VARIATION IN CULTURES OF ALCALIGONES FAECALIS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ANTIBIOTICS.

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CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7
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January 1, 1956
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A.966 (In full) A Kashkin, K. P.* Ch ismenchivcsti kolitur felalto Bhcalf310.;? oheobrazovr;telia pod vliianierotibiotikov. Dtariatior /- cultrres of Alcwones faeoalis 8 under the Influen,e of ant bi J. Alctdeviii4 17auk riltviiskoi"SSR.aetitut blolocliis Trudy, no. 5, 11.474 1956. 448.39 R44 (In Russian) The frequer_oy and the rIlartties with which Alcaligeres varir.rrto nbioohorlically inert" in *.lediff varieiyted [biochemical test] series [for.. rentaticr of varlous sug-are, for reduction of methylene blues, effect on litmus milk, fornatior of 3ole and fortratior of IT251 have lieer obtP.I.,ed in the rnsocese of experimentanriatior In microbes of the enteric-typ1:oid- dysenteric group (ulat, rots Tebedey, Kondratiora, Pr oskur ittkovas Roaenfelld and otltors) bzve ;pted us to untertake a study of tile '-ioro- bioloty of the Alcali-ones ftli baoillus. The problem. of the pottenicity and toxicity of Lact. faecalis canes (Aleftitcones faecalielt rot by far fully Irvestigated, regardless ef the len&th of time that 11 elapsed lime its discovery (Petrushki, 1689). Thus, :.Torozova seeded the owns of the Indicated microbe taker from aovrxttl pationt rith a olirical plore of typhoid; Petrushki sucoueeed In iso- latin torlu faeca1/9 froi . a seedirr of the contents of roseola t-p1tos Eeruptioe 0. A. A. Smeradir?tiev points out a corstarxable rumb,...,r of , flee nieh 114 reZefaig aleelienee M*6 seedad trazt tile vrire *Lonincreookli eosudtarotvonl Institut Isoversheretwaverlia vrachel KirovK (lx. Prof. I. Blav) [Lenirzrad State PostraAlato InstitT7to for Physiciars ka. V. Kirov ir. Prof. N.. I. fllir011). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A.9C0 of pregnant pyelitis [patients]. b experiments in directed :variation, D. O. Radlaio'f.- F. Lebedev and others bave often succeeded in obtainin; Variants identical with Saot..faeoalis alcaligenes With respect to 004, pertiee.? - It appeared to us that a study of the characteristics that deterTiine. ' the fecal producing baoillUe, the eetablithment of similarity traits and, ?Specially, of the different:tee between the alkali-prOduoing variants and the typical representatives of tract. fnecalis alcaligenes were parti4 oularly,interesting and no pessary. ? Considering the ever eXpanding use of various-antibiotics in the therapy of enteric infections and the impairment of.Oonditiorally pathogenic and pathogenic Microorg.finismr; by antibiotics, we undertook a special investita? ? tion of the atudy Of adaptive variation of the fecal alkali-productig baci14. lux pilcaliiteneel ander the influence of antibiotic preparations. Of the large amount of !act. faeoalis alcalirvtes cultures it our disposal, typical Museum strains obtained from the largest institutes of ' microbiology in the Boviet Irnion were specially selected for experimental purposes., The newly isolated, bioehemically,Inert Orsini [Begin p.481.of Es.04. faeotlis alcaligsme we did not use in experiments because they could have been alkali-producing variante of other inhabitants of the intestInes. CUr experiments were ?abducted with four strains of Beet. faecalic alcaligenol. Microscopically the ;trill% no. 415 Obtained from the Control Institute im. Tarasevicho'and no. 4 obtained from the Kiev Microbiological Institute, UM [Ukrainian Academy of Soiences), represented short, row:ha actively rattle,tram,negative bacilli. Strain. LI Obtained from the Moscow Nbdical Institute and strain R, from the museum of the Faculty of riorobiolegy, Leningrad WIN ('tate Postgraduage '? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Tram ? A-960 Institute for Physicians] also proved to be Lram..eetive, smell, adequately motile baoilli. recpect, to t-eir cultural properties ell of them, oath the exeepe tion of strale ec. 415, ere w rn a thick culture :ledium in the form If evenly convex, neist, seloth, endly fluorsecent, transparent oolories. (:train no. 415 ,i.o.fiu(sed coIony with a crew): f p.orrth an uneven surfac. On ;Will culture meJle, experimettal strains ;yew In the rem of a surface film, frequently with a sleiltaneous formation of t Clot at the bottom. Biochemically they were studied in 6ifferential media of a varikAted series composed of ilecose, maltose, lactose, saccharose, levulone, arainose, galactose, raffinose, xylose, marmite, sorbito, glycerin, esculin aed salicin. The variegated tblochemical test] series included best tubes with 'lathy. lens 'Ilue in milks with ::eptone water for the deteotion of the formatior of Indole hidroeen sulfide end litmus milk. Arith the exceptioe of no. 415 which produce a reeuction of methylene blue In ailk after 48 ?weirs, all striine studied in e variegated eerien were inert end failed to produce any visible changes. Seroloeicelly experimental strains were agglutieated oith specific 'era; nonespecific reactions with other nem. to 1:Aerobes of the enteric. typhoid and dynenterie ,z,roup we were unable to establish. rata on the sensitivity of original strains to antibiotics o.nd ee their resistaece to SOKA antiseptics are presented below (see tal:le 2). The antibiotics re dwelled on were staeeptomycln and syntomycin which are used widely Ln the therapy of enteric infections. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.466 Speoial orientation experimeets which we conducted have 'demonstrated that of all the methods used in a study of vstriatiort for adaptation to anti.* blotto*, the stoat convenient one is the -ethod employed at the Feeulty of itiorobiolocy, GUNN [State Postgraduate Institut for Physiciaisi), involving replatin- on solid culture media containint the corresponding artibiotios. T'tsmrthod enabled us to determine the exact dosage of antibiotics in the culture VW dituN to observe changes occurring in the dyreanios of strains being adapted, arid to isolate and study the developing variants. (Begin p.491. The streptomycin used in the experiment wee diluted in sterile distilled water, and syntomycin by the indicated Thanen tor Ifahnen OP method. vathin a year the experimental strains were led through 40.40 passages on stadia oontainint; antibiotics, and were cultivated in an incubator for 72?96 hours. The absence of growth after 24 hours of incubation was to soup deLvaeo or other characteristic of all adapted etraine. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Concorti-vition or antiFiotias ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A-96C 5500 n.iits / / ? ?5500 units /0750 gmate, , 1 / / 1 J500 au. 600 ... 1 .,.. 1 1400 gastsx .380 gra-ms. , / / / : o / 44 $00 // ....4 500 S. / P . A .4 ..., c 260 7 7 . . , 4,, 1 / / ? 400 . / s 00 O I 41 5 r: r..1 300 . I i ui 4 tell sa c ? BO i . / ? I is 0 200 . 44. eel 0 s. n01 / - / i . ? , 4, / 7 6 ; 100 ..? ..- 1 ? BO z " 1 t 9 ,wp i ,e''' ,?,e vo 144;4 018 25 30 36 0 650 55 paesaces 5 10 16 20 25 30 36 4.) 45 50 paSEageS 1w:end t; 131; Lecend No, Xs NO. :f; ..0.. - 710.415; II pap : ? Mb* 4; .????? no?415; ? ? ,q0?4; FI.K. 1. C!Jrves or a.,7nvtatior to streptomycin Fiz. 2. Curves of adaptation to eynto. myoin on a solid culture medium. on 4 sale cr.,1rel medium. Aerapi;ration to streptomycin proceeded considerably more rapidly Vian to syntomycin (fig. 1). :..ltrains no. 415 n.rd !!adapted themselven more mad:1y and Ifiers rapidly. Strain no. 4 was entirely unradaptable. After rIUMW'Ottli row plication attempts at adaptation, it died even from a continuous, law strop* tomyoir concentration in the eulture medium. Adaptation t.,7, syntowycin (fig. 2) proceeded slowly; here we increased the concentration of the antibiotic in the cultwri medium slowly and iradually. Despite the care which we exercised In the prooess of adaptation, we often had to retwen to the original antibiotic concentration, or to begin adapta. tion anew. r.train no. 415 was adapted to syntolycia more readily than other strains. The edaptation curve of strain X to syntowycin was the most interesting one, bcause it elickved in the cams? or adaptation !Resift p.501 a sharp drop Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 40101 (6) Trans. A.966 Ns) Lit resistance to the adaptiv6 antibieties and then a rapid upward tide; Thle drop corresponds to the biological reconttraction of strafe XvniCh bas.eXpressad, ittelf in the.capacity of the strait adapted to Syntoopin to produce a yellow pigment. no viability of this pigmented Variant with respect. to antibiotics and antiseptics' surpasses sharply the viability in the original (strain). Copparative data on the Sensitivity of Original mid adapted stiaint (fig* 3) to antibiotics pernite? noting that the highest residtatte indicroy tort Are found in the strains>: adapted to strepteMycin (i maxinvm of 10E000 Sc in strain M); the degree of indicators prOdUced by adaptation t* Syntot mycin is lest (the makings' in the pigoentproduoteg X strain is 1250). To Streptooycin To Syntooycim 3tOr JK K 415 415 AT M K K 415 415 M Orig. Adapt. Orig. Adapt. Orig. Adapt. Orig. Adapt. trig. Adapt. Crig. Adapt. Legend Bacteriostatic dose Bactericidal dose Fig. 3. Sensitivity of original and adapted strains. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A.?966 tithe process of adaptation of experimental strains ehanges occurred in their cultural and microscopic characteristics, bioshenisal activity, viability and serologioal properties. begin p.61]. The variants which we obtained with different properties ean be sub-' divided into several groups. 1. Small, rough colonies, firmly grown together with the culture medium. 2. Small, entirely transparent dwarf colonies with a uniformly convex surreal. 3. Wo-sone, uneven colonies, bulging at the center and with a ram* part.shaped periphery. 4. Round, slimy, visoous colonies. S. Yellow colored, moist End slimy colonies. At various stages or adaptation the formation of daughter colonise appeared to he a recularity. The variant* listed were elltsined also from strain.no. 416 the initial oulture of which produces ooleniee with a weeping growth. The earliest changes noted in the course of adaptation were microscopic charaoteristios. The; were expressed in the appearance of winding, drawnmioot, giant, grAnulnr, spirally twisted and other forme of 'ells. Changes occurring in the form of the mierobe sell are morioharsoteristie of all strains adapted to streptomycin. Cells in preparations stained with Gram's stain appeared , to be pale, mildly rosesco1orst4, with violet granules arranged at the ends. In the process of further adaptation the preponderant tom and later the only form of microbe cells became the sooeobacterial one with a pOlar, violet granularity with Gram's stain. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , (8) frau. A.968 , In the oottrso of adaptation to syntomyoin & capsular variant was obtained from strain A that grew on a-solid culture media in the form of. round1 ductile, climy colonies. Snob changes occurring in the form of a ? microbe cells heretofore considered as degenerative. ars noir explained as a ? process of -variation occurring under the influence of mn unfavorablo titbit/A ' (likkhenehtein ter Iiirehensteinl end others). - The biochemical properties of siiperimental strains were tested in the coeliac of adaptation after every 5 passages. in an analytical' variegated . aeries tv. rasvernutots pestrom rad*] the ingrodiente of which are listed ahirre. The charges that oosurred in the virlegated series were extremely intignificant? this in all strains adapted to dyntoilyoin was. detected a ' capacity to reduce methylene blue in milk after .48 hours. This uniformity of grosth in different variants on media of. 'Ariegated series induced us to initiate spesial quantitative itrvestigations of the assimilation of sugars. A quentitative elmracterisation carried out by Bertranes method of the issitailntion. of carbohydrates in .origiral strains and in 'strains adapted to antibiotics, and alto in SCUD alkaiii.producing strains of other microorganisms, has .denenstrated that these cultures do. not assinilate carbohydrates And that their quantity remine undhanged in the mediums [Begin p.52]. A ipesial'series Of experiments was conducted with origimil and adapted strains for the purpose of sating a study of their assimilation of the different astinoteids? 'aline, alerting, lysine. beta?phenylalanine, leuoins. glyeine1 oystine, a.eminobutyrie acid, glutaminic acid and asparagines The assimilation of aminoacids vas tested on a special synthetic, redium ifl Which some or other of the indicated aminosoide were included as the only ? source of nitrogenous nutrition. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R016400020001-7 tg) Trans. Oar inVestigations.have demonstrated that the,feeal aliali?produoing ?bscillue doe* tot 'assimilate Amine or leuoine, glutaminio acid iS 40- similatod only by strains adapted to streptomyoins Of ellexperilentaistrainso.strainVehleh produees grewth pay-on ? nediawittliAminebutyrie acid and cystine assimilates the similleet qui4474tY .tf amineaoide.- One, medium cent/lining gratin* the variant at strain g .adapted to eyntomycin /Oldness one and a half time, more intensive growth than the original Etatraini.. -Apart fre2the general non.Aittimilable aminsaeides strain NIdoels not grow-one mediustwith and.bOtawphenyialanine. -Ctrains'adapt64-to, entibiOtioe grearinore intensively on a mediustwith.aeparegines a strain -adapted to streptomycin grove 145 times Immo intiniivilyl and to Synte.. ?vein l.5 -times. The largest amount of aiiirmacide is assimilated by strain. no. 415. /to variant adapted to streptomycin produces 2.t times more in? tensile growth and the one adopted to syntempin 1.5 times more intensive growth on.almmUmmtwithbeta.Thenylelanine. Invistiotioh of the assimilation of akinsields by alkalisproducing variants - shown that some Of them ire oharactorixed,by a capacity to issimitats the same amAhmacids air Beat. faecalis alcaligenes. Al regards-their hitrogen metabolism sOmsvalkall-Priodt0104 T4r1441:4, Obtained experimentally in of microbes of the enteriom.typhoid cntuP. .00me oleo, to the typist' representatives of Bast. faeoalis alooligenes. - A stut, or dehydrase and. ?stales* activity and of desomyribonncleis mold of original and adepted'strains Was wade in, collaboration with A. U. Besborodov and V. P. laashohilmit. /t proved that the amount of detavrtm, bonno1ei0 acid increase* in strains adapted to syntomyoin and, dm:treatise in strains adapted tp streOtomyein. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. A.930 Begutaritiss as to the fact concerninz oatalass and dehydrate activity we were unable to Obtain. SerolOgioll properties of ezporimental strains andvarianti were studied in cross reaction in agglutination (Table 1): ?Syntanytinbriets about liwis.thnrough ?hang** in the antigeniaapparatua. Strains -adapted .to this antibiotio have lost the capaelty to produee agglutinatioa reaction , with a serum to the origiaal strain: The origtral strains in tura did not . agglutinatewith sera against strains adapted to syntoaycin. Mops in the antigenic etruoture use sharp weft disoOvered in strains adapted to Streptom. wan. These strains acquired the capacity (Begin p.55) to produce naive specific agglutination risations in ive dilutions with ems drool:torte . and paratyphoid antisera. In these variants has been noted a marked deoreaso in the titer in agglutination raaetion witn sera against original strains: A study was :std. of tho viability of original and aiapted strains with respect te sone antibiotics and antiseptics (tables 2 and 3). Table 1. lutinatinh reaction of or inal and ada tea strains 50111111 ? - ' - X ? orig.. K strop *jut. -.41.5-------4115-'"--4111 Orig. stAfp. synt. Orig.' strop. syht. Vo.. It orig. X synt. No.415 orig. se 4. is urep ? No. it. orig. * strap. " synt. Bea No. 41 . Faratyphold B Se hadts4htutser tor Stutter) - krigortev.Shiga 1:8400 . . ..? ? ., 1.100 .. . ? .,* . 1,100 .. . .. ? .... ... 11111 ..! . 111800 - .. ... . ?. wo 18200. Mt 11100' .? = . . 1:8400 1.800 . 1.80 , 1.100 OD ?46 0 . 0 1.000 111600 ,.. . 1350 . 1.100 .. 1:200 IS Ls100 ... 1.1500 1.100 0. ? ... 1.400 . . ? . . . ? - e 1150 ' 183200 1:000 1:100 . ? . . 1:50 - . 1.50 1:400 123400 1:800 11.6400 .01 0 ... . 11100 ... 1850 1050 123200 41 ? i .. . ? Note. Agglutination relation with typhoid-, paratyphoid B and dysentnria (Kruse.. SonS7Neweastle, Flowner) sera is negative. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 0 CD0 CD (D CD 8 CD -n CD (T) CD (D n.) (r) R3 . . 0 0 -0 co 0 0 n.) -10 n.) o ? . Trans.; A..986 Table 2. tivitv of inal and adapted cultures tfy antibiotics Strains Strrptcavoin tin units) Syntex:pin (in ;aim) 1.rfreseyost in (in gajaan) Diomycin (in lam) Semolina . UST*? es BCD BST BCD BST. Bea BST BCD BST BCD or g. ?1 0 1.35 O I5 5.0 WOO, s 0 I adapt. to erynt. 62.5 126.0 950 1250 125 250 400 60.0 1x40?. 1:20 T. K adapt. to strept. 2200 3125 ._ 0.5 1.0 0.36 0.7 12.5 25.0 1:20 T. 1:10T. 415 orig. 15.0 30.0 15.0 30.0 6.0 12.0 60.0 100.0 1:40 416 adapt. to wit. 82.5 125.0 950 1250 250 500 1004 200.4 1:11.0 1:80 _ . ? 415 adapt. to stmt. >60 T. > 50 T. 3.1 6.2 . 1.6 3.0 1245 25.0 13160 1180 X orig. ? 4.0 8.0 7.5. 15.0 3.6 7.0 25.0 , 50.0 . 1200 11100 Si adapt. te.synt. . 15.6 31.2 230 310 . 15.0 30.0 50.0 100.0 1:2500 1.11.250 II adapt. to sttrept. >50 T. ,>. 50T 3.1 6.2 1.6 - 3.0 12.5 26.0 1:2500 1:1250 ritaoteriestatio: *!Bactorioldal). 8 , - Strains adapted to syntovoyoin as compared to crigirol strains, poetess consideribly more resistance 0 0 . tomany. non.speolfic antibiotics. [Begin p.541. The pigment-formingvar. 'Ant of strain K adapted to n.) 0 . . 0 0 ? ' onto:gain increased resistance to streptomycin 20.7 times, to biosvoin 3.2 tires and to laversioetlit $56 J 0 1 -NI tisim. Conversely strains ads.pted to streptomycin display either ft decreased resistance .to acme antibiotics. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? . (12) . Trans. A?960 sir main unchanged. ?Ws, strain no. 415 adapted to streptomycin de. creased its resistance to eywtomyoin 6 times, to levostroetin 4 times, and to bionwein 4 times. Table 3.. ? Resistance of original and adapted culture$ to antiseptics" , . Strains era 0.125% no 1.10 0.12 C 0.2 R 'vane 0.1% NO1 0.26% or n 0.25% . KOH ,1111104 0.0 5.20% , or g ? 1 de Jtetrept. 5' ? 20' 6' '5' 10' 5' 5' K eynt. 10' 60*- -1'.10. 60' 60' 20" 30' O'yellow varit 415 orig. , ' 6' . 30' 10' 20' 25' 10' 6' 415 strept. 5' ? aw -20* so* yr ay. 20' ' 20" 415 synt. 10' - 60' 20' '60' 10' 20' 6' 20' fi orig. 3' 20' 5* 10' 10' .5' ? 10' 5' II stmt. .3'' 80' IP 10' ? 3' .6' 5' 5' 60' 5' - 20' 3' ' 6 6' . 6' . - In testing sensitivity:to antiseptics the coneextration of the anti-, septic and the tire in which its sotion was exerted were taken into account. Our investigations torn demonstrated that strains adapted to syntorlycin tolerate a more prolonged action exerted kr cyrdinary antiseptics, or a short. term action exerted by more concentrated eolutione of a who1e series of antleepties. ? The. pigments,fOrming variant of strata K resistant to syntomyoin Survives the action exerted by potassium hydroxide (0.26%), copper emirate (0.11.157.0), fornalin (0.25%) one hour, while the origiral strain is killed by- it after- 6 minutes. ife Were unable to establish such clearly pronounced changes in strains adapted to streptonyoin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 at Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (13) Trans. A.9') LUS I OfiS On the basis of investigations conducted on adaptive variatio of Bact. faeoalls aloaligenes occurring under the influsnoe of antibiotics it is possible to Jrax the following conclusions. 1. The roma alkall?produoing bacillus 1A1oa1l6enesi, its variants adapte t.o antiblotios fli the alkali?producing variants of some oth,.r intestinal microorganism do not, according to quentitative investigations conducted the Bertran method, assimilate carbohydrates in podia of a variegated tioct-emioal testi series. The cultural and microscopic characteristics, biocherioal activity, viability and aerological properties change in flet. tfteealts alcaligenee under the influence of antibiotics. 3. Adaptation to syntowoin proceeds more slowly than to streptcoNtini changes brouCot akout by this antibiotic are more thoroughgoing. 4. The yellog vsriant Obtained in the course of adaptation to s7intz... mein is distincuished from the original atrin br .tc Increased resistance to antibiotics and antiseptics. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. 1..967 (In full) TrIX X041k0V. Xs V's Otdelennxia gibridisatsiia dreshshei. III. Poluehenie gibridar meshduBasoharemyses Cerevislae (./II rasa) i 5ohissesecharoupees Pb. put** kopultatsil prorastaiushohikh spar. tDistant hybridisation of yeasts. III. The obtaining of hybrids between 5aoeharomyees oereilelae (XII ramp) and Sehiseelesbarearefs Eig7iiliftes at population of the germinak. Lag spores) MIkrebiolOgiia,-vel. 25, no. 5. p.535456. Sept./Ost. 1956. 4484 11542. Russian) In eases of hybridisation of Beech. cerevisias and 5ehisossmoh. Pole* desoribed by us, it was shown 11,2) that hybrid forme were obtained after deviations from the usual, natural to the given spool's, prawns at copulation of molls or spores; they were typleal for one of the components of crossbreeding (in the given ease Sacoh. serevisiae); yet in these forms at the same time, although irregularly, there appeared martian peouliarities oharaeteristie also of the other component of orossbreeding. An assumption was expressed that in the above sited oases of hybridisation no fusion of nuelei costarred. Nevertheless, this supposition could be sonsidered more probable it one succeeded in obtaining a hybrid !Awash the features and oharaoteristies of initial forms would 'whine to a greater degree and it would differ more considerably from the initial parent forms; this would then furnish the grounds for presuming the fusion of nuclei during its formation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?4) Trans ? 414.95T It is possible to *sauce that one could obtain such a hybrid only whew first, both forgo would be ,in a haploid Osseo of develop* moat at the nowaih'of crossbreeding, *ad, sesoodly, copulation would proceed with the formition of ovulation offshoots as it tabes place during the usual sexual prows of the givon specios. Duriog examination of old mimed cultures of Sacch. cr.vists.e (KIT race) end Sohistommth. PeMb* which were oultured on wort agar, a smoll nuAbor of asei with spores was doteoted. Thos. wool, baoically, were typical of the XII rows, yet some of tnemdeviated in their fors from tboto ohoraoteristic for the XII ram. ?nth the aid of a mieromobipuIator eight oust with 24 spores were tranoforrod to miorodrops Of nutrient medium. It was supposed that ameng these asci there might be semo of a hybrid origin. As long as hybrid coals in the mixed culture could hove been formed only through the copulation of hoploed smells of Sehisesecoh. Pomho with diploid cells of the XII roe', one hod to expect tho formation of asoi with spores from such cells without a preliimity fusion of nuclei, And this, in its turn, could lead to the foot that in spite of the remotoness or Opus latiog collo, the sinew in sash ascus could be fully viable. At the s time, in so far as the fusion ond interchange with plasmo would take Ince, those spores, which eontained the nuclei of Sehisosacek. Poihe could acquire a *opacity for copulating during germination In consequence of the Influenco of the plasmo of the XII rose. lossueh a case gorminotion end copulation of opal.** at the ht rid *sous ?mild load to the formation of a hybrid diploid cell (sygoto) with a following fusion of nuclei. Multiplication of such a hybrid zygote would load to the formation of hybrid diploid molls* The najority of spores, which were in the isolated 'set, orminoted, forming dipleld and haploid sells, oharooteristio for the XII race. In one microdrop there wee an *sous with two spOres. The.. spores germinated stmul* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 loi Aroma ? mo?wo tenuously and oopulated, having formed a mote. From the zygote cells were formed, (Begin p.6341 whioh in outer form were like cells of Schiso- seeeh. PoMbe but they multiplied by budding, which is characteristic of XII race eells, In ono of the original cells a eleaoly expressed wall vas formed, oharaoteristic of the dividing cells of Schisosacch. Pemba ffigure 1) (1). In figure 2 are represented, for comparison* cells of the initial oulture of Secoh. cerevisiae? in figure I - cells of the initial out. ture of Sohizoeaoeh. Pombe. Further examinations of the culture, obtained from the specified cells (culture was denoted as 69), have shown that features, charecterintic of it, were retained in the following generations. Celle of culture 69 are represented in figures 241. The fora deviating from the initial species and dimensions of oells, in some eases clearly expressed side offshoots of miceller type* the presence of walls, together with budding; all this does not leave any dovbts, that these cells are hybrid. Title of figure 1. Sporulated spores have copulated, forming hybrid cells, which multiplybybudding. In the first elongated sell a wall is seen. Title of figure 2, Cells of the initial species Saecharomyees cerevisiee (maltiply by budding). (1) In figure 1, 1 and 5 walls are indicated by arrows. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans: A*907 Title of figure S. Cells of the initial !species Sehisosaticharen ;tees Podoe (multiply by fission). Title of figures 4-8. 1Vbrid oellsrin some a them there is a aide offshoot of a micellar type. Along with budding, come sells have walls It Was interesting to find out, if eporee would fon in the 'culture of !hybrid ,69. Seeding of hybrid cells in an appropriate medium Ise shown that spores are formed, and the form or mini and the disposition in them of spores tariet to a great degree (figures ?9 and 10). Experiments were Oct up for the ?sporulation of ilybrid Spores. For this purpose with the aid or a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A.967 micromanipuLator 65 asoi with 1,30 epores wore isolated to microdrope of culture medium (beer wort). Scue.of the spores germimted and began to, remains, bat the cremth stopped thortly ahd the cells dad. As a result We did not suoceed in obtaining 4 dingle viable culture. The cause of tl-'s cessation of cromth, an it: was pose ible to judge from the Outward appearance of the'sporu/ating spores, consisted of the inability of the formed ?ells atd of the nieellar type Cr offohoote o tsmi off to the ,very end. Thee, disturbances in development and multiplication, mutt be explained by great physiological differences of the initial forms. In figures 11-14 ere represented the sporulated spores respectively of obso two, three and four-spored asoi. After sporulation of the two...spored. asous a Clear segregation of the hybrid was uncovered. One siere'formed cells of a round forM, resemibling haploid cells of the XII race, the other spore forned an eloagated cell Atha well at the place of buddins (figure 12). In al/ cause the eporulating Spam; ()fibs hybrid Permed atypical and in - .somo oases utimebapen, cells. (Text is continued after desoription of figures). Title of fkures-9?10. Spores have forted in some of the cells (asci) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (e) Trqrc. A..967 Title of Pire 11, Ofte.spored hforld &sous sperulated, having forme 'xanohing soils of mioellkr type. Milltipliostion stopped there. Title of fivre 12. Two..spored hybrid asous. 13,ith spores otrmic. nated. Cris forbed rounds small spores, the othcr slonEsted. AUltiplioation stopped there. Titls of fiure 13. Threemsporee hybrid'esougs The spores ;..:2rmi= natedthavint; formed undivided eels. Witiplioatiot? tho- stopped. Title of ri,...;urs 14. four.spored 11hr1d &sous, Spores zerminated, forming round. alId slonrated cells. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . 'Trans. A.967 Title Of figure 16. Colonies of hybrid on wort agar. They changed from smooth to rough. it is neoessea7 to point out, that under conditions of laboraiory cultivation. on. Wok agar the hybrid showed a variability in ths form. of . colonies.. Audits result rough colonies Wire formed from emobth.onsa (figure 16). esides this, in old oultures,onwort agar secondary colonies began to appearj their sells deviated from the initial by a greater capacity to use 1t wart. Interesting and bomewhat unexpected data wore ?obtained when testing the hybrid in its ability to ferment sugar. Both initial forts fermented glucose, saeoharose, maltose and simple dettrins of beer wort; the XII race, besides this, fermentid galactose. Hybrid 69 fermented glucose, zalsotoie and saccharose, but it did not at all fermentoraltote and simple dextrine of beer wort. Consequently, -the capacity to .ferment galactose, obtained from the XII race, dominated it the hybrid, but the unification of capacities in the hybrid to ferment "maltose and the simple dextrins of beer irtrrt, which were present in both -initial f onset ? lead to a full suppression of this function. After reseeding to wort agar under usual eonditions (at 20-26?) this property is stably inherited. The cultures of the hybrid, obtained from,seoendary colonies (of such cultures there were 14), also did not firm , sent &altos* and, simple dextrine of .beer wort. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A.967 It was deoided to influence the hybrid with high and low temperature (Begin p.6361 in order to change its characteristics, to try and obtain 0401 whioh would be capable of fermenting maltose and simple dextrins of the beer wort. After cultivating ths hybrid in the incubator at 40. (re. seeding every 10 days) during the course of six months a form was Obtained which fermented both the maltose and the simple dextrins of beer wort. Cells of this form m*ltiplied by budding and resembled the cells of the XI/ rao* .1very much in their morpho/oiioal features. It is quite possiblei that here we have a ease of segregation of the hybrid under the influence of high temperature, and this sogregation cc. ourred, apparently, after the somatic multiplication of cells. Cultivation of hybrid 69 at a lowered temperature (2.4.) during this same period did not Change its fermentative properties. /n figure 16 are represented the curves of fermenting beer wort by initial forme, hybrid 69 and the new form 69?, which was obtained under the influence of increased temperature. Analysis of Obtained experimental data, when etudying hybrid 69, gave a reason to think, that at its formation, as .it was ;supposed, occurred not only the uniting of plasma elements, but also the fusion of nuclei, which then led to deep and stable ohanges of both the morphological and phyeiologi. ??? cal properties of hybrids. In particulars the suppression of functions in the hybrid to ferment maltose and simple dextrins of beer wort boar witness to the fact that the mechanism of formation of appropriate fermentative systems in the initial species was so different that mutual assimilation prooesses of the united components of the XII race .and Schizosacchlt Potbe led to a disturbance of both systesie in the hybrid: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (SU Trans. A.967 2 0 or4 a OS or Oyu of experiment Title of figure 16.. Curve* of fermentation of beer wort by initial spool-es of Safes. seremisiaelKII raoss).and Schisosaosh. Pee and hybrids iria-Wn. 1 - Sohistossooh. tistej 1":71791 XII races 4 69. Such a type of hybridisation, after distant crossbreeding., must be sailed * full hybridisation in distinotion to tha previously described by us U. 23 partial or insomplete, mbsn a joining of plasma elements oefurink, but thie union was net aocompanied by the fusion of nuclei. . CONCLUSIONS 1. The two...spored arouse. isolated frost& mixed culture of Sam:Marc+ wassacerivisiae (XII race) and fohisosaecharomyees ,Post*ep formed fell* as a result of speruls.tien and copulation of spores's theses sells, in their Outs, ward appearances, somewhat resembled those of.Sehisosasoh. Poe*, but they multiplied by "Wang like Sasses. eerevisiae. In some of the spell* appeared nearly expressed walls, an well as side branching of a mionlartype; Prom ths 109 isolated *pores of the obtained culture not one formed viable wills, All this testified that in the given ease a hybrid miss formed between Setooh. corevisia* and Schispeacoh. PoMbe. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? , (10) Trans. 41?947 1: supposition was expressed that Copulation of haploid-c011. of 2ohiso. Beach. Pemba with diploid cells of Saochs terevisiae preceded the formwtion of ,hybrid; it was -not followed by fusion of nuclei of theat cells. .After this the "pores were formed- in the sygote, sporulation and copulation of which led then to the rormation of the hybrid. 2. During testing of hybrid for its capacity to ferment carbohy?- dratei it was. [Digit p.6301 deteeted that it did not ferment meltose apk simple dextrine or the malt wort although both initial formettermented these carbohydrates well. This attested to the essehtial difference of the existing fermentatirn systems or the initial. species. ' Altar prolooged cultivation of the hybrid Wader conditions of in* ore-410*d temperature (10?) a formiwas Obtained which fermented maltoee rind simple dextrins or the salt wort approximately to the same degree as the Sacoh. derevisiae .(Xli race). The cells of this farm did not essentially ? . dirket in morphoiogical features from thole of the 'Citrate', which could be explained by therngregation.of the hybrid during the process of vegoilaa tive Multiplioation of its cell*. 3.1he obtained experimental data and Observations during *Utica of the hybrid gave reason to assume that during its formation occurred not only the 'pining of plena, but else the fusion of nuclei, which then led to deep and stable changet, both of morphological and physiologital features of the hybrid. This type of hybridisation, after distant crosebreedings, should be called full hybridisation in contrast to the previously described by us partial, or incoMplete, when a joining of the elements of platma Occurred, bUt this union ms not Loeompanied by-.4 fusion of nutlet. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?44., ?,-.A.Aw? Znotittxto of Cortotioo R000trei ?jotobor le.OBLi At .;'R 4osooir 1, Kostfrov, Y.* Listurt kkridizatautt or yeast4. T. rttoii.nils of 7.1,:.-71-Asitte betwo.n. Sacohoirorroolt oorovitios rho.) *lad Sohizoastoctit Ponba. 74117scbletoiT4.* /5* tine i* 195E4 2. Kostkoars it. V,* tiatort ItjhrillizattoYtcf yoyz4118. TT. rblAiettrit, kr7.11.ds .botwoon, ZileChArOVV0418 oorrrioilto ("k.Z.;. moo) atai Sohit of itoolio.ro! Pomba tIvotteh oopulation of collo, '!1-11?vo'bIolort2gks ,5, no. a* r1871956, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. 10455 (In full) Nasatkina# I. P. C4 ismenehivosti Bee. hisenterieus. (On the variability. of Bac. mesenterieus1. Niktobiologlias vol. 25# no. 2# p.156?165. Nkr./Apr. 1955. 448,3 MR. (Is Russian) At the present time there is noted an inereased interest in studies of the fermentative aotivity of various mieroarganiene. A great variety of onsymee in Bee. mosentericus makes it possible to utilise this organism for *basing vsrious insymatio preparations. The amylelytie enzyme prepare.* 411 tion slapidase", which was obtained with the aid of Nee. mesentericus oulei tares was utilised in beer brewing 17). The variability of this mmaasm in the proses' or its culturing was not tonally taken Into eensideration durik studies of fermentative properties of Bae. mesentericus (Form and Puehkeva Ell and Proskuriakav *Id ftlamm, tel). Numerous literary data td. Se 6# 9# 101 'hey that Ba0. posenterieus "hanged under laboratory soNlitions of oulturim and formed colonies differing in morphology, while about the physielagy of those variants very little is known pet. Only separate hints are met that variants at Ras. mesenterious are not identical in their bloobemdeal properties. Vasilenkis ft, al bas observed that the wielded forms or Boo. mesenterieue produoed an antagonistic action on bacteria of the intsatinal group, whereas the smooth variants, originating from them, did not depress, but stimulated development of these bacteria. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 I Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tgi 1111135 ? 1101100 ?In a previously published work (Inehenetskil and lasatkina [3]) **operative data were *it'd about the fermentative activity of Sao. meson.. terieus variants. The sondueted researeh has shwa that the amylelytie and preteelytie activity of the cultural liquid in wrinkled form of Bac. rimaidetlattie eeneldembly higher, than in smosth_variants. This urged us to study, together with ensymatie properties of Rae. meseaterieus variants, their morphological and eultural properties, as well as to find out the eondition; whisalcomme the variability of this organillm. The knowledge of these properties is laportant during seleetion of Sae. %Malawian* variants which pmeeess more **time h)tdrolytie ensynese Results of this research easprises the eontents of the present artiels. thods. Two oultures or Sae. mese1!terieue4 isolated from the soil, and two smooth variant". whisk arose after the variability of the first ones during the promos of their prolonged laboratory cultivation were ez. perimenied with. Culture no. 1 was isolated from sterosem (gray desert soil)j from it, by means of repeated seeding' and solution of the most typical colonies, was developed a wrinkled variant 2 b4 whisk was shame. teristie for the wrinkled terms of Bac. assenterlous commonly met in nature, and variant $ a, forming smooth slimy colonies. The second examined culture of Rae. nesenterieue was isolated Aroma brown soil, and, as a result or numerous reseeding*, a typical wrinkled variant was molested, designated further as 12/T, and a smooth variant, designated as 12/1. Besides the Osited forme, lne more variant of Boo. sesegteriouessee studied, whioh was obtained by us during reseeding' of the old mature of the smooth variant Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? viPJ Trans. "moms (3 els awing to the uneven edge of its colonies it was meted laciniato end designated as 2 a. ? Variants of Baas mesentericui were eultured and stored en MMA. Esamatm peptone agar): Temperature of culturing was 37'. Oigantio Colonies wore growl for studies of morphology' if variants. For this purpose the seeding was produced. by an injection into the center of .a dials with -PPA, which woe :dried a little. . For the rating of the gigantic colonies, tisk:is site and, 'weight were determined. Per .the determinetien of weight, five oolonie$ - were wasnoci off frost agar and transferred with wash "pater to stbiaksy" tOgnatla , where they were dried to a oonstant weights after :weighing the dry weight . Of on. colony was oomputsd; ?Zn experimanta of subverted ,cUlturing of Bac. sweentitious a liquid synthetic sodium was utilised (Begin P.1371 of the Palming oompoeitien in g/1( gra Per Uteri. rgHPO4,?1s (104)RF04;0101WO1i 0:141141-traeess To.SOrtraosas Glucose-104, distilled utter ? 114 pH .of medium was .7.2.7.3. Culturing if variants wes conducted in glass vessels, into the lower part of which glass filters were fused for a better etoulaao tion of air in the liquid. Culture sodium, in the -amount of 30 al was placed ' in a vessel and ',mut inoculated with the suspension of cell" of onestay?old cultures, which were gown on 10.? Sterile air was blown through in the amount of 3 volumes per one volume of Stadium per winu, For the detormite? tiori of reletiott ef Rae. lossenterious veriants to different sources of earbon, we utilised the abovet.cited medium into which instead of gluoose we added various atrhohydrates and alcohols. In the amount of 0:0X: Culture midis. were 'sterilised thrice In *Kokh" tkoshosi apparatus. Besides the usual media4. used in laboratory prestige, we alto used breed deeootion in 111. oxperiiiints on studying the. variability of wrinkled farces it was prepared in the f011owisic manners 20'g of white bread awre soaked in 100 a imp water, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Treas. A?908 the whole mess was boiled and strained through puse and then !twit. poured into test tures, 10 ml in each. ilerpholety of colonies Variants of Bee. mesenteriems, eultured by US OR NFL and doeignated as 2 b, 10,8 a and 10/1 differed sharply in morphology of their solonies. The basis forms (2b and 10) formed large, grayish-white, dry, piloted colonies vith unever edges, which soalesoed tichtly with agar. These colonies most be referred to the wrinkled type. The wrinkled type is, apparently, the basis one for Sae. mesepterieus imams* oolonies of this typo form the majority of freshly isolated cultures of Baas mesenterieus. The smooth variants Oa and 110) which or/Limited as a result of variability at wrinkled forms bed a different morphology of colonies. Their colonies were small, of rounded form, raised, smooth, with a lustrous surface. The sole, of colonies mem crow, but became brow* with age. Edge, of the ecology were oven,rsometimes finely serrated. 0ensistenso me* soft, viscous. 0ohenies were easily detached tram agar. he variallity of has. mesenterioms le foir from 11.11% determined by the formation of sash colonies, which can be referred to the winkled or smooth type. A laataiata variant (la) was leo11 lated from an old broth sultans of the smooth variant (20. In the morpho- logy of its colonies it noticeably differed both from the Initial and the wrinkled forms. Its eolomies were Amok larger than those of the initial form, with large serrated lasiniate edges and with a dull surreal. The peculiarities at **loots* were stably retained atter reseeding. of culture; 411 Apparently, S laeiniate variant is not an intermediate form, ut a new stable variant of has.?mesenterieus originated in the culture of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (b) Trellis .16?958 smooth variant under definite oomditions of its 'Imitating. advinsksia DI] observed the formation of variants different in morphology in,oultures of Use. .nesenterieue.under the influenee at the baoteriophage. Ike ides about morphology of spicule' in variants of 25o. mesenterieus ean be obtained from figures 1, 2'8 were ...day...old gigantic eolonios of baoteriai cultured 04 Wits are represeeted. Specific measure. ments permitted forming an idea about weight and use of **ionise. Ihe Obtained data are ?it'd in figure 4. Tt is possible to see that the diameter of the six..dayakeld sole* of the wrinkled form of Bee. mesenterieus in three times larger than the diameter of colonies of the smooth variant, and 1.7 times larger than the diameter of the colony of the lsoiniate variant. Weight of solonies of the wrimkled variant of the same age, equal to 19.4 mg is. approximetoky, 1.9 times higher theft the weight of the smooth variant (10.$ as). Colorty of the laeiniate variant, with a somparat1vol:7 large diameter has a small wei6ht (124 mg), approximating in weight the colonies of the smooth variant. (Text is oontinued after deseription of figures). Title of figure 1. Colony of the initial farm of Sae. mesenteri? cue OW (netursTTiii. J. Title of figure 2. Colony of the smooth variant of Boo. mesenterious (ia) (natural siser- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (e) Trans A09611 Title of tizura 3. Colony (If tho laoir.iate ytkriant of Rao. riesentorious (2a) (natural size )? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 cr) Trans. Ytti. of fiuro Hs Calls of the initial fora of Has. nissontoricus, iorrrt under olonditions of deep culturing (oollirrarit chains/ tramps). ? Bniargod 1.500 tines; 2 Collo of ths swath ,sarlant of Boo. nosenterious (5e). grain under oonditions of deep oulaw turrni (soils aro situated oithl,r finely or in pairs). F.elarzed 1,500 xi Coils of the lesiniate variant of Bao. Esse titlo of fi,,,uro 5 continued on nsxt rags 3, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 411 Oontinoation of MOTs Os holcal croon prilcr ooniltions of Copp oulturanz elemnts ar0 soon). "..nlarjed 10000 V.,71oel 6 ? coodln;-, on X Cf the rrintlod farm reo. resent3ries14 cArloh vas oaltiveted on a-brtad Co* ecotion 777,WZolon/co of th6 crnoth variant are,seeo, rinch earrtinen rem oeotoro In rrir!.:lod colonies; 0 *.ocodin;.; on !I:A of tha Ir.rinled farm e mee7toriote, which cas kept en. . .Z (ymth cf only tho ti7inatFla=16). Murat-lava ss. ontoth Title of 4...01nonci,ne and c'lk;ht of oolonteo of variant) ' -ct,Dno, rapszaass) :Torn oh uft, L. ?r.!1*.ho1cr7 (9 ',JIM' The fern t olopy ie cleternicoA I:7 the telolo clavier. of prcriertao3. of/motor:tat it do:,ends on tin r4rpho1oLy of cello, on their croopinz; tho oolory, on thoopood and :.!;thod of rnitipliostion of col/s, On elqir Pt'7alo1e-iera fettt.Too, ard to on. [pejo p.160 be one should havo' eNpeeted, tho vcrtantn of tno... reconto-iout, vlbloh difftr so otarply,in t1:o noorpolocg c.i..'inuir'oolonico, Lvc diffororece. In the morDllolocy of eOlis aleo. ficrOsOo?Lonl otcfly cropItmtions, ua49 of Gee?day?Old oultnre of Oars. nesorterleri? Lao the7m '.11nt t!mso differomonc oonsist.primarily of a ppou1iarcron24nz.; of cella in etch variant. in the crinkled variant (20 tho oolla in most otscs tam oAne. varyinc in their loncth. The ohaitio. often aro ?lately drmn tozotho7, feTninc trflees, btandles. ard so tn. Tt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - - "xrans? /Lowe 9elle are stably connected into chains end it'io not poddible to upset their specific grouping Oren after a lengthy snaking of test tubes with water, suspensions ef cells. he roughbese of oolonice of the wrinkled form is, apparently, conditioned by 'Cu; trouping Of cells in the form of chains, traces, and.so oft.: Sties of cells of the wrinkled form fluctuate in the f011owing A X 0:7.0.911., Bpores are found in great cambers along 'with 'sego*. tett*, cells; 4 different microscopic) picture is in the -smooth variant. Celle of the smooth variant are distritutoil singly or in patrol chains, 7 conAisting of 544 Olementss'are fonnd twee rarely. iDegin p.1691 Cells ? detach easily from each othsr,and,are evenly diAtribated., 8iseo,of cells of the smooth"variant fluctuates approximately, in tho.same limits ao in ,the wrinkled form, they eomprise A X- 0.6?04 Ix, yet, shorter Cella predominate bore than in the wrinkled form. Spores are presents but in. maloh smaller =there. ' Lackniate variant (2a) presented an interesting mierosoopic picture. Here long filar formationss'inwhioh the eon +60.1.8 .are not seen are found together:with single cella and short chains. Formation of such cells 10 possible as arssat of the more slowed dorm multiplication of individual cell* during a continuing growth of filaments. The. latter sttaina length ? ef.20,61 p.. It.ta essentials.that similar formations are not Met in other variants of Bao; mesenterious. Dimensions of cells of the laoiniate variant - *try IA the follasing limits, 2.14,6 git X 0.6.0.7 p. It is possible that the comparatively eriLllweicht of colonies or the laolniatio variants at their large diamotors is conditioned etaatly by the fact that cells, which coMprise the ?clop* are thinner, than in other formes The fact that the character of multiplication and distribution of cells in variants of tac..resentoricus Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 auclame wwww, is ? stable hereditary feature, whish is retained under different condi* flees of ealturing of these basteria. deserves a spaniel attention. Variants of Its. mesenterieue were grown submerged ins liquid synthetie medium with glucose OAK) with a **natant blowing of sterile air through the medium. nye& possible to think that under such oenditions of growing the air bubbles would disturb the sposifie grouping of (yells in sash variant and we should mot have detested any differences in the distribution of their sells. Nevertheless, the esmiusted experivente have shown, that variants of Bac. mosentorioes, multiplying intensively under sonditions.of submerged oulturing retained the typo of growth peculiar to melt variant. In figure 6* pictures lot and I, eells of variants of Bee. nesenterieus are represented which were gram in a liquid aerated medium (age of culture a 19 hours, cells more stained with orythresine). When *capering the pisturesii.it 1. sees, that the microsespie pieture vas different in variants of Deo. nesenterieue. Celle of the smooth variant (la) wore distributed singly tir in pairs; in the laciaiate variant (20 are seen long filar formationsi and the wrinkled form (tb) wan be distinguished by ohains and trains, vhioh cow. gist of interlaced chains, which are charaeterthhie for it. Coneequently, the peoulierities of multiplioation and distribution of sells in variants of Sae. mesonterieue,are stably retained not Way on a solid nediuny but also under *sedition* of their submerged culturing. Ilioreseopieal picture of sash variants 'thigh vas grown ins liquid aerated medial., is so oharae. teristie, that aceording to it one its judge about the belonging of the given culture of Is.. posenterious,to one or another variant. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 [11/ Irztuoist ro.uvw Growth on varous toga Variants of Poo. mosenterious f?row well on ,..TA.? nn wort attr ane especially on the milcture, eonsisting of YtA and wort n.L;Ar in a rat'.c. ltl. In such a cnse the wrinkled forms (2b end 10) form on the surface of iLe agar slant ti'Avin p.1601 a dry, crayishimante wrinkled. coat ng, while tha smooth variants take a moist coatirt.-, of cream color. The wrinkled and the smooth varitnts of Mc. .nosentericatt differ especially sharply 'J1 the charmeter of their crowth in liquid culture :dia. The wrinkled Nonfat, (Vs and 10) develop on. the surface of the liquid rodia forminF, ompaet filTs? which sometimes creep ulJ the sides of test t1eu ard flasks, ibile the smooth variants Nrow damn into the depth of the liqUd, causin its tniform turbidity. nqch t charaoter of /rolth of varim,ts observed on MPB (meats-peptone bosillon) tml liquii synthetic medla,vith various stereos carbon. Relation of vc,rlanta nt VAO? messnterious to different sourcee carbon was stradled oh a mineral modiuM nt hio1 sources of carbon were added in the smo.int of 04%s glucose, mnnose, saccharose, maltose, lactose; of polysacoharides ? starch and inulin; of fintoses ? xylose; of alcohols a mattite and norlitte. Results of this research are cited in tat-le 1. from :ata of the tnhie it is seen, that the wrinkled forms (2b and 16/7) 'ori films 01 ail Podia, Athout oaut tarbiditj of the medium proper. with saccharose flnd vim) represent exceptions, as on them the wrinklod vsriants produce turbidity also. Vmooth v:Iriants (8a, 16/1, as well at PO, as a role, onuzle a uniform turbidity or media. ee did not detect any basic differences among the vArianta or s.e. mesentericus in renpect to their utilization of various sources of earon. eremposewww...1.-???????? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) Trans. A?988 All the variants of thiC species produce cood development on glucose, - saccherones raltoae, mannite,Mnd matticee, causing acidification of media at the same time. The growth is alnost absent on lactose, a olicht developa meat is noted on Jauntily, starch, sorbite. On pieces of potato.. .watt noted a luxurious development of all the e'i*mined variant* of Bac.' mesenterious. Oa potatoes the wrinkled form produced a finely pliated, dry growth of cream color, while the smooth and laeiniate variants formed a moist file or yellow 061or. On "NM ficat? poptonbouillon with golatinl (10%) the wrinkled for formed thick filmn. ill the variants of rile. mesentiricuS liquify gelatin. ?Devoloping on milk, they ciuse its coagulation, peptonisation and alkalisation (pH' of the medium ? is displaced from 8.8 to 6.84.2). - Conditions, which caUCe.Variability of ' Dee. mesentericus ? flit 'problem about viriability of Dec. mosentorieui has been thrown light Upon in detail in the work or *rosin* and Drobot'ko toL The - author* observed the formation of -smooth variants in cultures of. wrinkled forma of Dae. mettentericus as &result of their Prolonged laboratory cul. turing on the usual cultUrty media. The seeding* from old cultures of Bee. mosontericus, which were bept for a long .time in the inoubator.or, at 'room temperature, basically gave two types of colonies, which sharply dlf? feted from one another. There ars indioatione that it its pcesible to obtain variability'cf Bat. masentericus? with the rormetion of smooth variants, in a Much shorter tine it the given culture will be grown on certain nutrient media. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10 Trans. Aft968 Accoritv: to llorosova snxi CrObotsko such e nutrient 2041tIM for rao. mesenterious is V% reativeptone booilloni It the aedition of chito bread. Aftor a three week cA?turIng, of Vhc 'rinkled form on soch a t7JoalaN en appeartnoe ef smooth colonies war); rooted or. ressed:rgs frwa it. -,7asilen)!o 11,21 Cbservee that me. mesenterious form smooth variants ahen ,roln on a bread decoction, rho use of ..read noel% jr tlaS Ottn, VILS riot acoltiontal; the avthors etrivee to create favoralle cmditions for the -ilsoKth assenterious, as it Ar VTIONn that 4:.his onleurdevelops well on Lricnei eausio,4 the eo.ealled "ropy bead" disease. [Text entimes aftr tr.ble 1.). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 0 (D 0 CD (D CD -9 (D -n (D (T) CD (D n.) (r) R3 . . 0 0 -0 co 0 0 n.) -10 n.) ? (14) Trans. 1.968 Table. 1.. Relation of variants of 2so. mesenterictle, to different sources of carbon Ban- 0 (D 0 CD (D CD - --. - - - - mesenterious a ??? . soaaly sea.'S Sa.104.1 #i VSS4 .?...? '1.647 l A 46. ?l.jaU.jjId torch, 1,i . thin Thin Flim Slight- Slim Slight Slim Slicht Slim Inulin ,Asak de. veloy. mont ':1-eak des volop. - sent Slight Slim 8110-it Slims Slicht Slim .X lose Film, Slim, pa 6.2 run, Slime, , pH Cal Slim, pH 7.03 . . Slim, pH 7.08 Slim, pH 7.0 iftnnit? Film, p11 8.5 Tun, pH 6.40 Weak de. 'relay. smut; _ yll 6.27 Slits, . yll 6.61 Slim, pH 6.47 ' 80-77/41(1, FAlm, a ph 6.0ti z Film, (12 -pH 5.6(gi a) '',:eak de..? r velopzete: ? , ? c pH 6.51, Slithss-IN ring, (--- pH 6.51 S this, x pH 4.31_ , oc ? ? c ? z Glucoec litnnose Saccharose YAlltose - Lactose Irinkled (20 iinkled (16/7) Smooth (3a) Smooth (10/1)- ' IA co I. n tat ? variant (2a) . - ? File*, pH 6.15 Fliziu .01 6.97 Slit*, pH 8.72. - :nitre, pH MG Slithe pll 6.62 )ibm , Fibs. Slim Slims Slime $lims Strong - Pilm,Fbrt-7 yll 6.21 Film, Slims pit 6.44 - Slings, ring, _ ? pH' 5.99 Slim, ring, 011 5.85 Slim Strong, pH 6.77 .. pH 6.44 Eilfo. pH 6.37 . slim.. ring, -pH 0.82 Slim, .. fill% p11 6.66 Slime Sliz)rt pH 6.63 iTeak de. veloptent, pH 6.85. Thin 1 . Fil*, pH 6.34 Slims al. most O.b. sent,- pH 7.19 Slight elite, pll 7.19 Slight Slits, . pii 7.31 7:1 0 -8 0 0 0 0 0 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 us); Arwfloossisvcru In order to experimentally eau.* a variability of our wrinkled forms , of Bee. veienterieue (2b and 16/7) we began to cultivate them oh broad p.15,23,deoostion. Tie took grk as a control medinst. Cultures wore grown at 57*, and then wire stored (without reseeding's) on the above cited media at roan temperature. At different times, in three weeks and in a month seedingi on an were made from the experimental and the control. test -tubes. Experiments were conducted with a double replication., ? Data, Obtained in these experiments, nava showne.that in eulturee of ? botiwrinkled forme Of Vac. mesenteric= (2b and 16/7), which were grown and kept on bread doeoction, :two types Of obionies appeared0 when seeded on ' which differed one from the other. The first type 'largo, grayish.? white, dry, wrinkled colonies, suggesting the initial form; and the ? second type a small ?Sissies, round, shirr,? almost transparent. hen *seeding was dam from central test tube* we tayserved quite a different picture of growth, In this case all the colonies were monotypic endear- responded to the initial wrinkled form of Bac. mosentericus. Pictures 4 and 6 in 6 give an idea about different outer appearances of the oxperi? rent and the eontrol Goodin.; in them are shown pictures of growth on ITA of the wrinkled form of Bee. me.enterious (16/7) after it. cultivation on the bread decoction and on. NM during the course of one month. ? Picture 4 of figure 6 shows that eolonies of the smooth type lie' either in. groups, isolated from wrinkled colonies or protrude in the form of sectors, segments or protuberance in coleniei of wrinkled forma. Ore , . should mention thet in picture 4 of figure. 5 thee* sectors eometines lave a form of dark spots on white colonies of the wrinkled variant because the smooth colonies are Cadet transparent. After calculating the smooth colonies in experimental seeding. it proved to be that they comprised about 46% of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declas;ifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/24:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (16) ' Trans. A.966 T the whole number of 'colonies, while in the control seeding their umber was equal to sorojtabli 2). Table 2. Variability of the wrinkled form of Zeta. mesenterioUs 10 on bread. decootion and on IRA Total muMber dmooth Tereeniate of PrellOinary cultivation of colonies * colonise emooth doIonios (radium) . Frown on r20. Bread decoctiOn .364 _ 161 46.7 IVA . ? 496 0. o . ? Klaiber Of colonies represents the sum of colonies, which grew On throe .- disheewith NM. ? ? The cirourstamoe that tho wrinkled fora of Bace mesenterioun after. its preliminary otatillatiOrt. CM bread d0000tion produced smooth variants ? aftcr its seodin4 on 'A, addid not produce them after their similar groeing on ;Y1%. points to the specific reaction or bread decoction on the .vatiability,of Boo. reeentorieus. ? COr data are In. conflict tith the theory of spontaneous miorttle dissociation, which denies the influence of life oonditions on the forma. . tion of new charaoterittios and foatures of miorciorconisms. he role Of ext'ornal conditions, according to this theory oonsists only In the solo?. tion from the population of individualt.'which already have certain charao. terictios anA features. If the role nt outer conditions would comW to only ' the selection of ready forme then in out experimonts the smooth varlaete ? should have appeared atter seeding of wrinkled .forms in both eacesi from . bread decoctions and from Mobecause the selection was Conducted on ono and the same nedina (VA). Severthelees, under the present Conditions of ex. periment the formation of emooth variants was Observed by us only- In the case in ' when the wrinkled form was prolinrily cultivated on bread decoction.. Con. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (IT) Trans. AloPnie sequently. changeability of Bae. mesenterions occurred under the in- fluence of the culture sediu.nt, on which the bacteria were grown. Con., ditions, ichieh caused the variability or the wrinkled form, facilitated also the selection of swath variants. What is the specific reaotion a the bread medium on the variability of Sao. mosenterious is yet hard to say; is it the influence of individual components of the nutrient (Begin p.103) medium, or aro those the produats or metabolism, which fora in this medium durl nis the process of sultivation of bacterial these are the questions which require further study. But there. is no doubt that the bread medium to a greater degree, than PirA., assisted the variability of Bac. mesenterises in the forasktion of smooth variants. In eon/lesion, / want to express my deep gratitude to Prewar A. A, lmeheftetskii for his directions and advise in mr work. ONC WW1 INS is studios of morphologioal and cultural properties of Bee. mosenterious have shown, that the smooth variants, which appeared after the variability of wrinkled forms differ from these last ones in the morphology of eolonies, in their ease and weight, as well as in the oheraoter of growth on solid and especially On liquid media. 2. Variability of Bae. mesentericus was expressed not only in the forma- tier" of oolonies, which ean be referred to the wrinkled and the smooth type. Besides the usual 1 and S.forme eolonies of laelniate variant were also formed, which could not be referred to the above types, according to their properties. The laeiniate variant inlet be regarded not as an intermediate Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (18) Trcns. A?9613 form, but as a now rtable vsrlant, thiohappeered i- the cliture Bac. ,ettenr. tericus under the Influence of eof-Aitions of cultivatIon. ????????????????????????? 3. Peculiarities of multiplication and rlistritmtion of ?ells, .11-1ch arc chareetnristic for each of the variants of Rao. voserteriouss are stable 'hereditary features under various co.ditione of their colturirt (dur3.ne the littrfaor. the aubterged ...flth a blvelnt of air throu.th the cAtural 4. wrinkled forms of flae, meeentericus on 1:reed decoct:Zan helps s.create- formation of smooth wriantis in. 'their cultures, than won o-t "-he cause oP the specific reaction of bread radium on 4:he f cr . rissenterlaus remains as yet une-splainod. Insti+ute, of tacroba olo ey of Academy of %olence of 1-14 Mos? ow rarpluvrive.: Received :741y 16, 1955 1. Vaellenko, A. G., t, Dependenee of stntai.onism ard of eotenition sporal aerobes 7,1-, the phalli, or microbe dissociation. 2.)ef, 2, le, 1961. 2. Vasilenko, A. i., About directed tarial;i1ity of entaooistie i,,ropertien. C71, 1952. 3. Imehenetakii, A. A., one Kasatkina, T. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes s.mi variability of bike. tcesentericus. Atikrobiologlia, 'ik.x.t1T, C40, 1954. 4. iisdvinakstia, T. in., of-the :roup Bac. resenterieus the attempt for a new classification. Iiikrobiologiehnii shurna1,11X-Z, 123, 1948. ? 6. Morbsova, A. if., crici 7)robOtikoi V. G., *ter/ale for studies of 'lac. 4101.11/01.411, meeenterious. Z'Artr,T. Vi:/, 3, 1930. ? 8. tiikolecir, V. A., norobioloty of diseases of bread. entibtekhigdilts 1932. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (19) Trans. A-966 7. Pspova T. ane P7ol1rova, Obtain;.nc pole use of 414pidoss4 it brTT browin. Biokhimlia, 3, 246, me. 6. Proskurialmv, 4. 140 ';76bins, X. a1 kosumalation or ensymss tures of I. mssesterious espetidin.,:: on the copoettLor of ttio nu. trisst .7141716. AkroblOiocila, VITT? 1001, 1939. 9. Kirchhoff, 14, .t;t1.43sn-Uber etis Va flttttt ess tao. miessoterious? Ztbl. Dakts 7T. MA,. 72, 353, 1927, 10. Sslii:Illann? Zur rakteriolo. is Ass fadensishendsn Brotes. Xtb1. t.ATA. 63, 3, (orig.), 1921. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ro?UXS ? 'le.. ILA (In full) wJ Kosikov, K. V. Otdalennaia trtdi al Ladroshshol. II Poluohenie gibridov meshdu Saecharomyoes Corey/sips WI rasa) i Sohissesooharo- myces Peat) putefa kopullatsii kietok. [Distant hybridization of?the yeasts. 11. Obtainine, of bytride between Racoharomyoes cerayitiae roe) and 60hizosa4o1ar pombe t11 copulation of eel e Mikrobiologiiail vol. 28, no. 4. p.420.422. July/Au. 1956. 448.3 V682. (In Russian) In our previous report about distant hyVridizatim of yeasts (11 the possibility was shoat of Obtaining hybrids between Saocharoulyeee_oerevisiae (XI race) nnd pchisoeacobarenyoes?PeMbe. turinz the process Of reser4.0 it was established, that hybridization ean take plese also without any olear1y expressed prooess of -copulation (fortation of copulation offshoots), igtb by means of producing a small ohannel, connecting both cells, touching each other, thronenwhich then proceeds the infiltration of the contents of ons spore or cell into the other. This deviation from the usual process of copulation for the given species J.vist a reason to suppose that in oertaln oases hybridization can occur in tionsequence of the Motive reaction of ly If one of the components of crosstreeding, an result of whioh the second OM. ponent van be involved into the prows durinc the stage of development which Is unnatural to it. Proceed ng rrom this aeuption, experiments were cot:dutted on ?rage breedine (7,f cells of nchizossoeh. Nebo with cells of Saoch. oerevisiao ? (NIX race). The cells of Sehizosacch Powbe vere oorsidered In the zivon Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Irane? it-wou case as native ocapOnents oterosebreeding,.as Ulla* kneen-that in this species eopulntion mows between the vegetative cells (they are haploid). in. proportion to the sonsumption of the nutrient medium. Iegetative eelle' of the XII raoernrediploid and he copulation was noted among these celle. These ?ells were chosen ati S 00eon4 emponent for crossbreeding with the purpose toilhopt (incite* of npeeitive result) that copulation (Aube realised with the satire role of only one component for crossbreeding. A twountly old Culturs'of Schisciaesh. Pons, grown on wortacpr, Was seeded into a teat tubes containing beer Wart Withsut.hops.: The towsdaq old culture St the VT raoejn the sane amount (eneloop) was seeded into this tame test tab, on, dr, (24 les) later. The'eele were earefulltnixed, and the test. tube as left at room temperature. In 04 hours SUMO& drops wore prepared (ma cover glass from, the mixture of Cells, whieh were plastid into a npist chanber and were alio kept at roe* temperature. During the next 3.4 daym the preparati,Jos with the suspended drops were examined for detecting the Copulating its. The firm of cells gohisesaoche PO** differs eontidertbly from the fora of Molls of the XXI ram', and this makes ,it picsible to distinguish. then in* nixed culture. Copulation of cells of Sohisoeaeoh. Pool), one with another odours, under the cited conditions at the experimeat, ComparatiVely rarely, nevertheless, in one suspended drop it was possible te detect up to 64.0 and more of such cases. A typical else of copulation of .ells of SohisesaechirPonhe is represented in figure 1. (Text it continued otter description of titles). Title of figure 1. Typical oats Of copulation of cells Of Cohizetaachi PoMbe. Title of figure Copulation of weell of Sohisesacoh. Ponhe with a sell of the XIX race of Saoch. cerevisiae. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) ? . Yr= A...030 ? (Deo tho pieturo,of fiGuroa nt tlg? ord of tramletionl.' ? Tito of ficaro U. Cars no of tilduro 2. Talc, of fiGure d. A rip of baddincclio to of tho;Lhavo valic Title a ficuro O A 0!X of buddin3 Collo, ono of thon_hao ? call. Titlfe Of ftdre O. Sabo 40 02-riCgro Oi 7itio of ficuro 7. 170771artcato olontod collo ono fom-od Moo colic arl to othe titan onoo. Tit10 offiGuro O. $..!all collo fo?md %:rop Loolatod collo. Mtge aro dadatiooe fron thia camp yot or of ftotoo (copulate5 c.7...11o) .and form .of collo rc=inotitypioal for the.cirn Gaon?. TWo taco toro detootod4 co c remit of odauiration of about 0 ptaparatictl;tn oopulaUon cocurrod'hot=in tho colla of Scalise:acct. raleho and of .t40 zli taco, no it ctaliccoialo to jtaGo.fren the oustorficial -picture of'the coptlatinz 0010 (fi or411 Gure 2 ). , Tho .fort of tygoto , - acute C 1ocia.p.t211 to typical for Goblocncoh. 2,7e0 ono of tho copu1atin3 collo Mc an ellipoOld, forme Chioh to chnractorlotio of no . ZI1 race. to tycoto4 repro:muted in,flixro 34 in'ito ?Om o-rpty eirripro, fror tho typical far oallo of CohidocacCh. Poloi at tto cam tit), oro or ? the copulattnc Collo horn SO Oharnotoriotic-for Soh. Potho4 tho"othor Cc? tho Zit racto? ? Cycotoo ropr000ntod in.flGutod C. dnd'3 r,ore tratoferrod to niero6,opo Of firooa). natriontrodium? novorthelfto to did not onooced in cbtainirvj offoprin3fro7LtIon. They did not 7altiply and did not torn tit7 o2oroo; Thin could Mt* oocUrred oithor ct71115 to unMcarablo conditicap in thO ot.lpOndod drop for the e.altipication of tho for:3d.moteo4 which led to tho =cation ' of thoi? dovelerr,int op in oorcoquonce of cortain train:MAL-co which cot7,14 Io Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A4.969 oesurred duriog the transfer of zygotes to mierodrope of nutrient beaux. In order to exclude these assumptions, it was &aided to seed the mixed cells of So1i?1,400aooh. Poi** and of the XII race on wort agar, where the conditions tor a further development of the formed zygotes should be tame favourable. The mixed cultures* the. obtained, were examined, during the course of o-? leonth and longerifor dotooting the hybrid cells. The intention was to deteot either the zygotes, which started to multiply* of the sells of Bohiseescoh. Pole* and of the III race, that copulated between themselves, or the cells, which multiply sinselteneouely by budding and fission (the presenee of walls). As a result of such examination in one of the test ? tubes, with mixed cultures. ?ells were detected which multiplied by bwid:ng with the presentee in some of them of clearly expressed walls. 'with the aid of a miorotantpulator we suooeeded in isolating such cells into miorodrops of beer wort; but together with them were also cells without walls, 'thich. were attached to them. In all, four groups of such sells were isolated. in the first group at the moment of soparation,there were 6 wale, amok; there two had walls (mioredrop 4, figure 4); in the s000nd roup, at the 2netZtrnt of isolation* there were three drops, one of them tad a wail (miorodrop 5* figure 6); there were 6 wells in the third group; two of them had a wall (miorodrop 6) and in the fourth group there were Z sells, no ef them had a wall (miorodrop, figure 6). Cell iToupe were isolated into other mierodrops also, yet no vans were found in these *ells. An unusual group was isolated into miorodrop 11. ? During the mennent of isolation in the grouptihere were two elongated cells which were attached to each others at one end of these cells there were two large round cells. In 24 hours the large cells multiplied and on the other Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Irene. A..969 end of the elonv,ated cells tainute cells formed (are 7). A group at' /ergs 08118,r/hie/to probably, were polypleid, was transferred.I.nto anoth..r aziorodrop of a fresh nutrient !Red tun. 3ut later on minute cells started to bud off from the larte ones and thus a mimed culture was formed (figure ain attempt to obtain s. twitters of large cells alone did not turn out wells in it always avail cells formed and displaced the large. Groups of *sells, both with walls and without them, which were trans- ferred to nutrient microdrops, 'milt/plied in :!`:Dilt eases, but the newly formed eons did hot /eve walls and maltiplied by buddies only. Aftor further eesnainetion of cultures, which were obtained from cells trot forted in microdrops, to cells with walls were observed, although one catuict eln? elude a possibility of formation of such cells In those cultures, which were produced from calls with walls, when one takes into consideration the data published by us in the first report Ill. It Wall interesti% to cheek the obtained cultures of yeasts, ?,:,oth of groups of cells -with walls and without, for their capacity to ferment:Jeer wort. Tit all, ll cultures were examined,among whieh three were oned from roups of cells which bad voile. It proved that at 26* the fermentation of 8 cultures, obtained frost cells, without walls, did not essentially diffor from the Xir race, Crsegin p.4221 while in 3 culture., obtained from-oella hav ng walls (narked respectively 68.51 884 and. 68.9). the fermentation curve differed to a considerable degree. Wring the first 24..hour day of fermentation these Cultures were behind in the I nteesity of fermentat3.on of the XII ram,' during the second 24.nour day, on the Contrary* the intensity of their fermentation went beyond that of the XII race (rizure 9). At $0? these 3 cultures surpassed the Xir race in the Intensity of fermentation during the first and the second days (figure 10), The obtained comparative Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 V11; irligsse ? W. r,7 dat* about the intknaity.of fermentation of beervnmrt'can-be regarded as oonfirming the assuriptiOn about the hybrid origin. or the matures, which ' were obtainod from eelletwithimalls. Nevertheleis apparently no fusion of nuclei during the formation of these lybrids. occurred: jsee picture of thete figures following the caep1ete'tranalatiO012 Title of figure 9. Fermintation_curves of beer wort by initial species &web. Oerevieiae (XX/ race) and Sehisoiacch. Pomba and hybrid664, 66.6 and 66.9 a the temperature or 26'.. Sehisosaoch. Pembe.; 2 f culture 66-9, 11.66.61 4- .Waflir 8 - XII race. Words in figure O. To the left! Liberation of CO2 (in g.) beneath ? days of exinriment. Title of figure 10: FerMentatioaeurvea of beer wort by initial ' species dacoh. cerovisias (XII race) and Sehisocacoh. be 404 hybiallati5;711-4766. and 66.9 at the temperature or 804. 1 . 3oit:a#*001. PoMbej 2 culture 86-91 3. 334; -' 4 a 6041 XII race. . Words' in nor* 10. o' the lefts Liberation -of CO2 (in g.) beneath ? days of exvrineat. =cram s- 1. Ina mixed culture Sacch. earevisiae (XII race) and 8ohiicaodharook .myees,Posibe cella wcre detected, which had walls, but multiplied by budding: The Obtained pictures of copulation (sygotee) gave grouads to assure that such cella with walls appeared in consequence of copulation of bnp/oid cells 8chisosaoch. Pomba with diploid cells Of taceb. Oerevielse (XII race), yet In this ease, apparently, there occurred no fusion. ofnuclei. .2. Comparative study of intensity of fermentation of beer wort has shown that the fermentation Curve of cultures, Obtained fromcglls with walls, differs both from curves, Obtained after -fermentation with Schisoniech. Pombs and the XII race. This fact muet be rogarded as an additional confirration ,of the stippokition about the hybrid origin of cultures, obtained fromoells Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trnn8, A.9f,9 with wall*. Institute of Genetics of Received October 9, 1955 AN USSR Moscow 1./11.1A.orfur,-. Eosikov, K. V., Disiskst hybridization of yeasts. I. Obtal.ning of hybride between Sacoherasyees orevtsta. (race xi) and Sehisoeacchar_mmt. 1-embes Mikrehiologiia, T?26, no. 3, p.276, 1956. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (8) Trans A*4709 . e 1., yptcid *es ? 2. Copu/eti ,oe1.1 or tale XI axe of opulat of I ll of- i ooh; ace ofgacoh, Figure 3; Sat. 40 of figure 2 figure4. igure 6. Figure 6 .111 of budding 1 group of budding oeIles one of them has a es of figure 6? ure 7. From among two pitt ?ion$todeo1ia one toried large ?olio ed tho other emeil owe* . . e 8- Smell collo formed from i leted cefli. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans A989 'Tit1 of figure 0: Feriae titian ourvec of beer wort by initial species 8,ecoh. oprovielee? (xti race) end Schizoimooh. P an r hybr ou/t1W-07.37 664 end *9. 0:rarGT?epersturo 26% 1 4ohitotiteoh 2 culture 00094, 30664: 4,0 6 0 XII !fordo it figura . days of experiment. , Liberation. of CO2 fin c.) beneath -as Titi f figure 10. 17 rnonticn ourve sf boor wort by initial pecies eerevisiee (ZIT race) end Sohicooeoch. Po. tidhYbrWriltuir"?"?oe 66-5, 6 i 68.9 at the tetperc tare of 30. Schicoseoch. totA.Jle oulta.ro 66-9; 3 66-0;? 4 68-5; 5grar.T.' --goes Words in figure 10. To the leftt-Taiberetion of CO2 (in C.) bereeth days or experimati Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R040400020001-7 ' full) trjfi Ovinl*.=0 NY, 0 noiretc71.1 to6crodlIrh et-Caolkh ? tatrbot,..ID:rreolc77 te=jtollivo3t1 eihrOm ?'.te?,7:17n itp6nilln3 in tho Aoieo1op7azt of th2 pre517m.e.carMillty ' 2hurn, rltre.5ia%0 i".01Cottiol, 1 14=ndbio10e volo 27e tao,Cp poilf7, tab, itGdo t60,0 20 (In Fluvolart). ? ? Per1n3. Octoar ? tomo ?tha Omiot rocrploatti thy cativo ettivane.',0 proo.00nivo htz-Aolty trind tin cotstonntal otmit tho day a birth o-t VI.cuSinirostOnchtzzla .; cit?tanit_itt-Poiantiotzki,oldzioto rarC7r c2. nitilr9t? "Tin tc-johito .of-tachurin "tmitos DO 1gootha(1)0 Ptav3 nr.7 Laot7.1rinina color=9 orcatixa itwatialpia? Mole:lc:at coLe.? not only ompr..ten ,t;-,";.%.^..r.tt:un of tin or,7,p..io L:tilde bat on o tacit) c--; an?, porprod ro-ar.v2.tic3e op ,voll act ,2 th=o bainc; diocworod rtfve polvai to ' ttn ray rm. cont./oink?, th000 rz:t=fronofl Ofl t4th praotiooe cO:t-6 fitdo rnt.trta for alnktip: tro ritu3'O*0 fo7 Sa.anofozatoc tho tarcA_193 mviai t ove...t ctpinoticto for tIn? L7.1?51.er tbo poople, rioT=Into, bia1o=.0 tar:4d on dintootio tvr4ic avolcco alo=tto of IDaraitto toaaUrke iv.iradt....,top htomictatop c-A, ? tondo an irrdoorpibblp otrucclo t:AaptyaiPal and id.Coliatio itZ."4r, cation? 'omg rzo0t2vrdnionoionianniot3io Corci4oPist 'en arrant= in ita'otpa000rith tin aatortai oimivc.po !note ilphtritto tAalocy importo the dooldina solo it tha.foltatioa tho arc-41,1n to en condition? er it3 nib ar4 dovo1oycont4 tin ort T ? . 0411110 or a r aro op:= of llokarint.o to-A(1141103o Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDF)80R01426R01.0400020001-7 (2) ? Tran.e. As.- 970 rtilioh direct: -reoocti or et-At:ales ter...-rt.aen. taerOec are thme itityloot of erclasnsi I:Allah are in the opetcot etrire=eatg ncat divorce proneceee a varlob? 1M'a eorroiperttat?faotern which prodtmcd t143-44 proceed in 'thon in , Gavot= cf th&O. topordit8 'on the quality ani intersity-ct Ooao tteZt-2ti0 ett4 in eerlo7ntty uthcter, the-taaquired prcvertiee and tentt.lres Ci=e1 na:i tire tratarcrrcti toroclitartly.- That Le ttte.coracon why Dirdinto crt;r:rt_la natio OSO Lt i'CZ221tc etrcrz, cult-cart &on I. Z. . ? ar.r2 t_bo'baciio ,14oac et taehurible bie1oc7 not only are stired by n11 r,.:?,$G.3 . . C7000ivo -z2=4;'.04 o1 t1 but oleo tied tall oanfirsatien atd tarttiercic : cent reionse. : ths) 19-23, 'Coast= et the Altditinica beadev et krioulttmt Coiortelti 1=11 Ve 2,Loan NACEIE/XLI !J haat 'xzer7ss4 fhAl'74101:7:447 of tiohnrinis 1,1eicz*".ever the z?e...inder eZ rointAttatiSitiPLIV(Atilop thCt ?wary, vaca ztul thrust, trhiah.pixothui tercard ratitold .restr.rn the field or vr-rIcality Utnieroornenisrau berme this ti.At etut..!.j varinbiliV nloreercznierce toad oeueted emetical1y. vitimt a idOM and# ita tOchrtairf Cepreesomtler t17.111 influnee erfareliCn retotIV7 oenceptlew et cyclozenotici-ets [sle] and r-2vitior.iste. then* atter t"-z Auctot ecznian tho statue of coienoe hem od bnica11y.,no tar tX concrete coo 'et Llaburicee deetrim in clorobielearbeenzelzj viable, nice Om Vt.yei 00-Clireettess guetirl_r suceesetu1 derole;=.1at cr vorka t-;?,,trial:iiit-y. c ciierobee. tOe5in ? ,Lk crcat 'role :..as also played yn. Cos:Pomace on the NPartabilitcy ecuetc.'d .tc very acm' after the Itu5tiat session Cr Conference tvatitte c? coaddetsil vorlp t-cro cnr.txd t.nista!Joe con avo basic =`,.ained, Trhieh raced rccearehcra 1n'Mei 110(1 012 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ($) Trans. Amirra studies dt 1*bUitr mf pathogento miersereaftioni. Among the prablems ehiek revolved an immediate *elution, te forgone' pottiest the fetiewiagt 1) studies of external feelers in genie sderebess 2) disetwery of regelaritieso clash eswilitioethi varlobility of pr perties mod features sr pathsiaas slerdiesi 0) obtaining of vaoeinal strains by meets ef dilmeted variabilAoy 4) improvement of dtegnocties of Isfectiome diseases end 1,Fetkode 4 indleation pathewis nterebes in the external environment considerInti their variability. Seeldee thies prebleme wr prpisid, rhek sr e ef groat themmktieal aM practiookl importance, but isdsh require & prolotced tine far thwir solvi moss queetions span be forwelated an followsi ) studios of the role of variatility of elerobos etiol sad develepv,eet of Whew thogeoemis mod lows tyl 2) ev4otionary systemoties of tg lnto eonsiderati. ? varialbiltIro depending-en the ssmattsss sr the habitat A biE eolleetics of Soviet medical mieretielotiets enveloped reemarek In the cited basis direetions. Although the time for summing up all the sonducted work is t nevortheioes it to Appropriate. at the meant when the eenteftsiel nem tho day of birth of ItanViadildrevinh kiehurin ? the iititiator pf the new Q. motion *-81 all the bramotas of the biological *atone., is taint efter1(1. to share the already obtained data, to critically evaluate Osmond to pW seats tor further develepNent. Zeisntifie otnferenees, shish were dordneted daring the elapse food the patiteted monographs testify to the eonsiderable suceesses tho Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1,C10* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 development or p et variability et pathoon Tram. A?470 miler es am% the bioreet ?eateries:nes ore shotlid same To Odell woe of,n5tootAd by the keesiewer et teleology in Ltalo b Mows, on direeted varittbili.%0 .2 1.1114410* et 1.614Kreb.i and the other ow eor-4imated by the tkeietry et ,iotith et VOSS to 19.6 in lorotio on etudies at lire vaspoines. Dories thin fed the tattooing 0450014$11111 were piblished a 3 ? *lt!'m *Vartability ot 'pathogenia miorcemoianirms" (1960). also hie "Vezotto Uveleant* end direeted variability of beetrisi" (1982ttttn .1 Krestadalkor Oa studies of stages ter develormert et nierborgenisto 1d40 Menai sfl.jt St iercibes of the inteetical croup", 3 . VOrmOtoeviriOatlititif of me4*PaorOntemo *no Problme at lawalfee Elio "variability f eiorebeeo G. Philter 'Directed anatadonism e mierabee. One ?veld poi i* with a mortal:a satistaotiono that the Irmem variability of pathogenic* eiersbee were uldeky developed at cur eciorWic reesareh initituteSo *hairs and taeterieleglie latiratariee. The ressoroh esedneted especially, Inteceelyar. aystemettme14 at the 40r,k1 insl'itvte at %%coins* led Sera, the chair ot Mersbielegy at the ChernovItey testitmitso frontlet* of Ppidemielegy *ad Miorobiology leen/ amealeitto &,e43 ammo Tastitwhe of Vecielnee and deraimeni lechnikot. in these estftbISshe 'Oat* arttintl dAreetiene in the development of the problem' of vartabilft7 at pathorenio wittrabes were earned and met roliaae data whisk doeme.'v ttestiono were *harm*. !Amin p.61. TIO did met ushe the tens "reticle! aesideretrally. matter isth alongwith irrepree hable worts at the same Uwe waste ie!,reg *blob aroused ireat Acobt on the part of zoth the theoretisal premib000 whit% nisrebe *ells fro* lloler sobetanao" (1964)o Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Tre,ne?A4.970 their authors foUei.d d the oethodieel nne even pureiy timbale/xi oteou. ties. All this soused L!ne to doubt the reliability of the facts rerurNie there? Uinfortnnatekt, the eited research was oonduoted by several laborqurios and the data vablished by them net only obstructed the crthentic scionaos but inaeourately informed the wide nooses of readers (&n not only the medieul specialists!, and to a certain degree disoredited the whole rroblon. of variability of ftlernbeei rousing,distrust in data, whist' were obtaLood by hie,hly it_thoritstive researchers and oelleotives of qualified Ware*. biologists* To the eat4rary of just sueh works belong, the widely in me,r1.04,0 of rj,* I, Boshlion "About the nature of viruses and mierebes" and it brom haven monograpn of 4. Derulava 6Yerint,ility of microbes and townlie Buryint in sorrowless oblivion all these larksand turnin& to root aehievements of our soleness we met mention the following basic tdonc. Firstly, or-. must eonsider as indisputable and not r.qutrth tArthor proofs the theeis ahlmst the fact that the cause of variability of rtAsso and features et -Aerobes to the ?bane it the oonditioi . of the *tVet, f oonditions of their life ane development 'hereupon the quality of odourrA; Stange. is ProOrtio09.1 to the causes which predueed these. netmtvirtY a 1th the ehanos of properties and features of adore:010c tranommtation of io *posies into another can be observed, as well eit; a fordo. tion of a new e?ecio*. Finally. the oskenin of hr.dityor the pathogenie mierebeo aP40" the Influence of unfavorably aottrt? feotxs, must be considered as a Ivo.' requisite to the appearaneo of variabilitwe Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans* hosIOTO Tbo etbod basic ideas volich were by vast notarial's at...0--ral.? Dated &trine the reoent years through forpertvantal researeh and -Aninetioationo of preesseeeis whieh preeeeded water natural oonditIonail. are In tall with prinei '4.ahttriee idea. Mevertheleee, certain faothal &Vt.* eepeolally of experViental order, booms elbjeete of theoretical diskomelrAies ?hue, for ftetatire, a fact is ewe/World beyond arq doubt. that eln ashler** direeted *hangs in properties arid features et sores asiereilfre, by irering iher.t. produets of active life :r f decovpositior. of ottora. And eertain remearchore see in these facts c eonfirration of the prenenno in these bactgrio of the rrceess of vegetative hybridisation :Waling)* 3g, we think the.t there are hardly any reasons for considerint those facto Uontiv. sal with theses :Welch Va ere the basis for the doctrine of Michurinis ems1 his follower*, about the vei;etative hybridization of plants. Oenerallzatior of facts vbioh teotity about the oreeenee in 'oacteria of the sosealLK1 filterable farm is also a eubjeet for diecuesione. !lacy authors (Xrev :ova. Mike*. Salim) reLard the filterable form at bacteria ae ()no of tha is of their ontessms?ormetie developments Other researchers (tarcutseva adlaI,Ortnbavaass Zhitaii) think, that the filterable forme of bactorla arise as a result of influenee on theta of onfavosable factors of the o:rl euvirerroanti wale the difftoultise of regeneration of filterable form oat the obtaining. Itt !Taw oases* of diftwrent epeeists does not nonfirm tostionof t1r be:.n4 etaces of !tarsal ontegenetio developments Cerparison of data, aceurfalated during the Feet years* with problessfis littlish were set by the Atagaet Silesian of VASZIEttro shoes trt series of impertart questions on principle reneins yet unsolved. nut the 110 enact loneeled.zo is absent abcrit tias tieehtvliessi of earlahility of pit-au:van-14 tRe6-in p.61 miereLoS. ft ir conaidered to be firmly established, the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .01 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kli Artanw? Ammxtru, 'saris Li 004. * result of *helms ot ordtQore of 1 nd duo velepuent of ergalloss; that the bails aetive Mechinica is the show of prooesses of totsbitiliesk 'Yet, we have no,dnta on what sort of rauserioal nod AWAlitative obanres'thare should be of this process in order to oftwol weahentmg or haro4i1y miorches and to produce these or 'sr St of its nature. Abesnoe:of suffielently emaet knowledge does mot permit ,?k. to master the cited prow* and to impart it *.needed direction. Decominc enthused with weEetative hybridisation at bacterie purpose of .eircetes trenefornation of features and properties of snse ovooica, we tarot' eolpletelys? that seleetion was one of the oothois of hichhzttnee Wo net us has seriously studied this method and did not Lica t for the pfxrposo of dirseted traasforniation of haeteriam We forget the tact 4IPeampletety :Vat 1. V. **burin himself, as -Pell as hi* Followers, obtained many species of innts omptui in, praetioe? Al s result we. as yet, 4n*xl4 not chugs a suffloient number and a oc000sary quality of user vaesinal strains, as willies scald not improvo those whish we heves .Aa yet the tweet kosowiado is also abeent about the lettere, of Um sailed *typical Lasteria and their role in etielsui epidemiology anti ,cfrkn.. genesis of tnfectimhe diseases; *hoot their ingertanoe for distassties indleatienfI isrebes in. the external opvirenmento shot their partfellm? tics in We prawn', of inaunageneele, it is teyesd doubt that the ocsioa?licd st7Plea1 beetortai ebieh are isolated from the archaism of man and Co external envirtarient, appear as it result of variability of the ?pathotonle and sapropbytis *poetise known to. us. Ihvorthsleeso. we as yet have tio kw:la bility in much svecitio.ease to roosgaisa an.etypieal mierehe, to, inaleato its ariginm?meahantem or fir*tion 1Pm feetores-and lespertiel. 50zio SAVWS 0414,ttirip Ultra ririnbatia) raPrihe tits" ait7P whiCh poseeso oertain traits at strallswitt with trical powlocenie lAwotzrta Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?9, ming* sow? 'Mr &re the revult of seprophytice of the Utter1 vhioh odour"' under the fluenee Ar ehenotherepeutis preparations, antibiotise.o,peocib17, under the influeroe of the protective armeoments ef the orgoniems -cm telp thus obtainedrrexperisehtel eondltiote, tronformed pet,boogenie bocto similar to those !Related tram the crganise4 a lowering of virulenoe immnocenity is 714"ted the emit often. These data pormit one to ocrrou ? assewvtioft Ablot a specific role of such -Arnim In etiology sod rtSh4idenesis of dysentery. Le Verette thinks that they aro the *suite of the mat, lenient, ohrorie farm of this Infection* en0 their high resistance favorable factors in the external environment and their prolosced vabilit7 nutmide the oroaniemexplaine oertain peculiarities rof the oidetAls propees of modern dysentery. One eculd aceept this Idea on principle, '-ut for its full of,ntirmstion special iv, Went* and cbrervatiene are rem. 'paired. Oth(Ar reseerohers (Deneth)1 panting out to los virulence ce Ate full ehr,nce ln styrioal strains do not ermign to the latter ary itsrsoNlnee Li, the eoldemiolorz of intipotione disease* (dysentery). re ono refusee to mewlse spy oartleipetion of sfypioal Otro4N1 the arisim f infectious disesses end their role in the epidende yliocese, there yet reMe1ne an unsolved question about the possibility trt theist ?ti liestiot tor the :,:;t1rpAsie of diegnosties Otr indieetion of soatonimaticft environment, question le undsubtediy eanneeted with theprob1sftak,mtt the nature of stypi.,1 microbes. Nevarthelese all that is known t-T$ flo a:141,1,4 thee? elerobeei-pernits us to raise the queetlen nee about the neeerst- to ?onside? then es etiologissed epldelielogic indinatere. b, p.Uazry data at our dieposal Olokhinso Pecoreliekels twinova. nieadnek U1rbs Oeroki tnititute et Vseeines anel Uri) titegin p.T) permit ue to think peesible to conduct epesialreeeareh on utilisation o4 tYPUrel Adretw,,,, in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans. ikogrin order to 0 of infectious dimoases mtt.e, pothecenio latoreibes i the external environment. Op to ti n >riessent tIme tho problem of opeelee.and of spool** fors0.0, non ii,bnetrla revaime mmeolved. The determination of species, ti'Ttei, 7i;y T. Di 4010mk14 rovsole the nature of this bielegioal soneeption. gome rossarchnre, ;Amen-ad:Inc from this determination make, an attesrot t* *anent* oseresson to it in referees* to pathoconie bacteria (nreatoov Timaker, Wine). But, nevertheless, nee should take into considerntiln that, while determining the spoolse of one or another pathogenic micreAm we must ;'rftmit al/ the features And properties which were developed coV. Plved In it during the !,:rocese of evolution and !Alen characterise it Wor conditions of habitat. VS met, besides that now the range diro'YAlml of irt&Uttof these features depending And In ecort..'ice with tha change of stalditiono of life and dovelopmont, or tho rathoonie slorolv. From here ?emends the idea that a spiel., ?caprices a oertain *apaanv rar 'variability tele this istituds of variation, eharaoterises the species. tInfortunately, all these statements bear a tottered ,,haraeter, as yet, haw ott full alretenatico of pathezetio orga*Isse, which vtral4 mrleet the says of their ewelutionary development ar4 would take into consId4ra the oho*, of thoir baste features and'propertise. als* de not haym sufficiently correet understanding of the ? idaries pf *peels' in bte,lrii, in consequerve of wbich maw foram are referred by sem authors to 1.44#704. dent spools:4 othmrs te varietles, and so Ons Thisquestion mil rof?-1 an espeolaliy Liperhant neaning, WNIO WO it with variability which emeten, as it is maid hgratd tho limits expeeise. 7. !). lirsenke (lotted earller) ointa it tk.t 'mci Lt bee tto to confirm b7 I.disputable experiments the seneration by *me btit Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. AigogrO . ? species .e.)f rt.* n.tld tdcrobes of other bioliv.iesil speioa. lndeid, possible to ltiple and quite irr*'iekly conguoto4..x2er-iztuxt$ as tre res4t transformation of oto *peeled fbeiotfria e.nother v.vAS ,....4served to mew, for instance.s eenversion Aue roe 1.,.1 pasuilovx)'.b,.;,,rovinr. frovi illyeontorio Sent* to tntosti flr,..uo. Flecryorio dyienter .? to A'vrntyphoisio rind eo on ( qiuk.ou'a?Verestesikervo. lonska la rturetts. bane's, There is no doubt thaA this; research bee aont. ties' value* 1..rcAt t!* question retains usosolvue s-bout th tbtUtyuk.3" Aral eorditions and obcpat its role th the ini?vo' rirad epidomio ? MAO t V) rocker t.Nr .prot lens ,.2e, it 14 nooessery also the preblen # pooise sad of the sariobilikr the fornetiov. !vr r %avow althoui,h it. theoretical side csan be ocasidered f latentlydeimloper.) the prectioal side, etich worries is, es roe ta studies tho o!)idemitial prawn, rwstins rot unsolved. the considcratiofruti expressed in the present article, as room& problems of variabilitf. which require ;solving as 4044 44 possible 4* pretend to be exhaustive. li,ove of theme, nicht have missed or ttorr.n. suffielent U upon, sone yet reualn disputable. . aut tnany ease it tz quite shvimos +that the reeearen in field et variability of pathAllto microbes uutit he raised to the next, bids-est degree le the scientific .te1.0 metbodleal rest:eats and to solve in tho ebeeteet time the question* oe this interesting, probler- *doh has both theoretical and practical -value. 4. halm no doUbte about further succeesssi their ...guarantee is Ahr..7 remsrksAe teht.16 of 1. 7. 1.ehurin, ixtoh los based on Arxianswiteri7. thedoloa. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-971 (In full) vek Gaut., G. F., and Kochetkora# G. V. Ismenchivost' t varlanty produtsenta alrbomitsina. (Variation and variants of the alba:vein producing (organism). Aktdemila Nauk 668R. Doklady, vol. 8, no. 6# p.1179.1181. 1956. 511 1444A (In Russian4 (submitted by Academician V. N. Shaposhnikov* Jan. 27, 1956). In making a study of the albomyoin producing organise, AotinaNmil subtropious, we observed a. unique picture of variation of this ray fungus which differs sharply from the regularities described in literature with respect to the producing organisms of other antibiotics. Ws, discovered different variants ir. the A. subtropioue culture, to wits 1) variants that in addition to albomycin produce a small quantity of an antibiotic chemically sharply distinut from albomyein which we named :the "second factormi 2) variants that produce pure *abater:sin litheut any admixtures of the "second factor"; 3) "imperfect" variants producing prilerily the mespoond factor" and only a small amount of albomyein. After long cultivation, some stream proved to be completely stable and retained permanently their meebership (prinadlezhnostfl within a speoifio variatit. Other *trains, however, proved unstable and segregated during cultivation into different variants. Aa a result of our investigations, it was possible to establish the complex 410 pioture of variation within the limits of the Actinomyces subtropious species that, in our opinion, is of theoretical as well as practical interest in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 IA) Arm sin ? "ensIL maintaining the culture of the albomycin.producing organism in an active status for a long time. The following is a eonvenient method for the detection and classia. fixation nf the culture's variants. A spore: suspension of an A subtropious oulture is plated on the surface of an agarised culture medium in Petri dishes IP various dilutions. After 48 hours of growth at 28' [O, individual colonies are out out together with a small piece of surrounding agar and are floated into a melted and chilled, nearly congealed, culture agar, one colony each in the center of a Petri dish. Then, after 72 hours of culti- vation at 28' [C] two staphyloeoceal cultures, one sensitive and the other resistant to aboorcin action (see fig. 1) are put in streaks Ish4khamil around each colony. A resistant staphylococeal culture was obtained from the sensitive motif a result of its adaptation to elbow:in, and it developed adequately at an alhomyolA cemseatratien equivalent to 1000 units/m1 and above. Pig. 1. Different variants of A. subtropious during growth in Petri dials. [Begin p.II80]. In experiments co-ducted in adaptation of staphylococci an albomyoin preparation containing 100,000 units of activity per mg was Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. Aw971 In utilizin; the method indisated we obwved the following piwno- menon (fig. 1). While inhibiting the growth of sensitive stephylooeool* an* some A. subtropleus oolonies did not iWthe least inhibit the develop. sent of stephyloemoi resistant to elbouyoin that grew in the immediate vieinity of the albemysinaproducing colony (variant A). Further obemiOal investigations have demonstrated that cultures obtained from such colonies excreted only aihomvoin into the surrounding medium in eubierged fermentation* without forming simaltaneously other antibiotis substances. Colonies of variant B inhibited the growth of sons'. time as 'sell as of resistant staphylococci* although in the latter twice as 'weak an in the first. Chemical investigntions have demonstrated that cultures Obtained from such colonies produoes in the main* albomysin* but con. oomitantly also the "second antibiotic testae that eanftet be isolated from the cultural liquid by the method used in obtaining albomyoin. And tinnily* the colonies of variant V inhibited in oval measure the growth of staphylo. coast sensitive to albompin and these resistant to it. Chemical investi- gations have shown that cultures obtained from such colonies in submerged fermentation yield okay a 81'11 amount of albomyein and produce chiefly the 'Second antibiotic tooter" possessing a different mechanism of baoter1s4 action. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 k%) Trans. A.971 Zone of inhibition of growth in staphyleomoi by a single oo in No. of oolosy, Sensitive Resistant No. of colony Sensitive Resistant I /15 IT , 9 * It 2 14 13 20 14 14 3 17 0 11 21 16 4 111 15 13 17 15 5 16 0 13 13 13 4 17 15 14 14 13 6 15 13 15 1313 . ? a.m.* In making a study of the variation of the original albemyoinvroduoing strain that initially represented a pure lire cultivated In a laboratory for several years, we, during a plating of spore suspensions, isolated 49 oolenies of variant Bs 6 eolonies of variant A4 and 6 colonies of variant Y. 111 Similar result* were obtain also in other analogous experiments. Thus, the colonies of variant 3 represt the fundamentals normal type of the a1bomycin0 prosdueing organism with a quantitative preponderance over other variants. After isolating different variants from the original cultures we in- vestigated the question as to how firmly the individual lines retain(the characters of] their membership to a speeific variant in oases of long culti. vation and multiple passages on agarised media. For this purpose we, from time to time, plated spore suspensions of individual lines obtained from different original variants and analysed their eomposition by the method described above. It proved that some lines were completely stable and re* tamed their meahership to a speeifie variant, for several years. Thus, for examples of the lines whieh we investigated, one of variant A (line no. 8) which produces purealbonyein without an admixture of the ?almond faotoro 411 moved very etable, 124 oultures of the progeny of this line were investi.. gated in the course of two years and all of thesis without any exceptions Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A-471 belonged to variant A. However, among the progeny of many other linos that belonged to variant A and to other variants, a segregation of prom parties and the appeerance of variants of different types were observed. Thus, stability appears to be a property of a certain line or culture, but by no means .a' propertyof a **Asia variant. In opanootion with the results obtained it was necessary to investi- gate the segregation character (login p.1131) 'in. cultures for the purpose of detecting rosiprooal relations ooeurrring between the different variants. With regard to this, culture no. 1$, a member of the "imperfect" warlant V is of speoial interest. A typical segregation or properties which we observed among the offspring of a given culture is reflected in table 1. Data in table 1 indisate that of 1$ inspected single colonies iso- lated frame given culture, 13 colonies belonged to the *isperfeet* variant V and 2 eolefties (nos. 3 and 5) produced poss albogroin, i.e. they belonged to variant A. We inspected a total of LOB single soleniee of the progeny of the *imperfect" culture no. 1$ of which 100 matures belonged to. the parent .weriant 1? and 9 cultures to variant A. In a Series of similar other eases we observed that during cultivation cultures of variant V segregated a small namber Of varientA-oultures, but never did segregate oor variant 11 cultures. It must be noted Vat variant A cultures whioh produce pure albomyein and tool segregated from cultures. of the *imperfeet* variant V proved to be entirely stable it further oultivntioni the,140.progeny or these oultures whloh we studied belonged without any exception to variant A. In turning to the more complex variation oases which we have repeatedly Observed, it must be noted that intermediate forms were observed between Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? TmL,/ inteitute po Isyskanilu NovykhAntibiotikov akadomii Nediteitsk1kh Kaiak s3SD Reosived Deo. 2?* 1955 [Institut:1 of Research for New AntibLotios Amide's, of Nsdloal galena's USSR). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A.09,1 variants A and B1 If variant D inhibits the grnwth of albomyoin.reststatt etaphyloojimsol by SOZ as compared with the ;"owth of sensitive staphy1moecoi, then the intermediate forms ttat produce a 'mailer amount of ths "eon d faotorn* inhibit the growth of resistant staphylceecol by 10.24. Intermediate form are found also between tho variants and V which ithibit the growth of alba. myoin-resistant staphylosocci by 7040K. Fig. 2. Peelprocal relations between t dtft.r.rxt variants of A. aub1treplota? In making a study of a series of variant A eulturoe it proved that they ars eapai?le et segregating oultures of variant B and also the intermediate matures between A and O. Those intermediete vultures are* in turn* unstable and segregate into 4t* V and intermediate forme. Sono cultures of the 'normal. D variant are also oapable or sommating transitioral forms with either an increased or &wowed oontent of the *Goosed testae. Thus* study of the variation of segregating matures of A. sub taus has led us to the **hems for reoipreeal relations *marring between the different variants represented on fig. 2. The arrows on this scheme indioats the transitioa of some variants Into others whioh actually were observed in our experiments. ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Ar.um. VI (In full) TEA Conference on Filterable Farms of NierObes at the Institute of Experimental Biology of the Academy of Nedioal Scienee of MR. Zhut. Mikrobiol. Epidemiel. t ImmunObiols; vol. 27. no, 30 p.126.127. MO.r. 1950. 448.3 KG (In Russian) A Conference on the probleme filterable forms of microbes was held On the 14.16th November, 1955. at the Inwtitute of Experimental Biology of the Aeademy of Medical Seism's of USSR LLMN SUR). Allsotivo part in the Conference was taken by the Member of the ABS MR, Professor Os B. Lep*. shinekaiaOhe.Namber of AMR SSW, Professor N. N. Zhakev.Vereshnikov, Professor S. I. Sherisherina (Saratov). Is N. Maiskii, V. S. Gostev, Fe T. Grinbaue6 V. A. IrestoVnikova, V. N. Boseadeadanskii (Leningrad). B. G. Vainberg (Odessa); Doctors of Stein/sal Seience D. G. iudlei. P. Its Vials" (Kiev) N. I. Ultima (foroki), N. 16 Went Candidates of Radical Salome E. N. Nelikeva, I. I. Bybee (Chernovitsy). A. G. Samosa CRoetovweft0D04), N. V. Petrov, A. P. Pokhove A. Mk. Zhelkeviehe A. V. Paohkova, G. Ks Islashnikova. N. S. Goriaehkine, G. Bs. Ragan, Le Ge Perehina and others, in all more than TO persons. A report was heard from Professor O. P. lalinw; it was entitled *Summary of studies of the problem of filterable forms of aerates and pros. poets for further development of this probleel as well as a series of reports, which were conducted recently, on results of studios of filterable forms. Sixteen people took part in disoussions. The Conferenee eclopinod the fole lowing unanimous decisions *The conference states tiat lately in the Soviet Union, as well as abroad. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t4) "rums ? ?11.4?V 14 a large work has been conducted on studies of problems of filterable forms of micrObes. The peculiarity of works, which were acoaplished in our country of late, was the methodological treed in the greatest part of red. searoh, in it, for the first time in history of studies of filterable forms, was found a reflection of the general bielogioal regularity, and the fild. arable forms were studied from the proeition of the law of development. At the present time the fact of the existenee of filterable forms has received an undisputable recognition. It Is especially important to emphasize that, with the exception of single treetn it was pointed out in the greater part of research that the filterable forme of microbes represent a living substance, deprived of all structure, and whieh was capable of developing into cell forms. Analysis of the reaatly accumulated experimental material permits one to sum up the studies of the problem of filterable form and to am to an UnAAINSUS understanding on may questions, connected with this problem. 1. The name "filterable forme became obsolete in the light of modern ideas, and does not arrOspond to the meaning which was imparted to this aderstandiu. Filterability is only one of the peculiarities of the living substanee which does not have any cellular structure, also this feature is not the basie one and is not alloys inherent to this substance. The term *ultramiorceoople* also does not correspond to the rant of the preseht time in connection with suseesses which were attained in the field of studies of the problemeith the aid of the elootron miaow:sop; the more so because the existence of a living substance of a anallhlar 'structure was established, which is of a else that can be Observed through an optical microscope. A name, more appropriate to modern ideas, is"0 living sob. stance of microbes, which does not )eve a cellular structure or for short Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 '0 living substanoe of microbes** which is then suggested for general use by the Conference. 2. The living oubstaene of microbes clan be detected in cultures of any age without other additional injurious reactions. The basic physiologi, cal cause, which assists in the appearance of living stibsterce in cultures* mast be considered the physiologioal aging of wells, which is a000mpanied by their loes of multiplioation funotion and autolysis. Al]. the harseulAY acting faotors both the natural (biological) es well as the artificial* only farce the decomposition of cells and the release of living substance. 3. Tho living substance of microbes possesses S greater resistance to hnrmful physical* thermal, chemical, and biological footers* than the coil forms. Nevertheless the limits of resistance mast yet be experimentally established. 4* During the proses. of development of cells from the living substance there tales pinoe a passage through several phases (stages)* whieh are characterised by morphologioal, biologimal* biochemical and antigenic pro. 'sorties specific for each stage. 54 The initial stage of development of microbe *ells of differen6 kinds from the living **betas.* is characterised by the commumfty of a series of features independent of to whit:1h species it belongs; itegin p.127) forention of the species specificity of the developing cultures wears during the following generations. ln this oasis* there ean tate place both a rem version to the initial speoies through a series of intermediate forms, cors, responding to pnylogenetioally earlier speoies, as well as a formation of other species* depending on conditions under whioh the developmeet occurs. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (i) Trans. A-072 0. There exist two baste point; at view on the question of the nature and of the biological sense of the living substance of microbes, which do not have a cellular structures a) development of microbe oells from the living substance remeents a result of adaptable variability of *elle to unfavorable oonditions of exists/nest b) preoeIlular living substance of aerobes represents an initial stage of their ontogenie development. 7. A further development of methods is necessary for a produotive study of the problems studies of meohanisme of formation of the liming sub.* steams, of its aoeumulntion and its forcing of develOpment of microbe cells 111 from the living substance, 9. Demends for uneonditienal authenticity, previsions for controls and the highest approximntion to natural oonditions must be required of all methods. 9. The Conference eonsiders desirable a conducting of comparative evaluation of the existingg-methods for the purpose of unification and for meeting the requirements of practise. 10; It is. necessary to **thine into a single complex the marphologioal, biologicals biochemical and immunologioal method* of research, using Om- tensively the method of deeelerated microfilming when studying the develops mint of molls from living substance and the formation of the latter. 11. The Conference reeemmends to pay special attention to further deg, velopment of reeearch on the living substance of microbes, as applicable to 111 diagnoetios of Wootton* diseases, their pathogenesis, immunogenesis and propilylaxis. 12. Taking into consideration the *pedal plasticity of cultures, which Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A?en develop from the living substance* to utilise them in order to try to obtain living vaeoinal strains. 13. The Contemn)* considers it necessary to ask the Problem Com- mittee on the Variability of itiorebes at the ANN S8SR to take into con. etWeration the recommendations of the present Conferenee when preparing the Five.fear.Plan. 14. The Conference ',consider, es expedient the organisation of a meth?. dical oomMinetion center on the studies of problems of development of microbes from the _living substanee. 15. To ask the Organisation Cammittee of the All.Union Convention of Micro. biologists, Rpidersiologists* Infootionists, Eirgieniats and Sanitary Doctors to include the report on the development of microbe sells from living substance as one of the basis reports on the program question about the variability of mioroorganiessis Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-975 (In full) v Popenenkovas Z. A. Ismenenie sodershaniia nukleinovykh kislot v kisheohnoi palochke e priobretennoi crizeminoustoiohivostliu. [Mange of nooleio acid content in '_ntestinal rod with an acquired crizeminisresistance]. Zhur. .;a1a4obiol. rpidemtol. S. Immunobiol. vol. 27, no. 1, p.2642, Jan. 1956. 448.5 Zik (In Russian) Cases are described in literature of loss of acquired medicine.' res. sistance after joint onitivation of resistant strains with the sensitive ? or after addinz of extracts of the latter to the medium (Voureka, 1948). A more protracted researoh has shown, that ia return from penicillin-re., sistant state to the sensitive one is connected to the presence of ribo- nucleic acid In the extract from the aexsitive bacteria (George and Pandalai, 1949). Maros (1951), studying the contents of nuclei* acids in zrisemin. resistnnt and in the initial strains of the Staphylococcus aureus and of the intestinal rod 3.n 6,12,24 and 48 hours after multiplication has ?stab.* lished that in resistant strains the amount of riborszolsio acid is reduced while desovribonuoleic acid reined unchanged. The Greatest chaige in the contents of ribonucleic aoid bet.reen the resistant iltyl the sensitive strains was noted in the younger cultures. 7;ith aging this [Begin p.271 difference diminished. The purpose of the ?resent work was to find out if the ? contents of nucleic acids chanc,,ed during the process of multiplication of intestinal rods with an acquired resistance to critical,. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A?973 ? For this work we utilised the initial strain of the intestinal rod no. 613, resistant to 15.6 tolerance units/M1 of grisemin, as well as grisetain.resistant strain no. 613 8, which was developed in the presence of .266.000 tolerance unite/al (the 'strains were given to us by A. F. goros; Soientifio Co...Worker of the Department of Experimental Chemotherapy). Ordinary meat broth with pH t 7.6 served as nutrient medium. We used grisemin, series no. 13 as the antibiotic; 1 mg of it contained 18,000 units. .Into 2 large bottles; containing each 3 L Of neatbrowth, which was heated to 37.? we added a 48 hour-old broth culture of the intestinal rod in a 'ratio of 3.010 X 106 bacteria per 1 ml of Culture medium. Atatibiotie was ,added to the medium together with bacteria. In ether respects the bacteriological and chemical research was don" ducted according to the method described in the report I(1). In eonneotion with the, lag in the process of sulti.plication of the resistant strain the rating of colonies in dishes was conducted 48 hours later after keeping 'it in the incubator at 37'. For the initial strain the colonies were determined after 24 hours.. When cultivating in a broth by a deep method, t.he intestinal rod, a strain resistant to grisomin, the duration of the lag plias was similar to that of the cultivation of the initial strain (about 1 hour ? see figure 1). (I) ZIEI, 1955, no. 12. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) 22ve,na. A?973 Titlo of fiGuro 1. /norcaoo in tho =bore of living bacteria during the procoa0 of hultiplication in A moat broth. I ? B. coli 613 ? initial ?train; 1.1 ? B. ooli 613 ? Griardn?rooiotent ?train without. tho ar-rtibiotio; III ? coli GlS ? Gricomin?reaiotent ?train in tho prOconco of 60 toloradoo unite/mi of Griaemin. Vords in fi?-zuto 1. At tho lofts nurabor Of bacteria X 108 in ml of broth; boneaths tire in hour?. Both otraino of the intectinal rod bogan to multiply 1-15jhoura after tho coodinG. But oltoo the Thrst no=nt of caltiplioation it woo clearly coon tt tho proceco of, fiaoion in tho zriconin?recictant otrain ran retarded. To each 1 ni of broth 2,600 nein of livinG miorobo bodioo of the initial ?train and 6 billion of cricomin?rociatant atrain 'wort) ?coded. In 2 hours the nurtor of bacteria in culture? booamo oqual, and after 34 hour? in the culture of .tho initial ?train there wort) octirntod 2 time? nor? of living bactoria, than in tho oulturo of the roolotant otrain. The moot intensive raltiplicatioa in both ctraina van noted &wins tho _ ? poriod botzoon 6 and 6 houra. DurinG thin period the ooncitivo and tho grioorain?roointant intootinal rode =at/plied with about tho ca Lz apood (the initial ? 37 ninutoo, Griaorain?reciatant MA minutes). In the initial strain after 6 houro tho pr00000. of multiplication continued with a Gradually diminishinc OpOed of fiaaion (growth in tho nunbora of living bactaria was- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. a.uya noted up to 18 hours), but In the culture of the resistant begin p.20] intestinal rod only -a slight multiplication of bacteria took place, and then the number.of.living bacteria began to decrease. With a deep method of culturing the griseminmresistant rod ditided slower than the oensitive; 'the period of its multiplication was shorter (the phase .of dying off bean after 8 hours, while in the initial strain after 18 hours). It wee also established by the research of Mores (1951) that. after the usual cultivation in a broth the grisemInmrssistant intestinal rod dim Tided slower than the sensitive, but the process of its multiplication in such a case continued for a longer time (48 hours). Illen'growing griceminmresistent strain in a broth containing 50 tolerance units/id Of grisemin, we discovered the following. The resistant intestinal rod multiplicd during the course of the first,two hours in like manner as without the antibiotic. lialtiplication in the presence of .crieemin ' proceeded well mare actively after two hours of cultivation (see figure 1).. During the period between 3 and 12 hours, the griseminmrosistant rod multiplied with about the same speed as the initial strain. The process of multiplim tation'of the griseminmrseistant intestinal rod lengthened in the presence of grisemin in the culture m the plows of dying off occurred approximately 4 hours later, than without the antibiotic. Gristmill produced a clearly stimulating aotion on the process of multiplication of griseminmresistant intestinal rod. In its presenee the speed of fission of bacteria approached the ipeed of fission of the initial strain. Thus, during the process of acquiring the resistance to grisemin, this strain also acquired a dependence on it. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) 7?rano. A.973 Analyst? of oontonts of nucleic* aoido in tho intootinal rodo durinG tho course, of 26 halt? of thoir tultiplication hap ohc7ni that in tho Initial otrain (figuro g) an acoutulation of both typos of nueldio acids ' bOgan from tho first =tont of cultivation. Tho amount of tucloid acids . , tao.grouing'during tho first half of tho lag phado (during tho.00uroo of the first BO Minutoo), then during' the poriodo otioh prOoodod tho toginning of fissiOn of bactoria, Ocourrod ito ineignificant dooroaeo. Comiaridon of the curve of accumulation of bacterial made and of tho curt? of multipliaa. tion of.bactoria oh=ed that at tho end of tho lag phado tho bacteria collo increapod in-oico. rhy be Cita erplainod tho dooroatio, during thio period, ,of tho amount of nucleic acids ror might unit of bacterial mace (figure 2). Titlo rf figure 2. Contonto of nucleic acido in tho initial strain of B. colt 015 during the prOpecs of taltipleoa- tion in a broth: I . ribonuoloio acid; I/ ? d000vribonuoloio acid; III ? amount of bacterial Moe; /7 ? =Mbar of living bacteria. - Ilrordo in figuro 2. At the lefts amount of dry maos in mg X 102/1, ofbaotorial culture. Amount of nuoloio aoido in moging of , dry bacterial taps; boiai, tiro in hours; at tho right.oidot number of bacteria X 108 in ml of broth. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) ? Trano. A?973 ? Then their contonts again increasod and aftor 3. houro attainod a maxiMum. During tho period betttroen 3 atd 0 houro a drop in tho amount of nuoloio acid? ma noted. Their amount abruptly doorcsood during the period from 3 to 6 houro (during tho mcrnt of the meet intennive (Begin p.291 mitt" plioation of bacteria), aftor that the reduction proceeded oomerhat slower ? (tin appall of miltiplioation of bacteria fell). After 0.12 houro the decree:go of the Oontonto of =clots: acid? ?topped and their amount again began to inoreaco Gomm:tat (arluggiship toak multiplication of. bacteria proceeded in the culture). Aftor 18 houre (phaco of dying off of beater%) an impavoriohnent in .nuoloic acido vac notod in the intectinal rodo; 00 Titlo of figure 3. Content? of nuoloio acids in grisettin? resistant ?train of B. colt 613 &using the prooeco of multiplication in tho broth. I ? ribonuoloio acid; II ? d000xyribonuoleio acid; III ? anount of bacterial tIn? 0 ? ntimbor of living bnotoria. Tlordo in figure) 3. At the lofts amount of dry mace in ng X 102/1,. of bacterial culturo. Amount of nuoloio acid? in modrag of dry bacterial mace. noir: time in hcrure At the rights nurbor of bacteria X 10' in m.1 of broth. It Jo coon from figuro 3 that in gricomin?rosiotant culture during tho ' lag phado tho cis? of bacterial cello became larger* ohilo the amount of nuoloio,acido doorcasod per roight unit. During the palming of bacteria neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. from the iag pIrtoo to the, phaso of locsrithmio L.,roth the amount of nuoloio- aoido inorceood in then. tith tho advaneo of the period of the fastoot caltiplication. (from 3 to 6 houro) the anovot of ribonuoloio'aoid in in:toot/ca. 1 rods deoreaood considerably. The intensity of Lultiplication did not tell on the oontents of dosozyribonuoloio acids its' amount continued to craw. 17ith ' the cognation of multiplication of crioominftroSiatant inteotinal rods the ? amount of ribonnoloio acid in. them inoroaced quickly, and the amount of . dgesavribonuoloio aoid rerminod approxiontoly the cams. ? Daring the climax of the dyins off phace of baotoria the rods became impoverished in nnoloio acids. . Tho followinz: data (coo figure () were obttlinod trith the Grioomin? resiotant intootiml rods ?chioh T? rcrzn in the preeonoo of grisemin. h.,/, 8Prom 4. we% Title of fizuro 4. Contents of nuoleio aoido in criseminaTosiotant ctrain of D. coli 013 &Irina -Vmae prooess of multiplication in the broth in the pr000noo of 50 toloranoe units/m1 of - crioomin. I riboSnuoleio acid; I/ doaoxyribonuoleio acid; III - ameumt-of bacterial ratan; DT no...er of living baoteria. rordo in fizuro 4. At the'left; amount of dry cc in ms X 102/L. ? of baot?rial culture. Amount of nuoloio acid? in imachaz of dry bactorial mos. Dolcas Time in. hours. At the richt* nutter of baoterin X 103 in as1 of broth. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 The amount of nuoloio aoido oomewhat dooreaood during the firot half of tho lag phaose, (tho oleo of doll? incroaood), aftor that their amonnt rodo, attain:Inc tin'uZzicanoftor 3 houre. L'ith the approach of tho period of the modtactite,mpltiplication (from 8 to 8 bourn) the contonto of both typoo of hUoloid aoido foil. After 8 houro the procdoo of multiplication of . cricomin.renistant ropFui in the pr000noo of crisomin olo=ed down and tho amount of nuoloie acido acain incroaood. rith tho approach of the phase of , Wegin.p.601 dyina off of bacteria (aftor 12 hOuro of Growth) tho intootinal rode became poorer in nuoloic acid?. Time, tho oontonto Of nucleic aoido in both otraire of intestinal rode mao in ?loco intordependenee with tho procood of multiplioation. -thon comoarins the curvet) of contonto Of ribonuoloio acid in the ? oensitive and in tho Grioomin-rdoietaht intootimal rode (noire 6), it vas ? coon that their dytanloo in tho oonoitive microbes co well as in that which became re:act:ant to crioomin, Two oimilar. 2itlo of ficure 6. Contents of ribonuoloio acid in the inteptinil rod during the pr000so of multiplication in a broth. I . crioonin.rooistant otrain 81611 II . initial ?train 8181 III crioomin.resiotant strain 812 in tho prom:taco of 60 .toloranco units/61 of Grioomin. 17ordo'in fiGuro 6. At tho lofts Attoutrt of VA in redMa of dry bactel-ial moo. Bononths time in hoar?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 \u/ wan?www ? But in the intestinal rod, which was resistant to grisemin, a con. eiderably cl1or content of ribonuoleio acid (approximtely by 2.3 time) was noted during the course of the first two hours of growth (lag phase and the beginning of legarithmio growth). After the third hour, the moment of the most Intense multiplication, its contents in both strains became Exp. proximately equal; after this the amount of ribonucleic acid in the resistant strain exceeded the amount in the sensitive strain, because it multiplied slower than the sensitive and during the course of a shorter time. In grisemin.resistant intestinal rod, whidhi was cultivated in the presence of grisemift, the curve of contents of ribonucleic acid ?coupled a.middle position between the contents of the initial and griseminpresistant strains. Tinder the cited tenditions (addition of grisemin) the centente of ribonuoleio acid in srisemineresistant bacteria increased during the lug phase and at the very beginning of the phase ,of logarithmic multiplication; after this occurred its much stronger reduction, when compared to the grisemin.resistant strain, rhioh was grown without the antibiotic, because the addition of grisemin stimulated the prodess of multiplication or grisemim. resistant intestinal reds; - As for ddeoxyribonuoleio aoldj the comparison of the corresponding. curvee (figure 6) points to the change of dynamics of its contents in the intestinal rod, which was resistant to grisemin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R016400020001-7 ?LU) UMW ? lf?bV1 0 ??? Title of figuro 6. Contents of doso4yribonuoleio acid in the intestinal rod during tho proses? of itegropth in broth. .1 . B. colt 013 - initial strain) I/ B. colt 618 . grio;:in-rooiotant Strain; III . B. colt 618 grisomin. resistant !Aran in tbo prosonoo of 60 toloranco units/ml of grisomin.7- Cordo in ft:tiro O. At the lefts amount of MI in modm of dry baotCrial co,.M Boneaths timo in hourO. If in the initial strain the acoutUlation of tho indicated acid ra0 dOtOoto4 lance tho first tomsnt of baotorial cultivation, then in tho grioemiri. rooictant otrain its quantity doorcaood during tho ntolo lag phaco. In thO initial otrain tho contents of-dosovribonuoloio.aoid attainod their maxi. tum after 8. houre, thon dropped abruptly (with the approach of tho ported - of fact bultiplyinZ), butt/1th the olcuing doln of multiplication they again increaood somotihat and finally (Bogin p.31] decreaced during the 'poriod of dying off. In tho gridomin.rooistant Otrain the ptooden of accumulation of docOxyribOnuoloio acid did not stop after 3 hoard, althsacA at that .moDont tho grisomin.rosiotant intoctinal rod was dividing nith tho greateat opoods tho amount of acid incromood during the coutoe of 6 ? hours of fiocion. 7lith the onsot-of.the phaco of dying off a drop in tho amount of dosmyribonuoloic acid began at first gradually, but after a whilo more quickly. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 "., [Begin p.321 Griseminaretietant intestinal rod, which grew 1.h a meditus contsining grisemin occupied a.middle position in dynamics of the contents ,of the latter. Miring the big phase the curve resetbleclthe curve of the griseMina, resistant strain. After that the curve acquired a similarity with the curve of. the initial strair as the process of multiplication under suoh condi? tiontsPproximated t, rocess of growth of the initial strain); that is, the amount of acid increased up to 3 hours, and then dropped. With the lag in the process of growth the amount of desoMyribonucleic acid in grisemin. resistant bacteria, in the presence of grisemin, increased far greater, than in the initial strain, approaching its amount in grisemin.resistant bacteria which were cultivated without grisemin. At the beginning of the phase of ' dying off the contents of the acid dropped. And we succeeded to note that .the griseminwresistant strain during the extent of the first three hours of growth (during the lay phase and at the beginning of the phase of logarithmic!' growth) contained a somewhat smaller amount of desomyribonuoleio acid (about lktimes),.the grisemin?resistant intestinal rod surpassed the sensitive one . in the tmount of the cited acid during the nett period of its development: catictusioms 1. Intestinal rod, with an acquired resistance to grisemin, contained a smaller amount of nUoleio acids than the initial, during the course of the leg phase and at the beginning of the phase of logarithmic tultiplioation. In the intestinal rod, resistant to grisemin, dynaelos of oontents of ribonuoleio acid during the process of growth were essentially similar to its dynamics in the sensitive strain, while the dynamics of desOmyribonuoleio Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) ? Trans. A?973 acid soMewhat changed to a growing direction. 3. In the intestinal rod contentb of nucleic acids are in close inter.. combat/on with the precise? of multiplication. 4. rti,th a deep method of cultivation the grisemin.resistant intestinal ? rod multiplied slower than the sensitive and the ptIried of growth vas shorter (the phase of dying off ;began 10 hours earlier) than in the initial ? form. 6.? . Gridemin produced a stimulating notion on the precess, of tultipli.. , cation of the grisetin-resistant intestinal rod. LIM/AVM lives, A. F., On the question of the essence of the rrocess of ao. quiremont of resistance to olismoth6rapeutio preparations by. bacteria. Actorep6rt, diftertation, 144, 1961. - George Er. and Panda/al. K., lancet, 1949, 114 11, p.966. ei Voureks, A.. lancet, 1948, N. 2* p.62. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A4.04 (In full) *vox, A.?. Dinamikatibrazovanila in vitro Os oiohivykh form bakterii k antibiotika. grizeminu. (The dynamics of formation in vitro ofiresidtant bacterial forms to the antibiotic, grieemini. Zhur. Mikrobiol..Epidemiol. ii unobiol, vol. 27, no. 12, ..65.71, Dec. 1956. 448.3 Z4 (In Russian) ? Drug.resiatant forme of bacteria are formed after their repeated rog. ? seedings on media which contain chemotherapeutical substances in sub. bactoriostatio doses. In such cases, apparently, two processes take places on the one hand, there occurs a selection of bacteria which are less eon. sitive to the given concentration of the preparation after the elimination ? of all individuals sensitive to the preparation; on the other hand there proceeds a process- of adaptation of the survived forme of bacteria to the increasing concentrations of the preparation, which proves to be for the microbe an unfavorable factor of the external environment. The process of adaptation is of predominant importance in the acquiring of resistance to the medicinal substance by the microbes. From the position of nichurin's biology the resistance of micro+ organisms is a regular effect of interaction of the microbe .?ell with the medicinal substance, which changes the processes of metabolism; and, thus Causes the formation of new resistant forms or death of the sen. sitive beeteria. neclassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans; A-974 The antibiotio grieemin, which was chosen by us for the studies of dynamics of the formation of resistant forms of bacteria, is a dry pro.' potation; it is highly soluble' in water; it was firot obtained in the .Department of Infectious Pathology and Elporimental Therapy of the Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology intent Gamaleia of MITI SSSR Dicademy of .1!Odical Sciences of USSR] under the leadership of Professor Planelted. This preparation retains its activity during the course of unlimited time when in the dry form; it is also preserved quite stably while in solution. Grisemin produces a sharply expressed baoteriostatio action on all bacteria sensitive to its reaction; under certain conditions it can also react becterid. cidally. It wae necessary to test the sensitivity of bacteria to grOemin be. fore beginning ihe studies of dynamics of formation of grieemin resistant forms of bacteria. MI studied the sensitivity of two strains of B. coli, of two strains of staphylococci, two strains of bact ria of Grigorlov? Shiga, of one strain of Plexnorts dysenteric rod and of a strain of h71. bacillus. Orisemin chloride (aeries no. 6), which re utilized for the research, contained 16,000 antibacterial units in 1 mg. For the preparation of workinc solutions of grisemin we dissolved the dry preparation indistilled water at a rate of 1 mg per 1 mi. re utilized in eur work a method of serial dilutions, in test tubes with the addition of agar. Results wore taken from test tubes where the smallest amount of grisemin fully inhibited the crowth of bacteria. It is seen from table 1, in which the results of this preliminary experiment are summed up, that the sensitivity to grisemin in various strains and epecies of microorganisms is different. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 After that we proceeded to study the conditions Under which the formation of grisemin resistant forms of bacteria occurred. The obtaining of grisetinsresistant forma of bacteria in vitro was conduoted-by two methods* 1) Cultivation on Media, which contained constant low concentrations of the preparation, and 2) cultivation on media, which contained progressively increasing concentrations of the antibiotic. (Begin P.66) Table 1. _Sensitivity_of bacteria to_grisemin Microorganisms . Concentration of grisemin in COMM per/ml of mediura . Control, without the antibiotic 0.46 0.9 - . 96 3.9 7.8 16.6 ' Staphylococcus aureus ? A t / 1 .1 / OD ? OP 1111 I / OP lb ah .1 d4 Op MO OP . . II 40 / / // no. 5 Wood's Staphylococcus B; colt no. 613 F. MT' no. 866 Zif57Tev?Schiga bacillus no.-913 The same, no. 1560 Flexner's bacillus' no. 1160 - Amp. banillnn Cofiventional signs. ? presence of the inhibiting action; /absence of action. Concentration in 7.8 tolerance units/61 was chosen as a fixed con- centration of grisemin, in the presence of whiCh we passaged the strains studied by us. Before proceeding with a eystematio daily passaging of cul- tures on agar with the indicated constant concentration of the preparation, the strains, which were sensitive to a smaller amount of grisemin (strain of Wood's Staphylococcus, both strains of bacillus Grigortev?Shiga_and of Plexnerls bacillus), were adapted in succession to 1.951 3.9 and 7.8 unite of grisemin per 1 m1 of medium. We utilized the meat-peptone salt-free',? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans, ,A.974 agar of double concentration se a medium. After a 24-hour stay of the . culture in the incubator on a modiuSiwith the antibiotic, we made reseeding*, first of all, on a median with the same concentration of the antibiotio, andoecondly, on a medium, containing increasing concentrations of the pros paration. This procedure was repeated up to the time when the resistance of strtins inereased and they began to grow in the presence of 7.8 units of grisomin. Having obtained strains, which were resistant to the indicated cons oentration of grim-min, we proceeded with adaptation of all cultures to ? this concentration of the antibiotic. Passage* were conducted at an in.. terval of 48 hours. After each 5 passages the resiitance of strains was tested on the came nutrient medium, containing further consecutively in. Creasing concentrations of the antibiotic. With Such a method Of cUltivation a rather fast increate in resistance was Observed in some strains. As it is seen from figure 1, the resistance increased the. quickest in, dysenteric bacteria, eapeoially in the Origoroev-Shiga bacillus, no. 015; it increased scurehat slower in the other dysenteric strain of 0rigorievs Shiga no. 1360: The resistance of dyeenteric strain of Flexner .no. 1160. increased by 600 times after the 50th passaging. The resistance of B. coli no. 613 increased by 125 times when nearing .???.???1?1?14??? the 35th passaging. In the strain of hay bacillus, examined by um, the resistance to grisemin increased also, after passaging this preparation on subbaoteriostatio oonoentrations. [Begin p.67]. The 'lowest increase. in "resistance to grisomin was observed in staphylococci. Thus, all the cited experiments showed, that the bacteria examined by us, which were originally sensitive to grisemin, formed resistant variants after a considerable number of reseedings in the presence of a constant cons Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . (6) Tratn A.974 Title of fivro 1. /wiretap of rooietanoo of bacteria to tho antibiotic gricemin aftor passaging through oonstant concontratietia of the proration. Vcs?do in figuro 1. At the lofts-ooncontration of gricemin in toleranee unitoiml.; bo1c. pacsagings; inaide the picture Convontional signs: Grigatiev.Shiga bacillus no. 918; Grigorlov.Shiga bacillus no. 1140; PlOinorso bacillus no; 1100; 13. coli no. 818; B. coil no. 806; Staphylococcus no. 6.; Vogio*Mhylosocca. Paocagint,.? through =dia9 containing the increasing concontrationa of . the preparation, uoro conducted in tho follasirks mannor. Prole test tube? rith a comentration of tho proparation rhich produced a noticoable bacteria. static notion, r0000dingc to 9: nutrient modia? containing tho sap or a ? higher concentration of cricomine according to the intoneity of the grouth of ? the corresponding cain 1,oro cdo vith a loop. The above cited salt.froo meat.piptone agr-r of double oonoentration wan uscd as a medium. At the same tire control passaging? of the came -strains wore oonducted oh tho salt. froo agar, thioh did not contain any antibiotic. The ragumaritioo9 rhich =To uncovorod by us, on the rico of the re. ?Jai:ante to gricomin during such a method of cultivation, aro eitod in ' figuro 2. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 te) :MUM* 11.48Wil Ono can Geo from tho oitod data that, aftor cultivation of bactoria on modia vith increacing concontratione of the antibiotiti, a complratively fact formatiOn of tho grInomin rociotant for= occurred. Ono can coo from tho cited curveo that thb dypenteric cultures acquirod a.comparativoly high dogree of rcsistance to gricemin. Highly rociotant variants rev) alco obtained in B. colt and in hay bacillus. Tho etaphylooccoal straind reachod comouhat clOaer tho high level of crisemin. rooiotance. Thus, all the cited,ozporiments shoved that bacteria, tooted by uc, after a considerable nntbor of renoodinge on media mtioh contained in- oreaoins conoontrations of gricomin, becamo resietant to rather high concontrationo of the prOparation. [Begin p.00] Title of fiLuro 2. Inoromee of resistanco of bacteria to anti. biotio gricomin after ito paseaging through incroaoing oom. contration of .tho preparation. Worde in fi;pre no. 2. At the lefts concentration of grisomin in tolerance unite/mi; bololl pascagingo; innido Conventional sigtoi Grigorlov.8hica baoillun no. 913; Grigoriev.Shiga - bacillus no. 1300; Plonnor Is bacillus no. 1160; B. colt no. 613; 11.. rfiti. no. 865; Btaphyl0000cus no. 5; and Erectile StapliiIococous. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 111-011.11 ? 7F Cirigie of variants, which have a .high degree of resistance to - gristmill,. is, positively, a response of microorganisms to the presence in the medium of a specific substance in relation to which a rosistanceis developing. When comparing the results, obtained after passaging thabactoria different methods, one can observe an extremely energetic adaptatility of microbes during the second method of cultivation (passages on media, containing increasing concentrations of grisemin). Compariton of the rise of resistance during both methods of pulturing of bacteria it represented in thercoMbined table 2. Apparently, the difference in the speed of the rise of resistance Of bacteria to grisemin is explained by the fact that in Case of their 041- turing on media which contain a constant low concentration of grisemin, there, basically, taxes place an adaptation to the antibiotie substance, whereas during cultivation on increasing concentrations of the preparation there take place both the adaptation and the selection of the more resietatt organisma. 14 have checked the stability of the resistance to grisemin, acquired by the bacterisq after their prolonged storing in an agar columella under vaseline oil, as well as after a great wither of reseedings on agar, which did not contain the antibiotic. Cbservations have shown that the artifi. ()Lally acquired resistance to grisdmin by the culture did not decrease after storing under vasoline oil for the duration of three years. Cultures, resistant to grisemin were seeded in test tubes with meat. peptone agar and after an 16.20 hour incubation at 37' again wore reseeded to the same agar. After 260 such reseedings those cultures' resistance was tested on meat.peptone agar, containing grisemin. It was established that Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24.: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A..974 the cultures did not lose their acquired capability to grow on a medium . containing high concentrations of the preparation. Consequently, the resiatance to grisemin, acquired by the cultures, can :be preserved for a long time and be transmitted hereditarily. (Begin p.89). Table 2. Increase of bacterial resistance to grisemiswhen cultivating them on increasing and constant concentrations of the antibiotic (comDostt. table Microorganisms - Growth at a :oncentration 111Non passaging through in.. creasinL concentrations "Olen passaging through con. stant concentrations of grisemin in tolerance unite/ml Number of passages Maltiplioity of the increase of resistanoe Number of passages hUltiplioity of the increase of resistance B; alb no; 613 7:. 35 18108 36 125 F. colt, no. 886 156 60 16,000 60 125 Iky baoillus ' 7.8 36 16,000 36 125 Staphylocoacus 7.8 . 70 6,000 70 260 maureus no. 5 ljnd's 8taphylo. coccus 1.95 70 32,000 70 2,000 alialevwShiga , . baciillds no.1360 195 35 8,000 35 2,000 , Same, no. 913 0.97 20 266.000 20 16050 Pleiner's bacillus no. 1160 ! 0.97 60 64,000 60 .. 4,000 A barge nuMher of cases is deectibed in literature when the resistance of bacteria to one antibiotic involve, a simultaneous increaee in resistance to many other preparations. From this point of view it ;sealed interesting to find out if a creased resistance takes place in grisemin resistant baom torte to other chemotherapeutic) substances. We conducted a research in studies of crossed resistance of grisemin resistant cultures to streptomycin, penicillin, aureomycin and chloromyostin. We examined simultaneously the initial eensitive strains and the grisiain resistant variants. As it is seen from table 3, in bacteria, which acquired a resistance to grisemin, a simultaneous increase in resistance to other antibiotics was detected: to penicillin, streptomyoin, aureomycin, and partially to ohloroft Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) . wrens. A+974 mycotin. Orisemin reoistant variants of B. colt and of Staybyl00000us aureus proved to be cross resistant to 'penioillin (from 3 to 64 ,times). Of greatest interest was the change in sensitivity to streptoroyoin in B." bay bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and dysenteric, culture" of Grigoriev. .Shiga after acquiring the resietanoe to crisemin. In strains of B. colt. which were resistant to grisemin, resistance to streptomycin increased simultaneously by 5004,000 times. in grisemin resistant variants of Stappy. lococcus aureus or hay bacillus and of the dysenteric, bacillus Grigortev. Shiga the resistance to streptomycin also increased simultaneously by 25.126 Ulna. Apparently, the inner reorganitation of the baoterial cell, which acquired the resistance to grisemin, spreads to a complex ,of chain reaotions, which, to some measure, include substrata, that are reacted upon by.strepto. wain also. In B. colt an increase was also simultaneously detected in the resistance to aureomycin (by 26 and 81 times) and to chlorowycetin (by 2 tinms)j in dysenteric oultures of.Origoroev.Shiga and of /limner . to chlorosycetin (by 2.4 times). [Begin.p.701 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trani : A-974 Table 34 Microorganisms ? ? - ? Growth at a concentration of gritemin in tolerance unite/M1 Sensitivity in tolerance units/61 41 q Nati')lioity of the ; a increase of resistance 61 0 Sensitivity in tolerance units/m1 5 a ? u...1 Itiltipliotty of the increase of resistance o Sensitivity In 'tolerarae units/mi Mhltiplioity of the increase of resistance ti Penicillin rNfiltiplioity Of the It increase of resistance 13 ...1!1 ;*1 0 43 mi v I: B m4 4 43 e "i 41 ? 0 C/3 4; B. soli no. 613, initial F. Car no:. 613, resistant E % ;MI' no: 865, initial 128,000 15.6 256,000 7.8 128,000 7.8 64,000 1.9 64,000 0.9 256,000 62 4,000- 40 2,000 0.05 0.8 0.02 0.16 64 50 16 - 8 0.2 200 0.4 200 0.8 100 2 . 200 0.8 20 1.6 200 1,000 500 125 . 100 25 ? 125 10 312 12 312 ? ? ? 31 26 . ? 7:8 15.6 15:6 31.2 ' 1.9 7.8 . 2 ? 4 . A A ' ' a. coli no. 865, resistant Way7Siallus, initial Bay bacillus, resistant StaphylOcoccUs aureus no. 5, initial Staphylococcus aureus no. 5, resistant ' -rood's Staphylococcus, initial Wood es Staphylococcus, resistant Bacillus 0rigorlev4higa? no. 913, initial Bacillus Origorsev-Shiga, no. 913, resistant Pasillee Sageriewilaga, me. ISO% Isitlaa Beelines Grigarteewinlgas ne. LBW reslstapt Flexner Is bacillus no. 1160, initial Flexner ts. bacilllus no. 11-60, resistant 18.01111 84_nnn 0.9 !Ill 7.8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 15.6 2' Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) ? Trans. A.974 An assumption was expressed in a series of works that the resistance acquired to one or another substance was a specific phenomenon. Some re. . searchers suggested utilising antibiotic resistant bacteria for the identi- fication of strains of Aotinemyo4s..-ptoducers of antibiotic substances when isolating them from the. soil. In the practice of our laboratory this as. sumptionswas not ?claimed, as it was estatlished'that grisemin resistant variants of B. cell and of Stapylocoocut mire= showed an increased re- sistance to several Iregin p.71) newly isolated strains Of Actinopyoes. . producers of antibiotics, whieho as it wan disclosed later, produced anti. biotic substances that differed from grisemin. CONCIASICFIS 1. After a considerable number of passages of bacteria in the pre. *once of increasing concentrations of grisemin a rise in resistance, was noted, which exceeded the initial one by 8,000-256,000 time. 2. When cultivating these same bacteria at a constant low concentration. of grisemin. (7.8 tolerance units/61) the resistance to the antibiotic increased much slower and reached a much lower degree . from 125 to 18,000 times. 3: The resistance to grisemin, acquired by the bacteria, was pre. Served during the course of three zero both when stored in a columella under vaseline oil as well as after 80 reseedinge on meat.peptone agar, which did not contain the antibiotic. 4. When studying Crossed resistance to other chemotherapeutic, sub- stances it was shown that grisemin resistant hieteria acquired crossed re. sistance of various strength to many other antibacterial substances (strepto. mycin, penicillin, aureomycin and ohloromycetin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 414 ."41. ? (In run) 'EA Sishkin P. Il.? Dborodov, A. R., ZlatIna? K. 11. Proskuriakova, and Gluvko, A. L. ??Taterialy k voprosu ob ismezschivonti ? kisheohnoi paloohki. ? [niter/al 'concernina the problem of. ?variation in the enteric bacillus). -Akademila 3ank latviiiikoi-SSR. Institut ? Mikrobiologii. Trudy. no. 6, p.27-85. 1956. 448.39 K44 . (In Russian) In recent years.exteneive investigaticre have boen.00nducted of Lb) study of variatlen in the .enteric bacillus under influenoes exerted kr; the most vatiedlfactorS.; Thus), for example, it has been established that changes (=Or in the enterio baoillus under.the influence of a prolonred stay in river, ;ewer, eterile or chlorinated .water, and in Sterile and- ordinarily tillaMe soil. A study bait been tads of the changes) Occurring in the enteric baoilq. les under oonditions of long growth on variant) culture media. Unusual (NM sometimes fairly ntable variants of the enteric baoillus haVe been iso? fated from patient) ;uttering from infectious and non.infectious diseases. Ikra-amlutination of the enterio'taoillus is now eonsiderel resultant Of unique, associated reciprocal relations between pathezenlo micrdhes of the t7phoid.paratyphoid and dysenteric) groups. . F. F. .lebedev hat demonstrated stable ohanges that have taken place in cultures of the enterio bacillus expose.d to the influence of leucocyte)). . * 1oningradelai Gosudaratvennyi Institut tisovorshenstvcrstaniia Vraohoi in. S. r. Kirova (Dir. .. Prof; V. I. Zlinov), //snit:vied State Poetcraduate institute for Pktsiolans in,. C. t. Kirov (Sir. ? Prof. G. I. Minor)). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 5 V*/ 44.4114.1, ? The mOrksOf a nuriber Of researchers (Gracheva, Indlai, Libede*, TimakOvo' Somehow and others) have demonstrated the possibility of obtaining "directed/ variant's of the enteric bacillus under 'conditions of concurrent gra7th with live and killed pathogenic sdaromeganisme of the enteric grouri, or under the influence exerted by the antigenic products of their activity. .Thusi variantswere Obtained that in their biochemical characterif antigentoity and even pathogenicity are closely,, related and similar to typhe/d*paratyphoid and dysenteric microorganisms. . In addition to thie, variation of the enterie bacillus occurring under. the influence or antibiotic preparationicontinuei to be ineuffioiently in. ? vesti6ated; there is a dearth of experimental data needed for the charac- terisation of the variation range of the enteric, bacillus' the regularities La its changes have not been disclosed; the degree of the relationship and nearnes* of the enteric bacillus to other pathogenic and conditiomally path?s genie microorganisms has not been studied; neither a model nor conditions ? for regular cbtaining of objectively directed variants of' the enteric bac 11. lue heeded forth' selection of &pathogenic vaccines against enteric diteases have been worked out In detail. (Begin p.281. -Variation of the enterio bacillus'ocourring under the influence or antibiotic preparations continues to be inadequately investigated. Yet, at the same times the latter &teems attention on the strength of its aidef spread use and sometimes long intake by way of the mouth of preparations of a broad spectrnmof activity the aotion of which pertains also to the enteric bacillus, injnry by antibiotics of conditionally pathogenic microdrganisms, violation of the specific' composition of normals intestinal floras and phone.. mem of ditheoteriosie have been described by a number of anthers and are ? considered a resultant of inefficient use of antibioties. Injury by anti. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .-.,w VP biotios of the enteris bacillus . a oonst&nt and active member of the vderebe association of the intestines . is associated with the activation of ethor conditionally pathowle mieroorganisms (Proteus; bluopas beton. luso yeast.liks fungi; eateretemie staphilommei); inorease in putrefactive pr000ssos in the intestines; entry of poisonous products and the most condi. tionally pathogenic mieroorganisme into the blood. In the wake of this, theft develop petholodeal prowess... in particular diarrhea; intoxication; dissominatod Candida wools ote. Tho given work is the next link in our investigations devoted to the variation at pathogenie and conditionally pathogenic mioroorganisms or the ontoris group under the influence of biologleal factors. The tank of our investigations was detection of variation in the entorio bacillus ander the influent,* of the most distributod antitiotleo of a wide spostrua of activity; contrasting and study or antibiotic variants as compared with these obtained under the influent's of other biologleal factors. The influsnee of a Mersin associations. of a factor at alerObo variation no longer arouses *any doubt. With respect to the enteris beeillus; it hae been established in natio* as well as under somperimsatal eonditions. Ina widespread distribution in nature (soil; motor, food products; organic substrates, oxoremonts or osta and animals ate.) the interim bacillus is oon. stantly under the Whew* of various blochomleal actions of other re. prosentativos of the odor** association. We dwell*, on soil *Jaba as one of the representatives of the lattor and as Wing alluring for experimental investigations for a numbsr of con- sider&tione. Ameba is not at all a rare membor of alorobo associations in 411/ spoor waters; soil and :virus*. Their !Ending on mieroorganisms has boon known long since and is readily exposed in cultural and pathologies.' material. They Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tik) IrginNe Aftwfu f. have at their disposal a fermentative complex at various stages of the ? digestive procures which injures variously enterio bacilli, and they dc... termine the etailCaa ? ita used in our experiments the cultures of soil amebae , obtained at one tire by A.1., tonokotina and fed supplementerily -in Otte? - laboratory with eapreptites. Sy Roans of specific seeding and rsieeding .during.a, whOlS cerise of passages, the transfer of amebae from Yeast nu- trition.te_eultures of an exPerimental strein of the enteric bacillut vies made poseible and a firm' iisseolitioa of amebae with the enteric bacillus on a meat.peptone agar.agar was created. Two strains of the' enterio boon.. lus, Noe. 52 an 36, were uted in-the experiments' [Begin p.21)); with-respeot ? to all characters these Straits corresponded With the typical culture of the mierroorganisMe indicated. We dwelled on these cultures., chiefly beimtues their variation has been widely investigated in the laboratory of cam. iState Postgraduate Institute for Physitiansi. It has been established that they undergo changes under the influence of tissue *wpm (leueocytee, oon- .neotive tissues, spleen and others) and various antibiotic preparations, also under conAitions of num um cultivation. Besides, strain no. 58 had been obtained at OW time by P. P. Lebedev from one cell. ?Methodology of work, In both experiswntal series passages were earried out either On neat peptone agar, or in a culture of leuoecytes with a Gradually Unmeaning-antibiotic content at intervals of 64 days; a Similar experismnb of ? was conducted with an amebae culture. From each passageAreseeding, seeding& were carried out on Endots medium for the Agog* of siiking ? study of the growth character of the enterie bacillus. Ton colonies were taken fram every tenth. passage for ? study of biochemical activity and specific genioity of cultures. ?T/S, cultural and micreecopic characteristics, bias. chsmioal activity and anticenicity in unusual 'variants and highly adapted ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A4.975 strains have been investigated. Why variants (len) Obtained in the process of adaptatiOn to action exerted by antibiotics and amble eultures have been subdivided into several types taking into account their biochemical activity on media of a nveriegated series" and have been subjected to a further micro? biologioal study. For the purpose of detecting regularities., the variants ' obtained were omfilrastedvith those in the original cultures, and mere salt* lysed as to the origin of the variant. (antibiotics, amebae)) as a result, oharacteristics of similarity and differences have been detooted. Let me dwell on the results of the experiments we conducted. The initial passage was oonducted on media oontaining one third of sit antibiotic bacteriostatio dose. with each new passage the antibiotic con- tent in the medium' was gradually inorsoeod. In rare case* with a meager 411 growth on now antibiotic, concentrations it was neoessary,to repeat the seeding on the same sodium and after that to switch over to a new (medium] with a higher antibiotie content, Adaptation of the 'uteri() bacillus to different antibiotics is compile/led varioUslys adaptation to some is fairly *say and rapid, to others. conversely, it is slim and does not attain high Indioatore. In the ma1n4 2 types of adaptation eurves were determined* the highest ones . to streptomycin and the loser ones . to levemiestin. Increase in resistanee to etreptowein begins with the first passages and roaches high indicators fairly rapidly. Conversely, increase in resistance to levompetin begins eery slowly, re quires replicate reseeding* on the sem medium, and shifts in adaptation are Observed on the third passage. The final resiotaase indioators in cultures adapted to levonyeetin are not high, they do not approach those on strepte. nyoin media. Adaptation to levomysetin proceeds according to the "penicillin. type, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 V?34,0 .a.V,W I far itor?itt p.30]. Increareii r...-:-.1.2tance is also inhibited in microorstilisms 1-lat have a eensiti7ity t3 it. Adap%tion to syntoveln is accomplished solrewhat acre real:111,y* '::17,t it come tamer to it t%enicillin t -gel In relation to levompetih. Dinatlos of riation in exFoilnattal cultures varied in relation to the actIon exerted one factor or another. Uhe earliest chan.7es occnrrinc in cultural chRr..cteristice emorge in the vrocess of adaptation to biotics. tEein p.311 in particular, under the influencer..,f a treptowcin, then levovvetin and syntelyein. tnusual variants appeared eenaiderably later ittseedIngs [taken] frm aseotaations with amebae. Tallo 1 illustrates variation dynamics or the biological properties of some etralyin In the process of Maptation to antibiotics and amebae. Data in the table demonstrate the variety of 17lochemica1 activity or cultures or the or:teric bacillus that have ontierone passabIng, the absence of a strict relation between the appearance of sone varieties or others A the multiplicity of the rAistnes -NI the nature of the action*exerting factor. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?ir I 4,10'Nffisi Table-1.4 Ii011.1.11.0.1.10.1004. As.11.0111004.1?????44.- .S. ? . Oricln 0 cl0 la a 8 Pt .3 .1 .AO A AG t, Aim 4'3 . .19 EAOa AO . ge., si 8 Ait) A AG err am. 0 0 I., AO ram ? aro 2 ti '-.% ti AO MAO 4160 roes a ti 0 ..., 6 A3 in. colo! ? t, AO til? CMP Gila ,L,4_,k Lo AO MO , 4 c.. N i 04 fl. tr) % I n ..4 o a ) > ? ye ?I A -,1,f,'..2n.1 titmb ? f.7.0.:t:ZI ? c ca - Stroptor ? moirt 10. 20 80 do 00 ? A A AC A .... di 4. ,t ? 0. 0 A ,. co to , ..I, li.,? i tia. ? ? r I. Inc MO .. ? 1111, . ? ? ok tr) CX 11 CP LtUO ....? .3 c.:: 7..,rt? . Yo c?,., -,111',:.14; X t#,X,0 , ; S. Cynta7-7a2a ' ? 2.0 SO 40 00 AO Al t (.1 L.1 AO AC A( Af.3 AO 'AC AO AO Af.7., , AO AC AO . AO AO ILO AO AG An AO A AO Ai> AO AG bit:-. Ae, d A A A .. .. a ? ? ? . ? ? ? 11C1C0 ZptrID /e/r:,00 ? . letcm ? . lovccrio tin ?/ ? BO 80 4-0 00 41,t) A7, 110 413, AO AO An AO AO t.,0 Ati AO . ror; .... ?.. :t1- AO AO AO' t 1 AO AO, Afl, .. Ai; A:*.1 AO mm A'...; AO 4,0 mm ,r A A / A, ?- 4?'? ... - .,,,r....?...laymiwomerigrei. 14CO' 11C10 XiI2D,10 . -. thiqa In 4MC/be0 ? - 10 80 - ect. CO GO ti AC AO ..... , AC) k': A All (I LC; At; AO AOAC, --.... 00 A At, AO AC .... we 1 . AG AO A A V.; LI AC ?? ...0; 1 ..'10 AD- .... err 0 0 ? ... ? ? ? aio . . .. qr or ? wo ? lop . _ as " ? a ' itc.:16- 1:0 ef'17,t. a 773 r.sl...._,-;11.1,41 170 OItt ? Co 0-t. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to) Trans? Ag*W70 At special investigations have demonstrated, the Seeming variety Of , changes is due to the different depth and stability of the Changes .that bad occurred in the different Specimens of a given culture and their viability in furthorpassages. Nonetheless, regardless ?f the diversity of the vate, ' adaptive strain, sommularitios havelten established in the frequency end time of the.appearence of unusual variants. The, the first variants to appear in the preemie of adaptaflon to. antibiotiCs and; in part, to the actiOn or amebae Sr. thosiethat are lading the capaisity to produce acid andias.liki products either on one or on ? several catbohydrates, then cultures close to paracoli and Coli-eitrovormh and lster nalkalivroduOing" variants that, as to depth and stability of changes, . Como ?lose to the cultures Of the fecal alkeilwprodueing agent tilealiones recalls). We have detected the indicated changes in cultures under the in. fluent,' of ll experimental antibiotics 4nd whea expesed to the action of .soil amebae. . - AlkSliaprodtioing variants ere/12tiinhorentien1y in the enterie beeillue. As demestrated. by systematic observations conducted by fellows of the Faculty. ,of Nfterobiology (State Postgraduate Institute for PhysiolansJ they emerge' under action exerted ley leueoeytes in oultures and under the influence of . specific *era and antibiotic preparations invariout representatives of pathegenie microorganism of the enteric group. Thus; K. W. native has found them in dysenteric bacilli of Origor!wom Shigeo V. F. Kondritieva in Flexner's baCillisig. F. Rosenfeled ..in 't* KrUse.Sonno baeillus, F. - in the enterid bacillus, A. Lu SlUvko In. the paratyphoid bres/au microbe, (9. breslaviensis), and V. P. lambhchikov in Mergants bacillus. The alkslii.produeing variants haVe been described by D. 0. Eudlai as a'regular sup of rdaptive vetriat,ton. They must actually Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tV)? Trans. *PIM' be cotuddered tba first stable signals of profound shangSs **Marring In astabolisa of ewprinental nierdbes under the inflating,* snorted by a whola series of factors. In the pewees of adaptation to antibiotics ant soil amebae1 we oil* ttined 160 variants stibdivided into 15_groups on the basis of [their] bias. *Medea' activity and antigenioity. Charastertsing data aro gated in table 2. The variants Obtainad were subjeeted to a serutinising alorcloislogical, shirteterieation along the line of cultoral and eloressopie eharicteristies, tlegin p.$2] and bicohenisal activity with respect to carbohydrates, anincacids, presume of soft mines and viability. Table 2. A ): Or trim Of strains liechanical charasteristice 044 0 is 1 a 4#C1 . " I 0 ? 8 1.4 0 .1 ?0 ? 4i ? 4 ill 4 a +4 . *.g 1 .4-illittir': 11;34.>. ..,1? 1 i 1. ? 4; i S- *A 12: 1 2 4 13 6 ,VU 8 9 10 11 12X11 13 14111V 16 I II zu IV V VI VIII IX X XI XIII rir ?g? Stropt, inlet/pt. ? 25 passag. Strap% Strept. 20 poutsag: 10 pea Sag DI 5 passes. Strept: Strept. Stmt. 10 [nasals. 25 passag. 10 passag. .GG,Gt 100 AO 22A a A V AO 13 AG 1 AG 1 .... 1 . 1 AO 1 AG 2 .. 1 AG 1 . I A AG A A AG AG AG . . AO AG ... AG A AO AO ?4010 A AG AG AG .... . AO AO .. AO A AO AI 1 A A AO AC AO .... . AO AG .. AG . AG : I iI .4, A r AG ... A AO . .... .... .. AO AG AOL . AG Ar At; 40411 AAA AO AO AG .... .. AG AO 1 A ? AG AG 0040 AO Ac AO . .. AC . AG . AG 0 AO OHO AO AG AG ... .. AG AG AG A AG OP to . .. . OM a Op 40 40 411 PP ? to .. 4N op . .. it4 OD ? OP 40 40 / a .. a ? . Of . OD . 40 40 r . 40 to . 40 a. OP / 40 / / / / / . . / .. if Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09124: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 let us dwell on each seetion separately. The cultural oharatteristios we studied on asalpeptons agar Rnd on Endo's medium' the p11 of the medium was 7.2. A deserilption of the cultures was 'nede on the fifth day of observation' for the appearenos of variants of daughter and secondary cultures the seeding& had to be kept for 12 days at room temperature. Endo's medium proved most favorable for the detection of polymorphism or evitural oharaottristies. Apart from the size and forms of the oolonies, here it was possible to observe the different shadIngs of the oultures re. sultin- from at alteration in the biochemical activity of variants on a given medium. rith regard to cultural oharaoteristies, the variants which we ob- tained oak be subdivided into several groups. 1. large, smooth, red colonies with a metallic hue, a flat venter and a slanting, fairly wide periphery. Under a microscope they were found to have a preponderance of short exam.negative bacilli, infrequently short little ?halms were encountered.. 2. Large, smooth, red and rese.selored colonies without a metAllio luster, flat at the center end ooneentrieally striated on the periphery. Under a microsoope, short oeceebaoteria and fairly long thread.like bacilli [hitt] have been encountered in them side by side with typical lbw:41.11lb [Begin p.331. 3. Smooth, round colonies slightly dome.ehaped? with an even odor, at first entirely solarises, later (8th.12th day) reseseelered and even reddish. Under a microscope, short and long bacilli, more rarely c000dbaoteria and little ehains of gram.positive bacilli were found among them. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - 4. At first salaries., later turning red, small, round, smooth colonies, somotimes Atha snail depression at the (motor. They are oompased of short and long gram negative bacilli throftd.like forms are rare. 6. Smooth, round, very mill (0.3,4.6 met in diameter) dwariNlike Colonies of a red and rose color, sometimes colorloss at the beginnings later turning rooeutoolorod. Under a miorosoope they are found to have a preponderance at small cocedbacterias thin and long bacilli are found to be a rare exception. 6. Colorless, round, sometimes rampart*shapod colonies with KU oven or wavy saga, transparent, with a rose..00lorod hue only at the eentor. Under a micresoopo polymorphic short and long, and thin gram-negativw bacilli are found is them. 7, Dommoshapod, smooth, colorless or rosed.00lerod colonies of a mucous consistency. Under a microscope, short and thin *bacilli, infra.. qaently small chains and small heaps of wider ooccebasteria are found among them. 8. Round, smooth, flat, colorless or rose-Poolerod eolonlos with a similar wavy 0410. On meatoveptone agar the salmis' are lusterless and yelllow colored. Under a mioroseope, short and thin bacilli and threads, as well as chains of c000duteteria are found among thea. O. Round eolonies, smooth at the center, radialky tradiarael or die. orderly striated at the periphery, with an uneven, dented adv. Under a microscope, short bacilli, individual opecobasteria and chains are found among them. First place as to frequency among our Variants is occupied by colorless, transparent, smooth colonies that later on tura rose?eolored. Colorless or rose.colored mucous colonies, as well as colorless colonies with rese.calored center and rampart-shaped ado* aro fossil =oh more rarely. Striatod and dwarMike colorless or red colonist must be considered as rare. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 JOG srimna? *Newt* Besides, they proted to be the least stable in reseeding; they lost (their] unusual characteristics after 6-842 reseeding* on solid media with no active factor. We hems studied the biochemioal aetivity of adapted cultures and unusual varlet** with rearm* to carbohydrates and aminoacigs. Carbolitio properties we studied on 16 media of an analytical "variegated" series. Observations were conducted repeatedly in the process of adaptation RS well as outside the active factor for the purpose of detecting the stability of unusual characters. (Begin p.341. Table 3. ? ?r? 4.4 4 1; 1 Orig. 2 Strep. 3 4 6 ? 7 8 9 10 ? 111 12' 115 14 16It 16 Orig. 17 Ameba 18, 19 * 2 * 21 22 23 iochendsal character. ? ? 8 ? 4" 2 4 ? 3% AN la 1 AV Adi AG itt AG AG A. AG AG AG AG A A A A Ac At AG AG AG A AG. A AG AO AG AG 1 At AG A AG AG AG AO 1 A AG A AG AG AG 13 1 1 1 1 POPO POOP A AG A AG A No. 33 A 8A LA 1 AC A POPO AG AG POOP A3 AG ??? AG 14 AG *PO AG AG AG AG OHO A AG At A AG- At AG A A AG A AG AG At AG MOP AA A AG At AG AG At AG AG k A A A POPOi 1LO AG AG IMO A A AG AG POPO POOP POMP AG AG POOP AO A Ao A A G AG AC; A G AG A POPO AG ??? IOW AO AG AG. OHO AG AG AG A AG AG MO, ONO A A' AG. AG AG AG AG AG A OP OP PO ? OP ? 0. ? OPP OP OP PO I -3 ? ? W 0 * 0 0 4* 0 le Of MOO ? ? OP ? twiyt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R0146R010406620001-7 Zable 3, Continued tO tO tO CO , CO CV -4 Oir en VI Wo? of atrsind ttl ocheca c rao ors : Al , ? % ? rri g I 0 0 4 A ? a 0 43 1.4 4 a vi k ? ? 4.a ori g 4f 0 s. 04 k Iif, 8 ? I al 4X3 8 ? 0 4,4 a r.4 i Alrn 41 0 Do IriPbe a e Sy:t. Strep. 1 1 1 1 2 1 AG AG Ati .. AG AG ... AG AG AG .0?. AC A3 AG AG AG AG AG .. AG AG AG .... AG AG .. ... ... . v. ...... .. A A' AG .. A. AG A A,..? AC A, . AG AG AG .. AG AC AG AD A AG AG . .. ,... . .? . . . . . . . .... 0 11 The results of eomparative investigation are cited in table 3, 110.ta In the table show the more substantial ohanges in the carbolytio nativity of experimental microbes, they pertained to the loss of said and as forsOki? tion separately as well as together, with respeet to individual as well as to all carbohydrates use in experiments. We studied changes in =stabs)... lien of nitrogenous substanees by the assimilation of ammonium sulfate and sow amissoacids at our disposal, and also in relation to the formation of indole and hydroon sulfide. 74 the study of assimilation of actincacids, we used 13?10poliskiils synthetie medium specially codified for use in research work. It is oom. posed of the followings (Begin p.351. ? amoniunk sulfate or the aminoacid ander eadiuts bicarbonate sodiumt ghlorido 0.8 disubstituted anssonius sulfate'0,2 ? MOW! Ulm att Mt. ?1 pN 7.2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %As/ iratuo WKU ? t The Oulture medium poured out in test tubes and ster Used at 116 CJ in autoclave wad seeded in equal amounts (500 thousand microbe bodies) with original and adupted cultures of the enteric bacillus the seeding& were kept for 24 hours in an incubator at V? [C]. Assimilation effective? nese was judged by the intensity of miessibe growth determined by the nopholo? metry method and compared with that of similar imiVbes] in original, nei.. adapted cultures. We took the yield of original cultures as one unit Route or experiments conducted with variants of the enteric bacil- lus adapted to antibioties and amebae are cited on figure 1. A 00MIAMI characteristic of strc,ins a:toted to antibiotios is the con- siderable lagging of their growth on synthetic media eontaiting assinoaeids - as 'capered with the non-adapted control Biretta. A i;reponderant majority of experimental cultures produces 4 yield 40.8% lower than that of the original. 'eentrol [strain]; a certain nuMber of stmine scarcely appreaohed the growth intensity Of the original (strain] and very few produced * yield equal to that of the original strain. The latter is expressed more clearly on media with systine, in part with &Janine and ahhisimmindbutyrie acid. The yield of all experimental atrains on a medium with asparagin was lower than that of the control strain. As far as assimilation of mineral nitrogen used experimentally in - the form of ammonium sulfate is coneerned, the latter is assimilated by all trains and u preponderant majority of strains produces a yield close to that of the control strain, while the yield of some strains (4) is even somewhat higher than that of the original oulture. .The growth intensity in the different variants obtained from cultures ? of soil amebae on different sources of nitrogen varies. Thw moot luxurioos growth, equal or exceeding in yield the growth of the control strain, dertmeted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (Is) Trans. A-97'6 in alanine, cystine, alpha-aminobutyrie acid and partieularly in as came close to that of the aontrol **skin in gloom, and ammonium sulfate. A considerable lagging in growth intensity behind the control (strain] has been, observed in the preponderant majority of strains in a synthetic sodium with Tann", lysine, beta.phersylalanine and glyc000ll. In ?wowing the growth intensity of variants adapted to antibiotics with similar indicators in these adapted to sell amebae, the ?onsidsrebly greater growth intensity can be readily seen in the amebae variants on maw aminoacide. The latter reireumetanee], obviously, is connected with a more th.orough.going impairment of metabslism (is cultures] under the in. fluence of antibiotics, than in cultures adapted to soil amebae. (Begin .46). The intensify in the assimilation of nitrogenous substances, and the develop. sent and yield of the latter approach fairly closely similar indioators in non-adapted control cultures. Ter the purpose of sonparing changes eceurring in adpated and in original vultures, we conduoted a study of the a ctivity of some enzymes, in particular of eatalase and dehydrene, (Begin p.371 whieh play an es- sential role in the meta'bolists of miereerganisme. Catalans we determined by the gaseartrio method described by Beloserskii and Preskuriakov, Cod also by Pershin. In comparieg ?atlases activity of experimental cultures with the activity of original ones, it was found that eatalase activity had de- creased in all variants of the eetsria bacillus adapted to antibieties, with the exeeption or strain no. 4. adopted t* streptomycin. In most variante adapted to soil amebae, "Athlone entivity is considerably higher than in original ones. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 IftstlI71 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4, 11:7 &raw t ? mosa MA Mt.:5*U '04 (NR4)2C04 OW-77 Is in. r-rm 10.1A 8 Leuoine Beta4hecy3alanitio 0114W2 Glyeocoll Alanlne F:=11: Cystitis CZ2ZzrALIc(- AlOillobutyrio acid e. to ameba culture asparagine MANN :itilTS5.5523A ram ..01.111ie 1 Vi7Eri 10 ? 6 WssA 11111111111ilLtain FOILVIeG L ...12w2A sak r r?s1 Yield 50% lose than control' VOWV. p Yield 25-44 less than control IM Yield equal to or higher than control. Irtrures in column denote number of straits Fig. 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .4 4. ? Dehydrase activity of ezpvrimental and control cultures was studied by tho as I. TunbergtothodOodified by B. I. 2barskinikertragstv. In detcatinG dehy* drase we.dwelled.11 the activity in relation .to glucose, ethyl alcohol, glye cerin, citric, sucoinio, lactic, gletamtnic and formic acids that are of Os.. sential importance in the metabolism of various carbohydrates and proteins, ' particularly In the oxidation of 'glucose. Dohydrasess Glucose tthyl alcohol Glycerin Citric acid ? nooinio acid . lactic acid Olutaminio acid Formio acid 6attlace ivoloneN iy7 21 19 Rewtz, TA IMP,M 24 - gwo 22 jr.24sILE2J la igO8V-Z7z/1 ActivitT6qg less than eontrol Aotivity 25.40g less than control Aotivity equivalent to of higher than control Murcia in columns denote nuMber of tested strata Fig.. 2.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %au/ Arenas ^7wfu . Experimental results are cited in fig. 2. Xeres ?too, most ex.. porimental strains possess dsereased deters** activity on ell substrates. 'And. only a small numbsr of straits poises" a debydrese activity that is ? close or Similar to the control ones and very few surpass the latter by a More trifle: In covering dohydrase activity in Variants adapted to anti" biotics with tbat in variants adapted to toil arebae, tB.gri p.80] are noted some difference* in traits, namely 4. variants adapted to antibiotics politest lea* dehydrate activity than the variants obtained in amebae culto . tures. _However, .due evaluation of dehydrate aotivitY requires a further, more diversified investigation. Along with catalaie end debris's'e activity, we determined organic acids as produots of culture activity. ;Ihe investigation toss conducted in asat.peptone broth with glucose., _Of organic acid* we dotectod acetic, lactic and formic acids by the testbod described by A. N. Beioterskii'and N. I. PreskuriakeV. 'We undertook detection of organio acids chiefly blooms of itert variants that do not produce any visible acid or gas on media of a variegated rbieohossical totit3 *oriel for the purpose of comparing .tho results with those (obi:sited] from gas?producing variants of the enteric As & result of the investigation, the absence of fermio acid watt established in nearly all strains, with the exception of the variant adapted to streptoewein in louoocyte cultures. Aoetic_aoid mat detected in all experimental strains, but its sorriest was moiler ,than that in strains adapted to ameba: in stitch the fortation of acetic 'LOA surpatted that in control (strains). The content of lactic acid *as also "taller in all experimental strains than in controls. It meat be ezaphatized that we ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (la) Trans. A*975 have found organic *olds not only in culture* thst decompose glut:Wm with the formation of acid and gee, but also in culture* of so-called "in?rt" variants, that grow on gluoose without forming acid or gas. tn Conneetion With this. the absence of the acid and gas formation phenomenon does not justify a negation of the pretene* of acid in ?inert" cultures. Obviously, minimal gas tonstion is not exposed by indicators in radio of a "variegated Abiochemical test] series" and is, possibly, 4 camouflaged by alkali produots .of nio tabling* of the given strain. For the purpose of characterising original and adapted cultures, we Node a study ors 1) desoxyribonacleie acid by the colorimetric method with a dipheny/amino reagent according to the normal by A. 71. Delosirekii 411 and*. I. froskuriakovs 2) tryptophans according to 7Uasenle Vasen'a ()1. reaotioh in alkali hydrolysate, after testing for ocaplotO hydrolysis on. amine nitrogen lad 8) arginime tonlakaguchi's reaction. The lattor.eas used for experimental purposes al:a factor of possible alkalisation of the medium in the Fresoncs of organic acids as a result of decomposition of Oarbohydrates. AA regards tryptopbano, experiments were not conducted withall strain*, but only with. 10 adapted to.streptompin in leuceoyle culture* (7) and(Z) on solid media (one to each, ayntosvoin, streptomyein and levomrestin). As a result, for most experimental strains, as compared with controls, change* were established in the esindacid composition (Begin p.591 of the microbe protein in favor of a tryptophans increase, and only in one variant adapted - to leVomieetin a considerable decrease. A correlation between antigenie properties and tryptophane content las not disoloseds Arginine was determined in variants adapted to amebae. In 5 out of 0 variants its content in. Matures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 V6V, AVIRLIME. WIF was _higher, in 3 ;variant* somewhat lower than in controls. 1%.3 increace in arginine in *inert" alkali.produoing variants volts not detected. . Wor were. any substantial changes found in the eontent of dose:grit* motet? &Old which we investigated in 25 out Of 29 experimental strains. A.prarently, more essential changes are required in microbes in order to achieve mere brilliant shifts in the content of desoxyribonucleio acid. We have also rade a study of the antigenio properties of variants as comparad with those' in the original cultures of the enteric bacillus. They ?were studied in agglutination reaction With a whole series at limns sera. The most? importantivere agglutination react/Ono with a serum against the original strain, then with cora against different varieties Of the enteric bacillue, ?end also with polyvalent and monoftlent sera against typhoid-para' typhoid_ and dysenteric stiorogrgenisme and against the fecal alicalifortoduder EALloaligenes-fecaliel. 4tiervations tare conduoted by-reans of an analytioal Ipasvernutoil agglutination. motion with dilution* in test tubes up t.e. the titer of each serum. We did not observe spontansois agglutination in am, Pt the experimental strains. Sara usedigainet angina]. strains /aid sults fioiently high titers 442800 ,and they produced positive reactions only with corresponding strains'. The observation results are cited in table .4. Table 4. shows that variant* adapted to antibiotics decrease and oven lose the capacity for agglutination with sera against the original strain; the latter can be seen particularly well with respect to the nore resistant variants obtained in ?leucooyts cultures under the inflnenoe of streptovoin. Along with this, there ppear?d in a whole series of adapted strains the capacity for agglutinating with sera against other pathogenic and conditionally, pathogenic microbes of the enteric group. Thus, for example, a clear aggluti., nation reaction was obtained with a serum against the Grigorltrv.Shige. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (or Origoreff?Shigal dysenteric bacillus. against 13, paracoli, and against the ecal alkali.oroduser (Altaligeneel Some variants ttanifest elearly a eape.eity for agglutinating with a serum in dilutions in hundredths against-the microbe whieh they approach in their biochemical aetivity in media of a 'variegated series. Croce rotations with sera of rabbits issaunised with eorresponding culttuva adapted to streptomycin1 syntotroin, levomycetin and biomycin bear witnecs to the thorough changes that ?ave taken place in the antigenic) properties of variants adaptoo: to antibioties. DOE,111 p.401. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Mighlr3Wp.0WW 4160ONWOOM.4 g gwal-amosipos I. so Ix ei ce vat 4=1 US td 00 td ? ??? ? ?$? ? ? ? ww &ix I. 0 111S81811 113111111 111111111 111:11111 8 11:41111m?4 0 00 111111111 111111111 td `P- * cltowelz:toww ? I bil b" ? ? ?. ?. ?, ? . CS. Oa 1!1"41111:1 W 0 Beillifflgt ?rap 0 000?po.,w00000 VbilMZM":?4'gr4: 9 r. . yrs r 4 ipar 4 ? ? 11 1111 1111111 ttl ? ? O01Y4 O0. NOPA 1.6M00 11 1111 1111111 1 1 11 1111 1111111 1 1 too 11.0 W100 11 1111 :4.11111 1 00 11 1111 1111111 1 11 WI 1111111 1 -.010Q E. fir co 0 ? atgu.0 igortev-Shiga [or Grigoroff. Ship], 1:12600 Flexnar, 1:3200 B. paraeoli, 1:1600 B. taiial. alealig. 1:1600 B. ?olio synto- myoin variant 1:1600 B. ooli, strepto-J vein variant 1:1600 111111111 11 1111 1111111 1 B. colt, bionrein variant, 1:1600 111111111 11 1111 1111111 1 B. colt, levemy- (satin variant, 1:1600 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 IP ? (23) Trans.. A-975 ? Tab 1. 4, No. of streins ? Origin SiMilaritY withOrig. other microbes in biochemical ? characters . ?re 441TIL liglianwc EITX134.1515 of Streit 13. coli 1212800 t. 8 .11 gi ii 40 :43 2. b.; ? bg. - ? 13 t.r4v" ba 1 b 8 14 . I. / 0 ig .0111 7: 0 0 0 1 4 P. ? . , . _ 0 0 ? e:si ' 1 a ?0 .i' A a; 0 ..: -gh i 04 O. .14 , p? P?: &I ta ; .4* et 8 0-4 .04 110 : ? 5 1._. ' 74:43 $ 440 0,4 0 LIN pI 41! ai ri" ?a; ib 4, es .3 054 0 ..:140 r4 .44 ID :44".: 014 t. . ? 25 _ 26 27 28 ? ? 29 30 . . ,Synto!yoin Strepto.. wain levomree? tin lavestice. tin - Bloarcetin " 3; :soli 41021. D. colt eloal. ? B. colt sacel. ' B. faseel sisal. . 31; soli elee1. B. colt *Joel. 1:1600 121600 12100 121600 121600 121800 1:50 1:50 1:50 1150 1:50 1250 1150 1:50 . ? _ 1:6400 1:8400 1:50 1:3200 1:3200 111600 11800 1:800 1:3200 1:1600 1:1600 - 1:400 1:160 11160 12100 -3.23200 1:3200 121600 ... .... 11600 7.21600 -- . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .1rman? tBegin p.411. Data of oz. 2 bear witness to the clearly volitive reaetions brougtrt about with cultures of varianta edapted to the sane anti- - . Riactiona. in agglutination with microbe Culture*. resistant to chemically related antibiotics are considerably- teilder. A 'negative agglu- tination reaction, or. one in low dilutiens, has been establishiml with variants adapted to antibiotic)* ie a remote chemical nature.. Thus, for instance. a serum against a. strain resistant to Streptomycin predued e positive reaction wp to titer in agglutination with stroptottran variants, to tm sure, not with all of them. Sera are sonsiderably ssilder against syntonyoin variants they agglutinate .up to titer only corresponding Variants trite as weak leiceyeetin and the crrig.inal strain of the enteric bacillus. The lass can be ss.i4 about sera obtained against variants resistant. to leveeyeetin and espacially to biomytin.' Strains adipted to soil amble change their antigettle.propertiee iPi exactly the eam* eajm.r. But these cha. ngel aro -lest- pronounced obviously the injury sustained by thipiantigepto apparatuS of the *Merle baotiloz while under the influence ,or amebae bears a. less -profound character. Somithe/ese, here also a 'considerable atterivation .has taken place, and for saes etrwizte . it involved t loas Of their ability te 0,6glutinate with sera, obtained against the origital. cUlture; Here, toe, ...series of variants produced a positive reaction in egebitination j tb sere g*1jiet microbes with biochemical charaetere similar te their own. With sera against pathogenic micronroattiems of the 'typhoid ...paratyphoid group, against the dysenterld bacilli of ilezner, . . Kruse4enne end others, agglUtiration reaction was. always negative in au ax. pertinent*/ strains adapted to .antibiotiee. and soil umbel,. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (25) Trans. A.6975 Aad thus, in the process of adaptation, the antigenie properties of experimental mierobes undergo a *hang.; the similarity with control and original (maternel) strains is lost, there appear new antigenic characters as a result or a now microbe habitat and new eomponents or their metabolism. Under the influence of antibiotios, the changes in antigenic properties of variants are more thorough, deviations from original vulturec are sharpor than invariants obtained under the influence of soil amebae in onitnress To be able to judge the thoroughness and the stability at changes that had occurred in cultures of experimental microbes, we conducted special experiments for the purpose of determining their spesifio and nonrcpsoifie resistance to the action exerted by chemical and biological antiseptics. 411 We studied the viability of experimental cultures by exposure to the action of chemical and biological antleepties and rabbit leusosytes. The results or similar comparisons with respect to the original strain and in corresponding eoefricients (relation between resistamee of an ori- ginal strain and an adapted one) (Begin p.45] are cited in table 5. In most variants of the enterio bacillus an themese in resistance to antibiotic influence and a considerably drastic decline in viability when exposed to the action of other antiseptic preparations appear to be a reps,. larity. Just as mach of a regularity should be smoldered an increase in group resistance to antibiotic substances of a related nature, as, for installs., in strains adapted to syntomysin with respect to levompotift, and in levomyeetin strain to syntomysins Attention has been attracted by the appearance of group resistance to the action or lovemwoetin and syntomyoin 411 in strains adapted to streptomyoln, in levempostin strains to biomyoin, and somewhat milder in ryntomysin strains to biemvoin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. 1.975 Table 5. ? .. No. in coz. see. order ? ? _ Or igin Decree of ? Adaptation to arrtitkictim tics tin.vf nultiplos of erigir el ooncentra ticni Resistance ocefficiatt as cce,ared with or nal Istrainsi d 0 CO SI arf 0gj ? 0 ?. el? . o, !g Et ; . *fit 0 A r4 A . V ...,6. 0 Wsit a wl 13. el r4 i?1 14 vitt i? $ em A 2 3 4 .6 6 7 8 10 11 la 13 14 15 16 19 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 /26 I 27 . 20 29 30 atropt. ? a ' n ? a * ' * a *? * " It ? Amebae * . * lb' * ft a * e' Synt. * 8trept. Isms. *- Bice. Original ._ ' 2 a . :16 le 64 ? 16 16 18 64 64 64 128 128 128 Orlitinal 10th passage 5th !I - 10th passage 10th rassage 20th Passage 20th I' 23rd * 25th * 81 III 8569 43 32 . 64 0.05 unit 2 ? "a 16 : 16 .. 64.258 111 16 16 64 64 64 128 128- 128 0.1 unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 "1 1;34 2.6 . 6569 0.67 13.4 0.67 unit 1 1 128 1 ' 6 8 .8 32 16 64 . 16 1 2 20 unit 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 81 81 32.2 52.2 322 32.2 5. unit 2 2 1 4 2 3.. ' I . 2 2 1 Z 4 2 -1 3.9 unit 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1.- 32.2 32:2 16.1 43 43 32.2 S. unit 0 8 18 16 11 4 4 1 16 8 ' .9 4 I ? 2 3.9 unit 8 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 '1 .68.4 6:6 6.6 6.6 34;6 611:1 tot-. unit 2 2 2 ? 2 4 16 2- a Z. 2 ' 4 2 . 1 '1 0.008 unit 2 4 4 4 8 1 1 1 4 4 8 8 8 ? unit 1 .1 1 2 1 1 . 2 1 1 2 1 2 ? 1 1 . 2.2 unit 1 I 1 1 1 1 ? 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 S-0 MCIMWMMUIMMMOOMMWOMMMOCAWOMMMM01.0001% 000M00000000001 43,000Q0 0000000 _ t4NWP41.4 1-81 MOVt%4MtAmqgg0MQQ110(N300,4NMMNWONtot*U8 010 mmalmmoommulmowo et X 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 100 100 100 100 % 100.100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 25 50 25 60 50 60 00 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 loo % 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 33 66 53 66 66 66 I t % SO 50:, 60 100 SO 50 50 50 50 100 50 60 50 50 100 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 50 50 50 100 50 60 ,o o0 Nftroip4 p4 r-lears.e4.4.4.4 p4 r4s-1 It % 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 126 50 50 50 50 60 100 ., ? 8v.888888g88,8888.8' v,222512838238$22?22 1, .......1...4.4.4 g4. ? .4_. 5.3 5.5 - 12.t 15. 44 - 27.1 . 2:7 2.7 27.1 27.1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (27) Trans. a0975 Groupresistaace in iorornws to tiblotios r.iot* Li chemical neture is of oteential jort'o in the soleetion of t tte for the purpose of complex therapy, for the replecomeet of 20160 inactive preparations with-!others and in the evaluation of their influence upon in- tectinal microflom. Attention has also been attracted by the viability ef variants adapted to soil amebae which, despite their similarity a to bio.* chemical characters and entigenioity are essentially dietinot from *orients obtained under the influence of antibiotic preparations. All Tar nts adapted to amebae either retain their resietanoe on the level as that in the original strain, or they 1m:woes' it with respect to aspargine, levowycetins chloramine, copper sulfate and biogyeetin. And only with respeet to the motion of phenol, hydrochloric acid and in part, ? rivanol a decline in resistance" takes place the same as in cultures adapted to antibiotics. Thus, in the process of adaptation of the ntsrtc bacillus to the oct of antibiotics ?and soil amebae ohs. our in the characteristics o on notabolisie and there emerge uhusual variants which in the corolez of their characters are distinct from original and control cultures. The changes occur in cultural and microscopic characters bioohentieal activity, .viability and antigenicity. The met pernanent characters acquired in the changes occurring in miorobee under the influence of biological factors are the ttenuation and loss of oarbolytio activity and the appearance of inert 'eariantc with respect to individual carbohydrates as well as toe complete seleatioe of them in differential media of a variegated series. An increase in carbaytio activity and the appearance of new oom.. ? prehensive fermentative properties also take place, even though they occur Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Wrmns*.a.triti con iderably mere y and are not dinti nguiehed by resistants vithott the action of the tive factor. taegin p.443. Cultures of the enteric, bacillus adapted to antibioti s are diet/ by a Zracitilation of amitoacids as compared with controls. emerge under the indluence of antibiotics /variants with diverse oMponents resealing very mach eu?i famoutvvarieties of the onterio baoillue az 13.leMsa, B. colt aerogenes and B. cell oiteovorum which are similar' to the faecal alkali prodxcer [B..,1i.L.tnet) and, with regard to the com- ploxity the path and: loss fermettative characters, reminlecent or eons representatives of LAO typhold*paratyPhold aid dynent.rto microorganisms. Akttenuetion f antigenic activity in reactions with epecifio sere is arOpa larity for the majority of unusual variants tt the enteric bacillus, and for come it is the acquisition of a capacity to enter, into a ti*tsaiction with immune, sera Lajnt other spOo es of oloroorganiere. Side by side with high rosiotanee to the corresponitngantLbiotie, adapted variants are distinguished by decreased viability when exposen to io of other PhYsivaShauleal and :biological teeters and to phavoytio eobtvi ? of leueocytee* 'Along with ble variants rapidly, her arts. under the influence antibi ? variants that retain their new, characteristic for Thus* under the influence of antibiotics, there occur thorough in the enteric bacillus, impairment pr its fermemtative aotivity and via.. bitty. These changes take place'eleta in the organiim of patients 'fitter e, long epplioation of antibiotics* whieh'has.been eeefirmed by our ChaerVations of ehifte-in the mioroflora of patients treated with ttreptot#0in and onto* vans ir rectors fairly tarily stable Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (29) Trans. as975 It can hardly be considered that all of the.. atones aro ineonse- quensial to the organism, if the important role of the enterio bacillus for man, its substantial influonce upon many intestinal microorganisms* including the putressent ones, is taken into aeoeunts Injury of the anteric bacillus is connected with dtiterbanass in the normal flora in man and animals, the appearance of disbaeteriosis, aotivat o of conditionally pathogenic mieroorganiems, and changes in the vitamin eeonomy of manrowrganisms *doh is essentially important for specific end lions spocific protective roastions of the organism* and for the su000se of therapy and prophylaxis of various infootions as has been demonstratad by research conducted by A. 11. Eirkhonghtoin and his collaborators. CORCWITC58 1. Changes of varying extent and stability.ceour in the enteric bacil. los under the infinities' of antibiotics and soil amebae; those occurring under the influonoe of syntanyein and streptomyein and, in part, /*row (satin and biomyoin are mere distinct and mar* stable. Unusual variants differ from typioal and original ones in morphologisalsbiochamical pros portion, antigenicity and registries* to the action of specific and non. specific factors. Variation in thy enterio bacillue is more distinct after a long ix- pesurn to subbaoteriostatio doses and gradual impose, in tho content of antibiotic preparations in the nedtam. Changes occurring in the interns bacillus under the influence of anti 411 biotic' take place also in the organism of patients, espesially when antis biotic, of a broad spectrUa of &lotion, rush as streptonyoin, syntomycin and levomyeetin have been taken by way of mouth for an extended time. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 00) #001,70 2. Unusual warianto of the coterie bacillus, ?sp.oi*lly those inactive with respect to glucose and lactose, and also these reselin the alkali. produsor EAleeligenos], can lead to errors in sanitary?basteriol Joel vestigationsi this *k*S it obligatory that analysis and appropriate *value,. tion of microorganism; adaptable to entibiotios be oondusted more carefully. 6. Under the influeneo of antibiotics, especially during the process of long exposure, there ?emir seven, injuries of ths onterio bacillus, a Moonless in its viability and its disappearance from the microbe association. The latter may lead to disbeetoriesis phonomena, to ineroasod estivity of sonditionally pathogenic microorganisms, to an emergonoe of intexioation and Candid* moods, to a violation of the vitetin odenemy in mfteroorganismio and to a decrease in their spesifie and non?spocifie resistance. 4. Antibiotic preparations applied efficiently aro useful chomp? therepoutio moans of treatment and prophylaxis for infectious diseases. In damaging the causal microbe, they render it more aocossiblo to the action of juices and tissues of the organism which incurs a favorable outoeme of the disease. Violation of the regims of antibiotic therapy* oxtromoly long use of antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, especially without taking into account the sensitivity which the causal agent has to such action, lead to injury of the enteric) bacillus and to a ?hangs in the normel flora of can, and, with it, to a whole complexity of undosireable phenomena justly con- sidored as complieetions of entibiotio therapy. 6. Adaptive variation [brought about] by antibiotic action is inherent in paishogonic Ue well as in conditionally pathogenic microorganism*. Inowlcodgo of the ehersoteristios of unusual variants* of their viability and aatigoni? city Is most essential in insuring early diagnosis of the corresponding diseases so as to be able to evaluate accurately tits results of sanitary Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (31) 'franc,. A40,975 terioloPical inve corning cliangos00 ditionaily patbacp and to wide the coop our know1ede can* specifio character of pathogenic and eon* oboe. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trails 110.916 (Itt full) lir A Ruben L. Khomosintez i prebloma spetsi- fichnosti mikroorganizmow. (Chemosynthesie and the problea of specificity in microorganisms). nikrobiologlia. Vol. 25. 110. 6. p.7284264 Nov 0. 1950. 448.3-N682 (In Russian) The begun. on the pages of the journal problems raieod in Kalinonkots 03 article rast be developed not .iro1r 05 a .deliberation concerting the porsonal.opinion of a given author and 211$ drio perimental data. A. discussion of the problem of clenoeynthesiu on a:vid Ssops is very timely for the elucidation of tt iportanoe in the developmert of the biologioal thottht in general. Vorks on physiology and biochemistry lead mat* iuthre to draw t elusion that there is a biochemioal Unity in microorganisms LB. 11, 13 4 , on: the prontire.that.glycolysis, photphorylation and the cytochrome syc take part in the metabolism of all mioroorganisms, and that they uniform composition of amlnoacide. Extreme enthusiasm for the principle of biochemical unity loads 4. O3 a o oney-sided approach to the study of physiology and even to a negation of the real existence of physiological groups of microorganissm It'would $00m that the problem.cf.00ntemporary microbiology az biochemistry ought to be not only a study of the general faepect) that brings microorganism together eith'each other and vith macroorganists, but Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tz) Trenit. Aa9741 also a penetration into the delicate physiological speeificity of the dividwal oder*, groups. Only in the unity of the general and the speolflo can the explanntion of the rigid adaptability of individual microorganism to a specific habitat be found, and an elucidation apprenehed concerning the resiprooal relations between individual groups of microorganisms in mature and the role which they play in the general process of the cycle of substances. The chemosynthetis phenomenon is a very convincing illustration of the position stated. Chemoryetbesising mioroorganisms actually possess series of systems and presses.* ohnraeteristie of other heteretrophio organism and living plasm In general, but at the same time they *re highly specific with respect to the oxidise:hie substrate, sources of energy and 41 sorban, and this Espesifieityl renders their metabolism suffisiontly unique. The conclusions concerning the precede, of heterotrophic metabolism in nitrifying thaeterial are substantiated very imadequatsly. Thus, Lee* 1131 arrived at this (conslusionl merely on the basis of the omineaeld composition found in iiitresemenas sells. It is, however, sufficient for one to recall that the possible number of oomhinetions of nucleic acids alone comprises 1063, and m similar conclusion turns into& gross aeolory. The discovery of earbohydrates in the sells of nitrifyieg bacteria (16,141 and thiono acid becteria was also considered a sufficient basis for beteretrophin of their metabolism. However, the negative influence of sugars upon the growth of chime- autotrophs oontradiets this assertion (ten Niel (161). In making use of the principle it biochemical amity and of opinions formed by evologys easy authors arrive at the conslusion that, apart from 114, their capability to utilise the energy of oxidation of inorganic substances, ehemesyntbesising mioreerganisms do net d frier in say way from the ordinary Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ($) Trans* ?401175 heterotrophs. Tho faotual data available is, however, entirely inadequate for wsuoh a oonolusion. (Begin p.7243. The oonsumption of ?meaty dormont cells of liltrosomenas in the absence of oxidation of the substrate, *atm- blishod by Boosmke (11], has been socopted by many authors Eld, 10 as an adequate basis for the assertion that tondo/vinous hotorotrophio respiration is prevalent in Xi* nao although se one had found C42 liberated by dormant litrosomenao *ells. Tho works of Usbreit and collaborators [lel disolosed that in oxidation of sulfur in the absence of 02, Thiobaoillus thdooxidans acoumulatos waft* tion *nem within the atolls in the form of phosphorus essepounde and after- wards is obi, to assimilate CO2 in the obsess* of sulfur. By analogy, this process was transmitted to the mstabolisa of other ehemeautetrophs, even to mush If as hydrogenous basteria. An oxporimontal examination of Umbroits's and Boaleroodts (Baolerood a, Baalsrood 1101) data failed to confine the possibility of separating in time sulfur oxidation sad 002 4091? milation. There is no doubt that oheassynthesicing mioroorganieum are not only entirely different from hetorotrophie organisms but that each group of auto- trophs Is In mem' reepesto distinot from other mierOorgantimm eopoble of chemocynibeois. .rebio1ogiosl, bioehemical and physiologieel dela offer as basis for a uniting of all ohemetrophi and hetsretrophs by the principle of a single metWbollem, and their spocifioity has been investigated Lode.* qtately, Chemosynthotio phonomena and a *opacity for autotrophio nutrition have until recently sosrsely been associated with the study of the physiolOdY and bieohomietry of ohemosynthosising Emloroorgonisms) and autotrophs, Foote 011) oonserning the utilisation of the energy of Oxidation of mineral substance in biologiool synthesis of organic substances and the possibility of building Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A0975 up a eerbonie skeleton of protein moloeules at the n ? of carbon dioxide aesimilatien has been firmly established. There ii a oomplete dearth of data on the physiology and biochemistry of miereerganisms acompliehing shemmeynthesie. There are extremely few data on the meoleznism of ehemosynthetie reactions, on physise.chemical condta tions of environment and on their influence on the ehemosynthetie proems. The enzymatio oomplexities of shommyotheeizing (nieroorganism) have scarcely been studied and the need for investigations in tbo this sphere is quite Obvious. Undoubtedly, ehersosynthedising Eneroorganisme) peeps a series of enzymes that are absent in other microorganisms an example for this can be found in the diemetrisally contrasting.behavior of the autelreates of nitrifying tbnoteria) and hoterotrophs. In the latter an aeoussalation of *amnia vas observed when left *Undies, but in the first its disappearance MSS observed (14,4h Autolyeates of Illitr000mmos, arc eapable of oxidising hdrozylaslne, this eaptbility is absent in beterotrephe (4). Furthermore, the eapaeity of Witresomonas autelyeatee to oxidise ammonia and hydrogylamiess disappears after heating. The question ooneernimg the relationship lbetmeen chemosynthesisi (mieroorganismel and organic substanses in the substrate is a very important one and must be resolved for reason, other than either a negation of the existence of a ehemosynthetio proems or its confirmetion. The olvmmynthetio phenomenon will not cease to exists regardless, as be whether or not the organic substance that can be assimilated by MAVOSOMAARO: Will be found. An eluoidation at the relationship between nitrifying (Bacteria] and somplex mania subetanom in the external environment should help to solve the contradiction existing between the results of laboratory investigations and prosesses mourring in oature and production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. it.,9713 It is known what degree of intensity can be reaohed by the nitri.. rying prone in Gleaning installations 161, in tropical soils (121 and in ealtpeter works* regardless it the abloom*, Of considerable anoints of organic sdbotances. Under laboratory conditions, an adtt1on of soluble organicsubstances to the culture medium inhibits sharply the rwith of nitrifying bacteria and the accumulatiOn of nitrates en. All of this renders it ipersttve that a detailed study be, made of the ooMposition of organic substannes in the moil since our information con. corning this realm is very inadequate and general. Besides the quantity of humic acid of the total carbon and the individnal fractions (Begin p.1251 soluble in different solvents, there are practically no data available: The role of acoompanying microorganism* end the surrounding microflorn in the activity of nitrifying (ba.ateria) and other chemoryntheeining tiiiro. organismal has not been studied in detail up to now, many author's have merely noted the positive influence exerted by acoompanying Cmicroorgatisme] upon the nitrifi ition prooesses. In summarising the above*said it wattle -emphasised that the ventigatione conducted within ths sphere of a study of the chomosynthetiO phenomenon and of autotrophy shemld be extended also to the domain of chemical .relations existing between autotrophic and heterotrophie micro. organisms and to the sphere of a detailed study of the conditions of their habitat in mature. (only) then shall we be able to broaden considerably our conception concerning the activity of microorganisms and of their role in the cycle of oUbstancee. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A.0978 Omitting & retie, of fhlinenkeis EC article, mede in sufficient detail by Shaposhnikav [91, I shall take the liberty to answer the remarks made by concerning the work by Imehenetekii and Ruben Ill. It was demonstrated in the given work that oxidation of ammonia by none cellular Mitrosomenes autolysates was possible. For this purpose, cultures of nitrifying (bacteria] were groom on the usuaIlNinogreasky culture medium in large quantities, oelle wore filtered, fegmented am& autolysed, and the autolysates were filtered through bacterial ultrafilters. Autolysates of heterotrophie bacteria 'forted as eontrols. After five days of maintenance at ST' (0), there tmourred a decrease in the amount of ammonia in the autolyeabes of litrosomeme, and an increase of it in, heteretrophi. Zvaporation of ammonia did not =cur, sine, the total amount of nitrogen remained sonstant. Kalinenkes critioism of the work referred to is not really ooncerned 01. with its subeianoe. Ls criticism coneerning the feet that Nitreeemeeel used in the exim poriment was grown OA Winogradsky's medium mod the heterotrophs on ordinary *ger media is entirely ineescreheneive. He sees in this a violation of equation and of conditions of cultivation; yet the greying of organienm that are sharply distinct from one another en the same medium is precise; violation of this Epartieular) equation. Besides, we tried to gray an ?lige- earbophylie microorganism or Pseudomohas fluoresce= on Winogradskyle medium and we obtained from it an autolysate that in no way differed from the autolysate of agar sultures. Walinebkese censure regarding quantitativewparisons and "fine quanti- tative experiments" is also entirely unfounded. In the works under discussion somparative data were obtained and nothing was said about balaneed experiments. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 v/ow +on The i.ntttwl at the final quantities- of ammenia and nitritel waive pared. after the autelysates had been kept for five days ? no that quantitative r-N / changes concerned only the original comentrations of atm La and nitrilAcs and hence* there was no need to equalize the bacterial -mance shale the amount of the biomase would. not have changed the dirootion of the -process. t is incomprehensible why Xalinenko called the process obeerve4 177 the authors a process of "nitritelees autolysis" ft51 pu 360.. It is genera ly known-that in.akitolysis denomination of.aminoacids and an tocumulation of aon.ia ty oberv.&, and it wee observed also when. autolysetes of before,- trophio microorganisne.were kept. in. all,probability*.the.proottes of. auto kyein with splitting off of tumonia occurs also in autolyeates of Ofitrosomonano. but there was no acouhulation of ammonia observed; converely its coneentrwo non decreased in the constant total *mount of nitrogen; conesqusntly, the authors wore?justified in saying -that ammonia of Nitt- tolysatee was oonverted to an oxidised form* but the process did not reach n&trit? at least not quantitatively*Jse. it stopped at a certain degree of..oxl ion. ['Amin p.7261. The authors did not aim to confirm the. osynthetio theory* since they believe it to be sufficiently oenfirmed by a large quantity of data of a number of authors; nor- did they intend to elucidate the po lity of developing latrosomenas on en. absolutelyinorganic medium, in the given inventigetion* and for that reason they used the usual. WinogradskY medium and ftp water. Hence* Kalitenkote co h Imshenetekii and keen does n.ot eontfrm the theory of obemosynthesisinw also made with disregard of the main objective of the investigations. o use of tap water ric by Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (a) Trans. 14T6 The only oenolusion *Usk the authors have drawn from their works (not by fer fully cited in Nalineskals list of literature) was that enspalie somplexos of non.cellular autolyeatos of Nitrosemonas and hotero trophio mioroorganismn differ from *soh other in that ammonia sontained in the autolysates of Nitresomonas disappears, utile it accumulates lathe autolpatos of hoterotrophe at a eonstant total amount of nitrogen in one ease or another. /t is aosumed"that the ammonia oxidation promos obviously, is realised to a small extent in two phases. At the beginning the ammonia is oxidized, probably, up to an intermediate prodmet whioh in turn is oxidised up to nitrites. The first photo, plisse* aotivoly in the filtrates of Nitro someone autolysatos. 1. Imshmetskii, A, A. and Ruban* S. L. Non-oellular nitrification. II. Oxidation of ammonia, by autolysates of Nitresomonas sells. Mikrobiol 23, no. 4, 493, 1954. 2, Imshenetiliii? A. A., Ruban? X. L. d luting, O. D. Non?eelluldr nitri? fisation. III. ?moaning the -dynamics of nitrate aommulation. Nikrobiolo iia, 24, no. 6, 1966. S. lmshonstskii, A A., Ruban 2. D. and Artemsrra, L. I. Non-oellular nitrifioation. IV. Oenoer:ing inamtivation by high temperaturo of Nitro- oftenas ouropam *napes oxidising ammonia. Nikrobiologiia, 26, non71956. 4. Inehetkilskii, A. A. and Ruban, R. L. lion*oellular nitrifleation. V. Oxidation of hydrewyla*ine in nom.sellular Nitrosomonas auto/pates. NikrObiologiia, 2$* no. 2, 1956. 4. Nalinenko, V. O. Is there obenosysthoois in iron depositing beaters and in nitrifying beeteriat Mikrobiologiia, 24, no. 3, 542* 1965. 6. Rommova, T. S. "Investigation of the nitrifieation proems in aeration with activio Oilt. 0121 (United $siontifie and Toohnioal Publishing Neums 11584 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R01-0400020001-7 (9) Trans. ailetri Ruban, 11. Co stances. Iiikrcibi 8. ortn 1. 308, 19364 Chdpoishairov no. 4 1958. of onoznoautotropby Bee.lorood . Ultimo of Thia more, 1062 in CO2 ennimi 4, meth., DoltiAm n. Beemete. fl. Contribution to Miorobia., 10 1939. 12. Griffith, G Trop U. Leos.?11. The bioohe or&aniore. Fourth tymp A Aote on a n26. 108, 194 A h. on in an itondo of nitrifyint bac m or the too. Oen. tut* 84 .Thiratthn K Z4f.of boo I. C* Rev. laorobiol thebroit, ri. 955. bd photosyn Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-977 (In full) vat Klein, B. I. "flints's" viruou [Synthesis of viruses]. takrobidl. Mural, vol. 18,-no. 5; p.69.41. 1960. 448.3 EH. (In 0krai ) Recently, in so mo scientific as well scientific popular jourrlc in.. formation was published that soientiists from California Praenkel?Cenrat and otudents of theeell.oknown vireltniet Stanley, suoceeded in ynthe. sizing" the tdbacco mosaic) virus.' This novo has also appeared in tho general a preps, whore it vac anneuncedAbout the beginning of c. anewere in virology, about 'synthesis of life in a test tee, about the possibility of asyntho.. clang living matter from inanimate oomponenta. A lot was exaggerated in this information, yet, ut aittedly? the my facta, described therein, merit further inventigation and require serious verification. Aocording to the eited authors, troma c viruses cal aspect,46reprosont Imply a grouping of chemical ocmpotentea, and n particular, the tattoo? mosaic virus can be resolved into two components* protein (96,t) and nuclein (0)? Uolecular weigh. of proteins of the protein fraction is 100,000, and of nuclein - 260, 000. Protein and nycloin fractions d? those are matro.. moleoular chemical oompositions with a hi2;h molecular weight. Virus proteins represent complex composition* of 16-17 long chemical chains of emineacids, namely aspartio and Outstrip acids (13.5.114-,g), arginine (0.8%),.louoino Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. a-977 (9.2%), valise (9.2%) and tryptophan and others, in sun amounts. Tho huoloin oomponent is still more complom; it has a molecular weight of 220,000 and represents a combination of several nuollAidoe. The nueleetides are composed of phosphoric acid, carbohydrate (riboso) and of pyrimidine element* ( toein, uracil adenine and guanine), which contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in variouo proportions. oms of the nuoleotidos form* molecule of nucleic acid by means of polymsritation, 'hereupon ooze of the smiler molecalos ocrbine into ono larger one. Reaotiens of polymeritatiOn-gonorally are widespread in chemistry. Thum, for inotanee were obtained gigantio molecules of artificial silk, of plastic messes, and so on. Folymsrised molecules undergo a reeurrtrg process (dopolymerisimt ) under the influence on them of various physicalochomieal fosters. glootron microscopic research, together with methods of ultraeontri- Notion, made it poestblo to establish that the tobacco *Louie virus, which in the electron microscope had an appearance or svloog rod, uss compceed of a protein cepoulo inside of which nucleic acid was found. This is as though a protein Wire with a *anal is filled with nucleic told kiting upon the tobacco mosaic virus with solutions of eortain infecting substances one can damogo one end of the virus Who and then [Begin p.601 the nuolein contents will floe from it ao *seams dose when the end of the -gasoline tubs is proem'. It is seen on pictures, talon from an electron mioroscopo, that nucleic sold flows out from the danagOd end of the virus red. In this manor the above mentioned authors isolatod the protein ewer. ',anent of the virus from the nuolein; after that, under the reaction of a whole series of physloowohemical factors (such as, for instance, o)snge of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 0) Traits. .ilso9T5 pH of the medium, heating, and so on), which assist. in depolywarisationo they changed the albumen of 'the protein fraction to lemomolocular protein and depolymerized the nuclein fraction down to nucleotides and further. In such a form both fractions were entwined ander an eleetron siorescope and no virus rode wore found, The else-trim mieresoopets field was "opti- cally empty". At the same tine this transmuted virus lest its ?betel* to produce the "mosaics diseases After this both fraotions were subjected to a reverse process, and by an. of p/sysiso-ohemical remotions a polymerization llai 'brought about. bleeromoleoular structures of the protein end nuolein fractions became visible *pin; then both fractions reunited, and the obtairood mass underwent an on. *Ideation under the eleetron mierossope. A curious result was obtained thus i in the utast where there were no virus rods, rod?like structures again reappeared, widen were characteristic to tobacco =sale virus, and the mess which lost the faculty to infect tabooso leaves, again produced in them the meatc disease on contact with the leaves. It appeared further on that ihs ease can be Main divided in two frastions, a &polymerisation produced, as well as the loss of abilliv to infest$ then again to polymerise, produce the appearance of virus reds and the ability to infect the loaves. Thus, all those processes were held- *ally reversible. Can one cell this a *synthesis* of the virus? In reality this is not a synthesis of viruses fron the simplest ohemieal compounds, but only the restoration of viruses from their awn !motions - the protein and the mosaics virusc nuclei*. But on. cannot obtain a toloacee.from these sem fractions, which wore obtained from another virus. That is why this profess can not be called a qsynthesis" but just a restoration - "reoonstitutionw. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-.971 This res.erch, certainly, will require in case it becozass ecnfirmed one more objection is possible. that microbes, visible under the light microscope, can take up iisible forms. It is possible, that virus rode of tobaccounder he lxoc of the applied physico.ohemical fectors, ehange to very small forms, visible even through the electron microscope, and afterwards when both fractions again polymerise and join together, some of these fragmente again grow up to a shape of typical rod,mlike form. It is interesting that the intensity of infection by the restored virus is insignificant cempared to Th e initial. But regardless of how this problem will be solved, the general direction talent by the present work with viruses is of great interest. All this prompts to a substantial revision of the problem about the nature of viruses atsi baoteriophaga In connettion with this it is interesting to wntiou the w?kn of P. o Straub (Budapest) *bout synthesis of protein substance. Straub pro- pounds a hypothesis, according to whioh the protein system of ribonucleic sold can re-create itself when given an appropriate protein substance. In the opinion of Straub, to such eelf-re..creative systems belong "protein substmnces enzyme, which eause the processes of netaboliones that characterise life". We know that antibiotics function "by wane of interfering with the protein spathes is of microbes The works of S. E. B*tesZer are also known about the re-synthesis of protein substances from products of d.eoiosItion by mem of applying great pressures. [Begin p.611 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 40 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to)wrstris Acallirt R. B. Khesin succeeded in tracking the synthesis of the amylase ensyme in homogeneous extras to of the pigeon's pancreas * V. 0. Straub points to the fact, that in extraste from pancreas, after a full destruction, of the soli otrutbises, some of the amylase inereased by 50.40g in half an hour by wane of synthesis. An these data lead us to the problem about re...synthesis of protein substanmes? as well as about enzymes, which are the in **uses" in prooesses of metabolism that sheresterise life". The problem' about the tsiture of viruses and of the bacteriophage has been resently considered in the aspeot of traoremolesular protein oompounde and ens3rues. In virology it is necessary to mention one more great improvement in connection with the feat that the newest research has removed the boundary between the antral and plant viruses. Up to reoently, virus,* which orystmlise ware known only among plant viruses (tobacco mosaic), but of late (in 1965) Californian soientists Rehwerdit and Sohaffer have stated that they succeeded in obtaining the first nnimil virus in the form of crystals namely ... wyelitis vireo, which now lo the center of attention of theoreties, clinical phyoloinne (surgeons) and epidemiologists. Per the research of the above mentioned soientiste the tissue cultures of the monkey's kidney tissue, in.. footed with pelioWelttt., served as the initial naterial. The reproduced virus was obtained in a concentrated form from id I. of virus culture of kids's,/ tissue, treated with weak solutions of acids and salts and as a result of this 1 mg of virus of extraordinary strength was obtained; insignificant parte of which could produce the disease; this virus was crystalised in the test tube, whereupon %tiniest crystals" were pro- ducted, A theoretical impartanoe of this fact is very groat. but its practical value is exot.,;gerated in the general press. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Tram", A-977 Mi tho ahtme ?cited facts a developmant of a great deal of verification reearcb t more tn.. lees accurate conclusione only in the future u one cart fore5. mole of a livinc v1 60 O. 40041. P. etaof protein ubctncee. Prtroa, 1960 2, piko Atomeeo 1056. City Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trams ? .4-97t3 (T.a full) Min, V. L., and Vaniurenko, K. I. PrItist cetorotrofnyldi bakterii na seredovishohi po avlenomm organichnykh rechovin. [Growth of heterotrophic bactria on a medium whieh has been deprived of organic matter 1. Mir., vol. 19,no. 2, p.1140. 1957 448.3 K64 (In Ukrainian) (Summary in Russian) Cultivatinc some heterotrophic bacteria Q. pelt commune, fl. cyaneum, n, proteun vulgaris) on linogradskyle culture medium, which doe's not include, as it is known, any organic compositions, we have establinhed that these baoteria reproduced. This cave -,rounde for assuming that the indicated bacteria can be autotrophic. First of alive decided to solve the nroblem if the mentioned nicrobee really utilize carbon dioxide of the air. Te took IP test tubes with 8 m1 of Wingradskyts. culture medium In. each for the expariment, conducted with this purpose in view. Into the first three we introduced B. colt commune, into the other three m. D. Emene_tpla and into the next three - B. Eroteuavulraris. Bacteria were introeuced with swab, a calculation that each milliliter of the culture medium of the firot test tubes would contain 1,000 microbes bodies the c000nd - 100 and third - 10 microbe bodies. The three remaininz test tubes were not seeded .4 they served SS controls, All 12 test tubes and a dish with l caustic barium for absorptIon or! carbon dioxide of the air were placed in a class jar, which was hermetically sealed an loft, for 2 hours at room temporoture in order that, before the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A,,970 beginning of growth of zsicrobeso a reaction should take place bitween the carbon dioxide of the air and the caustic barium* After this the 'voGeel was carefully transferred 'to the incubator at a temperature of 87" C. Three days after thee. were taken out front the incubator and the contents of the dish were tested for the presence of barium carbonate. P each test tub. 04 ra of fluid was seeded into test tubes with the liquified and slightly cooled agar and they altageth, r were pound into Petri dishes, which then were placed in the incubator at a temperature of 37 C. in 26 hours; they were removed from the incubator and the number of the grown colonies eomputed. it was discovered that countless colonies grew up on the experimantal dishes, while no growth was observed on the control. Se-veral replications of this experiment gave similar results. Also, bacteria of n coil commune, B. pyocyarium and 8. protous,:snilgaric grow on Winogradokyls culture medium in the absence of carbon dioxide in the air. After this we decided to tnveetiate the be. in Winegradeky is culture medium after 00 ammonium nitrogen growth in there of experimental microbes basing ourselves on the idea that if these microbes would utilise the oxidation of 0=0 tlie. gas as a source of energy the amount of ammonium nitrogen during the process of their growth on the Winagradokyve medium will decrease And at the same time nitrous acid will appear in the culture mr,dtum. 00 Deter 011 of contents .of esssonium nitro on in the median were meted after Krapivin and by the method of Konvel ttraneliteration] diehes. The contents of nitrit* and to nitroGen were determined by the usual tux!' 'which are practiced fcz the determination of contents of nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in drinking water and in eenrage [begin p.123 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. ?978 The experiment -was oonduoted thus. We introduced 100 ml of lint. gredskyls culture medimn into five omen bottles. To the first bottle were added 10,060ilorChs bodies of 1. (soli eommunee to another as mnoh of B. Eyocyaneum, to the third the same amount of B. protons vulgaris the fourth and fifth bottles were not seeded and served as controls. ?3.1 five bottles were plowed into the incubator at a temperature of sr C. Ten days after they were removed from the incubator and examined for the growth of mierobes by the sbove.mentioned method. Prom 0.1 mg of medium, which was %ken from experimental bottles, a countless nueber of colonies grew on lamellate agar, while seeding* from control bottles odumod no growth. Diming become convinced of the presence of growth of microbes in 411 experimental bottles and of their absence in the control, we then determined the contents of the amnonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in the bottle.. It was dimeoverod that during the proem of growth of experimental microbes on Winegradsky's medium the *entente of aamtenium nitrogen did not &serest*. In bottles with B. colt commons it was: when determining after Irapivin $60 and by the method of Konvel dishes . 402 mg/LI in bottles with B. respectively respectively 410 and 416 mg/L; for B. proteue,vuleris 440 and 434 mg/L1 ilk control bottle no. 1 . $20 and 384 mg/L, and control no. 2 -820 and $76 ag/L. Thus the use of energy at the expense of oxidation did not deorease ammonia, on the contrary, we even observed a certain increase in the contents of ammonium nitrogen in the medium, probtb4, at the expense of deep doeomposi. tion of microbe protein during protracted growth. The absence of nitrites 111 and nitrates in the medium also spoke of the fact that oxidation of ammonium nitrogen did not deerease. Similar results were obtained after repeated ex. poriments? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.976 Thus, the e oriments heve shown that the microbes, examined 1:y us, Old rot utilise either carbon dioxide of the air as a source of carbon, or the oxidatioe of ammonium az the source of energy. In order to confirm the experiment, which demonstrated that eur bacteria did not use oxidation of ammonia as for Obtaining the onera neceesary for their growth, me utilized the sane inogradskvis medium for cureivation of examined nicraes but without amonium imitate. Thus, the nee medium had the following compositiont KOPO 0.75 g, RE2P0 ? 0.25 go Fe2S06.71120 e 0.01 e, 1510 '71/20 e 0.01 g 4004*71 . 0.03 g, CaC12 . 0.02 g, distilled water . 1,000 ml. This medinmeas poured into four bottles (per 100 ml in each) ana sterilizee. Inte one bottle were introduced 10,000 microbe bodies of P. colt commune let? atother the sane emnunt of microbe bodies of B. ELsrall_oeuet? into the third as mach of proteus yule-Arts, the fourth was the control. All bottles wore placed Into the thermostat for 10 days at a temperature of $7' C; after this 0.1 ml or mama were seeded from each bottle into tout tubes with liquified and cooled agar. After that the same happened as in the first experiments in each dish with 0.1 ml of medium countless rembers of microbe ooloriee el.ev up, while on the control dish no erowth of brcix3rta was observed It was seen from this experiment that microbes of B. colt coeLmune., B. pyooyaneum? B. proteus vulgariawere capable of multiplying on Axogradskyls medium without anmoniumenlfates which fact again attested thnt oxidation of veresonia gee die not serve as a source of energy for their growth. Pereeral replications of this experiment gave eeeilar results. 111 And, finally, we cultivated mioroes on"eleogre sky's medium without anmonium aulfete aN1 without abeorption of carbon dioxide by ?Rust-Jo IlarLum in our last experiment. tie poured 100 ml of17inogredsky's medium, eithoet Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R01-0400020001-7 tb) , Wrang. Ak*U70 =realm ltatst r bottle a 10.000 micrebe bodice of a Pt cue, bodies of13, oi2Lsyne into the third t of B. groteut. ?Theeo bottl giAes cont*iner htch WILD 11617/70tite1ly scaled Qui all wee loft at room temperature for the course of 2 hours after which they were plaoed into the inoubsAor for 10 days at a temperature of Br C. Countless numbers of colonies grew up from seeding() on agar of medium from each bottle but the seeding from the oentrel bottle not produce any growth. Replications of experiments brought similar rem. sults ' 11.fX1 oto one bottle we introdcod another - 10,000microbe ems amount of microbe bodies forth wail the control. [Beg poli dishes with caustic barium Ba(OB)2 were placed xporiment has shown that D. and D. LrztjuLs vulgaris grew on Winogradskes idiui thout ammonium ate and rithout the presence in the air .of carbon dioxide. A question arises wherefrom did the microbes that we ex ritnentel with, obizin the carbon and energy necessary for their life and muitiplica. tient We ernes? t.hut there is only one source of The air Prom Charokov Inatitute of Vaccines and Cerra imoni lichnikov ola tie organic oorgoundo ived 17, 6. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A..978 Rose eh shown vulgaris multiply dioxide. When ltivating ammonium nitroon form. This attet8 fats was not the sotu-ce of o The to ted microbes multiplied also on Wincgradskyl e titni idation of ammonia or the growth ot these m deprived of ammonium a te this suppOrts the preceding sts. The microbes was? deprived of *toti 8u1ti*1 from which -r,arbon dioxide was b From these facts one iuraw a conclusion that B. coU iderstion grow on Witogradslry.i nocrnoust and B. Eiztous vuits receive carbon Itnd energy necessary for their 1:411tiplicat4on from volatile organic substances of the air. Thus in the present work it was established that in the presencs in tho mediura of inorganic salts certain microbes can draw out o*rbon necessary for their growth olatilo organic compounds of the air. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A..979 .(In full) -itf& Oardarov? and Popov. Opyty vosetantrrleniia penitsillino. cluvetvitellnoeti u rolls tentayktt k penitsillina stafilokokkav., [Experiments in restoring penicillin.' sensitivity in-etaplwl000cci resistant to penioillin]. Zhurnal llikrobiologii; Epid ologit i Immunobiol no. 6, p;76.82. 33'.v 1956 448.3 Z4 ( Pueian, itted from a Bulgarian isttb The mass use of penicillin oti.eo has brought about an increase in peniaillin-i-esietant raicrobes. Ace rd arbor's and ,,ihiteltead's (1949) data, in a children's hospital, out 0: 46 ataphyloeocons patient* 86% were infected by penioillin-resistaut forms. According to investigations conducted by Bardarov and Neichev (1950) 25.6% of purulent diseases in ambulant patients had been caused by Staphylo. cocci resistant to penicillin, and it postoperative purulent infections this indicator has. reaohed 43. ? Among personnel of Surgical clinics (physicians, nurses etc.) 194% were found to have penicillinwiresistant .staphylococci in the pharynx (nosoglotkli? The mechanism of penicillin?resietance has not as yet been fully clarified, but there are available indications that its appearance is de.. finitely due to the role played by penicillinase that destroys penicillin (Ravish, Woodruff tVudrufl Foster and othere). Benne, we have undertaken Insti iaot ooit u ? kad. N.Markel() 11.0a ditsi 3r o Akstdomii imeni V. Chervenkova v tute of a r ogy (Dir., Acad. Vi N. Mrkov) of the Medical Itendenv V. Chervenkovs'at Sofia]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. 40,979 k of in Unice. We proce ded it is possible to r action of penioillingee is Otoppe of suppressing the the hyp tiles s that in pen t miorobee or* their Original sanattiv&ty to p.r4ci1Unj if the ng ether by diceont . or by exerting physioo..?cal influenoes ors final: it by the use of microbiological metho40. Zn our mn tried to utilise high'titrate antipenicall '0 cera. We found no appropriate data in the lats had to search for Method* f bur affn tt crier to Robb had'oet ourselves. [Begin p.?7] In? produbtion. by ntltzirg exports,ws our diepossI preson princLp arrangeient of the entire work and have oned the resultsof our vestistioM only in ensra1.More detailed data are surts.d../nth? WO$ entitled esttgations of penioillinaso and o ant ponioillinace Bora which his been ubmitted for printing For the purpose of obtaining ponicillitase we used. a strain of a sporogenous tsporonosnogol soil microbe (hhe strain re) that produces a eon.. factorable quantity of extra-cellular penioillinmee. The method we used to obtain it adds up to the followings after a 9-16..day cultivation of the microbe in a specific medium, on the dayishen_th niciilinate conceutra tion veto:shed the maxissumi the Culture was acidified up to 0144 with la acetic aottt, adsorbed with aluminum 'oxide and then eluated teltuirovUJ with *1kalint water and filtrated through a Slate filter. ? We developed also a nothod for pen ciilinase units' we took the ;animal a*ou. destroys 100 units of penioillin at roam Mineola titration, t of the nioilltna lut mperatur and plts1.0 within e.n Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. A.979 Tho titration method was based on the following prinotplos penicillin is destroyed when it is mimsd with ptnielllionso and, ass result, the mixture cease. to inhibit the dovolopment of the sensitive staphylosocous (strain no. 209) under and around the shoot of the filter paper that is plated on the surfate of agar midst' with this Moroi's, if, however, the ptnioillin is not dostroyed. then a sterile son, appears around the sheet of filter paper. The Litton. [sone] denotes that the amount of vonicillinnte had boon insuffieient to destroy 100 units of penicillin, and, consequently, the latter [penicillin] mantfocts its action. L dilution of tilt ponicilltnaso **Dation indicates diroctly a 1 ml content of pontoillinaso. This method proved vary tonwonient and ontirely adequate for practical work (table 1). Table 1. Titration or pentoillinaso in relation to strain nos 209 of the gold.00lorod staphylesecous t+*phy1ooee.us surto.] tonsittre to zest*/ n ltseties coupe:lents Dilution of penicillin's* Controls (131 mil 1.500 1 $ SOO 1.700 ---1-1? en e _ Penicillin (100 units) 0.1 Oa OA 0.1 Physiologleal solution . 1 0:1 Results . proton,* of sterile )1 / / / ZOM Nmperimente were also oenducted for the elarifieation of the relntionm ship between penicillin and penioillinato required for their reciprocal action. The investigations have domonstrated that small Amounts of poltiOil.. linage aro eapablo of dostroying considorablo quontities of penicillin by sinultanocasly reducing the titer of penloilltnase Le. in reeiprooal notion with ponleillin the amount of penicillinnse docreasot, and the Ostruntion of penioillin is determined by the duration of its (penicillinasesel action Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A0972 and its concentration. In the order of the study psnicillimate? we first of all the- imOun Jo 1 properties of tablish its antigenic oharaoter, and, to be able to answer this question, we had to test its non -injurious ess for laboratory animals. investigations have demonstrated that white Moo weighing 10 gm [Begin p.781 survived at intraporitionsal injection of 100 units of ponioillinese without any symptoms. For rabbits, doses up to 600 units of penicillinase proved harmless when injected intravenally. 'After intravenal injections of larger doses (1,600 units), the rabbits were observed to suffer from sluggishness and paralysis of the rear extremities [the symptoms of] which disappeared after 1-1thours /n the case of a hypodermic injection of penicillinase in rabbits (2 600 unite) and in guinea pigs (1,600-2)600 units) no reset/ors of either a localised or general character were noted. After several hypodermic intravenal tnje?ttona of penioillinase tber. appeared in rabbits the corresponding antibiodies ? antipenicillinaSe which, bore witness of the presence of antigenie properties it penicillinase. We wads a study of some properties of anti nioillitmes sera Thus, we established that they possess neutralising p ?portion, lee* they bird penicillinase and neutralize its action. The areohanism of this noutralisa? tion is at present still being studied, but proceeding on the premise that an antipenioillinase serum possesses precipitative properties (ftbio 2), we consider that neutralisation, probably, occurs on the principlo of toxin neutralisation by an antitoxin. In addition, we established that an 111 entiponieillinese serum possesses an agglutinative property it agglutinate* 1130$in p?70) penicillin-resistant shiphylogooci? but does not agglutinate strains sensitive to penicillin. Zn this case the agglutination titer is in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans' A-979 W. A ..... Ilk WO .... Seri 1/* u o- -of eeru!i 1 50 0 3200 zrst nt penic te. 1118PUMolDiegi4 1 0.6 . 0.6 ' 0.5 SusperiSIOP. of morobba (1955)......... . 046 0.6 0.5 0. 0.5. Phriclogical eIutin --. 0. Sorrel rebbit ser Results......... .ecoril A 0.5 0.5 L0.5 ? 0.5 0.6 0.5 0;5 PhySiologic ... 0.5 - bbit ter -' .. ... ? . .. .. d e 1116 no 0.5 0.6 0.5 ... U8 on .of :aerobe* 0.5 0.5 0.5 Thyito1oical solution .. ... '0 ?roil rabbit serum -. 0.5 Results Ththetitr Ii based on the - penicillinate* in ton.o ibn of p action so that during a sup enict1It.se sera we used our on teii1irae to its neutralize by ofpentcti1oe, the ntiter zorts ite Addition of p.nlciIltn, thu letter riAnifeett its antibiotic antion h?d It nt of antipenio insufficient, then penicillinase deetrcs the added penicillin he staphyl *Gout (strain no. 209) eengitivi to Pen-Jet lin fails to de lop? We used the thii1 ea uot of seruft [surf lent] to neutralize I unit of pent- oillinato within 60 it 37 CI es untt of antipeniaillinase action (table 4). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans A..979 Table 3. Antiponicillirouse a Ponioillinase (10 tali Physiological solution ?Normal rabbit serum Results tcliUnaeo linDe (I u io ogioal aolu ortral rabbit ceruza Pi 0) for 1 hour 0.1 room temporature for 3, Pour Resul steri (Begin p.801. agglut taltive proper make the following conclust? 1) penicillin e particti1sriy in staphylococci; 2) ponloil inaSe possesses iar1y protouced at the same tiYot the differences between the antigenic extraoellular poriioillinase cannot be eitbiisbcd1. t dy de 0 ipenici 00 pitative sera has permitted us 0111 resistant? properties tracollular and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 rens s .tvoirtiv 3) in iiiniring with penicillinese it is possible to Chtain hightit.r a sera exertinic epeeifio action upon penio llineee; 4) antipenieillinese mere posses* neutralizing, precipitativeaixt agglutinative properties* 6) the agglutination oepeett of an entip.ntolii.neB, esrwn gu2.feeta itself only in relation to penieill Want microorganiems, and 'this indicates that peniciiiihose enters the structure Of penieillin-Tesistant mloroorgonisme at an antigen Date bearing witness to the antigeniottr of pent? lithos* and to the possibility of utilising .ntipriieilhtnes. .r$ for mad ca1 purposes are available in literature. We report briefly our anervatione At vilft Made in a study of the action exerted by arttpentoill esere up?n penioillinmre sistant etaphyl000eci. The experiment.; were oondueted in throe direetiont. In the tint placs..weAtudied the,laction of antipentoillimase cora in piesively immunized animals. Investigations were conducted on pima pige passively immanited with a rabbit's antipenicillinane serum. The ex- periment was conducted as follows. A few days prior to the experiment 4 (guinea] pig.) were given 4 al of antiserum each, after which all experim. mental animale atd three control animals of the name weight were injeated with 400 mi/lien etaphyl000cci each (strain no. 2684 resietaet to 1,800 unita/M1 of penicillin). Penioillin treatments were begun the following day every morning and evening each animal, was injoeted 1,000 unite/a of penicillin with pyramtdon (2.5A). One of the control guinea pigs waft ::inot treated. W* weighed the animal* daily, eounted the white blood corpuscles, watched the whit* blood picture and the general condition of the animals. On the day following the inoculation the general condition Of the control guinea pigs deteriorated considerably - the animais scarcely moved, refused Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t5) Trans* awtri food, lost weight, the number of (their] white blood eles inoreased heavily and leueoeytosie and lymphopenia were clearly pro 040* The control guinea pig not treated with pen/rains perished atter 8 hours, the second control guinea pig perished after 30 hours and the third after 3 days, even though it had been given 4,000 units of penicillin. An autopsy of the control animas disclosed at the place of the injection purulent necrotic, readily tearing off masses' in the internal organs (liver, lungs) ? severe hyperemia and hemorrhage spots. Stsphylceocei identieal with 26-1141 were found in microscopic preparations and in seeding* from internal organs and from the plea* where the culture had been introduced* In the esperissontal guinea pigs there appeared on the place or the injection a slight infiltrate that was rapidly resorbed, and after a brief 1111 change in the white blood picture, the number of leueorrytes also rapidly returned to normal, which prompted us to diseontinue the penieillin treat. merits. The animals survived* The experiments were repeated with a &wormed amount of the anti- panioillin serum, and they demonstrated that passively immunised animals that had undergone combination penicillin treatments proved considerably more resistant to staphylocoeoi than eontrol animals* In.these (the imutunisod] animals the staphylocrosoal process was rapidly ended. (Begin pall]. In the erroorvi pines, vs studied the action of sntipeniotlltns.se sera in aotivtly immunised aniamle. Rabbits and guinea pigs actively immunised with penicillirmse were used in the experiments. The experiments were con. dusted as follower experimental rabbit' were prsliminarily immuniaed with penioillinase (the total amount of penicillirose comprised 101000 units), a week later, when the immunisation well finished* an experimental and ft ori. trol rabbitof the snme weight were each injected intravenally with 3 billion Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans. A..979 etaphylococei of strain no, 1553 resistant to 15,000 units of penicillin. Penicillin treatments were begun the 61111te &kr ? each of the animals was injected with 10,000 unite of penicillin with pyramidon in the morning and in the evening. The eontrol rabbit died 48 hours later. During autopsy large ambers of abscesses were established in all interns.' organs. The experimental rabbit survived as many as 13 days of treatments (the total amount of peni- cillin comprised 880,000 unite), the number of leucocytes and the _white blood picture became normal and the animal was eompletely healthy. The experiment was prepeated several times with rabbits as well as With guinea pip, and also with other petfbillin?resistant staphylococcal strain) and produced the same results even when treatments were carried out with deoreased doses of penicillin, An experiment was also conducted in intradermal injection of the pent- cillin.resietant staphylocoseal strain no. 1555 in an intemnised -and a norm], rabbits. In the experimental rabbit localised changes disappeared en the 7th day without any suppuration or fistulisation, while the control animal had an infiltrate ot considerable site, fluctuation appeared on the 14th day, a fistule developed on the 18th day, and convalessence set in only on the 30th day. The experimental results indicate tha t animals active immunised with penieillinate become more resistant to penicillin-resistant staphylococci, and antipenicillirmee that develops within the organism restore, the MIMI- tivity of otaphylococei to penicillin, and as ? result, produces e. thera- peutic effect. Finally, we made a study of the action of an antipenioillinase serum within the organism of actively immunised animals. Inasmuch as neutralising, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans, A.979 precipita toe and agglut sera, we condueted the ex .bOdIO8 are present in antipenicil ,nts.vithout the us? of penicillin trent IT The so** inents were conducted the sane as the previous ones' one tganaal pig we tamanized with loillinase one control [guinea]PlE we injected with 4O0 Zionstaphylococci (stai no. 2664). The animals as indicated above1 reoeived. no The control anima died. 2(3 hour's. After the Inocuiaton;obeervattone of the .experimental animal:disclosed at the. beginning a. baa of weigh displaoenent oflenooeytes willoh?disappeared,on the fith day, and.' non.. siderable infiltrate. at th...plece where the injection de,, which. disappeared complotely.on the 11.12th:day.- The. anitwal 'survived. This 'experiment indicates that the presence of neutralizing, preei.4 pitative and. aulUtinativo antibiodies in ahtipenicillitsse sera increases the resistance of aninals to petimillinoresistant staphylocecoi. /i151,ONS 1. nti ci 60 sera possess nou a.gg1ut1rttvs properties. 2. Tho therapeutic effect produced by anttpentciiiinaee sera must be orralted to the following factors a) the serum binds the pen&cillInaae of microbes resistant topea oillin and thus provides for the notion rted upon them by ponioIU4n; soipitative and [Begin p.821; b) antipemioillinase sera with recipitative and acgiutinative ahtibbilies increases the reale nos of nacroorganisme. 3, Aninala (rabbits and guinea pigs) tive1 Immunised Vita pei .iinaae an3. paceively inuunized with ttpsniciilinsao sera are more re Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A.979 sistant and ronifest a milder reaction to.inoculation,with sistant staphylococci, than control animals. Penicillin treatments lead to a Complete and rapid recovery from staphyl000ccal infections caused by penicillin-roeiatant microbes. Li1MTUTTE Bardarov and Neichsv: Resiitance of miorocrrganisms to antibiotics; Ood. Med. frai., v. 29, 1949/50, p.27. Bardarcnr, Neichey, Tomov, A. and others. Hospital personnel at surgical clinics.as carriers of penicillin. resistant Staphylococci, sp. "Govrominnala tieditsinan, hk. I, 1950. . - Remiche' B. V. in book: Antibiotiki, 11. 1949. no. 5, p.6-10. . Abraham, tt:, Chain,' Nature, 1940, v. 146?.p. 887 (citing Pabury). . Barber, 11. Hayhoct sine aitehead, innost, 1949, T..257, H 6590# p.1120. Received at Editor's Office Aug. 27, 1964 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-900 On full) villa Sokolova* A. X.* an Rautenehtein* Sravni te noe i such ie aktivnee bate lazy nekotoryth r&th biohnitaicheekikh zateThi u tagoutoichi kb i. fagoohuvstvitel'nykh form. aktinomiteetov (Comparative acti ilty stud es of c aeea ad come other biochemical factors in phage*.rebistant and phageosensitive actinoroycete strainel. MikrObiologlia; vol. 25 July/Au. 1966. (In Ruesian) 4* p.466-470. 440.5 1502. Ph?643?4 ants de op which are reistnt to the phage in question. A euiture which evoral phage eensit of these places. The friar iy AO .t*biytrommitted hereditarily Tdhat kind of changes occur in the be made resistant to them by the reaction ^ latent to microbe 0 in /*ages/ This question* which in of' great theoretical a practical importance, has, evidently, t been sufficiently studied. In. Our previous work, which me given over to covarative etu4 of certain bloi. oheraioai properties of phage.sensitive and phage..resistant forms of o.ctino- zWeetes tJ1, it vies shown thatphage-reeietant (PR) celle diffor from cella of the iital phago.neiiittve' oulture (Ps) according to their ensy=ttic protein compiex Ad row other properties. It proved to be that cultures re sietant to the phage differ from phage-eoncitivo cultures by the Great ;lett-, e and its great ictnoe to inhibitors, sinn ioehemis .1 A.N. Academy. Science of USSR*. Meow). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: ut nti Institute of lacrobiolocy CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ) Trans. ki.980 Studios of the enzymatic activity in the above cited work were ducted on wcelium preparations, Trhioh wore fixed in alcohol and which could be preserved for a specific time, this could iii 130 nnqr,.chaflge the initial activity, that wee peculiar to the fresh Itly0Olit1221. Therefore, it was eepecially interesting to study the activity of .ealAlase in the fresh material and at the rliest possible hour of develop* tent of the actinowcetes culture, zrhen, it. is the most sensitive to the effect of the phage. Together with this, we intended to study the activity sz)f catalaae also in pores of the phage-reeistant and phoge cenettive oulturee. A more de *led study of the a is. spores and mycol:iu mycetes seemed to in to be 1inportant also for the following reagens. literatUre there are *any works which are given over the studiee of catalase of bacteria. Yet, this problem was not sufficiently studied for actinongroetes. Detailed data about the presence and role of catalog? inbacteria s.re set forth in Porter's book t61. It appears that there are species of bacteria. which do not produce catalase, and species which produce all its for Certain properties of bacteria are connected with the activity of eatable. Thus, for irmtance, Wuddieson and Stahl (see Porter tip oonsidered the activity of catalase in different species of genus a a criterion of their virulence. Virtanon and (s) o studied cl.talase22.21.124., hnve ascertained that vege vo cells of this mtcroorgazi&trn contain cainiase, whfl nabs/ass was not detected in. its spores. The object of research in this work ware 0 cultures of the cpoaiov ts.tilisams11121.210L....us LL...rosIznyaini Kra's. Culture D...6 (phageeSensitive) represented a typical culture of Actino.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. A.980 myces elybisperus s entoeyeini, ,chtoh was sensitive to three d1.ffereet tepee? of actireuhagee Is 12 aft In that dee one from another in their Vireo lone., [Begin p.41371 in the forms of noatie colonies and certain other pro- perties NI. Culture 1072 (phageeresistant) was obtained from culture fl .6 as a result of reaction on it with three types of aetincJhaees in euecession nd of selection of the phage-resistent cultures arisen after this. Culture 1072 wet gelected from among the obtained phseeeresistant variants; it did . not differ from the initial phageeeensitive culture in its outturtt morphoe iooli pbyelologieal and antibiotic pre/Art/en. The baste differenee belles the two cultures of actinoteecetes was their relation to the aptinophagee. Culture 6-.6 (phegeesensitive) was lysed by all the three eited typos of actin phages; the phew, resistaet culture 1072 was resistant to all these three aetinophages s.ed we not 1,yeed by them either on 1tutd or on zolid waft which were favorable to lysis of culture 13-6. Culture 1072 stably precerves its phage-resistance during the ()aurae of several years, le spite of frequent reseedines on medim whioh do include notinophsges. The activity of catalase was studied in spores of both cultures, phase" sensitive and phage restetant as well as in mycelium of different ege: on the 6th 10th 15th, 24th and 36th hour of its developmeat. The cultures were grown during the course of 10 days on potato for obtaining sporal material; while for certain experiments for /6 days on Czapekle medium at a tereterature of 2647.. The collected spores were "lashed with water; one part of them was taken for asetlysis in a fresh state and the other was fixed in 96 tper cent ?) alcohols in h it w*s reserved fiVO deyej after this the ?spores ',were removed from alcohol, dried in a nou desiccator and in such a form underwent anMysis on the activity of datelaeo. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Tram* it 960 fixation or coMy 20450 r.pion**at seeding materia/.. Fish 'broth as cultw?o Ale turas flas rature cf 2?7'. The spores glueose* by the gasbre libikrated oxygen per ighed portion of myte se of 30 mino.fes t Por each determination 6 ml of iturates with sand for tho a For inhibiton the bo r* was 30 nrinutoo sycelituni Which the experiments. Th and in mycelium of a. depioted in the form mixture were taken, to whioh 6 added; the length of reaction was 6idnute8 olution of codiu trate? were introduce V Oatala was de oatalase actYttr et tion of a otivity of oatal a'epresented in table 1; they ta.wo1, ? U r ? . vity of pbage.re (Ps) cultures (According to the mount berated during $ minutes per 1 los of the absolutely Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 boiled opores Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 f ao- phag 7 Title ef fi ure 1 con thiu culture. Words in figure 1. At Um Ago of the culture in hese eitive) om bleb I. &nil figure 1?that, gree t eotivity the sporal Oltalass4 whtlu ih the phase intent r arm ty of eateles at higher than in the activity of tatalase In rosarYOd in sotinolyostes 'phagems nsitive ard phageporesie [Begin p478) when oultivati spores Ot1 71941,0111 rther on it was found that during the firsthelira of development of evcolium (6 hours) the ctvtr oI ca1s1aao of aotinoweetes foil tly ;spared to th intensity of act&vity &n pOrOti ; the ot5.vttj of deve/opment was sior in the phasei.sensitive The fall of a ivity of cataleso continued up to 18 hours of the growth of tale o during this per le than in phase/spectate:It. Irlyeeliars arid at that time it becse phage-sonsitive forme. lip to 15 hour for both the plago.resistent and element the eotivity or cataleso was higher in the phase...re/stets-et cuituro, and Atter this it IMAM higher in the phase-sensitive. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 te) Trans, A....9p0 1 e activ1Win.ml:of Orgfl per 1 mg Of absol nd fiXed speelmeni? of. phage.settitive (PS) axcI phagel.resietant (P11) o subotance in. mmter a ge or tflG culturehours rrosn rrwiXFO 1 W10 0 PS PR pores cult abd on p 5.12 6.31 6.44 Spores cu1tiiiitod on . Csapek medium liVceltum: 6.37 6.17 . 8 bra of development 1.46 1;93 10* 0 * 0 0? 183 . 10 " 0;63 0;70 0;22 0;18 16? 040 0;40 021 020 24 "' * 1;44 1;23 1;06 002 , 36 " U 1.26 1.17 1.00 0.92 aottncmycetes it the ?xp snt in question developed at a temperature eoytst&t n it usually utilised in exporitnents (16.20 and, apparently, iaod be fid the culture of the same age, grown at 25.28 in physiological development. When comparing iflti and in mycelium fixed In 17, that the activity of eatalage eta of catalases &n froth mycolium nee a#bracts attention; considerably as a result of fixation in alcohol. This decrease was sharply expreseed in younger mycelia (up to 24 hours of development). Data on the activity of eatalase are cited it.table 2 rt1t of 0.0e Cl a result of f ce t to t ) of the primary e, ble 2? of mycelium it alcohol of catalase in the 16 24 38 previous seitio and phage.Te search [1) nt forme WOO. 32;54 16. value* of ea ase aotivi ctiaomycetes were co ?idersbly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A.980 Thie difference fixation of th terL1 in alcohol, as wefl as the .ith of preservation( ito 1 year). Virtanc P oide [6) have observed ullciri, in their porimenCii ? lar considerable loss i the aot1vt or the enzyme in dry preparation,s after ctorinem. Mon oxttzat rang of catalase that Oco tor.have two forms of eatalasea thoee soluble and the insoluble in water. In order to ctpute the rzbors of these forms we e nduithod research of the %lase aottvtt in aetinonycotes both in the biomass and aftor rilterinz it through a paper filter (table 3). As it is seen from table 3 the amount of the soluble form of catAlase changed with the age of the culture and differed in photo. nsitive and phage-reeistant forms, tBoinp.469i attention to tele faet AO. have noted that after influence of the it Of development of the mycelium, as as us In' cemos ?there the material was fixed in far as the fresh material is coricor after a 30 minute reaction wt . on tho catalase system of actino B - go pre e atio ibi pressed at poros,hioh wore . o in some catalase activity remainec3i it was not suppressed by the Inhibitor and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Texiae ? k..980 cUsappeard a1tr boiling. %o did net detect aeeaeiti.. differenoe between the Lnteoi1y of The ining? ce.talase a. which was depressed br the inhibitor, i cases of.phage..eeitivoand phace sistant forrn dt2ring?the early In ordor to diecov of he wcelsium develppment. ible differenees between phage-oonsitivo and phase...reststant forme, e exained ciec their reducing pomer in regard to methylene blue. The experiment wee oonane ted in the following manner: equal portions of the material (raw rteeltw, spores),, in the amount of' 200 Ago were triturated ith sand in 5 ml of phosphate buffers after Vida or attaining a vaellUlaik to the macs in each one of Tunberg e test tubes wore added 0.5 ml of solution of methylene blue in, a concentration 1:10,000. Data of the experiment are cited in table 4. Table 4. it is seenfront dMa of table4, thtt during the early hours of ovelop.. nnt the nyoeliunt of actinemycetes Of tie poseneittve form pose greater r'eduetn? paver than the remelt= of the phase resietant form. This feature of the phaN7peseneitive form to preserved also in ?pores. Znamensiaia and others [2) have noted that after exidation of tho developing myoeunt of actin wootos by different Oxidizers the amount of DNA.is eo*}mt lo'Nered in it. It was intereeting to trace if this reaction proceeded with the cams intensity it phaseeseneitive and phasseresietnnt Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Iv/ UFA * for of myco u spension ofyoeU current of open under equa the clorifieation of thie quo tic:1 through the eud- um of a 24.hour fv. was passe through d tione at room terve was determined before and after th experivent it Iva* aso oxygen Amore the th) carefully ground with sand eaterhe during the course of -13 aturo.- The-amount of DM moeli As result of the of reaotion, 1 that during of DM in the phoge.eeneitive culture to greater degree than in t istant. In the sensitive culture, as a rosu of reaction of avgen, in the mycelium revOlted about 704 of the initial amount of Dliki 't,dtile At the case- of the-.phage,-reeistant form-about 90 re,. stained; air, which Pha [Begin p.4701 in respect to tbo reaction of oxygen of the '1, ate the preeirvation of the amount of int in a oeil, the form of actittowaetAis is far stabler then the phage?sems The am,ios ? Age of culture ? Table 5 0:35 1;65 4;15 6;76 6;94 ordor o study the possible differences dur de 0.28 1;64 4;20 6 ;36 6,71 phage.rocie tont and phage.sensitive forme a ealouiation of the yield biomass for both forms was conducted (table 6). Accurailation of biomass in phage..rosistant culture was lagging 0ovewhatespecially during the first hours of development of reweelium as eompar d with the phage?sonsitive culture. Ilut toward the 36th hour of developront of the culture this dif ference levelled off; Some differences and peculiarities in the dove p of phage-eonn tive and phage.resistant forms of aotinomyeetesswhich were Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 oerved by us, vera tions on ene and the a etatiVa xporift c1,aieAnsl ment. The observed by us s iomeA1tat analler reducing power in goo of development in 'the phage.. ar ? erhaOs some of the maw factors which a resistance of the culture t thin t nges d 2. and g the 1.) hut also 112 spore's, and the,aotivi of Ontogiti ge-rtA&t form of actino e than the early hours or wee ive one both.in- lopmont Spores of the phage.sresistant culture form: o -halt e then spores of the phe.eimttto. fixing my Olium in alcohol. the ' vity of cM phage..sensit nd it,. .pbageE.reistant cultures, is loot :to degree, awl cultures. *hose a greater actty sporal ratorial and during uble 5; d milt in repot to and phage-rosittan the lost of activity is greater ate, Yot e inhib 0 sodium nitra tinomycetea. oth the p ev.aonsitive Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 vs,,A4 xrmum, solimm 2. Z 5.0 Pro tudien of 3. Uanhte Mikrobiolo 'Ena6onikala, V. Pi,* Rau h in, Odintgova? kome 0, V. 00d Rodi0110v0, M, A.1 Comparative biochomloal itive and roeiftant forms of Act. 7.1obis orue to actinophapt. Blokhilaila? 19, no. 2, 36. 1964. 1.4 VemiatovskRia, N. S., Belozerekii, A. N., About pertiOa of desoxyribonudleic acid Obtained from Objects of rigin. DAN MR 95, no. 1, 195$. Ta. T., Ab6ut dirootod variability Of ilk heli? 2, 140, 1954. 4. P$utrwhtetn, IA. I., About dtieoted tures otactinorycoteci Mikrobiol 6. orter. J. B., Bacterial Chemistry and Phys of phsge.rests1xiti. no. 3, 262, 1954. gys?London, 1946. 6, Virtaftn,'A. J. 'and Pu/kki, L. iodhazieche Urchungen Utor Baksrte. poren; Arch. Mikrob., 4 09 193. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4rq411/4 AftUOL (Iti, full) ? lig/A OVft V. * V,1 C uvatv telsnost, diploidny u otetrl rem tent& k gartaa.4z1ucheniiu. (Sensitivity. ofti 1 to garsza.radtatlon.? ? Botanichedkit Zhurna).. vo July l68. (In Russian) This is o pi id plants 43# no. 1# p.989.997; 461. R923. ? our tim, ioniz&rg orectrdwith ittem te ionizing rd ft r asingly in p t growth with w ono 1 oleo with the rat &tport.nc doses used in ob ri.tig onomitally valuable mutants A a result, theyroblem of plant sensitivity to ion great importance. Data ooticrnirg the varlod se t ity of ce4s hither rat tio gritultural pla te. ing ra lotion has acquired of tho themselvet nal they, develop in a gi.fio1d are avaiiab in literature (Gusbaffson, 1944; Colin. 1953. 1956; Nyb 1956; Carter, 1056). In these worts radletter301.ti ity t meacured by'oar the q ntity of mutations that emerge in some rearrangf3ments.deterraillOd ?Vieuttily.in young rootlets arid mierospores; the dogr 0116 haraotoriatios, Lnoij progeny; the number of .O.hromo- the oytologioal-.preparatione 'of plant ? ter.ility; the degree growth inhibition in irradiated plants and finaliy simply the numbor of p1cnts d survived until l'ruiting. 1Jiorizik. Ak*t?mii Houk I physics', Sciences IZ35 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A.09$3, It provo?hat the differenceonsitivity be some plants is very Great. As t\ example we shall cite oome data from the works of Guetaffeon 1944). He treated seeds with roentgen rays end determined the critical doses aftor which there was Leta (sufficient n mber of viable plants X (developed from irradiated seede) in whose pro.eny a considerable number of mutations and chromosome rearrange e ts were detected. The des() for peas and homy ots about 7.5 kr, for barlaY oats aid heat 10.20 kr for flax 40.60 kr and for mustard over 92 kr. In a study made of radiosensitivity of plants thatgr field, it was disclosed that severe injUriee are also inflicted on diffot- plants by different doses or Liitum loagiflorum and Tradesoantia Lud0ca a more 30-60*' per. day (24 hrs) are sufficient, for flax 801.1600 170 for gladiolus itiflera and L. all...elm 1600046000 r. The renoono for such ditforertaoe in radiosensitivity have not as yet been, explained. On the baSiaof such investigatione Wbom (1956) Suggeoted a hypothesis cc. oording to rhich the differences in rad sensitivity are:aeseeiated tiitE the size of ohrOmonomoo. 'Eut this, of coarse, is not the only reason. The'preblem of influence:exerted by polyploidy upon red tosoncitivity muot be analyzed in particular. Interesting datx:andeonsiderations on this issue are eited in the work of !AackeY (1954). Polyploids have more Chromosomes, but the number of 'chromosome. breaks and, mutations per unit ieruth of a.chromosomo are, according to soma experimental data (Conger, 1956).0 in. diploids and tetraploide approximately the camel hence it can be expected. that polyploids will have a number of chromeseme rearrangements and "point ? Itochoohtykhr mutations.. Consequently, from this point of polyploids must be more sensitive to irradiation than diploids. However, impairment of the nucleUe In polyploid plants manifests itself phenotypically considerably Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ($) Trans. A481 le 1nLoide. Pplotdeprovo to be obio pho ic PhY 0 74: thie t due to the lar r.iiuiber ofnti of their homoiogehe so p.90),and # eitp enoe erraned upon thOm 1enthwiee. M njury in its tinco, tbo .tppeAfttoe of the "bridge : to tn location, bftOA ad to the oirothsatance lot of otie chromosome or another and there ieboe. Thie is one of the, atlases of the death *tonna tt?n of mill and lieformation of .plants. In 'poly urbance is covered up by the presence of another pair is to he stability orsas itAcalled, of the or on after lotion with high dec, pr?ductivtt/they endure bntor gh (109) old data to the of a diploid naphato in mitosis that the cell after tsuaUy per followed by. ibhibi however, such a die chromosomes whidn leads "buffering 0411161U polypleid plants display!. greater chromosome rearrang ment. in the 1 gain special importance; he irradiated cheat of 14# with roentgen rays and establiched a reversible relation between the nuMbor of mu ations oocurring in the progenrj. and the nuMber of irradiated forms. It is resting to compare his data w? ke of Swedish investigators Vier, Colin no Tedin# 2 in which they detord chromosome uosone8 found, ? after roentgen i After irradiat :matt, in the rootletsof einkorn hard 4h- anon of dormant seeds with doses of 5# ith dose's? of 6 kr, in rtticut stonococoum out of co le 10.9 of cells were fo .1?001?1?11111. lie 24,41% in T out of 1932 *ells in T. mujjz.v. f 1.438 telle 29 irradiation o speoies with a 10 kr doses diooccum - out 1573 Oill.....1101114110 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Tram*, A..98I :Dialysis of over 1000 cello 7143, 57.69 and 51.60 of eel clearly that* 1) the larger in polyploid twore found] tage of cells wl thin In diploid; s poc time so data demons lonesome rei ith ahrotiosem rourrangetante the dl000pum More cells T. um,? despite the identical ;motor of chrOmoeomos in these speoIee: The ()antiunion drawn from thee invostigationo is plain; more nv titans occur in. polyploids, but a smiler n mbor of them Antfest theme in the progeny) since polyploids have not tonly) two but four ormoro homologous chromosores. It wet be aosured that radiorosictance ia t be ea cially pron in antepolyploidt in which the same genome .roours4 tiro The charatteristios of polyploids must be taken into when they are utilized in experimental radloblology as wet -Um. It is important to remember that the larger portion (partiou1rly soft land hard wheats, many fruits and berries oonsidora as in ra On Melee* of,, cultural plant? ortamontal plants and others) are pelyploids by nature* Usmally they are not simply auto- polyploides but (levier allopolyploids* nonce s it follows that their roa0? tion to irradiation it also complex :- The reaetions investigated* A pr formation) that veil r polyploid plants to irr nd study of these react be of much interest to tb ria ion are not by La promises to produ as well a to p and nu laid plants. rativo study of tho US forme of Ionizing Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tb) Trans, 1.981 dos. t report, h is terted upor p2teby one the 'Ones (hard radiations 1-401. y;), Tho ouroc active ealait isotope, (1060) an TOO forms of seed bue .e*t served as the, in ti ation Objoott diploid, 16-chromo ome form ti the nol,shevik variety of I. A. Pullman' age rate $80400 rimin d selection; 2) the autopelyplo Boliebovik varietij 0'1;a/tro4 expari seleoted by V V. Sakharova ore soeu 16, 1 Dry? 0 buckwheat is the Tetrapi the preceding ono and lam urova? Prol all experimental Var irradiated with doses 0, plold seeds sofve Sc oon- p n which the se as ?sf 0 soaked iimUltaneou e control seeds for germination. The neec that had begun to germinate on trio difforentA dates (all totrapioids en August lbiU d onA rack .in a hothouse. The fellaxibog rem August 16) ero ceoded uced alouiating tho nflue ez/erted h. ditoront doses of ,gamsa-0ra4. a t upon dipliid and tetre-ploid plants* 1) inhibition ef germination (pout of soaked seeds; 2) decrease th eprou ing or seedsand death of plants that iready growing; ) inhibition of growth or experirontal ple.nts (Theaeurements ;ware taken tv, on the 46th and the 62hd day after the soaking); 4) appearance of peculiar ohirierical aectioro on the blades of leaves re311r obEervid in tile form of ? brig,hter spots, tot us turn to the exaithatioai of th ebtatnd. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Ebi ? Trans, A 9di The xporimo The xpri1 results of the 5.nfluenos of ia ion exerted upon both investigated for of buckwheat arc presented the table. Thfluenoe of vartos dotes of gamma.?radiation upozi diplaid and, autotetra loid buokeheat Forms of buekwhekt Radiatio. dose sods sea d and seeded Seeds - t did not srout and plants tbatlOrtshad height of e. - Tot4 those prmins.ted so'1uv quanti , i % Absolute uactity in apt. ? Oontro 0 .00 172 34.4- 95 .1 438 405 10000 r 1380 216 16.0 1;0 249 184 1151 1101 Diploid16000 r 1000 176 17;6 1.2 182 182 846 816 20000 r 1190 233 196211 229 194,4 986 '981 30000 r 1.130 .169 16.0, 1.1 345 30.3 819 737 Controls SOO 135 19.4 1.8 16 3;6 406 482 10000 r 960 5.7 6.0 0.8 87 9;1 899 873 *apjot. 16000 r 1050 78 ?;4 NB 112 107 959 938 20000 r 1070 46 2Q;8 116 10.7 984 955 50000 r 970 41 4,2 0.6 57 6.8 988 913 Zn ozamiMn the data of both experiments relating to the percentage seed. of gored tad, one uay be convinced merely that germination is defieitely el inhibited under the influence of irradiation with any of the investigated doses. But the available material, unfortutvately, does not permit oonducting a detailed comparison of the results of both experiments, tine* the ;planting of the seeds and the counting of the germinated geode of tetraploids was carried out a day earlier than in the of diploid plants This ex.. plains he ooneiderably smaller number of germinated seeds found amon txtra.. ploide. ? We consider that the dat. relating to seeds that did not &emirate and to plants that had proceeded to develop, but had perished in the course of the experiment de not permit making clear cowl ions (see table). There Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trane. A.981 to be sure, no oubt as to the Eros ion of diploid planto ? 4t the higheet doe* of radiation (304X)4 e high percentage of destruc., tion of diploid control plant* (19.1%) corse clove to the percentage of plant destruetten by the first three doeoe of irradiation. In this reepeot, the material on 'tetra lot& is also unclear. With the coneiderably smaller loss among controls (3.0) and at the first three doses of irradiation, (9.1, 10.7 and 101%) as compared with diploids, their extremol$ low mortality uder the notion of the highest dose of irradiation (5.8;4) le astonishing. After a Oritioa 1 evaluation of nfl. the ntortal outlined. we arrived at the 'conclueton that it Vas necos8arr to repeat a detailed study of the influence eXerted by gamma.sradiati n upon thegermination and eprouting of geode and upon the eubsequent destrUction of plants.- Besides the need of a simultaneous calculation of the erminatt?n of seed of diploid and tetraploid formes the extreme density in Which the plants that we had investigated were owing must be avoided.: (Begin p.9921 periments must also be conducted under conditions of a more normal, cub.. Soil content of plants that develop during the epring-summer Amason which is usual for them. Very din tiact difforenoec werO detected in the seettivtty of diplo and tetraploid plants to gamma-radiation after e height of the sama plants had been measured tete. In succession (Sept. 27 and Oct. 4). The nuMber of the measured plants is indicated in the last tom *plume of the table, nfl other data Of the twice taken meaeurements aro cited in figure 1. The tao lower curves reflect the results of the first measuring. CC these the upper ne (unbroken) indicates merely a slight (although authentic as oompared cent-rely for the first, third and fourth doses) ihhtbItion of growth Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ku) :mane SA.I.Vt5 plants under the i curve porio-ining to diploid plants Crae of rr a (ia t ucoo cs Iva ? tion of grmth:undor the act1on f Mr. a43 creased. This has been ostablilhod siLth full autheh (punctatod) sing dotos ? case in Comparing Contrail ae wo ?fluence :been not .in the cavo of . e,.highost.??doso, cace_the average height plants oxpoded to tho action of any dose, nem c000Sive dose 17ith the tro haa ? of the plants does not roach evon half the av (4.70 cm against 10.013 cm). go height of control plantd ti1tbit?t of plant g orrth in ?buololhoat after gopm%.0irra %awl nit totrapiold. controla; ? 2 ok diploid. centrals; 2 n ? let manuring. (Sept, 27); id, xperime urin4 . 4 to the left of figure ): Averrqo ho ght of An even la or pibar ir, appLrot ho 8M ot ftor the first or ? ar period c tensive gralth of bu1ctiheat ? VI CoM 1UZa3t1ri Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans A.0901 fereneee beeen diploids and tetraplpi tivity to gemma radiation noted already 'during the first staring, were oven more pronounced a week later. On tetraploide the n uence of irradiation was considerablY lose notable than -ten di lot however, at the during this period.; -d.maaeur ng the inhibition of th beeame more noticeable Tnhibitionef growth noted, for co doses- of irradiation (10, 16 and .20 kr) increased; and all tfference with respect to eontrols were authentic.. 6ut the difforemo the tnfluen?of the three doses referred to proved ?ietic*lZy unauthentie statistically authentid difference in growth was obtained only at the irradiation, ae ooarod with controls as well as with al tion doses. et-dese ?irradia xppeed to. a .30 4r-doee were on the average imost 3 cm, i.e. 16%, lower than control plants. (Begin 0.0931. side by side with the corresponding curve of the growth of totraploids the curve of the 0000114 m.asurint of diploid plants leeks very revealing. - This curve confirms even more distinctly the findings disclose at the first measuring. Only the crease it the average height of plant* as compared to controls, obtained once mere for the 10 kr does was not entrsly authentic authentic di hibition of gr exposed to it (7.4 omst compared with 16.6 1 aubsequent doseS? however, a gradually inoreasing, in plant heightwas noted. A.4 especiall Obvious found also here, when the largest des* was USOdJ pl d to reach even half the height of control plants ? Thus, the data on the moasurel ta i*ken both times of the hetght of autopoly loid diploid and plants permit making the conclusion that diploid plants possess a considerably higher. seneitivity to gammawirradiation.. This be.. ones especially clear when the curves obtained. of tetraploid measuremente Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 of dti,loide tzkon boti on differen ? The form o Trans. A*981 d curves" obtained is almost idcntteal9 except for the ifferenc heient at which (the idurves] prefaced In diploids, hewer, asort of convergence was noted, me the trradiation were increased, thie was due to the more severe inhibition of their gro.rth at the stage tor their developrm that followed the first measuring* It eeemed that the further the develop* mint of diploid plants prorcisee4, the MOM pronounced were the ilajurles caused by large doses of gamma?rad uence of gatx.irradtatLon upon the ro f diplM ploid millet plants Tho definitione are the ea AC on 5 1 the left of figure 4 AlTragN height of plan A CM) A comparative Lnvattation. similar to the one described abcrvo was .conducted also with mil1ette4g. the Dolinekoe variety, and -with autop obtained by ? Volotov from this variety. A season untimely for pertmentation ftIid, consequently, the need to maintain. the plants in a hot- house have affectedillet even more than buckwheat. But data on heir;ht morruremonts of con the hoight Of 1 develOpedatter irradiation of dry seed with the same doses of gemma*radiation (10, 15, 20 and 30 k40) Oo&noide with the picture rol diploid and tetraploid plants of millet and on: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans* which we he.ve !eiori interes t Let us turn to repreeented. Inee uranga of that the second prior to the pe buokwhes.t, hence, we consider their abliee.tion ho potation of spots that developed front irrad Before, however, discuss the causes for plants was carried oat someshat prozaturely Ve 'ha* app red on sit wo proceed to the arane r obitned from a oonto. s of diplotd bucksho t plants Mee. n the loaes o diplO14 buckwheat the influence f trradistiori, we shall have to relate Omit oped in otopolyploid buckwheat ex.* posed neither to irradiation nor to any other strong faetors. In working with autotetraploid buokihost, our atte since been attracted by peculiar spots that app gularly on the blade out on norml I:Josue a different typo or mooaio?that,dov depression, They This mosaic appoa plants. We noted spots, mach more rarely, on the autopolypid d It is irportant S of individual Mir brighter coloring and d on the leaf without char tejhsalthy. normally flovort tlyb.but ro* ot tool of cut nd fruit-bearing .ts of our underscore that the most thoron h search for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) Iploid huc Tram. nencted in able to find similar apots either diploid heng, o norm1 diploid plant. The discovery led us to substantiate he emergence of individual trnregttoris consisting of of tetreploid tissue by means of somatic reduction. facts tissue of the brighter sec the color of the leave buckivhsa *tied size of urround them. The size of t with the site of the oeils Ln diplo _ on :which nary moot canoe bY of tetraploid tiocizen spot cOpnd 2) The emergence tn extremely rare zoep Minis saes of tetraploid se 3) The occurrent* of In wouarationO of rootlets of au p tt totetraplotd buckwheat Id seeds tregzt*d anion S. L,projova arid V. V4 Itinsurova have boto1 more than once with an accurate set in one case vttkta2 ee h a cell ?vith 6 ChrOMGCOMan auong a rultitude 2 rOoso These facts pUblished heretofore (Sakilareva, 1946) cannot be disrogarded? -ial of ? the -es in d t work is bethg di cussed. fig. 3. on ttcb the frequency of th n into account only on the first an d. tetraploid plants are dopicted, Let us begin at Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?4.0, 41,74UWai the e ends of both per to non.ir shoul been antioipatedo there was not a cantle" ease of similar spots in non -irradiated diploid plants* hence the curve (punctated) for diploids begins at the zero point. But in non.irradiated tetraploid plants 7.0 of the leaves WS characterittic, olearly circumscribed spots. Thiel is the peculiar mosaic of tetraploid plants which as a rule pears on their leaves. Aa w plants. we are unable to nob percentage in relation to tb percentage of spotted leaves (30 kv)i but even in this case ormo dy the curve that pertains to.tetrap it any regular increase in the mosaic radiation doses .%) has been a the difference as (TAO faile to attain statistical authenticity. id t is true that the largest d at the highest dose owp:tred with controls On the other haMs aOtha irradiation dose is increased, the number of mosaic leaves in diploid pi inereamit in proportion definitely and abruptly attaining 37.0 at the higheet dose. Conooquently, a greater sensitivity of diploid plants to gaemm-radiation has definitely been eetabliehed also on the tetrengthl of this character the eavargence of chimerical sections on normal diploid tissue as a result of irradiation. [Deer: 9951. If mosaics in tetraploide are a resultant of so on,. then mosaics in diploids are of a different nature. In the latter case mosaics are undoubtedly due to necrosis of tissues. A preliminary examination of mosaic sections under a microscope has indeed demonstrated that a picture of cell necrosis, or even the absetu:e or protoplast within cell membranes to sometimes observed. Ehrenberg .and itybote (1954) made a study of the appearance of sections on leaves of irradiated barley in which chlorophyll was absent. They established that theta eipotions had a varied structure depending on whether they occurred under action exerted by roentgen rays or neutrons: the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010.400020001-7 OA) 'MI5* +16041KIL spots that doveIope&frolt roentgol irraditt had * 'diffused" eheracter and consisted of neorotio tissues deprived of ellular turgor. On the borderlines of these sections a gradual tri.nsitiOn to more nornLi cells was observed. After irradiation with neutrons there were dbeerved more frequently Iong more sharply pronounced. whtti stripes on Which plastide were abeent, but the cells possessed turgor and were fully viable.. These authors consider that cells [observed) in the -"diffusion" typo section* perish after (exposure to] reoentgen irradiation as a result of plaszA in. pmentl the sensitivity of cell* to radiation varies strongly in rola* tion to moisture1 presence of oxygen etc. It is possible that in treat. mints with neutrons cell injury is more icosUsId end plastids are injured in particular. The differ* et in the number of spots Observed n diploid and tetra* ploid buckwheat after exposure to radiation revere the (theory] that ime pairment of the nuclei underlies the appearance of teorotic spots, sinco otherwise it would be difficult to explain the rsary complete absence of n /wrest* in the nuMber of spots on tetraploid leaves when the radiation me is inoreased. Obviously, the appearance of necrosis is inpibited when four similar ?setsre Chromosomes are present in the cells of tetreploide. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tit)) "rano ? AUJ. Dacca (in kr) Fig. 3. Influonco of gamma-irradiation upon the froquoncy of appearanc0 of moat? loavoo In diploid and autototraploid buekahoat. Dofinitions aro the ammo no on fig. 1. ? [7ordo to tho loft of figura 5 Poroentago of loavoo alth ?pot? Dincuocion of Posultn Tho data obtairod in the pr000nt crork oonoorning the influenco of gam-radiation upon tho groath of buckahoat and millet and upon the number of nocrotio spoto on leavoo havo denorotratod onco rmro that autototraploid plants aro morpholozically and physiological nor o rottintant to ionizinz radiation than diploid planto. gonzat and Ginzleton (1952), in a briof roport, havo pointed out tho roointanoo of autototraploido to thormal noutronn. They notod that totra? ploid cato vox.? moro otablo than diploid and hozaploid. But in the lattor caw It conodrmod polyploid forma in nature (Bogin p.996) allopolyploidn tho chronsocatO oflahich are not alaayo ropr000ntod by four cItillar chromoi. oomo not?. Thu rolationnhip botacon radiorosistanco and ploidy mao ntudiod aloo Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified andApproved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 tilf) ra? 410,1V Astaurovo B. i. (1947). Direct evtenoe of the nueleic naturo of the biological effect of K..rfty ahd of the independence of the final ro sults of roontgenitation of th Zhurnal Diolog., factor* that alter rd&osenet1vtty of cells by means of action exortad upon the initial bioohosica initial changes occurri g in ay 1 Latarzheo R. 1956). Concerning haws.; rn the 1)0?1(2 Msdiobiologila kharov. V. .V1 1046). ftommtio reduction as a cause of'peoallar moSaioe traploid buckwheat. DAS MR 62 4. Mitts (1966). Relation of some biologtoal radiation effete s to the relative the bk.: Radiobiologila. ? Osam. C. A. 9 The influence Of division stage on the anomie protection of asiilLs1:21ffylim ?414, agaihst 11.44L3r imactivation. Proc. Mat. Acad. Sae 41, 11. - Carter. T. C. (1950. Oeheticsaagriculturalapplicationa. rogr. MUclea tnersys ear. 6, I. Cohger, A. D (1966). Poliploidy and r 4527. 4.? rhrenherg. L. 4hd, ?Xybom. (19 offeotivenoss of radiation. Acia-Agric lesensitivity. Mature. 178. )4, Ion density and biological Scand.;* 4. 3. - Prfter, K.,, O. Oolin a. A. Gustaffson 1). The ytolo teal response of pe1,yp1cjdy to A.ray dosage. 0. Tedin. (1942). The and polyploidy. 199. aim., K. A. Oustaffson a. disturbanoes t -ray, dosage . (1963), Mitotic disturbance frequenCien. in r h. %tad bar 1..2. ? Oelihe of Mutation. Agr Nortic. Genets,' 14. 3. . Gustaffson. A. (1944). The de In some agricultural plantAgereditas 30. 1.2. ?. Montalto C. P, leton. (1952). The relationthip or Pelyw robleMe rela - . ? Hertio. Oeneti /1, plant .ng by moars X rsy resistanoe or dorm4h Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Trans o41 ploidy t? the ?effe of t 31* 5. Makey?r. (1954 Acta Agri**. Goand,? 3* breedi,!g n polyp 6)* Bet Noticer? 109 1* .. Stadler, L. 1. (1929)0 Chromosomenbr ndthe mutative rate in Aver* and. Wit' own* rroo* -Rat, ,Acad. 1 TEM S OF JIPLQTD Al, TO G.M.111-11ADZVT 75. By V; Uansur V;V'** and V. The effects of gamm..radiation ot caplet polygonum...and Panto= have been studied; The 0 and the dosages used re 10$ 15 20 and 30 kr* that .gasetrays reduce the per cent P growth of plants* Diploids have prove- - gancist..rayt; The appearance of.mossic coile has been observed in diplota plan*, obvious that the nucleus tnjuri.e are of terious effect of am?raditton andth sets in autopolyploide increases the resia gamma.Tadiation* aft plot forms of tion was 0060, 0 been established tion seeds and retard the e more sensitive to the ixctl.on s ricaused by the noora,is of m the data obtained it is ye imporiznce in the delo.. 0 Ai ileatiOn or chromosome oe f plants to the action a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 'Trans. Aft.SW Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Itu Xizuchonttu peredvit ta pe pastonitu Pitatal AY-17h vestmheetV4 (8tudy. of the cove:lent of eubstancen within a pIenti? Ftzoiog1fl ttadtonii UariApr. 19664 - (In Russian) A we roportod glucOS0 the roe eoe*bly b rate at vihich toe?.1 ard. s. subs ? 2, p,121t424, 460 E68 r t11, le or cetate e s cautions,. V tc stano s such as. to a plant intensivel thc'ra is licht this entry occurs udg mont as to the different and move withia it rat formulated by moans of oczparing radieautographs taken of plants xposod o lteht and of ehaae plants the roots of Iyhich f corresponding radioactive conpouMs.. in the present ed in eolutions ork we undertook the task of clarifying the 000011 for the indicated difference. If it wore assumed that the movement of utTitive?SubstanesS within a plan._ chiefly with the water current, th substances into an aeoending direction ()sours accelerated entry of nutritive mid be explained b increased e illumination of the leaves* If, leaves exposed to trascpiration?va in relation however, the translocatton of the nutritive substances occurs .indepordontly of theCwater current, then the change in its rate lindor illutaine_tton should be attributed to' the inereabod photosynthetic activity of the plants ona metabolic proceSsos coourrinz in the cells of various conductive ti00060.1 r Bic Ivies Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) TraeSs 44.095Z - ? There are in lit the movement of substq ment of water (2 data concerning the from 4te plant roote into the leaves to the move tads in view of the difficulty involved in oon-? ducting direct observatioes Of the movement of water* many conolusiore4 were tade on the baeis of -indirect observaii,ons conducive also to another inter. pretati.on. We used a direct method of ityreetigation bsed. on e 3neoua study of the entry leaves. f tagged Organic subetance* and tagged water into perimente w ie grown prior to the Important oeweek old bean plant a water culture. The Phaseelus rtt roots ed in a .2% eolution of heavy water (D2?),.containing odiuM tagged C14 in carboxyl 400 micron C for the ex )? etperinent 3e4 twoeleaf plants of approzitately the same height 'and e.tze of leavee were put in. a vegeta containing the solution. At first a study istat made of the dyramios of the entry Of tagged sodium eeetate into the leave* (together with the products of its oonverzion containing radioactive carbon). ?For this .purpose we used the Method of determining the radioactivity of a green, leaf during its lifeetimS with endewindow Geiger counter *a ntaining geometric constancy of the leaf seetien. under obeervation at the entry opening ? of the counter. The importance of ? radioactivity of different sections of the eaves leaf my, with such trathed of determining, vary 1.5-2 times. H?vover, different measuring "o the same section of the leaf produce i'aluee tziaoheniia1 that differ from one another in no mere than 5.4%. /n f asuremonte taken by the indicated sections of leaves of tour plants rated and the other two example are cited results of ho radioactivity of the end in p.1221 two of which were illuzu after they were pbkoed in. the solution. ? toe coned 4 D Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. Ae932 ? In experiments conducted under illumination and in darknees, the plantt were placed ia eimilarly humidified ambers. .lighting eta pros duoed from tso tido? with 150 watt ineandeseent 'Lampe Situated ata disbabeo of 30 Om from to plants and esparated from them byveter.filtert. To produce dStlthcss the chamber no covered with black Fig. 1. Dynamics of accumulation of radioactivity in leaves: 1 and 2 in light, 3 and 4 in darkness [vertical line at left of fig. 1 reads it Radioactivity of leaves in impulse per minute Fig. 2. Dynamics of accumulation of radio- activity in two leaves of the same plant under different conditions of lighting (in light, in darkness, once more in light) (Vertical line at left of fig. 2 reads)i Radio- activity of C14 in leaves in impulse per minute In the leavei of darkened planta radioactiVity begins to reveal itSelf notAlAy only after a stay of Several hours in the solutionOndet light redioactiVe carbon appeare in loam when the experiment has pregresetd a few minutes and its 0021t6ht increases sharply as timo goes on. This res gularity was foto* in ell experiments and in all plants without a' Oxecp? tion. it Sc characteristic not only of the initial period of thevanifesta.. ties of radioactivity in the plant' but alto of any other space or Es. aq,flg, 2 Are cited curves of the ttocusulation of activity in two leaves of the iemo.planto belonging to the experiment in which the plant eat altere Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t4) wrarts? airibic4 nately illuminatod and darks darkening substances into the leaves. the plant tudtato1y slows d character synthetic - sibilities, we inieottateLliii entry, of heavy into the raeves of plants along, with tagged:acetate Determination of tho rate of out the plftntby.otec.tingtheexa depends in a considerable treasure on the sensitivi 1 is of radioactive is known, that this typo of regularity is tio of transpiration of leaf stomata, 4$ wrai se of photo. Zn order to make & ?election between...these two s. peel registrati the ..trothod be d. Special difficulties arise in comparing two tagged ?opoun6t one of vihteh has been gge1 with a radioactive isotope and th other with a stable one because the methods used in detecting thete isotope possese an 'ntirely different sensitivity.. [Begin p.123]. In our opinion, in.. order to estab. lief a likeness (or difference) in the movement mechanism ef two tagged ompoundes At le neeeesary to s tudy tM?dynamics of their Scoumulation in leaves and to demonstrate. the prose or abeenoe) of a direct' proportion between the quantities of both subs twnces in a leaf under different expert- Mental conditions* /ft ealo,blishing ouch a relation it sideration the fact that the ubetances entering a leaf will not oflly accumulate within it, but will also gradually &foresee due to respiration, evaporation etc: In connection with the above* the duration of Our ex* periments did not exceed 26.30 hours in the course of which the total amount ? of the acetate that entered [the leaves] was nogli ible as compared with the necessary to take in metabolites available in the is the leavet.did not exceed the concentration of heavy water in result of the low content of heavy Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6)?Trant% A*982 water in the 10 es, to them], the porattoxL of heavy water could be disregarded 110 indicated above cured systematically a be the pared with,oncon differentox va t 30 minutes and 30 hours o individual loav bro piu-pone of determining the concentration of heavy water within thom* Attention han enn attracted by a certain irregularity in the entry of dioactivity into ex*ria11y identioal leavot of the name plant* This irregularity has been obeorved in ny oases and is illun,rated by the fel owing data in which the roAuits obtained on iy piaxtts are nurAriod. U0 the in a 70? t6 a. deternti d b of the tild 01 of tivp loaves same plant at the timeone. of the Ittaimet ' vas broken off***#'44**?*. te 044.44*? e sepa 5 ? 6 2 nt they de. a eepa from ie admix roe by the Accepted methed .etfllettonn the oottent of heavy =ter 14 it Was thod of the falling drop* IJirniIar to the moo, radioactivitra th concert 116 lues ttnaohttniial of boa water in.tee leaven broken off of the sane plant multaneously often differed from each other. As a result* a comparison of radloactivitY with the content of h avY water wan carried ? out for each loaf separately without neutralization within t** $ix experiments were carried out 3 of them under illumina? e .? radtoaotivlty in letwes during time, the activity or dry leaven after water had been dintilled from them alto determined, The results obtained by both methods of evaluation of rad activity wero proportional. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 'V3) Trans' A.982 tion &fld 3 with d plants A total of 84 each experiment the proportion between C14 and D we, rved the absolute content of these isotopes in the different experiments ticturally, varied because of he changed rate at which acetate and via entered.the,plants depending on conditions of the experiment. On tic. $ are summed up the total results of all experiments co, pared, taking into account the rent dur*tion of each. Pi that it le poseible and water through deteratirxing the o detect parallelism in the movement of tagged acetate lent, regardlees of the pro istity of the methods; used otope content in leaves. A conoluoion concerning the l? nelocation of acetate within darkened experiments in which ng role played by ne piret plant has been co mad aso by ease in the entry of radioaotivity and heavy water into leaves Was observe a few hours after the elmeriment was begun. (Begin The use of the rstethod .*oribed Obeys ho4a promies for cases iil ? which a 'sharp d.ifferfince in the movement ?a water withirt the plant ie expectted. Of n x'itl.ve cubstanoeS and Radioactivity within leaf (in apaeifie unite) 1g. 3, Relation between the aoouulatLon of C14 and D in plant lenv ? the *$ risk donates results obtained under illumination, the circle in darknese. The values of radioactivity in leaves and the concentles, tion of heavy water within them are plotted on the oCordinate axes in specific unite. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) , Trans. A*96;?, 1. The sethod or 1 u ? tilt .o . nits cotpounds was used inr dying the pren mitritive substances within a plant. 2., It has been d trated that to s aj1ejjej Tog f boa 6 the lea e $ in. plaoin& heavy water f beans tetate 1414 solution the entry of facets- ted under li&ht end slowed the d been revealed in the entry ? been esi*blicbed in the en the _sang, pia. nd acetate gob* 1&3re ?..V, X. and iztn, A. M. IAN,94, no. 2. 1Iexb, E 1?nt of cub noon within plants, 3 'Crafts, A., YA rrior. Rt.; and Stokine., . Wator and its trnpornoe in the life of plants. M., Tonoisdat, 1951. o. 4. 1Corsano, Ia 6. Rusin, A. Xi-, 6. SchoerlS. P. t. Med. 37, 653, 1961, Zapreostov, X. K._ D&N? no. 0, 1113,1949. us C. Kb if, 99? no. 3, 41, 1954. . at al. I., laborot. Olin of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (In full) ye/A Gauze, 0. F.,Kochetkova. 0. V., and'Fopova, 0. L. Ravi me.tod selektaii produtconta al*bomitsina. .New method .for the-seleetion of the albonroin produeine ?DE:enlists). Antibiotiki, v61. 1, no. 1, p.18-20: Jan./Feb: 1900. 390.8 An84. (tn Russian) In works alined toiard selection ,of the antibiotie prodnoing oro%40m (Actinolyceb subtropicuslandeonduoted for the purpose of increa0.nr, the productivity Of cultures, various active factors widely utilized in:recent years, .atut primarily the action extrted by tiltrawviolet radiation, have produced pocitife results. Another effeetive method proved to be action of a specific antibiotic' preparation upon the orLanlim that produces it. Thus, for 1-exitance, Japanese researcher', have demonstrated that in exertinG the action of con* siderable concentrations of aurecmroin upon the culture of Aotinemycos aureo- faciene which produces thi, antibiotic, the variants meet resistant to "their own" antibiotic were those that produced an increased quantity or aureovoin. This method was used in obtaininG variants with Increased pre?? *duotivit's In developint; problems of the ?seleistion- of the albawcin producinc Aotinomtees cpioua, we more than once used irradiation of spore ouepon:. "'ions of this fullauo with ultra-violet rays with subsequent selection. 1:c did not, however, achieve by thie means any considerable increase An, tabocitt production when subkerted fermentation wee employed. Afterward we utilized Inetitae pa Izyskaniitt Savykh Antibiotikav A.44 Dart (Institute of geaearch for New Antibiotics, Acadery of libitioal Sciences, UZSRi. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - the action exerted by "its owe antibiotic1 albomyein, upon a culture of A. subtropicus. But in view of the fact that albomycin in deprived of toxic properties and possesses ?mile action, m did not nuoceed in in4ibitinz the . development of the produping organism with any of the tested albempin eon, centrations. [Begin p.103. . The methad which we tested further consisted of the folloaing. It is known that the composition of the albomycin molecule includes iron and that not, eubtropicus which produces this antibiotic possesses ineressed resistance to the iron content within 'a dulturo =diurnal! clomps:lid with other actinci. micetes species related to this. one. Hence we studied ''tho4prebleman-te whether or not the individuel,strains of the organism that produces albtaycin possess increased' iresiitance to the iron content in culture Media as Woi.. pared with other strains, and whether it would be possible to establish a relation between the increased resistance to iron and the increased pro- " ciliation of albomyoin. We tested various concentrations of iron sulfate (0.02, 0.04%), but Were Unable to establish the existence of such a relation. Then we tested another method that proved very effeetive. In developing this method we proceeded from the following prerequisites. It is known that the streptasycinaresistant formscf various microorganism that emerge under the influence of streptowcin poetess a large variety of physiological and . biochemical characters and are, in this respect, strictly distinct from-the original sensitive forms. lould it be passible to obtain new physiolocical and biochemical variants of the albomyein producing organism by exerting streptomycin action upon an Act. subtropicus culture, and would not ?me of the variants Obtained pessess an increased albomyoin production? The results ? of the experiments aonduoted gave a positive answer to this question.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 to) wrens. B-uoa In working with Act. subtroPicus that produces albomycin, the pry:come of the different variants in the cultures must be t9cen into account, trance) soMe of them produce pure capes:Vain, and others . albeit:via mixedreith another antibiotio celled the "pecond rooter". These oulthres can be readily dif- ferentiated by means of begmentatien of the individual colonies on aOrtized media with ButsTensions of siaphyl000cci tither resistant or sensitive to albomyoin action. The colonies that produce pure albomycin inhibit cnly the grOwth-of sensitive staphylogOcci, but do not, in the least inhibit the growth of-staphylocooci resistant to albomyein. Colonies that, along with alhoMyein, produce also the "second facitor".inhibit the growth Of albOmyoin.resistant staphylococci ea -well. The degree Of inhibition depends on the amount of the "second Vaotor" which they produce. In the- experiments described below .we used the Act. sUbtropicu,e variant that produces pure albomyein without any admixture of the "sepond factaro and .retains firmly this characteristic in multiple reseeding., In culttomting this variant on agarised culture Media Containing different concentrations of streptopyoi4 we Observed that eta 50 gamma/61 streptemycin concentration one colony out of 1000 eurvived, at 100 gamma/61 one colony out of 20,000, and at 200 gamma/61 one colony out of 40,000 survived. Streptomycin recietant .variants of Act. etibtropiode that develop freely at 150 gamma/61 etrepto? ,moin conoentratiOne proved extremely diverse me to their merphological and physiological properties. This tact is of great theoretical and proOtical interest. If the original Act. subtropicus culture had an aerial mycelium of a grayishwhite oolor end a colorless substrate mycelium, thou a email quantity of forms possessing.yellow oolored and yellow-rose colored aerial and subbtrate wcelia were found among stroptowoinwresistant variants. Those new for ms which we had never observed in Act. stibtropioue cultures prior to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Trans. our wi of ptorv of th erial and sae nuabor of etreptnItly In 0] Lantz of itote icwith ?changed oo wool% oemprloo only a of ..410 11 pe we obtat I o total 0 resistant nta.fticob 0000u0 ? 200 /*optoweitore.istan oultareek.or I% ?were foand with vostigationo ted t1t Ira is. coloring (aeo daring far and yellow eri ill equal n the oo1or1e rtnte matched the oritanal s tra ldw.rese otblor (no. 5) also segreguted about 11 forato upon further eulttmtiott; ooloring , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 or ofAct. eubtrovtot o ootorles toir ?oha with tho yol* ritinal co/or/est; ir ill" . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. +A.0083 the morphologic:Al r*nt,wed s vere resistant of Act nbtrpicus a10 e.ntta1 nrdi a with regard lborlrcin formation, We erind albums submerged for producing one cros?d 1borctn poductton. 11 duction was 160400% increased as co Among them, a series teristic vita data obtained it is ossible to conclude that the method deecribed can be used successfullyfti the selection of the anon/tin producing sietant strains of for ms possessed sha Strains a1borctri pro- tabards, and this &terse. 111; ,s P ttc dLffezencoc red ail etained in a nurber of ge in lboatroin s. On the basis of the If. G., Lonsikina, Aks.d. f thc Academy c cisnoea 118SR)? v. 5 p.4327. - pita ill, Its, s (Japan), 1954, v. 7 (2) 46. Recelved'at s, Doc. 29 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A.0,96/1 (In full) vgin t4oroz1 A. P. Dinamika obraovarUa uctotchIvkh terrA. bakterii k antibiotiku mitsorinu. [Tho process of fotmation of mycerin. resistant bactoria]. Antibiotiki, vol. 1, tm. 6, p2640. 1966. 396.8 Ar264. (In Russian) The process of ohemothemeutic eubstances for 0 long time. Beginning with Iccniak (1887) and up to rocont1r rr researchors conducted exorJ.Ote which permitted to determine the epeed of formation f drug..rosietant forte of bacterial and then morphological and cultural pro.. pertiee wore studied in the obtained resistant variants. It it clear now to all, that the Iresence in bacteria, which -originally were sensitive to one or another preparation, of an ability to become adapted to it and pros duce for recistant to it, decreases the therapeCtio value of a whole sorios of chemotherapoatio subetances to a great f,tegree Consequontly, when isolating new antibaoterial .preparution# it is very important to etudy the regularities of development of torjis resistant to them. In connection with the abovo.nentjoned it would be intereetins to res ictant microbe' the reaction upied the attention of ecientieto ----Fid7-3r-toi pelts ogii-i ekeperimental r.ii'or.t7'---erapii (Say -41h1A3 respondent A717 SSSR prof.'101; Rh. Planelies) Instituta epidemiologii i mikro4. biologit .A.1SSSR inent N. P. Sanalei tnepartztont of infectious Pathology and Experimental TheraAy (Headw.ltimber?Correspondent of the Acadestr of Medical Soiencee USSR, Professor Ich?Bh. Platuntes) of the Institute of Epidernioloar and Moro* biology of ALM C8SR imeni N. P. Gasaloia]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans; A-984 study the dynamloS of development of resistant forms of bacteria to the new Soviet antibiotic mycerin, which vets obtained in the Institute of Exporiis mental Aliedioino of AN (Academy of Medical Sciences) of USSR by rue V. Solovoreli. Antibiotio myosrin represents.a dry preparation well soluble in water., The preparation retains the activity during unlimited time in its dry VP feral the aotivity,Of the prsparation in dilutions is preserved quite stably. PrelimioarY elewrisints have established that tayterin produced 4 sharply expressed bactericidal action on all miorObes.sebsitive to its reaotion,*(staphyl000ciel, B. coll, dysenteric bacteria of Shiga and Plexbar, typhoid bacillus and others). . - Before proceeding with:studies of dynamics of growth of resistance in 'bacteria to mycerin antibiotio At Is nsoessary to chick their Sensitivity to this last one. Sensitivity to myeorin was studied cin two strains of staphylococci, two strains of B. ooli dysenterincultureS of Shiga and Flormer, and strain Proteus Orn. Hydrochloride of mycerin was utilized in the work. In mg of the substance, wwre contained 25,000 Of antibacterial units. *mean. preparation was diesolved in proportion of 1 mgiml for the preparation of work-J.:4 Solutions.. A method of suowsive dilutions in test tubes, with an addition. of agar was utilised by us for the determination of sensitivity of bacteria to myoerin, as ll as for further studies of the prOcess of growth of the re- sistande to it bo bacteria. We marbled test tubes with.the sdnisdiftamonnt of norcerin, which inhibited the growth of bacteria. (Begin p.20 ' Thesults of studies of sensitivity of bacteria to weerin are rea presented in table I. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ta) 'ammns. A0.9d* Table 1. Sensitivity of bacteria to oerin vitro Itioroor. niems COnseatvatiOn of -,'..orih in ?. Cott. trol A". V . -um& . ? .9 ? 0.9 s.b s, S. ot. oo no. , Era: 7:77fr me. 814 40 so . OD 40 in inhibiting 01 ID ......... II 40 40 II OP ID 01 Oh action . II 10 40 44 AI . 40 01 0/0 410 40 of 410 4111 40 0111 40 MI antilllotiot 40 IP 40 40 AO 40 40 40 MN 4/4 yi el Mt liansence X ID X 0 It n X station' 0 iiMAm. Stara no. 913 Baot.'.1.e. ?leaner re. 550 iii?h: aureue no. 5 ttph. 0 IM oteus OX10 ...................... .,.. Conventional signs. ei # control without antibiotic. It is seen from table 1 that the sensitivity to mycerin is dissimilar in different xtrains. Then we studied the dynamios of development or resistant forms of bacteria to the myeerin antibiotic. Tr= test tubes with * minimum eoncentration or the preparation, which already .:roducted a noticeable inhibiting action on bactf,ria, wo oonducted some reseed rigs or cultures with a loop to a culture median that eontained the sane or a higher c-;noentration of mycerin, depending on the intensity of growth of the corresponding strain. Control reseeding. were ooaducted simultaneously to salt free meat. peptone agar, which did not contain gicerin. The obtained experimental data on the growth of resistance to tlyoorin are represented in the cited figure. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (0) ? Trans. ?.964 ????? ? fi ? ? JI 1 j?pro . Title of figure: Dynamite of obtaining resistanoe to wycerin by various bacteria. a . along the.vertical line con- centration of myperin in gamma/ml, along the horizontal 1160 - passages B. 11!: Shiga'do. 913; 2 . D. doll 61.3; 1 ,Staph.3di 4 B. Sat. Plexner? b a along the vertical line . concentration of mycerin in gamMI/%11 along the horizontal lino passages, 1 . B. coli no. 6441 2 ...ate.. aureus no. 61 $ Proton* '.lords to the left of the7figures toneentration of myoerin, underneath, passages. . It is possible to see from the curves, cited in the figure, that, when cul. tivating:bacteria on media with .rising concentration* of mycerins.development of resistant forte of bacteria occurred very slowly. Thus, after 60 ? *seeps on media with antibiotics, the resistance to myoerin increased only 6.70 time* in all the abate cited cultures. When cheoking the stability of the detained resistance 'of bacteria to myeerin, both after keeping the Culture in a colutella of agar under *gasoline oil, end aft.r a great nuMber cf.restedings of cultures on media, that did not contain mycerins it was established,, that in both eases ocohrred a deers:zoo in resistance to this antibiotic), which was acquired by the bacteria. flegin p.261 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R610400020001-7 . ? Table 2. ? 4s ? ?__......._.___.__a_mIs of biochemicalropertiee-a?toriplutp.32.1.Ett_riEl_Lotano?bet to sToerin acroorianiims . . . . - Growth at con:antra-0 .tion Prgs. nrce*in in c..,/.1 Fermentation at' ?mow* Formq.tion of . LIMI010 1-1To;;;;i;;--o;-7-- arm.046: rotmation ot qiffrea "4" v 2 212 $4 t1; 04 i os ' leduotion of nitrktes 4.) :4 0 a 123' a p7 S a s t, ti a f4 0.: Oa C3 Glucose lactose altos nt.nnite Sacoharose - Bact ooli no. 615 . b.48 ". 15.8 0.9 15.8 ' 0.65 15.8 . ' 0.22 1.0 ' 0.9 - 7:8 0.11 78 0.45 15.8 KG 1irk.0 Ho K3 ic 81 X . X X Sit X X r _ 1wk.0 Ka Est.0 KG KG .. . .. X SK it X ? ' ? to itifk.0 IG KG .. . X SX t sir t X ?Kci Ifivic.0 to Terik.G X0 XID .. . . . X . SECt X Sir IC 'It - ?Xwk.G ta litrk.G .. .. - .. . . X Sir, IC X KG / / /i P vary weak . .. "' /1 P .. ? a ' / / :I / 11 / / . r ' / It / / /1 - ? , Shoh / .., X K . K 81 r . Knob # . /4/ #/ //// ///' ? / . / / 4" Qs / . / / / / . /4) /1/.? 'i.sak 'mak Weak 1g 'Weak Weak ? - 90 90 80 55 initial? - Bast. coli no. 813 retistant . Baot. colt no. 844 initial ' - Baot. col/ no. 644 resistant - . Baot. -1....h Shiga no. 913?initial pact. .11._. Shia riir. 913?resistant Baot. dal. Plexner no. 560-initia1 Baot. Flexner ...!.. no. 5W-resistant Staph. sumo* no. 5 initial - Staph. aureus ro. 6 Pieta filTir-- qtjtet. Food initial Staph wood -re. s is tant Proteus at19 initial Proteus or re? 19 eistant Conventional signst X ? aoidifioatioat -Shah alkali forkation; Pitch ? first acids then alkali; SI ? weak acid; wkG ? weak gasification . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 [Begirt P.2 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Tram. a.984 Table 3. Determination of sensitis[ity of sono bacteria to other antit.iotios aftor-ac uirirnos to ryoerin,. 4/r a ? a ? .41 liloroorgan.isns Cross resistance to Peniotlin Streptomycin Crriseain 134 a t'a *rt 4 ..F4K 4, $14 ?1?: r04 10:6) talromyostin Bioar *urging. no. no. 6 resistant Stach. "Wood initial fr _ ? ? resistant Butt. coll. no; 813 initial. no; 613 resistant Bact. colt no: 844 initial "1"-- no. 844 tesistaht Baot. Shiga no. 913 initial Bact. Shiga no. 91.3 rsnistan't Baot. ?leaner no. 650 initial', Bast. lz! Floater no. 550 resistant Proteus 0119 initial OXig resistant 7:8 0:Ll. 7:8 0:45 15:8 15.6 0.46 15.6 0.22 1.8 045 16.8 0:0145 00145L 0.0145y 0251. 1:0 T 0251 2.0 ) 4 0.25.5)1 0.26 2:25 0:09 3.12 a 18 0:97 7.8i 0:191 0.78/ 0.91 7.8 7.8 3.11 25 r 3 1:96I 7:8 y 1:951 5.9 0.4$ 4 out 0.48 ,changss 0.41 With. out 0:48 ?hangs* a 0.9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 7:8 7:8 3:9 3.9 t 0.9 0.45t 04:45 1:6/ 2.5y Sane ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trehe? aeeee teek:An .30i. T;hee s1.vidyint4 iocheical properties ir '7tierir..resistant bac-tr.r3p.? es cfrperod matures, it -.las deteoted that there oocurre,2.1; t e slight charTe in some rf the indica! or !:f the biecheialcal activit ? of these bacterin. a docreasInz arectior. (Wile 2). This, riycerih.resistant variants, obtained frnm straiee of inizn tinal rod no. 618 no. 644, formed as very weakly derine fernentati sitars of the short verie,ated series of "Gies" [Hiss). e were also 5.nterested in the ,re.oblem if a cross resistance ?t;o other antibiatice the myoerin.resistant bacteria took places as there are /Any ogees cited le litere.tu,re, when a resistants, developed by bacteria to one Of the attV101.1011, IVITOIXOS a simultaneous increase in the resistanoe ?to many other preparations. conducted studies of cress ...resistance of eocerin.resistant cultures to penicillin streptomycin, irisemin, lover:tette end bioevein with this aim in :And. They were conducted in parallel with the initial sensitive strains and with mycerin.resistant variants. Pasults of experiments are cited in table 3. As it is soon from table 3, the .:-,Iyaerin.resistant bacteria ehotted art insignificant degree of croes.resistance to streptervein and Erisezain (by 4.34 tires); 'huts in respect to other antliAotios the sensitivity of these variate '.-ate similar to the initial sensitive cultures. 1. he celtivatinf; baoteria or 7?tedia 1.?ith an inereasine conoentration of rsycerin, fornatIon of resistant variEnts proceeded extremely sly and ? reached an insiolficant detmer (during SO passages the resistanoe tures ere* by 1.3.70 times), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to/ ran . A.Dumr* 2. When checking the stability of the obtained resistance of bacteria to sycerit it as established, tbat while keeping these cultures on edia that do not oontain antibieties, there occurred a diminution of resistance, which was acquired by bacteria to this anti: lotto. 3. Then studying biochemical properties in mycerin-resistant variants, comptred to tnitial cultures, it was disclosed that very insignificant ?hanger; of some properties ocourre=4, in a deareasing direction. This fact zave basis to assume that it the givrea ease no changes uf biochemical properties nr cultures oocurred beoause a selsotion of the least sensitive individuals took place, and not an adaptation of culture to the antibiotic. 4. Iiiyaerinforesistiant bacteria developed an insignificant degree of cross.resistanoe to streptomyein and grisemin (from 4 to 34 times), in ? respect to other antibiotic substances their sensitivity was similar to that of the initial cultures. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP8OR(51426R0-10-4-0-0020001-7 (Lb rut') vd11 Krasillnikev, L A., end Kof8.nova0 g. D. Deistvie antniotikov na fact. (The effect 2roduced ty antibiotics upon phaoesi. Antillotiki, vol. 2, no. 1, p.6..10. Jen.-Fab. 1967. 396.8 An84, (In Russian) The urahlem of antiphage antitiotics Is very slightly elucidated in literature. Yet the phaces present a certain Interest, if one takor into consideration that they (baoteriophaos and actinophages) have muoh In oolmon with oertain viruses. A possibility is not exoluded that phase partioles will prove to be good test mat ?Jai for detection of antivirup antibiotics. During our research we tested various actianphages and bacteria- phaos. Antiphage antibiotios were sought out among the collection of aotinomyeetes, present in our laboratory. The method for detecting antiphage antibiotics was Bluth: aotino. myeetes were spaded, together with a phage, on Petri dishes over an a(;ar culture medium. There and then little eylinders were laid over the seeding maUrial, Into which was introduced the antiA.otio under observation; ohemioal4 pure or in the form of cultural liquid. Sometimes the anti.. blotto solution wee silrply applied to the surface of agar in the form of drops. t tut %kr.. ologii .nn stitute of Microbiology of the Awoli of Soienoe of VL,SR]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R016400020001-7 t?i 171171.6 ? .11.DWOO - puring,the first selection agar block* of aotinomycetes culture, which were crown =different ladies were superimposed,on the seeded softie*. IX/hem were placid into the inoubator at 26*. In. 1.2 days zone' of inhibition of the 040 becane clearly apparent. They were expressed by :the fact that the notinonyeetes culture developed , quite normally around the agar blocks or cylinders, while there opourrod it* full Weil on'the remaining eurfaie of the medium. If the testod.prow. duier,of actinophage inhibited the test-culture of aotinonyeetes also, than two zones resulted. The firstmadjoining the block (or cylinders), whith was entirely sterile (absenoe of growth of test.aotinonycetes and pr the phage).and the second?zone of inhibition of the phage, but not of actino. wastes, owing to which this last ofte developed normally. -In the cases where 'the antagonists inhibited both the phages and tett-cultures, there occurred amoral sterile zone *round the blocks on the background of 'slightly developed resistant to of test-cultures. Both the actin?. . phages and the basterlophages were investigated as phage test?Objects. The following were taken frozen:mg totinophagesz actis00460 n0..414 isolated from the Siberian.ohernpzem, it lysates Act. diastatieus no; 1151, lyeates no; 19p * no; 23p * no. 31p no; 30p no; vrp no; 26 no. 6 11.0; 70, isolated from turf..podizolio soil no. 135 no. 9700 ? ft ft ft a Aot. it adopifirs 'flavivirenc L'I: sulfurous ETC oandidus Tit Tpos?r--sa, glehisporue N 01 globisporus 21040 IT. globisporue NO..70 LlObisporus X.,136 .117L violaceus 970 Preekamong the bacteriophage.. 14 strains were utilized in the ex- -perimentss-baoteriophage 3 was isolated from $iberian chernosem, itlyeatai baoteria no. 6 of the typaL, Bao. mtgatherium. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 SaP .Trans. baeteriophage ? ? 14 lysates bacteria no: 14 of type Imo. 2o s ? no: 09 " 4/ nO: 41 - * Bac. 32 ? " " ' no: 62 . * . tiro: , 'ilT 83 * * . .' * airt; ? -69 " * ? no. so . iv Faroe bacteriophage 102 Ws isolated from Siberian ohernTirra ' of type Bac. tneethee . VW was isolated. from Siberian chernotini to besteria, no. 107 ? Of tzfpe-Bae. uml_gts... , ? baoteriophage, ousel* strain, lysates. ? Bisph. aureuriT09? ? . /3, 0 proti ja............... . . . Eret?Foll . II * ? ll .E.g. 11111r JUR mesa thee agglomeratus idosus purss ? ' to baitiria no. 102. Antiphise properties were examined in a large collection of eotitta-. Wastes (over 800 oultures), stitch belonged to varioue croups and whith were -isolated from various soils of Soviet Unians . Studies of antiphage antian of culture of the oolleation wider ooheideration has Chown, that ite coneral regularities basically suggested the rule* of sanifiststion Of antimiorobio properties. Ant-ipbage properties appeared almost in all aetinimpoetes. In our experiments 'about 90-90 at actinoweetes from the examined palliation inhibited the lytic emtivity of photos. Some strains or groups , of strains inhibited new phages, others only few? and the third ctay solitary or influence (Begin pi:63 just .one phage. as in reepeat to antlitiOrobib Rettibn, &Emig totiftompitee there, apparently, are no such organisms which would not react upon phages.. We tested our aetinottrootes on 26 strains of phitzsi and disoovered 9048% amtagonisti in regard to them. At first we took only.2 phages (no. 26 and 6) as test NAterial,. In relation to them tiltkr 1% at antagonists were found in the collection. If we were ? to take not 26? but a larger number of phages, then the peroentage Of antiphage actinemyaites, e.pparently, Would have been higher.. The character of in. fluenoe of various adtinowycetes on phages was different. .6ame inhibited the phase particles completely, the formed sone of ectineuvoetes did not have any points at lysis oinagatite colonies. Other actitomylotes-antagortist . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to:1 a-rune ? AiNVOCI depressed the phases partia114, the sone of rowth of test.actinomyeetee had a larger or smaller number of negative colonies (points of lysis). Next, after the reaction of one of the cultures the songs of inhibition would be sharply matlined, and after the reaetion at others . the borders of the zone were only slightly outlined, diffused. The majority of actinomyeste.antagoniste formed antimicrobie chd antiphage antibiotioe. SCWO of them produced antiphage substances and at the same time repressed either both the gram positive and the gram ftecative bacteria, or only the gram positive bacteria and the cocci. There wee a considerable nuMber of aotinomyeebe.antagonists, which inhibited only the phai7es. Such a edbdivision was conditional, it reflected the relation of antagonists only the certain teste.both the microbic) end of the phare. '?Tith a specific selection of testmobjecte among both organisms, all aotinomreetes, one may assume, mill be antagonist* to microbes and phages. Antiphage properties of actinomycetes are quite diverse. Nome cultures in. hibit a great variety of phages? others inhibit only solitary phages or even a single phage. IA other words, the antiphage speetrum of theae Organignal IS very wide in one ease, and merrom in another. Her. we have a full analogy with the remotion of actinommtes to bacteria. As a rule, aetinoeyoetee inhibited aotinophas:es more actively than the bacteriophaL.es. From about the total amount of tested actinomyeete.antagonists we reokoned 90.900 against actinophagee? and 40 against teeteriophaos. (table 1). ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Thanes A0.955 Tail.? Display or antiplitge aotivity 4)factinomyeetes when testing On 12 **tin? ha es and 14 baeterie ha ea roup of aotinom etas . lope ? Oray Of A. fradiae' tmx* ? PigTiente-dr"-". total er of smamiMed strains 88. . 124 18 18 - 228 or o anti- et 4 !let Actio $ oterl -OS flu Cr 68 122 13 221 100 98 89 94 go 4 119 14 15 ?il2 94 41, 60 911 42 54 77 7 : 50.. 94 4 28 $4 1 -94 J 41 1 Ved???????????????????????=twamoriaomowniammarmodwommemorm.???? A?more or lees. sharply expressed specificity of action was noted ? while analysing the antiphage spectrum a. aotincetyostel.. , One Can say quite definitely that among some groups of oietinovnotee there were more active antiphige at-Ali-urea than among others: liader con- ditions' .of our experiment-the greater percent of antiphage actinonyceteS was among the large miesellaneoue group. designsted.by a general title, globisporal (Act. .gtobieyorus); then tong tho group of .gray-aetinotycetes ? and the smalleit among the pig?iented (table 1). A-well expressed spools.* speeifioity of reaction on phages Wite noted 'often. When- examining the globiepotal group 'we found .6 well outlined species. 7 Xii eadh*of :them there were 5-14 strains. In the group of gray aetinompetee ' there were 23 well expressed subgroups, -which virtually represented an isolated speoies. Then we had *trains of well expressed speoiess Act.' ocelioolbr Lot. austntiacus, Act. noisome. In most oases, the strain* which belonged to one species bad a imonotypio spectrums that is, they inhibited the same ? oolleation of aotinephages and bacteriophagew (table 2). in a group of .? gray actinomyeetes- from emon5 the 25 examined subgeoups (species) only 6 - had Strains with different antiphage indicators. These groups were not yet ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4... LI ? .3 sufficiently otudied and possiblye gore oonTrised of representatives of various species? Conditio,,s and dates of foruntion of antiphage st:,bstAnces OVR fereuti, than conditions of forwation of antirsiorobe antibiotios,. rt is passible to selRet conditions of r,rowth of attinomycetes ursier tho antiphacc antili:.otics would be produced. or just the antinticrotio 18ezin p..71 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 o.985 Table 2. ? Actinomyeetes Aotitio.h.,es :41.ter wave, 15 19 19 23, 31 36 37 26f 135f 7 5f 9700 14 102 41 89 98 107 113 52 6 29 St, h. I. colt Rao. therium E?Nir-oris 8 strainsj 40 111Mini FIMUNIN1111 ril.MMI OD 40 404 40 . . 41 MO ??? 40 . al . 40 ?? -MO 40 AP 40 4"...r.. IM IN . . A. Tulgarli?T strains OP a? I7lip0 no. 30 no. 2911 1771MW;070enip 2 strains WO - 40 =I 40 40 VD 0 I OD OD 40 40 Ow 40 04 14.0 toxious strairs 40 arosus no. 1609 40 40 OP AD 40 40 40 04 rTirisous 0-. ? I ----- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. A*285 Nozin p.81 Antiphage substances were often produced by the culture earlier than antimicrobe antibiotic's. For instanee, in strain 2736 *Act. 1111.tisporut, MAXIMUUt formation of antiphage substance was on the 2nd day, and of anti* mierobio a on the 6th day of Growths in strain 8a (lust. 41obisporus) oor* respondingly on the 3rd and 7th days in strain 2688 on the 2nd and 8th day, and so on. to Antiphage auk:stone= were produced by actinoarlis when cultivated on various nutrient media on simple synthetic, with mineral sources of nitrogen, and on complex protein Oftes? They were WitheeillOd On CP no. 1 ECapaldi*Prosknuer mmilusa, on CP no. 8, on media with fish broth or 411 corn extract. Actinomyootes cultures, tested by us, did not synthesis* antiphage substances on Csapek meeium or on a medium withbean de000tion. The anti- phage substances also did not form on a medium with potato extract, or were produced it very small amounts. But the antialorObie substances synthesised and acoumulated in sufficient amounts on these media. Itsximum amount of antiphage substances was produced on media with fish decoction, with corn extract, on NfA rmeatempeptonesagar] and some other protein media. Their titer differed, depending on the medium, on The compeeitiot of the medium and on extyrnal conditions. The MAXiOWR titer in our experiments IOW 18600,000, the minimum- 1810, 18100i0 and mere often in the limits of 1s240. 181,000. There are organisms, which produced only the antiphage substance on oertain media. The antimicroble antibiotic either was not formed at all, or was produced in small amounts (table 8). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A*985 Table '5. remotion Or SAt1O1Ot1041 by actinowyestes . . Aetinomyeetes , Antiphage antibiotic (filtrate) Autdbaotariel substanees, titer , to R.O.B stibtilia' to Staph. aureus 209 , liquid culture filtrate liquid. culture * filtrate , A. zatat- imiso . . n $29(1)2 ? A.fi1Lblig.2._r 42735 .. hVi //it # */. lAA4/ 243 f ? .,0 ' 27 .. 243 2187 27 . a 0 . 9 . . 2187 ' - 243 . 0 , 81 . 9 243 27 0 0 o . 245 ,ur? . .. . 11118 - : . Aft . . As it is seen from table 5, the antiphage substances pass through bacterial' filters (Boriefeld filters and Others) much freer than anti.. *aerobic antibiotics. /f in the cultural fluid 'of strain 115 we detected 243 staphylococcic units than after .1 filtration through the Berkefeld filter there were any 9.units in a milliliter. AntiPhage titer was maintained, approximately, in the same figures ... in the cultural fluid l0 and in the filtrate 1CP. It was possible to separate the entiphage antibloties from the anti... adorable with the aid of specially sellated adsorbents. Antiphage anti- biotics were dissimilar in stebilitys heating, in particular, affeeted them. Nam. of t%embecase quiokly inaotivated at a Comparatively los tem... perature. For instance., the substance of strain 2588 'beeame inactive at 50? during the ?Ours. of 10 .sdnutes, while the substance of strain 8a, could withstand heat.int to 70* during '30 minutes. As it rule, .antiphavii substance.?fall' less stable to heating than, the ant/Microbic ones, 0..1though an these 'last ones there was also a great divereity in this respect. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 t10) Trans. A?985 All this pointed to the faot that antiphage and artimicrobio bioties represent various coupoaitioes, which are produced by the sa*lo or,;anismo either simultaneously or at different times, dependin6 on eon - (itione. Our research has shown that phaces vary i2;rea.t1y in their serugitiviiy to antibiotics. F3-a-ne of them reacted to almost all the antibiotic StIbt? stances, -afire tested ty us?, othors were repressed just a fire actitto? mos te while the third c nes reac tee only to a int:le aetaEonis ts a There also were phazes that did not at all react to actinoNytetes tested ''77 Ls it is seer_ fro7t table 4, aotinophAgee were more/ sensitive to aotinotwootes than bacteriophaNts. The it sehsitive amonz aetinophac,es ,:;ere strains no. 9700 and %el after that ?erg aotinophages no. 30, 3, 15 and So on. Among bacteria* phagos the first place in sensitivity wee occupied by phage tae.Imalterrium, it was.folloonsd by strains no. 98, 113, Haat. soli 12, 14 and thee tho others. The cited data Mow how grat is The diversity of phages. Alsohr the-i exist as syny distinctions as amonz, microbes and vir usse. Of coarse, it vets necessary tc, select comparable strains or s:,,soi.00 when aorseerinz; the sensitivity of phages and viruses or microbes to anti*. biotic*. (Begin p.91 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R016400020001-7 (LI) irans? Table 4* Sensitivi of various haps to aotinomyoets-antagonists Baotsriophaps Amount of actino.. myoetes which in. hibited the baoterioso ' phase No. of the satin?. phage mount of got no- mycetes whioh in. hibited the aotino- phage 8 46- No: 14 11 5 . 41 NO: ice 7 ? 19 , 88 No: 41. 1 23 26 1o89 I 31 17 No; ,98 14 36 85 No: 1070 37 . 31 No; 113 15 26 113 No; 52 12 158 27No; ? $ 5 70 21 No: 29 14 5 69 Noteus 4 9700 120 Boo* moga? thekiwn ? 42 Boot* colt _ 12 .In our collection *hero were four groups, or more accurately, sub., groups of actinomycetets in which antivirus properties were detected* Tho first group, which consisted gray aetinomycetes (strain no. 1609 being a typical reprosentativo)? inhibited Viruses of Ruosian tick?borne encephalitis, grippe and smallpox* The second subgroup consisted of aotinomyeetes with whitewpali.yellow aerial myoelium (group A. globitporus)* The third consisted of actinomycetes with yellow-orange coloration of . colonies and pinkyolehito aerial mycelium* Strain no. ZU, its typioal representative, produced a depressing action on virus of group Al* The fourth subgroup, consisting of violet actinomyoetes (its representative was strain no. 1212), actively inhibited viruses of Russian tiok4sorns encephalitis and of smallpox* The action of antibiotics of these organism' appeared not only in vitro, but also in vivo, directly in. th0 body of experimental aninals* The action of these actinamyoetes on phages did not correlate with the action on*viruses* Strain no. 1609 inhibited only 2 actinophagei Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (no. 5 and 20) from the 12 tested and not a single bacteriophage. Strain no. 1212, which was also active against the viruses of Russian tick-borne encephalitis and smallpox& had a sufficiently wide antiphale spectrum it inhibited almost all the tested lotinophages. It reacted on beraterloplages very selestivelys it inhibited only 2 species among the 14 tasted. A. aureofaciens& A. rimosus& Lot. no. 111 and A. rosette have very close antiphage spectra, but their antivirus properties were sharply different. 141ny aotinomycetes, which have sharply expressed aatiphage properties, did not at all. repress the viruses, tested by us (trippe, stallpez, encephalitis). It is posetcle that they produce influence on some other viruses. We have as yet too few experimental data ("patterning the antivirus action. A wide range of virus species is required as test...Objects in ? order to compare the specificity of their sensitivity to antiphrases with that of various species 5f phases (antinophsges and bacteriophages). For the present we can say that antiphage qualities are not indicators of antivirus activity in general. If a enrrelative connection does exist then it is only among individual species of phages and viruses. F;liverthelags, this must be established experimentally while comparing vast material. Rntered the editor's offiee December 20, 1966. English Summary THE FilTcT PR-ONICFD IT ANTIAOTICS URN PRAMS A large number of aetinomyoetes belonging to various croups and species was investi!ated in order to bring to light their ai1tty to inhibit phases ? and to produce antibiotics of antiphage activity. As test-objects were chosen phages belongik to 14 strains and aatinephages of 12 strains, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 k ID wrignme /Loam= ? obtained from different species of baoteria and aotinomycetes. It valke found that the general regularities underlying the anti?phage action of aotinomyoetes are about the same as those observed in the action upon *Arai,. Nearly all actinonyeetes display antimphage properties. S OM of them are found to inhibit many photo species, while others in. hibit but iftlividual species, or a single strain. Antagonists against astinophages ars more frequently met with than antagoniets against baoteriow, phages. In aotinomycetes a rather outspoken specific anti.phage spectrtm of activity could be established. The action of anti-phage antibiotics is not correlated with that of anti?virue substances. Magas can therefore serve neither as test. Objestat nor as models in the search for antisivirus antibiotic. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A..986 (In full) Till; Borkovskaia, V. A. Opyt ismenenlia iarovykh sernovykh kulttur v ?sive. tAn attetpt of experisental transformati elf sprins cereals into winter cereals]. Sot. Zhur. tMosloal vol. 43, Jan. 1958. (In Russian, ? p450.60. 451 R923 Discussion of problem of the forration of epecies has shown, on the one bawl, he presence of suffielent reasons for doubt in the authenticity of separate faots about the appearance of sharp chanob or "oonvoreioe of species, and on th other hand, during the course of dieoussion there was pointed out the abSence of experiMents, based on more precise methods, which would not arouse doubts of their authenticity. 1.Ve think it necessary, it connection ',eith tts, to share our seven. year experience in work in this direction. Cr experiments in studies of coMittoris of the arising of no for-41 were bean in 1949-1950 in connection with the spreading of an idea about the passibility of breeding new speoles, whieh was expressed by Academician ? T. D. Irsenko at the August session of VASXMIL Academy of kyi oultufal Soleness ineni V. Z. Lenin] in 1948. According to data avalitT)20 at that time, nharp changes and conversion" of species were obsercfred ? Betio uznari tntitut rsstenivodstva. /an Plant Industry. Leningrad]. ni;rad? on Institute of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 144) TIMM ? +11^07Uti mainly when transforming spring cereals into winter cereals. Therefore we took this course as a basis of our reasearch, the noro so because there were very few such experiments conductid at that time. We can only mention ae the meet wellsknown work* those of N. X. Shinanekii (1949) and V. K. Narapetian (1946, 1960a, 195(b). In experiments of X. X. Shimanikii spring wheat 1160, when sown in the fall under conditions of Glossa* Increased its wintcrhardinese already after one year of overwintering (48.7% of those which orerwintered as ecno..' pared to the control ? 9.1%) and were converted into 4 winter cereal iv the second and third generations (97.7 and as.% of overwintering). Moreover* only the ohanges of varietal oharacteriatios were noted. In the experiment* of V. K. Plarapetian four varieties were involved, they were sown at different dates in the fall under conditions of Moscow Xere*too* 'me observed a noticeable inorease of winterhardincss from generation to generation, especially in soft Wheats. For instance* in Lintestsens 062 the control had 124% or survived plants; one year or overwintering gave 19.6%,two years of overwintering ? 36.0. In hard wheats the increase of winterherdiness 444 lower, but, as was established by the author, they were then *converted" into soft wheat. According to data of the above?mentioned authors, one can as:lune that the emergence and fixation or the overwintering sharOloteristio can be bronht about comparatively easy - during tuill generations whir planting spring (mope in the fall both in various geographioal points (Abecow and Mosso.) and at most diverse tines. In Glossa all the Ootober planting dates gave an increase in winterhsrdiness, and in Moscow 4. all the Septenber planting dates. [Begin p.611. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ) trans. A?0986. ? One could say the same thing also with respect to the formation oi' soft wheats from lard, which appeared after all dates of plantings, and, as it was ascertained by, later works, in various gekraphical points, sztong them also in Motet (hlokroi, 1955)4 In our work we tried, to' detect all the possibilities for obtaining ? new species, to .nabs more precise the conditions of scounalation and ftca.. - ton Of the civentintering Obaraettiristia in spring crops, as wsll as .to trace the changeability of the ?imposition of populations of the varieties and specie* under investigation. Our basis experiments proceeded under conditions of the foot hill tione of. north-essetern Caueasus at the ikikep Experiment Stmtion of VIR. (t1.1.11nion Institute of Plant ;industry), as well as in?Krasnodar city at the experimental base of the All*Onion Scientifie Researoh Institute of Oil and . ? Essential. Oil Crops Eviuraul. ? The Works at the Alloy Station were oordnoted in parallel at two ' pointst in the valley of the river !Wale. (500 ta above sea level) and at a root hill section "Shetitaks (600 a above sea level). Beginning with the year 1952, the belie variants were planted 'annually*. in the steppe sone of the Zrassodar krai.at the Alban Experimental. Station of TIR; where the winters were very severe, and for two years at the mountain section of Teberdinisk State Came Reservation (11550 st aboVe sea level) and in Leningrad ? ? 'ablest* (Pushkin. city). All the work 55.8 conducted under the dirastion. of Dootor of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Professor E. 1. Sinsks.ia. For experiments on the change of spring crops into winter 'those species wire first utilised for whioh no real winter for were. known. Such wore the Persian wheat (Tritictua pervious* Vav.), cats, hulless barley, partly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . 0) .Trans ? A-988 .herd wheat; for the last one.semidowinter forme were'knewn only. List of crops and varlet/ea, which were indluded in the exporiments, Are eitad in .teble 1. naafi. required, for the solution of the railed prOblete, in the first ,placs to ensure clearness and authenticity of the experiment. In this ri.. siiect we immediately encountered certain diffieulties: these difficUlties were met at onoeichile ensuring the puritrof the-initialinatt4iai. One should meutionothatioth in the abevemmentioned works about the .transfor.. nation of spring &voila into winter and in those published later, the authors, as a rule, did not preliminarily stady the.initial material, that is with 'election of typical plants Cud -checking of their offspring, We too did not preliminarily de this because at least two years would be're., ? quirod for sucha work; one year for selection, another for chsokinc of the offspring. Cwana,Ohecking of the initial material was cOnduated by us. during the process of the experiment' proper, for this Purp000 durinp the first year all the plants, which were preserved after thordnter, were carefully inspected 'and all -the admixture* removed..8inee during the nnual dense plantings different plants can easily grew together by their roOta, we took only one spike from each plant for the next seeding. During the seeond year each spike las planted in a eeperate raw and, after cheo14ng the offsprine, all similar families were united. With such aworkvmew doubtedly, there wae danger that under, the form or admixtures it wee possible to remove the already ehanted plants. But, first4. aceordint to already existing data, the sharply chanted forms do not emerge, an ft rule, during the first year, and, secondly, we carefully studied all the . . Adnixtures up to checking their offspring. Beside., there were but few - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trams? A.980 of those admixtures and their origin did not cause amy doubts In order to prevent the possibility of repollinations varieties of similar drop, were grown on'tsolated son:ions and the soil for planting was prepared yet during the fall of the preesding year. The greatest diffieulties wore met during the removal of possibilities of meohanical contamination of the material. Vith aAargS voluae of 'work ? (600-700 of reeistration plots) it was almost impossible to provide * guarantee against All possible eases Clegin p.521 or maahanitsal on*ttrItion and the more so because it wee tough more than just one year, Sevrrtheloss, we tonic: all possible preoantions, introducing special rules for ganting harvesting, transportation and stacking up of sheaves, thrashing, and So on. (Text oortinuod after table 1) Crepe and varieties nvolvod in the Table 1. Nowiftworiorroulommoramot Varieties Crigin Arandany Oordoiforme 10 Oordeiforms 2/ Meltanopus 69 Khoramloa 711// Al tbidutt 3700 'Cott& ghlopi. tska Surkhak 194 ? Orekum 289 1. MR T. durum Deaf.) Agerbaija- GS S (State Snootier, Station) Dnepropotremek OSS Irasnodar GSS Krasnokutsk (188 Azerbaijan GSS 2) Sett tt. aostimus Ls) Omsk, sInNurunz Niborian Grain Soionti- fie Posearoh Institute] lOvev Oblast' Tadzhik 088 Xrasnovodopadskaie OSS ear, s noe wh ch ass included In the e ? rint 1949 1049 1949 - 1S40*1962 1949.1952 1952 1952 1962 1962 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A..986 Varieties ...4111.11.011.W.11.41.11.....r...11.10?1011.11?0??????????????????????????? Cb*igin sr-Not-111Am pers-ieut Tay. Dike 9/14 v. stramineum Gruzinskaia GB Db a 9/14v. fuliisinesum; Grusinekaia CMS Table 1 (oontinued) Years since which it ? mos included in the ezneriment 4) Turgidmaia (T. turEiduts L.) Ramose Sikhs.. Unlike.'" Georgian SSR, Akhaltsikhe city RAMO* eked. /oink* Moscow, Gorki Deninskie Ramose eked. Tumanian Amens laboratory of species formation Ramose opyt. nika niana Gear-Amt. Akhaltsikhe city ? 6) Spelt (T. diceocurs SchUbl.) ? *stasis. Armenian SSP, N. Akbta B. sexier (R. Nudum malod? I asiatekii Kuban Station of VTR Viper Valenek Aristata sativum L.) 0, 4ate (t. native. Le) AlngeKtinekaia OS D. Rye (!. cereals Le) 1949-1952 1952 ? 1950 1949 1950 1950 1.950 1949 1949 ?????? 411111??????????-? In order to ascertain whish or the fallftwititer dates of plantinc will produce the best effect, we planted all the varieties *Very 5 dayas beZih+- ning with the Lst of September and up to the freesint throutX of the Kxound (Deoemberm January). later on we conducted reneated roseedings of crops of each date and again or the same date. Such repeated reseedince *en the same date were conducted [Begin p.551 at Loth pr}ints Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . (7) Trans.. a..von of the ilakopftperiment Station darins the ochre* of three year* 1949 to 1951 inclusive. During these years the first winter (3949/50) was Severe. We observed considerable loss of pinata of sprin& crops at the earlier .01eptelber) dates of plantiegi The next two 'winters were.mildiand the plants of Spring crop. were preserved almost in- all the variants, but to a different stage, depending on the varietiand date of gloating. . _ . ? In 1952" already conducted comparative Studies of the offepring of different variartis, which during this year were planted simattnniounly dates An the fall (SepteMber 25 end October 10 and in spring. Besides this, part of seeds -or be basic variants, togethervith the control Oran blvine savings) were planted &t the 2kAban txperiment Station, where the Winters were extremely -osier*. This rear's winter in the region of Naikcp Station ? . *as favorable for overwintering of plants of most spring varieties. Calcu?, lation of the pareent of overwittered.plants, according to variant* of the experiment, has shown that there were no difference* among the offspring of different Pall dates of planting. The spring reproductions, that is the .controls, overeintered in like manner for both diktat'. At the 'Haan Station, where the conditions of overwintering were more ? severe, differences appeared only among varieties. In the limits of a variety there a3.e0 were no differences among the offspring of different fall dates and the control (spring reproduction) and later on there toot place full les* of both these and the others. mats of reproduotions of all dates of planting, without *Insentient of Persian wheat, spelt, barley and oat* fully Orished towards spring. The fall reproduction of semiwinter bard wheat of the variety Arandany (e6.906%) survived somewhat better compared to the spring reproduction (SO). 74 the remaining varieties (the ramose ? and hard wheste) individeal plents in different variants, which survived Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5; WPM. ? ?4?111119 towards spring were highly weakened and all were lost towards the time or harvesting. Spring planting of all fall reproductions, together with the control (from the spring planting), IOW oonducted late -April 10 ? in order to avoid the influenes or law temperatures and on this background to more suocessfully deteot the aceumnlatien or the winterhardiness property. But in this planting also differences were observed only among varieties, but not among the variants. After such a late planting the semi?winter wheat Arandany, as well as the ramose varieties or nachitthevanIcam (opytnila Stepaniana and eked. Tumfteiana)(1) did not form spikes and behaved like winter crops In all their variants, including the control. After an early planting in spring they usually formed spikes, whieh took place during former ? years. A great diversity of forme appeared in tho spring rye, Onokhoiskalaa after a spring planting they varied from the typical spring to semliowinter and real winter. But, as long as before the beginning or our work it vas grown together with winter varieties, it was natural that many plants here represented heterosygote forme. We excluded it from our farther expertents for this reason. The remaining crepe and varieties behaved like the usual spring *rope after a spring planting. Offspring of the twr' and threeivoyear reseeding; or various fall dates farmed spikes unantaous/y and at the same time with the control. During the fall of 1953 the offspring of the fall reproductions were united in the limit* of each month and were *Loin planted at the best time for the sowing of winter grope at the Maikop and Kuban Experimental &tattoos, (1) translator:be note, named after a city in Caucasus and also after the men who developed them. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (a) ? Trans. A.:9815 as well as at the mountain point at Tob!rda and in Leningrad oblast*. The size of plots varied from 4 to 10 sq. m. The winter of 1953/54 1/1111 quite severe and caused considerable loss of plants nt all points. lievertheless, as in the preceding years, there were no considerable changes observed among the reproductions of Varioun dates ofInantings. Ilegin p.50. . At iltikop a very insignificant ads.ntaee of fall reproductions has appeared in three varieties, when compared with the spring reproductions in the pereentage of overwintered plants s in hard wheal* .0 Arandary, which , had 7$% of plants in the fill reproductions and 64( in the spring, and Gordeiforme 10 where there wore respectively 41 and 54%, and in barley - Paula raloasiatskii, where there also reppectively were 64 and 4C&C; At the Kuban Station the Kuban reproduction of Arandany stood. cut markedly, hailing a total Of 665 survived plants when compared to the Ltaikop Station which had only 256, punts ?under similar conditions of planting. There were no differsneet in wirrterhardiness of different reproductions of the Other remaining varieties. Conditions of overwiritorin in, Teberds, at an altitude of 1580 m, and in laningrad ablest (Pushkin oity) proved to be too, unfavorable, and all the reproductions of the Persian and of the hard winter wheats, spelt*, ? barley and eats, which were planted both on the fell and on the sprin4 dates, were fully lcs t. Only single plants survived towards the spring, among semi.. winter wheats of the Arandany variety and among the ramose in individual 'variants of the fall reproductions; but they were so weak, that they were lost before the formstton of seeds. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tio) Trans? ad?Vtia nurint; subsequent years the fall reproduetions were tortinued to be planteei at the best times for scoring winter Drops at the Witikop and tuban Faperiments.1 Stational nevertheless, up to the year /957 there were no subsiAntial ohanrce seen in their winterhardiness as oompared to the control (spring reproductions) (table 2). Table 2. (p.57) Orerwinterin,:: of fall and spring reproductions of' spring varieties at the *Won, Axperiment Station (Planq.op or September 28( 1956) Wumber of Plants remaining by June 1, 19117 Varieties years of after plantink of 14500 seeds fall repro.s from tile fail1 from the spring duo ti one reproduction reproduc tion A. Whim 1) /Bird (T. durum Deaf.) Arandany 7 90 130 Gordeiforme 10 7 67 109 Mslianopus 89 5 5 Ihoranka 711/1 7 0 22 2) Persian (T. persioum Vav.) Dilia 9/14 v. stramineus I 7 3 1 Pike. 9/14 v. .61,,iLino_ j_nns 4 1 25 I 16 3) Spelt (T. diem:sews SohUbl.) Spelt frost Armenia I 6 I 14 I 2 4) Soft IT. aestivum L.) Surkhak 194 Oita& thlopitska Alibidum 11700 Buduts maloasiatskii Viner Soretskii Aria ta ta 7 I 4 76 139 4 44 63 4 36 07 B. Barley 6 1 4 12 4 C. Oats 2 1 ct Footnotes Data on ramose wheats are not cited as the spring repro.. due tions wore not planted because of lack of seeds. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP801401426R010400020001-7 ;Li, 'runs. As...uou (Text continued .frem page -4) We nunducted studies of many other biologieal, morphologioal and Ociononie (quantitative) characteristics, during the whole course of our. ' . experiment*, besides the wintorhardinesi. Ve ate citing her. sone data con.. cernink these observations. In order to traordoen the influence of dates of. planting on the . progress of deVolopment of the following during 19524190 we oonduoted 'adervations eh the teraation of the apical tip [sone of growth] in off,*. spring of all the variants of tall and spring dates of planting. These 'obtervationi have shown that differentiation of the apical tip in pinto from repreduetions of different-date* of plantings proceeded,approxicate/y the same time. Phonologic Observations of the stages of heading and . ripening haVe shown that the passage of these stages corresponded to the alternateness of diffarentiation or the apical tip and in the liMits-ct - the varietvalso has no differences among the variants. ? Fellow-up of the dynamics of heeding, after planting Pall reproduction* .in spring, has shown that differences, which were Observed on the day of . 'coleulatienibetosth the fall and spring repreductions were expressed it. a Very slight lag ih the heading of.the fall reproduetions of two 4trietiell. In the'drandany variety the fall reproduction had 23 plants which formed . opikess and the spring-. 64; in the variety Gordeitorme.10 respectively gs, and 02 plthts. 14 all the rest-of cases the eharaoter Of heading of the fall and spring ripreduotiono was eimiler. , Detailed survey of morphological features has ehOwn that dirin5 the first year ofivork plants of strange forms were detected in three varieties. Thus, sintle plants of soft wheat were found in almost all fallwitinter dates of plantings of Persie:n wheat Pike 9/140 as well as in individual Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) Trans. A-980 dates (without any regularity) In hard wheat Sordeiforme 10. In both oases tingle plant* of soft wheat were met also in spring plantings, but in a considerably smaller?peroentege (in. both oases e in one date ' of planting among len). Subsequent/7 awes found out that a small hhmber of these plants in the control was explained by their belonging to the -winter forme, Which do. not head in spring. There .was no doubt that these forme were present yet in the initial material. 630qinp.65) ? The ramose Wheats ..lakhetinskala and opytnika Stepanient,whleh were taken from production plantings, were clearly contamiqated with ? barley and nonramose'foree of soft end hard 'wheat. After removal of all. these admixture* during the first year of work, they did not appear any Wore.- In the tester varieties there were no admixtures of other forms, removing all the contamination dUring the first year and cheoking the offspring through selected spikes,? es repeatedly had cats. of appearance of hey forme and species of'plants"both in the fall and in the control (spring) plantings. Bet we did not have such cases when e the cause of theater/03Iva* unclear to WI during the course Of the whole .seven years. virle shall briefly desoribe these cases. In two cities the offspring of individual spikes of Persian wheat cone eisted l00$ of similar variety of the soft. In this case the mistake during selection was beyond doubt, because these species are Very similar to each other, and at the beginning we even resorted to a cytological analysii, in order to distinguish the uverlappinefOrms.' In 1062, during two periods of planting (SepteMber 30 and October -SO) in the varietyHOordeiforme 10 several plants with a white spike of the intermediate type between the hard and the soft wheats were diseovered. Checking of their Offspring bee shown, that these were hybrids of the hard Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (13) Trans. end the Pereian wheat Dike. 04, which then evolvcd during the followint; generations. In plantings Of spelt we deteoted in the same year its natural hybrids - with 'hard wheat, whit))) fact was confirmed by the oharaoter of segregation of , the .off.spring of these plants. App ii. cif natural hybrids ityboth oasse. could. have happezed. during the fall planting. in 1949, which was oonduOted without space boal. lation. individual plant* ti, in virtue -of domination of characteristics of the mother species **old have revainad unnetieed during the eheoking Of ? offspring of individual spikes. We also found absolutely .sterile lorbrids among Persian Wheat ard rye. .ramoso wheat .and rye.. Persian wheat and spelt in those oases when .thoy vtero grown on the saw- section*. Inassiosh as since the 1%11 of 1052 the plantings at all the points 'grey* conducted on general sections without speoe isolatIOn, , we repeatedly observe& eases of th?-appet4ranne at natural interepeolfio - hyhrids; to particular, fertile hybrids were ?tound between the Persian , wheat and the hard; ramoie and hard, and others. Their hybrid nature was ? confirmed by the external appearanoo and the character of segregation in -the offspring. . ' Besides the above-mentioned natural hybrids no 'other visible changes of morphologioal ohamoteristies were observed by us. Studies of such quantitative features as the height or plants, bushiness, length of spike* and awns, density and the amount of gram in a spike, and weirht of 1,000 grains hays shown that after * fall planting the spring crops approximate the winter forms of corresponding varieties in all these features, and differ considerably frees control plant* d alontin Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 14 ) Tran0?A.091:3 ? opring. r.ever.th31eco, plantinc ai-nitaroottoly tali and oprins roprodnotion or coveral yonrot ondinzo theca differonaca onoothed out (arrant ontiroly both in tit, 1Zc1 Via aorlr.f.,,, occinzo. ryon if thsy 0 wore rotair.odotn it oto in vary i.!-.sicnifiant atountio and for actoarizin- irc it throtKli aMlycia vnceeedc 1r on of plants tinn to at ? our dioponal. ? An article a Acaeomictlan T. D. to-corl.-e to published in 10C2, tArla0 precise toto4ica1 instruotiar wore Given oi omveroion of 'sprint; cre33 to triritar. In pnrtitiolsr he urotei "A nothcA for iiquidatinc tho horeditr and producir3n winter heredit-y in 'ma dofinstl no aocurotokV t7"..st Ob this bAcio. an azriatatzsmi procedure ha boon doralOpede vb.itsh porrito to ?convert wint:..r crops irto any varte, of cPril vbeste btrloy or tseaer' planto of thew opooies, ttnt tlioain p.50) !two both tho aprinz ard tbo ,wintor fora in any- TOCite. (4713C0-7.** 1.02a s 0). , ? Acoordin..-, to dirootioto co mod in tha cited article. of T6 b. trioako. a nenretzinter plantire vas oarrisd ent d3rin.3 the Ctll or 1052 (November 20) of nino Pew varinties Of cereal oro,O rich ine.tO con:',rol list tore rarit an of 1052. Ain Om procoditz, ?L.-port:70mb tho plantin3 vao con- duoted vrith unchecked coeds. 7ebot of tho pt..r.ts survived aft:r tho ITintCr Vo did not dotoot d.:-..intnica of other ex:otos. For a oztoOquont plant-in:1 2 opikon t7e2'0 coo teG fro= cacti plant. which Imre throchoidoeparotely. rrrin?-?tio opri of 101.3A the coodo e ore.or em o pair of coloctod ?pikes wore p1tnti dui-Inc the boot t1r or cowing tho winter crops (October 5), r.rd tho cacao of the ottor eplbs at a lots? tino (tabor 17). ?in all 200 'opiken =re colootecl from each voriaty. Cootie of ovary apex: r..:ore stun in a coparato roar.. Vinter of 1953M -wan ()everts. /Aro in both tbo oprinc, and the trieor Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10 Trans. A..986 _crops eas observed, but the,plantings.ef both dates surtived, althiugh individual varieties were thinned out' A detailed !betaking of each family has shown lin absence of anY narked morphologies' changes whieh went beyond the limit* X the variety. The best families were harveated tes? ? paratekt, and the rest united Into the limits of each date. During the fall of 1954 all this mateifrial, together with. the initial seed* from spring reproduetions was sown on. October 7. 4rea.cf 1:1oto,r/Ss sq. pc. Winter of 1954/55? nag iatid .and there were ho differences in .? ? averwintering of, the fall and spring reproduetion*: According to such indicators as the phases of development, disease infection, lodging, as well as the height Of plants and their general appearance, weight of 1,000. ? grain*, and others, the fall reproductions of / and II dates did not differ from those of spring reproductions ill:anything during this experiment: There ? also was no difference among ,these variants during opring plantings. They all formettspikes simultaneously and all together and did not differ in any way among thereelvis. Reneeforeard, es in the preceding experiment, ? this smt,erial has continued to be soca at the ledirnp and the Man Expert./ mental Station]: on the best dates for pl,inting the winter *rope. Nevertheless, up to thepresent time no marked shifts in the increase of ivinterhardinote or the tested varieties were obtained. Data of the last overwinterint, (1050/67) of the available material at the Wimp Isperimental Station are .cited in table 2. The oinditions of winter of that your we. tory Unfavorable on ao? count tor the unusually early frosts (Septenber 8), the absence or the on covering and retarded sprout., whieh appeared only on October 24 due to con- ditions ofadry fall. ? Frac data in table 2 it ix icon that eten those differences smoothed -out which were observed between the fall and the spring reproductions duri-n., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %LOJ 113.0B ? riehyou the prof:mein:, years. 17e explain this by an extremely early loci of plants which even could not sta.rt to become hardy; of course, no peculiarities . . of more wintc-rharey varieties and forms could be e=pressed under sac& *circumstances. Ilut on the 'whole here was reflected the true picture of ? the seven year wovk. on ohangln.g spring, cereals into fainter. Let ut 'cite data of CVO? more experiment which was conduoted in Krasnodar at the-E.71...perimental Bate of the 4114.1111ton Goientifie'Researoh tilts of Oil ate EsSential Oil Crops .IVN7,r1r.nii. Bard wheat Gordeiforme 27 and the Pereian wheat Dike 9/14 were utilized here. The initial material . ' was the same and it also was nob' prelimiearily studied and checked. Durinz the first year of work (1949) the plantings were conducts, ? beginning with Sep tatter 10, every 5 days up to February 10.. In 1950 the plants vere harvested according to the dates of planting without any preliminary survey on account of absence of the specialist. Only the roma' nts of chaff aftqr harvesting were kept for the control. During the fall of the same year Geode of each date were sown at the following. dates. Oordoi- ? forts 27 Oetober 13 and 21; November 16 and 27, Deceriber -22? January $, 13 and 23, tBezin p.671 February 2, 12 and 22, and larch 31 Dika 9/14 on Ootober 18 and 25 71evember 16 and 25, December 22, January 6 13 and .23, ? ? February 2 and 12. rn 1951, after a detailed curvey, it Was found out that in tho variety Gordelforme 27 in the offspring of 2 variants of planting* of 1949 *(October 6 and Ilovember 10) soft wheat was met everywhere. Suriey. f tho ? pellicle in the chaff aonfirmed the pretence of soft wheat in these variante . during the year of planting. Consequently it was present yet in the initial astterial. In Persianwheat bika 9/14 soft wheat predominated in all variants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/69/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . (17) Trans. A.488 Platt* of,Pereian wheat survived only implanting* of winter and spring dates. Presence of soft wheat in the initial material was eetablished at the Maikop Station. 9nder conditions of Iteenader, where sinUre are ' more severe the Persian wheat (Begin p.58] after fall dates was *11 destreied bittost, aed only those plant., of soft wheat survived which '1111.r.) winter crops in the biology Of their develepaent. ? In 1951, aftx,r reeoviOL all admixtures, typic*] plants of the** tele unities were again planted at the following dates. November 3, 13' end 23, Deceaber 3, February 1$ and 26. Subsequently ell families Were of theiata 'kind and'typicel for their spool's.' ..In.1952 families of each kind were united in the limits of variants and Were planted on three detest the best. ? September 23 and near-winter 7 December 1, es well es'in spring of 1953i. April 2. Winter Of that year was unfaverabb* and bast,of plant. of the September planting were lost. Of the Dike Oa variety 4 plants survived, and of dordelforme 27 - 5.1k plants? . West plants survived from the nearioWinter planting (December 1), bet no . visible changes were recorded among the experimental:plants in both easel. ? In 1953 both varieties Were planted on a date which was near to the best for winter crop* in that, sone, namely Oeteher 13. Winter was extreniali -severe and towards 'print only a few realigned in *11 Variant.; and oven :einglo plant*, bat they all retaihed features of their species and variety.. The sem was observed in 1954 aftera sowing on October 1/,. when the wintcr was faverabie end both the experimental and the control plant* survived well; In 1955 the plantings were again heavily thinned out without notideable differences between the sixth generation, obtained from fall soilage, end the control, that is the spring reproductions of the 'same varieties. It is pOssible to say, that after separation of all admixtures, the remaining . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (L5) wrens. asiterial underwent the effeot of three very severe winters after plantings at most diverse dates; ',ut still we did not suoseed in finding any changes of morphologioal oharaoteristios, nor any marked increase in the property of winterhardiness of the tested varieties. At the same time this ex? perimerrt has shown that with insufficient purity of the initial material it is easy to aosept 5 temblanee of oonversion of one speeders into another as a reality. On the whole our experiments on changes of spring crops into winter, which were conducted with twenty varieties that belonged to eight species of cereals, have shown that this question is not as easily solved as it seemed judging front the published 'fforks. The obtained experimental data do not correspond to directions of Academician?. D. Lysenko. The oonducted works have shown that with a careful preparation of the initial material by means of selection and *hooking of selected plants by the offspring we aid not succeed in obtaining not only any changes of morphologisal properties, but also any Parked shift in the direction of acquiring the property of winterhardinest. Case should point out that if during the first year of work we did not remove all admixtures from the initial mattirial, in particular of the winter soft wheat,then we wou.1d have before us a subleases of Roonv. Tilton" of some species into others, and Persian wheat *would be changed" in our experiments into soft, the hard into soft and into spelt, and the ramose wheat into soft wheat and barley, and so on. Some amy object stating that during the sours* of the whole 7 years we did not have a complex of such conditions which contribute to the origin"u. tiort of sharp ebonies. Indeed, most of the vri ntors under oondttions of the Idtikop Station were favorable for overwintering of spring cultures. Yet, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (19) Trans. A?988 3 winters (1949/50, 1953/54 &nd 1955/58) were severe en and sauced the loss or a groat nuiber or spring crop plants and even of winter *rope Bo., sides this the fractional dates of plantings every S days during the course of 3 Menthe, which during the ?Curse of 3 years -were conducted at two points, also formed a very great variety of conditions. Bore too one should add the repeated plantings during the course of 4 years at the Kann Experimental Station, and 3 of these years were characterized by extremoly severe weather conditions, (Begin p.591 when most plants of spring crops were list. Material of different dates of plantings was also Nowt for 2 years under mountain conditions &t an altitude of 1,300 ts (laborda) and in Leningrad oblast'. To this should be added that since 1952 the export. *Ants were cendueted according to the specific method of the Academician T. D. Lysenko, as well as to remember those experiments which durinv 7 years were conduoted in the oity of Irasnodar according to a complex scheme, whish also included variants of plantings, that were recommended by Abadomician T. D. Lysenko. And yet mot in a single case did we have one authentic tact of mutability Ilcapualke -variability] of morphological or biological properties of plants. Taking into consideration that we tested 20 varieties of most diverse origins, from southern to northern, which belonged to different ecotypes, we must mike a conclusion that the possibility or mutations [leap-like changes] and *oonversions" of species ift,our esparto mints was not confirmed and the proposed methodical directions did not justify themselves in this respect. In contrast to the oondlusiors of Academician T. D. tysonko and ot Other authors, which think that it is easier to change a typioally snring form into a winter one, than to increase the winterhardiness of the winter crop, our experiments have shown quite opposite restates we have obtained Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (20) Trans. 4t.986 n marked shift In the incroeSe of winterhardiness first of all in the eomi. winter hard wheat Arandanys after that in a somewhat 'mailer degree these differences appeared in the medium variety Gordeiforme 10 one had no shifts in direotion of winterhardiness in ear/I...ripening varieties of southern origin, such ai Mellanopus 69, Ihoranka 710, Persian wheat, spelt and .others. 7f1 it reality, the propertrofwinterhardinees arieis gradually, accumulating from generation to generation under conditions of constantly :actineiseleotion in this direction, then it becomes apparent that all forme, in the first place late?ripening, thee eeti.winter crepe and the slightl7. winterhardy represent gradual stages of this evolution of winterhardineas. That is why it is easier to obtain a real winter form from a semi-winter and it lakes less time to inorease winterhardiness in the already available winter orop, than to take for this purpose sprint and nenwelnterhardy varieties. In this rsspeot there already exists a rich experience of th. whole selection work where, for the formation. of winterhardy varieties, the availeble winter-hardy fermi . either wild mr cultivated were always need as initial material. Oar experience has also shush that without a preliminary selection of plants in the initial material and *Making of their Offspring One cannot have a guarantee of nee appearance in the experimental material of amyadmixtures, and in'ary amount. Appearance of single plants of other genera, epeeisha or varieties, after all the preoantions were taken, taco cannot serve as proof of mutability of species. A proof for this last one can be only the appearance of those conditions, which recolarly every time will ?ease one and the same variability. At the present *tags the ap Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (El) Trans. A4.986 pentane* of unusual forms in the population can only serve as a'reason. .for conducting a eerie, of repeated oxperinents in order to cheek this ftot and for detesting ermine conditions whieh cause suoh a vtritbility. LITFAATuRR Bartov P. A. (1953): About ipeoies" formation. Botanicheskil Mures).* 6. ? VeseloV, V. N. (1951). Obttining winter ranose wheat. Aro? ? biol., 6.. Vatehishon, N. V.-(1951). Chtnge of soft wheat into hard. Agrobiology, 5. Olinianyi, N. P. (1951). Ixperieents on horeditgry'ohange of spring wheat into winter wheat. AgrobLo1og. 5. ? Doltushin, D. A. (1953). EmpOritiont on obtaining rye from oat plants. ,Agrobiolog. 6. ? Enohev,"11.- (1966). Influence of fall-winter condition* on the formation tBegin p.503. ? and spoolest formation of nonwinterhatey-orops in spring-oereals. Arai. . bioleg., 3.- garubailo, T. Ia. and AL U. Kielipk (1963). Reaction by negative temperatures on tho states-of vernaliation'as'a factor in form? producing processes. Agrobiolog. ? are.petiaft, V. K. (1946). Chant,* Of the natdre of bard wheat* into soft. Agrobiolog., 4. . Inrapotian. V. K. ' (19501). Exporinontal generation of soft'wheats from hard. Trudy Institut& Oesotiki, 1. ? 1nrepstitn, V. I. (1950b). New data on direoted varilbilitY of hard wheat to soft by an. of nearwinter planting and foots about ?oh? version of wheat into rye. Trudy Institut& Genotiki, /6. ? Iarapetian, V.K. (1962). Sono new flats about'convorsion of *peel** in aerials. Agrobiolog., 2. . Kollteora, 2.A. (1060): Clang, in herodity of spring *boat Milturum 32/. Agroblolog.; 2. * Amok?, T. D. (1946). Selection and theory of phasic) , ? development. Collection mAgrobiologiiaft. /mink?, T. D. (19521). Coprver? sten of noftsinterhardy spring varieties into wintorhardy winter crops. Agrobiolog., 4. ?lesenkoe T. D. (1952b). Some advice, to *suborn Of kol? ?'khoses mar NOSOOW?. Agrobiolog., 1. 4. Mkrtoinitaioa, K. I. (1950). ?at- .t5on or varieue'forsm of wild oats from cultivated oats. Agrobiolog., ? 4. ? MloRrov, S. V.(1053). About species" forettion in wheat. Agrobiolog., ? 2. Abrozovs P. V. (1953). Faets about regeneration of ramose Xakhetinekaia wheat. Agrobiolog., 2. . Metrenke, T. O. (1963): Sharaotoristio Of the fifth generation of wheat, whioh *as chanted from spring crop to winter. Aro- biolog., 4. ? Novikov, V. A. (1953). Some peouliotrities of phasio-develop? moat of pltnte and fotnation of new for in cereals. Agrobiolog., 4. ? Remelt), V. N. (1964). Faote-of the appearano* of other'speoies in plantings ? of ramose wheat. Agrobiolog., 6. ftripshinskii, V. V. (1955). Conversion of winter oeroals into spring and of spring Cereals into winterin the litht of Chafles Darwin's teachings. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 1. ? Solovel, 0: T. (1949). About winterhardiness of barley Pa11idunk32, changed into a *Inter ? crop. &usher' tray Vsesolustiogo solektsionao?genetichsskogo Institut" (Scientific Works of the AU-Union Xxporimental Sovietise Institute). ? Tarakanov, K. N. (1930. Dovelopment of plants of hard wheat'uader unusual circumstances. Agrobiolog. 4. . Ter?Avanesian, D. V. (1964). New facts ' ? about form develogiont and fotpation of softies in wheat. Doklady VAZWIT.L. 2. ? Trukhinova, A. T. (1950). Direction of mutability of spring wheat Milqurum 321 to winter wheat under conditions of Siberia and Sodthern Orals. Trudy Institute. OenetikiAN SSSR, 16. ? Trukhinova, A. T. (1952). Now data Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (22) Trans. A.986 about mutability of spring wheat lititturues 321 to *inter wheat. Trudy Institut"' 0?netiki AN SSSR, 19. ? Trukhinowa, A. T. (1931). important:0e - of dates of planting When *hafting spring wheat into winter. Agrebiolog. 1. I. Filimoness, T. 0. (1963). Change of Spring wheat MIlituruse $21 into winter. Agrobiolog., 3. ? Elite/oak/34 V. F. (1950). 'Change in heredity of spring wheat. Agrobiolog., 2. - V. V. (1954). Direeted shame of heredity of spring wheat into winter. Agrobielogs, 1. 4, nob'lov, S. S. (1964). *Something new in science about the biolegtoal species *and agricultural practise. Betanieheskii Unreal, a. Tsvetkoy? I. Es (1952). Training the spring crops in winterhardinses. Agrehioloc., 4. Shivonskii, it; 1C. (1949). Change of spring wheat Rritrospermum 1180 into a winter crop: Nimohnye Trudy Vsesoiusnogo) Selskisionno- Genetim. oheskoge institute'. Taktabteiner, LL (1962). Interials on the question of findine, rye craili$ in wheat spikes. Agrobiolog., 4. 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t. Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1,au AULA1 vg/f1 ,Ignatovich, Z. A., and Olenleva, 0 primenonii ulltrafioletovoi radiatsii . . dlia sterilizatsii-nekotarykh Ob"ektov na pishohevem proizvodstve. (About the utilization of ultraviolet radiation .for sterilization of certain objects in food industry). Vopfosy Pitaniia, vol. 14, no. 1, p:39.44. Jan.-Feb. 1955. 389.8 V89 (In Russian), ? With the development of the technique of Construction of apparatus :for artifleial ultraviolet radiation maoy experimental observation' have been acqumulated about their utilization. Ultraviolet rays have been. used for sterilizing the air, water, environment and for affecting men (N. P. Galanin, N. N. Dantsig, 19500.. I. Ate, 1950; G. N. Frank, 1939, A. L_Shafir, 1961, and others). Yet the wide praetical use of artificial ultraviolet radiation was begun only lately; it began to be used for disinfection of air in children's and medical institutions, as well as for the purpose of sterilization of certain food products. I. A. Golovkin noticed that, after a daily irradia. tion of sausages, the preservation of full high quality continued during the course of 24 days while the control pieces were covered with mould and slime already on the llth day. Neat quarters, according to data of the same author, were preserved for 18days after daily irradlat/Ons while the control specimens kept well only 8 days. ngra s r nauc no elan tarno.gigienicheskii institut (Leningrad Soientifio4esearoh Sanitary4lygieni0 Institute). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .LhUS UI Before us a problem was raised to find out the possibility of utilizing ultraviolet radiation for the sterilization of certain objects in fish canning industry. Considering the demands of the industry, we took the following objects. a ve6etable oil, which was utilized for the preparation of eanned fish, smoked sprats (intermediate products for canned. sprats). the Surface of the equipment and the workers' hands. Irradiation we conduoted with baeterieidal lamps of 15 11 oapsuity, which proved to be the most effective in their sterilizing effect. A line with the length of the wave 253.7 m *enters into the ultraviolet spectrum of these lamps-, which produced the maxissua bactericidal effect. Irradiation of fate is used widely for the obtaining of vitamin D. Sterilisation of fats by ultraviolet rays was not utilized in practice be. cause intensive irradiation of aniMal fat* cause, their oxidation and changes the flavor (G. N. Frank, 1939.A. V. Roister, 1962, and others). After oonducting experiments on irradiation of vegetable oil it became clear that for a sterilizing effect the thickness of the layer of oil, the exposure (from 10 minutes to 1 hour), maseiveness of microbe seedings and the state of rest or movement of the irradiated oil were of 'importance. tBegin p.40). according to literary data (N. F. Calanin? 1952; G. M. Frank, 1939i M. 0. Niohenko, 1950, and others), the bactericidal part of the spectrum of ultraviolet rays penetrates liquid opaque media to an insigni. fioant depth, we began irradiating with, a layer 04 mm thick and further on proseeded to 1, 2, 4 and 5 mm. The work mat conduoted with sunflower oil, which is used for the preparation of canned fish. The distance from the source of irradiation was always equal to 20 cm. Before irradiation the oil was inoculated with one of the followinF, microorganisms. staphylococcus, intestinal, and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to I ? 4rmsime eporogenous bacilli (of mesenterieue type, consisting of spores up to 9(%) and the Aspergillus fungus. In all, GO series of exp. erimente wore cionduisted on the irradiation of oil. A noticeable effect, in resard to oil Which was at rest, sti.. peered after irradiation of ,an oil layer 1 sms thick and less, and, basioally, depended on the' length of the exposure and degree of seeding of oil. We present, as an example, ,data on irradiation olt oil, infao?ted with Ctsphylcoocei (table 1). I .Table 1. Dependence of' the sterilising effect of irradiAtion with ultraviolet lamps of sunflower.. oil (without stirring), which wag inoculated with staplwloft .c000i, on the length of exposure and on the degree of seeding Number of microbes in txposure Number at microinve in a drop of oil a. drop of ail before . (in min) in'a layer (in irradiation 0.6 1 . 2 8,900 30 ar- O-----TT1M- 130 . 30 2 - TO 125 ' 26 ? 50 0 0 26 5,300 60 160 BOO 2,700 112 $0 0 4 47 We also utilized irradiation of oil, which was in motion, in order' to inorease the bacterioidal effect, considering that, thus, the upper layer, which was affected by ultraviolet re:ysi, would change constantly ? (table 2.); Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.987 Table 2. ' Difference in bactericidal culatmd with etaRhylocoeci? effect of irradiation of sunflUwer oil, inc. depending on the state of oil. Number of microbes in ,The -state The thickness of Number of micrchecin a drep a drop of oil before of oil the irradiated of oil after irradiation with irradiation layer of oil and enesursi(in min. 1____ ? (ins) 20 30 tens of thousand ? ? ? .Thouiands Rest, Movement Rest 2 2 litliout change Thousands 560 Thousands 640 240 Movement 2 200 40 ' 1,200- Rest 2 620 440 i,200 :Movement 2 . 50 7 640 ' Rest 2 140 120 640, Movement ' 11 5 It becaile apparent, as a result of these experiments, that the movement Sharply inereased the baoterieidal effeot .0 this gave a possibility to decrease the length.of exposure of irradiation of ai to 20 minutes. L5e8in 0,41]. . The rapists:toe of various species of baoteria to ultraviolet rays ie ,dissimilar. B. colt die very quiok1y in the irradiated oils the stapbylo. coda die almost just as fast/ bacterial spores are more resistant. ? It use ascertained, that nonsporalmicroflora disappeared altopther during the course of the first 24 hours of keeping. In the nonitradiated oil (oontra) dying off of introduced microbes took place oleo but condi.i derably plower (in- the course of one month and longer). In order te explain the cause of dying off of the remaining miorobed, experiments were con-' ducted by inoculating the oil after irradiation.. 0)4e:ovations have shown that microbes introduced into the oil after its irradiation died as quickly as the remaining irradiated ones (table 3). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. AA.987 ? Table 3. 000cct in oil inoculated after irradiation __,___.__,_ State of oil w SUIher of microbes , ' The number of miorobos oil after inoculati in 4 drop of n in Sin hours) right after inoculation 24 30 48 72 120 160 Inoculated after ix'. radiation . 480 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 Inoculated 7 days . after irradiation. , 1,100 640 0 .0 0 0 0 ' Nonirradiated . 220 200 200, 85 36 39 24 ' LA. Oolovkin and T. B. Chishov (1951) point out that irradiated products acquire bactericidal properties and, after their second seeding with baoteria and storitigo_they show, ins reseeding two times less microbes than the control specimens. After irradiation during the course of 20.60 minutes,' the oil ' changed someehat in it* organoleptio propertieis there appeared a eli.tht tist* and smell Of an aging oil, canned fish, prepared with irradiated 011 did not differ 'in their organoleptio properties from the control specimens. According to deta of?. I..Ukhtommkaia iodine and acidic number ()hanged in Oil only after prolonged irradiation (not loss than one hour), stereal the peroxide nueber increased even after a 20 minute exposure. The next step in our work .mas the irradiation of emoked sprats in order to prolong the period of their preservation. According to oondi. tions of production we could cOnduot oni$a single, short (3 minute) irradiation. An inereese of 2.3 days was noted in the time of preservation of smoked sprats, when compared with the nonirradiated. 'For experiment* on sterilization of tate and of workbenches, we took wooden planks, with a slight reughnesei, and galvanized iron. The tested surface Was oontaminated Intik Wm= with one of the cultures Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trants? A-987 Q. 222.10 staphylococci, rassentericus spores and mould spores) before irradiations. Irradiation was conducted at a .dietaries of 20 cm from the ob.. jeotip It was ascertained that the sterilizing effect depended on the charaoter of the waterial, of the xaseivehoss of seeding and species of micro.. organism. When irradiating galvanised iron full sterility of its surface was achieved- in 10..20 seconds after seedings With nonsporogenous and vegetative tar of microbes and in 1-3 minutes after seeding with mould spores (table 4). Somewhat different results were observed when sterilizing wooden surfaces. Unevenness and roughness of the irradiated turret)* protected the microbe cell from the destruotive motion of.baotericidal rays: (Text continued after tables). (Begin p.421. . Table 4. Bactericidal effect of irradiation of galvanised iron, contaminated with microbes Number of microbes Number of microbes on the imprint after irradiation at an e:zposure of on the imprint be.. 10 I 20 1 30 1 11.5 1' 1 3 15 I 10 fore irradiation Seconds minutes latelive 'growth Difficult to count 2,000 539 Mkssive growth 1,750 700 Difficult to count 1,900 400 ? 1,050 280 160 140 120 34 13 120 56 14 10 200 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 B. ooli Staphyloc000i Mould . 41, 114 4D 700 -90 25 18 4 DO 14 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (7) Trans. 4.987 Table 5 Bactericidal effect: of irradiation ef a weeden plank, dentamioated with mioroor nissm limber of miorcifies on the imprint be. fore irradiation Ler of-mistobes on the i int-after exposure (in min. _ 0.5 _ . 1 ' 1.5 2 ' 3 _ 6 I 8 _ 10 12 16 Missive growth , 6,226 5,600 700 1,500 190 120 11 ? Massive zpomth. 5,260 6,700 ' 240 1,030 109 4.1 ? 30 3 ? Zlissive growth Difficult to count _1,400 350 . ?Missive ,growth ? Difficult to.c.ount 4,200 ? 700 Staphyl000cci 1,200 700 375 220 -88 , 42 0 0 .420 200 87 '19 is 160 98 24 4 38 0 0 ? 0 0 B. toll 1,1: . 150 1 140 1 29 11 6 1 2 r . o o . Sporogenous rod Mice iv* 6,060 Growth 850 140 140 25 18 12 14,210 8,500 420 170 2,500 60 .7 2 1400 44 4 6 Mould 2,600 1,050 210 ' 51 2,050 875 144 41 1,400 725 626 620- 155 ? 65 104. 85 40 ? 45 -27 18 10 " 1 [Begin P.451 The wooden surfaces, irradiated by us, which were freed from-all visible impurities, had a slight roughness, usual-for the tare .(boxes) or for plahks on the workbenohoo. Their sterility was attained mueh slower than that Of instal surfaces.' The majority of microbes (85.9%) died durinc the firat 50 seoonds, but the remaining number of them died .off slowly-. duriv3 the course of 15 minutes and more from the moment of irradiation, dependina on the?smssivenese of needing and the species of microbes (table 5). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (a) Trans. A-987 And in the experiments- under consideration B. poll and Staphylococci proved to be the least retistant. The sporee of moulde were far more* resistants after a heavy seeding of 4 wooden surface with them full Sterility was tot achieved even after an hour' s irradiation, although .05% of tells died during the first minute. When& sodden surface was visibly soiled the nutber of perished B. coli and Staphylococci on it came up to not more than 75% after irradiation during the first 30 seconds, whilo under, the same circumstances, up to 915% of microbes died off on a clean plank. Data, obtained by ui? were sufficiently conVinoing, and this method , can be recommended for sterilisation of tare, of workbenches and.equipmont of the food industry. ? . - There is information in literature that short wave ultraviolet rays are practically harmless tothe skin (G. K. Frank, 1939; Meler?.14... Eeitts, 1952). We decided to use ultravidlet irradiation on the skin of bands. Before irradiation we oontaminated the skin of the hands with microbes (Staphylococoi and B. colt), OW hand was irradiated and the other served for comparison. Irradiation was conducted at a distance of 5 =with two bactericidal lave, equipped with hoods (in order to prevent irritation, of eyes), during the course of 1,2 and 3 minutes. Doses taken for ceedings Were known to be great. Death of microbes during the firat minute of irradiation comprised ,00.90')g (table 6). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , (9) ' Trans, A..967 Baoterioidal effect Exposure tin 1 2 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Table 6 0 irradiation of-handoi contaminated with Staphylococci and B. colt I*ober of miorobes ol_th!_isjaint of ttejialia of hand ? Before irradtaY155----] After irradiation Stayhyl00000l 400 ? 400. 400 160 1,60 W B. coli -O41.1???????????00. Massive groTith 260 198 100 100 80 15 40 26, ? 61 40 6 10 i When the seeding is small,,such as usually takes place after washing e . the hands with soap, Onp,minutA irradiation will be virtually quite aut.. fioient. Experiments, conducted along with the above, on disinfeoting the hands using ehlorine water have shown tleat this method does not give better reSults ' when compared with irradiation, and in certain eases is even less effective. Besides this [Begin p.44] the use of chlorine water requireasystematio oon. , trol for its oorrect concentration, not to mention the unpleasant smell after washing tho hands with chlorine water and possible irritation of the skin: Before introducinc this 'method into practice it is necessary to eon - duct a longer Observation of irradiation of hands with bactericidal 141100 under conditions .of production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (10) Trans. A.987 Conclusions 1. Sterilization of vegetable oil by ultraviolet rays gives a positive effect only when irradiating a moving layer not more than 0.6 om high. Nonsporal flora (B. colt, staphylococci) are less resistant during irradiation of oil, than the bacterial spores. 2. The irradiated oil acquires baoterioidal properties and the micro.. flora remaining after irradiation in any amount perishes during the first 24.0hour day. But the. irradiated Oil acquires a weakly expreseed taste and smell of an aging oil. 3. Irrodiation with bacterioidal lamps of metal aid weed curfaces produces a great bactericidal effect and 0041 be recommended as a quick method for decontamination of tare, workbenobes and other Objects of .equip Mat. 4. The length of exposure, the oharaoter of the material its visible soiling MASI4V00688 of the seeding with microbes and their speoies, in0 fluenoe the bactericidal effect during irradiation of surfaces. 6. Irradiation of oonteminated hands with bactericidal lamps during the course of one minute is just as effective in deoontamination as washing the hands in chlorine water. LIVRA'TURE Galanin? Br. F., Radiant energy and its hygienic value, L., 1962, - Golovkin, I, A., Refrigerating engineering, 1950, to. 1. . Golovkin, I. A. and Chishov, T. B., Refrigerating technology of foodstuffs, Plehehepromiz. dat, L, 1951. . Dantsig, lc 16, in the book: Ultraviolet radiation and hygiene, X, 1950 ? p.86.47. Kichenko? M. G., Goeva, 0. G. and Kichenko, N. G., in the same book, p.97.107. ?Mtn, L. I., in the same book, p.116.121.' Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A.987 Meier. A. and Zeitts, ?.? Ultraviolet radiation, If. 1952. Reisler, A. V., Nutrition hygiene, M. 1952. Turzhetskii, K. I., Giglina i sanitariia, 1949, no. 4# p.31-34. - Frank, G. M., In the books Collection of works on bioloeical aotion of ultravi,-)let rays. Most., 1939, p.105416. Shafir, A, T. and Noroshkina, V. V., Aerogenic infectious diseases and methods for their prevention, L. 1., 1951. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A.988 (In full) wrin Wretha"ians G. Y. ?DI N? unhetInc;0 soveta sekto.ra sashchity restenii Ar.tionskoi redaktsiiu "Botaricheskozo Zhurnabt". (letter of iho tioientific Council of the Department of Plant Protection of the Academy of Safeness of the AlTenianfISP to the editor of the "Botanioal Journael. Bat. ?Ayr. (Amkwal, vol. 43, no. 1, p.156.157. Jan. 1958. 451 R923, (In Russian) The rcientific Coulson of the Npartment or Ple.nt Protection of the Aoademy of Solonnes of the Armenian SSR discussed the critical rsenoraneuni of P. N. Golowin [Trans. A.792), which 111141 printed in the "Dotanico.1 Jourrul", no. 1, 1950, ahout the *Viola of the Senior Scientific Co-worker of he Depertnent, 14. A. .1khitarian, "On the werial-ilit:), of species of rust of cereals", which was :ublished in ersvestiia of Acadeeof of goience of Armenian :ISE" (vol. 5, no. 12, 1952, p.13.18), and found it necessary to express its opinion about same of the questions touched upon there. The basic motive, which prompted P. Golowit to criticize "Idiiistrian's article, is, apparently, a difference in the koints of view of Likhitarian and Colovin concerning the same problems (wariatility of rust species, role of the intermediate host, ad' others). :4everthelesa, as it seems to us, this does not Jve any rii.,ht to Po R. Golowin to come fonsard with sixth a clearly biased ariticisia. thin oircuratance in view, the Scientific Counoil thoui:sht it to he its duty to an explanatIon c reilards some nt the questions tquolled Sektor ?anhchity Pastenil A4 Aim Ire.-Artinenf i!" itProtvotio,-, or the otiti Inc' of sciences ef the Arreenian Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (2) Ts.ara? A.988 ? upon In The ?fte.,torrIn?..t.e'.! of 1' Go]. win. nrhitarian has been evrkinr, in the tepertztent of Plant k?'rotec. tam Pince 19345 anti duri.ry this thee he shiwted himself to e a stoeest -:orker, who is fir removed from a tendency to nake "discoveries" in sc'enoe. Tho Scientific) Counoil, who is well acquainted 1414..ia the !cathode of work of V. A. ISchitarian, Irnews that all his conclusions were rade on the baste faotual raaterial, which was anetraklated by him eurint; the course of 22 ytiare? The baste .omissiort or MIthitarian -vet be considered to be that he did not describe In his article methods of' his field and laboratory eNyorinente par* tally; i'ut this lroce ?gutted by the nece?sity to limit ...itaseif to t1to frame of it Jour nut artinie, which was too rArrow or the naterial that he had to present. Alithiteirlanst experi11ent/5 of several years, standinc, as well us observa- tions, led to a coeoli.Ision about the absence of sexual reproduction in rust tIngi of wheat, and, in particul246, itt yellow rust. Cortoerninc the qoastioe? as to what veee ies of rust on 1-rberry.. lichitarian with.one, can say the following. Phytopathelo:iste of Armenia know, void this is. also mentioned in the monograph. of 'O. Teterev. nilreva.Babaian "Rost Parasites of Celtivatad pow, vild Plante of the Avoenlan .r.;51t't (1952), that on barberry there is only one species or r?st Pucoini& Framinie under oonditions of the Armenian r7R; therefore, the accusation at P. Colon, that tichitarian ,:ay have workecl. with another species or rest, is incorrect, and the doubts, hioh he developed in oonnection with this, were unfounded. Tn his article, PillOtitarian expressed art opitann that the aeoloapores of barberry "ior the Malt 'art" infect the leaves of hafberry itselfi that ix, they rarely "nfect the cereals. This detriantltrata:,, that the intermedirte hosts Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. 10980 , do not play an$ special rote in the cycle or development of species of rusts of cereals: But, as it follows from Mkhitarianis data, he also atioceeded to infect Cereals with seciospores of the barberry rust; this then again confirms that the rust on barberry in Puccinia praskinis, and not some other speoies, and that P..craninia under conditions of Armenian CSR had I winter.. ins mycelium. It seem to us that facts, which wire established under certain coo.. logical conditions (the presence on barberry of five !peels* of rust and the absence in P. Draminis of the wintering frimelium), cannot be, trans.. 4 ? forred to other localities, as it is known, that changes in the environment bring about ?biological changes in living organisms. The Scientifie Commit, on the "basis of extensive-data', which existed in reports on this 'problem, know, well that likhits.rian hai? demonstrated by hie numerous experiments and,.in the course of 20 years, annually confirmed by his observations, that on wheat the rust has a full. cycle of dcrvnlopment and can develop without an intermediate host. Besides this, he also demonm strated, and the later experiments and observations confirmed it, that on barberry, without being transferred to cereal's, rust also (sovietsu the cycle of its drvelopment. Thus, the doubts of Golovin in this viable"' are Uri. founded. Besides that, one has to -take into consideration, that Nthitarian does not exclude the well..knorn feet of passing over [Begin p.157) of *built from barberry to wheat and back, but he considers that this pbbnomenon is ? only of secondary importance under coalitions of Armenia. Concerning the question about the conversion of P. sraminie to P. tritioina and of this last one to P. glumarwo and vice versa,. one should say that the opinion of the author was built on the basis of results of numerous experi? cents, which were conduoted under isolator's, with the observance of accurate Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A?988 methods for the course of many years. He took the infectious material from one rust pastule and even infected with one spore, this, in our opinion, is sufficient in order to consider the methods convinoing, and the results acourate. On the basis of research by the author, a serious question arises haw to treat the established phenomena' to apoopt the representattion, available in actemetioa, about the existenee of three species of rust and to think, that they can pass over from one to another with a 'hens* in the conditions of existenoe, or should one revise the systematise of these three rust fungi and to consider that there exists but one species of rust, which assumes one or another tom depending on various condition, of existence. The Salentine Council finds, as Golovin himself pointed it out, that the question, set up by Aft/tartan, was one of the most complioated and, at the same tine, is an espeeially interesting and important problem of modern biolomel therefore, ell the materials, AL:oh pertein to its solving, must be eluoidated in the modern seientific press even in that ease if they were solved by a somewhaiodifferent interpretation, which is contrary to the firmly established opinions of the authorities, this then explains why this article was published in the "Isvestia" of the Academy of Saience of the Armenian SSE; it is desirable, that more data be printed conserninc this question. We think it appropirate to mention, that no matter how high an authority P. N. Golovin is, nevertheless, when oritieising scientific works, he should use expressions which are more fitting in suoh cases, Besides that, it is surprising that e. N. Golovin same oat with his criticism 4 years after 111 Vkhiteriaftes artiole.was published. le request to include the reply of the Scientific Council on the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. 110.988. CritiOai 'TWATOOreervitOri of P. N. tiolovin about the article of 11. Alchitarian "an the var1wei1it7 of species of rust of cereals" in one of the next losueo of your journal. Received Jbly 10, 1956. Bele also trarelatlon no. Jho.959 "Reply or tht Vonmittee of the AVooloi.joal aection of the All-!inion Botanical L'ociet:e. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Mang ? b... u (tn vg/V Bondertsev, A. 5., Rashevskalas V. F., Stepanova, K. i., 1c1 Khokhrlakov, V. X. ?toot komissii ulkologicheekol sektsil vsesoloznogo totanicheskivo ohshohestva. tReply of the Committee of the WooloLical Seotion of the All:Inter llotaftitsal Society]. Bot. Mar. Elloskval, vol. 43, no. 1, p.167.158. Jan. 11158. 451 R923 (In Russian) At the request of the editor of the "Potanleal Journal", the Woo. logical Seotion of the A11.11nion Hotanica/ Society at its 140th session ? on January 26, 1967, after a careful acquaintance with the letter qf the Scientific Council of the Pepartment of Plant Protection of the Acacia:xi of Paieness of the Armenian VSR, in connection aith the criticism by Professor P. N. Golovin of the artiole of I. A. Ykhitarian "On the verla? bility of species of rust of cereals", has formed a competent committee, which was entrustee with ownpilinc a reply to this letter. At the 141st session, on February 15, 1957, the Rycolotioal Sootion of the All.Union Botanical Society discussed the corclusion, whiell was drawn up ty the omomittee one is asking the e'itorts office of the "Hoteoli. cal Journal" to 'littlish it as the reply of the Ircologicol Section to the cited letter of the Scientific Council of the lepartment of Plant Pro. 'Notion or the AouloMV of selence of the Armenian SSR. The text cll. the Committee's conclusions is cited below* "The comittee, after famillarisint: itself with all the data (00 !II cited article, its review o-d letter), 0,InsiOera that each researcher 1.:as a ri:ht to his ofol opiticf,or ay -roblem. But if this point of rLew Is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A0989 brought to the icneral latowledge without any proper grounds and eonvinoing proofs for others, then this tves the right to other researchers to ex. press their discontent or to speak out critioal remarks. aL A Ukhitarian, in his article, e.drumess the following erroneous ideas, 1) sexual prooess is in general absent in rust fungi; Oasoiospores of the stem rust of ()tweeds cannot infect cereals, in eonneotion with this the nooldial 'tag, of rust on barberry is an independent speoles, end the uredio 4.. and teliestages are another speoles, whieh aro not connested with barberry; and 3)the atom, brown 11041 and yell," lei:ripe) rusts of cereals are for of existence of one species and, depending on oonditions, are converted one to another. The Committee thinks, that even if one takes into eonsideration the tonal specificity during development of rust fungi, all these ideas are the result of M. A. Anthitarianos fallaey iii connection with his insufficient knowledge of immulmble facto. We admit thet under oonditions of Armenia, as In oortain other sone* of the Soviet Oxiort, all the cited species of rust fungi develop on cereals, bypassing the secidiel hosts, that is they are in a diploid state. This first of 11 refers to 'stripe rust. (Bein p.1581 Veverthelsee, it would be incorrect to emk.e from here a *mansion about a full absence of the sexual proem in these ftngi, especially in the stem and leaf rust, limier conditiont of oortsin regions of Soviet Union the role of an intermediate ,'?host is indisputable. It is known, for instanoe, that under the condition of Pastern Siberia, where plantings of winter wheat aro absent and on Whish the brown rust could overwintar in the uroostage, it is annually restored through an aesidial host eleshohitsa" (!eptepyrust ?furioid.ip) Li, hichitarian, for erne incorprehensible Teasers disregards the data, that a sexual process ?court during the development of rust on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. twek-14 aooidial hosts; this fast is known as a result of olaetical researeh of L. I. Rursanov and of foreignscientiste keedshi [Craigie], Allen, Stackman Brown Cotter. This was also cOnfirCed by the results of careful investi. gatisms of the Aspirant, I. A. Shifman, accomplished by him at the labors. . tory ,f mycology int Professor A. A. Xiohovskil at VIZR tAll.Onton Scientific Research institute for the Proteotion of Plants] in recent years on sexual hybridisation of forme of bro4nat of wheat, cough grows, brace grass and other cereals, with the development of wholly viral* fungiwhich were, in solo canoe, more pathogsaic in referonde to *heat, than the initial parent forme. Thus, a denial of a sexual process in rust ti, which infect cereals, must be recognized as ineompetent. "On the question of inability of aesiosperes from barberry to trop 'feet cereals. L A. Mkhitarian should have had in view that Pueeinia pygmawa Erika., P. arrhenatheri Erika., and other species form their own aecidia on barberry, at well as the tact that P. paminis? as it is known, omelets of many speeialised forme, among which some Gannet infest cereal4Iants, although they develop their aecidia on barberry; such arms f. op. Agresti*, f. sp. fmae, f.,sp. aperae, f. sp arrhenatheri, and others. Meanehile, as it is seen from the article, M. A. likhitarian did not conduct any biological analyses of secioepores for their belonging precisely to the specialised for of P. sraminis, which infect cereal plants. 'Referenee of the Scientific, Council or the Departewet of Plan Pro- tisotion_to the work of isterevnlkova-Sabalan in this case *genet serve as a proof. Mkhitarian did not take the trouble to explain how he treated the data of foreign and Russian researchers, who many times experixmatally have established a direst connection of rust on barberry with rust on wheat, Apparently, K. A. WhilAriAn did not conduct experiments on infecting Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) ? Trans. 41.959 barberry lie.0 alciospores? beoeuse in hie article there ere no data Obovt the fate or those aecioepores, us well es on what kinds of ?pore bearcre ? arise on bee-bor. - If they really are able to lefect it. Therefore, the affirmation oe 71thitarien about the presenee in thie case of two speolee of rust elite is beneath criticism. . "Concerniee the conversion of species of rust to other op.:Omni-this question, fray,* our point of view, in general. is beyond discussion beeaus0 ? it is stated by !Ikhitareamwithout indicating the methods of research or :ley experimental data. The drawings of ure4mpore1? which he brought forward, as a proof of his idea, are so oarelesely executed that it is impoesible tp i ? judge al:out the belengine of uredosporee of even the Initial forme tO ore or another species, eeenehile, it Is keowe that, for'instarioe, ureilepores A of P. eramAhis are eaeily distinguished accordinc to the exceedizoly characteristic equatorial bulging in the capsule. Incidental/y, aocto spores of P. Examinis a/at:care eastly distitguished from aeoionporee of other species of rust, which infect barberry, by the .bolgine of the capsule at the crown of the spore. "Evaluatinz the article of V* A. Mkhitarian as a whole, the Corti.ttee must comply with the essence of the basics ideas of the criticism of ]re- . teaser P. N. Colovin. The matter here is, ?of' course not ir the form, bet in the contents. Therefore, we consider to be biased not the review or Professor Golovie, hit the letter of the Soientifio Council of the tepee>. sent of Plant Preteotion of the Armenien R, who, eithout looking into the essence er the questions towhee upon, took under protection the er? roneous etatement of Akhitariae? and as a basis for their opinioe elmply repeat these erroneous statements in their letter. The reference thee Nkhitariat could not 'elucidate the methods of his research more fully on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Vol .1. rains ? is. uwir 411 account of tho brief longth of the article is not oonvinoin, sines instead of doseribing the methods he proferred to make unfounded attack* for the spa** Of mom then two pages on I, A. ammo", V. G. Transholt and other authorito. tiro resoarohors. It would hors boon far better, if the Soiontifio Council had provided Akhitarion in goed time with proper leadership in hio work end had given him the poosibility to publish the mothodioal port of his work in more detail. The insuffioiont know/lotto of 116 A. Mkhitarian in quostions about the variability of rust fungi is already seen from the list of the sited liters,. tun, that - . utilized, whish must be considered to be clearly insufficient. Weemvor, he did not utilise properly even the cited literature. "In conclusion it would be interesting to known who it was among the phytopithologisti?roviowors who permitted Whitarianos work to be published, and who among the phytopathelOgiste took part in the session (If the Council, which decided about the unfairness of the eritioism of Professor Golovin. "Pobruary 14, 1957, Leningrad". *Weaker* of the Committoos Doctor of Biolog. Goience A, A. Bondsrtoov, Candidate of /grie. Science V. F. Rashovsksia Candidate of Agri?. Soionoe K. M. Stepanov," Doctor of Biolog, Seionoe MO W. Khokhrialrov." Soo also Trans. A-9881 Latta' of the Scientific Council of the Dept. at Plant Protootion of the Load, of Soioneos of the Armenian Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. se0490 (In full) vg,t4r i3akhteev1 ?Xhi sostoiatil prepodavanila botaniki v srensti shkolee (On the siatns of teechini...; botany ln seoondITy schoo1s1i1) Bot. Zhure Nos)evel, vole 43, no. 1, 0.14R*153. Jane 1950e 461 R923. (In Russian) %family, the question about the :oroper trsinine, education, pre* paration for Irldependent social*productive activity of our deseendants, our children dir4.urbs us deeply. The Party, the 'Young Communist League, the Soviet organisations/ the specially formed Acsadetny of Peda60{10 Sciences of ? the RSF31-' have been always occupied with those problems and continue to ?oat/pied with them. Nevertheless, as practice shows it, the addition of specific aid of the soientifio Rosiety to the endeavors of the cited orianisa?ionn can in no way be re:rded as an undesirable phenomenon, as a hindrance. Father qui.te the opposites insufficient public attention to the oretnisation of education of our children helped, to a certain extent, in the s.ccumulation of ratrr scandalous ehorteamings in the teachinfr:;; or fundamentals of biolor,y in the secondary sehool, particularly of fundamentals or botany. The fact iteclf about the special discussion, at the present convention of the Allnirn (1) A report delivered on l'Ity i, 1967 to the Vnd neloget49 conference of the Botanical Society of the usp. Botanicheekii Thetitut ime V. Le Komarova A6demii. :/auk SSsR, ? (net&elearineAtute trnt V. L. KomarOV of he Aeadomy of sounoo of u7,rr. Leningrad le Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 iz) Trans. 4?990 Botanical Oooloty, of the report "On the statzis of teachinz botany in secondary ochoole" is unprecedented in the history of the Societies forty.year activity. At the requ.ost of rainy members of 11130 (All...Union Botanical CocieV) at ' the end of 1955 'the permanently acting Board on critical evaluation et textbooks and of school equipmont for higher institutes of learning was compelled to dicouss, oontrary to the formed custom, at one of Its open. eessions, the textbook of n I. Uslinikov "Fundamentals of 'Darwinism "for the secondary schools, and about a year later (Sovember 308.1066) the same Board discuesed the botanical textbook for the 6th and 6th ?lasso? by B. Ir's Vessviatskii, which is beica currently used. rihteriais of these disoussionz, thich Were conducted with the p4rtioipatioil of solentifie workers- biologists. methodists, teacihers, and other. interested persons. disclosed ? the existence of 'very serious defeotz in teachlpg of fundamentals or bla'., Logy in tho secoodarr 004001, ? The basic and main defect is rooted in the contents of comptanory programs on the futelamentals of bioloa, in the present case n tho contents of the program on botany. The eerious flaws of the school textbook on botany, which, as it in known, was compiled strictly according to the off iota]. program, approved by the Minietry of' rducationvare conneoted precisely to this. Under this 'brand" of botany the students are not beim,: taught the fundaMentals of botany as a theoretical base for fartaing, but mainly, at.d first of all, the applied problems of plant industry and agrotechnics. Under the banner of polyteohnicalising the school, the teaching of fundamental? of botany was transformed into the teaching of furidamentele of agriculttue with some elements of botany. The still intentifyinl tendency to agrortomise ? the school courie of botany is also reflected in the training of biolo,7.- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/241 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 teachers in ?podasogioal institutes where quite a cubstantial time is ?iven over to the scrcalled fundamentals of agriculture. which,inOlude agrotooh.... Ideal prObleme exclusively,- up to studying agricultural machinery, im- plementai anti so. on. V. I. Lenin said, as it is known, that a polyteChnical principle of instruetion requires wido general educations without the existence Of Ouch wide general training, without meeterint; the fUndarantels 'of.soignei, there also cannot be any effective .polytechnisalising. ?' Serious .defects In teaching botany to .students became so dangerous that graduates of secondary seitools have at best a very (simplified idea about botany,,which by no moans arouses in them either the interest te know the flora and vegetation surrounding them, or all the more, the wig!: to deepen the obtained knowledge by moans of independent reading of botanical tures organisation of excursions or in any other ways. Almost atl the participants of the sited oonferenses of tho Board [Begin p.1471 of V130 have pointed to a sharp fall in the interest of young people in botany and in nature in general, as well as to its intelligent protection. ' Stenographic: reports of discussions of the aboveamentioned textbooks were sent, at the proper time, to the higher organisations in Moscow, and their brief oontente were published in part in the *Botanical Journal* (1956# no, 15)? and will be again published there in part in the near future' (1)* Fortunately, these materials were not left without notice: at the end of January of the current Year the Aeademy of Pedagogic: Sciences of reTtql called a special Meeti:ng for a discussion of the question NPUndaritIlltalg of science. in the school course of biology", to which representative of V-130 (11 l?terials On dissuasions of the report of S. V. Vsesvis.tskii will be 'published in no. 8 of the "Botanical Journal" in 1937. (Sditoros note) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) ? Trans. 1.990 . and BIN (Botanical Institute) of Al StiBR were also invited. - Nevertheless, the Ministry of Education remains deaf to the opinion Of the eCientifio society and as yet did not show any ,signs of paying attentien ?? to the comments. Idtiott were directed immediately to its address. / venture to tell, -procieely LA this connection, about certain facts, which relat,. to the discussion in the Botanical Society of the school textbook "IruMasmntals of Darwinism" by M. I. Bbl$nikov. Biologists of different specialties, who spoke during the discussion of this textbook, ,,mentiened its nstry defects. The general conclusion:0 was that the textbook .on fundamentals of Darwinism 'cannot be recognized, to any **tent, to be-a-valuable manual for the pupil!I, and it is necessary to radically reorganise the existing program on. Darwinism, taking into consideration the critical comments and to revise the textbook. ? ? it was also emphasized that the. striving of the Ministry of Eiu.cation to ;- ? ? ? red. use the time of teaching of fundamentals of Darwinism to Students from taro hour; per week to only one hour r wa also injustified. NINO. then 04. the .Ministry of 741uoation of RSFSR. react to the publics -cOnisenter It le true, they, it appear*, Stopped the introduction. of M. I. Vel'nikovis textbook in schools ? but they shortened the time given over to Darwinism from. two hour, to one per .week and they entrusted Professor E. A. ?VeiseloV with oompiling a textbook on Darwinism for the students, which vitiald be designed for the reduced time, without taking into consideration the serious criticism, that was expressed by saw besides the Botanical Society. Mtaterhile one should point out, that the published textbook "Darwinist/1, which was .4:Implied by Professor Veselov for the higbar institutions of ,education, had been already sharply or/tic/zed on the printed page* (abisitd? cal Journal. no. 4# 1957). .One (mad hardly expect from this author a better composition on the fundamentals of ?Darwinism for school ohildren, than Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 :CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (5) trans. A.990 what he wrote for endereraouates. As you see, the steps, which sere undertaken, are yet for froto sufficient. Cross defects in leaohin6s or botany and in rurdaraorttalo of parwinism are still far fro% being removed; for this reason the efforts, which were started by the public in this respect, should not be slackened. All the more, under the ciroumeta?rees the WO cernot limit its problem to just certain critic:1A remarks, rrhich relate to the ?entente of the prepto.q. textbooks Keel teachinr, of botany in schools. Xt is important and r000saary to strive for the remerval ut all these defects and at the same time to think seriously or the matter hcer our Elotanical society could render special help to schools for the inorease or botanical knowle4e cf pupils, for stimulatitv: their interest In the flora, veortation and in nature in ,--,enerals in its ratiooal utilisation as a productive power and in its protection. ;.?xch probier-s, connected .t.tith the uropnLanda rf botanical knowledge, as it is known, ensue directly from the statute of WO. This is the reason why the Presidium and the Council of the All..t;nion Botanical .;:ooloty came to the conclusion about the necessity or a svecin't discuasion, at our Conventions of the report "About the statue or teaehtri; botany in securetry sehools% Passing over to the specific review of program and textbooks of botany for the 6th and 6th classes of the secondary school, one should point out, first et all, that the school course of biology, as a whole? underoes almost constant ohanes. During the last 8 years it was subjeoted to "reorganisation" now on "lachurinos" now on "Pavlov's fundamentals$ the teacher anti the author of textbooks souc,ht something. new, often 'untested ? raterial, subject to discos:lions, hut -,Thich was "modern". instance, in the program nn botany for the school year 1963/64 for the 5th class, hich was Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) .Trans. A.990 estimated for 56 hours-, one sixth of the time was givon over to studying the "lifo and aativite of t. V. Miohurin "and of "works of Atadestioian T. D. Irsenkossuocossor in the work of I. V. lachurin". At the present time a reorganisation of schedules proceeds in tonnostion with polyteohnift saucing arid prefossionalisitg of the secondary school. Zt is obvious that under fah oireumstaneoe there is no possibility to teeth biology normally, neithor to compilo a good textbook, nor a methodist! manual. In Our almost yearly changing of programs soustimes one or another olosont, one or another objeet are let out. ?or instant* in 1934, biology of cultivated plants was studied; in 1946 ? 11 femilies of flavoring plants, but latter on, from year to year the number of studied families decreased, first to 10, 7, 6, then to 6, $ fasillos and in the year 1964 none was left. In 1.949 a study of 24 cultivated plants was introduced, but 4 years later their number vat Waled to 6, leaving the potatoes, eabbago, corn, wheat, flan and apple trees. [Begin p.142]. The prosently operating tours* in botany for the school year 1056/57 for the 5th class specified 2 hours per weak, in all 66 hours per year; among thetas Ditrodustita 3. hour I. Plants in nature and in agrieultur* 4 hours !I. Collular stratus, of plants 3 " III. doode, planting, Clormination of seeds 14 e IV. Root...loll nutrition of plants 10 " A lett. Formetion of organic substante in plant* a " TI. item. Movement and proeipitation of substancos in the plant 9 or VII. Propagation of plants DS * VIII. Plant ? a living organics 3 " For the 6th class the same amount of tims is provided for botany as in the 5th. It is divided in the following order, IIISumming up the summer work of th* students 2 hours I. Conditions for growing oultivatod plants 9 n U. -Cultivated plants and their growing 21 * III. Dovolopment by I. V. Miohurin of now varieties of fruit plants 8 * Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A.990 IV. Basic groups of plant. V. General picture of development of vegetation on earth 26 hours 8 " Besides this it is written in the programs "In the 6th *less (as in the 6th) during the School year 1956/66 are introduced compulsory praetieal studies at the training-experimental plot according to a special program. "Practioal lessens at the training?experimental plot for the 6th classes are built in close connection with the studies of the botany course and help to inculcate in students the necessary knowledge and skills inagrimi cultural work on the griming of plants on the basis of modern agrotechnices we read this on page 4 of the "Program for the school year 1966/6/". In the piled special programers provided* sewing of seeds of carrots ? and parsley, growing of tomato seedlings and their pruning, planting anti selection of vegetable seeds, planting of cuttings of ourrants_and *trim. berries, thinning of carrots and beets, watering the ousumbers. It is interesting to point out, that none of the ennumerated cultivated plant. were studied In the botany course. The in thing to which the attention Is drawn, at the training?experiment plot in digging and redigging the soil with ? following cultivation of the soil. Cultivation of the soil is mentioned tinea in this program. The thematics of experiments, which are cited at the end of the botany course are limited to three subjects, on vernalization, influence of fertilisers amd growing of valuable field crops (oorn and others). Unfortunately. it Is impossible in a report to adbject the above cited program on botany, for the 6th and 6th classes, to a mere detailed critical analysis; therefore I will dwell only nn some of the most important remarks. Firstly, the existing defective approach to teaching botany to 114.13 year old children Is very alarming, as this approach is not in accord with Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (e) Transl 4.990 pryeholou and, thus, is little uftderetood by them. This feature is confirmed by the absence of lively interest in botany andlinture in our children and youth. Seeondly, here there is no proper system of rudiment* of fundamentals of. botany; there is no succession in knoSledge,, no gradually and logically - consecutive development of ideas; 'It seams *s if almost all rildiments of fundamentals of botanical scienceire'inOluded in the program, but thoy are taught entirely inadequately and in a chnotio disorder without esti*. fying the requirements of commen sense aid vonvenience of teaching.' Thirdly, even a simple review of the program show* its supersaturation with questions of farming practice to the detriment of the very fundamentals of botany, to the detriment of the development of an interest in :children to plants in nature, to the riohness and ditersity of Mere and vegetation; it pushes in Children the development Of only the utilitarian, superficial approach to the surrounding nature. Systematic excursions into nature are entirely absent; they are completely replaced by work on the to-called trainingrexperiment plot. ? A certain eOnolusion ensues from the above *aid that the program On botany roi seenndary schools met be eeriouely reasoned out and revised. In this responsible work. -must Wm part not only and not so much the official , institutions as our reepested teachers asknowledged by everyone, methoditte, pediatriots and our /eliding botanical scientist*. If a superficial acquaintance with the program unnovers such an uno happy state in the toeshing of botany which arouses disappointment and perplexity, then the direct reading of the textbook for school children in the Sth and 6th ?lasses, which was compiled on the basis of this prOgram, provokes new bewilderment and strengthens the uneasiness about s4Ch re* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R01.0400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIARDP80R01426R010400020001-7 490 ducesd fundatentale of botany. This refers especially to the textbook of V. A. letiurev. Which was compiled on the basis of the program of 1946, this: lent one no partly replaced during the past school year by the new textbook of B. V. Vsesviatskii that corresponded to the program with which in just now became acquainted. tBegin p.149). The critical review and distension of this textbook an November 800 1966, by the Board of the Botanical Society permits me to bring to the knowledge of the Convention if not all, then at lent part of the eritical remarks, which wore rade at this conference, where over SO persons were present, including botanietm, teachers, methodists and biologLito general. Compared to the textbook of Tetiurov, from which the school children studied botany after the year 19113, the textbook of D. V. Vsesviatokii, which novr, partially has replated the former, is undoubtedly better. Pint of all this tektbook, in the opinion of raw, la written in a comparatively good lenguage, understandable to school children, although one mete acme unfortunate expreocione. But on the whole the exposition ?ie not bad. Frost the textbook were excluded imam ideas of very doubtful or questionable ecientific value, Which, as it is known, were taught ?during a course of yeatre and, unfortunately, in most cases continue to be taught in the secondary schools under the guise of latest scientific achievements; The rest of the contents of the textbook are fully up to the .requirements of the program, which was approved by the ilinietry of Education. For this flacon the further critical renarks4 with the exception of sore specific author's slips and mietakes, must be eddreereed not alone to the author but also to the compilerh of the program. Biasing over to the defects of the textbook, it irt necessary, first of all, to pause on the correlation between the botanical intonation proper end Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) . Trans. ..4-620 the production material. This last ono is presented in. too large, imModorate ashount'te the detriment or acqualntanes with fundamentals of 'Wavy. ?tax ' among the 206 pages of the textbook over 60 pages, that 1.6. about 1/3 of itO volume are tilled with purely ascroteelmical and Plant industrrptoblems, as for instances cleaning of seeds, sorting the seeds, determinatiod of the , germination ability of Seeds; dates for plantings, methods of planting, depth to which the .seeds should be cOverid ups fertiliser, top diet:0106' for plants, Watering, cultivatiOn_of eons thereat, of the yielding ability of plants, fertility and. struetare.of soltsplanting of grasses, strop rotation, soil tillage,-impleMents for soil tillage, Planting of *bolter bolts, growing wheat, earn, flax, potatoes, cabbage, apple tritest grafting apple trees with eyes, planting apple trees, nursing apple trees, raising ? the Sr.B winter Nichurings variety of pearsjorossbreeding, raising Renet, ? bergamot apple tress and ..others. if to these one should add that during out-Ofeolass studies no systenstie excursions into nature were provided for , and that the whole work of schOol children at the trainingeexperistint plot, as it was already mentioned above, oonsisted wholly of work bearing il. ? , purely produotive charaoter, thin the overloading of the school course of botany with agroteehnical and plant cultivation problems will becone quite apparent. 'r ? We all understand very well the general problems en the pelyteohnicalizing of the .nahool, They do oft .aroos? any doubt in any one. But in the given cacao the Oarrelation 'between the !fundamentals of botany proper and the production material is so unbalanced that this fact becomes a demonstration of the incorrect, distorted use of direotions about polytechnicelicing the school in botaoy. And, this best) mistake must be.eliminated, sinoi withoft . ;the knowledge of fundamentals of biology a correstdonception about the sure Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R0142.6R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans, A.poeo ? rounding nature, about its diversity, wealth, and usefulness, rendered to men, is impossible. Finally, it is impossible to understand and enrich the very methods of the produstien activity of MAN with which the require. ments of polytoohnioalising ars connected. Further, ose should also think that after all, in the secondary schools are trained for the future production aettrity not only people of the *grim cultural profile, but also future speeialiste or mini other braze:se of our national eschew. It is sufficiently clear, that in time out of our school children will be developed not alone agritulturiste, tractor drivers, brigadier*, sootechnioiene, loaders and workers in kolkhoses, sovkhoses and other agricultural inetitutions? but also workers of other profession, engineers, technicians, doctors, teachers, soientiste . physicists, ?batiste, ? electricians, metallurgists, meohanioal engineers, and so on. The question arises . on what grounds do we foist on all, without exception, such hyperbolised portions of fundamentals of agricultural production? Whys say, when teaching the 41e4hool children the fundamontala of mathemetics are not taught some of the methods of bookkeeping or statistical eomputation? vhioh, undoubtedly, with such an approach to polyteehnioalixing, as it was made in regard to botany, could have been tried to explain by the requirements of polyteehniesligingt Would this not mainly explain the fact that young men, who later on in life booms participants of different brattish.a of nonagricultural pro. dustion, have a very slight idea about flora and vegetation,and very often treat %m in a barbarous way. But very likely alas those, who after the secondary school go to work on firming even if they have independently en- riched their knowledge will, hardly, stand higher in their botanioal knowledge than their comrades, who went into other branches of produotion. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) Trans. a.990 ? This is the main, the most deoisive defeat in the status of teaching botany in seoondary schools and I think, thxt our ? nvention must 4.4. termini its specifie attitude to such an arrangement of the problem. The rovrining defeets? although they are numerous, are, as it seems to me, sonnected to a considerable degree with the first, basis defoot. [Begin p.1501 Nevertheless, T would like to be understood oerrootly. To no extent do I reptuliate the nireassity of teaching the fundamentals of agriculture to school children, but not at the expense of pinching the fundamentals of botany. The production renterinl, which is oonnected to agriculture, in my opinion should be offered only after the botany sours* and better in senior Caawn ? In this reopeet, of great value is the suggestion of the Seeretary of TeX TIAN (Central Committee of the 1-11?Union laninis Young Communist League] Comrade Shelepin, whiek was made by bin quite reeently at the Session of the Supremo Soviet of the USSR, about the introduetion of produotion sposialise.. tion of students in the three last classes of the secondary school on the basis of the obtained uniform and general seveawyear education. Now, permit me please to pass over to some ether specific Grit/cal blotto:me front the botany textbook for school children. let us start at ones with the first page ? the introduetion. lt con. sista of but one page and a half, but the matter is not in its volume. If it were written in keeping with the shildrea's understanding, if it Gould arouse interest, entio? the student with prospeste for studying botany, then the basic purpose in the given case would have been aohirowd. But, as it meationed,quite eorrootly, by the Board of no at the meeting on the ? critical review of the B. Y. irseeviatekii's textbook, 11?12th year age in children is the time when they are interested in IIkyn? Reid, shin they Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (18) Trans. 4480 want to bosoms flyers, submerine saptains, they dreamt about a romantic profession. That is why, in order to interest ohildren in botany right from the first lessen, it is neeessery to elaborate the introduetion carefully. Botany meterial providos mush for an interesting and enter. taming introdustion, which would throw light upon the role of plants in the development of life on earth and Gould disclose the mealfold importanee of botany. MUch can be done here. nut, unfOrtuentely, the introduction is very boring in the textbook ea. V. Vitesviatskiis a definition of botany is given, then there Is explained what the terms *wild growing and *oulti. vat*d* plants mean, and that from rye one makes rye flour and bakes the dark bread, and from 'wheat . wheat flour is made and white bread is baked; that corn is a remarkable plant, that the unplowed lands are tilled now and sown to seeds of cultivated plants, and, finally, that stedyieg of botnny-will help the sehool children to get aequainted with the life of plants and take part in the general work of growing cultivated plants. Such an introduction is hardly capable of interacting a eithool child. The first ehapter *Plante in nature and in agriculture* is oompriset of three paragraphs. 1) forest plants, 2) cultivated plants of the garden and vegetable patch, and 8) plant organs. It *forest plants* in this ohapter were supposed to give an idea about plants in nature in general, then this experiment has clearly railed. Firstly, the plants in nature are represented, as it is known, not alone by the forest Tog...tette/1,bn* also by meadow, steppe, desert, maps water and others. Besides this, the idea *plants" in nature surely inoludes not only the green, but the nongreen plants, ineluding the mioroorganiams. The 411 idea about all this was not given, and the forest plants are limited to birch and oak among trees, hazelnut among 'bushes, and pansy and lily of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14) Trans. A..990 the valley amonc leasses. In oonolusion, thP 1-ria477sph relating to plants in nature contains such a deduotions "There are three forms of plants* trees, lluellee an.1 2-asses. Trees and 'bushes are perennial plants ,-Ith woody Stems. Cronees have thin, green grasey stalks. Grasses happen to perennial, biennial and annual" (pixie II). You. oar judge yourselves hcav mmoh this concluelor responds to reality, ooncerninz the plants of the whole nature. It is olonr that fiJC.ng in children's minds of each an idea, which is connected to the wealth of plant forme in natnre cannot help in a valuable masterinc, of fundamentals ,)f botany. Examinier the botany textbook ohapter by chapter, unfortueately, one could acquaint the Convention 3issuibers not just with single serious defects; tut there iz Imrdly a neoessity in deine 4bis because any botanist, ever after juet turning over the pages of the textbook will find there much that is unexpected. For instances why is it that the whole systematic* Is limited to ee description of three famillengs cereals, mustnrd family and leamints plmnte. If only mativatod plants were compared then in this OR80 such families as rose family, the umllellate, and the lily fa:J.1y should have boon added. Such a subject R$ "Ievelopment of the plant world on earth! is limited to three ea:1)s, scanty, impoverished material on bio104, of flowering Coos not lead the students to the fundamentals of Ilarwinism in senior classes, and so on. rt is Obvious, if the time, :Thich was reserved for botany, in grant on teaohina t.grotechnical laterial, than, naturally, there Is no ti's left for studying tbs. fundamentals of ''otanl. The textbook also has cow:1.a' terloas factual mistakee, vhich sharply reduces its soientifio level. I shall pause on some instances. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A.990 On pa;me 102.403, under paragraph $9, a description is given of the process of fertilization in angiospormae.: Alnosi every sentence -of this ? paraisraph contains one or another miitake. 'The textbook does not at all give any idea about the embryo sac, ither about the contents of the embryo one, nor about double fertilization. Passed by in silence is 'alto the fact (Begin P.151) about the process of double fertilisation .. one of the most wonderful discoveries in the history ? of botany, which is connected with the -name of 8. G. aseashin. ? It is likely that teachoremathodists would cite cony reasons in do. fending the oinplei practicable presentation of the prooess of fertilization which $.4 none too easy to communicate to children 11.12 years 01d. / Mato ? ? ? . agree with't-hem; biat .in the exposition off), V. Vsesiriatekii the wish to be understood was achieved at the expense of direct distortion of the tunda. mentals of science, and this is not permitted to anyone. On pace 9,where intonation is Given about the cultivated plants of garden and of truck garden, it is emphasized that "fruits ars'especially good, which crow on apple and pear trees, which were? developed by I. V. Ilichurin and his students". Usanwhilo we. all know that cood Pfruits are produced also ? on earietieti .developed by mem other selectioners fruit.growere. Tihy mat it neoessary to Write an untruth in a textbook? On pace 1.00, where it is spoken about cross...pollinating plants, oats is also presented as cross?pollizatinz, while, as it is known, oats is a typical self.pOilinatinc plant. On pace 204, in the second paragraph of chapter 13, which is cive3 over to "reVeltipMent of thO plata kingdom on earth" me reads "The moot ancient , organism were unicellular. They differed from modorn one-celled plants by ? a still simpler struotures they had a-form of a lump of slime. Thsze lunps Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A.990 were alive. Ancient plants originated from these primary living organisns". It terns out then, that the first living beings, whieh originated on earth, had already a cellular structure. Yet we should not forget (and in his time Engels wrote about this:), that the *ell proved to be a product of a long evolution. The author, of eouree, knows this very well but, ape. parently, wishing to be batter understood by dhildren, he, instead of an accurate exposition of the fundamentals of science, fell Into an inadmissible vulgarisation. On page 102, concerning the may of life of lichens, we reads "Combined existence of two argentine in one body of lichens proved to be very profitable for it. Tho myeelium, absorbs water and mineral slates algae fora organie substanse franca/ton dioxide and water". Naanwhile it was ascertained a lo ag time ago in botany, and, more over, by Russian scientists, in particular ky.k.4t. Zlenkin, that the theory of symbiosis, according to which fungi and algae in lichens Jr. in reeipreeally profitable relations, is not valid. And it was shown that the fungus parasitises and sapronkytes on alga. rlor then write about lichees that whish was erroneously written 30.40 years ago? . Permit me t limit myself by the ()LW instanees, Which pertain to the oharacimristie of the seientifie level of the school textbeek on botany. 0n. fortunetely, suoh instances were by far not exhausted by me, and anyone who would like to satisfy himself could do it easily by reading the botany textbook pa;:e after page. This textbook has an almost two million circulations our children study it. After the critical remarks, made just now, it is, apparently, quite clear, that the a000pted botany textbook for secondary schools must be re? vlsed as soon as possible so that no serious errors of principle and no blunder would hive any place in it. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A?990 One should also think about the ratter, to what oxtent is justified a sondition whom for the ,.:hole Soviet Union only one textbook on botany is offieinlly reaosesenAed. would it not be more sapid:ant to have re6ioral botany textbooks, say for republics of Central Asia, for Bsltio republics, for Tratussatioasia, and so on, written by qualified botany.podogoguso or by their eollectivosT Such regio at textbooks, obviously, should be written oncording to a si.ngle standard program; but in. their purely botanical leatorial these text- books must correspond to the natural?geoprephie, floristic, goobetanioal and other peculiarities of those rogions for which tney aro destined. Besides that, in ordor to inorease the quality of the school course of botany. when compiling now botany textbooks one should free then from any casual, new ideas. The textbook nast be based on strictly tested, established data of botanioal science sad, at tho sans tin*, must be adapted in every may to the children's age, to ohildren's psychology; it must arouse in our growing generation an interest in flora, vegetation, and in nature in purred. In eonneetion with this *me should acknowledge, that the practise, used by the Ministry of gduoation, for sompiling and approval of projects of programs and authors' 1.rmscripte on botany boathooks is dofeativo, beoauso only a very narrow and elosed carol* of people, unfortunatoly not always sufficiently oompstent, are ooncorned with this question. This practice, by no mans, helps in removing 'those big defeats in the teaching of botany in school, which rare mac everod by the botanical society. It is necessary to continue the efforts, begun by the Botanical Society, on helping with *ordinal improvement or botany teaching in s000ndary schools and to attain the elimination of all ths detests in this work. That is why, it seems to as, TBO cannot and should not limit its Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (le) Trans. A?990 participation in this very important !latter to only critical remarks, which pertain to school programs, textbooks and reqaeste addresaed to the Mtnistry of Ruoation and to other organisations, that supervise the school adman tion. *ay umbers of the society, (Begin p.1621 I ft aosordance with their specialty and personal aptitude, mad take direet part in the development of school programs and in the compiling of textbooks and manuals, melte in the pedagogical press, in particular, on pages or the journal "Natural Selene' in School*, which was renamed lately to "Biology in School"; write popular botanical articles, stories, hooks for ehildren and do easy other useful deeds for the uplift of the quality of studies of fundamentals of botany in school and out of it. Unfortunate4, durint the last 24 deeades our leading *botanists have almost not taken any part in push a popular seientificimmethodical journal for biolegymteashers as the "Biology in School". But it was onmpara? tively recently only that such oatstanding Potentiate biologists wrote in the press, appeared at eonferenoes and meetings on various seientifio-methodioal problems ass A. A. Elenkin, V. in tomerev, it. N. Whimenke, N. A. Naksimov, N. A. Monteverde, V. I. Palladino I. I. Pollanakii, Y. I. Tetley, IC. A. Tiairiasevo V. U. S)inkevieh, and among those in good health now P. A. Beranov, Oellerbakho Tu. I. Polianskito V. I. Polianskii, B. B. Raikov, V. M. Sukachevo and others. The Botanical Society must considerably accelerate its activity In this respect. Cft the other hand the proper editorial off toes of esientifie?pedagOgioalo methodieal and other popular journals on the subject, of biology must, at last, go to meet the wishes of the society, and invite to take part it their journals, besides the selected narrow circle of staff authors, also the most worthy biological scientists, in particular botanloal? seientistso including &leo the members of VB0. In any case, the Botanical Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (19) Trans. A-990 Society, on its part, must, in every way possible* enoourags and *timulate this part of the activity of its member.. The publishing of popular books and Journals will be of oxelusively greet importanoe forth. propaganda of botanical seienee. This is, of course, indisputable. Many of those preseat, probably, remember yet to ttte present tint, what a lasting impression was produced on thou during, the children's years the reading of the votsterfully written books, althouz,t containing some mistakes, of D. N. 10,4-orodow, N. A. Pholodkowskii, N. D. Bbalosuoov, a. P. Arshanow, K. I. Berebriakow, B. t. Ts Ts A. V. Teingors and others. Of coure*, now too books are published for reading on botany, but there are very few of them and they appear on the book sorbet only rarely. There almost are no books about the organisa? tion and conducting of independent excursions for sehool.ohildron to the forest, swamp, meadows steppe, tree nursories, botanical gardens, museums, and so on. There are no portable, richly illustrated pocket botanical guide books, or raw other things. Yet, look what oonvenient? attractive, well illustrated, rich in color, botanical publications for school children are published by our friends in -the Oersan Demooratie Republic, Ctechoolovalia, and in other countries. Tie have great demand for good botanical popular books, Therefor* there is no wonder, that as soon as a good book is published, it cannot be founds the whole edition is inscsdiatoly sold out. Try, for instance, to buy popular?coientific or soientifiesert books on botaoy, Alch were published last year, such as basks by N. X. V. Boshevnikow, V. X. Korsunskaia, Y. D. Aleksandreva, reissued books by L I. Pelianskii, A. V. ?singer, and you will not be able to find them. The demand for ? good, scientifically reliable popular botanical book for children is great, and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A0490 it would be regrottaUo if our Botanical Societyfould Pot pay any attention to it and would not inerease its activity In this direction. Permit me now to concisely sum up those basic thou,hts, which T consider as certain suutstiooss which follow from the just completed rew port. Firstly, one should apply to the X.nistry of i-Auct!ien it t request about an immediate Rod basic rovision of the oxistIor program to botaqy for secondary schools with a direct participation in this responstao -:,-ork or representative* of the Botanical Fociety, as 'tell as with the follokAm4: wide discussion the botanical society of the new project of the progrgim. Seeman, .'no should brist; to the attention of the Ministry of '''..cacation that the preseInt textbook on botany for the seom-dary school epee not Lorrespond to its rurpose in many respootsy it must be Immediately revised and ofv-. be permitted for the use of s000ndery anhools only temporarily, until a ner textbook on Ilconry ;All he compile 4:71 the Hasis of ihe newly revised pro-. grant. !Lne shonle also sua;est that the textbooks on botany mast give a well written, interestInOy presented, absolutely scientifically proven simplex of fundamental Information in sections, tuki!!, into consideration the aus peouliaritios of the students. Thirdly, the outwof?sohool lessons Or .the school chWren most to be ooneentratod only on the work at the traIrin,t-oxpertient sootier, taG to a considerahla extent OA studies of maturR1 flora, voLetation, nv berst,min acquainted --Ah plantince of parks, botanical g$4.dons and hothouses. Orle should ridel;y e.noourace the work of associations of young naturalists lu this reF.poot. During, the lessons proper a nooessary amount of time Imtst e set aside for excurslonz i0:0 nature and not to be limited only p.15fl to the produotior objects, as it is /,raoticed now at best. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (21) Trans. A..990 Fourthly, one should bring to the most serious nttention of the agenoies -rf public educatIon the completely unsatisfaatory status of teaching of flindankentals of rarwiniste in secondary schools, where the biological *does... tion is being oompleted for the greater sass of Soviet youth and which is of great importanoe for the formation of their world outlook. 'Fifthly, it is necessary to revise the organisational for of work in the Rotanieal Society proper, which would permit to considerably increase the aotivity o1'nether* of the Society net only in regard to the public control of the 'sour** and status of teaching of botany in secondary schools, but also concerning the propaganda of botanical soignee among school children by moans of organising sett?* help to publishing houses Detgis [State Children's Literature Publishine, Housel,? volodaia Nord Clfounc Onrardel, tr., the Publishing House of the kaaderoy of Faience of WI?, Solikhosgis, and others in the business of a considerable iocrease in issuing pertinent goionoloio..popuInr botanical literature, as well as by swans of organisation of reading of popular leetires for school children, youth and the adult population. For the start such art activity in the Botanical Society could be centered in the already existing. permanent Commission of the critical review of textbooks and school equipment, but in the future there lust be ergaaised a special, say, School Commission nf For the conclusion of the report t shall take the liberty to appeal to all the deiszates of the Convention, to all the nethers of the Botanioal Society, to all those present with a request to express their attitude to lite report given by me and to introduce any suggestions, which are direeted to the inereaae of quality, to the improvement of the *entente of tenoning of botany in the secondary schools, as well as to the intensification of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (n) Tram, A.990 activity of the Society in the busIttess cr popularisation or 1-otanioal sciensea especially anion: ths young t)eople4 For the Confererea?0 resolution on Paltht,Tev's reports eee Trans, A,?991 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1-0.8 ;Li. (In full) vg/Y Resolution the report of F. Kh. Bakhteev "On the status of teaching botany in secondary schools". (Approved at the Plenary Session of the Second )elegates. Conference of the notanioal Society of the USSR [Iirbef] on Aky 17, 1957). Rot. Zhur. [Moskva], vol. 43, no. 1, p.155.6155. Jan. 1958. 451 R.928. (In Ruse Ian) The All?Unior relegates Conference of thc Rotanical Society, hex !v_; hoard.. and discussed the report "Ott the status of teaching botany ir dary schools" [Trans. 1-9901, oonsidered its brinzing to the attentio of - the Conference quite welltimed, this was c lr firmed by the active and /ivoly discussion of it by the participants 'of the Conference. The basic aspeotg of the report, which characterise the unsa. factory status f teachin,. botany in secondary sehools, namely, non.moorre-. spondenoe of the program and of textbooks on botany for the school the baste requirements of correct traini of the future builders of corevnIsrto who should poseees solid dialectic-materialistic world outlook and -lhe pvrely conventional accomplishment of polyteohnicalisine the school, are eolsidered sufficiently proved and have found full support from the Conference. In oonformity with this. the Confereroe resolvedt 1. To recognise as necessary an immediate radical revision of' the existing proeyam for botany for secondery schools, reestablishment of teach. ing there of fundamentals of botany (morpholocy, sys te Ma tics, anatomy arc. physiology of plants), which were substituted, to a considerable d zee, by agrotechnioal material, with a direct participation in this work of reprosen? tatives of the Dotanical Society and with the follmang wide dieeussIor of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A.991? the new projeet of the program by the peogie and botanical csommunily. Z. To mention that neither the newly published textbook on botany by L V. Vsesviatskii, nor, the more so, the textbook by V. A. Tetiurov for the legendary school in wavy resposts do not Anewer their purpose. Among them& only the textbook of n. V. Vsesviatskii after its proper .vision, an be temporarily& until the compiling of new textbooks, pe mitted as a manual for the secondary sehool. Textbooks ON botany omit present a well written, interestingly con.* vexed, and absolutely scientifically proved oomplex of information on the Stated divisions of botany, taking into consideration the age peculiarities of the school children. 3. To uphold the suggestion about the ?entering of teaohi funda? vontals of ap-ioulture in the senior (340th) classes of the sec:on:cry school& in which a speoielisation should be organised for the purpose of preparing the students for their future practical activities. [Begin p.1541 Such a solution of the problem will provide a reel polyteohnios.lising of our school as regards the teaching of botany which proves to be a re ouired basis for understanding the prooesses of agrtoultu.ral production& as well as for the perception of natural flora and vegetation. 4. The Conferenoe of relegates of the Botanical Society considers it expedient, in conformity with peculiarities of rsituraliogeographic con- ditions of various parts of the Soviet Union, to have not one, but stricycl textbooks for botany in seoondary sohoele. For instance& such textbooks could be published, besides the European part of the MIR, for Siberia& as well as for Vigra Ira Belorussia and Baltic Soviet republics & Caucasus, Trans oaueasus& Central Asia and others. For the oompiling of such textbooks the most prominent botany.pedagogues and botanical-stiontists of the col's. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (s) ? Trans. responding. gooexsphical a ones should be ongaged first and fortisost. . _ 5. Out-of?school Studies of the school phildren Smithy con:Urea not alone at the treinUg-ssperimental plot, but, to a considerable degree, 'on studies of eataral flora, vegetation, on the acqhainianeO with the planting ' ? of parks, botanical gardens, hothouses and Co on. In this respeit, on* should :encourage the activity of societios of young naturalists. More at; tention should be given during thO,sOhool studies toixoursiono into nature, : which matter_should-bereflected in the school plow. Particulerly, to utilito,the time Of the sojourn of the students in the pionser...camps for their- acquaintance with the natural vegetation and floral for this purpose to re ? quest the UK WAIT [Central Committoo of the All-Union Lenin's Young Con. muniiit League] and the blnistry of Educatien to send qualified botany. teachers andliologists to plonser?camps. ? 6. To draw the most ?ericae attention, of the &gemlike of publio Oduoa. tion to the fully unsatisfactory status of teaching of fundamentals of Mr..' winism in osoondary schools, whore the bielogieal education. is being corn. plated for the greater mess of Soviet youth and which is of great impor. tame for the formation of their world outlook. To consider erroneous the reduction of the *Curse of fundementals of Barwinitm to 1 hour per week in. 'stead of -2 hours. ' .1. To intensify the aotivitY of the Botanical Sooiety on popularisation of bOtanical knowledge among sohool children and students by means of en- couragement of efforts of members of V80 EAU-Union Botanical Society] in publishing for the sohoolbotanical keys and .botanical atlases,popular, seientifio,?soientific-artistio botanical books and by other menses in every way to assist in the intensifisation Of the publishing activity in the Oited direction of Detgis (State Children's Literature Publishinc Housel? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.sin - ridolodaia Grardiia? IYoutg Outrdsl, the Publishitg Rause of tho A.oadtriy of SOilinee of tISSR, of Uchpedgis ($tet* Training sad Pedagogioal Liters.. tyre Publishing House], Selikhossis and other publishing houses. In every way to widend and intensify the aotivity of the Society, which is direotod to et* improvement of teaching botany in the sea Wary sehool, to the popularisation of botanisal knowledge? protection of: rien e n plantings and nature. To r000mmend to the Presidium and the ?44tio;o4eit of 17B6 to discuss and solve.speoifio orcanisitional forms for the intensifiesa, ti.ob of this work, taking into,00nsideration? the suggestions. "Ade at the Conterencevacut the formation of a. special ,achool or podagogio oeation in YBO far the purpose of extonoivo attraetten of biology-toschers to it. work, O. To have the report and materials of \the Contends's on the status of teaching botany in oeiondary schools extensivsly published not alone in the publiestions of the central organitation of the IMOD but also, if potalbio, in publioations of its branches and section*, as well as in the central newspapers* To especially appeal, in the Daum of the Con.ferenett, to editorial attires of pedagogic, publications, is partioular to the journal ?Biology in, Sehool?, about the full pablioation of the, roport and of all the vaterials Of ,ths Conforenee which are contested -with its disoussion,on the pages of this ,3 ?anal. 10.. In Order to attain the most effective realisation of the ro.. solutions of the Conferenos about the problsm in question, to commisoion the Council Presidium snd the Allsoilpor- of VO to fora, it the ismodiato _future, and dirsot an authoritative dolegation, from &slang the Diembers, cospetont in this respect, to the Central Committee of the COsatunist Party of the Soviet titian and to Ts/CAME/I. as well as to the Ifinistry Of Muoation of Ann. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trani, 4.'414.991 SDITORTAL (pages 154.155) According-to the report of V. Rh. Sakhtesv during the Session of the Conference discussions developed in which 15 persons took part: The greater part of the speakers (P. A. Baranev,"11. N. Versilin, V. N. Korstinskcia, . . I. B. Zamyshev, V. V. Sakharov, G. G. Bosse, L. A. Utkin, A. G. Oilier, ? , fto Tkaohenko, V. N. Beliaevas.A. K. Efeikin end A. A. 8emenova.Tian4hane1aia) 'upheld the basic aspects of the report. They wore opposed only by the chief editor of the journal "Bielogy in Cahoot" V. Ar. redorova, by the author - . of the textbook "Botany" B. V. Viesviatekii, and, pertly, .by V. Chularewv. - The resolutions' of the Conference On this question were included, into ? the previously printed genera/ resolution, which was Unanimously adapted on Mir 17, 1957 and which was by the Bureau of the -Section of BioloLisal Science, of the Aeademy of Science on September 3, 1957. (See "Botanical Journal". vol. 42, no. 11. 1957, p.1727.1734). On the pages Of the "Sotatical Journal" the status of the teaching of botany and of Darwinism in the secondary school has been elucidated upon memy times. Nevertheless the agencies of publio.eduestion did not react to dritioism, coming from the scientifie society. (Begin p.1551. Unfortunately, the now textbook on /*minima for the secondary ochool, which was emptied by B. A. Veselcrv, cannot, by art afls, be recognised as satisfactory, it repeats the Matelot' of past textbooks, which were already previously critisiced in print(1).. (1) 6n Deeember 27, 1957, a discussion took place about the textbook of E. A. Veselov at a Joint session of the Coveittee on critical revision of textbooks and of school equipauint of the %TO, of the Leningrad Sooiety of Naturalists and of the Chair of Biology of the Leningrad Sanicipal Institut* for the Improve- ment of Teacliers. The matsrials of discussion will be published in the "Latent- cal Journal": Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R01.0400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A.991. Alttitohinc great importance to the questio,s which were touched qpon in the report of F, Th. Bokhtecv, the rd tor *a office publishes it and expresses hope Oult now at lost the Vinistry of rducation of RL3FSE settle this questior. which troubles our whole seientific society. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Arvalo ? .-07, (In fun) Information requested of all geneticists of UR. Eharnal Obshchei 8iologil, vol.. 11, no. 4, p.[Z12J. 1958, 4420 46, (In Russian) The tnternatIonal rigor of Aoloc,ical :;eiereen is preparint. K list of all tho zenetioists of the world. The lationE1 CommitteP of Soviet Bioloceiste, entorint, leto fhio requests all ';ianeticiste in UMR to send in the fo11owin6 irformetion corning themselves; this lnformtiot will be lator or Inelnded -ntotho int(rnatioral list of ceneticists. aak yos . to send this 'Alternation on en ordinary poet card ar- ranging it as follows; 1. ramily name and patromormic. (tf there are works, published in foreicn languages, indicate, in brackeft, the accepted Datle transcrip. tion or the. 6urnarm ane of the initials). 2. Learned dezree ahd rank. 3, yenr nf birth. 4. Place af 'fork (in full) anci the position occupied. 6. 14/airless address. C. Scientific specialty (problems -tihich interest rot especially). In order to avoid mistakes, it it requested that this lnformatio typed or written vory leLitly (please. -irito the surname, in printed lettere). Please send the information to; flbekeas 74, Wthovair. ul. (04.eet) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A.992 no. 9. Mosel:0er f; oft let of LiAturalir $ '011,ot JOS 1'40 t 'Ott. It ta requested that the post card ri os registered? PrattIdiutt of the )1atio.-.0.1 Comitto or (nriet Biolozists? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 J rune ? (tn full) vg/A Tissofeev.Resovskii, n. V. Mikroevotiutelia. Aetnentarnye einterialy?i faktory mikrorroliutsionnoto protseesa4. (Vicroevolatior. Vletentary pherosenst, trial and factors of the ,,icroevoltz? tionary liotanichesPli 7hornal, vol. 43, no. 3. p.317436. )ikreh 1958. 451 P923. (In Russian) 1. The olassioal methods of 4,he study of evolution amount tr a coupGrative trea1.7,ont of the morpholo,loal, physioleuical, enbryoloEical, biogeop;rap:aleal and paleonteleLical !material; to an analysis of the res:.Its oblained frtrl the viewpoint of 80:1403 general prineiples; and to the estabm liniment or rt,..titis.entstlly imp orta rtt phenomena, re ro let ritioa andMe lana of evolu ti *nary processes. This tendency nay be cr.11ed "taterosvolutiolare. Naornevolution amounts t..!: the "najor" phenomena %nd processes ocoorrinc QA large areas i The course of ex+ensive (tzeologioal) divisions toirezPovi or tits and concernint., chiefly the hijter systematic est,otaries. Alm- these 1 On the oasis t1 reports read at the cyberteties aeminar of '.ho trecharl. comeixthematioal Faculty, Vosoow State !;niversity [MOO snd at the soLitAr on evolutionary problems in the Biologiold instiute [BEN], Aoa4eMy of f7Olotoes V35R, in February of 1957. Reoeied [for publisationj Oct. 27, 1957. (Insortbed toll Serpa Vergeovioh Chetverikov, dcar teacher and friend. tAberatercia flodstki iiraltelrogo iiia1a Airadelsii Auk SSSP. 111/ jiii;oratory ilio?hysias, bral Rranah. Academy or goiehaeli 5vord1ovek1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 a rano ? 4".. WU VGJ lines have been described the basic phenomenn of phylogenetio differentia.. tion (with the formation of the natural, phylogsnetie general system of organisms), evolutionary adaptations and ontogenetie differentiations (of the wvolutionary preesee). P. At the present time these olassiosal methods, are inadequate for the study of the evolutionary process. In the first plate', they have to a considerable extent been exhausted; the principal stages, phenomena and phenemsnologioal regularities of maoreevolution have been desoribed in general outline, and for the time being work ruins to be done on details and on minor changes in the existing schemes. In the second place, and most imm portant, the classical methods used in maoroevolutionary study ars purely phenomenologisal and, hones, do not permit resolving singularly lodoosnaohnel 111 the problem concerning the real mechanisms of the evolutionary process and the paths [ma putiakhl over whiff?' the formation of eVolutionery phonemes* scow's. Mimy evolutionists, having forgotten the limits of phenomenological methods and also the possibility of the extensive use or the principle of netural selection discovered by Darwin, often pronoun.* eategorical judgment ooneerning *medhanisme" of the evolutionary process that they have accepted, but that have never been substantiated; this leads to the development of evolutionary *theories" that in lissome do not belong in the methodology of a natural history. The latter was aggravated by3eng gap existing between the specific course of evolutionary biology *ad the develepment of proseento.day- gentles. Hy means of *ovation's genetic and eytogenetic experiments (login pall) and accurate quantitative *sateen* of their results, genetics has olarie fled the basis features of genotype structure, the amehabism of hereditary ? charaosters and the nature of variation. Yet, MAW geneticists were soaroely? or only superfieially interested in essential evolutionary problem. For the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trani ? 4.993 . 4 last deoads, hOwever, an intensive unification of elkesieel evOlutionalf biolea and etperimentel and theoretical collation has taken place. An espobially liportant stage in the swim) of the creation or a VOW Arend in the,etudy of Wielutionary proceeses was the appearanee of S. S. Chetverikov94 Olaccioal Work [entitled] "About some Ahmenti of the 4evolu-- ' tiotary pieceSe frnn the viewpoint of oontemnorary ?cenetios" (1920). ? At the close of the 2.0stiee there began to develop a new trend in the study of evolutionary zzochanisili ? that was based on an eicpirrimental,ahd theoretical analysis of cenetio phoneme. 1 a ocourring in :populations that ; underlie the--formation of the latter .systenatio catecories and species: Thi trend can be called nstioreevolutionare. ttiereeVolution amounts to "mime ? phenomena and preceesese ocourrinc On relatively small areas and in cm* paratively short sigments Of time leadinG tethelortation of .elementary moolutionary phoneme's' and to the foriation of lower taxonomio units, avo hence, le conduolve to a direet and accurate experimental and ittaar-atinal analysis. S. The theoretical analysis of microevolutionary phenomena must be based on the eum total of our coltenperary, explioit blowier, of heredi- tary and variation phenomena and make use of "preeise definitions aal curate mathematical methods for analysis end for the establishment of Latta Irate oqrdttiono for the systems under study. Zn this .sense the study of ;dor?. evolution ..is of special interest also to sathetatioians whO in their o..nalysie require the use of contemporary methods of rAthehatical locio, theory of probability and tathematioal , tatiatiosi the fundamental principles of . such sathomatical analysis of mioroevolutionary phenomera were laid in the . works of S. S. Chetverikov (1916, 1926), V. Volterra (1931),?. F. Cause ? (1934), A. T. tol=egorava (1935), V. Ludwig (1933, 1939, 1940, 1943), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.993 & Mau,. (1939), S. 'ftrig1t.(1931, 1932, 1938, 1938, 1940), I. A. Fisher (1932. 1938, 1939) and Haldane (1924.1934, 1932, 1936. 1939). Apart from this, howevor, aoourats consopte of the evolutionary escheat's* and of the strueturs of evolving tevoliniruiushehikh) systems ean, as types of the governint systems of a higher- order, be of interest to eybernatios. In sonneetion with the above, lath.. present brief report an attempt is being *do from the biologioal point of view, to give a sufficiently accurate d?. finition and formulation of the basic concepts with whish one must operate ir moking a study of miorowvolutionary presses. A definition and brief deseription of elementary phenomeno, evolutionary material and factors which must be taken into oonsidoration in any serious disoussion of the source of evolutionary pr000ssos will be given In a further statement. Definition of concepts of the evolutionary process and elementary evolutionary phenomona 4. C. Darwin demonstrated that at the foundation of a grandiose, directed and regular evolutionary praises of living organisms on our planet lie statistieal, non-direetional and *fortuitous* variation phenomena, under the influence of the principles of the strugglo for oaishenoe and natural selection witioh he diseovered, a fortuitous and noadireetional variation [Begirt p.819) is direoted into a cbcfinite ehanael of the evolutionary prowls. that occurs on TArth (Darwin. 1895). Renoir, in evolutionary dissuasions and in plOtting Ipostroeale) of evelutiocary schemes, elementary errors in mixing of plans must not be per. mittedc (to wit] in proceeding from the tiondiroctivity of elementary 'aria. 111 tion pr000leses and from, a serios of evolutionary msehanisms, to forget about the general directivity and regularity of the evolutionary process as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. *0993 a whole or even rorses to impart direotion and repdarity discerned in the course of the evolvtlotary process into discussioes of all eleventary phenomena and Nechanisme or evolution. Al in a study of the role played 'by micrephysical phetomene le biololys the maorophysioal Objects in tyhioh 'hey proceed must not be fa:Totten. (Ti2ofeeveresovskii and 1,ampes Me), no in making a study of evolutloe Rnds in particulars of the elementary pheno. MOM and processes that pederlle its tve plans mnst net be forgotten: the quantitative.statistioal elerxntary phenomena v41.0 mechatism on the ore hands and the historically directed macronvolutioftary process on the other hand. Itenoes first or alls it is eusential to define the maoroevolutIonary process. 5. In the briefest .lessible l'ermulations the fundamental oharaoteristios of the mecroevolutiorary process can be defined as follows: on our planet we call evolutioe the hirterical ebaeee oceurrin:-, in livine oreaniems that is characterized by- tbe process of phyloi-,enetie differentiations eveluionary adaptation and ontoenetic differentiation upon which evolutionary ,;rogrese is based. A eescriptIon of the individual etai:ess special phenomena, t4r13 also of the trend and the phenomenolotioal reeulaeities of the entire pro? cess as as4hole covrise the subject of macroevolutiorary lnvestiLations. Powevers a creative stAy of evolutionary mechanism requires, first of alls that en atta.pt be !Tette to elucidate what type of elementary phenomene undere lie the evolutionary process, ors -ihich amounts to the same, to establish necessarily what phenomenon comprises the prerequisite essential to the occurrence or the evolutionary process. ruoh an essential prerequisite ?Aso will be the "elementary evolutionary phenomenon,. 6. Before an erect definition of the concept of an elementary evolu.. tionary phenompon is formulated, it is necessary t remeMber the euxuTtrx.;rutal Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) rroad. .4.996 chatooterietioe of the adtual oistence of liVinz pm:mists on Earth. .She most charactoriatic and interestirc feature of life on 'Earth is ite quantum state,- ar dinbotituity of forms. On our planet all livinc orcaniote aotually,toprosontod, by cpeolos i.o. by diScroto corphophysiolocical, croups of indiVidaale and coparapho-coolcidOl force 1)ers6'onotn,,,,, comral oheraptotio., tics aod a dOfinito realm of ,distribution, potontiolly capable eeroSsilis vith eaoh other. and of intertinclings yet andor oonditions coroletoly, ' or a1mastoo7p1oto1ibiolec1cally ioolated Cram other oimitor group. ? The merphoihrioloical mooninc pith? Conception of tipoples can be vcry difforent in varlouS largo, laxOto7io subdividions,of livintorcaniame. cpoolso are united in a taxoneMic..hioratchle oystera of higher aatacorios refloeting Veriano ?taco? of phylOconotio differoatiation. Vuither on. thO' ? groat evolutiorry irportance.of'4* fOrdation of opooled t7ilt be cOtasisod - as the root essential ph000 in tho process of the ovolutiOn of orconinmsand of their adaptation of a biosphere; .The formtiOn of species to, hcrover, ?a comply= and oonolusive level of microeVolatioi ands therofere1 the forna'm tion of a tart opecies cannot be recorded as an olomontary evolutionary,. phonOmanon. 'Ail epeeist) of liviac Orval= moupi on the tarthfie nurface opoolfip area?, hut the individuals or am crooks are noVor diqtributod , evonly within the boundarieo of their rcalm. zn sOme,spoolos (in bet or them) tho,ltdI;riduals Eflecin p.6201 fort doparati, territorially diesoanted Groupe Of varicuo sleep; in:othcro,rith mdro or loos oontiasally poinlatod areas the population density is never uniforms .there develop individual areal, of oencontmtion of Individuate that ore divided byeansidorabiy looi. donco1y. populated areas. Ouch? individual, territorially coparotod croups or oon.. Pentrationd of individuate among thich a apro Or less sadden orcedits rad lotorninatinc aotualli odour (1.6. pannIzia to really ocoomplibhed to a. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans ? A.993 certain degree) are called populations. Populations are the lowest and the elementary form of group existence of the individuals of each species; the -sum total of the individual populations and the areas which they occupy form the General biomass and the realm of species distribution. Thus, populations are elementary groups of the historical existence of the indivi- duals of a species in nature. Each population (with the exception of specific cases in which the population was formed by one elan or one pure line) is very heterogenous an regards its genetic, composition because it 'consists of a Mixture of different genotypes; in addition, thi different populations within the limits ea species always, to eome degree or other,. differ statistically from each other as regards their genotypic composition. 7. Proceeding from the above statement, an elementary evolutionary phenomenon, without which the course of the evolutionary process is ums thinkable, can be defined as follows. We call a more or loss lonparangi alteration in the genotypio composition of an individual population within the limits of a species the evolutionary phenomenon. Such de- finition satisfies two fundamental conditions; it is scarocely possible that on the basis of the sum total of our present knowledge a more elementary evolutionary phenomenon could be found and, on the other hand, it is impos- sible to imagine an evolutionary process not connected with changes occurring in the genotypic composition of a population. To realise an elementary evo- lutionary phenomenon, it is essential to have material in the form of heredi- tary variation and to have factors under the influence of which changes in the genotypic composition of a population are produced. We shall consider below the individual problems concerning elementary evolutionary material and elementary evolutionary factors. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - (8) , Trans. A.993 Elementary Evolutionary Mkterial B. C Darein believed quite correotly that the notarial bricks of a kind, that are Used in constructing the.aolutinary? prom's, are hereditary variations emerging constantly and Omar present in all populations of living crganisms. But in his time practically nothing me known 0-the nature an the elementary units of, hereditary viriation. At present, axe perimental cenotios has swum' lilted a grott deal of Ka torial:- on hereditary variation for a.whele series of species of animas, plants and microoraanisme: We know that 'elementary units of hereditary variation are mutations that . emorge discretely and eing/y, and after their eisrge'nce are inherited in accordanoe with the well investigated mochatilasi of the transmission of in., herited elementary characters. We know also the natUre. of notatione that can be subdivided into three basio types:.) ior* rotations, i.e. changes oceurring in the structure of a dpecific individual gene, b) chromosome natatices, i.e. changes occurring in the structure of one or sorrerni chromosomes based on original ruptures or breaking of chromosomes and not necessarily accompanied by thanges in any individual genes, and c) gown)* mutations, 1..e. changes in the number of one, several (heteroploidy), or all (polyploidy) chromosome of a specific. selection. [Begin p.5211 Liven though there is rotatively little probability in each individual mutative act, in view of the large number of geese and. of the capacity of breaking intergenic conneotions vrithin the genotype of each species, the total number of notations emerging in the gametes of cm, generation IS roalitively large in all, species of living organisms, numbering from single percentages up to a oouple of tons of percentagei containing some kind of gamete Mutation per generation. Such putative process occurs in all living organisms, span. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A.993 taneouely, i.e. 'without any operatic experimental influeneek from without; 'under the influence of Come shemioal arid physical restore, particularly 'ionising radiation, the pereentnge of the emerging imitations can be notably ? ,inoreased. ? Besides these mutations whieh are a resultant or ohrolososaes feints!! in !sell nuclei and of the gehes kocated within them, we know of only one more typo Of hereditary ohnnge -, the sodscalled plastid mutations in green plants; plastids having i.ta' a Considerable measure autimomy and develop. ing independently by mane- of extranuoles# formation can, similar to gem], endure structural alterations that are trannmitted further through inheri? taus to a chain of progeny or the changed plastid. Any. other type of ex.. tranuolear, long?term hereditary changes or real non.Mendelian.heredity.have not as yet been eetabliahed'ivith sny -certainty, regardless or a huge *mount of experbeental !material (perhaps, with the exception of a few individual interesting mese of cytoplasmic Virus transmission). Some oases of cyto. plasido inheritance of a series of properties obverved in distant hybridize... ? tion upon exast and long analysis carried out by the method of 'crossing were, fowls! to be recultant of temporary disharmony between a genotype and ? cytoplasm that were alien to each other; in the course of time the disharmony yam eliminated as a result or ?binges. occurring in the cytoplasm under the influence of a genotype that was new to it. From the above statements it follows that the well known mutativa pro- cess 10, if not the Only one, then in any case the principal one, quantitatively' absolutely dominant. source of elementary hereditary changes (Dobrshanskii, 1937; kEller [hiller), 1929, 1940; Reichert, 1939; Morgan, 1932; Timofeev- Resovskii, 1937, 19404 1943; Schwanitt, 1943; etubbe? 1937, 1938). 9. Elementary hereditary changes *must serve as elementary evolutionary material. Such changes, as has been said above, are mutations.. Consequently, , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. A.995 we met recognise that, the mutations well known to as are elementary evolutionary materiel. Certain dementia must be made or the sum total of elementary evolve tionary material that it met satisfy. These demands include the followings a) evolutionary materiel met include variations of writ eharacteristies of a siven specie* of promises; emerging in different directions and with various degree of pronounced deviations from the original type; b) variants met, at least in part, have positive or negative selection value, i.e. they must influentss such general biological properties of organism as relative viability under specific ?auditions, potential reproduction, sexual selection and biological isolation. etc.; s) nriatime must occur under natural condition* and, oonsequently, met be *ordained in various eoneentrations in natural populations of organisms d) differences between historically ranged lower taxonomic units met be reduced to various embinations of the cans variations, while some of the latter met come out upon an independent evolutionary arena having occupied a specific arca. Degin p.322). If it were taken into consideration that elementary evolutionary material is represented practically in its entirety by varieus types of mutations whieh we knot from experimental genetics, then the demands listed above should be made of the latter. Further we shall consider the extent to whisk the mutative process satisfies these demands. 10. A large quantity of natation" found and studied in various species of animals, plants and mitroorganisme has demonstrated that the latter could &freest any storphologleal,physiologisal and chemical oheraoteris.. ties that generally are present and vary in a given species. Besides, mw charaeteristies could deviate very strongly from the original type and cause clearly patholo&loal oonditions (often lethal for homosygotes), or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A.093. ? properties tharaoteristio of eupraospebiflo differences, as well as' coarsely Otable, Pregnantly discernible only with the aid of Opeoial * methods, quantitative deviations from the original type. They, consequently, 'satisfy fully the first domend. It was demonstrateg in a whole series of speolil investigations that irarioue mutations can to a noticeable degree exert influents* upon a relative viability (in a homozygous state sore often. decreasing it, and in a heterozygous state increasing it), upon produetivity ann upoti any other general biological property in Organism. at the same time, their action any vary under different external condition/ and in a co4Anation with various ether mutations. This explain/ the possibility a , carrying out selection. for the purpose if inereasing or decreasing the degree of profoundness Of any charaeteristics or oombinations in cultural plants under oontitions of artificial selectIon. Moe intations satisfy the seeoad of the above?montioned requirements as well. Iwo more general properties of the mutative process found in all living organisms must be emphasised. The first one a +toss is that .the maj ority of mutations occurring in a homosygmi state decreases viability, or produces even ? lethal effeoti this I. not surprising, since in a harmoniuous system of any organics., well arranged by natural selection, sudden changes tend sooner to decrease than to increase its property. This, however, by no means ? deprives the sum total of mutations of the possibility of representirt material for the evolutionary process, but merely decreases the pereentage ? of mutations that could have been caught up by the flow of natural selsotien. - The ascend one, a specially important_ property of the rotative procenu found in all organism_is contained in its *suddenness?, or, in C. Darwin's tormihology,. "indeterminism". idatations sauce deviations from.the original type in any 'character, in various degrees and in any direction without showing any northo. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (t2) Want. 11.993 ; .genloit," or purposeful direotivity; nor does hereditary variation pottese. any characters of "adequate relations with environment", detpite the feet that, as Mentioned above, some chemical and physical teeters are capable of influeneing. quantitatively the percentage of evorciog mutations, sometimes oven selectively. 11. Apt the becinning of the current century, some biolo,-;ists ad. vented ah argument agalnst the evolutionary importance of mutatilns to the effect that mutations really are the artificial product of domestioation and laboratory conditions, and that they play no role whatever under natural canditionei even their emergence and presence in natural.popelations beeame a subject of doubt. With the development of genetics:and the experimental use ?f an inoreaping number of natural, wild speoiee and farms of animals and plants, data multiplied on the high degree of the heterozygous nature of individuale from natural populations on a whole series of mutations knoWn from laboratory experinenti. Since the middle 20-ties, as a tet.ult of the olastical we)* by S. (14 Chetverikav (1920) mentioned earlier, speoial in. . vettigations have teen conducted (4 the method of ihbreedinz; of a larze blather of tndividual specimens from natural populations) first with Dr000tAili and:then with a series of other.objecta pogin p.3241) (for the purpote of) determining the cenetio composition and the degree of heterosygosity of natural populations by the different nUtations. It 40011.beealli clear Vutt all natural populations contained the most varied mutations in different concentrations, in most cases lo W ones) In species centically investi., Catad.*most of these mutations wirealready known due to their emergence in the laboratory.or'in. field experiments. At present, the analysis of the'genetio composition of the different natural populations under various conditions and at different times . in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: .CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - (13) Trans. A-995 relation to their sise, territorial dissosiation, physiov?geographioal and .? ecological otruiitiens ? comprises ,s? vestal tehetics division population ? genetics. Population-genetic exporivonts accompanied by en exact meths.i matioal analysis of border-line conditions oaf Populatien-dynastios syetesre are a very important part of the work involved in, the 'study 'of minroevolu. ? , ? tionary processes. At present, in any oases there. is no doubt whatever that the notetivi'prooliss takes piesi in, natuiv the Came as in a laboratory and that 'all, espeoially e .../1 123 .44 to 1 i r4 : :4 ? .. tri 04 g ill 4:1: .41 :col 0 r4 "- 14. Act. fluoresoeno . a B. coli / . / /// /#/ . IM/ /H. /# ## / ' 11// .. _ I " as / / - . ' ' " ? - ? .. " " ' in ? / . I. - /Ill /#/ ? ///14 ? / IMI ;?,/ # . 0 , / / - . " ? - ? .. " / / / AI/ M " ? " It . - .. , . ? .## ##/ " I #/# ." / so . "? -## 1/11/ ? a I at ... Ai r## MY/ ? is B. proditgiosam Btayh. aureus Bad. subtilis ? fifycob. B..5 . Beecher. cerovisiae t7illia anemia .. Eporobolemyces philii. Pt--Tvf7. Aspergillua nifter Vertiollitun dahlia? Penicillium ehrysozenum Fusarium solani ,e, ' 'Begin p.10] ' If one would proceed from purely morphological and cultural featzres? Otto could suppose that the species of Globienorin group, (sited here, wore phylogenetiaally close to each other. And if this were so, then one could obtain fron them menetypic variants on the basis of purely genetical pro- misee. This genetical analysis of -cultures was conducted by a method of ? comparison of variants, which were obtained from different exa. aped ortanismn. In due course we established by this method of ezperimental variability c Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIALRDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A?998 relationship among the representatives of bacteria of genus Pseudamervie in nodulea.forming bacteria and in various grasps of ray fungi aetinoMyeetes, proaotinowyeetes, woo-bacteria and myeecoocoi (Krasilsnikov, 1930, 1947). In our researeh we subjected representatives of Act. atreptosvaini, Act. aciskat.....?rus Act. fluorescems? Act. levorie and Act. vulgar's, to tenetie analysis. We utilised the Method of shattering the heredity on the one hand and ?traininz on the other for obtaining variants. In the first case, Qui!. tures were snbjeoted to the influence of 'special agents ? irradiation with ? ? tY7 rays, actirsophacy, influence with antibiotics supraeptimal temperature and others. Variants, which were obtained nepontnneousle without am special influences, underwent studying also. In general, we tad ever 130 variants. Among them 73 were obtained from 10 strains. of Act. ft. 1.:salmsiti...?11. 10 variants from 3 strains of Aot. globisiorus, 11 variants from 4 strains of .Aat. toxicus 16 variants from 4 strains cd' Act. levoris 9 -variants from 3 strains of Lot. fluorescene (e) and 0 variants from 3 strains of Act. vulgaris tRegist p.113 Variants of every species were distinguished one from another by the character of growth of colonies, by the 'hada of color of the aerial sops colt= (pals yellow, light pale yellow, white or dingy pale yellow, and others)f the lower part of colonies in some variants was colorliensin- others; brownish, sometimes reddish-brown or yellowish..brown. name variants' tinted the sub.. stratum into blue color, others into pinkish, brownish-pink or brownigh.green and simply into a brownish color over the synthetic ;medium SR..?. * "law variants ? ? The composition of nutrient media R.P, and others was cited in N. Krmaillnikovi books "Aotinonvcetes*antageniste and antibiotic substancee. Moscow, 1950. Declassified and ApproVed For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) . Trans. AI-4198 . remained colorless on all media under different conditions .of growth. We did not observe any noticeable deviations in the structure of the myoelium, sporangium and spores during .this research. The usual physio-d. logical or biochsmical peculiarities also did not change appreciably.: In some variants only the weakening 4)f this or another enzymatic 'function as noted liquefying of gelatin, decomposition of attars and forstation of acids, and some -others. In some variants the described diverge:lass stood out 'very sharply. 'Without 'knowing the origin, such 'variants could have been taken for separate species. Simultaneously with studying the cultural-morrhological and physiologi- cal properties we also concentrated our attention on the modification of anti- on biotic indicator*. The variants under examination were grown.different nutrient media 'under various conditions of growth, in a state of rest and on a rocking device. !Mowing that the costposition of the nutrient [Begin p.121 medium and the conditions'of aeration play the most essential role in the tori. . mation of antibiotio substanoes, we tested various sources of nuttition -and of aeration at different degrees. AS a result of all this research we had variants with different activi- ties, strong and weak. Among ivanereus variants of Act. stroptomycini there were strains, which were almost devoid of activity, that gave, under the best conditions of growth, not more than 5-20 units/al. There were also such the activity of which surpassed the activity of the initial culture by 6-10 times (table i). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (Is) 'rano. 4771,0 Table 3. Activity of the obtained variant* of Let. streptomyoini in unit 1. Variants , Activity _ Variants Activity Initial strain 100-200 Variant* 88, 265 and others 600-700 Variants 510, 625 and others 5-20 " 24, 66, 372 700400 Variants 113, 420, 625 and .200-300 " . 33, 38, 214 and . ?others others 800400 Variants 68, n 91, 674 400400 " 306e 896 and others 900.4,000 Similar data were obtained also in variants of. other species of globisporin group. Decrease of activity in some arta increase in other varie.nts. The formation of variants with a degreased activity was noted the more often. Cultures with a high antimicrobio activity were obtained very rarely. As it is seen. from the above cited, the antibiotic characteristics of actinotareetes ,thanged fairly strongly in a quantitative respect. We have a different picture as to the qualitative changes. egin p.131 ? Tests of variants have shown that neither the antimicrobial speotrum, nor the charsoter of the mutual antagonism have changed. In variants both were similar to those in the initial cultures. All the 73 variants of itt strontarTeini had the same antimicrobial ?? characteristics as the initial cultures (see table 2). They all inhibited the growth of gram - negative bacteriall B. colt 8. nrodigiostan, Ps. fluorescens, Pe. aurantiscus, and others, and gram- positive - Staphylococci, sporogenous bacteria, mycobaoteria, including the tubercular rod, then certain yeast and yeast-like organisms and fungi. Possessing well expressed antiaotionsycetesi Characteristics, all the 75 variants, as also. their initial strains, did not inhibit the developeent of their own cultures. They did not mutually inhibit each ?that-. *ter 464-ast...ameamalr.imisirbi,t-sarkek,-(43443, They interacted upon each other as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14) Trans. A?998 "otvivti" 'Offspring/of one and the same culture. They all reacted monotypi- cally to the influences of other species of tOtinoxycetes. In other words, . all 73 variants, with t great diWersity of cultural peculiarities displayed antibiotic, characteristics, charsotirof antagonism in the WO way as the typical initial Culture (table 1.). The same data were obtained also in variants Of other species of globi, sporin group. All 16 variants, obtained from 5 strains of,Act. globisporue differed noticeably culturally, but did not dhange either the antimicrobial speotrua. or the character of the mutual intraspeciflo and-interspecific anta- gonism. Al] the 18 variants, as one, inhibited the growth of those bieteria, yeasts and fungi as did thi 3 initial strains, or as their typical re- presentative (table 2). we did not notice any qualitative deviations from the initial strains in antibiotic characteristics of 11 variant* of Act. begin p.141 toxicus, of 16 variants of Lot. levoris and of 8 variants of Act. fluoreicens. We used the method of induced mutability or the directed method in order to change the antibiotic characteristics in aotinomyoetes of a given group. In one of the series of experiments the cultures Act. streptomycini were asegttlis the filtrate of different variants of Act. globispotus, Act. toxicus and Act. levoris. The length of treatment of filtrates differed from 10 hours to 1.5 menthe. Cultures were kept at room temperature. at 25' C or 37?C. In another series of experiments we used phages as weotors for the trans- forming substance. There are indications in literature about the fact thtt individual phages have the ability to transport the transforming substance trots one culturo to another. As a result, the receiving strain acquires the properties of the leading strain. Such changes were described for strains Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (15) Trans. 4-998 B. soli - IC-12 rith the assistance of the.special tage (lambda). Sermonti (1957) observed similar changes in actinomycetes under the influence of special actinophages. A colorless variant of Act. ooelicolor. after an injection with a phage, just obtained from the initial pigmented culture, gave colonies of a darkAlue 'color, which was peculiar to the basic tattle/. culture, We utilised '19 differobt aotiriophages in.our experiments. Among them there were some characteristic (monovalent, which affeot only the tested actinomycetes) and some non-charaoteristic fbr the utilised cultures (poly-- valent phagis). [Begin p.15] During experiments of both series, we influenced 15" different culture*, which belong to 3 speoiess 8 cultures of Act. 'streptomycin!, 4 strains Act. ? globispbrus and 3 strains Lot. levoris. ? Results of our experiments were negative. We did not succeed in changing the character of antibiotio "roperties in tested strains either by treat- mint with filtrates of leading cultures, or by phagous corpuscles. We hid. variants, as in the preceding experiments, which differ considerably from the initigi Strains in cultural and certain phyeiologioal properties. ?here. were many forms, which were characterised by aotivity. But not in one single case could we obtain variants which would be qualitatively different in antibiotio properties. We did not observe such kinds of changes in actino- mycetes after whioh the new forms would synthesise a new antibiotic, that was inappropriate to the initial culture. All variants of Act. streptomycin/ synthesised streptomycin or globisporin. From' variants of Act., levoris we obtained only slevorinff t,ut no other eztibioties. Neither were antibiotic properties qualitatively changed in any other species of the globisporin group. Antibiotic substances, which are peculiar Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (18) Trans. 4-998 to Act. toxious, Act. vulFaris, Act.elabisporns or Act. fluoresoerts? re ?????????? mained ?unohanged in their variants. Only the intensity of their formation and of their accunulation in the medium were sheared. Consequently, the ehharaeter of antibiotic properties appenre to be a hereditarily securely fixed1 extrenely? stable feature. In the sem* way as the morphologioal character of spored.bearing (structure of sporangia and ot spores) the ability to synthesise characteristic antibiotics did not change qualitatively under external influences and under different oonditions of the growth of producers. 'Begin T1.163 The described stability of antibiotic properties is not a special ease for the globispnrin group. The hereditarily fixed stability, in relation to synthesis of specific antibiotics, was observed by us in other groups of aotino- myoetes s in gray forms of Act. grisinus. white - Lot. albus, pigmented - Act. violeoeue, Lot, ooelicolor, Act. aurentiacus. The stated material gave us the basis to consider that; I) specific antibiotic substancse appear as a very stable hereditarily transferrable charaoteristio. This feature is more stable than the ability to synthesis* many other metabolites; 2) antibiotics are extremely specific,, and by their character they determine the eharacter of interaotion of microbe*, which produce then. Owing to these peculiarities the mierobe-mnte.gonists, which fora the specific antibiotics, can be well differentiated and reoognised; 5) antibiotic.., as a specific, biologically effective feature, !oust be utilised in systematies of aotineetycetes, and, perhaps, for all microorganisms also; 4) the feature under consideration, nevertheless, is appropriate only in oonju.notion -4th basic, morphological, cultural and physiological oharaeteristios. It cannot be used as a basis feature; E) antibiotics and the ohmmeter of anta- gonism must be accepted an a secondary, very exponential specific feature only Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (17) Trans. JVW110 ? for.tha subdivision of morphologically and culturally similar groups of microbe-antaganists. (*.gin p.17t ISTBRATURK Albert A.,' Nature, v. 172. 1953, N4370, p.2014 Biochem. J., v.54, 1953, p.297. Krasilonikov, N. A., Ray fungi'and organisms related to them, 1938. Moscow. Kraailenikov. N. A., Key to ray fungi. .1941. Moscow. KratiPnikov, N. A.. Roy to bacteria and actinompates. 1949. Moscow.. Krasillnikov, N. A., Concept about a spools* in bacteria. Shurnai obshdhei biolOgii, vol. 8, 1947, no. 1. Irasillnikov, W. A., AotinamySetes antagonists and antibiotic substances. 1950. Moscow. ? Krasilfniko*, N. A., About fntrao and interspecifio antagonism in micro- organisms. MU SUR. Now series, v. 77, 1951, no. 1. Krasillnikov, N. t., Intra- and interspeoifiO antagonistic interrrelation in mioroorganiams. Uspekhy sovremennoi biologii, v. 31, 1951, no. 3. Krasillnikov, N. A. About classification of aotinomyeetes, which produce antibiotics. Trudy Meshdunarodnogo kimposiuma (1-7 Feb. 1)5511956, ' Warsaw. Trudy 1-go Soveshohaviia pa aatibiotikam v Mosk:m (1955/1957 Moscow. Krasillnikov, N. A., Koreniako, A. T., Skriabin, G. K.. and Vikitima, M. K. , . About the character of interspsoific antagonism as a principle for recognising and subdividing 'spool's in microorganisms. DAN SSSR. v. 77, no. 4. Koraniako, A. I., and Rikitina, N. T., Report at the Second All -Union Conference on Antibiotics in May of 1957. Kuchaeva, A. 0., Report at VI' second All-Union Conference on Antibiotics in May of 1957. (Begin p.181 Ven!shikov? G. P., and Rubinshtein. M. M., Isolation of a new antibiotic "longosporin" and examination of its chemical nature. Lhurnal Obshchei Khimii, vol. 26, 1956, 2035. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?, AQJ 1 ? Mum ? ?.? ifuro**Avs. Semouti, G.. and Spada-Sermonti, I., J. Goner. zierotiol.$ v IF. 19F61 W4091 *tuns, v. 176$ 1966, p.141. ahnor, H. und 1tt1ithor L. hur Systematik der Antinomyostea. Aroh. f /11kroblo1.$ lid. 26, nr7? 3.307. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Arv.m.? Oillarov, M6 8. tsforsatsiia ob ergaelsatsii nitsionallnago komiteta Sovetskilttbiologev. tInfornatien oft the organisation of the National Committee of Sovist 1188R. Minister:two Aryeshego Obrasovardia. *oohs,. doklal, Tysehei Shkely. Riolog.' - *mkt, ita* $o p.1934.194, 1942. (lot is 714. Library) (in Russian) (In full) 'felt The taternitiona/ Union of Siologisal Golemoos esc found/id during the period fran the year Me to 192$1 nee it is ineluded in the International 411 Couecil of Seisntifie Voiems,ehieh unifies iniornationat ustions of various fields of felons*. The Toternational Union of Biological seieseee somusted 12 sossions of the General Assembly, sines the tins of its foundation. Meadomies of soienes, national soientiflo.prosearek 00enoilosand op/Delany forged matiooll oommitteos of about MO governments are moMbors of this Union and take part in its financings The Union at the present time ineludos several Emotions botany. biology of the oell, apology, entomology, embryolorf, biometry, genetioss limnelogy and niordbirlogy. It forms also the solontiflo?ressarob 00emlo.i slow, for inetanee, Commission on Applied Zoology end COMMUSIOK on a Siologleal Method for the Control sr Posts. The Union of pielogisal Saloom also takes part in the aotivities of unitod ooasdasions, consisting or reprosentativos of unions of different 410 fields of alliance, founded by the International Council of Scientific Unions (for instaoco? on oseenography, eleotron mieresoopy, radiobiology). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans4 Ac999 Tb, International Union of Biologist So tress Suppertid and even foundod solentificeiresearoh ostabliehmento" which gavewaitto seiontists of ail countries. Such are tho Naapolitan Zoologisal Station" Rtyo. logical Isatorstory in Uttwoht, international Organisation of Miernoopie ?monitions in /tattle' 001Intion of Oulturos of tioroorgenisas Sod Wild Spode* of trosephilA, International Nutt of ikumutterodity it Coponhagen and other' The Union of Siologisal Soioncos ?pointed a arise of international amnia in different titan of Noros. Asia and Awls's' the /Spate of which wares rote of mieroelomento in the physiology of plants' botanical, homenclatare, intonation of gametes' growth' dovolopmont and origin of the nervous system, gentile and eytelogleal tomenclaturo, physiological Sod grotto praline of esbryologye biochemistry and morphognesis, @Minis of insects with mieroorganisme, role of antorobes in stun" Soology of plants ander arid conditions" and *therm. Rosining with thi year 194T, the Onion Si millers& Map it the or* ganisation of intormationil engrosses for sciences of its profile (ecolegis. cal" ontomolOgical, betides', microbiologioal" and othors)s The Union. his in view tho 'conducting of annual conventions (*Ors than two a star). An important prOblca of the Union is the maiming of help during publications of oatalegun of varietios in National Mesas (1 list of tick vanities hos bon published); it has pros-rod for publication lista of a soologiete and of genetieiets (list of betas,* was patina& in t964) Works of thcloUrnetional Committoe on inlogioal" Naotorielogioal and Notanie. cal Nosonolature were published with tho help of the Vnion? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , (S) Trans. 6490 In acoOrdenes with deeisint of the Presidium, the Mildew Of SCUM' of USSR, personified by the Section of Biological Sciesses, has alio booms a meter of the Internatienal Union of lielegleal Soiseces tins, the year 19660 A SUOMI Coemittee of Soviet Biologist' Si formed for development and strengthening of oonneotions of Soviet biologist* with etrioue inborn national scientifie organinntions of biologists; it unites solentifie worker' of seientifie.researoh inetitutesi and universities, as well as in- dtvtdust Soviet soientists, whemork in the field of biology. Different SOOtiOOS are represented in the Committee in conformity with the etrueture of the International 'Union of Biological Sciences. Ii the field of botany: 1. General botany (Aeademicilatf. W. Subachev, Institute of Forest Industry Studies (Ifni of the Academy of Science, LW, OUR, Treponekto, *woos ?bleats). - S. Systematics (B. R. Shishkin Botanical institute of the Academy of Science, USSR, loningend); B. Anitemy Ohd morphology of plants (V. 04 AlOsandrov# Botanical Institute of Alr? Melo Leniograd). Phytiology of plant* (P. A. Genkeli, Institute of Physiology of Plant, of 416 USSR, Mosecw). fliegin p.104). 6. Osobotaky (14 P. Korot, *scow). 6. PhytopathoRegy (11. S. Dubin, Timiritmnrigriaultural Academy, *sow). ?. baleobotegy 4i. L. Takhtadshian, Botanist% institute of AS, USSR, Leningrad). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) ?MO, A*99$ S. History of Utak, (P. A. Barnum, Botenioal Institute of Al, USSR, Laningred). 9. Neology of Pleats (0.?. ielenshiii, Botesioal Institute 0434 UM, isalngrad). 2n the field of noolery. 1. General neology (Aosdendalaa H. H. Pimlovektis Zoological ISItitaittill of Al. Mito Leningrad). S. Hatosolocy (0. ia. Reidtionke, teelegieal Institute of Al, USSR, teningrads 111. S. eillerfro Loftin!' or ilorphology afkaimals OAT, USSR, Niseser). X. Rehryeiogy Asterevo Institute of Morphelogy of AMISia* of Al, MSR, NOSOWNS 11. P. ?Oki*, laniagred State University). 4. %oleo of Ands (i. I. Feressovo tomtits* of Geography at 116 01514 leoeve). Tit other fields of biolAW . 1. Nineties (N. P. Dubin*, tnotitute of liophysles of Al, USSR, MINNOWS . I. I. Xashdin, Institute of Gonsidss 01J, ussl, mos000). 1?; laerebtOlOgy *sheath** Inotitute if illorebioloa or mr, USSR, Thelasselogy (P. V. Ushahev, Zoologleal Xsatibtts of Al, UM* Lesingrads L. A. 2onkovieh6 Institute of Oesaselocy Oil* MR, lbseow). 4. iinstelegy (IL S. Gievehtia, Inoryhvies (Inseew Tsohnloal institute of nth Industry and Fisheries (Weal As LI altelab)11 la. V. Pell, Auto of Hydrobiology of Al, Ukrainian $U, Hire). ? V. Mr. ihaboabovvis approved ee Chairmen or the Committees I. S. Oilierer ea a Bsientifis Seerotary. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 [0i 111111II ? Morn At the organisational minims of the Committee L. A. Senkrvioh &men as VieesChairmass sad S. N. Pcvleveklis P. A. Mr ov L S. Oseverilas X. S. Wein and S. P. gory/visas members of the Presidium of the ceem4ttoo. The Committee feces primary tasks, whisk ars esmnooted with the eireulation of data in contrive *broad about the development or biology in USSR, with the preparetion of measures for tee partioipation by Soviet biologists in foreign (international aid metiomal) *ingresses, with the enlisting or foreiga scientists for.taking part in bielogioal esurrentions and senterenoes in the Soviet Vision. The Committee at inform the Soviet seientifio *este* about the work of internatioeal and national organisations of biologists and help in the development of book esehasges between the Soviet and foreign. biologisim. Vatioaal Committee of Soviet Siologists is attaohed to the Bastion of Siologleal, Selene,* of AX 6 =BR. The address of the Committee iss Ilieseees S-0714 lesinskii Prospekts ST. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013109124: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? riimmmilma Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 TIMM ? AND LUIA1 ? (zo tun) vex Courses for seed greweruagronemiste. Nakamura vol. 2, no. 6, p.$0. June 1957. 69.1 XP$. (In Russian) Over two thousand seed growieg farms (kolhhesee and sovkhoses) grow seeds of double interlinear, varietplisear and intervarietal earn hybrids. In order to increase the oualifioatisee of seed grever..agronomists of these farms, permanently funetiesisg study esurees were organised at the4111.Union Selentifie?aosearth Institute of Cern in Deeprepetrovsk, ie sonformity with the decision of the ISIC of IOU [Control Coomitteo et the Communist Pattfl and the Conseil of Ministers of VIM *About measures for transfer of hale hhoses and sovhhoses to planting **amyl.* hybrid seeds.' Speolallets fres sited growing farms of the Issolasroderotioaset the Ukraine, lasakhsbin, CoorgianSSR, Armenia, 5serhal3as, Voldavis, Vibek Tadshihstan and tirghis 651 aro studying here. The key Otos in the progrimn of the *purses was given ever to the seleetion sad seed growing or sera, to the aohievenents of the Soviet and foreign solostion seldom.. The prOhlems fon meshanisation, sultivation and harveetisg, mummies and organisation of growing hybrid own seeds are studied' in detail. The students of the sours.s bosom sognainted is detail with the *rotes of fertilisers is orop rotation, with prinsiples of building up crop rotations and the plump or cern in them, aloe problems of plant nutrition. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A*1000 A largo section of the program is se4ie4 by the seed*sontrol Job, by A methods for determining the qualities at seeds. Fusdamentals in drying, salibration and storing or seeds are also gives. Leetures about measures for the control of weeds, diseases and pests of seri are also oendsetul; Is laboratories the seed grower*agrememiste simey methods for detsrminktiom of the quality of les said material. Orer four hundred agronomists have already received their training at these esurses. lquipped with knowledge they will strive with a still greater energy for a fundamental improvememt if cora said growing and trine* for of kelkhesse and sevkhoses to its plantiegwith hybrid seeds. Title of figure 1. Title of figure 2. A group of seed-grewer-agreasmists studyiag seed graying solosee. Seed grewer*agramemisis derives studies in the phytepathelegy laboratory. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?TIMM. iloo 0.11 sreg 8o1weev. 8. P. Proisvoistvo gihridnykh soda kukurasyv 883X !Production of hybrid corn seeds in 883Il Tessoiesn. Obohoh. pe Resprostramenitt relit. t Inuoh. Znanii !Iroshiury?Itenegrammy ler. 8A, (Geliskekhos. Ber.) 4, 3Ip* 1988 20 1191, (in Russian) Table of Goatitate Certeill ilkroleatiOn 0 Ora ktibria* Page 4 Produotion of Ilybrii 00,111 4100411 in ?12 Rasta peoulbtrities of growing hybrid corn mods 19 The Soviet people are putti vitt groat enthusiasm the measures *Mob were projeoted by the Party and the Government for 0. sharp rise in agriculture. for 4 total inerease in grain yields and, ia the Out* put of animal husbandry products. kmovement ha* developed around the eountry for serryineout the most imporiemt problems, 'Molt wore *et out by TeX of.088 !Central Committee Of the Communist Partylr to over-tskm the 034. in tho next few years in tho produotion of meat, milk and bettor per head of the population. Corn to the most important reserve for the ingress* of grain produo- tion, as well as of sucoulent and green fodder for eattle. IR ocapliance with the resolution of the January Pion= of the TOL IPS3 (1958) the kol? khosee and scythes'', of the eountry have oonsiderably widened the area for planting of this crop. Corals,. **espies a substantial plea+, in sgrioul* ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A*10tat Ural production in almost ell region' of the country. The kolkhoses end sovishosos have considerably etrengthened the fodder has., inereased the productive ability of cattle sod raisod the output of prodoots of *Alma husbandry, especially of milk, odes to this crop. Obdo4hte41y, the ti? portant,* of corn will increaso with every year. During the past ',oars, arca* for corn plantings in baste regions of its cultivation for &rein has increased, so mush that its widening can be carried out only on an issignifteent seal.: Therefore, the rise of product* tion of corn must proceed, first of all, along the line of raising the yielding oapaoity of this crop. It Is known, that corm, unlike aiy other crop, possesses vast potential possibilities. It resets extremely woll to the stepping up of agroteekelos in its cultivation, to tho introduction of organic and mineral fertilisers, to the conduetimg of irrigations in arid rogions and by its high yields it mays, with intim% the resources *pont on its growing. As data of soientifio-researeh institutions show, as well the loading import.*** of kalkhosos and sovkhoses, a considerate inst.-ease it the yielding capacity of corn atm** achieved through planting this crop with hybrid seeds. Llogin p.43 less testings of varieties end hybrids of corn, whisky.** oonduotod during the coarse of maey years it the Stet* variety test plots, havo shown that planting corn with seeds of the best double ieberlinoar, end Utility saw also varietrolinear hybrids of the first generation, increases the yield by 2040 percent when eamparid with plantings of rogionelisted varieties. Taking into consideration the importance of transfer of kolkhoses and sotekhoses to planting corn with hybrid seeds, the nth Congress of the Cam? moist Party of the Soviet Onion has pointed out the neeessity ea* organise Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (1) Traits. A?1001 sation of production of ktbrid seeds of this sr" on a wile seal,. Certain ird'ormation on earn bribride Those organisms are 'ailed hybrids, whisk were obtained as a result of smiling of toms whisk differ one tree another, emeanding to their heredity. Biologioal Scions* has long ago established an important regularity, whish eonsists of the fast that the offspring, obtained from crossing sarelaised individeals, or those grew* water differing oonditions, in contrast to their parental forms adept themselves better to new oonditions of life. These offspring differ (in the first generation) by a more vigorous growth IM dirrelepsent, by an inereased vitality and productive eapasity that is, ? they give rise to heteresis, as it is oustemary to *all this peeuliarity. This method of hybridisation, whisk produses an bureau in the vigor of plants of the first generation of hybrids, has been known for a long tire. reser MsPreiter, Assistant of Beta', at the Russian Amber, was the first in the year 1760 to dissever this pheammenes. later on this 'nestle* of obtaining and utilisation of plant hybrids was developed in detail ia the teashing of the great Russian selsotioner ? traneformer of nature, I. T. Vishurin. In 1$76, Willie* Bill eendusted the first experiments on wrossitsi two varieties of corn at the Xiehtgan Experimental Station (n). IA our sentry the first works on the studies of hybrids of corn re? late to the year 1010. They we're bogus by the famous Russian scientist V. T. Talanov at the fields of the Experimental Station of the former Ilk Ikaterineelay district. The yield of seeds of corn JOAO Grusbevelsila X leasing in the first generation proved to be higher on the average, by 5.1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Treas. 14001 eentners per hectare than of the Orushevshila variety sad byl *outliers higher than of the lemelig variety. The vegetative period of the hybrid was isternediate between the two parental verieties. Preduetien of hybrid seeds of sets b* with a elople imbervartstal grossing or twomest eueoessfully selected, for the *peals natural eon. intones varieties of this crop. Nogta p.43 Nevertheless, as experiments have Shows* the possibility of obtain* *Aswan yielding eonbisations of intervaristal hybrids is eemparatively small. Neseerehhes shown that best results ars obtained free erossimg varies ties whisk belong to differ's* botanisal groups. Is the experiments or Aeadeniolan3. P. Sokolov the highest yield was produeed by hybrids, the parents of whioh were the best varieties of different botanical groups, regiona- lised for the givma sone. Further research has shown, that the highest increase in yield of corn is produced by teak hybrids in the formation of which take part not only armlety, but also a self-pollinated line, or several self-pollinated lines. What than is represented by a self-paltsabed line et cora and why to it so widely utilised for Obtainieg hybrids of this crop? Owe belongs to cross-pollinating pleats. Owimg to such a method of pollination the plants of the common variety of cern are very heterogeneous in their hereditary composition. tut this heterogeneity of the hetditary composition of the variety, as a rule, does met come through sharply as long as (kora is reproduced by the usual method. 110 Nevertheless, one can form, a corn plant to become pollinated with its Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 111W, ownpollen. For this purpose the fel. inflprescence (the sir of cora) and the male inflorescence (the tassel) are covered Op by insulators before flowering; when blooming begins the insulators are removed and the pollen, which belongs Only to the plant *question is traasforred to the ear of corn, ater that the finale inflorescence is again covered by the insulator. If the meads, obtained fro, each oaf-pollinated plant, are planted into separate rove, than each roi of plants will :differ fron,the initial variety in M great number of economic and botanical properties. If a forced oak. . pollination is conducted for eeveral generations, than the so...coned cielff., pollinated lime are obtained, ihiCh produce similar descendants. The first generation of the self-pollinated corn plant Shows a sharp diereses in the growth.of plants, reduction in the siae of corn ears end of 'the atount of cited* on thes4 as well as of the weight of geode. During further repeated selfpollinatioas the productivenese continues to &create, although not to such a degree as during the first year. After 4-5 times of repeated self-pollination the yielding capacity of self-pollinated lines decreases by 30-50-, and mere, percent eompired to the .yielding capacity of the original variety from which these lines were-de- veloped. At first sight it may Use that such weakened plants, which are obtained es a result of forced /Begin p.6/ self-pollination, are not of my value. Nevertheless, this is not so. Science and practical works have proved that crossing of anteleted in origin self-pollinated lines produces hybrids which, ' when compared with the initial lines always are characterised by highly increased productivity sad viability. Further crossing of such, specially salsoted'intadinearhybrids produces.doUble interlinear hybrids, which also are characterised by in, 'dressed vitality and yielding capacity. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Trans. A-lool Special Oroseings are conducted in soientifiosireseareh institutions in order to detest the most favorable combinations ,of self-pollinated. lines. The, thus revealed, valuable lines compOss then the initial ma- terial, whisk the seleotioners use for the production of hybrids, that are outstanding in productivity end other properties. The following corn hybrids are distinguished, depending on the initial for wl taken tbr crossing. Simple and double interlinear hybrids. Simple interlinear hybridi, as it was already indicated, are Obtained fro* crossing two self-pollinated ? lines. Owing to the fact that for obtaining seeds of simple hybrids there La required a great number of seeds of selfuvollimatedliens; they are. not used ter mammal plantings, but are utilised al parental Awns for growing double interlinear hybrids, In order'to grow seed. of a dbuble interlinear hybrid one Should first obtain two simple hybrids from different silt-pollinated lines, and then, next year, arose these hybrids with each other. ftbrid seeds, obtained as a result of such grossing, are the amide of the first generation of double interlinear hybrids. " Production of a goed double interlinear hybrid is a prolonged and oomplieated process, akida is aceomplished in scientific-research institutions. ? It consists in developing and *electing the best self=poilinated lines; in ? producing highly productive simple hybrids by means of selection and crossing of lines; and, finally, in selection of the hest awkinations of two simple hybrids for obtaining a high yielding double interlinear hybrid. A diagram for obtaining simple and double interlinear corn hybirds ? is aboun on page T. As it has already been pointed out, double interlinear hybrids of corn of the fitst generation are characterised by a particularly high Yielding Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-1001 - capacity. This is explained by the fast that several lines take part in their Ibrmation; these sake then more resistant to various unfavorable conditions of growth, as well as to diseases and posts. levertheless, one Should point out that not all /Begin p.7/ the interlinear hybrids are highly productive. Sighky productive hybrids are obtained only after a suooessful selection of pairs. The best doable interlinear hybrids have been regionalised by the Slate Commission on Variety Testing of Agrieel- taral Crops for various sones of the country. Diagram for obtaining a doable interlinear hybrid 27a3.4) I 'a /rale I Ilelf-palciinatad S5117po114nated S.lt.i.pelkins tad Self- lasted I Lim no. 26 \ /lin. n.. 2? line no. 28 \4 ...% ; / no. 29 Sispeissaattrlinsar hybrid I Simple ale rear hybrid \ ( ii) laskra" *Ideal', ye Double interlinear hybrid (first generation) wirlit no. 2 511 Varietr-linear ftrids are obtained after missing the common regiona- lised variety with a self-pollinated line or hybrid of self-pollinated lines (see diagram an page 8). Prodaction of a varietrainear hybrid also is a long and complicated process as it is connectcd with development of a self-pollinated line and with the work of correct selection of parental foals, in which rest the valuable hereditary qualities. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trani. *Alma The variety?linear hybrids, thich wre developed until the preelmit tLie, have a lower yielding cacsoity than double interlinear hybrids. Vito of late, e new variety-linear hybrid tokovinakil 3 we regicsallied for commercial plantings, which predates a yield siallar to any of datable interliasarhybrids. latervaristal hybrids are obtaised as a result of *moist two com- mon regionalised varieties (see the diagram). Aegis p.8/ Mamma for obtaining a variety4inear hybrid leurale Despropetrovek 8elf-pellinated line emr.sheriikairt 380' Hybrid (first generation) *Uspekh" This is the simplest and the fastest method for obtsiaing hybrid cora seeds. bet the hybrids, obtained as the result of nob crossing, extend in yield the usual regionalised varieties only by 640 percent. Diagram for obtaiaing an interwariet.1 hybrid yelde "Toroneshekaia 76 Nab Hale *Menke &at cora-1130' Itybrid (tint generation) tlforkeviseicii 1* As research has shown, crossing of two varieties, which sharply differ ? in vegetative periods, in the first generation produces hybrid., which ocoupy an inteneediate place between the parent., and which, nasally, more often appreaoh the early-ripening variety and rarer the late-ripening. Initain n-97 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans. A-1001 Table 1. Tielding capacity of various corn hybrids and of the common regionalised varieties ? Oa 1\ ?SACOOTO1D$ 'GO UOTAt Or OTASO variety zest plots limeher ktrids of experimeats Average yield of grain &ha) Excess of hybrid yieldi over region*. Begicaalised ? ? used varieties ? Hybrid* varieties in' fibs in % , "Ering"."-ifils 187 28.7 . 26.9 1.8 6.7 l'ervenets itostavskii 3.12 24.0 22.6 1.4 6.2 Odesskii 1 202 26.8 - 25.0 . 1.8 7.2 Donakoi 25 23.7 22.0 1.7 7.7 ? Bukovinskii 1 263 39.4 36.0 3.4 9.4 f ariet7-line ar t 222 ? 31?4 26.8 4.6 17.2 o Doeprovskii 2 54 22.3 18.7 3.6 19.3 Yrasmodarskii 4 32 44.2 37:4 6.8 18.1 Bekovinakii 2 ' 57 . 37.0 31.3 5.7 ..18.2 Bukevinskii 3 43 50.9 37.8 13.1 34.1 Double interlinear a ? 11116.25 129 34.2 25.8 8.13 32.6 V1R-42 497 32.5 25.0 7.5 30.0 VIR-37 18 45.8 36.0 9.8 27.2 VII&456 a .61.4 46.8 - 14.6 31.2 Bybrid populations Krasnoderskaia 17,145 46 47.0 111.0 6.0? 14.6 Footnote. idaen compiling yielding capacity tables of hybride and varieties at the variety test plots the most highly yielding varieties for the given region were taken for ?caparison. Intervaristal hybrids vent often ?cow a seediest place, compared to the parental varieties in the height of plants and "saloshenie" /setting?/ of sirs, ns well as in the .numher of barren plants, in the resistance to disease, in the yielding of stalks. /Begin p.10/ One should point oat, that the greatest inerease in yield of grain compared with the common regienalised varieties are produced by double in- terlinear hybrids (with the exception of the new variety-linear hybrid Bukovinskil 3); next in the die of increase of the yield, come tbs variety- linear, and, finally,- the intervarietal hybrids (see table 3.). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. A-1001 In 1957, under State variety testing there were, la oar sountry, n3 oors hybrids of the native and foreign *elections included in them were: 141 double interlinear, 20 - varistr-linear end 22 interverietal hybrids. At the present tine the &tote Committee on Variety Testing has regiona- lised for various ?blast, and krill& of the sountly 26 morn hybrids, among thee 10 double interlinear, 7 nriatrainear opt 9 Interroristal hybrids, and besides this oele hybrid population (toblo 2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?Table 2. Double Interlinear yeti Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Ift) ?rms. A.1001 t VI8.25 v13-37 vis-42 v 440 v IR.63 v R,43.7 faegla VIE-156 VIR-267 1112-2S1 Eraenadaraidi $ linkevineldi 2 ltektridnekii 3 Doeprovikii 2 Simple hybrids Iekre Rosa Legend* ileekta ?abode ?trade Volna Eramodarekil Variety Vo Variety Olorlia Variety Whit* Dent Thar. kw/elude 76 ? inter $imple hybrid, Ideal Zemit Onto& lasevet Progress Orel Orel Uzbek Varietrainear tbdds Self-pollinated linleObermovitekeia 21! Self-pollimated Ui. VIE-hir Self-pollinated lime Orushevekala 00 Kuban Experimental Station of VIE filllon Imetitute of Plant Industry/ and lioldavien beientitio-Essearek !Istituto of Apioultsre. Men Experimental Station VIE $1114 Severo-Osetinekli State ? Agricultural Experimental Statist Nubian Experimental Station *X VIE. Kahan Experimental Statioa VIE and Damodar Ssiestifie-Re- search Agrisultaral Institute the else reheat Experimental Station of YX and Zakerpatsk Oblast, Agrioiltural Experinental Station Islam Experimental Station of VIE lie same a a Stasmodarek Seientifie-Sisiersh Imetitate if Agriculture. Chermevitekeia Ste Agrieul- tural Eeperiment Station The same All-theion Seloatitic-lesearoh Corn Institute (Teas cont. on next page) - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12)1, Trans. A4001 ID Table 2(omat.) $ane of hybrid Deeprov skit. 56 Kollektivnyi Irasnodarskii 4 Uspekh Desenchukakii Bakovinikii 1 Voronesbakii Dneprevskii 3 Doaskoi [Begin pa2j Odesskii 1 bastevskii tharokravskii Kresnodar- data 1/49 Maternal fora Simple hybrid Iskra Varier Kinsesota 13 extra Variety Sterling Varlarty Dnepropetawskaia Variety Deepropetrovsksia Variety Voronesbakaia 76 Variety voreneskakais 76 Variety Mite Dent Shari- kevakaia Variety White Dent Mae- kovskala Variety Asepropetrevskaia Variety Beebe Variety Itinnesot* 13 extra Variety Khershovekaia 23 Paternal fens Variety Severodakotakaia Ar mkt* scientific -researoh iastitute it use developed All ...Olden Scientific-Research Go Institute. Self-pollinated line 0ruabevskais 380 The sane Krasnodar Sellentitio.Researeh Iastituto of Agriculture. Self-pollinated line deralbevekais 3801AllAkeiram Scientino-Seseareh Cara . institute. Interlinear hybrid Kraanodarskii 3 Intervarietal Hybrids Variety hosenobehekala 41 Variety zubovikpaia 3135 Variety White Dent Kbarkevekaia Variety Severodakotakaia Variety Veronesbaken 76 Variety Orasheveksia Odeseksia Variety Voronethakeia 76 Variety Oreshevekais Variety Voronesheksia 76 Hybrid populations Offspriag of idxture of seeds of four interlinear hybrids Kmihyabev State Agrieultural Maperinent Station. Chernovitak State Agricultural Saperi- Rent Station. Veronesh Agrieultural ixperineatel Station. All-Saioa Selentine-Researeh Dorn Institute. rate Rostov Iaspecui of the State Cemaittee cot Variety Twain of Agricultural Plan All-Unica Seimatifie-BeseazPob Selection- Osmotic Institute. Ukrainian Scdentifies-Desearob Institate of Agriculture. Nectar Inspectorate of the State Cam- matte. on Variety Testing of Agricul- tural Plante. Kharskev Iaspestorate of the State Com- mitts* on Variety Testing of Agricul- tural Plots. IKrasnodar Sonatina-Research Institute of Agrioviltere. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?13) Trans. At/WM& It is neoessazy to point out, that the majority of hybrid* of eorn, regionalised a% the present time, produce high yields of grain, Ail, in the yield of green mass they, as a rule, do not surpass the mama regions,. lisedvszleties. *widest eon hybrids were =trot created for any regions of the country. That is why the most important problem of the niestifie-researOb in- stitutions is the production, in the next few years, of such cora kybrids for various regions of the countzy, whisk would surpass the Gomm varieties not only in the yield of pain, toCt also in the yield of groom mass. Production of bybrid con seeds in USSR Data of misses and prseliee show that eorn hybrids predace high yields only in the first geseration, and ftrther on their yielding capacity is sharply reduced (see table 3). From the cited data it is seen, that after planting hybrid seeds of the amend generation the productivity of seeds is sharply 'advised /aegis p.13/. and appnximalWes the yielding 'spotty of the ?omen regimaalised varieties. Therefore it is necessary for +commercial plantings, annually, to grow hybrid corn seeds of the first generation, whin are ons of the most Loper. tent reserves in the raising of the produativity of *is crop. Iblkheses and sovkhoSes require hybrid seeds in all the regions of corn anitivatiom for grain. lielmalheless, up to recently the ergmaisation of prodactien of these seeds was poorly adjusted. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 WO ? Trans. Table 3. Productivity of seeds of cern *ben planting hybrid seeds a the first and MC MCI genoraw.on j, wocoraing co am Or MIL110 ? arms/ MSS new. lype of hybrid ? lame of8 hybrid ?' 1; i1. Mean yield of Wks) grain Deviation, of theylati of' hybrid of the second gene- ration Jeihat /41 e , 13.0 41i g N't Jr A , 4.(ci: 4. i l000 ef.1 104 t i g t IP Q z 1 Iniervarieial w Variety-linear Interlinear tonlicol ' lostdvakii Aspekb VIR0.42 , 1/ 6 15 5 i2.1 03.2 28.2 141.4 23.9 21.8 33.3 52.0 k2.3 20.3 30.0 43.2 -1.6 -1.5 -3.3 .6.6 /0.1 /1.8 ii.e - Aybrid corn seeds vera aroma in very small 'quantities on the initiative of leaders and agricultariste of individual farms. Only individual seienbLOo. researih.institutions were occupied with the production of seeds of self- pollinated linos; they, altogether, grew only ilightly over 15 oentners of sua seeds. lotaithstanding the groat soonest() value of corn, there was not one selentific-research Institution lathe country, which meld direst . the work of selection and sapertment stations on this crop and render than methodleal and practical help. The necessary control forth* gra/atm( of hybrid corn moods in kelkheies and sovkhosee vas also absent. Plantings of corn with hybrid mods of the first generation occupied insignificant areas. Is 1955, may 115 thousand hector's were planted to Ulm seeds, or about one percent of the totill area of corn plantings. ' In order to quicker and better organis* the work of seed greying of hybrid corn seeds. the Central Committeo of the Communist Party and lks Soviet of Ministers of WU on the lit of Marek, 1956. adopted /login pah/ .a resaution 'About measures for switching the kolkhoses and eovkhoses to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (15) Trans. A-100I plantings of corn with hybrid seeds: ATMs resolation established an order and plans for prodestioe ofbybrid cora seeds in the Vnionse republics before the pad of the Sixth Vive4ear-Plan; it created intoreetedness ie seed growing farm for growing and delivering each seeds to the State; it pro- vided for construction of special plants for treating sore seeds as well as for other options. At the present tin. great Stats inportanoe is attached to the growing of e)rn seeds. Deems of scientific-research institations and thousands of leading kolkhoses and sovkhoses were ettraeted to this work. The soieatifie-rasearah institutions are **basis (primer') link* in the oYotmo of mood growing. Taking this into consideration acoording to a resolution of the Osverament, the A11-0iio5 Seientific-Reeearch mitt. tat of Corn was formed; it was entrusted with 000rdinating all the soienti fie-research work on ars in the couetry and rendering methodical kelp to selection and experimental stations on selection of this crop. 'surto,* seleo- tioa and experimental *Wiwi* were transferred under its direst supervision. 241141111 ast, )7 of the biggest esientifie-researoh institutions were ad- ditionally enlisted for the work of production of seeds of parent*/ forms of ore hybrids. Thus, at the prevent tine over 0 scientitio-reseeroh that- tate., seleotioa end experimental station are now engaged, in the country, In the predestion of corn hybrids smiths propagation of seeds of their parental forms. These sciontifie.ressareh institetions develop highly yielding cora hybrids, 'high respond more folly to losal conditions? ere resistant to lodging mad diet/sees, are early.riptning and sold resistant, as well se ky. bride with sterile pollen on fowl* plants. Besides that they grow seeds of eslf-pollinated limes in 4/mettles which fakir provide for the prodvation of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A-100l seeds of simple interlinear hybrids, as well as elite seeds of varieties, that are the parental bus of variety-linear and intervarietal osrmrhybrids, until the letter e= be replaced by more productive ones. The All-Union Selentifio-Nesearch Institute of Corn and the scientifio- resetroh institutioms under its eupervisima are developing the most effective procedures of as-rote:Antos and methods for moshanisatim of cern cultivation, as well as studying other problems, whit are conneoted etth the increase of the yielding caposity of this crop. The propagated seeds of self-pollinated lines and the groin elite seeds inter through the atate procurement network 'begin 12,1$7 the second seed growing link - the spatially *sleeted 65 seed growing sovkhoses of the first group, whisk conduct plantings of the proper self-pollinated Anse on hybri- disation sectiove end, as a result of thoir crossing, obtain seeds of staple corn hybrids of the first generation. Amides this, these sevkhoses pro- Mete seeds of simple hybrids up to the second generation, whioh borrow the paternal forms of double interlinear hybrids, as well as seeds for highest reproductions of corn varieties, which are necessary for obtaining variety- linear and.intervarista hybrids. Tho seeds of parental forme of corn hybrids, grove at seed growing sevkhoses of the first group are transferred through the procurement points to seed growing kolkhoses and sovkhopes of the second group, of which there aro at the present time about 2 thousand. Mese farms produce on hybridi- sation sections hybrid seeds or the first generation of double interlinear, variety-linear and intervarietal hybrids of core. Allsoet ell of the gmni hybrid seeds of eon are delivered t?o the Government, retaining only a small quantity for commercial plantings. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %al/ 411"Wall. *brio sore seeds, *Leh aro turned over hy seed growing farm of the wand group, ere sold to kelkhoses endavkheses for growing am by the stores of the Ministry of Orate Predate. Wary seed growing farm has as agrisulturist, specialist in seed growing, who is, as a rats, seleated as a highly* qualified specialist with **Indent experience in prastial work. Large masers's were put aside for senstratios of special plats for the treateent of cora seeds, as well as for toasted equipping of se/esti- fie-researek institeticas, of sovkhoees ead kelldieses, whisk are engaged in the predation of hybrid seeds. Daring the an 19564957, 16 factorise were castrated in the amp. try for treatneat of coca seeds. The seed growing fares deliver hybrid seeds of ars direstly from fields to the factories. owes ears are stripped of their casings by neekleery, they adage heat drying and threshing, the sada are calibrated into grape awarding to sise sad fere, are disinfested and are filled into bags. Calibration of seeds helps the kelkhoses and sakkessa to plant into a hill by shookrew planters a strictly donate swat of seeds and releases then fres the nest labor-assuming work - the thialeg of corn plants. It is projected, in 1958, to ecnstrast 25 more suck factories, and 59 in the years 1959-1960. The total productivity of week factorise will rash 500 thousand tons of seeds per season. /Begin p.16/ Personal neonatal interest of fares, predmeing these seeds, helps a let in the saassful realisation of plans for prevision of hrbrid sada and of their parental ferns. thwrefere, the Ooveremest atablished increased fixed prises for seeds of self-pollinated lines and bybrid seeds Of the first generation sad iatrodaced a series of other advantages for these who deliver seek seeds. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 fr Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. A-1001 Every year speoial resoerees are pet aside for awarding premiums to worker* of ***hoses, N73 /kadalme-trester Stations], of agriselteral armies, seientific-researOh institntions, &airmen sad agriculturists of kolkhoses, workers of the proourenent orgotisatimes, who help in the falfillnent and ever-felfillnent of projects of prodeotion and delivery of hybrid cern seeds. In order to increase the qnalifiestions of soot growing agriculteriste, who work at seed growing farms, permassetly fanctioaimg stet, soirees were organised at the All-Union lisientifie-leseareh Destitute of Corn. Desalts of past 2 years showed that the new proton of seed growing of hybrid seeds of corn, formed in accordance with the instructioe of the Party and the Government, has justified itself fully. Owing to the wide rage of work on the prodeetiee of hybrid Dorn seeds, which we. Wotan in 1956, kolkheees and sovkhoses great, in 1957 have planted 2.5 million beetares with these seeds, or 22 Umtata" than were motet in 1955. The work proceeded, being still bettor ergoaised mod on meek older seals, on prodeetioa of hybrid core seeds in 1957, ntinn th. alsod growing fames and the selentifie-researeh institutions seqeired the meeessary experience. In 1957, the seeds of silf-pellinsted lines were grown on an area of 1,000 hectares in eaiestifie-researth institutions. Seeds of simple inter- linear hybrids were gram on an area of 7,402 hectares on hybridisatioa sections of used growing farms of the first group, and on motions of pro- pagation on an area of 61,114 Wiliam. Eybridiestion sections, 'here seeds of double interlinear, variety-linear and interverintal hybrids of the first Reparation were grown, ooeupied 263 thousand hooter's; included in times were the highest yielding double interlinear hybrids - 220 theasantikeetares. Ocaparod to the year 1956, the area of hybridisation sections of double in. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 fr Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . . VLIFi arams. A?XVVJA, terlinear hybrids has been immured by more than 60 thousand hectares. In the spring of 1957, the network of seed growing tams, which were selected in 1956, were revised. And, at that time, in the more northern regions of production of hybrid seeds, where corn does not attain full ripeness every year, the number of seed growing farms was reduced, and was increased in the sout.hern regions. this measure gave positive results, Pegin p.17/ because a further concentration occurred in the production of hyorid corn seeds in the regions,most favorable for it. besides this mum7 seed growing farms, which during the first year of their work had comparatively small areas of hybridisation motions, widened them considerably in 1957. In 1957, almost all the scientific-research institutions, which were assigned this work, mastered successfUlly the growing of seeds of mar- 1, pollinated lines. The scientifie-research institutions delivered to the ?averment 5,173 centners of seeds of self-pollinated lines. Besides this, the seed growing farms delivered to the Government 4,677 ?outflows of such seeds. Um, aroverement storages Imre stocked with 9,850 centners of seeds of self-pollimted lines of corn. ? The Moldavian Scientific-Research Agricultural Institute accomplished an especially great work in 1957 on the production of mods of self-pollinated lives, This Institut. grew 970 centners of seeds of self-pollinated lines and delivered to the Government 955 contners of these seeds. Jood results were Attained, when growing seeds of self-pollinated lines of corn, by Stavropol' State Selection Station, by Alum' bxperimental Station of the Ail-Union Institute of Plant Industry (nd) and by many other everimental institutions. Seed growing farms of the first group delivered to the Government 9,172 tons of seeds of Dimple hybrids, having fulfilled the plan of procures. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %we) Trine. amauvit seat by 133 percent. Now the mostly has at its dines anoint of seeds of self-pellinated lines and of simple hybrids *ask will perwit pot only to evemsefully follUl the plan for establishing motions of hybridi- sation of di**, dyable interlinear and of other hybrids in 1958, bat else put pay part of these seeds into the Goverment imams, fend. Oharesteriatio posiliartig, of melts of the work of 1957 on graulaig of hybrid 00111 mods of the first generation is the feet that this Sob was sumessfally amosplielged by 'hole oblestfeArais sod repviblies. Seed growing kalkhoses and sovahoses of the amend group in Moldavian 104 in gressoder and Stavrepoll trete, in isperoshalt, Stalin,beeprepetrOvsk and istrabhan ?blast's, in labardine-galkarekais Mg haw werfalfilled the plans et prods:Um and delivery to the Oeverseent of hybrid man seeds. The seed growing ferns of Iramodar irrid were tba first in the wintry, in 1957, to fulfill the plan of procurement of hybrid seeds. They delivered to the grain-eollmtion points over 20 thousand tens Of hybrid eons seeds. Seed poling tarns of Moldavian SU delivered to the Owertment over 15.5 ihomasd tonal Alegi* p.11/ Stalls *blast' - over 8.5 thousand tons and laporeshek *bleat' - about 11.5 thousand tens of Iwbrid earn seeds. all the seed owing farm of the mooed group, in 1957, delivered to the Owsnment 127.7 thousand tons of hybrid seeds of eon, or almost %wise as 111110)1 as in 1$56, isolating 112 thosesged tom et reeds of the highest yielding doable interlinear hybrids. Mew there already =Let all pessibia, lltias in order to pronstaraly, already in 1958, for *Misses and sovkhoses of Northern Camases. 'bigwigs SU and of met of *blast's of the *raining Sidt to ohmage to planting ma fur grain purposes with only seeds of high ? yielding hybrid seeds of the first generation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (21) Troe. One shoed point oat that in 1957 in many regions, whore the productien of hybrid oorn seeds is consesArated, the weather conditions were unfavorable during the vegetation period. Nevertheless, on all farm, where the growing of hybrid seeds was conducted at a high agroteehnies1 level, good prediction yields were obtained. 'kw, for inataaso, the 000d growing kolkbes 'Wish' in Tsui** raft of 'Krasnodar krill (*airman 0. P. Levitskii, seed growing agriculturist V. P. Ponomarre), Whim had the largest area of hybridisatioa *Potions 703 hooter'., has *stained from it an average harvest et hybrid seed* of 28.1 oemAsers per hectare.- The holkhes delivered to the state 12.5 thouland centaurs of seeds; other kelkheees sad sevtheses,rill be able to plant over 62 thousand heater's of core with theta seeds in 1950. The kolkhos reeeived fres the Government over 1.7 *Mien of ribles in mow forth* delivered 'seeds, not wanting the nature' sompeasatiens for seeds, which were nsde in part panes% terser:71ft out Goverment prevision sad parients is kind for the works of the NT$. Produetiom of hybrid corn seeds in this tolkhos became one of the met printable himmohes of the eoonemy. Sovbhos ,Peremega* in Zaporishikaia obleste (director V. It. Chaplenko, mod growing agrioultnrist R. N. Neguelaveksia) has attained great eastern* in the prediction of hybrid corn seeds under arid cc/Mittens of 1957.. This sovkhos grew hybrid *ern seeds of the first generation of the hybrid VIR?412 on aft area of 1:00 hooter.* and harvested, on the average, ISA centnore of seeds per hectare. The sovkhos deliVered to the Oevermamit 7 thousand calmer* of hybria seeds aud received for the* 3.2 silliest rail's. Nevertheless, *pinkie( *bout positive results on production of hybrid eorn mods, achieved during the two past years, ono Nowt remain silent about serious defeote present in this work, First of ill one hes to point out that the teehnieal base eleerly fell behind the amount of hybrid own Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (22) Trans. A-1001 seeds produced by sciantttieres.areb instibattone and seed growing terse. /Begin p.19/ Poor provielom of wood grrawing farms with drying plants and store- houses for seed corn letd to the circumstance that a considerable part of grown hybrid seeds, in 1956, was mot dried orttdms, underwent deterioration, lost its Planting qualities and proved to be unsuitable for seed puppies. J*rieg the process of work at smolt seed graving farms serious vio- lations of methods were permitted* am 'ell as of the agrotechnios for growing hybrid corn seeds **tot their parental forms. It is very important not to permit a nixing of parental forms of hybrids during the proems of growing hybrid imbeds govertheless, there were cases, leen plantiog on hybridisation sections was conducted by ineaParienalid MM. bore of the kolkhes, vho allowed the nixing of seeds of the male and female forme. Naturally, susb plantings had to be re3ested from the number of At same of the firms the woods paternal fosse were ted without addition to *goof same other (signal) nom this, farther on, made it difficult to diesern the AIMS with female end ails *ern Individual seed growls& farms violated the roles of tassel removal fro* the hails plants as hebridisatioa *lotions, they were late with this work or permitted leaving a oossiderable swan of tassels left on range pleats. In many cases harvesting of hybrid corn seeds was delayed up to late in the falls this took plow* especially in 1956. Ewing the past period the seed growing kolkheses, eovkhoses end seienti- flo-reesaroh institutions umpired great experience in growing hybrid earn seeds and their parental forms. Stedies, generalisation and wide introduo. tion to all farms of the blooding overtones permits to considerably improve Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (23) Trans. 1.-1001 further work on productioh of hybrid corn seeds. Buie peculiarities of growing hybrid corn seeds. As it was pointed out above, hybrid oorn seeds are grosn at seed growing tarns. The yield of corn in kolkhoaes tad Covkhoses of the country's which ll *these, seeds for the planting, depends a. great deal on the. correct orgszization of work end .adherence to the methods of growing bybrid seeds at thee* tarns. On how really important the quality of hybrid seeds iss one can judge ? from data of research conducted /Begin p.20/ at the 0ovensunt Varlet, Test Plots of. Krasnodar krill.' Seeds of the same hybrid V1R42, grown by.the Eub.an?Experimental Staticin VZR and by kolkheiess were planted on several variety test plots. The yitild of corn seeds was obtained by the State variety teat plots depending on the origin of seeds (table 4). Table 4. ? Yield of corn seeds depending on the quality of bybrid seeds eeerding to data of State variety test plots in tramoodar krai) Nene of hybrid and of the farm that pew its seeds sane of State variety test plot and obtained . yield of cern *sects (4,/ha). -lap. Slav skit Kanev- skit Timashev? Otracinen- skit ? skii ?Eiskii ' Tear 1955 VIR-42 Experiment station - 54.7 64.1 .. 35.7 ? VIR-42 Kolkhos .. ? 42.3 52.3 .. 31.0 - fear 1956 V1R442 Experimental 'station 73.2 - .. 25.0 .. VI3.42 Ecakhos 64.7 - ......:_2119.......z... Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (24) Trans. ApNLQ91 It is seen fr,a the cited data that corn plantings, which were,con- dacted with seeds grown at the Kuban Ixperiments1 Station Via, gars by 1042.11 centner Of vela' more per hectare than plantings conducted with seeds of the dame hybrid, but group at kolkhoses. This is explained by the fact that in kolkhoses, belbre the organisatiaa of special said growing farms, agretechnics of growing hybrid seeds were violated and the seeds wereinferiOr. Generalisation of data of OcieCtifie-ressarch institutions, as well is of prodaction experience of leeding 'calk:hoses and sovkhesse, sham 'that it it's necessary Bus ebtsining.eihigh yield of hybrid seeds of corn to ensure thi performance Of the following bane agrotechnictal reqUiremeate during their growing. Selection of the section and of the fertiliser. porn is very re- sponeive to fertilisers, and it inereasee its yield *era, after their intro- duction into the soil. Therefore, theleading fen's, evenchen pleutiOg ? ? ocra on fertile chillness* sells, introduced large amOunts of both organic od mineral fertiliser's to hybridisation sections, /Begin p.21/ At the kolkhes eIl'ichw in TemriUkskii raiau of thenodar krai cadet ? sovkhos "%renege" in Kaporeshis oblast', which attained high yields Of hybrid seeds tkey. introduced manure and mineral fertilisers on hybridisation sections under earn plantings. Kolkhos nossiiam, in Usti-Labinskii ratan of Krasnodar krai, harvested &yield of hybrid earn seeds of 30.7 cleaners per hectare,. At this kolkhos they introduced 2 centhers of superphosphate and 04 caitner of ammonium nitrate to hybridisation Sections under the preplenting cultivation. Manure was introduced in the fill before the autumn plowing, reckikaift 10-20 tons per hectare. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 14?21 Trama. A.,movA Mineral fertilisers are most often introduced during spring under the cultivation of the ploughlands 2-2.5 sentner of superphosphate, 14.5 centner of potassium salt and 0.50.7.5 oentner of ammoaium nitrate per hectare. With a good provision of plants with moisture corn sharply increases the yield. Therefore, in regions of insufficient moisture, one should use widely irrigated lands sad sections, whidh aro eituated in lower localities, but whiCh will permit to produce eon plantings at the meet opportune times, fOr the establishment of hybridisation sections. In all cases the areas allotted for sera planting must be *loan of mods. it is very important that there be as other plantings of corn around the allotted motion at a dietaries of 300 meters, sine' otherwise there will occur a cress-pollination of plants and the plantings of cora at the hybridiA. 111 'union section most be rejected from the number of hybrids. Preftration of the soil. In the.. cases, when hybridisation sections are Using established on areas after the cereal crops, simultaneously with their reaping, or right after the harvest, it is moosssary to remove the stubble to a depth of 5 oentinsters. Shallow plowing of stubble causes the sprouting of woods, Which are then destroyed 4, the following autumn plowing. The fall-plowing must be oonducted in August - first days of doptember to a depth of 25.27 oentimeters. The early and the d prod's.. more favourable conditions for the development of the root system and far a bettor growth of corn plants. All the seed growing farms, ski& obtained high yields of hybrid corn seeds, mitigated the ear*, and the deep plowing of fields in the fall. If thistle or other perennial woods are present on the fields the ce- lltivation of soil after cereals is vandal:1W differently. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A4001 Thus, for instates, certain whims* and kolkhosits on tubas after removing straw frost the field sondust stubble removal toy /Regis p.22/ dies plow-harrow to the depth of 74 wattmeters in two direstions. ls 1540 days, when the growth of perennial weeds begins to appear, the field is til- led with frame barrow-plows without moldboards to the depth of 1244 *esti- meters. With suOk a sultivation the weeds are destroyed bettor and a deep loose soil is formed, which prevents the soil free drying. One proceeds with fall-plowimg when, after the second disc tilling, a Norwood growth appears, but not later thms the end of August - beginning of Septesamw, hemlines a delay in tali-plowing involves a redestios in the yielding capacity of corn. In regions with insufficient moisture during the winter period it is necessary to conduct snow retention in order to provide as great as possible accumulation of moisture in the soil daring the fall-winter period. ?rector- drawn snowplows are utilised for this purpose on a large scale. During the early spring, When snow begins to melt on the fields, the thaw waters are dammed up, and, at the first possibility for entering the field, it is harrosed in two tracks, finishing the *irk in 1-2 days. There should be no delays in harrowing beaming moisture evaporates very fast in spring. Research has shown, for inetnnoo, that in Tikhoretskii mien of Krasnodar krsi delay in harrowing of the pleased for one day led to a less of miter up to 100 tons per hectare. After the appearamee of weeds on the field the plowlead is cultivated to the depth of 10-12 centimeters. The day before planting oorn the field is cultivated again to the depth of embedding the seeds so that they my be planted into the moist earth in a peeked seedbed. This helps a faster ap- pearance of corn sprints. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kW/ Trans. It is better to conduct the prep1snting maivation of the plodIand by cultivators with flat-cutting cultivator teeth fioeffle knivesthwhich undercut wen and destroy the weeds but do not overturn the soil and thus do net dry it out. ?reparation of th. seed. Thi. seeds of parental forms ofon= hrbrido, whist' mere oarearkid for seeding purposes nut be tested in a seed -control laboratorr for their planting qualities 15-20 days Wort, planting. Seeds of selfspOlinAktkleoralines nuet have a germination not boss low 80 percent, and the seeds of staple hybrids and varieties, whioh are the parental forms of variety-linear and intorvaristal hybrids - not below 65 percent. It is recommended to warm the seed. of parental fore* at hybrid ors in the sun in the course of Zs) days. s oir4oat warming helps in the in.. amass of viability and field germination of seeds. For the proteotion of germinating seeds intim soil awe spauta from infection /Begin p.23/ by various fungi the corn pods are treated will 0renosam in the proportion of one kilos:am of the eprotravitele /fungicide per ton of moods, or *Merkur& iiontsins 2% of othylmercurychloride, en* Tidied by gamma isomer of Satachloraa (124 in oonvorsion to gamma isomer) and a filler of talcum *roasters of talcum with Melte' in the proportion of 1.5 kilogram of the "protravitol" (fungicide per ton of seeds. beside. that, in order to protect the moods from the wireworm they should be powdered with )Iezachlerst dust in proportion of 3-4 kilograms of "pretravitel" /in- seatioide per ton it corn seeds. Treatment of seeds with asotobaotoria, Wore planting, increases well the yield of earn. Is those oasis when the hirenoisitorio footnote rnsespound Won Iron f. Iatsdhook on Poisonous Chooloolo, p.363, NOSSOW. 1956. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 OM/ Trans. A?AVU1 semis of corn are treated with asotobaotoria, their treatmentylth Orees- san and &sting with Sozaehloran shoed be oondected 2-3 weeks Wore the planting stems. Tho treated seeds are plastid immodiatoly after their treatment with the tester/al fertiliser, since the soil protests the bac- toria fit)* the bein141 action of Oremooso end of Sesmohlorask feft. Sowing *fears on sections of hybridisation is conduotod in brief periods attar the soil bosons, hostod up to the temperature of 10-10 of heat at the depth of 10 oentimeters. Seeds of both parental fonts ere sows by cheetrow corn planters and are ombedded in the mil to the depth of S-10 oentimetore depending on the typo of the soil, its warning through and moistness. The seeds of .elf-pollinated limes are embedded to the depth of 4-6 *estimators, but without tail into a moist layer of soil. Placing mad alteraatimn of plant rens of the female and male forms must prevido a better fertilisation of matornal plants. Proper correlation of rows of finale numtmale plants on hybridisatiam sections is established by taking into eonsideratiem lova climatic peouliarities. In legions of *efficient moisturs, as well as en irrigated lands, the sowing of corm an hybridisatima soctioas of double interlinear and inter- varietal hybrids are oondadad in seek a manner that after each two rows of plants of sale lb= fallow 4 rows of plants of the female fern. In them, regions it is also posaiblo to oondaet the mowing of oars in seek a imly that after eadh row of male plants follow two rows of finale plaits. *so growing mods of simple interlinear hybrids, the correlation of rows of parental. forms of arm hybrids is *aged, and it is mad, that two rows of plants of the male fame meld alternate with two rows of plants of Si..]. form. ;he is.. alternation of rows of parental foam is established Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (BY) ? Trans. A-1001. also when growing seeds of variety-linear hybrids, in which the so1f-po3.1i- nated line it the paternal form. In the case, when the paternal fora of the variety-linear hybrid is a. simple hybrid, one csa r4ats the correlation of rows with Maie ani fatale plants as 2:11, or la. /Begin p.24/ At the kolktos lined Kalinin** in Oulikerichakil "Lion, Krasnodar kral, in 1957, on a pert of plantings. when growing double interlinear hybrid VIR42 the correlation of rows of male and festal* plants was 216. On this section the harvest of hybrid suds was by 4.4 centaur per hectare higher than with the correlation 2s4 of rows of parental fonts. ? In arid regions the but results azu produced by sowings on all bybrif ? disaiion notions at a correlaticn of rows of parental* forms at 2:2, sines this provides a better fertilisation of .are of female plants. Ispedienoy of such on alternation of parental forms .was *sped-ally obviously confirmed in 1957, liken in ssarp,' Ukrainian regions during the period of blooming of corn a strong soil and air dryness were noted. At those farms where planting on hybridization 'motions was conductod according to this scheme* the ears proved to be fully. fertilised and corn Produced a considerably greater yield. Al it was already pointed out, on hybridisation sections the sowing of corn is oonducted with oheoluvw corn planter* at a distance between the hills of 70*I 70, osatimeters. In order to ?,gearehtee the correlation of rows of male mid fools plants* as 2e4, tie seeds of .the seals tone are poured into 2 end seed hoppers, and the seeds of the female form int) the four middle hoppers. If on the fern the sowing of corn is conducted in the :inner that after each row of planks of sae form follow two rows of plants of the fe- male form, then it is necessary to put seeds of the fenals fora into two -?end hoppers as well as into two center seed hopper* of the plantar, and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Argus. 4.04.WVi . 4 ' the seeds of the sale fora into the second from the left and into the se- cond float the right of the outer seed hoppers. 4 Men the sowing of corn at the hybridization section is oonducted according to the plan 212, then into the outer seed hopper from the lift (along the course of the planter) seeds of the male fen are poured in, into two hoppers, next in turn, are poured seeds of the female form, then into two next ones seeds of the sale font, and finally into the end seed hopper are, put in seeds of the female fora. The experienc, of past years has shover that female plants are better fertilised in that. case when the sowing Of corn at the hybridisation sections is conducts.' d in the manner: that the rows are aurangeil crosswise to the ,:iiireo- tion of the prevailing Winds. Therefore, in places where this is possible such a layout of rows should be used widely. Crosswise plantime at the ends of the field are not permitted under ary circumstances, since in such oases a aixtmg of feted* and male Plants occure inevitably. /Begin p.25/ ? In order to distinguish easier the' rows of male plants fres the rows of fatale plants, a mall amount (0.24.3 percent from the weight of corn seed.) of gorainable sunflower seeds are added to corn seeds of the matt e ? fora; later on the sunflower plants are left at a distance of 25-30 Meters twit each other as a signal crop. Daring allocation' Of hybridisation sections on an area where sunflowers were grown, it is recoaaended to use as a signal crop seeds of other agricultural plants, since fallen sunflower seeds can sprout and disorient the kolkhes workers in the determination of rows of tale foram. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? (31) Trans. A-1001 At the kolkhos *Loa Lenin", Oloneshtskil raion, Moldavian SSR, they used soybeans as a signal crop instead of sunflowers. Moreover, be- sides a high yield of hybrid seeds, they harvested 3 thousand oentners of this crop, that is 5 contners per hooters. this gave the opportunity to the kolkhos to obtain an additional income hum this valuable oil crop. Some of the seed growing farms arrange an additional sowing of seeds of the nals form in the vicinity of the hybridisation section so that their pollen should be transported by the wind to the female plants. In addition to that, they sow thsea seeds 5-7 day later than the corn soling at the hybridisation section. This permits to have an additional amount of pollen, and, mainly, at the time ahem at the basic planting there is already little of it. In the presence of a sufficient amount of seeds of the male form' at the farm, sudvsowings will thormghly justify themselves. Care of the plantings Is a deciding measure in obtaining high yields of hybrid corn seeds. Therefore, all the work on the care of corn sowings at hybridisation sections must be conducted on time and accurately. Care of corn plantings is begun with the harrowing of sprouts. /n these cases when the appearance of sprouts is detained, and the weeds start growing, harrowing is conducted before the appearance of corn plants on the upper surface of the soil. Harrowing loosens the soil, helps in the destine.. tion of weeds, improves the access of air to the germinating seeds, which is favorably reflected in the development mad growth of young corn plants. Tilling of interroso with cultivators is begun wheel the first 3-4 leaflets are formed on the plants. The working parts on the cultivator are placed in such a sw that at the edges of the interrows (near the plants) would be the one-sided cultiva- tor teeth - the scuffle knives or chisel-shaped parts of the cultivator. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3?) Trans. e?oloai ? Thisle.done in order to exclude the possibility of undercutting the plants. . /Begin p.26/ The first.cabivation is usually dpne in a crosswise direction to the course of the plan", and the second - perpendicularkv.to the first. lho .thinning of plants in hills is conduCted immediately atter the first culti- vation. Most often three plants areleft in the rove of plants of male foru. in order to obtain frl.za them mote ofths pollen. In the rows with female plants in regions of sufficient moisture in each hill two plants are left, in order that, on the average, there be one and half plants per hill. Under condi.- tions of a severe droight this increased the yield and the farm obtained .27.8 centners of hybrid corn seeds froe each hooter*. ' The interrows on earn Plantings are usual1y cultivated 3 .times :in two directions during the period of vegetation. At the soirkhoi *Peremoga* of Vasillevskii reion, Zaporozhsk ablest' under arid conditions of the year 1957, in spite of the fact that wma plants mere almost free from 'weeds, the cultivation of interrows was =tinned and this permitted to obtain a high yield ,of hybrid seeds.' ? Planting of seeds or plant* into the thinned out hint I. not wanted =hybridisation sections, since at such times usually a mixing of male and female plants *come. Varietal weeding is conducted on *11 hybridisation sections, Where in the formation of hybrid seeds pelf-.pollinated lines take part (obtaining .siaple interlinear and variety-linear hybrids), . Varietal weeding is started during the phase of 475 leaves, that is . simultaneously with thinning of plants. At that time already a certain part of admixtures (hybrid plants) stand out by their sore vigorous height, wider ' leaves and their greater number. Such plants are removed. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 -(3) Trate. A4001 Later on the 'Arleta) "iodinate repeated evesly 1045 days and is finished without fall bstbre the beginning of flowering; of own. Daring each varietal weeding new plants - admixtures are removed, which for some reason were not previously &tooted and removed. To the admixtures belong also the plants, Ahieh sharply differ from the baste type in color, width gad crimping of loaves, preemie of mathoeyan (violet coloration) at the base of the stalk or on leaves, .bushiness, thick- ness and height of the stalk, an earlier or a too late onset of tasseling mad of other properties. /Begin p.27/ The nuaber of varietal weeding. on hybnidtsation victims, suit be not less than tape without oocnting the thinning. At the hybridisation sections of simple Internaar and verietil4inier hybrids, the varietal -weeding must be oondnot.d esp.ciaUyear.fuUy in the rows of plants of the male bra. In order that the varietal weeding he condected correctly and anli the admixtures be removed, the peed growing agriculturelist on the faze must first study well himself the characteristic properties of the self-pollinated lines, cod than teach the workers, who will conduct the varietal weeding, how to recognise the admixtures from typical plants of the given self-polli- nated line. It is necessary to eonsult the seleetiomer in, such eases, *ere the seed growing agriculturalist cannot himself properly separate tho basin type from the admixture. It is the job of local agricultural organisations to train the seed growing agricultursliste for conducting varietel In 1957, at the kelkhos 4Illiche, in Teariukskii lesion, Krasnodar oblast the sowings of CO= on hybridisation motion* were treated twice with the pre- paration DDT and nexachleran from an airplane; this protected than from damage by the caterpillar of the corn borer. Owing to this there almost were no ears Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t?-? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 AI4J Trans. AgialAil damaged .by this pest, Whereas in 1956, when the plantings were not treated by'poisOnous chemicals, there were reckoned over 0 percent of thea. Such measures of Control of this pest must be also Practiced by Other seed growing - ? farms. . Sighmiyielding hybrid seeds are obtained only in that ease, when Al.. mole plants on the hybridisation section are pollinated only with the pollen Of male plant.. Therefore the tassel* knit be removed from female plants completely and at the proper tine. ?. So as-tO prevent the possible day in the removal of teasels &ma . female plants, 1045 days before the beginning Of the supposed tam:ling a daily Observation is set up of the development of corn at the hybridisation sootions. Moreover, one must keep in mind that in the majoritir at female,forms of plants the flowering of tassels usually begins On the 50-60th day after the appearance of sprouts. In order to coOduct the removal ef tassels better, the.coruplenting, on hybridisatiotk mations must be examined 15 days &heed of this work. Daring the precise of field examination it is necessary to ettabliih how_correctlf- the rows of parental forms alternate; for this purpose the contralingagri- culturist and the oiled growing agriculturist from the fern together vith'the taamslender and the field teem-leader walk across the corn plantings and cheek the contir*ty of distribution of rove of plants Of male and !gaols forms of e. hybrid. /Begin p128/ - All the cease of deviation from the accepted scheme of alternation of . 'rows ars recorded on the Olen as well as marked in the field, in order that they be not forgotten, and tassels be removed from all female plants at the proper time and in all entirety. The rows of plants of the mile fora usually Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . =tins. A?IVAL . are easily recognised by the presence in them of the signal crop. During the field examination are checked,alsothe degree of varietal _contamination of the plants, the presence of crosswise plantings and the cOrrectneas in the observance of apace isolation. Space isolation for plants, where deeds of simple interlinear by.. bride 4010 grbeall'must be witless than 300 meters; while for bzrbridifaition sectiona, where sleds of double interlinear, variety-linear and intervarietal hybrids are grown - not lees than WO meters. The greater space *gelation for hybriditatian sections, where seeds . of spsOle morn hybrids are groan, is explained by the fact that these seeds' 'will be utilised not for commercial plantings, but fbr furtherhybridleationp Obtaining Suds of double interlinear hybrids. If during growing the seeds ' of eimple hybrids there will be permitted the mealiest pollination of fatale ' pleats by the pollen of other sowings, this will toil, tea:high:degree, on the yielding qualities of seeds of double interlinear cora hybrids. If the apace isolation is not observed then before the appearance of tassels on (torn plants the fans sowings of corn should be mowed for green lied or silage laths lone, which will provide the required isolation. In the when crosswise sowings are found on hybrldleation sections, all the corn growing in transverse savings must be immediate:1y mowed for green_ feed. It is necessary to determine the requirement of the firs Inman-power for conducting the detaieeling before the beginning of this work. The average work load per aan is *sully istablishod in the use of 1.5 hectare Of the hybridifetion seetion or 1 hectare of plantings of the female fbrm of corn. .0ne should start the removal of tassels immediately after their appea- ranee is noted even on single plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %Jo) 4W5Re? A.AVVA Tassels are removed at their appearence from the bell mouth of the upper leaf, when it is possible to grasp by the heed ell their sheets. At suah a time the tassels are easy to break off together with the stems with a sharp movement of the hmed up. Ome should aim daring this work not to break off the upper leaf of the plant beeuase this negatively refleets in the yield of hybrid seeds. One should remove especially oarefally /Regis o.29/ those tassels, which have fully emerged from the bell mouth of the upper loaf and oproad out their shoots. /he period of appears*** of tassels on corm usually continues for 12-15 days. But during individual years with unfavorable *UAW' conditions, as, for instance* the year 1957 was, the period of tasseling is greatly extended and ventilated for 30 days. In order to provost the pollination of female 4IPplants by their own pollen, their tassels most be removed daily, independent of the weather. Bering the wares of the full period of the tasseling phase the work cannot be stopped even for one day, because pert of the tassels might start flowering and pollinate a eonsidsrable part of female pleats of cora. Whom in the Remora maw of the female form there will remain less than 10 percent of plants with **removed tassels, the removal is oompleted during the sours* of one day, removing all the Remaining tassels* ineludimg those *Ash did not fully emerge from the bell mouth of the upper leaves. Zs order to obtain f411-ve1es hybrid corn seeds one should remove, without fail, the side shoots on female plants, sines *Ms fully developed tassels are formed there. In order to relieve the work load, which is created daring sinulteasess pluekimg of tassels and removal of side shoots from the plants of female forms, the side Shoots Should be rewired earlier - at the time when ewe plants attain 5040 centimeters in height, and flail* this work before the plucking of tassels. Bide shoots on *els plants of corn Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?LaL.w?JAP04, ehoule not fit removed einoe they berm tassels ene prodace aLitionel pollen. every farm establishes the strictest dally eJntrol of. the qua-ity of netassellev durene the course et the whole period of condectin of Lhis work. Tills control is aacomplished by the fiele teemeJeaders, the teameleaaers and the aerieulturiste at the lame. earin! the work of detaaseling the field team-leecers are constantly _n tie iield with the werkers and they cheek the quality of work of each member of the team. Write, this ork, tne field team-leader walks behind the workers, w;2o remove the tassels, and, while controlling their work removes the taaeels, which are left occasionally. The team-leader of the field work brigade checks the work of each team not less than once every oay. Vinal chareine of workedays to kolkhos members or isyment to the workers of the sovkhoe for the work pelformee: is conducted by takik; into consieleration its quality. In the seed erowin kolkhoe nAossiien in UstseLabinsk raione Krasnodar krai, in 1')571, each eember of the kollehoe was aesiened an area cf corn and the veyment Por the work of detaesellne was made reckonine 18 work days for beein p.34 one hectare. itecorden, to the information of the administra- tion ai o the aerioelturist of the kolknos, such a system has fully justi- fied itself; the tear:els were removed fully and on tine. Durine field in- ventigations no unremoved tassels were liscovered. kericulturiets of the seed -roeine farms are systematically in the fields Airine the whole period of hybrid corn seeds erowine, while luring sowing, detasselim; red herrestinc. - are deny in the field; they examine the quality of work pro^awead on hyeridieation zections, makiee neceeeary potations in their journals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 )91 114111111116 Taking into consideration a special importance of timely and correct removal of tassels fres female coin plants. at hybridisation orations, the qualit, of work is controlled, apart from winters at the farm, also by persons, Wo are specially appointed tr the Oblast' (or gni) Departments of Agri- culture or Ministries of Apiculture of the Republics frxe theinsaber of workers of agricultural institutions or scientific-research establishment.. Wen determining the number of =rammed tassels On fatale plants all the tassels are accounted for on which there are even single anthers. The number of =rewired tassels must not exceed 2 percent during each invegti- gating. If the number of unromawid tassels on female plants exceeds the extob. lished acme, the harvisHit fro* sugh maims is rojeoted as trbrid ? A field app. robation, *la has the aim of establishing the typicalness of grown .sseds and, the degree of their contamination with disease, is con- ducted in addition to field eznainatleing of Unmoved tassels fats fess)* plants on on plantings of self-poLlinated lines, latch were produced both tbr the purpose of propagation, as will as for hibridieation (for obtaining sinple hybrids), and also on sections of propagation of simple hybrids. Field approbation of salf-pellinated lines, sowed on hybridisation sectiOns for obtaining seeds of simple hybrids, is a colpulsory supplement to field exami- ? ration., Which were omdected during the time of detasseling. Yield ap- probetion is mot condacted on hybridisation sections far obtaining double interlinear, varietar-linear and interlinear lvtrids. If, as a result of field approbation, it will prove that the ears have a trpicslitcr below, and the wieeniinosto" (presence of goods of a differed *Transiatorrs note. Explanaiion of this term se found in the Rwisian Agri- ? cUltural Dictionary by A. I. Oldster las ?Number of mania seeds, which are found per 100 ears". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 r09) Trans. A4.3.1ALL Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 solar in the ear) is above the established norm, then the storing and utilisation of these seeds for sowing can be effected only with the per. mission of the Ministry of Agriculture of USSR and the Ministry of Grain Products of USSR. Harvesting corn on hybridisation 'cottons is a very reepensible phase of work in the production of hybrid [Begin p.31.1 seeds. 1214imed or in. correct harvesting of the elready grain seeds sharply reduces their sowing qualities or loads to the fast that those seeds prove to be fully unsuitable for seeing on **count of low germinating ability. And furthersore, during an incorrect harvesting there night be permitted ? partial nixing of hybrid ears with ears of male plants, that is the quality of the seed saterial will be lowered. ? In order to fully preserve the grow harvest and to guanines the hist* quality of hybrid seeds, they suet be harvested on time and correctly, dried quickly Sod stored excellently. Harvesting of kybrid corn ears mat be carried out at the onset of full ripeness of seeds in as short period of time as possible. Is those cases shim the ripenitig of obrn is deleyed and there is a possibility of early frosts, harvesting is carried out during the wax stage [yellow ripe] of the seeds, with an immediate drying of ears in son driers. Data of scientifie-ressarch institutions show that after a timely and correct drying such seeds pm vs to be valuable sold.iig material. Testing the viability of unripened sem seeds, S. N. Euleshov has established, that germination of seeds of this crop, which were harvested daring the silk-wax stage, but before the onset of fell frosts, and than dried at the proper time and correctly, reached 95400 percent. Productivity of plants, when utilising these seeds under field conditions, did not differ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 WO/ Trans: a-ia.u. fro' the productivity of plants, obtained from ecid.ng the fully ripened seeds. ? Unripe corn 'ear. must be dried in driers or in thesunshine in the open air, and then stored in dry, well ventilated buildings. nerves-tint the yield on hybridisation sections is conducted at dif- ferent times for the panels aril the male plants, in order not to permit avy miming of hybrid ears fan female plants with ears of male plants. It is better to harvest the plants of the Kale fora at the milk-Luc- - stage, and the hybrid *era after their ripening. Maw seed milting him practiced widely such harvesting, in 19564957, on hybridisatioa. sections, and it gave giod results. By first harvesting the rows of -plants of the male fora, the farners . thus prepared openings for the .passage .of vehicles dining the harvesting of hybrid corn ears from the renal. e plants. With such a'harvesting the'possibi- lit( of Axing of the ripened hybrid ears with the ears of the male fori was maids& And the formed openings in the plantings served as good pas= sagemsys for the Ando - which dried faster the hybrid ears on female ,plants. Therefore this method /Begin p.32/ of harvesting of *ale Plants must be used wider on all seed gnawing rams. In those Oases when it is planned to use the cern Cars fruit *Ile plants in the !bra of _ripened grain, the ears of female plants, which are the hybrid seeds, are harVested first from the hybridisation sections and removed fro* the fields. 'After this are harvested all the ears frost male plants is well as all the ears that fell to the ,ground. The harvested hybrid corn ears are on that same day removed to specially prepared, well ventilated buildings, threshing floors, or sheds. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 A olo, (141) Trans: 144001 ? There they are imnediately sorted; *are of another type are rejected an well as those Which are strongly infected 'with fungus and baeterial diseases. The granary approbation of *ors is conducted after the sorting. ? /he harvest of hybrid seeds from hybridisation sectioss?of sinplo, double interlinear, variety-linear and intervaristal hybrids ie subjected to granary appribation. The method for conducting granars approbation is the same as for the common varieties. The granary approbation is oonduate4 by the seed growing agriculturist on the Jam The record of granary approbation is *hacked by the controller egrieulturist. The statements about field examination, field and granary approbation. are handed over to the grain-collection points, where the seeds are delivered. It is necessary to remember that plantings of corn with hybrid seeds are the most important reserve of raising its yielding capacity, and one should tale ail measures in order that these seeds be of the best quality. The overleaf), of two years of work on prockotion of hybrid seeds of corn, according to the new erste* of sited growing, shows that we have all the. possibilities prematurely to fulfill the task, which was set up by the Party and the State, on transfer to planting earn with hybrid corn seeds in the basic regions of its production for grain. i\ i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R-61426R0154-66020001-7 tweaks or vonsems) vg/M Vsesouisnaia Nauchno-Technidheskaia Konierentsiia po Primeneniu Radioaktivnykh i Stabillnykh Isotopov i Isluchenii v Narodnom Ehossiaistve i Nauke. All-Union Scientific-Technical Conference on the Use of Radioactive and Stable Isotopes and Radiations. in National Economy and Science, 19577. Trudys Radiobiologiia. Moskva, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 1958. -2861. h42.9 Y963. Russian) Table of Contents Page &sin, A. M., About the elementary mechanisms of the biological effect of ionising ....... 3 Frank, G. N., Biophysical research on radiation reactions of the organise ......./.01.140.1.1?400?41110.4100???.0 111 Meisel', 14. N., Ionizing radiation and cellular metabolism-------- 26 Gorizontov, P. D., About the change of biological properties of ' blood in irradiated animals (on the problem of toxemia)-------- 37 Dubinin, N. P., Importance and nature of primary radiation genetical changes-------- 4111,?00.1...r...m...?.0*.0?404000 Tarusov, B. N., Kinetics of radirrechemical conversions in the bio- substrate and the prophylactic effect ?41.0w.?VOMOMMODW,M.1 46 62 Kritakii, G. A., Biosynthesis of purines and exchange of their pre- decessors normally end after 68 Tutodhkina, L. T. Petrova, N. D., Polikarpova, L. I., Shikhodyrov, V. V., Changes of connsotivetiesue protein structures during acute radiation sickness, caused by 74 Shallnora, M. N., Effect of intensive irradiation on structures and certain physiological properties of microorganieas---.?.-------- 80 Remesaga, T. S., Effect of gamma-neutron radiation =microorganisms- 90 Galltsova, R. D., Vakina, I. P., Conditions of increased biosynthesis of ergosterol by yeast organisms --------- 97 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A,1002 draevskii, B. 1., Barakina, N. F., Neifakh, A. A., Faleeva, Z. N., Shapiro, I. N. About the role of the local and remote action of ionising 41040???????????? il??????????? ..... 103 Shtern, L. S., Effect of ionising radiations on factors determining the composition and characteristics of imaediate nutrient me- dium of organs and tissues of the animal organima 112 Oromakovekaia, th N., Rapoport, S. Ia., Meohanita of early changes in penetrability of histo-heaatio barriers under the influence of irriy11.*--?^??&????????????a.0121 Krichsvskaia, E. 1., Effect of I-ros on the contents of histamine in tissues-----.-- ..... 126 Kordhak, L. I., About distribution of staining material, injeoted in- travenously, in tissues of mice normally end after 1-raying.--- 130 Koroll, S. A., Mednik, N., Nemotoxic factor in tissues of animals, exposed to the effect ionising radiations---------------------- 135 Soshka, Is., Comparison of the protective effect of homogenates (homogenised suspension!? of heeatopoietio and other tissues--- 147 Drashil, V., Soshka, In., Effect of certain humoral tissue factors on synthesis of DNA after irradiation----------------------------- 148 Tonkikh, A. V., About the role of suprarenal glands in the develop- sant of radiation si..... --.....------------- Noiseev, B. A., Pathogenesis of endocrine disturbance after radiation injury (reaction of the anterior lobe of hypophysis to irradia- fjgfl e ,.a.wfl..I.efl,OlflflIflflflhlSaIOuI fleflSaeeaeefleee--- 150 156 Aleksandrolrekaia, N. M., Effect of various doses of ionising radiation !.:1 atter the effect of ionising radiation----------- on the morphology of the brain and internal organs after gene- ral irradiation under physiological and pathological. conditions 168 Sneshko, A. D., Vital observation of disturbances of oxidising pro- cesses in the central nervous system-------------------------- 177 Aladshalove, N. A., Overalow rythas in the dhangss of the electric potential of the cerebral cortex and of hypothalamus after radiation injury ---------------- ...... 184 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3), Trans. A.4002 Kotliarevekii, L. I., 0o4wheleva, L. S., Xhogak, L. E., On the question of the effect of ionising radiation an animals with a different type of nervous system under physiologioal and pathological conditions----- 192 Piontkovskii, I. A., Volodina, I. A. Niklashevakii, V. E*, About certain disturbancescof the higher nervous activity in rats, born from females that were subjected to ionising irradiation during the prognanoyperiod 197 Ninaev, P. F., Role of the nervous system in radiation reaotione of the organism ..... 204 ftritsin4 I. T., Disturbances of cortico.ivisceral interrelation dur- ing acute radiation 211 Solovsev, A. V., Rolodkina, O. V., To the analysis of the effect of X-ray irradiation on secretory and motor &nation of small ventricles, formed !me the small and large curvature of the et0Maeh....?Wilip?MOPWOOMMI.OPOWOMM41.0.1.1.11410.0001...MMVIMID.0401.11400041...0?41.?4104110000.P.m..5410.404.104.11010 111 Barbashova, Z. I., ole of the upper cervioal sympathetic ganglions in the reaotion to penetrating radiation in control rats and ? those aoclimatiasd to 222 229 Rudriaahov, D. A., Andreenko, O. V., Ulitina, P. D., Resultant O. O., Pastorova, V. E., fttina, R. P. Xalishevekaia, T. R6, Shim- nem, L. R., Physiological and biochemical data about the nes. ture of hemophilia during experimental radiation injury of the animal organism-- 237 lakovlev, V. V., Functional state of cutaneous vessels after total irradiation of dogs with Xabrecrilk.0?1111WINIMPO 4111.1.? MOND 0.1111.111.1?111M ..... 0001.1.11. OWN. 244 Beilovintseva, N. 11141, Speranakiia, S. N., On the question of impor- tance of the functional state of liver in the development and course of radiation sickness------------ ------ 251 Timofeev-Resovekii, N. V., Luohnik, Radio-stimulation of plants and its possible theoretical 258 Tealishchev, S., Ifogilevkin, V., 'affect of neutrons on the growth ? and development of plants ............................. 267 Budnitekala, E. V., Borisov:, I. O., Rffect of ionising irradiations' on the change of components of fermentative reaction of the lipoid exchange of planta...................................... 276 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 44711101, Alemwmy? ? V M Bellgovekii, M. L. Wasledovanie ustoichivosti nasekomykh k insekticidam. 'Inheritance of the insecticide resistance in instate). Zool. Zhur. vol. 37, no. 7, p.1024-1038. July, 195e. 1410 R92. (In Russian) 9. Deduction (pages 10354036) Review of the existing data on genetics of insect resistance to in- secticides shows that differences in degree of resistance of various races to poisons can have a different genetic basis. In, many cases difference .in resistance, as well as in many other quantitative indices of animals and plants, is conditioned by a difference in many genes and, in accordance with this, in the second generation of hybrids we observe a complex negro.. gation, which is characterised by a general increased variability and an absence at clearly delimited classes of descendants. Such inheritance, as ICO we already mentioned, must be expected if the given difference is condi. tioned by dissimilarity in many characteristics, each of which comparatively weakly influences the general resistance. on the other hand, it is necessary to point out the unexpectedly high (as much as we have to do with a *mati.. tative feature) percentage of oases of monofactional conditioning of increased resistance. Such cases, as we have seen, are known both in house flies, and Institut biologioheskoi fisiki Akadmaii nauk SSSft (Moskva). /Institute of Biological Physics of the Academy of Science of ussal. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 vgt 44414101, in Drosophila, as well as in mosquitoes and in scale maceta. They speak about the existence, in the insects, of effective protective mechanisms, which increase the resistanoe so much, that on their background the influence of secondary differences, undoubtedly aims present, a1rea4y dOes not tell. It is known, that in the scale Aonidiella aurantii suchmeohaniem con- sists of the change in the physiolocf of respiration; in the scales, resistant to HON 5ydrooyanio acid fumigant?, it is not connected with eytochrome oxides., but with the auto-oxidating *mime, which does not contain atoms metals, possibly flavoprotein or cytothrome b5 (R. Metkalf, 1955i V. 11140160- worth, 1956). In the lines of house flies, most resistant to DDT, a similar role is, possibly, played 17/- the presence of DDT - dehydrochlorinese. Zn Anopheles pubis., on the contrurY4 according to research of Bradbury and Standen (7. R. Bradbury and H. Standen, 1956), resistance ter-BBC is not oonneotedwith apr mechanism of detoxification. Finally, in many cases nothing is known as yet in general about the nature of protective mechanisms, but one can suppose, that * clear monohybrid segregation, according to resistance, serves as an indication of their presence. From this point of view it would be interesting to conduct a physiological omaperieon of lines of re- sistant flies, which will produce, after crossing with the sensitive, mono- hybrid and, respeotively, polyhybrid segregation. The presents* of only one of the cited MSS of cytoplasmic heredity &OW* that, similar to other characteristics of multicellular enimals and plants, the resistance of insects to insecticides, is comparatively rarely conditioned oytoplasmically. Nevertheless, natural selection, which pro dooes resistant races, does not neglect a single hereditary change, which -411 is useful for the genus, regardless of which part of the cell it is connected with. That is Irby in different genera, in different populations of the same _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ()) Trans? 1-1003 gonna, and in req.* to various ec icicles,' we then scat such diffe genetic mechanisms of resistance. In conclusion, one should point out, that the previously mentioned experiment in nature, which was "involuntarily conducted during the conic. of the last decade kr the workers, who Conducted chemical control of harmful insect*, has shown bow fast evolutionary changes can proceedin insect . - poiulations even in'quite Unusual directions. It also shown that these. changes occur at the expense of gonetiCal /Begin p.1036/ heterogenettrof the population, and their-Areal** deperid directly on the degree-end character of this heterogeneity. Finally, it elusidstes the full groundlessness of the opinion, which is occasionally exprossed,:as if the adaptable hereditary changes in the population can ocouz.? only under the influence of ;changes of: natural factors, which enter into the =umber of conditions of life of the given genus. Of course, the ineecticidei 'seat of all fit such a definition, nevertheless, We *et that they play I role of a very effectivefactor Of an adaptive change in popeations. Inheritance of the Insecticide resiltarice in insects Pl. L. Bel skii ? Institute of Biological Physic., Academy of Sciences of the USSR O1osoov4 Samtary Lin English -- Copiwg Abe capacity of insect populations to acquire insecticide resistance is connected with the genetic heterogeneity of these populations. Selec- tion of more resistant individuals in genetioally homogeneous strains gives wetly* results. The genetic's' basis of differences in the degree of resistance of dif- ? terent insect races and .strains is different in various cases. It can be Declassified and Approved for Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A.-1003 aonogetic, polygenio or cytoplasmic, depending upon hereditary changes that " happened to be fixed in the process of formation of the resistant race in question. The fact that aany cases of monogenio inheritance of resistamtaxe. known Shows that effective protecting. **chanties able to increase eharply insecticide resistance are rather mama among insects. The physiological_ basis of these mechanisms is known in some oases and needs elucidation in others. The study of the genetics of the acquired insecticide resistance in iniegt populations leads to the understanding of the mechanism of rapid evolutionary changes taking place in these populations -under the influence of quite new factors (insecticides) introduced in their environment. - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP8OR?O-142-6R01.070o020001-7 %AU LUAA/ Vill ? Marakistanov, IC P., Oorbachrr, V. S., and tileticin, P. A. 7,a vosdelyvanie oda* chslovekoat sta gisktarov kulaunsys fthe growing of 100 hectares of COM by one msg. glikurusa, vol. 2, no. 6. p.15-20. Ause, 1957. ? 59.8 195 ? (IA Russian) The area of corn planting in our country grows froa year to year. If in 1954 it equalled 3.2.ni1lion bee:tares, then in 1956 it already was 29.9 flhion hectares. towards the end of the Sixth rive-Tear-Plan corn plantings will ocacqrf 28 aillion hectares. Total harvesting of seeds red of silage mass grow accordingly; the volume of work mid expenditure of labor increase also. All this urgently requires now a considerable increase in the lett] of nechaniSation of culti- vation of this crop; of introduction of the 'new, advanced agrotechnique, sharp radaetion In the expenditure of labor and cheapening of the cost of -production. According to data of the All-Union Scientific-liesearch Institute of Mechanisation of Agriculture the expenditure of labor for cultivation of corn end for harvesting in the average comprise, at the present tine, 15.72 man-days per hectare. i.da utilisation of machinery, released by industry, and nechanised harvesting of corn by the combine 1?1-21, permits to redact the expenditure to 8.45 man-days per heaters. Vat when utilising experimental machines, as well as herbicides fbr destroying the weeds, expenditures of Olavnoe upravlenie nelchanisattii i elektarifikatsii Ministaratva eels skego khosiaistva Soiusa ESL jOhlef Administration of Nechinimetion and Taectri- fixation of the Ministry of Agriculture of ussg. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tg, Trans. a-mAlis labor, depending on the utilised corn-harvesting machines, comprises 2.0$ man-days per hectare of planting, while utilising carbine ISK-2.6% and 3.31, when using P-2A. The existing technology for corn cultivation, when applying the avail- able means for mechanisation, is es yet very imperfect: too much labor is, expended for planting with a manual transport of the measuring wire, for thinning out, weeding and harvesting, for husking and sorting of ears and for loading and unloading work. (Text continues after the tab)e). Kind of work Allko tillingo fr .o1 Preplanting preparation of soil and planting Care of the plantings Expenditure of labor In mampdays per fhectare When utilising means of A aerial end experimental mechanise. machines (See the mo- tion pre- cord scheme) sent at the tare 0.16 0.16 0.1 Serial machinery (See the first scheme) Harvesting cornet fall ripeness of seeds* 0.45 3.7$ 11.36" 0.33 2.29 5.671"1* 0.15 0.29 (with the use of herbicides) 1.82-three row combine MINKS 1.51?combine KSK-2.6U 2.77-combine KU-2A 2.23-corn ear picker SPU-2 *Taking into account the huskIng of ears, their delivery to the threshing floor and transportation of the green mass to the silo. **20 percent of the area of corn plantings was harvested by the combine KU4 and 80% - manually. ***The whole area of corn planting was harvested by KU-21. That is the reason why the Moistly of Agriculture of USSR and the scientific-research /Begin p.16/ institutions of the country have conducted during tIms present year, a wide production experiment in kolkhoses on the Use of a complex of different nachines, :each provide martin= nechanisation of all processes during corn growing, and which permit one man to grow up to 100 hectares of Germ, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %)/ AIESUWO aWW#41 Experiments im kolkheses of ISYSI, of Ukrainian, Madavian and Easakh republics were caudated aceording to a similar program and method, which are developed by the War Adedssistretion of Agrioulteral Nechanisatiom and Electrification of the Ministry of Aviculture /Mk/ of um together with scientific-mean& iastitat100. Experiments, about which we speak, were laid. oat ID kelkhoses, ac- cording to two abeam, first . cultivation and harvesting of corm, utili- sing a complex of sashimi which ere now produced by indastry (one variant of the experiment and one control); second - cultivation of corny utilising serial eachines, as well as noniontorinststial ones (four veriest, of the experiment and a control). Poreitah variant of the experiment and eamtrel actiaas were sepsrated, in crop rotations, of an am of about 100 haters*, is all 60 thousand hectares. on these funs, there for some reason it was impossible to se- porate out section* on one fiiid of the crop rotation, they were isolated at various plural but, at the as time, it was Observed that they be similar in *co and mechanical ampositien of soil, preaceseors tilling, end so on. And what kind of *adds.s and implements will be utilised at the ex- perimental sections of MIO /Machine-Tractor station/? Dispatched to the sections am 450 tractors Ut-54, 600 treaters DT-24, 565 seeders 8E0E.68 (with a diagonal transfer of the measuring wire); from among these 100 drills with hydraulic controls and 110 mated, 345 oorn-harvesting coebines KU-25, 395 silage-harvesting combines SI-2,6y 80 among then with hydraulic controls, 30 combines 124-2.6U and as we 0.3 of SWIMS anstraction, 15 corn ear- pickers SPU-2A. Earmarked for hauling work were 900 self-discharging trutcr Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 444) UMW* Amisimisi trailers, se we 600 deep e =4850 kW se on, Seeder 310-4141 works *a 4 %mit with treater* "Untworeal ? ur-24, 00 and UP-45 at a rate of newentat of 14.5-5.2 kilometer, 'per Wen t of the drill, Asa planting intermit 70 Z 70 esatteeters? attained 12-15 hectares; per 10 hours of vork? rile sewing mit is servieed by toe asni tractor driver Sid the sever. The Illimoulas wire was being traile- r-erred neeheniestly. ikon using seeders Mt40 ter ending 1 hasten 0,13 ani-dep is osposded with seeder ditcdt-6 0.47 sami-dnrs that is &latest four time sere. ? afall harvesting oonktne 1Wa2A (f 1 eines the end of 456. Ito diatingeleblen reetwiw? as mooed with the earlier released model of whine XV-2, sensiets et the follawings the tram f s maxi* has hook nand hr 50 erillineters and the wheel Lees ars shifted bask bp 110 redeeed the lead on the asehanien of the inelinatice? of the setting apparatus, inereseed the eareeper elevens. Snprowed the assess to silage *Wittig arena and ? mowed the possibility of damage t, t. Let** et the silage elevator hif the shocker valee? (1"exil ie eenlineed after the etheues). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trallif? .11`VAJWi4 The recommended assembly. of production machines according to the experts*, of scheme I. Isperirment according to scheme I 1. ?replanting cultivation of soil :saliKlifitr aildiirtgeharsrrows, cultivators 2. Sowing of corn frail:. seeder SiO5 with diagonal transfer of gauge wire 3. Oars of corn plaik.inge 4, ICouplings of light harrows or the rotary hos, 1C101-4.2 (two longitudinal and lateral cultivations) 4. Corn harvesting 1 . , I &Wanes 1U-2A and U-MI, motor oars ? OAZ-93 and ZIL-585 or tractor trailer of 2-im tons 5. Basic tilling of Ion, IAgricultural **alines LD-16 and P5-1511 I /Begin p.17/ Control co '.u, s an iimplements available at ICS &Achim tractor stationg ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 rrassi, asm.ani k ? Joe ad assembly of production and experimental machines for different variants Scheme 2. Variant nan Variant "b" Variant "c" Variant *do Control (100-200 hectares) (100-200hha.) (100-200 ha.) (100.200 ha.) (100.200 ha.) 1 Pre antis cultiv tion of soil ? booplings o/ giving harrows, cultivator ry4, X11.4 sad others 2. Sowing of con 1 Couplings of sigsag harrows, cultivator ICP-4, res44 end others 1 ano of alai' harrows, cultivator U-4, 14, sad *Oars &waling* of sigsag harrows, cultivator 1'-4, X1111-4, sad others railer gooier =t- ie with hydraulic controls Nte IMounted amour en tractor DT-24 3. Caro aura plantings to on tractor DT-24 ?Miler senior SLGK- 68 with hydraulic controls a --nasinga of light harrows or rotary harrows or rotary he* ERN-4.2 (2 loss has M4.2. Treats gitudinal and 2 las sent with herbicide torsi cultivations 2.4-D with the aid of On (ons longi- tudinal and lateral cultivation it. Corn harreating 2.6 with hydraulic controls. Motor cars OAZ-93 and 7.114-565 or tractor trailer of 24 toss. Ear hashing nachine togging* of lit harrows or rotary hoe M4.2 (2 loos gitudiSal and 2 las Ural cultivations NI/ Couplings of light harrows or rotary hoe EiMs4.2. Troat- nest with herbicide 2.4-D with the aid of ONE (olio longi- tudinal and lateral cultivation CORM= a4.6 hydrollo controls or M-2.6U,SPDs2. Motor cars CAZ-93 and ZIL-585 or trio- tar trailers of 2 tons and Vlis3. Ears husking naohine Combine Kals2.6b. Motor car Z110485. Tractor trailer 24 tons. Ear-husking machine (Con &whine SIS2.76 with hydraulic controls, 111-3 of MIMES cop. strection. Motor ear E11-915. tractor trailer 24 tons. Ear-husking machine on next page) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . ? (7) ? Trans. A-3.004 Variant NO (100-200 hectares) g5. Basic of soil Agricultural. machines I LD40 and P-3511 Variant isb" (100-200 Si.) Variant Raft (1c3o-zao ? Scheme 2. 'Variant ad? (100-200 ha.) Title of figure 1. Corn hargesting Combine KU-2A. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tv) Trans, A-1004 The bunker of the corking was raised by 350 millimeters and moved tO the left by 160 millimeters, which permitted to load the ears into cars With an increased lifting power. the hunker stand his teen reconstructed end this facilitated its mounting as well as access to the left silage - Getting ft*. Solidamast rolls were installed on the oosibins; this reduced crumbling *adds:raging of cora ears, is well as excluded the polsibility of the break- ing emey of planks from the rolls and their getting into the husking moili and silegolicutting drums. A new chainsdriven msdhanimm, has been installed or opening and closing the bunker's trough /Begin p.18/ and the suspension of this trough was reinlerced. The cenetruction of several tension devices of feed chains, of the dreg, drink and the chain of the main drive have been changed. Yer safety ding work, new guards and protecting boards have been introduced, the else of diameter of eonveyer's axle of the Shocker has been increased, as wall as ihe bracket bracing of the conicaltranamission in the upper part of the hoist. The dhotis's, introdueed into the construotion of the combine, have ib. creased its operation safety andprodactivitr. Now it can harvest 5.2. hectares per 10 hours aunt. With much a productivity of KV-2A the ex? imnditure of labor comprises 0.58 men-dcf, while with the work of cabins KV-2, uhith harvests three hectares per 10 hours of work, 1 man-day per hectare. Among the experimental machines at the experiment sections are uti- liseds traotori DT44, with hydraulic mystems and projecting cylinders, emuttped plate 11.4.-35, mounted spike-tooth harrow, sixprow trailer seeders with diagonal transfer of gauge wire, three-row corn harvesting Combines, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 -i5IWe 11?41W4 corn ear-pickers SPU-2A, silage harvesting contines 82-2.6 with bsdraulic controls, corn-silage-harvesting universal caibines t.31-2.611 and smichines for husking corn ears. Tractor DT414, with a hydraulic tryst's ang projected cylinders, is intended for work with traotor.aounted four-bottna plows P11-11-35. Oatpat of the unit, mben Arming to ? depth of 2043 centimeters, is 0.66-0.85 hectare per hour. The unit is serviced by one tractor driver: The moimited three-section spike-tooth harrow is mounted on tractors 1V-213, PT-114, wirodt ani U-2 with the aid of a three-point pivoting hinge. Lifting and lowering of the plow is conducted with the aid of the tractor's hydraulic lift eontrel. Seeder !MGR.% six-row, mutmted, with a diagonal transfer of the gauge Vire differs from seeder 81E01-68 by the presence of hydraulic controls, with the aid of which the ployahares are lifted and lowered, as well as by the presence of a system of hydraulic controls by knot catchers. Lifting and lowering of markers is done with the *id of special rods trim the seat of the tractor driver. The sowing unit is serviced by cue tractor driver. According to data of the A/J.-Union ScientificAissearch Institute of Agricul- tural Mechanisation, the labor eve:mature with the utilisation of this seedtr is 0.06 nan-dsys par one hectare of the planting. Title of figure 2. Chock-row mounted seeder. The six-row check-row seeder (figure 2) is mounted on tractor "Belarus'. The neas?using wire is treasforred as in the seeder 8101E-611. The precision in sowing a given number of seeds (one, two or three) is guaranteed to ,;o90 percent when utilising a mounted seeder. This makes it possible to consi- derably reduce the labor evenditure for thinning the plants in hills. The sowing unit is serviced by one tractor driver and the labor expenditure is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 thul Trams. am.auuri 0.06 mmaliders per heater* of planting. ,Corn earvicker 5111hqk Vivre 3) is intended for harvesting corn in the phase of full ripeness ofthe grain. It pulls oft the Oars from the Stalk., cuts oft the stalks and collects than in the mounted .hooker. The tar-piOker is a tVoiirow trailer machine, /Begin p.19/ working five the power-tike-off.of the tractor willaruslo or/D-35; it is intended to harvest corn from interrows of TO centimeters. The unit is serviced by tour sea, including the tractor driver. Its output is 0.54 hectare .per hour. Title of figure 3. Corn ear-piclOW.8PU-2A. MI* of !igloo 4. Cornpharvesting combine ISE-2.6V. The three-row corn-harvesting combine, of MIKIS construction, is . intended for harvesting corn planted with interrows of 70 centimeters, both In the stage of foil ripeness, as well as during milkpwax phase of seed ripeness. Ibescoombines are released in two versions: with and without an apparatus for grinding the leaves and stalks. !hey have similar cutting apparatus, feeding devices for stalks, break off rolls, corn ear conveyers, bunters for the ears of 1.5-2 cubic meters holding capacity and trailer shocker for collecting the stalk mass. The working parts are moved from' the power-take-off of thi tractor. The wahine, with the grinding apparatus, works in a unit with trac- tor DT-54, and, without the apparatus, with tractors 'Belarus" and IDP-35. The unit is serviced by the treater driver, combiner and a worher on the *locker. Prodnctivity of the combine is 5.5 hectare per 10 hours of work; empanditsre of labor at such an output is 0.6 man-days per hectare. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4616 114 01,141 ? JIV''.6.1"Tie The universal corn silage-harvesting combine 103X-2.611 (figure 4) was made on the basil of the combine 51-2.6 and was intended to reap corn both daring the sem-041k stage of ripeness and after full ripeness of grain, as well as for harvesting other allege crops. This is a trailer combine, the ilidth of the ripper 16,2.6 meters, or Lb' ur rows of corn, sown at intarrows of 70 centimeters. ,the -cutting apparatus is of a continuous shearing action ani can be used on both the row and the continaolue plantings. 'Unlike combine 31-2.6, it has a feeding apparatus, which consists of a top tester with soft planks and a lover smooth roll, and a break off apparatats. The break off apparatus consists of rolls with a grooved surface. Between the feeding end the breaking elf apparatus there is a space for the removal of broken off /Begin p.20/ ears to the conveyer. This spice is shut off by valves when green mass is harvested topther with the ears. The 'grinding apparatus is placed behind the. break off apparatus; it consists, as in the combine 51-2.6, of a knife dna and a counteroutting blade. The combine has two horizontal coarreyers, one for the ears, another for the ground mass. At the end of the ears ccumerlare rolls which are made to *memoirs from them long stalk splinters, and also a lift for the ears, attiich transport* them to the trailer wagon. Combine 111X4.617 wring as a unit with tractor DT-514. Four people service this assembly. Productivitr at the combine, when harvesting corn at full ripeness of the pains, is 9.7 hectare per 10 hours of work. gm. pendithre of labor for harvesting one hectare is 0.4 man-day. Cora eir-husker 0I)-4 (figure 5) is a stationary machine, intended for husking the corn-eare. The "Lachine works from the tractor's power-take-off or froa an electric motor. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 j Tram. 44-Jauc The output is two tons of oars psr hour. Acvon pimple must attend this maohino. iks workers' praductivity* using OF-k* is inoroassd 1.54 times* es compared to manual husking. At the boginaing afar& of this roars sonimars were oonductod at the Soloatific-losoaroh Institmto of Corn and at the Krasmodar Boisatifio-assoarah Agricultural Institute Aire directors, Mist agrioul- Urinate and onginoors of NTS were present* as mill as workers Lion scionti. fie-research institations, oho took part in the oonducting at exporiminks. Omit yerk was sondustad by hilkhoses amd XIS in the *Wiwi of the program and methods. 0.-workers of more thin 30 sciantific-rosoarob ostablishmaits mad of agricultural imatitutos took part is soadisting experiment.* together with markers flonkciikkosas and MT$. Solantifis ustkars were attached to each XT3 aid to any kolkkosos. Brigades and teams more tumid from oxporiemood mschmaisers mad kolkkosalks and na.kinis and implommats were assigned to this. Kontos of movemamts of units were laid out Air oank brigade and tom ones* experimental sostioa. Ths oxporimonts were andustad on this fields of soisetifie-oxperinsatal and educational institutes along WAAL kolkhams. Whoa oceductiag experiments* grout importanse an. attached to a *most amounting of labor exponditurosi of monotary-matorial rossuram, as usll as to thaassamiting of the harvest. Inmorroot or inasourats amomsting oamiload to fault, conalusions. la eon. motion with this, groat rospondbility was entrusted to directors of MTA* chief agrisilturists and engineers* brigadiers of traitor brigades and as- count ants of 11218* as cell as *harem* agrommmos, accountants and bookkeepers of kalkhooss. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 wrens. atftimuu The fuller, Tore thorou?;bly nd in (nater detail 411 th produotion experiments be conducted, the faster will the complex mechanisation of cow txowinc be introduced to kolkhoses end Eovkhoomrs, ard the more considerably will the labor enenditares be reduced for the production of this valuable crop. iitle of figure 5. Corn ear-husker CP4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. 41,44U13) (In full) vg/M ? lakukhine, A. F. Airobatsiia posevov kukUrusy i uelovila sdachi sedan euradarstvu. ' Lipprobation of corn plantings and condi.. tions for seed delivery to the state. Kukurusa, vol. 2. no. es p.23.-25. Aug. 1957. 59:11 195 (In Itassian). It is well4mowm. that when planting corn with seeds of regionalised varieties 1,.ts yielding oapacitiY is considerably raised when ?papered with plantings with ordinary seeds. Still better reeults are obtained fres utiS hung - ? hybrid seeds. Intervarietal kpbrids compared with varieties giro an increase in yield in the limits of 10 percent, variety-linear hybrids up to. L ? 20, and the dpuble interlinear up to 25-30 percent and over. iegardless of thief the growth of areas of hybrid sad varietal plant- Inge of corn in fax, behind the gronth of general &MU Of this crop. brid and varietal plantings of cora. in 1955 eoaprised only 25 percent and in 1956 - 57 percent in ratio to the total area of planting. Consequently, about half of all areas under cern are planted with low-Yielding, ordinary ? seeds or a mixture of seeds of different varieties and hybrids. This reduces 19 the total barest of corn considerably. It is necessary to conduct a series of assisures, the course of ace cospliabaent of which is described further on, in order to complete the transfer to =trona plantings with hybrid and regionalised varietal seeds &ring the next 'two-three years. Glavnefa inopeKsiis pa oononovocistvulatotorotra ool. toga Ikhosiatotv_a 85SR /Chief Inspeotorate at Seed Growing of the Ministry of Agriculture of MSA/. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A4005 After condUcting a twofold field examination of all plantings on hy- 'bridisation *options for deterdining the quality at detasseling the plantm of the female form the next task in order.approbation.(1) ? Yield approbation is of $ compulsory orders on all plantings of eelf-pollinated linesi.mhibb mere produced both for the purpose of propagation and for hybridisation (in order to obtain simple hybrids); on all "mations-of propagation of simple hybrids; on seed section' of kolkhOsse andeovkhoses; ' on all areas of seed plantings of seed growing and elite seed ,grosing tarns avd Of seleotionm*exprimental inatitationS; on plantings of deficient sad prospective varietiess . ? ? . on highly yielding footless of general virietal_plaatings (in quanti- ties, Whkh are necessary for providing Varietal *sad* to kolkhossis and ? sovkhoses, .and forth, realisation of the *tate ;lin of procurement, taking also in consideration the export Of seeds beyond the borders of the republio). The area of general varietal plantings, Which are subject to appro.. bation, is determined smelly by the Ministries of Agriculture of the &Iliad republic* admitting to represwatetions of the *blast' (krai) Dspaitmenti of Assiteultere and Ministries of Agriculture of the Autonosious Republics. ? held approbations of cora ars oonllicited at the fall ripeness of seeds in etrict.conforsitt'with methods, eitedin the institation an the conducting of approbation of varietal plantings, and with methodical directions on growing hybrid seeds *fewest and of its parental forms. tl/See article of A. 6. Limb *Ukhod as posevami na uhastkakh gibridisatsile gars of plantings on hybridisation teatime in lukurusaao. 7, for the year . 1957. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 AMMO. ISPNISM, mhos oodles tiag ? field approbation of self?pollinated lines and staple hybrids, one should follow the method, uhia was established for approbation of common varieties of corn. When eecomplisking this work, it is necessary to cress the hybridisation opetion at a diagonal line sad analyse the ears of one of the parental forms (female or male), and, when returning Aegis p.22/ along this same diagonal lime - examine the other parental form. For each 50 beaterse of a hybridisation section, 250 cern ears of maternal and paternal forma mat be eubjeeted to analysis. Plantings of self-pollinated lines must have not less than 99.5 percent of ears of the basis type; presumes of semis seeds Should not ex- ceed 20 pieces per 100 ears. On hybridisation motions, whisk ware laid out for growing seeds of simple hybrids, the plants of the male fora must have not less than 98.5 permit of ears of a baste type, amd mot mere than 50 xenia seeds per 100 'am implants of female ferns there should be mot less than 98 percent of oars of the basis type and not mere than 50 xenia seeds per 100 oars. In the harvest of seeds of simple hybrids on sections of propagation there should be net loss than 97 persist of ears of the basic type and notion) than 400 xmaia seeds per 100 ears. beedis of self-pol- linated lines mode! simple hybrids are not separated in categories according to typicalness. If, as a result et field approbation, typieelness will prove to be lower, and the presence of semis seeds higher than the indisated norms, the the obtained yield, depending on the six* of admixtures, is rejeeted from the number of those grown for seed purposes sr is reoemmended for planting with the permission of the Outstay of Agrioulture of USSR and the Ministry of urain Predate of USSR. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans. A-I005 Field approbation of self-pollinated lines, planted on hybridisation sections for obtaining seeds of simple hybrids, is a coepuleory meashre in- ...Mallon to field examinations. In the absense of one of the two documents - the document of field examination or the document of field approbation - the seeds, obtained from the hybridisation section, cannot be considered ' as seeds of simple hybrids. ? On hybridisation sections of doutle interlinear, varietrainser and interwarietal hybrids field approbation is not conduted with the exception offers., which are attached to factories for delivery of seeds. . Plantings on propagation emotions of self-pollinated lines 'sod the , elites of varieties are approbatol by a plant breeder or a seed greeting agriculturist free the selection station or a scientific.research institu- tion in the memos of a representative of the oblastijor kral) Department of Agrioultsre. Varietal corn plantings at the elite seed graving farms are pprobated by the agriculturist of this farm together with a representative of the se- ? lectionmexperimontal institution or ()blast' (kral) Depart:swat of Agriculture. . 'Plantings an hybridisation 'sections and of propagation of staple hybrids are approbated by an agriculturist controller in the presence of the seed growing agriculturist and representative of the fare. Varietal plentings of corn on seed growing farms are approbated by specially selected, the most experienced, apprdbators from the machine- tractor stations together with the seed growing agriculturist of the given farm. Xe kolkhoses and sovkhotes, approbation and registration of varietal . and hybrid plantings of cern are conducted by agriculturists, who work on . these farms, and in their absence - agriculturists from MS iliechine-trector- station/ or tram aAlwat organisations, who were appointed Or this purpose. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Approbation can be conducted only by those agriculturists who had training at &special course of the seminar arranged by seientifio-research ,institutes, selection-experimentel establishment or educational institution. It Is necessary to organise short seminars at MTB .for agriculturists, ebo previously had training at the courses of approbation and who have experience in this work. Before the beginning of approbation, agricultural institutions and sins-tractor stations must organise an inspection of kolkhoses and sovkhoses, if they have varietal documents far planting corn moods, and also ahead of time to furnish the controllers with blanks for registering the plantings. In ease of absence of the planting certificate on the farm, it is =weary to take all measures for its recovery borer* the beginning of approbation. ?told approbatiin must be Oondusted on time end at a high level. The varietal documents must be filled out correctly. For this purpose it is ? necessary to provide a systematic, qualified control of the work of the approbators on the part iof dhisf apprObstors, chief agriculturists of NTS and eavkhoses, as Well as on the part of interregional inspectors, who are appointed from the number of best approbaters of the ablest', kral, republic. In view of the especially great importance of approbation, of varietal plant- ings the agriculturalists approbators receive an established additionel pay for their timely and highp.quality /Begin p.23/ conducting of the work. - It is necessary to harvest hybrid and varietal ears as soon as full ripeness of the seed takes place, since dale; in harvesting leads to a loss of part of the yield and a redustion of quality of seeds. In those cases when danger arises through the arrival of early fall frosts, harvest is permit- ted when yellow rips, with an obligatory condition, that drying of contours will be organised immediately after harvesting. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trams* ilo4005 It is neeaseary to harvest *ors ears fron fend* and sae revs separately on hybridisation sections in order to avoid their nixing. Sere fres sale plants, as well as ell those that dropped are not need for seed purposes. Tie harvested hybrid old v?i.tt eorn ears rat be r.sov.d tram the field the era. day and stored on roofed threshihg Coors, under sheds (specially ? eonstructed or ad,tasted), or is well veatilated builfilap? bertins of own ears ittr seeds is eoaduated sinolteneously with harvest- ing. It is neoessary to move all ears *Joh irs nontypieol fer this Sivft ? variety or hybrid or are sari end dieeaSed. Sorting of seed ecru ears rust be done very quiokly sins* the preemiee of rSp. and digerati eon% ears sea oattse the spoilage of the loved sin in ON heap. *en sorting ears at solf.pellincted lines and of singe bybride mall ears are not rojeeted, as well as these with unfilled tope Or partially fillet only diseased ears and those whisk differ $harply in gm sad fora furs the basis *me The stershoase prehatioa is sombaoted after sortias the said ears of hybrid sird varietal corm it is a oompulsery supplaikaut to field Slaaiu. tics and field approbation. Storehatups approbation is sonde.tad by the tars oilrior/tarist) an in- specter uricultarist *basks his work* while on nospseed igniting tarns - a older apprebater or the chief agriculturist of Ms or of a writhes and in. terredonal isspeoters. iteselte of storehouse approbation, which is **newt*d aceerding to a method specified in the instructions for approbation and in nethedisal directions for growing hybrid seeds of cots and of their mental ram, ore doeussated. earth, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-1005 After sorting and storehouse approbation corn seeds must haves 'seeds of self-pollinated lines - only ears of the baste type, with- out xenis seeds) Seeds of simple interlinear hybrids of the first generation - not . less than 99.5 percent sr ears of the basic type and not more ihsm 30 amnia seeds per. 100 earay ? seeds of simple hybrids, collected from propagation sections, - not less than 99.5 percent of ears of the basic type. and Dot more than 000 xenia seeds per 100 ears; ' seeds of the first generation of double interlinear, variety-linear and intervarittal hybrid, - not less than 98 percent of ears of the basic type and not more than 600 lents seeds' per 100 ears. 11, Seeds of self-pollinated lines, of simple, double interlinear, variety- linear and intervaristal hybrids are not separated according to typicalness during both the sterehouse and field 'probations. During storehouse approbation of varietal weeds, which is conducted after ear sorting, it is permitted to raise the category of trpicalnesis but not more them by one, as compared to the category established for field approbation. Such raising of Category of varietal purity is not permitted for slits seeds. All documents about field examinatiems, field and storehouse approba- tiara east be turned over to the state grain storage points before acquisition begins. , Ivory amalgam:it of seeds, &living' to the stats grata storage point must be accoapaniedlw proper sbouments. On hybridisation sections of double interlinear, varietpainear and intervarietal hybrids of farms, which are attached to factories for delivery Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tOi Trans. A-1005 411 of seeds, field approbation is oompulsory besides the field examinations prior to harvesting. sush a ease, during field apprebation on hybridi- **ties: sections, the pereentage of oontaminatioa of plantings with other typos of corn is establiehed, as well as the number of amnia seeds, and of those infected with fangal and bacterial diseases. At the same time, re- gardless of the degree of varietal impurities and inflation with diseases, rejeetion of the yield of double, interlinear, /login p.247 varietplinear and intervarietal hybrids is not *Meted. Harvesting corn, whisk is to be delivered to the factories, must be begun at the moisture content of ears of about 304 and in case of a throat of the coming of early autumn frosts with a still higher moister* content. As the harvested ears are delivered straight from the field to the factory with husks, their sorting; and store- !, house approbation is not sendested. Haab batch of hybrid seeds, delivered to the factory, is ascompanied by one dimmest. In uniformity with the reselatioa of the TeX LPSS (central Committee of the Commumist ?arid and of the Omen of *misters of MSS, there ere monetary varietal bonuses in the following amounts paid off for hybrid seeds, delivered to state warehouses, besides the basis price for the steeds, Class of seeds, Use of bonus awarding to 008? for is /install/9 All-Uniee State for seeds Standard; 65141 Far seeds of self-polliasted lines and simple hybrids of the Ist generation I 275 rubles 11411 250 ? For seeds of regionalised double inter- linear hybrids of Xs% generation I 150 11.111 125 * For seeds of regionalisedverietplinear and intervarietal hybrids of the lit generation I 100 * 110111 $5 N Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t9) Trans. 4.100 ? Seeds of simple hybrids of the second generation and of hybrid popum Wiens are paid for as varietal seeds of the I and 11 reproductions. For hybrid seeds and parental forms of hybrids, whidh are delivered to ETS as a pay in kind for their work on the farm, the kolkhos receives the monetary varietal bonus, while the basis cost of corn seeds is assigned by the state grain pmcdhase point, to the Stateludget. Besides that, the seed growing kolkhoaes receive preferential counter- veil in grain for hybrid seeds, delivered to the state as oomiillsory supply- ing and as payment in kind for the work of NTS, in the equivalentst For 1 centner of seeds of propagated self-pollinated lines; of 1?111 Glasses of the seed Standard. For 1 centaur of seeds of simple interlinear hybrids, 1-111 classes of the used standard For 1 caner of seeds of the aria generation of doable interlinear hybrids, 1.111 classes of the seed standard For 1 centner of seeds of variety-linear' and inter- linear hybrids of the first generation, classes of the seed standard. 3 contneri of *min 2 , 2 1.5 a I For varietal seeds, delivered to the state by seed growing farms, a monetary "bonus is paid off at the following rate over the fixed price for comp *Praia corn seldso For elite mods, meting the norms of the seed stan- dard for the elite For seeds of the first and second reproduction and seeds of deficient varieties of all reproductions (except the elite) or I and II categories, I-II classes of the seed standard rursimilar seeds, Me the /II class For similar seeds, which were not brought to the norm of the seed standard, but in quality are not below the restricting conditions of state grain purchases For seeds of the 3rd and of the following reproduo- tions (except the deficient varieties) of I and 11 categories of varietal purity, 14I classes of the seed standard 200 percent 90 " 70 a 30 50 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 L-1-000Z0001701-019Z171-0108dCll-V10 17Z/60/?1,0Z 3Se3i3i -10d panaiddv pue Pe!PsseloeCI ?olluoqoxo JO Si -yob* Sulpuodoossoo o Suyps0000 odoso mos, sow Jo soysomop isomdmo Jo quommo; so; quomoo otuy umto% WV Jo Nam oql so; pupt uy vomo -A*d it pus usvo Jo souddos AsosIoduoo Jo quoimum sow oosowit/a4 Buy -Ras? pus sq Aq posamop soplaqlq Jo pm elm poopumod-mo Jo aping ? ? ? Ost suompuoo luy -itoyaloos olowytogi4ou 04, VA 1pzITUS%4 poso ottl Jo sum om ol. vtisosqqou OSe4. ROT* (spool sunup. sos ? ? a O't . psipun* Piss ipqR :0 $op in wo AOXOQ 44(1 'OK ita0304,0 III JO OtiOr4OOPOZdO4 //, JO moyloyalui# lumpy Jo rpm aos a i a WI sOsintosad ma, rono Jo suompuoo :ay -4n:41m NM nom lou 0111 lug 4pswinns Pm 0R4 0 wou wil, oq lopoosq qou WO& gimp sepses soyluyo au /Red uy2o4/ ? ? 53st 4114114,10 ///..I 88W0UP3 II POO I JO e(4UOTOT011 OM IMMO) SUOTIOUVOXIOS SUPOITOJ 0% put papt4 eqt Jo spoof sos ? ? est ossintosod uToal omo Jo suompuoo Suyqoutoos OTC AO/OCI %Ott en ROTIZA WI epsopuno peso ova Jo loaftrolo, o% 4qpoosq %au saw Town foga, asyynyo agg Mr Zit stIV P VA ?I1Peel Jr(Prie st0A 4 a rx propose pomp oqw JO SOOSOIO // pus / ? irroysollwoo // puo / Jo ouonouposdos Ihrpoorco; sift jo osyloysto thmoodooid put sawmill JO WW1 put oirts03,4o0 ix put 1 fettoirnpozdaz pug pug vet ost4 30 opus JO MMUS* Le/ StiOntridOd pysqiq Jo open put opus fitoysoa. sos Polon. oquo En Jo swim ow !mom lopoos *ma 401 toworuyntoo &mono; ol tayps0000 top= IT num U23 uy rpusolunoo royquesopad gems oqq. 4)4 posoomp 'opus WOO pyaqAq ost4 AO; WO nut se irloysta JO& movaudortos3 am* Jo ouompueo Supoyspos UM smog IOU Oil 11014A qttq ipanuoto peso om, JO mom oq% 01 qtatnoaq goo saw Romp hip?00 jingo du 0 Olt propane pees Oqq. JO ossevio ziri f4Isod /flotro? 30 Asolowo 11/ Jo sumouposdos Ito JO soyloysie ituoyortop Jo opus 404 iptiOsted Oz .4forepsndwpas2 wits Jo suompuos Surmoysvos ott% nom qou saw Amirdb uy lout opsopuove pits 54% Jo AMU s144 os itognoaq tom sass 'mg,' copses amirpo cnimir ?OM/ itrrl L-1-000Z0001701-019Z171-0108dCll-V10 17Z/60/?1,0Z 3Se3i3i -10d panaiddv pue Pe!PsseloeCI , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4 ? ? 441.140. For hybrid seeds, turned in to the Stets for exchange, the state grain purchase points issue to the seed graving kolkhoses ordinary, provision grain (weight calculated according to varietal purity and moisture content); equivalents used are the seam according to which preferential oountervail was made for deliveries of compulsory supplies. ' for varietal seeds of corn, which are deliverod for exchange the state grain purchase points issue ordinary corn grainsin equivalents established by the governmaat. Issues in exchange for grain of othsr crops can be made only with the permission of the Ministry of Grain Products of USSR. Varietal and hybrid seeds, which tre issued in exchange for ordinary seeds, are evaluated according to fixed Prices plus varietal bonuses and the leaved ordinary grain - at fixed prices. Offence" between the pride of delivered seeds and the pries for the ordinary seeds obtained from the state grain purchase points is paid to the kolkhos in cash. ? Haulage of seeds, which are turned in; in the course of exchange, to the state grain purchase points by the farms in their own conveyance i paid for to seed growing farms leocording-to the operative tariff for transports. tion of grain V. motor transport. After fulfil:Lomat of all obligations to the atate in **paying the grain, the seed growing kolkhoses can turn in the hybrid and varietal corn seeds, using their MA discretion; not alone for exchange but also can sell than to the State. An such a ease the kolkhos receives a supplementil monetary bonus over the price of ordinary corn in the amount cited praviOusly. Sovkhoses tarn in the varietal and hybrid seeds only in the order of einhangs for ordinary forage grains (weight is calculated according to varie- tal purity and moisture content). Compensation is caltulated using the same norms, according to which such seeds ware oveltated for compulsory de- liveries and exchanges to seed growing kelkhoses. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (12) Trans. A4005 Varietal' and kibrid seeds, Which are turned in by sovkhoses for ex.. change, are evaluated according to the delivered price established for soviheses, with an additions] monetary bonus in the amounts cited pre- viouAy; the forage grains, obtained by sovkhoses from state grain puri. chase points are also calculated according to the delivered prices. The state grain purchase points pay the deliverer the difference between the price of accepted seeds and the supplied forage grain. Furthermore, the sovkhosis and the selection-experimental institutions, who turned, in the cornSeeds for exohenge`purposes, receive also the proper price for hauling the seeds to the purchase point. 'Fwyment of s'dditional monetary bonuses, as well as utilisation of preferential equiVilents, are done only in that case when the seeds, turned in by the seed growing farms, fn114 satisfy the standard norms, including ' 'misters content also. For deliveries of conditional seeds, having gm in. worm! moisture content, the else of monetary and natural bonuses is re-_ .duced4 depending on moisture. ? floods of regionalised corn hybrids of the first generation can be accepted without a contract from non-seed growing farms even in that case, when they are net brought up te the norms of the seed standard, but in guilty are not below the restricting conditions of the state grain pur- chase points. For such hybrid seeds the state grain purchasing points pay a monetary bonus over the price of the ordinary warn in the amount of 100 percent of the fired price. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? AlmaralAr A %AAA Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 411111 4011.1.161 viii Wasiike, A. 8., and Ilischke, P. 7. Selektsionne - semeseved- timbale robots a kukurusol. Areeding and seed growing work with coml. Makers'', vol. 2$ no. 12, p.32-36. Dec. 1957. 59.8 895. (In lassian) Ihe All-Union deleetionmaanetisel Institute inert T. D. lgyeenke has begun its work with corn $1200 the year 1939. The methods of corn seed growing, utilised during these years, basically were directed for the re 111 - tention, of varietal purity and not for the increase of their yielding am- purity. But the workers of the Institute, basing themselves on the teschlese of Charles Darwin about the selective ability of the organisms, and taking into consideration, that the vitality of hybrid offspring increases eon,- siderably after ermine the plants, which differ in their biological and ecological aharacteristies, have developed a new method of corn seed growing. This method, in 1949, was recommended to all selection-experimental institutions of the country by the Ministry of Agricultare of VDU. Utilising the new method of selection, the Imetitste improved the cern seeds of the wEnepropetrovskalas variety, which OR the average for 4 years gave 33.4 (*steers of seeds, and seeds, grown awarding to the old method, gave only 28.2 ?miners of seeds per hectare. Besides improving the yielding qualities of seeds of the existing Ovarieties, new and higher yielding ?ore varieties can be dove/4,1nd using this method. This was cwafirmed by the experienoe in the work of the Insti- tute in developing the variety Nrusbevekaia Odesskala". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Speolness of the variety *Ormihsvskaia, rail& were obtained fro' vario6 halide's** of Odessa and likolaevek eblast's verso the initial ma- terial for devolopmemt of ihis variety. These speelasse, together with 37 specimens of morsel the *Orughevehala* type, Shish were selected in Moldavia, were planted 1211946 in les surgery for arose-pollination and solution. As a result of repeated eress-pollinatioa sad selection, a new, more produotive, variety of sera uus created. Ca the average, during four years of resolwrok (190-1,50), variety *Orumbevekaia Odeseksia* aseeeded in psis yield *Oraihrrehaia Maspropetrovskala* by 5.4 costar per hectare. Daring esperiments on fourteoa variety test plots is Odessa, Niro- 'regret" sad lineprepoirevsk oblast's in 1947, the variety *Orughevekaia ? Odesakaia* prodieed, on the average, 40.5 meteors more of grain wheaten, or by 4.6 oestmer noire than the variety "Daspropetrewskala*, whit* vas regionalised for those Oblastis at that time. Sine. the pv1950, the variety *Orumbevehala Odesehala* has been regionalised in the eons of distribution of hybrid *Odesekli if, its patersal Was, as well as in likolesveh ablest' tor growing seeds ler export to Northern oblast's of the eountry, where it can give high yields of silage mass. *Orughevshata Odesekeia* refers to a group of varieties with yellow flinty grains. Its positive sharasteristio, when planted in northern Oblast's, is its rogistanse to low temperatures durimg the spring period. /aegis p.33/ Together with development of methods of good growing and brooding of varieties, the Institut* also condasted work es brooding cern hybrids. As a result of *tidies of as hybrid combinations sad of selection of pairs, the Inatitmte bred the intervarietal hybrid *Odesekli 1" bylaws of crossing variety nnepropetrevghaig*, maternal fora, with the variety "Oreshov- skate Odesskale. This hybrid is ohareotarised by high drought.registanos, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?31 Trans. A"Avvo and in grain yield it exceeds "Onepropetrovekaia" variety, on the average, by 4-5 centaers per hectare. Thus, on the average for 9 years of experiments (19474955), at the Berssovskii variety test plot hybrid 00desskii 1" exceeded in grain yield variety "fteprepetrovakaia? by 3 canton's, at the LiahaehoVekii by 5.8 .and at the paltskil - by 3.1 contort per hectare. In 2049 the hybrid 00desskil 1* was regionalised, and 101956 it was already planted in Odessa and &kola,' oblastos on in area of about 160 ? thousand hecteres. In 19529 in Odessa ablest' together with hybrid 00desskil 10 was regionalised a new, and more productive double interlinear hybrid WI 42, Which was bred by the All-Union Institute of Plant Industry. Taking into consideration a high yielding capacity' of hybrid VP 42, especially in grain, the Institute paid such attention to its introduotion into production of late. On isolated notions new seed tanneries for self-pollinated lines Via 44, UR 38 end 'VIP. 43 are being:established using seeds obtained as ' result of repeated oelf-pollinations; seeds of lines 44 and 38 are propagated as well as seeds of simple interlinear hybrids ?Slava" and 0Svetoch0. Seeds of self-pollinated lines 44, 38, 40 and 43, grown in 1955, sere utilited not. only on hybridisation sections of special corn seed growing farms. They were. sent out for propagation to greatosekos, Rosovekca and Ismaillskoe? experimental fields, to Stavropol', Miliutinsk, Alna*Ata, Strero-Caetinskaia and other selection stations. Fulfilling the resolution of the ToK KPSS &Antral Oemmittee of the Communist Partil and of the Council of Ministers of USSR, abilut measures for transfer of kolkhoses and sovkhoses to planting corn with hybrid seeds, the Institute increased the voltage of work on growing parental forms of hybrids. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Inns. A4P1U00 Title of figure. Ears of corn *Odeaskaia 10*, bred by the kolkhos *Lanni itichurina* Dshankoi raion, Kryaskaia oblast'. Last year on propagation seCtions were green and turned in to the State 342 cantina's of seeds of self-pollinatod lines, or over four these more than it was specified in the plan. Besides that, the seed nurseries have grown 23 contners of seeds of silt-pollinated lines 44, 38, 40 and 143, while the plan specified 3.2 eentners. Above the planned assignment were grown WI *anther of seeds of the simple hybrid %lava* and 216 contner' of seeds of hybrid 18votooh*. ? ,The collective body of the Institute also renders prectleal help to kolkhoses and sovkhoses with intzeduotion of hybrid seed* for produotion plantings. In 1953 hybrid plantings occupied in Odessa *blast' 68.1 ? thousand hooters', in 1954 - 1054, in 1955 - 158.9 and last pear 3119.5 thousand hectares. The yield of hybrid seeds. obtained In 1956, permitted this year to plant with hybrid seeds the pester part of the area, occupied by corn in Odessa oblast', as well as to provide a considerable amount of seeds for planting in other ?blast's of the country. In latter years, the Institute has conducted work also en breeding new corn varieties. Different methods were applied for this work. But the aost effective method of intervaristal hybridisation was with fres pollination. By this method, on the basis of free intervarietal crossing (without &tasseling) of varieties ?1tUDS11 1.111131511ei /Begin p.34/ Doepropetrovskaia and Kinnesota, O 13 Extra, with the use of additional pollination by the mixture of pollen of variety - pollinators and of the maternal variety (Kuban Leaning) during a comparatively short tins, for tour years, ? new highlyv.roductIve Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 rrans? A-Auuo variety sOdeaskala 10" was bred.- Variety "Odesakain 10* is especially valuable for planting for silage and green fodder, since owing to great height and,vigorous development of stalks and leaves of plants, it produces high yields of peen sass. During testing on variety test plots of 27, ?blast's and republies of the country, varlet/ 10desskaia 10" considerably exceeded the kybrids and varieties of corn, regionalised there, in the yield of ,ellage sass. In 1955 the planting* of 10desakaia 10" on the average in the eight varlet/ tAksting plots of Odessa *blasts produced by 1372 feeding unite per heaters sore, than the plantings of hybrid TM 42. ? In the yiald of ailap and dry sass variety 10desskala 10" often is not even excelled by such high-oproductIve late-rips:dal; double interlinear ? hybrid as VIII 156. tinder production conditions of kelkhoses and sovkhoses *Odeaskais 10" also produced higher ,yields of silage sass, than other varieties and hybrids. In 1955 the team of the two-tines Nero of Socialistic Labor, S. D. Vishtak, who planted variety *Odesskala 10" on the area of 12 hectares obtained 231 centners of corn ears in wax-silk stage of seed ripeness and 400 oentner of green 'sue per hectare, and frca three hectares, where corn was harvested for seeds - 110 centnen of ripe seeds per hectare. At the kolldibs "laud tirova*, Shirlaevskii raion, Odessa ablest' during the sans year varlet/ sOdesakala 10" on an area of 10 heotares produced 1.200 centners of green mass per hectare. Last year at kolkhos "Luang frasnoterat non, awe. ()blast', variety "Odesskala 10" produced 720 (=taws of green we per hectare. ? According. to its vegetative period, *Odesska 1O" belongs, to a group of *odium late varieties. It ripens usually 125-130 days erten the appearance Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kg)/ won. AINLVVO of sprouts, 8-12 days later than hybrid VIA 42. in 1955 variety 00dessksia 10 was planted in nine kolkhoses, which were serviced by Shaw:beak? 8upportihg.4)emonstration MTS &whine-tractor 'Utica of Beresovekil .ssin, Odessa oblast', where it gave higher yields of seeds, than hybrid VIR 42. This variety gave high yields also when tested in other countries of People's Democracy. In 1956, at the production cooperative 'Friedrich Ingelse in Shafstedt (Kills district, german Democratic Republic) 1.200 centners of green as were obtained frostlike% bectaret Agrotechnics for breeding variety 'Odesskaia 10" is similar to other varieties and hybrids: But in connection with its tallness and a longer vegetation period when growing it for seeds the area of plant nutrition ? is recommended to be increesed by 20-25 percent. This variety, in comparison With other hybrids ahd varieties, differ' in increased resistance to low .temperatures during the spring period; this makes it possible to cultivate it inner', northern ?blast's of the country.. Of late; the Institute widened its work on breeding early.ripening hybrids and varieties of corn, which have high yielding capacity and are adapted to local conditions of graving. Crossings were conducted of fairly tar/priputing varieties, such as Spasevskala, Sesenchukskaia, Toroneshskala 76, Itemnistaia ftlint7 earlriripening and others with medium-ripening self-pollinated lines, simple interlinear hybrids and varieties. ? Testing of obtained hybrids has thorn that the best among than are considerably more early-ripening, than the double interlinear hybrid TM 42, and equals it in yielding capacity. Variety-linear hybrid wforoneshskaia 76 I Slava", whirl ripens 1042 ? days ahead of hybrid V1fl-42, presente special interest, and during the two Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) ? Trans. A4.006 years of testing sommihat ezoolled hybrid. VIA 42 in yielding capacity. This year the new hybrid underwent preliminary tests on timers' variety .test plots of Odessa, iirOvegrad and Kharkov oblast'. As a result of crossing of varieties "Longfellow" and Ireenistaia early-ripening" and of the following selections a DOW productive variety" no.16m, was obtained, which is more early-ripening compared to the studied ? varieties and hybrids,. After harvesting of plants of this variety, /Begin p.35/ even in northern raions of Odessa and Nikolsevek ()blasts' it is possible to plant winter wheei. ? eine* 1955 the Institute has conducted works on studies of hybrids, Obtained from crossing of early-ripening varieties with late-ripening. As it is known, T. D. Lysenko, on the basil of studies of the length of the light Stage in late-ripening southern and in earlriripening corn varieties, ahlth ripen in northern regions of the country, suggested to cross them for obtaining early-ripening hybrids, *it% would give high yields in northern regions. Taking this into eonsideration, in 1955, the Institute conducted direct and beck crossings of early-ripening varieties noroneshikaia 76, Opasovekalap.Sesenchukskaia,? Ifremnistala eerly-ripoining" and othe is with late-ripening varieties "Muskets 10, -Zakarpatskaia Shensi* obboitdnala deritn Sterling and others. Two-years study of obtained hybrids has Shown, that under conditions of the south of Ukraine they, as a rule, occupy an intereediate place in their vegetative period between the initial varieties, or approach the sore early.ripening, but only in isolated Cases the late-ripening parent. Whereupon, usually, if an early-ripening variety was used as the Maternal form, than the hybrid obtained was mere early-ripening. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?47, traigs? 1110.INVO Of late, the Institute widened the work en studies of the collection material and of separating fres it the best speeimens as initial material for crossing Gad breeding selfivollinatedlinee. Last year, in the eol- leetion mummy, 562 specimens were studied of various origin, among thea 500 specimens from the ItleAd Collection of the 13.14sion Institute of Plant Industry, end this year - 696 specimens. The Institute began, since 1955, to breed self.pollinated lines of corn. As an initial material areutilleed meetly the lecal varieties ottnepropetrovskaia, Oirushevelada-Odesskaia, Odesskaia 10, Iharkovekala 23, Iharkeveksia *it, dant", and others. Particular attention is given to breeding early-ripening self-pollinated lines from varieties with flint type seeds. Utilisation of suck use as initial material for double interlinear hybrids will give the possibility to obtain hybrids which are resistant to low temperatures during the spring period and are mere est/y-ripening. At the present time varieties noronesktkaia 764 Spasovekala, Boson- dbukskala, tromnistaia early-ripening', end others are used for breeding earlywipmeing lines. Tor developing self-pollinated lines, which mould in economic-ble- logical chareeteristios Ashtray differ from lines developed fr011 varieties of native eeleetion, the test foreign optimisms from the colleetien material were utilised as initial material. This year in the nurseries were studied 286 lines of the first genera- tion, 357 lines of the second gemeratiem and U. lines of the fourth and fifth generations (from self-pollination). The Institute has also conducted 411 analysing crossing, of several mere aligned lines.. Ilextyear the obtained hybrids will be studied in eopparison with hybrid1VIAO, simple interlinear Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. Ae.AVVO hybrids e31wvan and "Svetcch", and other hybrids and varieties in order to select the best lines for breeding double interlinear hybrids. It was discovered that perennial propagation of lines on isolated seotiono with free pollination leads to the increase of their productivity. Sow the Institute studies, how this change of yielding capacity of the line is reflected in the productivity of simple and double interlinear hybrids, obtained fras crossing of these lines. !bother with this are eiveined the variability of self-pollinated lines after their repeated self-pollination and selections. As it is knows, when growing seeds for lines, the seed nurseries are planted with seeds from repeated self-pollinations of plants. Regardless of the fact that self-pol- lination of plants of self-pollinated lines is conducted on well aligned material, sometimes occasional families of one and the same line differ one from another to a considerible degrees in the length of the vegetative period, might and vigor of plants, height of attachment of ears, resistance to diseases, and is on. For instance, in 1956, some of the lines of VIII 44 tasseled on July ? and the others on July 12413. This year also /Begin p.30/ was observed a considerable diversity in, families in the linits of one and the emu has. . Thus, by means of repeated selfaipollinations, selections and propaga- tion on isolated sections of individual families, *Loh differed from other families of the given line in several characteristics, it is possible to develop ass lines from the existing, aligned self-pollinated lines. A wide distribution of double interlinear corn hybrids raised the is portance of studies of productivity of regionalised double hybrids deperWag on the quality of the initial material. is it is known, when growing seeds of the first generation of double interlinear hybrids, seeds are utilised as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Oa) Trans. &maw; . of,the.first, so else of the following generations of simple hybrids. Moreover, some workers of scientific establishments think that yielding qualities of doable interlinear hybrids do not at all depend on the ,fact which of the generations of simple hybrids was taken for crossing. One cannot agree with this. It is known that hybrids are productive oar in that case when the most productive varieties, *stars adapted to the given conditions, ars crossed. Therefore it is supposed, that the result from crossing qualitatively differing generations of simple hybrids cannot be similar. ? Tests of seeds of hybridVIR 42, conducted by the Institute, and whida were obtained both from crossing the .first generations of simple hybrids okras and nvotochs, as well as from crossing second, tbjrd, fourth and fifth generations of hybrids,. have Shama that nor* productive seeds of byblid VIR b2 vere'cibtainedshan crossing first generations of simple hybrids. This vas confirmed by data from variety test plots. We think, that the growing of seeds of the first generation Of simple hybrids meths organised in such a way that all the sections of hybridi- sation be planted only with seeds of the first generation of simple hybris (especially the maternal form). The experience of selection - seed growing work of the Institute and data of kolkhoses mad sarkhoses show, that it is expedient an each farm to plant not one hybrid or variety, but two or three, which differ among them. selves in length of the vegetative period. The necessity to plant an each fern several hybrids or varieties is specified by climatic conditions, as well as their resistance to low spring temperatures. Raving at its disposal seeds of several hybrids and varieties, the farness start planting earlier those, which are resistant to low temp Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kIL, Trans. .00,41=0 perattny. With the setting in of wars weather hybrids and varieties leis resistant to cold 'weather can be planted. Planting of different hybrids a.'nd varieties of cern for silage, ;thick are olutraotarised by ripening at various time, has an economically - or- ganisational importance, since it permits to considerably lower the pre*. sure of work when harvesting and transporting the silage mass. ? lit kolkhoses and sovkhoses of the math of Vkraine it is expedient to ? plant pert of the area with early-ripening hybrids and varieties, that have a vegetative period of 95-105 days in order to utilize the land after bar- vesting corn for sowing winter wheat. ' The necessity to plant in each kolkhos and sovkhos several hybrids' and varieties sets before the seleotion establishmenta a problem to develop for their sone such a collection of hybrids and vans ties of corn, which would provide both the highest yield of grain, silage and green fodder, as well as mould increase the yielding capacity of the winter wheat, When uti- ? lising corn as its predecessor. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trani. 1.1007 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 v'g/ki centwirs P400 and Shilkkove$ Z. ? Poludtanie glitserina shrashivenien drevearifth gidrolisatov. Abtaining of glycerin by fermenting wood hydra,' setae. In Akademila Mc* Latviiskoi 86R. Otdelenie SiologidCfsekikh Sauk, BielegiCheskaia Nuke- Sellekona i legman khociaatra. vol. 3$ p.141442. Riga. Akmdeniia "auk Latviiskei UR, 1957. 1142 1442 (In Ineeimn) At the present tine the demend for polyatomia alcohols and glycerin in USSR considerably exceeds those amounts, chi& are menufactured by soap and other branches of incity. The increased demand tor glycerin on the part at many bramble of national economy compels the waters of science and practice to find ef- fective method, Ibr its production. Research in the field of obtaining glycerin is carried on in two direc- tions in our country and abroad. The first direCtion includes aynthetic methods for obtaining glycerin indpolystostio alcohols, the second-bie- shenioal methods. At the Institute of Forest Soenomy Problems research in the field of fermentation of hydrolysates of various plant raw materials began in 1949. Hydrolysing of plant raw materials with concentrated sulfuric acid, ? according to the Riga method, peraits obtaining solutions of sugars, mhich$ as rswmateriAls for the glyeerin industry, possess mamy advantages over tut 'se erect Economy Problems at the Academy of science of Latvian SW Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 \? , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. 1-1007 molasses as well as over hydrolyse*, that are obtained by methods of hydrolysis 4th weak solutiono. Those advantage* consist of, first, in a high oonoentration of brirolysato sugars; s000ndly, in the preemie in thole of phoegkoria acid, *Lob permits obtaining phosphates proper, and, finally, in the *bums of foreign adeixturo", ihioh hamper the extraction of glycerin from tort and the rocovery ot salts. Research, *Joh mos conductod with pmro glycol* was successfully ap- plio to itydrelysatos. A refilling method of fermentation was chosen, where salts were intro- ascot(in separate additions in a dry form. Th. rase of yeast was - 7th Tonnkala, in fa woonnt of 10-15% of the sugar, temperature of fermentation - 32 to 350 0, concentration of sager in the wort - 18%. /Begin p.142/ Formeatation of sugar solutions was condustad in the presence of various salts. Tho best results in glycerin and alsohol yield were obtained from distabstituted phosphates. Utilisation of biota-through air during fermata on of sugars, in the presence of phosphates, leads to the looms* of glycerin yield by 30444 cuspated with oxperiments without *oration. Thump for instance if without serration, the yield of glyostin oonpriess 12% of the sugar and of alcohol - 30 then with aeration the yield of glycerin oosprises 16.5% and of aloohol - 28.3%. Thr ported of fermentation at tit" Sake tiMO is redwood from 48 hoar. (wLihout aeration) to 24 hours (with aeration). Tho must of circulating gir is in the linits utilised in roast production. Fermentation must procsod in hermetically closed vats. The volatils products are oolloctod in sorobbors. Contents of glycerin in the wort, when fermenting sagers in a concentration of 18%, end with the addition of phosphates, with- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trams. A-1007 out utilising &oration, equals, on the average, 2.16% (with an average yield of glycerin of 120 and of alcohol - 5.0 (with a yield of 30). When fermenting the sugars of the sane oendentratima, but using aera- tion, the content of Armin in the wort, ins:vases to 3-0. ilbsn stripping alcohol from the worthy, for instence, indirect steam, coneentratioa of glycerin can be inereeeed ep to 5-6%. Taking into consideration the work of the Loktrvitskii Ukiah eon - siders profitable the exiractioo of glysorin from mato liquor at its ors- tent of 0.68%, one shoold point out, that the process of extraction of &- twin fron our vests liquor will to more t000nomicii. One can rsoomeend two variants for reprocessing hydrelyeates fOr gly- a) ferneetation of hydrolyseter, obtained after preliminary hydrolysis, with a neutralisation La then of phosphoris acid to sodium: phosphates; b) fomentation of the gotta* iiedineet7 atter orystallisatice of glasses with the addition of phosphatos, whisk were obtained from the hydro- lysing factory, by extraotiaa of *petite with selftris acid and neutralisation at phosphoric acid by soda Oh. At the present time work is bring condnotod for obtaining glyosrin with the aid aft. Subtilis. In 1956y with the partisipatiom amd aid of the institute of Nicavbielogr of the Aeademy of gioiemee of USSR (Nereow) 16 stains of the bullies were isolated; preliminary tests of these gave salmoraging data. thus, fir instant*, the nuseun strain 9789 prodeoed 20% glycerin, 33% lactic acid, 12% alcohol and 2% of 2.3 butpleme-glysol (that 411 is utilisation of sugar to 67%). Another strain, isolated from hay, yielded glycerin and 2.3 butylene.ayool mounting to 30% and other prodaota. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tit) Trans. Ai*li)tif tersrantation of sugars idth Bac. subtilis is advistageous because it is conducted without additions of salts, and, thus, recovety of glycerin ani of polyatonio alcohols will be facilitated considerably. The work iv being continued. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (in full) vg/M Timofeev-Resovskii, and Luchnik, N. V. Radiatsionnaia stimuliatsiia rastenii e* vosmosbnaia teoreticheskaia interpretatsila. /Radio-stimulation of plants and its pos- sible theoretical interpretation/. ' In Vsesoiusnaia Nauchno-Technicheskaia Kon- ferentsiia po Primeneniu Radioaktivnykh i Stabillnykh Isotopov i Isluchsnii v Narodnom Rhosisiave i. Raftke. Trudy: Radiobiologiia, p.258-266. Moskva, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 1958. 442.9 9963. (In Russian) Many researchers noticed that small doses of ionising radiation (fairly different for various objects and conditions of the experiment) do not inhibit the growth Or cause the emergence of any pathological changes, but produce the, so-oslled, stimulation, which is expressed in the accele- ration of growth and differentiation, in the increase of biomass, in the raising of resistance to damaging reactions, in the lengthening of life (in imbeds) and increase in the yield of seed. (in plants) /1-5/. In our. laboratory, since 1949, experiments are being conducted on the studies of radio-stimulation of cultivated plants /6-9/, froth water Organisms /10/, bacteria /11, 12/ and mammals /1.3/. In the present report an attempt is 'being made to give to this interesting phenomenon a theoretical explanation, the elements of which were fermented preViously /14/, uh.rimpon experiments with cat/rated plants mill be taken as basic material for analysis. It La..rara ? os rsogo a 650. fl ophys o aboratory of the Ura). Branch of the Academy of Science of MST/. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %gi xrunz. ivNitvvo is necessary to emphasise beforehand that the "toxicological hypothesis" Of radio-stimulation, developed .further on, is applicable, of Course, in only certain "reasonable" limitis of doses. In the experiments of our labo- ratory, in laboratories of L. P. Breslavets, K. Saks and of many others, we deal With the stimulating effect of doses, meaeurable in tens or hundreds of Roentgen units. Tho question requires special consideration about a pos= sibility of applying this hypothesis to suggestions, existing in literature, about the allegedly occurring stimulations under the influence of doses of ionising radiations, smaller by several orders of magnitude. . Basic results, obtained in our laboratory, come to the fallowing. In mani laboratory and 'field experiments, with about 15 species of culti- vated plants, it was ascertained, that smell doses of X-rays, beta dnd gamma-rays (*exiling for different crops and condition* of experiments in the limits from ten to several thousands of Roentgen units) accelerate the growth and increase the general biomass and the yield of grains) after a further raising of doses stimulation changes over to a progressive injury of plants with the inorease of doses and ooncludes with a lethal effect. Radio-stimulation is observed after irradiating dry or swollen seeds from without, as well as when they are soaked in solutions, containing radio- active substances, and also when introducing the emitters into the soil or nutrient medium. The greatest stimulation was observed with a Prolonged (in the course of 24 hours) soaking of seeds in q solution of inextricable _ mixture of products of fission of uranium, the radiation of Mhich consists principally of fairly hard beta-rays. In figure 1, as an example, are represented results of field experiments with /begin p,259/ 13 species of cultivated planta. Besides this, during the course of 4 years., production plantings were conducted of ten species of plants on the total area of 300 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 177011? A04.UVU hectares, that gave similar results. Title Of figure 1. Effect of irradiation in small doses on the growth of plants. Deviations of results of field experiments fres the control (in %). In the limits of one crop the experiments are divided by large interspaoings, and variants of one experiment by mailer spacings. Words in the upper part of figure 1. Left to right: peas, beans, Phaseolue, vetch, alfalfa, clover. In the lower part, left to right: wheat, barley, eats, millets, buckwheat, taste, flax. During experiments, attention was drawn to ascertain the conditions, which influence the appearance of radio-stimulation. Very interesting and important proved to be the fact that alpha-rays, being utilised in the same doses and under the same conditions as other type* of radiation, do not cause any stimulation of plants. Their inhibitory effect, with the raising of the dose, tells such stronger. this fact, most probably; can be explained by the effect of linear density of ionisation. Pherefore, special experi- ments were conducted by soaking seeds of peas in solutions of isotopes of rare earth elements, which possess beta-radiation of various hardness. Results of these experiments, presented in figure 2# show that a hard beta- radiation Ce144 causes approximately the same effect, as a nixture of uranium fragments; and the soft beta-rays Pm147 cause an effect intermediate between the alpha-radiation and the hard beta-radiation. A great role is played. by the intensity of irradiation and the stage at which the reaction. takes place. Numerous experiments have shown that, under similar conditiOns, stimulation is more strongly expressed after a prolonged irradiation, then after a short, and is pronounced more often when irradiating wet seeds, than dry seeds or sprouts. The results of one group of experiments, where both of these factors were modified, are cited in table 1 for illustrating these regularities. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Us) 'Trans. a-1000 The results, cited above, are rather hard to interpret theoretically sine* the growth of plants, and, the more so, the yield are the secondary ..results of other, more direct effects of irradiation. Therefore, special attention was given in our experimente,to cytological studies of tissues of of irradiated.PIants at various dates after irradiation /35/. Already a ? detailed analysis of result* of basics Amperiments points to the fact that the acceleration of growth oceUre at the expense of stimulation Of cell division, Since in stimulated plants the dry weight. is higher than in the control; /Begin p.260/,this tills about the decrease of the an sise of cells and about the corresponding inoreas* of their number. (Text continued ,aftir Table 1). Title of figure 2. Effect of different emitters depending on the physical dose. Results are given in the form of a an deviation from the control (in %) taking into account the features (weight of roots, of stalks and leaves). Wards in figure 2. Insides Mixture of fragments. Be- neath the diagrams Dose, for /physical roentgen *qui.. valent, rep./. Table 1. Effect et gamma rays on the yield of pea seeds (in % to control) after irradiating the seeds at different stages of 24-hour soaking. Length of irraiation and stage Dose of irradiation of soaking_ 150r ,250r ? Control 24 hrs. of soaking and irradiation 6 hrs. after the beginning of soaking 6 hrs. at the end of soaking 30 minutes at the beginning of soaking 30 minutes at the end of soaking 100 100 150 122 131' 101 139 116 123 102 136' 113 Direct biometrics analysis, conducted, by S. R. Tsarapkin, has shown, that in 410 stimulated plants the average /Begin p.261/ Rise of cells is substantially' reduced, While in the inhibited - is somewhat increased as compared to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 lPJ 4ranmo Control. Similar results were 4140 obtained on bacterial cUltures /11, 12/. Cytological examination has shown that the percentage of dividing cell* in the root meristem increases considerably after soaking the seeds in weak concentrations of the solution of uranium fragmente, while the percentage of cells with ohromosvme reconstruction differs but little from the control. Similar experiments with Solutions of alphi-emitters gave i vats different pictures mitotic activity did not substantially differ 'from the control, and the percent of abnormal mitosis increased much faster with the dose (figure 3). Comparison of these results with data of the effect of emitters on the growth of plants has shown, that there. is a well expressed Correla- tion between the stimulation of growth and the mitotic oaCti4ity on the one . hand, and inhibition of growth and the number of abnormal mitosiSes - on .the other hand.? Title of figure 3. Effect of various doses of alpha-emitters (a) and bete?emittere (b) on the percentage of normal mitosises (A) and Mitotic activity (B). *rd. beneath both diagrams' Doss, rep. ? 'Spelital experiments have shown, thatunder these Conditions the raising Of mitotic activity is not limited to a short term wave, which follows its inhibition, but begins before the destruction. of cell* (which proceed* also at stimulating doses). It follows from this, that stimulation of mitosis is not only compensatory and does not occur as a result of the activity of necrohormones, which are formed during the destruction of cell.. Therefore, here proceeds areal stimulation of mitosis, which is a fairly direct re- sult of irradiation. /Begin p.262/ -- The folIqving circusstance helps in the understanding of the mechanism of stimulation of the oell division. In the cells of stimulated plants is observed a considerable amount of binucleate symmetrical cells. Since such Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tD) Tuns. A.a1C)05 cells are almost absent in the control and after the action of inhibiting doses, one hal to assume that they are indebted in their appearance not to the injury, but to stimulation, since the effect dee, not grow with the doe*, but has an optimui. /n such a case this can be explained only by the fact that the formation of cell walls is behind the increased division of nuclei. Data, cited earlier, about the decrease of the size of cello in stimulated plants can be explained in the same way. Since the increase of biomass is determined, in the first piece, by the speed of protein synthegis, this means that protein synthesis is somewhat behind the increased division of nuclei, the number of which during stimulation on the average Xe somewhat greater, Thus, one must assume, that after radio-stimulation the first in order is the increase in nuclear divilion. EXamination of interrelation of various mitotic phases leads to an interesting conclusion. It appears that an increase of mitotic activity basically occurs because of the increase of the number of prophases. This phenomenon, like the appearance of binucleate cells, cannot be explained by the inhibition of anr process, since this effect does not increase along with the doss. Therefore, an increase in the muter of prophases is not connected with the blocking of a transfer frma prophase to metaphase, but with the acceleration of transfer from interphass to prophase. Consequently, the acceleration in nuclear division to accomplished at the expense of some prodess occurring during the intorphase. It is more natural to assume that _cause of increased nuclear division is the acceleration of synthesis of desoxiribonucleic acid (DUA), which, as it is known, is accomplished during the interphase. Thus, results of the cytological analysis leads to the following con- eluaions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tT; wow, &sumo .Inhibition of plant growth is connected, to a considerable dopes, ' with deitruction of Cells, occurring, basically, at the ixpenso of chromosome breakage and Of curtain types of chromosome aborrations.. Ons? of the 4asic Caus-es'of stimeation of growth and devslopment of plants, under the actiOn of small radiation doses, is the stiaulation of cell division, at the basis if which lies the acceleration of nuclear division, 'Shia is, probably, connoted with the acceleration of Di A synthetie. During blophyticil analysis of phimomena of radio-stimulation one should proceed first Of all from the following three-sxperimental facts. 1. IffeOt of radiation on the growth of plants is not a single process, but is formed already on the cell level of, at least,' two types of changoss genetical (among whicht'aftor the utillsod.desse,.the most estential are the ehroncsome4betrations) and physiological (along Which the influence =the spud of mitosis is especially important to us). 2. The stimulating effect of radiation. it inlinvorso dependence on the linear ionisation &malty; ilpha-particles with high ittnisation density do not cameo it in general; mug beta-partioles the most offectirs are the vartidlos of high energy, &Kong elsotromagostic quanta -.the shortwaved. - 3. In experiments with radio?stimulation appsars an inverse factor of times stimUlation is nuch sharper expressed, with all other conditions equal, during a long irrpdiation. Let us begin our analysis with the influence of the linear ionisation density. Prom a macrogeometris point Of view the effect of all ionising radiations on matter is similar. Nevertheless, the Marco:metrical picture turns ott to he sharply dissimilar. A section of meristenic tissue of a pea is diagrammatically represented in figure 4; /Begin p.263/ it has been irradiatod by a dose of 5r&p. of alpha-rays with an energy of 5 Min and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ' Trans. A-1008 dose of 0 33 rep of bets,particlei with an energy of 1 Min (uhlah corresponds to the average energy of products of uranium fission). It. is seen from this diagram that While during irradiatiohalth alpha-particles no ionisation Occurred inmost cells, after irradiation with beta-particles all. the tissue vat pierced with a net of ionising track' even at a dose 15 times mailer. Linear ionisation density Of these radiations, is also very differints alphafflparticles proitais about 13,000 iOnisations only of theory, ahem* beta-partioles with an energy 1 Mira only 6 !Amiss. tone. .It is necestory to espsoiallf point out the degree of tniformitt of ionisatione. Ionisation denaity OhO:hgerinsignifidantly in a1Pha-partia1iel from 1,300 ionisitions forl:F at the beginning of the way to 5,200 at the end. In bota-partioles, on the contrary, the difference is very great and the number of ionizations -changes from 2 to 1,700 per micron so that at the end of the way the same ionisation density: is formed as during the course of alpha-particles /16/. title of figure 4. Diagrammatic representation of micro- geometrical distribution of ionisation after irradia- tion of meristematic tissue of apes by a dose of 5 rep of alpha-rays of radium (left) and a dose of 0.33 rep of beta-radiation of products of uranium fission (right). It is clear from these comparisons, *at in those cases when it is necessary to leave great energy one small sectien of the area for causing an offset, for instance, in chromosome cross section alpha-particles must be mare effective as Aosta passages of beta-particles leave lc* energy; beta-particle produces *any ionizations only stat the end of the flights. And, on the contrary, if for the realisation ef some effect a certain opti- mising energy is required, then bets-particles most produce a high effaot. Indeed, if the question is about the not too fine parts of the cell (beginning Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1.71 44411,411WO W.WWWW with parts of an order of )1 and higher), then beginning with small doses of beta-rays the statistical nature of their absorption will tell little; all sections will, approximate/7 receive a similar dose, which will increase with the raising of the general integral dose. With the action of small doses of alpha...rays eertain parts will receive a very large dose, whereas others Will remain vairradiated; whereupon this effect tells already at the level of the coll. An obvious case of this was obtained in our cytological ex. periments /15/. With the increase at the dose of alpha-rays the number of cells with chromosome breakage grew, but the number of breakages per injured cell did not change, /Aglaia 14264/ while in experiments with beta-rays to- gether with the dose grows not ORINf the number of injured *elle, but also the amount of breakages por sell (although considerably slower). As to the inhibition of the growth of plants under the activity of alpha-emitters and high concentrations of beta-emitters, its mechanism was. already ascertained previously to a oonsiderable degree. It wee known that the inhibition of growth was connected mainly with the destruction of cells /17/, and the deetruction of cells, in its turn, was connected withohm., =some breakages /16/. It is known also, that energy is required for chromo- some breakage of an order of several tens of ionisations. Therefore, the fact of greater inhibiting action of alpha-particles finds its explanation in the peculiarities of microgeometrioal disposition of ionisation and fully corresponds to certain biophysical facts mmi theories /16, 18, 19/. Biophysical analysis of the phenomenon of radio...stimulation, after soakina, the seeds in solution of beta-maitters? is facilitated by the fact that stimulation of mitotic activity and at growth is observed during the action of such concentrations, when the percent of chromosome aberrations almost does not increase owing to the emomalous reaction at small doses /20/. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 VW/ 411111111111, 411 herefore the serve of dependence of mitotic eetivitir est the demo *eh be considered as a staple sum, and not as a result of two effects* One should meation4 that radie-stimelation is observed also after irradistion, of seeds from without with oomparatively high doses, whisk eaves a waffisiestiy large member of ohromeseme aberrations' in seek eases, no doubt, sewers an ihterastion of two abbots. The premises on the carve of it maximum of the effector the dose shows **troy the slimmlation of attests a eertain optimum energy is required, the exseeding of whisk does net ilreaty cause this West.. cytolegioal analysis has shown that stimelatiom of mitosis is acoomPlithed tiring the time of DIA synthesis at the time of interphaos* Biophysleal analysis led to the same conclusion. Display of the inverse faster of time after stimulation mob, explained by the faci4 that the cells are net similarly sensitive to the stimulating offset of rays* there- fore, during short irradiation only few a the cells are irradiated to a specially sensitive stages while &IAN prolonged irradiation all, or iimost all, sells pass through this stage during irradiation* Probably this ex- plains the feet *atlas* irradiating dry seeds from without the stimula- tion is expressed sonsiderehly weaker, for its memifestatien are needed mush higher doses and the faster of tine is absent* It is interesting that in sertata eases the phenomenon of the inverse faster of time is explained by the peculiarities of the *intoner rays on ish metabolism of =oleic acids /4/, villa leads up on the other hand to the same commlusion, and, namely, that ens of the primal promisees during radio-stimelation in the sotto' of rays on the metabolise of omelets adds. As it was aimed,' said, biophysical examination of the form of the O curve of the offset of the doss for 'Minie astivity tells about the fact that a eertain opttema energy is needed for stimulation of mitosis* In eonneetion with a larger offeetiremess of radiations with a small linear Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (.1) . Trans. A-1003 ionleation'density one Miasma, that for the realisation of thia reaction not a high energy is needed, which is concentrated in a limited part of space, but en accumulated energy of separate amen "packages of energy". Thesmisting fasts do not Oontradiet the *toxicological hypothesis' Of radio-stimmaitimnbA4 according to which in the irradiated cell arise, theory-small Conceraabetiens,.prodUste Of denaturition Of protein and -- '"foreign" molecules assiresultof both the initial radio-shemicil'effects, as veil 44,.reasibly,et also primarily. induced chain reactions, whareupon,' as it La known, the.preteelytio and, in ,genersl, the farMantatiee'aetivity of the cell can ill ?SUS jsetinp.205/ At the IWO tiA! the reelbility is not *saluted that, in the presence of stimulation, irradiation acts more specifically on certain intracallular ot6anolds, for thatence, the nucleolus. Clarification of the specific nature of these primary processes' ? represents a further stage in studing the mechanism of radio-,etinulation. Mbennhile, one can assose, With a sufficient definiteness, that the basic cause for the stimeation of growth of higher plants'is the acceleration Of. cell division, and:during the acceleration of cell division the -primary. effect la the stimblation of division of cell nColeis at the basis of which lies the acceleration of synthesis of MA. The described process appears very rarely in such a pure fora as with a protracted soaking Of seeds in !mantic:sup of hard beta-emitters. Often, beginning already 'pith "stimulating" does*, an important role is played by cytegemetie offsets, 4o that the total inflame of irradiation on the growth consists of two different end oppositely directed preceeses. In conclusion, one should pake two more remarks of a general character. First; the exiatence of the phenomenon of radio-stimulation doss not at all. speak about the necessity of lonicincridiations for a norma esistence of. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14] wrens. PmuLUVO living organimes. Assumptions of such a sort do not have any real ground and their groundlessness tab recently shown very clearly by A. P. Tinogradov P2/. Secondly, there exist, up to the present time, 'opponents of radio- Stimulation, the de not recognise the fact itself. Objections usually proceed *long one of the three direotiomss either the stimulating offbot Is explained by a chenical action of radioactive substances or of accolpeny- ing admixtures, or, having established in precise experinents an abeence of stimulation, they assume this ma proof of the absence of stimulation in general, or, finally, they lesus fromoa preConosived opinion about ionising radiation as an agent, Which causes only destrastive aotion. DO Should Says as regard tide, that radioaltiatlation is observed not alone after contact with radioactive isotopes, but also after irradiation from vithOut /0/. Further on, the manifestation of radio-stimUlatien depends not only On the dose, al it follows fro* the principle of Armit-Shultse, but also oniony other factors. Thus, under fully similar conditions alpha-rays, in contradistinction to beta-rayi, usitally de mot produce any stimulation. Therefore, one cannot expect stimulation under all conditions of the expert. ment. Finally, it is bard for tiny researchers to admit the fact of radio- stimulation since in the majority of theories of bleb:if:Leal action of rade- tion there does not seem to be any rotator it, mad the atthore of work on radio-etimtlation rarely ties a theoretical explanation to the obtained resets. Ixactly for this reason in this report vs tried to draw the mein attention not to the fast itself of radio-stimulation, but to the possibility of its theoretical explanation, thereupon ve triad to SW, that the phenols-, non of radio-stimulation net only doss not contradict the basic principles 410 of biophysics, but moires its clearest interpretation exactly owing to biophysical snalyvid4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010:400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (13) Trans. A*1008 LITERATURE 1. Breslavets, L. P., Plants and I-reys. Publisher AN S831., R. 1946. 2. eshall, N. 0., In the collection *Session of the Acadegy of Science of USSR on Peaceful y Utilisation of Atomic Imre'. Conference of the Section of Biological Sciences of the Academy of Science, Publisher AN USSR, N. 1955, P.349. -3. Sax, K., *Am. J. lot.", 42, 1955, p.360. 4. Ilecteev-Resarkkii, N. V., Poriadkeva, N. A4, Nakarov, N. N., Preobrashel- skate, Z. I., Trudy laboratoril biofisiki UYAN Oral branch of the Acadian,' of Science of USW, 1, 1957. 5. Brunoto.V. V., *An. J. Rostilenol.* 6. Poriadkova# N. A., *Hiofisika*, 1, 7# 1956, p.597, aegis p.2647. 7. Parie.dkova, N. A., niulleten, Wallskogo Otdeleniia NOIP Orel Erma of the Moscow Society of Raturaliste% 1$ 1957. 8. Kulikov, R. V., *Stull. Ural's*. OM. NOIP,* 1, 1957. 9. Timofeev-Resovsiii, N. V., Poriadkeva, N. A., "Notanicheskii /bursa% 41# 1956# pal. 10. Tuaftwvasassovskaia, B. A:$ *Biulleten, Urallak. Otd. NOIP*, 14 1951. U. Sokurova, E. N., Effect of various tfpes of ionising radiations on nitroi. gen-fixing bacteria and microflora of the soil. Amtoreferat dismission, Institut* of Microbiology of the Academy of Saloum of USSR, N., 1956. 12. Sokurova, B. R., sIsvestiSA AN SSSR*, Biological Series, 6, 1956, P. 13. Luchnik, &V., V. 0. Kulikova, *Doklady Al SSSR*, 110, 6, 1956, p.982. 14. Timofeev-Resovekii, K. V., *Blofisika% 1, 7# 1956, p.616, 15. Luchnik, N. Vos *Bielletent Urallek. OW. NOIP*, 1, 1957. 16. 11441, D. K., Action of Radiations on Living Cells. London, p.194. 17. Gray, L. H., Shales. N., *Brit. J. Radial.", 24, 1951, p.82. 18. Vimofeev-Ressetatt, N. 11., Zimmer, K. O., "Slops.', 1, Leipzig, 1947. 19. A. Dussati-Tmsreo? L. lavalli. Tooria delPurtel e units biologiche olementari, Milano, 1948. 35. 201 Luchnik, *Dials.% 2$ 1, 1957. 21. Luchnik, mons.% 1; 7, 1956, p.633. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14) ?ran*. A-1008 22. Vinogradov, A. P. oDokladrANSJ5RI*0 110, 3, 1956. p.375. 23. Droslavets, L. P., Berezina, W. Dhohibris, 0. 10, MOnarichikoriso M6 *Dials.", 1. 7, 1956, p.625. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R-01426R0102100020001-7 11/11) vg/h Zbarekii, T. B. Problem biokhimii kletki. /Probleies of cell biochemistry/. Vestnik Akademii Nank &MR, vol. 27, no.-8, p.26,36. Aug. 1957. 511 Ak1hV. (In Russian) The contemporary period in science is Cheractariged not alone. and not so much by development and deepening of special narrow fields of knowledge, as by attraction ofdifferent methods of research, by combination of dif- ferent approaches for eaution of one or another problem. At the present time studies of mechanisms of tbe most important bio- logical phenomena, such as 70owth and development, variability and heredity, processes which lie at the base of Various forms of physiological activity., have advanced very far. Explanation of these mechanises required the cam- bination of morphological and biochemical methods, which permit the studying of the unity of structure and of chemical basis of function on the most elementary levels of life. Biochemistry already does not satisfy even the detailed knowledge of individual reactions of processes of glycolysia and oxidation. or reproduction of these reactions with purified enzymes outside ? the organism. The strictly well regulated sequence of biochemical trans- formations in the cell is connected with spatial separation or, on the contrary, ccabination of separate enzymes, or of their groups, with the absence or their very high concentration in certain sections of the proto- plasm.. Biochemical representations cannot therefore be full without taking into account the localisation of chemical substances and biochemical reactions Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 lz) Trams. a..xviry in tho cell without a clarification of the structural bases of metabolism, of synthetic processes, of such reactions as conjugate phosphorylation, as . transformation of free energy; which is enclosed in chemical compounds; to muscular contraction and other forms of the physiological work of the cell. jaactly ao also modern cytology cannot be satisfied with only the morpho- logical research. proper. A morphologist tries to .study the structures, visible under the usual microscope, which exist on the submicroscopic level, and here he invariably meets the biochemist in as such as these submicroadopic structures are none-other than macromolecules of biologically important sub.. stances (proteins, nucleic acid*, polysaccharides; lipids), which especially interest biothemiets; or aggregates and Complexes of such macromolecules. Th4s, biochemistry or a cell is one of those boundary nada of knoW- ledge a swift development of which has bean prepared by successes in disciplines, whiehhave produced then, and is conditioned by the development of old and ? appearance of new methods of investigation, that inmate possible owing to rapid growth of technical advances. Biochemistry of the cell enters into many sections of biological and medical science; in its development are deeply interested not only morpholo? gists and biochemists but also representatives of such disciplines as physio- logy of animals and plants, microbiology; embryology, genetics and selection, mechanic* of development; pathological physiology; oncology, and others. Exactly the oytobiochemical methods lead us to the closest /Begin p.27/ mechanisms of formation of form and function in their unity in various organisms, heginning with viruses and endtogwith the higher forms of the plant and animal World. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t3) Trans. A.d.00y At the outset of development.of biochemistry, during the second halt Of the past century, many attempts were made to determine the chemical corn- position of different organs and tissues taking in consideration the inter? stitel and intracellular localisation of chemical Components. An important place among these Works is occupied by classical research of proteins of muscular and nervous tissue, which were prepared bl.A. la. Danilevskii and histochemical and physiological works of F. Risher. Nevertheless, &breaking. 'away fro* elucidation of the morphological structure of the studied biological object was characteristic to biochemical research, directed to a deeper study of chemistry of substances of biological origin, ad their conversion. In the orgehisme. AlthoUgh during this period acorphologists penetrated deeper into the etnecture of the cell and discovered in it new formations, 1 the chemical nature of such structures remained vague and only individual biochemical warts refer to the chemieal.structure'of the cell. But already in the thirties of the present century one can observe the revival of interest in interstitial and intracollular locialisation of . chemical substances and of their conversions. A tendency arises to pais over from biochemical studies of extracts to the ;sxmaination of "insoluble* proteins, in Which a structural basis of tissues is found. Attempts appear to interpret the mechanisms of contraction of protoplasm. The most imported, role in this respect were played by the works on isolation and study of the nature of proteins, which form the muscular fiber, and, namely, the obtaining by 4. Veber of myosin file and, especially, discovery by V. A. Engellgardt ad MI. N. Luibimova of adenosinetriphosphatase activity of such filaments, their capacity to active elongation in the presence of adenosinetriphosphate. This Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %MI 44..Arma? ? research, shah began a scientific trend - mechanochamistry of muscles - re4 ceived a further development in the berks of A. Ssent-gyorgyi, F. Shtraub and I. L. Ivanov. Subsequently the contraction protein complexes were isolated from cell nuclei (1. B. Zbarskii aid K. A. Ferevoshchikeva) and from other formations of the cell (G. Veber). Along mith contraction proteins from 'various tissues it became possible to isolate difficultly soluble proteins, particularly nucleoproteide of a filar character, for instance "plasmosin", obtained by R. Bensley from liver, "procollagen" by V. N. Orekhovich and A. A. Tustanovskii, "structural pro- teins" by "A. Ssent.Syorgyi," and others. If one succeeded to conduct these works by old methods, then the new stage of cytochemical investigations, which combine the chemical studies ? with studies of intracellular structure, is indebted to the improvement of methods of research work. First of all, these are the successes of micro- scopic technique, introduction and distribution of phase-contrast ultraviolet and electron microscopy, development of microsurgical methods, which permit manipulating individual cells and even parts of cells. Histochemical methods of staining microscopic sections played a large role in determining the chemical components of cells and tissues. Neverthe- less, one cannot fell to take into account, that with all the great value of these methods for localisation of chemical components, the results obtained through them are not always correct in virtue of many artifacts, which arise during the process of treating; this refers especially /Begin p.28/ to quantitSative evaluation of the contents and assignment of many substances. In reference to the chemical composition and metabolism of individual 411 organoids of the cell, the most important results were obtained after their isolation and subsequent chemical study; this required development of a technique Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A4009 of homoonising the ticcues in various media and differential centrifugation of hotozanates. Methods appeared for isolation of cell, nuclei, using citric, acid, salt media, as .well as saccharose, glycerine and anhydrous systems. Saccharose media proved to be especially prodUative, inasmuch aa from such homogenates one succeeded in obtaining much finer cell particlos-mitochondria and other granules of the cytoplasm in an almost unchanged state. After fractionation of homogenatee of tissues into cell components, a . serious mistake in the interpretation of obtained data can be introduced by the heterogemiey of the initial material, the ,presence in it of cells of different types, ap well as of non-cellular components. The, recently emerged method of preperation of cell suspensions (N. Anderson) and separation of 'dna sdspeesions into groups of homogeneous cells has good prospects for overcoming this difficalty. Interesting results of the work on studies of the inner structure of various cells of one and the same organ were recently obtained by a group of telgian authors (C. Daduve and others), who have successfully utilised saturation of reticuloendethelium by iron, introduced with the food in order to separate reticuloendothelial cells of those of the liver proper, and a eubseqpent division of cells with the aid of aneleotro. magnet. One of the serious difficalties which biochemistry of cells meets, especially When studying growth and development, is the very small quantity. of the material for research. The usual ndcromethods of biochemistry prove to be insufficiently sensitive for chemical analysis of such specimens as individual cells or their email groups. At the same time, in many cases, particularly When studyins ooLenesis, fertilisation and embryonic develop- ment, the possibility for analysing individual cells is of great importance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 co) Trans. A4009 Special apparatus for these purposes and several suitable, original ultra- micromethode were developed by Danish biochemists K. Linderstrom-Land and 110 Pater. Of late theft appeared repOrts about differentiation of protein substances with the aid of microimmunological reactions, Which are conducted under a microscope, as well as &pout the application to the smallest objects of contemporary methods of chrotatographic analysis, which will permit, for instance, determining the nucleotide composition of nucleic acid of an individual nerve cell. The nucleus, as the largest pert of the cell served as an object of chemical and histological research prior to other cell components. let, in ? the last century one succeeded, although by very imperfect methOds, to isolate nuclei from animal cells of certain types and subject them to chemical analyais. Already these first works led to discovery of new biologically important chemical compounds-nucleic acid and comparatively simple proteins of a basic character, protamines (7. Hither) and histones (A Kossels). These Chemical components, which are characteristic to the nuclei, later on underwent deep studying. It seemed that the nucleic substance possesses a comparatively simple and at the cams time peculiar composition, which distinguishes it from other parte of the cell and repreeents almost exclusively a complex of nucleic acid with protamines and histone,. At the same time the cell nucleus was regarded /Begin p.29/ as a bearer of several functions of active lifer yet not one of them can as yet be held to be inherent to the nucleus alone. The question about the function of the nucleus in the activity of the cell cannot be solved without a minute cytochemical research in the oast., position and metabolic activity of nuclei and their interrelation with cyto- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-1009 plasm. Experimental data point to the very considerable role of the nucleus, Which is expressed not in quickly occurring changes in the metabolism of cells and tissues but usually in slowly developing and long acting manifesta- tions of nuclear function. The nucleus produces a considerable influence on the organisation and inner structure of the cell and thus acts, probably, not so mndh directly as through protoplasiic structures, Mainly cytoplasmic re- ticular network and minute ribonucleic granules of the cytoplasm. TO the nucleus, apparently, belongs avery important role not only in Processes of fertilisation, of cell division and heredity, but also in the differentiation of various cells and tissues, in ontoginesis of specific functions of dif- ferentiated organs. 'Mechanisms of such kinds of complex and diverse functicue of the nucleus - is one of the most important and interesting problem' of cell biochemistry. Attraction of method* of contemporary physics met help in the solving of this problem. Of creat interest in this respect are the models of the strUc- tyre of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), obtained on the basis of I-rey analysis. Not without interest also are the attemps in applying the theory of inforMa- tion to the mechanismak synthesis of specific proteins with the assistance of nucleic acids. Experimental data on biochemistry of such chemical components are per- missible for considering as bearing relation to possible mechanisms of func- tional activity of one or another cell organoid. However this does not per- iiit to reduce the functional activity as such to one or another individual chemical component. Thus, the very interesting data about the rigidity of. the DNA structure, its specificity and importance in factors of transformation and transduction in microorganisms and bacteriophages is yet insufficient in order to reduce, for instance, the processes of transfer of hereditary features, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. a-10051 in all their complexity, to the specific structure of DNA or exclusively to the nuclear function. It is necoseary also to take into consideration that the features and composition of cell nuclei of various tissue* and organiams, especially at different stages of development, with their relative similarity, can be heterogeneous, and that even, such a characteristic component of the nucleus as DNA, in alms ()flee, for instance during the development of fish eggs, appears practicilly fa* not in the nucleus, but in the cytoplasm of the ovicell. If the nucleus accomplishes such complex and manifold functions, it is tiara to imagine, that into its composition enter only the =Imperatively simple protein. (histones and protemines). Indeed, contemporary data shows that the TrOtein composition of the cell nucleus is not that simple and in- culdss the highly organized proteins of the complex amino acid composition. Proteins of the usual (acid) type were discovered by, A. N. Deloaerskii in the composition of nuclear nucleoproteids, which were isolated from bac. - teria and plants. Subsequently, it was shown, that nuclei, isolated from animal cells, always contain a lot of protein of acid character ("chromosomin" according to Stedman). This acid protein considerably differs, according to properties and to amino acid composition, from protaminss and histones; particularly it contains tryptophan, which is lacking in basin proteins. Tho acid protein contains about 10% of lipids, is homogeneous during electro- ,phoresis and can be regarded as lipoproteid (D. Mayer, T. Wong and L. Thomas). Into its /Begin p.30/ composition enters a considerable part of Rik of the nucleus, forming, apparently, a complex which is present in the nucleoli (0. P. 0aorgiev and S. M. daidov).. In the dompositionof cell nuclei was detected a special "residual" protein which was insoluble in the usual solvents (I. S. Zbarskii and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?71 ? Lx-aum ? 0.....a.vvy ? S. S. Debov). This protein iv 'free from nucleic acids, does not contain tryptophasa and suggests collagen by its features. The reoidual protein comprises about 5$ of the dry substance of nuclei of normal cello, and after isolation from them of nuoleiproteid and the acid protein, remaine as a silhouette of the nuclei, retaining the form. According to more detailed recearch of the Czech authors, D. Soudek and L. Bones, the residual protein forms 'the sheath of the nucleus. pperimenteiwith tagged amino acids pour some light on the functional importune of nuclear proteins. In our experiment, Which were conducted in vivo, radioactivity of tagged amino acids was detected mainly in the fraction of the acid protein, as well as in the tryptophan .containing protein of the nucleiproteid fraction which, apparently, has mostly to do with biosynthesis of protein* in the nucleus and with in the Cytoplasm, Connected, with it. Corresponding research, conducted by A. hitakii end his co-authors. in Vitro, led them to similar results, which are regarded by them as an eyi- dance of' a strong link of these proteins with DM, and its participation in the bioarnthesis of specific =Clear proteins. In this, process of particular importance are the protein-nucleic co*. pious, in. which the most essential are, apparently, the Compound proteins, which are stongly linked to nucleic acids. On the'other bend, the basic protein components-Matope or protamine - which are wally isolated from the nueleoproteid coaplexi are comparatively inert in respect to inclusion of amino acids and can play only the role of a factor, that is blocking and regu. lating synthetic processes in. the nucleus. Fran this point of view the bond of nucleic acids, particalarly DNAs 'with proteins in a living cell can be different than in the isolated nucleoproteide? and is capable of enduring con- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t1U). Trans. Ai-1009 siderable changes in processes of biological development. The **reseed considerations are insufficient for passing judgment *beat the metabolic function of the nudlei,without qualitative and quantitative information aboUt the gnomes of the gell'nucileur. .This queetion, nevertheless, mares *further detailed ressarch,Whereepon.one 'hoed take into consi- deration, that the restlts'of determination of amnia acitivity depend, to a great degree, on the method of nuclei isolation and aust be controlled by ,mathode Of histeehemical staining. Deride. this, nuclei, obtained fron cells of different tierces, are 'similar to each other only to a certain degree, and can differ greatly fres oheanotier in the contents of aarq armies. The cited data refermainly to nuclei whieh sere *ablated, rm. the liver. . . . Many mimes werfedetected in cell nuclei. Owlet ate relatively rich in phosphitese-adenosinstriphosphatese, which is aetivatedbycaleium, Menem ) sine?pbosphatice and, espedielly, by alkaline phosphates.. The high cents* Of artinas, is eharasteristic for the nuolear fraction, as Well as for the enzymic sytteme at synthesis of nucleic, acids and of Certain costumes, WU.. eularly, diskaphopyridine nucleotide (Codehydrogenase I) from ATP and aloof tinamidemonenneleotide. At the same tips oxidising envies, ouches tucciao- dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidate and others, are detected in very small . Imountel and there arelbundations far thinking that mon these smell amounts get into the nuclei froik the destroyed :.aitschondria. Such a type of research has shed some light not only oaths chemical topography of the imam, taAalse On its function as the organold of the cell.? The notions about a great role of the nucleus in oxidising processes did net find any confirmation. levertheless, the nucleus takes part in the reactions of biosynthesis, especially in synthesis of 'plane proteins and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) Trans. A-1009 nucleic acids. ,There is ? basis /Resin p.31/ to supl.oss, that this stage of synthesis of nucleic acids from nucleotides (A. X. Beloysova), as well as of Synthesis of certain menages, for instance, codehydrogemse I (U. 81:insider and co-wor)ers) are connected with the nucleus only. Histochemical observations lead to similar conclusions also. In cells ofirarious tissues are described tiny basophil lumps, detected on the nuclear meihrane and attesting about the transfer of material, rich in nucleic acids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. This phenomenon of "nuclear seers- tlon", which is especially Clearly demonstrated in the nerve cells, speaks about the passage of RNA and of proteins trot the nucleus to cytoplasm. Nevertheless,. in order to ascertain the chemical nature at the secreted ' material it would be very important to isolate these tiny Ivey* and subject ? them to chemical examination. Nzplanation of the mechanism of such processes as fertilisation, cell multiplication, heredity and so on, depends to a considerable degree an de- tailed studies of the chemistry of the cell nucleus. Nevertheless, the already available data permit to suppose, that the nuclear apparatus plays a directing and regulating role in the organisation of the protoplasm structure and can accomplish this function lay means of synthesis of specific nucleoproteid granules, placed along the system of reticular network, which is closely connected with nuclear rembrame and perinuclear layer. Such a mechanism would be able to accomplish the regulating function of the nucleus not only in the general processes of developmentubut also in the specific differentiation of certain organs and tissues. In this connection certain pathological processes, especially such as tumor growth and radiation intury can be caused by disturbance of the nucleoproteid complex of the nucleus and of the nuclear function. If the nucleus is connected mainly with prolonged change* of processes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . (12) Trans. s-buy of development, then in the cytoplasm, apparently, prevail the rapidly pro- oeeding reactions of glycolysis, oxidation, and so on. These processes are localised both in the undifferentiated cytoplasm and in various vanules, the majority of which are placed in a certain way and oriented in the coll. Of special interest is the circumstance, that biochemical processes, which are much later ontogenetically, for instance, oxidation or specific reactions, whidh are characteristic to a given tissue, are to a greater degree connected with structural formations, than the more primitive processes, such as glycolyeis, which proceeds mainly in the structureless hyaloplasm. Thus, complication of the morphological structure of the cell is *a- companied by the complication of biochemical processes also. Such a cor- respondence is achieved both by the linking of specific group reactions in these or other grsneles and their safeguarding from the interference by other ensymes, as well as spatial distribution of enzymic systems when biochemical reaotions can be accomplished in a required volume and continuity. One of the most interesting problems, 'which as yet was almost not touched upont is the problem about the origin of the cited structures and granules, correlation of chemical and morphological differentiation in the ontogenesis & the cell. Different granulise of the cytoplasm were obtained and purified compara- tively recently. Studies of such granules by a method of fractionation of homogenates of tissues (iir. Schneider and O. Hogeboom): led to further, more precise, definitions of our information both about the structure of cytoplasm, and about the position in it of many chemical components. Granules of cyto- plasm of the mammals' liver are studied in greatest detail. The conclusions, cited below refer to this research. Undoubtedly, /Begin p.32/ many properties of the granules and the presence of granules of certain tips. are characteristic Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (13) Trans. A-1009 ? for these or other cells; yet mitochondris. and iicrosomes, apparently, could - be obtained from most diverse *sisal cells and perfori in them more or less- . ijlar fuluitiens. , Mitochondria are the larger among these granules(0.-lp in diameter). ? . It ii-pOssible to isolete,them fraM finer grannies and obtain thee in a. purified, almost unchanged term, frt.* tisane homogenates in itotonic sac -- chime. solution. -Nitocheniria contain many lipids, but very little BMA. They are rich in ens and colter within themselvee mainly the oxidising systems ' In them is contained practically all the suocino-dehydrogenass, cytochrome oxides, and cytechrome system of the cell, and, apparently, 'almost the whole ensymatie'system of the citratedIreble cycle.' Xitochondria provide oxide-. tion of fatty acids .s well as of keto and oxyaciole, which are the interme. diets products of exchange of earbohydratee, fats and proteins., Thus, mito? chondria represent a very complete apparatus, which includes certain com- plexes of snipes in a spatial and functional combination with each other. In isolated unimpaired mitochondria one succeeds to reprodUce both the complex, multistage oxiditing processes as well as individual reactions, whidl testify about a high eentent of such ensymes as dehydrase of glutamic acid; ? oxidases of exalacetic acid, capryl acid, choline oxides*, and others. The activity of certain hydrolytic enzymes is also referred to' the - I traetion. There are a lot of data in literature also aboutother enzymes, contained in mitochondria. Nevertheloss, owing to the imperfection of mothod4 data can be incorrect and require thorough investigation. These doubts do ' not refer to the oxidising processes and, already nov, there are reasons to think that the chief fellation of mitochondria oxidation and oxidating Phos- phorylationsand they, thus, are the organelle, which provide the cell with energy and resynthesis of oyysokoerfilcheekikho thie,t-ergall phosphoric cos- binations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14) Trans. A-1009 This function of mitochondria is confirmed by thu fact that the cello, in ditch glycolytic processes prevail, for instance, tanac,rous -cells are poor in mitochondria, and, on the contrary, development of the mitochondria apparatus, Up to a. certain degree, correlates a high dif- ferentiationok cells and development in them of the structure and of the oxidising type of metabolism. and energy. Thue, the nerve cells are especial- ly rich in mitochondria, whereupon, in contradistinction to Missies sub- stance, they are met in different parte of the cell; nerve terminatione in tissues end in synapse are ?Specially rich in mitochondria. Examination of isolated mitochondria of nerve cells permits to conclude that these large granulet are most closely connected with the nervous activity, particularly with the transfer of nervous excitation. The main macs of cholinesterase and cholint-acetylase is concentrated in them. About this testify for instance, the latest data shoving that acetylchaine syntheeis in nerve tivsue can be successfully reproduced in mitochondria isolated from the brain ofa rabbit (d. Hebb and B. Gmallmen). Mitochondria can be seen well under an ordinary microscope, but through an electron microscope it is possible to discern their inner structure of pectinate character, which is included in a genera sheath, which protects mitochondria from destruction and extraction of enzymes contained in them; Thus "insolubility", Which is usually ascribed to the oxidizing enzymes of the cell, in essence depends on their organisation in mitochondria. In a cer- tain sense mitochondria is a closed system, which represents the result of Morphological and chemical differentiation. The fraction of microsomes or the all granules is not as well de- termined as /Begin p.33/ mitochondria. Usually to them belona particles from 50 to 150 mp in diameter. Microsomes are very rich in RNA and lipids, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 l4 Trans. st-tuuy which compoce up to 4o% of thcir dry sentcnne. Their encyMic apporatun is poorer ,..nd not as variegated as that of mitochondria; nevertheless, certain , enzymes, namely, onterast, glucose-6-phonphataee, diphosphopyridincriacleo- tide-cytochrome c reductano are mainly connected with this fraction. What cenceres the functions of the micro:x=8, they are as yet not sufficiently clear; yet the hill content of PHA in thrrs, as veil an the intense inclusion into this fraction of tamed mine acidn, permit to suppone that they play an important role in synthesis of protein in the cell. &Nifty mitochondria and microsomes other types of granules are also described in literature, which are obtained during fractional fractionation of homogenates or the liver and of other tissues. oome authors (Pl. Peter- mann, A. Novikov and others) describe five, Seven and even eiht types of cytoplasmic granules, which were isolated from homogenates of liver and tumors. One 086 consider only the fraction of night" or ntnkt mitochon- dria as more or less determined,Whioh has relationship to aeoretory granules, and, apparently, playing an important role in the synthesis of snout? pro.. eine. Works of O. Deduve and co-aathore merit attention; they, having improved the method of fractionation of liver homogenates, have found that the enzymes ribonuelease, desoxyribonuclease, cathepsin, pivgluouronidase and acid phosphatase are connected with granules intermediate between mitochondria and microsomes, for which fts authors suggested the name of nlizosom". These authors express an interesting hypothesis, that each type of granule is homogeneous enzymatically, that is, it has a definite physiological function, and each enzyme is correspondingly connected with one type of granule, that is, it has a definite intracellular localization. 'Fraction of "aupernatant fluid" remainind in the centrifugalized deposit after the settling of mitochondria and microsomes, contains yet Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A*100% a aossiderable sweat of MIA asd mew *soluble, amuses. Is this soluble treaties the systole of glyoolysis remains prastisally sompletely* there too USA be detected henokiname* phesphorylase, phosphogluaosutase* aldolase end dehydrase of lastie sold; here also Imre discovered way other ewers; but it still remains unslear to what *stoat they ems be referred to sonstructeral hyaloplass and to uhat *stoat they preeeed from these or Ohre stracteres. The trestles itself is tar from being homogeneous. Of late* from ?entail* fool =shims of high oestrifugel power fres the repersatant fluid of hemp* piste, were isolated my Its. grannies about the also of 10.40 sp* whisk are large nmeleopretsid salesules (about 50% Mk) sad containing all the RI& of this fraetlea (11. Petemoms). Oomparises of slostrosomieressople plotter, of the sell with results* obtained by,melhods of fraotionation of homogenates of tissues end imitation of sell *moments permits* for Isaias's* to identity musleopreteld gremlin with basephil granules of the eytoplasm. Is conflorsity with the method of frestiomation the.. smeleoproteldneeresoliketles ere also detested through the electron mders000pe in differentiated sells mainly oak emdaphasmis set* work (retioulen4 orgastoplasm)* While in nomdiffereatiated they are distri? bated mere diffusively. Nevertheless* there yet exists a rift between data of the elestres siereseopy and frestionettes of homogesates. Sopesially great difficulty is preowned by siereeomes, shish are not visible through the eleetronniero* scope as ropiest, forsetiones Nevertheless* a detailed sleeting' miereseopio esemiskties of the sediment of siemens* shows that they are fragments Aegis p.3k/ of a single endoplassic network* they isolide the *Mathi*. efli7sisteram* their contents mmd snoleoproteld gramiles. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 0.7) Tram. A-100y A more prods* charaoteristio of these formation., shish will permit to establish their losalisaties in the eel, is ems of the important problems of mytobioehemistry. Zn gemeral, there is yet meek in the interpretation of eytebioshemical data Chi* is vulgar. Thus, the origin ef several types of intermediate sad *tautest granules, 'kith are doesribed in literature also remiss vague. Of great interest is the question if sash a postulated veriety of different types of gruel's, is 4'1641%41feet, is it eennested with differeat parts of the madoplassis network or with some peoullarities of sell formation, whisk as yet were net &tooted by the nateresoople technique. Isolation esdlbieohemisal eharaoterietio of 'ell eempomeats have played a large role net *Lone in the elucidation of :Unctions of cell organoids and studies of the many sides of oell metabolism, but they also led to the revision sad progress in maw pwoblems of biedmexistry and easymclosy. Together with bacteria sad viruses of plants, animals sad bacteria, the iso- lated mitocheadris end other morphologioal formations of the cell are utilised for the elarifisationet details of eavaatie promisees, especially of sash Where there tabu plum a eombined ?ours* of two or several motions (for instance nibbled phosphorylation). These some isolated cell frictions per- mit net only to detersive the distribution of those or ether biologically important substenses in the sell, but also to detect unkempt or formerly un- determined ehemieel comgenents. Tim, it is known to all bloohemiste, that resets of studies of these or ether bioshemisal professes or smaponent parts of tissues depend to a great degree on Ni. method of *Misdates a tissue preparation. OsuiLly the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7_ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (18) Trans. A-1009 examined microscopic sections, pulps or extracts from tissues gave dissimi- lar results. Misr different solvents and methods of treatment were suggested for the extraction of various enzymes. According to the capaoity for isola- tions the onaymes were subdivided into soluble (1yo-masyme) and insoluble (dismo..easymes); and vexy often that part of the tissue,which feast to dissolve, was then neglected. The situation was considerably simplified., Whei it became clear that the "insoluble" components were simay fixed with larger morphological forma- tions of the cell, and the phenomenon iteelf of fteolnhilite of many sub' stances often depends ()nth* feet of which cell fractions enter the prepare. tion. .Precisely owing to utilization of many simple models and methods of fractionation of the cell.studies of the mechanism of protein biosynthesis moved forward, this being one of the central problems of biochemistry. At the present time the gumption about localisation of protein synthesis in the cell is discueeed very widely. T. Keepers son developeda theory, according,. to which proteins of the basic character (histones) are synths-sited in the nucleus with the assistance of heterochroaatin and of the nucleolus; these later on migrate to the nuclear xembrone, where, in combination with EN4, they form more complex cytoplasmic proteins. This theory did not find any confirmation in many points, and now the point of view of Zh. Brash* teems more probable; according ,to it the role of the nucleus consists mainly in resynthesizing the materiel of granules of the cytoplasm and of coenzymes, whereas synthesis proper of protein takes place in cytoplaemic granules. Indeed; experiments with inclusion of tagged aeino acids have shown, that the most intensive protein synthesis is connected with microsomes. In Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (1?) Trans. A-1009? general, the inclusion of amino acids into Various granules of the cyto- plum is the higher /Begin p.,35/ the more RNA they contain, and *ice versa; treatment or granules with ribonuolease lowers, or altogether destroys, their ability to include amino acids. ? Further studies of the intracellular localisation of this process, which lies at the basis of the active if. growth and development undoubtodly, will shod light also on it mechanism. Already now it can be safoly said that biosynthesis 'of protein occurs both in the nucleus and in tho granule of the cytoplasm, whereupon in different parts of the coil, apparently, various proteins are synthesisod which also, probably, play a different biological role. aytochomical direction permitted in many oases not only to localise, but also discover end define more accurately the phenomenon itsolf of structural interlinking of biocheitioel reactions. To such reaction* rotor first of all the processes of biosynthesis of proteins and other substances, for Whieh the participation of poll structures since long asp was aokiowledged necessary (A. I. Oparin? A. L. Kursenov). Here too can be referred tho role of structures in process., of oxidation and of oxidising phosphorylation (0, Varburg, V. A. Engelogardt). Research has shown the disturbance of pr000sses of oxidising phosphorylation and *wheaten of Pasteur effect during the breakdown of cell structure (7. A. Anoblogardt, I. F. Slate, N. V. Blitsina), Which will, undoubtedly, serve fora further cognition of the mechanism of these most important biological reactions. Studies of biochemistry of the sell play the most important role in solving =my problems of general biological importance. Thus, research of, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (20) Trans. A4009 Brash.) and of several other authors made it possible to approach the - explanation of the role of the miasma, of the cytoplaen and its organoids during the processes of embryonic development. Imbryochenioal research of ensmatic -processes are also interesting which point to the eubstantial, although not yet quite clear, role of phesphatases in the process of growth and development and biosynthesis of protein. Studying enzymatic reactions, one can observe cheeps in the processes of metabolism, connected, apparently, with definite stages of development, and which often reflect, similarly to morphologic4 changes, also the phylogenesis of the given species. StRilar transfers in an accelerated fon' can be: observed during regeneration of organs (for instance of rat's liver after partial hepato- ectomy).. Here appear characteristic changes of glycolysis and respiration, as well as the activity of the cellular nucleus, which are characteristic to both the nondifferentiated and* later differentiated stages. Cytochemistry promises an elucidation of regularities, which govern the prooesses of growth and development by studying the given problems. It is difficult to overesti- mate the importance of perception of these regularities. One of the most, interesting objects for such a type of research is the metamorphosis of insects, during which it is possible to observe during short periods of time the breaking up of old cells end tissues and the appearance of & large number of new, more differentiated formations. The yet unexplained problem of the mechanism of mitosis, the theory of which is yet constructed on unsteady foundations, require* detailed cyto- chemical studying. A substantial role was played here by the intracellular localisation of sulfhydryI group. (L. Repkin)? influences of several in- hibitors, atmospheric.oygen and other substances on atolls (H. Lettre), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (21) Trans. A-1009 changes of nucleic acids of the nucleus at its different stages.. .It is quite possible, that mechanical shiftings in cells (Changes and movement of chromosomes, contraction of the. pulling threads of the spindle, and so on) can be: connected with contractile protein complexes which Were uncovered, in the cell nucleus and. in the protoplasm of various cells. /Begin p.36/. There is no doubt that cytochemical research will play a role in solving the Problems of heredity, genetics and selection. ,The ever more clearing up strict specific specificity of DNA and many peculiarities of the composition and activity of the nuclear substance, its, exchange with ,the cytoplasm and with the environment can also give very important informa- tion also for this field of knowledge. Scarcely less important is the study of pathogenesis of thetAlmore growth. Among thousands of examinations in biochemistry of cancer ever more place is given to cytochemical works. One should point out, that it was exactly the Studying of individual cell components that led to discovery of certain peculiarities of tumor growth, Which could not be detected by ? other methods. Comparative poorness of tumor cells in mitochondria and dif- ferent distribution in than of RNA (its comparative contents in cell nucleus and in the finest nucleoproteid granules of the supernatant fluid) can have a bearing on the characteristic nondifferentiated type of metabolism of tumors and their tendency 'to a high, including aerobic, glycolysis and dis- rupted respiration. In his last works O. Warburg connects all these facts with a lowered structure of the cancer cell, its primitive composition, lack of development of highly-organized structure, which are characteristic of ddifferentiated protoplasm. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kicd; :craws At....miuy 411 changes of correlation of protein fractions of cellular nucleus, which are characteristio to tumors, and which are not met in normal organs were detected in our laboratory. Nuclei of tumor cells contain a comparatively low percentage of the nucleoproteid fraction and a very high percentage of a fraction of the residual protein. Abundance of residual protein is explained not simply by increased contents of the residual protein, which is peculiar to normal nuclei, but by the presence of a speoial fraction, contain- ing tryptophan, which is characteristic to tumors and which accumulates during the process of the tumor growth. This phenommoon, probably, reflects an injury in tho nucleus apparatus in the tumor cell, which shown conclusively also in the comparatively decreased ability of nuclei of tumor cells to synthesise protein, as it was demonstrated by thn inclusion of tagged amino ? acids. Differences in the tumor protein were detected also in the supernatant fraction, which wen obtained after sedimentation of nuclei from the homogenate and of the greatest part of granules of the cytoplasm (L. A. Lilber and 0* 1. Abele?, S. Sorof)s Elucidation of characteristics of the tumor growth can be of a fairly great importance Also for the pathology of growth and development in a wider sense. First of all it refers to pathological regeneration, 'which occurs during radiation injury, and to other violations of the activity of the cell ouv'i of cell metabolism, Which is caused by the actlon of radiant energy. The brief review, eiLed in the present article, of cytochemical methods and role of biochemistry of oeiIe in the study of certain problems of arta- lArciologr, biochestistry, general biology and pathology does by no means ? exhaust the possibilities and importance of cytehiochamistry or, encompassing this trend still wider, of biochemical and biophysiCal cytology. Methods, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (23) Trans. A-1009 utich are ccnnected with such type uf researchsare as yet in the stage of development and improvements therefore tho obtained results up to the pre- sent time are classified more depending on the utiliced methods than on the object and problems of research. Nevertheless, mw these methods have attained or are attaining a sufficient degree of efficiency, in order that their comparison would lead to mutually supp3.ementary conclusions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4Nr. Trans. A.1010 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 vg/M Berg, R. L. Soveshchanie po primeneniui matematicheskikh metodov v biologii. /Conference on the Application of Mathematical Methods in Biology/. Sot. Zhurl /Moskvai, vol. 43, no. 11, p.1654-1657. Nov. 1958. 451 R923. (In Russian) In May of 1958 the Biological Institute of Leningrad State University /LOB/ imeni A. A. Zhdanov conducted a Conference on the Application of Mathematical Methodain.Biology. Professor P. V. Terantlev was the initiate' and chief organizer of this meeting of mathematicians and biologists, the . first in our country; he is Head of the .Chair of Zoology of Vertebrates at LOU. In the organisational committee of the Conference took part: P. V. Terentlev (Chairman), V. S. Ivlev, L. S. Nasidnekii and R. L. Berg ((3ecretary). The Conference proceeded under solemn conditions with a great gathering of peoples over 500 persona visited it. Improvement of methods of .valua- tion of the authenticity of experimental lata.wae.not thealmof7tht_y:ens. ference. Its SissLvas to point out ,tbs specific fields_ of biology and of biological reguliarities, the ?tion of which is- impossible without the application_of mathematical methods. Seventeen reports, which were read at the Conference, were dedicated to various aspects of application of mathematics in systematics, physiology, cytology, business and demography. The audience listened with the greatest of interest to those reports at the Conference which threw light on the connection of biology and mathe- Leningradskii Oosudaretvennyi Universilet imeni A. A. lehaanova /Leningrad State University imeni A. A. Zhdanov/. L___ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. A-1010 matics from philosophic positions. A. I. Popov in the report "Pessibilitioefor Utilizing Mathematical Methods in Biolog, from the Point of View of Dialectical Materialism" has shown, with full persuasiveness, that in biology are used both the quantitative methods, as well as the qualitative processes of research, which come.ih contact with mathematical logio and with the theory of information (cyber- netics). Thoo..Adaas were developed also in the report of A. A. Kvaeov "About the Nature of Statistical Laws". Kvasov has demonstrated the fruitfulness ' of utilizing mathematical logic in the field of evolutionary theory on an instance of theory of natural selection of Charles Darwin. Darwin was the first to establish that a correlation of the combination of organisgs and of environment beats a statistical Character and that the survival of the moat adapted is then such a meehanian, with the aid of which the simple ac- cidents in the changes of organisms are converted to a rigidly directed . necessary process of evolution. A clear understanding of the statistical character of evolutionary conversions permitted Darwin to overcome the abstract determinism of the dynamic approach, which comprised the very essence of Lamarek's teachings ai.out factors of evolution. At the beginning of our century the babe for utilizing and development of statistical mechanisms worst the mutation theory, studies of regularities of distribution of discrete hereditary inclinations in the offspring (Mendelism) and, finally; chrcmosoam theory of heredity. The speaker pointed out, that the first steps of development of genetics, which preceded the formation of the chromo- some theory of heredity, coincided with the period of gnosiologicalcrisis in natural science. The first attempts to link Mendelian and the mutation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 11461114.1WO theory with the evolutionary teaching took a font of Antidarwinism (de Vries, Johansen, Batson), but later, on in genetics the materialistic approach to the studied phenomena has triumphed, and to the moment of the formation of the chromosome theory of heredity genetics entered the channel of Darwinian. The presence of individuals, or of comparatively independent iselated objecte, intrc;duces certain limitations in the use of statistical mechanism in biology. Examination of a strong interaction among the particles of the ensemble requires development of a special method of statistics. But all this by no means implies a rejection of methede of mathematical statistics when studying life. In the report "Prospects for the Use of Exact Methods for Studying the Facts of Evolution!' 41. I. Shmallgausen threw light upon the applida- tion of principles of the new field of mathematics "cybernetics" - in biology. Use of principles of cybernetics has already received a sufficiently vide spreading in biology. M. Viner (1948) generalised the basic /Begin p.1655/ principles of the working organism of automatically regulated mechanises net oily in machines, but also in living organism'. The ideas of Shredinger (1945) about the organisation of chromosomes include, the conception of hereditary information. The first attempt to interpret the hereditary cods on the basis of the model of deeoxyribonncleic acid, suggested by Watson and Crick belongs to GILROY (1954). The information theory is Widely applied to the analysis of regulatory processes, which are realised in the organise . through the nervous system (Shannon, Ashby, McCarty and others). Regulatory syttems, and particularly endocrine apparatus, playing the role of homeo- static structures, Ihich sustain the stability of life functions of the organism at a whole, are also embraced by the new point of view; A. A. Malinovskii (1957) utilised the idea about the controlling systems for describ- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t4) wrens. AmmIVIU ins processes of individual development. I. I. Sh amllgausen was first to apply the theory of information to, the examination of mechanisms of the evolutionary process. Interaction be- twimm.the population of the given species and the environment, including both its living and inanimate components (biogeocenesis) represents an example of a directing apparatus. Free biogeocenosis, Which, of course, includes also the parental population of the given species, a flow of information is transferred along a direct channel of the bond to the daughter population. Transformation of this information occurs during the process of independent development of individuals. Interaction of the daughter population uith biogeoconosis - this is the transfer of information along the channel of the reverse bond from the population to biogeocenoais. During the transfer of this reverse information occurs its conversion. The process of conversion of reverse information in biogeocenoais represents then the regulating macaw.: nism of evolution. Precisely this irocess is responsible for the adaptive character of evolution. The new point of view permits to put into practice the differential approach to the role of external factors both in individual development, as well as in evolution. External facts are divided intos 1) essential factors, or vital resources, in a broad sense, and 2) occasional factors, obetacles, Which to a greater or smaller degree disrupt the transfer and conversion of information along both channels of the bond. Emerging in the role of obstacles in the channel of the direct bond, the external factors help in the al,ptarance of mutations, which disrupt the transfer of information from parents to the offspring. But precisely by this they create the material for the activitr of the basic regulating mechanism Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A.1010 of evolution - natural selection. Ztepping forward in a role of obstaolea in. the channel of reverse bond, the external factors help in the elimination of the bearers of harmful mutations from the population, decreasing the voluxo of transferable information, tut at the sass time raising its quality. Progressive, evolution is accompanied by the emergence of obstaale-teur sistanoe in both channels of the bond. Regulatory mechanisms are created, WhiCh provide a high reaction. threshold on the Cytological level, an well as on the ontogenetical and the population level.. Transfer of information along both the channels of the bond beoomes eger more secure. At the same tiro the rate of evolutionary transformations grows. p. I. Berg in her report 'Ecological Interpretation of Correlative Pleiadese suggested to divide the external influences into the forming and the controlling (selecting). Such a division will permit to find out the general evolutionary principle of origination of programming of hereditary trmhsmisdion. Programming is not directly connected with the fact itself of the existence of all the living. ReproduOtion of the simplest living. structure is a proceev which occurs without any progremming. The code of hereditary transfer exists there utore the parental organism generates a being, thich differs from itself, that is, Akmma'Where there is an elternaticn of Lonarations or individual developent, no matter haw small is the chain of ontogenstic transfonzations leading from the mote to the individual, which can start the whole cycle anew. Won-coincidence of the forming ond of the controlling factors appears to be the condition for on. ginetion of hereditary ooding. Hereditary coding, according to common dense, is indieeolubly connected with a certain autonomy of the living forms and, in particular, of dinompions in respect to the quantitative expresoion of the forming factors. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A-1010 Atitonow or dimensions of some in respect to eisee of other parts finds its expression in the ere of correlative pleiadee, as P. V. Terontlev has first called this phenomenon in 1931. A strong example. .of non-coincidence of the forming end of the controlling influences is the correlation of entomophilous plants, which have specific pollen carriers and insacts.transferrim the pollen. Insects, in the ;riven case, emerge ? in the role of factors strongly controlling the sites of those parts of the ? flower; which takert.in the strict localization of the pollen on.the ? specific) section of the insect's body, rho insects take. no part in the forma- tion of the flower, It WAS found out that the plants, which enter with in- ? sect - transporters of their pollen, into specific correlations, including the localitation of the pollen lump have flowers that do not depend in their size on the dimensions of their vegetative parte and :i.nflorescences. The size of such flowers are Frogrammed with the aid of sigialsi which lie with- in the basis /nucleus 7/ itself, most orobably with the aidof an intra- cellular mechanism. i.ihe cause of appearance of correlative pleiades in the !liven case is quite clear. It /*An p.1656/ consists in non-coincidence ? of the forming ard the controlling (selecting) influences. ? P. V. Terentlev in his report 'Method or Correlative kleiades uhae demonstrated, Ly the example of a frog, the existence of sharp differences' in. the SUS of coefficients of correlations between the dimensions of various parts. qroups of characteristics, th-, dimensions or which are convected . one with another by hiah coefficients of correlations, in the presence of ? low coefficients of correlations or in the absence of correlation between the ? dimensions of those same Characto-istics with amens1.on6 of other properties, he called correlative pleiadee. lhe method of correlative pleiades Fives a basis for qualitative. analysis of the tombination of characteristics on the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A.1010 basil) of their, quantitative ratio. Terentlev pointed to the value of the method of correlative pleiades for systematics. Members of a pleiad, the average correlation of Which with other members of the given plated proves to be the greatest represent a characteristic) - indicator. Opinions of eystematiete, particularly when applying the method of "Geinke", must be based on charaotoristic-indicators, which are the real Characteristics of the system. "Taxonomie coefficient" (Vitenbergs 1923) is a combination of characteriatio-indicators. A. A. Liubishohev in his report "Biemetric Methede in Systematics" recommended for evaluation of the significance of cheracteristics a criterion, independent of the number of examined individuals, namely, a coefficient of discriminations N 172.)2 g 2 1 81 r 82 where sl and 82 are standard deviations, aid 1.2 are corresponding mean values. The method of Fisher's discriminant functions penaits to increase the coefficient of discrimination. 'The fruitfulness of application of these methods was demonstrated by A. A. Liubishchev on the instance of three species of fleabeetlees Haltica oleracea, H. issykulensis and H. carduorum. The fruitfulness of appliCation of statistical methods in systematics of ticks was demonstrated in theses of the report ofthe lets V. B. Dubinin, which were reed daring the concluding session of the Conference, and in the report of A. F. Tumka "Results of Biometrio Studies of Ameba of Human Gingiva in Connection with Intensity of Nutrition and Conditions of Heeiding in the Organism of the Host". V. S. ivlev in the report "Mathematical Analysis of Dynamics of Popula. tion of Fishes" spoke about theapplicability of mathematical methods for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A-1010 studying the changes in the number of populations. Construction of theore- tical models of fish populations, caught in their entirety, permitted to plan ways for practical solving of the problem of intensification of the fish industry. Report of L. L. Vasillev "Utilization of Biometry in Neuromuscular Physiology" attracted much attention. Vasillev approached the basic object of neuromuscular physiology - an isolated frog's nouromueculat preparation - an a certain combination of elements (nerve andmmuecle fibers), each of which pOssesses its individual characteristics (excitability and the rate of conducting the impulses of excitation). The properties of individual elements vary, forming the Gauss distribution curve. Dependence between the strength of the irritating agent and the magnitude of the physiological responis, caused by it in the nerve and muscle, in all cases is expressed by emote or less symmetrical sigmoid curve, which coincide; with the cumu- lative curve of the variational series. Variability of the excitation threshold And a reaction according to the principle "Ali or nothing" of individual fibers must produce on the basis of theoretical reasons a pump. lative curve of dependence for the whole set of fibers. - of the entire neuromuscular preparation. The report of P. 0. Makarov was given over to the use of biometry in the physiology of the analysers of sense organs. M. 3. Navashin in his report "Certain Instances of Utilisation of Mathematics in Cytology" attracted attention to the change Of dimensions of the organism during changes in the sire of _cells, Which occurs is a result of polyploidy. Double increase of the cell volume of the organism is not siccompenisd by a double increase of the volume of the organism. The organism becomes larger only by 1.6 times. This value can be predicted on the basis Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tY) Trans. ,4%.3.01.0 of the amplest 'Mathematical caloglation. The matter is that during a double increase of the volume.of the cell its surface does not increase twice, but, .proportionally- The intensity of metabolism and speed of cell divisions is slowed down exactly to this rate. A polyploid form hale a smaller amount of cells than the:dtploid, and, correspondingly, its sips is greater than the else of the diploid not. twice but by 1.6 times. The Other instance of US* oimathamatlea in the field of cytology is connected With studies of configurations of chromoeomes in all the Cells 'of a certain tissue. There here it is possible to follow the real cell gerwations,orthe degree Of relationship of cells of one OrganiempOne Succeed* to shalt that the degree of this relationship and similarity of configurations of chromosomes in . mitosis are in direct relation. The closer the relationship, the more alike are the chromosome configurations during mitosit.. Apr other explanation of this direct relation, besides the preservation /Begin p.1657/ Of the don tinuitv of chromosome* in interkinee144 is .excluded on principle. The *ravnoveroiatnont" /equal probability/ of prOximity of various Chromosomes' . .of the chromoaome colleotion in the equatorial plate of mitOsip is also . proved with the Same degree ofroliability. :Navashin illustrated his report: with the richest: of experimental material. Reports of L. S Kaminski4 L. x. Polisicov, S. F. Baranov and B. 1. Stebtkov, which were dedicated :to the use of mathematical methods-1.n medicines as well as the report Of Z. 0. Frenkel' 'Problem of Prolonging Life and Gorontologe wore hoard with live interest. - Lively discussions unfolded around the reports of A. A. Evasov, I. Shmaligausen, V. S. Ivlev, L. L. Vaailiei, P. V. Toren-MeV, B. L. Borg and ? A. A. LiUbishchevs both biologist. and mathematicians took part in them. 0: I. Egudin, when discussing Ai A. Litbishchev!s report set out a course Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 :.CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. 4'4010 for the formation of criteria for distinction of populations. lu. V. Linnik andif. V. Vollkenehtein mentioned the novelk and fruitfulness of the application of theory of information to the evolutionary process. Linnik pointed out beveral problems which await their solution in the trams of mathematIcal methods of research. Received July 10, 1958. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R-01426R010460020001-7 ka rai) Shk1iars T. N. Preduprediti opasnoeti tselinnykh zemliakh. /To prevent the danger soils/ Zashchita Rastenii ot no. 1, p.18-19.* (in Russian) golovnevykh Opifitotii na f smut epipbytoties on virgin reditelei i Bolesnei, vol. 4, ob., 1958. 421 a In the .of 1958 the students of the Bectionsof Plant SPotection of the Agricultural Faculty of Timiriazev Agricultural academy during the . period of prOductionvictice on virgin Linda in Kustanalak ()bleat' haVe Conducted in accounting of emit infection of spring wheet soda othor train crops. ? Large areas mere investigated, for. tames at the Krosnopresnensk sovkhoz - 38 thousand hectare; (ha.),' it the Borkovsk - 6.5 thousand and it the Stalin* - 25 thousand ha. Results proved to be very eerious. Thus, in the mendygarek reion, at sovkhozes Stalinskii, Khartkoyskiii, Tenisovekii and tomenets-Ural'skii from 1 to 3% of plants were infected on the examined plantings; in the Mzunkollsk miens at sorkhozes Kuihyshevekii,Irehevskii? Kievskil, Borkovskii, grasno- presnonskti ?-? from 2 to 10A) in the Ordshenikidze reion: at oovkhozes Bata- linskii, Pokrovskit and "Put! k koMmunisme'- 4, at Pririichanskii - 5%, at sovkhozes nimen1 Dzhangilidin* and the Ordzhonikidzevekii 6*i and in sovkhoz Instant iliVerdloW - 10%, at the'Tobollskii - 13A and Komarovskii - 18%. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4,11.4.4aWe Title of the figures Student, A. Gorshkov, of the Timiriasev Agricultural Aoadsmy conducts an accounting of infection of wheat with wheat smut, Vstilago tritici, at the Krasnopreepenskii sovkhos. ? These data signal a serious danger of. smut epiphytotics on virgin lands which fact must urge the leader' of sovkhosse and the avircultural setablieh- gents to take measures for organisetion of works on freeing the seed* from diseases. Such measures MI be the exchange of seeds, thermal disinfection, sun "obogrect, Asating/, leolation of seed sections to fields, which are free from smut, pre.orinter planting. For accomplishing the latter it is sufficient to isolate onl 1% of the total acreage on the farm. These'plantinge can provide the fare's needs in seeding material. In many *aims on sections, which are protected by birch pickets, the snow covering is sufficiently 111 stable and wheat overwinters safely. Flint thinness can be overcome by doubling the norm of sowing. The cause of strong infection althea% with smOt is the lack of it. control, the seed material is not disinfected as there are no installations for thermal treatments on these farms (treatments of Khodekovskii, of .the. Delorftskaia %apartment Station and Earaba)ykAlaperiment Station). Among other species of smut were mentioned; covered wheat smut (T. tritici) (eovkhoses cuibyshevskii and Frigorodnyi) and species ef ogt smuts. At Arshalinsk sovkhoz the infection of oats reached up to 6%, while at Dshety. gerinskii on some fields up to 30*. Control or covered wheat smut and of the smuts of oats is simpler. On some farms the seeds are teated with granosano but the mechanisation of the treatment is not up to the mark, and this makes it impostible to cope /Begin p.19/ with a large volume of work. There where spring Asset from year to year follows wheat, and there are Tic crop rotations it is especially Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 13) Trans. A4011 important to raise the quality or the seeding material and to study the re- sietance of the regionalized varieties (Tsesium III, amens, Akmolinka, Gordeiforme 189). At the present time, ,daring the evaluation of the reeistance Of plants to phytopathogenic organieMA, among theA also to the smut specie, it is necessari to consider the presence of geographical populations and races within the parasite species.. Studies of, the zonal distribution of aggres- sive rafts and evaluation of resistance of individual Varieties to them mikes it possible to cL,cduct a varietyve.change or iariety-rotation4.that is . . temporarily to substitute in this or that region the varieties, which are strongly infected by the most prevailik; rate?, by Varieties teach art mbre. resistant to them. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. As1VA, (In full) villi ? Muir, S. 0. ? Viaimodeistvis fitogellmintov 1. nisthikh gribov, v rasteniiakh. /to-operation of phytohelminthe and lower fungi in plants/. Sashchita Hastenii ot Vreditelei 1. golesnei, vol. 4. no. 1. p.34-35. Jan./Feb. 1959. 421 Zl. (In Russian) Dimage, which is caused to agriculture by phytchelminths, is clearly underestimated. This is explained, first of all, by the fact that the patho- genic effect, caused by them, is often ascribed to the accompan$ing mycosis and bacteriosis. Indeed, many phytohalminthe can parasitise the higher plant only in the presence of fungi.. They do not antagonise the putrescent (seprobiotio). medius, they do not produce in plants any specific syaptons of infestation and on the basis of this Hrofesoor A. A. Paramonov refers then to the group of phytohelminths of nonspecific pathogenic effect. 'The other group - of . the specific pathogenic effect - can do without the accompanying sycosis and .is in antagonienimith saprobiotic medium. Neverthelest, the presence of fungi proves .to be a stiiulating factor for many of these nematodes. But in litera- ture there are indications also On the linking of mycoses with holninthiasises. Thus, citrus trees, infested by citrus nematodes undergo a much stronger fungal infection (Thomas); cotton fusariosis is linked to Heteredera radicicola in- festation (Zaitsev); potatoes, infested w3th Heterodera are more intensely infected Junior Scientific co-wurker of the Helmicahologic Laboratory of the Academy of Science of USE. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 V) ILILLID? 41..11,016 with fungi (Triffit); cotton wilt Jo connected with the activity of the * ' meadow nematode (KOrlianova) and so on. Most of the researcher* link it .with the inoculating rele of nematodes. It was established by us that in the excretions of digestive glands of the second group of phytohelminths are contained amylase-enzymes, a proteolytic enzyme (of papainase t)rpe), ,and in the, onion nematode there was also found the protopectinase. Thus, the re- presentativeit of this group can lyse the tissue of healthy plants, consume the'produots of the lysis and cause in plants a specific pathogenic effect. In the excretions of the representative Of the first group (Hexatilus viviparus) are contained only the Proteolytic enzyme and glycogenase. Oon- sequeral$, the representatives of this group: cannot lyse the starch, con- tained in the higher plants and utilize it fully for nutrition. On the other hand, funglvwhich contain proteins and glycogen, are the basic nourish- ment !Or the group in question. Therefore these phytohaleinths are ramie in eyebiosis with fungi and do not product any specific .pathogenic effect. Nevertheless, many representatives of phytohelmintbs of the specific pathogenic effect also often consume the mycelia of lower fungi, since they are capable to lyse both protein and starch, as well as glycogen. This iSpecially refers to the stem-nehatodwi of potatoes, Which parasitise potato . tubers, which are rich in starch, and are comparatively poor in protein.' Thus, Ditylenehus destructor, obtaining fromthefUngus mycelium additional "protein nutrition", and possibly also some biological &011ie substances (bias), multiplies much more intensely in the presence of mycosis and in- creases the infestation. It is thought that the development of mycosis diseases is caused by the inoculating role of phytensestodes.t However, it is possible that hereenother factor may be playing a role, namely the stimulating action of phytonenatoden on the development of fungi. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ts) Trani. 41,4014AL ? According to the conception of Sukhorukov (L52) "the parasitic organisms in their nutrition are adapted to the metabolism of the plants and are 'served' by their system of enzymes". Thus he shove that Phytophthora, Which does not contain enzymes, which break up etarch, depresses the inhibitor (sisto-amylase) of potatoes, thus stimulating the hydrolysis of starch in the tuber. Where- upon the degree .of inhibition of amylase depends on the ability of the variety to resist Phytophthora. Orechuzhnikov and Klimova (1940), hydrolysing the storch by preliminary coaling the potatoes down to 00, caused the infection with Phytophthora of a resistant variety of potatoes* AA the hydrolysis of starch can lbw accomplished both by rising the in- hibitor of amylase/ as well as by adding enzyme from without, we made an assumption, that the phytohelminth, which secretes amylase and causes in, tens/fled starch hydrolysis, can assist in the infection Of potatoes with Phytophthora* In order to ascertain this we conducted the following expert.. mints. Tubers of Phytophthora resistant variety of potatoes were separately inoculated with root-knot eel-!worm and stem nematode. After such infestation became clearly Opressed, the tubers were infected with Phitophthora, rive days after in those which Are infested with root-knot eeri!worm we detected Phytophthora mycelium, and in those infested with item nematodestraces of mycelium at a dietaries of about 0.5 cm from the focus of infestation* We could not cause any Phytophthora infection in places where nematodes were present* This can be explained by the fact that Phytophthora can parasitise* only on healthy cells, but since nematodes move faster than a fungus mycelium can grow, then the latter cannot withstand competition and cannot get ac- climatised. It is also possible that phytehalminths swallowed the mycelium of -Phytophthora. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 xrun. Noninfested tubers .(in the oontro).) were not infeeted with Phrto- phtberat eti1i were marked was the stiailating role of the onion stem nenstode in the development of foot rot of onto, caused by liotr34,16 anti. Usually this fungus Infests plants at the end of Winter in large quaititioe.. Rut during the vegetation period the infeation weakens as the outside Males dry up end then dwindles' to the moment of harovetlig. Oat the Onions whish'Wer? infested with sten nematodes, ma alms infested with Imposes, among which D. allii *coupled a proninent place., Ws eonducted such's* experiment - we kept a large number of sten nematedm in tater in order that they excrete into it ammo of the digestive glandes After that, with the aid of a capillary vs introdueed into one onion bulb the water, **staining the nematodes' mammy, , and into another one - pure tap Water (for ? control). A13. the onions were ? inf. sated with foot rot; those, whish were prelininortiT treated with neautudes' enzymes, were strongly infected by the fungi, but froa ming the 10 Maras only 3 became infected and the infeetion was fa* weaker then ?n 'the experinental ones. Seri we meet two factors. first, the.ensymes ogles, and prOtopeotibase, which are contained in nemitedes, excretions, while wasting in. the aeons. Litton of sugars, disrupt osmaregulation in /Begin p.35/ the sells and assist in increasing the voltam of the latter, as well as eau* the Maceration of tissue, *Loh leads to creaking of the *Atha of the onion and opens the gate to. infection. Second, protein Wray-aim under thelnfluonee of nematodes' , enzymes assists in the accumulation in the onion of free amino acids, Which . serve as a nutrient sulistratun for B. sUit. In the same way the infection of cabbage leaves with L cinema fungus is intensified, if, with the aid of a capillary nenatodeer enzyme were applied to them preliminarily. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %) I Trans. A-LWe Thus, nematodes not alone inoculate the infection, but also create favorable conditions for the fungi, by stimulating their development. Fungi, on the other hand, stimulate the development of infestation. In this wayi mycoses and phytohelminths are closely connected among themselves. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 (ID rai) vg/H Chugunin, 0 riikrobiologichelikom metode About the miCrobiSlocloal method/. 2ashohita flastenil ot Vreditelei i Bolesnei, vol. 4, no. 1. p.36-37. Jan./Feb. 1959. 421 Zi. (In Russian) The microbiological method of control, while beinz very tempting in theory, Proved to be hard to solve in practice. Experiments with various miorobiopreparatione usitall,y give coed resets in the laboratory, but under field conditions twy are little effective, since the preparations, al.parently,, lose their virulence. About fib years passed since the time of Mechnikaves experiments in tieing green mmscatino for extermination of larvae of beetles of genus Aniseplia, but as yet there are no reliable measures for microbio? logical control of this pest up to the present day. We observed in Crimea (during July and aueuet) a maim extinction of gypey moths from various diseases; whereupon the'corpsee of Caterpillars and of pupa dried out very fast, serving thus as a steady repository Ter an infero. tiois source of episootio ditileasses. At the places of extinction of the pest thero were so Many corpses of the caterpillars that they completely covered the soil under the tree tops. There were from hundreds to several thousand of them over lsq. m. All the trunks and branches in the lower layer were covered with cocoons with dried out caterpillars, which did not have time to molt, or with ;Ape. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tz; Trans. These observations spurred us to utilise the insect corpses, which died from diseases, for the production of a microbiological preparation like the one that is being prepared in gravies), at the present time using Japanese beetles, that perished from the milky disease. The corpses were ground to a powder in a mortar and Were preserved /Bagta p.37/ in glass jars with ground glass stoppers. Bach a preparation was tested by up in 1948 against gypsy moths. , It was fed once to the experimentaloaterpillars in 4 moistened form (in dilution 1s1,000). As i result of this the pests perished during the sows, of 30 days. Mortality in the control was equal to 33%. Similar data wers.obt4Lned, also in experiments with caterpillars of the satin moth, lackey moth and cabbage moth when utilising the preparation, diluted 1:20,000. In 1950 a similar mloroblopreparation vas applied by us for the liquida- tion of a focus of ease reproduction of gypsy meths in Mekensievsk forestry of the Balaklavsk luMber camp on an area of about 1,000 ha. 1hr focus was sprayed once during the period between May 17 to 22 from an airplane in a dilution of 16,000 and 1110,000, expending 20 1./ha. of the liquid. In a week's time, the examinations showed that 99.2% of the rests perished in the stage of cater. pillars, and the rest in the stages of pupa and butterfly... In the control (3140 caterpillars) the mortality vas equal to 5.9%. . These experiments, as it seems to us, mike it possible to understand the causes of failures, which overtake the researchers who use microbiopreparations, obtained in a pure culture on an artificial medium. There are no pure cultures In nature and all the pathogenic microorganisms live in * complex micro.. biocenosis. It was not without reason that V. P. Pospelov conneoted_the de- volopment of epolyedregy" /polyhedrons, producing the yellows or tree top disease/ with yeasts. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. A-1013 . In a report at a i;onference on Bio-sethod (Kiev, 1958), 1. A. Talmo cited several examples, when after the use of muscadine insects were destroyed by bacteria. .Consequently, *one pathogenic microorganism* can prepare con- ditions for dvvelopment at others. Reproducing microbes on artificial media, we lower their virulence.. One Mould also point out that microorganisms, the most pathogenic and interesting for practical utilisation, -liosema, viruses and Certain fungi do not develop in any. of the artificial-media and, comma vently, they can only be Cultivated under natural conditions on living insects. 'Proceeding from these principles, we think that the basic key, which must open a wide path to the microbiomethod4 is the preservation and utilise- tion of insects, _which perished from diseases in places of their Mass re- production in order to transfer the infection from the feding foci to foci 'which are just beginning. This mithod is quite sound ecobomically, especially in forest econo0y. Our experiment in Orissa &Owe that during one day one ? 1. Works' can prepare from 70 to 1206 of air-dried corpses of insects. In tonere', one kilogram Of the preparation, counting pulverising and packing, costs Us 1,000 rubles. When using it from 2 to 4 gibe. the treatment cost from 5 to 10 times cheaper than with DDT dust: Of Ours', this work can be dome only in the presence of a fully qualified microbiological control. For mese production of this preparation one can use' the wastes of Oilk? worm breeding, in particular, cocoons of china oak silkworm - "chkhara and karepachakb". Dried well and at a proper time (but not killed by high tem- perature, that is, which were not conducted through the "simplex") they pulverise properly and can be stored for several years in jars of dark glass with a-ground stopper. The preparation; prepared from the cited material, has shown high attentiveness for the control Of ypay math,, lackey moth, satin moths fruit moth, Dryobia redikersevi and many other objects. One must men* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (4) Trans, As1013 ekk tion that bombyx is not suitable for this purpose. It would be expedient to organize a vide and thorough study of micros biocenosis of different groups of insects vith the purpose of discovering Specific resistance to diseases of some of them, as sell as of seleCtion of individual specific components of microbiocenosises when preparing micro- biopreparations. Of course one should not stop also the work with pure cultures, cultivated on artificial Media, but one has to take into considera- tion that so for thin course did not bring anything but disappointments in practical application. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7- - I i (in u) i . ,..0.413. Asielit I ,l . 0 , n um TiiihdttetskOs 0. Es Vagarious A. Mis Pilkoptit*, A I. :suchen" U priroda silikataykh bakteriir Mae the nature of silicate bacteria been studied19 kahchita !MUSA. at Vreditalei 1. Solesnei. vol. 4, no. 3.. p.33. imifeb., 1959 421 tl (In Russian) 'The Agrotschnical Section of Itasehaivek isperinent flection of the Ukrainian SeientificsResearth Institute of Agricultire. *an studying /the Influence of silicate bacteria on the productivity if pc titan, in 1956, obtained 1 rotative rest, that let treatment- of seed tubers With silicate bacteria lowered the produetivity of potetass .thi. deteriorated their quality* - Two additional espiritiotto sore *Waited in 1.959. 1. Influence of silicate bacteria On ? background of sonuring ? 30 tins of run 11451$60 275. 2. Influence of silitate bacteria on. background of 'amiss* fertilisation. Area of plots of lsod t Mg, ste Rogioation t fourfold. &wisest* ? were conducted on sediun?podsolle dustyysandy soil. The precursor was winter wheat, Which weeplanted over a lupine fallow. System of the autusn pre- paration of the soil &misted in Shallow plowing of stubble pnd * following ? in the course of discussion. Ste journal Zalhohita Raetanii ot Vreditilei lkieine5.* nos. 3 end 5 for 1957 and nos. 2 end 5 for 1956. 0 Lotontitio Getman.* ot istesiukenk Lxportiont Station, ? i Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/04/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400620001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 .10111 ID "0".? 1-, 4=16. fall-ploming to the depth of 22-25 em. Berly in spring (April 4), the plots were harrowed by heavy harrows, and on, April 6 sad 8 were fertilised with superphosphate and potassium magnesia-. Manure was spread on April 12. After this the plots were Sowed to the depth of 2042 os and harrowed. Planting of potatoes (varietyHorn& was conducted on April 25 *a- cording to seheme 35 X VO cm. Preliainarily the tubers wort treat/idwith silicate bacteria, obtained fro* the Odessa Stricture]. Institute. Ammonium nitrate was applied over the sprouts, on May 25. Phonologioal Observations 616 not show arc difference among the variants of the orperiment. Harvesting was dens on August 29. Data or calculations in the first experiment have shown that potato productivity preatica317 did not Change. Thus, on the plot with bacteria-treated tabors the yield was 266.9 centner per hectare, *bile frau non bacteria-treated tit was 262.5 c. Variant of experiment ield of : tubers . 0 - % of starch i of sick pleats withowbfertilisation 5.. Oa 144 Silicate bacteria. 142.2 19.0 13.4 1145 r60 K75 199.8 , 18.3 10.9 M45 t60 112.2 164 13.3 R45 Aso / silicate bacteria 170.9 ' 18.3 13.6 M45 175 185.5 i 18.4 10.7 .1.45 Is I silicate Motorist 195.8 16.3 20.3 as table tows that bacterial truant of tubers, in the absence of manure, did not produce any additional stead, bat, on the contraryeven lowered it. On the background of HP no additional yield wan obtained. This feet does not confirm the opinion that silicatebacterie have an to form Soluble forts of potassium in the soil, at the expense of the mineral wealth of the toil proper. Oft the background of OK the additional yield comprised 5.6%. In this ease one sight think that silicate bacteria activate Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) frau*. A4014 phosphorus, in consequence of which the yielding capacity is increased. Seed qualities of potatoes, grown from bacteria-treated tubers, sere not improved. $umming up the condacted experiments, vs cannot agree with the confir- nations? of individual taunt *bout the fact that silicate bacteria give positive results on ell kinds of soils. !heir negative influence, which was observed in our experinents, requires the clarification of ths nature of the activity of silicate bacteria and further testing under various soil-climatic conditions. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 WriM114 (la full) vg/M At the Session of VASIOLNII. on Problons of Yegetablo ?rowing, Potato Growing, Llultivation of Orchards sad Viniculture. Zashchita Rastenii ot Vreditelei i Bolosnei, vol. It, no. 1. p.56-58. Jan./rob., 1959. 14n U. (In Russian) In the work of the Session, which took place in Meow fres October 30 to November 3, many ogriaoltural practitioners, representatives of Joanna kolkhosos sad serkhosos, took part along with a large grow of seleetistsi in all over 700 persons. 1045 The Session was *Poled with the immoral address of the president of ? VASICNNIL fiusaiton Academy of Agricultural Mame* imolai V. I. Lents), Aeadomician P. P. Lebenov, who pointed out to the extraordinary important', of the raised questions, *specially in the light of &anion adopted of late by the Party and the Oovernmett about the increase of production of vegetables, potatoes, fruits, berries and grapes. Vico-President, Aaadaudoion D. D. Broshnev, in his report about the problems of scientific establishment* pointed out that along with navy others, the one important problea of scientists is to give aid to agricultural agentios in drawing up scientifically based plans for offeettvo allocation of production of vegetables, potatoes and fruits, se- (lording to natural-osonomio songs at' the country, taking into consideration their concentration around cities, manufacturing centers, in oasts sone* of repr000ssing industries as well as in southern regions of early ripening of fruits and vegetables; to take part in tarrying out soil and bydrogeological ?research, development for kolkhoses and sevkhoses of roseemendations about the sots* of measures, which forma* also the control of pests, plant diseases Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) . Trans. A-101$ and weeds; basic improvement of seeding and platting material, as 11 as to suggest varieties with different dates of ripening, increased keeping qualities, resistant to drought, dise*S* and pests.' ? 'Civar 100 addreasee were heard end discussed at plenary conferences and emotion*, including 62 reports. in these such attention was paid to the , queetions of plant protection. Doctor .of biological Sciences, D. L. Tverskei, in the report "Complex of AftWOO for the control Of pests and diseases' pointed out that,seience and practiee have developed effective methods for control both of individual species, as well as of whole groups of pests, diseases and weeds, and their realization produces on the farms a Serious economic effect: Thus, for instance, timely chemical protOotion of cabbage provided an increase in the earning capaSity from.' hotter. of 2,500 rubles and even more, while expending about 100 rubles. At &Meadow suburban sovkhos 'men t Oprokii*, for 'instance, additional profits from an area of 162 ha ' comprised 'about 1 mm n rubles. In this same sovkhoz,protective measures. are well carried out also for hothouses and hotbeds, and this also produces good ?returns for the farm. Interesting data are available On the control of potatolate blight. Thu., the yield of tubers increased by 75.87% after spraying with Bordeaux mixture. Aerosols are of'grett,importance in the 0Ontrol of fruit Crops from sucking and leaf-chewing pests: Treatleeni of fruit plantings .with them returned about 119 rubles for each one mills spent. rot, notwithstanding. the possibilities for oonsiderable /Wrens* of yield* of vegettblet, potatoes and fruits, and improvement of the quality of production with the aid of correct organisation of .protective measures and application of the most effective methods, this has been as Yet paid Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Irons. A4015 very little attention, according to reports. Prepayable about achievements of science and leading axperienco is (*flied oat comr @lightly, as well as iatroduction of prophylactic and egretechnical measures far control of pest" and disoass*, work Widivalopmest of varieties, moistest to diseases, is mot booing oonduated suffioiently; not snout poison ohmeicals are produced by the Industry, as well as ognipmaat, ineludimg the drop spraying. IN A. larpov, Director of the s 'Boll rful sashimi forfins- (Obseov as' shared his experience is applyimg kerosehe for the astral of boo tbe ? carrot plantings, *Joh vim *salad with kerosome, no loading Imo required, *Soh gees time possibility to economise thousands Of mansdays, as well as mew The problems of pleat protootion woo mare thoroughly /800a PS7/ disciassed at the Sections, in resolitiono, adapted by the Session, it vas agreed to bider elvoidato in the prat' the achievememts of *Gismos and of d the laiding experience, to organise medal faction* rarimonstration of lading metbods of plant proteotion; to widen the preparation of OPooletotol to Lawb crimp the production of the moot effective poison ebelicals fOr ibs protection of potatoes, vegetables, fruit4orry crepe sod gropes; to attract attention of the chemical indumtry to the preparation of oombimed ehemicals of a omears action against posts, Mammies and moods; of prepared aerosols and oomentrated preparations,speeding up the Production of DOW POUNWOO to develop research on the bleIogisal method of oentrel of pests and diseases in emdeination with the chemical and agretschniemI methods, to study the Winona* of poises chomisela not only es pOsts, disclaims and 'woods, but also en the cultivated plants; to introduce widely into production the soul systems of methods, We'd on the ant. plication of agrotechnioal, chemical biological and other methods of control of pests, disuses and reeds Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 _ Trans. /104.101) S. At the Section of Potato Growing In men7 reports it was convincingly shove that simple and aniailable measures for freeing potatoes fret' diseases ixrovide an increase in gross and moreover the cost of predation is ruined (by 15-30%). The VASIODUI Session paid suck attention to these problem's. In reports and ad. drosses' during plenes7 oonferenees (Acodesioiga S. II. kkuow, AcalludAdan ,V, TAW.% ?motets*, 1. V. Saberev, Professor IL 1. 7terekol, and othan)' it vas shown the same= economic, looportame of selection-Seed growing, cheminal and ether methods and nesse. s sane qaestions took such tine also in the works of the Section. Doctor of Agricaturel Seiontims, P. I. Al osadk,' and Candidate of Agri. cultural SoienceS, A. Is. laneres, gave an aecoent of the main results and described the problems mad moths& of, further selection, aid partially also of seed grOwing work for the purpose of developing and latzeduoing into practice of disease-resistant varieties. hsports of Nember-Oorrespendents of the Academy of Science of %kite R. sign &SR, 1. A. Dorishkin and Professor M. lalashov, Professor it. S. Duda, were dedicated to the analysis of the effectiveness of nothods for rendering potatoes healthy (spraying Idth nicrodeses of simper sulfate, 1% and 2% of Bordeaux mixture, slash and other fungicides, summer plantings, spring plantinp in combination with early miner harvesting, growing of two crops daring one sumer, hardening by light of seed potatoes and others) under production tests en large areas, up to 50011a. Spraying the potatoes with iengicide sharply radioed the infection with potato blight and increased the harvest by 40-63 Oka, reduce- the cost of potatoes by 15-31%. General ex- penditures for these works in a sun of 15-34 rubles guaranteed to sovkhoses Rd kolkhoses the obtaining additional profit in the amount of 6004,000 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . (5) ? Trans. A4015? rUblee per hectitre. Soninfectioue pathological process** are of great ia- penance. They are not alone harmful in theaselves, but they increase the susceptibility of plants to liarg, infections, as well as to pest*. In this respect the leading role must be assigned to the introduction of disease, resistant varieties and application of developedeethods for rendering the planting material healthy. The attention of tbs Section was drawn to the alaraing figures of in.. crease in numbers of stem and potato nematodes, as well as the spreading ? of the Colorado beetle and potato canker. . Thut, if in 1946 on the territory of the USSR (in western republics) there were 4607 foci of potato canker, then in 1958 they grew to 68,400, that is 14 times more, and moreever they were already found in Mbecow ablest'. Those facts testify about the imediate necissity of a serious improvement in the organization of potato enterprises and first of all - liquidation of foci of potato canker on personal PICO of collective farmers. The existing data spoke ale. about the growing spreading of helminthiasis of potatoes. In England, for the control of these diseases of greet premise is the utilisation of. special group of fungi - halminthophages. ' The resolution, adapted by the :4ssion, pointed out the importance of strengthening the development of methods of control of nematode's, ilolorado beetle and potatoocanker, of studies of the possibility of antibiotic applica- tion, of growing and propagation of heelthy planting materiel, or develop- ment of varieties immune to diseases, paying special attention to a creative participation of phytopathologists in selection work. The Session also mentioned the necessity of strengthening the structural work on improvitnent of high production machines, as well as the expansion in the production of poison chemicals and anti-pathogenic sera for rendering seed potatoes free Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A-1015 of disease. At the Section of Vegetable *swims In her report "Sews in the Control of Diseases of Vegetable Crepe, S. A. Osnitskate (NUOKH fficientific esearch Institute of Vegetable Urowing]), paused an results of studies of certain most harmful diseases of carrot 000do, in particular, phomosis, its bishogy, weys and sources of spreading, inter- relations with the plant-host. ?or the control of the sited diseases a nothed 'us developed for disinfestation of seeds by the preparattion TMTD iletramethyl- thieran disulfide, hiles for phomesis ? also spreying of plants with 1$ lord:roux mixture or suspension of TMTD before harvesting the crop. For the propose of increasing the resistance of root crops to diseases it was mosmended to VA0 phosphorus*potassium and potassium fertilisers. A system of measures vas suggested for the control of onion foot rot - flame drying of onions at the early dates, proplaatimg disinfection of seeds, and others. As means for *entail of powdery mildew of cucumbers in hotbeds and 'hothouses it was reeemmended to use the now effective preparation "Phygon" instead of the presently used colloidal sulfur or amt. sulfate. An important role in the *patrol of anbury clubreet of cabbage was disclosed in pleating the seedlings in post subs-shaped bleeks without Amy addition of humus or earth, which say be infootodi of great inportemse is also the utilisatims of resistant cabbage varieties. In the report "Sews in the Control of Pests of Vegetable Grope 1. Al gerasimor (MOW pointed to the specific requirememte demanded ef poises chemicals by vegetable growers: inseotisides must be mempoisemeus to sem and animals, or must quiekly lose their poisonous properties, mist be used at times and by methods by Which the taste qealities of vegetables will not be Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 UI) Trans. A-1015 impaired. Wide application must be found for prophylactic treatment of seeds, cabbage seedlings and onion sets by poison chemicals) it would aiso be ex- pedient to substitute DDT and Rexachloren with phosphoroorganic preparationS (thiophos, malathion mitofotax"). In the 'Teton of protective measures, under conditions of hotbeds and hothouses, an important place,nuat be assigned to disinfestation of hothouses and hotbeds by the aerosol method with the aid of smoke spots, as well as by utilizing new promising preparations for spraying. the plants (methylethylthiophos, malathion, Wirsulifonat" -ChloropheR714.- Chlorobenselaulfonate). Professor 3. M. Tupenevich (VIM All..Union Scientific Research Institute for Plant Protection7) in his report on prophyleetie measure's for protection of vegetable crops from diseases paid attention /gin p45?7 to great losses (up to 100 of the yield from diseases of vegetable crops and to the im- portant role of agrotechnics in their lowering. Is the system of prophylactic measures, in the opinion of reporters, the essential point is - to grow healthy seeds and sprouts (in nutrient pots of peat-manure mixture with the addition of cultures of the bacterial fertilisor'AMO, to introduce efficient crop rotations, correct use of fertilisers, control of weeds, *yet= of soil til- lage, which helps in the development of saprophyte fungi-antagonists. I. D. ShApiro (VIM) pointed to considerable losses of vegetable crops from pests, which come op to more than 20 mln of Oentners annually in the open iund in the Soviet Union as a whole. For cabbage and cucumbers alone they comprise 25-3o$ of the yield, while a ohenicel protection, with its cor- rect organization, Ave. an lacrosse in the yield Of cabbage, in different sone*, from 65 to 300 oiha. Under conditions of the north-west sone dusting of seedlings with 10T and RR is being conducted systematically, also intro- duction of HUH into the mass of peat-humus pots, watering of seedlings with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 S Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A.1015 Nexachloren suspension during the period of transplantation and later en. At the Sertisel.tual Section Aloft with ether important questions masers& were discussed that ars direeted to the imprrrement of plantings' proteetion. The first &mystery of the Crimean Oblast' Committee of the PartylV. 0. lemiakev, has informed, that in the ',blast' as a reset of wide application of leading measures of agroteohmies and **Masi substanses, including the merest mass, gardens en large areas are almost entirely free from fruit meths, mites asd ether pests and diseases, owing to *Leh total harvests of fruits of the highest Oullitir 'ore ownsiderably increased* and additional profits, to holkhoses and sovhhoses, in 1958 exeeeded 21 mln. rebles. Agriculturists I. V. Shilev (Liptak oblast') sod I. V. Sihelsonhe (Mildavia) told about the experience of groliag high yields of fruits and its protection frmn posts and diseases. la the report of Professor S. Z. Savedarg an analysis was given of the existing aohievemente amd suggestions were intro- dosed, about effective measures for the central of pests of fruit and berry crop,. Among the resolutions adapted at the Session it was rtummmummilmi to seisatifie-research institutions to Joke mere prestos and further on to in. prove the protective measure, in the nurseries, and in youag and in fruit, booing orchards, including also the new methods sadnesses applicable to Impel conditions. Particularly, it was pointed out* that spraying the fruit trees daring early spring with strong emulsioas of mineral ells must be ro- llgirded as an extraordinary measure, which is needed only during liqeidation of especially dangerous foci of overwintering pests, for mast/mos of the San Jose seals. At the same tine it is better to use dinitreertheerissel (or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Y) ? Trans. A.1015 its mixture with petroleum oils) as a poison of a more universal action. Serious attention was paid to the -prevention of bringing Pros without, as ' well as to spreading of many dangerous local pests and diseasess.with the 'planting materiel on the basis of impreVement the output of alt plants ? froa the nurseries. It was recognized as necessary to increase the production of powerful ? blower sprayers and a wider use .of aerosols, utilising also the helicopters,. . to sharply increase the prevision of individual orchards with chemical sub- . stances packed in maill containerso.as well as providing more perfect apparatus for individual orchard*. Delay by medical.stnitary organizations in giving conaltusions about Peraissible residual amount* Of the new effective poisons as well as about hygienic conditions of their application, which delay their introduction into ? Practice wee mentioned. It was reccemended to speed up the testing of new ? chemical substances, the development of biological and agrotechnical methods, development of resistant varieties, and studies of virus diseases .of fruit and berry crops. At the Section of Viniculture Two reports were medal by Professor D. D. Verderevskii 'About Protection of Crapes from Pests and Diseases in USSR" and by Professor Is. I. Print* *About affective Measures of Control or Fasts of Grapes". Questions about the protection of grapes to one or another extent was touched upon in f,!,other.. addressee also. Uclusive importance was stressed about control of phylloxera, grape berry moths, moth Theresia ampelophage, grape scale, golden Weevil, . spider Mite, aildew, fungus Arityphe pidiva, leaf spot, berry rot, caused by Botrytis fungi, and others. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. A.1015 D. D. Vordsrevskii pointed out that mildew infeetiem alone daring some years Si certain lesalities tuts dew the yield of grapes up to 50%, aid hinges trisrpho oldies . up to 10%. the speaker suggested the use of a was, plan of measures for the sontrel of mildews destrastion of the overwinteriag infectious source, sentrel of the primary sad swoodary infettiems et plants during vegetation, spraying *ad dusting with soppier emyehloride lastead of the Bordeaux mixture (lime Ohoald be omitted) or dinitrerodanbensons together with stopper evehloride, or slash in a 045-0.75% oomemotrations spraying the vineyards on dates whioh are established seoording to date of observation of the eigaalisatioa Berries; oultivation of vine varieties that are resistant to the predominant poets and diseases. In the report of Professor Prints attention was drawn to the importenee of protection of vineyards, from infeotion with phylloxera, whieh are yet free fro* it; to oondacting abseiled eontrol in regions of its spreading, somOkete liquidation of smell foot, and in owe of further spreading . utilisation of ? method of its liquidAtion, while preserving the bush, by means of one.two leiter introdustion of fenigasts into the soil. Ons can ro- sewood for these latter ethylene shloride or clarified heel of ethylene Chloride, together with pare ohlerebenswe, and new preparations (hexaohler,. butadiene, Do buten of 14-diehleroProPons Cital ca ? Glig a (5040%) sad 1.2-dichlereprepane Caj GMUL a 01101 ? am2 a (30-5007.); it is also nosessary to iateasity the work of cultivation of Naris ties, which have a group resietwee to phylloxera, mildew, Arisyphie ?idiom, Betrytte; fungi, uhieh would be winterise,* and high yielding. * translator's mote t torsisia talon /ran /. Popov e alleadboek is Poifteinill chemicals*, page 229. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (1) maw. A.3.015 The chief aviculturist of the swifts l'imeni LeninO, inAnara raion N. Pawl told that on the fern there are 1v100 ha f vineyards, and that they are systematically and successfully protected from diseases and ,Asts? '4be resolutions made by the Session obliFy.eVIIII together gith profess. siontl institutions for viniculture to develop during the next 2 years system of entio.phylloxera mothoda epplioeble to different monks) it is moss. eery to liquidate phylloxera in 19594960 in the Amps re6ton in order to prevent the danwer of its spreading to new plantino and also to preserve from infection the scioe?rooted tIrspe oropsi to liquidate in :1.594.961 alI the plentinie or hybrids - direct producers on the territory uf !forth Uaucasus, to introduce tocAther with the ,raZted crops the scion-rootsa, utXtEin sand and sandy loam soils for afl. standard varieties, and on lied and medium clayey soils to clkAivato the comparatively phylloxera-resistant varieties with a periodic ramigstion or the *oil. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 LB ISLA j vg/K Zhukorskii, P. N4, and Bodionova, N. A. States kullturnykh lipor 42-khromosonnykh pShwnits, ustoiohirykh k bolesniian. /Synthesis of cultivated types of 42- ohromosome .at resistant to diseases/. Trudy po Prikladnoi Hotanike, Genetiks Helektsii, vol. 30, no. 3. p.271?217. 1957. 451 192. (In Russian) At the present time smog the varieties and species of at the over - whelping majority of them are nonresistant to smell diseases as species of rust, smut and powdery mildew. All the countries on earth, which cultivate whoa% are engaged in stubborn struggle while brooding resistant varieties; nevertheless, as a rule, such varieties prove to be only temporarily resistant owing to the appearance of new, more aggressive physiologisal rules of parasitic fungi. But the matter stands far better with some species of sheet. It is knees, that sudh species as Triticum Timopheeri, Tr. fug/Leidy*, Tr.earthliegm, Tr. monococcum stand out by their natural resistance to diseases. This cheracteriatio is inherent to than as species, Hoverer, these armies, except Tr. carthlicsm, are net the cultivated types of shoat, and Tr. oarthlicum has poor baking ;polities. /he remaining throe species are distingaisked by the brittleness of the spike's stalk and their grain is difficult to thresh out. The most valuable species of wheat is the 42-ohromosome soft wheat. As are all the other 42-chromosome species of wheat, it appears, as a species on the whole, 411 to be nonresistant to diseases. As the problem of VIA /All-ihiton Institute of Plant Industry/ is to aosumulata as wide initial material as possible for selection, we resorted to an artificial creation of immune material in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (2) Trans. t-1016 " 42-chromes Cats of the cultivated type that is to syhthetic introdustion. Widening of Um initial material in 42-chromosome *Oats (nonresistant, as a rule) for their selection fbr immunity can be produced by a method of remote hybridisation, sic Use history of plant growing on earth did not provide humaniti with immune 112-chromosems wheats. The above cited for ree piston% swiss do not belong to the group of 1s2eehrososome wheats. In order to crate really cultivated types if 42-chrososses wheats, which would have a sharply expressed resistance to diseases, it was necessary to resort to a complex hybridisation with tray immune species of Cat (It. Tisophoevi and Tr. fungicides). but whit, unfortamately, are not characterised by a culti- vated structure (they herr a brittle spike during ripening, and the grain is very hard to remove from the spikes). tr. carthliows is a oomparatively oulti- vated species with a rugged spike and the grain is easy to beat out. A new genus in cereal systematise, Raynatriceswes also utilised; it is monotypical, synthetic, quite cultivated, but it Is a 42schrososome type and resistant to diseases. The following species and forms took part in crossings* 1) Tr. fungicidna Zhuk egriboboinsiat /Amaricidem/ wheat. 2 u 56) Mg. 1) a new synthetic type, spephidiploid, obtained trot crossing the most immune species of wheat - Tr. Tisophievi Zhu. (2 n a 211) and Tr? earthling imvs)d, variety fuliginosus at., /Begin p.272/ ehmatcarthlices (2 n MI the latter is resistant to powdery mildew and is only slightly infected by leaf rest. Planta of flengicidest 'sheet are of spring imml, late-ripening, with eturdy straw. The spike is tad, feathered, black; the grain it large, . hyaline, very elongated, the absolute weight up to 70 grams; it is crumpled erten, but it is Feasible to maks a selection for well filled grains; hard to beet out' fertility it slight in the south under dry conditions, and good in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. 1,4016 ? ?? non-charms= IMO. Resistance to disease is upraised very clearly. 2. Raynatricua Drake ins nom (2 n 2 42). It is a new genus of cereal, a natural anphidiploid between *Worn Nabs*/ and Raynaldia (Tr. dicoccus foriniel. X Eaynaldis,villosa Schur.). These are spring plants early-ripening, strongly covered by a wax outing, grey; the spike is long, narrow, and, yet before rioting it breaks up into epikeleti. The grain is long, elia, hyaline; is hard to beat out. It is of interest in eslection for inanity owing to ite resistance to powdery mildew and a slight susceptibility to lest rust. Title of figure 1. Species of "griboboinalalfungicidue, Wheat (2n : 56). Title of figure 2. Bellflrained/irhaerococcua/ (a) and broad. leaved (b) wheats. 3. Wheat Tr. srhaerococcua Fere., variety &beam, Pero. (2n : 42, figure 2a) le cultivated it /Begin p.273/ India. Only spring torus are known. Plants ars undersised, non-lodging, with exclusively strong straw. Laves are Mort, sticking up. Spikes are thickset, of an inflated type; grain is spherical, very all filled cut. It is infected by fungus diseases, especially by powdery aildsw. 44. Tr. *satiresL. esp. anpliesifolits Zhuk. (2n a 42, figure 2b). It is a broad-leaved wheat, cultivated in Central China. It is spring wheat, early-ripening. Attracts attention by the width of the loaf blade, by the sharply expressed elevate type of spas0 eraltiflorousness of spikes and re- sistance to lodging. Is inflated by fungus diseases. 5. Tr. asstiven L. (2n: 42)1 is a waft wheats a) barrel-shaped shut. Obteirod by means of crossing the ball-grained and soft wheats (Tr. aestivate L. var. sibaeridionale X fr..Sphaercaoccua Pero, var. achinstun Pere. 2n = 42). Is characterised by a resistance to lodging and Urge, harrel-shapetgrain. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-14b-P80R01426R010400020001-7 L1016 IS infected by diseases. b) Wenn* 62 (Tr. seetivire L. vat. lutescens ov. 62; 2n* 42) is of known standards widely :revelling in production. Thus, in the work of creation of varieties of *teat, resistant to disease, were utilized both the lathe species and the autcoptibles brut *bleb were dharaoterisedbymany other velueble properties in the economic respect (resistance to lodging, high yielding capacity and others). Interspecitic hybridisation of the agriboboinsie ig. fungioidum 2huk./ wheat with the soft, ball-grained and broAdaeaved, and intergeneric hybridi- Ottioo of goloitricum with the soft wheat, sirs conducted with the sin of joining in hybrids of high resistance to diseases, ptomain to Tr. fungicides shdRayrittrionst and the productivity of the soft end broad-leaved Wheat* And nonlodging ability of the ball-grained. In the following generation Win:mosses were utilised, that 10, repeated pollinations of hybrids with the pollen of the paternal species. Studies of the realetanot of plants to diseases we conducted under conditions of natural and artificial infection; besides this * provocative date of sowing *es applied (14 days later than usual). The susceptibility of plants wee determined according to the S. I. Vavilovls Scale. TAU-way of spreading of diseases was :compared with phases of plant vegetation. In ettre of individuat vatiebility in one family only the least infected Amu were utilised for further work. friThe sin:wig/4r intsce-Ptible Variety tgino TO was planted on both sides of each tested specimen. This provided* uniformity in the infection's hitting the plants end gave * possibility -with a greater authenticity to compare data on the degree of plant infection. This is especiaLly characteristic for the early phases of Sant davelOpeent. Therefore individual hybrid familia ware additionally tested for age resietanoe to diseases under conditions of arti- ficial infection. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 ICIA-RDP8OR01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. JA-1016 knot for inoculation of plantings was collected in the field by means of shaking infectedwheatleaves over * funnel in a test tube or by carefully removing the postales with a lancet. Directly before inoculation a small amount of water was added to the test tabs containing rust modospores, and carefully stirred. Before the application of the spore suspension the plants were impiously sprayed and intend with water. The spore saspension was applied with a small bruits or a lancet to the center of the upper leaf of each plant. After the application of the Japonica a repeated spraying with water was condmoted; after this the boxes with plants were cormed up for hours with booths mode at cellulose film, which were prelimiaarily moistened inside with wet paper. High temoratire andmoisture Aegis paTb/ created good conditions for infection, which began to appear already on the 8-9 day after the application of the inocalue. The plants were inoculated brims during the formation of the mooed loaf and at the hesitant of the heading eta.. Zvelestien was oonduoted 1042 days after inoculation whom on All the plants &visible demonstration of the disease took place. Inoculation of plants with fresh oonidia of powdery tilde, vore combated daring the booting stage and the phase of milk ripeness of the groin. In order to classify the hybrid material, according to ecommicallyvaluable properties, the resistanoe to lodgings bushiness and height of pint., ton, length and ocapactness of the spike. number of sylkelets and grains in the spike, fora and fullness of grains, fertility of the spike end weight of 1,000 !speeds ware evaluated. Individual selection of best plants was cone ducted annually. For cytological analysis the experimental materiel, after sprouting, was cooled on ice; this provided for the contraction of chromosomes; fixation of the seed roots was oondurtad according to Nevashiej cuts on the microtome Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. A-10I6 ? had * thickness of lh mililaicrons; staining - by iron hemetnylins according to Beidenhain. Further treatment of the materiel was Conducted by usual means of microtome tethnique. Resulta of research have dhoti, that the majority of hybridhallies of the combinatients fungicidta X. Tr. inherence= var eibona; in rs backnose ;alio /sic/ Tr. sphternoccue, under conditions of manl and artificial infection, nand either full resistance to rust specie and to powdery mildew or were infected by them only slightly (figure 3). Title of figure 3* Immune hybrids of *Iriboboinaien /Tr.faa?ci4at *heat I ballegrained fa. Wheat during the first emeriti= is with pollen of bell-erained /Tr. aphaeroconum/ Wheat. Families, in the formation of Which took part the amplinifolium abut, had a different degree of susceptibility to disease*. Among them sere net both the resistant families as well as those highly susceptible; often /Begin p.275/ a condo:rah', differentiation in resistance (from 0 to Is points) as observed in the limits of ore family. A diverse susceptibility to diseases was shin by fannies of the coubination(Ranatricum I it. antirms, variety Interns cv. 62) I Tr. durum en horanion. The majority of them were strongly infected, especially after the pronditive time of sowing and artificial in- fection. All the families of the combination asynatrion I Latinate 62; Pi I Borannump P3 repeatedly ILutes-cane 62, and the combination Tr. pingioidum barrel-shaped, were infected to a great degree (to 34 points). Croup resistance to rust species and powdery mildew was shownby:sullies 7-12. 15 and 55 Of the enbination Tr. funs:kit" I Tr. inherence= variety Althorn; in Pi baokiross with pollen of Tr. aphaernocens Burins artificial infection in individual Sante of then Utilise, on the place of inaction Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-1018 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 'applications either necrosis appeared or singles weekly developed pustules of leaf rust and tafts of powdery mildews the latter disappeared quickly and did not recommence later on. Testing these families at different geographical points(1) hal Shown that the majority of then, under conditions of Kreenodar krais Show * small degree of infection taint rest (fro* 0 to I point). A stronger infection (frail to 2 potato) was observed at the Althea Control Point after a pit -winter planting. So infection of thee* faxilies with powdery mildews stripe and We rusts was observed in any of these places. Sybridological analysis of plants of the coibination fr. fantioidea Tr. sphasrococcut variety slobosass in Pi buckaroo's with pollen of Tr. sphaero- coccus) has shown that the majority of them in many of properties and chorus teristics swerved to the side of parental species and componeelts of the saphie. diploid. Length of the vegetative period of hybrid fannies of this combination does not show sestantial divergencies' when comparadwith the initial species. Muss for most of then the niter of days from erecting to heeding is treater than for the ban-graited /Tr. ephairococcus/ stoat, but is smaller than for the fungicidumi but the duration of khan of development from heading to ripen. int is shorter than for the ball-grained/Tr. ephaerecoceumi and the /untied- stii, it is rarely more or email to the latter. Single eatly-ripening plants, which gave rise to new Jainism (lb 8 and 11a) with a shorter period of vegetation than both parents, were isolated during the process Of work. In the site of leaves most fsailies swerved to the sideof the Un- trained /sphaerococcus/ wheat (shorts wide), there were Also Moines with long slim leaves as in thefungioidun. Individual families cabins the close hairiness of lutes, natural to the fungicidal', with the width of leaves of (1) At the trainotter State Selection Scation stadies of resistance of hybrid seeds were conducted in the laboratory of P. P. Lukolenenko; at the Kuban Ice periment Station and at the Derbent Control Point by th* co-mortars of VIE. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trans. i4016 A0a, e" the bell-grained isphaerococcum/. In toughness of the straw many families swerved to the side of ball-grained wheat and thee do not lodges in 'height they take a medium position between the ball..grained and the funticidua. Coloration of the spike is either black, as of the tenacity, or white me of the bell-greined; but the most often seen is the smoky gray. In all hybrid families the fors of the spike is either cylindrical or Spindle?like, there- upon the grout is considerably wider then the side. It is interesting that the parental species have a reverse correlation of sides. Consequently, according to the characteristic in question, hybrid families fully sinned to the side of earl:kilns wheat, the influence of which as eligibly seen also in the formation, of an awned barb or awn on the spike's seal. in most plants. /Begin p.276/ It is necessary to mentions Apecifio type of segregation in the off- spring from crossing with internecine sephidiploid. Le it vu alreatrien- tioned the fungicides wheat is an *mph/diploid &ma crossing earth) icum with thenhesel Whereupon the phenotype of the artistica Wheat was fully absorbed in the taphidiploid (2n : 56)t $eenwhlIe, in hybrid offspring of the studied todbination the mejority of resistant and homotygote families are of a clear type of the carthlicum wheat, but the number of Chromosomes (2n: 42) (figure 4) corresponds to the sphaernoccem, What, in our opinion, can be explained by backorostinge. Title of nos Is. Chromosomes of a resistant hybrid of the "gribobeinaiell Om/ wheat with the ball-grained / -recto backcross with pcalen of the tall-graine erococoum/. The foam of grains in hybrid plants does not correspond either to the fungicidwe (long), or to the aphaerococcum (ball-grained). It varies from lanceolate to barrel-shaped; sometimes grains ere met that are angular, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans. 4.1016 r ribbed or with a Pimps Peed vessels of many families have at the top $ slight niftiness and a light amelgasated lustre . properties characteristic to grains of the parthlice' Wheat. The coloration and consistency of grains in most cases corresponds to parental species (red semi.hysline). Together with a swerving of individual families, in manypetTorties, to the tide of parental species and !components of the saphidiploid, new growths also took place, to the number of which refer: 1) characteristic horizontal placement of leaves; 2) red coloration of the spike; 3) Whits grains. In Muir resistance to diseases the best families of the given !combination stand above the fungicides and approach the ttimottesvi Wheats Combinations trs maplitsifolium 16 (Ti. fungicide* I Tr. optairecoccum variety ilobosumi in Pi backoress with pollen of Tr. apheerococcum), and the coabination reverse to the given: 76 (Tr. fungicides I tr. ephaerococeem variety globotams in NI Mattress with pollen of Tr. .sphaerococcun) I tr. ampliesifolium . is sore complicated since five specific genotypes are !combined in them. %sir faeilies are characterised by a large reuse of bOth biological and of LOX logical properties. Length of the vegetative period in hybrid families of the colhinations in question originally was greats; than in the asplissifoliva and corresponded to the fungicides. During the succeeding years, owing to seleotion forearly-ripeness, the period of vegetation of most families was shortened, compared with the fungicide*, by 34 days. This was accomplished, basically, because of a mach fester pacing by the plants of phone of developsent from, heading to ripeness. Individual hybrid families have much in common with plants of the pre- ceding combination (Tr. fungicide' I It. sphaerococcum varietyal-Oben; in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. 44016 Yi bat:arose with the pollen of Tr. &pasta:acme), red semi-hyaline grain, puma in somatic cells of 42 chromosomes and others. Nevertheless, un- like that, the majority of families of the combinations in question has either wide lateral side of the olio (deviation to the side of the fungicides) or an even width of both sides, as in the seplissifolius4 tab is explained by the multiflorounese of the spikelets. The inflame of amplissifolium has been told visibly also on the Zonation in most plants of wide and long leaves, in the elevate form of the spike and the inflated spikes. /login p.277/ In the compactness of the spike the individual families swerved to the side of the ephaerococam, in nultifloronness ? to the side of asplissitolia. Remy families are resistant to lodging and have a high bushiness. In re- sistance to diseases is. a large diversity even in the limits of one family (individual variability). Individual families of the three cited combinations were brought to hammy:tatty, they ars fertile, with comperatigelylarge sada. Weight of 1,000 grains of best hybrid families ranges from 34 to 54 grams; length of the mein spike from 642 cm, amber of grains in the spike from 29-22, productive bushiness Iron 2 to 6. The majority of isdlated hybrid families is resistant to lodging and to fungus disuses; selection has fully removed the brittleness of the spike atm and the difficulty in threshing out the grains. Real cultivated forms of 42-chromosome tate were obtained, which are resistant to diatom. Their utilisation as scmponents for crossing will considerably facilitate further *election work for isnity, eines hybridi7 nation with resistant to disease, but little cultivated, species of teat as Timophavi, spelt and others is connectedeith the appearance in the offspring Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (11) ?rang. A-1016 of many negative characteristics, which sharply reduee the productivity of hybrids, not speaking about the fact that the crossing proper of diverse* Chromosome varieties is aocomplithed with great difficulty. Mork on developing, testing and propagation of best fa- es of inter- specific hybrids of that is being continued. LIIRRkTaRR Favilov# R. I., Selection of resistant varieties as a basic rthod of net contra. MUkovelcii# P. M., Stadia in the field of hybridiaation# immunity and transaantation of plants. Trudy Moscow gal. madam. im. limirissevi vol. 6# 1944. anikovekii# P. M., Cultivated plants and their progenitor*. 1950. Shukafskii# Pi M., Problem of immunity of cultivated plants to din* 8. oPrOblemq,botanikini vel. II, AR SSA) iRp. Nichurit4 I, Voi Selection a a 14T8r for obtaining plants, immune against diseases and pests. Selected works. Voronemh# 1939. Serokina, 0. N., Fertile and constant 42*.chromoecms hybrid Mann ventricome Hi:Train* durum. (To the problem of synthesis of so tea )77YRiano Prikladnoi Snake, Senetike i Selektsii, series 11, no. ?, 1937. R. W. Allard, A cylogenic study defiling vith the transfer of genes from ?vitiate TimoAsevi to commtivhett by backtrossing. 'hurt. of Agnes Vbs., vol. 76.0 no. ,-11, 1949. Francesco San Martini, Frumento Roberto Forlabi e Ran Marino. arum, 1956. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (In tall) vg/X Avdonin, S. S., Professor* POvyshenie plodoredlis pochryarashneishaia midst:the sotsialisticheakoge senledelna. An/reaming soil festal:kr - an important task of soolalistie agrioulturs/. Vestnik bellskokhosialstvennol Sauk', vol. 4, ne. 1. p.62-70. Jan. 1959. PO 1,633. (In Russian) The publication 'Controlling figmrse for the development of the national economy of USSR for the years 19594965" projects ? grand program of works for a tarp rise of agriculture in our orentry. It is planned, at the end of the next seven years, to provide a yield of grains of 1041 billion pood hood: 36 pounds/ of sugar beets - 70-76 an tom. sottomliAbrie Sel to 6.1 min tone, seeds of oil crops - up to 5.5 min tone. total yields of *gra.. cultural produottion will be inoreasildlOy 1.54 times. now, When the Soviet people, under the leadership of the Partin have (tarried out a great work of reolamation of virgin and vast* lands, of eqsippiag agrieulture with the moot technique smd providing it with qualified workers, Atm seed growing has been considerably improved and the production of ebonies" fertilisers is being ineressed, the most important national economic problem)** arisen in its full magnitude, namely, inereasing the yielding weeny of all agrioul- tuna crops!*!. ? Maiber-Correspendent of MOGUL /All-Union Academy of Agricultural Soleness lasni T. I. Lonin/, Direoter of the All.Unioa Scientifie-Research Institute of Partners and ilgriculteral Soil Science. ? **From the 'Controlling Figures for Development of Rational loonomy of USSR for Tears 1959-1965". (Theses of the report of Comrade S. S. Ihrulhohev at the Ill Convention of the Gemmumist Party). Oospolitisdat, 1958, p.53. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? Irons. a-mm.-/ In the theses of the report or 'Conrad* IL 8, amebae*. it is further ? *aids 'During the torthoseing seven years a sharp inprevement in the esti= of 3.and is planned as basie mans for produition in famine." irtee ? seeond footnote on preeeding page/. In USSR of late, a great work has been carried oat on reclamation of virgin ind waste landi. This imrk will bi contacted in *0 titvre also. Nevertheless, at the present time the leain problem a ligrioniture in USSR is to sharply incresse the yielding caveat" of agricultural ereps. Zt is necieseary to Utilise all the. vesture** an *Loh the yielding eapacity depends in order to Sharply increase the productivity of agriculturel Plants,' eorreet agricultural technique, geed meads, fortil.' laws ma may others. Among these methedil of tomiest Iwo. litanies us the procedures, *Jai, are directed to the tsar...sing of soil fertility. The question about soil fertility has an *Wiest Uttar. Fecrple, yet ? at the down of 'agriculture, have notioet that the yields or plants depend on the clealitr of the soil. Interesting thoughts on the 'questions of fertility ware expressed in snidest Rome. The onitient agricultural writer of ancient Remo, Columellia, argued about prehlons of fertility with his contemporary,. Treallime, *o deminetzated that the soil can tomme lagtwverished in the *Ouse of time, /Begin p.63/ that it, 1.1k* seas must bowel ad, and, is * woman, becomes barns with time. Colunellia did not share this point of visit. Re until in a rich end deseriptive *toilet "The earth is net ail elderly wonsa. it is a virgin, always young, beautiful, al.ways fresh, youthful, always able to be fruitful, if only one knows how to ciseriah her youthfulness, to preserve, to maintain its tender, vivacious life**. In order to preserve *Ia.h. Liaaracii. levity of Opinfons of Scientists about Conditions of Fertility of the Earth with an Application of the General Deduction to Agri- culture. *Published by Num University in Mit. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3) , Trans. A.1017 the imirtility of the ail Camellia recommended to fertilise it and to break it up (plow). It is possible to judge fro* the attention* whim* vas paid. to this question by theolassiss of ilarziwiteniniams how-great is the .iimportinoo of. , soil fertility. ? Karl Mrs 'rotes *Together with the development of manta seisms* and of agronomy the fertility of earth shmages also, since the resources change with the aid of which the *learnti of the sell looms suitable for immediate utilisatien*". Developing this thought* Serl Mars rretes With a quitik. development of the ',reductive strength eU ibe old machines /fist be reiAl000d by more Profitable ones, that AO musi, be discarded altogether. The soils on the.sentrary. is being impieved eonstent3.7h if One _handles it ProPedY*411.11 ? In the history of agronomieal science the opinion about the fertility. of the soil has changed new times. There iras a time when it was thought, ' that pleats live On Maus ?aloe. baring the forties of the ban, century this wrong theory was refuted. The German seimatist Liabimiti in 11140/ put forward ? a theory of minerai.nutrition instead of the Nemo theory ofplan. t nutrition. According to this theory 4fertility depend' s on the mown of minirel *Orient substage's, that are eontained in the soil in ? state accessible to pleats. Poi mew years in all countries of the world soil fertility mu measured by tbe stores of nutrient substances in it. The Soviet scientist, Academician V. It. Viltiame, attracted attention to the feet, that Aeoil fertility depends not alone on the presesse of nutrients but also on the /*sums of moisture. y. Viltians understood under fertility of sell the ability of the soil to provide requirements for the plants' lit, by a siitultansous and joint proses* arl . Capital, vol. 3, p.753 410* Kart Marx. Capital, Vol. 3, p.794, 1949. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 VI; &rime. arsioaki a two factors of their exists= water and food. Such an understanding of fertility was a considerable step forward. Up to the present tem soleness has samalatasi new data, *Joh give * basis to think that soil fertility depends net done on the presence of nutrients and of asisters.? Many cases an Mown when there is I sufficient mount of nutrient and of soisture in the soil, bet the yields obtained aro very low. .tor instaneefin saline soils, by means of intredustion of ford- =sere and of water throngh irrigation; it is royale to provide, pleats with nutrients, but *till it is lapossibla to Obtain a kida yield. CaasolasataYs such a soil ptovides the plants with nutrients. and, water, but doss not possess high fertility. ?The sure phonon's= sae also 'be observed in the non?chernesen sem of OM. On highly add sods, regardless of the _prevision of plants: with nutrients aidwe. ter, it is impossible to obtain u good yield of auger bests, barley, *eat, clover and other crops. in the present INISS the soil has a *efficient amount at nutrients and water* hat leo fertility. The low yield of anger beets, barley, "Mat, clover and of other saps is explained , by wasessive acidity of the soil and other aleavarabla PraPartial? Piadia p?64/ The richest in the world and the thickset rise:rooms are to be found,. in OMR. With artificial vstaring these soils have quite a sufficient meant of nutrients and misters. at under ends conditions such plants as tea busks* will not grow. This is explained by the feat that a tea bush vows well only on add soils. Sao% plants as 'mu idelgensts" t. indeniseene, var. denipstit var. et ILL and lupine also do not grow well on Amuse" soils. Soil fertility is closely connected with the peculiarities of plants. One and the sans soil is fertile for one kind of plants, and nonfertile for ? others. Thus, highly add soils of iho non-ohernoses sell are fertile for ? sprees, pine tree, alder, hersetall, sheep sorrel, *parry and other plants, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?1.1 vrans. AP4U1114 but aro nonfertile for:sager beets, Wolfs, esparsetto, a3s4 many other agri. cultural crops. . It mug seen from one' experiment, which we conducted on an acid to. b$. podsoX soil with placating* of clover and timothy to that extent the soil fertility is connected with biological .peculierities si oultivated plants. In this experiment, in order to increase the. tortilitiv, many different' testi- liters were introduced into the loll. Under the innuendo of the nitrogen fertiliser the yield of timothy increased by 404 *bile clover was fully destroyed under the inflames of the nitrogen fortillier (without the nitro- gen fertiliser *loiter grew poorly, but survived nevertheless). Thus, ono and the Sinesell, containing similar swats of nutrients and iseisteris, when planted over to a grass. slitusw, with an introducrtion of the usistal dose of nitrogen fertiliser, proved ti. be fertile for timothy end sionforttle for clover. For our ether experiment on highly acid torf-pedsello .soil, during the Connie of four yearswe introdued. a similar ammant of different aineral fertilisers under oats, turnips and lepines having all other coalitions ideal.. coX. Soil and dinette sonditions Or all the crepe Imre similar, but ,re. ' sults were entisely different. On .the poor turf.podsalla soil, after intro- duction of nitrogen fertilisers, the yield of oats, under the infltionee of nitrogen has increased by 60 and the .yield of turnips was sharply roduvad. It is clear bon data sited abeire that soil fortilitor is oonalicted in the closest way pessible with the poseliarities of the plants and'depende not. &Ilene on the stores of nutrients an& water Laths soil but also on the eon. bination of all these properties, *bah preduo* an influence on the developuu sent and growth of the given plant. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 wom? The level of the yield is the indication of soil fertility* the greater the yield the higher the fertility of soils. The $oil fertiliV diipends also on the reactio' n of the environment. Xxcessivo acidity, as well as excessirre alkslinity, lover the 'yield of plants. In many soils there are substances poisonous to the plants. Thus, in:turf-podsolio soils with high acidity there are fret forms of amino*, nengenese and iron, ribich all also poisonous at hi* ooncentratione. In the southern regions. of the lieV,ist Union there are maw saline soils; an executive anoint of silts th then sakes those Male intertile. -Soil fertility depend) not only en the general anount of nutrients, but else on their oerre3.ation.' it a fell prevision it plant* with srairients ail nowt", anoint of one or *eyeful of them redress the fortilitY of the soil. At the tins when T. R. 1111 LOW wrote about soil fertility, under nutrients, *Leh Jpreceed fro* the soil, were understood to be the ask sub- strates tad nitrogen. At the present tine the Soviet scientists have asoor- tabled that plants utilise carbon dioxide not alone from the air, but also . from the soil. Coneethently, the plants' yield depends also in CS21031 dioxide present in the soil. ? Hicroorpniess influence soil fertility tea large degree* they con- vert nutrients, insooessible to the plant. s, making then accessible. Micro- biologists have ascertained that around the plant roots aocenalates /login p.65/ a great amount of nicrotrganiinis. They settle around the plant, rota ter the purpose of utilising the diesharges of plants as toad. Reciprocal advant- age is obtained fro* such symbiosis, sicroormises rosette the foods .and the ? plants are freed from vistas, *Loh sere formed as s result at netabolien. Iran this point of Wier microorganisms, in respect to plants, play a role of waste removers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 VI/ 441- Via ? ? Daring, ths latter yew it was ostabliitted that certain microorganism , secrete such abates:is "hick stimulate the growth and 'development of plights. AMong the products of satabolie activity of microorgmlems, Which .sharply stinulate the growth and development of pleats one should ipation gibberellio add. Ex mints of the litter years ev. shoes, that stimelaters lir plant gromith are secreted by. st whole tortes of miSroorginiash lienrertheless, sot all the Microorganisms are at benefit to the plants. Awes soil micreirganisms there azim nob that are harmful to the iilants and they rodue 'the fertility? , of the soil. the negative activity of sertaia micreirganisas comallits of the fast, that they enter the Plant roots mid cause various' doses's. the? - microorganisms, in the presets of their vital life, seerite ***tattoos that are POSAHMOU to plants. Thas,. Microorganisms prebioea. twofold influsnOO - on soil fertility when" converting nutrient's' of the toil to a state avallahle. to the plants and relieving the products of plants, eocriitif.me Shoy increase' . the fertility, but seireting polaensis substances- dining the samosa of their mei metabolism, they &crease the soil fertility. , Soil farttlity depends also on the physical prepertifie. In stractural, cultivated soils, where there is a sufficient ?emmunt.ef air, the plant roots obtain an adevate see at of oxygen., I a stMucturslees, compact soil the plant roots lack oxygen; the presence .of the oompaet horisen in solonets hinders the gzursth. of, the mot oaten of pleats; dissimilar coloration of the sell produces .influesme on Its thermal cherasteristici. Thai, the deter. nineties of soil fertility, fish existed le 'thim lessen% time, as its ability -to satisfy the requireneat of plants .in food and :water, Met he held to be antiquated, since the fertility of iilf sell, that is, it. capacity to a harvest, depends not only on the presence in it of food and water, ? but en the thole combination of characteristics, Wick prods:* an influence Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24' : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to, Trans. on the growth and development of gents: Therefore, when increasing moil ? ferillit* it is necessary to Ivry," net only the nutritive and water regimes of the soiit but also other propertiet of the soil.? ? Vbitll recently; it as thought thit on low productive soils the poor , harvest was conditioned by the'iaot that plants of small size grow thirst the eereale have a *Way developed straw, fine spikes and iickly,grainel oabbige.- Omall heads, beets - email roots, and so on. rilhanuhile the research of ? latter year" has shown, that low fertility. of soils is aceempanied not enly by emmll sizes of individual plants; but also by theirtetal lout for instanievon acid peat-podsolic "ells, which are characterized by insufficiency Of nutrients, by, massive acidity and excess of free forme of aluminum . , and Manganese., Under the influence or the acid reaction of the environment and of other unfavorable charaeteristios of the soil winter rye, winteraeat, clover, alfalfa and many other craps are lost not only during winter but also during the spring-Winter frest.free period. At the present tdme the main problem of agricatare is to obtain a maxi.. ?ma harvest from each unit of the area with Minima expenditures of labor and. money. Intensive agriculture is -Impossible without a high soil fertility. A high lovil of nashanisatien, good varieties of agricultural plants,. correct cultivation /login p.66/ of soils and numbs 01'91404 and fothommeasurIT of agroteaties predate ? propereffect, when they aro applied on highly. 'fertile sells. Vegetal' crops beer the name,ef kitahen garde* crops not by accident. They sire cultivated fro* tile Immemeriel in gardens, animas, Which have Ugh fertility that was achieved* eystmeatio introduction of large de"es of !enure into the toll. When cultivating Vegetable drops an field lands it. is neceleary first of all to look after I sharp increase of the fertility - Of soil'. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? A71. Arany. ^^AvAir At the present the the yielding capacity of vegetables is 'yet lOw in many resting. The main reason is that vegetable crops have been *taken out" from kitchen gardens to field low*yielding soils. Vegetable crops mut be est out on bottom lands, on reclaimed peat begs, and the like, that is on soils *Leh have high natural fertility. Ilirvertheless there aro not onsuge . of such lands in our sovntry. Therefore, at the present tibe, it is necessary to mat* large bled:, of soils of kitehen garden type, having,in view the 'utilisation of mechanisation ikon cultivating **getable crops and obtaining 1110 yields. ? The above laid about the creation of highly fertile ails for vegetable crepe filly refers also to the formation of fertile soils for rush a crop as corn, ethich give* good results also in the nowiohernosem sone but only on fertile 'soils. ? .Care about preseriing and inoreasing the fortillly' of soils 1. needed ? in all *ones of the *riot Union. Sven on termer virgin and waste soils it is necessary to take ears in preserviag. and increasing the soil fertility. ? larlier the fallow apnea of, agriculture prevailed in regions of realanation of virgin and waste lands, but at the present tine the chief' means for increas- ing the soil fertility in this region is the aconamilation and preservation of moisture. .Decrease in yielding capacity is often observed after several years of cultivation of cereals on virgin sad waste lands. In the past this ' phenomenon vas explained by deterioratien of the soil's Stratton. !sport- sesta in latter years have shout that this is far frail se. Formerly it was thought that only voter stable crumb, larger than 0.25 me, is valuable for - apiculture. Reeser* of V. A. Trantsesan has shown *at the grub iron 0.25 to 0.05 me that Anus after lengthy plowing of virgin lands, is also valuable tor agricultural purposes. The main cease of fertility reduction Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 leaviUR.414.%114P4. of virgin and waste lands, after its cultivation in the course of many yOarSi consists in the fact that a greet number of weeds develop as a result a is- ixroper. agroteckniss. Control of elide, ,by may of introduction of clean fele -r ' love, Of proper agrotechnitre end oppliAation of herbicides, is a mortal means for the preservation of soil fertility. On soils, readied 5-10 years ago, in regions of virgin and mete_ lands, is obierved * large accumulatien of nitrogen nitrate at a' slit ,PI:ovisloa- of then with phosphorus. .It votad be effect ve 'to introduie pike' phoriO fertilisers on such soils.? At a present level of previlion of agri- eulturo with fertilisers it iced be dee to use small demos (04 oilta) of mutilated seporphesphat* into .thot rove. Thus, for prostrvation-and intlresis of eon fertility in regions of reelimation of virgin end waste lands,' it is necessary to provide far the acommtlation and preservation or moisture, far Ito *antra of weeds and 'applioatien of phosphoric ferttlisers. , * In the Soviet Ualett,eolonete tummy oVer 53-m1n of ha. lateral ferti- lity if thee* Soils is low. A smith as the saline soils are 'very diverse, ? it it necessary to use various methods for their improvement. .1xpental raiment' in USSR has *inlet that /Begin p.67/ for a sharp ittoresse.of soloists 'fertility is required not alone thim substitution of exchange "odium with asa. Gime, but also sultivation of the packed Witco, resw-val of Vater-selubl' Matt, 13,214110 Of Mane of organic **Stemma in Site soil, elininatieu of re-ialluisation and denim...tine of other nessuress. Introduction of gypsy* into the soil is 'obligatory vhsu recleining soda soloists. AO the experiment" of A4.14 Urinal:make, O. N. Sather, S.?. Bonn, and others have sheen, the -do. so of apses etta be utilised at La rate of half Of that quality which is needed for the displacement of all the exchange sodium. Bast results Imre obtained when application of siva* van done on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans. /PAW ? the baokrremed of deep tilling. icoording to data of K. A. Orincheake and V. A. Pe3.ipets, geed results were obtained *en introdusing small doses of vpsum (14 Ow) into the revs. **least. of Sather* Causes, lends aleng Volga river, Zassidisteaa libido, and other visions of USSR there is often obserVed a high stratitift, cation of the saran:mem Iberia's. On. these soils it is pasibl. ? is* self-shatieratioa by means of utilising the earbasates of the. soil or this purpose the fiplark,asbnaibt* /deep plowing/ t13.1ing saisald be utdli- d to the depth of about SO ca. Deep plowing .substabitially increases the tsrtilit of soloists soils. To the disadvantages of this 'method theuld be ? referred the fast that a kielogleally low-active layer of foil is breught to the serface. In eantectien with tide it is neeessery to UAW's.' ergasto end nineral fertiliser*, and in the Fosses* of water-soluble salts a washing of the reetinhabited lapir of sell is required. ? In order to nom the:disadvantages of this deep plowing the All- Union geleatific-Research lastitate of Fertilisers and eel...ma sell edam* (II. E. Saliabo) suggested a new method for increasing sail fortiliti of median and deep velem% by mesas of plowing with a three-storied plow of V. P. Moseley and T. G. Soto. The essenee if the work of the three - storied plow is in thet the horisen above the eelabete remains bastion: on the serfs**, sod the. solonets and the anambolenets are stirred up and bosons mixed. Whereppon the solid, peeked same*s barium' disintegrates and ? Is ettenuated by the soil of the carbonate layer. After the storied plowing the water eharaateristies of soloneta ere sharply improved while the fertile layer of soil mains en the surface, the experinants of N. N. Saliaboi ? 11. S. Ostia& and K. Z. *Wiwi under ocaditione of dry sad irrigated agricul- ture, have *own that the storied plaiting inereases the fertility of **least. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 UR) Ais1017 considerably greater than do the deep /plantashnaiaj plowing amid deep melltna. ins of the soil. According to data of these atibors, the -yield of ,hard wheat on the lielousinekti base, Piton* radon, Suitor oblast., in 1956, after the 'anal plemringl, somprised 12.8 a per ha, and after the three...storied ? plowing 19.3 o per ha. At the kolkhos Chapaevas, Pttsr.k ratan, 8aratev oblast',? after, a steal plowing 8.1a per he were harvested, ad after the three-storied - 13.1 c per ha. Still bettor results Amore obtained from the Storied plowing during the experiaent. with irrigation, which was eon- demted .in the sovIchosoimeni Nikelane, Chernelarsk ratan, Astrakhan *blast' in 1953 (table 1). Table 1. Influence of the storied Tasting on the harvest of Variants the fonatees Cabbies 1954 1955 A of experiment 1 &null tplowing to 7.2 cm) Three?sthried plowing with plow PT-2.40 to the depth of 45-50 ma 2 I' Iha 410 inf gla 634 It. 111.4 i 4 , 440 livs* .... 173 isegn PIN It is seen from table 1, that under the influent's of the three- storied plowing the harvest of tomatoes, lam 1951s, increased by 12% and the ? 71eld of enbbngir in 1956, ? by TO? Imporinents Shown that AkeV three-storied plowing represent.. testamestal amelioration of solormts. In the eons of chernessm soils the soloists often are met is the foss ' of smell sections, armed which the fertile soils are situated. In such cases one *an nes successfully the method of asealevanies /covering with earth/ of eolonets, ehich consists of throwing the soil fres neighboring sections ever the solonets. As a result of this on the Neonate spots eonditiens aro tented that are favorable to the eolith and development of plants. Oa the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , Declassified and Approved For: Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 whole the solonets sails represent * vast ressivoir for * further widening of planting areas. In USSR chernosem soils, whish have a vary hi* potential, fertility, ? occupy vett areas. The problem is to oomrert the potential. fattliitc/ .-theie, the richat'soils, to en effective One. Together with the corroot ? tilling, the iffeetive fertility of chernosem soils at be increased. also by means of utilisation of organic ad mineral fertilisers. Son.chernosem soils occupy *bast SO% of the .1183R territory. Of espaial.ly great Wartime* is the Buroliaa part of the notx-alsernosee sm. Zn this spacious Iona with a thick popeation, large, cities and industrial ce4orei, there are large -kiosks of Cereal crop's," tlx eDolgunotai /Lints Somata Var. et eultivated, the pleating areas of which comprise here over SO% of all, the plantinga of flan in the, cm. try. .In the Sumas part of this 'sone there are over 50% under potatoes, and lager veptables over 30% Of all areas oceVied by the.* crops in USSR. Animal fisibasidry. . playe a lerge ro3.e here else. Groat vegetable-petatc and animal husbandry bases are being mated around Boom% Leningrad, Perms, Corikiir'Svordlovek - and easy other cities and industrial centers. Climatte conditions in this sons are quite favorable for cultivation of a large mount of agricultural plants; there are me destrictive droughts here. ' Kolkhoses and sorkhoses of the now.chernosem sone obtain high and steady harvests of *areal and other ?rope, utilising the attainments of ' edema and leading practice.. But the average yiel.ds of areal and other crepe are still low in this sone. liCaambile, it is peesible to obtain in this sons 'yields that are higher than in the &moms sane of MA. This is explained by the fact that in the 'Chinon= sone and ii ether anthers anti eastern regions at the wintry there are net sufficient atmospheric pre.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (l) Trans. A*10I7 cipitations and droughts oecur very often; together with productive years, there are years of real srep failures. This does not happen in the non- cherMIMI sae. In this connection one should mall D. IL Priud.ahnikovis ?plasm about the signitiossoe of the noss-ohernesen sone is the agriculture of USSR. In his work under the title *Resernlyi nilliard" /Reserve billion/. D. I. Prisaishaikev wets $ *It previously the ealerpient if our plantings Roved to the sou* and iesth-west, to the side of lands that de not seed fertilising, than now the greatest interest represents another direction in the ?weeding of the oultivated area, whisk is ?cosseted with a new faster ? abestealisaties of agriculture". "Anti if already the whole sherneass has been plowed. *Loh lies in the bolt of sufficient moisture, then we have to pay attention to that ollattie region and to these soils solely es whisk Western Ramps has built its intense econsoy, sanely: to non-oherimosen, which does not knew arty droughts and is sayable, with fertilisation, to give steady yields of a Dail* *ype, that is 30e of grain per hectare.** Nen p.69/ These thought' of D. Prianishallerr have not yet lost their boor. tem at the present tine. Destrustive droughts in ecothers regions of our country are possible now aloe. The opeation about isorming sail fertility is of an exolusively great inpartanoe for regions et the nes-shernosen sone of USSR. At the pre- sent tine os hirve all the possibilities of radically improving the properties of peat-pedselis soils. then acees.3.1sh4ng the said nessures, it is possible to obtain annually not one but at least two reserve billions of grain and of * b. N. Priasishalev. delected Works. vet. Vt. 1955. p.167461. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (15) Trans. 104017 ether agricultural products. It is possible during a Short time, to ad.. ditiona131 obtain about 50 pod* /1 pod : 36 poueds/ per hooters. In the nonsidhernesen sone of the Summer part of Wait is possible to additionally obtain 2.25 billion pude of grain and of other agricultural products frost the 45 an ha of planted areas. Now, *en the work, enormous in its seals and economic effect on reclamation of virgin *donate lands in the Zest, has been a000mp.tisbmi it is necessary to proosed with the raising of agriculture in the non...there/J- ean belt. In this sone the measures for the raising of agriculture are of vast economic importance. Heolanattor of this 'virgin soil* meet become a public Sob. In order to prove that it la possible to obtain good yields in the non-chernosen belt we are siting data about productivity of cereals in Russia during the period froa the year 1683 to 1912 (table 2). Table 2. $,,n yielding wait, of cereals in the 'gums= part of Russia (in.puds per sdesiatinalia unit of land measursj: 240 acres/) Menpohernesen sone roars 1,b0.142 1693-1902 1903-1912 Obernesem sone 14 34 44.39 46.45 3f.9 44.6 46.2 It is seen from table 2, that in 25 districts of the nowichernosem belt on the average for 30 yews the yielding capacity of cereals vas not lower, but rather somevhat higher than the prodeotiviti in the 25 districts of the chernosan sone. The six-year experiment on varietal plots (see table 3) is just as strong a proof about the possibilities of raising agriculture in the moe-shernosen sone. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Aa it is seen from table 3, the duetiit.y of weal crops in the noa..akaraoiia belt was fairly high, aid what ie 001)**1114 inPortant, it was quite steady. Daring all the years the predutivity es verletol plots in the mempichammosem belt was considerably higher than on varietal plots is the choruses sone. On the overage for els yews the harvest of urea crops in the nonemcherneses use comprised 1/.37 a per ha, and in the *erne- *ma 13 30 e per ha. Noroivorip one shoed point oat that bleb yields were ibtainodvithoonperativolysodast expenditures* elementary agretechnies were maintained end for each heaters of the ploolond were *PP11011 3.4 t*** for mum wed 2-2.50 oradiwrol fertilisere? For a radical increase of soil fertility in the nos-Ohe belt it is necessary to *Allis* net separate measures, but their complex oembisatien. The nest Important element, of this complex ores lining of acid soils, plantm lag of perennial grosses, applicatlos et organic and mineral fertilisers, sowing of legume crepe, &opining of ihe plowing layer and ether seellerattre vorito. Lining PUT* * treat rol. in the lacrosse of fertility of acid soils. This assure provides the ebtaimimg at Usk yields of pironnial *Way redness the lees of winter crops, isareases the ettectivemess of fort- lieirs? Daring the next tievon-roar-Plia no propose to lime not loos then 20 ilm of ha of acid soils. /Aegis p.r3/ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , 4emilliWfA ."..-wwarg Table 3. . Productivity of cereal and legume crops on State varietal . slots daring ari 1?51-1956 (in Vha) Obl Mlle 19$1 J 1952 195, 1951t , 1956 Average non?cheLosime zones Tolegodskaia Leningradskeia. Iteskovsteia . Iraliainsksia ? .19.0 17.2 10.2 11.1. 194 15.8 20.5 22.2 11.6 144 13.9 15.8 15.0 14.6 13.9 1$.) 418.7 .1955 20.5 14.6 21.3 18.4 18.8 14.1 '17.6 21.$ . . . . . Ihe average The tenet A7.9 16.9 - 16.0 13.8 i T.6. I 19.5 . 17.0 15.4 -13.9 . 11.8 . 15.4 14.5 13.2.- 14.5 1.3 14.7 12.5 14.5 7.5 4 25.2 154 8.6 3,114 18.0 15.3' ?. 14.5 134 T.g ' . ? shams** Toromeshekale - Orlovskaia !NitwitsVskala Stilingtedskais !hie average lion-chermosen s in % to the chemises_ 13.6 S .131.6 144 134.5 32.4 124.2 9.5 154.7 17:0 110 _ f2.5 lii0.6 . 130 ? aa are citsct Sr mean pr0ductan area or varas? plots, of which there are in each Oblast' from 8 to 15. lasers* if a varietal plot is 100 ha. . , The proper crop rotations with the planting of perennial gropes ere of great importance. Unfortunately, to many kolkhC:ses.and. ecSkhosent, 'role of grasses is anderestinated: One of the Causes of this was their low: produotiv1V. Daring the next Win years mineral fertilisers will play &Ileum's**, role in increasing moil fertility And productivity of agricaltatal plants. In the year 1965 the USSR agriCtItare dli receive, annually, over 30 sin tons of ndherel fertilisers. Together mith the mineral fertiliser" the organic ones will elso play a'large role. If at thepreaint time we utilise about 300 ala teen of Manure, then iR the nest years its amount will be ? bronght to 450400 aim tv utilising a considerable mount of peat. Nut- mansre, peat-.fecal and other composts outplay a greet role in increasing the soil fertility. Wastes of the communal econany of +AU? and industrial ? centers are -of greet importance in increasing the soil fertility, se are el" the green fertiliser*, sopectiilly the plantings of sweet lupini, utilising it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %awl 44-MUMilt Ae.^146111, as fodder and fertiliser. As a, rss4t oZ the accomplishment of the cited measures the soil fert1.110*, and the prodia3ttvtty of all agricultUral crops will be sharply increased, what, in turn, wi entail. also a steep rise in algilla husbandry. Method* for increasing soil t.rtility represent the most important probe* of socialistic agriculture of wrist Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020061-7 ? Thins. Aar= ? ? ?: (In _full) ? veilt Litvinenko, S. Br. Vywokoaktivnyi reetovyi stimullator. /Highly Active growthatimUlant/. Vestelk Akadem. Nauk BSSR, *01. 29, nu. 1, p.81-82.. Jan. 1959. ' 511 Ak1/0. (In As it ist known. N. A. III;isillnikov, Ifeabor-Correspondent of the Academy of Science of USSR comparatively recently obtained and tested a preparation,, similar in action to the gibberellic said aa vigorous stimulant of growth and, development of illants(1). ' Just recently Doctor of Biological. Salinas; V. I. Bilai,(Ustitute of Microbiology of the Aaadsmy Of Science of the Ukrainian SSR), Mid Candidate of Itchnidal Sciencos, D. A. Verner (Institute of Organic Chemistry.of the Audeay of.ftlence of the Ukrainian SSW have, for the first tin's in the Ukraine, ohttined orystalliled gibberellin from native strain* of 9bsariUm monlliforms *held (Whidh were isolated from various plants, growing in Ukrainian MB). he identity of obtained crystals with gibbstallin.was ascertained by the method of chromatography. We began the 'work of studying the action of this gibberiallinon plants in the Botanical Garden of the Aeadegy of Science of Ukrainian 13Sit. Grassy plants were tokens short-day plants - aromatic picotiana (Nicotiana odorata) and Chinos* aster (Calliste0hus *Leonel*); long-day-- gentian (Gentian& orassicaulus) ands** lavender (Limoniumsirardisinva), as (1)Seel "Vestnik:AkodealiMauk MR, 1958, mo. 6, p.70-73. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? yell as shrubs . privet (pigustram raw!) and karraaantha means*. The grassy plants were a week old and were in the phase of two tree leaves, the shrubs - in the phase of two cotyledon leaves. One part of the plants of each kind was treated daily with gibberallie solution ,in a 0eneentration0.0025%, and the other part with a solutio* Ina concentration 0.025%. The 000trel plants reoeived water instead of the gibberellin solution. Treatment was condusted according to a method seed by Professor K. Zh. Gheilaktiont one drop of the stimmlintle solution was applied dai1y to the point of growth with a pipette. All the plants were kept in the hothouse. Already at the end of the first week of trealmmet abeam, evident 41/ that the experimental shortuday pleats overlook the control in growth and development. At the end of the second week the effect of stimilents appeared wipe.. ?Lally prosinent4 in !lifetimes, *rates the oomArel plants were yet in the phase of the rosette, while those treated with gibberellin had a stem 7-10 =long with amass of flower buds at the top. The leaf blades in experi- mental plants were larger, wider, their petioles lager them in the oontril plants. Twenty eight days after the beginning of the experiment that is, at the end of the fourth week, the tobacco plants, treated with started blooming, having stens 15-20 =long. /begin p.82/ Bat the control ;Unto were yet in the Oben of the rosette. It should be pointed out that the differenee in somoontrations of gibberellin solution (0.0020 and 0.025%) was not refloated in the tempos of growth sad development of pleats. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1111111111e A?411)4.0 The long-day plots did net reset to the treatment with the stimulant: during the soiree of 7 'leeks there was no difference detested in the growth and development of experimental and oontrol plants. A. regards the shrubs, gibberellin prodsced ott them a noticeable effect: in both variants of treatmant the pleat* were 10-12 on tail and had 8 to 10 tras leaves while the contval plants only grew to 3.3.5 en is Might end had only two eetylodoe leaves. Thus, one ean thimk that gibberellin, obtained by the Ukrainian re- searehers, proved tabs a higtay active growth stinsiest. The technology of its production is being developed now. At the sena time it is neceeeary to continue the studies of the effoot of &Morel:Lin on the plaits. It is necessary to establish the optimum doses and the best methods of treatment of various plants with this stile*. lent; the necessary *vete:Arnica baokground for the treated plants1 whieh are developing under soselerated tempos. It is also inportent to wider* take a comparative study of the effect of gibberellin and auxins on plants. Ands finally' it is neoessary to test gibberellin aoearding to all indium under production conditions. The study of archanian of option of gibberellin in **enaction with the metabalien of plants will present a great theoretical and practioal interest. Title of filmes The experimental plant before and after treatment with gibberellin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Limo Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ;;;?fir'' Ierusalimakii, X. D. "Impost= po sepreryvuomu kul'tivire- vaniumikroorktnitmov. /Symposium on continuous cultivation of mieroorgasimish Abad. Lusk Vestnik. vol. 28, no. 11. p.73-714. Nov. 1958. 511 Akita'. (IA:tibias/an) Csechoslovakiass Aoademy of Science organised the first Sympesima on the Question of Continuous Cultivation of Microorganisms. In the work of the Symposium, which proceeded in Prague, June 23 to 211, took part 119 Csechog. slavak scientists and 30 mresentatives of other countries, including USSR. 111 The Soviet delegation was composed of X. D. Ierusalimakii, E. A. novae, M. Is. Kaliushnyl, X. P. Andrew and I. S. Ternovskii. Sixteen reports were heard at the Symposium. As it is known, with the usual method of oultivation, microbes grow in an irremovable beemenisemyl/ medium, the composition of which, under the fluence of the metabOlic activity of these microbes, graduallr blooms worse; this retards their development, while a elntinuous renovation of the sidles occurs during a circulating method of cultivation. When it is sacoeeded to establish a balance between the speed of the flow of the fresh medium and the speed of multiplioation and biochemical sotivity, of microbes, then the old- tare is all the time under steady conditions and, oensequently, in one and the same physiological state. The means used for achieving sus h a movIng baa lance, are based on several different theoretioal principles. These general theoretical premises for cultivation of microorganisms in circulating media were examined ir revere lectures (X. )talok, Csochoslovskiis; D. Herbert and X. Powell, ringland; A. levik, U4.4 X. D. Ierasalimakii). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? tg) . Trani* A?1019 ? The results of the use of the asthod of oirctO.ating cultures for ? ipOlving'varlous practical problems were set forth,in another group of leoturesi ' tor instants% for greying bakers .and feed yeasts, for aloe* and acetone* butyl fervientatien, for produCtion of vaooines, and so on (T. Kolas, Sweden; 14.11. Wain, 1116.11Adf K. loran, 1. Eushka, I 'Mr, K. trensel and W. Miner. ? 0sechoslovskilaj K. #. Andresv, H. Is. Nelluhnyi; I A. Plevaki? 0. A. Bakushinskain and it. i...3emilthatevac USSR, and other.). And; finally, in neny.riporte was elucidated along with other-prebleies the teehniqne. of continuous cultivation of niorobes under laboratory and ? industrial condition.. The lecture 44 II. Rshichitey (CsechosloVakia) wee especially given over to this problem. .A lively digraustion developed around the reported data and especially about the theory and tosknies? of continuous 01QU:ration. There are many varieties if this method. In sons oases one tormentor is weed for cultivating nicrOorgenisas, in other? several fersentors are connected one after another in- the fora of a battery. Itiorsorganieas can develop in a liquid medium; which is verrcarefully stirred, but it is possible te grew then on a solid surface, . , which is lashed by a flowing mediae. ?The solutions for 'cathode of stirring the culture, aeration, regulation of the speed of the flew of the ,stediun, eonstruotion of apparatus and 00 on varY also. &ming up the dissussion.it biome clear that there, cannot be /Begin p.714/ uky. ow special universal Mt's, and d*Pglidint on the raised problas one should resort to diffez.ent, variants. Om of the, boat important results of the Symposium was the wide reciprocal in.fornation about the we** that are oonducted in different countries. In. _ otr country, as well as abroad, the possibility for intreduction or continuous. . processes? is studied by various industries. It Indus' trial prastiei these Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 t3; . Trans. k1cki.9 proses**. were often applied without sifficient scientificatheoreticsl pounds and therefore did met prods** the required offeot. And the theeretieal?re- , search, which vas developed after the Seoend World liar (especially in USA; *Wand and Trance) erten vas severed from predastion and served mainly, for ? investigation of individual problems of genetics, physiology sad bleakemista7 of nteroerganians. the ,Syn Posts* helped in establishing * sonteet,betveen theotste end asattecturers, bringing to both nosh ?that vas Mu and uriix- ? pestad, and thus was, weloubtedly, useful to both parties. Date, heard at the Symposium, private talks wag its participants, as well as visite to scientific institutions of Csechoslevakiia, Si.'wh the method ef continuous. cultivation is studied widely and from. may angles, here shires that it has highly diversified prospeete both in the field of scientific re- search and in indastzlia practice. And, as every continuous method, it is , ? more progressive than the interodttents nevertheless its rich possibilities were underestimated up to now. At the present tine the methyl of oontiasoss cultivation is being pre- pared for introdastien or already is practiced in a series of productions which utilise the activity of adaroergssioms, as, for instance, production of alcohol (from foot wastes and hydrolysates) baker's and fodder routs, products of bacterial fermentation (acetone and bating, lattlo acid, acetic acid, butrlene-glyool, gliconic algid and others), noses of microbial origin, antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, and others), vitamins 112 and 1132, intermediate product for vitamin C (sorb...), preparation of live visages of the intestinal 'group and of other, bacterial toxins, bacteriephages, several ioed products, and so on. Those whoP addressed the Symposium pointed to the timeliness ef such an international conferees*. Ars unanimous wish was expressed that the ass**. alovakian Academy of 'Science is the future also carry on the role of an inter. Declassified and Approved For Release 2613/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (It) Trans, A4-1019 netionel scientifie-orgenisationel miter for the problen of oontinuous cultintion of mioreerganisms. in oonolusion it is neeessat7 to mention the good orgenisation of the mark of the apeposives. The touts of lectures mere printed beforehand and distributed to the delegates. AU the addresses mere imsediately translated into three languages (Om*. Russian and laglish) and volved VI reales this facilitated the discussion lamensely. The *stall aseemodation of delegates was faultlees? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Ai swim ? (In full) v8/14 Prokofteva-Beigoirshals. A. A., and Alikhanian. S. I. Vashnye problem, genetiki. /Important problems of pasties/. Aka& Ka* SUR, A/Utak. vol. 29. no. 1. p.98400. Jan. 1959. 511 Ak110 (Zn Russian) At the Second into Conference on ?easeful Utilisation of Atomic Energy (asneva, aepteiber, 1958) an important plasm was oocupied by the pro- blems of radiation genetics. The increased interest in genetics and a sharp rise in research in this field of science are explained not only by the ex- clusive aotuality or problems oonnected with the development of methods of evaluation of the genetie danger of ionising radiation to man. This interest is oleo determined by great prospects, which are opening before biological science in oonneotion with the utilisation of ionising radiation and of radioactive isotopes in the research of the fornation and reproduotion of structural buss of heredity (chromosomes and genes), selection of plants, animals and mieroorgsnisms. The reports, relating direct/7 to genetics* or touching upon it closely, were grouped **wording to subjects. At separator conferences were discussed the genetic eonesseeenees of radiation, mechanism of the radiation effect and radiosensitivity, proteetion free radiations, use of tritium during scienti- fic-research work, improvement of media and genetics. In reports, given over to the aftereffect of radiation, resets of radial/emetic ?tumor*, obtained on Drosophila and mime were generalised. Theme objects were regarded as test-organimme for judgment of genetic aftero effect's of radiation in man. Me most seats problems of modern radiation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 %di Trans. AmolVai genetics were elucidated: dependence of the frequency of on the dose of irradiation, differential radiosensitivity .of cells of different type sed.stages of ,development, the problesof the "doabling" dose, mutating effect of.emall dosed of radietior4 mechanism of the "Oxygen effect" in the. mutation process, genetic aftereffects of irradiation of populations of organisms, mutatienprocees under the influence of; irradiation in polygemetie systems.. An isportant Saco in several reports was allotted to the extra- polation of data, Obtaieed with animal*, to man and analysis of methods 'of .evaluation of genetic danger Ulan (G. G. Naler,'14/.. RusselLUSi; G. Bonnier*, I. Gwyenot, Pwitser1ss4 end others). 'On the basis of generalizationof the world -experience of radidgenetic research oalkoiophiles 0. G. Muller has shown, that redioiensitivity of set eels, depending on the stage of development, verietinVaiy wide lialts. colOssal variation exists also. the "doubling dose", that is dose of irradiation when occurs a doeble amount of mutations, which arise spontaneouily in organisms under the Lathan:* of the natural beckground of radiation and innate agents. A "doubling dos*" for mature sex cells (srar.astosin) is by 6 times lowersand for the spermatid by 12 times lower than for the imme ture Sem cells. /Begin 0.99/ ,the summarising report of V. L. Russell touched upon the results of .vest research of the Oakridge Rational Laboratory (uSA) en the effect of 'ionising radiation on mice. A fir higher radiosensitivity of the mouse at comrared to Drosophila use established, and a luck stronger, than it was Supposed anal the present time, mutagenic effectiveness of small doss" of -irradiation, the most dangerous for man. The problem of genetic danger ef mmail :bees of radiation', in sonnet:Ufa with the inerease of the general back. ground of radiation on earth, occupied 'the central place at the scientific Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 1,471 la ? per.V60.040.11, *renew at press?oosferesses tad the emetic slue, ? Serious attestios was paid to the problen "Mechesiss of *sties of dtsti.n sad radiosonsitivity*. in the report of L. P. robittin were est- lined basic treads at work of the Laboratory of Radiation. Genetics of the ? Institute of nephrites of the 'massy a Beim* of On and was results - of research on plant' and animas were generslissd, showing that the degree of radiowneitivity of organisms in noisy eases is *Itemised by Ni. degree of Wiry to the sell NA*101111. Materials were presented for the first tine, ? latch were obtained in our country, about the high. radiesensitivity of the tost-ergasiss nearest to son the nkey. 8. 1. lord (Howland) reported very valuable Notarial* about the aonneotion of leukemia in siee, ceased by radiation, with the 'lawny observable injuries to their *browse's epparot? tee. a. A. Tobias (tSA) gave an analysis of the effect of ionising radiation on yeast collo, pointing to the role of the degre, of pelyploidy is their ? radiosensitivity. A sualarislxig report on the problem "Protestios fres the affect of irradiation owas presented by the Director of the **ridge Hatless/ 1?*bo. ratory, A. Hollander. He studied saineolkylisetttieearboaide oust amoreapto. alkylgasnine as important protective subetanoes against the multi? effect of irradiation. The effect of protective substasses ia eenditiosed, word.. ? Jag to Hollander by their fixing is a certain short period after irradiation of free radicals. At the sew tine in saw oases ewers a ression of ehroi- lialkamee which were tom by ionisation. A special *Worms vas set aside for the use of trittea is soienti? tiereseareh we*. Use of tritimalabeled *pine itisidisi as highly specifie marker for LILL ehrosesoses, together with autoradiography, spurned a possibility for esperisentel *Atm* on the meet difficult and tendansatal problem of genetics ? the nature of the prows" of selt-repoodaetion of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R01040.667001-7 111 ehromosomes. Now data in this fiold *ors reported by the Lairiesa scientist "V. Wats" 1W. L?' dultues1/ (Srookhaven Notiona-LAboritory, USA) an f. Gepil-Alengar" (Atomio COolor in fteibah.INdia). :tritium laboled chromic.** and aschiusisaa of that, reduplication were illuotrated at the U$A esposition by exeollOat niorofhotographs, under ,the nicrolcope NAV ? special film, *Loh have reeolved a high appraisal of biologists, ?ietasioh?ta.mists. ? T1 o. research prastioelbrought to 3tght at Conference, has Amon the possibility to *Miss atonic seer * estaing praoticallyvaluabla. mutation/II vide Orospoots have been opened before tta radiation selection of plants and miereorganimas. In the reports on radiation depends**e of radioeemaitiviVf of *Um, problems worts ox to on the dsgme of inj oaths. the cell nuolous,on differential re sonaitivity of various spicia3 and varietios of plants, coansotion of "mistime of plants with a &gm of polygoidh on direoted obtaining of useful mutations by way of utilisation of various types of ionising radiation, on oembinod effect of ultraviolet and Frays (A, G. Satardshian, X. S. Bora, /*min p.100/ Indio; Gustafson, ?. Vt,Swedam) A. 11. Sparrow, USA). A swiss of portly practical problems wore elucidated, etemseoted with dem and materials for irrsdiatiou4 the stays most favorable for irradiation, inportanoo of water in sued*, and se an. T. V. Gustafson reported shouts new radiation mutant of barley sfallada SrIktoid 32s, ishidh was released in 190 by the *Swale" Station. In India works on radiation eolootion of whist, swirls* are expanding widely. tho report of Si /. Aukhanian vas given over to meioses in the field of radiation *election of prodloore of antibiotics (fungi and astinonyoetes) is USSR, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tPi "MUM* A.L4Jat1/41 A ? Summins; up the ,;ortference, it is necessary to mention that in iMany direotions, Scvist scientists work with thu sums actual problems as the scientists of othc.r countries. At the assit; time ',wrist geneticists also work on Isiecial ;emblems, iLicaa were introdabetttq tpsa (pnotocLynamic effect of the visible li&ht, protective substtuicee atiainst this effeot, and others); they use for the solution of problems other, original ob4ects (in parti- cu)ar, rich embrioa) 41221 alreadj have attained big 8110001306, for instance in the aeleotion of satibiotic i.roducera. Nevertheless, works on some sections oi radiation genstAes proceed yet quite Ineafficiently. To such seotions refer oneral theoretical genetics, rs.diation imttc rMaol1441.6, ratIlation selection of plants, research on structure end reprodo.btion a elements the cell nucleus, utilising labeled c o mpo aids ? During the Conference there wowed friendly meetings, where problems of further development were also discussed of both the theoretical problems a radiation genetics as well es of praotiaal mane of uppAaation of ionising radiation Ix the selection. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 =WM. AwhlUgl (In toll) ? Filosof estestvesnaniia /Philosophic ymoble tura. icieacce/ And. Sauk SSSL Vestnik. no 1, pa324.38. Jan. 1959. SU 4k10. ? an Russian ? 1d.rfl nature] develosent the like of which hi biginning of the 20th century IA disooveries and theories so san w scientific knowledge were created that one rightfully spe revolution, the greatest in htitor, Soviet scion bitiork to the development of natural science. Intense breaking of old theories and understandings, a progress precedented in past *pooh,/ which the natural soignee experience. present present time, raise espeoially sharply great and complicated philosophic problems; they show the more oonvincingly that it is impossible to do eithout appropriate philosophie generalisations and conslusions. About this in particular, testifies the feat that of lets philosep pro ens of natural seism' occupy one of the Wit pleats In $hil Pork of philosophic congresses, meetings; they are more frequently sad tharma417 ? diseassed on the pages of philosophic and natural-scientific journals and books, in newspapers and in scientific-popular literature. of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 leg/ A.FOR00 AM&Widb /St during the first stage of the revolution in natural history, V. I. Lenin has shown, that correct answers to the philuephic problems, raised by nodern soleness subs given only by dialectic materialise. Leaning on the fundamestal ideas, developedby V. I. Lula, the Soviet selentistis philosephers and naturalists have performed during the past years a certain woes of philosophic generalisation of ashievements in nodern natural seine, and of exposing ot idealistic misiaterpretations in natural fetuses. At the sans time, one Should sontion that the development of philosophic problems of modern natural scions* remised, in many respects, as ? tight place of our ideelogisal from*. Ideologists of untemperary bourgeoisie, in their inclination to disprove the eonelusiens of dialeetie materialism eeposially readily re- sort to false ideollatie interpretation of the phenomena and regularities, newly diseovered by the naturalists. Taking advantage of the hesitation amAptilesophie instability of modern great physicists and representatives of other fields of natural actenee, they,yell then into the idealist's no. rase. It is knew, that mar prominent scientists In sapitalletto countries, 'she are "stikhlinyek blementalt/ materialists, as long as they stand on the ground of their epeelalty, passing over to the philosophic interpretation of the newest discoveries, *fobs it correctly understood, only deepen and widen the materialistic idea about the laws of life and development of nature, very often maks deeply emulous, idealistic oonclasiens fru their disooveries. Medi= revisionists use the idealistic interpretation of achievements of the newest natural silence as a means for revision of theoretical fundesen. tele of MarxianiusLeninism. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kJ) Ulna. LINIAML All this nig:sins/ from Soviet philosophers and naturalists, %s awn serieim and constant attention to philosophical prOblon of ,modern natural scienee. The foots of,* superficial attitutde of geniis Soviet scientists toward the evaluation of attainments of mataral sciences cannot be further tolerated, their Pesuliar philossOie *neutrality*, attempts to ignore the philosophically difficult problems of modern soleness 'Extensive experimental date frog the field of studies of the atomic *Isamu and p.133/ of. elementhl particles, Valuable physical results of the quantum theory and of theory of relativity, attainments of sybernetics, physics and chemistry in biological researches, adman,' ether probleis of seders natural science re* quire further deep studies and interpretatiems. A close co-speratian'of Maxim scientists, of the union of natarilista and of philosophers is needed for an effective work on the basis of principles of the Marx,Lenin theorp The All-Union Conference on itilosophio Problems of Satural Salience, which took place inane, at the end of October of the last year and *Whims called by the Academy of Science and the Ministry- of Nigher Education of attracted Over 00 of the most eminint specialists in the field of Aaiunl science and philosophy. Alton thenwereAcadsnicians and Correspond- ing ambers of the Aeademy'ot &dense of SEE16 academies of science of union republics and Of industrial academies, workers of scientifie-research in- stitutions.and *thither edueation establishments. Representatives of Bulgarian, Rumanian, Osman, Rungarien and Oseohoslevak scientists were present at the maetiegs'ae gusto.. Ihe problems of the Conference were foratlated in the introductory addres- ses of the President ?t the Amide:ow of Wows of UWE, Asadamisine A. W. Miensianov and the President of the organisational committee On the condustiti of the Conference, Asademioien X. Y. Ostrovitianeva. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Mr, 4KMMO. aw.svaa The Conforms' had as its aim the joining of ereative efforts of Soviet philosophers and naturalists for dielootio.caterialletie gemerali- satioa of ashievemeate of modernKmataral edema and raising of its theore- tical level in order to help the speediest solving of the meet important problems of tho mime. The following letterei were heard and diamonds by A/Monists*. Mit Mi. Min.- 'Materialism and lipirieer1ticism02ot V. I. Lenin the great sideineei Aceaseptelal/ weapon for the pereeption and reforming of the maid") 47 the Academician of the Academy of Selene* of the Unladen SSR. K. Z.Omel'ianev. skit . "V. I. Lenin and philosophical problems of modem Weise; by Dotter of Philosophical Sciemos, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Pedagegjeal Scions* of UMW, S. K. Wrens "About *omelettes of forms of movememt et matter in natures by AsedemielmeT. A. Pek *Abemt iaterpretatiest of quantum neshanicem; by the CorrespenWang Maher of the Mildew of faience of VIM A. Aleksandrov "Philosophic's' subjeotomatter and importance of the theory of reiativity, by Aeadatteiss S. L. SeheIrr and Professor A. A. Liapemow - "Cyberneties and materiel sciseee*$ by, AcedemisimalF. A. Ambartsumian 'Certain methodelogisel questions of oesmegegysi by Acsdamisimaly. gardt and Corresponding MeAbor of the Academy of Medial' 114011405 of WS; 0. K. Prank - 'About the race of physies and ehemistry in the lavestigatiot of biologisal preblemens by the AeademicismA. I. ?saris - "Problem of the origin oflife in the light of ashievements of modern matured seionoesi by the Corresponding Member of the Aeademy of Wane 11. 1. araskeicalcov 'Lenin's theory of MUGU** AtrasheniM/ and seders physiology of sense orgems"., As the work of the Conforease has shock the scooseses of median se- ? tura seisms are revealing the basis ideas of Mirs*Leminphilesephy, deeper and Lenore detail, aboat the material 'odd and the possibility of its hiller Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. s.4.221 perception. They inwritably lead the naturalists to the materialistic sco. elusion about the primacy of matter amd the seemed position of eenesiousness, about the a:totems* of objestive reality, whisk is reflected by commiousness. lamdmnsatal fasts about the struotare and properties of matter, which are discovered by modern natural seisms*, resolve proper philesophio interprets. tionenly in the dialectio-materialistie toughie& about the world as a regu- lar movement of natter in space and time. Data of modem natural solemn *confirm the idea of dialsetie materialism the mere slimly about thought being the function of the brain, about emissieusnoss as the property of natter. Owing to the newest matural &dense discoveries the ideas about the material *nit, of the world*, about the variability of all forms of matter and of its movement, about the immmastibility of matter in depth, about the objestive Character of laws of sham of the world are filled with a now 'petals meaning. There is nothing laths world besides the wring matter in its matiform expression. to this sonslasion nest come every mats:411st who is creating on earth &Memos* of plsoste and stars, the obtains in accelerators streams of partial's, *Joh are similar to oosmis rays, who is miring the problem of artifielal transmatatien of the inanimate to the living,* who transform, in the interest of nos the hereditary natere of plants and animals. Data of modern physies, monogamy and if other sciensos offer additional aromas for confirmation of the idea /Begin p.134/ of dialestie materialiem about the eternality, infinity and linitimanass of the weld. The ideas of dialectio materialism about universal continalty and de- velopment of the materiel world penetrate over draper into the seders natural solemn. Reciprocal transmutation of matter sad light, oonversions of ohemical Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) Trams. A-1021 ss teases, as well as of elementary partial*s of matter one into the other are a clear confirmation of the eniversal sentinel*, mad development of the material woad. Una describing the obarasteristies of objects of the miereworld, as it is even ackmeWledged by certain bourgeois oaten:lista, one unmet find any other lam/lege, than the language of dialestiss. The absolute and the relative in the theory of relativity, possibility and reality in the quotes swamies, internal regularities of the organism sad the enwiroameat, coatis- uses and interrupted, qualitatige and quantitative eonversions in biology, and se on ? these ere the estegeries of dialesties witheet which the mature. lists sunset de. *Dialeeties as al161m, menesided pereeptioa(witk an ever increasing weber of sides), with ? greet amber of shades a every approach, It approximatioa two reality (with a philesepbimial system growing into a ubele from sob Abode) - this is the immeasurably risk subject sitter(l) to which modern natural misuse gredmillyprnmeds. K. B. Nitta nentioned in his lecture that the present Costumes Goias sided in time with the gOth anniversary of the brilliant work of T. I. Lenin "Materialism and Inpirieeritisise. All the following develepment of natural misuse has mistimed the correctness of Lenin's dadaist/ems and. therein. K. M. Min emphasised that the greatness of Lean, consists in the fact that be knew how to reveal the objective meaning and the essentiality of revolution in soleness to give ea answer to prehleme whisk were right and to foretell ahead for along tine the weys of philesophie solving of problems of natural solemn. Ideas oft'. Linda are today also a groat wawa in 111 (I) T. I. Lenin. Philosophical notebooks. K., 1947, p.330. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-1021 thS struggle against idealism, metaphysics and revisionism,illuining by an =fading light the ways of knowledge and of resonstructien of the world.' 146 X.tnel'isnovikii also referred in his report the greatest leportance a the heritage of Lenin's philosophy for *darn physics. Ne has Oman that the development of phyaloto by Soviet and other progressive foreign scientists *accomplished with the fruitful influence of ideas of the dialectic - materialistio philosophy. The lecture elucidated the fOratiation of such problem by modern physics as the problems Of objective reality, Causality, correlation of sta. . tistical and dynamic regularities, and *there. Settieg,ferth Lenin's opinions =these questions and Showing their *earth* for Scientific philoiophie dip. 1 dnotione fron.the modern quantma theOry, the speaker disclosed the unecienti.\ tie opinions of various representatives of positiviim, which are harmful tlo the development of physics: K. MO Oliel'ianevakii has elphapised that feiltL' compel Oven the modern physicists idealists to take the .stand of astikhlinyll /elemental/ materia3ifoot and dialeetict when astaadluettinaz specific research.: . Nevertheless, many physicists, working under conditions of the capitalis? society, Where the idealistic verld oUtlook is predominant, trying to phiio., sophical4 comprehend their airg discoveries, undergo difficulties lathe facie of fundamental breaking of the customary ideas end representations. . In his appearance, A. Z. Zhmudskii, eh? pointed out that Lenin obegeni the liquidation of the crisis in physics', disputed the idea of the le0tUr4,', about the deepening of crisis of physics in eapitalistio countries. A. Z. Zhmudekii said that the overcooling of the crisis in physics io fecilitated p. by the piessnoe of the socialistic system and the Work Of communistic partiesi\ in propagandising dialectic materialism in various couhtsies, achievements of physics proper as a salmi% develepient of international scientific re ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (a) MIMS. ALU lotions, the dialeetle Character of the processes of metur. thSssslms Ukiah are examined brands= physics. Under modern conditions when in capitalistie gauntries use dialectic materialism is being spread, the ides !orisie in Phrrisile mast, certainly, be defined more accurately. auto at the same time, one *asset forget, smd Onellianovskii paid attention to it omits gernotly when anenerine to A. z, zioniaskii in the *losing address, that a considerable part of mitheat physicists of the world in the sharpening 'trestle between naterialima and idealise, in conneotion with the spreading of dialectic materialism in eapi? talistio ocuntries, /Begin p.135/ mein ow idealistie positions and irre- concilably persist in their tendency to disprove the deductions of dialectie materialism. ? O4 K. Xedrov in his lectere examised the problem sheet the relation ship of forms of the movement of natter in satire on the basis of data whit% ? were obtained by natural seisms, darLeg the last 60 years. NO has Shown that, as in the general case of movement there is a mode of existence or matter, se too inset& private VISO a strictly ;pedal) form of movement, appearing as a mods of existence of the give* farm of matter mmerrespomdm to s specific fors ot natter. Amide discussion developed also in commestion with the lee off!. A. Fok on philosophic questions of *ant= leeeheniee. As it is known, there are different:points of view among dieleetic materialists an these questions. V. A. wok, A. D. Aleksandrev end others think that lantana mechanics is a theory of a single microobjeot and reflects its potential possibilities under the given outer conditions. The followers of this outlook recognise on prineiple as impossible the gonstriotion of a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kY) 1T12311. dynamic) theory, on the basis of .shieh it would be possible lull:Oily to`fori? cast the movement of a single stioreobject. According to D. I. Slokkintsent. quint= mechanies is a :the of giant:at ensemble: the quanta statistical character is explained by ?the interaction of micreobjects with microscopic eniironment, 'arta the question about the constructzlon of a dynamic tbiory of . en individual idereobjest can be delved on the way of further developuent. ef theory and experiment. The third point of view, which is developed by the. French sCientiste de Broil and Vigier Assam; from the Possibility of constructien of a eo- , ordinated theory of a microobject,tad. eh, along with the Statistic deseriptiork, gives a unilateral definiteness of the denilact of .an individual microobjetots V. A. Fok in his lecture espediaLly emphasised these philosophical problem, arising .in corsieetien with the peculiarities of deseription of the finest objectsrof matter. lie pointed out the important role that is played, at such time, by Wan of potintial possibility and its realization as C reflection of dialectic categories of possibility and reality. During disease.= of the lecture in which D. Is Flokhintsev, Is. P. Terletakiii D. D. Wank?, T. A. Lobidevi Z. la. Hillman, V. V. PerfiVeii and others took part, it was Motioned that the Soviet scientiets are unani. moue in their naterialistic approach to the salving of. philosophic probleis of the quantal mechanics, that even certain of the bourgeois ecientista Port Born, *timber& and others) now withdraw from their positivist positions. Participants of the discussion paused on.qaestiens for the fornation Of I modern theory of elementary Perticlie. 1). 1. Ivanenko and Its P. /*riots/Kit characterized the inportanoe.of nonlinear theories during re. search of microprocesses. D. D. Xvenenko and 2. Is. Kalman toraised, as very .proadeing, an attempt of the Derain scientist Heisenberg to create a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (10) Trans. A-1021 single theory of the field * an opinion which found an objection on the part of V. A. Yok and D. I. Dlokhistestri V. A. Fork and D. I. Blokhintsev, from different positions, expressed their doubts in mannection with the prospects of further development of the quantum theory in direction of ideas of de D. I. Blekhintsev pointed out in his address, that at the present tine theoretical physics is general lack a rich creative phantasy. Physics has ao- cumulated IR the field of studies of the atomic nucleus and of elenentary particles a groat faetural material, which it was net yet possible to unify into an metier* system. A. D. Alekenedrem summod up some of the subjests of discussion on philosophic questions of the theory of relativity, whisk were conducted in both the natural soles** and the philosophies& literature daring the source of the latest deoadee, and on the basis of this tried to tlicidate the phi- losophic noenisg mad importance of the theory of relativity. The speaker anti... cued the extremely biased positives .4. unfounded dmaial of the theory of relativity, on the moo side, and a nochomioal acceptance, together with the positive *intents of its evident methodological flaws, on the other. The theory of relativity, said the lestarem, represents a physiohl theory of epees and time, a teaehing about ibselate spa's and time as ferns of the existent* of matter. The name itself *theory of relativity" seems to be un0 fartanate, and it should be changed to the name *hypothesis of the absolute wads, the principle of relativity ftsght p.134/ ascertaining the invariant proper* of the laws of nature, their similarity in respect to all inertial system, ascertains by the same tibia their irrelative character and is rather .a "principle of irrelativity", The speaker denied the lawfulness of the general theory of relativity as a saientifie theory. In his opinion, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Irani* APYWA.I. the general principle of relativity, shish assepte srawmopravnost," /equality of rights/ of inertial systems, - is impossible in general. The genera] theory of relativity, leach cones to the theory of gravitation, said he, remained as an extraneous layer, whioh ewers up the essenoe of the theory of relativity of A. Einstein. 116 F. Shirokov did net agree with the negation of the general theory of relativity and reducing it to the lama gravity. Such a mndh narrower formulation of one of the basis prineiples of the theory virtually means, in his opinion, a denial of the objective reality of fields of inertial forces and of physical effects produced by them. This treatment is step back, it returns se back to the Nevionien understanding of the inertial forces as unreal, fictitious. The geometrical explanation of gravitational forces loses its definite physical resents& shish is expressed in the well.knoin principle of local equivelesse of fields of gravitation and of inertial forum, amd6 naturally, loads to an **sortie* of the existemoo of a peculiar pre- eminent system of 'harmonious* 000rdinates against whisk *any scientist* objeeted quite correctly. V. I. Sviderskii, A. L. Zelomenov, A. A. Tispkin, and others also took part in the discussion of A. D. Aleksandrovls looters. The lecturers and those addressing the meeting, have Owen that the theory of relativity, 'shish is considered as a physical theory of space and time came close to the idess of dialectic materialimm about spas* and time *a objective forms of the existense of matte% about the eentinnity of matter, movement, space and time. Examining tbe qualitative differenees in the structure of cosmic systems of different order, V. A. Ambartsumian has presented new facts, "shish dispute the ideas about the similarity of the universe. Mese ideas Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Trans A01074, are placed as the basis of certain tozu cossogenis theories, which are utilised by the idealists for tid.istis deduetions, lbe speaker and those taking part in disoussions, G. I. Mean A. L. Zolimanov, *Mothers pointed outthatmsdern astrophysics, as a whole, confirms the materialistic) theses about infinite variety of ausifestatien of the deep properties *flutter, that the materialistio point of view *engem* in seleatific comiogopy. A lively *selling. of *plains was caused by the leoture of 5. L, SObolev and A. A. Liapunov oboist the position of cybernetles inmodemns. tural educe Criticising the statement that eyberreitos is a pee*ds.idsasi, the speakers brought to the fore the preelical aide of this new setinse, the birth of which, in their *pinion, promises to humanity prospeste that are, probably, not less important than the discovery ?flatbeds for obtaining intrasselear Onargr. Airing the Osaforsmss (is partisalar is the addresses of G. IN Mikellehii, F. K. Anokhin, 0. V. Platomov) doubts core expressed in oonnection with the possibility with the aid of cyberneties te solve the problems of heredity, hireetod evolution, end so on. Iaportant problems free the point of view at natural oases* *Ad dic* lectio materialistio philosophy were elusideted in the looter* of V. A. Engellogerdt and 0. A4 Frank. lbe others of the lecture elreseed* that re- ferring to data of masers science, notwithstandteg the qualitative dir. femme between the living and the insatiate, the physical and ehemloal methods are quite applisahle whet studying the living. Seder* natural solosse, *long with concretisation of the qualitative ohmmeter of the living and the inaniaate, dissevers ever more fasts *bout their comeonvreperiles 4214 re gularities, thus confirming and deepening the idea of dialectic materialise about the material unity of the world, *beat the interrelation *thrum of movement of matter. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ta3) Trani' 114016/4. Participant. in the discussion (V. L. B(yshkov and ethers) joining the lecturers, emphasised,_that,ithderstanding of the essence of life processes at the present time. is impessible without takinh into consideration data of nuclear physics and technique, at .well as without 00 attainments of electronic Apparatus construction and Cybernetics. Varioas.teachinge about inoomOrs- hertsibility of life processes were decidedly refuted both in the lecture and - the addresees. /Begin:p./3V Sisakian oaid that "absolutisataiien /absolutisel of the character alit., exaggerated references to the character of biolOgy sometimes hinder the application of physics and ChemiatryaS important means for the penetra. -tion into the essence of biological phenomena. lbe Bulgarian scientist, I. Panche*, showed the fruitfulness of physico- chemical methods for the examination of living processes en the lowest (cell) levels. Oreat interest was evoked by questions raised in the lecture. of A. I. Oparin. If yet .quits recently the problem of the origin of lit, was almost never elucidated in the world's natural history literature, then at the present time groatattettion of wide circles of naturaliste has been attracted to it. Moreover it in thought to be generally accepted that this problem can be solved only in the light of studies of that gradual develepment of matter, Which .preceded the appearance elite =earth. A. I. Oparin, on the basis of data of biochemistrys'citicised the idea about primary origination of the "living factorial molecule" and emphasised, that multimOlecular systems, inter,. actin with the environment(opon systems) were the ()Annals for the emergence of Ws. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (3.4) Trani. A-1021 The speaker touched upon certain problems of historic materialise. Criticizing the unscientific astating by bourgeois scientists of the problem of .development of man only in the biological upset, A. I. Oparin stressed that the wide high road of human progress proceeds net through the biological development of an individual humanpersonalith but through perfecting of man's social life, through social progress. .In his report 1. I. Graihehenkov cited forcible arguments for the refutation of the statement of the adherents of idealistic philosophy in natural science about the fact thatthe'vereatility and polychroey of the external world, of objects, existing outside of our consciousness, ea though depend on our sense organs, and this world is created by these organs and their specific properties (seeing, hearing,. smelling and sensations). The speaker domonetrated charis, which shaved, that. development itself of senso organs, both of'the'lovent and highest organisms, is donnected to the effect of the external world of Many qualities on the organism and on the tense organs. the sense Organs are farmed in accordance with the quali- ties of the external world, they perceive it adequately and reflect. These facts and their generalieation, en the basis of the theory of development and dialectic - materialistic examination of the interaction of the organism and the environment confirm the utter rightness of Lenin's theory of rolled-. tion/otrasheniel. ? N. I. arsthchenkov also showed the role of the reflex theory and teaching of I. P. Pavlov about physiology of the higher nerve activity, which lies at the basis of interaction of the organise and the environment with the aid of sense organs or analyser.. Iu. /". Frolov, V. N. KolbaDavskii and others spoke about other problems in connection with discussions of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (14) Trans. A-10iCL report. 8. L. Ruldnehtain raised a queetien about 241?11111111, that are necesstry.for increasing Scientific-research works in the field of psychology aid elucidated its prinoipal purposes and *eye Of development., ?? then closing the ?ConfSrentet P4 11. Iredenevo eerrespending Ifesber of , the Academy of Sciones of USSR, empasised its great POOdti111 iliOrtit2100 tar ? increasing the theoretical level of researeth Of philseophic problems of modern natural science. So, Lit philosopherd_ant nateratiste hieve shone cinaiderable creative activity in the precise of preparation end conducting of the Oonft - :wince. Debatable *tuitions mare solved on prlaciples in friendly .die- , crassions, on the basis of Analysis of theoretical ideas and faotual data of . . suience. Participants in the efillfillritiel have rightly criticised as mist- ceptable the ustheds for diesussion of theoretical problems; such as are 'practised by the editorial office of the "Botauisal Joirnal".. Results of the Conference were discussed on shialkaly ts 155P at a joint nesting of the Presidium of the ASademy of Bciensis of US$R and the Board of the Ministry of Nigher Zdesation in USSR. As it me pointed out at the meeting, the condestett Conforense nitted the Soviet soientists to eschauge opinions on a leng-rangs of tpostionst to share with one another the resat* of their reeearch. It will kelp a ? farther rallying of all scientists to positions of dialectic naterialiem, a new ,development if all the fields of sciences in the struggle- against the ideo- ley of imperialiss,' ageinst the modern philosophic zsvisiontas. /Begin p.138/ Presidium of the Academy of Science at USSR and the bard of ligher Educe. tion of MA planned ease measures for the raising Of development of philoso- phical probleas of modern natural science and =pressed confidence that Soviet naturaliet-ssientiste and philosophers will attain new creative soccesses in solving the probleas ehish, were set before the .ecienei in the ? theses of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (16) Trans. A-1021 report af N. So Khrushahey at the 21st Coureationof Jommunlet Party of the.f:;.)vist 121tion. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (In f*11) vg/K Afriliss4 Z. X., and Xudheeva, A. . Primmeste antiblotikov v restenievoistwe. /Applioation of antibiotics in plant growing/ Akad. Rau SEAR.Vestnik, vol. 29, no. 1. p.142-143. Jan. 1959. 511 AkIlif. (In Russian) A Conference on the Application of Antibiotics in Plant Crowing took place October 8 to 13, 1958, in the city of Rrivans it was called by the Institute of Microbiology of the Academy if &dense of USSR, by the All-Union Institute of Agricultural Microbiology 'ARUM /All-Vilon Academy of Agri- 111 ohlturel Sciences inemilF. X. Lemin/ and the Rester of Microbiology of the lesimey of &domes of the Armenian UR. &dentists, she are specialists studying antibiotics sabstanoes and their applieation in various fields of national eoonomy took part in the work of the Confewemse, the purpose of wadi was to systematise the acconlatednaterial and to develop more effective methods for utilisation of antibiotics in plant growing. The Conference was opened by the President of the Asmdemy of Ramo if the Armenian MR, If. A. Anbartsumbei. I. AA Xrasilsnikov made a report on the present state of the problem. It was established that soil sioroorgeniams, in the prosess of their active life, produce different bielegisally active substances (vitamins, imams, onsymes,toxins, antibiotics and others) which are assidlated ti the root system of plants and are distributed in them, predicting one or another effect. 411 It is possible to influent)* the growth, develeponnt and the yielding oapaoi ty /CZ? Lot plants by stuAyingaimiregulating these processes. It was proved that of microbes can produee medicinal, prophylactic, toxin, stimu lating Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 metabolites It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tit) ? True. 1,...J.OZZ and other offsets on the higher plants. K. 1h. Challakhion 'gave interesting information ibeht miciobe meta - balite*, Math 'Mallets the development of higher plants. Hie experiment) with the ffeet of gibberellin* (obtained from rheltriele fungi and other microm. organisms) on plants have shaft that one can prodzoelernslization and calsu. lation of blooming. Of plants with the aid of these eabstanoes. ? 16 N. Pidoplichke-repOrted Oast theacaMyyears-of work of 'Ukrainian myselogiste in studying the soil fungi flora and its tee'for-tho control Of disease, of *grit:cultural plants. ii `series of leetwros (elf. I. Bilai, -11.116 Msskovets, 'and others) use -given Over to the utilisation of Triebo- . 'demi Ong** for the central of diCeases Of cotton, potatoes and some other agrieelturs1 crops. ..Encouraging data were Obteined when utilising Cultures ofsetinomy. cete.sntaganiste for the control of various pbyteplathogenio diseases of plants. ? P. 0. Niisibekisn reported about the isolation of aitinompetes cultures, , , whiCh prod** active amtibiotice with respect to the pathogen* Of potato canker and. dry-rot of,00rn4 Individual cultures of actinompete-antapniste mere panel:fall utilized for the control of ringret of potatoes (11.*Orynbsev) and slier basteriosis of cabbage (T. K. Naluninm). AU& effectiveness of preparations fro* cultures of totinosiyottes was discovered for preventing cotton from wilting (06 K. tublanovskaie). Certain bacteria were successfully . used for the contra of disease, of vegetable *rope (v.0. Tummies', 16 I. ? Mirth:L=4'14, A. Bobikien), aiweli-as for vertioilliurn -wilt of potatoes ? (16 T. 1ikitins). Ovid result* were obtained from the use of epiphytio mlarollora for the comtrol of certain fug)* diseases of plants (In. K. Vosniakovskaia, 06 0. Shirokov, A.16 Milbandian). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01.426R010400020001-7 (3) Trans. A*1022 A group of lectures was given oirer to obtaining and use ,of new anti-. biotic preparations. 17. 4. Trakhtenberg, E. K. liedionerrakaia, etary- gins, V. 0. Okiettion, and others reported about results of studies -of phytebaoteriemycin and its application, as well as of other antibiotics for the control of gesmoSis of cotton.. and bean blight. A dories' of preparations of antibiotics was *n0?68.0117 tested.as a disinfectant of tomatovtieeds for _the control of baoteriel calcite! (R..;)1. aalachien) and for the .oentrcl of tisesses of orainientia ,flowers (S. P. Proticenko, A.. 0. /12(11101112 8. A. Chelyshkina). E. Ka. liashha and K. I. lelltiskova spoke about work on studying ? plant antibiotic Harenctrino, which was twitted fro* lacertelle and which is successfully used for proplanting treatment of Amiedd. and for spraying of pleat* in ordar fir increase their protect:I:city and: forthe dontrol of bac. , terial diseases, a well as about certain 'synthetie antibiotic*, 'which prcricni to be eniativo for the .centrol of diseases of vegetable craps. 2...Z. Bekker, A. B. &ilasw and .others reported about obtaining preparations Of griteofulvii Ind trishothecin end about their effect on fungi, pathogens of such .diseases as cabbage anbury cluhroet, /ken p.143/ wheat smut (I? tritled), anthracnose of watermelon, and others. The lecture of A. 04 tachaswa was given over to a new *field of anti- biotic application; she reported tbout resulte of research with antiblOtice which are cietiwe against grimy moth - a haratel pest of forest plants. Anti, biotic subetaneea were found, which cause death of ,fron 35 to 100% of cater- , ? pillars of the gypsy meth en the third day of their development (a preparation, obtained Iron Act. wielacous 719). . At the Conference works on general and nethodical question* of use of antibiotics in plant growing were widely represented. In particular, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . t4/ ITUDa* JkiNIAMit special ettaution was dram to the studies of the appeaiance of relistance . ? to antibiotics obtained from fern of phytopathogeniO baoteria (V. P. ? . figraniaidis L D. Daiwa, 11. gelikevaktia). ? In this eenneOtion ?'amenity was stressed for Using simultaneously several effective antibiotics in order to utilize then more succeisfolly for the control of certain plant dimmest.. possibility of formation; of satibiotie substances by 'micro- Organisms directly:in the soil was established end resniitt has been con- dusted on their detection, .tecumulation and prseertation, as well as on the absorption. by soils of 'various sntibiotio preparations introdueed fro out. ? side. .LA wide distribution of tincio strains ?Of nicroorganialts in :the soil has- been disclosed as well la the ateaftlation of preduats of their netebolin. ?The cited oircuitstanoe smite to suppose direct participation of them mieroorganisas in the doings of soil diataoteristitts, in formation of microbe 11161204111111 end as a result of these processes their influence on the develop. ? ? want et higher plants. At the Conference reports were presented also en application of now methods when worldng with antibiotics An plant growing' in partieulaz. there was described a fast Method of detersinstion of the oharatter of the effect of antibiotics on plants based en the growth of coleoptiles Of *Cat at certain concentrations of substances (M. A. Vinegradova and 11. 5. Ape). Mentioning the priority of Soviet 'dentist in the development of principles of utilisation of aerobe antagonism and of intibietiet in latent growing, the Conference stated, the insufficient development of works in our country in this field, their lagging behind the reel reguironents of the -vigorously developing agriculture. the Conference recognised the teed to organise industrial production of antibiotics and of microbe preparations, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (5) Trans. A-1022 whisk proved to be effective for the seatrol of eertain plant diseases (phytobasteriomycin, griseatulvin, triebedermin, preparations no. 150, 125 and others), in order to widely istroduo, than into the practice of agrierlture. It is especiatiy important to more quickly organise experimental workshops at the existing factories of bacterial preparations, and later on !ea- teries of a simplified type for prochicing antibiotics against the specially injurious plant diseases. Us Oanfereses pointed to the extrema.," poor technical equipment of laboratories, which are warted in stedyiag and uti- lising antibiotics in pleat growing, and resegniseds as timely, the organt. edition of special experimental installations for obtaining antibiotics and mderebe preparations. 24001.1 attention of the Conferees* was paid to the necessity of increasing and developmeat of plants of mierobe origin (of the typo of gibberellin and others), as well as isonducting vide search for producers of these substamees among the various groups of mieroorgenimes. The necessity of coordination of seiontifie-researeh establishments lathe week of studies of antibiotics and of ether attabolitos amicroorganisms in plant growing was streamed in the resolatiess of the Contemns., as well as the necessity to call periodic sonfereases on the problem wader consideration. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 , "rano* 11.1?ILVIC, (Zs full) vg/A Svetavidov# A. N 0 pedgotwoke neuehnyhh kadrev vZoologiohaskon Institute Chadonli Milk SUR. /Training of selentifie staffs at the Zoological Institute of the Academy ot Soleness NSW. Akadenii *ask 8551. Irrestiia. Sera* Sielogi- ohesksia, vol. 24, no. 1# p.155-158. Jan./Feb. 1959. 511 Sea. (In Russian) Daring the Great Patriotie War, the Zeelogisal ins titnW lest snOY specialists at the trent sod in besieged Leningrad. The Institute vas fated with the diffirat problen of :lapwing these losses, which it proceeded to do ilready in vex tine. The basis grrap ef its where gathered in Stalinabad to which the Institete had tem evacuated. The first aspirants were enlisted in 19424943. In the years 1944.1945, when the Institute timed it possible to secure a considerable member 0 vacancies, the number of aspirants inereased several time, (fig. 1). Dalai these years, eepecialky in. 1945# mar pre-desteral students wars taken en immediately attar the war. In subsequent years acceptances of aspirant, and pre.doeteral stadents de *roused semewhat# bat the nneber of those vorking at the Institute continued to be large as a result ef the aceeptemoes in the precediag mire. Many aspirants have been aceepted sines 1950; pre-doctoral students were not inor0000d Prior to 1,53. Daring 1954-1955, the noiher of prs..doctoral students increased somewhat. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? ."1111.41 Fig. 1. limber of aspirants and pre?deettral students Won ea between MO and 1,57. /Maternally lined symbol . Aspirants/ Anisa-hattlied syabel - pre-doeteral students/ leseattilly interesting is tho distribution of aspirants and pre. &sterol student* emoording to the different specialties (Fig. 2). In the postwar years, espeeially hotness 1950 audit% the largest number of speeialista las alleested to vertebrates; /this somber/ included also lehthyologists who had a preponderates rim ether *pastelists lathe fol- lowing years as wall. &Mumma" ith% sad nn these ssegiulists owleriAssd 324%. Commiderdhly suallwr Ces ike average MU), yet larger thaa in ether eposialtios, was the marbor et bpdsiblelogints sposielising in a series of groups of &patio amluals eareilod as aspirants and pai-dectoral *toasts. Memerleally, third to tetrth plate, is hell by aspirants and pre-desteral students of entemelogy (avenge for the sums years OA%) sad Perusitibloar (1740. It sheald be meted elth satisfaction that in the past 54 years the number of aspirants aid pre.decteril students of amtemelsgy has increased seasIderabiy. This 16 important bemuses the ZoOlegiesi Institate has ox. perioneed the greatest shortage in specialists, if eatmelogy whose group had seetaimed the greatest lessee daring the war. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 4WM0111411 As the member of aspirants ani pre.doeteral stadents ineressed, se did, natally, the number of disaertations Adefended in the iciemtifie Council of the Zoological In. a preponderant majority of these dig- eertatione ware presented by persons mho had completed graduate study programs. This did not way conflate the training of aspirants emd pre.. doctoral students, but the Institute contributed also toward the raising of the qualifications of its ewe fellow workers as well as of outside specialists 'he did not undertake formal graduate studyprogreas. /Begin p.156/. The nemberof dissertations &Zoned by outside specialists was invariably large (fig. 3). The member of candidate's amd doctoral dissertations in.. erased sharply in the very first postwar ave.-yew plan, as compared with the war and prewar years. In the f011owimg five years the nadar of defended 411 candidate's dissertations increased even mere. Pm: 2 Pa iii111. .1, 1 ,11111,1.-11,1111..A1,1111 Pig. 2. Distributimg of aspireate and pre-dostoral stedsats aolording to specialty (in %) Apia a. - Antemelogy &peg a. Parasite.logy Symbol e. Hydrobiology Symbol d. - Zoology of vertebrates Most dissertations (fig. 4), especially in the prewar and postwar five- year plans, were devoted to vertebrates, including ichthyology. The total 111 comber of dissertatioa on this group of animals defended in the last 20 years Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 to) =Aux* 441Nim6, oompriessapproxinataly one third of all dissertations. 'tioneWhat fewer .,sertations for the total number of years were on entomology, because the 44,0 bsmber of these,diesertations was defended only in the last two yeArs. Third place for 20 years was held by diesertatioas defended.in ;hydrobiology, in the stain, on various groUps of aquatic animals, in the last.instance - on parasitology. It is rather interestimg to note that there was no essential dig-, formes in the ,unber of .ten and women enrolled as aspirants (fig. 5) in the postwar years (50 Ma vid 46 mean). As farts pro-doetera/ students an; Conserned, there was a.tharp preponderance of nen (33 and .5). Men who defindod iheir deUtoral dissertations were approxlmately,SPst as many times more /than wens*/ (44 and There were else pore ion among candidates with.dissertations (lob nen and 45 women), but /the percentage/ was cow. sideiaily less ,than between these mho defended dos towel dissertations (fig. 6). The we* Conducted by spesielists of the Zoological Institite with Aspirants and pre-docteral students made it possible to prepare. a large number.of scientific workers (beginners as well as these with higher . Tiall4esti(ins) of those who had oempleted their experience as resident doctors. 'Thieves made possible to a large extent by training and defence of dip.. sertations by workers of.** Institute as veil as by those of other scientific estibliahments,whe had not undertaken fOrnal aspirant's and pre.doctoral /Studies/. The Zoological Institute trained specialists net only for further' , . work on its premises, but also for other scientific establishments. Not all of thee* who bad completed. their aspirentit work were retained at the Institute, bowies a group of then, preponderantly pre-doetoral stadents, were temporarily attached only for preparation .1 dissertations and, after the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 i5) Trois. A4.023 sitedoste had defended Imp thor returned le *hair ova establishments. Mare, it seethe noted that the soloctissi it *Spirant* vas garlic& mit Mt only by anmovmsamemt of aoesptenes and sobsolosat eeppetition. A eansiderable portion of then vas aseigned b usrtahn their *spinets work vpon re- semonadatioR of heads et faselties ef higher scientific institutions, pri- marily of the lonaingrod5aitersity, vhile tssr still had the atmtme of a stadmak. These stadents took part is expodiiiams avenged by the Zoologisal Iastitate en vhia their sillability Sir ashlostive esiontifie week vas determined Aegis p.157/I they ammoplialed their verk for a degree with materiel sollscied en the expeditions. Vim agreement with the heads of feealties, they, in addittma to the above, rewired training vith a viev to agairing knowledge meedod far their Mom apasiatty. Thus, la partieelar, were trained ssientifio worker, for a series of Widest specialties that had bees mem-emisteat attho Zeolite% herstoibro. fig. 3. Luber of eandidatess and destoral dissertations defoaded looloses 1335-1954. /Top linsh (Orese-hatehed imminer of amoristlow dotovied by ateide specialists) SOMA a. - **al dissertations defended Symbol U. . Oandidatost *Abel o. Deets's, Awarded vithout defense of a dissertation at the time degrees ad titlama Imre ? introdseed siand 190?1940/0 , // Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (6) %W. &at) Pig. ii.Distribstion at detailed lioarrtatioar awarding 11* allmeinity (in %). area s? - Satan*law ?V* ? taresitalagy ? Symbol a. 1104robialegor distal d? tobeisity f vertabratas lanbor no and reels adpiranto *at pra-darteral aalla batmen 1044$7? Pro-dastioral eindesta Symbol a? - nen Symbol b? moo DitIPS? Aspirants Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (7) Trans. A-102) Fig. 4. Sambr of men avid vemenehe defended candidates' and dosteral dissertatione between 19)5.1,0. Symbol ir#101 bootees TOO'S. Candidate, As asesult of this varied approseh to tlt training of psrsrnl, tne Zeologisal lnstitst* vas ahle in a oemparatirely brief time not only to plum the losses of its specialists, but even to increase the staff of workers ss emnparlmivith prover time (fix. 7). Sere, it most be emphasised that the, majority of the nev corkers finished their training sad resolved their degrees at the Zoological Imstitate and that only a few had oeme from ether scientific estahliehnonts. It is esposia14 important to note that the number of seientifis corkers performing the function,' of entomologists eke in prewar tins were inraffleisat Aegis* p.1$8/ ands as indloated above, sustained especial4 great losses during the car years' has increased oon. ? as siderahly. At prosent,itiat the rearm?, specialists in matemelea at the Zoological Institute have numerieally become the largest /group/ as compared Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans. A-1023 ? with other speoialists. It mast be noted that there is a need for these specialists because of the large number of insects, the inadequate knowledge of than and the inportanos of their practical and scientific upset. There have appeared speeislists on seals insists and ooceidis, on. series of beetle groups, on hymenoptera, diptera and on others that: had been absent from LOIAIINIJAMs in) the Institute earlier. The numberlf the fellowship of hydrobielogists that in prewar time was unpropertionally large as (tempered with that of other specialists has increased only a little and they numericallynewhold second place. It is essential to note that among them now are specialists an some groups of animals (dendrooeratida Poratidae deep-sea podiculate fishes!, hydroids, sea mollusks) who were not there in prewar time. The number of 411 specialists on vertebrates has green oonsiderably, but in proportion with the growth and number of the colleagues in ether specialties in the years 191? end 1940. ilte number of parasitologists has increased in approximatelY the some proportion as compared with prewar years, and here, too, specialists len trained for groups that had net been developed earlier (lower ticks brimitesh lies, gadfLies sto.). In the postwar years, there appeared at the Institute specialists on protases that had never been investigated at the Institute earlier. Finally, in 1948, specialists on comparative anatomy (laboratory of load. I. I. Shmallgausen) were added to the staff of the Insti- tute. Theft number increased in 1957 when part of the wafters of the Usti.. tut, in. Leggett was added to the staff of the loologioal Institute. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (9) Trans. A-1023 bb b la ? Jill Pi111 ?.1 A. a PLC. 1. Distribetion et soismetifte workers essordiag tor spestelir Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 ?1111111? Arnitia 1111) airsabeldsa, R. O. Antibletitheelds "snitcher** aktinemiteetnop proiskaoshdeniia pretiv fitepategemnykh organignev. jAatibiotio subetwees of an astimarriste origin against phytepathogenis microorganisms/. Akadenii la* SUR. Sortie Rielogieheskala, vol. eh, as. 1, p.103-110. Jan./lob. 1959. 511 WS. (In Itioslas) At present a great deal .of experimental material found in literature *en- firms a series of advantages of antibiotic substanses of isieroorganiams over ? shemieal preparations: fungicides sad bacterioeides. ? assemplisbad in the past 7 to 10 yaws In ow errantry gad abroad loaves In doubt that microbe antagonists and antibiotic substances rill from year to year be used mere isidely as disintgetents, in ea prophylaxis and tagairmeat of vegetative plants sad also in the deeontanination of nlla frock some soil infections. The problem of the given clerk is to develop biological methods of con- trgl of tea pathogenic fungi that are objects of external and internal quarantine - Urneb7tritse Onliebiotium (Sahilb.) aore?? thfs causal agents of potato mart, and 8/plea& xe (Behr.) Lev., the ousel agent of diplodia in main. It ant be noted that the causal agents of the, indicated diseases which re study vary distinstly /fres each other/ as to their biology. One of ? them - the eausal sprat of potato wart, S. andoloietioms - is an obligate Institut Oemetlit Akadmaii iku)c (SIR /Institute of genetics, Asadeny of Soigne** USSR/. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 tli 1110111. JAVa4 parasite other fungus, D. se a facultative parasite Mato wart is every harmful disease. The methods used at, sent to eredioate the fool of potato wart by means of ehemisals are very impassive end require speeial moor ausnires whonwork is oarried cat with extremely Poioesces sebstanses, eueh as ehleropicria and simile sada. Sense, seienti- fie-researeh erganisations are searching formers readily available aid more offoottre measures leggiest this disease. The use of the cater** of microbe entagemists fres the ao inompete group mad their antibiotic slistemoes against the'Atausal agent of potato wort *salt be endh &method. ? As meationed above, the fongu S. endobioticum, causal agent of potato ea" is am obligate parasite that des; mot grow on artificial culture media. This eirommetenee makes working with it difficilt. the laboratory methods used le the selection et *aerobe antagonists are saffisiently developed with regard to phylepalbegenis fasetative parasites. it these lathed. samnot be used in loofa with obligate parasitesopartisularly with the causal spots of Potato wart. The method *lob we developed involving contact of dormant hookeiashehikkelei seespermagia of the fmagus S. emdebiettree with the cultures if aolimseyeetes undergoing tests proved the most suitable and eenvemiest for the gime object. A detailed deseripti= of the method used and the results of the work will be found in our artiele (Mirsebekian and Units/ma. 1956). This method will make it possible to observe cheeps oceurrtag in the protoplasmic, cadent of the sporangia directly underlie micreseepe. fsegiap.104/ of diplidia in melee - is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 *Kamm* PlumVros4 It mast be noted that all the .tX belong to the actinesretos pipient gr *tosses in these cultures was also obe selected from the antalosists The probes* of antibiotic sib- egaisst a series of easssl agents of plant diseases (bestirs and foul) fued On Stoehrlimecous *urns M. The pipassts *oersted by 110111101117004011 into the medium played an especially Leper- teat role in - selection. Sy coloring the deformed protoplassicf ?: content of spereagia, thy prednood the possibility of observing pathologioal (*kenos end of establishing the secheniam St elation exerted by entibiotio substmess upon !vague sporangia. lisperiments described literature (01inso. 1926). /doom ted/ how the author had bees usable to estahlish the posetraties of salons generally recognised in syselogi. foal poetise, through a solid medniute (the Watts layer) inside the sporangia of the Amos 5. endebietioum. 4 oeenterbslasoe the exporimeste sonduetod by the indieated author id.th oftvontional dyes that failed to prostrate isei.ds the sporangia, woo for the first time, established that there warred a free titivates- et pigments (blue and red) of a bias. gioal origin that oolored selectively only the interval protoplasmici vastest of the sporangia of S. andoblotioma and left the itioadiarase uncolored. In * sicrosoopio study of the sporangia of S. ondobiotieus the intersal content of which was colored the color of either oss or another astinoweeta ? piptent strain, no observed various always of deformities is their proto- plasm. Muss plameolysis and coagulation wore observed. Daring ooagulation the entire protoplaam was eamocestrated is most eases is the center of the sporangium in the form of oar eoasslate deprived of it grs4dnau. there were *wanes with vanalos the ooagulated oeStent of *Loh of appeared is the formAindividkuilly soatterred small clots sad coagulates. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 kn) Trans. Ap.,K114 1 observed also la spGringta fowl in die the tissue of ft.sh o tgrowths, except in theme the penetratien and adoring occurred later. During the contact of sporangia with the otinemyseto eul- tare 7111imere emoir sporangia . a membrane without a ***tent - got into the preparations. This is an interestiag phoneme-ems the latibietie substamees et this strains bablb stimelsite the exit of sowers* fres the ilswalStas or the Internal content loses its graininess ender their inflreaoes as if it 'ere resolving. ? In preparations nada tree ccstroi. vantabts nearly unehenged - with a normal graininess. When sporangia mith a adored cugoiatsd or plasulyted intermel son- tent mere placed into a drop of waters plammelysis did not oe er which, at. cording to data by I. A. Doreshin and $.Y. Goriest* (1951) and other authors, serves as triunes, of their inabilitcf to survive. We, however, sons/der that the biological method permits solving conollsively the problem of the reciprosal relatione between the above indicated sporangial changes and their viability. In Order to obtain esti,. antibiotic substances against the indiested fungus the *sleeted astinemyeete antagonistic strains /Os 103s 1314 167 and 711 were cultivated on different nutrient media: mistrals *roots and natural. Dering the eultivetion special attention was paid to the intensity of pipes% secretion during the process of the growth and develop- ment of the prooroants. Obeervatione halve demonstrated that pigaints sere seereted mere inter sively on potato slices. On sone culture media pimento were not secreted at all. The potato slices were colored throughout in the color of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 . *Keay* 4mp...46v41 preermultte pigment. An intensive phenomenon served in taro of strain 711. In the ours, of 20-25 day* the small pious were grednallyliquatied Ws a thigh1 transparemt liquid of * derk.hrown *color imam with * greenish - yellow hue la a thin layer. the unliquefied portion of the slices remained in the liquid in the form of viscose, moue coagulants of a dark-broma oiler. The antibiotic activity of the ciltural liquid of this strain against St agrees was very bit* reashing up to 60 thousand units per al. The aatibiotic mahatma's were resistant to light and possessed thernestabilitys they do net loss their antimicrobial aotivity even after undergoing auto- clave at 1 atm for 10 minalles. In this Case the antitsetsrial notivitg de- creases somewhat, but the entifusgal activity is tally retained. In deter- mining the antibiotic astivity of the cultures against the sporangia of the S. endobietieum fungus in slices out fro* tissues of fresh outgrowths, as well as in dormant sporangia (in easpemded drops), the best results ware obtained !scathe actinenycete strains of 70, 103 and 711 grams an potato slim and pigmented distimetly the color speelfie of tie prooreants, pig- ments. After the aetivity of the antibiotie substanees of the indicated astinemysete strains grow on potato Upeesha4 bees tested under laboratory conditions, it was tested Also/ by the biological method, i.e. in vegetative experimeate. Wirt infection is transmitted through the soil when potato tabors are planted. A mass exit of soesperes from the dormant sporangia in the soil begins ehen conditions are favorable (moisture, tempereture); when the zoospores get into young petite shoots, they penetrate inside of them, nmltiply and fern outgrowths. In potting up vegetative experiments an ap- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 IV;?MOW 44440-411 propriate filler (component) vu selected for the purpose at preserving the activity of antibiotic substances for an extended tine after they had been introduced into the soil. liso mixture of this tiller with the actinemw- oeto culture we named provisionally a moompost". The saperiasats verso set up in soil artifielally imoulated with winter sporangia of the S. endiesietisum fungal; at the rate of 293-300 opera:mem per pa of soil. the suseeptible po- tato variety Vale vu used in the aimporiasato. Composts were introduced into the soil tg, various methods. 11;xperiments were essehketed also in pre- seeding treatment of tubers with antibiotic sustamees whisk we obtained and with standard antibiotio preparations - penicillin, stZsptiein, trio- Wein and plumbs with lb astivity of 1000 mite per ml. The best resets were obtained *en composts were introdued into the simataneously with the tebere at the time of planting. The revolts of this experiment have demonstrated that with eau duress* in the member of sporangia is the soli, i.e. after the exit of suspense teen the sporangia, total infection in controls oomprised 9744 of this incidence 82.8% ume du to infection eourriag at an oarkiate, while in variant, that had been /planted/ with *imposts the. infection per. outage mu reduced to 16-25. In addition, the experiments disclosed late Wootton. It is obvious from the above that siren introduing into the hills eon- pests enriched with the antibiotic substances of the actinceyeete caters" indleated above, the percentage of wart infection had sharply decrease. This can be explained by the facts 1) that a protective RAO ? a barrier against the foetal agent of potato wart, the fungus 11. endebistioes - is created, when compost' rieh in antibletie substances are introdused /into the hills/. As Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved ForRelease2013/09/24 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 til &roam. mm.mpuf As soosporea leave the sporangia they get onto the compost sone before they cope in contact with the young shoots of tUbers and most of them perish from the antibiotic action of the compost; 2) apart fro& the above, a portion of the sporangia may, prior to the exit of the zoospores, lose their?viabi- lity under the influence of antibiotic substances if they oome in contest with them. Late infection of potatoes by wart observed in our experiments coincide with the inaotivation of the antibiotic substances of the compost in the soil. In &terming the duration of the activity of the antibiotie substances within the oompost after it had been introduced into the soil, it was established that their activity lasts from 30 to 45 days, whish coincides with the duration of the infection. This phenomenon indicates a correlative relationship between the time (late) of potato infeetion with wart and the retention of antibiotic activity of composts after they have been introduced into the soil. In resent years, work conducted by a numbere Soviet and foreignin- vsstigators has demonstrated /Hokin p.106/ that in the presence of energetis substances in the soil, antagonist, secrete hydelisiut/ antibiotic sub- stances in the soil. These substances are capable of preserving themselves in the soil; the duration of their preservation depends on the properties of the antibiotics themselves and on the character of the soil (Oottlieb and Siminoff, 1952; Greenbelt /or (hoesbarb/, 1953; Stevenson, Lochhead, 1953; Xrasilenikov, 1954; Umiak*, Artamonova and Letuneva, 1955). We *sums that the penetration of antibietio substances into potato shoots and tubers plays a rather important role. we established in experi- ments in preseeding treatment and in the introduction of compost into potato hills that some antibiotic substances penetrated inside the tubers and retained Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/24: CIA:RDP80R01426R010400020001-7 (8) Trans.' A,-10214. their activity. In digging Up the tubers (vegetative experiments) it wee found that 'the maternal: tubers batochnye klubni/ had the coloring of the ectinoi.: mycete procriantel pigments, Aich evideneed the penetration of the pigment Complex inside the tubers. It is possible that thleartificially in:reties the resistance of tuber, to wart infection aid (treeto