots* as in the foregoing experiment* Title of figure 1: Radieiutograph of 1204aye oil ban plants* Which received19041 for 2 hours through the roots* ' A. the stele Ramis:tadsS. the stem is shaded* Prom figure 1 it is seen* tint in a normally illuminated plant (i) the greater part of the heavy carbon is concentrating in the root( and in the middle part of the stems which is the most rich in thlero. phyll* 014 is found higher than this plump in only ineignifioant amounts* mainly in the leaf potiels: When the central part of the stem 03) is Shaded then the tagged !carbon does not stop there* but reaches the leaves* where it aceneulites inconsiderable amounts: We do not knowyet theme tissues along *hick the eafbonatee or carbon .dioxide* absorbed by the roots* ars taking their course into the leaves* Yet* judging from raditautograptes this course does not proceed Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) Trans. A.620 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 -? ??? ? ? ? o' along ths Cult thloknels of the stem, but vainly along definite:lines, corresponding to the ovine of the vesoularetilamentous bundles: Dates cited in tents $ and in figure 1, permit one to undsrstand better the biological important* of chlorophyll, which is produced to constantly it the item of many plants, notwithetanding the poor adage tability of theeoutinteild stems for the utilisation of CO2 from the "surrounding air: In Ms light of the conducted experiments the role of chlorophyll in th6 eta* must, (Begin p.1641 pretty, consist in the assimilation of CON whieh enters through the roots, whet utdoubtodly the *transportation expenses' of the plant for the tronslcostion of nutrients from the loaves into ether organs. The mond, and probably not less important circumstance, conneoted with the present. of Ohlorophyll in the stems, oonsisto in the formation of a largo amount of oxygen during this assimnlation of CO2 within thole organs. The twscular.filamentous bundles, etich aro enclosed into tissues wherein the air enters with diffieulty, need this oxygen to uphold their rather intensive rispiration (dureanov and turkina$ 1952). / As it has been flown already (so table 1) absorption by the roots of Cog or of carbonates proceeds independently of the suction of water; At the eats tins, illustration of leaves sharply incrieses'the flow of carbon dioxide to theft from the Boit This can be illustrated by an ;experiment, which is schematieally presented in figcre 2,. Where the ace ousalation of CIAI by .bean plants wee evaluated depending on the Mullis nation of the leaves* For elimination of the competing activity of the stem in experiment, with illwrinated lance the stea was isolated fres light (flows 3)1i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (8) ?Pant. A4120 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ight ( gore Title of figure 2. Influsase of light on the accumulation of d14 in 100day5 old bean plants from the solution Ma201403.: Exposure . 2 hours. A . leave* are illuminatedi 8? Darkness. The figuree oar. respond to the number of impulse* per minute. The mechanism of Migration of carbon dioxide in the planths* not been studied fully yetj we also do net knew those tissues along which it Woe its ?aurae into the learn.. Yet, we found out. that CO2 or the carbonate, which ii ebiorbed by the roots1 almost ihstantly is converted end without the part et Dation of light, into time kinds of organic cOmpounds, in the form of Which CO2 then sake* its way to the itestaitatitig tissuehe(turit4 Menne**, 10621 Ibrabov, itinkon and Puthkereva..1953):- The nature of these substation . conductors of CO2 ..begins to be elated up. Om can 'ascertain that in this 61100 the introduction of CO2 takes place in a ftsturs of a carboryl group into the organic Acids Which then move Meng the Toothed* (I). Later experiment* have shown that in darknele the greater part of carbon dioxide1 which enters the leaves from the roots, is thrown off by the leaf blades into the surrounding Sr. That is why ob figure 2 one should have indicated the amount of ent which is given off by the inns, With such a correction the total amount Of Pp. which entered iinto the-plant in darkness and in the light will prove to he not as different. Declassified_and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 20 s?Sit As 1 plc*. This takes it probablo thatcarbondioxide, stitch Si absorbed by the roots from the salt, uovei liko the other organic subttehott along the phis*. the closest acquaintance with this fora of orglinioally fixed 002, shiCh trim before tit* act of photosynthesis, Dinh* of groat intortst also for understanding the dark phase of photosynthosin etch precodia the **Instal of carbon dioxide. Thun the utilisation of carbon dioxide by tho plant free the soil appears to be quits a oceplicatsd physiological prompts, about the exits tones of which we did not knp. before. fits spocific value of ?Oben dioxide, *doh enters through the roots, oan differ fer the ward metabolisaand, in particular, for the cartoon nutrition of plants des pending on the conditions of existence, as tell as on the kind and ego of the plant. Institute of Physiology of Plants in the a of I. A: Timiriesev of the Matra of Science in MR. bogie p4255)1 IMPA1331 rutin A. 11.1 etrionova, V. I. sod UMW 114 V., IOU. About the initiation of carbon atIldride by plant roots. LAY 835k, v. ON no. :3. KuprovioN V. P., 1940. About the tssiellation of carbon dioxide by Lk* plant from the soil solution during the process of phetceynthosie. Sov.'betin., v. 1. " ihrsanon A. L4 LION A. Mt AM Mewls Th. Yee 1054 About the possibility of assiudlation by the plants of carbonation which - inter together with thi sill solution. MA SUR; v. 79, no, 4. torsenon A. L. trinkova, X. I. and Vartapetian,B. 3., 1962., Wis ' potion in the plant ord.:Arbon dioxide, 'kith enters through the roots. CAN Van vi 113, no. 4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 20 tureanov, A. 14 and Turkins, IL V., 1952. Respiration of vassular* filamentous bundles. DAR-888R, v. 84, no. 5. Innen% A1 L. and Turkina, IG V., 1952. Respiration of vascular tissue and the migration of secherese. mama v. $5, no. 15. Kureanov- A. L. triukoa, S. N. and Pekkarerva, M. IL, 1953. Dark fixtion and release of-carbon dioxide, entering the plants through the roots. DO 888R, v. an, 937440. tehsetkin, Ps and Borodulini, A4-1951. Role of carbon feeding in faitebearing of -cotton. Isv.AIIVORR, no. 2. Deriamasehi, 168 1929. Bull asserbimento del hloseido Li erbonio per opera elle radicine culla sur anise:ion* Mitt fotosintesi chloros fillians. Atti Is% Dot. R. Univ. Pavia, 4, 1. Walt O., 1939. pis Bedeutudi der Bodenkohlensture /LIP die inns Manse. &high wise. Sot., U. 87. ?Parket% o, 1938. tiber-die Annaba" von Rehleugure dare die inrsoln grUner Pflansen. Zip; f. Oita% &tombs; ad, S. Overstreet, 1.? Rubes, IL, and Bayer, T., 1940. The absorption of bicarbonate ion by -barley plants as indicated by studies with radioactive carbon. Prods Salon. Ana. of Selene% v; N. Mass J., 1882. 'triennia Ober Pflansenphysielogie, Lpt.' Senate, J., Ome B. Rabinovich, Photosynthesis, 1951, IL it. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 9 Kursanov, A. L. Usvoenie rasteniami uglekisloty cherez kornevuiu systemu. (Assimilation of carbon dioxide by plants through the root system). Akad. Nauk SSSR Inst. Fiziol. East. in. K. A. Timiriazeva. Trudy, no. 10, p. 150-155. 1955 451 Ak16 (In Russian) c) a.-di This paper summarizes work on the entry of CO2 or bicarbonate into the plant through the root system and its incorporation into plant tissues through photosynthesis or dark fixation. The findings result from the use of C14 enriched CO2 and would appear to be reasonably well supported. The data accompanying this paper are somewhat scanty, but it is of the nature of a review with references to primary publications. The Soviet work seems to be largely original and not a duplication of studies elsewhere. This topic has been neglected by U. S. workers. Quantitatively, the phenomenon is not important, but physiologically it is of considerable interest. The rapidity of fixation of root-presented CO2. is surprising. The suggestion that much ofrthe CO2 involvedl.ixi the epidermal tissues of the stems of plants may come from the root is novel. An unexplained feature of these phenomena is the mechanism of translocation or migration of CO2. It is suggested that there is some type of dark fixation in the root to a metabolic intermediate which is then transported to the photosynthelizing zones. A. G. Norman Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 wraps. AsO21 (in full) vS/0 Arkhangsliskiivrev: P: 0 bortbe a golOwneine tselinnykh semliekh. [About :the contrOlkof smut on virgin lands]: Zeshoh. Rest;. ot Vfsd. 1 Boloinei* no; 4* p064. 1956. ' 421 21 (InRussian) _ ? ?fie infection of grain crops by smut fungus increased of late in the north-eastern ?bleats of Keselphsten; Outbreaks in the growth of smut were marked before also. espeoially during the ter years end the few hilt years Miter Ito when the control of teat was neglected: In 1946* for iftstanne. 116:5 thousand be of. grain crops were condemned on account of smut in the sii north-eastern ?blasts: ekmolins, sksieis garegandIntkaia. Tokohetevskeia* Metabeiskeia. Pewlodarskaie and Severo4retakhstanskais. or 14% of the epprobeted tree. ' During the followingvars. owing to the eysteratic dieinfectioneb aa well as the introduction of sAntsresistitg varieties the infection of crops by this disease decreased* but then it increased stein: Thug* if in 1952 2:21g of crops were condemned onaccount of smut infection, then in 1953 it was 4:60%, and in 2954 *beady 6:90* or 150 thousand is, and the amount of ;seedsishich were infected with emut boils was double of that of the preA ceding year: Demo. which is caused by smut can be determined only approximately; If One assumes an enrage yield to be 10 .0 toenteer 100 kg 220:46 lbs) ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 -621 per ha and the infection of plantings with nut at 5%. then the lose of grain from the full area of plantings in all six cited ()blasts in 1954 will be 7.6 thousand o. But for this calculation only the approbated area as considered and the minisi percentage of infection was taken* The actual losses from the whole area of plants are, undoubtedly, several times higher. In 1954 the lose on account Of smut comprised at least 200 thousand o of grain. Yet no Ohl le seriously occupied with the prevention of these losses. In the six cited oblasts of Kazakhstan there are 1.265 kolkholes. They are plantings over 660 thousand t of seeds of gra ft crops.' the time available for the treatmont of those geode is a little over one month be.: cause of the weather and other conditions before sowing time. In order to disinfect in the course of 30 days such an amount of Seeds one requires 1690 seed treatment machibee PIM, taking into consideration their average daily productive capacity about 15 t. But actually there are only 456 machines avatleble. And this nunber is certainly quite inadequate. The same situation exists also in the remaining ?blasts of the res public, and sometimes even eyrie. &re, for instance. is ?hat the egris oulturists of the Shemotaikhintkoi MTS, of the Vostoahnoslatakhstanskoi oblast', N. Bfremov. 8.1Kusnetrov and T. Da. dulita write: "..., We have no resources to disinfect our seeds properly. Neither in kolkhozes, or in NIS there are no Special reachinezy. The seeds must be treated in ordinary barrels by hand, which leads to e.great expenditure of man power, and often to a poor quality of disinfection. We staked repeatedly the Oblast, Des partment and the anistry of Agriculture of the Republic to furnish us with the required number of machines for the disinfection of seeds, but nothing brought results.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .821 (IN The min Government inspection On the Quarantine end the Protection of Plants of i6Eh 6SSR (Depar?tmint of Agriculture of ussnl not only did not teke ta firm positionetomarde science in requiring to build a needed die. infection machine, but also permitted the most powerful dieinfection machine PU.1 to be in off production of the Union factoried and its production was entrusted to separate republics. One can judge of the results Of this decieion by the example of Kazakhstan: Yet0 in July 1953 the Soviet of Ministers of USSR entrusted the Soviet of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR to provide for S produotion in the republic of the seed treatment machines PU.It 300 machines in 1963? 1,000 in 1964, and In 1956 for the 196 kolkhosen of the Vostochno.Kazakbetansksia Oblast( there were altogether 52 seed treatment machines PU.10 and during the 110t two years only 16 PU.1 machines were brought in: What are the prospects for the meohenization of seed treatment work? Unfortunately* this problem did not find its full solution either in the work _? of the operative orgenizatione0 or in tbe scientific Mies: VfIR (All-Union institute for the Protection of ',lentil is conatrueting an attaohment to a combine for the treatment of seeds; Will this fully ? solve the question about the mechanisation of disinfection? Certain:1y not: Several NTS will make these homemade atteohmente and that will be ell: A construction of ft highly productive disinfection echine is needed, It would be best if a seed treatment machine was (Begin p:71 linked to the seeder: A quick release of highly productive Seed treatment machineals needed: ? 1,000 in 1066: The Soviet of Ministers in Kazikh SSR mitigated the Soviet of Industrial Cooperation with the organization of production or PU4 in local workmen's aesociations: The Soviet of Industrial Cooperation charged the *teal . ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 321 alletallist" of the Djambullekii eblasto Production Soviet with this job: The artel; which did not have etiquette equipment nor buildings for the production; A after many discrepancies over the lack Of metal and of parts (Genoa chain); SM so on nevertheless mastered the production of PU-1. During the the Sit year production of machines was organised and 700 machines were shipped to different republics according to the order of Ian SS6R. 340 machines were shipped to Rasalch SSR oblasto in 1956i during the first quarter Of 1956 ? 428 machines were shipped (those which remained undelivered from the 1955 plan,, Senni?homezade production was, of course, reflected in the cost Of the machine, which was 700 rubles, whereas in 1950 this machine had a price of 580 rubles at the Union's mills (the price is given without the addition charged by Sellkhosenab (Orris* of Agricultural Supply]). Its 1956; according to the annual plan of supply, no disinfecting machines were shipped to Kazakhstan ? the Ministry of Agriculture of USSR forgot about them: This is the situation with the. disinfeoting machines, and; as it is known; the dry seed treatment can only, be done properly by machines: It is no ule even of speaking about ditinfeotion by formalin under the conditions of planting on virgin lands of the north?eastern obbasts of the litatikkh SSR: Over 650 thousand t of abode must be sae in a most brief time; the basic mass ? during the course of 10 days. The organization of fl moist disinfec? tion and deying of such an amount of seeds during an extremely unsettled weather; which is usual for the spring period in the north?eisterntante; are in a period of 3?5 days before sowing ? its a problem which cannot cite a000mplisheri. The chemicals for disinfection are not delivered annually in their full volume to the north-eastern oblaets. And every year after the end of plantings in the warehouses of Selekhozenab there are left considerable stooks of dist. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans. A-821 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 eeN infectants: The kolkhosee do not select any disinfOotant materials, and those which buy inmost oases conduct their disinfection by shoveling up the seeds and the disinfecting materials within the body of their can, or in boxes of the seeders, and so on, which, in feet, is only an appearance of ditinfection: Treatment of seeds of all grain crops, as a bail() link in the system for the oontrol of smut, in view of such a situation becomes more and more disoredited in the eyed of the members of kolkhosee and of agriculturists and already is not a required egrioultural measure, as it was before the war or during the period of the first few years after the Great Patriotic Such a situation is pregnant with dangerous coneequences ? with a sharp, all increasing infection of grain crop plantings by mint; a situation which we already observe. 'Oat is it that can change the situation? Pint of all, the attitude to the governmental system of measures for the control of smut.' There should be given an actual authority to the governmental systems And, for this purpose, oonditione MO be *rated under which the seed treatment works tan be filled in the necessary period of time and be of high quality: One must have an adequate number of highly qualified seed treatment machine* and effective dry disinfectants: One must strive for an actual responsibility on the part of farm leaders for an ac- curate carrying out of the syetem of measure* for the control Of smut: Secondlphregulation of seed growing: When the seeding area of each kolkhos will be provided with healthy seed materiel, which is free of emut and which was grown under high agroteohnical conditions, one should assume, that the problem of control of smut will be solved very fast and with pro* fit to the production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .821 Adminietratioit for the ProteetiOtt of .P1ante Of the Depaettzeyit of Atria culture of Kazakh SSE Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030003000I-7 use a=822 An" vtostract) vg/M? Ruchaeva, A; G. Antibiotiki kak.srodotvo borlby 5 sabolevaniem vinograddaoi lozy milfdliu. (Antibiotics in the control of grape miidew); - 0 . Ated. Nat* USR: Vest., v. 26, no, 12, )-43,664. Boo. 1966. 811 Al14V (1n Russian) it was necediarys first of all, to find antibioties which are able to deproso fungi Plaemopara viticola. Bowater, culture of the mildew's pathogenns not as yet detained by anyOns: Thus other meant had to be found. They used the mycelium, which was forma:1ton the leaves of the in. fected,plents, for an artificial infection 'of the planti'in order to cause, at will, mildew on healthy leaves of seedlings and of young plants of grapes, and then to select the antibiotics which 1411 protoot the plante from . . A furthorproblom was to find away to introduce the antibiotics into the grape cuttings and leaves: Tho following antibiotics were tested* streptomycin, penicillin, syntomyoin, nlevoniteitin tlevemycetinfl, terramycin,biatycin (the pure preparations) and antibiotic no, 1609, which it a preparation that was obtained in the 'Institute of Microbiology from a culture of actinomyoete. Besides this, other antibiotic substandes were tried in their native state, in the form of cultural liquids from ; different kinds of.actiftompetess and those most active of them in the fungi spectrum (110; 1669, no. 2286 and no. 2769) were taken into researoh; As a result of the conducted investigations it no found that from an - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 822 C-? aqueous solution all the above cited antibiotics enter easily into the grape cuttings with the exception of eyntompia and no. 1609. After it was ascertained which of the antibiotics were easily absorbed by the tissues of grape vines and did not produce any toxic action, a series of experiments was conducted in the use of antibiotios to control mildew. Three series of experiments have shown that penicillin and the native antibiotic no. 2739 protect the plant from mildew. Plants, which were treated With these antibiotics were not infected with mildew. Experiments were also conducted to determine if mildew !could be cured. Leaves, with an initial stage of disease, when there were spots but no conidia yet1 were submerged by their stems into the antibiotic solution for 5 hours1 then they were removed and placed into the moist chamber of ' the oven for 24, 24-hour days at 24'. The effect no evaluated according to the development of conidia on the leaves. It was ascertained that terramyeine biomyoin, eyntomycin, and the native liquids from actinomycetes no. 1669 and 2286 did not interfere with the formation of Plaemopara viticola fungi conidia. 6treptemyein, levomycetin fklad no 1809 retarded somewhat the formation of coniditt on the grape vleaves., but still some of them appeared on the down side of the leaves. Mhereas on the leaves Which were treated with penicillin and no.. 2739 conidia did not develop, the precuts') was checked. The obtained resulte permit to make a conclusion that some antibioties, and, in particular,. penicillin and the actinomyeetes preparation no. 2789 can be an effective moues for the control of mildew on grapevines. The fact, Which was previously established by the Institute of Microbiology0 ? that antibiotics can enter into the plants not alone through the root system, but also through the aboveground organs, has facilitated this problem considerably. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .41 A0628 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ,.1 Nan &Asa/ vilit LObanev, P. 1';14 Viisbnye vtprosy mauki t prektiki. tImpertant problems of science and practice). Naulori Peredovot topyt 'V SeItsk: Thoz? no. ig July 1956. 20 2222. (In 'Russian) In the tighk of decisions of the Twentieth Convention of the Commanista Party of the Soviet Union on the activities of scientific in" stitutions in the further development of agricultural science, the problem about a. developmenttf a system of farmingaocording to different tone* of Our country acquires special importance; It requires antrgent doom ton SO as substantially to help kolkhotea and sovkhotes to really increase pro- dilation of 411 kinds of agricultural products for ono hundred heoteres of land with the least expenditure of laborlind money. Thus. Wore agricultural science stands a problem to work out a scientifically based System of Cfarming which can be applied in baste natural e economic 'Mei of our country; The criterion for its real octant's . . fic and practical usefulness will be an absolute fulfillment And overful". fillment by each kolkhot of assignments on the delivery and sale of products to the gOvernmont, and production of such an moat of products. Which will 1 fully -satisfy the needs orrery kirhot in their own provisions of grains. forage, seeds and in building up the needed surpluses on the farm. *Footnote. An abbreviated shorthand roport of his public addrose at the All-Union Conference of the Workers in Agricultural Science. tP; P; Lobanav is the President of the All-Union Academy of Agricul- tural Sciences Ix. V. I. Isninal. v Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (21 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 825 / The richest material has been acoumulated in the arsenal of art- cultural science and of the leading practice; a scientific analysis of them permits working out and recommending to the industry the most effective system of measures suitable to each natural - economic zone; This is their next and most iscnirtant problem. It does not exclude, but on the contrary brings to the fore a requirement to all institutes and to the experiment Stations to conduct deep theoretical research, to accumulate new expert.. mental data as a basis for a 'scientific development of methods for a further progress in our rural economy, to expand the science and to push it forward. It is knot that our country has various natural-economic tones, and the system of afar* matagment for eaoh of these peculiar tones must, of course, be different, lathe sone of south-east and of the land along the Volga, for instance, the most essential condition, which determines the level of the yield of the sib crop here - spring wheat, as it is known, is their provision with moisture. That is why the efforts of scientific workers wet be directed to the utilisation of the already known, and to the development of new methods for the accumulation of moisture in the soil. Cbservations of many years show that the run-off of melted waters in these regions ranges from 100 to 600 cub. m. for a hectare, and some years it increase* 2.3 times. On the territory of the 20 arid oblaste of asisR and of Issakhetan only, comprising an overall area of over 200 mln hectares, the volume of waters of local run-offs reaches 35-40 billions of cubic meters. They carry off annually a huge amount of moisture, wash off the fertile layer of Soil, decrease the effiotiveness of fertilisers and at the same time cause the erosion of the soil with all its aftereffeetso Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (3) Trans. teen Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 41, The experience of leading kolkhoses and of sovkhotes on the lands *long the Volga and in Yeakhstan testifies that the use of the simplest and will known methods permits to Additionally harvest 146.2.5 a (centner 100 kg t 220;46 lbs) of grain. For instance, the experience of koikhosess in the MIA of Dergadhev. sale INAchine and tractor station), shows that plowing across the slopewith-plows without mould-boards in 1955, an Unfavorable years in- creased the stores of pater in the soil by 540 eth. m per hectare and raised the yields by GI o of grain compered to the regular plowing across the slope. Sttll the Amount of these work* on utilisation of waters of the local run-offs s which do not require any outlay of !capitals clearly is insufficient; Retention of snows retention of thawed meters and a wide development of estuary irrigation in arid regions of Southeast must be regarded As the foremost national economic problem. Of great importenee in this *one are also the timeliness and the con- ciseness of the time of sowing. The arid ciliate of the southeast pre* determines the possibility of the loss of the crop through shattering of grains; That is why hero the harvesting should be done in as short A time as possible, by utilising widely separate harvesting for grain crops and an intent-iv, utilisation of a fleet of calcines; Different conditions for farming shape themselves in regions of the noneehernosem belt: Sere the precipitations are more or less sufficient, but the soils *re poor in organic matters Are stratureless and often are highly acid. For this rasa the problem is to widely utilise the groat NJ? and mineral fertilizers in these regions, as a chief condition for Ob. taming high and steble yields of all agricultural crops. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans. A01323 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 fir?1 ???11, Sere ere found the richest deposits of petits. zuch of 1 meatone and tufa. These natural resources, When utilized together with minute, open up really unlimited possibilities for field fertilizing; Bat, notwithstanding that it it well known in science and practioe how to utilise local fertilisers, how to organise peatscstnnto farming, these nethode are not yet used on a wide enough sale: For regions of the nonsChernosem belt the use of organic 0 mineral compounds, of green mtnure, of phosphorite neal in its pure stateo an well as in compete are of great importance; also the introduotion of granulated superpholphate into the rows during planting. It is necessary to widen the use of potassium fertilizers, the a ' resources of which are lancet unlimited with as. Also deserving extilitiliVe [Begin p.61 use are the bacterial fertilisers and the microfertiliter0: 'Mortara of the chemical industry uust also exert every effort for the raising of the quality of fertilizers Which are put out, for the expansion of their eseortment and a much faster transfer to producing fertilizers in the form of highly concentrated products, such as, double- superphoephate precipitate, ammophos, nitrophoske, and nAny other, which contain two- three times more of nutritive elements, than the ordinary fertilizert. Transfer to the production of highly concentrated fertilizers will reduce the cost of railroad transportation of fertilizers by half also the expenditure of labor for the loading 0 unloading jeans the pride of introduction of fertilizes into the soil, as wall as the expanses for transportation trot the base Sthe koikhozes SM sovkhoses. Liquid nitric fertilisers must receive *wide distribution in the next Li w years, because they are cheaper it cost than the standardnnitric fertilisers. Thus, one of the urgent problems for the toiontific insti- tutions in the nonsChernozem zoos, along with the others, is the develops Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIAV)P80R01426R010300630001-/ 4215 / War, Nam, meat of e system of measures for field fertilisation. In the nonaChernosem sone ere found net natural forage lands ? meadows, pastures. But their productiveness is intolerably low, and this hampers the development of dairy animal husbandry in this sone. Hence, one of the most important levers for a further rise in farming in the nona Chernosem belt is the scientific development and the introduction into produetion of a eystem of matures directed to raising the produotivsnese of meadows', to the creation of cultivated perennial pastures, toe wide distribution of clover plantings, as an important condition for the strengtha ening of the fodder bass, to an inorease of the fertility of the soil and &development of flax cultivation as on* of the basic branches of this zones economy. The characteristic property of the nonaChernozem sons of USSR are ? its large areas of bottom Linde, &hid. is & favorable condition for the development of commercial sheep raising. Production of vegetables and po- tatoes is especially important here because of the presence of a /ergs number of coltiks, and of large-scale industrial centers. Vegetable cultivation in covered ground must be developed on a large Male around these centers. One of the tight places in this business is the lack of fuel: But at the sane tine Reny of the industrial enter* prises have huge heat wastes in the form of hot water, steam and hot air. By utilising these, it is possible to sharply widen the production of via. getstles in winter and spring. The Wskomskil Petroleum Refinery can serve as an example for the organisation of hothouse Oconmey utilising the heat wastes: In 1955 three hothouses, each of an area of 1,000 eq. a., were constructed here and this nide it possible to supply with vegetables all year round the kindergarten, day nursery, the mesa-room and dispensary of the factory; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 /Alf Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ..923 rc? Unfortunately, this nice beginning did not become wide spread; The scientific institution*, which did not study this interesting experiment and did not try to introduce it into the industry, are mutat to blabs; ?The tonal peculiarities for the conducting Of farming stand out es. 'mistily clearly in the republics of Central Asia. Of tint importance in the cultivation of cotton is the development of problems *hie are connected with the introduction of the eheck-hill method df planting with narrowed interrows; The mass industrial experiment by Tadzhik SSR has shown, that this method of cotton cultivation lowers, by approximately 35.401 the outlay of labor expended for the intervals cultivation of plantings and for the control of weeds. One Should say, that our scientific institutions have done very little for the economic interpretation of this method, which was born of practice, even after it showed itself from the best side. In 'connection with a conSiderible thickening of plantings in the narrowed intorno', as well as the need for a speed up in ripening, many problems in cotton agrotechnion require a revision and fkrat of all the method of irrigation, the time, the nornts and methods for irrigation' also date* for fertiliser applications. The scientific-research institutions On cotton until lately recom. mended that the bailie doses - up to 70 percent of phosphoric fertilisers, be introduced in the fall, under the basic plowing, to the depth of 28.30 and more centimeters, and only 30 per cent used in the form of top dresiings. Individual kolkhoses and even whole talons of %Mile SSR rejected the autumn application of phosphoric fertilisers and began to use phosphorus entirely an top dressing; The truth here is in favor of the pretties. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) Trans. AwB23 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Cr. Defoliation produces U big influent* on the hastening of ripening, it also increases the productiveness of the cotton harvesting MAChintli Its W*11 as improves the quality of fibere: Nevertheless defoliation is being adapted very poorly: tThe basic, defoliant calcium cyanamide ? is not entirely suitable for our arid rsions. Best result* are obtained from magnesium chlorates the production of which it not yet organised on such 4- large scale that one could start any wide industrial experiments. Bete one has a parfait ground for expressing a grievance to the workers of 4 chemical science and to the Chemical inAbStry. In connection with the widening of irrigated Lands in the republics of Central Asia, during the current Five-Year Plan, attention must be given to the problems of irrigations to the regulations in the use of the waters to the selection of economically profitable crops. Alfalfa, for instance, is irreplaceable in the cotton crop rotation for obtaining a high cotton yield: High yields of alfalfa in its turn post.. timely influence the fertility of the Soil and the production of fodder* with a high content of protein. Together with such a vigorous source for carbohydrate fodderss as corn is (and its areas in Central Asia must be considerably widened) this will provide a stable fodder base for an extensive development of animal husbandry in these regions. From the above cited instances it Si teen how much different are the conditions in various toned of our country and how vitally important it is now, resting on the experience accumulated in science and. in practice and their data to develop a zonal system of farming: It seems to us that a system for farm management, Which is worked out by the zonal institutes with the help of workers from higher institutes of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 23 learning, fro* experiment stations, and free leaders and speoialists of the industry must be discussed at agricultural conventions. It must become a guide for kolkhosess Ansa and (Begin p;61 sovkhoness which then will intro= duce some more precise details which are applicable to their mit conditions. nonworking out a system for farming according to Separate naturtle? economic tones, one must take into consideration also certain general problems, besides those that are specific to each one of the zones; In the field of animal husbandry such general problems will be cortftettd with the building up of. stable fodder bases although this question has to beeolved differently for each sons. Increased in corn plantings will help to sharply raise the production of fodder in all the regions of the country; but for a full-flue feeding of animals and poultry s together with the widening of corn plantings and of the heightening of their yields, enlargement in the production of protein fodder.* in the form of legume plantings, which will vary in their assort= sent according to tones, sequins a very important maaniag. It is very important to expand the production of (tattled fodders for animal husbandry, enriched with proteins and vitamin., as well as to utilise pinttt protein substitutes such as, for examples urea/ antibiotics and mineral fodder'. Improvements in breeding work require very serious consideration.' It is necessary to says that we do not pay much attention to the studies and utilisation of the phenomenon of Streets in anima husbandry. Meanwhile every thing indicates that here exists a huge reserve for an inertias in the productiveness of the enimils. Cross=breeds adapt themmelvee better to the conditions of life and give more production per unit of fodder, than purebred animals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001:7 /^1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R0103000"800-61 -74 4" It is urgently needed to start selections of breeds for industrial cross-breeding in dairy anima husbandry. Scarcity of highealaes pedigreed producers of the necessary breeds cannot limit us in this business as there is a method of artificial ins seminatione Whioh /Amite to service 14 thousand cm by each pedigreed bull: Sy introducing artificiel insemination everywhere It is possible to fau Clay overcome the usual shortage Of good pedigreed producers. if the artificial insemination in eheep breeding is conducted tattles faotorlly in our country1 in large cattle breeding it is most umsatiee factory; Dairy farms with pedigreed cattle, by utilising artificial intik. nation, could service millions of cows in Iva:knot herds by the best bulls in the country. This method is especially promiting in the problem for the Increase of fat content in milk of some breeds. Theelivsintages in cross-breed animate maks the work of breeding pure- bred cattle very important. Yet both pure breeding of animals and supplying with purebred meterial are organised badly. And without a well organised breeding work one cannot ?remise an inter-breed crossing on commercial anima husbandry fermi widely and properly; Organisation of inter-breed crosoing in poultry breading can increase sharply its productiveness. As experience indicates, meat production is increased by 28%. and egg-laying by 8-10; Inter-brad orosses in twine wuse.12.610% lase fodder for the produc- tion of neat than do the purebred ones. Virtually the problem of selec- tion in different regions ic to find two or three breeds of -swine for crass breeding. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 RS ??? The problems of veterinary science are great; Louise in animal hus- bandry from animal diseases are still very considerable; Our Veterinary ? science mutt concentrate its efforts for finding new, effective and cheap means and methods for prophylaxis and treatment of animal diseases. In domestic end foreign practice the use of antibiotics has proved itself se An effective Insane for the control of various animal diseases, ass stir lator for the increase in weight of young animals and birds; These problems roquiresmore attention. laths struggle for a sharp decent in agriculture the strengthening of the material-technical base ? the equipping of MTSa of sovkhozos and kolkhotes with the newest technical equipment and its correct utilization is of decisive importance. The urgent problem of the scientific institutions is a development of system of machines for a complex mechanization of farming taking into consideration the conditions existing in different totes of the country: It . is necessary to improve the work of planning and construction of new atria' cultural technical equipments We have serious defects in this mirk, Per instance the seedling planting machine does not guarantee the required quality of work, is unreliable in operation. It is economically ineffective tit does not decree* the outlay of labor for vegetable pitatings Unfertunatelya data about the construction and production deficiencies of the mwohines are not ? generalized and are not studied either by the scientific) institutions, or by the agricultural agencies; .The methods and program for testing the mathines noted very serious improvements. Vast works in the field of electrification are being contemplated. During the sixth Five-Tear ..Plan & natter of electrified kolkhotes will be Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-.RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 4323 Vs. doubled, the electrification of tockhoses and of machinectraetor stations will be finished. The basic ammo for the electric supply of kolkhoses and Bockhorn will be their connection to the networks of large government eleotrostations and ;meet systems. In !connection with this, in the next five yard, hundreds of thousands of kilometers of rural electric lines of high and low voltage must be constructed. Selena suet work out the most economical methods Pee tranemiesion and distribution of electric power on the farms. One should continue and amplify the work of the AllsOnion Scientific Research Institute for Rural Electrification; they suggested electric trate* mission lines utilising the earth at one of the leads, Beach will save ISUA in leads and isolators, and lower by 20.20% the cost of construction of rural electric Una; A far or tiara of the economist* . agriculturists by the 20th Con- vention of the Party will serve as A serious impetus for a basic improve ment of scientific work in the field of economics and of organisation of agricultural production. The efforts of economists must Concentrate on the solving of questions for the raising of labour's productive capacity and the earning capacity of the industry; on the planning and specialization of agriculture; on efficient distribution of branches of agriculture and their correct combination in various natural and economic regions of the country; tBegin p.7] on how to increase the effectiveness of utilisation of lands. =Willies, technical equiPment and labour resources; on improvement of the organization, stoma Utilisation and reaufteration of labor in kolkhoses, MIS and Bockhorn; on strengthening of the material interests of the workers of kolkhoses, MB, and eockhoses in the increase of the yielding capacity of agricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 82 -S to" crops and the productiveness in &nisi husbandry* in order to receive the greatest amount possible of production from each unit of areas on the 'increase in the earning capacity ? baste branches in farming and animal husbandry* on the economic effectivenesi of agricultural and zootechnical measures. The direction of TeX of the KPSS to turn the attention of our cadres to the problems of economics will be successfully escompliehod* when the Whole any of our scientific 'trims will be included together with the eoonomiets into the solving of these questions. The resolution of TIE of KPSS of our Party and Government "About the measures on the improvement of work of the AllsUnion Academy of Agricultural Science imeni C T. Lenin!' gives WI Clear program on the rearrangement of the Academy's activity and of the whole system ofsagricultural scientific research institutions; Carrying out this decision, the Aoaderty will take all the matures in order to end serious deficiencies which ars hampering further development of agricultural science* willretringthen the bonds of scientific institutions with industry, direct the energy of scientists to the solving of actual prates's; to raise the)part and the responsibility of scientific workers in the guidance of farming; The urgent problem of the /Leaden/ is the elevation of the theoretioal level of the scientific work, a fuller utilization of methods and achieves moats of allied sciences and ofettainments of scientific institutions in foreign countries. Matures are being taken to dmw the institutes and the experimental stations nearer to the industry, on creation for them of ems periments1 bases and taking the scientific institutions out of the title* to work under actual conditions of production; The Academy proposes to practice widely creative discussions about the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 128 most important problems, utilising the tested, and vitally important under our conditions, method of criticism and of Self-criticism, which is directed to the elevation of the quality of our scientific ircc investigations and scientific production* to deeper study our rich practiCek to timely generalise and introduce into production new progressive proceduree and method', to arm our plenning and farmagencieswith new data and materials on the development of agriculture: A materlalistdo direction in the agricultural and biological Soleness is and will be, the basis of the Academy's work: The Uarxistateninitt doctrine will continue to be in the future the guiding star for the multi pie army of scientific workers, The sixth Five-Year-flan will enter into the history of our native country, as the Five-tear-Plan of a further powerful development of the forces of production, of a continuous technical progrefe: Wide horizons ore opening for our forward attempt*, for the graving tempos in the .development of agriculture, Iota sharp rise in agricultural production, for a considerable .improvement in the well-being of the soviet people; The scientific worktre will bend all their energieS, knowledge and abilities in order to win the historical battle in the economic competition a to overtake and surpass the most developed "pitalistic Countries in the products of industry per head of the population and thus Worthily to repay the greet care a' the party and the government for the development of "Agri cultural galena: \."0" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 AiA.424 (In full) : edit Pretkins end Wnehnikosas K. Berths a Vreditellati S bolesnieet kukurusy. (Control of,peett and diseases ofsvoe.rn); Rolkhoz. Preisastvo vol. 18s no. 4,1).24, Aprils 1928. 281.8 EBB (In Russian) .Cmens in ell the regions of its cultivation can be infeated by two kinds of smuts Boil sant Nettles? Maydisland head smut (SorosPorium Reillanum). When the spores, which cute the boil toommonl *mut hit a young. greying pert of corns they germinates enter into the tissues and form a mycelium there. A boil (a nodule), which is coverlet with grey. fish film appears Snap 14420 dais on the surface of the 'Infected piece. On the stela these boils usually un spherical; on the laves they settle along the ribs and are elongated. In the ;on cobs the boil smut Besets either ons or.interal overient one times in. the pant? * separate flew.; Boon after the formation of the bolls the mycelium breaks up into lobules and produces the spores. When the spores ripens Onset* ing on the boils breaks, and the spores are scattered by the wind. On entering the sou they germinate and forme great number of smell Spores (besidiespores)s *Mob are also spread by the it.ndg they hit the plant* and infect them. The spores overstater lathe soil and on the tea ti ;?of the harvest. Boil taut destroys the seeds in the cobs, as well as the assimi* feting apparatus of the plants. Besides this, a greet loss of moisture occurs than the ?Otitis on the boils bursts. sir this depresses the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Alo4124 plant and results it considerable losses of the harvest. The other disease P head smuts leads to a complete loss of the crop. It infects both the cobs and the panicles of corn turning them into a dark powdery an of spores. The infected cob Is always covered by the hulks. Th* corn plants are infected by head smut during the germination ? seed* and the sprouting period. Title of figure in the firet column, A corn cob infected by boil smut. It is necessary to treat the seeds with poison chemicals in order to control both boil taut and had smut. For a dry disinfection preparation granosan (W101174) is used it a dose of 100 grams per one anther to: 100 kg t22046 ibel of corn needs* orthe preparationWin dons of 160400g per o; Disinfection is conducted with the aid of Mel or Alle2 machines, 1:51144 apparatus or in specially equipped barrels. Title of the upper figure in the second columnt corn stalk ins Mated by caterpillars of the European cornborer,: Title of the lower figure in the second column* corn teed damaged by the wireworm.. In order to obtain healthy seeds of torte saectiot of healthy seed corn cat right in the field on tin plant; before harvesting* or before putting them into storage is of great importance, as alto repeated *elec. tion of seed corn cobs before threshing. In order to destroy the source of infection of corn by boil smuts as wales to decrease the depressing action of this disease on this plants it is recommended to gather and destroy the smut boils it the field. The smut boils must be out off and destroys's without fails by means of burn' ing or burying them, to the depth of not less that 60 cm. The bale must Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 424 'ye be gathered fan that during the summers without letting them ripen and spread the spores: Among the pests of agricultural crops the meet damage to corn is done by the id:swarm* and the caterpillars of the Turopean corn borer. The Untie of click beetles (rlateridae) damage corn in all the Lobes of its oultimitions The greatest damage is done by the wirer:OS during the springWhen they move from deeper into the upper layers of soil where they damage the planted seeds and the grouts of corn. "loth agrotechtical and chemical measures are used for the control of larvae: Among the *4;n/technica1 measure* of great importance tree a deep autumn ploughing with plows that are equipped with 4 colter, a. careful preplantingtillege of soils and a timely cultivation of plantings. In4oduction into the soil of heraohloran is a reliable chemical method P for the control at whams: A last and a continuous application of ' hemachloran is used. in the first case a Igg dust of hexachloran is used SM in the second a 20 hemaohloran mimed with phosphorite meal. During* local application the cern seeds an powdered withhens, (thiamin before planting. Dusting the seeds is done either in seed a treatment machines or in specially *quipped barrels after they have rea ?steed a dry treatment with the preparatioriAl or greaten. The norm of outlay of hexaohloran is lat kg per one oentnersof seeds. In region' with insufficient spring moisture in the soil the norm of outlay of hats chloran most be decreased to 300g per vintner of seed: The dusted mode should not be returned into storage but plaisted immediately. Title of figure in the third column* own sprouts damaged by wires worms Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 424 1-1 A continuous introduction of hexachloren into the soil is conducted on sections Which.are heavily infested by the wireworne. Per this purpose the 26% hexachleran, mixed with phosphorite mai is introduced under cultivation to a depth of 10012 cm. The preparation it evenly distri- bute over the wireworm infested field and immediately turned under by the cultivator because under theaction or sunlight the toxicity or hexis dhloran is weakened: On light, randy or sandy loaelsoile the 26% hexaohloran is introduced in the amount of 40 kg per ha, and on heavy clayey soils of SO kg. Potatoes and other rootorops should not be planted in the coupee of three years on fields treated with the 26% dust of hexachloran. The caterpilkar of European corn borer is an equally dangerous pest of corn; This caterpillar is of a light yellow color with a reddish tint, up to 26 mm long. It overwinters on corn stalks, on millet, heap, str. ghum, sunflowers, and other agricultural crops, as well as on the stem* of broadostommed weeds . import, enaranth, and tethers; in the spring, utualiy at the end of May or the beginning of June, caterpillars take the Corm of chryselie; The butterflies which flow out from the cocoons lay eggs on the under side of corn leaves and of other cultivated and weed plants; The ceterpillars meke a passage in the corn stalks, and in the pea. oh of the cob* and damage the seeds. Thee* damages often producei par. tial breaks in eters and corn bobs* and also egoist in the infection of the grain with various diseases, especially Pusarium; At the end of the vegetative period the caterpillars crawl over into the lower part of the stalks of the danaged agricultural and weed plants and quainter there: The basic method for control of the European corn borer is the des struct ion of the caterpillars which overwinter in the stalks of corn and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 24 ?????? other plants. For this purpose it is first of all necessary to out the crops Sr los as possible during harvesting. Thus, during harvesting pent, its stalls must be out at a height of 104612 cm from the ground and removed from the field; Ilte raking the stalks one can utilise hers*, rakes or heavy harrows.' Besides this, on fields which *red infested by the European Corn borer, it it especially necessary to conduct deep autumn plowing with colter plan. The gathered stalks of oorn and of other plants, where the caterpillars of the European corn borer overwinter, can be utilised for sitaviand for heating during winter, but not for calking to gale the buildings habitable in winter or for making fences. An *portant measure int?* control of the European corn borer during the spring (up to the beginning of lay) is the gathering and burning of corn stalks and of other brotd..atemmed plants, which were left for the retention of snow.: Title of the figure on the bottom of the fourth columns a tern doh demigod by the caterpillars of the European corn bdrer.,'?rin; th: Cp Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 = Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 * 4826 %.?? 0. Worland; A. 11. 0 prognosis poiaVlaniia fitoftory-Martofelia (Phytophthora intestate de Dory). tfOreesiting?the appearance of potato phytophthorm (Phytophthora infetans di Eery)); 1 Aintd; Sauk Estonsitoi 50; Its:, v61;4; Mb; la 1h/1501154 1955e 511 Alt10 (Zn Russian) Summary A welltined COnettatitig of measures for the control of plant disease* is one of the means to guarantee high yields of agricultural crops. Ap.. patience of Phstophthorainfestanl (late might) onpotatoes has been htaa by the researchers long ago to -be dependant on the specific conditions of the weather; The first attempt to forecast :the appearanee of late blight of potato wasmade by *eh Everdingen (4); who established the scs called "Dutch signs"; stick included the following conditions* in the caress of 15 days; which precede the appearance of late blight there should he a day win: 1) during the raght fog keeps up net Ins than tour hours et st times 5) when minimurn teaperature at night je not lower than /10's 5) when next day, after this night the average cloudiness is 0:8 or higher; 4) when next day falls not Isis than 0:1mmt. of rain in this roma witha out any critical evaluation the cited "signs" entered the phytopathological practice enders recommended in many contemporary textbooks; sometimes with in-significant changes; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 25 C' ILA: Mumma (Is) worked at chocking these "ape unie conditions of USSR and tams to tho conclusion, that the nape mod to be made more precise and further investigated. She thought that according to the nag& ens can ettablish approximately the day of primary infection, but for as- teaming the time of the appearance of infection it it fteoestary to know the length of the incubation period, which depends on the temperately; She worked out a Specific nemographic chart for the Oalculetion of the in. oubation period, as well as an instruction on signaling the time for spraying potatoes for the control Of late blight (le): 14 checked the potability of utiliting.ufutoh eight? and the cited instruction under conditions ofEstonian8SL Esporiments were conducted in 1948 and 1949 near the city Tartu, at the Educationalelaperimental Para of the Tartu Govornment Univeirsity:, with three varieties of potatoes a Prabote, Ostboto and Tygovask yellow; Observations of the appearance of late blight were conducted on the basis of nsteorologioal data, obtained from Tartu meteorological station. We have ascertained, that the appearance of late blight of potato during these yeartyroceeded without any connections to the "Dutchsigns we also enlist% J:Aamisepp's (1) data of obsirvations of the appearance of late blight of potato, which he conducted with a large nutbsr of potato varieties in Tyson during the period between 1928405; It was found out that late blight for the met part appeared independently of the cited signs; *At the present time it is the.aducationelaVverimentel Pars of the 4 Estonian Agricultural Academy. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Certain authors (9010) think that late blight it exclutively a re- suit of plentiful rains during July and August; But it mat found that such a relation does not exist *key.; On6 must also take intoconsideration other accompanying faotorsj for intents, influence Of rains on different varieties of potatoes *under different soil conditions.. The amount Of rein, which is normal for one and the sasm variety of potatoes on sandy loam, can be harmful on clayey soil. Unfavorable [Begin paid] circumstances of the environment condition the violation of physiological processes in the plant And thus create ?Witten* for susceptibility to disease: This is pointed out by A. Borggardt MA A. 1, Oreamehnikov (r)g A. r; Grechushnikere and 1g. a: Klima (a), M: Gorlenko (6), and others; B.vanEverdingen' in hie work, 03 not take sufficiently into64count the existence of interconnection and interdependence of promisee, which take place in nature, as well as the role Of influence or man on these processes; Be aseumed that there existed a break in time between the appearance of the first symptoms of disease on potato shoot' and the final apporanee or the disease at the end of mummer, and thought that the disease appeared euddenly, according to his index; But this assumption le faeces. resat at its root, because the infection of the late blight on potato in the field develops with certain intervals depending on the ecological conditions, The mass appearance and development of infietion is timed to the =ant of joining of tops, that is to that tire, when butt etiological conditions for the fungus are created. Density of the tops, coetasination of the field and other factors& which take part in the creation of the mioreelimate that helps the development of late blight on potatoes or, oft fl the contrary, inhibits its development, have a strong influence on the Spa ;saes and development or the late blight, The agricultural background is of of special importance as a Anne for increasing the resistance of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 25 potatoes to bate blight, to it is pointed out by Aoademiciat I; G; Rikhfelld (18); This assumption was corroborated by experiments conducted 'at Zygetisk GovernmentSelectionStation, for instance, with the Variety of potato Dr; damisepp, Resistance to late blight can be increased also by means of utilization of various microslements (1146)0 It follows (Clearly from the aVeve said that fisting the appearance. of late blight on potato only the basis of "DutOh signs" is ineffective under out-conditions: A basic condition for the control of late relight is the accomplishw oat of all agroteohnical meaeures which will Improve the sanitary condi- tions of potato seed material: it it necessary to select Maltby tubers for planting and to spray potatoes before the joining of the tops with .1$ Solution of Bordeaux mixtures spraying should be done three times at an interval of 8 days. Aocomplishment of the oiteil measuresWill hi help in* considerable lowering of lollies from the late blight of potato. Estonian Agri?ulturtl Entered the editorial - Academy office D06: 4, 1954. tranvia 5; Borggardt, A: I;, s Phenomenon-of a light treading of the tope of fruit trees, Trudy inatituta %this: plodovo-iagodn. khoziaietta, 20, 1934.- e: Gorlenko, L 7.," Diseases of plants and the environment. Emcee, 1950. 7; Greclmshnikov, A. I., importance of peilmidase in the iscounity of 1 potatoes to 9lvtophthora infestans; Doklady Al MR, XIV, 3, 1939. 8* Orechushnikov, A. I. and Ltim34, E S., Influence of preliminary cccli of potatoes to its ?resistance to Phytophthort infestatis 1de. Beryl ? Vestnik po evonchevodstvu ileaftofeliito no. 2, 1940. 9. Dorothiritia N. A. and Ratio, A. I., Renonal characteristic of potato ? disease in BUR, Alt 13SSR, ilinsk, 1933. 10: gamma Ai la:, Agroteehnice of high yields of potatoes, X:011.1 1954. U. alenev, F. $.1 Increase of the yield and of resistance of potatoes to diseases by teems of utilization of microelements. Symposium Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 at Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 526 Cac (Th "Dostiebstiia naukt4ellektkhosiaisttennomu proietodetve; Leningrad, 1052. ' ' 12: Munn, 11;-A4 Dime.s of agricultural plants.,1952. 13, Samara, 114 About forecasting the appearande of 139hthere testate Oft pchattes. "Zashohita fte. BA 1935. 14; ?tzar; V. .0G4 Instruction on signaling the time for du4ting and 1 spraying the potatoes for the control of phytophthore. M.-0L;. 1937. 15; Novetelenove, N. S., Influetee of temperature and of moisture on t$ germination of conidia of Phytophthore intestate Mont) de "Zatbehita refloat". no. 12. 1937. 18; Sukhoriskor. K. and fling, E, Besotted of copper to the potato plant. DokladvARSSSR, x71/0 6, 1945.' Rdel*Ahteit.'7;-I;, Vegetable growing. SW 1953; 18; Eikhteltd, I. 046 Results of the August -Session of the AlleUnion Academy of Agricultural Science ineni V; Is Lenin, end the problems' of agricultural entkere in Leningrad ?blasts; Sysposilukflilichurinti doctrine ,? to the practice of agricultural production"; lateriels of Ldningrei Oblate Conference of Leaders in Agrioultwre. lithiare,di 1048. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030-001-7 ? "826 (In full) .? TSAI - ?'Poliakov, Zu* Ass and Cermogenovw, S; So PrOblena neersSheniien poohv I seleskokhosiastvennykh point* produktami rAdiactivnego remises* (Cbscr glavmsishikh litorsturgykh dannykh). (The 061ft of nioAtaainatioe'of soils and crops with the products of radioactive fissions (A survey of the principal ! literary data)); ' " ? Poohvevieenie, no; to p5743.Augs 1956; 678 P34 (In Russian) , The problem o 'contamination" of toils she of agricultural crop with the products of radioactive fission arose for the first time after the testing (she use) of the atomic and hydrogen boob.. Until that time :there were very few cases of Mu% contamination, ands even if their' moored, nothing wee reported about them in the prose Onteocunt.of secrecy; As the both tests will be repeated, the spreading of products of nuclear exa plosions over 'S ponsidersble area of the earth'. surface (at least in the ? regions of both taste) cannot be avoided: Besides thit, such oaeas an possible When* large territory become contaminated on account of S serious breakdown of a reactors All these factors', net speaking about atomic warfare itself, should, of course, produce a substantial influence on the course of the biotic .cycle including plants, soil and atimeles That is Why, those unfortunttely few literary sources whiCh give factual data about the coma positions and the physicoochemioal properties of the basic products of fissions And of the meohanitmcf their reaction on the surrounding area, are, undoubtedly, of pest interest; 'a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 sin At These data, besides their scientific importance are also it praotical interest. They can be useful when means for protection are being developed; ? Composition and ion of the ?properties of thu products at nuclear ,fiesiett. A considerable number of observations and of researohes **re conduoted to study the composition and the properties of product' of nuclear fission. The most diverse materials have been studied: radii:satin ashes, cultivated and wad plants, natural and artificial water reservoirs, soils, certain plant and animal organism'0 es well as other Objects. Which ten present in the sone of radioactive contamination. During the remiss of these researches the products of nuclear fission were classified in a different manner; The simplest classification ahem Is *it'd here, which was offered by Amphlett (1) and by MIMI:* (4). Products of miler fission are sub-divided by these authors into two groups* ionic and non.ionlo. The 040 mails of products of nuclear fission consists of insoluble compounds composed of radioactive substances, in addition to, alloyed ferric oxides (boob material), certain silicates (in case of explosion on the earth's surfass), undecompcsid products, width were initially within the bomb (plutonium, uranium) and other components: Onelto 10% of activity is in the ionic tore. Cesium, strontium and iodine are the main carriers of this activity: it is eharecterietic that part of the "pimento is fused into tileginp.48) the particles Which are composed of metallic oxides; ?he other part Solidifiet_irreversibly_en clays and Soils(I). footnote Ci) nil. is well known that at temperatures which exceed IOW es monteorillonite, soils, and other adsorbents, which tan a high tots of absorption, can irreversibly absorb not only alkali earth, but also the alkali metals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 r-` ic? The latter groups will refer to non-Sonic (insOluble) formai The authors refer the colloidal forms of the products of fission also to the non-tonic forms(2L The colloidal state of radiOactive Mb. stenos aware the ease witheChich they adhere (booms adsorbed) to the surface of plant* (and of other objects); This sane property plAye An essential role in the process of removal of the sources of radioactive contaminations *tick will be spoken of later; The composition of the products of nuclear neaten Sc determined by various methods. In the moat typical oasees for instance; int he experiments of Japanese researoberst Nowa (10)4 T; latikhiko (4); and others, the folw lowing methods were utilised; Simplot of agricultural plant; after & pre- paration and Separation into roots* stalks letvoes and grains (or fruits) were heated it an oven up to 60? C and then were ground to the necestary Mita. Separate portion* of each temple were put on platinum cothattion boats, weighed and burned in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 600400. 0; Part of the ashes (1g) was utilised for determination of the total (summery) activity; Another part (Sag) a for iietopio analysis. Measures milts have shown that general activity of the samples, which as determined by "tortsovyi"coutting tube" (Myr counter] was found to be correspondingly equal whett>tometoos>Russian thistle. When the roots were analysed another. order was obtained* Russian thistle>beeml)wheat7tonatees. The author also determined the viable in his opinion, can be regarded as a constant quantity for each R - plant: Numerical vsluese:proved to be alike* for tomatoes 4.0, for beans - R . Es 0.3, for wheat 0:3. for Russian thistle * 0.14 Right after an atomic explosion a great pert of radioactivity is due to 8a140(12): Missal (14) conducted investigations on the absorption by plants of 130.14?: Results of his experiments proved to be approximately the same as the results of the experiments with Brag. The soil factor Importance of the soil factor, when studying the problem of radioactive contamination, is very poorly investigated. The greater part of works about soils, unfortunately was not published. There are only references Footnete(12). The period of half-life of B&W) is 12:8 days. That is why its radioactivity becomes very low even after a oomparatively short time. This then explains the fact Why most of the authors give so much lass at-ten.: tion to Bantu than, for instance, tb Sreg and to others long-living elements. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .826 ficl? 1\0a.1 to the authors and very general information about the experimental data; Amphlett (r) thinks that the ultimeto fate of the products of nuclear fie* sion depends not only on their radiochemical properties* but also on 11 'great number of other factors, including the nature and structure of the earth itself (its geology and topology), al well as chemistry and physics of soils and of soilproduoing reeks. Proceeding from aspects of elementary physics and the results of his experiments, AnOlett supposes, that the speed of translocation of radio- active elements in the earth stratum wilt be in direot relation to the pone* trability of the medium, on the presence or absence of clefts and hollows, as well as on the size of eapilleries, and of other factors of the most varied character; The surface translooation will depend on the amount of precipitation; It is greatly increased when there are streams of water. In such a case the Soluble material (ionic and certain colloidal forms) will be translo- cated very fast. The conduct of insoluble forms will depend on varioue Pectoral on the else of particles, speed of the flow and other properties of the river's current (on the character of this bottom 4 on the composition and properties of the bottom foreetions, and so on), the value and influence of which cannot be foretold in advance. In the expression of the author, the nsehenisa for 4econtaminationr of products of .nuclear fission by the soil and the soilproduoing rooks is of great interest. Regardless of the obvious importance of this problemuuna. fortunately, one can find in literature lonly the most general and very scarce data. asphlett (7), deader* (19), *null (14), and others think that the process of "decontamination" of products of nuclear fission OSA proceed in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 $26 / various wayss by mats of ionic exchingo (botwein the elimsnts of the abs sorbing Complex and ions of radioaetivo substances), by my of adsorption, by steins of settling out and filtration, and with the aid of leaching out by rain or ground stn. Daring an ionic or:thongs such Assents Si cella* and strontium, can be mchanged with natural cations (for instates, which go intothe absorbing complex of soils, clays and of other formations. The amounts of absorbed ions of radioactive elements will depend, mainly, on the properties and the type of the clay (login p.89] eomponento of the soil; Although any soils bays a very low 'xi:t)e:not capacity, most of the subsoil rooks have a range of capacity which varies from 30 to BO neq/100g, which On conversion to one ton or Moil material (and when the capacity is expressed not in mom* but in curie-units) gives enormous figures. Proceeding fres milkmen ideas about the mechanism of iommobango re- action and utilising his own experimental data, Amphiett (T) calculated approximate quantities of radioactive cosium(13) *Mob can be absorbed when saturating one tone of various soils and of certain clay minerals. The author notes, that these ars approximote data and can be utilised only for the determination of the order of the volume of the labsorbed MMUS; The exchange of anions, as muoh as it was little studied, is a loss cons vsniont method for studying the photomaa under consideration; Inmost oases the anionomohango rotations are choraoterited by an absorption offset* which is very low and, as the author suppose,* is more or less similar for &litho clays: On the whole, the author considers probable the adsorption of anions by the surface of the soil capillaries, but thinks that the msterial, re. Pootnots(184 These-data have a Molded interest, but due to lack of 'poetry* cannot pause on them They were obtained by a method of dynamio adsorptions 1 Only the concentration and the'volum oft)* solution passing through the core were determinorexperimentally. The other data were found by calculating (graphic) moans. We want to record some details of the oxperimentt the starting comentrationlnet=0.06 ns pit of the solution - 7.01 weighed portion of the adsorbent= 3.01. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 $26 tamed in this way, can be easily washed out again. The eonsidered type of ion-exchange reactions is characterised by definite criteria of squills brium(14), vetioh depend on different faotors: tangy of displacement of ons ion by another &monde, at it is known, on ionic radii and the site of the charge. Being guided, mainly, by these data, the author places the alkali metals (according to the energy of their absorption by oily materials) into the following ascending orders tACJICV:Os. Thus the energy of absorption ef Cs by the soil (and clays) will be higher than of other ions of the order under consideration. After the ion. exchange reaction' reach a state of squilibriumn the final results depend on the relations of thane:dynamic activities of ions* and if the ions have different charges, then also on the general concentration of the solution in equilibrium (more correctly said- on the ionic power of the solution). These facts have a practical interest besides the theoretical: If the tolutioncontainflonsiderable asounts of inactive ionic isterial, then this material will take part in the exchange and will Produce an influents on the volume of adsorption of the active oomponent: Further one if the washing solution Ls acid, the absorption at radioactive ions can be insignificant, as the 17, ions are more firmly retained, than any ether cations. Finally, the author cons to the conalusion that one cannot depend on the fact that natural soils will behave exactly the same as the laboratory modeles when exchange ability was studied and determined under ideal conditions of the experiment: taking into enmsideration the physicoschinsieal properties of the pro- ducts of nuclear fission, some authors suppose that part of radioadtive substances will be fully adsorbed when pasting through the soil: the other part, which II in a colloidal state, will be adsorbed partially: The in. Footnote(14). Unfortunately, the author does not give any data about the nnmarlAn1 walna an a.44aala an aa?AlAt....A-- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 DeclassifiedandApproved For Release 2013/09/19:CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 00a ? INNIan a"821 tensity of mdecontaminitionr besides the *kindest factors, will depend oaths physical condition of the soil and ?nth, dimension of the partialie: If the sells have an alkaline reaction, then some (ionic) products of toclear tesion ean be deposited (in the form of hydroxides or of carbonates) and later be leached off: This situation complies well [Begin p:70) with the facts, it it true, which Are rather scarce (18), mtdoh were observed in America It las pointed out (7), for instance, that the subsoil of that territory which is situated next to the atomic experimentalcentir proved to be very effective during the "decontamination, of the solutions, Which contained, it ionic form, the products of nuclear fission (with the ex* oeption of tosiumoand strontium). This subsoil contains 87% of CaCCt and has a pH: 8 or 9: Considerable attention was also given to the studies of leeching of the products of nuclear fission by atmospheric precipitation. Imperiments, which were conducted in this direction, hive shown, that the *bionic forme of activity tranelOtate quits tapidiy through theprofile of the soil, without revealing any phenomena of absorption: Awhols series of works on Studying the adsorptive qualities of soils and clay. (7,9,12) has *hewn that the lowland sandy loans, containing montiorillotits and Mite, are characterised by high adsorptive properties in relation to cesiumatui stron- tium. The soils with a high content of humus have, naturally, a high ado sorption capacity (compared to soils 4th little humus). In one of the ex. refrained eases (7) the soil had a low content of humus and its exchange capacity was due exolusivety to *lay: The author remarks that this soil fixed irreversibly a certain amount of essium(15), and that such a fixation was not noted on montmorillonite. Ruthenium has interesting_adscritive qualities, as Rootnote(18). Genius remiined in the soil, notwithstanding the attempts to remove it by way of displacing it with other ions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .628 it is shown by this same author: Laboristcry investigations of RuClg show that it is easily adsorbed by the soil which contains mantmorillonits and Mite:. On the other band the tetravalent ruthenium is adsorbed very poorly; Tete if the soil, which it used as the adsorbenteie treated with iron sulfate; then the adsorption by ruthenium (from a liquid phase) creases considerably (apparently, thanks to the reduction of Ru,/,/ to and reaches in certain oases more than 00: Thus, certain products of nuclear fission, which are in ionic form, can be adsorbed (and to* certain degree "decontaminated") by the soil* especially when these soils have suffioiettly favorable adsorption properties. One can point out as an example, that the mixture of the carbonates of soil with its surface bort. sons, which has a sufficiently large volume of (*softy and 4 corresponding ^alue of plc can be utilised for filling the cores, which possess a high degree of ability for "deeontamitation's The fact, deserving attention, is that on several soils, which differ quite sharply in their physico-ohemioal properties, the order of deers's* in radioactivity by Mat, of leaching most often responded to the following orders Ru>nr>rere earths->Os Whereas during the displassemeat of these same elements trout)* Sell in the process of the exchange adsorption (after treatment In NR?OR,pR: ?) gives another orders Se7COltu>rare earths, which shows that strontium is the most energetically adsorbed, then oomes Cu, and so on; In other experiments, which wars conducted with a sendyeolayey soil, possess a very ler capacity of absorption (1==%6 meq/100g), (Aegis's p.71) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA1-116P80R01426R010300030001-7 128 ?ter r? 'War it was also found out that ruthenium is mush herder to remove from the soil than Cs* 8r, mid the rare earths* the clirgy of absorption of Which raw Sponyded to the following orders Cs, Sr:flare earths. One should remark* that the ionic products of fiseion, which win adsorbed by alkaline soils, cannot he fixed as stably* Si they are fixed during the formation of fused ?mounds (cinders). That is why the entrance of load products into the plants (as well as their leaching during acidi- fication of soils) will propped more intensively in theffiret case, that in the other. Dispersion of ionic products of fission its the coil stratum occurs* as it was already cited* during washing, for instance* with colts- tions stioh contain ions Cs#? NEI, weak solids* and others. Utilisation of his is often much acre desirable, than. utilisation of weak acids ihich represent in themselves a mach lower factor for ndecoettateination, (with the exception* may be* of:messwith alkaline soils where acid reagents can play a positive role); On the other handsets Neel (IS) has shown it, neither acid, nor the alkaline treatment of soil will produce any noticeable reaction on that form of radioactivity* which is ins non-tonic fora; In conclusion we shall examine the Japanese data about the oontamination by radioaotivity of soils (and soil.produoitg rooks), and of plants; Oontatination_offloile and_of soil-producing rocks by radioactivity was studied by several researchers; Fitting examined the radioactivity of the Atolls after heavy radioactive rains, Maui (2,3) found that the activity of soil specimens, which was measured by a Geiger counter, ranged frost 4 to 47 counts/Min per g6g. On light soils, which lot the rainwater pass through easily, as well as on plowed soils, the radioactivity proved to be compare. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001--7 428 tively los. There was noted no eattantial differentiation of the activity in eoperste horisons. A large accumulation of radioactivity was found by the author in the Spurious horisons of the soil, which let the rainwater through very poorly, as well as intho upper layers of soil, which are adapted to different bola loss in the terrain. As an examples the author points that on a ocurgerativaly los plats (outskirts of the Tokyo University) radioactivity in the upper layer of the soil comprised 47 couhtsjiin* as depth of Sma 4 4 counts/6in* and at a counts depth of 10em a 6 tmafiain per Dome Authors point outs that the oolloidel state of radioactive coma pounds when one meta the rare earth 'Wont" mars often, as well is "Ira COUSUMamd niobium, cane utilised quite suciessfulky when purifying the contaminated eater (20. These compounds sometime can be removed tont/art with calcium phosphate, alums or ferrio hydroxide. This same can he achieved also by means of filtering the solution through calcined clay (20). The offectivensse of the removal of radioactive elements can be increased by the addition of oaloiam phosphate th the elay. /n like cases, as the sates point out, Ce144 and 609 are held bask in considerable amounts. The ' researches by Mitsui (2,6) tad others show that radioactive substances* brought with the rains are ritaifted in the upper layers of Soil and rowan there for a lengthy time. During Mambo* tests in Americas it was also . hated that contaaination of the soil is limited ehiefly to its upper layers. iodine, as well as strontiumete the exceptions as much as they are char-. satirised by a greater solubility. let, oven these elements, in the opinion of the author, cannot penetrate toe very groat depth. L. Jacobson and R. Overitrat (Wadded to a suspension of bentonite ? calcium vision* Oildioa Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 active elements (yttrium, cerium, sirconium. niobium. [Begin p.72) teilutium, and others. After a definite time of interaction the sueperos non was centrifuged: When examining these centrifuged substances, it was found that bentonite adsorbs the following amounts of the radioactive element? Y91.25.0. Oe144,pite144.041.8%. 20818b96?985%, Sre9_30;4%, Te127/Te129.802%. Pu02.180. par1/41/40A, Pu61/..s4.2%. The cited data show, that as a matter of fact, all radioactive els: Meats possess a treat coefficient of absorption (for a given adsorbent); Yttrium, zirconium and niobium have a specially high coefficient; The great energy of absorption of zirconium arid niobium was also noted by Vlamis and Pearson (22). They point out that *lay and soil adsorb very a fast zirconium and niobium, Which then are removed with great difficulty: These eameauthors passed through the toil solutions of certain radioactive substances. Examination of filtrates has shown a full absence of radio.. activity. Larson (18) points out that in the upper layers of the soil very many radioactive substances Which were formed as a result Of the atomic exo plosion, are in an uhsoluble form, and tint they cannot be removed fro the soil even with a large amount of water. The amount of waterwsoluble stib* stances, depending on the type of the atomic explosion, retches 10: Noel and others (15) nobs that the energy of absorption of radioactive substances by various clayey rocks is different; Some of the !Japanese resetrohers have established that the overWhelming majority of radioactive elements concentrates in the layer of soil to a depth of 0.5 oh from the curs face. On the other band, researches of Stay* (10) show that strontium clearly goes into the deep layers of soil.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 826 r-\ Contamination of the plants by radioactive substances through the root system, at itis seen torn the examined facts, at first proves to be very iftsignifiCant. This contatdnation inoreaste with the tinplating of these dements to thole layers of toil in which the basic mast of the root tyttem it conoentratid. if ens should cultivate the land right after the radio., activi Mina,- then, as the author remarks (10) radicactive substances Which ere found on the aureate of the earth will be plunged into deeper lkyets, *bore they will become more accessible to the root system of plants; Oming to this, the absorption by the plants of radioactivo substances will increase. *alluring: with the aid of a 0.4; coating tube, the radioactivity of vegetation after the radioactive rain*, etioh fell in the southern regions of Japan on 16.1? Mty, 1963* Milli and Tatadeaki (17) have established that for different plants it ranged in the limits of 60400 counts/min per 1g of substance.: An especially strong activity- was rogistered in plants which have uneven surfaces (spikes of grains, loaves of radishes, and others); On conversion to 1 sq. foot of th* surface the greaten Yalu* of the activity reached the order of 106 dountiAin; For a ?caparison the authors cite some data about the results of tests of atomic bats, the seventh in order of . . tests, conducted in 0:6;A:(16). Among the plants* whose radioactivity wet Wag determined after these tests, the strongest oontmaination was noted in agrimony and in dandelion; . Radioactivity of these plant* proved to be torrispondingly equal to 0.24;0:106 and_0;3=1;6:10 daunts/Min for 1 sq;_ foot._ Footnote(16); The question is about the testing of aft-atomic bomb, whieh was oonducted on April 25. 1963 it the state of Nevada. As a result of this testing the products of nuclear fission, thieh were carried Serbia the whole American Continent, fell with a downpour, which was accompanied by thunder, in the region of the city of Troy (wad York state), Which tat situated 2,300 miles from the place of the explosion. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:R6P80R01426R010300030001-7 4326 fte-A The problem of radioactive contamination of the vegetable cover and of soils, which arose as a result of tests of hydrogen atd atomic boMbs draws tBegin p1-75I to itself more and more attention: in proportion to the de- velopment of research and the anumulttion of factual data, the importante of this prdblem becomes net more Obvious: Met for a full solution of the prOblem, as some of the researchers correctly suppong there are to other . ways but to forbid the tests of atomic and hydrogen bombs. LITERATURE 1; 'amuck, gibilmi and others; About radioactive suntans, which fell on 'the vessel ,PukuriusMarys. Bunsaki kagakug 3,835, 1054 (japan). 2. Mitsui, 2,01104 Tanidadsava and others. Iteluenop of radioactive sub- steno's, whioh are the products of the explosion of the atomic bomb on the commodities and the moil; Dods* kiting 25, 89, 1954 (Japan). S. Mitsui, Aso, and others. Researches in radinctivity, 1954 (Japan). Citations from T. Witikhiko (4). 46 tf. latikhiko. Bane prablers whin an connected to the radioactive oontatdnation of crops. Traces .of ashes. Nogli sYbS engoig no. 1 (translation from Japanese by N. trinitein). 5: Naming M. Nuclear energy. 1955. 8. Tanidadava latikhiko. Basic problems connected with radioactive contamination of crops. Rogtt stigi nod, 1955g no. 2 (tranvia* tion from Japanese by S. trinitsit). 7. Asphlettg C. B.1 Soil chemistry and the uptake of fission products. Research, 1955, no. 96 8; Bear P. E. and Wallace A. Alfalfa, its mineral requirement and chemical ? ? oompositiong New Jersey A. txpt. Sta. Bull: 7484 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .826 4-? ".? d OA Clark, D. M. The comma" of an unusualty high level radioactive rainout in theatre& of Troy. IM Ti Science* 1954, v.110, p.619. 10. Recta, T., Iimura, I.,,Shirai, T., Yoshida, T., Rewarasaki, R., Ione, and Teukohara, S. Investigation on the contamination field crops by artificial radioactivities as result of the Bobo* tests at Bikini Atoll; Reprintod from Soil and Plant, Wood 1966, vol. I no. 1. 21; Jacobson, Lo4 NerStr004 RA The uptake of plutonium and some product' of nuclear elision adeofbed on soil colloid*. Soil 8ei., 1066, v.561 a . p.129. 12? hindardA10, K;A., Treatment of radioactive water by a phosphate pre* oipitation. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1951, v.43, 1636. 16. billion, R. R., Olafson, J. R., Kole J.11. and Steen* A: J. The uptake of radioactive fission products by radishes and Wino clover fram "oil oontawinated by actual subsurface detonation fall out materials. A. R. C. Document VC2A412 (unclassified) (Deo. 1955). 14. Mensal, R. 0. Competitive Uptake by plants of potassium, rubidium* cesium and strontium, barium from soil. Soil Set, 1964, v.77, p.419. 15. Neal, J. W. at at, Soil plant interrelationships with respect to the uptake of fission produets. I. The uptake of 61(490, Ces167, Ru.,160, Ces144 and 1091 ARC, Report UCIA0247 (unolas41T2S6) (1958). ? m. 16. iiihita, R., lawalewsky? B. W. and Larson. Z. R. UCIA.162, Citation' from Jimphlett C. (16), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-14DP80R01426R010300030001-7 26 4=3., 17.* R disks, J. H. end Solders, A. A. Absorption and translcoation of strontium by plants; Plant fhysiol., 1958, v.28, p.500. is; %tabor& G. T. and Katz, a; 47, The transuranium elements research papers. 7 Part I (1949) AbGreavaill Book Co. 106 Solders, A; A" Modiste, 47.11; and Palmer R. P. The absorption and translocation by plants of radioactive elements from "Jangle" soil. ABC Document RW-27820 (unclassified) (Feb. 1983). 20. Straub, 0. P. Remmmal of radicaotive material_from taste solutions's. Osage and Ind. Baste 1061$ v628, p61886 21. Straab, 0; P., Norton, R. 4. and Placa, 0. R. Oak Ridge reports riedulte on water detoontaminatiOn study. Eng. NewsuRfoord, v;147 p.88. 1001. 22. Viatnie, t.t. and Pearson, G.A. Absorption of radioactive zirconium and columbium by plant roots from soil', its theoretical signifieance. 8dienoto. 1080, v6111, p.112. Soil Institute is. V. V; Dokuchaeva Date of entry - of the Academy of Science USSR June 26, 10686 Declassified and Approved For _Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 S / Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7_ L47 ' vek Pliagins, A; v;_. Prepatatys ispytan4e protiv SOmuthohikh vreditelei khlopchatnika. 1Preaparationss whiCh were tested for - 1 the control of sucking pests of cotton]: -.. 2ash6h; Salto Ot 'red; iBolisneis to. 1; ' pieTi Jan:Aeb. 19574 42121 Russ tan) ? -., The preparations lards at the prteent tines for the control of agris cultural pests do not always answer the requirements which ere 'set forth to them as insecticides, and this dells for a necessity of looking for new, mart effective meant. Zn connection with thia a StationlortPlant Froe tection of the Soiustaiffr tilleUnion Cotton SolentificeStseardh rattitutel conducts annually an examination at new preparations, which are synthesised by NEM and other soientifinresearch institution*: Wring the period from 1952 to 1955 the Station for Plant Protection 'examined phosphorus organic preparations and chlorinated terpenes. Latta. tory end field taste wore conducted with them on cobweb mites, as alias with melon patch and acacia aphids. Almost all the phosphorus organic preparations tested by us for their toxicity for, the control of the Sited pests surpass the chlorine organic preparations Or the chlorinated taints*. Thugs lor instants, mkarbofosn Icarbophos) guarantees a 505 mortality of melon patch aphids and of the cobweb mitts at a-e0notntration of 1 and'of'Sg in lOLa and a 100% mortality at a concentration of 2 and 20g in 1014., whereat., for instance ohlortet guarantees * 4 501 mortality of these posts at a concentration of log in 10144. .4 t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 427 and a 100% mortality of the melon patch aphids at 60g in 1010 in comparison with the 12% neetafosl the chlorten concentrate with MT beoomee lethal for the acacia aphid if the dose will be increased by 80 times, for the melon patch aphid by 10 times and for the cobweb mite by 20 times, viola experiments for determining the effectiveness of preparation? for the control of cobweb mites were conducted int kelkhos imeni Sverd1070 langi lulsikii ratan ift Tashkent Oblast**, Treatment of cotton was Cond duoted with a OUNse madhine at An outlay of the solution Of 1200 Oa (hectare w2471 acres). The preparation's tasted were all of a similar Oencentration tai In all, 10 variants of the experiment were started in 2 replications, 0.6 ha for each, ZSO Ilimeatulfer &motion] with embalm, sulfate wee taken as a eteridard.bectuse the treatment al coo.g templated for the control of the cobete site and Of aphides during the 'vele cation of effectiveness very few aphids were found.. Below vs give data about the results of experiments of preparations under field conditions, Efts/Altus of preparations _for the control Of ?matte? sucking pests T Sty in% (with a come- Preparation tion for the standard) afters 5 de7s a 10 days 6 k li blorfon ohlopheftri-photochenios its 6$% a derk sow 6$ ablerten 66% chlorten with DIOT 471.8 ag% polychlorpinens 66:9 -so% polyohlorcamphene 76:6 eVoratOks" illophatcnt) .800% thiophos omultion 0 ittiadard too sco ISO sit asbestos a standard 61;2 90:0 66:7 930 76:1 6E5 66:6 T7:4) 91.6 12 At it it teen from data cited in the tale the photochemicil ohlOrphea _ proved to be the most toxic of the two: Under field oonditions the chlorten preparation was olose to the photochemical chlorphen in its effectiveness Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-JRDP80R01426R01.0300030001-7 427 ohlortsn with DDT was less effective, than ohlorten %plenty alonei polychlorcamphene was more eftsctivs than po1yohlorpinine. Furtheraors0 from the above data it is sten, that it time the examined preparations loss their toxicity to one or another degree, semi quit* mtrongly. Thus, the thiophos emulsion on the fifth day of evtluation showed a good effectiveness but on the 10th day it vat lowered to SS. A sharper re. duotion in attentiveness 'was shown by vophstox . down to 10A4 During production tests in 1954 vophatox also proved to be little effective for the control of the cobweb mite; Consequently!, this prepares. tion white being highly toxic it respect to sucking pests under laboratory conditions, loos** strongly its properties on the 10th day under field con- ditions. Phosphorus organic preparations in their toxicity ours"; the chlorine organic in the control of aphids and of cobweb Mites. listaphos and toga* tom guarantee a 100A mortality of aphids at much lower conclintrations, than the standard . tntbssins sulfate; that is the reason Why they should find a wide utilisation for the control of the cited poste. For the control of the cobweb mitt mitaphoe and vophatox can be reOommended only in a mixture with ground sulfur. Chlorins organic preparations for the control of ducking pests of cotton cannot be recommended& as they are little effective. City of Tashtent, Aliaflnion 9eientific-Restiaroh Institute of Cotton Crowing, AP?11! Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2613/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 7rani, ? Aos7328 a (in Pull) t Gar, K: A:, and Ortmin, Era "flytabie novykh preps/way dila prId- poisvnot obrabotRi avian makarnoi oak*. (Exultation of nee preparations tot prea planting treatment of apt beet eiedel.-- ? Sas*. Dist; at Wed; I Sblelnel, no. 1; p;46, dan://eb. 1957, 4E1 21 (In Russian) It JO known, that during the tint days-after the eppearancs of sprouts on the tutees of the ground they are verysensitive to the damage that is being done them by'bset Gurculionidae; Often these plata destroy bat sprouts below the surface of the soil. Sprayibg or dusting the plantation* with poison ?holdall during this period le not sufficient* Offeotia; . ' in Connection with this Several researChere gert an idea to slim the sugar beet sprouts poisonous for the pests by bans of replanting treat* .ment of seeds with insecticides. The fiat experiments which wire conducted In this direction in . . 1049 in the institute of Entomology and Pnytopethology of AS Ukrainian SSR (by Rititsin) have shun promiling results; .8suchloran1 which was Utilised for this purpose under laboratory conditions, allied high mortality in Curculionidte although under field conditions the effect was not abaYa .clearly expreaed; int he Scientific institute on Fertilisers and Usettotangicidele during the last two veers, new potion ahem/ale were tattle!, Which dosera serious attention as a medium for preplaftting treatment of boot seeds. into these experiments were included highly toxic int:optician dhloriftan, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '4\1. Lit Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 g 0 ; trans. Amer heptaohlorine, attiring dieldrin, isodrine0 and endrin; Hexaohlaran was utilized as a standard (both the technical product, as *ell as the one enriched with game Isomer up to 99-100/04 Results of our research and of literary data indicate that the new insecticides are more poisonous to many kinds of insects during treatments of green plants than are DDT and hexachloranj and dieldrin and endrin even eurpase DDT it the length of the aftereffect. Experiments in preplenting treatment of seeds were conducted in the field on small sections: The moistened seeds were dusted before planting with a definite amount of finely ground crystalline insecticides. The effect was determined by utilising glass bowls, which were placed on the notions, And *valuation was done at different intervals of time after the appearance of the Sprouts: The mortality of beetles wee computed, dem . pending on climatic conditions, on the second or fourth day after the adding of beetles to the isolators; The &bible *bows restate of two experiments when the Curculionidse were placed into the Water* on the 0th day after the appearance of plants: Those experiments have shown definitely that all the tested insecticides caused toxicity in the beet sprout.* *Win, endrin, and, especially, is/ Arise surpassed hexaohloran In toxicity: Hexachloran in large doses retards the sprouting to a considerably larger degree than the new insectiCides (see the bible): Insiot aide Date of tests The length of beetles* stay on the sections , lumber of infected beetles (in14) St the following doses of potion chemicals _ -kg g per 1 kg _of seede_ Og per I of seeds Aldrit L `rt.' Hfptaohlorine 1935 3 days mime 89 70 85 *y25 same ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (8) Tram 1.4197 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ra. f Insecticide 1104 of tette The lenght of beetles' stay on the actions-of Number of infected (in %) at the of ?Seen beetles following dose's chemicale 7Ig per 1 ke seedy 6g par 1 kg of seeds_ _ Mach technical Ghlorindan Modrint Endrin Aldrin Dieldrin Ie Oammsoliomer OXUS? eame n 1958 Irri same n n same . 0 4:5 days gams n it I ft 82 , 43 110 78 76 . $3 8 le 94 87 77 44 a Oservutions on sections have shown thst isodrifte in s dose of 4g per 1 kg of Soda did not rause art delay in the growth and development of sprouts of beets, stile the gams isomer ouTsG (994100% pure) on the contrafl. sots dspressivelyAn the same dossge: Similar results were obtained under laboratory condition's during the evaluation of the energy of sprouting of treated Seeds. Pr all the above cited OM oan (tome to conclusion, that the three new insecticides; eldring endrinAnd isodrine are very premising for the pree planting treatment or beet seeds. *scow, usurp Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 129 (Conclusions) vgig ????? Ilimeshevskii, R. L. PM:anente gektakhlorena imikroslementoi. tfltilisetion of beflohloren and of microOlementsi. ?Ostia.. Rest. at Vred. S Rolesneis nos 1, p.42049. Jan./Feb. 1957. 421 21 Russian) Conclusions Utilisation of hexachloran for preplanting powdering of seeds, dust- ing of the stand of grass or introduction of it into the Soil lowers the damage dons by wirewarms to the root system of clovers it produces 'siting influence on the growth of the plant and a time, on the yield of grass. A simultaneous preplanting treatment of dinar seeds with heraohloran and 11 micros/events solution gives the greatest increase in the yield or grasses. Under the influence of the preparation GIRTS0 the percentage of devote to the clover heeds produced by the Curculionidae, seed-Inters Apion apricAns &bet.* is deoreteed. Remachloran produces IL stimulating effect on the growth of the bacteria whioh are capable of fixing free nitrogen (ttotobaoter). The effectiveness of hexachloranes action is increased when it is used together with micros element.. There is not mach difference in the effectiveness of its action when hexaohloren is introduced into the soil or the seeds are doted with it be. fore planting* Thus, the last method, being more practicable, should be Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 29 introduced widely intoproductionas a method which imitates the yiotd Of perennial grasses. Scordles Chleattstpotimentat Station in farming. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1 . !' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030501-7 Ati650 tin full) : CI ? Auliakin* 1: V.* and tudintseva* Foataplenie V rattenlia radioaktiinykh isotopot strontelia, tsedisi rutehiia* teirkoniia S totals. ? (Radioactive isotopes Of strontium* ofteeium* rabsnium* sirconiuM and Cr/flumes supplied to the plant]; s-- Akad: Sauk SSSR nth; vol. Ill* no. 2* p.2060208. Nov; 1* 19584 611 1444a, aft Rae/dab) In delineation with the Obtaining of radioactive isotopes* *high per mitone to detect in plants eery dealt emOunte of such alementies etrontiuma Caesium* Cerium* ruthenium* ripcord= and other.* S aide examination was started Of the entry and of distribution sithin the plant, of:the eciscalled rare and sparse elements., Inmany:works (lad)* *hick sere conducted in various soils* it it pointed out that radioactive Isotopes of berth teesium, yttrium, ruthenium and siroonium (with daughter isotope niebium) are absorbed Glower by the plant* 4b4 are'hild beckManly in the rens unlike radioactive Isotopes ce Strontium* ten enter the plant* more intensively and accumulate in aboveground organs in considerable amounts; Our itaminationt of the entry of redicaitive isotopes of ditontiutu deeeiunu tircalumend rutheniumenereConduetedwith'the plants of teat (Triticum periltu) in leiter cultures one nutrient madiumeith an addition offbbron and Manganese: Taking into consideration a different coprecipitation of radioactive . isotopes in the nutrient medium, the experiaent sat conducted according to air Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-730 S method of tea:AIM:fled nutrition: radioisotope; were in vettele with water from the Water enpFXF separately ftela the nutrient menu: nand the plants daily were alternately rearranged from the nutrient medium into the vessels with radioactive isotopes and back; Concentration of isotopes was 0;05 mo per liter or 01525 to per vessel with & holding capacity of 6.'6t. Tablet Content:: of radioactive isotopes in planta at the end of the.tillering es of wheat latest . ...per er o ?'.Su.stae Aboveground par Roo 4t Aboveground Roots Thousand ' .0c:tants/art _ F_ Thousand cruptiben $ parts sr90 0.127 ' 206 Ru1?8 ' 401e 44.5 0:2 0;4 78.3 59:1 2.1 045 11.1 80:8 2;5 78.8 21.2-I 40:A I 97;4 "I 89.5 ' loaa, 166;3 0.8 0:7 , i I UO2 5374;2 72.0 767;7 _ Footnote Zn table one, as everywhere following, a total activity is shown for those having daughter radigaantiveamoleids SOO. 200 andR:1108e (that it 8001 299. tr90, libps and RewilRh."?). The time, which passed between the time of harvesting the plants and the maturing ofactivity:lases sufficient for the establito4i nt of a balanced ratio between 600 and 290a and the more so for Ru106 and Rh "e that is why the measured activity in the given case is in proportion to the dontents of the mother long*living Isotope, that Le ar90 at Ru108 respectively. Snell deviations from a balanced ratio were possible for gr95 gb95: begin p.2071 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 -0 e 4 /:?Th,?? Data Of evaluation (table 1) show that radioactive' ieotopet of strons t1um.itztd clesiUm accumulates for the most parts in the aboveground ideation Of the plants while the radieieotopes of eitoeniustand ruthenium are res ? tained mostly in the reots; To the end of the vegetative period of eh tet the contents of radioactive isotopes in plants tassel; Furthermore* redioaCtive isotopes (table Os strontium and caesium, beoome actumalated comparatively Stronger in the aboveground parte of plante; Dietribution of radioactive isotopes invyarte of Table 26 ripe wheat plants Firts of plants In thousand tonntener min for 1 plant in per cent gr90 04137 205 "1006! prig) 011$7 Zr95 ROM leaves 93;2 272;9 Ii7 4$:6 274 0;t3 1.15 Stoma Spike (without grain) 8715 /21,9 88517 123:p 01,6 Oil 1 211 019 , 41:0 U. 3614 12:4 7;0 19 14.0 0;,0 Crain 3:9 47:3 ofm: 0;08 05 Roots 164 169;4 6:9 : 104;1 7.2 17;0 62;7 05.7 Entering intensely into the aboveground part of wheats radioactive jes topes of strontium and caesium are tocumulated in the grain to a constderab Larger amounts than radioisotopes of sirconium and ruthenium; Data at table 2 shoes that in the roots of rips wheat there is cons tained only 7.2% of Bras); but 17.44 of 01457 from the total amnunt in the whole plant; These data about the entry into the plant and distribution or radioactive isotopes through it were obtained under conditions of an ex. perisent when there was noted almost no negative effect on the growth and yield Of wheat; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 141 Tram. &.sRSO Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Table 8. isotope* giedried 'weight in% from the control Contents of Isotopes in /kg Grain'Stave , ash r Roots 4oveground Parts Roots _ Grain Dr" 1 88:2 118.6 101.5 026 0:48 04017 .04181 9847 : 90:9 9848 0.67 43:7 0.13 2r95 104;8 105.6 84.8 0.012 1:9 0:0011 i [ Ru108 121:0 , 230.7 1288 . 0.018 8:1 0:00064 i Contents of radioactive Isotopes of to-Odiumand etrontiUn per one unit of dry substance of the aboveground rase, Specially of grain is greater& than the contents of radioisotopes of sirooniumand ratheftium (table 8): 120r unit of grain weight the highenit Content proved to be that of 081374 Sr" tomSiehat smaller; and still smaller were Zr95 and Ru100; The Cited experiments, conducted by us Ian navy agricultural phitntei (sentsnoo continues on page 2094 after table 4) Table ?44 Weight of plants in% to, Isotopes _control chart Contents of radicieotopes per one plant of oats misand own in 1 plan Grain Straw , chaff 48:0 81;5 64.70 [Begin p:2081 9GB loo ;0 74:1 327404 281;5 8270;1 4746;6 , 46;8 _ 919:6 40:2 ? 1:0 j con- tent in aboveground UM; Grain_ Straw, Waft 8:9 . 8.1 2:1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 -/ 1A WAWA. 4.430 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ??? have gown, that radioactive isotopes, which enter into the aboveground pert of the plant* of such elements as Sr* Ca, Cd, SU and Zr *re con- tained Slay in vegetative parts and* Ina comparatively insignificant awount4 In the reproductive organs. During an experiment with cats (Mbskovsk114415), which as Conducted witha coneentretion of radioactive isotopia for 1 no per ,liter of solution, theresae teens decrease in the yield of grain (table 4); Data of table 4 ehow that notwithstanding a danaging effect of radio.** tion on the cat plant the stele regularity of distribution Of radioactive isotopes 14 retained *song the different aboveground parts as in wheat* where there is an alma of a negative influence on the growth and yield of plants. *scow Agrieultufel" Nntored Oh Academy it K. S. '7- law July 244 1958 Cited Literature 1; L; alechson4 R Overstreet, Soil Scl: 854 no; 24 1048; 2; Cileuis* G. Pearson, Selene** 111* no. 28754 1950. 3; CA; Swanson* 4; E. Whittbsy* At. J. Sot., 404 no; 10* 1955 4; Rooney WA Scads -4;4 Larson* 2.* U.S. Atonic Energy Comm; VOW; of Calif.* 204* 195L 5: Wier* 8. H., Solders* A. A;* Plant Physio1;4 284 no. 44 1953. 6; Minzeli, 11;4 Soil Sol;* 774 no; 64 1954. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 I Aa63I ( part) . ? vg/1 7 At Readers' Conferenees Na konferentsliekh chitatelei; - 24010h; Rest: ot ?rsdci Boleznei, no. I. p;?. ? JanOreb; 1267. 421 Z1 (In Russian) If one takes into consideration the eiroulation of the journal, which constitutes now about 26 thousand (and this figurei undoubtedly will inw crease with the publication of every new number of the journal), and comp-area this with the presence it our country Of scientifio workers in the field of plant protection (about 3 thousand), then it appears that the basic mass of the journal's subscribers is composed of the agriculturists of IS, of ko1khozess lioTkhcles, Stuadronsgaxpeditions'and.cther production ergkni0 rations which are engaged in the control of agricultural pests, diseases and *eds. And this basic mass of readers must be taken into consideration; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ft S'31 - . - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030060001-7 1.052 taproot/ I ? vg/W ? 'iurkovekii, B. 2a: 0 tekotorykh nedostetkokh nashipaprimentaeedi dila boriby so seeklovichnymedolgonosikos.? tabbut certain deficiencies* in machines which ". are utilized for thricontrol of but Curoulionldeel: ! gaihoh:tait:'.4t Wed: i Bolosnels act: 1. p:21024; .Jan./Feb. 10474 ? 421 21 (InRussian) In 1955056 the Ukrainian ITS were supplietwith new machinery for the protection of plant*: in 10540 In Kharkov oblast' for the control of beet Ourculionidae were utiliSeds a cutting trench digger IMO, sprayers 0NT642 and OR the ?titration sprayets*dusters 013, OW015 and ONK: They wire all tested tor their performance: trench diggr.234030 is intended for digging trap trenches: Four machines were :tested: The depth of the open trenches ringed In the limits of 2400300 ma, and the width0160 to IdOmm, which es aatikraotory. /compact charms sea soils with a mean moisture content of 24020% the quality Of trot:Zhu was excellent: On loose soils, on fields of last year beet plantings, with ? moisture content of 28054g the trenches had ragged sides and neededmuch ad- ditional manual labor for cleaning out: Productive capacity of trench dimes was far below the calculated: They only dug 306 kmper day instead of the 13016 kmo S noresestablished by ICS: : This is explained by technical troubles width* overloading of tractors' The basic defect of the machine as the unreliability of the.chaina drive: Also, on all the tested machines the braces of the. hoisting winch became defamed or oven broke: The steel trusses of the hoisting macivanima Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .832 \, cm, ? also brake in many teases: The knives of the cutting dram were subject to considerable Wear and tears became dung this increased the effert Of the machine and worsened the quint/ of trenches; The traction force of the trench digger was very great: The tractors bedame over-las ded and in one case we registered 13 Stoppinge during 1 hoar *MO were daubed by *training; At a moisture content of 28% and higher in the toil0 the clogging of the moldboard was very heavy and required frequent 'Stops for 'cleating: Sprayer cro142 (Pp)) mounted on tractor 11.2: two machines were tested in appanage of OA solution of barium chloride with an addition of 1% or molaeees; During observation* the wind achieved a . ? velocity of,2:64:0m/lec: The quality of spraying as satisfactory, but only at those times when we taoceeded to &Omit the machine, and it went out of order very often, especially it the distributing tram; We found many defects in the sprayer: The extension arms of the nozzles broke down very easily6 the boom sprayer was too heavy.0 it had nothing to prevent it from hitting the ground, it was Very herd to back the engine, the gear wheel wore out very soon and time the pressure of the streamwaa lowered: The quality of production of the machine must be recognised as low: RorseamOtor spryer WC At the Sverdlovsk/ beet aovkhoz. in Rharkov oblatti two ORR sprayers were hitched to one tractor KRT3a7; The coupling was made an the farm: The construotional coveting of the unit was 11 14 while the eoonomical (working) was somewhat greater: 12;0412.6 m (wind dispersed the pulverized atream to 1a1.6 m): slen the tractor worked in second gear the . _ productivity of the unit reached 6.8 to 6.3 ha (hectare t 2.471 acres) per 4 one hour of net work:. The filling of the reservoir was manual, by pails; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 igl Traile A.052 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19,: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 or cat. although Use sovkhoz gave the 0M2sprayer t positive evaluation, they found a to defects: for instance, small holding capacity of the reservoir; the motor, of a ODTASOOV tyre became overheated very soon. after Which it was very hard to start itagaid; the seat for the driver woe extremely unborn. Tortilla; having no oushioning$ and almost impossible to use during the tractot(a Pulling. CoMbitation sprayerAduster OBS was utilized for spray bats atith a field atomizing device; The work of tour 01W taohides on the farm went alagittn-0 interrupted: But the prodUAivitiiangedy on tbs'everageo in the limits of 2040 ha per working days Which was uneatisfactory under the given conditions; But this was explained exclusively by a bad organisation of work. When tractor 154.2 worked in the first gear; the diameter ofthe atomising notate being 4 mm and the working presents 1540 atza4 the actual outlay of liquid per i ha comprised About 020 tql which it superfluous. But the welters did not deft it necessary to lower the outlay; We found excessive moistening on. a strip about 245 mwide. Among the defects of the OES maehine were totalize quick wearing out of the toothed rack transmission of the awing branch pipe; which wee situated Very low above the ground without any protection; in one ease was noted a lowered productivity of the filling ejector (not more than 50 4/mm) and in another case a rattling noise was heard lin the link gear of the plunger pump; Oothination_eprayeraduster OXPrn15 from the nitvovselerashie tactor- was used as a eprayer on baste; The machine had a arraying device in the form of two spray nozzles oppositely situated horigontally; The work of OXPA16 machines was observed by us at two kolkhozes and the obtained date almost fully correepond; At both fans, beets were sprayed by Tay of a shuttle motion of the units aerose the rows at a right angle to the wind; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 432 During aberrations the intensity of the mind reached 406 Moe which was not quite favorable oondition forte work of this type of spraying device; The examination showed that the covering Of rbeet leaved with poison chemicals an not uniform. The basic mass of the liquid settled in the form Of ?coarse drops at a distance of 4046 m from theaxis of the movement and further on in a form of a strip 6456 melds; In this zone too mach liquid settle* onto the plants While in the immediate proximity of the machine large drops fall of a diameter 647 mm. A covering which was satisfactory in quality* with fins droplets* was only noted at a distance of 10-12 m fromthe Sainte and further up to 3046 in with 4 gradual decrease in density; Ibm disci in the sprayer's had opening. of 2 mm diameter; the working pressure was 16446 atm and the speed of the unitis motion was 6:26 km/hour; The outlay of liquid was 350460 1.: per ha; The productivity of the unit was 16-19 ha per one hour of net work* but on account of frequent stopping, for technical and organizational reasons the daily productivity did not exceed 2046 ha. rater on it piivitn to in-crease as the workers of RPS fixed atm/ defects Din the machines. A combination sprayerkhater ONK* mounted on tractor RIITZ*7. We observed tvo chines, which worked as sprayers with a horizontal distributing boom sprayer. Working on beets during a wind up to 6 ra/seo the width of the working covering (the economical width) reached 11 m, while the constructional covering of the boom vas 8 m; With the working of the full complex of nozzles (20 pieces) having openings of a diameter 1:6 mot a working pressure of 7.4 atm and the speed of movement of the unit 6.3 ba/hour (second gear) the outlay of liquid (reckoning 1758 of DDT emulsion concentrate per 10 L. of water) constituted about 250 V. per I ha. Productivity per 1 hour of net work ranged in the limits of 565.6.8 ha, whereas the average daily productivity of the unit. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 vo" which was calculated during the course of three aye, did not nosed 2045 he. Mach time had to be spent for the refilling Of reservoirs, boa cause their holding capacity was very small* There were almost not stoppings for technical reaSene. The farms gave 4 high evaluation to the an machine.. The following defects can be pointed out in this machine* small holding capacity of the reservoir* insufficient productivity of the ejector* the distributing boom gelid rickety on the vertical plane* the end nossles of the boom sprayer, having no support hit the ground and turn beck, thus the cone of dispersion was turned bkokwards instead of downwards* the seat forth** workman was very bad* the mounting device wee very complicated and to* long time to mouht* the steering devide no very dispersed and this made the operation of the maohine difficult. Kharkov airicultutal factory imeni DOkuchelev. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2613/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 , ? Trent. PASS . On full) vgilt &are v; v; Cinema twulaChi V 1967 godu; (Basic prebleMA ift 1957J; a 24ehc5,; Rest. at Wed. S Eidleenoie nett; p;$46. den. eb. 1957; 421 21; (In Ruiesian) The Soviet people aro suoiteefullyadoompliehing the problems *hi& to , set up by- the 29th tong rots of the Cethist art? of the Soviet Union concerning a sharp rise in socialite? agriculture., The kolkhoses and tors khotes of our country in 19551 the first year Of the Sixth fite4YearePlani (:) have goonsideratly increased the production of grains potatant, flash tetton. Milk and other fonts of ptoVitiott, and at materials top industry; The standard of government proonrentonto intrapy of the most important preducte during the paetsysar reached unprecedentedly high indicators, attestant to the growing pewor'at:the Soviet tate: The supPiying of people with products of nutrition, and of industry with agricultural ram materiale improved considers? ably; In the netspeari. 19579 a problem tea raised before kolkhotese aor? khotese machineetraotor stations, assellBe before all the apiculture/ workere Of our country to :multiply the encases.* of the past yeara to pro,. vide for a continuant growth in the yielding :capacity of agricultural drops ; and the advance in productivity of anima% huSbandryi to achieve further increase in the output of-agricultursl production. ?1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R61426R010300030001-7 F:33 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030003000117 DOWS .Ar? Fir a. practical solution of this prOblemi well organised control of poste* diseases and weeds* and of losses* which in many oases still Achieve immense proportions* is of great importance'. According to calculations of vrate annual lases of grain in USSR true poets And diseases alone reach 8000250 million pude* of cotton fibre a SOO to 800 thousand tons* Lite blight alone carries off 2 to 26 million tons of potatoes; Total losses which the kolkhoses azd tovklhonial beer yearly from loans in yields on account of damages inflicted by pests and diseases to crops and plantings are estimated in billions of ruble* Oar country gives Auoh attention to the protection of plants. Xt is sufficient to eayi that trout)* Union budget alone on than 100 million rabies WOW expended for the control of pests and disease* in 1954 and the supply of ptieon Ohemicele to agriculture exceeded 200 thousand tons: kateraltstion works for the destruction of tartan pests daring the past year were conduotad on almost 23 millionhectares% this includes over it Milton 1a Wein 2:471 acres] for the control of flanks and mouses like rodents: The volume at measures for the control of sugar beeti ootton, fruit and vegetable crop posts has grown otheiderably* as well as for the most dangerous of all pests of grain crops a Iturygester integriceps Putt Yet* the results of the conducted eget lag behind St Which is di- sired In this respect there are many serious defects; Foriftetenoe* let up take the problem of the Nurygaster hug; Last year in many redone of the Northern Caucasus (Krasnodarskii gni* Rostovskaia and temenektia oblaeto) as well as in raions along the Ttlga (Sarstovekaia* Stalingradekaiw* Balashovskeia ?blast% considerable areas of grain crops etre infested by this pest* which led to * lowering in the rielding,capacity and in the duality sr crane, as it did in nravicum nsfl AWCPAiht tO the most Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 433 \ modest maculation, sheer leases, incurred by the national economy frocithe Surygaster bug, last year were 7840 min puds of grain, to sty nothing about the lowered quality of the harvested grain. The cause of snob a huge loss, which was brought on in 1958by the EUrygattertm0, conflated mainly ins bad organizatlon.of the protection of plantings hon this pest, shish to a large degree depended on the attitude of Indere of agricultural agencies, of 1T8 of kolkhoses and sockhoses, whose fieide were infested by the bug *towards this big end important task; In irasnodarekii Frail, where the control of Rurygaster bug, trepans or dusting the infested fields with DDT ant, wastegpn early and, notwitho standing the unfavorable climatic conditions, wie persistently conducted 'until June, in most talons it became possible not only to protect thegin p:41 thrt crops atwitter wheat on all infested treat from, big losses, but also pre- vent the layering ofthe quality of grains. In Stalingrad oblast, a different situation was orated. Mere the es,. terminationwoks of the Rurygaster bug 'ere begun very late, because of waiting for the delivery of vofatoz and they win conducted with negligence and poor in inality: As a result of this the luvgaster bug damaged the grains on an area of 150 thousand of ha; For that ease reason in Balashov Oblast' almost the seventh part of all the grain shipments, which entered the Storage points in 1958 had up to 1% of grainThickens dansged by the Ruryoster bug, which sharply lowered its bating qualitifl; These losses could have been oonsiderably levered if the organization of protective works was better and* Chiefly, more timely, as well as the handling of poison theMicals was more expert, as totally they .a In sufficient suppliant: It is inalsputabliei that veletas in wany eases is better than DDT in providing a higher endmore assured effectivenese, yet DDT with an expert handling can also be of great use; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030003000117 bila3 Arrk ? The lesion* or the pant year urgently regalee e tore careful and timely preparation for the oontrol of the furrristertP8; The prates is not to only guarantee the effective protection .of crops in the current years but also to prevent a further enlargement of the tre&I,of this pest and in the next years to eucand'in a sharp lowering of its harmfulness; Data of scientific investigations and Of practical experience show 1 that modern chemioals do not produce full destruction of the }Sari:Otter bugs and fore radical decision of the question of exterminition of this pest it is necessary to change the system of Its control by linking the chemical measures With agroteohnicelj and, espeeiallys with organised technical action daring harvesting atm crop; Cbsereations tholes that the numbers of the Surygaeter bo4rgroe end the ta are of inftion of crops boccie enlarged tot considerable degree when the -harvesting warble dant; it is established that fora normal overwintering the bug* must In 0. sufficient amount of fat (86a4dg to the dry weight of the body), which they basically acquire trot the ripening grains; the bugs which do not have eudh a 'tore of fat an doomed for mass ostentation; Cons ^equettlys in Ceder to prevent ta further propagation of the pest it IA necessary to conduct early harvesting of grain crops in all the regions of its settlement and eliminate the lessee; this bootees possible with the organisation of a divided hervesting of the crops: Mistime:tee have sheens that for conducting separate harvestings of grain crops on the entire area, which vas infetted with the rimester b4d, in the current year it would be necessary to have approximetely 8 thousand grain bindere and 12 thousand combines; Cur industry is quite capable to furnish the regions where Iturygaster bug is spreads with this amount of harvesting machines; Thues there is a full possibility, already in 19570 to Obi& the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIAI-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1113$3 . furplater bug on a wide front erd in the neat year* to succeed to so lower the nunberS of this dangerous pest thit it would teams inappraitble this will give the visibility to ansideraly improve the quality of Alain obtained, together with a saving of tens ofaillions of pude of 'crops . in the regions where the most valuable varieties of wheat are grown,' and . in the future to also lower the outlay in financial and material resouroe for the control of this pest. Simultaneously with the ralisetion of wide measures for the control of the Surygatter bug it is Also necessary to 'considerably enlarge the work ce protection of grain crop. from Other pate. Special given to the protection of earn from WiflOWOMMS, which bring great harm.' \ Serious consideration must be given to the sugar bat Ocroulioni4a6: Curing lea year it was possible to avoid any large damage to the planting, , of sugar beets: In this a positive role was played not only by the pros tooth, and exterminating measures, which, were undertaken, but also by favor- able weather conditions which then mailed. Yet, as in the foregoing years, active control of this pest inmost of the regions of Its epreading;sug terminated as soon as it stopped beinga real threat to the sugarbeet crops: Unfortunately, in say regime, which plant sugar beets the harsfuloese of such practice is not properly evaluated* (Begin pal this permits the overwintering of a conlidaable part of beetles end brings on the growth in their robbers during the following year: The kolkhoses and sovkhoses during this yea will be much better Supplied with poison &minim and apparatus for the contra Of best Suroulionida and other pests of agar beets: Side by Sidewiththe increase of deliveries of barium chloridesof 1,7 ealeions and of hixahlorans the forme which plantbatswill receive DDT pastes polyohlorpinetes as well as the 20% hemahloran dust for introducing into the soil in order to ester* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013;09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA:RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 43,5 " y-31. mints the larvae of beetles. this will permit to seta goal in the current year before the agri- cultural organs, fte, kolkhons and scathotes, tit plant beets, to not only protect all the plantings of sugar beets from the beet Curculionidae, but also to prevent this pest from overwintering; to !conduct a planned and large work in lowering their miters and reduce the areas infected by it; IS also have large deficiencies in the work of protection from pests and diseases of other technical crops, and of cotton especially; ,ftring poll:mar years the control of posts and diseases of cotton as restrained consider- Sb by the insufficiency of poison chemicals; Curing the putt year this shortage was largely eliminated; together with Improvements in the Supply of cotton planting regions with sulfur, whidh is as yet the basic means ' for control of the most dangerous pest of cotton, the ?Obit mite, a high effectiveness its the protection of cotton plantings from this pet was Shown by phOaphorui organic preparations of systemic action, haroaptophos end octamethyl. Yet, for the control of the zany nits of cotton, and *snottily of cent mites, one cannot rely excIutiveiy on the exterminating emesures; It is very boorish% to retatoblish in harry cotton griming regions as tidily as possible the %glitter/oily forgotten practice of prophylactic measures, the spraying of weeds and of mulberry trees When the cobweb mite propagates during the early spring period* and from ten it then moves *ft to Cotton; MU will not Only bonen the iffectiglnies of protection of cotton tram the cobweb :mite, butwillalso reduce the need of buying the expensive, and yet source, poison chemicals; Mrs urgent actions-watts taken for the protection of orohards, of vegetable crops and potatoes for the control of pests and dismiss; One Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : ClAdiDP80R01426R0103005-300011/ 1135 - N met point out that the moat high lonfl in crops from pests and diseases of agricultural production are permitted in these branches; leaf-roller moths are widespread Oat everyehere, nail se *cabs of apples end of other fruits, which bring an exesptiotally great his to hortieulture: Annually millions of 'Wither* of veluable production are lost IS it cons sequence of inattentiveness of any kolkhos and saran leaders to the pro- tection from, posts and diseases of vegetable and melon pate& crops; paring the list several years Lithe potato planting regions the lat.blight Of potatoes became widaproad, Si tutu 4441 other ter1444 potato diemesse: All thie requires a serious Improvement in the fieteotion of orchards, as well as of plantingm of vegetable crops and of potatoes fro2 diseases and pests: the chemical industry at the present time le able to bIlly satiety the dematele for poison Chemicals, *Whore needed for the effective protection of vegetal* 461 potato crops and Of orchards from a danger that threatens the. time, with 4 mon attentive attitude, on the part of the leaders of forme, to the proteetion of plantings froapeets and diseases, these large deficienolde can also be overcome to a great extent: Quarantine manures are of greet importance fer4the protection of .the crop; they are directed for the protection of the country from the pastries tion from without of many very dangerous pats and dieeties which are absent in our country, as well as in the localisation and extermination of fool of the previously imperted quarantine pests and diseases; A further spreading of such dangerous pests and diseases as haft 4006 scale, potato canker, and a on ere very dangerous for agrioulture, During the past year in Kalinin* gradek regions were discovered fool of Colorado potato-beetle, whoa pene- tration idegin pal] into the basics potato growing regions of the Omity can bring a Amy serious demo to agriculture; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-145P80R01426R010300030001-7 af133 A comparatively small group of specialists in the Quarantine Service carries on in this field & very important work' unleratimationsof whith ? an lead to very &norms consequences; on. must kin) in mini that ' 014 during the past year in plant shipments which entered from other countries, and particularly in parcels with seeds, were found any oases of the presence in them of very dangerous pest* and di010041114 iftbdOd Satan are pint bollworm in sample' of cotton seeds from 05A and China; nehetyijii kihilatntststa Keynote It four-spotted nail, found in areas] in seeds Of ehiekspeas, that arrived from Turley, Chinese 'Mani in lads of soybeans, which vete brought fromeirtnam,' Indian smut of wheat, ant of rice, and so ? Penetration of these pests, especially of the pink bollworm into our country can lead to huge lases: Control of the most dangerous quarantine pests and diseases must be accomplished first of all and byallpossible MOUS: At the same time, and as soon is poesible, it is necessary to elf- Mnats certain limitations in the quarantine rules which are superfluous an not called for by any necessity, and which in many oases, without any need, complicate the activity of agricultural organisations; The oxalate+, role tittaking decistodbelonge to soientiflooressaroh institutions" and problem, for the protection of plants together with finding new, more, effective mans and methods, they -mast give active help to those engaged in production in the most correct ades of already known methods for the protection of the crop, as well as the most effective utilization of 100 terialisteclulical means; This is the Whin responsibility of the *anal soientifienoseateh institutes and stations. They suet find the most effatiee methods and melte for control of pate and diseases suitable to the conditions of the sone serviced by them also to work out sod to arm the agricultural organizations' kolkhoses and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 E4113,3 neon* with a system of reasurn for the protection of all tho crops all. tinted in this Sobs* This muss work must be conducted by branch institutes according to the crops which they are morticing. At tho same time SUR, together with the RopUblic institutos for plea protection, as well as the branch institutes with the attraction of the ne- cessary Chairs of agricultural institutes* snd of special institutes of the Andety of Science of =land of allied Republics, int considerably crease the work of finding new no effective mans and Sothon for control of pests and diseases of plants: in particular, it ill nensmary to intonsify the renkrob for means of control of the Ruryiester bag in plans of its oventintering, to &entente the tests of systemic preparations as, for in- stances metasystox X-811 1142 whiOh have a smaller toxicity in respect to vanblooded animals compered to tereaptophos ard ostauethyit to develop sufficiently offeotive and economic means for the control of mallow moths, of suut and rusts on plantings of grain crops, of the late blight and of oanker of potatoes. The existing methods for the control of the Colorado potato-beetle, of nematode, of leafibroller moths; of San Jon and other *calm are exoessivoly experts in and often insufficiently effoctivo: It is proper also to draw attention to the extmomoly harmful underististion. Which exist* in science and in pnotios, of the biological method for the control of pests. Akan- while, it is quite obvious* that A successful realisation of control of the harmful Rurygaster bug, of leafroller uses and any other pests, including also those of the fore% oanbo aohlealad when the obettni-mothod4 would suet only be co-ordinated to, hit elle supplemented by the biological end bin- physical ones; It is necessary to widen, in every way possible, the eolentifiosresearch work of investigating tbs nature of rssistann of plants to the peewits* of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 443 aitieteed and to harneul insteti ind to cultivate the varieties of plants mistmat to them; It id beyond doubt that gist and ooeplet 0?1)104 Witch lean before the ticrioulturel production of our country in 1957 will be OUcoessfully solved. And ell the epecisdists in the proteetiOn of plot** will take en waive rut in it, All of %maybe work in kolkhodese adthototo UTS4 in equadei edministrationso seientifiorreeserchorganiMitione end In schnole or bite education: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 sinus:SAWA ? (In full) Tea 14 11,0114. Politturte ta:. Putt utuathenlie feboty sluthby abets i prognoses,. INtats'of:ImptoSAg the estimation and fore* east service].. . a Zitshchita katortiii no; 2; i851; 421 Z1 (Zn Russian) Provost' of the eppearana sod developmettb or plant pests and diseases is of great importance to the Stets it the plaskting, proper orgenitetion, end timely implementation or measures required for the probation Of the yield; At the present tins however* the situetion of themstintiOn end forecast 'service dose not tisaysait the assigned take; Thebasic Organt? **time' shortoming is the inadeeuate network of Observation points. In sae large egricultural dietriets of Siberia, and Xatakestea and int& number of other:repass of the country they are coapleteli leaking; 8 testis . fio institutes* experimental Mations* tenet and branch inetitutes are at invited to participate in the capitation of forecat data. A network of correspondents abated fro* local agrontesists,. whose kbaledge of prates tion anditiore and production cheacteristice could be of great Si;, ha notbeerforgenised; Nor has any use been nede of the extensive network of State verietyktestsiploti aids could furnish valueble inforation on US , develepant of some types of pat* arsi disease; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030003000117 434 As t result Of the above, the foci of pests are often disoomored too late, the best time for control is allowed to slip by, and the measures 0 terried out frequently fail to *thieve the required results; *Wing to improve the Service of istimetion end forecast of the ape yenta* and development of pests end diseases. the Ministry of Agriculture; USSR, in DoceMber of last year, adopteda decision for the expansion of obsertation points and sectors and ipproflda nest regulation for the plant dies.* and pest estinstion and forecast servioe. Pursuant to this re, *dation. total and branch institute*, context of the State variety ret- work, and kolkhos and 3178 (Maine inventor Stations] agronomists will be asked to partidipate itith; compilation of abase and pest Widows, data; The teak new involves speedy okerdiretion.Of the service in accordance 111th thI new regulation; Sectors of the Republics are required to Pet up concrete plane for the forecast of the appearance of the prizeipel pests and diseases, and to determine Which eolentifie and production establithmento are to be enlisted in this work; Special attention tenet be paid to the compilation of Acientifioally justified, timely shortetets forecasts the* provide for the greateet effectiveness of extermination mesectes; Oblast (territoritl) septets and observation points must ergenise the selectionsmi instruction oftwmmtous correspondents and reestablish coo munications with tonal Wanting, Istituto; Plant protection departments of zonal institutes are called upon, to provide guidance in mthedology to sectors and observation points; in addition, they moot generalise all material ooncerning pests and diseases Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 '0) inns. as634 throughout the sone and on this basis oompile annual surveys and progncesi to be submitted to the ministries of agriculture of the Republics and to (AllsUnion Institute of Plant Protection] forth. 'nitration of Onion* wide ind RepUblicswide forecasts: Hence, the active participation In planning the work of lecture and observation points, and the rendering of methodolOgioal aid ars Laporte:at aspect* in the activities of plant protection departments at tonal institutes: The responsible task of forecasting le impaled el - on branch institutsii Up to With only the All sVnion ScientificaSesearch Institute of Sugar Poets has aeoomplished this task adequatelye p41. Henceforth it will be done by all branch soientificsreesarch it-Istituto* Plant protection departs gents of those institutes must coordinate their activities with the gates sponding prognosis sectors and experimental stations which are able to fur- fish the required informstion: ihere is no doeht that having * whieserraed network of correspondents selected from the ranks ofmironsalets is In the best monist of the branch institutes. Avert fromshort-storm prognoses, branch institutes are to compile yearly surveys and forecasts 'on pests esd diesasee of the crop being investigated and are to *admit them every year to the lemistry of Agriculture USSR and to VIZI not later than December IS: VIER is charged with the methodological direction and compilation of disease and pest forecasts in the USSR; It is provided also that nem will supervise the work of branch and zonal institutes: I'm Methodology Guide for the estimation art forecast or the development of pests and diseases is now at the printers: Its publication will regulate the activities of the service considerably; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030023.220.1:7_336 'VW An analyeim of the surveys and long-term prognoses for the years 1054a1056, and operational account* for 195501958 show that the disease and pest forecasting meets turret demote more or leei in sem. individual Republics (tkrainian, Tadzhik* Azerbaidzhan), theatitai and Krasnodar Territories, and in the Seratov and 'Voronezh Meets: lancet plaCele however, there are many ehortoOmings in this important affair: First a inadeigatto scientific justification of a given prognosis: It is known that up to' now, more or less developed methods of prognosis an avtilable only for mouse-like rodents (though not for all regions of the USSR), aerididaei sore types of butterflies", Rurynester interriesps, the Hessian and Thlt Swedish flies, and sore other pests. Science does not as yet have at its disposal the proper methods for individual plant pests and diseases: Roma aver, methods of determining their distribution and their quantity or Ina teAlveness of development have been worked out for most pests and diseases: It is known also which ecologies' conditions can be considered as favorable, and Which as unfavorable, but, for sews MIAMI, these factors usually are not considered in ourron and forecasts: Second a incorrect choice of time for inspection and estimation: It is felt erroneously that fall inspection is conducive to obtaining the ma? trial required for surveys and prognosis of the appearance of all pests and diseases; It must be membered that the sate seasons in the wane locality Ian a different ecological significance for different types of pests and diseases which is due to the difference it their environmental requirermnts: Besides, the time of inspection for each species must be selected with a view to iti biological characteristics: One inspection must be carried out Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (5) MOS. 4114434 after an tan:enable season of the year when quantity end development are at a minima, another 0 after the most favorable period, 'when the qusntity,. and development of pests in the given year have reached their maximal in oases in which the quantity of a species for the following year is determined by the quantity of wintering individuate (sugar.beet weevil, Surynatter integricepe), of eggs (of toasts, aphids), 'cocoon., caterpillars (of butterflies), or larva. (wirevorms), orientation must be based on their calculation in the fall and Oh control estimates made in the spring, which determine the mortality of pests during wintering; Consistent and trystematio ooMparisone of data obtained *nor an unfavorable period with the quantity and distribution of pests on restureet satirist period Which had been favorable for their reproduction, Sy product: more complete data for predictiOn; Unfortunately, there is no such analysis either in the stuveys and prognoses, or in the operational accounts of the RepUblios: ' Third . the inferior quality of inspection and estisation; To begin with, inspection is to define the types of resources (vegetation) end the terrain infested by pests and infectedby atomises, inspection of every Snob of land is, of Course, impossible; This circumstanee sakes it owid. sory that the vegetation (terrain) infested or not infested by indivtleal species be determined most carefully and the riplarities of species diem tribution be established acootding to vegetation, For many pests (mount like rodents, suiliks, vtrewerms, beet weevils) Negin p.63. and partieuVarly diseases (potato wart and itytophthora, 1040, accurate characteristics of the localities infested by them furnish all the infornation required for the prognosis of their development in this coming3war; in inspections, it it important to consider not only the crop species and the proceeding crop, but Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ?454 .4f alio the variety and the sections of the relief Dictation] Of S given Mara On Which pats have conantratedm Only Warta of this tort mikes it.possiblo to form an idea of the general distribution of pats and diseases: Within the foundatits of a upscale region, aological coniltionn on similar vegetation are Meatiest by virtue of the similarity of olimitio conditions snd agrotahnical and economic matures; Hence, the Ma of distribution and quantity of.. given species of pests or the development Of disease on vegitition and Sartain established on inspected farms give 4 sufficiently eound idea of the situation on all farms of the rte.*, orgon on those not inspected: Inning the infection percentage of the area of individual types of venation, end knowing ths generil area of this typo of vegetation in the *blast (territory or separate sons), the infected ate can Is titivated accurately. In practice, it usually It indiatal in account boas *its so many hectares havo boon inspected, to many of these are infected. This faili to cite any idea of the true oitation, sines there is no indication as to which agitation had boon inspectiti and what arta of these resources had ban attacked by pats and diseases: As a reality* now hal* no real ida es to What arts In the country actually is infested by any important pats, even by thou which persist in nuther (ivalike, *tromps) ate.); Fourth 4 lack of analysis of the economic importance of plant protection: To be able to ovaluat, correctly the profits derived from any agroteohnical assure* one must know that inertia it produces Sit yield and in the total incite of the atm. To tarn to know the economist effectiveness of plant protection, it is necessary to take into tam* the toms of yield caused by pests and aliases, the net cost of assume applied, and the results achlovod. Sucheater-Asa is, unfortunately, lacking in the surveys and forecasts snd in operational accounts. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Sr, &A 6440 ? ??`...11TM cr" let it it not so very difficult to Obtain such material. Agronomist* usuallyeapptaise Quite correctly yield toasts incurred for different reams: Methodology for the calculation of the effectiveness of exterai nation measures for most MOO paste has also been developed.: Nor is it hard to estimate the cost of material used: The aocumuIation of sunh data mill permit utilising resourcefully the hidden means of plant protection so as to it:wresa the income from agricultural production: Now favorable conditione have been created Cor the elimination of flan* it compiling forecasts; It is necessary to arouse' the interest Of kolkhosee and to attract agronomists: Their eseittance is etpecielly S. portent in carrying out ibmpootions and in calculating the technical and OODUMai0 effectiveness of plant proteotiottmeaSuret* The Moat immediate big problem to to identify -accurately the areas in* rested by the most important rase pests a 'Domande*, beet weevils suclikee and mils; areas plant &Seems the causal agents of -which remain in the soil a Phytophthora, potato martetc; Available material justifies the assumption that in 1957 mouse-like rodents *ill spread extensively in TransaCaucasuse that the damage caUsed by them will increase on the fields of Northern lesakbetan, Western Siberia and in the Altai Territoryj in the second half of the year, the number of fieldaveles and miceisill increase it the Caucasus; Now, as heretofore, special attention nust be paid to en control of gurygaster IntopieOnsp and in come places a to loouste# the cotton boliwOrms Outwornimmth end other paste; ? In the appeal which the Tel [Contril COMMittOO of the Commuhist Party of the Soviet Union] and the Council of Ministers 03590 addressed to all workers of sgriculturee it says a the task of increasing productivity Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved Por Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 834 met bObot **VI* V of the while banal Mil of every brahob of the? ? Governmeht? Di taking part in the compatitioh in honor of the 40th4ftio, voratkry,ottht, d'eat October SOeielict lievolutioh$ the workers of plant protootion am of the IOU:metingAnd forecautiog envies muottichilito all their attchgth in Order to aorgabite exemplary tiohtrel of pests and dictates and to proltht folly yield leseo, of all agriOultural crops Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1- - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . Trots. 11?43315 ? (In full) Tel ihrasetiohi In. S. SoveshohAnie po 1?opollsovanilu- pentotansedersheraw3hego vela. tConference on the Um of Raw- Ikterial Cortaininig Pontoon). Niktobiologiim; vol. 256 no. 8; pp.1580787 liovoneo. 1968. 448.8 N682 0 . (in Russian) A Conference on the VD of Raw atrial Containing Fenton was held by the 8ciontific Counoil at the Al LOT. 881 LAcAdemy of Seienceso Latvian 8521* in Riga (Latvian 58R), July 11.18, 1988. Reports devoted to the production of foodstuff yeasts from pentosan containing raw material were heard and disowned on July 12th. In his introductory address, A.A. roshAnstokii pointed out the signs. flans of this'problem and the importance of widflopread theorotioal in- vestigations required, for its encoessftl solution. Pe underscored, porn. eulogy. the prosposte of thOoretical investigations on the fermentative hydrolysis of wood and plant waste in agriculture. P. W. Pichori In his report *Prospects of the devolopment of toohno. logy in the production of foodstuff pasts from raa- material containing pentane explained the technologioel prows of continuous production of feedstuff yeasts mhich now are adopted by factories using waste liquor of wood hydrolyeates and sulfite lye. the reporter dwelled in detail on the prospecto-of improving the technology of this process, emphasising /hat the principle task involves considerable simplification of the individual opera. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-WDP80R01426R0103000-30001-7 '886 dr, Lions of the technelogtcal prOoess, its automatisation and adaptation to the production of highly effioient technically progressive equipment; Having eliminated the operation of preparing the waste liquor of sulfite alcohol and hydrants factories, the simplification of the technological by process can he aohievidAcombining the eeparate phases of this operation with the general preparation of "sulfite lye an hydrolysate for the prance tion of alcohol: To achieve maxim= efficiency of mantas equipments yeasts must be grown on culture meaa containing 44C of sugar (oral hydrolysate liquor is used for growing, then its sugar content at be increased up to 0:11-60:9$ 'since wood hydraysate bad been sided) while increasingstmts. taneously intensity of aeration of this medium with the ad of mochanioal mixing and the use of oxygen mixed with air ',for aeration. It Is necessary also to develop more effective methods for the separation of yeasts from the medium and for their drying: Apart from feedstuff yeastsi raw material containing pentosan can be utilised it the production of concentrated feed that contain* carbohydrates, protein, elitist? and antibiotics; This calls for the use of auger of water prehydrolysates of pentosan containing raw material for the oultia ration of yeasts, for synthesis of protein And other microorganisms rani) for the synthesis of vitamins and antibiotics. Concentrated water prehydrolys. sate with the products accumulated within it oompriese concentrated feedstuff; Available stools of pentosan?containing raw material utilised effi- ciently %mad help to increase within the next few year* the production capacity of feed yeasts up to 200 thousand tons per year: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 : Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (a) Inns. e..0335 in his report mAdaptini;yeasts to arabinose", A. A. Zashenitskii told about the work done by Its. N. SUrasevich in adapting Candida ant Torula to arabinose at the Institute of Microbiology, Al $353 of Sciences DUAL TS work shows that the yeast Candida tropicalis is readily adapted to arabinose. The process proceeds as a typical *mastic adaptation. Culture of Candid. in autolysates prepared from yeasts capable of growing on arabinose fails to accelerate adaptation. ro to now, adaptation of Uvula unlit to arabinose has not been successful. . . A. P; Eriuoltrovais report *Feed yeasts as source of protein SM vitamins* contained li!Oa on the synthesis of amineacide and vitamins by ford yeasts. Tel feed yeasts of hydrolytic and sulfite?aleohol factories the following vitamins were founds thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenie acid, biotin, niacin, folio acid, pyridoxine and intuit*. in scow cultures vitaminii22 wee found. Toasts grown at the trasnolarekfactmrAave the most vitamins. Peed yeasts include ergosterin. Exposure of the water extraction of suoh yeasts to ultraviolet rays makes it possible to obtain yeast' enriched with vitamin D2. The protein of feed yeasts includes all vitally necessary aminoscides histidine, arginine, lysinei leucins, isoleucine, 'aline, methionine, thrsonine, phonyielanine, tryptophan; alanine, praline and others. Peed yeasts are a valuable protein feedstuff. They are quell.. tatively as good as bsterflyeasts and as good as foodstuffs of animal origins Limb and ematvbone meal. Their methionine and vitamin Diecontent, how* ever, Si insufficient. Bence, in the further selection of yeasts, a search must be mats net only for more produotive.raose, but also for more active producers of vitamins and eminosoids.. Enrichment of yeasts with vitamins can be adhievmd by cultivating them together with micro* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01030003000-1-7 CURL'S ? sno?WOU `muse organisms that eptthesise a large quantity of vitamins. [login p.75714 A. V. Madiancv read a report dealing with the use of feud-yeasts in anis' husbandr% poultry raising and in raising sat-wild haste. Imphasisingthmt the present production of feed yeasts is entirely Insole. vat,. the reporter pointed out that the demand for this irreplacable feedstuff is so great that any poultry farms and wild beast farms are toned to manufacture homemade feed yeasts. It is necessary to increase considerably the production of feed yeasts at the earliest possible date. B. A. Plevako, La his report "lbws in yeast production abroad'1 dealt with the general development in the produotien of feedwyeasts on diverse substrata, incluti4usdia that contain pontos*. In a number of foreign countries new factorise have emerged that produce feed?yeasts on cane molasses or on the vest* liquor of molassesalcohol manufacturing plants. The successful development of technological production schwa has ado a reduction of the tat sat of yeasts possible. Abroad, such attention is paid to the utilisation of residual yeasts of alcohol and beer production. A series of products are developed from the yeasts obtained .for food and feed purposes: autolyeates plasmolytaten and hydrolysates. The report 'Development of the production of feedstuff protein yeasts frets pentemanscontaining row material In the sixth five-year plan . sod the plan of scientific investigation work' was submitted by 8. V. Chepilo. Be pointed out that specific capital investments per unit .capacity In yeast production at hydrolytic factories remain relatively hid'. At present, this factor determines to a considerable degree the rat* of the development of yeast production in the hydrolytic industry. fiance, the development of yeast production in the ;sixth tin-year plan is based chiefly on the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 4315 in reprocessing of waste liquor at outfits...alcohol factories* White the hydrotytic industry plans to produce 9,100 tons of yeast by 1960, the production of yeast by the sulfltmelchhol industry, by 1960? is to in.. crass up to 20,760 tons. 'For the further expanlion of the production of pod yeasts, it is nooessary, concomitantly with the utilisation of malt at suifiteseloohol and hydrolytic factories, to draft plans for the construction of hydrelyticeyeast factories based on the reprocessing of plant state of agriculture And of ovnukber of other specialized Motorise& It is extramely nicessary to decrease unit capital investment* and to reduce the net cost of yeast*. To schism, this the 'technology of yeast pro.. auction must be iwproal and, to begin with, a simple and inoxpensive method must be use in the hydrolysis of polysaccharides; For instances the continuous method of hydrolysis of plant tissues with concentrated acids, particularly hydrochloric acids offer, roil possibilitleo Of de- creasing the construction cost of hydrolyticeyeast factories and of mu duoing the net coot of yeasts. The special section of the report was devoted to problems oftote:ft*? tic-research work. The reporter stressed the need of research, work for the purpose of dais:lopinga continuous method of hydrelysio of plant waste of agriculture and of the wool of shade trees (lietvennykh pored) with tOteittre trated acids, selection of productive yeast and fungi ramps, increasing the vitamin content in feed yeasts and ''Improving their quality, and production of fatty and baker yeasts from rare materiel not for human consumption* Attar * discussion of the reports submitted, the delegates adopted resolution approving of the basic principles contained in the reports and pointing out the need in the USBIelspeody development of the production of feeds-pasts on pentosan.contsinitg raw materials; * * * Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .4.43311 (Di full) vg/A Oar. X. A.. Mlionikov, X: IN. Mkndel'haus. Ile kip . Ohernet*Was and Sheitsoves2bilovekaia. K. D. . Privenonie *stud* mechoufth *tumor k ituCheniiv stabil.nosti dustov foofororganicheskikh imuohtisiodov. ;4 ! NO of tagged atom method in study of the stability of dusts of phosphtrusiaorgpais insecticides). " Als44 lankMR. DO. vol. 94. no. 4. pp.72111.782. 7eb4 1. 1054. 511 P4444 0 (In Russian) ? -, (SUbvittod by Secdsmisian Si Is. Yol'itovich. Rove X% 0521) Phosphotuoeorganie insooticidee and, particularly, diethyloecnitrom phegyithiophosphats the satire basis (doistvulushoheemc?lo) of ths SID1P.100 preparation (thiophos) ? are highly *Motive preparations for tho control of different types of posts of agricultural crops. It is &Mos toristic of thsse.proparatione rapidly loss their toxic erect uponpestv. . . Tho given work svielvms the orals* of ths influsnce of *sterna factors upon tho stability of ths toxit properties of disthy104enitros phonylthiopheophate dusts vhich is of &reit practical importonce, aims this influents dsterminei the timeliest traateents should Ws mated. towing tat *mount of tho preparation remains oaths plants on diffsront data following the troatnent is important also fro* the standpoint of safety in using the trotted Plants for food. The solution of this prOblea by the straight chemical method of anolyvis booing oonxidershle cultisi. According to P. V. Popov's (1) data. * 1X Illgro100 dust stored in a thin layer in the laboratory loses about sqg of its toxicity daring Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans. Am836 the tint day 124 bred end mains 17A of toxicity for 30 days. the author's cbterations indicate that in spraying IA dust from an airplane undor condi* tions of this Krasnodar Territory* the dust disperad loses it. toxicity against gurygaster integriospe almost oomplotelymithin one day. For 4 stedy of this problem* Ma. A. Sindeltbaue and K. D# Shateomes Shilaskala, under the tupsrvision of W. I. 4blenikor1 have prepared two phoophortesmorvutie iesatisiles tagged with the aid of the rlfoisotoce of phosphorus 02 (in amoral experimonts synthesis of insecticides tagged with 858 was socemptishod); A amprobensive studyvms mad* of diethylwolenitrophenylthiophosphwa (dr 1.27040 4?41;8374, t. pi ; Limiting point" 6?0 t* kip. 5olling point) 11341r/0.03 ma rt. at. tieroury cola& sot etby1.4.dinitrodiphonylthice phosphate (crystal line product with S melting point of 126'). During the synthesis of the compounds indicated a aria of intermediate, compounlet tagged with phosphorus and sulfur wore obtained. A further study of the compounls indicated as aocomplished atta toxicological laboratory. Vora study of the influent* of temperatures IA dusts of the c 'ha ocapoundO under investigation were sprayed on small glass cups (seasuring d 16 mut hs 8 ess4 ground down at tbs edges) covering the sterna! at the rate of about 0.1 mg/a2 of dust; The oupe were placed in dark incubators at aspartame* of 160 23 and 46' 10; The remainder of the proparetion as measured out periodically for intensity of radiation and a correction eves ado for decomposition. 'Begin p#7301. As a result, data were obtained anointing the quantity of insecticide. or of the nonsvolatilo produsto or its decomposition containing phosphorus. t t A decrease in the mount of phosphorus (taking into account docceeposition) eould be attributed in this ease solely to the evaporation of the compounds Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 %-, iltile4.? ? 8 under study or of the products of their decomposition. shows that loss or phosphorus Pros ZS diethyle4enitropherlylm thiophosphate dust (preparation 11111P.-100) occurs considerably quicker. than from t? duet of irthylee 41vdinitrodiphefly1thiophosphate tinder con- ditions of continued storage for 100 hours at a 46. temperature, half of he dot of the fatt174.100 preparation Sr lost, yet the dust of ethyl-4, 41.dinitrodiphecylthiophosphete takes 660 hours before half of it is loot; At a lower temperature both compound. last considerably longer. The data obtained permit drawing the eonolusion that the disoontinuance of the toxic action of 101 dust of the IMV1P400 preparation under rum condition. within 1..2 days after the spraying cannot be explained golf* portion by the evaporation of the activellideistvulushohee nachaloi. 100 60 60 40 20 or, (For data see original on page 7501 200 400 800 hours Exposure Pig. lo Rate of loss of phosphorus froth dust when Sprayed in a thin layer at various temperatures. 1 - 1% dust of RIU/P400i 2 I% dust of ethylv4,41-dinitrodiphenylthio. phosphate. This is obvi us. particularly, from the results of the experiment in t& the glass cups (d 50 m) had boon sprayed with 1% dust of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 tsti wane* mane 11111124400 preparation (at the rate of (about ? kg/he); Some of the once were stored it the laboratory* some were placed under the quarts lamp FRX*4 at a distance of 25 cla from thelemp for 1.6 and 3 hours* and a part of the cups intended for the centre' of heat action* exposed to light of quartt lamp* were placed in an air incubator at a temperature of *bout 40s (the 40' temperature was taken bennee gauging the teaperftturs of dusts under the quarts lamp showed that ',Met they can be heated up to this temperature)* Table 1* Results of change in the toxicity of 1% dust of the WIDIre100 preparation when stored :under different conditiore _ Nbrtality of weevil. on the 2nd day after dusting Initial dust Dust stored in an air thermostat at 40' Dust exposed-to ligiii of quarts _lame for eeriedLe? I1.5 Mn 3 bre 43 17 After the exposure* beetles of the canary weevil (3414otra truaris II) and wheat grains were placed in the cups. Two days later a count was taken of the dead beetles which served as an indicator of the loss or toxicity of duets under different conditions. In connection with the Moos* establishing the causes of the loss of toxicity sus of great interest. In the following series of experiments the lose of phosphorus from 1% dust of the SIUTF.400 preparation and from $% dust of ethylaoloPedinis trodiphenylthiephoepbate was gauged during the exposure of thinly diepereed Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 136 (fl? dust to solar rays. Testing methodology as the Same as that used before. The open cups were exposed to light. The experiment was conducted it two variations 0 exposure to direct solar rays and exposure to diffused atm light (in the shade), It must be noted that the ups containing the duet which were exposed to direct solar light were. in part, heated by spier a 1.174 (Begin p7311 but the surface tempnature under !conditions' of direct solar Iles did not exceed 37?, to the shade the temperature of dusts was the same as the teaperature of the Air (26080 WM, the *virago daily temperature wee at this time (of year) in (C); i:e. experiment?l conti0 tient approached conditions prevalent whonlinst was used in the control of plant pests in nature. In fig 2 data are cited on the loss Of phosphorus from dusts.' It mutt be noted that the first 8 houredor exposure wore MTV. then the sun was shining between the 22nd and the 26th hours of expoeuro. The rest of the tis the cups were expose:1st to diffused light. it is obvious from fig. 2 that the loss of phosphorus frog l% dust of the WIDW0100 preparation occurs very rapidly in direct sun light ?0 6t$ of the preparation as lost in approximately 1.5 hours. The other 5% was lost absost completely within 100 hours; during this time the cups were exposed to direct solar ,ritys areatogether 6 hours* the rest of the time was divided between exposure to diffused light and night time: 'Whenever the cups were exposed to diffused light only the loss of phosphorus from the laglr0100 preparation occurred more slowly 4. about 668 of the preparation was lett within 20 hours and shout 663 Of it within 1004:tures Corresponding expert. meats have theft that phosphorus froathe'residue left on plants sprayed fl with unlatch* fru a 31$ concentration of the nurtsloo preparation is test at approximately the Same rate. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 54 Loss of phosphorus frost dust of ethy104,40a6iftitrodipbe Ithiophosn phate occurs considerably slower in an open area escteed to sunlight, about 40X of phosphorus vanished within TO hours. Under conditions of diffused alight about 20% of the preparation was lost during an exposure of 72 hours. The figures cited compared with data obtained in the earlier Oerienf expiriments indicate that exposure of the dusts derived true the preparations invxr?loo and ethyle3/442.dinitrodiphenyithiophosphate increases sharply the loss of their phosphorus. The loss of phosphorus from these dusts under conditions of solar radiation is a complex photochemical proms*. The data obtained explain the cause 7.f the rapid loss of the toxic effect of duet prig:end from the NIU17-100 preparation when it is sprayed under natural conditions that upon it to direct solar rays. It is interesting to estimate the possible residue of the NIU1?-.100 reparation on fnAit when its that has been mod to treat fruit plantings at the rate of up to 80 kg/ha (or 1000 liters of 0.1% emulsion from 541 concentrate which comprises about S gm of dust ;sr is2 of soil surface, or me ga of the effective elseent per m2): Considering that the surface of teams is only 8 times larger than the surface at the soil (usuelly the surest* of leaves exceeds the surface of soil 840 times), it can be assumed -that 4 days after the dust had been *preyed and had been fully shaded against direct solar rays, the 1102,0400 preparation left on 1 r2 of leaf surface comprises less than 0.002 p. Noon p.7323. On the basis of these figureswe shall estiasts the residue of the pre4 paration also on the fruit. If it were assumed that the total surface of 1 kg of fruit (apples) comprises about 0.12 of a m2,,then the mixiwata re. sidue of the NIU17400 preparation on 1 kg of fruit found in the shade will Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19.: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 6 cuprite less than 0:2$ ag four days altar the tflttment. in Waite, the residue 'Of dust on the fruit will always be 3-4 flute lees thahthie ileum since losses 'mount to no lees than 75%4 it fonds, from the above, etre-vonunder vory'rmild" aOndSttbhU1 the residue of int )1101,400 preparation on plant lealtd and frUitt fekt days after the treatments till not exceed 0.25 leg per kg of trait* whith is 8 time less than the cafe rots far rosiduen of thiopho preparation estAblithed.abrdad (2). Under cOnditione of eion partial Solt iatiOnio the amount residue indicated till ht leis one day aftOr to treatment; liacohnyi tnititut Udebrenii t tneektofungiddev (Scientific Institute bf-Pertilitert . And Intectofungicidee);. of the Rocoind. Oet 29..19E3 1M4vnikect IL V; A pore KA': fleets Of reports tubtitted at tit? 19th tlenut of the Section of Plant Protection of vuxavrt LtIlsVnionAcadaoy of Agricultural Sciences !Mc Letanie)1049; 28oSkine0 IF:js A; c;? *(10), 226 77 (1949). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP89R01426R010300030001-7 -- T !' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . . Trans. A.887 (attract) va4 Vatilleve V. v; end INftrukbas 0: 16tropriiatiiapo_borlbeeo ankles itiohnym dolgototikon. ilietimutee far th4liontrol of the beet.vmovila Zeshchitaltaceftli ot Vreditelei Boleaftec vOl. 2. no. 24 pp.88441 .- Mar.s&pr. 1957 . 621 21- (InRussian) Pursuant to Directives of the 20th Concrete of the Cmimunist Party of the Soviet Chien, the sugetbeet crop by 1960 sautt'be increased by 641: This makes control of the canton beet **evil thethynodereaLiunotiventrV! Germ4 necessary: Brforttere made to exterminate 806pig or these Eoetilo In their hibernation places. Often only O-5 of the beetles are des strayed, the rest infest beet plantations." AAy aoliy in digging trenhet fot their &sanction leads to undesirable results. The beetles *Ilia have Accumulated in the top:. -soil layer (5006C% of their total nudber) can within 248 days leave the beets End enter tield drop,: Gd Beetles of the betweevile having develop/lin the soil, nay remain there for 2 to 8 years: Frequently fields seeded to beetts two years age are not treated and the beetles emerge From the soil and invade tho sugar beet otop. Treatments must be ltimplified to retinae labor ooneumptioh and operations nmst be organised.' The shortoosince.of the 8Fs80 trenas digger* in use for the past 54 years, can be eliminated; The machine di 20 km Of trenches per EOM* day relieving 400 men. The VNIS,tallsUrsionScientificsBesearoh Institute of Patti has /4- 83 7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 hen constructed the new UK*15 tractor-mounted trench layer which p. mite mechanizing lite laying of trenches: Tells should be drilled in trenches as they are bled: It must be noted that either the scientifienesearch inetitutts of mechanisation Of agriculture, the appropriated Administrative Agencies of the Ministry of Agriculture of the tbainien SSR, nor the 'Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR have paid sufficient attention to this important matter: Trenches And wells tmed in Combination with benzene hexachloride and other poisonous chemicals comprise at present the basic control of beet weevil! on olA "best fields. Experiment! conducted by the All-Union , Ocieittifio4lesearch Institute of Bette Sat 19854056 pietist p.39) have established that 700344 of beetles can be destroyed after they have emerged from the soil. Experiments of VEIS and the uNrza (Ukrainian Scientific.. Research Institute of Plant Protection) have shown .tint development of beetles can be prevented even new by using poisoneurt chemicals before egg- laying and the phase of larvae begin in the soil.' The effect of barium chloride, fluorine oompoutule, parts green, arsenic preparations etc: des ponds on vreather corditions: %ler favorable weather conditions the death of weevils canted by the above chemicals does not exceed 65-94; The effect of these chemicals in of short duration and complete destruction of beetles and prevention of egg-laying cannot be achieved: The use of ohloro-organio insecticides changes the situation. DDT and benzene hexachloride, chlorinated temente (chlorotenes, polychloro. pittene, polychlorocsanphene) are preparations obtained by chlOrinatitkg tite produots of diene synthesis (ohloritxlan, heptachloride, aldrint, ?dildrine) which make it possible to discontinue the use of stomach insecticides as lacking in effectiveness. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 nompa Aes Cuill/5 ? Vhder unstable weather conditions, decreased amounts of DDT, ohloro* tens or polychloropinene destroy the beetles of weevils close to 100%; In experiments condUcted by VW ani UN= in 3.966 with the above chemioele, the nuMber of beetles Of the new generation did not emceed 0:6 per square in: The omit of barium chloride used in fiveareplicate treetmente was 45 rUblee per ha when sprayed by aircraft and 72 rUb: in fleece spraying, while DDT paste need in two treatments cost 19 rabies and 20 kopeks, DDT emulsion * 30 nib:, benzene axachloride (TONG) emulsion * 26 rub:, and emulsion of polychicropinene 28 rub: (Begin p:401: The availability Of concentrated working emulsions will inCretee the efficiency of labor: Experiments conducted in 1955.1956 on the imeni Stalin kolkhos, Starchenkev District, riot Ob)ast, have shown that DDT emulsion, DDT paste and polyohloropiane applied with the aid of the ONE and OWX*100 treater (mounted] sprayers with booms and equipped with nozzles permit to increase the concentration of the ohs/Gale and to reduce the consumption rate of liquid per unit area: Consumption rate per Is remains unaltered. issue end dose of poisonous chemical Spraying data gate a solution .used 00;711::iot - 1 (A) ' - - :Imilt)::;1::n (A) Emulsion of DDT xperlaenti of j9 6 kg per ha. ay 15 400 1:6 oft Same 270 2:25 99:1 It 155 4:6. 93:4 Chloretene 1:6 )eg/AA: Mey 21 400 04 97:4 Same ft 270 05 56:4 ft n 136 1:2 94:6 Experiments of 1956 Paste of DDT 2:4 ktia.4 'by 24 136 1:8 95/. Polychloropinene 16 kg/ha . June 1 I 135 I 1:2 100:1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (A. In 1966, consumption of concentrated emulsions man 236 liters per ha: Daily efficiency tate of sprayers net ONE m up to 46 ha, 0/11406 up to 120 ha, and ONO? with field boom up to 76 ha. runds.saved in 1066 at 3.6 replicate treatment of 276 he. amounted to 6:440 rubles. A nerwtethod developed by UNIZR is the reseeding treatment of teed; In 1967 tot:its will be made of aerosol treatments of seed with gamma/tinier en? hod benzene bexachloride solutions; Thol.11.91ftiOn6cientifidmResearch Instihte for Beni has developed two methods of applyilubenzets boze?.- Ohloride to soil agAinst lames the continuous method under presseding cultivation At the rats of 40650 kg of 26% benzene hexachloride on phos- phorite meal per had and row application of benzene homaohloride mixed with fertiliterd at the tine of plating at the rate of 6 kg Of a 2e% solution per he; Both methods can be used in the oontrol of other pests as welt. Application of benzene bexachloride to sugar beets does not affect their quality or the biological promisee in the soil. Stigli****411. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 inns. ?4130 (III full) vsfr Churani and Tagirova, B. 17: Aerosol/ oboe-be so Mahlon metylikne: percale in the carrel of the European cortborerl. iashohita Raatenit et itteditelei 1 Eolisfisi, wol: 2, no. 2, pp:2646. Ikr:?Spr: ISEM 421 21 (In Ruselan) The *sow Station of TIER allothion Institute of Plant Protection] tested in 1026 aerosols spinet butterflies of the Bunspiwuncornhorer (Pyraosta_nUhilalialh] enmities crops ofthe mEraloyi Partisan" Iolkhos 1:4d on. the training fare of the AgriculturalTechnics, in the 61avianak (: District, Krasnodar Territory: . ? It Is known that the European oornborer produces two generations per season in this sons: According to our Observations, the flisht of first I generationbetter flies and oviposition began during the first ten days of . Alpe, whenteiee sprouts had Eat regular leaves: It was haled that the 'flight of the butterflies nee of Mid intensity. The life spec of butter' flies of this generations 7.10 y..' Jan. temperature was =dente (20:6') and precipitation did not exceed 6.07 ww: The maximustamount at oviposition redstered between June 24 and June SOS 26022 per 100 plants: In the second generation the Slight of butterflies and sggsIaying 'proceeded more intensively Wachs due to the continued wart weather in Juty: Ekes egg-laying lasted 16 aye (10th to 26th of august): The development of caterpillars of the scoond.seneration continued 2640 dicys, end of cocoons 6?12 days: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 155 `????? t... X In the first generation, at tie close of its development, ovipoilitions were discovered that were frost 47 to loqg infested by Tr/chops in the second generation, during the period of an development, infection wee Aerosol treatment of the plot IM4 carried out with the A0eld ',aerator at gal temperature of 460' ICI, rate of fog formation e 35 liters of the working liquid per minute; 'Nate of automobile movement did not treed 5 km per hour; The width of the working range vsriedwithin the limits of 170400u; Coneumption of the working liquid -8% solution of technical DDT in Diesel fuel e was 604 liters per he; Workless begun when darkness set in, at a 2ee4 Oecond wind velooity and aletemperature of 10.22'; The slum night of butterflies was observed frou 10 KC until as:m; The first Wettest* of crops with aerosols against butterflies of the first generation was conducted when 5.4% of the butterflies had flown out, the second eitt the beginning of tassel flowering; The first treatment ageinst the second generation me conducted on the 9th end 11th of August e at the . milk stage of maize that coincides with the flight of 6O% of the butterflies; At this time there were 10 to 24 ovipositions per 100 plants and 21044 of these were infested by Triohogrtust; The second treatment spina the second generation was begun 5 days after the first Ohl* By this tine the total nueber of ovipositione (on 100 plants) fluctuated, according to variants, between 26 and $6, and 80e-7Q4 Of thee wire infested by friehosramma: Estimates made the first three days after etch treatment with aerosols indicated that the number of ovipositions had decreased sharply; But later they proceeded to gym numerically* accompanied simultaneous/iv by increased infestation of the eggs by Triohogransa (in the second generation); Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-R5P80R01426R010300030001-7 438 The general estimate of the nuMber of ovipositions, inoluding those infested by Trichogramma, indicated ttat, regmedless of the time and frequency navel:nowt!) of night treatments of crops with aerosols* the lumber of oviposiiions infested by Triohograma failed to decrease. *sushi'', it S Observed that the number Of first generation oaterpillars infested by parasites had decreased drastically; Caterpillars that had perished an untreated plots nuebered oog, yet on treated plots only 16; This* aerosols in the form of an artificial fog created by .460,16 Prim an og solution of technical DDT in Diesel fuel at the consumption tete of 6 liters of solution per hectare* can be used enecessfully in the control ? butterflies of the turopseneoraborer an mate and other crops injured by these pests* yet the use of aerosols agaituoteeoordtanerationbUtter? flies is inexpedient in instances in which energetic friOhogramma activity insuring a high percentage of infestation of the ovipositions of the pest is observed; In aerosol treatments of wise it vas observed that other types of posts hwd, also been exterminated the at:1qm butterfly ilimonnaia ?gneiss], an& bindweed and cleavers tpodearinnik) outwommoths. - From the tditor The aerosol method has up to now not been applied extensively to the control of field crop pests* since industry has not as yet arranged for as production oftheist:MIA apparatus. Henoe* it is necsioary in tip coming year to utilise also other available methods in the extermination of the 'European oorbborer in the regione of Its distribution. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans. As$38 ? It is knusn that this pest spends the ulster in its caterpillar phase in the stews and stalks of.usize ars* in the stems of millet and hemp, and in thickwattumed weeds: In the springs uten steady, $4-day air temperatures of 1648? 0 set in, the overwintered caterpillars take on the form of a dohryealis: 'Defer(' the caterpillar takes this forms it gnaws on the stets on the internal side makingA round opening through which the butterfly that bat developed from the pupa flies out 10.28 days later (approximately in Sky or early June): Taking into onsideration this biological characterise? of the pests an effective control measure would be its extermination in early epring or oomplete utilisation of the stalk* of mowed down maize ears and other plants, inACaich caterpillars hibernate until evarm days set in, for farm Meds an kolkhotee and scokhoses: Apart from this, all stubble remains gathered during harrowing of fieldm in which tilt* had been grown in the preceding year must be burned in the Spring; Destruotion of !caterpillars in the spring before they turn into thryealiase will prevent or decrease considerably the apparent'e of butter. flicks their egOaying and suleequent development of caterpillars ihioh severely injure males: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 , . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans* 1.839 (Abstract) TEA ihratati QV* Girl'''. Novi navesnoi opryskivateit ONK4.00: (New rutuated 09E400 sprayer): Zashohita Rastenti ?t VteditAlei is Boiethei; v61:1# no. 2, pp.20,21: 11*...Apri: 1967: 421 El (in Russian) The 061400 sprayer was deligned for pest and disease control in fields and orchards: It is mounted on the ED1,46 tractor and all of its mechanists are set in motion by power drawn prom the tractor* ? , It is equipped with a plunger pomp that *tea at the' rate of 130 Vain: Its reservoir! of a 950 liter capacity Ars mounted at the Wes of the traitor. The reservoirs are equipped with blade mixers and are ?? ? ? covered. on the inside with Sfa anticorrosive* They are cottected vti61 each other by. roda; This sprayer is mounted more easily than other types ? and calla for no changes in the tractor; A two *sectional boon made Of steel pipes is used in treating field crops; for orchard crops two wIde= range nozzles that direct the upward flaw are added: liork:with the boom requires two workers, work With nastier three token; Efficiency rate of the sprayer is 12 he per hour or 60 it per lark day* it !WSJ 64014: in farm tests on the teen' Stalin kolkhozo Starchenkov District, ;Kiev Obleste the sprayer treated 230 in of sugar beets; Tests have shown that the trachineje simple, dependable'ecenomical and convenient to work with. The Ukrainian NIS INtchine Testihg Station) has determined that the eprsyer4s cOefficient-of exploitation dependability comprises 0:96* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09;19 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 ft Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (t) Trans; A.838 is and the not cost of spraying 7 nib. 78 kop. per ha. A The Ukrainian WE has r000nmendod the machine for serial rolouee4 An illustration of the CRIX400 at work is found on p4 2) and a generai view of it on pAe: Leningrad: r-s Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 6 = Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A 44 n 414:abtait almoaLleald ? (fn full) ' TEA Levyltin, 4: 0: -and tosniket. 4: ; 0 nedostatkakh opryskivitelei. 12hortoomingtoftptarylre]: . 2aehohiteRaetenii 01 lieditelli Bolesrei; vol: 2: no. 2: pp.22. nar;ar: 057 421 21 (1n.lbaltian) re Several years, the Alban Soientifloassearch institute for the Testing of Traotore andigricultural Machinery checked the production models of the dueter.sprayer ONX and the sprayer put: The first is mounted on the 11124.7 tractor and the second on the p45 tractor;..fhe testa disclosed serious ehartocmings !nth* sprayer ONE; Duo to low present.* Sad inefficieney of the pump, the maim cannot be used to treet the Croons at tress over 4 meters talli renders it undesirable for older Orchards::41U work of two hose operators Is rather berth they met walk in shifts in a plowed interrowebout 10.17 km ferrying on their outstretched bands the spray gun Ibrandspoiti with the home 'eighth:, no less than 10 kg; The efficiency of the Caves low for vineyard eprayingbecause it treats only sone side of the vineyard in One operation: No provieione were rade for the protection of warkers againstpolsonnue oh/lamas: One of the serious shortoomings of the sprayer it the frequent choking up of the atomisers. ?hue, in 70 ems out of 40 standatille were due to cheked up atomisers; The Oa aprayereduster Se more adequate for treatment of field mod -a? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans. 4440 vegetable crops; It must, however, be noted that its bunker and tank capacity is low, milting frequent refilling nauseant; The OLT sprayer proved to be a more efficient and economical sedate in treatingvines/eras; It treats 4 rows of grapevine in ono operation: Yet this sprayer, similar to the OM is not without considerable short* comingm; OM of them is insufficient penetration of the liquid inside the shre and poor coverage by poisonous chemicals of the lower sids of the limes at the surface of the mamas well as imolai of it: Low pressure and low efficiency of the pump of the OLT oprayer prohibits treatment of trees over 4.-6 Asters; In treating orchards with this machines as well as with thS OR sprayer,. the hos* operators most fellowthe tractor which moves at the rate of 466 Ica per hour; The construction of the cabin fails to provide protection for the trattoria working in vineyards against poisonous chemicals, and the tree- tor caterpillars which have no enolosures injure the grapevine: The real shortcoming of the Ott sprayer is failure of centering of the driven shaft of the transmission mechanieervith the shaft drawing power from the trac- tor which causes a systematic breakage of bolts and breaking of the flexible coupling; Considering:the results of the sprayer testing,: it met be noted that successful control of pests of field and vegetable crepes of orchards and vitwyards calls for universal, highly efficient machines with powerful pumps: rh, **peaty of the tank met be increased 2-4 tiros so as to reduce stand.' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010800030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 40 stiltsthe machine for refilling to aninimun. Special attention shoal be td to the impteting of the corking conditions of Servicing pernotsol. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . ? 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans. ket341 (Abstract) vg/A ;1 Iakashevioh, A:-I: Opyt termicheekoke ?torten** thivaniia temian. (Experience in t)ioilual seed disinfection); I z_ zashchita RastenSA fl Vteditelei . 13016tneii .no. 2. Itar:?Apt. 1967: .421 zi (In lutssian) To elithinette *nut on Wheat and barley on the nRommurar kelkhotes ineni Sheychenko and input Zeninwhere Se9:5% Of the barley !crop no infected in 1963 chemical disinfeetion by the ineffective twowphaeo thermal method was discontinued in favor a the oneephsuIe thermal method developed by the AU-Union Scientificmassearch Institute of Maize: ...In 19546 smut infection on the lasni Stalin Kolkhos was redacted from 64 to 0:8: In a few years time the method was adopted by 6 seed groxing aiffocia. tions: &ant had Vanished on the Eolkhozes imehi Lenin1 theichenko and Stalin: On two other.kolkhotet infection WaS hot over 0.9 in 1955 and 0.24 in 1958: This simple !method consists of heating seed in hot water and sub- sequent drying: The fodder ateamschest Mal can be used as a source of steam to heat the atter: The gain is heated in later j.wboden or iron boxes or in carting boxes without a container cbatarkii. Grain is pladOd :in the water in sackl: Temperature is che4rith a theruometer placed in 7 the_tack: Main/Should last t hou4ata 464 temperature or two at / . . 47", Then tho seed Is dried and can, as a rules bateeeded after 24 hours: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans; 4.;841 ? r ? Performattoe of one boxiin 1245 oentners within 10 hours* attended by 3 / , ? workers: A 2wbom installation calls for 4 workers; Thermal :disinfection was supervised by a9'onomis?t? rains4 for plant Protection: Seed plots for treated seed were allocated at a distance of 8004000 motets from generat crops: to prevent increased smut infections seed grain must be treated Annually: to elimanate Smut, this measure must not be United to district seed kolkhoses, but must be earried out by every NTS en the kakhotos whiCh it servicei; Oftepropetrovek Oblast Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .e Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 snap ? A-842 i ?? (Intuit) ? Woes, 8: I:, farnovichs E.: end 8tarostins 8: Pi Prisposobienie klmehainu*Staiinstsie dlie pre. ? travlianiia Steen. :(Povice for seed'ditinfeetion attached to tiltsainsts-d" carbine): Zashohita Restenii at Treditelei i Soleinei; 2, no; 2: pp:18020, larch*Aprils 1967. 421. (to Russian) The machines and apparatuses, PtL100 and 181u08 released currently by industry for the disinfection of seed material fail to meet tbe red- quirewente of large grsinkolkhoses and sovkhosse: It at be e highlY 'efficient schism thetmill permit centralising disinfection of seed grad and scohanising all acoompegying operations. The divine for the 'Stati1fl/0e cots develop& in 12854056 was dem for dry disinfection oilseed against aausal,egents of dissects end for dusting alpinst piste tbat in- titbit the soil: It'il Of Simple tout-ruction, oftvenientto workwalls and it (*obi mado it an ura plachini4ractor4tationi workshop of the sovkhos: The Ivo-irking principle of the device is as fot1is the grain, with the aid aft loader the perforsance of which is.80.tons per hour, is transferred to the Cain bunker of the ccobines from there it goes into the jeciket of the unloading conveyor when it is &Stinted:stir& with dust. like poisonous ehialoals: Par tbe purpOse of intermixing grainwith poi- sonous Ohimioale to better advantages there ars arranged small Tasheped shovels between the toil' of the unloading ointerfer of the ,I;ombine: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 442 -,????? (Ugh p: 19): The disinfectant floes Fig. 1: Solas for feeding into device for disinfection, (See original on page 18 through a connecting pipe froma 28 dm!S capacity fungicide bunker ar- ranged on the unloading conveyer into the igternel cavity of the teat of the unloading conveyers The treated seed flaws from the unloading cow, bine pipe into thevertical ammo sleeve which ends in a funnel, and further into begs or onto the bed of a truck (without a container): The kinemetic scheme (fig: 1) of the devices from the pulley of the combine moto4 motion ie transeitted by a holt to the pulley of the drum and to the starviten tevezdochkal on its shaft on the right side; further, with a ohs in, to the ajar wheel on the shaft of the first beaterj trent here mbtion is transmitted to the star wheel on the shaft of the beater of the receiving ?tsar and to the star *beet on the header ikheder) shaft; further ? to the shaft of the tmaceding conveyer: Transtassion to the grain loader is accomplished as follows* with the chain of the starwheel on the header shaft ?Ito the star wheel on the end of the projecting shaft of the reducer of the conic transfer of the header, and further with the chain from -the star Wheel on the protruding end of the eecond gear box shaft ? to the sterWheel on the shaft of the intermediate transmission of the grain loader (at this point, the pulley established on the transmission shaft is taken off):. *tion from the pulley oh the transmission shaft to the pulley on the shaft of the cap tgelovical of the pain-loader conveyer is transmitted by a wedgenthsped ielts Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 re. (S) Trans, Aa842 a The gear box Of the conic header transmission is arranged antenna on the Kelt aid? of the tonne.. Transmiselon to the mil:urine; out mechanism of the fungicide bunker is acoomplished as followeb the star etuael S it 12 is established On the elongated projecting end of the uracading abaft of the ocabite oceveyert this wheel with the aid of a chain (root * 12.7) try:rite motion to the 2 SO star wheel paced at end of the transmission shaft which rotates in two bearings arranged on the jacket of the unloading oonveyerj at the other end of the trahreistion shaft is * link of a universal joint which, With the aid of the seoond universal joint lisfr, connects the transmietion shaft with the conveyer ehaft of the fungicide buaker; At the other plea truding end, of the bunker Gnawer)r ehaft is t t 12 star wba4l which with the aid ofat:bait (roetzit 12;7) transmits motion to thet = SO star tel on the stirring shaft of the fungicides bunker; ; 7 General appearanoe of the "Staltneteae cotne with the disinfecting device [142111P;: 201; The di infecttnr device attached to the "Stalinettafr coahilie was tested on the Perstenov Sveloi, Rostov Oblast during the fall seeding operations of 1950; The coital* with the dieinfectingdea vice and the seedaloader were placed on individual threshing platforms where tat Cain designated for treatment and planting visa concentrated in heaps, Oranosen yes used as disinfectant at the rate of 2 kg pet ton of grain: The device was servided directly hy 4 worker? 1 on the grain loader, 1 a at the combine, and 2 at the unloading pipe (receiving of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans. A4642 '-???? trotted gait into sack* or into tractor carts alai onto the beds of trucks); Safety treallare0 during disinfection were applied in accordant* with instructions: Biz huniired tons of seed-tamtz were diainfected during the testing peried4 Boom technioallyaeconcesit indicatert of the disinfection work done by the device are Cited belowt performance rate 040 tone per hour; efficiency rate of the measuring device fl 0:15-':-Le kg Per a/natal work ?constuaption joatridays per ton of grain 0;05; ate of efficiency in. . . crease in work (eared with the ?PU.1.0 disirifeoting The quality of grain disinfection trail characterised by the felitering indicator*: degree of adhesion of prwparetiOn to grain dowse of grain Saturation With the prepation s 82.t'Iblgi degree of gain !Injury after disinfection 4 0.601 germination Of and following disinfection with gratxosan did not decrease and amounted to 96%; /Minatory or grain disinfection quality were deternizad far AB pre-. petratioft; excepting the degree of Jujuy and gemination of seed Whie.h )ad been determined for granosan disinfection., The devise detoribed tan be rebetworded for use on fame with grain crop arose; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 eclassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19:CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 r?rus ? "gnaw (In part) Ohietovg /;,P;ga;Zaritkovekitia, A; and Tarasevao A, h; Poluohenie propionevol kisloty. (Production of propionic acid)i Gidrolithale i egokiiimitheiktia ? Promyshlennostto vol. tio no: 6. ? pp.184.6. ' 1958 soi:e 038 ? (In Russian) cortustoms 4.46] 1. The output of propionio acid in the procois of transeesterifidation of ethylpropionate increases with the increase in consumption for the re* action of acetic acid; its contumptions hawegerg must not exceed 201g et the theoretician required amount. in the converge cis*, unfavorable condi* tions would be created for the separation of acetic acid frog the pro* picnic type. 2. Success of the trang*esterification protege depends largely on the concentration used for thi reaction of.acetic acid. A concentration of acetic acid over 8CS does not insure the formation of full aseotropic ester mixture *water,. as a result of which distillation of otnyl *estate which contains ho ethylpropionate is rehiered difficult. 8; In the decomposition ok sulfurie said in the process of trans* eaterificationg there forum not only a sulfur dioxide1 but also a ism residue which ',abatis distillation of propionio acid difficult; lenges after the distillation of the basic portion of ethylpropionateggiulfurio aoid must be neutralized with an equivalent Amount of alkali hydroxide; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans. A?643 4.. Complete removal from propionic acid of ethylpropionate and other higher *eters which failed to enter into exchange reaction can be achieved by moans of restoring water from Florentine into the column in the form of phlegm. In the given case water is the antrener it the extraction of esters,from the mixture of acetic and propionic acids. 6. The technological regime providing for the output of technical propionlo aoid in quantities of no less than azg of the theoretically possible in the process of tranaasstorification and marketing reactiV0 said no less that 7l% in the process of rectification. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ._ .. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R0103000300071:7 I" A. -, 8" i %An part, ? vg/A t Chalet; N: vfllteltniksvo N. 1440 .s. 'titans lu. A:, and Fettnikova, N: S. Konteentrirovenie turturola v parakh samoisperenlit gidroliteta bet fatraty top's.; r,k [Concentration of Aleutsi in the eteam-lof Selfwevaporeting_Rydrolyeate without abbe sumption of heat). Oidrolisnait S lesokhiltichesktia Prows thlennosti. vol.IPolmo. 6. ppi6e10. 1966 ? 301.8 OW (In Russian) CoNeinsron Ip. 101 14 A new method of concentrating torture' in steam or telfweVapo* rating hAroloate producing * 34.9% rupture' solution without consuming Mat in the process as been developed gad 'tested experimentally. 1 2: On the:basis of the data obtained. &snow tchemo wee developed for the technological process of Obtaining furfural from selfwavaporsting steam at hydrolytiowalooholifactoriess which decreases steam consumption 15.20 time in the batie precede of peotisation of condensers containing torture'. 6: Adoptation of the proposed method by hydrolytic factories will per. mit the pro action of Suffers' at a net cost of approximately 1200 tin . a 1 1 per tons i4o: three times list than the present cost. REFERZNCPS 1. Nelnikov, N. P., Ttirlina Its, AL: and Kever..R. A: Oidrolithals .1 t, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) trans. A0.844 Unolchimicihostais Prortreiderujotr, 19559 no. 2. - 2; Vorobsevo S. N. neidroliznOit I tosoohintiohookoin Promyth. lonnooto. 1936. no. 1. 3; Andreitt K. P40 Zetontihohilto-vse A; V. itro.novokito N. E and 4 Pronto 2; 3; "GiaroliznalaS. losokhimlehonkais Promsthlennostink 1956; no. 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trani. Aeggg ? (In full) TEA ? ? ' Zmehenetskii, Persentymikroorganiamoviikh primenertie r prearyiblertnosti. tEnsymes'of isioroostanisse and their use in imitmitry). Prirode, vol. 414 no. 6. pp.17028 limy 1966 410 PM On Russian) The ecience of ferments, later celled enzymology or fermentology, was nonexistent a hundred years ago* Nonethelese0 long before its emergence, the capacity of different 'leavens" or *yeast," totactemplieh various .1r biological transformations fl. nil known* The active elementAof such yeasts were microorganisms, and this siallarity in microbe and ferment action lead to the fact east in the middle of, the past century the first ' I were called Nrotitited" and the Eatter lamp) !soluble" ferments. ' ti /97 The brilliant Louis Pasteur, havini established the biological nature H , 30/ of fermentation, proved simultaneously that their generation Of wheat" needed Ksii for the synthesis of antstances of the miirobe sell ecmprimed their phy* siologioal importance. After the death of the outstanding physiologist, Claude Berner, his unfinished article appeared in which be leaned toward the idea that.fermentation is caused by a soluble ferment* The ditoussion that ensued in conneotionvith the soon, bobcat Bertlos Who shared Claude Nernar's viewpoint, and Pasteur soncerning the energy importance of tor tn mentation is of great historical interest*. The erroneous idea that Pasteur bed cdenied thwparticipation of fermentative systems in Airmen. teflon is circulating in scientific literature. In reality this is not so4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trate. A.645 sloes he merely euphemised that he did not succeed in isolating the erre. sponding ferments. . . later 1 16 Menesseini, and thenld: Bukbner demonstrated Vat non. cellular (beitletoehnoilaleohol fernsentationsas possible, and still later there appeared many reports concerning the cheracter of action, methods of isolation and the chemist structure of different mioroorpoism enzymes. The diarist uses of microorganisms in the different fist& of in. duetry and agriculture ars, in the end result, based on the activity of ^arious enzymes found in the cells of microortanisme. The use of cau1. tures of microorganisms that can be multiplied permit large seals repro- duction of those sonroes of tazgas biosynthesis which in themselves tre Werth, cells: The characteristics of energy exchange are such that a co?parativAy light.weight microbe biemass is capable of decomposing or fermenting a considerable *mount of animal or plant raw material. The use ofmicrobe culture*, however, entails am accumulation of the most diverse products of activity, for example; organic acids, the presence of which is net always desirable. Besides, it it necessary to create optimal conditions fir the growth of microorptitess which is not always easy. Renee the idea_ses conceived to use in industry inlividual 'amylase Loos late& (Begin p.181 tress fungus mycelium or cella of bacteria. The possibility of producing rapidly the necessary biochemical conversions with the aid of enzyme preparations as a nutabor of advantage* over the use of living cultures of microorganisms. this, the decomposition of the protein of higher plants or animas can be achieved with the aid of putrefactive bacteria, yet the regulating of this process it Implicated* a portion of the protein will be utilised by mien**s to build up their body and as a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (8) Trans. A-845 emir** of enema which Unavoidably will lead to a loss of protein. Apart free this, there may *consulate In the medium such undesirable products as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, 'Mole etc. The task is tied considerably by the us* of protease of Inagua or bacterial origin. Thus protein hydrolysis is accomplished rapidly and without losses, and the degree or hydrolyeis as ole is determined by the character of the protegees, the time of their action ad by the oonditions created. Wideospread practical use of enzyme preparation of plant (oble:kir malt containisnamylase, protease and other enzymes) or antnal arida principally pancreas which develop animal amylase and protease) lath* different breathes of the light and food industries hos made it possible to work out demands to be made of enzymes. The first report, concerning the feasibility' of substituting enzyme preparations obtained free baotettal or fungus cultures for ensyme.pres parations of animal or plant origin appeared about forty years ago. In connection with the shove, gradually ever new problems arose for odore.. biology ad microbial biochemistry. It was necessary to explain exactly What types of fungiandbacteria possess the more active *noses used in industry. Further, the complicated problem of growing microorganisms not oe/y in large amounts, but also under conditions guaranteeing their highest *Wes activityhadto be resolved. and, finally, centralised production Of enstraes palled for the development of relatively simple methods of obtaining concentrated highZy active enzyme preparations that are easily transportable_ and satiety the dernamis of the most diverse branches of the eational economy. There are a series of enzymes found in the cell* of animals, the higher pleats and microorganisms that have a general function. It is suf- ficient to point out protease, amylase, tiptoe, peroxydase and other fermate.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans. ?445 Yet it would be wrong to assert that tho formation, oharaoter and the features of the action of enzyme systems developod by microbe colts do not have their own specific characteristics. There is a series of emu's known to occur only in the acrid of microorgenisas which, MA a rule, are not developed by animal or plant Gales For instance, assimilation or coitus lose contains:1 in feed by ruainants is possible only after the cotiulbse has been hydroiyged by the enzyme oellulass which is tonal by micooraamiena living in the stomach Sol colon of animals: The latter do not developc, cellulite* and withoutimicrobosymbionts animals would die of starvation: raceptionally btportant to the national economy and magnificsnt in its loopi is the proems of biological atmospheric nitrogen fixationscoollshed by mioreorgottirms inhabiting the soil andwatir bodies. Soil fertility depends to A considerable degrae on the activity of this group of microbes which, ati a result of the action of spsoifie enzyme systems, are capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation, i.e. to bring about reactions witch are unavallable to . - all other living beings of the plant or animal world; In recent years it was demonstrated successfully that oxidation of emsonia into nitrites, i.e. the proms of nitrifioation caused by ohamooynthetisong bacteria can be reproduced by non...cellular autolysates Obtained from the cells of nitrifying bacteria. The fermentative Oharaottor of emmonia oxidation is interesting from the viewpoint of comparative physiology, slime this kind of oxidising process is known exclusively in microbes in contrast to the veil innate gated reduction (voestanovieniel of nitrites and nitrates to ammonia. the feasibility of non-cellular reduction of ammonia nitrates as domonetrated begin p.191 by B. 2: Brotsksis who had studied this proems using the out juice of thermophilis denitrifying baottrial lto shall limit oursolves Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans; As846 _ ?vir to the 'maples cited which illustrate the general situation* In the world of stereo-FM.1state, we encounter enzyme systems which have tinged as a result of adaptation to different environmental conditions not prevalent in higher plants and animals. This constitutes the first characteristic of "microbial onsymologyn. .The second charaoteristic is the unusually rich assortment of enzyme* synthesyzed by the Mcrae tell. Bacteria and fungi can utilise a large Amber of the :most diverse elements and impounds as a source of .food and energy* hydrogen, methane, paraffin, lignin, chitin, Guitar, iron, cellulose, protein, sugar, aloohols etc. The pumas or transformation of the substances in the microbe cell are also varied. It le quite maturel fir nitroorganisms to be able to develop different hydrolasis, dehydrates, oxidises, phosphorylasse and other enzymes. The perwriblAeltstold (Aslant"llus_ Mar) which frequently appears on bread forms about thirty different, by now will investigated enzymes. it is indisputable that the fluster, variety and activity of microbial Ewan an extraordinary. In this respect, the higher plants end animals cannot compete with that. The third chitraettristic of microorganisas is the fact that, idttle they satintain et's:mints contact with their external invirottet anti use it as a source of energy and toad, they react exceptionaly replay SMfairly selective' hatigearitbitat by reconstructing their *nips systems. The recently developut science concerning adaptive and con- stitutive enzymes1 has attracted the attention of representatives of different specialties* biochandsts, geneticists, microbiologists AM 1 Adaptive enzymes are not developed bymicroOrganiems, union the medium has a substrate upon -which they exert influence. In contrast to this, constitutive enzymes form under such conditions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (1' (6) Trans. phytiologiCts: We shall refrain from totting forth the present sttz*tlon of this prOblemand shall touch upon it only in connectionwith the practical task* that havearisen in cultivating microorganism? the mils tures of whiah produce enzyme preparations: Strictly speaking* *tory enzyme is adoptive* *ince it is difficult to imagine that any biologies' proses of no physiological improtance mould occur in a microbial tell: Ft 1: Colonies of the smooth end rough Cat ri ) forme of Saline meesnter oue 2n ohanging cultivation conditions* we encounter either a weakening fi K.. or strengthening of existing enzyme ovate:: It is much more difficult to prove that a can& in 'conditions of life ad led to 'a new formation, of an enzyme that had not been in the bell heretofore: This question is cora-gloated by the possibility that there had existed its inactive ire- decision (Synegent) Which under certain conditions convert to an active forma Some microbial :enzymes are to constitutive that the oapacity for their formation is retained even after a long cultivation of microbes in & medium lacking& substrate upon which the given enzyme exerts an a influenced (Seem p:201; ? Fig: 2: Zones of starch )ydrolyiis encircling 210hour colonies of Deanne dictation& nue* after multiple ressedings of thermophilic cellulose bacteria eft a medium iteking cellulose* but containing glucose as the only source of carbon* the bacteria* upon being transferred onto a medium with cellua Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans, Aa845 Ion, began to ferment it rapidly* Consequently* 'cornea of the leek of eellulosewithin the medium' the bacteria had retained the capacity to . begin immediately to form an entyne that hydrolyses cellulose a colluht$04 An entirely different picture it Observed in cultures of the Mad fungus Asper.4llueorylee4 At the enzyme, laboratory of the Allattion ScientificeResearoh Institute of OttAlcohol Induntry* headed by11,4' V; Feniksovs* the fungus was cultivated by L; 8; Starnova on Media containing different carbohydrates or glyeetin* Thee the content of &WAN it the tedium sod in the finigne mycelium was determined. The result of these experiments are cited in table 14 bit to ATAPTIVE ONARACTER OF ANXIASS IN ASPFarta/M3 CRY= s heti? maims with santeittioat sulfate Source of carbon Pryweight of vicelium (ift ma) Anglolytie activity (in unite) per 100 mg ofmedium per gm of mycelium _ fetal Glucose Saceharose Glycerin Milton Dextrins Starch 1;72 176 1;62 2;26 2171 2;22 Trace* 0 0 6511 127;0 0047 Traces 0 0* 312 6?0 546 Tracos 0 0' 91;3 132;6 10542 We see thatamylase with glucose* saccharose and glycerin uppeare either In the rora of traces* or not at alt. Yet on media with malteee* dektrin or starch" the fungus synthesizes active amylase which is prevalent oniony in the liquid medium and not in the fungus sycelium4 It it interesting theta etareh content* Le; e eastrate uportiesich amylase exerts its influenee' is not absolutely neceesary in the nediumg the formation of toys Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (a) wane; daf345 lase occurs also in the event the medium contains products of starch hydrolysis a maltose. In Aspergillus amylase has a distinctly pronounced adaptive character . and the fungus should always be cultivated on substrate', containing starch. The emergence and development of each WO transit ofthemicrobic:a logical industry is indivisibly connected with the search for and 110100a tits% of the cultures of microorganiims poesessing the most pronouneed, necessary and, in the giver rise, usefull properties. As far as the enzpe . industry is concerned, there are mamy hale for bacterial and fungi cultures. 'Among the bacteria, met frequently cultivated is Bacillusflosentritues known also by the in of "Potato Bacillus', it produces motive saamyiese, as well 04 protease: This Species forms a oharatteristioallywrinkled film on the surface of A liquid Mai( and its colonies on a solid medium (meatapeptons agar, potato) have a rough form. Under laboratory conditions, B. mosentrricus produces hereditary variant* possessing morphological properties that deviate fromtheme of the initial race; According to X. D. Kasatkinals observations, rough forms are capable of producing smooth variants which form-a considerably less active amylase and protease per unit of the dry weight of cella: . Pig. 2a tones et starch hydrolysis encircling 21-hour colonies of Bacillus mesenterious . On fig. I are presented colonies of smooth and rough variants and on (Th. fig; 2 are cited data concerning the activity of the hydroleeeS of these \ two variants. The cultures of B.:Rmsentericus are used for the manufacture of preparations of the "Rapidest" type utilized for more rapid saccharins Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' (0) Trans. 6.840 cation of Staten in beer production.. Table 2; smart CP MYDROLTTIC EMI= IN ROUGE/MD Sie3OTRFORIS OF BACILLUS NMENTERICUS UNDSR COND/TIONG OF 8UDIERCKD CULTITST/ON lege of outturn 26 hours Form Of colohy Smooth Rough Smylolytio activity or enzyme contained in 1 ml gate or solution flom in too.) rimen Control. 1 . starch (4) Control ga gelatin (8%) SO 20 tater water Proteolytio activity of enzyme containetim2 el Rate of solution floc Sec.. per on , 103 103 26 14 SO SO Considerable interest is *routed 14 thermophilie amylolytio bacteria postulating active amylase which liquefiers starch lazing vvry rapidly et 80.90** The thermophilic strain, of ?Menace dilatations)* itrelated in the Soviet Union. on the surface Of solid media with ,starahsfOrge colOnioe tan ditcher/0 enzyme amylade onto its surrounding environment. By treating the medium surfeda with iodine* it is possible to 'Obtain t colorless zone of starch hydrolytit Around the colony.- /A colonise or the sem* age. the hydrolyeit SOW of Dacillue diaetttious is considerably wider than in the metophilio strain or B. mesenteriousras indicated on fig. 2 and Lt. geprOduction, of thermophilic bacteria on a 11$ potato dictation ?caws a in an aerated culture ezeisptionally rapidlyend tonainktos after 8 hoUrs;. (Fig. 3); Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Sam/ SOO 000 400 SO 200 100 0 111111111111?111111 1111111111111111111PAINISNINININ 111111111111111111141111111111111trIl 111111111111111MINIIIIIIIIII -me 11111111111111raNNIMININININIIIII IIIIIIIIMINIII111111111111111111111 INNI1411111111111111111111111111111.111111 MIE41111111111111111111111111111111111111 1111211111111.1NIMMINIIIII w4ll1111110111111111111111111111111111/111 ISM' MINIM NOME MOMS 2 4 6 8 10 Age of cultures in hours Fig; B. Reproduction curve of thermophilie tylolytio bacteria trans. Ant145 Under the influence of amylase, eacoherigestion of Mara con- tamed in the riediUm occurs in liquid cultures. Fig. 4 shows that it proceeds much more intensively in s mature of the thermophilic anyltps lytie bacterium D. diastatieue than in culture'. of 2:_ nesenteriam 2.0 'et 4,4 1.6 I. 10 0 I. ?????? I ???????. go of culture ift hours Thermophilio aaylolytio bacterium B. meeenterious mesentericus nigor Fig. 4. Saccharification curve of &tenth in enitent nr otersaaphnte Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans; 4?845 rm. On the ititiative of the Institute of Microbiology. Aoademy of Sciences USSR, a pilot plant installation that produced a concentrated preparation of bacterial amylase as created in the Kirgiz SSR for the reproduction of B: diastatiouse Later, there mat isolated * culture of the thermophilic butyric acid bacterium that also produces active amylase SM multiplies rapidly. It had certain *advantages over B. diastatious, eines thie strain, a meatier of the anaerobes, can develop in a high liquid column without any air blowing through It. The technological scheme of Obtaining concentrated preparations from cultures of therms. philic, butyric acid bacteria was developed by r: X. Kitsburskais at the AlleUnlon Soientifte?Research institute of the Alcohol industry* Bacteria, *Specially the thermophilic type, have a number of advantages over fung14 They matiply more rapidly under conditions of depth and their cultures Are not do readily contaminated by alien microorganisms Which inactivate amylases The azylolytio complex produced by MASA* is, however, distinct from a snalogout fungi wapitis. rungue amylase ii better et eaccharifying stink* hence the interest that bee arisen in the production of fungi amylase, capable of replacing grain malt, can be understood: In the Best, chiefly Sb. Chis and Japan* fungi of the Mucoraceas famillistikororyejs ea d_ well as Aspergilla, bays been uneAlong since in eecoharifioation of staralh While developing on rice, fungi cultures sescharify the starch, and then soluble carbohydrates are fermented by rests thus forming alcohol: St it no coincidence &legit p.221 that the more activeAsperglilus that fora- In. it timed 14erfeillue ?rye** (rice Aspergillus). The practical Importance of fungi as producers of hydrolase enzymes, no,. 'WWII, encouraged their selection Which usually is accomplished in two Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (-? (1g) 'Trans. Am846 ock stages: Pirate a more active culture (with regard to the given pro- perty) is searched in nature, and then* Ito activity is increased testio mentally. An extensiewsearch in nature (mer* grain. Mod producta eto.) ale in to the isolation of * large nuiber of cultures of AlpergillUe end Rhooraostee fungi A detailed study of the fermentative 1.0 ES 4,1 trt 4) ?rt ? OA to 4011 0 ? OA 444 .2 0 ? 1 a I Oflgti*i Rough Rough Algiers. nidulatuz Pig. 6. Graph of preteolytio activity of As r this. orytael wild fora of Aspersillue_nidu ens and a-15Ra form utility tads it pessible in* !weber of aeon to find culture* with a higher activity than is found in industrial strains. thus' according to data or s:? Brotakaia, Asperaillae nidulans produces nor* active pro.. teases thandspergillUworyeas used it obtaining protoolytio enzymes. This wild form ea:avulses vas exposed to ultra-violet rays anal as a result' the variant Obtained was stable: formed oolenies of rough forms and possessed a 24)4.5 tines higher proteolytio activity than the original wild term Declassified and Approved. For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (is) Trans* A.sg5 (fig. 5); Right now :scientific-research establishments conduct selection work with the objective of developing active rams of Aspergilli that produce attive amylase* protease or peotittase# Distinct from selection of cultural plants* the selection of fungi and bacteria that hate found prac- tical application Si just begun* and there in no doubt that* as a result or this work* the useful properties will be increased also inalemorgarieme. For the last thirty years* esyre preparations or morooronismo brve gradually been replacing preparations obtained from plant or animal raw material% The question naturally arises as to how this preference is to be explained* Let us list briefly the advantages possessed by microbes in the given case. 1% The rate of microbe reproduction is so high that A huge voltam of cultures of a tworblin microbe strain can be accumulated in a comparatively short time. Mold fungi (ispetgilli) require Se hours for their development* sporebetring bacteria . 20..24 hours* and some thermophkgic bacteria emplete their growth within 64 hours* multiplying at 450* it the top layer of the culture medium through which air pause, It can be Amid without exaggerstitig that under factory conditions* there can be collected 100 to 1000 harvests of mold fungi or bacteria within a year; This rapid reproduction of biomass constitutes one of the essential characteristics of microorganisms 2. Reproduction of microorganism which form practically important enzyme system can be accomplished on production waste or on culture 'media prepared from inedible raw material* while malt or animal tissues are food raw materials* rt is, forsinstame* sufficient to point out that the mold fungus of Aspargilli0 the amylase of which it required fors alcohol pro** duction, can be grown on the residual liquid left in alcohol production Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (14) Trans. A-845 (IN \sr, microbiological industry for the last ten years indicates its adve.ntages ver the surface method of cultivating microbes, in a thin layer of a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 after distillations Considerable interest is aroused also by the poseiEt Way of growing microorganism on simple culture media composed of different salts. Sometime good growth is observed on very creep subs strait's, thus, Bacillus di...stations& a thermophilic, sporibestingboo? terium& which forms very Satin, amylase& develop* on a 86 potato concoction. 34 TesentialIy& the biochemical activity of microorganisms can be exceptionally high. In ?canting the latter with the onSymatic ectivity of plant cells, one must dm* the conclusion that per unit of dry might of the biasses microorganisms produce non Anil" swots than animal, or plants. This difference appears particularly clear in comparing a light weight amount. of reproduced bacterial cells (Begin p.283 which have formed active enzymes with the might of cereal grain from Which malt is prepared. 6. Thanks to the smallness of microorganisms and to their rapid mi. production& favorable conditions tem orated for the direction of their development under factory conditions. In growing higher plants, our pot= sibilities are limited in ems measure by climatic or seasonal conditions. In contrasts& forelorobese.any regime of nutrition& aeration, temperature& reaction of environment etc. an be created easily. Consequently, the experimenter as well as the technologist work under exceptionally good conditions, Here the basic tavansgss of microorganisms over higher plants are enumerated: These factors determine the need for gradually'replaoing the enzyme of animals and higher plants with microbial enzyme. In reproducing microorganisms in large amount's -the most progressive method must be considered submerged cultivation.. Every development in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (15) Trans. A.645 liquid or solid (for example, bran) medium. The transition fres the surface method to the depth method as realised rapidly In the antibiotic industry in obtaining penicillin, in the production of vitamin C (oxidation of sorbite into sorbets by bacteria), this method mai adopted for the production of vaccines and also it obtaining citric acid with the aid of Aspergillus fungi. Wicroarganiams that produce enzymes can also be cultivated Under these conditions. it ie especially convenient to grow in deep culture media amerObia bacteria which produce amylase, sines it eliminates the need to blow air through the layer of liquid mertia.' Pig. 6. Gradual development of the my,. ?iliumand the formation of conic. diophorre of Aspergillue orysas fungi on bran. ?hemophilia aerobic bacteriaoltiply with extraordinary speed at (c) when the medium is aerated. The whole production cycle, is waft pieta within 6?? hours. The development ofAepercilli under condition' of deep cultivation proceeds fairly rapidly, but up to WM it bass unfortately, been impossible to Obtain high amylase activity in a cultufel liquid, and the occurrence of alien microorganism' in fomenters loads to inactivation of amylase. Parallel with improving the deep method of cultivation, the older* surface method of Asperxilli cultivation method is also being improved; . Fungus conidia are seeded upon sterile, moist wheat bran found in male. The fungus wapitis germinates through the entire thickness of the bran. fig. 6 illustrates the enlarged pieces of bran on the surface of which appear Aspergilli conidiophores. Very active amylase is produced in growing Aspergilli by the surface method, but this method is labor consuming and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (16) Trans. 1.845 cell* for the construction of very large obeMbers for the secomodation of vessels: The fungus culture grown on bran is sometimes called *fungal mats. Yet the use of the so-called. Imfungel malts, to well as liquid culture of fungi or bacteria is expedient only vivre the microorgeniems themselves are grown. The enzymes comprise a small portion of the weight of the liquid Vegetation mass upon which bacteria or fungi have grown. Since in. ? stellations for fungi cultivation are organised in places where the cul. tures are used directly, particulerly,ABegin p.241 in bakeries and at alcohol factories and plants that produce fruit juices. /n the future, however, it will be organize centralised production ofcon- centrated enzyme preparations. In such a clime enzyme will be extracted from fungi cultures, and then concentrated preparations will be obtained by different methods: There are several methods* adsorption of strjtsse with adsorbents such as silical gel, bentonite etc., drying of Liquid con- taining enzymes with the aid of a spray drier, precipitation of enzymes from liquids with ammonia sulphate or alcohol. The problem of obtaining concentrated enzyme preparations is of very great practical importance. Organisation of large enzyme factories will require the use of more improved methods of increasing the Activity of preparations per unit weight. Only thus will their transportation and use in industry be realised, The field of the practical application of microbial **mimes is ex. *optionally wide. The protease* of fungi as bacteria are used to remove hem from furry raw material. Under the influence of protease, there occurs a weakening of the bonabeteeen the Stir-bulb and the papilla upon Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (17) Trans. A*846 C. which the bulb rests, and after enzyme. action the wool is remand with the aid of special machine's As demonstrated by the works of G. Basking, removing hairs by enzyme action has a anther of Manages over the method based on the application of chemical substances. The later prooesdure leaves much to be desired with regard to emanation. Aspergilli protases are used also in the softening of hidei * prates that is alsoaccomplished with the aid of protases contained in animal pancreas (pancreatin). Replacement of enzyme preparations obtained from Aspersilli cultures for the **naive ;Sartain it desirable in every respect. Enzymes that deoompose protein are ilea also by the textile industry Sb removing aricin from the arras of silk fabrics, in desizing fabrics covered with the sizing composed of gain or gelatin, and by the toting* picture industry to removed gelatin emulsion from films* Pig. 7. ..Action of patinSse enzymes produced by the Aseerrillue funguts/ Left * fruit Juice before enzyme action, right * transparent juice clarified by patinae through which figura on table are well visible. Considerable eatings can be achieved by adopting fungus protease preparations for the production of vaccines. 'Under the influence of fungue enzymes, it is parable to obtain protein hitrolyeates required for the preparation of rich culture media used in cultivating large amounts of different pathogenic bacteria that further are utilized in the pre* paration of 'Raciness The nee of enzyme extracts fromAsprrgillue cultures exposes the treated abetrate to the entire complex of enzymes contained in the given ex* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (16) Trans. A.0346 (in tract, particularly in the brewing industry where plant raw material is exposed not only to the action of the amylolytic complex, but also to Alpergillue protegees. At a result of the decomposition of proteins by preteens?, conditions are improved for the reproduction of yenta which acoomplish alcohol fermsntation in the production of alcohol or beer. Ambito preparations obtained from bacterial and fungi culture* en* joyed AAevenwider distribution. Bacterial saylates plisse's the capacity to decompose rapidly starch into dtxtrint. The textile industry ustit tensively Biting composed of btarch. [Begin p.261: To raw* siting from cotton fabrict or artificial silk, these fabrics are exposed to the action of bacterial amylase. Amylase of thermophilic amylolytic bacteria is best for this purpost, it helps to removeletarch within ten minutisothich permits the Melting of fabrics without brat** and without -wetting them. Fungal amylase poisons the greatest capacity for sacobstification, but in the given tate this quality Sr superfluous, tints full eaccharification is not seeded to remove starch from fabrics.' With respect to the first stages of tiara decomposition, bacterial amyl'se is much more active than the amylase of fungifparticularly of Aeporgitli. In contrast to this,, amylase preparations from bacterial cultures are inadequate it oases that rtquire full eaceharification of steron. Amylase, dextrinate and malts?, contained in fungi provide sesobarification of ttardh to glucose which can be well fermented by yeses; precisely for this mitten fungi are being used it the alcohol industry* An Aspergillus culture grown on bran (A action:10d f*ngal malt) is added in the amount of 6.6..6% !FS the stocharification of pasty starch. As a result of the action of all enzyme systems, there occurs net only saceherification of starch, but also hydrolysis of a nuaber of other substanoes containing carbohydrates that are found Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 C. (i) Trans. ?446 in plant raw material (hemicellulose, pectin and others) with the forma. tion of reducing substances which are also fermented. Them enzymes* Obviously. are absent in grain malt. Since in ,using "fungal male the output Of alcohol per ton of potatoes or grain is higher than the earlier theoretical rates. A long study of the condition* of Aspergillua culti- vation by the surface method5 conducted at the All-Union Scientific* Research Institute of the Alcohol Industry helped to Organize production of 'fungal malts under factory conditions. A complete substitution of fungfal malt for grain malt became a reality, and the Derebriano.FrudakiiAlooM1 Factory has been working successfully for four years and is accomplishing saccharification of starch by fungus enzymes. At the eeme institute, ft method for depth cultivation of.As pertains We been developed for this purpose. At present this method is being tested at the lachurinAloohol 'Factory. Enzyme preparations ofdoer/411u* have begun to be used in the brewing industry. They make it possible, in part, to substitute Longer.. minated barley for malt, which is of economic importance. Another not method ie the substitution of funsA cultures of Aepargillus for grain malt in bakeries in the production of superior types of black bread. Under the tandems of enzyme, proteins and the starch of grain are exposed to partial decomposition and saccharification Which tends to increaae the taste and nutritive properties of the bread. , Among the enzymes derived from black Atpersillue (Aspersillus nirtr), pectinete which accomplish,' hydrolysis of pectin Substances has been nit inveStigetedc. Decomposition of them substances underlies the ratting of . filiation it eccomplithed by bacteria that develop this enzyme. Fungi* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001:7 (20) Trans. A.84$ pectinate has long since found. practical application. The presence of pectin in fruit and berry juices renders then teem, and Oloudy. Under the influence of fungi poetises, juices clarify eixoellently (fig. 7). Zn cultivating cultures of AspersAllus that produces satin victimise, the raw material used bantams pectin (for example, finely tut carret4) fairly good peotitese ie produced in developing the fungus on bran. The dried and pulverised fungus culture ii released at an enSyme pro? petition ander different names (mIlaresan etc.). in different countries, chiefly in the USA and Japan. there are dpecialited concerns manufecturing preparations of bacterial and fungus enzymes that are used extensively in industry. The history of the develepa mint and successes of ensysolom, and the entree induttry in our country and abroad warrant' noting eche prospects for further work. Practical utilisation, and, consequently, the release of the appropriate enzyme preparations, is at present limited, primarily to three soSymeat amylase, pectinase and protease; lisanwhile, microorganismensymet haw* in recant year. been studied so intensively that the idea Of a possible practical . utilisation (Begin p.26) of a number of other enzymes is arising even now. Rat us point tut tome possibilities. The largest source of carbohydrate of organic compounds found on our planet is undisputedly wood. Recently, the hydrolytic industry emerged as a special branch that accomplishes said hydrolysis of cellulose and /*atomize with the subsequent production of alcohol and fodder yeasts from the products of hydrolysis. In connote tion with the above, extraordinary interest is aroused by investigations of the cellulose enzyme produced by fungiwhich. while developing on wood') are capable of accumulating reducing substances. Enzyme hydrolysis of wood Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (21) Trans. A.845 ? T1 is a complicated task the solution of which, naturally, calls for greet efforts, but it is realistic. Ma number of cases considerable interest is aroused by the dee- position of fats with the aid of microbe esterase (lipase). This pertains, particularly, to degreasing animal wool. itmustbe noted that, it their activity0.1ipases of higher plants are inferior to lipase* of sone micro. orsaniems4 As regards other entree, it rust be pointed out that production of peroxidase of microbe origin is desirable, because it *tad furnish an opportunity to control the process of aging wins. Thug; in the future, ths ressor8ent8 of enzyme preparations Obtained from microorganism cul. tures will undoubtedly be expanded. Onsiof the fundementel tasks is the creation of opecialised, independent branch of industry manufacturing 'woe preptrations; up to harp there are only instalUations for the cultivation of /aerobes prodkved for the needs of a certainmanufs.oture. Organisation of largo concerns releasing various enzyme preparations will stir/late research rut in the realm of technical microbiology and bio. chemistry. They are facing very concrete problem*/ developing of methods for the cultivation of microorganisms in large amounts; improving processes that aid in obtaining concentrated, highly active enzyme preparations; recotmending technological schemes for obtaining individually the specific enzymes produced by a given culture of microorganisms simultaneously. Thus, it is extremely desirable to release protease* that do not obtain amylase, and, conversely . preparations of amylese devoid of protases. Purified preparations of certain enzymes Sr. needed not only for the various branches of industry. Their lack is felt acutely also by scientific. research establishments, since, to begin with* enzyme.preparations are re. /plied for investigations in the sphere of enzymology. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (22) Trani A445 Organisation of an enzyme industry ut lising microbe outturn rUl enable a number of branches of our economy to improve the technology of various production proossees and to substitute Oneyme prepsratiOn for many thousands of tons of grain. toncomitantly it will arouse mere interest in the study of different snaps System of microorganism Some ofeh/ehvilla undoubtedly, be utilised in prattle'. In the future. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 ICIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . Trans ? 1.4446 C ? (Abstract) vg/A. CI Mastolohivo peepreatraniate peredovoi opyt. iProeulgating continually the results of ado lanced experience). ?? Oidrolisnali S LeAoknimieheskaia Ptomyshleme - bolt', vol. 9# no. 6# pp.14; 1926. 501.6 036 (in Russian) a 4 The Cornist Party it developing the initiative of the working maims for technological tsprovetoct and innovations. At its 20th Congress it eMphasised the haportsnoe of disseminating the experience of leading workers and ootoserns ? this would iterates the products used in industry* Specialists of the Pirst 191.11ftingrad Cellulosi Papor Pulp Trust have adopted the method of digesting cellulose with alternating hydrolytic pressure And have this increased production without additionsl disbursements. in July of 2.086 alcohol production was itoreased melon& a half times# whiCh brought the output to 70 liters per ton of celluloses 'and surpaseed plannetlquotas by SOO decalitre per dly t26 hoard. Workers of the Arkhangelsk Cellulose Paper Pulp Trust foliaged the ample of the Katittingrad Trust with excellent results. At the April meeting of workers of the Suifiteeleiguor repirtovoi) Industry, Temarithch Andriev, Manager of the Alcohol Factory of the vyborg Cellulose Paper Pulp Trust reported a euccessful change in .turning from 'sedimentation of ;neutralised alkali to the separation of suspended particles in the vortex purifier Which ("tribe used effectively to Purity end clarity neutralleates toeitralisati); The amount of fermenting sugar end the yield of alcohol obtained in'hydrolysis of wood depends on the cornet heating capacity of the hydrolysis apparatus.: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Tram. A.4346 Leading hydroLysis factories have long gime established eaferee cording manometers on bydrolysate disoharge lines of each apparatut. The Kama Trust Its established ampermters on eeperators so the load of each eeparator can be watched. Valuable !examples disregarded by efte comerni are* the expertise?, of the Rirludinsk Eydrolytic Factory in achieving high efficiency of ite fundamental equipment, experience in regulating the hydrelytic process according to RV tdisolved sUbstancesl, Content in hydrolysate at the Rana Rydrolytic Factory, experience of the Lobvinek Rydrolytia and Primersk Sulfite.klcohol Factories (Begin p.2] ihmeehanical foameme, tinguishing in yeast growing tanks, experience in using radioactive ice.) topes in inecontrolling and regulating the capacity level of liquids At the Leningrad Dydrolytic Factory, experience in replacing noneferreue, mettle in the column for the rectification of acetic laid at the Dmitriev Wood Pulp Chemical Factory, etc. Prooraotination of directors of administrative tortoise and of branch institutes to study measures developed by specialists and to pro* mote their use is causing industry serious lastest. Inertia and bureaus oracy are likely to kill any creative undertaking if they are allowed to centime." Rydrolysis factorise are it need of tree felling equipment: Tovariehoh Reath, of 4 Leningrad factory constructed a sixeblade Chipping machine several years ago, yet by now net even an experimental sample of it Its appeared; Directors of the Main Administration of the Redrolytic Industry take ardent speeches, but do nothing practical. Tovarisheh Karpenko, Directory of the Krasnoierek gydrolytio Factory cemented justly about the lack Of interest in the experience of factorise, the lack of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Prk (3) Trans. A*64113 publicity and coordinition of technical policies. reformation on the Leningrad and the Omsk 'Conferences published in the ptosent issue of this journal describes Mastro* designed to thereat() the output of alcohol, yeasts and furfural at 4 decreased not coot. Failure of the MainAdminietration of the hydrolytic Industry to fulfil 04t- menta for the first half of 1956 ems due to the fact the Win Committee made no effort to carry out recommendation adopted by the Leningrad and Kanik meetings; he method of the Damn* factory which remodeled its wood chipping installation so as to obtain fine shivings hes been adopted by Very frt. Assistance and publioity rendered by MIGS (All-Union SoiefetifitAletearch Institute of hydrolysis and Sulphite Alcohol Indunty) is 'Still inadequate. In octaplimenting holikamsk workers for fulfilling their socialist Obligations, the Board of the Ministry Of the Piper Pulp induitry USSR and the Presidium of the Central Ceirsittee of the Worker. TradesUnion of the Forest, Paper Pulp and Weed Processing Industry obligated farm managere aril trade-Union organisation to improve the study and dissimilation of advanced experience. A means of publioiting experience are special anthers, preferably on the spot as did the robin Workers of the hosulitals Forest Industry Itolkhat. The Main Committee las organized no 'seminar mince November 1956 when operators exchanged experiences at the Slava Wood Pulp Chemical Trust.. Contact with related industries is also benefibiel.. A trip of' engineering technicians of the Adhinek Wood Pulp olvenical Trust to the Vladimir Factory of the Ninietry of the Chemical Irduatry USSR for an exchange of experiences in regenerating acetio acid proved useful. After the trip, the !road pulp chemists improved the '01611? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 #3.? %or' (4) Trans. A.846 struction of their extractor and installed controUmeseuring sets: Chemieta of the Hata' factory borrowed from, the Kuskov factory the method of rapid gad analysis. The role of production conferences must be elevated for it in the only form of participation the working people have in production management:, Directors of Soviet concerns must have the ability to listen o the advice of workers and to use their If. experience in solving prob,? Isms. All barriers to progress must be removed: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2.013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans A.647 (In full) vg/A Soveshohaniia po novoi tekhnike Soblenu opytom v gidrolismai promyshlennosti1 id/inferences otinew techniques and ex- .change of :experience in the hydrolytic industry). ' Gidroliabtia 1 Lesekhimicheskaie Proa myshiennost, vol. 9* no. 6* pp:2748. 19564 . 50146 G36' (In Ruasian) _ , Conferences of workers of the European, Ural and Siberian hydrolytic factories were bald at Leningrad and 'Omsk in April and Nay of 1956; ' Aeons the delegates wire leading workers* engineers* technicians* experts and representatives of scientific and planning branch institutes ard of the Min Administration of the Hydrolytic Industry. ? At Leningrad* the report aoncerning the fundainental taste of thq hydrolytic industry .in 1956 Was read by 11.1 A; Kuch'erenke. Chief of the thin Administration of. the Hydrolytic industry; IC; U. Krutlov, Head r-N tngineer of the Leningrad Hydrolytic Factory and 17: I; lerpenko* Director of the Krasnciarsk Hydrolytic Factory shared the experience of their R7 establishments in increasing the output [stem) of alcohol per 1 ma 114. peony of the hydrolytic apparatus; P. P.Runt/1o* Chief of the Production Division of the Akin Cannitteet reported on increasing labor efficiency at hydrolytic factories s P. P. Irenlevekii* Saeger of the Automation Lt. boratory of 171/108 (AllwUnion Soientifie?Researeh Institute of the fly (:) drolytic and Sulfite-Alcohol Industry) reported on work concerning eat* nation of hydrolytic production etc. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trento ?447 Conference delegates et Sk heard and discussed the report of M. lb Ilkheilov* Bead %Limb of the SinAdainietration of the Tito- Iliac Industry* on utilising teehnical capacity of factories and on the basis tasks of the Hydrolytic Industry in 1008* and reports of has ono ginsn of the Siriusisk* Iteassitrek and Usk factories on experience in the work of their concerns* Statements of the representatives of the leading Biriminek factory telling how they hhad *thieved A record out- put teem] of alcohol a ISOIM Were per mil of the projected capacity/ of the hydrolytic apparatus aroused the intmrost of those prosento The alcohol of the Birlusimek factory is the cheapest in the industry.. Workers of the trasholarek factory reported positive multi abo tained fres adapting mechanical foestsestinguishing to yeast production4 time saving of up to 1042 hears in planned manganese repair' of war. sent* and An increase in the time of its service between repairs* pros auction workers et the Mina factory shared their experience in raising the profits of their comma* particularly of the yeast section. Reo prosentatives of the Shakask factory attracted the attention of the dens rams when they told about a $0 increase in thm sugar output &tetrad from digesting:brans of cutting up rem mAterial into 8,011 piss with S reconstruoted cutting machine* and also about adAptiba the method of directed crystalisation of gypsum in the neutralista* the brewers Nero ehchlkii, Commdemi Xonallar, Logan, Manlove and others told about their expenienoes in working 'Mammy. Delegates who *emitted reports criticised severely the shortcomings in the work of the Ministry* the Main Committee* asses* and of steno Wit-research end planning institutes,. The critical comments of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans. AmS47 production workers and their suggestions were reflected in the stoic* tient adopted by the conforerosse lt is provided in the risolutiene that the primary tasks inolude a further improvmmant in the technique of hydrolvals production, decrease in the hydremodules yet at the same timm retaining or improving the qualim tative indieatore, lentil automation of the establishments; Scientific research work done at VIMIDS must be expanded; and at diprogidrolis tante Institut* for the Planning of Hydrolytic Plantsi the planned work ice complex autcoation of aloohel, yeast and furfural production, the dealer Rent or technical assignments for regulating and measuring apparatuses and automatics regulators necessary to the hydrolytic industry rust be otmw, ???? plated more rapidly. The Conference* recomsemied that production of /pistil* sots of reguleters and guiding imialianasal for the hydrolytic industry, whichere not maftufactured by native industry, be organised Within the current year in ono of the hydrolytic feetotimps the Mein Administration of the Sydrolytis Industry ill to develop structure/ dird staff specifications for a *bureau for regulating and measuring apparatuses" Ind; the State Institute for the Mannlog of Sydrolytio Pante is to pre* pare in 10E4 tett fora model repair shop for KIP stel for automation facilities and to work out a MAT* perfect construction of & quickly closing lid of the hydrolytic apparatus, the Confers:loss resolved that it ses necessary to find methods for S further reduttion of the operations toborot) of the hydrolytio apparatus by decreasing the time consume by subsidiary operations and by repairs* ,,. To determine the optimal relation between diameter and height of the hydrolytic apparatua, MISS in conjunction. with 101progidrolie are to study carefully the :apparatuses of the fbakkosk factory sad,. an frac Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ( (4) Trans? A4.011 thio, an to toot there hydrolysis with excess praline' in an apparns turn with elongatad rays of the !Mitring arrangomenti and they ars to Melt their rtecemehdations by the lit of October 1966. The Conforms* remmded liming all hydrolytie apparatuses et all hydrolytic factories with carbon slabs. the *in Ccuptittf* ii to arrange in 1966 for all liters ifuterovshohikil to study the overtime of using carbon slab* at the Letiogred Notary. arms and gidiprogidrelie aro to !Seta the development and tilting of the contimatue proms of hydrolysis. An *portant place in the resolutiont is assigned to the problems of preparing raw material aad of improving at quality. All hydr011tio factories hale been advised to adept immodiatisly the *aperients of the Xhakesok factory ia remodeling *hipping methines to as to obtain *halite no larger that 15x 15 x 5 cm. ands in conflation with this to re.examige the technical epecifioations for **Tinge in the third quarter of 1986. ULM SM "Olprogidrolie are to find in 1966 a more effeotivo method of 0114 dewing row material lathe hydrolytic apparatuel to organise this year and in the first half of 1967 at all hydrblytie factorise tortingebt. foronpulveriling station. insuring tie production of row mattrial that will meet this requiresetts of technical spotifisationej to replaet in 1956* 1987 obsolete crushers at forest trusts that supply row motorist to hy. drolytio factories with 1106 crushes, the liothAdadrdstration of tie itydrolytie Industry and Idipregidrolie are to levelop in 1056 a medal methenisation sets for work to be dont at res catirial exchstgo centers and caracoles. /he conference* found it expedient to recommend tipatAing tie txista Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (6) tflt3. S447 ing progreSelveebonue system of remuneration for qualitative indicator* for workers of rem usterial sale and deputy directors for ~material. and fuel. There is laths resolutions eriticita of the tendency to increase the share of shavings in the raw Stella mixture and to dieresis the Oka of ~dust and flip.. 'hie lads to an unjUstified inoresse in the net cost of alcohol* In the sphere of teohnology it is reeammended to adopt the method of directed crystallisatien of gypsum Ina neutralisate thet was developed by winos andists tested at the Ihaiseek4 frasnolarek and Tavtinsk factories, and, in connection with the above, to resexamine the consumption rate of anmenime sulfate, to improve methods of continuous separation of re. sifts fres its washings, having hastened the selection of the appropriate equipment; by Septmaber 1, 1968, VIII108 is to generalise the experience of fermenting and eeperating ['tenons of the leading factories with the lobs potty* of making oorrections in the regime of waste liquid fermentations separation of yeast, and in the rules of the tachnieal exploitation of equipment; An impartatit place in the Conference resolutions le reserved for the prdblems of expanding yeast production. rt is necessary to accelerate oomplition of shop constructin for yeast at the foeivinsk, Dor and Mut I _ hydrolytic factor' TRW is to develop esonomioal methods for itereasing the sugar content in processed waste liquid up to 0:7-1%g Tamp and aniprogieralls" have assumed the responsibility of exastalng by August 14 195$ the teohnology of yeast produltion and the equipment used with the dbjective of simplifying it to the eimitimeg they are to develop a more efficient construction of yeast-growing tanks; to assist factories it me Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? (4) trans. Ao$S$ to adopt mechtnioal roemsestingulehing w oliminated fully the bad of chemical foosmertinguiehing. the Confirinoes called the attention tor the &legates] to the nood ar utilising bettor the wiste of hydraytio pro-Suction for tho purpose or omato plot protonic; of raw material. In the course of 19114-1999, all active hydrolytio factories most install oguipment for the production of rustiest ' from steam or solftevaporeting hydrolymates: tim flush, Krasholarsk and Andlobtook factories must immediately step thesis v.251 pouring dondensato aeon the drain without distilling its furraral cootont. In the eseccd half of tho ourrtnt year WIGS is to sonduet industrial tests at the in- stallation for the oonoontratiOn of its oondommtes of selfrovapOrabina; ? Ao mires problem of heat utilisation, the Confirenoes doeidod thtt in 1957 411 hydrolytio rettoriebs will have to bring opooitio stem consumption up to planned retest VilltOdend "91,progleirolis* have to *tart in 1956, to the toolvinek and Tulun raoteries* the heat utilising tame that providers tor 'stir heating up to no In. than 140? in the front of tin water heating column') by September 1, MS, they are to assist tho thalassic flattery in adopting waeumagrofrigeration or Neutralist% and foureetagt evaporation of hydrelyeatel the ManAtinistration of the MYdrolytto Irt? dustry ie to provide the factories it 956*1957 with the nooessary tabor of plate (plastinetstyi) and spirti heat exchangers., The contoroissos acts a nutter of Stuns Maid toward increasing labor effloioncy. IS met important of those aro complete mochtnisation in Insane) of herd old labor oolunating worri: Wootton of length of standstills of establish's:LWorAmatte. witiesprotti unfolding ct sotitlitt easpontioli, toechiog workmen t s000nd profession, and adjustment of the wage Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) Ttoriti A.447 Pndustiet diataly dgowtstid *netsthe p'th of to them.: they advised nob t 0.0 itettibile *Pious Mkt., SA the Shope at the to hsteed reel .Mhet ns?orLbS exports ittitt heed@ of theira eb-Wed : heir StebIntilned *patience t144t each other 4t the pinta We the work le 01OS. teStletilnen Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 6 - ?nog* 41684$ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R0103000300012 fun) . ;Os Toibtueve A* V. Gelektalia S semanovodstvo iaohmenia mead ? (ssuction ird production of barley ate cat ssedlL in dibirskii Ituthno.lealedevetelskii inatitut Minovogolhoziaistvai Stormy zemlodellia v. dibiri, p.10.117* Moskva. Oosudaritvennoo Isdateliatvo SOloskorneslaistvonnoi Literaturys 1954* ' 106 8112V. (in Russian) SICIACTICRT Of liAttni A4 a result of selection work, 21 barley vatieties have been Nub. sifted for State variety testing, 3 of these varieties aWstill undere going teats ard T4 have been regionelizeds email (Gawk] 13709 for the Erd. 4th, 5th and Ath zones (the northern and aouthern fatties steppes andthe steppe zona). of the Omsk Otlast4 Oiskii 10664:. for some no of the Altel Territory, the fasten. ' Kazakhstan and the Westernsasakhsten Cblattel Omskii 11464 a for thelAlefek st?pe of the Altai tsrritory foot. hills under irrigation: Omakil 4401 s for the southern forest itspp. of .the treenolersk Territory foothills* Cmskii 18709* the best of these variitiessioses developed by in. dividual toleration from local barley obtained fraa the Alavgcrod District. . Zino. 19511ithe Omakii 13709 esriatyiss been tested also for the lower Taiga kiberiAn forest) sone where It produces good yields: ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans. de646 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Ths TA 1950, the SiblUltkhos (Siberian ScientificeRessarch Institute of Grain loonomy3 obtained b. 40.6 centnere per ba (760 he per al of barley yield fros the emskii 18709 variety, and in 1954, on the Cberlak State Variety Plot e 444 tenth:m*4W ha per a4). The (Skil 18709 variety produces satisfactory yields is-von in dry years. The Variety proved to be mutant to Belainthoeporium: its sus ceptibility to smut Sc below average. In addition, Omskii 15709 possesses sufficient resistance to lodging end *battering and Wise a large grain. This variety belongs to the Nutans type and is distinguished by the fol- lowing morphological tharacteristios: The straw stands erect, its spikelets are crescent-shaped, anthooyan colored, the two-rowed spike is smooths of average thickness and yellow colored, the grains are glue maceousl.tbs awns are jagged, of average reughness, long and yellow: [Begin p.1043 pubescence of the spike shills and the :TIM, glumes is )alry, transition of the lemma into an awn wows gradually. The grain is elliptical, yellow with a purple tint on the nerves of the floret, and it Is large: the palms is of average roughness, there are little barbs (teeth) on the nerves: the basal bristle of the kernel is longhaired. Pig. 1. two hybrid nakedegrein varieties e 4-12 *dam and Cmskii 18709 The in varieties of SibWITZkhostabrek (Cmskii 6164) and Titles' (Knight), were submitted for State variety tutu in 1947 and 1948 and they are (now] being tested (Begin pc105) on variety plots of the Omsk and othereciblests. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? (3) Trans. A.8461 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 These varieties esture 4 to 5 days earlier than the regionalited varieties. Goat 13709 and Viner6 butt as a rule, fall short of their productivity; The Abrzik variety undergone. industrial. tests on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the Oink Oblast on an area exceeding 6000 ha (in 1953. 6158 ha). A shortcoming of this variety is the tendency of its straw to lodge. All varieties listed above were developed by the method of in- dividual Selection from samples of local Siberian barley* and from staples of the wirld collection of NIII TA11.11nion institute of Plant &industry): Since 1939, barley selectin'n has been conducted by the method of hybridization. At first this work was dots on a moll scale, but it was considerably expanded in subsequent yeare: The larger number of cronsings_ was carried out for the purpose of developing naked.grain barley varieties. By means of complex hybridization end subiequent :selection, t cond. &treble number of lines distinguished by good, large grains and tall, stable *tree were developed. The varieties of Sib/I/lithoz are more productive tampered to the naked-grain tafletits of the Tulun and Wm. selection stations. ISTISRVARTATAL CROSSINGS AND NATURAL EZEIRTIAZATION CP BARLEY To improve seed types of the regionalized variety Mott! 13709, intervmristal trossings have been oonducted every year beginning with 1949. The method of such crossings is generally accepted. the maternLl variety is' seeded with a seeder in 1..2 rows, surrounded by mixtures of the best barley varieties. hulled as well Sc naked-grain. The spikes of ma. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans. 4.848 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Ursa varieties are castrated before they begin to hsad and then lett without isolation for subsequent open wind pp/libation. In 19E51 in competitive variety testing, the 72 and Ps teed obtained fro* ifttervarietal crossing were seeded for verification (seil table 1 on l08) The data cited show eat the hybrid sod of 72 obtained from in. tervarietal crossing in 1960 produced a yield above standard and seed of better quality. These sesdAiirs subjected to thermal disinfection and in 198101954 !Begin p.108) they vivre reproduced in seed growing nurseries as a basis to; tutors hybrid elites. The and of the Fs generation obtained from an intervaristal crossing in 1949 were rejected because they proved no better than oratory seed either in productivity wr in quality of grain. Table I. OF MOLTS CP COMPETITIVE VARIETY 123211MAISARLET CBTMIED PR If 117fERVAIUETAL CRC651151 Mims of variety Yield (inc per M)' Vegetative period (in days) Weight per 1000 into ri" Teal ! Weight ' (In gm Omskil 15709 ? standard Gloat 15709 from inter. variatel crossing Of 72 (Skil 15709 from inter- varietal ?reeling of Ps - 9.8 11;9 - 9;6 70 70 70 $7.2 88.4 - 572 , 888 824 897 Modern genetics have established that in open wind po11ination4 the progeny, as a rule, reproduces the characteristics primarily of the materinal plant. This was first established in crossspollinating plants byt 0; 4: Babadzhanian In missy I. A: Olushohenko - In. buckwheat. A. A: Avakian in rye. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (5) Trans; A-se Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 44??? "Ult. In ow intervarietal crossing*, too, the sternal type of heredity predomirste in barley. In MO, we found in the progeny obtained from intervarietal croisiog ono hybrid plant with two-rowed.intermediate *pikes, such as usually occur in the first generation as a result of crossing two-rowed toms with multipiewtored forms (fig. 2), To ascertain the hybrid character of this plant, the seed it produced were seeded the following year on a aspirate test plot; In the second hybrid generation it was observed that a segregation into at least five groups took places Pallidum- 20 plants$twoerowed?intermsdiate hunted type- 26 plants, titans 231 tworowed*interrodiat, neked-grain type 1, and Isolate (Celeste (03 . I plant (f44 8)4 The presence of nikedflrain forms in the progeny indicates thet the maternal variety Omskii MOO had been fertilized by the pollen of the Toilette variety, which is quite possible since the %tun 'Molest* 633 variety was among the blend of varieties that surrounded the naternal Lava. [Begin p,107]; In viewof the facts connected with the appearance of hybrid plants in inter-varietal crossing of barleys, mention should be made of spans tansous hybrids; Published data on the possibility of arose-pollination and the appea. rano, of natural hybrids in barley under Siberian condition/tare not avail. able, if. haws &served open flowering and the presence of hybrid faits more than Obee in barley plantings in a collection nursery, These were, however, isolated oases. In 1050, in is seed-production planting of the Osskil 10664 variety which belongs to the Pallidum type, we discovered a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (Al *WS Vie - ala Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 considerable quantity of hybrid plants which amounted to 1.2%. The spikes of these plants were of the two-rand interwadis.te type which occur in F 'ten two-rand varieties are crossed with multiplemrowed ones 1 - contamination (fig 4). A mechanical .nttr.!..1,tiz: cf. Cet'lf is hers out of the question, no since there weretvaristies with such a spike in the laboratory plantings. In addition, careful certification is conduoted annually in ssed*growing nurseries and similar admixtures had not boon observed in previous years: Theis plants could be nothing else begin p.81 but:the first hybrid generation of S spontaneous crossing of a year ago. In the preceding year of 1949, the Omtkil 10684 variety had been seeded alongside of the two-rowed Vitiate variety which commenced heading on Junco 25th . five days earlier thanthe Omskli 10064 variety; At the time the latter was heading - July 1 there could have been sufficiently ripe pollen of the Titles' variety, and the direction and velocity of the with at that time permit the assumption that fertilisation of the flowers of $ome Onskii 10684 'pikes by this pollen as entirely possible. The progeny of 136 hybrid plants, sorted as an adatzture to the Oesili 10864 variety, were seeded the following year, 1961, on separate test plots to verify their hybrid character; Fig: 3; Natural (spontaneous) hybridisation On all test plata, without arty exception, it as observed that a segregation trasshohepleniel of the spike type was taking place. The plants could bedivided into four groups, two groups bed spikes similar to those in the parent. (multipletroweirls Pallid= varieties, two-rowed &dens varieties) and two intermediate poops* two-rood intermediate 4- with a spike closely related to the ticosrowed type and multiplernwed intermediate - with a spike approaching the multiple-rowed type (fig. 5). Pig. 4. Yibybrid plant Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) Trans. Aft84B Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The plants of all progenies were analysed as to typo or the spike and the nuMber of plant. in soh group MO computed. (Begin p.1101 Pig. 5. flybriAs of Pg Pallidums 2 s multiples rowed intsfrediates 8 s two-rowed intermediate 4 0 Butane. In Pfithere proved to be 282 Butane plants, 287 Pallidum, 458 twomrosed intermediate and 178 multiple-rowed intermediate: The data cited shoe that 1) the plants that had been discovered were actually hybrids and 2) that they produce in the progeny different plants of the spike type, while the principal Pallidum group (Begin p.1113 which anemia to the maternal variety amotutts to no more than 1/8 of all plants and about 2/2 of the admixture. Ike following year, 1952, we seeded for checking representatives of all four groups from the segregated families on Separate test plate: The plants which belonged to the Pallidum and Mans varieties proved eons stants but the plants the spike of which was of the intermedkats type segregated once etre into the same four groups. The facts described indicate that, under our conditions, the appearance of natural hybrids trompeind pollination is entirely poesible. This air* cumetanoe must be taken into coneideration in seed production work an barley varieties earn in seed production nurseries. Pig. a; pi lis/to (TIR 17840 x (Skit 18700) NEW ratilkliOnS IN CRCGSmo 10.1212T afr In the year 1950 two barley forme were crossed. The saternal form \St was 6 sample from the VIA collection 17348 which had a multiple-rowed, complete)y awnless spike with a naked grain, and the paternal form s Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (a) Tram. A-646 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Cmskii 1$709 variety which belonged to the Butane type, i.e. it had a two-rowed awny spike with a hulled grain. In 1951, the plants of ill had two-rowed spikes with a hulled grain and lunation instead of awns: Thus, Aegin pan) there appeared a new characteristic- fureation . which neither parenAhad had (fig. 8)4 al 71g. 7. 1P2 i5/50 (17548 x 0mskil 13709) hulled and naked-grained. Ift 1952, a second generation was grown from this crossing. and here, at least 9 different forms were observed. In 72 hulled and nakedograined to were observed and both groups included pleats that wens two-rand awned* two-rowed filtrated, multiple-rowed with short awns on the center grain roes, multiple-road awnless, as well se multiple.rowed hulled, and awnless with lunation rudiments instead of awns (fig. 7). /-* Thus, many new fens appeared in r2 which nenbled neither parer*: Back in 1251, when furoated forms appeared in ?2, there arose the question as to where the lunation had one from, if there had been no sign of it in either parent? This question was answered in 1952. Mat year, under conditions of a severe drought, sprouts of the maternal fora. VIR 17346 . appeared (Begin p.1151 considerably later and the further development of the pl;nts as Goapleted almost a month later than no usual, and later than the development of other varieties: Thus, for instance, heading of this form wee noted on July 28, while in the Omskii 13709 variety it occurs on July 4. Under the changed conditions the spikes of sample Se. 17546 hid different mtrphologioal characteristic' than in 1951, namely, poorly developed fureation. No. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (9) Trans. 5446 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 \ay, racoucnow.or BAR/BY SEED AND LAT' FALL St/MING In the last two year* barley seed 'Si grown from two regionalised varieties developed at Biblankhost Cuskil 13709 and Cmtkii 10664: In 1964, the Cmskli 10664 variety was removed from the Omsk (blast to a result of its marked shortcomings: susceptibility to smut, brittle- nese of the stem 4and inferior quality of grain; At present seed are grown only of one variety a Omskli 13709. The eisdagrooing scheme is the usual one, 4 sections. MkthoSology of works individual selection of the bet spikes and graving of the progeny in. seed nursery and in a selection nursery; intervarietal crossing mentioned above and late fall seeding are also practiced; late fall seeding has been conducted annually ever sine. 1946. The varieties seeded were Omskil 10664, Oaskii 16709, Abrok (Omakii 6164), tvropeum [Europe:ma) 363/133 and Vinare Seeding Si usually conducted in the first half of October with a view of having the seed enter winter dormannywhen it is ready to germinate or in the seedling stage. Bose years seeding :cm conducted twice; Time, for instance, in the fall of 1945, barleywas seeded on the 12th and 26th of October, yet 00 difference as noted in the development of plants seeded on these varying dates either in the fall or spring. Barley was seeded with a horse:drowndisk seeder on the stubble Ott spring *heats the seeding rate was 46 million grains For hectors. Before Seeding, the seeds were mixed with factoryamade granular tuperphosphote at the rate of 1 centnersof granules per hectare: In late fall seeding, barley, in smut oases, was in poor condition when spring arrived; The 1961 crop was an exception. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (10) Trans. 4448 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 "vine In 19510 late fall seeding 's* carried out on Cotober 11. (Begin p.114). The regionalised variety used for !seeding was Caskii 10664 which in 1050 had been severely infected by smut (100. Barleys seeded upon stubble at the rate of 185 kg per hectare. Before seeding the seed were mixed with 1 eemtner of granular saperphoe. phate and they were buried properly at 3-4 em depth with a disk seder. The stubble was about 20 cm high. Alston the coil frogs oneettOber 25, the seed were swollen, individual grains were ready to germinate. The barley overwintered well and in the spring it bad a norm110 dense stand. Waxy maturity was noted on duns 244 and, by dune 30 the barley had already been harvested. The yield was 6;4 contners per hectare. The yield of late fall seeding was relatively high under conditions of the 1952 severe drought. Smut infection in late fall seeding remained within the range of Gims, thus, it decreased approximately 18 times eompared with the initial Used, yet ftr the production of elites, these seed still sire inadequate: it must be noted Stint in the 1952 yield, the initial portion of the mood of the Omskii 10884 variety was absolutely free from nut when seeded conventionally in the spring after .thermal dieinfeetion. These data in dints that thermal disinfection is asore effective method in the control of barley smut than late winter reeding. . In 19$3, seed of the Cmskii. 10664 variety from the 1952 yield, obtained in late fall seeding, as well at in the conventionel spring lading, were planted in competitive variety testing. The seed from late fall platting exceeded the yield of conventional mod planted in the spring by 1.3 oentners per hectare (9.2 instead of 7?9 *vintners per hell no difference in the quality of the seed or in the length of the vegetative period was Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (11) Trans. A..549 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 /nth. fall of 1952 (Ootober 15), the seed of the Omskil 10554 Variety, which bad experienced one late fall seeding that had been intended to free them fully from smut, was seeded late once more. This variety was seeded in late fall simultansouslywith the Cmskii 13709 and Atria ((mskii 5154) barleys. This seeding ns to serve as a beginnibg of the conversion of spring barley varieties into winter varieties according to Academician T. D. Lysenkole method. To achieve definitely a conversion of spring varieties into minter varieties, Academician T. D. Lysenko recommends that seed, that had been . through one late fall seeding, be planted at an earlier date in the falL We seeded the Omskii 10564 variety, which had been seeded in late fall once before, in 5 shifts* on the 10th, 15th and 22nd of September; For come parison, we simultaneously platted seed of the same variety Obtained from conventional spring seeding. Outstation flu coed and, t s result of favorable October 'tether, autumn conditions bad I chance to exert their influence upon the plant*. However, during the 1952.63 winter the September fall feedings wire come pletsly destroyed, and on the late fall October seeding@ only single plants were saved. /Ate fall crops of Oman 15709 and Omskil 10564 varieties [seeded on Ottober.15, 1965 were also nearly totally destroyed in the mister of 195344; Ifttervarietal erasing* and late fall seeding practiced in seed crowing produce positive !results some years in raising productivity and the quality of seed and, in additioc, late fall seeding decreases smut infection. Nonetheless, barley seeded in the late fall survive* until Spring only In favorable years. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (12) Trans. A440 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 StMCI ION AND PRODUCTION CF OATS SIND A series of cats varieties bee been developed by the method of in- dividual selection from local Siberian smisosne: Of these the OeskAi (Omek) 0922 variety has been regionalised in the second sone (Aleitk Foot..Hill Steppe) of the Altai Territory. This variety was included in State variety testa in the year 1937: The Omsk 0922 variety belongs to the Auras type and it characterized by the folloWing morphological characteristics. it it an erect plant. The panicle is unilateralg epikelets have two free. The grain, which is closely related to the Leitevitskii type, is awnless, has an even back, tapers off Etbegaiusbeheel gradually at the top, has abrightyellow coloring, is email, and the weight of its gime (pleachatoets) is high. Thi base of the lower grain is rtither naked or has a to hairs; The fundamental distinction of the given variety from other, similar varieties is pubescence of the loaf sheath. As regards the vegetative panda this varietysatures two days earlier then the tolotoi Doshdi (Golden Rain] variety. In. the year 1954, as in previous years, competitive testing of Ott varieties developed by SibNII2khoua (Siberian Soientifio?Ressersh Institut* of Grain economy) as conducted so as tosonar* the* with the beet vargm. ties of other selection stations. The Notes (Victory) variety was restos sa the standard: in point of productivity, first place was held by the standard variety), inmost cases'and the mond place by the regionalised variety ? lolotoi Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? (13) Trans. 4,4413 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 The best of the 8ibillEkhoza varieties proved to be Oman 18280 (Aura type) develped by the method of individual selection from the specimen thtained from Ciretia (probably OirotAutonmaous Province): The data on the competitive testing of this variety at Siblankhoms for the best fivm years (1o60.1954) are em follows* oats Yield Vegetative Weight per Test varietyweir (in c per he) period (in I000 grains (in gm de it a o. 68 Pobeda (Victory) 20.3 71 487 The date cited show that the productivity of the Omeal 10260 variety is almoit equivalent to the yield of the standard variety Meal. Tbs advantages of the Omskii 18260 variety trot lodging reasstame of straw and i. law degree of smut infection. Apart from individual selection of cats' the method of hybridisetion is used in the process of selection work. To develop variotiet that mature sufficiently early and are productive at the same time, the laboratory c erotism late maturing varieties of the Pobeda [victory] type with varieties that ripen earlier. These crossings have produced a series or lines which are being tested in preliminary and competitive variety tests: The lino 8h4 of Aunt developed by crossing the Orkii 6022 An variety with the Cmskii 8881 Nbtika variety flu tested for three years (19524954) in ocmpetitivo variety tests conducted by SibNITZkhote: The following are the testing results (lee table on page 117). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA.-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 848 , , Oats Yield Vegetative Weight Test varieties tin e per ha) period tin per weight MAYO 1000 grains (is gm) nr-TW (in gm iuraal ) $022 x Omskil 3881) 11:0 $8 803 $42 ?abed& 10:5 88 38.7 484 In the *ours* of three exceptionsliy dry years, the 6114 Mures line, the productivity of which was practioally the same as that of the standard variety, proved to be somewhat earlier maturing, and its susceptibility to smut was reduced by twice: Seedsgrosing work is being conducted for the purpose of obtaining . improved seed of the regionalised varieties if Pdheda and Zolotoi Doshdo. The basic working methods are intraerarietal.improvemelit selection, inter-varietal crossings and late fall seeding. tate fail seeding of cats improves the quality of seed inertias** their productivity and frees theme smut: They are, however, rarely successful. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ni?ara: Ar-1340 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 ICIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7va run) , C vg/A ? Borisonik, 2. B. Agrateknika vyackikh rosin, iariksenis i ova. tAgrotechnies for high yields of barley and catak iirakva, GosuWeitaintoit ThistePity* Silleskrve khoziaistannoi titeratury? 1954. 44p. 59.21 B84 (31 Russian) BAB= AND CATS rw =Ma FORESINGRAIN CROPS Oats and barley are widely distributed in our country as forage pwin crape. in cropping area, oats surpasses other 'grain crops in.the non. abortions belt, the central *hernias oblate, in Siberia' and in the tar Tait: In the Ukrainian 1351, rat are seeded to a leaser extent than barley, besides, the basic cats area is located in the an humid Twat.? steppe and in wooded regions. In the Atippe regions of the Ukraine cats occupy a small area: This is explained by the fat that cats do not thrive under *rid steppe con- ditions. Maar, erperimilirts of scientific institutes and practise of lading kolkhoses arid salehoses hays demonstrated that even in region" of the steppe sone in the Ukraine, cats are capable of producing yield* no lower then those of barley, but reVen Thus, at the experimental stations in thelfields of the Ukrainian ; Scientifie4hisearch institute of Drain Bconessy, situated in the Ukrainian steppe oblestaLthe average yield of atm for 19411-1952 surpassed the yield of barley by 2.8 centners per hectare. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09;19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Tram. 114449 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' r' . Barley crops are found throughout the Soviet Union. It is seeded in regions of the far North and South. It is cultivated even in mountain regione up to 8000 meters above sea level. Such wide distribution of the bar Icy crop is explained by its many varieties (Resin p.41 which are adapted to different neturn1 conditions. The largest cropping areas of barley are distributed in the Ukraine, the Krasnodar Territory and in the Rostov Cblast. Among spring grain crops, barley holds first place in cropping area in the extras, north ? the . Arthangeltsk Cblast, in southern regions the Crimea and the Kirgiz SSR. The short vegetative period of burley determines this circumstance. In tbot inartmer southbarley ripens before the dry winds set in, and in the extreme north it attains moturity under conditions of. short sumer. ty" Under good tillage barley and oats product* high yields of grain. Thum, in 1947, on the 'Novi Mr (wet World? Iolkhos, Staro.Oskolisk District, Kursk tblast, the yield of barley was 57 oentners per hectare. In the year 1950, on the Went Khrusbehev Kolkhos, Dmitrovsk District, Moscow (blast, the yield of oat' amounted to 35.5 centhers per hectare, and on the taltroviavariety test plot to 43:5 centners. In 1951, theetaeni Stalin KOlkhos, Eurganin District, Krasnodar Territory grew 51.5 centners per hectare 159.7 bilacril of barley on an area of 96 hectares, and the bora Stalin Sovkhos in the tame Territory grew 55.4 centners 162.4 bu/ker0). On the NovebykovSovkhos, Chernigov Oblast, the of oats in 1950 was 35 anthers per hooter* 192 buiscrod. Sigh yields of barley and.cats are obtained by kolkhoses in the southern districts of the Ukrainian SSR. Thus, in 1952, the serkhos "Poremosheten (one who perseveres) Akimwr District, Taporeshe (blast, grew 34 centner (per hal of barley on an area of 500 hectares, and the Kolkhee imolai Stalin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (3) Trans; As549 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 rii4s Piatikhatek District* Dnepropetrovsk Oblast* grew 4242 centners (per ha] of oats on an area of 45 hectares; The grain of barldry and cats possess a high-grads forage quality: The grain of cats contain less starch than those of barley* but they have * larger content of fats; Oats are especially useful as forage for anis rale maintained for breeding. Acoorditg to calculations of the Ukrainian SoientiticsResearch Institut* of Grain Sconty, 100 kilograms of barley grain are equivalent to 11244 feed units; One hundred kilograms of barley grain fed to swine Snore ases the weight of an enimel up to 20 kilograms. _Consequently* yield of 25 oentnere per hectare of barley grain (4641 bujecrel used to fatten swine bourse * live weight of 500 kilograms. begin p.51 The stems of batley and oats also poems good forage qualities* especially when they are mowed early for hey: The merits of barley and oat* are not limited to their Tongs isio*; ? Barley grains are used to prepare pearl bar*, and barley flour the grains of barley are the bailie raw material for the beer 'brewing industry. The readily digestible grains of cats aro used for the production of different kinds of groats and other food products: The February.lisrch Plenum of the TeX XfSS (Central Connittee of the Communist Part)'pf the Soviet Union] noted the neglect in the production or forage grain crops* including barley and cats* and proposed that the cropping area under these crops be expanded and their productivity in- creased, cm\ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans: A449 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 14E1 ? I' "ralio CPARACTIRIBTICS or ?BE 090711i AND DEVILMENT Cr f3A1LIT Al]) Mt In cultivating barley and oats, usualbr the east spates-than ere applied, yet the plants of these crops tate their win biological chart*s tenets that need to be taken into account when they are grown. Barley. When the seed Icaryopsis) of barley germinates, it absorb* water in amounts equivalent to nearly half its weight; the seeds germinate at relatively low temperatures, 1.-3 degrees of heat. Burley plants our* win easily temporary temperatures below sere. _Barley is distinguished by a short vegetative period, from 95400 days. In the steppe rsgiors of the %rains, the duration of this period (frac germination until full maturity) is some years reduced to 1247 days. A barley grain germinates with five to seven radicles. These .- ? embryonic, or initial, roots penetrate the soil readily and by.tillering time they have reached a depth of about 50 centimeters; The subterraman stem forms tin tillsring node, from Which nodal or secondary roots develop on the 1840th day after germination. In vigor of the root system, barley is interim to oats. Barley plants form a great sass of roots in the soil horizon in which fertilisers an; placed. ften fertilisers are applied under the plow, more roots font at this depth yet in row placement of fertilizer', they fort in the uppermost layer of the soil. (Begin p?61. Barley plants tiller well and, as a result, they shade the toil surface and inhibit the growth of node; tour and five stems form when tillering is good, yet not all of this form spikes. In dry years, ? *specially in southern regions, one barley plant produces 1w-1.5 spiked on the average. With superior tillage, however, it is possible to increase tittering of barley and to increase the lumber of spikes; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (6) Trans. L.840 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 rig: 1. Roots of a barley plants a . tutoring node b ? nodal, (secondary) rootes 4 restinder of and; d . initial (embryonic) roots; On each projection of the spike stems of a barley plant there forme not only one spikelite but three of them. Under the usual conditions of cultivation* all spiky-stele are single flowered [Begin p.7). If all three florets develop and produce grain* the spike becomes I. multiple roe spike. Only ono* the central spikelet develops on two-row barley. Since multiple row barleys lane larger protein content theyere used largely for forage and food products. Two-row barleys have a large* uniform grain with a small protein content and are used primarily by the beer brewing industry,. The ohemical composition of the barley grain depends to a con'. siderable degree an solltand climatic conditions. In northern and north- western regions Where the olisete is more humid, the barley grain contains more starch and less protein. In southern regions where the soil is rich in nitrogen and less humid* the grain of barley contains less starch and? more protein. The quality of the grain depends also on the varietal obartoterittios of the barley; This, the raked?grsin barley varieties have S larger protein content than the hulled types. Barley does not thrive on acid soils* and swamp and peat soils are on. tirely unsuitable for it. Barley produces Is good yield on tenacious* argillaceous soils; Barley consume* less soilmoisture and is more drought resistant than oats: OWE Swelling of oat seed requires more water thanbarleyteed ? about 66 percent of the weight of the grain. The seed (oaryopeisi of oats Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (S) Trans. A-649 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? b. waist's it 5.4 degrees of heat. Young oat plants can stand spring frosts: The duration of the vegetative period of oats is 9$410 days. The short vegetative period and modest beat requirements render oats a suitable crop for cultivation far up north. Nonetheless, cats are net cultivated in regions of the fame forth since they ripen later than barley. Cats are also inferior to barleywhenmoved to southern regions; This is explained by the fact that oats are more sensitive to high temperas tures, less resistant to air dryness and sure sueceptible to the &struts.' tin effect of blasting than barley. Deficiency of eater in the soil during pollen rotation, before the flowering of mini' causes sterility in the flowers and reduces the yield of grain: In a dry, hot summer ?Sean pall cat plants ripen prematurely and es a resulti the grain turns out*siokly and light-weight. at the same Use, oats, ocapared to other spring graimcrops, consume soil moisture loss etiormmically and survive better 020*Siiili soil moisture. The roots of oats penetrate deeper soil horizons than 'barley roots. Secondary ar nodal roots appear soon after germination and develop rapidly. The root systen of ate has the capacity to assimilate poorly available nutritive elements. Gets are less demanding with regard to soil tin barley. They, are cultivated successfully on different soils heavy clayey, swampy and peat soils. Under good agrotechnics and withsufficient =Astute, oats develop well on saddyulast soils. Oats are less eensitive to soil acidity than other grain crops, hence it is the first crop to be seeded in newly mislaid soils in the non-ohernosem belt; Soloists soils an less suitable for cats. ? The more cultivated types of oats have panicles with two to three florets in the spikelet which under normal condition of growth and develop, Bent, fora twasthree grains. The first or lowest grain in the spikelet Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) trans. A.448 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? n. develops best, and is richer in Composition. This grain poetesses the bent seeding properties. The properties of oat grains very under different cultivation cob* Mica. In the southern and menthols-astern regions Of the couttrY, eat groins containmore pal/thin than in the westerns northwestern and central regions. Big differences in protein content in the grain are Sheered in different at varieties. Conditione of growth exert substantial inflicts** upon the "lading proportion of the seed. Thus, it has been eitablished at the Rintilisle PAperimental station that under touthweastern conditions, early spring eeoding orate is conducive te production of seed with higher yielding properties. late needing is dsterimental to specific properties in cit seed of the new crop. Thue, barley and oat plants require appropriate conditions of ewe tonal enviromment for their normal growth and development. These conditions depend to a considerable degree on the use of proper tillage methods. The productivity of barley rand oats csn be increased sharply by Isoproting the Cultivation conditions of these forage grain crops. [Begin p.01. THE PLACE Cr BARMY AND OATS IT CROP ROTATIONS The best forerunners for barley and oat crops are rex crepe and winter crops. Considering the barley makes greater demands on conditions Of growth than do eats*, it is given preferential treatment with regard to preceding crop* when fields are aosigned. In regions of the White Russian SRN barley usually follow* potatoes, in crops rotations. Sigh yields of barley Seeded after potatoes are db. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 149 ? 1- L'? 1 aided on kolinons of the Leningrad. Vologda and Arkbangellsk In best growing regions one of the bat crops to precede barley is the sugar beet. By allocating barley to follow sugarbeass the imeni Chkalov Kolkhos, Orsini:et District. Zurek Chian, harvested in 1947s 33 antiwar' of grain per hectare. On the 'Monk Variety Test Plot (Toro.. nen (blasts) when forage gain crops are seeded after raw tropes the yield of barleys for the years 19354946s averaged 50,5 canners per hectares Otid the yield of oats - 28.7 anthers. In experiments conducted at the 3Brinov Selection Stations barley seeded after auger beets on podsolind carats produced a yield of 29.5 (sentare per hater,. Under conditions of the Ukrainian 'appals the best preceding cape for barley are main, potatoes, melons, legume crops and wintery/seat a fallow. Barley seeded after inflowers producei meager results. By seeding barley after mains the imeni Stalin tolkhoz. Piatikhatsk Districts Dnepropetrovsk (blasts harvested 2841 (sentare of grain per Soar*. Considering tat oats an less demending with respect to soil is, being leafy, inhibit weeds successfully, they often are allocated to the last position in the crop rotation. Cats, as a fella crop, ars snag also intermixed with legumes. Good predecessors of oats are pets and other legate crops which enrich the soil with nitrogen. By seeding oats fatter row crops tat had been fertilised. the *Ionia Pane New Victory] Kolkhoz, Kinginppekil Districts Leningrad (Mast, anInei a yield of 32 (moaners per hectare of grain on a sad plot. tBegin p.10]. 019a yields of este *re obtained when they are seeded after winter wheat. Muss on the Vahaisk Variety Test Plot (Moscow Cblast)0 oats seeded after winter *teat prodused in 1952 a yield of 30 natter* per hectare. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (9) Trans. A-649 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? In regions in which spring wheat is laded on. fallow, this crop is the predecessor of barley and oats in generally adopted crop rotations. Thu*, forage grain crops are seeded as the second crop after fallow. Such is the attention of barley and oats* for instance, on the *Sibiriakn- Sovkhoss Irkutsk (blasts which obtains high yieids of All grain crops. in the southern regions of the country, particularly in the Ukraine, cats are allocated after the game preceding crop as barley; Thais in 1952s the tolktot imsni Kaganovichs gamenskoDnepropetrovek District, Zaporozhe Oblast. produced 29.4 oentmors per hectare of oats followed wilt* crop. The imeni 2hdanov Kolkhoz, Rostov District, 2aporozhe and the second time only two plant variations were used,. lontrole (SPK) and plants that had been given supplementary nitrogen food during the 68 hears pre- ceding the experiment (NP1/2111). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 fr .Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA;RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 re Influence of the differences content Of protein nitrogen tobacco Table 1. in plant nutrition upon the and general nitrogen in leaves OM of p sr q (taeuropna mei NPR - controls NPR le additional, 2N NPR / additional 2P 33(11 3N(PIC / ?additional 2? 1:93 .3;38 1:78 8.81. 3.87 1:89 4:03 198 4.20 4as WO9T it rogen in rig r 100 =2 of a leaf 9.68 1244 7;88 13.97 12.43 Other experimental plants ? sunflowers. munchers and beans le Were grown in boxes with quartz mand and Bollrieteles nutritive mixture1 ih one case without nitrogen and in another with three norms of nitrogen; Tha tuns flowefl and tuft:tars were grown in natural light in a nursery, the beat" s under lumineacent lamps with a white luminophortx, at om (34% humidity of the total% mnieture. The leaves toed in the experiment were taken from twosweek old plaate which eXPeriseced the deficiency of nitrogen not included in their diet; The content of protein nitrogen in plant* grOwn without nitrogen vat cons siderehly lower than in plant* reared on & nitrogen background: To determine C, fixation in tobacco leaves that had occurred In the dark, the experimental leaf was cut off the plant* yet the leaven oftoung sunflawer, oueumber and bean plants were exposed to 01402 Ina chamber With.. out being out off the plant. The experiments were conducted in a ohember with a 8% CO2 Content including 1% of tagged carbon. liZTRCEG FOR CRRNICAL To determine the intensity of fixation in darkness of CO2 and the neitttakt at f Ina attsbott in eidThtilivdrattigt Sal it *Antimafia-, the leaves foie Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'gm 1- A -????? lowing exposure, were fixed with an 8Qg ethyl alcohol and thoroughly pal* vermeil. and the homogenate was transferred onto t viper filter on which the material was washed with hot alcohol until the green pigments were fully extracted; The alcohol extract obtained was washed with beaten* (frac. flint up to 100s) and concentrated in a water bath. The total intensity of CO2 fixation se determined directly in the concentrated alcohol traction with the aid of the end-window counter. To detrains the 014 content ift the anitoloids of an alcohol fraction, the tininoocids had to be *operated from the otrhohydrates. they wan divided by the chromatographic method On paper in an 89$ ethyl alcohol with a downward flow of the solvent. in so doing the carbohydrates descended after 21028 hours and the basic bulk of *Mlnoacide was distributed in the upper portion of the ohromatograph: After the appearance of the "markers ismitohikovin the chromatography** cut 2 cm above the place When the carbohydrates were situated, and both part* of it,, containing aminoacide and carbohydrate,. were *lusted teliuirovaIlell separately by water and by tligg ethanol; The eluahmiraterial as concentrated in a water bath and ohromatographed in a mixture of abutyl alcohol. formic acid and water (1844) with subsequent manifestation. To determine the content of 014 in origami.? aoids, the material, after texposure to 111402 was fixed in a drying cabinet at 100'0 pulverised and ems treated in a 8sexhiet apparatus with sulfuric ether acidified with hydro- chloric *old in the course of 80 hours. After the rawest of the ether the remainder was dissolved in water and transferred onto a glass (slide] so se to determine the specific activity on the end...width, cot r. Organic acids were determined qualitatively by the method of chromatographic di- vision on paper in the same mixture that as used in2the division of weihoocids.7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-JRDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .876 I- - In the identification of compounds in which 014 fixation occurred, radimutogreehs were obtained from the ohrmatographs: The quantity of C14, hots, in individual, identified casemate was determined %either by a direct count of the impulses on the chromatograph in accordance with radioautograph spots, or, in the event of a small 014 content, by a count of Impulses of the substance elated fram the chrometograph into* Gordan? with its spot on the radimutegraph: [Begin p.8471. PXPEft11017.111, RNSUI,IS Ina study of the products of CO2 fixation In the dark it betas* Clear that its ommInft for all investigated plants thatIwithin the limits oft 30-minute exposure of leases in a cabinet to 014Ct in the dark, a passage of tagged carbon into carbohydrates was not Merited. Table 2. ibution of C1 fixed in the dark in tobacco leaves No. of variation ' Total fixed l Conditions of plant growing ith ether &olds Iacid* ix trac ted genie Mince in 1000 been es per in %) (WO 100.04 July 25. Plants in phase of 1646 leaves 1 2 4 NPR WON (Additional feeding) i NPOP (Additional feeding) SNP' APAdditiossil feeding 6;93 9;07 2;90 am) 9.78 1;41 551? 2;46 27;8 44:5 5;12 55.4 2.86 26.1 August 25. Flowering Plants 7 INPE AM (Additional feeding) I 8.95 IM 1:546 Woe 65;8 1.76 45.1 6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 egs 72;7 85;7 64;6 73:9 54.'7 54.9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 eg76 ? ? "nee Data concerning the passege of carbon fixed in the dark into !Rhino acids and organic scads are cited it table 2. Eats of the Silvestri& tobacco variety were aralysed after a 80 minute exposure to CI402. if we disregarded the C24 content found in the residue after the extractionoil the alcohol fractionwhioh equals parte of i percent (101, then all OW:Min fixed in the dark in tobacco leaves would be distributed among aminside and organic acids. Data in table 2 indicate also that plants grown on a perior nitrogen background (variation 17) fix in the dark trice as mutt 002 asplants grown under nitrogen deficiency (variantion 1). reeding additional nitrogen to plants that have experienced its (Winton's* (var. I) doublet fixation intensity in the dark (var. II). The leaves of young plants that have not ocmpleted their growth (vmr. /) fix almost twice as much 002 as less that have finished growing and are taken from plants in bloah (var. V1). However, leave' of plants in bloat also react to supplementary nitrogen feeding by increasing the intensity of fixation in the dark (iur. WI); Nitrogen feeding changes not only the over-alt intensity of 002 fixation in the dark, but She Waster of the distribution of carbon fixation at well. Cultivation of plants on good nitrogen food, as well as supplementary nitro' gen feeding of plants is acoompanied by an *sheeted passage or tagged carbon fixed in the dark in a larger measure into aminoecide than into organic abide. in young plants on a DPI background the overall fixations wo? pressed in EON thousand impulses (see table 2); after supplementary nitrogen feeding it equalled 9.07 thousand impulses, i.e. by 6.14 thousand more. Of the 6.14 thousand only 1/6 share of the Impulses pertained to organic acids, the other 4/6 went to the amintacid share. Then data Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .975 e ?Ns I 10.? m justify the thought that an abundance of nitrogen in plant nutrition favors- growth processes and protein synthesis in leaves, it exerts law florae upon the intensity of CO2.fization'in the dark and facilitates the patoiss of carbon into aminoacids: As towards the composition of substances in which carbon is fixed in the leave of cucumbers and sunflowers, it tin be judged (Begin paid) by the radii:Autographs (fig. 2, s,; 0 that wore obtained vitae the chrcftograph of an Alcohol !motion after carbohydrates had been removed from it (fig; 2, 2); Leaves were exposed to CIS% in the dark for 20 minutes; float be seen on the radii:autograph that in plants with hitter nitrogen nutrition (vr. 2 and 4) passage of tagged carbon ns more intensive than in plants that had experisncel nitrogen deficiency Oar; 1 and in). The largest quantitl of tagged carbon is contained In esparto and malio acids; Beside' aspartio acid, amincacide that an tagged include loins, &retinas &lentos* glycocoll and glutmainic acid: . The quantitative distribution of 1014 among infanticide and organic acids can be seen from data it table a whiohtvers obtained by an of densitometria metteuring of spot activity on the ohrowitograph directly beneath the end" window counter; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001;7 Am/ *rano* na$76 Ark- ? Distribution Pixation :Table 3: of 014 fixed in cucumber and eunf ewer leaven in the dark 1 ,Cuocth$Cre :Sunflowers _ I. . PK 1 361PKY 4, SNOW_ Nmaber of impulses Total Li Sanaa-cid* Inoluding those it neva? Rad In organic acids Including those innalic acid Total Iftemintacide /n organic acids In eminewlds In aspartio acid En organic tads In mane acid stShould be 26011 2106 -?2401 1102 1698 602 1067 1003 803 917 723 Percentages 100 100 63 71, 47 29 100 ? 100 65 61 100 100 96 90 .1.388 , 721 356. 666 836 100 49 100 69 100 96 2792 1920 1326 872 713 100 69 SI 100 69 100 82 Data it table" indicate that in the leaven at young curate and sunflower plants that hive experienced nitrogen deficiency., carbon fixed., in the dark IA divided about evenly between organic acids sod amincatids: In addition1 half of the carbon contained in statewide is included in aspartia acids and in organic acids 90% is fixed ittmatic tads and Only 16% In sucanicand futatio acids.. In the leaves Of cucumber* and nut* flower* reared with good nitrogen nutrition that Se adoompanied by an increased protein contents_the intensity of CO2 fixation in the dark is increased, as a result at each it this case, as well as it the cage et tobacco leavesj carbon fixation in eminoacids grows:. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RRP80R01426R010300030001-7 878 The radicautograph (fig: 2, D) shows the distribution of rbon of an alcohol fraction in been leaves after they had been expceed to C1402 in the dark for 6 emoonds, 6 minutes and 20 minutes: According to the protein nitrogen content, leaves of plants reared on a background of IRK and 26(PK) tfiegin p:5491 differed by 27% (in controls the nitrogen percentage was 2:96, in nitrogenous 4. 3.76): With respect to the over-all g14 fixation await found that in a 20 minute exposure the leaves of plants with a good nitre* gen nutrition fixed 36( more Oft than control plants. in beans carbon . fixed in the dark is distributed basically among aspartio and malio *olds. At a 6 second exposure the first amireacid to be tagged is tepee:Ix:eald, and the first organic acid is medic said. When the duration of exposure is increased CH accumulates in the aspartio and mall* acids, but parallel tvith these) a whole series of other laminate-Ids, such as Mania,. lysine, arginine, asparagine and glutamine acid, are also tagged. Data on the quantitative distribution of D14 *mons amino and organic acids are cited in table 4. ?-???? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 ksfi. Ihn'Thf eft ? ? le 3 ("4 A a. Z II XIX IV III I II I II II ?Pitm.imea $ A 4 Fig. 2. Radloattographs Ott V. . +members and eanflowersiD . been. B chrematograph of aminoacide. A - rediOautograph of ohromatograph after a 24-hour *operation ¬epad 4 days later; G 0 Same, developed 17 days later; V . radioautograph of chramatograph after a 72.hcur separation, developed-26 days later; B chmosstograph of aminoacids, developed by ninhydrin. /end xr cucumbers. rrr and IV sunglowers; / and III - without nitrogen; XI and IV . with nitrogen. radioautograph after 24 hours of separation. developed 30 days later; Is ils III ? without nitrogen. IV, V, . with nitrogen; I and ri exposure for 6 seconds. It and V . 6 minutes. III and VI . 20 minutes. 1 lysine; 2 . arginine and separating; 3 - aspartiolaold; 4-. gismo. cell; 13 . glutaMine acid; 6 . alanine; 7 . malls acid. Ac- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .076 /?? Table 44 Distribution of 014 fixed in the dark in bean leaves (thousand impulses er 100 am; of leaf surface , roup o eubstances sr6 - ITS - - - 2119x1 sec47 6 dn. 10 mint '6 Mc416, Aim Wain, tnaminoscids (primarily aipirtle) In organic acid* (primirily Maio) Mt 0418 ----- 0:41 048 1:68 181 0:61 019 1:86 0:68 6:27 Data in table 4 indicate thst nitrogen nutrition practically did not change the passage of tagged carbon into organic aids* yet it increases . considerably the passage of tagged carbon into the oceposition of aminoacids; DISCSISSZON OF RESULTS The passage of tagged carbon, in the process of COP fixation in the dark, into organic *aide tan be represented by mane of lidding ottbatyl to a.ketoacids with its subsequent reduction and inclusion into the die and tricarboxylic acid cycle: The prseenoe of Mind carbon in minctoids can be explained by the reducing amination of carboxylio esketcsoid.. Thus, aninetion follow* After tagged carbon has been fixed in carboxyl* $ince *spittle said it the first minoacid to be tagged, there can scarcely be any doubt that the other aminoacide are likely to form when aspartie told Sm inoluded in reanimation reactions* We Urn no doubt as to these poi* [Abilities, and our results obtained her nitrogen influence upon the distrio button of carbon fixed in the dark can be explained by imitation of ketow acids with tagged etrboxyl: Deemer, it redognieing this possibility, it mhst be noted thgt the netne of minefield synthesis in plant leaves have not been studied exhaustively and existing concepts an Wed for the most part Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-.RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 org on ars ogles ?hearted in the investigation of softballs: In Ialeraorganistie and anise/ tissues, tVt strialysing our vaults we do not exclude the poisibility that, in CO2 fixation in the dark, then are other seam of carbon entry onto as' pounds that have. rotation to subsequent light motions in photosynthesis; For if the formation of all esainotaide were courted simply with the products of carbohydrate oxidation by means of earbox;ylation Or direct station of pyromania acid which has been demonstrated for plants, then a portion of mineral nitrogen wadi contributo Sward the formation of ale:line' but not of ?aape.rtia acid, In our data half of the carbon fixed in the dark thegin p15501 is found in organic acids, while the saber of organic acids tagged its the dark is very small and OCII of their carbon is contained in site acid; The other half of the carbon fixed in the dark lo found in aminotaide, primarily aspartle acid; If it were imagined that the formation of silo and aspertic Side occurred by sane of aerbtxxylation of pyromania said, then a supplas mentary feeding of nitrogen with a possible diroct satiation of pyroratatio add (so). and an increased intensity of thi peons of C14 entry iftto sainosaida, should oorvespondingly decrease the inflow of C14 into walla acid. MaShiles we have observed nothing of the kind; Oft the baste Of this it can be assumed that C14 finnan its site acid differs frts that of C14 in spare* acid, The first, apparently, belongs to the type of CO2 fixation found :Ice the roots of plants, animal tissues, microorganisms' and suootalont plattts, and the other is possibly* involved in photosynthesis and is conneeted with carbon/Mad rustics' protein groups arranged In side Salts; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 DeclassifiedandApproved For Release 2013/09/19:CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 .876 ,-- Mums it appears to us that oarboxylation does not precede aminations but the eastern* that already contain* the amino *group become* carboxylieed. In such a cases the photosynthetic transformation of votrbon must be cone netted with frees or bound aminoatids, chile aspartic acid met be of groat important* among thee. There can soaroely be any doubt as to the greet in' portents of dioatbon aminceoide in metabolsim, and aepartio acid can be presented as an intermediate lir* in the photoeynthetio pros:Mess sifts it combines successfully the capacity to traosport oarbon as well at the AN* group which put* it in the renter of the exidationeroduction conversions" The thought that carbon if bound with parte of the protein omaplexity in the dark stage of photosynthesis fits fully into the framework of concepts being developed at the Photosynthetio laboratery of the Istituto of Plant Physiology Is. t. A. Tbeitiasar, Academy of Sciences Mils according to cilia the synthesis of the proteins themselves is connected with the photosynthetic, proaess in, 821. Mill of late, it wee customary in schemes of the respiratory oxide- tion process to proceed from the principle that carbohydrates are respire* tory material. However, data available in literature answer in the affix* motive the question as to the possibility of utilising proteins also as tespiratorymaterlal 138.551: On the basis of the above statement* we would like to oxtails our results in carnation with protein and not with earbohydrate astabontai i.e hypothesise that the primary COg fixation in the darks and, probably, also its fixation in photosynthesis are realised on the products of protein metabolism and not on carbohydrate metabolism. There are foots for such a passibility, for exempt*, the amino groups of protein* found in the lateral branches of the peptide *Winer* espial* of interaction with many coma Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 878 :or ? pounds, including carboxyl: Besides, there are data concerning the ins elusion of aminoolds and dipeptidot into the proteins of Isolated ohloros pleats EIS], data concerning the heterodynanics of peptide relations In protein i 1$711 on the .possibility of replacing one aminosoid with another 1861, wht;11 justifies thenpinion that all of this is a mount on the pros airs of seItsregeneration of a protein the synthesis of which is connected with the photosynthetic process. CONCIIS IOW 1: Supplementary feeding of nitrogen to plants which heretofore have experienced its deficiency is accaapanied by an increase in the intensity of CO2 fixation In the dark, chiefly in amitoaolds, parallel with an ins crease in the protein content in leaves. 2: The first and on actively tagged smintmeid during fixation in darkness is aspartic told: Carbon fixed in the dark is discovered within 20 minutes also in alanine, eerine, glycocoll, glutaminio acid, threonine, asparagine, Unite anl &Whine: lc The first of organic acids to be tagged is site acid which cons tains !almost all of the carbon found in organics aide: 4: The carbon fixed by plant leaves it the dark le not found it carbohydrates, but is distributed among amino and orgenio acids: 6: than is a hypothesis that the process of CO2 fixation by leatee in the dark -which relates to photosynthesis is connected with emithaoids, and in the process of CO2 fixation in the dark which precedes photosynthesis, It is not smination that follows oarboxylation, but on the contrary, the product that is being oarberrylated has already been abated: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 tome tver Imleh to express my gratitude to the Director of the Laboratory of Photosynthesis*, Professor A. A. WichIporovich, for his advice in carrying out and arranging this work. Received oat the editorial office Dec. 25, 1955 REFERENCKS 1; Rahinovich., B. Photosynthesis. /ad. Inostr. at; w., 178, 1951. 2. Kursanov, L:, Kriukova, N. N. and Pushkareva, N. I. DWI 66, 6 937, 1953. 6: !Urgency, A. L.; Kriukova, M. N: and Vyskrehentseva, I. I., BiokItalia, 18, 662, 1956. 4. Pontovioh, V. B. Conference of-to Academy of Science' USSR on the voiceful usesof atomic energy. Isa. Ali 658R0 1956. 6. Kursanov.:A. L. and Vartapetian, B. B. Pisio1. Reston., 3, 1956. 6. Calvin. IN and Benson, A. Science, 107, 11 2764, 476, 1946: 7. Boichenko, R.A. Conference of the Academy of Soiencas Peaceful uses of atomic energy. tad. AR SUR. 1956. S. Doran, M. 0. Biokhistila, 20, 1955. 9. Nergovereve, L.A. D&N, 66, No; 4, 865, 1962. 10. ftegovorova. L. A. DAN, 92, ho: 6, 1065, 1955; II. Doman, N. G. 64. no. 5, 1017, 1952. 12. Ulabskamt, V: DLL 104. no. 5, 491, 195 15. Rhein* A. M. and Sank?, G. W. Mokhimiia, 14. Brook, A. EA Pager, B. W. and 0affron, if. 44/0 1948. 5. USSR on the 20, 188, 1955. Arch:.Bioohan. 19, 1 3, 15. Katzman, It; O. Biokhimile, 9, 679, 1944. 16. Kritsman, G: add Nielikarkisian. S. 5. Biokhimlia, 10, 1, MB:. 17. &Stamina 11. G. and Ablik-Sarkisian, S. S. Blokhigalia, 13, 228, 1948. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - e876 is; Thomae, V. -Carbon Dioxide -Fixation and Photosynthesis. ?Sinrale. Soo; Rap. Biol. I 6# 72, 19516 19; Thome, MI: and Ranson, SI L. New Phytol: 53, B 1, 1, 1255; 20; Stepkai if., Benson, A. and Calvin, U. Science, 114866, 30, 1946: 21. Balivin, M. and ft/Rhea Dsh. Report (read] at Intonational Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Rnergy. Geneva. tad. Al SSSR, 1958. 22. Renovators!, L; Ai DAN, 74, 3, 637, 1961: 23. Netgovotata, L; A; DAR, 65, no; 6, 1387, 1062: 24; ?/mvshin, A. 11; Bxnerimentalecytologioal investigation of the mature leaves of autotrophic plant1 in conneCtion 1lth problems concerning the nature of chondriososes. Berates, 1917. 26: Ltovehin, A; Mucha: 2ap: Kievskogo Meta, v; 1, no: 3, 1936; 26: Sapozhnikov, Di I:, Tr. Rot: is. V. L: Itearova ASSSSR, Sor: 17, vyp. 6, 1951. 27: Ostmeld, W4 KolloideZeitschrift. 33, 356, 1923 28; Oaffrot, H. Pager, S: W. and Rosenberg, I; I.: Carbon dioxide fitation and photo:ynthesis: Symposia of the Society for exper. biology: It 6, 626, 1951. ? ? " 29: Simons,- Grubs, 1: Br: Zeitsehriftfaer Ritarforsohungs eit 3124 1953; $0. Enaction, 9: and Bundell, A: L: DAN, 69, no: 8, 1596,-1948. 32. IliohiporOVich, A.A. Report treed] at International ConferendO on the Peaceful Mee of Atomio Energy, Geneva. /td. Al SSSR, 1955. $2. Teuton, V: 0. rev. AN SSSR, Ser. Biol:, no. 15, 423, 1967. 33: Smirnov, A. I:, Tr. Nook: Dana Mhenykh, Vp 1, 1937: $e; Vikery, R. B. and Puke, 0:W: aunt: shot: ch;, 126, 665, 1939: 35 Panteleev? A. IT;Uchen, Zap; Leningri Meta, v.166, vyp. 39, 1965; 36: Sisakian, 11; R. and Pillipovich, /: 1: DAN, 102, no:3, 176, 1955:. 37; pasynekii, A; 0: III, 77, no. 6, 863, 1951. 38; Pasynekii, A. 'S. An Talmud, D. to DAB, 85,0 no. 6, 1361, 1952. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 ICIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Asen (In full) vs/A ? Dunin, IU S; (ReVieWer) Bolo-sent tastentr-? Plant dito044e, the yearbook of agriculture, 198$. Vashington* The United States Govern- ment Printing Office* SeOp. Zethehlta Restanii at Vreditelei i !Meta val. 2, no. 21 ;ASO; Ner*04pr* MT* 421 21 (in Russian) In contraet to the prectice of previous years, the Department of EgriouIturee, USA, him changed dreoticelly the structure of its "Tenrbooktn* In past year* they contained mosaically bright material coneerning novelties of science and practice in plant and liana selection, la agro? technic)** +melioration, soil science, mechanisation, c000technigode, arca* cultural:economics* experts. Imports of agricultural producte, plant quarene tine atoe Since the year 1988 the ?Yearbooke have been organized ol s different prindiplot each volume hai been devoted to a oeparete important branch of science ahdpractice; The voluminous book entitled "Tearbook for 1953" consists of iS main Sections devoted to general probleme.of Phytopatholom Immunity of plants to diseases* general survey of chemical, Otrantine and other methods for the control of plant diseases, diseases of cereals and Graeae legureah cotton* ear &rein crops and maize, vegeteble* fruit, sugarbearing, ornamentals eei IP nOt and other crops* Articled on plant Mattes that develop after the harvest, during trans* partition *kid stor*ie_are arroaged_in Speciga_seetionk?_:8 detailed _ The triranation of trite book wao published by the State Publishers of foreign literature. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 k.677 7-* ''?-???? subject index is given at the end. The book is illustrated with 32 plates of colored photographs showing examples of fungus, bacterial, and virus diseases, noninfectious diseases and helminthosis of plants. The book was comwiled with the assistance of s. member of famous American phytopethologists, mycologists, immunologists, virologists and res presentative* of other specialties* (Stakman, Christensen, Doolittle, Bennet, Dreitlos, Isitt, Winger& Coons and many others); The large staff of authors and variety of problems are responsible for the considerable diversity of the moientific level of statements, varied construction and style of the articles. Sore articles outline partly barn and also partly new, essentially ?important results of investigations of variability and structure of pbytopathogenio organisms, of plant immunity to diseases, use of new fungioides and other ohettisal means and so torth; At the same tin, other articles scarcely go beyond the limits of elementary information concerning the properties of sass causal agents ot diseases and methods of identifying phytopathopnic fungi; Such relatively unimportant material, however, occupies very little space in this voluminous book; On the whole the book presents material of considerable interest not only to phytopathologtsts, but also to plant growers, gent breeders, chemists, toxicologists, workers in plant quarantine organizations, microbiologists, racologists, fruit growers and specialists in the growing of ornamental plants. The book will select interest workers in other specialties connected in one way or another with the aidtikration of food and fiber crops, medicinal and other crops, and with the transpors tation, storage, and processing of various plant industry products; WINPIORNIMMAPIEW Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001 7 Nekleseta4 PcSfororgaAcheskis inasktittidy. :k (Phosphoroaerisnie insecticides). :Nitedas at. 4; pp.2746. 1967. 4/0 POSS (In Wanton) Trans. As8743 (In full) vek Shortly before World War it, .there were diseevered some remarbible properties to terbain organic phosphorus compounds. It proved that many of them could be used,succesefully in the *antral or crop pests, ice: utilised at insecticidal preparations. Insecticidal properties of'phosphote4orgcnic compounds tore first discovered In Germany by G. Knekenthal in the laboratory of G. Schrader. They are distinguished favorably frox othei poisoned* chsticals by their . _ speedy action Open inflate and by their greaftniiversal adaptability: Phosphoraeorgatic compounds replacie successfully expensive insecticides of plant origin such as *asbestos and nicotine: When treated with very mall amounts of phosphore?otganio Insecti- cides, moat ',Mott become irrevereibly paralyzed within a shott tine and are barely able to move. Tests nave been conducted with a large quantity of organic 'derivative.' of pherephorice thicphoephorick pyrophosphorio, thiopyrophosphorlo and phosphinic acids. It appeared that many Of them, which possessed strong insecticidal tetions.arere aialinaneously highly toxic for mom'end dectetio animals made therefore, alit for practical purposes. Forever.5 trot apart, number of synthesized phosphoro-organic oompounds there wore1 found such that.coUld be uglized effectively in asticoltutal pretties. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? e79 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7178 ,?"1? By the action Which phosphoro0orgenio insecticides exerts they can be divided into contacts stomach and "eystemiee types. Contact and etamadh ineectioidee kill pasts when they land directly either on their integuments or into their stomach together with food. "Systemitied or chemotherapeutic0 insecticides which penetrate into the plant through the leaves or roots spread throughout the vascular system and impart to it toxic properties. Plants treated with such compounds Are for several weeks toxic for insects that feed on tham. Ethyl ester of pyrophosphorie sold 0 tetreethylpyrophosphate (rtPF) can he considered as one of the first phosphorosorganic insecticides of contect0etomach action that is used widely in agriculture/. practices C2n60 002 10040P /11.1Oghe 0 C102%. This compound vise first obtained in pure form by A. E. and B. A. Arbusov back in 1951. The insecticidal properties Of tetreethylpyrophoephate were diamond considerably later (in 1958); It is extraordinarily effective against tBegin p.28] various types of pests. Paralysis of insects sets in 1540.mimstle after meter solution of TtPF ih 0.00100.01% concentrations have dropped on them. The quick action of the preparation excludes a transfer of the insects to neighboring plots; TEM is the basics active element of Madan 0 the insecticidal preparation known abroad. Removers along with its high toxicity for injurious insects, it was discovered thet TRW possessed high toxicity for werm0blooded animals which makes working with it dangerous. As a results it found no practical application an an insecticidal preparation in the Soviet Union. But 4 large =Ober of new insecticides was Obtained on its bare. Scientists were Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 tal 4-878 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 re-ra eager to obtain an ideal innictioidal preparationwhichs while preeriftg high effectiveness in the control of a large number of Species of crop peetss would eimultaneoutly he non-toxic or mildly. toxic for wg.blooded animate and, in additions would not injure plants. Preparation* were produced with contact.ettaaoh actions such as thiophos* or 1tIUTP.100 (known abroad under the names of parathion and WS, pyrophos dithiophoss oarbophoSsmr welaten). Thlophoss diethylparanitrophennthiophosphates CAO a 21% as synthesised in Germany by G. Sander, in the Soviet Union . in the laboratory of Prof. W. N. %blonikov of the Scientific Institute for Pets. liters and inseetbfungicides Sm. Prof; Ia. V. Samoilcrv (Snag). The preparation arnp-ioo is released by industry in the font of a technical product representing a dark-brown liquid with an unpleteant odor; It in being uied it the form of emulsions and dusts. Water solutions of the preparation are not very *table. It possess.* an extremely Wide range of action. InsigAtficant amounts of it kill various species of erkings gnawing insects and ticks (effective concentrations are 0.002-0.2%): Various aphids (apples beafis wormwoods currant etc) perish ornately within a day *hen plants are sprayed with solutions of the pre. partition; Thiophos is effective also against grape and oak plvfllexetas and against dangerous pests of sabtropical crops (moalybages citrus Pulvinatias tea moth tParlartristrve sp.]) for which no control measures had been deo? voloped prior to the use of thlophos regardless of the great damage which thee* peas caused. Moist dieinfestition (dezinsektsiial with 0.000 thiophom emulsion _Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 DeclassifiedandApproved For Release 2013/09/19:CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ona 4110.11,111 ? ao...? I W, 77Th. disinfests granaried from storage pest* that damage grain, flour, bread and biscuit. (tics and granary weevils, the small and large Mealwoha, pee weevil). Thicpbes is highly toxic in the control of plant eating mitts in- jufloufi to citrus !crops, cotton, raspberries, garden strawberries, currant, plums, pears, grapes, tucutbers (the red citrue mite and spider mite). kite mortality within 102 days is 99400%, but the results are not steady-I in a number of oases mites again invaded the plants after 10 days. This is due to the fact that thiophos does not kill mite eggs and is active 8.4 days. The mites that emerge from tin eggs multiply vary rapidly and sines thiophos concomitantly kills the natural enemies of mites, treatment with it results, in a nuabir Of oases, in an increase of mitt*, despite the high toxicity that thiophos has for the pest. In addition to thiophos, a large number of its homologues were synthesised and investigated: Among them potssan (diethyl*4weathylo7.exyoumarilthiophosphate, 8880) was dila. covered a preparation with selective toxicity for the !Colorado beetle. This preparation exerts toxic action upon aphids, caterpillar* and other insect* only in high.00toentrations, mthile it causes the complete destrud* Lion of the Colerado pOtttob4tle within 8 hours after the plant We been treated with 0.14 solution of this preparation. Pyrophos, tetreethylmonothiopyrophosphato, C2N60\ 0-43 C286 8 0 0C21167 (Begin p. 29) Was obtained in RIM in MI by A. S. and D. A. Arbumct iy using their reaction, G. Schrader obtained tetraethyldithiopyrophose Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (5) Tram. A..878 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 phate (dithiephoe), ea% \ 82.60 a /r 8 .2.6. ? It proved that by replacing the oxygen Stec in the ism molecule with the Sulfur (pyrophel) atom the toxicity for warmablooded anisale ic decroetsds and the :introduction of the second ahem of sulfur (dithiephott) reduces the toxicity of the preparation even mere without impairing its insebticidel ? properties: Technical prophets is a dark-brown liquid with at unpleatant odors every slightly soluble in water: the water solutions are hydrolysed rapidly And the toxic solutions lose their effectiveness within a day (24 bre): Pyrophos is applied in the form of water emulsionse in the SeViet Union It slut tested extensively by scientific-research institutes. awes *Stab. llama by means of these tests that the poison exerted a strong contact and flotsam:that:tics upon a large number of pest types:various aphides citron Pultinaria, peer mums Urygaster integricesss scale insects tpleepedidatis scale innate tretiudecoccils beetles1 caterpillars, filets ticks ter mitedis grape PhAloteras and mesquite:1S: Dettruction (28.1004) of smell pests aphids, LMILWALand mites results from pyrophos solutions in 0:00400:00 concentratiessi Concentrations of 0.0544( were effective against larger Insects . bootless moslybuges bedbugs or tealt insects well protected by their twat: Under laboratory denditions the pyrophts preparation produced ex- cellent results os the Colorado potato beetle: At regards its toxicity against this mitt dangerous quarantine pests it surpasses considerably the potaseft preparation: Ukder field conditions, however, pyrephos proved in- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-41RDP8OR01426R01030007015751-,-679 sufficiently effective which, apparently, was due to the poor viability of the preparation in water solutions. It can be expected that dithiophos will produce a good effect under field conditions as well since its water emulsions have considerably more / etabilitypnd its to:Kielty for innate and character of action are almost identical: This preparation will be tested extensively on various objects in the very near tutu's. The dithlophos technical preparation is a dark-brown liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used in the form of miter emulsions. Similar to pyrophos, it possesses a wide range of action, killing sucking as well to growing insects and mites pests of agridultural crops, and also bed.bugs, flies, mosquitos, cockroaches, fresh-water mollusks and pastas* ticks: The value of the pyrophos and dithibphos preparations should be pointed out in the control of the Japanese waxy false-scale teeroplasten japonicus Ontenl, the ratural_enemies of which have not best. noted on territory of the Soviet Union. This dangerous quarantine pest of Subtrcrpical plants injures about 90 species of perennial crops, including noble laurel, tea, date plum and citrus plants. Other phosphoto-organio oempounds thiophos, carbophos, mitaphee and chloride oontaining insecticide, such as DD1' and benzene hexachloride IGIChTeGh are scarcely effective against this at even when applied in high concentrations; When saplings of citrus plants are released from farms infested by pseudo-scale insects they must be disinfected. nod-4 cation of young plants with prussic e.cid or methyl bromide is most effective. This treatment is very work?oonsuming and expensive. learothile, pyrophos and dithiophos can be used for the disinfection of saplings with sass guess' 96400% dikstrudtion of pseudo-scale insects can be achieved by spraying with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIAVDP80R01426R010300-030001- 978 water emulsions of these preparations. Cuttings of ?citrus trees infested by mea/ybugs, scale insect*, pseudo-scale insect: ate also completely freed from those pets when they are treated with 0;2% pyrophos and dithiophos solutions (by immersion in solution), without decreasing the growth capacity (prishiewemotts] of the buds. Preparation of dithiophosi and pyrophos are used in veterinary medicine in the control of fresh water mollusks and pasture ticks. Mollusks serve as interiedati hosts of tremstodt which lead a parasitic existence in the liver of meAmals and prim**, fascioliasis it agricultural animals: This disease is widely distributed among domeetic animals in various geographical soma. [Begin p.801. Oatbreake in the form of do. vastating episootics have been observed periodically. Feature ticks are the carriers of pyroplasmoma and tuttalliosie of horses, diseases that are Sommehit similar to malaria in man. The ticks attack the horses in the early spring, Jabot them and disable then for 2342 days. If another infection developes in horses suffering from pyropIasmoma then they frequently die. It must be noted that in the control of freshwater molluoks and pasture tit** pyrophos is more convenient than dithiophos since its water solutions lose their toxicity rapidly. Molluskocidal pyrophos solutions lose their toxicity cempletely on the fifth day and, therefore, the grating of cattle on treated pastures must be prohibited for only a short period. The organic laboratory of the Chemical Institute im. Academician A. B:Arbutes, Kasen Branch, Madero+ of Sciences USSR, has lately developed an analogue of dithiophos - dimethy1diethyldithi4ophosphate. This 002e pound, having retained high insecticidal properties equalling dithiophos (tests were conducted under laboratory conditions), has proved to be 5.6 times less toxic for want-blooded animals* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-n00-5 1318 /Th. / The contactostomach poicons listed do not exert toxic action upon plants when applied in prescribed dosages, i.e. they do not burn the leaves and do not inhibit natural development. The shortooning of these insecticides is their relatively high toxicity for man and (Sweetie animule and, therefore, safety measures Sr. required While working with then. Poitioninguay occur as the preparations pass through the respiratory organs, the stomach and intestinal tract, and even through the uninjured ski Lethal dotes established on various types of warm-blooded animals according to data of different authors, are 0.64 mg for pyrophos, 440 mg far thiophos, and 6-40 mg for dithiophos per kg of animal weight. Zn recent years SNIP released a new preparation carbophot (malathion) p...g...0ECCC102% A I Cato S 0EtCOCCA. It is mildly toxic for wart-blooded animist its lethelddosei are being calculated at the rate of 4004400 mg/kg, /at. it is less texts thkrt DDT. This compound can be used with soma encomia in the control of various types of aphids as mites in individual orchards. Carbophot is net, however, as universal a preparation as pyrophos and thiophos and it is non-toxic against many dangerous pests. In the test 24 years there have appeared in foreign literature workt about AM phosphorow,organio compounds that possees.highly insecticidal properties and an mildly toxic for warm-blooded animals. They are diminon (2.isopropyl 0methylpyrimidyl-60diethylthiopheephite) and preparations of the Beier type (t13/69$ 17147 etc.). Diasinon is lethal for warm-blooded animals at the rata 60400 mg/kg, it belongs to the list of contact-stomach poleons. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 'Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 B78 ? Its fumigation action is of secondary hcportance. In testing it against house flies, barn manila, larvae of the maalworm and spider mites, diasinon in molt canes proved as valuable as thiophos or even stronger (far instants, against mites and miller's snout moths), in addition, it kills the eggs of parasite* and is 10.16 times less toxic for warsoblooled animals. n Diasinon has proved effective against soil pests, towit, larvae of wiroworra* and larvae of Sy beetles. if a diasinot erasion 1* introduced into the soil* its action is detected in the course of two months. This preparation is highly toxic against flies which are resistant to chloride containing organic insecticide* (Dix?). The duration of its action in sprayed roma is estimated to be 404 weeks; Bawer, oomplioations in- volved in its production and its high oast ask* it' wide-spread adaptation in practice difficult. cma of the known more investigated preparation* of the Beier type Se L14/49a CRIs This is a hard substance freely soluble in water ard stable in water saR(on)ccis. solutions. It is (Basin p.51) mildly toxic for vara-blooded animals (lethal doses are 225.600t4/kg) and it is very effective against various pests of agricultural crops and "domestic" insects (flies, bed bugs, cockroaches), a 0.001% concentration causes a 10(g destruction of house flies within 24 Mn. Wetly insecticidal properties, mild tozieity for man and sisplicity of production render it a promising preparation, aampounde of a .similar type have been obtained at the Kagan Branch of the academy of Scion= USSR and at the Masan State University to; V. /1: UllienoveLanin. The initia1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (10) ? Trans.. Aw878 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 f tath established their high effectiveness, Recently, entomologietv of the Soviet Union had an opportunity of conducting widespree.d testa of phosphoro?organio inseetiedes of systemic action: The entasologiets were of the unanimous opinion that these toms ? pounds are exceptionally convenient and effective in the control of asy ins pests of citrus plant!, tea, the noble lauret and cotton: Two preparations have been tented widely oetinnethyll (ratan Brandt Of the Academy of Sciences USSR) and rnmaptophoeg (RIUTS). Octamethyl, (9.112)2N N(CB3)2 _/ P-0-1\ lcm,3)2141 \B(CR6)2, in pure form represents a colorierelliquid with almost no odor, freely soluble in water, tarsi iteiltater solutions are resistant to hydrolysiss. Thit typical systemic insecticide dee' not passes fumigation properties, its contact action is expressed mildly: Doses of 6.40 mg per kg of anital weight are text* for various types of vnarrAloodeti animals. The peraptophosppreparation represents a mixture containing 30% of thiolio ismer (diethyloxythio.bete-ethylthimeraptophos) and 741 of thionic isomer (diethylosp?beta-ethylthionphosphate)e temsere of mercaptophosc (C060)2 .00?048C2li5 Thionic SM (C060)210----SegRASCA Thiene XAOWA abroad under the nate of OMA., Gellman, pestpx III. 2 Known abroad under the name of syntax., waren and demetort. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (11) Tram. A?676 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 \ A chemicelly pure eampound representing a coldness liquid with a t)arpo unplessent oder1 poorly soluble in water' but freely soluble in organic colvente. The preparation possesses systemic and contact fiction: Doses of 7016 mg/kg an toxic for warm-blooded anistatz. Recently, the mercaptophos thioanalogue, preperationts744.wat synthemited at the Institute of Illemental4Pganic Compounds. Sondem of Solent:el USSR, TIde compound alto possesses systemic action and is at present undergoing wits-spread testing. Ootamethyl is used in water solutions of carload concentrations, mercaptophos and WM are used in the form of water emulsions. Polyetbya CM glycols (ONT are being used as Osuisifiere): Toxicity of plants can be achieved by inflows smensi by plant Irrigation when the syttemic poison enters the plant organism through the root systems by spraying with water solutions and emulsione when the poison enters through the leaves, by preseeding soaking of seed ands Mullinbystepping the trunk Of a fruit tree with ftbrie bandage saturated with octemethyl or mercaptophos; It is well known that great effect can be achieved from the use Of contact insecticides only if the preparations are applied to the plant carefully. Insects *Leh are within a plant at the lower end of the leaves are, tally, not exposed to the motion of the contact poison. Treatmertt of plants with triterdo preparations is considerably more simple, eine, the systemic insecticide introduced in the plant by any method spreads through* out the plant moving in both direction*: As a result, it is postible to reduce the corresponding ocmgestreption rate of the liquid as compered with the rates of contact insecticides site use of systemic insecticides [legit& p:$2] zstkes it possible to utilize widely the most efficient method a of treatment Which is aircraft Spraying. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (t2 tAns. A.575 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Tb. use of the bandage method in fruit orchards not only decreases poison consumption, but it makes working with themmush less dangerous for those who treat tress, sines it eliminates diffusion of the preparation. The trunk *of citrus, coffee add apple trope are bandaged *Ulla fabrics and saturated with a 1:5.5( eetamathyl or mereaptophos *elution. To prevent evaporation of the solution the bandage Si wring around with a taters proof material; Ths insecticides are absorbed through the bark and within 14 days the trees aspire the properties that an toxic for many eudking pests. The trawl treated with ootamethyl remain toxic on the average for about 46 days, but sometimes their toxicity is prolonged op to throe menthe. The duration of toxicity depends primarily on the amount of the preparation assimilated by the plant, en the plant speciss, and en its physiological condition. Oataasethyl nal meroaptophos have Ian tested widely in the Soviet Union in the subtropis Sone of Georgia, in Uzbekistan sod Tadzhikistan: Both ocepounds proved exesedingly effective it the control of poets attacking bigots, mandarins,ima, persimmons, noble laurel, mulberry trees and cotton. The principal and most dangerous cotton pests an the spider mita and melon (oaten) aphid. The spider mitt is extremely prolific and is die. tributed ail over the Ufa. The development of one generation requires frca 10 to 25 S;'5 thus it is capable of pro:lasing in tin South up to 16 pate- tient per year: The mite inhabits chiefly the ism end of the leaves, it sucks than out and maws the most delicate vol. in The melon aphid produces 14.20 generations wit?. season. It settles in the spring on sprouts, inhibit* plant growth ant sometimes leads to their ocaplets destruction. In opening cotton boils, the fibers are pasted together by the sticky excretion, of tin aphid, which renders the processing of raw cotton difficult,: At a result of the prolific share of these pests plastations Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 its ?ramie Am8711 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . - become rapidly infested and infection spreads to new areas 'causing greet lessee to cotton growers. To insure the complete destruction of cotton pests for the Witt vegetative period, plantations must be treated with highly effective cone tact insecticides (thiophos, pyrophoe) 3..4 times, since their action is tot a lasting one and they do not kill the eggs of pests. Therefore systemic insecticides have proved to be more ideal preparations in the control of sucking cotton pests. No matter what the degree of spider mite infestation of cotton tropes spraying with a 0.2.04 oetsmethyl or mereaptophom solution (600-600 liters per ha) will clear the plantation of spidereitea, Aphids, SM thripe far a lett period, for 30.-40 days.. No more than two mertsptiaa floe or ostenetleil treatments are required to insure complete protection of the yields and in some flees one treatment ia sufficient. itetaptophos and ootanothyl applied in concentration* that inpart in plants sufficient toxicity against sucking pests exert stimulating mitten upon plant development and the formation of yield. Al a result of the cam, plate and lasting destruction of pests and a direct stimulating influence upon plants there has been observed a yield increase of up to 60% as compered with control plots that have not been treated with systemic insecticides: Those preparations are no less effective in the contra of sucking pests of citrus plants, tea, persimmons and the noble laurel. The most dangerous pests of these valuable crops are the red citrus Site, nealybugg, Scale insect*, and soft scales. The red citrus nit, multiplies only on citrus plants, giving special preference to lemons; Under favorable conditions the mite can produce a Whole generation within Z0w82 days. Bach female lays up to 30 eggs. During the Gunner the mites suck out the content* of the leaf cell and cause a genera/ notation of the trees and crumbling of the leatee. TWA Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 scaetimet reach 30%. All chemical measures carried out heretofore in the control of the red citrus site proved ineffective regardless of the fact that numerous pre- relations were used, including amassing and nicotine with naps naps DDT, Blin10110 hexachloride (0/12s0], oil emulsion, contact phomphoro..organio preparation!, and fumigents). Jo matter how carefully treatments with these preparations were conducted /Begin pall they failed to produce a 100% mortality of the site. Almost all of the preparations indioated either kill or repel the useful predators of the mite and within a month of oath treatments the amber of the pests at increase progressively: if the red citrus site did not have natnial enemies, it would be impossible to grow citrus platte amorous predators that **slot solely on red citrus mites nettle in places in which the mites oongregete and quickly destroy them: In maw cam these useful predators stop an reproduction of mites: Naturally, a combination of the biological and ehezical methods produces the best effect in the control of citrus mites; Th* use of the octamethyl preparation as a great advantage es cos. pared with weroaptophos: Very badly infested lumens COO mandarins are oar pletsly purged of the post within 64 dell whoa they In sprayed with a 0.2% octoegthyl solution: furation of action is three menthe. Wen though the eggs of the mite are not injured by ootsamthyl, the larvae that emerge from the egg perish just as non as they begin to suck the juice of plant that has assimilated this preparation. As indicated above, mercaptophos and ootamethyl are toxic for an. Reno, treatment of plants with these compounds must be conducted gentlys on the one hard, it le essential that the hithest toxicity of the plant ecincide with the time when the natural incidence of the pests in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 110 Trans. A-678 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 4 ?Ares!' nature is at its greatest arid, on the other hard, that the products of the yield d6t!1 not contain systemic poison at the time of harvesting, 1;0: that sufficient time has elapsed for complete hydrolysis of the preparation. The absence of an adequate effect on injurious insects doe not indicate a complete hydrolysis of systemic poison. The presence of Systemic poisons within the plant *labs determined by various methodet by means of chemical determination of an inseoticide, by the mistime of tagged atchm in the ovenAthe systemic insecticide contains a radioactive element (chiefly F32). by the method of chromatography and1 finally, by the biological enzymatic method; The latter method it not EL speoific one, but it is a very *enslave One, universal far all pheephoree organic inzeotioides, it is based on the mechanism of their action. Even the firet researchers had discovered the capacity of phosphoro* organic compounds to inhibit the activity of the etrime known as choline- esterase. This enzyme is distributed throughout the !animal kingdom; in the event the activity of *bonne-tutorage emirates:to there occurs an accumulation of Ethe4animalosi own aOsthylobeline and ar a result, St is poisoned and dies. Uoit authors believe that the fundamental cause of the death of Insects as well as of warm-blooded animals under the influence of phase phoreorganic insecticide* is the inhibition oftchelineesterase. Photphere- , organio insecticidee even in negligible amounte (Ile 11.1110 M) are capable of inhibiting this enzyme; Systemic insecticides acquire a great capacity of inhibiting choline-esterase only after they have been oxidised in the plants end in the animal organism. This quality of their underliet. the enzymatic methcd of determining them in plant tissuei. Phosphoroisorganic cazpounds are extracted freesthe fruits of plants by liquids in which the given dineecticide ie freely soluble, further this extract is used to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 4378 1. ? --? exert action upon choline-etterase (blood* brain suspension) the inhibition degree of whioh enables one to determine minimal amounts of inseotioldes (less than I t 10 000 000). The domain in which phosphors-organic compounds an be utilized is very ?extensive; Their capacity to inhibit choline.esterase oan be utilised widely* for example* in asedicine* in oases of different diseases when it becomes necessary to save acethylcholine of the organism. Thug, phosplatool. phoiarbins (pyrophos)? and ermine are used in stall amounts therapeutio mane in the control of acme eye diseases. re *hall confine ourselves to merely mentioning the extensive area tn whiott phosphor000rganic compounds can be used. A more detailed account of the problems of their application requires special consideration. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/191aA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 , as_ Trani* A-uvir (Ift full) ? IsA Makarovas L: A. Umetodike agrogatnogo malts poohly. (Method for inmate aloli of soil]; fl PoOhvevelinie:Apo. 2, pp.92411, 10660 1746 P84 On Russian) determining the aggregate cosposition of esil by eavvinotts methods wo adman two shortsnainges t) docomptaition of aggregatos whin S dry batch of toil is imserssd in 'mar brought flout, by air bubble fowl within thi struotural joints Cotdellnostild as s ?mit of *Mai the date obtained concorning the content of watersetablo aggregatee is plaied too Is; b) influence exerted by various inclusion. (hardpan (Ortahtaini, pshblos, grevois rubble *to) found in the s011, oepecielly-intbo bents bit.* sOil sit upon tit* results of tho sggrogato composition. Ti made Gomel parallel dsterminations of soil samples ift4A airs, dry Localities* end ins state of nitural.(field) moisture 0010: We* similar to the prooesduro of davvinors lathed eomputed the antlys tidal results of our de:imitation' by an eiradry batch' Atter dry fritcp. tiepin* of the soilwith "Mural moisture in sieves, wo took two bathos of 60 gm oseh that oonsieted of struoturel fraetions in proportion to thoir content in the toil; Ons batch was wed to dotermine's aggregates (wet sifting), SM. the other was dried entil it as in an sit-dry condition; .???? this batch was.usod to compute the andytioal results; t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 _ tr Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (2) Trans. 4474 Th^ In determining the eggregete competition of soil in an air..dry *tete. the results obtained were enteral times lower than the results obtained 'Watts sem* sample in a Abate of field moisture. The larger aggregate* (more than lam in else) deteriorsted the most. ; Thus. it nay be considered that data of the aggregate enelys obtained in Inelyeing soil samples of fieldmoisture reflect acre fully the Structural condition of the soil then those obtained in an antlyele of samples loan &Irian state; Polstlio soils, at a rule, sleeps include in their composition hardpan grain which remain in the sieveswhen the *gimlets of toil composition :is being determined. (Begin p;g5). Table Aggregate composition in-peroentegee of the night of eirodty toil; No. of ettoUNtto bitten Abisture era Ilaknie sample iise of iriettions __ .. _ _ ;715! 5.4 2#4I 14.6L.0.6..0.2640.28_;4_, ._ -.28 2 10 field Airstry toil Field Air?dry ? Field airodry 0.8 22j7 4.1 . 47.1. 1.8 2.4' 0.7- .41;6 64 . 1 4.2? 1:1 4.8 1.2 4:6.1 ? 1.4 . 1 4.2 2;2 , I 10.8 8.6 g:g se's' _ ; 8.5 .. ; 11311: 12.8 16.4 0t:13 20.4 4.8 ? 19.4 68.0 T6f2 ? 64:4: . ? 88.8' 44;4 82.8 265 . 41.0, -6:3 es:s' 4:8i 44.0 24:8 48.8 55.4; es:s 87.2 Therefore1 the data obtained on aggregate composition were overestimated. Some *toils, including plowable horttons, contain up to is of hardpan pairs: Apart from this, after the meshing there often an left in the slam *Janette *nth as soil abiletedan (gravel, fine detritus, fine pebbles) end Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 479 ' / , 1 sand particles, along with the tested aggregates. They all kyr a nosativa influence upon the results of aggregate analysis. In defining the aggregate composition of soil, it is neoessary to sed. pirate soil sweetie from such inclusion' and new formations. WO no- occusend that this be acoomplished as follow". From the soil frestioni in sieves that heve been dried (up to an Sir-dry condition) after the robing are removed the clearly visible grains of hardpan, gravel, pebbles eto. Then structural lumps are ground oareftilly (sots not to crush any )ardpan) in bowls as sifted through* 0.25nm sieve amd than weighed.. The result will represent the weight of the real eater-stable aggregates. Pine hardpan and oars* sand Will be left in the sieve. These will be mixed with the hardpan and inclusions removed earner from all fractions of each sample. The amount of all of these particles is subtracted fro* the sir-dry (Or oonverted to 'sir-dry) batch used in the analysis. Computation of the percent composition of water proof aggregates is carried out by means of estimating the sir-dry batch sinus all inclusiorm and hardpan. In thus determining the content of waterestable aggregates in the soil, we concaaltantly exclude all inclusions that take no part in structural formation *nd interfere 14th the quantitative determination of aggregates. CONCLCSICSIS 1. In determining the aggregate composition of soil by NS /. tlavvinov's method it is suggested that oil samples be taken not in on airedry state, but with natural (field) moisture. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 I, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trent: A470 2: the oontent of hardpan and tate inclusions ?(pabblee; detritus, grave; et;) in the coil eSpeoially in the non4laok soil belt, exert a *trona influent? upon the result's of aggregate analytic. Amethod for the Reparation of these particles from the real waterntiable 4ggregateE has been euggeitoi: toml fintainr Syletyvkar _ , (The teed Brunch of the Aoadety . of Soienoees OMR Syktyvkari Reoeited at the 0ditOyfs Office Rem. 8, 1053 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ?0579 ? I e Mkkerova, I metodiRaagrigatnopi malls* pochly; ENWth94 foraggregete analysis of soil); lecheteedinli, no. 2, pp.92691. 2955; -157.8 psit (In Russian) (in full) In dit.vridning the aggregate coaposition of soil by Savvinovis method, we 'encounter two shorts adage s decapoiition of aggregates when a dry batch of soil is batiersed in water brought' about by air bubble found within the structural joints totdelenosti], as a result of Which the data obtained connerning the content Qf water&stable aggregate is pieced too lei b) influence exerted by various inclusions (hardpan (ortshtiin), pebbles, gravel, rybble sto) found in the eoil, ispeciallyein the Aon. blade soil belt, upon the result, of the aggreg. ate ?imposition. We wade several parallel detertainstions of soil smiles iflan air- dry conlitions and ins state of ratan!. (field) moisture (table): Wet similar to the procedure of fiarrinovis method, computed tho analy- tical results of or determirstions by an eirsdry batch: After dry frac* tient% of the soil with niturs1 sibisture in eels, we took two hatches' of 50 pi each Vat consisted of structural tractions in proportion to their content in the soil; Ors batch was used to detentes waterntable aggregate (wet sifting), and the ether was dried.turtil it as ?in an airedry condition: This batch was used to compute the analytical results: ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 b. (2) Trans. A?1379 In determining the aggregate composition of soil in an air-dry State, the results Obtained were several times lower than the results obtained from the same sample, in a state of field moisture: The larger aggregates (more than 1 mm in site) deteriorated the most. thus 'it may be considered that data of the aggregate analysis obtained in analysing soil samples of field moisture reflect more fully the structural condition of the soil than those obtained in an analysis of samples in an nir.dry state Pedsolic soils' as a rule, always include in their composition hardpan grain which remain in the sieves when the aggregate of soil composition is being determined. (Begin p:93). Table Aggregate composition inImteentages of theweight of sir-dry soil: Mediod podsolic tigxt loam. Horitena (0-orrkgaMh) Depth 0.20 cm. No. of &atom. lation Mbisture of analysis sample , Size of fractions 3.2! - -4 2.1 1.0.6 _ -_ C0.25 1 2 Vield 13.3 2.9 4:6, 10:6: 124 56.0 , 20.6 ' 44.1 Mr-dry soil 0.6, 0:7 1.2 6:6, 16.9 IMO i 2:4 24 10 Field 22.'t 3:6 4:6 '6.:6 8.6 544 H314 46:1 Airwdr7 ' 4.1' 0.9 1:4 6:6 20:5 : 66,6: 6:5 55.1 12 Field , 47:1, 4:12r iti,g 6.& 4:6 54.4 55:6 65.1 Sir-dry 1.3; 1:1 2.2 11512' 19.4 : 62.6 4:6 57: Therefore, the data obtained on Aggregate tomposition ware ovorestimottd. 2 ? 6mo soils, including plowable heritens, contain up to to of hardpan pains.' Apart from this after the washing there often Are left it the Edna elements such as *soil eitletone (gravel, fins detritus, fine pebbles) and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 pen A- sand particles, along with the tested aggregate.. They all have a negative influence upon the results of aggregate analysis. Indefiningthe aggregate composition of soil. It is necessary to as. pirate soil aggregates from such inclusions and new formations. M. rem caamend that this be accomplished as follows. Prom the soil fractiond in *lives that have been dried (up to an air-dry condition) after the washing are removed the clearly visible grains of hardpan, gravel, pebbles eto; Then structural lumps are ground carefely (so its not to crush any hardpan) in bowls and sifted through a 0;25= (sieve and then weighed._ The result will represent the weight of the reel water-stable aggregates: Fit* leartipab and coarse sandwill be left in the sieve. These will be mixed with the hardpan and inclusions removed earlier from all fractions of each sample. The amount. of all of these particles is subtracted from the sir-dry (or converted to air-dry) batch used IA the analysis: Computation of the percent onnposition of water proof aggregates is carried out:by:sans of estimating the air-dry batch minus ell inclusions and hardpan; In thus determining the content of water-stable aggregates in the soil, we concomitantly exclude all inclusions that take no part in structural.forretion and interfere with the quantitative determination of aggregates: COVOLCSIOS3 1; In determining the aggregate composition of soil by L . Morino'''. method it is suggested that ;oil (samples be taken not in on airdry states but with natural (field) moisture; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (4) Trans. Asg70 /Th 24 The content of hardpan and various inclusions (pebbleS, detritus, gravel etc.) in the sonic especially in the nonoblack soil belt, exert a ?Wong influence upon the results of aggregate analysis: A method for the eeparation of these particles from the real matersstable aggregates bag been suggested. Komi filial AN 8228 -Received at the SyktyVkar Editor's Office Nov. 8, MO [The Komi Branch of the Academy . of Scienooe, OMR Syktytkari Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 a-nne. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A.980full) ;Pi Kriukov. P:A:,and Kemerovo, N. AL; Ob otzhimanii vedy is glin'pri sverkheysekikh daVleniiakh. [About equSeling out water from clays bndlni qltra.high pressures]. 1.1/4 Afldendia Naok.SOM: DoklAidy, vol. 99* no. 4. pp.617.619, 1954. 511 1444A (In Russian) Studies of phenomena* connected to the separation of water from clays and certain other4els, were conducted by us it connection with a research of the composition of solutions, which saturate the Soil, silts and bed/. mentary rooks: The basic part of the dry lads* water is,found in the struts. tare of these solutions' they play a big role in the life of natural waters and in to chemistry of the earth's* crust as a whole (1): During examination or soil, silt and reek solutions, data tonherning the peculiarities of their ? physical statii.00nditioned'by the reaction Of the solid phase, is of great importance. It is interesting to.exmaine the relationships between the applied pressure and the equilibrium residual moisture because usually for the separation of soil solutions from soils, silts and rooksHmethods of squeezing out are Artiltsed. This relationship, which characterizes the possibility of separation of solutions from objects wit a nnerals often very small, moisture can be utilized also during exominatiCn of natural processes of squeezing out solutions from silts and sedimentary rocks. At the same time it characterizes the interaction of the solid and the liquid phase more fully,\_, than the Groaned hydrological constants of soils and grounds . "the maximum Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CICRDP8OR01426R010300153bobl- 880 4 molecular moisture capacity" and "the moisture equivalent", which are determined seoording to moisture which remains after Squeezing out or centri- fugation under only the standard conditions. The cited relationship must be studied in a wide range of pressures, whidh corresponds both to the laboratory conditions of separation of solu- tions for their analysis* and to the natural circumstances; Squeezing out of solutions from sedimentary rocks wader natural conditions proceeds not only at the expense of the pressure of the overlying strata, but often under the influence of much greater pressures of tectonic origin. A still wider range of pressures is desirable also for the studies of forces by which water is retained in gels* which reach, according to indirect data, tens of thou- sand of kilograms per 1 et The existing methods for studies of compression relationships foresee the highest pressures of an order of tens of kg/cm2. The existing data con.. corning some gels relates to pressures which seldom surpass 1,000 kg4m2(2): For some roils we examined the relationship between the moisture and the pressure for squeezing out up to pressures of about 7,000 kg/cm2 (2); after this the apparatus for pressing were improved and the range of pressures widened to 20,000 kg/dm?. For pressures up to 1,000 kg/cm apparatus were used resembling those cited by us previously (3). For the attainment of pressures up to 20,000 ? kg/cm2 an apparatus was used (see figure 1) with a reinforced (double) cylinder made of steel DIEN4116 which was treated thermally up to hardness Re a 60. [Begin p:6181 Plungers were prepared from steel RF1, which was tempered up to hard- ness B4 !I.: 84: For each pressure a separate experiment was conducted: For diminishing the friction of the object against the walls of the cylinder and for speeding up the process the width of the pressed layer comprised about Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - (3) Trans. A-680 le \ 6 mm, and the squeezed solution flowed through the openings in both the lower and the upper plungers. Tet, in oases of objects with bad filtration ability, the equilibrima state, espeoially at maximum pressures, was set up slowly, and sans experiments lasted up to 2 months. The residual moisture was determined by drying in a vacuum oven. EZsimination was conducted on ollys of .various mineralogical compositions bentonite oglanlinakii, askangel and kaolin, as well as on certain other objects, particularly, on sills gel and starch, as, even for these classical gels in odlloidal chemAstry,'data are almost entirely absent about their conduct during squeezing out in a wide range of pressures. ? ' 4 ? Title of figure 1. 1-soil, 2.4nind, SAacylinders, 6-plungers, 6-grids. Results of some of our experiments were shown in figure 2 in the fora of relationship of equilibrium moisture, indicated in percent with respect to the dry .subltance, to the logarithm of applied pressure: ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ?V*I -Kranz. 21480 \ / The obtained results permit to discern two basis: types of relationship of moisture to the pressure of squeezing out: The first is characteristic - 'for inorganic gels: silioic acid and clays. Sere we have a continuous decrease inmeisture with the increase of pressure, where-upon for the greatest part of objects the relationship of moisture to the logarithm of pressure is close to linear: A dependence of a similar character as observed by us ' in soils also (s): Per starch (as well as for the examined by us agar*agar and peat) at the beginning moisture decreases quickly according to the logari- thmic law, and, subsequently, after reaching a pressure around 210100 kg/cm2 it practically stops to decrease. The residual moisture for starch cat- prises 8O, whereas the bouod_water, which was Calculated from the heat of swellings, oomprises Sl% 0): Unsqueetable moisture for Sphagnum peat *? - comprises 60 and for agar-adsr'30%. Thetas :ply for this group of objects the presence of unpressed water is apparent.,ThV special petition is occupied by askangel which appears to be, as i'. is known, one of the most hydrophilie among inorganic gels. . ? The discovered reletipnship of moistute Uo pressure points, first of all, to the fact that for the objects examined by us the basic significance in the retention of water is in the physical properties of the water these systems, which are conditioned by the interaction with the solid phase, but not the mechanical stability of the skeleton, which plays a great role in the theory of dynamism of the ground mess. Actually, conneetable moisture is found in such objects (starch, peat) for which it is impossible to imagine the ? exietenee Of a mechanically stable skeleton. For inorganic gels phenomena of structural stability manifest, as it is known, even in diluted stuspensionel but (Begin p:619] in the range of high and ultra-high pressures the stability Of the skeleton, of couree, is transcended. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 - I (S) Trans. Aef380 Cel'N1 ' I I? ? el 0 a ??"-- ? Title of figure 2. Curves of relationship of re- sidtokrztoisture to the pressure of squeeze ins out. leAskangel, 2-bentonite, 3-kaolin, 4-siliaio acid, 5-starch. /t is necessary to compare the obtained data with the idea, prevailing up to now (B), about the moisture film as a special oicatsgory of water, which in its energy is sharply different frcm free moisture. This idea ani methods based on it, for determination of "maximuM molecular moisture capacity" wore found to be faulty (3.43,7) yet they are still being utilized: Out data for inorganic gels did not disclose any special points on the curves of squeezing out Which'would correspond to the maximum molecular moisture capacity, which, thus, has a purely provisional value. A chs.ricteristio of the hydrophilic nature Of the solid phase determining equilibrium moisture for one pressure (or one oentrifilgal 'force) can be insufficient even for the purpose of caws parieion. Thum, for instance the relative hydrophilic nature of bentonite and askangel evaluated by moisture, specific to various pressures, proves Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (6) Trans. A.880 to be different: Date, cited by us, aa well as Our experiments on squeezing solutions from various native -sedimentary rooks show that mOuntaiftous moieturs in the stdisentary rock strata prov4s to be ex. dYnsmic element in the balance of underground otters. Almost 4 by silts in the process of sedieent formaiion, can be squeezed out fix' the sedimentary rooks during the process of epigenesity especially if thesx kooks are subject to pros. enures of tectonic 'character. This wakes its , ? attention to the studies of the role of the solutions from the sedinentary rock tints waters, it is also Amuses sat, to- Gocrumu.1?t4 ? ieperative to pay greater - lass of squeezing out the :e genesis of uniergrourd regard to the relation- ship between the pressure of squeezing out and the moisture content for ? Textural soils, whioh can be utilized particularly for the evaluation of roxxizaras pressures to which these soils were subjected during the process of spigeneeis: Entered *reit 196 1954: The Cited Literature 1: Nernadakii, 1/..; I:, tstoriia priroddykh vod iMieter of natural waterel ed, no: 1, L:, 1233. a 9. Stadia:SI P., matins, B. A., ZEPKI% 8. h6; SA 1004 (1235). a Si KeillkOVA Ns., Sovrom.4stody tested. fis.. khim. Svoisti poOhv (Contexporar, methods-for researoh orphckeicoaollemical propertiesa.of soils), vol. 4, no. -9? 1947. . 4 lipatol, S. L, Lipstein, G. V., Utp. hhim.", 9,8,90.9 (1940). a 5: Lebedev? IA. F., Soil and ground eaters, 21..1., 1938. a 8. Dolgov, S. /:, Ressatoblift mobility-of soil " moisture and its'aeallability to the platte, M.44., 1948. a 7. Rode, A. A., Soil moisture, Et:?_1959. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-R0P80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 11R4 A.881 (in full) ? Sochevanov, 11. W. , ? vg/A1 Kolichestvennaia etkohomernosttmeshdu uprugostliu vadianogo Para kolichestvot vody, sorbirovannoi poohvol. (uantitative,regtlarity between the reailienot of ' water vapgr and quantity of water ecrbed by the roil). PochvoVidenie, no. 9, p.49-56, September 1955., 67.8 P34 (IpRussian) The process of sorption of water napai by the soil, depending on the moisture content in' both the soil and the air, it eluoidatal in detail in the Soil Science literature. , K. V. Speranskii (3) placed son with lesser moistua than ite maxi* mum hygroscopicity intO enclosed space and after establishing an *quill* brium determined the dew point in the space above the soil. Absolute and relative moisture content of air was determined according to dew pgint and temperature. K. V. Speratekills experiments did not include the field of low values of the relative humidity or air. The lowest values of this last one in his experiments ranged in the limits of ir)23e0.41. As a result of the conducted experiments, I. V. Speranskii suggested a formula for computing the amount of water in the Soil depending on the elasticity of water vapors ? a so / 1)2 og. ' , In this?feiMula, which received in literature a title *formula of Speranskirs (1) "104n absolute equilibrium elasticity of water vapor; *Pe an absolute elasticity or water vapor saturating the space at Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 egi Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030061-7 )81 / the 6=8 temperature. 111.#1 is the relative equilibrium elasticity of ester vapors Po "A" is the amount of sorbed water per unit of mass of dry soil; and"R" are constant magnitudes. As the subsequent checking by A. A. Rode (2) Si Shown, computation according to Speranskii formula usually coincided well with the observed magnitude for the interval of value of magnitude Po from 0;85 to 0:67. In certain cases the interval of coincidence of computed and practical dais was *till smaller; tater research vas conducted by Koroniskthminy natural object! .0 coils and clays. The procedure used by himeas to Psep the weighed portions of soil in di...locators ever solutions of sulfuric *aid of various con* centrations. Variations In this concentration of sulfuric acid lithe Matte of 10074% gave a possibility to cheep the moisturs of air over the examined weighed portions in wider ranges (770 from 0.942 to 0;034) and to include the in, tarsal of the starting pbase of sorption of water vapors by soils, which were not examined by Oporanskii: Kuron has shown that, in the interval from low values of ;0 up to 046-0.38, a :f (P0) coincides well with the sorption equation of Freundlich. P 1 a Cido (2) store "c(" and "n" are constants. Values a P, Pa have the must values as in the Speranskii !Ursula. As A. A. Rode (2) points cut ell 49 tailed objedts by &von dies. played excellent compliance to PrOdhdliohts equation during the starting phases of the sorption process, that is at low relative rosillencies of water vapor, which do not exceed magnitudes of 0.385". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 DeclassifiedandApproved For Release 2013/09/19:CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (ft) aranS4 A..881 ? The wither of the present article had to examine certain regularities for porous quaternary deposits. 44 I result of conducted worts relationships were obtained-Allegin p.601 whichwtre sinner to curved P ' Sail* of these Ourtes has Shown that 4 general equation, whiCh .will.meetelleIdemands of curves along the full range of variations is ah equation of a type* Tian eftenk2 (4) Ordsft in qtestion on eorption of water vapors n I -..: Pot the 4mourit Of sorbed water per unit of weight of dry soil, a the hase'of natural logaritint X, m a constant elites. Bk. taking logarithms for this equation we have ign lg ige. Figure I. (5) As mend Ige are constant values, the validity of this formula for the sorption Mister vapor can be easily checked, if this inter- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 A sa. aranS.ADOL 4 1 (2, r connection can be depicted otphicelIy, plotting logarithm we along one axie and na2" along the second in the usual linear sale: P. ' Wring each plotting 1g n t ig (1 71;and "eft 4 a square of the o . observed Vaige of the sorbed moisture, must prawns rectilinear telationihip. Data addgmad in the above Cited work of .A A. Rode about the magni- tude of sohtiikft for ohernotmn and podsolle soil were plotted by us in Ouch tootdinates and gave practically straight lines with a spreadwhichwag con- ditioned, probably, by small entire of the experiment.. Rettilinear relationshipttovee the justice of utilisation of the given A . formula for the phenotenon under consideration. A graphic interconnection Ig (1 41.) : 2 (a2) for thelpodtolio soil o (horizon 361.46 cm) in depicted in figure lj vallues Were taken from the work of A. A. Rode (table Ma on page 69): ,.! Initial data were given in table I, and the diagram in figure Ives plotted on their basis. ' All the constants necessary for the eaution of the equation were obtained from the diagt4dit 10,40N . . Point of interception of the straight line with the axis of ordinates determined the magnitude 1g n ig X, tithe tOcond multiplier of the . , equation (4.4) taca2 under eat. circumetaneee'(a 0) reverted to 1: In the given case lg k and X 41 I. [Begin p:6/2.' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09;19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 3.11-0?141.1 ? 1 ????? Table 1. Peg cit a a2 3 : 0.942 0.058 3.35 2.764 11:22 0:868 a 0:132 2.87 1.120 8.24 , 0 0.748 0.252 2.40 1.401 6.76 0.595 0.405 1.96 1.606 3.84 0.654 0:646 1.30 1.810 1.60 ? 0.260 0.740 1.09 1.869 119 0.164 0.836 0.88 1.921 , 0.77 0.064 H 0.936 ?0.69 1.971 0.36 0:034 0.966 0.46 1984 0.20 Solution of equation (6) in relation to sle gins: m lg 1g n *41g. considering that lg K 0 111 n az ige But in the selected ?system of coordinates (see figure 1) kat e.2 tgoc, whence (6) t:_gs2c. (7) ige 11214 Thus, we obtained the value of *inn from the tangent of the angle of the elope to the straight line of the axis of abscissa. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 jet For the can in question, according to (8). " 1.3 " 12.2 ? 0.434 : 0:245 Consequently the eque.tion sought ? .2 nm-' n Ifler's" C,0 or when solved in relation to ..0.246a2 8.0341g ( Table 2. P ' ' it Po ...% n a r. 3.08 ?111114-17W---cen observed formulas 4.4g n Speranskii Freundlich.. Koren 2 8 4 4 6 6 7 0942 0:888 0:148 0:695 0;364 6:280 0:164 0064 0.054 . 11238 0:880 0:599 0392 0;190 0:131 0:079 0029 0;016 - 11112- 01938 0:774 0126 0436 0382 0:279 0A70 0.128 . . 385 2:87 2:40 1:98 1:30 1:09 0:88 059 0.45 - . 200 193 1:81 1:63 I 2;87 2:37 1:92 133 1:11 0;88 052 0.39 3:22 2 037 2:40 1:88 1;32i;29 142 0;91 0:61 0.45 1:17 1:07 001 1:00 [Begin p.621 Coefficient before the radical is determined by means of conversion (6)1 a2 "aa nie that is a itIg-e pigs - J/:;;;;:- ii lraTira : 3.08 10.246 ? 0.434 1(701i- 0.326 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 . t7) Trams. A?681 ' Mords in figure' 2. ' Daft outside the figures ifillimolesilg of soil. Left side, inside the fights* FOrmula of Spennskii Right side, inside the figures Formula of Freundlich?Kuron - -0_40 Experimental cunt - it Curves, computed according to formula of Speranskii and Karon ac Curve, cemptited according to a new formula: ?10TAMIIIM :410Nplignmemmi 14011MMENNIMMI__MMarll NM NM MN FA i T iii 17 IIIIIIIiii7 1.1111Prrimo?g. A RIM -MI Illr 4?. opi-s.L.,... ? ?IIIN pPreilli rerri miumpPS Men ? ? me ...m -7.--,,r,..... a ? ? FIN aw,w.rm" n aimm M MK ? ? rz r. ? "" NM . Title of .figure 2: Curves stleh'indicate the Amount of moisture, edscrbed thesoils: id relation to relative elastiOity of water vapor: Podsolio aoil, horizon' SG-45 cm. Then, for the case in question, using equation (8), it was easy to !compute the amount of sorbed moisture, which wet done in table 2. Coltrans 1 and '2 in table 2 correspond to column 1 and 4 in table 1 (but the valued of the logarithm from ?column 4 were converted ? the Oharac? teristio ani mantissa of the logarithm were brought to one sign). Column 4, in table 2, was the final result of computations of the magnitude "aft;. Iiicoluntn 6, for the possibility of detaittrison; value of the observed ust" no given, in column 6 .? 'the "an -6omputed, according to The. ric of Sporanskii at 1:0 2:6po) and in dolman 7 ? t000rding to formmila Of (t 2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 i_nal td) CI PreundlichAuron a X 2.04(P0 0:462, which ere given by A. 4: Rode (2, paged ) for this relationship. ? In oolmens-cf computed values of *an those eire boxed which tally satisfactorily with the observed valuel_of this Magnitude. As .it is'eeen from table 2, the formula suggested by us underestimates fir- somewhat the's\ragnitudo *a., in the range of-low values oft. If one plots graphically (figure 2) the values of the **carved magnitude of sorption and of ?trthose as. computed according to the suggested aum ries formula, be a.," 'tio*,___;,a-Ceviat.. Jhaveno value in the Win -4 and our calculated 0.4): :coincides with the expereental curve of sorption. Por comparisohT ills give another instant( efeorption by chernozem j (horizon 6744 cm), borroming from the work of AJ ---RCde the experimental and 4471 calculating data accordi!il to the two previously I, iting fermatas (2, pagoda) and supplementing With Ieae:tint 40 our formula. Formulas follow, *Awarding to which data were obtained for table 3t 0:6: P 0.). ::13.3(P0) . 0) ?:".1.:60 s:so(Por: taegin p:631 0 :60 13 These sato data were depicted in figure 3* it is seen there that a single point, which showed a considerable deviation between the calculated deta, according to the suggested formula and the observed magnitude was not too essential for the *Mole tours(' of the sorptiOn curve. In the work of A. A. Rode (2, page 64) ironer* 20, according to data of Karon for the examined soils from Versingov, curves ere given shooing the amount of vaporoile moisture, adsorbed by the toil, in relatiod to relative elasticity of vapor for various fractions of .these soils; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (91 trans. Aant 1 Words in ii.guS $. Left, outside -the figuret RillimeloSilg of soil: ? left, inside the figarel Pertula of sloaranshii Right, ineide the figure's Formula of Preandliche . Kuron ,afto Experimental taro Ourves,-,ealeulated-cecording to fotthalas of Speranikii and Rittin te.ft.o.Carve eettputed according to the new formula.. r am El Mil MIHMIHRIM 101111111 IIMMEMEIMAIMM IMI KW . II - IIM ir NMI SEN so or En I M MOW nil MI mmuntur is me ma allaradil NOR Mar ili all ME 11 c?tnt , I. 4,7 , ? Ofreilralcc a +I JI so all 1.1 riS;nall Or - MI Inir ? *An ? ? Ora FON Z.1", WM WM .., ...frogi Illa Al IIIHMOMMIMMUI - .. M II M ? Title of figure 3: Curves, which 'Paid-ate the amount of vaporous moisture, adsorbed by the soil, in relation to relative elastioity of vaster vapor, 6hOrtiozemllorizen6774 Oft? Words Sn figure 4: Left outsides lailimelosilg of soil. Inside the figure . tam . millimeter. i ? 1 .11einswi6 ' SoriqPi ? (0.4m S4 flaw (if P?c?f 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 gn #,--\ Applicability of the 'suggested formula has been chocked on all these four curves (figure 4). Differences proved to be of the same order; as for the previously examined two curves; notwithstanding the sharply differing character of the curves. Examination of the obtained? formulas peraitk to establish a connection between the coefficient nb" in formula (9). a : 4/1.161g (1 " 40!(e) and the an diameter of particles (q) in the soil. .4 An aciumptionwai expressiO thelfiCUnt of Sorbed moisture is in? vereely proportional to the diameter of particles in the sorbing fraction of soil; that there ie a relationship. b ? 1 where nba is a toeffiiient before the radical in formula (9)g a constant magnitude mean diameter of soil particles If one takms 1,4173.s sr (10); then ? , lg b. 1g E, . 1g q4 ME56 (Begin p.64) Table 3. (to) na" calculated ITau observed According to ' Freundlich- Enron (1) According to Speranskii (2) According to the suggested formula (3) , 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 I ? t?????b?t.????1..?.. ?_ise I 10 CO. '4' 01 Oil DS FA 10. CO 01 al Clb Q) CO VI 0, AS aill? - - - - - - - - . tfe l6 l' 167 1:81 . ' . . - 0:177 1.26 168 1;98 2162 8:46 i422 r 0:82 0;65 132 L6061 2;66 3:46 4:20 4.82 0- 0:83 1:26 tiet ;66 2:44 2:73 2:94 3.07H .01 2161 3:154 4:21 4.71 6.00 Diagram of function 1g be depending on 1g q; plotted in logarithmic Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 nate. lt.881. 0 coordinator; muit.reptesent a straight line. ? Nerds in figure 5; Left outside mm: Inside the figure-at the top: for formulaS Inside the figure at the bottom* bat mlllime gen El I =m wilIRMI1111111114g me'Nun MEM MI IN glial IIIII IN glini)::11 In 1111111111 111111 I, WM 11111Ria MIN uuamurnm MTh11111111111Vrzal SI & & & ? Title of figure 6; Relationship between coeffioient nbn and the site of soil particles "(I ? _ Group Actual size in =--1 in tire in was calculated twoording to '1 formula ta 00126 0.0 02 0.0014 0.002m0..006 0:004 0.006'0.02: 0.02 ,o:te This dependence, is depicted in figure Si The straight line drzotn in figure 5 corresponds to formulas 0.0126 b.. q i? (Begin p:&1 which confirmed the assumption about the presence Of inverse proportionality between the coefficient "IP before the, radios.' in formula (9). and the mean size of particles; comprising the given toil specimen: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 cli) Team* Aunt re-4, \ Conslusiens 1: ?be suggieted equational a 11:10)K.....1: (1 *Kish as tutereonsestion between the lama of sorbed nista* :4 SM the relatifs olastisity of Tater 'err assured euffleiently geed as, 4 Minn; Obi inriit arkgrantes sing the NU range if P ? ehrgis get er. 24 !Mai ,41, was erigirelly utilised for a ease at sorptiee freaf, awe -2 a geed seavarginee with Oda of the exportimett *Ws"' ' "aerianait solutiofl. uttliestieirty ata viz- a ;41. 4 tioa of war flaw us the soil vas est sentiently substantiated. E._ Prepeettianes known fres litoratare, about the intereonuostisa et the sorption isothermal *um is sae of its pert withthe asehanisa it intonation of taper and earbento *Id in another part with the priming of the theory Or eendeneetietwere mot yet a leas for desstibleg tie whole cum by two females at the lassalmodlhemaa type (1) wr-tor the Mattis* St *Oriel bit/salsa equation, *Leh tabs int, assault both preemie; Appareettia as po increased the Wins of one presses gradually ieereass ed, and the isfleeser of the sound ;rogue grew, utile the summery West of sorption sat aid to the suggeited new.fersula with en amastmess suffisiont.for the purpose of prastise 4. Me fermate ean be of help also during the auslysis of hystersele of water vases (8.0 page TS) and of swap if esrptios by sells galavant saturated with different stigma (44 pr) bevies establish,* a relates/4 between a eoeffieteut my and the epprepriate anis Wee:Isle; (1) Unfortunately, the author does not give an example for a parallel calculation of specific materials with the use of other appropriate rational formulas which would give an idea about the limits of the posffile use of his empirical formula. Editors remark. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 -881 In conclusion the author thought it necessary to express his gratitude to a student of the lainizigrad Elting Institute, V. A; Artsybachev, the conduoted the slain calculations for the given work; Literature 1. letk.Ben, D. V., Sorption of ?gases anti vapors by solid bodies'. ONT1; Coskhitatekhildat, Lut., 1934; . ? 2. Rode, K . A., soil moistnre.? Isd? Al SSSR. the 1952: _ ? 3; Sperafttkii, K. V., and Krasheninnikov, M. 11.,:fttoscopiq Witter'ih the coil (suhterranien de*); 2hurnal opytn, agronon., v.8, $Pb., 1907. Ail-Union Scientific-Research /I:Istituto of Prospecting Geophysics tittered the Raton office 19 Pebreary, 1984. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Trans: 4.882 Oh fat) WOK ? tarakenov, G. X: Roll termicheskogo &Item v pereraapreo delenli vlagi v pochyti titoli et tbe that'll factor in re. - dietribution,of Moisture in the kali:- : Pochvovedshie, no: 9, pp:2544: Sept. 1965. 57:8 PS4 . Oh Russian) : A continuity between the water-o air lend the thermal regimes of the soil is carried .out through evaporation from the surface of the soil, es well as through the premises* of tetragon evaporation and condensation. ? Slight studies of these processes, by soil hydrology' Sod inconsistently of goae-hypotheses, which ear* brought forward by certain rose/rebore, about the nature of these precessee and their influences on the dtstrio button of moisture in the eon made us engage in experimentel research of the hydrothermieregime, which is formed during speolflo.hydrothermic cono ditione in a model acii. Xnamsuch ae phenomena of intregoil evaporation and conimmation are oonditioned, to* considerable degree, by movement of ths soil moisture in Its gaseous fora under the influence of a tasperaton gradient in cur experimental reseerch we gave special attentionexpresely to dynamics ot the son moisture in the form of vapor: For the aecoiplitheent of thig March a laboratory getup as cons (figure 1), Stift consisted of: 1) Moontainsr, to be filledwith 0/A0 11011j 2) of to recipient o thermostat', which were placed on top an2 on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' .... Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 V.; Trans. A00 the botiomof the container and *bleb were Ali eassnUtiO0t100 with the caukatisrt 8) oft series of appall-it-nand instruments for regulation and toasuri.? ing of temperature andmoisture af the *Oil that filled the containet. and of thcair in Its pares, is well as temperature are moisture of the at in the reCipients; ' Title of figure 1: Crosse Section of a laboratory eetup for an erperimental study oftydrothermic regime of ths A tit ?uppOr recipient, 6 a electric bulbst 8 ? bimetallie thorMoregulatort rLis rubber telaketstA earthenware pipet E ?0 thermal insulation (fele*** casingt3 a grid. 0. the bottom recipients Es nforguetah tAugustudil pey0 ehrometerOa,eandt 1 to 10 "doll, thermocouple:Os U. 18. 150 17. 19- "Air thermoeoupleSt 12. 144 18. 18. 20 ? "wee thermocouples.. The container was made of t thermaand moisture insulated earthen's/are pipe. about 1 in high and inside diameter of 200 mm: The toil, loaded into it use held ttok by 0 brae grid fist00ed to its bOttorn; The upper recipient Consisted of a glass1101/. 250 mm its diemeter and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ' tai 'limit ? A0882 ' CI 450 nm So height: The bell rested on a ring base of it durallum eUpport. Which in its barn rested On the butt of a masiive steel bushing. "fah was insertedAinto the mouth of the earthenware pipe: tbegin 13:26) TO the durallui supportwers affixed; a1/5 vett electric bulbi a biettellic'thermoregulator. a chemical stick thermometer OA the pest- ter 'Avgust01 ?\ On the flange of the bushing roe ted an electroteating ring with the Aid of whichwes ittaieeda unitorr heating of the surface of the ntterial ? being loeded4ite the pipe es well te foe averting the flow Of meleture, which became condensed on the wails of thrill's, bell (during the expert' tents). AoWn into,the Soil: A cotton jecluitlas put oVart ?ell In order to prevent heat orms change between the recipient and ASH errounding air: . At the bottom1 the lower J7.1wee linked to the earthenware pipe by a steel band; thi.jShipiei$tr.sentsd a &iridium cell, havinga Sara of a parallelopiped w thaw; ofr-,12,42)56 cm: A hatch, 200eM in ressa, . ? diameter, web lade in the osi1(t_cell for 4 connection with the Interior of the earthenware pipe:. In the front side of the cell was mad* t transparent door of organic.glesse to the door itsmoury stick thermo- meter was attached, and to the back wall of the cell di the psychrometer nAvggitan: Temperature of the air in the bottom reciplenteas regulated with the aid of a bimetallic thermoregulator and. if two pair of 25 watt bulbul and the bulbs of saoh.pair sere connected to each other in suceoseion, leo that the total power of the used currant no 25 watt: For observation of the temperature field of the noil, whichwie beteg loaded into the earthenware pips as veil *I the fields of temperatureand moiature of. the 414 circuit tins in its pores, there were prepared and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 --r - ? ..... ^ Declassified and Approved For Release 2.013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1,? 'frataila A482 mounted into the apparatus 24 copperatob tauten thermocouples with a summery retistance in etch of 246 Ohm: Ten of them, soacialled "soil" thermocouples, were arranged for measuring,tamperatnro of the soil :in 16 point/ along the axle of the pipe; the remaining 14 0 seven "dr and seven !Si", which represent, when combined in pair" of "dry" and "we theromatuAes, seven electric mieropychrOmeters, were intended for measuring the temperatures aid moisture content of the air in the pores of the toil at different horizons, as well at in the recipients (in order to control the residing ;ok psychrometer-4 "Avgnsta*: 700=C6. - 7faFrita. ? Title of figure Ea. 'Layout of pickups of "dry".and sae therm000uples: A a "ogolovor "(head Pot sdry" thermocouples S a "ogolovor thead3 of "at" thermocouple I a tinction of thermocouples 2 a ntotaltsovywa fmad41Fineapored porcelain] tubei s 3 a brass gride; 4 a holder of brass grids; 6 a rubber ttopperes 0 a "mendeleevekstie Umehdeleevium7].cemeilts 7 a rubber. tObes, into which were introduced both the copper and the constantan wires of the thermocouple; .6 a rubber ve:terefeeding pipe a *annuls.; a glass nestle of the feeding tat. TO provide a necessary contact begen the soil and the Junction of 'soil" thermocouples tinned copper kopeolinentitisers were soldered to them, ett sensitive parts: Piekups of the "die ard thermocouples were arranged in the following manner (Figure 2): Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (5) icrall5 Amen Junctions of thermocouples were inserted into tubs, made of fine. .pored porcelain, withen inner diameter of 0.5 net, outside dilater 2 mft and 26020mm-long: In order to protect the porcelain pipes' from direct ? contact with the ground and, thus, *hut out conductive heat extenge between Wel, each prooelain tube was enacted ins holder made of a ? $ln diameter:copper tube, to which airass'grid wes eoldered on: The porcelain tUbes were held in plate in the holders with the Aid of rubber ',toppers: A, siMlar arrangement of thersoceUple pielmS also protected rdre tbermtcOuplee from soil moisture; In 'wet!' thermocouples thsthe contrary, tImporcelaintUbese durinethe'experiments had to be kept in a moist etatel for this purpose the free ends of porcelain tubeswere in- serted into rubber feedifigjnibtmeannUla.(diemeter in the um)* F44 throughwhich distilled 4a4 Nd inWthe porcelain tubes. Over the V 11 protrain ends of feedintenotr 0.6S'IMOs400 were placed, which are :sable to retain for a loieties4 oeitiinieulplyy(a few drops) of water, necessary for the continuous moistening Of'wee porcelain tubesiof the thermocouples. Continuous moistening was attained by fastening the nozzles at the level of the proper thermocouples. [Begin 0271 Each of the thermocouples, being Conn?cted, through a commutator, in turn with oh* of the two "sere' thermocouples, which were sunk into a Dewar vendwithmelting Sc., can be connected to* reflecting galvenoth meterivhich* ?letting the flash or light St-fill on its mirror frma the illuminator to a oalibtated tale. 'tows the temperature at the point of mounting of 4 theransouple; Identity of the galimbometereolle to the scale of Cilsium was 0.0hispeed by a partial insertion into the circuirt.of the galvanometer of the *Stiehl shunt: Accursoy of the reading of temperature comprised thee'0:06% Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 012 because one millimeter grafts on of the scale corresponded to 0.1e. Tot, the precision in measuring the differences of temperature of adjoining "drf and flat" thermocouples (that is of psychrometric ?)enges which interested us to begin with) was much higher and reached 0.02. because tor measuring such differences into the circuit of the galvammaeter1 only two "dry" and a "wee theraocouple were inserted successive/70 the "zero" thermocouples and the siemens shunt were disconnected, and while the siemens shunt as cut off, the shifting of usaichik" (reflected light ray] on the galvanometer scale ander the action of a simile. r impulse increased by 3.63 tires. Reedistribution of moisture in the soil in a condensed form (in droplets, liquid) during the course of experiments was rated by means of taking test sped:mine for moisture content, which are taken with a special sludge lamp through the extraction branch pipes, Which were built-in into the sides of the earthenware pipe; The sludge pump was made from thin braes pipe, with a diameter of _about 6 am and a brass theft, which was tightly fitted inside the pipe. Gradations were applied to both the pips and the shaft which permitted to take test ampler of semi frau any ;tee viously planned distance from the axis of the earthenware pipe. All the testsepections which comprised, on the average, 3.6-40 g were takers at a distance of not less than 6 cm from the walls of the container; During extraction of each new batch of sand for a repeated determination of its moisture the sludge pump was introduced gradually still deeper into ithe sand which was not touched till that time. All Sand extracted from the container, with the exception of the removed batch, was injected back with the aid of that "Pa sludge pump and the training emptiness after this neat the walls of the container, Which corresponded to the site of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (7) Trani A852 r"--1 the hatch, vas filled with fresh sandwitha moieture content almost Similar to that in the batoh: Weighing of batches of the moist and of the dry mind ns conducted on a precision analytical baltnee. A colt Mn of tediumegraited (with a diameter of particles of 0:6*/ me) winnowed and washed alluvial and forced as a model soil for all the experiments: it se poured into the container of the laboratory setuup in an eir*dry etate: The role of structural elomente 'of soil* that is, of the Clumps of soil which are pierced by microoapillariese was perfOrmed in our model thy potoeltin tub-estwhich surrounded the junctions of 'de And *wet thetmotiouplee: The first experiment visa ins formation in the column of Meath" eand of a stationary heat flow and a consequent clarifiCation of peculiarities of the profile of and temperature corresponding to such 4 flow: For this purpose, atter filling the laboratory set0up with stuA And an arrangement there of the thermocouples, the heating apparatus of the upper and lower recipient* were *witched on and after that, during the course of g8 days and nights, with the aid of thermoregtilatore the tem* perature sae constantly maintained in the upper recipient at the level Of 46' and in the lower at the level of 20': Daily, four times a day, readinge were taMen of all thermocouples, according to which later on tams perature curves were drawn, which reflected the reedistribution of tam.. ?nature in the sand, during the whole period of observations (table 6): A characterietio peculiarity of all temperature profiles is the ourvi* linearity Of their outline *thereupon, during the course of the last twenty days of the experiment, the temperature curves retaining their seniatreacent Shmpe, almost repeated one another along the greater-pert of their amplitade: The, thus achieved, practical etability of temperature onrves testi* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 52 / nod to the constancy of density of the heat flow in time in each cross- notion orthogonal to its course. At the same time a eberp variability of temperature gradients along the biltght of the and colUen pointed out that the *mount of heat, which mem transmitted fraa top to bottom, from layer to layer* declined gradually; The cause of this was that in porous bodies* heated trait above, as.. tribution of beat by means of thermal conduction is casplicated by phonoa Nana of convection and eireulation of gates inside the pores. Schematically one can present the process of distribution of heat in euoh bodies in the following manner, thin p2111) Seat is tratemitted from the heated surface deep into the body preferably along the hard particles (skeleton) body: At the awe time* the air, Which is usually mixed with aster flyer diffuses through the pores of the boiy. Moreover, "heavy* gases* ofm.416h the dry air consists* that is, nitrogen, oxygen end carbon dioxide, occupying a predominant petition in pores and aoving down, Justly through the center of the pores, tend to displace from the pores the light wetter vapor* forcing it first of all to the walls of the pores. Becoming heated near the warm walls* water vapor expends, after which it independently rushes upwards still clinging to those sums walls of the pores: Thus arise the convectional currents in the pewee of the body. Sopeover* the ascending currents of water vapor that arise tram within the interiors colder parte of the body, cool:the sides of the pores sod* thus* prevent the entry of heat inside the body. more or less intensive heating of the body, by "Maar gases (dry air) infiltrating it, is also hampered* bonus, of the oonsequence of reciprocal interferences* which the ascending and the descending curs tents of gases set up for each others aieroecopic ?insulating loops Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 1 _ ?tu trans A0882 (Miercoonvolutions)e/dch.oqualls* the temperature of the ascending and deecinding &see are earned Sn the extensions (the tells) of the pores: . Vivre t: laords in upper !fight corners* Temperature Of sand in of OeltiUM Lever left corners outside depths in me ? Lowarleft corner- insides horitene Alen tht: User lines the lower recipient: \ Title of figore 3: 'Sequential &inns or the temperature profile of the column of sand at a general drop of its tempetatureat t upper : t lower : 4540: WO twist. That is whywhenestimating the heat transfer in capillary a Orme, bodies* particularly in Shills* it is necessary to take into cOrlideration all these pbetomenag introducing for inatanoaa intoethe estimate the soon called equivalent coefficient of thermal conductimityoikaeqvdp.ehith takes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 arena* 1.-882 into actouift the influent* of tortvectiona which ttteaatn with depth (1); . (Begin 13;20 Parvillel with experiments on stadia* of the mechanism of migration heat Ind moisture in the tale' soil; research was conducted on the idsorptiOn thiloities of the- experimental and according to the dyrwmic method of 71i? it."\Antipovcrarataev. As a mutt or research isotherms of sorption of moisture by sand (fig; 4) ware obtaired and relation of Maximum twgrOdoopitity of sand Wg te itt temperature t was detected; according 4! syg : 0;4707-0.00584 t; where t ? in *Ca and Ig: in weight percentage Words in figure 4; -.To tire left: Relative humidity of air in.W: Under the figurer 5. 14)t v,.-"-r .44 Cr9 t ( w I t-r- -11 4.; ri ii t$0 1L8 tc, Title of figure 4. Isotherms of sorption of robisturelby situiji quarts SS nd with a diameter of particles from 0+5 to 1.0 mei ' equilibrium moisture at different y and at t l0t.2/11:410.; 24 equilibrium moisture at different y and at t t 156'19; 5s equilibrita moisture at different y and at't ,:*25.09; *qui- librimi moisture at different y and at t,: 40:0`0: Footnote (1). To court, this coefficient the author of ths article rectumsads ' the following Pm/alas Eircl etiv )t)(1 o .044-'r wharea:A(1 bt) ie the actual coeffitient of e tarsal co activity of the soil; this coefficient represents a linsar function of its temperature t; ao represents a coefficient of thermal (the footnote it continued at the bettam of page 29] conductvity of the soil at temperature of Os; Ex E is a variable e eL IFOOtnote continued on the top of next page]. , , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 B82 Th% multiplier, which is omsputed on diminution of the depth of tewhichis formed by convection; eore value of the coefficient of contection at the surroce of the soil (when s 4 9)t b, c and e are constants. 411 the constant values, which enter the formula for Aegis can be determined in en experimental:way, later on our attention was focused mainly on experiment, studying the teodietribution of moisture in the soil (eand), by observing the pheno.. MPS of trenspart of temperature and buoyenoy of water vapor, which arise in its pores under the influence of vertical gradients. _These experiments were conducted on the labore.t027 *stoup cited previously. The neoessary drop Of temperature betoken the upper and lower end of the sand column, which filled the container of the laboratory est-up, was formed0 as it was in the first experiment also, by the electreheating apparatus in both the upper and the lower recipients. The necessary moisture Of air over the sand colusanwas mainteined with the !id of tapersatarated solutions of several salt cleeltrit04, and 116086620)0 Which wee added ?s from special vessels intot.... Una: rid/pint. Utilisation of different solution* sets a possrbility to vary the relative moisture of the air ih it in the limits of 69...90. Per a maximalmoistening of air at the bade of the sand column flat pane nithdistfilled water were placed in the lower recipient during all the experiment*. Observations of the field of ten.. perature and moisture tBegin p.601 of and and intreporous air were conducted with the aid of epparatus and devices, with which the at up wee equipped and whit:illwee mentioned before. The central place in our researches was taken up by a *sties of ex- periments studying the movement of moist tit in the send with a temperature gradient directed from below upwards, that is under the influence of a descending flaw of heat s4'st a given moisture of air along the edges of the sand column. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (IL; Trans% A4682 Words in figureSo At the top *i temperature tot sand in 'Cs inside the figures 1st cycle, October 1044s 201 ? CMtcher 144/6s 8td Wile. October 26 to-1November As 4th cycle, November 11 to 17. At the 'nett= of the figures ? outeide-Oft . depths tasks inside left horizon's. ' Botta line insides weight moietuts content vs or sand itlt: Bettoto line below the figure:IIrelative moisture of-altpin a a Title of figure 6. Average cyclic curies of *and taw:mature and moisture content of sabiand of:intreporous stick mere obtained es a a- suit of the experiment. gnertnOhtt of thke 'WA'S were c)stracterised by different duration (6 to 86 dayt). various number and ivngth of stoma, or cycles int* Which each expertmentess.subdivided. as sill se by different range* of tempsree tured4t(1446:6? and of vapor preeeursheP(25,48 mm Ng) bitmeen ends af the and col= that is between the rediplente. ' Results of experiment$. after nicetsary preCoesings Mere protonted in ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09;19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (12) Trans. Ae882 the form of curves (figura* S and 6),etich reflect the reedistr button of temperature, of moisture content end of maximum hygrimoopioity Of Sand Ateng the height of the sand column during the course of each experiment* as well at the temperature and the relative moisture of the intraporous tit: Whereupon for the plotting of curves of the mailmum hygroscopie moisture ?data Of experiments on studios Of the adsorptive Opacity of the examined sand were utilized: Appearance, daring the Courte of each experiment, Of tWomexime of moisture content attreetid our attention first of all* of the upper one 4 neer the "dnewnoin fdaylight) surface (bele* the surface sons of evaporation) sad the lawns at the base of the land column. Between the upper and lower . . horizons of MexiMmm moistening is found [Begin p:511 an area of a more or less constant humidity, which we called A "tone of transfusion Of moist air" (2 On the basis of enelysis of the experimental data the origin of the upper, meet *portent matbsum Of moisture content is ex- plained in the followisg manner; When the ground wet heated from outside, a relative thermal diffusion of the moist air trete in its pores, which wore partially filled With *Ater, and, aceOrdihgly, the heavy ingredients Of the tit (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide) diffeeed from the warm layers into the ?old Ohne, *WI the lighter water vapor in a counter direction. Occupying the cehtrel potition in the pores of the soil, air forced the trap* back to the periphery of the pores. The specified separation of water vapor be-comet eon- tiderably stronger when, as a melt of more or lees prolonged heating of the ground, its parts ftet only on the irradiated surface, but alto to a ;Certain depth, becommeerter then the air eutrounning them. Limier the in. _ (2) In natural wale it corresponds to thel'dead horizon" of O. W. Vysotskii. npnlassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (119 Trans: A-482 ? fluorite Of'tho thus Sprains transverse gradient of temperature in the pores of the toil arias a radial relative thermal diffusion* which inereaeot the concentration-of %Woe gaset.(dry air) in the center of the pores* 4114 Of the water vapor at th6ir tides:. Vapor thus drawn back to the side* of the pores, having tarn up their, SA of Convection temperatare, becomes lighter which then leads to currents In the pores. Words in figure- 6: Upper right !corners temperature t of sand in '6: Inside the figures left vertical line initial moisture of atoll ' horizontal upper line waaximinahstsrpscoplo moisture of sand. . Bottom left outside the figures horizons' inside the figures moisture w ofaand in $: Right Corner lint below the figures relative mbietxiie of airrin%; , ? Title of flaws 66 Progress Of temperature of Mend and of Moisture of air in its pores during the second cycle of experiment II and cisme" in tablature !content of sand SE a result of the whole experiment IL Epogin. p:822. ',Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/419 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 (10 Trats: A4882 0 81411taneous1y, Meeting the vapor Ascending Along the WOO Of the pares, vapor le devicending, moving from more:heated layers into leis heated. towerds the-48011re Of its average partial pressure; Thus result* a tilo? way floret vapor 'tate, the layer of ground whtehie situated directly under the Odra)* Sone of evaporation which amulet superataturation of the ibtra? ? porous Iir,\andi as 5. result of thiet-4?e condensation of vapor in this layer, in conformity with natural conditions, the described process of hi' gration of boil moisture (in its peeeus font), which Sr accompanied during favorablAbydrothermic conditions by a condensation of vapor in the layer of moil where tont* are found, undoubtedly,plas a lastantlal role in the general moieturiexchahge or the ecil. I. Importance efthieS sees, 41;aig reAtiktion of moisture 'applies, which are expended by the soli for evaporationed trent:Oration becomes more obvious, if one consider* fie very eulbstant141 *Met, which flu deo ? A Soled during the course ef,kt experiments and ',lists of the fact that ' during approximation, in then or other horisoneAofimaieture of **Mto its malimum bYgroSeopleity readt-gs-of theReet*H.lensecooplee? Which were installed in these, horiscrie-bectme etsad..4 highs lA than the readings of ndry" Or 'soil" thermocouples which were, J into then same heris jr-7- Sone. This phenomenon, having appeared once* *as after that Charted Continuously up to the time when the Moisture of sand in Opecific horieons did hot attain appreximately its ties and a 11,4101. double maxima trIgro,i soopicity after ehiCh the difference etre/Wish- of "4re *ad "wee thettoo couples, having passed over sera, changed its sign: A detailed enelyeiS of *11 circumstances, acompaoying-suoh inversion in the readings or "dry? end "wet" thermocouple', led to conclusion, that ih the presence in the tolensoil, the pores of Whichforma systrn of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 12 *continuous" capillaries that are in cOmminioatiOnwith etch Other, Of the temperature gradient, Which causes an uninterrupted circulation in them of the moist air, and in the presence in micro and meorocepillaries of the suet*e of liquid (menisci) of various curvatures under condition Of high relative moisture content of the intrapordu$ air, it the pores of certain horizons of the ground there are possible end usually take place two Opposite phone:mons, that its on liquid surfaces on menisci of smeller curvatures' ?courts' a plentiful condensation of vepor while fret the neighbor, ins monied of greater curvature eitultaneouttlyinoisture can evaporate ton Or lets intensively; one should point out that this conclusion cesOletely conforms with principles Which were brought forward of late in the weeks ? of 0; V: dhaptvelova, R:lebedeva, A. V. /Am and certain other re. searohore. Seeing oneself on results of experiments, one can same* that the described process of concentration of vaporous moisture in the layer of Soil, Which is under the surface sons of evaporation, with a following condensation of vapor in this layer arises in the presence in the soil of a tempetature gradient, which is set frombelowup (and, in general, is characteristic for the period of vegetation of plants): Being adopted to the layer of soil where roots are situated, this prooess gives the greatest effect When soil consists of aggregates (crumbs) which are saturated with moisture, the spaces among Which form an extensive network of micropores, which provide for maximum intensity of circulation in than of moist airs or, in other words, when the soil has a fine crumble structure and in the active layer of Soil (down to two or more meters deep) SA oontained oertain optima :wen of water. If one considers the fine capillary porosity of most sturcal soil . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 tit Trans. r.882 grounds' which conditioni in thema sloe mobility of water in drop. liquid form* then it will be quite logical to assume that the deciding role it the renewal of moisture reserves in the root layer of soil, which are expended for evaporation add transpiration, under the epecified cone ditione pricitely belongs to the prose* of condensation of vapour feces the moist (Begin 04] air, which is arm/sting In the msotocapiltarise of the soil according to a scheme, which wit *Mid here. Apparently the shallow horizons Mins, ileveleti) of fresh ground waters in the Ural Mara Irma *re indebted to a C'onsiderable degree for their origin to the cited pheromone of transmission of moisture in its gaseous tom for a skillful utilisation of these stars for "bogernyin (dry farming] agriculture in the until then barren deserts of letakhetan a recv of coworkers of Priaralfmkala Experimental Elation, in 19520 were honored with a Stalin prise; Experiments with staid, Which was moistened Vgrosiopically, were supplementer by WO experiments with sand of stepped up moisture tontent, which were conducted in Order to find out the influence of the terperature gradient on reedietribution ofmoist/iv in all its forms in the sand, ira- eludinj the vaporous, film and capillary water: The experiments wire conducted with the ems laboratory set-up without any roosquipment. Before the experiment. were *totted the 'and that filled the earthen. ware pipe vas moistened by means of wateting it firs shelves before the first experiment it was MilltatiOd to shout its afield" moisture capacity ohly in the upper, 80 *centimeter layer of cande.while before the **cord era periaent the entire sand was saturated With water up to its mextwasmiitUre capacity. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-R1JP80R01426R010300030001-7 882 \ turing the course of experiments, uith the aid of hating And therm)* regulatingapparatus of the upper I-sapient, a constant temperature drop 4 as ht up in the mind odumn, which comprised in both experiments 27.8'. Sams appliances and equipment, as in previous experlimentes were used for Observations of changes, under the influence of this drop, of the tcaperatUrs and Moisture of Nand and of the intraporcue sir, The main result, Obtained from the first experiment is bailed on the eomparieon of simultaneous readings of "dry. "rise and "soll" thermodoup/as in each of the six hOritone of sand that were probed (table 1). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 382 / -1* Table 1. No. of the horizon ? Depth' it cm No. of thermer. meters and of thermos. couples Readings of therm.. meters and of ther- mocouples it *0 Weigit moisture of sand in% After the end of the experiment April 14 Muth= h/grosoopio moisture con. tent in% initial Sprite April 11 ' April 15-` ?. ? *per recipient 10) 2 , B ? 6 7 9 Lower recipient H a(1(v)p 1:6 ' 6.6 " ia:s I 36.5 1 65.6 ' 76.5 jilt a m as bm 2p 12m *a 13s 14m 4 16s lem 1P 17$ lem ep les 20n s m 44;40 4140 : 87140 57186 37;20 32150 L 33:40 33;16 26;80 26180 27100 19.10 /3 90 1906 16:5518100 18170 18160 16;80 15;75 16:80 16;70 16.10 44:60 41140 37:66" 871,60 27;36 32470 55:76 3360 281.00 28:05 28126 201501 20176 2046 18;10 17:95 17:10 17:26 17:00 17:40 WOO 1 1 11 1 1 ? 1.20 1 ' 1.19 0.82 0.33 0:57 .. 0.97 . 1 ' 0.90 0.67 0.60 0.59 ' 0:26 0.27 ' 0.61 0.36 0.37 0.37 (Begin p:s41 Notet Indieator denote, thermocouples which sits the temperature of semi indicator "*" thenzrostert and thertoecuples Which show tes pereturo of "dry thermaneter" (temperature of the alt)i indicator "m" ? thermometer* And thssocoupless which !hoz temperature of the "wet thernao meter". Thermeezeple 2pi As it was later* aomertained,becauee of ineceuracy, during the given experiment gave a loser reading ("ay i*). Inverelon in sang* of "tire and "moist" thermocouples in hordtonS (tarte) as1 !Rpm patently, a result of tendon/Anon of titter vapors In thit horizon. Nevetc. /liA theism, the lowering, towards the end of the experiment, of themei-etas of sand in thii horizon; Si well as in the Whole upper pert of the column; testified to the root that under conditions of sharp hens:uniformity in the diettibu.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 hal Trans. 1-882 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/19 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010300030001-7 ..wer tion Of moisture along the height of the rand ooluzin the movement of moisture wee predominantly from top to bottom in drop-liquid form, from warmer5 more moist horizons to colder, drier hortsons. A characteristio difference in these readings (teeCtp