JOURNAL (BOTANICHESKIL ZHURNAL) AND SOME OF OUR SCIENTISTS IS DISCUSSED.

Document Type: 
Collection: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5
Release Decision: 
RIFPUB
Original Classification: 
K
Document Page Count: 
634
Document Creation Date: 
December 23, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 15, 2013
Sequence Number: 
1
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
REPORT
File: 
AttachmentSize
PDF icon CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5.pdf29.91 MB
Body: 
Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ,(2) Trans. 14-1063 - Journal" botanicheakit 2herual3 and some of our scientists is discussed. Instead of criticizinz one another and poi!Iting out [existing) ahortcomino in a business like, scientific wanner, the afrait teok on an offensive tone and became humiliating." The reply of V.S. Ahrushchevt "The staff must be looked over. Evidently, people who were selected.as editors arc aLeinst .Alchurinfs'scienee. As long as they remain there nothtng vitt. change. They must be replaced, others, real fAcherinites, rust, be appointed. Therein lies the radical soltion or the prab1ea.'"2 ..The wrong direction taken by the editorial botrd of the "Latent- .' .cel Journal" (flotanicheskii lhurnel) has been voiced in a nuMber of articles. ? They do not bear the character of en occasional,- Isolated Incident, but characterize a position that pursued the objective of censuring-thelundemental propobitions in the. Works of Academician Lysenko. Let us ?dwell bristly upon certain problemsof the aichurin Oiroction in biology that have been subjected to criticism hy the "Votanical Journal" tVotehicheskii Zhurhal). Authors whose works appeared in the "r;otenical Journal" paid a treat deal of attention to. the defense of chance as a dccisive factor In evolution' In deTense of the fundamental thesis of 2 Plenul of the Central Committee, Communist Party, Soviet Union,December 15-19. Stenographic record. State Publishing house of Political Literature. oscow, 1953, p. 233 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 VI ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-I063 torpuscular genetics, concerning the fortuitous character of. changes occuring in .1p:sonic-is. (regin p. 113. ilurber of the ItHotanical journal" tUotaalcheskii aurnal) for 1956 includes e!CartiCle bsifl.V. Lebedev in.which.the process of.nsiural?selection Is attributed the tele oft,sieve while its creative role is deliied, which in esseneireducze to naught the, basic proposition of [ttchurin!s teaching cotcrning the unity of ' an orcanism and its habitat. In the :same connection, In a series of articles, is neented one of the basic prindtples.of Vachurints ? teaching concerning tile possibility of inheritance of acquired characteristics. ? Lspecially sharp 'ere 'stat.cments made on these grounds in an editoriall in which the efforts of the.oritics are concentrated on evidence that negriti the principle of inherttance of ncquired charaCteristics.. The fundaMental;aeaning of an analysis of ,the problem concerning the inheritance'of acquired characteristics is Te:uced to a thesis of corpuscular 'gentles to the effect tfiat they 4TO not inheritable. The Methodused In the article (in an attempt] to produce-evidence.it t-vefy peculiar, one Instead of discUssing and analyzing the Concrete factvavallalcle in the .About some probles of Soviet biology. (On the ocr,41sion of T.D. Lysenkols artist:1e "for Materialism in biology"); ? "Lotanicheskil 2hurnal", no. 0, 195.0. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5_63 literature, all of them ere declared intolvent with one stroke of the:pen on the basis-that in all experients that bad been conducted and In dote on this Problem in the lot:obsession of scientists of different countries ?the original genetic mate,? " ilia had prOved genetically heteroecneous".(pe 1141). The editots'obvlously, conehlered thie oncephrate a? suffitient-te relieofethemselves (of the jobl ef,examining the Available facts and of'enzlyting them. - )7urtherp-the editors noted that T.D. Lysenke one hie ? followers 4ad Confused the Problem of InheritanCe of acquired characteristics vith the problem of the tole of exterml envirOn- 'ment ps a. fatter of.hereditary variation. It IS fitting to say. that tha irotlem:concerninu inheritance of acquired-characteristic? cannot be stated differently than,T,D. Lysenko" had done It. In a neeation of the directed Character of the influence of external conditions upon Variation and heredity, the article emp-Assiees the Laportrnce of only the ilutagenic action of radiant energy. In other:words, toe authors of the article recogniee as external conditions only the role of the accelerants of the mutation procese occurine.vithIn the sexual cells without Evne) any ' relationship to the environment. The editorel tried to strenethen its own viewpoint recording the heredity o acquired properties by referring repeetedly to the opinions of a number of scientists of western "!:.uro.:e. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15.: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) ? Trans. 4i-1063 After this, they indiscriminately negated all results of experint;nts conducted in vegetative hybridization as evidence of inheritance of acquIred prOverties. These facts hed already been subjected earlier to a oirilar netati-n in en article by A.R. Zhebrah2 [published] Ln 3 cif the year 056, and in an article by Iu.11. Olenov3 In no. 7 of 1956. The possibility of a directed conversion of sprint crops into winter crops and ot winttr croDs into sprinjcrops (article by If.V. Skr1pch1nskil)4 . ? and a'series of other factors were also subjects of negation, t4e6in p.1113. .The position of the Journal was completely wrong when it , attempted to make of I.V;,..Aichurin a su'!vorter of formal'tenetiO conceptions. Everyft4ody knows oxactiy what ;Aebtrin wrote concerning the laws of i'!endel, and thait 1.1r.ichurin gave theoretical sub- stantiation to the principle of hereditary transmission of acquiredcharacteristics. In the editorial in the 'botanical Journal" (3otan1cheakil ehurnall mentioned ahoVe, the position of a numter of scientists ? A.F. "Veture of trafting in higher planta", npotaqicheskil Ehurnal", no. 3, 1956. ' ku.K. Olenov. Is the possibility or Vegetative hybrldltation an argwent against the role played )1, chronosomes in heredity. ? "Dotanicheskil 4/.V. Skripehinskii. 'Once again e'out the transformaticn of winter cerc.als into spring cereals and spring cereals into winter ? core In the light of Darwin's teaching. z;otanicheskli Zhurnal", no. 4, i957. Zavadskii. Scientific leritate of I.V. i4churin and ? some problems of tiology. ",:lotanicheshil '6hurnal", no. 1,.1(;56..' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1063 was treated entirely Incorrectly as regards the evaluation of the role played by horMones and of stimulants in the life of plants. PhysiOlogleally active substarCes were not rejected, es the ;editors of the "Botanical Journal" tBotanicheskii Zhurpal) alleged, nor Was the possibility and necessity of working with them, rejected was merely the non-materialistic interpretation made by many scientists of a study of physiologically active substances as special administrator's of the processes oecuring In the life of plantt. Criticlam of Michurints direction and attacks against the setivitics of Academician TX. Lysenko reached their stverent form in the t4pdantious editorial that appere4 In no. 8 of the journal for 1958. The estimate of losses that individual Michurinite scientists tndt in partidularo Academician TO. Lysenko had, allegedly, caused the State are completely inaccurate and unrealistic* which hat been justly described in the editorial It the newspaper "Pravda". In a series of articles published in the "Botanical Journal" tEotanicheakil IhurhalLen enemy of the Soviet.Union.tpd , nicenthrooe, such as Dobehantkli, who leyetti now advocates tratuet) ?????? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1063 ? eacenice that ire'the basis of contemporary racism,' has.proP- gandieed himself us a genOne (arwinist. At the Tenth International Congress on.Oenctics it became clear that ceiticism.on the part o1 14churinitcs of the basis Of florganiat fundamentals otthe conception of a hereditary sub- . stance that, sUpposediy, direct!! all characteristics and properties of.an'orGanism,"-but does not 'yield:to directed change,bylvans of ? changed conditions of life, bac begun to attract ever ,increasing., _ attention amoncithe tioreprof;reislve scientists of tbe world' (Professor.tindergren, Professey Sihoto and ot)era).-- This feet was reflected in many reports (heardl'a*OnGress. In any case, .by new. it. is obvious to all that Morniiinis dlrection:in Genetics is net just a local kussian'phenolaenon in science. .At the Cencress, several reports'vere made by scientlits from Switzerland,' japan, .-England and other 'countries, Mils -by virtutof the brilliant examples of their oum,txperi.ments demonstrated conclusively to what ,extent their approach to the study of hereditary Phenpmena had been enriched 'since they had ecquainted-thc'ssalves with 7 Mchuyin!s works and had be0un to use these principles it their own investicati-.41.2 V.I. Mighdln end Kh.F. /(ushner. Tenth International GeneticC %ongress in Canada.' nlevestlia ikademli 7=auk SSSR, terlia Dielogichenskaisn, no. 2, 1959. 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1063 It is Interesting to note that 0. special "Section of Vegetative Nybridieation", one of thote that had the ler,seet number of visitors, waS oranized.atATenth:Congreat on Genetics. Negin All that has been stated above beers witness to the fact that the "Cotanicei Journal" Dotatticheskii Zhuthel) had bp-passed these facts and that Its atiertion to the effect.thist heredity. toes- not depend on environntentalcorditions,jand characteristict. acquired In the course of life are rot trans:aitted hereditarily has been left 'unprPned. A tendeney to revise a series of principles of contemporary genetics in the liGht ofilqichurinis teaching has t'ven obscrved in foreign scienCe. The teaching on the 1ndependcne6 of heredity from external conditions and Oa . problem ofereditary. transmission of acquired characteristics are becoming increatinOy Subjects of doubt. Thus, the basic. principles of iehurints genetics inCreasintily attract the attention of and.exert'thelr influende upon West..Foropean science, It nOtt be noted that the editorial board of the "Fotanical Journal" .V3otanichethil Zhurnai) had tahtn a much raora-irrecon- enable position with regard to Michurinis direction, than have many, scientists in the Vest. The, new-staff Of the editorial offices of the "Jotanical Journal" V;otahiceshii Zhurnall deems It necessary to declare that all of its work will bo built on the basis of the Original Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) - Trans. A-I063 course charted by the brilliant Russian scientist, 101. Michtrin. "Olchurints.direction in bioloy is based on the _firm foundation of dialectic materialism, it continues and develops the great I2arw1n tukehfp. Therin Iles' its perceptive strength and practical efficacy. Proceeelno froz the recognition of -the Unity between an oranie form and its habitat, TIAOrirInts biology develops as a science that deals with the direction of heredity and its variation, es a science that deals with, the direCtiop of the proccstes of evohltion in the interest of sotiet.y" ,("Pravda', no. 349 of DeceAter 14; 1956); The -new staff of ,the editorial offices c..onsiders that precisely 'iicLurints direction In bloioey is flethodologically. correct.an4 therefore; very fruitful for the development -Of theory andpractlet. In a leadippj article of "Pravda", numerous, Of A ON) ? exam?kcsAot the friportance or the achicvments'of science.in the practice of national econo7.7 in our coantryt "During the icari of Soviet authority, and especially In recant ti,tes, our t,reeders se created reAerhable verietieS; such as, for ptav10, 00 winter weatt: "Uovoukrainka", "Reletsee:ovskaia-196", the .selected v?rieties of the tal-jnion (lenet1cs-5eleqlon institute Ode8ska1a..3n, "Odetskai8-12", "Odesskala-15' and Others that occupy In our country aany 'millions of ilectares of winter crops. The same applies to sprind Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (10) Trans, /.71063 wheats and other crops.' ,"In the last (few) deCades,,Soviet breeders and eetton growers htvc :aude tre:Iendous stridos in'raising?the productivity of cotton plants, In cotton yields, our country holds first place,In the world". The editbrs of the "Botanical JOurnel" (Botanichetkil Zhurnal) did net write on the pages of the Jourrull,4out these and other achievments of soviet biological science, but, at the .same time, persistently advertized works, on 1,olyp1oidy and roentgoutations. The point is not in the negation of the importance of.other numerous methods used in exerting action et , various physical and cheaical agents ilonizing radiation, ? 0 Colchicine and others) that lead, In lirticLlar, to changes of such cell organoids au chrolaosomes, Eeegin p, VI but in the necessity of using as,a basis tne following opinion of I.V. ;lichurint ."in?raising etedlings anti growing from them pro- ductive plants, it it essential to usemeans that depend on ran or the furpose of deviating the strqcturt; of the young plant orcanism4the cultural direction that we need,. In the telection ? of nethods to this end, prefereftee must be given only to those (means) that in achieving the ri,quired results disturb less than others the vital 'processes in plants".1 1.V. flichurin. Works, v.1. Oplz (State United Publishing Nouses) SollkhOzgle, 1939, P. 17d. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (II). Trans. A-113f.>3 4 It is not surprising that selection practiced for the creation Of new Varieties proceeds exactly over Mchurinis course, utilizing widely'also tIe metho'd of rcating,,the tuportence of which I.V.' Wichurin emphasitedoin the following Words: 44Here, it nust be said that in,the matter of improving plant .varieties, not only selection alone, that is used so widel7f by our experimental 'selection Stations, is incapable of producing new varieties-with adequate resistance tp.degenermtion, but iVen.all types of .hybrldAzation with the. very atrictest,selection cannot .produce coMpletely.satisfactory results witheut a special regime for the ' reeving of seedlings vp to their Oaturity8.2 A thorough study of a series of biOlogical problems with the 'Aid of the latatit investigative methods (Isotopes, electron, ultra-violet end fluorescent microsCopess-etc,) can Ova and does give a great deal of kalowledge illout the regalarities of the vital processet, tut this tree of work must be conducted tron the standoint of genuine .materialistic biology, and not from the position of Ideas' based on principles of corpuscular genetics. Hichurinis'directIon in biology does not deny facte that have obtained and art being obtained elso by the representatives of corpuscular genetics, tut it discards the erroneous interpretations . f.V. Vichurin. Works, v.l. Ogis Selikhozglz. 1939i p? 595. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 ? that ave been Attached to As 6 sample of Cntiflly UfiIWcoptnhtcto: of d seutolon care ad on by the 'aBottnical 1" (13 tanishoskil Zhurnaii ? r ? 0 As1061 in t Entitle -11; rit, Ai WC Shall citejhffollOwing- Baranov ctnd 0116boretors it _Jays r foflowst gardlOss of ti Complete siMpligity of the problem concerning th?l?duttJthi importance of double interlinear hybrids, Ti). Lysenko and Other Continue to speak against the leading scientific ntthads ;and Inst the adaptation of doftble interlinear hybrids". Lot us how ter?, Lysenkols 1tntkpwnts really lookv he;published them beck in 1947,0 longioefote laboraluys appeared in print* . "The hybrid ccds of?Malee that, produce a good Increase -In productivity.tay be ; the resultant) I grossing, tut local (plotted In thoeistritt)geolill tettarabla variatief, Or or crossing one loco/ variety (Octternal form) uith, a specially selected inbred line, "SeIectionStetions must expetd the Work of gretting and It Selecting original malae for, the prOduttion Of .h d deeds"4-4 itegin 0. VI). The abOve quotation flOws how ten?ftlocely the material cited on the gages of the "Botanical Jeurnal" [Botanitheski' Marna ] fatale by P,A. tarentv and cols Pe A, Uaranovb mire Dubin n YMd.thx nov. P ONO of hybrldHmtiee, .(PandaMental task and methods for tetr s /- on), "Bota ieheekil 2hurnerb no. 44 1900 aurn0 "AgrObiologlieb no, 2b 19474 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ;? A-1063 had keen selected and elucidated. Ms new editorial board decIdedly condemns 'similar methods of distOrtion of the concepts and viewpoints of nuthors ond will not tolerate them on the pones of the "Dotonisel Journar tgataniChooitil Memel), The taw stoic(' of the editorial offices deems it very important that s discussion be conductod not only by matte of verbal argumentation, but also by manna of now factual materiel figuring In it, for without it a discussion of any branch of science is Inconclusive. This, for txample, applies to the dissuasion of 'species and species formation conducted by the "Botanical Journalv (Gotanichealcif 2hurnail that uts of s very ontosided character. The new editorial board will pay principal attention to the publishing of original articles devoted to the deitiopncit of octvel problems of the taxonomy and morphOlogy of plants, especially or the lower typo, to anatomy, obotany and other eeetions of totany that are not elucidated in other journeit, ?the The editorial toard considers ',especially 3mportentAorigit21 publication of worhs that deal directly with practical problems4 i.e. with the development of our agriculture,. Indottry end medicine. Tbe historicol seven-yotr plan for the development of the notional economy of the USSIl (1959,4765)1 adopted ty the, 21st Congress of the Communist Party, Soviet Union, confronts Seviet botanist' seienct with vast and responsible tashe. Potany mast Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 IS ? A-1063 provide the scientific basis fir the mobilization of all the natural riches of the plant world of our country (especially of its eastern regions) for the needs of our State. The realization of this important task wills In turn, require the participation of the "Botanical Journal" (Botan c eskil Zhurnall In matters dealing with the development of theoretical problems of the botanical science bated on the phyloophy of dialectic materialism. The editorial board of the Journal calls on the entire body or botanists of the Soviet Unions of different specializationss to enlist creatively in the development and solution of the great problems that were put before the botanical science by the et., age which our country entered after the historical 21st Congress of the Communist Partys Soviet Unions - the age of building a Communist society. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/69/15:CIXRDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 ? 4 Medved', L. 1. Gigiena truda pri primenenit insektofungitsidov v seltskom khoziaistve. [Hyglene of work in the tise of intettofungicIdes in agriculture). Moskva, Gosudarstvennoe .1zdatellstvo Meditsinskoi Literatursr, 1958. 190p. (Not in DA-Lib.) (In Russian) Partial, i.e. p.3-8. 05..184, and' Table of Contents1 Table of contents ? Trans. Ass1064. (In part) vg/A Foreword 3-4 rt. Introduction Chapter I. Toxicology of Polsonoas Agricultural Chemicals %. General part 9-33 9-33 . ? . Chapter II. Toxicology of P6isonous Agricultural Chemicals 34-125 Specific part -. Arsenic preparations 00 00000 4010 it:147 Copper preparations 44-51 Organic chlorine insecticides 51-74 Organic phosphorus insecticides..., \ Organic mercury fungicides 74-89 89E12 Preparations containing nicotIne.....6 L. 92-95 Anabasine preparations , 95-96 Fluorine preparation's . 96-100 Sulfur preparations . 100.407 Hydrocyanic acid preparations 108-115 Formalin 115-117' Chloropicrin 00004 117.420 A docent. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09;15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 -41t=1, (2) Dichlorethane Mineral ("1113..4 ..4.4. Preparation )AM (Concentrated emu thracene oil, Carbolineum) Chaptet III. Means and methods for the insectofungic ides and machines and used. Sanitary-hygienic character working conditions Sprayers--- 00040 Trans. Ae1064 is ion of an- i414 000 application of apparatuses ization of 420-122 In-124 124-125 ? 126-157 126'440 140,447 Dalt mixers and bait scatterers............ 147 Soil fumigators- . 1040. Aviation method for spraying and dusting o plants 149-154 Chemical treatment of seeds.. .. i4 . ? ? ? ? ? 6????*???? 154157 ..... '000 ? 60 ? ? Chapter IV. Sanitary-hygienic characterization and the fundamental principles of sanitation for working conditions during the application and storing of insectofungicides 158'l74 Supplement. Sanitary rules for storing, transpOtta- Hon and use of poisonous chemicals in agricul- ture 175-184 Literature.... . . 0006 185e190 Table of contents 191 Foreword, p43-4 Prophylaxis of insectofungialde poisoning that Constitutes a. very important problem for rural medico-prophylactic establish- ments can be successful only.in case it Is practical on the baste of knowledge of the toxic properties in the preparations used and of hygiene ,practiced during their application. Meanwhile, ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (1) Trans. A-I064 .411.0 fa. ? information concerning the results of a toxicologic, hygienic and Clinical study made of individual preparations is published in different journals, collections of scientific works, theses of scientific proceedings of conventions and conferences that are . published largely in small editions and, hence, Are unavailable to physicians of rural medico-prophylactic establishments. The need for publishing a manual on hygiene in the use of insectofungicides is long overdue. Requests for the publication of such a manual have been voiced persistently at meetings of provincial ivyezdnykhl sessions of the Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, devoted to problems of the medico-sanitary service for the rural population, held in Krasnodar (1954) and Novosibirsk (1955), of the 13th All-Union Convention of Hygienists (Leningrad, 1956), of the 1st All-Union Conference on the Hygiene and Toxi- cology of insectofungicides (Kiev, 1957) and at other conferences and meetings of doctors, as well as wain printed material. The present manual has been prepared for the purpose of rendering aid to doctors of rural medico-prophylactic establish- ments in their noble endeavor to safeguard the health of the workers of socialist agriculture. In determining the format of the book and stating individual problems, we took into consi- deration the wishes of practicing doctors which they have expressed regarding lectures read by us at Inter-oblast' seminars for physicians Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1064 of the Ukrainian SSR devoted to hygiene in agricultural work (Begin P.41, including hygiene in the use of insectofungicides (1956). Information on the designation of the individual preparations, processes and methods for their use, on machines and apparatuses utinted in the application of insectofungicides is stated briefly, to the extent necessary to substantiate recommended sanitary* hygienic salutary measures. Due to the fact that manuals on general toxicology have not been published fora long time, and the books that were published have become bibliographic rarities, the information furnished on the toxic properties of individual preparations is preceded by brief data on general toxicology of insectofungicides. Knowledge of the general regularities of the reciprocal action occurring between poisons and the organism Is extremely necessary it being able to understand concrete data on the toxic properties of the individual preparations. In explaining symptomatology of intoxi- cation by the individual preparations, the results of clinical observations of people described in Soviet or foreign literature have been cited to the extent possible. Fundamental recommenda- tions for first aid measures and prophylaxis to be used in cases of poisoning have also been cited. Some of the information on the toxicology of insectofungicides and on hygiene in their appli- cation is published for the first time. fa, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 el% (5) trans.-A-10624. The present book is the first attempt (to present) a generalized version of the problems of hygiene in the use of insectofAgioldess hence it must be expected that it has a number of gaps and it net devoid of shortcomingth. The author will be grateful to receive suggestions and critical comments and will take them into con- sideration in the next work of hygienic research on ipsectofungie cideS., Introduction, p 5-8 . In the majestic program develOped by the Communist Party and Soviet Government for a steep rise in agriculture, a signi- ficant place is assigned to a further increase In the production of chemical means for the control of pests and diseases of agri- cultural plants: the use of such meant it the most important con- dition for increased productivity. The high level of development of theoretical chemistry in our country, especially of organic synthesisjand of the chemical industry provides for a steady in- crease in the use of chemical preparations In agriculture and in the adaptation of new, more effective insectofungicides. In this respect, the following data concerning an increase in the use of poisonous chemicals in agriculture in the USSR1 are very indica- I Informallon for the years 024, 1927 and 1933 has been borrowed from the book "Insecticides and fungicides", by Al L. Efimov and I. A. Hazes (Sellkhozglz, 1940). Information for 1940 and 1956 - from the book "Theses of the 1st All-Union Conference on Hygiene and Toxicology of Insectofungicides," by D. M. Paikin and P. I. Galakhov. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1064 -raw 4.??%if ? tivet in 1924 1,200,(0002] tons, in 1927 e. 7,000 tons, In 1933 Ei 30,000 tons* in 1940 - 50,000 tons* in 1956 - over 300,000 tons. In accordance with the historical decisions of the. 20th Congress Of the Communist Party, Soviet Union, production OF ef- fective poisonous chemicals serving the needs Of agriculture will be considerably increased by the end of the sixth five-year plan. The use of chemicals in agriculture that plays an important role in providing high yields is accompanied in our country by the in- troduction of sanitary-hygienic, salutary measures that provide safety in working with poisonous chemicals. In this Connection, It must be borne in mind that from the point of view of State and public Interests A distinction is made between two aspects in- volved in the widespread use feegin p.6] of chemistry in agricul- ture the positive and negative. The positive aspect is based on the fact that the use of the chemical method in the protection of plants from pests and diseases, as the more effective of measures employed to provide contributes toward the creation the population and raw material the 1st All-Union Conference on fungicides, Po V. Sazonov, 0. M. out that measures conducted for ?.???, one fitting into the general plan high yields of agricultural crops, of an abundance of foodstuffs for for industry. In reports read at Hygiene and Toxicology of Insecto.. Paikin and P. I. 0alakhov pointed the protection of agricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 I ' rs'a (7) Trent. A?1064 crops from injurious insects can already now provide additional agricultural production in our country amounting to the sum of 45 billion rubles. Destruction of weeds by chemical means de- creases the consumption of manpower for the weeding of plants. The negative Aspect of the indicated method is based on the fact that in the application of insectofungicides there occur Industrial injuries that* under certain conditions, could have an unfavorable effect upon the organism of the people who per- form the work. The food products obtained from plants treated with poisonous chemicals may contain residual quantities of toxic chemical substances in amounts dangerous for the health of the popu- lation that consumes the indicated products. Contamination of the water and the air in populated areas by individual poisonous chemicals and their accumulation In the soil are also possible. Not only the danger of acute or chronic poisonings must be taken into consideration, but also the possibility of a non-speci- fic action of insectofungicides upon the organism of people that can manifest itself by decreased reactivity of the organism. A series of investigations has demonstrated that continued action upon the human organism exerted by individual chemical irritants of low intensity is likely to lead to a decreased reactivity of the organism, thus, contributing toward a higher incidence of disease in general. Constant attention must be paid to the problem of carcinogenicity of individual Substances. There are indications Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandAppmedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans, A-I064. that Carbolineum and its preparations contain admixtures of carcinogenic substances. (Begin p.7). In our country annually, from early spring until late fall, millions of kolkhosniks and workers of RTS [Tractor Repair Stations], MTS and sovkhotes come in contact with poisonous chemicals. .Such contact occurs during transPortation, storage and release Of preparations, during the chemical treatment of seeds and when they are planted* during dusting and spraying of plantt, fumiga- tion of soil* preharVest defoliation of cotton, scattering of poisonous bait for the destruction of mouse-like rodents and in the performance of other work for the protection of plants from pests and diseases. Such contact takes place also during the production of poisonous chemicals. In carrying Out the work Indicated, there may arise conditions under which toxic substances may enter the Organism of the people at work in amounts capable of causing intoxication. The main task is the prevention of such a possibility. In using insectofungiCides, as well at in the performance of other agricultural work, sanitary working conditions depend on the quality and intensity, within the limits possible, of the action exerted by various factors of the external production environment upon the organism of the people at work, and alto on the character of the production operations being conducted. Dust.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans, A-1064 like inseCtofungicides are likely to produce considerable dust in the tar of the working zone, and in spraying plantgAnd fumigating the soil it is possible that fumes and !wet mayAtet the air. rpt In the early spring work (chemical treatment of seeds) is con- ducted at comparatively low air temperatures (243) and a high . relative humidity, but in the summer (dusting and spraying of plants) At a high air temperature (25.32?)(01) and a considerable insolation. When machines and apparatuses are used, there fre- quently art noises and vibrations that exceed in intensity per- missible sanitary standards. In the chemical treatment of seeds, the workers lift and carry heaVy loads (grain in bags, buckets etc.), rotate the drum of the treating apparatus and perform other operations that are connected with certain physical ester- tions and An inconvenient working polition. The same takes place In manual .dusting and spraying of plants with the aid of knap- sack equipment, Under certain conditions, the factors listed above Can exert unfavorable act ton upon the organism of those who do the work, (Begin p.8) but it it usually of a temporary charac- ter* which is determined by the seasonal nature and short dura- tion of the work. For example, dusting And spraying of plants is carried out within a few days and is repeated several times during the season, Seeds are treated on the eve of sowing. Sanitation measures must be designed for the prevention or mitigation of the unfavorable effect of all factors of the ax- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1064 e ????? ('? ternal production environment upon the organismoof the workers, but special attention must be paid to the prophylaxis of poisoning caused by insectofungicides. The distinguishing characteristic of sanitary working conditions in the use of insectofungicides, as compared with other agricultural work, is the contact of the workers with toxic substances. The danger of poisoning by in- sectofungicides depends not only on the toxic properties of the individual preparations, but also on the conditions of their application. Our research has established that the diffusion of the preparation in the sir of the working zone and their concentra- tion in it depend on the processes and methods of their applica- tion, and also on the constructional characteristics and working Order of the machines used. Efficient sanitary measures to be used in the prophylaxis of poisoning caused by insectofungicides can be developed only on the basis of data Concerning the toxic properties of a preparation, the methods and processes of its application, the characteristics of the machines and apparatuses used, and on Other data characteriz- ing sanitary working conditions. All of these problems are eluci- dated in the following chapters of the book. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-I064 Appendix (p41754,184) APPROVED Chief State, Sanitary Inspector USSR V. 2hdenov August 18, 19E5 Sanitary Rules for Storage, Transportation and the Use of Poisonous Chemicals in Agriculture& General Principles 1. The present rules are applicable to all types of work with poisonous Chemicals tined in Agriculture and are mandatory for all ratans and ?blasts of the soviet Union. 2. At present, in the control of pests and diseases at agricultural plants there are used mercuric preparations (NIUIP-2 (Scientific Research institute of Fertilisers and insectofungicides) - granosen containing ethylmercurie chloride, NIUIF-1,, preparations of arsenic, sodium arsenite, calcium attenite, calcium arsenate, and Paris green), copper preparations CAB, trichlorotphenolate of copper end Bordeaux mixture), fluorine preparations (sodium ftuo- ride and fluctilicate); alkaloids (Mooting-sulfate, anabasin, sulfate; chloro-organic compounds (DDT, benzene hexachloride, chlor- ten and others); organic phosphorus compounds (NIUIF400 - thiophoso metaphos, tarbophas, octamethyl, mercaptOphos and others), for- malin, barium chloride, chloropicrin, dichleroethanes salts of -hydrocyanic acid and others. All of these are poisons tor warm, blooded animals and people and may upset the state of their health when diffused in the organism. Hence, it is essentifl for persons who work with the preparations listed above strictly to observe the present sanitary rules. Developed with the assistance of the Kiev Institute of Hygiene 9?N of Work and Industrial Diseases. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A.4064 . 3. Those Who work with poisonous chemicals must be instructed about their poisonous properties and about safety methods to be used in working with such chemicals. Persons assigned to work with poisonous chemicals must pass a preliminary medical examination, 5. Indications disqualifying from work with any poisonous chemicals indludes organic diseases of the central nervous systems. psychic diseases (including stages of remission); epilepsy; endocrine vegetative diseases; active form of tuberculosis of the lungs; bronchial asthma; inflammatory diseases of respiratory organs chitis, laryngitis); Degin p.1761. (bron- h) diseases of the gastric tract (ulcers of the stomach, chronic gastritis; chronic icolitis); 1) pronounced forms of diseases of the liver; k) diseases of the kidneys (nephritis, nephrosis, nephrosclerosis; I) diseases of the eyes (chronic conjunctivitis, keratitis, diseases of the tear ducts (sleznye putij and the eyelids). 6. Additional indicators disqualifying from work are: a) with organic mercury compounds chronic or fre- quent recidivation of stomatitis? gingivitis, alveolar tyorrhea; b) with arsenic preparations - diseases of the nose (atrophic rhinitis, (lama, sycosis of the nose, diseases of nasal accessory sinus, deviation of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 401., C) (13) Trans? A-1061 the nasal septum, Swelling of the upper respire.- tory organs, eczema on the face and hands); with nicot1ne And anabasine diseases of the cardiovascular system, transitional amaurosis with a limited visual field; d) with organic phosphorus preparations dittonia of the vegetative nervous system, Spastic colitis, diseases of the stomach with upset secretion, diseases of the cardiovascular system, 7. Persons who work systematically with poisonous chemie? cols must undergo periodically medical examinations, not less than once every six months. 8. 18-year old juveniles Are not permitted to work with poisonous chemicals, not are pregnant or nursing women. 9. The use of alcoholic drinks during the period of work with poisonous chemicals it categorically prohibited-. 10. Work that involves contact with poitons Includes; a) transportation of poisonous chemicals from the menu.; lecturing plants to the Republic, oblast', inter. district and district agricultural supply bases and from the bases indicated to kalkhozes and sovhhotest b) storing at agricultural supply basest c) chemical treatment of seeds of agricultural drops, their transporting, storing and seeding; d) dusting and spraying of plants, introduction of insectoftingicides into the soil, preparation of bait, treatment of animals with insecticides and other instances of the use of poisonous chemicals in pro- duction,, 11. If precautionary measures are not observed, the poisonous chemicals may enter the organism of workers and of other.peOple who come in contact with them through the upper respiratery tract in the torn Of dust, vapors and gases, through the mouth when dust is swallowed, when people are smoking or handling the food they est with dirty hands. Some poisons, for instance, such at organic met- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14)- Trent. A.-1064 cury phosphorus preparations, organic chlorine preparations, nicotine' anabasine, hydrocyanic acid and others can enter thrOugh the uninjured skin, 12. Work with insectofungicides must be conducted under the supervision of specialists in the pfetedtion of plants from pests and diseases, and also under the,supervition of agrono- mists" sootechniclans, veterinary physicians, of kolkhoset, sov- khoaes and other farms who have had training in the use of pre- cautionary measures when working with poisonous chemicals, 13. Poisonous chemicals must be stored" transported and released only in a special, stable, well coveted container, In accordance (Begin p.I77] with TU [technical specifications] for their preparation with the inscription "Poison" and indicat- ing the name and quantity of the preparation., 14. Those who work with poleoneus chemicals must be pro- vided with special wearing aPpatel made from a compact dust-, proof fabric of the moleskin type (overalls or robes), special footwear (rubber boots, shoes, overshoes)" respirators, gas masks, goggles and gloves. The special wearing apparel mutt not have pockets and must be bdttoned and tied IA the beat. Respirators and goggles must be of corresponding sites and must be selected for each worker individually. The special wearing apparel must be selected in accordance with the site of the workers, 15. Giving pertission to work with poisonOut chemicals to personsnot provided with special wearing apparel, special footwear and protective devices is categorically prohibited. 16. when the work with poisonous chemicals Is finished, the worker must take off his special wearing apparel, clean it care- fully of dust and leave it in a locker In a separate room iso- lated from the place where poisonous chemicals are stbred, Storing special wearing apparel in a house or in rooms not designated for this purpose Is Categorically prohibited. 17. Water* a washbasin soap and a towel must positively be kept near the places where work is being done with .poisonous chemical, but beyond the 'zone of Contamination. 18. Those working with poisonous chemicals must strictly Observe the rules of personal hygiene: not to eat any foodunot to drink and not to smoke on places of work. Food can be eaten Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans., A-1064 In a specially assigned place* not less than 100 meters removed from the place of work. The special apparel must be taken off, hands and face mutt be washed and ones mouth must be rinsed before eating. When the work Is done* the whole body must be washed carefully with water (under a shower or in a natural reservoir). 19. Storing of groceries, water, forage and household articles in plates where work is carried out with poisonous chemi- cals it prohibited. 20. CutsiderS and especially children are not permitted In an area where work is carried out with poisonous chemicals. 21. Leaving poisonous Chemicals in a field or any other place without a guard is prohibited. 22. When the work with poisonous chemicals IS finished, the remainder that is unfit for further Use must be rendered hem. less and dug Into a specially made pit at a depth of one meter, Situated far from dwelling houses, cattle yards etc. The destruction of poisonous substances must be carried out in accordance with an instruction confirmed by the Ministry of Public Health USSR and the Ministry of State Public Safety USSR. 23. The length of time spent working with poisonous Chemi- cal must not exceed 6 hours, and in the application of strong insectofungicides (preparations of mercury, arsenic, nicotine, enabasine and organic phosphorus compounds) - 4 hours. In the treatment Of seeds the work must not be continued for more than 4 hours, regardless of the type of .poisonous chemical. The rest of the working day will be used up doing work that is not connected with poisons. 24. When symptoms of poisoning appear in workers, the victim must be given first aid and Immediately after taken to the nearest. medical center.- The workers must be familiarized with the rules of first aid administered in cases of poisoning. (Begin p.178). 25. In the event a worker is poisoned, one Matt strictly ob- serve the regulations for notification and registration of indus- trial poisonings and industrial diseases confirmed by the People's Commissariat of Public Health USSR, February j6? 1939. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 tear (16) Trona. .fia.10611. 26, Every year, before work with poisonous chemicals is begun in agriculture, medical workers (a felldsher, a rural district doctor under the jurisdiction of the Raton Sanitary- 2pidemiologica1 Station) must on the spot instruct the workers about the properties of the poisons used, the rules for working with them, precautionary measures and first aid. Special instruc- tion must be carried out when new poisonous chemicals are intro- duced in agriculture. 27s Instruction, posters and memoranda about precautionary measures to be used when Working with poisonous chemicals and rules for the administratiOn of first aid in cases of poisoning, Issued by the Ministry of Public Heaqh USSR tnd the Ministry of Agriculture USSR, mutt be available at MIS (Methane Tractor 5th- tions), on kolkhoets and sovkhozes and on other farms, 11, Precautionary Measures to be 'lined in Storing Poisonous Chemicals, 1, .polsonous chemicals must be stored only in warehouses specially designated for this purpose: Republic, inter-district and district bases-, agricultural supply warehouses, as well as in the warehouses of kolkhozes-and sovkhoLees and other farms. 2. Kolkhoz and sovkhoz warehouses for poisonous chemicals must be sOuated in a dry place, preferably on the outskirts Of a town or villegel at a distance of not less than 200 meters from dwelling houses, food and agricultural objects (dining rooms, dairy farms etc.), 3. The premises of the warehouse must be dry, spacious and light. The walls must be solid and without cra4ks. The roof must be in good condition, the floor smooth, asphalted or demented. Wooden floors are not permitted. 4. Lighting must satisfy the standards of hygiene and must be Adequate for the conduct of the operations of weighing and measuring of poisonous chemicals (N101-54). ' 5. Warehouses on kolkhozes and sovkholtes must be provided with natural ventilation (draft airing by means of opening windows or casements), and at the agricultural supply warehouse, an arti- ficial exhaust fan in addition* (supplement no.'3). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? lb, (17) Trent. A-1064 6. The premises of a kolkhoz warehouse must consist of not less than two sections: a) the section for storing and releasing poisonous chemicals, bLathe section in which special wearing ap- parel, Water, soap, and medicine chest for the administration of first aid in cases of pbisoning must be kept. 7. A specially trained person - the manager of the ware- house of poisonous chemicals - is responsible for the storing and release of the poisonous chemicals. 8. Outsiders are prohibited from entering the warehouse premises. Warehouses of strong poisonous chemicals must have a special guard. 9. The'presence of the warehouse men at the warehouse of poisonous pohemicals is permitted only at the time chemicals are released or received. 10. The warehouse must have scales, small weights and scoops that are to be used only for weighing and measuring poisonous chemicals. (Begin p.1793.? 11. Safety measures precluding the possibility of chemicals getting into the zone of respiration or on the skin of workers must be observed when a container is opened. 12. Paper and wood containers emptied of poisonous chemicals must be burned in specially designated places, must at once be rendered harmless and turned over to the central warehouses. The use of containers emptied of poisons for storing or for the preparation of food stuffs, feed, water and other articles is categorically prohibited. 13. A record of storing and the release of poisonous chemi- cals is kept in a special ledger according to the sample estab- lished by the Ministry of Agriculture USSR. 14. Poisonous chemicals can be released from the warehouse only upon the presentation of a written order from the chairman of a kolkhoz, a director of e sovkhoz or from their deputies* and only to the person who is responsible for the conduct of the work with poisonous chemicals. 15. At the end of the working dayi poisonous chemicals that are left over must be surrendered to the warehouse where they must be kept in a tightly covered container. Under field conditions, the poisonous chemicals not used up during the day must be turned over to the responsible person for safekeeping. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 i8) Trans, A-1064 16. Release of poisonous chemicals must be Conducted so as to preclude their getting into the zone of breathing or on the skin of workers. If poisonous chemicals drop on the floor or on Other surfaces, they must immediately be rendered harmless in compliance with the corresponding safety measures (supplement no, 17. Poisonous chemicals must be released from a warehouse 14 a, closed container, indicating the name of the chemical and with the inscription "Poison", 184 Poisonous substances that have become unfit for use due to long or Incorrect storage in warehouses must be destroyed In accordance with the instruction on the order in Which strong, poisonous substances must be destroyed. .19. The allocation, construction and content of base and dispensing warehouses mulstliccomplished in accordance with the sanitary rules confirmed b9 the Head State Sanitary Inspector of the USSR, on April 16, 1950, Under no, 210-56. 211. Safety Heasures.to,hetreedin Transporting Poisonous Chemicals ? Ye. llll ? 5). 1, Transportation of poisonous chemicals must be Carried out with the observance of all precautionary measures. Persons ac- companyiwthe transport must wear special apparel and must strictly observe the rules for handling poisonous chemicals, . 2, Hauling of poisonous chemicals can be carried out only on a transport that Is easy to clean and render harmless (carts made of boards in good working, order, trucks etc.). 3.. Hauling of food stuffs and other merchandise and articles together with poisonous chemicals is categorically prohibited. A transport designated for hauling food stuffs and passengers can- not be used for transportation of poisonous chemicals. 4. Damaging the container, knocking against., throwing, spil- ling and strewing of poisons etc. must be *voided during loading and unloading. IBegin p.180]. S. persons who accompany a transport with poisonous themicalt are obligated at all times to. watch the conditiOn of the container., In case the container is damaged, the Motorized vehicle or the cart must be stopped immediately and the container must be repaired , with the mans available. 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1064 6. When the hauling of poisonous chemicals is finished, the motorized vehicle and the cart must be carefully cleaned, washed and rendered harmless, and only after this they can be put to further use. Cleaning of the transport must beparried out on a ' specially assigned place that is safe for people in the vicinity, in accordance with instructions of local sanitary inspection agencies. 7. Those hauling poisonous substances should be guided by the instruction "Provisions of hauling,strong, poisonous sub- stances in a wagon or in a motorized transport", issued by NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs) USSR in 1939. IV. Safety Measures to be Used in the Chemical Treatment, Transportation and Sowing of Seeds I. Chemical treatment of seeds must*, as a rule, be carried out in the open air, far from dwelling houses (not nearer than 200 meters)? In rainy weather treatment can be conducted under a.harigar. The direction of the wind must be taken into consi- deration and workers must be stationed so as not to have them in the zone where the poisonous chemicals are dispersed. It is also necessary to watch that the wind should not carry the poisonous dust onto dwelling houses, cattle yards and pastures. Note. .Treatment of seeds is permitted to be carried out indeprs only &P there is a possibility of arranging effective airing. 2. Chemical treatment of seeds must be carried out with the aid of.special apparatuses or machines (PU-1, PSP-0.5) that are in good working condition. 3. Seed treated with apparatuses must be delivered in sacks made of ?a compact fabric. The brim of the sack must be fitted closely into the unloading opening. Pouring of treated seeds from an unloading opening onto the floor or into a bucket is prohibited. 4. Only the amount of grain required for seeding is to be treated. The use of treated grain for nutritive purposes, and also for feed of cattle and fowls is categorically prohibited. The use of treated grain for nutritive purposes after it has been washed, aired and cleaned of poisonous chemicals also by other methods, is also prohibited. It is recommended that the remaindlr of treated Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1064 pe-N fl (7\ grain be turned Over to another kolkhoz or sovkhos for seeding purposes. 5. Mixing of treated grain with nontreated and Surrendering it to grain procurement centers is categorically prohibited. Bags Containing treated grain must be marked: "CHEMICALLY TREATED", "POISON". Treated grain must be stored separately from foodstuffs and feeds. 6. After the issuance of treated seeds released room must be thoroughly cleaned and moved with a damp broom (vlazhnala uborkai. for sowing, the waste must be rfl , Treated grain spilled in the room and rated with rubbish must be swept up carefully and burned. [Begin p.181. 7. Only seeders in good working condition should be used in sewing treated seeds. The lid of the seed box must be covered tightly during the sowing. It is not permitted to work with an open or broken lid. Smoothing out the surface of treated seeds in a seeder with one's hands-is prohibited, 8. Planters must be warned about the poisonous properties of treated seeds. Sowing of treated seeds by hand is not permitted. 1. Treated seeds must be transported pact fabric that are well sown together or working condition. Treated seeds must not a container. In bags made of a Com.. tied and are in good be transported without 10, The driver and other persons are not permitted to sit on bags with treated seeds. A special seat must be adiasted for person who hauls treated seeds In a wagon. V. Safety Measures to be Used In Dusting and Spraying of Plants and with other Methods of Application of Poisonous Chemicals I. Only special equipment of diverse power (airplane-carried, tractor-drawn, horse-drawn and hand operated sprayers and dusters) are permitted to be used in dusting and spraying of plants with insectdfungicides, Dusting by hand and also with the aid of woven begs Ikuliki) is prohibited. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans. A-1064 2. Signs of warning must be provided on places Of work and on roads for the,benefit of those who pass through fields, orchards and other places that have been treated with poisonous chemicals. 34 Grazing of cattle is not permitted neat places that are being treated with poisonous chemicals.. Grazing of cattle on areas that have been treated it permitted only 25 days after the lest treatment, and in cases Of specially toxic and persistent poisons after periods indicated in special instructions. 4. Dusting and spraying in a strong wind is prohibited. 5. Workers who carry out dusting and spraying mutt be stationed so as to prevent dust and fumes of poisonous chemicals from getting into the zone of breathing. 6. Spraying of plants must be conducted mostly in the morning and evening hours. Plants must not be sprayed when there is a . heavy dew. It is recommended to dust plants In the morning and evening after the dew has des9otat4d. 1. The lost treatment of the young crop or plantings must be finished not less than 20.45 days before the yield is harvested. 8. In aero-chemical treatments of plants it is 'necessary: a) to provide all persons likely to be exposed to the action of poisonous chemicals with special apparel and individual protective devices ((such persons include) pilots, aviation technicians, signalers* workmen who take part in the preparation of the so- lutions of poisonous chemicals and in filling the air- plane tank with the solutions); b) to mechanize the preparation of solutions of poisonous chemicals on a field aerodrome and the filling of an airplane tank; (Begin p.182] O) to station signalers with due consideration of the direction of the wind, so that they would be out- side the wave of the poisonous chemical. As the air- plane approaches within 50..100 meters... the signalers must step aside. -7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans. A-1064 9, Persons working on areas that had been treated with poison- ous chemicals earlier must strictly observe the necessary pre-& cautionarTmeasures (protection of the respiratory tract, special apparel and special footwear, a shorter work day elimination of any possibility of a contact of the skin and mucosa (slitistpe) with treated objects etc). 10. The direction of the stream of a poisonous chemical used in dusting and spraying must preclude any possibility of ,/ its falling inside the zone of respiration, on the skin end the clothesof the workers. 11. Poisoned bait used against rodents must be prepared in a'roOm'that can be properly aired or outdoors. Places where solutions and poisoned bait are prepared must be rendered harm- less or dug up after the work is finished. 124 Fumigation of warehouses can be conducted only in cases in which the 'warehouses are situated at least 50 meters from dwell- Ing houses and from livestock farms. All cracks and openings =let be carefully sealed before the premises are fumigated. O. During the fumigation period the warehouses must be under constant guard. ? 14. After the fungbation Is finished, the windows and doors mutt be opened one After the other so as not to allow a large quantity oriole to flow out simultaneously. Work can he begun in the warehouse only after a complete airing (absence of an odor of poison). 15, Fumigation Of rooms and grain can be tarried out only by brigades that are specially trained for the control of pests and diseases of agricultural plants. 16. All production rooms situated within a 50 meter radius from the fumigation object must be closed for the duration of the fumigation. 17. Barrels with poisonous chemicals to be used for fumi- gation must be opened with the aid of special keys. Heating of the plugs In barrels or taking them out is prohibited. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 4n06, (23) Trans. M1064 4 VI. About Inspection of the Observance of Current Rules 1. Inspection of the implementation of Current rules is entrusted to the agencies Of the State Sanitary inspection (Service] arid of the technical Inspection [Service) of the TsK Profsolues (Central Committee of the Trade-Union]. . 2. .Upon instruction of sanitary inspection agencies, in- spection of the observance of sanitary rules is conducted also by the medical division and the feltdsher-obstetrical centers Iodated in villages. 3. The current rules are mandatory for all Ministries and department* using poisonous theticsis in agriculture. 4._ Persons guilty of a violation of the rules will be held ' criminally liable according to the existing articles of the Criminal Code of the Union Republics, or to the retponsible administrative agencies of sanitary or technical inspection, [Begirt p.183]. Methods of Detoxication of ContainersuPretiseS, Trans- portation Pacilitiestand Special Apparel from [the Effects of] Certain Poisonous .Substances I, In working with highly toxic poisonous chemicals (organic arsenic, mercury, and phosphorus compounds, Cyanide' chloropicrin, mercuric chloride, nicotine, anabasine and others), it is necessary to detoxitate-prOtective apparel., premises, containers and trans- portation facilities contaminated by poisonous chemicals. 2. Detoxication of strong substances must be carried out under the supervision of persons who know the physico-chemical and toxic propertiet of defumlgation substances. ' 3. Personnel taking part in the work of detoxication must be supplied with appropriate protective apparel. When the work is . finished, it is necessary to wash the whole body with water, or to take a shower. ? 4. To render harmless containers, premises and transporta- tion facilities contaminated by organic mercury preparations (granotan, NIUIP-1), it is recommended to treat the contaminated surface with a solution of a calcium hypochlorite mixture (at ratio of 1 kg of calcium hypochlorite to 4 liters of water) end to let it alone for 4 hours. Then treat it with a 3%-10% solu- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (210 A-I064 tion of sodium chromosuifite [khromsernistyi natrii), or with a 10% solution of potassium permanganate. After 24-hours, the treated surface should be washed with warm soap-water. As a detoxication means for bags, it is recommendled to soak [the bags) in al solution of potassium permanganate acidified 1, with hydrochloric acid (5 ml HC1 per liter of solution), after which [the bags] must be washed in hot soap-water and rinsed re- peatedly. 5. Defuthigation of containers (iron drums, glass dishes) contaminated by organic phosphorus insecticides (thiophos; mercaptophos, metaphos, octamethyl, carbophos and others) can be carried out with a 5% solution of sodium hydroxide. Then the container must be washed thoroughly with water.' In the event the preparations are dropped on the floor then these areas must' be treated immediately with the mush of calcium hydroxide and 20- 30 minutes later washed with water. When the floor is being washed and the premises are being cleaned, it Is recommended that sodium carbonate in a. ratio of 20 gm per liter of water be added to the water. After hauling, the transport (carts, wagons and trucks) must be defumigated with a .5% solution of sodium hydroxide which later is washed away with Water. Special apparel and bags are soaked inVigueous solution of sodium hydroxide (20 gm of soda pre liter of water) for 1-2 hours and later are wrung out and washed by the usual method. Rubber boots, gloves, and aprons are defumigated by means of rubbing with the mush of calcium hydroxide and then washing profusely with water. 6. To detoxicate containers (Iron drums and glass dishes) contaminated by organic chlorine preparations (Ohlorten, chlorin- dan and others) they must be treated with a solution of sodium hydroxide, or with a 3% solution of calcined soda, then washed in pure water and dried. 7. Apparel and bags contaminated by insecticides containing arsenic must be soaked in a hot 1% solution of copper sulfate, [Begin p.184) then taken out and put in a.2% sodium carbonate solution and 812% ammonium sulfate Solution. (The work must be conducted in a draft [pod tiagol) or in the open air). The ap- parel must be turned from time to tipai After 30-60 minutes it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (25) Trans. A-1064 is taken out and rinsed thoroughly until the apparel submerged in water stops giving off a blue coloring, The same method is used to defumigate iron drums contaminated by insecticides con- taining arsenic. 8. Glass and metal containers emptied of carbon Disulfide are rendered harmless by washing profusely with a 3%*5% alkaline solution, or by means of boiling, and also by leaving them in on upside-down position with the opening downward at a certain distance from the ground (5-10 cm). 9. Containers emptied of cyanide and smelted cyanide (tsianplav) (besides insoluble ones - silver cyanide, copper cyanide and lead Cyanide) are detoxicated with a mixture of a 10% solution of ferrous sulfate (sheleznyi kuporos] and calcium hydroxide (2 t 1). The containers are immersed into this freshly prepared solution for 3-4 hours, afterward they are rinsed with water. 10. Glass and metal containers emptied of DDT and benzene hexachloride preparations are rendered harmless with a 3%-5% sodium ? a. hydroxide solution. Hags must be shaken out carefully and then Now washed In hot water with lye. 11. The water used in treating containers, premises, apparel etc. that contains a residue of poisonous chemicals is poured into a specially fenced-in pit and treated with mush of calcium hydroxides after which the pit is dug in. 12. Detoxication work is conducted in the open air or In a Specially outfitted room. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/69/16 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 I I t . 1 ' Redenko, A. 1. valetas SesuShi ntt urothai kartofelia. (Influence of drought upon the potato yield), Ittesckhl v MR, ikh proisithoshdente, povtorleemoutl I villente not crochet*, p.71493. Leningrad, Oldrometeorologie cheskoe Isdateltetvo 1958. 213 (in Russian) Excerpt only, i.e. p.69093. trans. A4065 (In part) vg/A A considerable decrease In the pottto yield is, however, observed not only In the eocthernTend Southeastern regions of 0 the soviet Union In which, owing to the Influents of high tem- ? parsley:is, i large .mount (is compared with ?the northwestern, regions Of the country) of the potato yield has been observed left in the field every pint. Affording to: estimates of the Alt.-Union institute of Plant ProtectiOn, Phytephthora alone ? desttOys two to two ends halt millien tons of potatoes ennuellY, which in terms of money is equivalent to an annual loss of Potsto yield indenting to 7500 million rubles. Renee, we deem it eppropriate to **Aline hi the present article silo the problem ? Candidate eiDroughts upon the of Agriculture-I sc iinces. In the USSR, their origins frequency and influencl- Acid), ed. by A. I. AUdAbkair Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 '\ 949 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 ?21 Trans. A-1065 , "ler concerning the influence of weather and climate upon the appearance of Phythophthora on potatoes which we developed in collaboration with the student, LE V. Oavriushenko (a woman] who Is working for her diploma at the Leningrad Hydrometeorological Institute. Of the many potato diseases, Phytophthora is the most widely distributed Gas and reduces the yield especially drastically. In the Belorussian SSR, in years thatiere favorable for the develop- ment of Phytophthora, the elapse in yield (14) reaches up to 50%, and in t he Leningrad Oblast' (4) up to 30%. Phytophthora (potato rot) to caused by a fungus from the Phycomycetes fungal pro's!). Usually, the fungus attacks potatoes during the post-flowering period. At first, the disease manifests itself in the form of dark-brown spots that develop on all organs of the potato plant, with the exception of the roots. Later a mold appears in the form of grayish-white film on the bottom side of the leaf, The injurious nature of Phytophthora has posed before specialists the task of ch5veloping Phytophthora-retiatant potato varieties. Phytophthora-resistance of varieties can, however, change under the infl4ea of conditions under which the potatoes grow and (as a result] of the appearance of more aggressive blotypea, of the parasitic fungus. Hence, along with the introduction of more resistant (potato) varieties, it is very important to begin treating the young crops with the corresponding chemicals prior to the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 4=6. (3) Trans. A-4065 appearance of Phytophthora. With this in view, the development of a sufficiently reliable forecasting method for the appearance of Phytophthora acquires great practical Importance. A great deal of research of quite a number of scientists (3, 6# 73 has been devoted to the development of methods for the forecasting of the appearance of Phytophthora. Investigation* In this realm applicable to conditions in the Soviet Union are, however, almost entirely absent. Meanwhile, a timely forecast of the sppee- ranee of Phytophthora in relation to weather conditions would permit initiating treatment of potato fields with the appro- priate chemicals in good time? prior to the appeerance of phyto- 'phthora visibile to the naked eye, and, thus, avoiding great losses to potato growers. A detailed analysis of weather conditions in the 14111 event regions of the USSR for (the past) 22 Phyto- phthora years has enabled us to establish precisely what weather conditions are "critical" and precede the appearance of Phyto- phthore on potatoes. [Begin P.90]. Investigations conducted for the indicated 22 years of the daily course of air temperature, the relative humidity and data on precipitations during the period preceding the flowering of potatoes and the period following it have demonstrated that the initial appearance of Phytophthora on early potato varieties must be expected on the seventh-tenth day after in each of these days the following approximate complex of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDIP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans, A-1065 4-1*. '41 er weather Conditions had been observed for the preceding ten days' 1. Average daily f24-hourj sir temperature front 15? up to 20?, 2, Meximal air temperature below 250. 34 Minumal air temperature above 10?, 4. Average daily relative air humidity aboVe 79400 S. Total precipitation about 20 mm and above. Phytophthora can, however to a smaller extents eppear on potatoes also when (only) two factors favor its developments air temperature and precipitations or air temperature and relative humidity. The more precipitation of a continuing character falls during warm days, primarily in night time, and the higher the relative humidity of the air, the more rapidly and more intensively will he development of Phytophthora on potatoes proceed. one of the most effective control measures for Phytophthora is timely spraying of the potato field with the appropriate chemicals before the disease appears, Up to this time, a sufficiently promising method for determining in advance the best date for the initia- tion of Phytophthora control has been lacking. At the some time, only the early use of chemicals in Phytophthora conthol assumes the significance of a preventive measure. Hence, the proposed method pursas the objective of determining the best dates for ft Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ?as ea, (5) Trans. A- 0 5 use of chemicals in Phytophthora control, end in, so doing pre- vents Its spreading on potatoes. However* to be able to judge as to Whether or not Phytophthora will continue to develop otter its original appearance, weather forecast for at least the next five days is necessary. If the obtained weather forecast will predict that the weather conditions indicated AbOVO as favorable for Phytophthora will conttnue? then it will be necessary to take Immediate measures of dusting and dpraying of potatoes, if, how- ever, the forecast indicates that the weather is expected to be unfavorable for Phytophthore for the next few days (for example, hot and dry), then prognoetication of the dote on which Phytophthora Is to appear must be withheld and the character of the weather must be observed carefully in the days that follow. An example of the technique of compiling a forecast for the appearance of Phytophthera and of establishing the dates favorable for its development by means of calculating the average meteorological' Magnitudes for the preceding ten days is cited In table 3 for 1954 which was a bad Phytophthora year in that district itegin P.93 the Pushkin Laboratories of the Institute of Plant Industry. According to data by A. la. 'camerae and 0. S. Meklakova, Phyto- phthora in 1954 appeared on early potato varieties on the 3rd of August, The climatic probability of the eppearence of Phytophthora in the European part of the USSR has been established as a result or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A.-1065 of on analysis made of the course of weather conditions of each Separate year covering the periled from 1892 through 1953 for 31 meteorological stations that have a series of meteorological observations fortmany years (not less than 20 years). Weather conditions for the segment of tithe from June 10 through September 15 were analyzed for all years for each meteorologjtal center, and were compared withc:Complex of meteorological factors favorable (critical) for the appearance of Phytophthore which we established. After the indicated analysis of weather conditions, the regions with one or another climatic Probability for the appearance of ? Phytophthora on potatoes were determined. In the end result. the 0 Climatic probability for the sopearanca of Phytophthora In the ? individual centers on the European territory of the USSR was determined and a map (fig.; 15) of the probable distelbution of Phytophthora on potatote was prepared. Because of the unsuffi- Cleat number of centers with year/Icor daily meteorological obser- venom, we have not as yet been able to establish the demarcation line of the probable distribution of Phytophthora from 600 of the northern latitude Is. sh.1 northward, or in the western regions of the European part of the Soviet Union. it. rollout from fig. 15 ? that the greatest probability of Phytophthort appearance (over 75%) embraces the northamestern pert of the European territory of the USSR, i.e. exactly those regions in which the largest treat planted to this crop are concentrated. However, in the arid regions in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-4065 the South of the US11. Phytophthorn occurs only in exceptionally rainy end cold ants. PHC. IS. Kam-a acponmoro pacripotrpaHeHHH (11111042201161 Ha Hawrocpene. rpantittu pallonon pactipotrpailf11112 (1111TOOTOPIS; 2? r9SHHUFA pationoa manoocoeftle/Ilthl Pig. /5. "lap of probable distribution of Phyto- phthora On potatoes. j - Demarcation line of regions of Phytophthora distribution' 2 - De- marcation line Of regions lacking elucidating data.' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ku) .4IP . Trans. A-106110. Table 3. . - rfethod of forecasting Phytophthora with thc aid of an adjustable (sliding) meteorological table (PhytoDhtt'toraappejred on August rd Pus?tkln. 191 Dote and Month ? Sequencei of days of weathe favoring Phytophth. jemperature of air . Relative humid' of air in.% 7Precipita- tion 1n nm allv aver, e Maxi, i tIn.fa1 ...:_ty Daily average ? ..? ta WO 0 CO 440 WO 0 0 ow flrolC93A eV* ' a, - .4. - ,04 " el ? OM 440 Egli= 000, i....i..? ...0.0. 0 0 ..$ >014- ? , ' ? ?"1' 4?4 . i C) ' , _.4.4..0.4.- 0 CO 464.1_ *??? 1476 arnetis - 0 11a ? 0 I-It =i _ w. 00 r us* , ict.a.a. _ 14 Total re- lat hu- nidity for 10 preced in. da s 4 "Total pa day T8Telcd days uy . n _ ft t7 " " " . " _ . ? " " " " " 0 Aug. 9 1 2./ 1 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 - . First Second Third 7ourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth - ? 17.5 16.0 16.4 17.5, 16.5 16.4s 15.4 14.9 14.8 15.5 etc. 14.5 16.3 18.8 19.6 16.4 15.8 17.9 16.1 . _ 4.. 712 20.5 20.3 21.9 19.1 21.0 19.8 19.3 - 207 202 198 199 2011. 206 207 209 1 209 rJ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? - 00 ChGN000000 NN 4"44.*NNNNNN . 13.5.. 9.1 8.6 14.6 1L4.2? 12.41 12.I 9.1 9.3 e.1,' etc. 13.1 - 12.3 10.1 13.7 13.5 11.3 :-6.9: 1.2 i 117 Ill 110 114 115 114 1-14 11" 109 115 4 '-'90- ; /6 ' 70 ti't 79 78 ? 77 .- ' , . , . 1 . 1 Ne.- .0,40N.010?0?43%0 ..,, ,.......... . Oq% WMg.41r1.-110'44,1 . ,,, , . p...1,4 WON A:NONWITy , . . t-? N? 4?4000 e"lb N 1", Pwi ? i . , . . ' ' ' ' A. . - -- , , , '? ' i cLor ....\? . . le . 18 0.51 1.2 5.5 0.5 2 etc. 10.5 0.2 . 1.7 3.0 - - 8 ,p ,-5- -) z.- ? . ? 56 56 56 40 25 25 23 26 164 161 158 155. 161, 163 163:.. 162 164 166; 4 16. 16.1 15.8 15.8 16.1 16.3 160 16762 16.4' 6.6 19.2 19.7) etc. 16.9 21.9 25.1 23.0 20.3'. 20.4207- 224 16.6 11.7 76.). 11.1 77 -etc. 11.0 :.95.: 11.4 -85- 11.5 III 11.4 76 11.475 11.3 77 10.9 76 1II5 081 Aug. 3 Appearance of Phytoe phora th 16.4 V 167 V- 16.7 . - 20.0 V. 209 - 1 20.9 . 13.7 119 11.9 80 , - 1 802 80 0.2 25 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Kulltura kukuruzy v SSR. [The maize crop in the USSR] ioskva, Sovetskaia Vaukan 1957 501P 59.22 K958 (In Russian), TABLE OF CONTENTS Biology of Ilaize Trans. A-1067 (Table of con- tents) JO/A Kuleshov, N.N. Evolution of maize in the light of lichurinis teaching 3-12 410 riunar, LI. and Krastina, E.E. Reaction of maize to the tenperature regime 12-15 ? Influence of the length of day upon the development of maize 15-18 Haloshina, Z.ii. Study of certain problems of the germi- nation of seeds 15-21 Sokolova, T.P. and Zariftian, A.S. Dynamics of the accuiallation of nutritive substances in maize from different fertilizers and under different irrigation? Lukastlik, N.A. Dynamics of nutritive substances in the maize plant under different conditions of cultivation. 21-214 214.-29 Lysenko, E.V. Carotene content in the green mass of ma14e from different fertilizers and under different conditions of irrigation 29-30 L.S. Influence of preseeding treatment of seeds upon maize yield 30-36 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010.4_00_04909.1-L67 Panshin,-I.A. Influence of preseeding dusting of maize seeds with benzene hexachloride upon soil pests and the growth and development of the plants Razakevich, L.I. Dynamics of the development of the root system of maize under conditions of the Volga.. Aktyubinsk* flood plain * In Russian: .Volgo - Akhtubink4 36-37 ? 37-39 Klechetov, A.N. .Mycotrophy in maize. and mixed seedings. 40-45 Beguchev, P.P. Study of control methods for partly 'filled maize ears . 45-50 Polosukhin G.I. Can Maize injured by early autumn frosts grow to maturity 50-52 Maisurian, N.A. Drying of maize ears on the plants 53-55 Sakhautdinovi B.M. and Antonova, M.P. Problem of culti- vating maize in Bashkir V 55-62 Dunin? M.S. and Iakovleva, N.P. Problem of the control of maize smut in new regions of its cultivation 62-72. Cheremisinov, N.A. Certain agrotechnical measures used ? to increase disease resistance in maize - A. 72-74, Megalov, V.A. Study of maize pests and development of measures for their control V Q ? 75-77 Shvestsova, A.N. Pests of maize under conditions of the Omsk Oblast' 7740 Breeding of Maize . Kovarskii, A.E. News in selection and hybridization of maize in data on work conducted at an experimentaf.-. selection station. Ipso 81-100 Golovtsov, L.A. Vegetative hybridization of maize...., 100-106 Konovalov, F.Ia. Problem of breeding maize in. Northern Ossetia (1953 and 1955) V 107-118 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CiA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 )7 Golovnia, i.l. esults of work in the breeding and agrotechnics of maize 118-122 niumov, R.N. The most productive biotypes of maize in the Belorussian SSR and means for their seed productbn 1P2-12e Orebennikov, P.?6. Problem of a study of the varietal response of maize to fertilizers on irrigated light - chestnut soils 129-131 Dekaprelevich, L.L. Varietal composition of maize in Georgia and the breeding specificity in working with It 131-139 Lutsan, Ia, P. Results of two- year' experiments in testing varieties and in mailing a study of certain problems of maize agrotechnir.:. 139-146 Lioloborodlko, 2.. C. Agrobiologial study of maize varieties under conditions of the til.lianovsk Oblast'. 146-150 Denisluk, A.la. Results of a study of maize varieties in tt.e Irkutsk Oblast' iiii4?446osiiii4 151'455 0 Zelenskii, M.A. Development of methods for the obtaining of hybrid seeds of maize 155-19 Donetskaia, E.I. Experiment in obtaining hybrid seeds of maize in the Zhitomir Oblast' 153-163 Samoilovich, 1.F. 11:xiririent in growing seed maize under conditions of the Perm Oblasto 163-170 Uspenskii? N.A. Terentlev, E.L. and hiechkovskaia, M.S Experiment in using maize varieties for silage under conditions of Voronezh, 170-173 Agrotechnics of Maize Cultivation Iakushkin, I.V. Results of work with pialze in the year 1955 179-187 Smirnov, V.U. Results of work with maize in the Kirov Oblast' 167-196 Drozdov, N.A. Temperature for seed germination and time for planting maize 197-207 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Tikhov, L.V. Results of work on agrotechnics of maize 207-218 Pelltsikh L.A. Some problems or sowing Maize 218-227 Kazakova, 0.I. Certain problemsof maize agrOtechnics in Udmurt 227-!234 Trusov, M.S. Study of Method for agrotechnics of maize under conditions of the Yaroslav Oblast' .234.-239 Trima, IT.K. Influence of different preceding plants in field crop and forage crop rotations upon maize yield. 239-247 LishChenko, F.I. Time for sowing maize in the 1361erutslariSSI 247.-254- gatsanov, N.S. Some problems of the agrotechnics of ? maize in the Moscow Oblast' 255-261 Tret!iakov, N.N. Experimental study (of effect] of sow- ing time and the composition of fertilizers Upon maize yields in the Noscow Oblast' (195341955) 262-267 Prokoshev, V.N. and Khalezov, N.A. Some problems of the agrotechnics of maize in the Perm Oblast' 267-274 Ivanova, O.A. Influence of various tillage .nethods upon the maize yield 275-276 Aleglan, L.K. Methods for sowing maite under conditions of the Central Urals ? 276-282 Ryzhov, A.F. Experimental results of maize agrotechnics In the Chkalov Oblast' 282-287 Kozhevnikovi A.R. and Popova, G.I. Results of working with maize in 1955 ? . 287-297 Kniazev, S. I. Agrobiological characteristics of early ripening maize varieties and agrotechnics for their. cultitration 297-301 Vershinln, A.K. Experi*ont in growing maize in the Kurgsn Oblast' ? 302..307 Pronin, M.E. Influence of fertilizers upon maize yields on leached out Chernotem. 308-310 Shubin, V.F. Agrotechnics of high yields of maize in nein- ilmigated And irrigated farming in the Stalingrad Oblast, 311-320 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A 1 *7 Petrov, A,V, Some methods for oalte cultivation with irrigationAconditions of the Rostov Oblast'..... Lobav, ;1.?? ")eveloping a method for the detarrthatlon of dates for scheduled Irrigation of f.laize#4,.?.???../.? Stadniubuk, POP. Effectiveness maize wit o irrl ation?. Lobov, iJ and S ings tir(!cir Ir ett1clakovska14, niohuk, ion of fertilizers under *1'? *0?0000.4 000 4141,04,0 fly of maize plant". 0000000000041041041,00. of Aaize Prtnr the harvest Df egrly under lrrJaticrn In the RostoV Oblast,. 329 3P4-326 326-327 32d-329 redorenko, 1,N, iti tion of maize rout and ptoblene: of fertilization Aeslikove, A.i, Depth and methods of preparation under Alan In the foot ern slope of the(entral aucasus.. Agrotechrics for high ma relons of the forest steppe In the Tereshcheniio, Green feed in the leftrk forest steppe of? the Ukraine ..... with widened inter - Under Kuban conriticra 330..335 the basic see#ed hills of the north- ........0.100.,...? Its yields in the Ukrainian S -345 Charecteilstics of growing iaize for 00010 345-35 r?Ta1'y left bank of the inieper River. Kosereva, V.A. Silicate bacteria under maize in the South of the Ilttaine 351-356 Shehekun, C.I. Characteristies of grouting melee for ijreen feed and'silaos in 0OldaVi 000000000000000004000 Study or. the most effective methods for the ap;lication of fertiliters under 00**4 Lomuori, luoN Agrotechnics for high maize yields...e.? Oeshcheriakov, Awn. Preseeding introduction of fertil izers under Katakov, i.E, Maize egrotechnics in Razakhstan,?,,,"? Pluks, Za.0, .';conom cs? of melte cultivation according . to data of training (firms of the Latvian Agricultural Academy. --,?0011.00.000000000***00******00* Ia ... 00000000000 359 369 36-373 37b-32 382-364 30-309 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 3 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1067 Shumilin, S. Ia. Economic effectiveness_ of sowing maize on the training farm of VSMIZO in the year 1955 393-295 ---*--- A 11-Union Agricultural Correspondence (Courses] Institute. Mechanization of ?laizeCultivation Kerdivarenko, A.P. The Machine system of maize culti-- vation under conditions of Noldavia 34-401 A. and Domoratskii, P.I. Merchanization of growing maize for green supplementary feed and silage by reduced inter -row and inter -hill scheLles 401-406 Sablikov, M.V. Proposal for the mechanization of maize Cultivation 406-409 Chochlia, S.I. Increasing the productivity of maize and soya by means of mechanized preparation of seeds and - seeding, and by obtaining two maize yields in Georgia, 409-418 Degma, A.A. Investigation of the fundamental work . indicators of the grain planter T8-2A in planting maize by the h.1?11-gtheck method 419-428 Polonetskii, S. D. Problem as to the type of seeders to be used in hi 11- check planting and for [the planting of) other row crops 428-435 Budagov, A.A. Mechanization of hil.1-check planting of maize 4354.447 448-456 456-463 Gyrdymov, In. A. Mechanization of harvesting maize Koganov, A.B. Problems of mechanization of ,planting and harvesting of maize on kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the Saratov Oblast' 'Utilizing Maize for Feed .Babin, la.A. and Elpatlevskii, D. V. Composition of maize silage packed in 1955 in the Sara toy Oblast'.... 464-467 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (Y) Trans, A-1067 flerzint, 1.A. Effectiveness of maize as a means of feed (from data of practice and scientific farming experiments in the Latvian SSR) 467-473 Gotlib, V.G. and Gotlih, G,F, Experiment in feeding green maize to dairy cattle [in the milk - giving phase] 4734483 DIchkov, N.A. Experiment in using maize for green feed on kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the Altai [Territory] 483-490 Pliuiko, P.A. Use of maize in feeding agricultural animals 491-495 Rosliakov, A.K. Problem of using maize to feed animals 495498 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Shifman, I.A. Metody I resulltaty gibridizatsii form buroi rzhavchiny zlakov (Methods and results of hybridization of CereakLleaf.442st formsl Leningrad. Vsesoiuznyi Institut Zashchity Rastenii. Trutwo no, 10, p. 137-1524 1958 464.9 1.514:2s (In Russian). Conclusions (p. 151) Trans, A-1068 (Conclusions only) 3g/A 1. Temperatures of-15?20? (C) are optimal for the germination of teliospores of Puccini* triticina and P. agropyrina. 2. In order to obtain normal germination of teliospores with the formation of basidiospores tinder any kind of temperature conditions, including optimal ones, a sharp change in temperature is necessary during their germination, from 20-25? down to 5 6? and conversely. 3. Infection of the aecidial host can be accomplished under conditions of teliospore germination with the formation of basidlospores. The more profuse the formation of basidiospores, the more intensive is the infection of plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans, A-I068 4. Puccini* triticina crosses with P. agropyrina as well as with P. alternans forming a viable progeny that is either more or less avresive* as compared with the original; there also develop forms with a changed group of susceptible plants. 5. Puccinia elymi West does not cross with Puccinia triticina or P. agropYrina* but crosses to some extent with P. alternans* which indicates a physiological estrangement of this species from rust fungi of the type of leaflof wheat, 6. As a result of hybridization* there develop physiological forms that are distinguished from the original ones by _size of uredospores and tellospores; these differences sometimes are more pronounced than the difference in the sizes of specialized forms and of geographical races. 7. PucCinia triticina Er. et Henn; P. agropyrina Er. and P. talailal we consider merely specialized forms of Puccini. kusistens Plowr. 8. The lecidial host of leaf rust of cereals is the place where hybridization of leaf rust forms is performed and the source of emergence of new physiological forms with changed aggressiveness, 9. We consider that for purposirof limiting hybridization of leaf rust forms* it is necessary to eradicate the aecidial hosts (Thalictrum* Leptopyrum) and also wild grasses near wheat fields as suppliers of crossing components. norinQQifiad and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A.4068 10. Hybridization, as a method, can serve the purpose of a;..) taxonomic subdivision of fungi andAa phenomenon otcuriTig in nature, it may be the cause of form developing processes. The work was performed at the Laboratory of Mycology ime AA, lachevskii under the super- vision of the head of the lab- oratory, Doctor of Biological Sciences, M.K. Khokhriakov. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - Shopins. Rol. predshestvennikev v izmenenil ' pornzheemosti ozimol pshenitst ' buret rzhavehined [Role of preceding plantain the changed susceptibility of winter wheatc to leaf rust] Leningrad. Vsesoluznyi Institu Zashchlty Rasten11, Trudy. no. 10' p. 183-192 1958 1:g:464.95415412S - ' (In Russian) Abstract ? Transe A-1069 (Abstract and Conclusions) 39/A The Importance of tgrotethnice in the control of leaf rust on winter and summer wheats-and the dissimilar influence of . . preceding plants upon the properties-of soil-and its regime are discussed, Some of them .increase rust .infection fh wheat While e" Others decrease it. A study was made of sterner fallow, sunflOwere, matte, newly plowed soil alter alfalfa and rye grass and of totten that had precadedwbeet in crop rotations. Wheat varieties used in the study sad dates on which leaf rust Infettion appeared ere given,in tables. Changed nutrition of'wheat determined by crop rotations Wtt Studied as a factor in leaf rust control. Changes *touring in ? to67 1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09./15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 the leaves of wheat under the influence of conditions of wheat growth were bound to produce a change also in the parasite. The decrease of leaf rust in different wheat varieties and the resulant productivity of the varieties have been explained and tabulated. (Translation of] Conclusions (p. 191-192) 1, Susceptibility of Winter wheat varieties to leaf rust under conditions of the Krasnodar Territory varies when grown after different preceding plants. When grown after individual prededing (Rotation] factors (summer fallow and cotton), wheat is attacked by leaf rust more severely than after sunflowers and maize. 2. Tho differences In the susceptibility of wheat to leaf rust correlate with the proportion and the quantitative content of potassium and nitrates in the soil during tillering boot- ing period of wheat. A change in the relation between these elements in the soil is reflected In the change occurring in their content In the leaves of wheat. (Begin p. 1923. 3. Conditions under which wheat was grown after different preceding plants have a bearing upon the susceptibility of wheat to leaf rust the following year. 4. The influence of the after effect of the preceding plants Is reflected in the productivity of the wheat and in the weight of the seeds. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-I069 5. Changes occurring in plants under the influence of their cultivation after different preceding plants manifest themselves also in the change taking place In the laef rust itself. 6. For the purpose of increasing leaf rut-r7esistance in winter wheat varieties, it is recommanded that seed planting$or this crop be allocated to a background that leads a variety directly to increased resistance and productivity. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ???? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1070 va/A Tumanov. 1. 1. Pervyl god raboty Sovetsltogo fitotroni. (Firot year's work of the Soviet phytetron). Akademlia gauk SSSR. Levestlia. Ser. Biol. no. 2, P.265-282, 1ir./Apr. 1959. 511 WO. ? (In Russian) In the spring of 1957# the first round of the construction of a Station for Artificial:litate began to fUnctloh. It consists of laboratories of a new type and abroad it is callecVe phytotron (Brash end Smsets. 19561 Bouillenne and Bou'llenne-Ualrand? 1950: 111 Vent, 1957). This phytotton permits making a Study of the vital ? ,phenomana in plants on a background of external conditions as varied as the experimenter requires. The Soviet Union is e continental country and, therefore, meteorological factort are of decisive importenee to its plant. Industry. The quantity of the yield and Abe prOpertlea of a plant depend on the weather-conditions prevalent in the different 'periods of the life of a plant. Our country Is. vast and its climate Is varied. All of this prompts the Soviet physiolOgist to concentrate his attention on the external environment so as to be able to elucidate its Influence upon. plants. This is a Institut Flatologlixastenii lit. K. A. Timirieseva Akedepli Uauk SSCR. (Institute of Plant Physiology -im: K. A. Timirlasev, Academy.of Sciences USSR). ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. 1.-1070 difficult task. Under field conditions it is not easy to note the differences in the, reaction of varieties and crops to climatic factors'. The weather is extremely changeable and usually many factors exert their action upon pleats simultaneously. Under such an experimental setup it Is extraordinarily difficult to analyse phyatological phenomena. (These conditiOns).gave,riete to the thought of creating special, climatited light and dark laboreteries In which it would be possible to-maintain automatically any weather, regime required by the experimenter's scheme. After suracuilting great difficulties in designing as, well as in building it, we , created a complex structure which I described briefly earlier (rumanov, 1157). Here, it suffices to point out that the climate (conditioning) machines installed at the Station are capable of producing 1750 tons of air of required quality per day (24 hrs1 for experiments when they operate at full force. In developing the structure of the first Soviet phytotron, we tried to utilite modern nachine technique more 'fully for physio- logical work.by adapting.it to a study of the problems of national isCanony that ere most important to our country. Now it is pos- sible to regulate temperature and air humidity, to warm or Cool the soil, to change the intensity and the character of light. It is not difficult to create soil and air droughts, or to expose plants to severe frosts. The erected experimental base permits rationing external conditions as regards their intensity as well as the duration of their influence. Apart from this, we are in a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A?1070 position to exert the action of one external factor or another upon a phase of the .life of an organism of interest to Us. Besides climatic conditions, the fertility of the soil . plays an important :Ole tin the life) of a plant. field, experi- meats 'conducted with the Application of fertilizers are insuf- ficient for * study-Of the activity of roots, and physiologists have long since been growing plants on a nutrient *option of Al very specific composition. F.and.and aquatic cultures have been used successfully for this purpose, ut in recent times a gravel medium has attracted attention. An attempt tBegin p.266) 1. being-made to combine optimal mineral nutrition with adequate aeration of the - "I , root system by using this method. The gravel density is filled - with.* nutrient solution the composition of which is studied. by repeating its circulation'after speciiic intervals. The sub. *trate can also be washed and later another, saline regime can be given. This installation permits changing within a wide rung* the root inhabited medium, according to the experimenter's will, as regards the relation of the nutritive elements within it, as well as the strength of their concentration, and, in addition to establish the characteristics of mineral nutrition of in organism during the'different phases of its development.' Thus, the name of the described establishment ? "Station of Artificial Climate? ? Is inaccurate: Here, it is possible to create not only diverse climate but Also different fertility of the root inhabited layer. ?The experimenter strives to regulate ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans A-1070 nearly the whole externarenvironment according .to his own 'judge- ment.- In eubjecting # plant to the action of certain- climatic'' factors and in changing mineral, nutrition and the water regime within a wide range, the physiologist brings about varied internal changes within (the plant) organism. Complex methods have to be used for their calculation.' Lately some new methods have been proposed. Hence, the Soviet phytotran. is being outfitted with modern laboratory equipment that 'makes it.possIbla to utilise radioleotopes, mass-spectrometry4 chromatography,- electrOphoisisis, epectrOscoPy, election and fluorescent microscopy, and cultures of isolated tissues and organs. , Climatising represents an effective method not only for the . study or individual physiological processes occurring within a plant, but also. its reaction as an orgenitm in its entirety. The. phytotron permits cresting special climatic and nutritive regimes for Individual organst roots, leaves, fruits and others et-specific times of life. By obserVing the react ion of a plant under such con- ditions, it is posilble to study more profoundly and to widen the theoretical' conception of the mutual relationohipS between the different porta of the organism. Thus, the newly created type of phYstologIcel laboratory is designated for a study of plant behaviors 1) under diverse climatic conditions, 2) with Varying mineral' and water regimes, 3) for an anelysis.of the Mechanism of physiological processes. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A4070 The Soviet phytotron provides conditions for a systematic, pronfound study of winter hardinetek drought resistance, salinity resistance, mineral nitrition and photiperiedic culture of plants. In accordance with the above, the laboratories of the profiles listed have been transferred to the Station. In the year l95i, forty four scientific workers and their steffe worked in -this 'Station. In the first yeas' of work much time and labor was spent at the Station on adjusting the different machine Installations, On assembling laboratory equipment, on developing and adapting methods and drawing up a systematic plan. Because the experimental base +was not completely finished, It was impossible to conduct investigations an e full schedule. All the results obtained can- not be stated here, one can merely indicate the trend of the work and let the factual material abtained illustrate it. importance of Temperature factor The Soviet phytotron permits making a study of the influence exerted upon plants by a very large interim/ of temperatures at the present time work Is already being conducted within the range of *45 to -I95.. This section has many interesting problems: it is essential to know the optimal heat regime for the idifferent varie- ties and crops at the different periods of their life; to establish . ? the sensitivity of the principal species to frosts; to determine Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1070 their hest resistanc4;.(Begin p.2671 to elucidate the influence . of specific temperatures upon the whole organ's* as well as upon its individual, organs; to demonstrste the reaction of physiologi- cal processes to long termite well ss to short term action of the hest factor. Investigation ?read ,resistance of southern crops conducted by 1..,A.-Neegoverov and A. K. Solovits (1957) was continued. They made.* study of the behavior of thermophilic plants at low positive temperatures and found that under these conditions Injuries may be caused by two factors; 1) as a result of direct unfavorable action of cold upon cells; 2) as a result of root infection by pathogenic soil microorganisms. Death occurred sooner in the hitter instance. Hence, the number of perished - sprouts can be notably decreased by treating seeds prior to seeding, and, better still, by dusting the soil with fungicide dust, if, of course, exposure to cold did not lest too-long. Viaenikov cucuabirs perished almost completely ,after exposure to cold for one week on the.usual soil, yit survived (fig. 1) when the preparation tetramethylthluremolisulfide (0.5 gm per kg) Was Introduced in the soil. Positive results were observed also in cotton plants. Fig. 1. Sprouts of Viaenikov cucumbers after -a 7-dei, exposure to cold at 8-14.* P - on sell treated with O. gm trimethyl-thluramdisulfide per kg; 11- on soil with no fungicide Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1070 Oood sprouts of maise_were, however, obtained after '- similar treatment of the, soil. ? A cold environment creates favorable conditions for root infection of thermophiles by pathogenic microorganisms not only durinc the germination period of seeds, but also after th0.140.'. pesrance Of sprouts. Hence, a'fungicide threstment of the seed material alone cannot prevent a subsequent infection when the -roots go down merkedly.deeper. F6? **ample, green pepper-Ebel- garskil (Eulgarlan) perste] developed e normal root system eller it had bun exposed to cold on ti soil disinfected with [the above] preparation,, In the seas soil the underground parts of 411 a plant died off causing depreesion of the entire plant(Fig. 2) when pathogenic microorganisms were not eliminated. Root in- 'faction complicates the study'of direct Influence of cold upon ? thermophiles and this factor mist'beeliminatid. If low, positive temperatures exert destructive ection upon crops sensitive to them, then they are not only safe, but revert] useful to cold-resistant species. To the latter these conditions are necessary in order to pass through their developmental pro- cesses. The study of vernalization (larovitatsliaj-of,green plants and seedlings of biennials Is still viry incomplete. AL. S. itruahilin clarified the Optimal regime for root crops. Carrot seedlings pass through the first stage of their development the quickest at +100 and +Ie. In colder weather (+1? up to 420) vernalization proceeds more slowly. It proceeds sUCcessfully. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (8) Trans A-1070 also when the (temperature) fluctuates between' +1 and 420 which is. often observed in nature in the change between day and night. Lower temperatures are necessaryalso for the intensification . of growth processes. (login p.265). &study of conditions that contribute toward the advent and termination of the dormancy period is one of the Station's teats. In the experiments conducted by N. A. Satarova some tulips (Of the Golden Harvest.(0oltden Etsrvest) variety) Were planted at .5' and others at +25?. The lower te*- polestars aCcelersted the passing of the dormancy period in habil; in thia.cass germination occurred 13 days earlier than under con- ditions favorable for growth. After 30 days the plants were trans- ", ferred from 4.5* into a room with +25' where. they soon blossOied out. The specimens lett the whale time at +9 or +25* -grew poorly0nd failed to flower. The hardening of collie to frostt also procoids?in hibernating specie* at law. positiv$temperstates. A study of this'phonomsnon In winter crops was made difficult by the fact that similar expert". meat* must be. conducted in light, tinder natural conditiens.thits' Is posilble Only in the tall and the spring. Yet. to Obtain law, positive temperatures with sufficient light intensity in a labort..: tory is technically difficult. Therefore, X. I. Transit* and 1 (1957). Jointly developed a Method that permits hardening Centel, in the - .-dark. I had demonstrated :earlier that in this -cape light was nee's.. ? sary4or the accumulation of Auger by means of photosynthesis (Tumanov. 1931). Mew, we have tried to enrich the tissues of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5' (9) Trans. A.-1070 winter crops with sugar by miens of their entry from external solutions. -Segments of coleoptiles the cells of which absorb sugar successfully from without proved convenient objects in similar . experiments (Tumanov and Trunova, 1957). A week's meintenance of cut-off-coleoptiles on a7saccharose solution at 00 (C)vas suf- ficient to enable second phase cells subsequently to pass through three days of hardening at temperature from ?42/ to -10. After the described laboratery preparation, all colepptiles in the 4 winter rye Viatka were preserved tip to -17', The percentage of survived objects was determined by a method is reliable as the growth of coleoptiles after they had been thawed out. Low :temperature alone is not enough for a first phase hardening of winter crops: because their cells must Still be enriched by sugar. Coleoptiles pass through this process on the solutions of many sugsrst rattiness, staltosit'and saccharose, less Intensively on glucese and poorly on lactose. This differenCe Is based on the dissimilar capacity of various Sugars to accumulate in cell!' In the form of other protective compounds. Lactose, to be pure, doe* penetrate inside coleoptiles, but it does not stock up by conversion into other sugars. The glucose solution used must be osmotically stronger than that of saccharose, because only thus the cells obtain a sufficient amount of sugar. For sacchaross, 12%-14% solution iwoptimal. In tissues, the first phase pro- coeds worse on weaker as well as on .stronger (solutions). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 10) Trans. A-1070 Sines wintee crops do not have a dormancy period, their growth processes weaken et the very time of their hardening (Tumanoi and Trunova, 190). (Sepia p.2691. Analyses have demonstrated that In coleoptiles the content of fres as well as of bound auxin ' decreases during the first phase of hardening. (The fact] that free auxins in cells influence their relistance to frost has been demonstrated by the deterioration of coleoptile hardening after an Increased concentration of indole acetic acid (200 mg per liter) has beenadded to a 121irsolution. ,The ability of cells to develop resistance depends also on their physiological condition. An im- portant increase in frost resistance is observed only in young coleoptiles. Fig. 2. Green pepper chilled for 13 days at 6-7?t P - in soil treated with'045 gm trimethyl-thiuramdisuifide per ,kg; K - in soil with no fungicide - /he station studied also the second phase of hardening. Northern tree species proved to be convenient objects for this purpose. twine to the, difficulty of producing very low tempera- tures In a. laboratory,their resistance had remained practically uninvestigated. As a rule they are not destroyed by frost under natural conditions. First of all, the frost resitsiance or northern trees was elucidated experimentally by the natural hardening observed In the vicinity of Moscow. In the course of three yeers (1955-1957)4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10 Trans, A-I070 A. A..ftrasavtsev and I determined the resistance of -the branches of birch, pine, oaks sprttce, linden, apple trees and other species. In this case, their chilling in laboratory cabinets was 'begun with the temperature that wee outdoors on that particular day, and ? It was conducted with a speed that eliminated a supplementary -- passing through the second phase of hardening. ? One-year shoots of birch, spruce and apple trees froze out in ?different seasons. at drastically varying temperatures. in the summer they perished et .9 end 0.7? C1, yet in the winter birch And -pine survive up. to -65?, *pro*. up to -50? and apple trees up to 400. In re- .. ? - 'talon to weather conditions, the maximal frost resistance in 411 . the same ppecies can reach different degrees. In birch*, for example, it was 7,50 one year and -65? another year. Attention has-been attracted by the strong increase in the resistance of tree species at the beginning of winter and?its eharp drop in the spring. In the atilt case hardening occurs at negative -temperatures (second phose), but in the lattercase there. Is observed a transition In cells from a 'frost resistant condition. Into a vegetative One. In winter crops, the second phase passes At Comparatively slightchilling (from -3* up to. -60). Now, our experiments have elucidated ,that in northern trees this pretest continues even during, severe frosts. These observations prompted (us) to :begin-s etudy of the hardening of resistant objects at different negative temperatures. It proved that frost resistance Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001=5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-1070 In northern species developed during a gradual and slow increase In frosts. .The apple tree (variety] Grushovka MOskevskaie freezes out et -40? after a.hardening that is usual under the natural condi. tions of the Moscow vicinity. By creating a mare favorable ex- ternal environment In the laboratory for the second phase, it is possible to increase resistance in the branches of this variety to such an extent that after keeping them for 21i. hours at -60?, their buds later open in the warm (atmosphere) and flower, although their wood had been slightly frozen (fog. 3). These objects sur- vive even -100?, but sustain serious injuries. An even more striking frost resistance is obtained in birch when the second phase of hardening Is mutated. (Begin 0.270).. lts shoot* die after lengthy timing at -40?. Similar branches survived 400? after, undergoing the proper preparation in a. laboratory, and 495? with injuries (fig. 4). In a mild winter, spruce was killed by frost at -30?, but its resistance was raised up to -100?..when it received . laboratory preparation, and with injuries [it survived] up to -199. The survival of etperimental branches has been demonstrated in . our work by their capacity for subsequent. growth. The trees of the northern belt ere capable of developing en. unusually high frost resistance. After passing successfully the second phase of hardening, they survive not only the most severs. frosts observed on the surface of the Mirth, but even considerably lower temperitures (-199). Such en exceptionally high resistance Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A4070 in tree species was obtained for the first time by laboratory hardening. By this means it was demonstrated that the objects used are indestructible by frost on the earth's surface. Their death during some winters is due to the fact that they were in- capable of developing maximal frost resistance as a result of unfavorable external conditions that occurred during the prepare.- tion period. Fig. 3. Frost resistance of the-apple tree variety Orusholika Moskovykais during the winter: left - after a supplementary laboratorY hardening; right - without laboratory hardening [Illustration shows] the apple tree Orushovka harden- ed up to -60? and in its natural state at -W.] Now one can ask a theoretically interesting question, could a further search for optimal conditions for hardening increase the resistance of northern tress to such an extent that they would be capable of surviving even temperatures close to the absolute zero? Dry seeds and dried infusoris, algae, lichens, mossvand also the sports of bacteria and fungi are capable of it (Becquerel, ? MO.' In our investigations, however, it Is a matter of obtaining the same phenomena In cells saturated With teeter which, undoubtedly, Is considerably more difficult and has not as yet been achieved by anyone. Under natural conditions, trees usually do not develop their potential record resistance due to Inferior hardening at negative temperatures. Their sharp fluctuations produce.an unfavorable Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) , Trans. A-I070 effect. Even in Siberia where thawing is absent,. Etreej branches warm up on sunny winter days considerably more than the air. In the aiming, however, as a result of the rapidly proceeding cooling-off of thetissues, the cells do not have sufficient time to undergo hardening. The data obtained about the tremendous importance of the _second phase to northern tree species do not belittle the first phase. Drenches cut-Off at the end of summer -and in the spring cannot be hardened successfully In a, laboratory by Ow action Of- 'negative temperatures alone. In making e study of the frost resistance in cells it is necessary to watch under a Microscope haw the freezing of tissues occurs. 0. A. Xrasevtsev (1957).designsd a freezing stage on which sections can be studied at any temperature down to -80? (fig. 5) Liquid nitrogen poured out in Dewerwessels chills the copper strips which thanks to a high hest conductivity transmit cold to the sec- tions lying in the chamber under the microscope. Temperature is taken on the.steseiwith a thermoelement and is regulated by the immersion magnitude of the copper plates (plestinok) in the liquid nitrogen. This is.accomplished.wiih a device that permits raisins and lowering Dewar vesoels. To prevent formation of frost on the glass, the lens of the microscope and the chamber with the prepare- tion are wrapped in a layer of cotton. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A-1070 Fig. Z. rrost-resistance of birch branches In the winter. Left -40? after long thawing; -1000 and -195* after supplementary laboratory hardening (at -10?, -20?, -30?, ..40?, -50* and -60?3 Fig. 5. Device for deep fretting (up to -80s) at the microscope table with liquid nitrogen Pig. 6. 14icrostope stage being chilled by a brine current from a freezing installation Fig. 7. Cells of * palisade parenchyma of a cabbage loaf examined through the epidermis! left - at room temperature; right'. at ,4* The chamber designed by hi. A. Samygle is convenient when work Is conducted with lower temperatures. its chilling is achieved 'With.the brine current fed with a pump from the refrigeration In- stallatlon (fig. C1). rig. I thews a palisade parenchyma of a . cabbage leaf before and after freezing (viewed from above through. the epidermis). At filt* the content of the cells decreases sharply In volume and each of them is surrounded with a large amount of Ice., limn chilling occurs rapidly then ice forms inside the cells. Sometimes cells containing ice inside and adjacent ones without It are found in the same section (fig. 6). If the tempereture is Increased then the coalesced crystals are transformed into solid. chunks of ice (fig. 9). ISegin p.2721. All the cells of an onion epidermis that had ice inside of them perished after it thawed out. Others preserved a red pig- ment! these had no Ice within the pretoplast and they survived. At the present time very little Is known about'the life of plants In a frozen state. Under such conditions their biochemical Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R016400040001-5 (16) Trans. A-1070 is processes ore severely depressed, which illustrated by (their) intensity of respiration. As determined by E. 0. Rakitina, respiration intensity of pine and birch branches that are immune to winter frosts decreases sharply at negative temperatures as compared with those during the summer. ,As frosts increase up to -226, respiration intensity decreases to such an extent that it takes considerable time before the changes that have occurred in the composition of the surrounding air can be detected. Thus, during severe winters, our northern trees are for a long time in a badly dehydrated (by the formation of ice) condition with a poorly noticeable biochemical activity. (Plate inserted between pages 272 and 2731s Pio. 6. Epidermis of an onion bulb at 4?4 two cells were filled with ice, but the rest were not frozen Pig. 9. Cells of a cabbage epidermits at -1.5?. Transformation of coalesced crystals into en unbroken mass at the relaxation of frost A characteristic feature of over4inter1no plants is the en- richment of their internal atmosphere with carbon dioxide. Analyses' made by 1. 0. Rakitina have demonstrated that the CO2 content within the shoots of fir was at different temperature as follows: 'from 4.2 to 0?44.6%; at -6c013.114 at -206=19.3%. It can be assumed that an accumulation of CO2 when frosts increase Is obtained not only as a result of the increase in its solubility bluster, but ? also as a result of encumbered diffusion of gases from the frozen Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-1070 plant the protoplast of which is strongly condensed. :Investigations ofheat-resistance conducted by-Itf. 0. Molotkovskil have demonstrated that bean shoots kept preliminarily for 12. hours on a 0.1 molar solution of ammonium nitrate died off when heated for threitours at 442?.5, while controls were only slightly injured. (Begin p.2733. These experiments have demon- strated Altat it is possible for plants to die:? at high temperatures from selfpoisoning of cells with-ammonia. Accumulation of the . latter during heating has a toxic effect. Such injuriee are not " . observed under normal Oonditiohs. With the aid of inhibitors, ? it was established that the respiration proass exerts protective action and increases heat resistance in plants. when temperature is high, there Occur unfaVorable changes in nitrogen metabolisit an accumulation of nitrogen amines faminnyi *mot] Is obtained by Means of hydrolysis. By the use of heating or chilling in special Incubators, It is possible to maks a study of the,work carried out by the root ? system at various heat regimes. Experiments conducted by R. L. VittokOr have demonstrated that many southern ferns grow in 6 warm. root inhabited medium. Grapes and tomatoes, tobacco and pepper (fig. 10) and other crops produce more vigorous plants at a soil temperature of +28? -- 30? than at *12? -- Ve. An elucidation has been Initiated as to how the war/ling up of the root system con? - tributes toward growth Improvement of the entire organism. One of the many factors that exerts action ih this direction Is the 4111 influence of temperature upon the movement of minaral elmagint* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-'1070. from the roots into the leaves. Experiments have demonstrated that radioisotopes of phosphorus (P32) accumulate In the sur- , face organs of a lemon that grows in warm soil in a considerably larger quantity than In cold soil (fig. M.' Another interesting .fatt has also been established. Radloitotopes of phosphorus -enter the leaves and other vegetative pirts'even'in warm soil 'Many Utes more-intensively'in.light than in darkness. Further ? it Is contemplated to set Up experiments (to test] the influence of the temperature factor upen the ftultbearing Organs and to study-by.this means the effect of their warMilh or chilling upon the magnitude and the quality of the yield. ' Fig. 10. Influence of soil temperature* left.- 'at 280 30?; right - at 120 -- 14.41 top row - grapes end tomatoes; bottom row- pepper and tobacco Fig: 11. Influence of, soil temperature upon the movement of radioisotope P32 from the roots into . the tops of lemon shoots: at top - at 33?:. at the bottom - at l9 - influence of Different Air Humidity upon Plants Practical interest Is aroused primarily by a study of the resistance of varieties and crops to dry winds._ The action of this factor was exerted upon various objects in a greenhouse with a climate conditioner. In this greenhouse, wind was maintained for 10-12 hours with a 25-287 relative air humidity at a,tem- perature of +42?. P. A. Oenhelt and 11.-A. Plogdanov have clarified -experimentally the influenceof pre-seeding hardening of seeds Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19)- Trans. A-1070 upon the subsequent reilstence of plants. obtained (roll these seeds to sit dryness. At first, the seed materiel swelled until it Contained a specified amount of water and efterward it was dried. out strop* temperpture within 36.0 hours. Erljana tomato** 'grown from control seeds were. badly injured by the indicated dry winds yet those grown from treated seeds Survived it well .(fig. 12)..'An'incresse Intha.reeistance to air dryness was obtained *1st. in sunflowers ind the malt* Minnesota Extra [Mee- sote.Ekstral.frOm seed hardening. ? The method.proposed is effective in increasing plant resis- tance also to soil aridity. In this cases gravel culture end Knopts nutrient solution were used. fillegin p.2741. Drying of the root-inhabited layer was achieved br taking the gravel pot tvason] from the lower dish containing the nutrient solution. Ernst* ? tomatoes grown fres seed? that had been subjected to swelling prior to seeding and subsequently dried proved to be'more,reistant to soli dryness as well. , Lnfluence exerted upon plants by, gradation of sir' humidity that inhibits either'groWth or fruiting without any manifestation of injurious action ,continue to be inadequately investigated. ? 2..0. 2hUrbitskii growaome tomatoes at a 50% relative Air humi- dity and others at a To; one. Fig. 13 shows that plants 'grown In "more humid atmosphere were considerably sore vigOreus, but the yield of their fruits wet smaller (1100 gm); in a-drier medium the ,growth of the surface portions was less stable, but the fruit yleld 410 was higher (1600 gm). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01.426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans.. A-1070 Fig. 12. Influence of Ore-seeding hardening of seed *materiel by P.: A. Oenkelle Method for resistence'Of Briton* tomatoes to.dry-wInds:JA/1.centrols; riGht - a pleat growlyfroM treated suds Pig. 13. Influence OfAlfferent airThlifty upon ? the vigor of tomato plants 'and their yield: plant grew at a 50X humidityl 111121A- at a re- lative air humidity. The coltniiii-ihow the size of the fruit yield Analyses have demonstrated that at air.litumidity.equaling 75%, plants assimilate more potaisium and phosphorus but less nitrocien. -Wilier theta Conditions the supply of fruits with nitrogen was poorer.: tney ieceived only upYto 40% of it, yet at a 0% relative air humidity - up to- 60%. it followsfrom this eXperiment that 411 a more vigorous development *Utile vesetutlikt:organi is observed ? in ,toimatoesgrowing in i 'damp atiosphere: Their dominant position Within the cegsniem impairS the growth of the fruits. Herso.wa. .encounter the reciprocal action between the. vegetative pens end the fruit-bearing organs. Magill 14270. Influence of the Light Regime Since 'the lighting instalistion, have not yet been completed it.the Station, it has been ,impossible to set up experiments 'for the elucidation of the influence of Light intensity and light properties upon different plants: Different degrees or exposure to ? light can be obtained by changing the distance between the luminescent lamps and the objects.. A more powerful currantof radiant energy can be obtained by combining incandescent lamps with. lumineicent ones. An Investicetion of Action exerted the -spectral ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans. A.4070 ? composition of light upon growth, development and photosynthetic products holds out prospects. It has also been proposed that the importance of this factor be elucidated (with regard) to the hardening of plants to frost, for their .entry into a state of dormancy, and their coming out of it. Various sections of the spectrum are obtained,by the use of luminescent lamps with dif- ferent luminophores. -Work conducted with intermittent light and a. different length and 'intensity:of. the flash (vspyshka) is promising. In experiments with varying lights the physical aspect of the phenomenon (absorption of radiant energy by leaves) as well as the emerging physiological changes.will be studied. Important work remains to be done in finding the optimal lighting regime for plants by means of selecting the proper sources of light required (Or the normal functioning of the phytotron as wall as for a more ? successful use oflight culturing in the practice of vegetable growing end floriculture. The further study of the phenomenon of photoperiodism has prospects. Much has been done in analysing the diurnal Influence upon the blossoming of plants, but very little to elucidats the action of photoperiod conditions. upon growth processes. In this sector, the role Of this factor attracts attention When perennial, ? hibernating plants enter the period of dormancy and also.whe.M they come out of it. Our experiments have demonstrated the summer diurnal influence upon the growth of many northern tree speciest.birch, Siberian acacia, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans. A-1070 larch and others. In a short (14-hour) photoperiod birch trees ? acquired the height of dwarfs, produced no branches and the leaves .of seedlings fell. off in the autumn. The same picture was observed on a Moscow day in nature, only their growth intensity was saint - what better. In one-year-oid trees that bad had the benefit of continuous lighting, the increment in growth surpassed the (year- olds) severel times; Many buds opened and formed secondary branches; ? seedlings grew till cold weather eat in and retained their leaves. ? Many Species .(grown] ander long day (conditions) do not enter the dormancy period and, hence, usually (rees, out during the. winter ? (Moshicov, 1935; lakusheva, 1945 and others). In our experiments,- 411 We determined the frost resistance Of birch seedlings grown in different photoperiods. During the cold period of the year 411 variants were put.Under favorable condition* for the first as well as for the second phases of hardening, after which they were **posed to the action of Severe frosts In fresaing cabinets. It bookie clear that birch yearling* that had been kept under continuous ? lighting until cold weather set In were then capable of utilising. chart autumn days with law pOsitive temperatures. (Begin p.276). These seedling* entered the dormancy period and, after their harden- ing, were capable of iurvIvIngi..-WJC] without suffering any ? noticeebte injuries. They -were not exposed to more severe frosts: It was assumed that the yearlings will not 'survive_ even7these-frosts. Vat, atter a short natural day and subsequent hardening, the birch seedlings. survived -194?. A further study of the influence of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (23) Trans. A-I070 various photoperiods on the background of favorable and of colt weather promises to expand the theOreticel concept on the processes that prepare plants for the winter. Fig. lk. Dynamics of photosynthesis in cu- cumbers - under constant external conditions under luminescent lamps; on on overcast summer day (Diagram shows 1): hours of exposure to light ?MD time of day,' (Vertical lino): mg CO2 per die/hour Since the Station is capable of msintaining constant external ? conditions, it was.interesting to trace the photosynthetic rhythm In an experiment of this. type. N.41. Protasova set up correspond- ing experiments with cucumbers. CO2 aisimilation observed under luminescent lamps was more significant than that In the open on an , overcast day in the summer. -Regardless of the constancy of the ex- ? ternal environment (lighting-,? temperature, air humidity) In . a room where climate is conditioned, photosynthetic intensity continues to show notable fluctuations that decrease gradually ' (tli'. 14). In the future, it will be necessary to trace the rhythm also of other physiological processes taking place in similar experiments. Variation in Root Nutrition Soil fertility of some type or other is of great importance In the life of plants. Hence the development of the physiology of an optimal regime for mineral plant nutrition .continues to be Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (24) Trans. A.-4070 One of the fundamental tasks. Tha establishment of the characteris- tics of_root-nutrition for the principle crops is attracting at- ? tintion. to select properly the time for and the composition of supplementary feeding, it is necessary to elucidate the require- ments of an organism in nutrient substances during the different phases of its development. The effectiveness of fertilisers de- pends not only on the hereditary properties of varieties and crops, but also on the weather regime... Hencc,'It is essential to knot, the reaction of plants to any kind of root nutrition On the back- ground ?f different meteorological combinatiOns. These and many other problems Can be studied by making use of the phytotron, In: particular with the aid of the method of soilless plant culture (on gravel). This method is being used successfully in the Soviet. Union byV. A. Chesnokova and E. H. Basyrina (1957). Growing :plant* on an inert media* with a solution of the necessary salts permits modifyingtoot'nutrition Within a, wide range. This offers a possibility of resolving problems Of diag- nosing lesiva* successfully and rapidly as to the requirements of young crops and.plentings.in any type of supplementary food. A. F. Agsfonove grew different varieties of tomatoes. on gravel without transplanting them. Filling up of the substrate with a nutrient solution was carried out with a.pump twice a day 124 hours). Under these conditions the tomatoes grewwell. In connection with the development of a method for gravel culture, A. F. Igafonova made a study of the importance of various forms Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (25) - Trans. A-1070 ? of 'Iran for beans and spinach when added to a nutritive solution. iron chelated (khelatirovennot] with ethylene diamine-tetraacetic acid Is more favorable than Chloride or citrate, especially in an ecid and alkaline reaction of e medium. Chelated iron moves within a plant with relative ease. Analysis has demonstrated that the mineral 'form of iron (FeCl3) and In a considerable measure the citrated- one accumulate primarily in the roots, but the.cht7- lated-one penetrates in large emounts into the leaves and stems. In the latter case the purfac.e mass and. the root system developed _better end chlorosis was abeent. The growing of plants on an inert medium permits unfolding the study of their salinity.resistance.more widely,' since hereto- fore it was difficult to control the qualitative compositien of _e soli solution. The Station is equipped to elucidate fftgin p.2771 the action of various types of ealinity.upon different plant*, Of chloride, sulfate, carbonate and their various combinations. The problems arising (in this study] Include: the importance of salt concentrations., the duration of their action, the sensitivity of an organism 0 the salts during the different stages of Its life, the character of the after effect when put on normal root nutri? Further, it will be necessary to elucidate the salt-re- sistance 10 plants under different climatiC regimes, for example, on a background of high soil and air temperature, end under dif- ferent [degree of) dryness' of the latter. If the variations, listed were accompanied by corresponding tissue analyses, then it would be Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (26) Trans. A-1070 possible to penetrate deeper into the organisstion of the life. of varieties and crops under the_ Indicated unfavorable charse- ? - teristics of tbi root-inhabited Isyer, -The development of methods For a diagnosis of the degree of salinity as well as of pliant sensitivity to It Is of importance to practice, as Is s search for means of increasing the resistance of seedings and planting*. B. P. Stroganov made a study of the influence of various types. of salinity upon cotton and found that they, cause unique morphological and anatomical changes in the organism. Fig, 15. shows that the smallest possible cellular (kletnoe3 (xeromorphic) structure Is found In cotton with (an excess amount) of sulfate salts. An epidermis is distinguished when it contains chlorides 411 here the cells are very large with anancreeted content of water, but the conducting system is poorly differentiated. The interme- diate position is held by the epidermis of the variant on a fresh water Ina presnaml background. Fig. 15. Epidermis of cotton leaves with different types of salinity. 1.4_11 - on a fresh-water back- ground; center ? with sulfite; right - with chloride (Must.]: Controls. Sulfate Chloride Fig. 16. influence of lg soil salinity upon cotton. From left to rights 1 - controls; 2-- sulfate; 3.. carbonate; 4 - chloride salinity The solutions under study exert specific action not only upon the external appearance of a plant and its structures.but they Jend originality also to physiological functions. Chloride salinity Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (27) Trans. A-1070 inhibits the .growth and the accumulation of dry substance* more Intensively (Begin p.278) than the -sulfate one (fig. 16). Since, In the latter case, cell growth decreases drastically (small - celled), chlorides, obviously, decrees* sharply the division and differentiation of cells, and sulfates - their growth, in the first instance plants possess a lower trenspiration intensity than in the second instance. Water absorption in chloride salinity is provided-by the increased suction power of the cell es a result. of the increase (obtained) in the osmotic pressure of cellular Juice, but In sulfate (salinity) it occurs as a result of a better7, developed root system and conduction paths. ?A further profound study of the influence of various salts may not only reveal the re- sistance mechanism, but it may even obtain important data on cell physiology, improve the knowledge of growth processes and enrich our conception Of biochemical conversions. Cultivation of Isolat*d'Orgsne and Tissues One of the methods used In * study of physiological fuactions Is the culturing of cut off organs and tissues.(Butenkop 1956; Smirnov, W56). This method was used earlier in the Soviet Union in Individual investigations, but systematic work had not been .conduCted. A.M,Salrndv (1156) managed at the Station to obtain. sterile cultures of Continually growing isolated roots of a series 'Ar plants: tomatoes, carrots, spring vetch, red clover and alfalft on the condition that they were transferred every weekto 0 fresh Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (28) Trans. A-1070 nutrient solution. In other species: cereals, many tree species, and ginseng (Panix ginseng) growth ceased and cells died oft . after several transplantings. At first they' lost their capability to divide at the tips el the main roots; then it became necessary to utilise the secondary ones. The daily increment in en alfalfa root was 40-50 mm. Within 16 days.ths length of the, root increased 10 times as compared with the original sise (fig, 17), it was established that molybdenum had a stimulsting effect upon the isolated foots of vetch, clover and alfalfa. Replecement of iron sulfate with citrate In the nutrient liquid improved the growth of this organ. The external nutrient medium Undergoes'notable changes under. the influence ef the physiological activity of roots. As a result of ,its selective ion absorption its reaction shifts in en alkaline direction (pH from 4.6 up to 5.5). Under the influencs of ex- tracellular enzymic activities of tomato encl.:aft:Ifs roots, there appear reducing substances within the external solution. Fig, 17. Growth of an isolated alfalfa root in a sterile nutrient solution: left - original tip of a root; Tight - the sass iFEritter 16 days of culturing ? . The secretory function of the root system has been inade- quately investigated. In connection with this circumstance, the recloroce1 action occurring between the isolated Toots of dif- ferent species must be elucidated by means of culturing them Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 -(29) ' ? Trans. t-1070 jointly under sterile conditions. 'he study of the symbiosis be- tween legumes with nodule-forming bacteria must be expanded. Egegin p.2791. important work must be carried out on an enalysis of the effect of variousphysiologically active substances gib- berellic acid, stimulants and inhibitors of growth, vitamins etc. MhCh fresearch) reMaine to be done before (we) 'hall be able to . understand root assimilation of organic forms of phOiphorus, nitro- gen end other complex compounds. 'Anilucidation of the. influence of various external. conditions will help to discover the changes Occurring in the activity of roots and In their edeptetion to the surrounding environment. , Methods of sterile culturing art being used also in work con- ducted with the whole organism. A. f4. Smirnov (l958) demonstreted. that alfalfa shoots contain intufficient carbon. He increased sharply the vigor of the root system (fig. 18) in this plant by adding 25 saccharose to sterile agar. Obviously, the extremely slow growth of alfalfa following.its seeding, When it is readily stifled by 'media, can be explained by the small carbohydrate reserves in the seed. 1t ? it is desirable that the method for sterile culturing of Isolated tissues be used more extensively so that problems of the biosynthesis of alkaloids and many other substances can be resolved. M. S. Hardinskaia studied the lignificstion processes of cell membranes by thia_Method. ' Besides:being theoretically' Interesting, the lignification deposit within them is of practical Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001:5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (30) Trans. A.4070 Importance: "maturing" of the wood of fruit crops Is connected with their better preparation for the minter, while lignification or haulms increases the resistance of cereals to lodging. In experiments conducted with isolated calluses of carrots it was possible to obtain an increase.in the amount of lignin by intro- ducing Into the external culture medium one of its precursors: glucoside of coniferin. The increase in lignification is demon- strated by microchemical reactions; lesgin p.280]; it is accompanied OY an Increased increment of dry substance (fig. 19). fig. 18. influence of 2Z saccharoso added to agar upon the growth of the root system in alfalfa shoots: left - without sacchaross;:Latat - with saccharose Pig. 19. Growth of a callus isolated from a carrot: upper, - control; lower - when glucoside of coniferin was Added . The method for culturing isolated tissues is used widely In the study of growth processes and dell differentiation'phenomena. R. a. Eutaw) fa women] (1956) conducted 'experiments with calluses of carrots, wild gripes and Jerusalem artichoke. They weregrown' .an agar under Constant under constant external conditions (tem- perature 26? (CI, air humidity 70%) in different nutrient mediat .that of White Waite], Geller and Nitsch (Niche). The best re- sults.were obtained from the latter mixture; it 01 distinguished by a large potassium and nitrogen content. The length of time the callus was grown between transpientings was i.5 months. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 11) ? . 'Trans. A..1070 Three types of calluses were propagated for experiments and study: 1) a normal one, i.e. one that requires that auxin be added to the nutrient medium; 2) the.root.knot (gall) type that grows . without an auxin additive, end 3) "the adapted" ("priuchennyi") type that evolved intermittently from the normal one and is distinguished from the latter by its ability to-synthesise auxin. interest has been aroused by "the adapted" inpriurochennyiul callus of carrots (0autherette clone) that has been growing continuously in an iso- lated state for 20 years (fig. 20). Pig. 20. Adapted callus of a carrot root (Gautheretts clone); cultivated in an isolated state for 20 years A.Ciearlypronounted seasonal periodisa has been noted in the growth of calluses. Regardiess Of the constanCir of conditions in a room where the climate Is controlled and the uniformity of the food, the most intensive growth, processes have been observed In the spring, and at the beginning of summer; they proceed at the .slowest pace between November and January. A continuous Increase in the dimensions of a callut cannot always be obtained; in carrots, for instance, there sometimes op- . pear on it roots, but in the case of chicory a Whete plant can be obtained from it. The different relation of calluses to temperature has been clarified. In corrots their growth stops from 4.9 to 441., but they are preserved under these conditioni for a. period of 3-4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (32) . Trans. 44-I070 Months. Later, having been transferred to an optimal heat regime, they intensively increase in size and no necrosis is found in " ? their tissues. Yet, calluses of wild grapes not Only.cease'to giow at. the Indicated decreased temperatures, but. they completely perish within a month. in light, the else of a callus increases more slowly. . - 0:itudy was made of the effect of many.physiologically active 'substances upon the growth of calluses; trilotio-benseno acid, adenine,,gibbereilic acid, indole acetic acid, maleic acid hydro- xide, sodium.ethyl-xanthogenate, coconut milk etc. -Prom the re- sults obtained it can be noted that adenine stimulates the remo- tion of buds, but their shoots are different. Some concentrations of maleic hydraside inhibit growth up to 5.5 months arid others' provoke necrosis* There is reason to anticipate that the method for Culturing 'isolated organs and tissues will be used in the future even more extensively. It permits eliminating correlative reciprocal re- lations between different organs, elucidating .the Influence, of different substances upon plants by means of entering the cells from the external environment, and it offers a possibility of growing the objects under investigation in an external environment at a specifid nutritive regime controlled by the experimenter. (Begin p.2811. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R0104000400015 ' DeclassifiedandAppmedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (33) trans. A.-1010 Future tasks The statement of the results obtained has indicated and eubetentleted the trend of the physiologics1 work conducted at the Station. All of the work wan carried out on a background of extensive variation of the factors of external environment: tem- perature of the sir end the soli* degree of atmospheric dryness* Intensity and properties of light* length of day* mineral nutri- tion and water regime. A few things must be added to the above- sold. Interesting data can be obtained in making a comparative study of the physiology of :seed gerMination in theraophilic and cold resistant species. Pre-seeding treatment of seed material practiced as a method of exerting action upon the rudimentary organism hes been attracting increasing attention. Facts already available permit anticipating substantial re- sults from a study of thermoperiodiem. Here* it will be necessary to disclose the characteristics of this phenomenon it different types of plants and to understand its physiological mechanism. Heretofore* the attention of researchers was centered chiefly on the transition of the organism from vegetative growth to generative development. The second important half of its life from flowering up to maturing - continues to be poorly investigated. In this section there arise =any problems connected with fertill- cation* setting of treas1 the growth of the letter and with pro- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 310 Trans. Aa1070 found biochemical changes occurring within them during maturing. In exerting the influence of various external rectors upon the whole wigs/dem as well as upon Its individual pert* et this stage a its lift, It is essential to extend the study of the physiology of deposit* found in the reproductive organ* Of carbohydrate, . protein and fat reserves* end to establish the conditions determining the magnitude and quality of the yield. Physiologically active substances (etimulents and inhibitors of growth and others) do not always produce smiler results when their action Is !exerted upon plontsi their influence is changed notably by conditions of external environment. Hence, it Is desir able to trace their action during different nether regimes and to try to rind more effective method* for the use of these preparations In practice. Such an approach promisee s. more nrIed understanding at the role and the mechanism of physiological thengeewten specific chemicel compounds are introduced into the organism. ' Apart from a general analysis of vital functions, the phyto- tron creates the required Conditions for the development.of partial physiology of plants as well. available devices permit establishing economically important characteristics in varieties end crops,, elucidating their behavior under various climatic conditions. end on the background of varied toil fertility. it is desirable that this work be. conducted by physiologists in Conjunction with breeders and egeotechnicians having centralised tr.) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprwedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDIP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (35) Trans. A4070 It in branch. institutes end at experiments:1 stations in which phytotrons probably wilt arise In the near future. ? To aecomplish this* one of the tasks of the Stetion is the meetting up of rich* modern techniques to serve the-lett-nee Of plant. industry. This work is conducted In conjunction with the engineers and its objective is the designing of new installations end Apparatuses. Per example* during the period reported* the Station hes designed an installation that is to determine frost resistance of fruit trees during the winter directly In the. orchard. A similar structure ten be created for the purpose of determinlne the resistance of winter crops and perennial grasses In the. field. On the basis of the experience obtilined*.more simple end lett expensive climate Amaines suitable for the solution of prectiCal problems at plant industry experimental establishments end to aid the latter in setting up research. work will havete be developed In, the future. Interest in. the phytotron is widespread in our country. It suffices to say that within a yearis time the Station besi given advice to 25 scientific ettehlishments on the construes tion* (Begin 0.2821* the designitg end the work of climate*. re.. friteration and other installations. it is obvious* from all that has been said, that the phytotron represents a: good experimental base. It permits developing syetema- 'neatly problems that heretefore could not be brought up becaun. of the absence of the corresponding materiel circumstances. The available equipment permit** within ComptiratiVely short time* 0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (36) Trans. A-1074 Investigating many complex biological phenomena occurring within the plant organism. This offers a possibility of forming a clear Ides regarding the behavior of plants in a more complex field ?setting with various combinations of climatic as well as soil conditions, which facilitates the solution of the practical problems arising in plant industry. Because of the importance of the described new type of laboratories, one can't help anti- cipating that the building as will as the *quipping of the first Soviet phytotron be completed at the earliest possible date. LITERATURE Butinko, R. O. 1956. Cultivation of isolated tissues. Plato- logila Restenii, 34 277486. Krasevtosv, 0. A. 1951. Microscopie observations of plant ob- jects at very low temperatures. Fie101ogila Rastenil* 4, 570-572. ' Moshkov, B. S. 1935. Thotoperiodiam and frost.resistanca of perennial plents. 'Zr. Priki. Dot., Gen. 1 tel., SeP11. 111, 6, 232-261. - 2 ' Nazgovorov, L. A. and Sdlovtev, A. K. 1957. Cold resistance . of sprouting seeds and pathogenicity of the soil. Fitiologlia Rastenii, 1, 4B9-504. ? Sairnov, A. NI. 1956. Use of the method for the cultivation of isolated roots In plant physiolegy. risiologlia Rastenn, 3, 360-304. TUmsnov, 1. 1. 1931. Hardening of winter plants to low tempera- tures. Tr. Prikl. Bat., Gen. iSil., 25, 69409. - 19$T. Stints 11* Iskusstvennogo Klimata. Vesta. AN SSSR, 10, 111-116. Tumanov, 1. 1. and Krasavtsev, 144 1955. Frost resistance in _woody plants. Fielologlia Rastenii, 2, 320?.333. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ?, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 37) Trans. A-I070 Tumanov, I. 1. and Trunova, T. I. 1957. Hardening of the tissues of winter plants with the aid of sugar absorbed from an ex- ternal solution. Fitiologlia Rests:tit, 44 397-408. - 1958. ? Influence of growth processes upon the ability of tissue hardening In winter plants. Fisiologlia Hastenii, 5, 112-122. ? Chesnokov, V. A. and eatyrina, E. H. 1957. orawing of plants without soil on artificial media. Vest. S.-Kh, Nauki, G04 Vtorol, 121-128. lakusheva, E.1. 1945. Frost resistance of clover and alfalfa in connection with plant cultivation condition during the pri. ceding vegetative period. Dokl. Vses. Seveshch. pa Fisiol. Rest" no. no 147-159. Becquerel. P. 1950. La suspension de la vie au-dessous de 1/200 K absolu par demagnetisation adiabstique de l'alun de fer ? dans is vide It plus eleve. C. r. Acad. Sci,, 231, 261.263. ? Bouillenne, R. and BouillenneWairand, N. 1950. Le phytotron de l'Institut Botanique de l'Universite de Liege. Archives de Institut eo. 20, 1-61. Break, I. P. and Sleets. L. 1956. The phytotron of the Institut. ? of Horticultural ylent'Eteeding at Wageningen, Netherlands. Euphytica, 5, 205.217. Went, P. W. 1957. The experimental control of plant growth. Chronic. Botenica, 17, 1-343. - Article received at Editorial Offices July 16, 1958 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 trans. Re'Alli Coordinated conference on problems of scientific . research work in the sphere of feed for agricultural animals. Vestnik Sellskokhoziaistvennol Nauki, vol. 4, no. 3, P.144-147. . March l99. 20 V633 (In Ruselan) On December 23 and 24., 058, a Conference was held at the All- - Union Scientific...Research institute of Animal Industry; it summed. up. the result% of scientificd.research'xprk, as wallas Outlined the basic .trends for research in the field of feeding of agri- cultural animals. The Conference was opened by the Corresponding Member of .VASKIIVIL [All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences imeni V. I. Lenin], M. F. Tome., N. A. Staroverov, who addressed the meeting in the name of the Ukrainian Academy of Agriculture, (Begin p.1451 said that in the Ukraine, in order to increase proteins in the rations of agricultural animals, corn was planted together with soybeans and lupines. This mixture was given to the cattle as green additional ration. Along with this, corn is ensilaged with leguminous plants in the presence of organic and inorganic compounds of nitrogen. Milk yields of cows have increased as a result of feed- ing corn silage, prepared with ammonium sulfate. Interesting 'results were obtained in experiments of artificial drying of soybeans, alfalfa, carrot and beet tops, as well as carrot roots. Storage of dried plants in a ground form is the most effective Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1071 in paper bags. For instance, the losses of carOtene did not exceed 40-50% in-storing dried carrots. N. A. Staroverov ex- pressed a'wish about the necessity of formation of a single method for determining the digestibility of fodder. Sapunov (Belorussian Institute of Animal Industry) re- ported that two complex stations of the Institute study the lupine as a source of plant protein. Lupine is ensilaged and used (as a green feed) in a pure form and in mixtures with peas and oats; this produces especially good results; the experimental swine stepped up the weight increases, the mulch cows increased milk yields when they were fed carbSmide (urea). In concentrated ? rations 100-120-g of carbaMide replaced the digestible protein. Good results were obtained,. in swine fattening,, by replacing 100 g of proteins with penicillin mycelium. Studies of hydrolysis were conducted on much cows. he milk yield of cows increased by 300-400 g per day when 3 kg of hydrolysed and yeasted straw ? flour was added. Professor N. I. Zakharlev (Kirghiz Scientific-Research Insti- tute of Animal Industry ,and Veterinary Science) reported that in ? 1958 experiments were conducted in the Institute on the enrich- ment of corn silage with alfalfa. Plantings of peas and soy- beans, as S source of high protein feed for young animals, are very promising under conditions of the republic. The effective- ness of mixed plantings of barley and of vetch is being studied. In the Kirghiz Institute of Animal Industry.plants are being studied from the point of view of their content of iodine and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1071 strontium; ensilaging of corn and sugar beet tops is being conducted; experiments are conducted on ensilaging of corn stalks, tops of sugar and fodder beets; of corn and alfalfa. Professor A. P. Dmitrochenko (Leningrad Agricultural lnsti, tute) pointed out in his report that 'observations, conducted by him, gave him reason to make a conclusion that the digestibility of proteins of different degrees of solubility is similar, but their absorbability is dissimilar; their effect on the organism of the animal is unlike also. Oil cake, infusion in 1g salt solution was used in feeding the calves. Observations of the microbic process in the rumen have shown that the presence of ? ketone bodies In milk pointed to the disturbance of fermentation processes in the rumen. Professor D. V. Elpattevskil (Saratov Zooveterinary Institute) reported that at ifie Institute much attention is paid to the de- velopment of feeding norms for large cattle* horses and swine. A method of digestibility of feeds in vitro has been established, as well as in animals. :Experiments were conducted on free (un- limited] additional protein end mineral feedings* which gave good results. Experiments were conducted on free feeding of trace elements.' A method of chemicil treatment of straw with alkalies (In the course of 7-10 days) was developed at the Institute; in such cases the physical structure of the cellulose was changed and its food value increased. V. V. Alipov (South-Eastern Institute,of Agriculture) ac- . . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A4071 quainted the Conference with results of experiments of feeding mixture of corn and soybeans (mixed planting), which gave negative results, since, apparently, in mixed plantings the con- tents of proteins were reduced in corn in connection with its in- hiPition. The conclusion was made that in mixed plantings it is necessary to carefully choose the components for the mixture. Experiments were conducted on feeding carbamide to much cows (100 got. carbamide replaced the oil cakes) for the enrichment of the ration with nitrogen, as well as adding carbamide to the corn silage.- Experiments were conducted on feeding-poultry with hydrolyzed yeaitsi'they gave positive results. L. A. Shchetinov reported that Omsk Institute of Agriculture conducted experiments on utilizing protein of animal, origin. For instance, lake crayfish "gammalue (gammards/l(source of protein)was used in fattening of over 80 thousand ducks and over 24 thousand chickens. P. T. Tribulkin mentioned that in experiments, which were. conducted in Sibirskif Scientific-Research Institute of Animal Industry, plants were included Into the, rations of isrge'cattle, In particularly, soybeans, containing protein In large amounts, In order to increase the level of the protein feeding. In 1957, lp to 15 c of protein :and 3-6 c of digestible protein were contained in the harvest,, obtained from one hectare (2.471.eciee) of green mass of soybeans, as the analysis has shown. When feeding silage to cows, which was.made Of a.mixtare of corn and of. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10 Trans. A-1071 qusinted the Conference with results of experiments of feeding a mixture of corn and soybeans (mixed planting), which gave negative results, since, apparently, in mixed plantings the con- tents of proteins were reduced in corn in connection with its in- hiPition. The conclusion was made that in mixed plantings it Is necessary to carefully choose the components for the mixture. Experiments were conducted on feeding carbamide to much cows (100 g of carbamide replaced the oil cakes) for the enrichment ' of the ration with nitrogen, sit well as adding carbamide to the corn silage. Experiments were conducted on feeding 'poultry with hydrolysed yeaitsvthey gave positive results. L. A. Shchptinov reported that Omsk Institute of Agriculture conducted experiments on utilising protein .of animal origin. 'Por instance, lake crayfish "gsmmalus" Comments?' .(source of protein)was used in fattening of over 80 thousand ducks and over 24 thousand chickens. P. T. Tribulkin mentioned that In experiments, which were. conducted in Sibirskil Scientific-Research Institute of Animal Industry, plants were included Into' the, rations of large cattle, in particularly, soybeans, containing protein In large amounts, in order to increase the level of the protein feeding. In 1957, lo to 15 c of protein and 3-6 c of-digestible protein were contained in .the harvest., obtained from one hectare (2.471.acres) of green mass of soybeans, as the analysis has shown. When feeding silage to cows, which was made of a mixture of corn and of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans.. A-1071 leguminous plants, the milk yielda increased by 12%. Good results were obtained in-fattening of swine with.a combined silage (potatoes* root vegetables and grain wastes). Professor V. N. Bukin .(Institute of Biochemistry of the Aea- demy of Science of USSR) reported that vitamin A .(synthetic) is successfully used in poultry industry.and swine breeding. It is recommended [Begin p.146] to be given in the form of dry pre- parations, and not as an oil solution. Observation's have shown .that 40 g of 8I2 and 40 g of biomycin are sufficient for enrich"; ing a? large amount of feeds. Professor M. P. Tomme pointed out that works, conducted by V1ZH (All-Union Livestock Breeding Institute),?haveahown the possibility of partial replacement of protein feeds with car- bamide. Six combined feeds were developed* which are being utilised in growing and fattening of young animals (together with large givings of silage). According to the report of Professor M. Is. Berginia, the Latvian Agricultural Institute developed it prescription for en- richment of (feed materials] with vitamins and mineral substances for %taunts? (animals which lick). At the present time experi- ments are conducted on early weaning of piglets, on feeding to . highly productive cows and iwipe Of a Mixture of trace elements (salts of zinc, manganese, borons.iron, cobalt* iodine, and so on). In view of the fact that, in the preparation of flour from fish wastes at a temperature Of 130?, proteins and other valuable Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1071 ,.nutrients are lost, the Institute suggested to conserve fish wastes without * hot treatment, but to place them into vacuum apparatus and after that to prepare from them a fish paste at 40?, which contains 50-8.1 of dry substances, 381440% of protein and can stand a long storage. Swine eat this paste with pleasure, as well as the fish flour prepared by the. same. method. Professor N. A. Shmanenkov and G. A. MagidoV (All-Union Institute of Horse Breeding) acquainted the Conference with the results of chemical preservation of feeds, with production of dry preparations for preservation (obtaining a. tweet silage without a reduction of pH), utilisatien of carbamide, use of bio- mycin and vitamin B12 in growing of colts, it was mentioned that phosphates improve mineral metabolism, growth and develop- ment of young animals, increase nitrogen metabolism of mares in foal. N. K. Alekseeva (Uzbek Academy of Agricultural Sciences) reported that in the republic cottonseed cakes, with an addition ? of mineral substances, are being used as animal fodder. ?Dthugaran ? (a variety of sorghum), which produces 4.5 c of green. mass, from 1 ha, is being studied. A. I. Khuisishvili (Georgian Institute. of Animal Industry and Veterinary Science) imparted a prescription for a combination feed into which enter wastes of the fruit in.'. ? dustrye of meat combines, fish wastes, dry press and cocoons of ? mulberry silkworms. Honored Scientist, Professor P. P. Bereshnala (Kishinev Agricultural Institute), reported that in Moldavia Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R01. 0400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1071 the protein problem is being solved by means of expansion of plantings of alfalfa, of corn, la soybeans, chick-peas, vetch, dolichos (kidney beans) and peas. Professor I. W. Kugnetsov told about 'his impressions about travels to foreign countries. In Holland, aelgiuM, Denmark and England types of feeding are being developed, on the basis of which rations are formed suitable to individual kinds of animals, cones, types of farms, and so on. In Holland, at the present time, more attention is paid to the contents of proteins in milk and not to the fat content. In foreign countries, "provims" combination feeds, containingproteins, vitamins, mineral sub- stances, and so forth,? are now used on a large scale. Great ? importance is attached to copper, not to cobalt; to its effect on milk production. According to data of Professor N. I. Ionov (V1ZH) Wastes of the mycelium of antibiotics can be used for the enrichment of feeds: 2-3 kg of dry wastes are sufficient for enriching 1 t of concentrated feeds. Use of biomycin raises (by 16.6%). the in- creases of weight of swine during fattening. Terramycin produced a better effect on animal's. feeding In his report "Theoretical elements of *agricultural animals", Academician I. S. Popov acquainted the Conference with the pros. ? ject of topics for scientific research, developed by VASHHNIL for the next few years, where means are plannedfor the coordination of work of scientific institutions on this problem. In drawing ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A..1071 up the plans, VASKHNIL took into Consideration the degree to which each problenrwas studied, as well as demands of the national economy. This project includes seven most.important.subjectst I) Protein feeding of agricultural animals. The practical realization of this subject, comprising several subordinate topics, was entrusted to VIZH, TSRHA (Timiryitev Agricultural Science Academy], Moscow Veterinary AcedelyslillUnion Scientific-Research Institute of Horse Breeding, All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Fodder, All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Poultry industry, All- Union Scientific-Reseerch Institute of Swine Husbandry, "VNICK" L (VNIIOK (All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Sheep and Goat Breeding)], SibNIIZH (Siberian Scientific-Research Institute of Livestock Raising], Scientific-Research Institute of Livestock Raising in the Forest-Steppe and _Woodlands of Ukrainian SSR, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Academies of Allied Republics. 2) Basic elements of production of combined feeds. Fulfilment of this subject, which includes 5 problems, was en- trusted to VIM, SCientific-Research'Institute of Horse Breeding, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Swipe Husbandry, All-Union Scientific Research institute .of Poultry Industry, Ukrain- ian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Livestock Raising. 3) Vitamins in group B In the feeding of swine and poultry. Development of this subject was entrusted to V1ZH (All-Union Livestock Breeding Institute], to- gether with the All-UnionVitamin Institute and the Institute of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1071 Biochemistry. 4) Trace elements in the nutrition of agricultural animals. Executors of the subject - MB, Moscow Veterinary Aca- demy, mix [All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Horse Breeding], Latvian Institute ofAnimal Industry, Ukrainian Academy of Agicultural Sciences and the Siberian Scientific-Research insti- tuteof Livestock Raising. 5) Studies of microbiological and biochemical processes in rumens-of the ruminants as * basis for developing technical methods of improvement of utilization (Begin p.1471 of bulky feeds. Executors.of the subject - ?SIM [Timiryazev Agricultural Academy], Moscow Veterinary Academy, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, VIZH and the corresponding Chairs of higher institutes of learning. 6) Working out a new system of evaluation of the nutritive value of feeds. Executors - VIZH, Leningrad AgriCultural Institute, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 7) Raising of the maturation of meat animals - swine and poultry - by the factors of feeding. This subject will be worked out by the organizations, which are engaged in fattening of an!- , male and poultry. N. R. Florenskaia, Professor M. F. Tomme, Professor A. S. Solun? N. A. Staroverov, Professor D. V. Elpattevskii, P. V. Demchenko, A. I. Fetisov, Professor A. A. Zubrilin and others took part in discussions of the report of Academician I. S. Popov. Development of working plans and methods on the suggested subjects was entrusted to special commissions. (Signed) L. F. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 it) ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-101Z vg/A Vershinin, P. V. Ob iskusstvennykh'pochvennykh strukturoobrasovatellakh. (Synthetic soil structure conditioners). Pochvovedenie, no. 10, p.28-37. Oct. 1958. 57.8 P34 (In Russian) The term synthetic structure conditioners implies primarily organic compounds .that Improve water Stability of soil structure when introduced into the soil. The idea of synthetic soil .structure conditioners was conceived in the USSR in the year 1932 and is associated with the names of A. F. loffe and D.L. Talmud, We have already reported (5) that the preceding historic works on art-filiclal Structure conditioning were the experiments conducted by Fadeev.and Vilfiams lin An attempt] to create a. water-stable structure by means of introducing humic Substances isolated from Chernozem soils into a soil-and-sand mixture. The new ideas on synthetic structure formation were based on the premise that water stability of soil structure can be brought about by means other than merely humic acids (10). At the All-Union Conference on Soil Physics held In 1934, the author of the (present] article (2) made the first reports on experiments conducted in synthetic structure formation on new Agrofizicheskil Nauchno-Issledovateisskii Institut, Leningrad (Agrophysical Scientific Research Institute, Leningrad] ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 I. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1072 principles, but they were not successful among soil scientists. The Agrophysical Institute, however, continued the work begun. Various organic compounds were studied with a view toward uti- lizing them as [soil] structure conditioners before the Great Patriotic War broke out. The fundamental requirement made of substances of this type was solubility in water, penetration into the soil, entering into reciprocal action with it, converting into an insoluble state, and, in so doing, be adsorbed by soil particles, and impart into lumps of soil the properties of water stability. These conditions were met by the most diverse substances. Cellulose. The technical product - xanthogenate of cellu- lose (viscose) - (C09040CS04)x representing a viscous liquid and freely soluble in water was used in experiments. Pure quarte sands of varying dispersity (0.5-0.005 mm) were given complete structural form by the water dissolved viscose, and they ac- quired the properties of water stability (2). Under the influence of viscose, podzolized, structureless soils acquired the water stability of ordinary, virgin, clayey Chernotems in various de- grees. ?The increment in oat yield on experimental field test plots increased sharply as compared with mineral fertilizers (6). Hemicellulose. Of the hemicellulose (group] xylan was tested. Xylan.was obtained by Sallkovskilts method. In specimens of sod- podzolized clayey soils ground into a powder and treated with xylan Jelly, the water stability of the (soil) aggregate did not increase as compared with the aggregates obtained with the aid of water, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1072 even tn;:ugh xylan gels veil andimparts high mechanical stabi- lity to soil particles. This fact can be explained by the great water solubility of xylen. Introduction of considerable doses of lime into soil treated with xylem decreases the. solubility of xylan and thus enables the soil clods to acquire water stable properties (9). Lignin.. The lignin tested was obtained by the Bekman end Lishe soft.method because it was assumed that lignin isolated by strong acids (Begin p.29] changes essentially,and resembles very little the natural kind: By this method lignin is obtained either by extracting the fiber Isolomy) with 's two percent alcohol solution of sodium hydroxide, or by extracting with 1.5% NaOH with 411 the subsequent elimination of carbohydrates by boiling with 2-2.5 HC1, or by means of precipitation with methyl or ethyl alcohol. When such lignin is air dried it turns into a powder that is Insoluble in water. It was introduced into the .soil in a one percent solution KOH. Specimens of sod-podeolized clayey soil treated with an alkaline solution of lignin in the amount of 0.5% dry lignin per weight of soil increased the amount of water stable aggregates (>0.25 mm) from 51.2% up to 82.6% (9). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) ? Trans. A-1072 Structure formin ant ty o peat Soil gum in % per weight of soil abilit of eat 'Table 1 um uan stable >0.25 Sod-pod:olic clayey gley It Ii Sod-ptidzolic loamy n n ft Sodmigley clayey ' W W a ? W 0 0.5 1.0' 0 0.5 1.0 0 0.25 0.50 1.0 yo'er aggregates mm, in % lgj 82.0 6.4.9 71.1 77.1 58.8 77.1 84.0 87.6 wa Humic acid. Isolated from top peat according to Sven-Oden. Introduced into soil also In 1% Mbli. On the some soil and in the same dose as lignin, it exerted similar action. The total. number of water stable aggregates of the same sod-podzolic soil Increased from 51.2% up to 81.6% (9). Bitumens. Bitumens were extracted from peat (according to Stadnikov) with benzene alcohol within 8-10 hours with a subse- quent distillation of the berckene alcohol. They were introduced, into the soil in 1% KOH (8). On specimens of the same sod-pod- colic soil, peat bitumens introduced in a dose similar to that of lignin and humic *cid increased the total number of water stable aggregates from 51.2% up to 85.8%. On the basis of a study made of the structure conditioning action of different fractions of organic substances, two techni- cal products were suggested for the improvement of soil structure water stability, namely - peat gum and gum derived from plant re- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 5) Trans. -A-1012 mains. Peat gum. Partially dry semidiceomposed peat Of lowlands, upland' and transitional marshes Is boiled in 1% KOH at e 1110 ratio of dry peat to the solution for the duration of one to two hours (from the tine it begins to boil). The liquid is cooled, allowed to settle and.then poured (or it is drawn off through a ceramic filter) into a prepared container. This poured off, transparent, dark- 'brown liquid Is celled peat gum. The liquid (colloidal solution) isolated from upland peat contains 41.5% of organic substances of approximately the following composition: a water soluble fraction 17.2%, beneene alcohol soluble [fraction] 19% and e humate one 53.51. The peat gum Is introduced. into the s011 in liquid form. Atter 111 wetting the soil to a Specified depth, it is dried to an optimal moisture for structure formation.. At this mdieture it Is aerated with cultivators and harrows or rakes depending on.the sixes of . the fields. The'macco-aggregates crested by means of treatment .ac- quire the properties of water stability after drying. No difficul- ties are encountered in the drying of peat gum [Begin p.301 ("soft" drying at e temperature not exceeding 60? (Ci) or. In its intro* duction in dry form into moist soil (preferably in the. spring). Laboratory and field experiments conducted on various soils (pre- ponderantly on those of the podsolic type) have demonstrated that peat gum - in doses of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0% dry gum substance weight of soil - increase the water stability of soil aggregates. A 1% quantity .of gum introduced into heavy loam and clayey soils produces about 82-87% of water stable aggregates, which comes ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) ? Trans. A-1072 close to ordinary virgin Chernogems of an analogous mechanical composition (table 1). Field experiments conducted with various crops have elso. given positive results, as has been demonstrated by Kollasev (6), Vershintm (1) and a number of other authors. Structure Conditioning Substances from Plant Waste (Complex Lignohemicellulose Substances) Gummy substances derived from Asiatic cotton and reed. Asiatic cotton (guise-pal - GOssypium hirsatum (1).) and reed were cooked In an autoclave at a preisure of 2 atm ins 1% alkaline solution for two hours, at a 1-10 ratio of dry organic substances and water. .The liquid called respectively "gum from Asiatic..cOtton" and "gum from recce were used as structure conditioners. Experiments were conducted on loamy gray soils. Better structure conditioning properties were displayed by nthit gum from Asiatic cotton". In field experiments, the total number of water stable aggregates >0.25 mm rose from 1.0% up to. 84.2%. They proved, however, bio- logically unstable and by December (the experiment was begun in July) the number of the tame fractions decreased to 0.5% and 7.7% respectively. Similar technology was used In the boiling of gummy substances derived from geranium waste (Institut Vlathnykh Subtropikov v Sukhumi (Institute of Humid Subtropics in Sukhumil). These gummy substances also exerted positive action upon the increase in water stability of soil structure. The quantity of water stable ag- gregates,on the Imdtolic loamy soils Of Sukhumi increased from Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . ' (7) Trans. A1072 41.? up to 76.0 when these substances were introduced into the soil. Resin gum, Resin structure conditioning substances differ sharply from those described above as to the action they exert upon the physical properties of the soil, as well as to the quantity to be introduced into the soil. We used gummy substances of resin obtained from cheap varieties of resin soap or technical resin. Rosin, as is known, consists of a complexity of resin acids with a considerable preponderance of abietic acid (C203002). The abietic acid of rosin is insoluble in water, but potassium and ? sodium soaps are readily soluble in water. After saponification of rosin (according to the saponification number), we obtained 111 a so-called resin gum. It can be introduced into the soil in the form of a water solution of the desired concentration, or in the form of a powder.. When it was introduced in the amount of 0.05% .;1)r weight of the soil, than it increased the water stability of the total number of aggregates of sod*podeolic loamy soil >3 mm from 3.8% up to 49.7g. When a dose of 0.1% (was introduced) into the same soil, then the quantity of water stable aggregates reached 68.0%. Their [ability] to decrease the,hydrophily of soil is a characteristicr.orthese structure conditioning substances. Yet, numerous field experiments conducted on soils of the sod-podsolic cone indicate that the yield of a large variety of agricultural plants always increases (4. 5) when these substances are intro- duced in specific doses. In table 2 cited below are tabulated - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-I072 the data of field experiments conducted for the purpose ofestab- Aishing the doses of sodi0m:abletate that increase barley :yield. The experiments were conducted by Is. A. Kovalev in the year 1938 on the sod-podzolic loamy soil of the training field belonging to. the Leningrad Agricultural Institute. The else of the test plot ' is 14.0 m?.- Controls and experimental variant* received N7P75K75 (sic).. 1Begin P.31). Table 2 Influence of sodium abletate upon barley yield Gum introduced in kg/ha Average weight cations taits of four repli- per test plot Converted to ha Increase ih?9; Grain Straw Grain Stray Grain Straw 0 10 All 50 S 200 woo 200 12.d 13.3 14.1 14.8 14.8 14.2 , 14.6 - 15.8 . 17.1 16.0 19.1 -17.6 32.0 34.3 35.3 37.0 37.0 35.5 3S.5 39.5 42.8 . 40.0 47.8 44.0 ? 0 7.2 10.3 15:6 15.6 . 10.9 .0 2.6 11.3 4.0 24.2 14.3 , It follows from data in table 2.that a?dose of resin gum fintroduced):at the rata of 200 lig/ila is best. On Reciprocal Action Between Structure Conditioners and the Soil Let us cite some results without dwelling on the historical development of concepts about the reciprocal action occurring between structure conditioning substances and the soil. It has been held that there were two problems: L. Reciprocal action be- tween structure conditioners and the mineral particles of the soil, 2. The interaction of molecules within the itructure conditioners 411 themselves. The interaction occurring between structure conditioners Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1072 and the soli was interpreted as a surface phenomenon. dummy structure forming substances must be adsorbed by soil fragments and must be held on their surface by Inter-molecular (Van der Waals) forces. The mechanism of this phenomenon adds' up to the following - there is a double layer of ions between the molecules , of the structure forming substances and the surface of the mineral particles of the soil. The surface layer of ions (cations). hinders the manifestation of the cohesion forces' between the molecules of the structure conditioners and the soil fragments, because it stands in their way and acts as a repellant force. The more hy- drated the ions of the diffusion layer, the farther will they re- pel the molecules of the gummy structure conditioners from the surface of soil fragments. Yet, as the soil dries, the hydrate Ion membrane is destroyed and the cohesion forces between the mole- cules of the gummy substances and the soil particles increase. Final- ly, there develops a state of affairs in which the Van der Weals attraction forces begin to surpass the repellent ion forces and the structure conditioners are adsorbed by the soil and are held by the inter-molecular bonds. The double layer ions act not only electrostatically; their chemical affinity with gummy substances as well as with mineral soil particles Is of great Importance. As has been noted above, all structure conditioners must be readily soluble in water, must saturate the soil and must be adsorbed by its mineral particles. Hence there follow two principles: a) the reactive surface is to be considered the specific soil suss* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 1 ?ir Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 00) Trans. A-1072 face b) Stn tru ture f tar covering of t considered that he epproxifffitC1y eqna molecular layer for to Wedekind and Kat - he volume of the st 105 Om? x 10 humic acid an have lo cm3 The humic and relat tione n epplie surface wi face of one n amaunts equ ummy substance. e surements cture Condit Per OT .suppos ing the sped utmtan 0.013 9m or 1 substances ci 121 a good strtcture condi the soil In anon the structure conditioning feet of abietete gummy substances ts itself in smaller amounts qual1e r.per;. earlier ect w about lg of Its wet.qht, to ut g of then we of the-soi ly. produce reduced ever, manl monomolecular layer is corresponding The reciprocal action between th ioning substances substances in t form a embrane"thet connec then the thickness of the lower. molecules of mportant in the SOAS* 0 Puny s t 11 into an insoluble state the soil particles and protects them f Om, the destructive act on'of wa soluble into an insoluble state occurs transition from a cases es a reaction of polymer's tion with the assistance of -..either a or a bond at the expense of the basic vs lent tar Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 11) Trans, A-1072 sta down As regards the charac 1 structure c types that cony tato only when there exchange substances convert Into an lnolub1e state reyardless as whether there arc exchange reactions with the soil or n rst type incides huma ad compoun well esll substances introduced intoth soluble their transftlon Into an insc.luble. substances listed can be broken on insoluble eactiona with the sotl, P. an exchange with the coil *bsoHrptin verts Into a hum c acid demonstrated by GuI iflV5tj.5.tiOn5 i ?turns Ant* * .Je41y that, with, the lots of a certeift amount. of, vatert grows insoluble in ?? tor. eater reactions occur with potassium and sodium abletateS, It can-readily be seen that In thisit le.ii tent that axA. change coil ions and mo.cgleslily substances form insoluble: compounds The second type Includes viscoser under the thfluence ? . of aircerbon dloxidetonverta an insoluble celluloseIns. dependently at exchange reactions ' h:0*. sell. XrI1. In recent years Interest $n,a structuretsoIl ? conditioner was noted in he foreign press, particularlythe 'American, without(y mention:.of our work).Attention was Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 12) Trans.. A-1072 called to various structure conditioners1. Among those proposed were the salts of.polyuronic acids and derivatives of polysac- charides, derivatives of cellulose (methyl cellulose), sodium silicate, organic silicate compounds (dimethyl dichlorosilane), and the stearic, alginic and abietic acids. In american post- war literature began to appear numerous suggestions for synthetic structure stabilization that repeated our investigations of 1932- 1936. Structure conditioners of a somewhat different type suggested In the year 1951 aroused the interest of large firms. After many years of investigations conducted in the laboratory and on field ,test plots, the firm Monsanto Chem. Co. suggested the derivatives of polyacrylic acids as (soll,) structure conditioners. :they were given the collective name of "Krillumn. .Two brands of structure conditioners were suggested: CRD = 186 (copolymers of vinyl acetate and maleic acid) and CRD = 189 (hydrolyzed polyacrylonitril ). In the year 1952, different.firms suggested structure conditioners named: "Polyacn, "Fluffium", "Aerotiln, %oast (Loksarr. In- formation about Krillums got into the European press and a number of European States (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany (FRO, German Democratic Republic, Hungarian People's Republic,. Italy, England and others) proceeded to study the American Kriliums See Journals: Soil SC1. America Proc., v. 10, p.450? 1945; - J. Amer. Soc. Aaron., v. 38, p.95, 19461 J. Agric.'Sci., v. 37, P.257, 1947 and others. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1072 and to release their own. (Begin p.33]. As of now, the American Krillums of the Monsanto firm indicated above enjoy the greatest distribution; they are now frequently and appropriately called , by the names of VAMA (vinyl acetate maleic acid) and.HPAN (hydro- lyzed polyacrylonitrile). Detailed information on these substances was obtained from the first publications of the following authors: Hedrick a. Mowry (Khodrik and Meuri] (18).101180n (Ellison] (13). Martin and Tayldr Martin, Tenor] (20), Ruchrwein and Ward (Rechrvein and Uord] (22). It follows from the data of these authors that Krillums fully stabi- lize soil structure when introduced in amount of 0.1% per weight of soil, but even amounts of 0.05 and 0.02% produce good results on some soils. The.effect of structure stabilizing not only does not deteriorate on solonets soils, but even increases. The in- troduction of Kriliums does not impair the hydrophilic capacity of the soil. The yield of many agricultural crops increases from the use of Kriliums. They are not badly decomposed by microot- ganisms and the water stability of soil structure created by Krillums lasts for a number of years. Kriliums are typical polymers that in most cases are already used in industry for various purposes (plastic materials, lacquer, organic glass etc.). The basic link of Krillums is the initial monomer. For acrylic acid it is CH2 = CH -.COON with * molecular weight of 72,06; for Metacrylic (acid] CH2 = C - CH3 - COOK with a molecular weight of 86.09; for maleic (acid] CCCH - CH'= CH COOH with a molecular weight of 116.07. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 A 14) Trans. A-1072 . In the.prOcess of polyfterization that usually occurs under the influence of catalysts, the individual links (monomers) begin, to combine end form long chains. The number showing how many times a given link reappears in the Chain is called the polymerisation coefficient. Polymeric chains of varied chemical structure can unite with each other thus forming a copolymer. A polymer of acrylic acid is called polyacrylic acid, a polymer of.metacrylit acid - polymetacrylic acid etc. Each link contains either one active group or another: carboxylic, amide, nitrile and others. If the carboxylic group in ecryliC acid were replaced by the amide one then the.(acid would be called) polyacryloamide replaced by the nitrile one then - polyacrylonitrile, and so forth. 411 A'polymeritation reaction is usually associated with the unbind- ing of double bonds, on the strength of which molecules become activated and require the ability to react:to each other., In ? copolymers the number of active groups per unit weight of substance Is higher than in polymers. What new contribution has the use of polymers made to the theory of synthetic structure formation. As has been pointed out above,. the creation of water stable (soil] structure requires considerably smaller quantities of these substances than in the case of humic substances (approximately 10 times (less]). We have obtained such quantities of gummy substances that bring about complete structure stability (ostrukturivanie) from resin gums. But unlike these, Kriljums do not reduce the hydrophilic capacity Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A-1072 of boil. The water stability brought about by these substancee . depends very little on the absorption complex. As has been demon- strated by Allison .(l4), soils saturated with sodium even increase 'the structure stabilization effect of VAMA and BRAN Kriliums. Reaction between-polymers and the soil occurs on the surface of the soil particles: ' When the same quantity of polymers is. Introduced into the soil, the stricture stabilizing effect drops, if the quantity of clayey particles is increased In It; this was demonstrated in mixtures of sand and clayey minerals (kaolinite (kaolinit] end montmoriklonite in the form of bentonite) by Hagin and Bodnar:. [Khegin and Badmen] (17)' and confirmed by Allison in a series of soils. Hagin and Bodman associate the given phenomenon with the size.of the specific soil surface as shown in fig. 1 taken from the work of these authors. In the opinion of Ruchrwein and Ward (22), the structuri.stabiliting mechanism provoked by polymers [Begin p.34] is of a coagulative character: the polymers are typical polyanionsor polycations. Since they are distributed' among soil fragments they coagulate them. Fig. 1. Minimum quantity of SRD-186 necessary for 'a complete aggregation in relation to the calculat- ed specific surface (17) (Legend of fig. 13: Specific surface, le Montgomery-and Hibbard (Montgomeri and Khibbard] (17) made an interesting attempt to connect the physico-chemical properties Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16)* Trans. A-1072 of Kriliums that are highly molecular polymers with soil conditions. They arrived at the conclusion that the activity of polymers (i.e. their structure stabilising properties) depends on their "functional capacity" under soil conditions (the term "functional capacity" implies the relation of the number of active groups in the re- petitive chains to the total weight of the polymer chains). Poly- mer activity under soil conditions increases with the growth of "functionalism", reaches a maximum, and then drops despite the growth of "functionalism"; if "the functional capacity" is low then the number of active groups is insufficient to achieve binding with soil particles, If, however, "the functional capacity" is high then the activity of the groups is very great, which in- fluences the solubility of a polymer in water. As the molecular weight of a polymer increases, its activity under soil conditions rapidly reaches a maximum and then drops, which is connected with the viscosity of the polymer and its capacity to be adsorbed by soil particles. In experiments con- ducted with sulfonated polystyrene the relation of polymer activity under soil conditions to the number of sulfonate transverse seams was established in molecule chains. The [polymer) activity decreased as tha number of seams increased. The approximate relationship between the binding forces of the sulfo groups, the carboxylic and the amide groups is expressed as 1.6 : 1.0 : 0.8 respectively. A hydrogen bond isviael] obviously 'Arises between polymers and.soll particles. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-1072 Emerson (15), In using as a basis the measurements of French ' and others (16) who demonstrated by the method of infrared spectro- scopy that hydrogen bonds increase when an additive of CRD = 186 Is injected into montmorillonite, believes that there arise hydrogen bonds (verticial and lateral little bridges) between polymers and clayey minerals. Emerson considers that the action of polymers is more effective In the case of the lateral little. bridges. On the basis of infrared radiation spectra taken on kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite treated with polymer S-17 (polyamides.semiammonium salts of the copolymer of methyl vinyl ester and maleic acid), Holmes and Toth [Hholms and Tos] (19) have also pointed out the emergence of hydrogen bonds between'clayey 111 particles and the polymer. We have tested a aeries of Hrillums prepared in the USSR. Tests made of polyacrylonitrilion sod-podzolic loamy soil pro- duced.the following results: when polyacrylonitrile was introduced in the amount of 0.1% per weight of soil, then water stable aggregates larger than 0.25 mm comprised 95-96%, yet In control soil they made up only 26.5%. The aggregates obtained with the Bid of polyacrylonitrile were ground to a powder and (when] newly aggregated under moist [soil] structure conditioning, they re- stored their water stability. In this case the water stable aggregates comprised 93.5%. Thus, polyacrylonitrile restores the properties of water stability when lumps [of soil] Originate after a mechanical destruction of aggregates. it is known from Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001.-5 (18) Trans. A-1072 chemistry that many polymers possess the properties needed it, restore polymer chains polymer chains after eimechanlcal destruc- tion. Polyacrylonitrile is adsorbed by the soil. Ong hundred gm of the same soil and a five replicate amount of polyacrylonitrile solutions of various concentrations were taken for theexperiment. ? / (Begin p.35]. Pig. 2. shows the character of polyscrylonitrIle absorption by sod-podzollc loamy soil. It can be seen from fig. that.polyacrylonitrIle absorption by soil is a linear function of concentration. Experiments conducted in synthetic structure conditioning in past years convinced us that the relatively large quantities of structure conditioners of the humate type required for structure stabilization are the fundamental deterrent against their utili- zation in practice. Hence we, in our experiments with Rrillums, were especially interested in .the problem of reducing the quantity needed' for the stabilization of soil 'Structure. In conjunction with the Institute of High-Molecular Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR*, we conducted several elementary experiments. The monomer of metacryllc acid is soluble in water. The. conversion of a monomer into a polymer requires specific conditions and, in particular, the introduction of a catalyst into the monomer. A polymer of * Institut Vysokomolekullarnykh Soedinenil AN SSSR (Institute of High-Molecular Compounds, Academy of Sciences USSR]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1072 metacrylic acid (polymetacrylic.acid) is insoluble in water. In our experiments the quantityof water stable aggregates in sod-podzolld loamy soil increased from 22% up to 75,4 when a Monomer of metacrylic acid in the amount of 0.1% per weight of Soil was introduced in it. Consequently, sodivodzolic loamy soil is itself a catalyst and converts monomeric metacrylic acid were strengthened by its copolymerization with Metacrylamide. Data on the influence of one of these copolymers (N VIII) com- posed of metacrylic acid (60%) and metacrylamide (40%) for the water stability of the same-iod-podzolic loamy soil are cited in table 3. It follows from data In table 3 that even a copolymer in- troduCed into the soil in the amount of 0.001% per weight of the soil increases essentially the water stability of soil structure. Inasmuch as the quantities of the gummy substances introduced are so small, one can draw the conclusion that the theory of a monomolecular covering of the surface of particles cannot serve as an explanation of the resultant water stability. Obviously, the mechanism of gluing together (soil] particles by means of polymers is different from the .One indicated earlier for substances of the humate type. 'Evidently, the hypotheses concerning the emergence of chemical bonds between a polymer and clayey particles have a basis of their own. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) ' Trans. A-1072' Fig. 2. Absorption by sod-podsolic loamy soil of poly- acrylonitrile from solutions. Ratio of soil and solu- tion 1 5 1 - Basic experiment; 2 - Replication (Legend of fig. 2): Concentration of polyacrylonitrile, % Vertical line): Absorbed in grams per 100 gm of soil' ? Influence of a copolymer of upon the water stability of Quantity of the introduced. copolymer in % per weight . of soil 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.005 0.001 0 Table 3 metacrylic acid and mitacrylamide- sod-podzolic lowly soil structure Quantity of water stable 'aggregates >0.25 mm in % per weight of soil 92.0 90.2 86.0 56.8 51.8 18..4 Let us make a simple computation. We shall assume that a link of a copolymer hoe the 'molecular weight of about 200; then one gram of this copolymer will contain the [following] monomer links: 6.06.1023 201 82 3.03102/ (Begin p.36). If the polymerisation coefficient were considered approximately equal to 15,000 (which is close to the magnitude given by Emerson In the case of Krillums), then the number of chains per gram would be ).0361021 = 201CNI7 ? ? 1.5104 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans.. A-1072 Our minimal dose = 0.001% (or 10-5) contains the (following) 17 ? 5 chains 2.10 x 10- = 2.1012. According to a mechanical analysis, an approximate count of the number of particles per gram of the indicated soil gives a magnitude that comes close to approximately 1012 Approximately one polymer chain is required when soil is rendered cohesive by means of a polymer at the rate of 0.001% per particle of soil. It would seem that in such a case com- plete stabilisation, of soil structure would have to be observed. This, however, is not true'.. Consequently, not only the specific soil surface plays a role in the reciprocal action occurring between a polymer and the soil, as has been deemed by Magin, Rodman and Allison, but 111 soil porosity as well. The finer the pores of the soil, the "more difficult" is it for long polymer chains to penetrate them: the soil lets them through like a sieve. Hence it is important to develop methods for the introduction of polymers into the soil. In saturating the soil, the polymer fails to produce a com- pletely uniform distribution of the chains among soil particles. Therefore, mixing and repeated saturation should increase the effectiveness of polymers. This can be seen from data cited in table 4.. It follows from data in table 4 that repeated saturation of the soil with a copolymer in the amount of 0.001% per weight of the soil increased considerably water stability of soil structure (compare table 3). . Calculations show that the total amount of a ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans. A-1072 polymer applied in the given case to a hectare,at a 20 cm depth of the arable layer and a volumetric weight of the soil equaling. 1 amounts to a total of 40 kg. There As no doubt whatever, that A these methods for soil structure improvement have a greet future. Table k Influence of the number of times saturated upon the water stability of aooregates of sod-podzolic loamy soil Name of copolymers Number of times saturated with ipiAlit the same concentration Quantity of poly- mer introduced ? - into soil in % ? per weight of the toil Quantity of water stable aggregates . >0.25 mm in % Copolymer (VIII 1 0.001 metacrylic acid 2 0.002, 80.6 and metacryl-amide 3 0.003 81.4 4 0.004 87.4 Conclusions A series of organic compounds that improve soil structure were suggested it the Agrophysical Institute 26 years ago. But the amount Of these substances needed to obtain high indicators of structure formation was large and, therefore, served as the main obstacle to their utilization in practice. In the postwar years new struc- ture stabilising substances of a high molecular type of polymers comprised chiefly of derivatives of acrylic, metacrylic and maleic acids were developed in the USA. The amounts of these substances required for soil structure stabilization are .10-20 times smaller than those of humates and related substances. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (23) Trani. A-I072 . A study of the nature of the reciprocal action occurring between polymers and soil particles, and the'method of their introduction into the soil will permit developing substances that will completely stabilize soil structure at the rate of a few tens of kilograms per hectare.' Literature 1. Vershinin, P. V. and Konstantinova? V. P. Physico-chemical basis for synthetic soil structure. L., Seltkhosgiz, 1935. 2. Vershinin, P. V. Pioblem'of artificial soil structure. Fizika Pochv v SSSR (Soil physics in the USSR]. Ti. MAP (International Soil Scientists Association], Selikhozglz, P.43-57, 1936. 3. Vershinin, P. V., Konstantinova, V. P., and Kirilenko, N. V. Study of cohesion phenomena in processes of soil structure stabilization. 1941. 4. Vershinin, P. V. Formation of soil structure. Dissertatslia, 1953. 5. Vershinin, P. V. Structure forming fertilizers. Udobrenie 1 Urozhal, 1956, no. 8. 6. Kollasev, F. K. Structure stabilizing substances and plants. Ti. Labor, Fiziki Pochv PAZ (Institute of Agricultural Physics], no. 2, 1937. 7. Savvinov, N. 1. Physical structure condit liters for USSR soils. Ti. Map [Internet -tists Association], p.103-106. 1936. 8. Solechnik, N. is. Structure building gums Pochv FA1 (Institute of Agricultural Phys [Report] 1, p.31442. 1935. 9. Solechnik, N. Is. Structure forming gums. Ti. Labor. Fit. - Pochv PAZ, no. 20 Soobshch (Report] 2, p.207-218, 1937. loners and ferti- tonal Soil Scien- . Ti. Labor. Fit, Ice], Soobshch. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (24) Trans. A-1072 10. Talmud, D. L. Surface phenomena and their application in engineering. 2h. Sots. Rekonstructslia I Nauka (Sorena), no.. 3, p.183.191, 1932. 11. Talmud, D. L. Soil structure and structure stabilizing ferti- lizers. Sb. Agrokhimlia I Udobrenlia (Collection of Agra- chemistry and Fertilizers]. It. Maiskol Sea. AN SSSR, lad. AN SSSR, 1936. 12. .Tiurin, I. V. Increase in the fertility and the cultural state of soils in the USSR - most important problem of soil science and agriculture. Pochvovedenie, 1954, no. 3. . 13. Allison, L. E. Effect of synthetic polyelectrOlytei on the structure of saline and alkali sells.. Soil Sc!., 1952, v.73. p.443-454. - 14. Allison, L. E. Soil and plant responses to VAMA and HPAN soli conditioners in the presenceof high exchangeable sodium. Soil Sci. Soc. America Proc., 1956, v. 20, no. 2. 15. Emerson, W. W. a. Synthetic soil conditioners. J..Agric. Sc., 1956, v. 47, part I, p.117. 16. French,.R. 0? and Wadsworth, M. E. The quantita application infrared spectroscopy to studies in surface chemittry, Cook, M. A., Culteri J. B. J. Phys. Chem., 054, v. 58, p.505. 17. Hagin, J., andtodman, 0. B. Influence of the polyeleCtrolyte. CRD-186 on aggregation and other physical properties of some California and Israeli soils and some clay minerals. Soil Sc!., 1954, v. 78,. p.367., 18. Hedrick, R. H. and Mowry, D. T. Effect of synthetic polyelec- trolites on aggregation, aeration and water relations of soil. Soil Sc!., 1952, v. 73, p.427-441. 19. Holmes, R. M. and Toth, S. J. Physico-chemical behavior of clay - conditioner complexes. Soil Sc!., 1957, v. 84, P.479. (al] 20. Martin, W. P. at. pD. ASoll and crop responses from field ap- plication of soil conditioners Soil Sc!., 1952, v. 73, p.455-47I. 21. Montgomery, R. S. and Hibbard, B. B. Theoretical aspects of the soil - conditioning activity of polymers. Soil Sc!., 1955, V. 79. N 4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans A-1072 22. Ruchrwei nd Wax D. w. Mechanisnof ciy aggre tion by polyol ctrolytes. Soil SO., 1952, V. 73, P.4 492. 23. Wedekind, E. and Kate, ? chemical and physical Dtsch. Chem. Oesellsch. no ? German ] . owing lIgnins igation of phenol-11 n 62,p.11724177, 1, eport: mt. Ber. 2929. [ In Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Irans. A.-suf3 vg/M Helium, V. 1.* Vegetatsionnyi period kukuruzy v' nechernpzemnol polose. .(Vegetation period of melee on non;.. chernozem soils]. Vestnik Sellskokhozialstvennoi Nauki vol. 4, no.1.4, P.23-33. April 1959 20 V633 (in Russian) High-stalked southern varieties and hybrids ofccErait, regiona- lized in the non-chernozem zone, can produce 700-800 and more centners of green mass from 1 ha 12.471 acres], but during most 411 of the years they do not ripen, and at the time of harvesting the ears do not always attain the milk-wax stage of ripeness. A question about unripeness of corn, which is of great pro- , duction importance, has been studied for many years at the Scienti- fic-Research Institute of Agriculture of Central Regions of the Non-Chernozem Zone. Unripeness of southern varieties and hybrids of corn in the non-chernozem zone is being often attempted to explain by the short /P 4%?.? ness of the period of possible vegetation. Yet, near Moscow, the mean duration of the frostless period equals 130 days, and the period with a mean daily temperature above 10? to 135-140 days. Nauchno-Issiedovatellskil Institut Zemledellia Tsentrallnykh Raionov Nechernozemnoi Polosy [Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture of Central Regions of the Non-Chernotem Zone]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1073 Under conditions of the south this time is quite sufficient for . the ripening of corn ears. Mast the Sterling variety ripens fully in Xuban in 115-120 days, and variety Minnesota 13 extra - in 110-112 days%after the appearance of sprouts. But in the non- chernoeem zone the southern varieties have no time to ripen and are harvested, as a rule, before the coming of the milk-wax stage. This occurs not on account of the shortness of the period of the possible vegetation of corn but because of .the retarded pace of Its development. What are then the causes of the setback in the development. of corn in the non-chernosem sone and what are the means for over- coming its effect? Many factors influence the development of corn plants; first Of all, light, heat, moisture and elements of mineral nutrition. All these factors Jointly affect the development of the corn plant. Nevertheless, their role is unequal, and, therefore, the Influence of each of these factors was studied separately. Light. It is customary to think, that the length of the sum- mer day, which increases in the direction from south to north, Influences negatively the course of development of corn in northern latitudes. Such an opinion is based on results of photoperiodic experiments, in which corn tasseled and ripened earlier than under natural conditions, when grown under conditionsof,Aan artificial shortening of the day to 8.40 hours. Yet it does not follow from this, that len.gthening of the light day must retard corn develop- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1073 ment. Such a regularity was not observed in reality (table 1). It is seen from table I that, under conditions of lands near Moscow, corn developed, practically, in theTsame manner while growing in natural daylight or when it was continuously subjected to light, during days and nights. .When analyzing data of Govern- ment variety test plots, that were situated on the same longitude, the picture became still more convincing. Thus, for instance, in 1954, at the Gzhatsk GSU (Government variety test plot] (59 35! north latitude) plants of corn of sterling variety tasseled in 61 days after the appearance Of sprouts, and at the Barvenkov GSU (48? 54! north latitude) in 74 days; in 1955, respectively in 77 and 85 days. Those'years, in the region of the Gzhatsk OSU, 411 during the first period of development of plants, (Begin p.24) the weather was warmer than in the region of Barvenkov GSU. Thus, here heat was the deciding influence and not the length of the day. table I Length of the period "appearance of sprouts - tasseling" of corn, depending on tne iengtn or ne day Varieties and hybrids Natural dEY Continuous illum.nation .1956 195r, mean 1956 1957 mean 1..a.tipg V1R 42 . . Voronezhskaia 80 Nemchinovskaia Slavgorodskaia 270 Sibiriachka (Minusinkal 73- 61 42 14.6 37 26 98 76 - 64 6 58 61 86 69 53 55 48 /A 79 - ' 63 14- 44 37 28 92 75 65 65 61 611 86. 69 55 55 49 LA Footnote. At night theplants were illuminated with 300-watt lampsI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. Ai-1073 One should mention that the shortened (10 hour) day cannot be regarded as the best for corn, since during such days the speeding up of the development of plants is a reaction of corn to unfavorable conditions. A 10-hour day requirement could not have been developed by corn since this crop, in its process of historical development, was never grown under conditions of such a day. Corn plants, grown under conditions of an artificially shortened day differ from plants, grown in natural day-light, by asmaller height, smaller ales of tassels and ears, and, what is espeeially impor- tant, by a smeller amount of leaves (2-3 leaves)*. Reduction ,in the amount of leaves is then the chief cause of the shortening Of ? the period from sprouts to tasseling., and, in connection with this, of the vegetation period of corn as a whole. One does not observe any deviations from the norm in the growth when corn is grown under conditions of a long day or even of con- tinuous day and night lighting. Apparently, one can, rather, speak about the positive effect of a lengthened day, since in this case the time of work of the leaves is lengthened: as result of this the plants develop a more vigorous overground mass. Thus, the five-year study of the effect of the length of day on the develop- ment of corn in the non-chernotem region has shown, that the increased length of day is not a negative factor for corn. Heat. Quite different results were obtained in studying reduced temperatures on the development of corn in the non-chernotem sone. The temperature proved to be a deciding fictor'in the develop- ? * Such a reduction in the number of leaves is observed also when the. young plants, during the period of formation of leaves, are subjected to a deficiency of moisture or of elements of mineral nutrition. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1073 ment of the corn plant during the course of the entire period of its life, beginning with seed germination and up to the time of ripening. The biological essence Of temperature influence con- sists in the fact that the reactions of synthesis of the organic substance are endothermic reactions, the speed of which, and consequently, the rates of growth and development of plants* depend on the amount of heat. As. the experiments have shown, the most rapid growth and development of corn was observed at the daily mean temperature of 23-25?. Length Of the inter-phase periods increased and the vegetation period lengthened with the reduction of temperature. Thus* at a temperature of 20-22?,-the corn. sprouts appeared in 6 days after planting* and at the temperature of 11-12? only in 15-17 days. With a further drop in temperature, the appearance. of sproutsABegin p.25] can be delayed for 25-30 days. Appearance of the 10th leaf, at a temperature of 18-19?, occurred in 26 days after sprouting, and in 53 days at a temperature of 14-15?. The tasseling phase in corn, of the variety.Minnesota.13 extra, occurred at a mian'dally.temperature of 18-19? 11158 days, while at 15-16? only in 90,days after the appearance of sprout's. Length Of the periods between the remaining phases of development (tasseling-flower- ing, flowering - milk stage, and so on) it in similar dependence on the temperature. In the non-chernozem zone there are few days with the best temperature for the development of corn (23-25?). In the lends . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1073 around Moscow, for instance, the mean daily temperature in July does notexceed IP; in connection with this the vegetation period orsouthern high-stalked varieties is extended here, and to the moment of harvesting, as a rule, they fall,to attain the milk- wax stage. Only during the years with an especially hot summer (19510 corn developed In the non-chernosem vine at almost the same rate as in the south, regardless-of the longer day. Moisture. Effect on growth and development of corn of the remaining"factors, necessary for life, depends on temperature con? ditions. With one and the same amount of rainfall in the southern regions of the country the corn plants can experiences sharp ? deficiency'in.moisture, and in the non-chernosem sone they will be under conditions .of sufficient moisture since, on account of reduced temperatures, the evaporation here proceeds less intensively than in the south. But besides the effect of the temperature level on the moisture content of the soil, there takes place also the reversed effect of the degree of moisture on the temperature of the soils with an increase-of moisture, the expenditure Of heat for evaporation increases;:as a result of this the.moist soil warms up much slower: Difference in temperature of the moist and of slightly moist soil sometimes attains 4.05, and this produces a substantial effect on the activity of roets and the general develop- .ment of the corn plant. Elements of mineral nutriment. At a reduced temperature of the soil (13?) the root system of corn assimilates nutrient substances ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A4073 2=3 times *lower than at a higher (20?). Nevertheless, it was ascertained, by experiments, that by means of additional intro- duction of fertilizers into the cold soil, it is possible to intensify the absorbing activity of the roots and increase the inflow of nutriehts.10to the plant. Corn usually, was much. More vigorous, with a dark green coloring of leaves during the years. with a cool summer on sections of the field where, for a long .time, heaps of unscattered manure were lying; it usually tasseled and ripened.much earlier than on the rest of the field. Conse- quently*oon the general background of reduced temperature, corn can grow and develop differently, depending to what measure it is .ptovided with elements of. mineral food. Increase of soil ferti- lity in the non-chernozem tope can, to 's considerable degree, re- duce the "negative effect of heat dericienCy. Thus, among all the factors, required for the normal growth and development of corn' in the non-chernozem, zone, heat exists in-the smallest amount. 'In order that under these conditions corn would have time fully to complete its cycle of development* itis necessary to adapt it to. the temperature regime present in the-non=chernotem zone. It is characteristic. for the central part of the Moscow oblast' for instance, that with a sufficiently long total duration of a. period with temperatures above 10?, the Mean temperature of the hottest months does not go beyond 160. There are only 70 days a year with a mean temperature above 15?. The sum of positive tem- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-I073 peratures comprises 1,900-2,1000, which answers the requirements of only the borderline early-ripening corn varieties. The sum of effective temperatures (over 150) ,equals:628?. (Begin P.28) The highest temperature is observed in the 20th days of July. The period of possible vegetation and the sum of temperatures is divided by this date in two uneven parts: larger and smaller. The whole' period of life of the corn plant can be divided into the following parts: planting - sprouting, sprouting - tea- seling, tasseling - flowering, flowering -'ripening. The length of the first period can change, depending on the soil temperature, but, with the best time of planting, it is, practically similar for all. varieties. The period,from sprouting tortasseling'lests for some vane- ties 40-45 days, and for others 85-90, and even more, days, As, to the periods from tasseling to flowering ind flowering to , ripening, their length shows nonessential variations for different varieties, if they run under similar temperature conditions*. This can be seen from results of the experiment, L 057, 'when the Seedlings Of the medium late variety Partitanks were grown in peat.' compost pots; as the result of this the appearance of styles on 'ears' of this variety and of that of the early-ripening variety*, . Slavgorodskala 270,'almost coincided in time; for the Partleanki ? variety it occurred on August II, and for Slavgorodskala 270 *At the first sight it seems that in late varieties these periods ? are eonsiderably longer than in early-ripening, because they bloom at a different time and the formation of grains in late varieties proceeds under conditions of lower, fall temperatures. ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) , Trins. A-1073 ' variety on August 13; the length of the period from the appearance of styles to the milk stage comprised respectively 30 and 27 days. Thus the study of the structure of the vegetation period of different varieties of corn has shown that the period of sprouting - tasseling showed the greatest variations in duration. This part . of the vegetation period is the longests in early-ripening varieties it comprises almost half, and in late varieties even more than half of the entire period of vegetation; and it is exactly it that determines the length of the total vegetation period under conditions of the non-chernogem sone. In order to 'become convinced of this, it is necessary to consider the progress of development of corn on the example of several varieties. . In the lands around Moscow corn sprouts usually appear at the end of May or at the beginning of June. In early-;ripening varle- tiei (Slbirlachka, Slavgorodskala,270 and ?there) tasseling occurs 40-45 days after. the appearance of sprouts; that is,An the middle. of July. Almost the,same amount of warm days and almost:half of the total sum of effective temperature remain.for further vege- tation. This proves to =be sufficient for. the forming of the grain and its attainment of the wax stage or even full ripeness. A different picture is observed in 'growing such late varieties as Learning or Odeaskala 10, in which the period from sprouts to tasseling continues 05-90 days. .In this case the flowering occurs at the end of August, when very few days remain before the early frosts and there is neither time nor heat for the formation of ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 10) Trans. A-1073 grains. Even the not so late varieties, whose period from sprouting to tasseling continues 55-60 days, are found under conditions that are unfavorable for ripening. The matter Is that after July the daily mean temperatures fall sharply, and even insignificant shifting of the phase of blooming, from July to the second half of the summer, leads to a sharp reduction of the sum of effective temperatures that remain for the formation and ripening of grains. In the sum of effective temperatures, which exceed 100, one July day is equivalent to 8-10 September days. That is why it is so Important for'the ripening of corn [Begin p.27] that the flowering occur as near as possible to the middle of July. Thus, the re- duction of the length of the period of sprouts - tasseling is the chief reserve, at the expense of which the reduction of the vegeta- tion period of corn and the ensuring of the possibility of its ripening, under conditions of the non-chernosem sone, is possible. But the period from sprouts. to tasseling is not uniform; it, in its turn, is comprised of individual parts, the number of which corresponds to the number of leaves in the given variety. ? Corn, practically, has no varietal differences lathe number of embryonic leavest all varieties have 5 or 6 of them. Differences appear only at the time of tasseling, when in early-ripening varie- ties there are only 9-10 leaves, and in the late-20 to 22 and even more. During the process ordevelopment the formation of sequential leaves continues after the appearance of sprouts; each of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11),- Trans. A.1073 leaves appears after a,definite period of time and In the presence of a definite sum of effective temperature. The 4asserappears , ? after one last leaf. As the.number of leaves is a very stable varietal symbol, and a definite time is required for the forma- tion of each leaf, it Is natural that varieties of corn with.a smaller amoUnt of leaves tassel, flower and ripen earlier than varieties with a larger amount of leaves.. It was necessary to find out if there are varietal differences in the rate of appearance of iequential leaves in order to ascertain, how full is the de- pendence between the number of. leaves and the length of the ve- getati-on period of corn. The Institute of Agriculture of Central ' Regions of the,Non-Chernozem Zone studied for this Purpose, during the course of 1957-1958 a great collection of the open-pollinated (svobodnoopyllaiushchikhsla) varieties of Interlinear hybrids and of self-pollinated lines of corn (table 2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-I073 Table 2, Rate of appearance of leaves in open-pollinated varieties of corn 11. ? Varieties . mean numper of leaves numper 01 Gays Isom tne appearance of sprouts to the emergence of the . 3rd leaf 6th leaf 9th leaf 12th leaf 15th leaf Sibiriachka (Minusinka) Slavgorodskaia 270 Urozhainaia Chakinskala ehemchushina Bezenchukskaill 41 Nemchinovskaia Voronezhskaia 80 Voronezhskaia 76 Khartkovskaia white dent corn Orushevskala Minnesota 13 extra Partizanka ' Sterling yilit 42 Ontsskala 10, Lcaming , ' 10-11 11-12 11-12 12-13 13-14 13-14 13-14 13-14 14-15 16-17 16-17 16-17 17-18 16-17 20-21 21-22 , ? it L. . 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 . . 4 4 4 I. 4 5 5 24 24 -23 23 26 24 27 25 24 24 24 .25 23 ? 25 25 25 35 37 38 11 ' 36 39 38 37 37 37 38 36 37 38 38 . 47 45 44 47 46 48 48 . 47 48 46 46 46 48 49 49 - . - - - . . - 61 59 55 57 60 57 61 61 ? There were practically no varietal differences in the time of appearance of sequential leaves (table 2). Consequently, the length of the period from.the appearance of sprouts to the emergence of the tassel in open-pollinated varieties is in direct dependence only on the number of leaves. Somewhat 'different [Begin p.28) results were obtained by the author and by 2. F. Baliura when studying the time of emergence of leaves in interlinear hybrids and in self-pollinated lines (table 3) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A.-4073 ? Table ) Rate of appearance of leaves in interlinear hybrids and in self-pollinated lines of corn Hybrids and their parental forms Mean number of leaves . Number of days from the appearance of sprouts to the emetgence of the Mean num- bet of days need ed for tho formation' of a leaf 3rd , leaf , 6th leaf 9th leaf 12th leaf ? Line VIR 26 Iskra (26X27) Line V1127 14.5 16.0 1.. , 7 6 7 J4 29 44 43 ? 54 2 4.3 3.9, Line VIR 20 Ideal (28X29) Line VIR . . 114.9 16.5 14 9 . 7 6 41 32 ti . 45 ? &is. ? 53 ? tel 4.1 Line 1/IR15.0 Slava (44)08) - pne VIR )8 17.5 10- 8 6 1 il 111 34 11.4 ' n 51 60 ? 14:11 3.6 Line VIR 40, Svetoch (4043) Line VIR 43 -. 17.5 15.0 ' 7 7 i? 35 37 .01 46 49 61 . 56 60 . tj ? 3.9 4.7 ? As a rule, plants of Self-pollinated linea have somewhat fewer - leaves than interlinear hybrids, but the emergence of each of them occurs after a longer interval of timevin connection with this, plants of self-pollinated lines enter the stage of flowering and 'ripening later. The slow rates of development of self-pollinated lines are, apparently, the result of self-pollination; acceleration in the development of interlinear hybrids is the results or the appearance of' heterosis. the cited deviation .from the rules is of great importance In the selection of self-pollinated lines under conditions of non-chernoseM eons, and it must be taken into con- sideration when evaluating lines as parental forms of interlinear hybrids. Such deviations are very rarely observed in the open- pollinated varieties. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-1073 , The time, required for the appearance of the next leaf depends, to a large extent, on temperature conditions. The next leaf can .appear, during hot weather, in 2-3 days after the preceding one, but during cold weather only in 10-12 days. Comparison of varieties for the rate of the emergence of leaves must be conducted on plants planted at one and the same time in a field similar in fertility. In order to determine the mean amount of effective temperature and time, required for the formation of one leaf, it is better to use data of experiments with dates of planting that will permit to observe development of corn under the most diverse temperature conditions (table 4). It is seen from table 4 that the early-ripening, medium- ripening and late varieties form sequential leaves almost Syn- chronously. In any case, difference in the number of days between the appearance of two sequential leaves in any pair of varieties, which are compared, proves to be greater than, the triple error of the arithmetic mean. This. indicates, that there is no proved difference among the varieties. (Begin p.29) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1073 Table 4, ? Rate of formation of leavesiin different varieties of corn accord- ing to average data from experiments with dates of planting Ordinal number of INumber of days from the appearance of the first leaf sequential leaves 'f . to the next one 1937 05b . Nemchino- vskaia Odesskaia 10 Sibiriachka , Nemchino- vskaia Odosskala 10 2 3 ' 4 5 6 7 8 9 ? 10 : 11 12 . 13 ' 14 110 15 1 11 19H- 1+5 2.5 5.6 6.1 4.3 4.1 3.8 . 4.3 3.6 3.8 4.5 .3.6 . . . . ? . ' " 1.6 2.72.; 4.8 7.0 4.7 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.4 4.2 4.26 4.0 4.6 5.2 4.3 LS . 6.3 5.9 4.2 3.3 . 5.0 4.8 . ,.. V . . . . . - . . . ? 1.2 2.6 -8 6.6 5.8 3.8 4.4 3.1 4.8 3.2 5.6 4.1 5.4 - . . - .01/4=NP*-PAAVW0N\AVVP-WW-P-OAAW.4"' ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? w.omivcmuw.owvtoi- Length of the for- mation of the let leaf . 4.0 4.2 4.3 , 1 4.3 li..6 Mean sum of effect- lye temperature for 1 leaf V 027.6 , 28.2 ? 29.3 26.0 2.9 Four to 5 days, with A sum of effective temperatures of 26-29*, are required on the average, for the formation of one sequential leaf. One can use these data in the non.chernozem Sone for de- termining the time of tasseling in plants of one or another variety, proceeding from the number of leaves characteristic to it. But .one should take into consideration that the period between the ap- pearance of the last leaf and of the tassel is, approximately, the same in length as the time between the sequential leaves. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (16) Trans. A-1073 Varieties with 10 leaves bloom in the lands around Moscow, ap- proximately, in the middle of July, with 11 leaves 4-5 days later; with 12 leaves, 8-10 days later, and so on. Varieties with 13-14 leaves bloom at the beginning of August and by the time of harvesting they succeed in forming ears of a milk-wax and even wax stage. Varieties, which have 15 or more leaves, do not produce stable yields of ears. Howls it possible to adopt corn to the temperature repime of the non-chernozem zone and secure the obtaininn of stable yields of ears of milk-wax stage./ This problem is reduced to the shorten- ing of the period between the appearance of sprouts and the tas- seling. This can be attained either by means of cultivating varieties or hybrids with a limited number of leaves, or by changing the nature of corn so as to reduce its heat require-. ments. The first-method has been used long ago in the selection practice in moving corn from south to north. The forced and, sometimes, unconscious use of thii course is connected to' the fact that for .ch geographical region the number of leaves in corn (Begin p.30] is limited by a certain point beyond which its seed reproduction becomes impossible. For instance, in Krasnodar krai varieties and hybrids can ripen with 20-22 .leaves; at the Kharlkov latitude - with 15-16, in the Voronezh region - with 13-14, but in Siberia with only 9-11 leaves. In mountainous regions with a vertical tonality the number of leaves in corn decreases as the locality 'rises above the sea level. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A4073 At the present time, almost all the scientific establish- ments of the non-chernozei -zone, which are occupied with the selec- tion of corn, follow the course of cultivating varieties and hy- brids with a limited number of leaves. The selection work in these institutions is conducted in three basic directions: culti- vation of new varieties, selection of parental pairs and production of intervarietal hybrids, cultivation of zelffpollinated lines for obtaining interlinear hybrids. As a result of Work In; the first direction from different initial material and by various methods, new corn varieties were-cultivated and ere tested* MOs- Uovskaia 3, Mbskovskala 5, Razantkala 108, Gorki Leninskie 1. WW1, (Geographical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of. the USSR) IGAN 2, IGAN 3, IGAN 4, Podmoskovnaia, NiMChinovskaia and others. In spite of the fact that some of these varietiet were cultivated by a method of selection and others by a method of hybridization, both at a controlled and an open pollination, they all have a common characteristic - similar number of leaves on a plant (13-14). .Coincidence in the results of work of dif- :ferent selectioners attests about the matter that in the non- 'chernozem zone 13-14 leaves are that limit, beyond which obtaining ripe seeds of corn becomes ever more difficult and, finally, possible. Corn varieties, which were cultivated in the non-chernozeM zone, have several positive characteristics, the most important 0 of which is that by the time of harvest these varieties, as a rule, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1073 succeed in forming the ears and attain the milk-wax stage ofripeness. Although they are inferior to the southern'high-stalked varieties In the yield of green mass, but in the yield of feed units from one hectare of planting they prove to be equivalent, and, in some cases, they even surpass them. It was established, as an outcome of work on the production of intervarietal hybrids, that the best results are obtained from crossing the early-ripening Siberian varieties with the high-: stalked,southern varieties (of the type of Partitanka and Min- nesota 13 extra). The Siberian varieties proper are not of in- terest in a production respect since they are undersizedand the ears are attached to the stalk very low. Yet, the early-ripeness inherent to them permits, utilizing 'them successfully in hybridi- zation as the mother forms, which are able tosp-rOduce-ripe seeds. Intervarietal hybrids, cultivated as a result of such crossings give in to the high-stalked varieties in the yield of green mass, but excel them In the yield of feed units. The best among these hybrids are Slavgorodskaia 270 X. Partizenka. 'Sibiriachka (Mint- sinks). X Partizanka, Sibirlachka (Minsinka) X Minnesota 13 extra excel Partizanka In the yield of feed units from one hectare by 10-15% and are able to attaidthe Plbase?Ofmilkwax ripeness. The drawback in these hybrids is in the fact that their parental forms differ'sharply in' thelength of the vegetation period and, thus, require the growing of seedlings of the paternal (southern). variety in peat-humus pots.; this serves as an obstacle for a wide' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1073 Introduction of new intervarietal hybrids into production. Cultivation of self-pollinated lines in the non-chernimem zone Is hampered by the fact that the rate of their development (in consequence of depression from self-pollination) becomes still more slowed down then in the initial varieties. Therefore (Begin p.31] only lines with 10-12 leaves are suitable here for seed reproduction, while the open-pollinated varieties Can have 13.44 leaves. The simple interlinear hybrids, which are obtained from crossing such lines, can be utilized as mother forms for the pro- duction of better yielding double interlinear hybrids, which have 13-14 leaves*. Nevertheless, with the number Of leaves is con- nected not only the length of the vegetation period, but also ? .the yield of green mass; therefore, the early-ripeness, which is conditioned by the reduction of the number of leaves, will be always accompanied by a decrease in the yield of green mass. Mean- while, it is desirable to have highiustalked varieties and hybrids with a large number of leaves, and at the same time sufficiently early-ripening, for agricultural production. This problem can be solved only by means of reduction of the heat requirement of corn.- One should strive to achieve that the high-stalked, many. leaved varieties would develop in the non-chernozem zone at the * Lines or simple hybrids, cultivated in southern regions and having 15-16 leaves, must be utilized as the paternal forms. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-I973 same rate as in the south, where they succeed in attaining milk-wax stage of ears during 90 to 100 days after the appearance of sprouts. But for this purpose it is necessary that the early-ripeness be conditioned not by the reduction in the number of leaves, but. by acceleration of the rate of thilr emergence under conditions of the insufficiency of heat. Selectioners of the non-chernozem tone used various methods, particularly, a method of selection of early-ripening plants of many-leaved southern varieties in order to obtain early-ripening forms, having whigh yielding capacity of the .green mass. Since each variety of corn represents a complex population, it is always possible to detect plants, ? which, differ in ripeness and deviate from the basic type. It was succeeded by means of repeated selections to obtain forms that are considerably more early-ripening than the initial variety. But at the same .time, simultaneously with the increase of early- ripeness, occurred the reduction of the number of leaves tind the reduction of the yielding capacity of the green mess, connected with it. Thus, In the selection for early-ripeness in the variety Partitanka the period from the appearance of,spro"s to flowering - has been reduced by 13 days, the number of leaves 'decreased to ' 14-15 from 16..17; and in connection with this the yield of green mass was reduced from 247 to 183.c from one hectare. It would seem that this problem could be solved with the aid of hybridita- tion of early-ripening Siberian varieties with the many-leaved southern varieties. Butlt proved in practice that the thus Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans. A-1073 obtained hybrids occupied by their characteristics,. an Intermediate place between the parental varieties (table 5). Thus, in crossing variety Minusinka, which has 10-11 leaves* with the variety Minnesota 13 extra, which has 16-17 leaves, a hybrid with 13-14 leaves was obtained. The intermediate length of the vegetative' period corresponds also to this number of leaves; it leans only very slightly to the side of the early-ripening parent. And the cause becomes understandable If one takes into consideration that the rate of the emergence of sequential leaves in early-ripening and in late varieties is practically similar; and that the early- ripeness of Siberian varieties is conditioned not by the speed of ? appearance of leaves, but by their smaller number. During direct training of corn for increasing its cOld-re- sistance different methods were used: extra early plantings into cold soil, the germinating seeds were "hardened" In the snow and In refrigerators; selection of quickly germinating seeds was con- ducted ander conditions of artificially reduced temperature, and so on. These works have not as yet producsi?dany practically ap- preciable results, although, undoubtedly, there exists a possi- bility of reducing the heat requirement of corn. This is shown by the variations in the characteristic of cold-resistance with- in the limits of a variety, as well as among the individual [Begin p.32) varieties. A confirmation of this possibility is found in the results of work of some foreign plant breeders, who succeeded in cultivating corn varieties, which are able to germi- note at a temperature of. 5-6?. The problem of cultivation of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) * Trans. A-1073. cold-resistant varieties and hybrids of corn must be solved since it is of great production .importance. ,Table 5 Characteristic of foliation and of the length of vegeta- tion period in different varieties and hybrids of corn (i97) . Varieties and hybrids Number of days from the ap- pearance of sprouts to tag- - se ing Mean number of leaves , ? - in a hybrid in the mother variety in the ,father variety in a . hybrid in the mother variety in thi fothei varie. ty Sibirlachka X Minne- sota 13 extra . 56 54 78 12.3 10.8 16.6 Minnesota 13 extra X . Sibiriachka (Minusinka) 65 76 54. 14.0 16.6 10.8 Slavgorodskaia 270 X . 4ffinetota 13 extra 62 56 76 13.7 12.4 16.6 MEnesota 13 eXtra X ' Slavgorodskaia 270 65. 76 56 13.8 16.6 12.4 Pervenets X Minnesota ? 13 extra 61 57 76 13.1 12.1 16.6 Minnesota 13 extra X . . Pervenets 62 76 57 13.7 '-10.6 12.1 Pervenets X Severo- . . Osetinskala 0 57. - 81 15.7 12.1 18.3 Severo..0setinskaia X ? ' . Pervenets . 67 81 57 . 13.6 18.3 12.1 Pervenets X Partisanka 61 57 76 ' - 13.6 12.1 17.0 Partizanka X Pervenets 45 76 57 ' 14.5 17.0 12.1 Slavgorodskala 270 X Partizanka 4. 56 - 76 - 14.5 12.4 17.0 Sitvgorodskaie 270 X . Severo-Osetinskaia 60 56 ' 81 13.3 12.4 18.3 Sibirlochka X Patti- 'sank* i ' 66 54 76 14.5 10.8 .17,0 ? It 15 also possible to influence the length of the vegeta- tion period of corn with the aid of agroteehnical methods besides the various methods of selection. Having correctly built up the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 .(23). Trans. A-1073 agrotechhique of cultivation, it is possible to produce favorable conditions for a fuller and a more effective utilization of heat by the corn plants. The temperature regimeoof soil in the zone of activity of the root system Is improved considerably by a proper choice of e field to be used under corn. According to data of Academician of VASHBNIL (All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences imeni V. 1. Lenin), 14. P. Mosolov, a field, having a slope to the south of only 1?, receives the same amount of heat as does a field - with a horizontal surface which is situated 100 km to the south. Difference In the temperature between north-western and southern. slOpes, et a similar steepness, comprises 6-7? in the air and 0 up to 5-7? in the soil at the depth of 1 cm.. Owing to'this,-the soil is ready earlier on the-southern slopes, and one can.start planting corn on them earlier and obtain a yield of ripe ears ? earlier. Corn grows and develops faster on soils containing 60-80% sand, than on clayey soils. ,This is' explained not only by a better air regime of these soils; but also by'their higher temperature. Dif- ference in temperature (Begin p.331 of the sandy loam and of the clayey soil during the course of the entire vegetation period com- prises 1.0-1.5?. The following results were obtained, in 1956, in comparing the development of corn variety Nemchinovskala on various soils (table 6). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (214) Trans. A-1073 Table 6 Rate of development of corn on various.9 L19 Soil Planting Sprouts Tasseling Millte. wax stage Y1414 OT green mass (in ha) Turf-podzol sandy loam The same, clayey May 20 .May 20 June 2. June 7 July 16 July 26 ? Sept. 3 None 320 282 , Planting on best and concise dates provides the obtaining of early and simultaneous sprouts; owing to this corn begins to vege- tate earlier, its flowering proceeds during the warmer period of the summer. It is as important to determine the best depth for embedding the seeds: too deep an embedding not only leads to the weakening of sprouts, but also delays their emergence for several days. It is similar to a late date of planting in its 411 negative results. The thickness of planting tells especially sharply on the yield of ears; therefore the timely thinning and leaving in a hill of the proper number of plants is one of the most important conditions for normal development of corn. A very important condition for normal development of corn Is its being provided with all the necessary elements of mineral nutrition. As it already has been pointed out, high fertility of soil can decrease the negative effect of heat deficiency to a large degree. Especial consideration must be given to supplying corn with a sufficient amount of phosphorus during the entire period of vegetation. Growth and development of corn are in a very close connection 410 and dependence. Therefore, all these agrotechnical measures, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (25) Trans. A-1073 which help the growth of corns producs also a favorable Influence on its development. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 'r) Trans. A-1.074 vg/A Protsenko, A. E. Virusnye bolezni kartofelia. (Virus diseases of potatoes]. Zashchita Rastenli ot Vreditelei I Boleznel, vol. 40 no. 3. p.30-32. May/June 1959 421 Z1. (In Russian) Virus diseases (degeneration) of potatoes reduces drasti- cally the Yield in individual regions and in the end make a re- newal of the seed material for this crop necessary. The following are the known basic types of degeneration of potatoes caused by !II different viruses. Crinkle mosaic. The leaves of theInfected potato branch are crinkled (bulging'between the veins), have turned down edges and fragile petioles. Sometimes light-green spots are noticable on the leaf blade. Growth Is inhibited and the tubers are small end produce an unhealthy progeny. The disease is caused by one or by several viruses.' Mottled mosaic. Light-green spots on leave*, are well visible in light. The form of the leaf is sometimes slightly changed. Depression of the branch similar to that in leaf-roll mosaic has not been observed, but in following years there may develop dwarf ? plants from its tubers. Candidate of Biological Sciences; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1074 Streak mosaic. Necrotic streaks (appear) on the veins and frequently also on the petioles of leaves and stems. The Petioles are fragile and the leaves fall off - at first the lower ones and later also the upper ones. Sometimes mottled mosaic is ob- served on the young leaves. In some instances diseased and healthy stems grow from the same tuber (but from different eyes). Dwarf leaf-curl. Inhibited growth of the plant, crinkled, curly leaves, often resembling distinctly pronounced leaf-roll -mosaic. The ttrbers are small.' The gothic disease or the spindle tuber. Growth Inhibition of plant. .Upright stems, narrow, crinkled leaves slightly curly ? and standing upright, with a coloring paler than that of healthy leaves. The tubers are elongated and spindle-shaped. It is characteristic of virus diseases to have certain com- mon properties or which. the principal ones aret the character of their distribution on the planting area, their ability to infect healthy plants and the influence of climatic and soil conditions upon their manifestation and distribution., Plants infected by virus diseases are usually distributed more or less evenly on the potato field regardless of their number., In case of disease caused by deficiency of some element of nutri- tion (potassium, calcium, magnesium etc.), or by the presence of Injurious elements in the soil. (which happens very rarely), its symptoms are pronounced in approximately the same degree in all a ? plants on either a large orrksmall area. ,(Begin p.31). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1074 Virus diseases of potatoes, as well as of other plants, are contagious, i.e. they can be transmitted from diseased to healthy plants by various means. One Of these means is mechanical trans- mission. Under field conditions, some types of infection are transmitted from diseased plants to healthy ones by contact be- Ween the leaves (in windy weather or during treatment of inter- rows). They can be transmitted by various insects that infest potatoes, for instance aphids, cicada, caterpillars, and by the knife used to cut tubers before planting. .Thus, in one of the experiments conducted at the Institate of Potato Economy, a knife employed preliminarily to cut Potatoes oft a plant infected ? by mottled mosaic was used to cut tubers before planting. Con- sequently, when the plants grown from tubers infected by such means were examined with the aid of an electron microscope, it was found that out of 49 plants only 3 had no viruses, and out. of 44 controls there were 38. In another experiment In which 47 healthy plants were in- fected by means of rubbing their leaves with the juice of diseased plants, all proved to be infected. Among controls 37 out of 47 were free from the virus. The X-virus of potatoes is transmitted only by mechanical means. Others, for example, the viruses of leaf-roll and yellow top are distributed only with the aid of insects - aphids, cicada and others. All viruses are transmitted by seed (posedochnyi) tubers. Hence, it is understandable why, the situation,becomes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 v Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1074 more threatening when the seed material is infected. . . Virus diseases of potatoes are characterized by one more peculiarity. A considerable time interval - from 20 to 40 days .and longer -'passes from the moment of infection until the appearance of notable symptoms. Hence, external symptoms of the ditease usually are not visible the year in which the infection of plants occurred and often not even in the following year. They can, however, be detected either serologically, or by infection of in- dicator plants., or with the aid of an electron miCroscope. In the latter case, thread-like particles - viruses - are visible amOng the formless pieces of the destroyed portions of plant cells OWhen magnified 10-20 thOusand times. Nor do viruses enter tubers from infected leaves immediately, but lonlyj after 30-40 days. Therefore, it As possible to obtain healthy tubers, If the. leaves are infected late. ..It'has'also been demonstrated experimentally that the virus need not [necessarily) be in all portions of the tuber, nor in the same quantities. It is considerably less.in the heart than around the eyes, and, in some cases, not in all eyes, for example, when plant infection occurred during the second half of vegetation. The development of virus diseases of potatoes is greatly in- fluenced by temperature, soil moisture, weather conditions and fertilizers. For some types a temperature between 20 and 30 degrees (1:) is most favorable. Thus, in one of our experiments, symptoms of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I074 Infection by the X-virus of potatoes in tobacco disappeared after the plants were placed under conditions of temperature above 300. Control plants that were left at 20-29 had well pronounced symp- toms of the disease and in the end perished. Potato tubers (although infected by virus diseases) grown during a cold and damp summer' produced plants the following year that were either externally slightly infected, or had no infection'symptoms whatever. Con- verselys'after a hot and dry summer there are more diseased plants and the degree of disease is more pronounced. On soils with excess nitrogen virus diseaies manifest themselves to a higher degree and reduce the yield to a greater extent than on soils with a normal ratio of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus fertilizers. (Illus.)t Potato plant infected by dwarf leaf-curl It follows from the above said that measures against virus diseases could be (Begin p.32) sufficiently effective if they were applied in time, but the results will; tell only the following year. Hence primary attention should be paid to seed material. If it is healthy, it guarantees the absence of virus diseases and, con- sequently,.a normal yield. It must be kept in mind that measures used against. virus \ diseases are simultaneously applied in.the control of potato diseases ? such as black lege ring rot, Fusarium rot (Or blight),'Rhisoctonia etc. They all may be summed up within the following complexity, , first of all for seed plots of kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Planting. 4 ... of uncut tubers of indium size and the proper shape characteristic Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1074 of the variety. In the event Circumstances make cutting necessary, then the knife must be disinfected every time In a 5% formalin. . solution. All plants showing symptoms of virus infection and other diseases must be removed before the leaves close. Weeding out (removal of diseased plants] must be repeated during flowering. This is one of the basic -measures. The harvest must be gathered as early as possible - 2-3 weeks after- flowering--, to prevent the penetration of viruses from leaves into tuber, If the leaves were contaminated by plants that had been infected but 'showed no symptoms of disease,. Although the yield under these conditions will be lower as regards weight, .4110 ye* there will be considerably less infected plants, and the yield obtained from these the following year will be higher than that obtained from larger but virus infected tubers. Excessive fertiliting of the plot with nitrogen must be avoided, and sufficient_ potassium and phosphorus is to be applied. Areas intended for seed pieta- must be selected to the extent possible with a great deal of mOisture, or else artificial irrigation is to be carried Out. Practice has established that in coldei-northein regions and in mountainous regions potatoes suffer less from virus diseases. ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? vg/A -Churaev,,I. A. H. probleme bortby koloradskim zhukom. [Problem of Colorado beetle control].. Zashchita Rastenii ot Vreditelei 1 Boleznei vol. 44 no. 3, P.43-44. MOVjune 19.59. 421 21 (In Russian). The Colorado beetle is one of the most dangerous pests of the potato crop.- After invading France for the first time in 1918 from America, this pest has by now spread throughout many European countries covering a territory equivalent to 2 million square km. 411 In Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and in part in. Rumania it has come close to the border of the Soviet Union. To prevent losses of the potato yield on territory where the Colorado beetle is distributed, the countries have been forced to conduct from one to three chemicaltreatments annually which incur large expenditures. The potato yield left.tinharvested due to injuries inflicted by the Colorado beetle amounts to about 30% in France and to about 15% in Western Germany. If the minimum losses were calculated only it 10%, then failure to prevent the spreading of the pest on . territory of, for instance, the Belorussian SSR could result in a loss of over 500 million rubles, and [calculated on the scale of the [entire] USSR - about 6 billion rubles annuall Decisions adopted by the 21st Congress of the HPSS [Communist. Party of the Soviet Union] have provided for a considerable in- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1075 crease in potato Production and, hence, the protection of the given crop from pests and diseases has acquired specially great importance. Taking into consideration the danger that the Colorado beetle presents to potato growers, the Ministry of Agriculture USSR took ? measures during the entire period of the postwar years that were bound to play a positive role In preventing the distribution ofthe peat on the territory of our country. In the USSR, the Colorado beetle was found for the first time in 1949 In the Ltvov Oblast' and as a result-of the mcPsures that were taken it was completely eradicated. Since 1953 it annually began to penetrate into territory of the Kaliningrad Oblast' and 0 also into the Lithuanian SSR end the Brest and Orodno Oblasts. The first mass flight of the pest in the IMMO direction was register- ed in the year 1956. .In the Kaliningrad Oblast!-It was found in 16 districts. As a result of the extermination measures conducted, the number of foci decreased in 1957 more than 10 times as compared with 1956. It could be expected that the results of this in- vasion izalet) would be completely eradicated in the next year . or two. However, due to a number of factors that manifested them- selves in 1958 there occurred in invasion of the Colorado beetle that was second in sequence but in larger masses into the Transcarpa- thian and Dragobych Oblasts from the direction of Hungary and, in part, from Czechoslovakia, and into the Kaliningrad Oblast' and the Lithuanian SSR from the direction'of the Baltic Sea where it had been carried by hurricane winds from Polish and German territory. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. Af1075 The pest was detected in 711 populated localities that bordered on Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Rumania where 5320 fool were found. As a result of extermination measures conducted In 1958; by now, a considerable portion of them has been extermi- nated, but, taking into consideration the proximity of the foci on territory of the countries indicated, a second invasion of the beetle into the USSR must be feared. Hence, the magnitude of the extermination and prophylactic measures'conducted in the control of this pest in the borderline districts in the current year must not be below that of last year. Ten-year's experience has demonstrated that by means of syste- matic observations Of the appearance of the pest and by using chemi- ? cal agents against it, its settling can be prevented and the foci found can be completely eradicated,' This is a task of State In. portance, and agriculture has at its disposal everything needed for its accomplishment. (Begin p.44]. Now, the main thing is that the available means be properly utilieed in the coming cam- paign, First of all it Le necessary to raise the role and the re- sponsibility of the managers and agronomists of kolkhozes and . sovkhozes and also of the owners or individual orchards in wry- Ing out control measures for the Colorado beetle. To.have the work organized the beet way, it is desirable to recommend to farms that they provide technicians or brigadiers for the protection of plants who periodically will attend a refresher training course. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14 Trans. A-1075 Practice of past years has demonstrated the exceptional impor- twice of the participation of the population In this matter. It , suffices to say that a large portion of the foci is always detected' by the population itself while tending the plantings. Thiti Is . why in organising the inspection of plantings, one of the leading places was assigned to the participation. of wide strata of the population: withinthe system of measures for 1951 adopted by the Ail-Union Conference on the Colorado Beetle held in February of the current year. It Is necessary to unfold morviwidely propaganda On the injurious nature of the beetle end on measures for its control ill - orally as well as in printed matter. The responsibility of the owners of crops should also be increased in Cane they show: 'an. attitude of negligence regarding measures conducted by the State. The system of measures provides for the implementation of ceintrol insepectioa of potato plantings by the brigade (team- work] method In all raions In which the pest was found In *8, and also within a 200 kilometer belt from the farthest eastern foci. Special attention has been called to the quality of these inspections, hence, it Is absolutely necessary that form agronomists and technicians (brigades (teams]) take part in them. Eradication of the foci of the pest and formulation of documentation must be accomplished under their immediate supervision. Prophylactic spraying'of potato plantings. with chemical pre- parations that retain their toxic actkon on the leaves of plants Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1075 ? for a long time are of great importance. It is recommended that MME (a, 20% concentrated mineral oil emulsion (?)] DDT in a 0.3% concentration (according to the active'element), or DDT paste in S 0.4% concentration be used for this purpose at the consumption rats of 400-600 litereAa of the working. liquid. Taking into account the duration of the toxic action of the preparations and also the factor of growth of the foliar mass of the potatoes in redone infested by the Colorado beetle (with the exception of the mountain rata-no of Transcarpathimend the DITO., gobyCh Oblast', and also ralons in which only isolated foci were found in 1958, where only one spraying is carried out), it is ? ? recommended that two, treatments be,carried but: the.first - during the period of mass appearance of larvae of the let age group which coincides with the continued mass exit of the beetles from the soil after overwintering, the second - 10-15 days after the first. Furthermore, it must be taken into account that the objective can be reached only if the quality of the.work is high. Control in- spections carried out with a view to detection of the Colorado beetle must 'simultaneously represent a checking of the quality of. the prophylactic spraying in progress. Under conditions where the numbers of the pest are small, the correct selection of dates on which inspection.and.chemical treat- ments are to be conducted is a factor of great importance. The development of a method insuring a promising forecast of these dates will be (entrusted] to V1ZR (All-Union Institute of Plant Protection] 111 as a task of first importance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1075 In organizing and in implementing measures for the preven- tion of the distribution of the Colorado beetle, specialists of plant protection and quarantine will be called upon to perform an important role, The direction of the work in oblasts and raions will be realized through the Oblast' agricultural administrations and the raion agricultural inspection services by enlisting de- tachments for pest control at RTS [Tractor Repair Stations]. Hence, it is very important to strengthen these detachments with specialists and to supplement their staffs with the services of an entomologist. It is also necessary to raise the role of quaran- tine inspections and to increase their responsibility for the quality and timeliness of the work being conducted. In accomplish- ing all of his activities, the quarantine inspector of a raion must maintain contact with the district agricultural inspection ser- vices and with the district executive committees. Pursuant to the decisions adopted by the 9th International Conference on Quarantine and Plant Protection, there now have been created -r: active bilateraynixed committees whose tasks in- clude the checking and inspection of 1 Colorado beetle control In the borderline distridts of the interested countries. The data of the committees will undoubtedly perform a positive role. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1076 vg/A Kriachko, Z. F. Opyt boriby s koloradskim thukom na Ukraine. [Experience in Colorado beetle control in the Ukraine). Zashchita Rastenli ot Vreditelei 1 Boletnei, vol. 4, no. 3, P.45-47. , May/June 1959. 421 21 (In Russian) ' In recent years the appearance of the Colorado beetle in USSR territory has been noted with increasing frequency. Between 1949 and 1957, foci of the Colorado beetle in the Ukreine were found In seven districts of the Ltvov, the Volhynia ? (Volyn] and the Transcarpathian Regions. These include also the focus in the village Khltrelkas Nesterov District, LIvov Region, that had attacked 110 potato fields on which 35 kg of the pest were gathered in different stages of its development. All foci were eliminated. Nonetheless, in the spring of 1958, the Colorado beetle again appeared en masse on territory of the Transcarpathian Region: in 11.816 fields of 452 populated loca- lities were gathered over 630 thousand beetles, larvae and ovi- positors. Individual specimens were found in the Volhynia? Ilvov and Stanislav Oblasts. It has been established that the basic reason for this finvaiion] was the flight of beetles from Hungary and Poland that had been prompted by atmospheric conditions. Chief State Inspection Service for Plant Quarantine n the ill Ukrainian SSR. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1076 To confirm this fact we can cite the following (evidence): 61% of the beetles were found in places where potatoes were stored in earthen mounds (burty] and on tubers brought to the field for planting; 8 beetles were found on the clothes of a kolkhoznik who rode on a motorcycle through'a village at the Hungarian boundary, beetles were found alpo on grape clusters (kolliakhl, In the forest, in ensilaging pits, in baskets with potato tubers and in many other unusual places. All of these facts Indicate that the search for the pest and measures for the elimination of its foci must be continued, since it obviously cannot be fully uncovered within one year. ., A study of these problems has demonstrated that the develop- mental conditions of the Colorado beetle in Transcarpathia and other western districts of the Ukraine are extremely.cvaried: In the plains there are two complete generations and some years even three. In the year 1958, in the Transcarpathian Region, for example, the first overwintered beetles in the lowland districts were noted on May 11, the first generation on-June 19 and the second generation on - August 15. As a rule, the beetles that left the soil mated after 2 to 3 days and began to lay eggs. In the mountain districts of the Transcarpathian Region, as well as in the Livov, Velhynia, Drogobich and Stanislav Regions the beetle develops only one generation. Thus, in the Velovets (mountain) District of. the Transcarpathian Region_the.development of the first generation ends at the end of July or at the beginning 411 of August. The young first generation beetles that have developed Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1076 during this period nourish themselves intensively, but they do not mate and do not ley eggs. Al the end of August they commence to enter diapause. In 1958, all beetles went underground on September 20th. In lowland districts, overwintered"beetles usually enter die- pause after July 9, those of the first generation after August 13 :and of'the second generation - September 15. (Illus.lt Spraying of self-sown potatoes among the young crop of maize against the Colorado ' beetle on the kolkhoz imeni Lenin, Velikoberez- niansk District, Transcarpathian Region In order to resolve the problem as to the desirability of III carrying out inspection and chemical treatments of potato crops, we investigated the food specialization of the beetle and its larvae. It was established that during the spring period the beetle, in addition to potatoes; injured the seedlings and young plantings-of tomatoes, eggplants and pepper. Neither the beetle nor its larvae injure tobacco (the Sobolichskii local variety). . Me consider that inspection.Of potato plantings for the pur- pose of detecting foci of the pest, carried out in good time, is the main link in its control. In the Ukraine, in the spring of last year over 4500 district and rural organizers were pre- pared at special seminars held in the western regions, and later with the aid of the latter over 200 thousand mass inspectors were prepared. 23.8 thousand pamphlets, 77.8 thousand posters, 385 411 thousand leaflets published by the State Inspection (Service) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10 . Trans. A-1076 were distributed among thcpopulation. 91 talks were given over the radio, films were shown 197 times end 266 articles were pub- ? lished in newspapers about the importance and the measures of pest control. Careful inspection was made of all storage places (caves (burtovanie)) and of self-sown potatoes, (Begin p.46) (as well as) of nurseries growing tomato, eggplant, pepper and tobacco seed- lings. Here were gathered and deitroyed over 160 thousand beetles and their ovipositors. Potato plants were inspected as sprouts appeared by the- farmers themselves and by owners of (individual) plots no less than once a week and, apart from this, inspections were carried out evercWhere by brigs-des selected from the population, in particular by school boys under the supervision of agronomists end organizers. During the period that began with the invasion of the beetles And lasted up to the appearance of larvae of the 4th age group (from May 24 to June 25) were Conducted two (one afteranother) continuous inspections of potato plantings, and later two more (in the lowland tree of Transcarpathia - three) inspections: one on June 30 - during the period when beetles of the first generation emerge from, the soil in the. lowland districts and larvae of the 3rd' age group appeared in mountain districts, the second one on July 17 - during'the period in which larvae of the 2nd and 3rd age groups appear, and the third one on August 15 - during the period of mass 111 emergence of second generation beetles in lowland districts and of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) . Trans. A-1076 first (generation beetles] in the mountain districts of Trans- carpathia. Potato plantings in the Transcariethian and Drogobych Regions and in the boundary line districts of the'Lfvov and Volhynia Regions were simultaneously subjected to continuous prophylactic spraying or dusting with insecticides. Chemical treatments of plantings were conducted twice, and in the lowland districts of the Transcarpathian.Region three times: the first one from May 18 through June 5 - as sprouts appeared' (the period that coincided with the settling of overwintered beetles and mass hatching of larvae); the second one from the 5th to the 15th of June (in mountain districts - mass hatching Of larvae, and in lowlands - appearance of first larvae of 'the 1.1.th age group), the third one - from July 15 onward, during the period of a mass exit of first generation beetles from the soil - in lowland districts, and mass hatching of larvae-of the 3rd age group - in mountain , districts, in a number of farms in the Beregovsk:and other district it was necessary to spray 4 times. The poisonous chemicals used were the followings 50% DDT paste in a 0.8% concentration, go% MME (mineral oil emulsion], DDT in a 1.5% concentration. The first one to be tested was polychloropinen (a 65% concentrate). In sunny weather this pre- paration in 0.75% and 1% concentration (according to the prepara- tion) proved highly effective: 100% beetles and larvae of all age 111 groups died on the 2nd day after the treatment. Converted to a one-time treatment, a total of 231 thousand hectares of potato Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1076 plantings wet a d dusted with o nous chemicals. This work was organized bydetatments of Tractor Repair 4.5 brigades d sprayer- ons RTS), ? that had at their disposal dusters ONK-A, ?knapsack appara A brigade ? operators auto - nicien an Cautom headed by an agronomis ?t sprayed all potato pia horse o motor prayersOHM 304.50 k -ears, pond ins number of tr aborers ecorder. The briga rrtved at a populated loca less as to whom they he - pense'of the Govern in money according to calculations the averageg onous chemisi longed. mmnt, The work was arrLed odt The detachments were paid confirmed by regional agricultural treatment of one hectare includin cats tame to 48 rubles and 60 kopeks The foci (Place the pianteZnjured by the pea administrations. located adt area within a stage the pest radius), depending on t divided into two? groups, since the method used t first group -.with larvae of th the surface of the foci, Or wit All potato plants found on were sprayed with a 0.6% s preparation V** pupa fferent. groups found on ad. beetles 1 The cus and within a radius of 1 ?50%'DDT paste (as per the then they were gathered with the tubers, and .a 25% Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) . Trans. A-l076- benzene hexachloride dust on phosphorite meal was introduced into the soil at the rate of 15 gm per square meter and covered with rakes to a depth of 2-3 cm. The second group - with .beetles, ovipositors andalso iso- lated larvae up to the 3rd age group were found only on plants and on the soil surface. Here [the treatment] was limited to spraying the plants with the indicated-poisonous chemicals: Within a period of no less than lo days each focus and the'' surrounding plantings of potatoes and tomatoes were observed . every day. When living beetles and larvae were found then mea- sures for the eradication of foci were repeated. The use of the indicated system In the Colorado beetle con- trol permitted-eradicating.compleiely isolated foci in the VOlhynia and Levov Regions and to localize and,eradicate.their fundamental ? quantity in the Transcarpathian and Drogobych' Regions. Thus, of ,the foci found earlier in the Transcarpathian Region, some were left on only 426 farms, i.e. 10%, while the pest was 'decreased 97%. (Begin p.47). Supplementary eradication measures have been con- ducted and it appears certain that they will produce positive results. Taking into ?consideration the probability that there are places in which foci Illave remained undisclosed, plans to repeat measures against the beetle during the current year are under way. It is planned to carry out one continuous prophylactic spraying (in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1076 lowland districts of Transcarpathis - two) during the period in which ovcrwintered beetles settle down, including the develop- ment of larvae up to the 3rd age group. [Signed) Z. F. Hrlachko Chief State Inspection Service for Plant Quarantine In the Ukrainian SSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1077 vg/A Mellnikov, N. N. Novyi gerbitsid simazin. [New herbicide - Symaeine). Zashchita Rastenli ot Vreditelei i Soleenei, vol. 4, no. 3. p.53.. May/June 1959 421 21 (In Russian) , In recent yeers Swiss researchers have found a new group of active herbicides - derivatives of'symm-triaelne of which special interest is held out by 2-chlor-1.,6-bis (ethylamino)-symm-triazine.. which has been given the trade-name of Symazine. It represents a white crystalline substance-with a melting point of 227? (C) (tt technical preparation usually melts at222?- 224?), is very slightly soluble in water and only slightlysoluble in methyl alcohol and chloroform.. In room temperature Symazine is resistant tO the action ofdiluted aqueous solutions of alkalis and acids which destroy it by boiling by means of splitting off the chlorine atom. It can. beAestroyed also when heated with con- centrated sulfuric and nitric acids, and it is. non-explosive.. It disintegrates slowly in a soil solution: its residual action lasts from a few months up to 2 years. This permits etiliging It in the control of annual weeds among the young crop of plants the root system of which is embedded deeply. Symazlne is [only) very slightly toxic for man and animals Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1077 (the minimal lethal dose for experimental animals is 5000 mg/kg of living weight). When plantings are treated with this preparation at the rate of 1-2 kg/ha, it destroys a large number of weed species for practically the entire vegetative period, and when used at the rate of 6-8 kg/ha, then weeds such as European bindweed, couch grass anti others are also destroyed. According to data of Swiss researchers who work in the laboratory of the Firm of "Geigy", Symazine.used at the rate of 3.75-20 kg/ha suppresses the develop- Ment of monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous weeds for a long period - for over .5 months.. The aftereffect of the preparation is also long lasting. On fields treated with this preparation.at the end of April 1955 (10 kg/ha), the following plants had injuries more than a year 'later (in June and August of 1956): celery (Aoium L.), leek (Allium porrumj, wheat, oats, barley, rye, peas, beans, carrots, radishes, turnips, red clover, alfalfa, vetch, flax, and hemp; when the preparation was used at the rate of 5 kg/ha, the injured plants included wheat, oats, barley, beans, carrots, radishes and sugar beets; when 2 kg/ha were used, then -none of the above listed crops had any injuries. Maize possesses a specifically high resistance to the given preparation, even when applied at the rate of 10-15 kg/ha. In the control of weeds on maize plantings. Symazine is uSually recom- mended in doses of 1-3 kg/ha. But the sensitivity .to this pre- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-I077 paration of the crop that is to follow maize must be taken into consideration, since large doses of the preparation can later have an injurious influence upon it. Attention should be'paid also to a study of the possibility of utilizing this preparation and its closetanalogue - chlorazene (24.chlor-4,6-bis (diethylamino)-symm-triazine] in the control of weeds in plantings of cotton and certain other crops. Although the nature-Symatine action Upon plants has not been:i clarified conclusively, there are reasons to assume that it is responsible for a dliturbance of photosynthesis and a discontinuance Of the accumulation of starch that occur within the plant (Coleus Blumel and Tropaeolum). The high resistance of maize to Symazine has been explained by the presence of an enzymic system in this species of plants that hydrolyses Symazine rapidly by splitting off the chlorine atom and converts the preparation to a very slightly toxic 2-oxy-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-symm-triazine. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. P-1078 vg/A Bellkov, V. P. and Shutov, I. V. (Reviewers) Novale kniga o khimicheskom metode bortby s sorniakami [N. E. Dokatova. Khimicheskie sredstva s sornoi rastItelanostflu v lesnom khoziaistve. Goslesbumizdat, 1958). [New book on the chemical method of weed control) [Chemical means of weed control in forestry]. Zashchita Rasienli ot Vreditelei I Boletnei, vol. 44 no. 3, p.61. Say/June 1959. 421 21 (In Russian) [The author of) the book examines in succession the impor- ? tance of the control of weeds and of undesirable plants. He describes the more widely distributed herbicides and arboricides and the methods used in exerting chemical action, and cites fairly detailed practical instructions for their application to forestry. In each specific case the author cites accounts of, economic effectiveness. On the whole, the book Is useful to production and may serve as a reference work for students. . It, nonetheless, has its shortcomings. . Some controversial and ill defined problems received a one-sided elucidation; it contains [also) some obsolete recommendations that could disorient the reader. For example, a great deal of attention has been given to chlorates and their extensive use in nurseries and on clearings has. been recommended. Meanwhile, the author .himself points out Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-I078 that detoxication of heavy soil varieties (there Is a prepon7 derance of such soils In the Taiga tone) takes place slowly after they have been treated with chlorates. This eliminates the possibility of utilizing such plots under crops even a year after the chemical treatment. The given circumstance should have been noted more distinctly and it should have been emphasized that chlorates can be used only on light soils. The author's recommendation that sodium arsenite be used in chemical drying of defective aspen causes one to wonder, inasmuch its high toxicity for man.and useful animals is known. And the observance of the rules of safety techniques under forest condi- ., tions is very difficult. In examining the new herbicide of uniform action --ammonium sulfamate -.the author gives the same.kind of advice as-he did for chlorates. It is impossible to agree with this, since sul- famate, distinct from chlorates acts upon the plant primarily through its surface organs and not through the soil. Hence the author's indication that sulfamate can be used In weed control In its crystalline form Is incorrect (P.40). ?I The suggestion that soil in arid regions can be watered be- fore and after weeds have been treated with sulfamates is un- grounded (p.91)t it can reduce the importance of the chemical treatment to nothing. The effect of,sulfamates upon weeds of the rhizome (surface 111 beach grass, couch grass and others) Is slight. Therefore it is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1078 Impossible to agree with the author's recommendation that this preparation be used against perennial weeds on fallow plots of nurseries (p. 91) and on clearings against beach grass in general (P. 40), because this could lead to the spreading of the worst kind of weed - the surface beach grass - and to choking of crops. As regards ammonium sulfamate? it must be noted that this compound is not only an effective herbicide but also an arboricide of continued action. With aid of this compound it is possible .to bring about the drying up of brushwood and of woody shoots Of various composition, height and age. Hence, the indications in . the book that sulfamate could be used only in the control of 111 annual scrub (p.106) it not in conformity with the facts. Further the author .indicates that for the purpose of thinning out of the canopy of alder, birch and hazelnut in coniferous-green- wood young forest growth Emolodniak] one can.use sodium and amine salts 2,4-D, 2,445-T and 2M-4X. With reference to thii, it must be noted that in the given case the use of sodium salts is in- expedient, since they are inconvenient for application [obrash7 chenie], penetrate into plant leaves slowly and are readily washed off by rain. For the care of the composition of mixed young forestsArowth, amine salts 2,4-D (preparation 2,4-DA) should be used first of all. This compound penetrates into plant leaves more rapidly end causes not only the drying of birch and alder, but even the thinning of aspen. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1078 The optimal time for spraying under conditions of the:north- western regions are the dates from July 11 to July 20, Later in the season (up to August 15, as is indicated in the book) it pro- duces extremely puny results. The author,alsp'points.out that in case there are insufficiently heeled-in sprouts inedorub) and seedlings in the young forest stand,' aerial spraying must not be conducted, because the flight altitude of the airplane will exceed 10 in. The given requirement unjusti- fiably limits the circle of objects (that benefit) from the use of the aerial-chemical method of tending a 'young forest stand, because insufficiently hceled-in sprouts and seedlings are found practically everywhere. In fact, aerial spraying of a young forest stand can be conducted even if the plane flies at an altitude above 10 in - it .merely increases somewhat the loss of the chemical in the air. ' -The principal comment about the book must be made regarding the instructions given for the use of the derivatives 2,4-D in the control of mosses - peat moss and polytrichum - cited on pages 0-and.102. The author recommends the same dosage of the pre- paration.(7-8 kg/ha) for the indicated objectives without taking into account that polytrichum is more resistant to 2,4-D than peat. moss. Consequently, the dosages should be differentiated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. V vg/A Korotkikh, O. 1. K istoril aviatsiodnogo melkokapellnogo opryskivanlia. (History of aerial fine-drop spraying]. Zashchita Rastenli at Vreditelei I Boleznel, vol. 4, no. 3, p.63. mayhune 1959. 421 21 (In Russian) At the present time, fine-drop spraying and aerosols have gained wide distribution in the USA and West-European countries. . These methods are used with much sUccess.also in our Country. The use of fine-drop spraying with poisonous chemicals of high Con- ecentration in the control of the Siberian silkworm* was suggested for the first time in world practice in the Soviet Union. The turbine sprayer designed:by-V. F. Stepanov that is situated under the wings of the airplane Po-2A was-utilized for these purposes. With the aid of. this sprayer, In Eastern Siberia In the year 1940, 710 ha. of larch infested with caterpillars of the older age groups of the silkworm were treated with a concentrated (AO%) solution of :sodium'arsenite. More than 90% of the pest perished within 24 hours after the spraying. In the Irkutsk Oblast', in 1947-1948, tests were conducted of the aviation fog-producing apparatus ATA designed by V. F. Stepanov and mounted onto the Po-2A ,airplane (see illustration). Consump- * Topics of reports of The Ecological Conference on Problems of 411 Mass Propagation of Animals (and) the Prognosis (thereof), Sept. 15 20, 1940, part II. Izd. AN, Ukrainskoll SSA, Kiev, 1941. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1079 ? ? tion of a concentrated solution of technical DDT and benzene hexachloride (010tTsG) at the rate of 12-15 liters/ha achieved high mortality of the caterpillars of the Siberian silkworm of .the younger age groups (P. M. Rates and others). Further, in the Kirovograd Oblast', an oil solution of technical benzene hexachloride was used against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) at the rate of $0 liters/ha. This also was sufficiently effec- tive (Z. V. Ivanove). In the years 1950-52, D. F. Rudnev and M. A. Anfinnikov practiced fine-drop spraying with DDT oil solutions for the pur- pose of destroying forest pests and they also obtained positive results with a low consumption of the working liquid. In 1952, 111 A. M. Churakov utilized ATA successfully over fruit plantings and against the acorn weevil (Balaninus glandium Mrsh.) in the Krasnodar Territory. Later A. I. Sadovnikov demonstrated that ordinary aerial boom sprayers can be used in treating a forest with concentrated solutions of poisonous chemicals. The experience accumulated in our own country and abroad indicates that fine-drop spraying by the aerial method should be utilized in mass production with more determination, primarily in the control of forest and field crop pests. (Signed) G. M. Korotkikh Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1080 ? ve/M Starostin, S. O. Melkokapelfnoe avloopryskivanie v borlbe so sveklovichnym dolgonosikom. (Fins-drop aerial spraying in the control . of beet weevil). Zashchita Rastenii.ot Vreditelei 1 Boleznel, vol. 4, no. 3, p.19-22. May/June 1959. 421 ZI (In Russian) 'In USSR, annually, 1.3-1.5 mm n ha of sugar beet plantings are aerially sprayed with poison chemicals, this comprises, approxi- mately, half of all the area of chemical treatment for the control of the beet weevil. Such a role of aviation in this matter raises a problem of further improvement of methods of its work, raising of productivity, effectiveness and reduction of cost. One of the means for solving 'this problem is the use of fine.' drop spraying with highly toxic poison chemicals with a small expenditure of liquid. Possessing several advantages in compari- son with aerial dusting (better retention of poison chemicals on plants, smaller dependence on the wind, smaller losses, and so on), aerial spraying is still behind it in productiveness. The basic cause is in large norms of expenditure of liquids. The problem of application of the fine-drop method of aerial spraying for the control of plant pests is not new, and its prospectiveness Is evident. As it is known, in atomization of one and the same ? volume of liquid, the number of drops will be the greater, the ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-I080 smaller will their size be; therefore, the required density for covering the plants with poison chemical drops, as well as high effectiveness, can be provided even with a small norm of expendi- ture by using higher concentrations of poison chemicals. One should mention that regardless of good reasons for chang- ing to fine-drop aerial spraying, its practical application is ? connected with the necessity of overcoming many difficulties and, first of all, reduction of losses of liquid from evaporetion and drift by wind of fine drops beyond the limits of the treated section. Experiments of OosNII OVT(Secientific Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet) have Shown that water suspensions of poison chemi- cal solutions are of little use for thecited purposes at the site of drops about 100 microns and the height of the flight of 5 in, not more than 60% of their number, that was ejected from the air- plane, reached the earth; oil emulsions and oil solutions of poison chemicals are best for fine-drop aerial spraying: they evaporate slowly In spraying., (Begin p.20) Spray nozzles of reduced cross section are used with outlets ? 1 X 5 mm; l X 2 mm and 1 X 1 mm in order to provide a finer break- ing down of liquid in aerial spraying. The per second expenditure of liquid, caused by this reduction, is accompanied by the increase of the number of revolutions of the wind mill of the Sprayer and by a considerable increase of pressure in the spray boom. Thus, in installing a set of sprayers with openings of 1 X 1 mm on a series sprayer of the airplane An-2, with the pump AM442, the wind Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1080 mill produced 5,000 revolutions per minute, and the pressure in - spray booms comprised 5.2 kg/cm2, while in sprayers with openings of 2 X:5 mm, that are ordinarily used for spraying beets at a medium dispersity, the number of revolutions fell to 3,600, and the pressure in spray booms to 2.6 kg/cm2. Whereupon the disper- sity of drops was changed correipondingly. One should point out that a poly-dispersion system of drops, the site of Which varies in wide limits from 10 to 400 microns and over in diameter forms In aerial Spraying. 7The renge.of the size of drops was somewhat narrowed in utilizing sprayers with openings of small cross sections. Afgon chemical Liquid Sprayers Pressure Number Aver. operating concen- consump- _ Cross sec- in spray of age tration (L/ha) Amount tion of the boom( drops diame- ._ .- outlet (mm) (kg/cm') on? 1 cm2 of the surface ter of drops [micron] 10% emulsion of DDT 15 16 1X5 5.2 64.3 ' .66.4 6% emulsion of DDT 25 28 1x5 .2X5 4.8 103.3 117.9 3% emulsion of DDT 50 50 2.6 104.0 214.9 10% solution of technical DDT in - diesel fuel 13 16 1X5 5.2 116.4 105.7 Data, cited above, is about dispersity of drops in aerial spraying of sugar beets for the control of beet weevils. It is seen from the above cited figures that with the norm of consumption of liquid of 50 1./ha with ordinary medium-drop disper-' ? sion of liquid, or of 25 1./ha, but with a finer dispersion the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1080 . number of drops per 1 cm2 of the sprayed surface is alike. The size of drops, in the lest case, is smaller while concentration of the poison chemical is higher in them. But the density of the network of drops in the oil solution of DDT, with the consumption of 15 L/ha, proved the consumption of Research Institute extensive works on to be higher than in the emulsion of DDT with 25 and 50 L/ha. Ukrainian Min (Scientific for Plant Protection] and 000411 OVF conducted . studying fine-drop aerial spraying with low norms of liquid consumptiOn for the control of beet weevil, in 1957 and 1958, at kolkhozes in Kiev oblast'. As it was expected, the obtained results were positive. The following data from the kolkhoz f!Chervonnyi zhovten" of Starchenkovskii raion, Kiev oblastf, in 1957, are cited as an example. Spraying was conducted from the airplane An-2. Consump- tion of the poison chemical at different norms of liquid was similar: "polikhlorpinen" (polyc+rpinene] 1 kg/ha, and 20% of ".MME" DDT (mineral-oil emulsion of DDT) 1.5 kg/ha. Poison chemicals Consumption of liquid (L/ha) of dead beetles o ych orpinene 1 The same 50% solution of polychlorpinene in diesel fuel Polychlorpinene DDT DDT DDT 15 6 50 25 15 so 96 90 92 95 89 83 . 90 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1080 Approximately the same indices' were obtained in 1958 at kolkhoses nimeni Stalinan, Smelianskil talon, Cherkaask ?blest', nimeni Kulbyshevn, Skvirskii ration, Riev *blast', and at several other farms. In all, 35 thousand hectares of plantings were treated In the above mentioned ?blast's by the method of fine- drop-aerial spraying with a norm of consumption of 25 L/ha. It is also difficult to.overrate-its economic importance. Reduction of the norm of consumption (Begin pall of the liquid to.25 will increase the productivity of airplanes per flying hour by 1 30-40% and the use of oil solution of polycherpinene (per 5-6 k/ha) by two times; the cost of aerial treatment will be reduced by 3511, 411 not taking into account the savings on the delivery of water and manpower, and many other expenditures. According to preliminary estimates, transfer to fine..drep aerial spraying of sugar beets with a norm of consumption of liquid of 25 L/ha will permit to. save alone on the payment for the airplane work, transportation end manpower, counting 4 rubles per hectare, about 5-6 mln, rubles, per year. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Shmanenkov, N. A., Meltnikova, T. S., Sokolov, IA. A., and Kotliar, E. IU. _ Mochevina-chastichnyi gamenitell belka v rate lone doinykh korovw. (Urea (carbamide) as partial substitute for A protein in the ration of mulch cows) Vestnik Sellskokhoziaistvennoi Nauki, vol. 44 no. 4, p.58-63. April 1959. 20 V633 (In Russian) ? Trans. A-1081 vg/M Among the nutritious substances-of feed proteins are of great importance because they comprise thertoundat,ion of cells of the animal organism. CoMtersion of feed'groteiAsj-to body proteins I occurs by means of coiplex biochemical processes: first of all by the digestion of fodder.. Under the effect of enzymes of the gastro-intestinal tract the feed proteins undergo a hydrolytic decomposition into products of different degree of complexity - albumoses, peptones, peptides, amino acids. After absorption into the blood, these _products of hydrolysis serve as the initial material from which 'organism builds the proteins required by it. ? Results of the work were reported at the Conference of the Buresu of the Department of Animal Industry (June 26, 1958) and at the. Presidium of VASKHNIL (July 3, 1958). Vsesoluznyi Nauchno-Issledovateliskil Institut Ronevodstva (All- Union Scientific-Research Institute of Horse Breeding). t, ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1081 Often in feeds, along with proteins, the cited products of their hydrolysis are present in a certain amount in a finished form, which can be utilized by the organism in the same manner as the product of digestion of protein substances. Thus, the animals . build their proteins from products or hydrolysis of fodder proteins, the final, link of which are the amino acids. The amino acids, which do not take part in the building and renewing of animal proteins are oxidized. 'Al the same time.their amino groups separate out in the form of ammonia, and the nitrogen- free fragments either become converted to fats and carbohydrates, or are oxidized with the liberation of energy up to the water and carbon dioxide; Ammonia, as a toxic substance itOdecontaminated, , being converted to urea, and, partiallY,-becoming neutralized by acids with the formatioa of salts of amhonles is taken out of the organism, in triese-i forms, with' the? ailne. Agricultural animals are able to synthesize certain amino acids from ammonia and nitrogen-free compounds of carbon, but, apparently, in very insignificant amounts. For a normal development of ani- mals, it is necessary that ready amino acids be present in the feed proteins. In nature, the initial synthesis of amino acids from ammonia and simple carbon compounds, and proteins from amino acids; is carried out by plants and certain forms of microorganisms. For animals the plants are the chief source of proteins. In this respect, a role of considerable importance is played by micro- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15.: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1081 organisms living in the rumens of ruminants [Begin p.59) and which are able to build the proteins of their body from Ammonia and products of conversion of nonprotein organic substances, and, in the first place, Of carbons. Mechanism of synthesis of amino acids, and then of body proteins by microflora in rumens Of the ruminants has been studied very little so far. It is known only, that ammonia .derivatives" (carbamide, salts of Ammonium), which are added to the feeds,. can be utilised as sources of nitrogen for this synthesis. Nitrogen is utilized in the form of ammonia - NH3 for synthesis of amino acids. Therefore, all the ammonia derivatives are subjected to 111 hydrolysis at the beginning; as.a result of thli free ammonia is liberated. For instance, hydrolysis of carbamide (urea) occurs ? In the following manners CO(NH2)2 + H20 CO2 + 2NH3. A. further stage can be the so-called reducing aminating of keto acids, which proceeds according to the scheme: NH3 + R-CO-COOH + 2H R-CHN82--COOH + 1420. Individual characteriStics of the amino acid, formed at this time, depends on the nature of the initial keto acid. Rumen Micro- organisms of ruminants build the proteins of their body from the obtained amino acids. At the present time carbamide is used as a source of nonpro- tein nitrogen; it is.synthesised byHchiMical industry from nitro- . gen of air, hydrogen and carbon dioxide according to the schemes ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Trans. A-1081 N2 + 3/12.-1, 2NH3; 2NH3 CO2 CO(N1-12)2 + 1120. Microorganisms, which reproduced In the rumen on the medium with carbamide, move to the abomasum with the feed, die in its acid contents, while their proteins are digested as a component part of the feed. The practical importance of this problem was determined after it was ascertained, that the microflora in the rumens of ruminant animaltcwas able to synthesize. proteins from- nonprotein sources of nitrogen of industrial preparation In the amount of 25:.30of the total requirement of proteins by the animals. This, approximately, corresponds to that temporary deficit in feed protein, which is observed in many countries of the world, in- cluding also the Soviet Union. Hence, the interest, which Is shown in this problem by representatives of agricultural science and animal industry practice of many countries, is understandable. Soviet scientists B. N. Lavrov, 0. I. Molchanova, A. N. Okhotnikova, I. S. Popov, I. M. Kuznetsov, and others made a valu- able contribution to the study of the problem of utilizing non- protein sources of nitrogen In animal industry. At the present time 'this problem is being developed rather widely; whereupon the growth of chemical industry creates great possibilities for utilization of synthetic nitrogen compounds in animal industry. We came to the following conclusions in using carbamide as a partial substitute of protein In the ration of ruminant animalst carbamide protein can substitute 20-30,1 of the ration', protein; degree of utilization of carbamide depends on the synthetic acti- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-108I vity of the rumen microflora and quality of thebasic ration of the animals; Giving of carbamide to animals in large doses can cause poisoning of-the organism as a result of absorption of ammonia and excess of urea; In feeding carbamide, it is neces- sary carefully to mix it with the additional fodder, or with the - feed Of the basic ration, in order that it enter the gastro- Intestinal tract of animals gradually and evenly; the animals must be gradually trained for the consumption of carbamide; in zones, which are characterized by peculiarities in maintenance and feeding of ruminant animals It. Is necessary, before utilis- _ ing carbamide? to conduct a scientfic-economic experiment with the participation of zootechnicians [Begin p.60] and veterinary surgeons. The most effective measures for feeding carbamide must then be developed on the basis of this experiment. We think that insufficient studies of the mechanism for the utilization by animals of nonprotein nitrogen,-Including car- bamide, is the chief cause in the absence of the right scientific differentiated approach to the use.of these substances in order to relieve the deficit in feed protein. ? Following the suggestion of VASKHNIL LA11-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences 'men! V. I. Lenin], we are conducting a series of experiments on the use of carbamide as a partial sub- stitute of protein in the ration of the ruminant animals. In the experiment, which was conducted during the period from April 1 to May 23, 1958, at the koikhoz "Po stalinskomy puti", Irkutsk talon, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-108I Irkutsk oblast', the effect of carbamide (in a dose of 1 g per 5 kg of live weight) was tested on the state of 'health, productivity and nitrogen metabolism of-milch cows, while Maintaining them on a low-protein basic ration. Three.groups of milch cove (of 10 head each) were taken into the experiment; they were of the local Siberian breed, Improved by.Ostfriesian? The animals were se- lected on. the principle of analogues, takina into consideration the age, productiveness, live weight and the period of lactation. All the cows were expecting their sixth calf, were in the 3-4th month of lactation* first or second months of pregnancy. The animals of the 1st group, on the average* weighed 374 kg, daily milk yield equalled 9.6 L, fat content in milk - 3.85%; in the 2nd group correspondingly - 367 kg 9.7 L., 3.8%; in the 3rd - 390 kg., 10 L., 3.8%. The first one was the control group, the two others - ex- perimental. Animals of all groups were given combined feeds, which were, approximately, equivalent in food value, but differed in the source of proteins. The experimental cows received 30% of proteins in the form of nitrogen of carbaMide In the combined feed no. 1; in the combined feed no, 2 the basic source of pro- tein was soybean grist. Flour, made from low-grade hay, was used. as the basic low-protein Component in both feeds. Proportions for the combined feeds are cited in table 1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? 111 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1081 , Proportions for combined feeds Table 1 Feeds and mineral supplements Combined feeds no. 1 no, 2.. Granulated oats lb 10.1 Dried waste liquor 20 20 Molasses 3.5 3.5 Soybean grist 14.4 Carbamide (urea)* 2.5 Wheat bran 20.0 18.0 Hay flour 40.0 30.0 Salt 2 ? 2 Bonemeal 2 2 Cobalt sulfate 3 g per 1 t 3 g per 1 t Estimated composition In 1 kg: Feeding unitsw 0.53 0.65 Protein 0.24 0.23 Fat 0.03 0.03 Dry substance 0.83 0.83 Calcium (g) 7.7 8.1 Phosphorus (g) 7.6 8.2 Vitamin A- (mg) 1 1 Vitamin D (mg) 200 200 Cobalt sulfate (mg) 3 3 *Carbamide was added to the combined feed before feeding the animals. **In combined feed no. 1 there are less feed units than in combined feed no, 2. (Begin .p.61] . Animals of the first group were supplemenally given 3 kg of combined feed no. 2; animals of the second group - 3 kg of combined feed no. 1, and the animals of the 3rd group were also 3 kg of combined feed no. 1, but at the same time carbamide (dis- solved In molassei in the amount 89 : 11) was introduced in an equal amount. Molasses were given to all groups in equal amounts (table 2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1081 Table 2 Rations of experimental animals and amount of feeds consumed MJ S&tS Groups 1 Ration (kg) Actually consumed (kg) ) el Ii 4a W 43 0 C4 14C OP.* L>N4 0, 0.1 *0 ? IP 0 00 ??? .032 EW 00 combined feed no. 2. I Molasses ' Feed units 5? Digestible g protein (g ? ) 0 Fs .0 44 o 03 0 .4 ??? 0 C: a t ??? 0 C; 0 0 IL : Combined feed no. 2 Molasses Feed units Digestible protein (g) / II III S 8 8 16.5 16.5 16.0 [4?4 - 3 3 3 - - 1.1 1.1 1.1, 7.1 6.7 6.7 844. '.5.3 874 874 4 5. 5.5 16.5I.. 16.5 16.0 3 3 3 - - 1.1 1.1 1.1 6.51 832 6.1 863 6.1 86) Animals of both experimenter groups were given 75 g of car.' ? bamide each day during the course of 35 days; this comprised 25% . of protein of the entire accepted ration. The animals were trained .to take carbamide during the course of 5 days, being given 20 g on the first day, and then 30, 50 and 75 g. The experiment consisted 'of three periods: during the preliminery-110 days) animals of all groups were maintaifiedon.the basic ration with a supplement of .3 kg of combined feed no. 2; whereupon zootechnical clinico-phy- . siological and biochemical indices were taken. into account; during the course of the main period (30 days) the full complex of research WAS carried out, and during the final (10 days) period an exchange- able experiment was conducted, as well as other research, on 8 coma of both experimental groups. On the 5th day' ofcarbamide feeding in one of the cows of the second group symptoms appeared of a pathological condition similar to uremic toxicosis. After a two-day break in the feeding of carbamide and after the immediate giving of acetic acid, the cow Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) 'Trans. A-1081 recovered and was again included into the experiment. There were no other disturbances of the physiological condition of animals (table 3), Animals of experimental groups did not differ from the con- trol group according to clinico-physiological condition. Milk productivity was estimated for all the experimental cows taking - into account each milking. The live weight was determined twice? at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Data on the .productiveness, live weight and percent of fat in milk of experi- mental cows are cited in table 4. Lactation curves for ell the groups are represented in the figure. 'Title of figure on page 611 Lactation curve of daily tilkings'of cows of experimental and control groups. ? 'Words in figure: at the left- milk yield In liters. At the top: let group, 2nd group and 3rd group. At the bottom: April-May. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1081 . Table 3 Clinico-physiological indices of the Condition of animals average'velues Periods of research Groups 11 111 Before the experiment: Temperature 38.2f( 37,638.60) 38.2?(38.0-38.5?) 38.1?(37.7-38.6 Pulse 61.5(59-66) 63.0(60.0-67.0) 61.3 (59-67) Respiration 16.1(15-20) 15.8(14-17) 15.5(14-17) Amount of hemoglobin 5816( 52-64) 59.6(54-68) .62.0( 54-69) In the middle. of 'the experiments Temperature 38.2?(38.0-38.4?) 38.2*(38.1-38.40) 38.1?(38.0-38.3 Pulse 60.8(59-65) 60.2(59-63) 60.9(9-61.) respiration 16.1(13-20) 15.7(15.-17) ? 15.9(15-17) At the end of the f4 experiment: Temperature 38.3?(38.2-38.4?) 38.30(38.1-38.40) 38.2*(38.0-38.3 Pulse - 60.3(59-64) 60.8(60-63) 60.2(60-61) Respiration' 15.8( 14-20) 15.9(15-17) 16.1(15-17) of hemoglobin 53.6(45-63) ' 55.7(45-65) 55.8(49-66) Footnote: Qualitative reaction of the urine to protein was negative in all cases Table 4 LavaLy 11) :Pntoess Etna Lne sive weiRnt ?I o milk T%) cow ton cne averagei Live weight (kg) tliWrIgs At the begin. ning of the experiment At the end of the ex- periment On the ever- age during the ex er mt. ? At the begin ning of the experiment At the end of the ex- periment At the begin ning of the experiment Al the end of the ex- periment 'Mean ,daily increase in Groupsweight (9) . - 1 '9.6 9:4 9.3 3..60 3.75 ' -374 '354 ' 300 II ,9.7 9.2 8.9 3.85 3.82 367 ' 373 200 _111_j_.0e2_9z3 9a_3A8 3.73 390 " 393 100 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-108I Table 5 Nitrogen metabolism and alkaline reserve in milch cows In feedina carbamide Indices grOUP II rou. 1 .roup Mean experimental group_ I for II two III 4 II III I II III I II III Total nitrogen of the blood (%) 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.1 2.5 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.7 Total nitrogen of . the serum (%) 1.2 1.2 i.4 1.3 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 Nonprotein nitro- gen of the blood (g) - 0.3 0.4 - 0.2 0.5 - 0.2 0.3 - 0.2 0.4 Carbemide of the blood (mg g) 57 52 32 62 46 33 61 43 37 61 44 35 Amino nitrogen of the serum (mg %) 53 60 65 67 51 50 58 49 58 62 50 54 Alkaline resevve of the strum CO2 Ig%) w- 'Mal nitrogen** 34 52 54 49 48 49 45 49 56 47 49 52 of the urine (%) 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.4 - 1.0 1.2 - 1.1 1.3 - Carbamide** of th nrIrig (In 2_110,_< 2_ ,A .? ,_n La . ---irP4-Wi?aste the experiment, II - during the middle of the experiment, Ill - et the end of the experiment ** The morning urine was tested. [Begin p.63] The indices of productivity, increase In weight and contents of fat in milk proved to be somewhat lower In animals of experi- mental groups than In the. control,. BlOod and urine of the experi- mental cows were tested for contents Of the most important nitro- genous substances, which characterise the: state of nitrogenous me- tabolism (table 5). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (121 Trans. A-1081 In animals of all groups changes of indices of nitrogen metabolism and of the alkaline reserve have a similar character, with the exception of the amino nitrogen of the blood serum and the carbamide of the urine, the contents of which somewhat increased dur- ing the experiment in animals of the control group, but dicreased in the experimental groups. Introduction of carbamide into the ration (in doses adapted by us) did not raise its contents in the blood of mulch cows*. CONCLUSIONS In substituting carbamide (75 g) for 25% of protein in the ? daily ration of mulch cows, the state of health and productive-. ness of animals proved to be, practically, similar to those in the control group, where cows received an equivalent amount of pro- tein in the form of soybean grist. Feeding carbamida in a dry form with the combined feed, or dissolving it in Molasses (89 i 11) and using it for seasoning corn silage, does not make any essential difference. Nevertheless, the most uniform milk production was recorded In cows, which were given carbamide solution In molasses. According to biochemical indices the nitrogen metabolism of experimental animals differed only slightly from the metabolism of. the control group cows. In spite of a single case of clinical *Discharge of carbamide with the urine, as well as the balance of nitrogen will be ascertained in a special metabolism experiment, the results of' which are being processed by us at the present time. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A.-1081 development of toxicosis, a supposition ensues from data of our experiment about the possibility for Increasing the dose of car- fed to milk cows under conditions of Irkutsk oblast', up to 1 kg per 4 kg of live weight instead of 1 g per 5 kg of weight. It Is suLgested that addition of carbamide to the cpmblned feeds and Its dissolving in molasses be made at the factories where the combined feeds are produced, where accurate weight dosagie can be provided. Combined feeds with carbamIde must be put up In special packlno with a label and Instructions how to feed it. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 411 owing to extremely strong spreading of the lateiDlight. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1082 vg/M Storoshanko, U. 0. Ustoichivostt k fitoftore raslichnykh po immun- nosti sortov kartofella v uslovilakh sakhalina. (Resistance to phytophtora'shown by Various strains of potatoes with different degrees of immunity in, Sakhalin) Vestnik Sellskokhosiaistvennoi Nauki, vol. 4, ho.-4, p.132-134. April 1959 20 V633 ? (In Russian) Potatoes ore the most important supply crop o1 Sakhalin. it comprises 30.355; of all the.agriculturaPcrops. -0eanwhile the yield- : lug capacity of iibtatoei-On the island, as yet, 0 low, particuiary Low summer temperatures or the air (in AumAst, the warmest month, from 16.9 to i7.7?), a high relative,hunidity of the air. (during the summer months it is rarely below 80%) - all this favors the spreading of the fungus Phytophtora infestans. Almost every year a full. loss of tops of the non-resistant strains of potatoes is recorded on .Sakhalin; and the loss of tubers from the disease reaches 40% and more. At the present time, along with agrotechnical and chemical methods of control of the late blight, the most essential means are supposed to be the planting of phytophtora-resistant strains (1). Candidate of Agricultural Science, Acting Director, Sakhalinskaia Kompleksnala Sellskokhoziaistvennala Opytnala Stantsila 0 [Sakhalin Complex Agricultural Experiment Station) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1062 'A question about the length of retaining of Immunity to the late blight by the potato strains is of great theoretical and practi- cal intereit in connection with a swift introduction 'into pro- duction of phYtophtore-resistant Strains In regions of considerable spreading of this disease. ? There are indications. in literature about loss of immunity by . 'strains In their long cultivation (2,'3, 5), especially under new conditioni that are unnatural to their biology. Thus, inj4exico, In. 1952, at the altitude of 2,500 is above sea level; under condi- . tions that were the best for development of the fungus.Phytophtors infestans4 134 resistant hybrids were tested,. and they all proved ? - to be infected to one or another degree (4). The loss of resistance hampers introduction of phytophtora-resistent strains into pro- duction. We undertook.* task both to select, for Sakhalin, high- yielding potato strains, resistant to diseases, as well as to study the length of retention of immunity to late blight by these, strains In cultivating them under new conditions, that"are favorable to this disease. For this purpose, in 1950, several dozen of phytophtora- resistant strains and hybrids of potatoes were brought to Sakhalin from the All-Union Institute of Plant _Industry and the Institute of Potato Industry. The best among them Urallskii, Kresnouflmskil, Gibrid Kemerata no. 1, Selanets [seedling] 6403, Seianets 7-585 (All-Union Institute of Plant industry), Mbskovskii and Selanets 996 ? .(Institute of Potato Industry) - were studied during the course of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (3) Trans. A-1082 8 years. . Research was conducted at the Sakhalin Branch of the Academy of Science of USSR, as well as at the Sakhalin Complex Agricultural Experiment Station. In 1950-51, the experimental area of the plot comprised 15,4 sq. m; the control was plantdd after every ? four strains. In 1952-53, the experimental area of the plot was raised to 50 sq. r14 with a fourfold replication; and later on it was brought up to 100 sq.,m with the same replication. Rs- - , search was conducted on a high agrotechnical base. The non-resis- tant regionalised strain Berlikhingen, local strains Sakhalinskii 44 Mestnyi alyi and early-ripening strains Pilot and Cobbler were taken for comparison. , The research has shown, that not one of the delivered phyto- phtora..resistant strains has shown full field resistance to late blight under conditions of Sakhalin., Nevertheless, as a-rule, the first symptoms of the disease were-found on these strains 15-30 days later than on the non-resistant. Under conditions, especially favorable for the disease, in 1953, the first blemishes of the late blight on Seianets 7-585, 6-103, 998 and strains *Moskovskil and 0ibrid Kameraea no. I, appeared almost simultaneously with the infection on non-resistant varieties. In 1956, the strains Moskovskil and Olbrid Kamm* no.' i behaved in the same manner. As the observations of many years have shown, the phyto- phtora-resistant strains permit to move the dates of the appearance of the disease by 2-3 weeks and to reduce the intensity of its spreading. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1082 Table 1 shows the degree of infection of potato strains with the late blight, varying In their resistance, as it VAS determined at the end of AUgust and the first ten days of September. In spite of the absence of full immunity, the phytophtora-resistant strains showed very high resistance under field conditions in comparison ? L with the other strains. 'Mks was observed also during the years with very strong spreading of late blight (1953, 1957), when there existed very favorable conditions-1'hr the development of the disease. Resistant varieties behaved differently in-relation to the fungus Phytophtora infestants, during different years. (Begin p.1333 Table 1 ? differing In their Infection of potato strains low resistance 4 wttn late nfg Strains [Aug. 3,11i 19 I 19 2 195, 19 ... ?.4 a, ? t.t) Aug. 23 ? 4.1 ts. W IA t ? CA 0 AC S et 04 9 V) Aug. 26 1Sept. 0 Ch ern 404 ? CO 0 < CI +61 a. 0 En t-. ? oll q 41; &j\ ?:: D. * 41) ? tx, 0 < K 9 Ca _. 4; Urallskil Selanets 7-$85 Kraseoufkukii Moskovskii Seianets 6-103 Oibrid Kamera- ea no. 1 Selanets 996 Berlikhingen Pilot- Sakhalinskil no. Zi. Cobbler Mestnyi alyi 00000 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 1 1 1 0-11 4 5 4 5 4 $ ,5 4 5 0 0 1-2 0 1 1 34 4-5 3 4 3-4 0 0 1-2 0 1 2 -5 5 5 5 5 1-2 0 1 0 1 0 34 5 4-5 5 4-5 Q 4 0 3 -3 3 3 5 - 5 - 5 0 2-3 0 3 3-4 4 5 3-4 5 5 5 5 1 4 0-1 4-5 4,-5 4 . 5 - - - - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 14-5 3 4-5 5-U (5- 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 5 5 4-5 0 0 0 0-1 0-i 0-1 -1 5 5 ' 0 0 0-1 0 ?01-1 0 0.1 1-2 1-2 0-1 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 . -1 2 ..4, 5 -5 -IL 3-1 0 2-3 0 0 ? ) -1 0 ?-3 ? 4 0-4 ,1 A.kitVA wstim P4) rootnote: Degree of infection is given according to a six-mark systems 0 - no infection; 1 - up to 20% of the vegetative mass Is infected; 2 - up 3,/ 3 -up to 60%; 4 - up to 80% and 5 -.up to 100%. *44..411.41.11414.11?1?110M410?11111014.11MMoll.1141 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1082 _Thus, up to 1957, Including also the year 1953, the strains Uraltskil and Krasnouflmskil were the most resistant. .Nevertheless, In 1957_ both these strains were infected with late blight much stronger than the rest of phytophtora-resistant strains. It is impossible, on the basis of the conducted research to make a conclusion about any sizable loss of immunity by phytophtora- resistant. strains of Leniningrad and Moscow selection after their. many years cultivation under conditions of Sakhalin. It is in- teresting, in the thit respect to trace the behavior of the phyto- phtora-resistant Seianets 998. This strain, beginning at the time of its delivery, 4,cifit its immunity to the late blight to an ever. larger degree. In 1953, it was infected with the disease equally* with non-resistant early-ripening strains Pilot and Cobbler; this gave use. the reason (Begin p.1341 to refer it to strains, which fully lost their Immunity.- Nevertheless, in later years, it again showed itself as one of the strains that were most resistant to the late blight. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) ? Trans. A-1082 Table 2 (on page 133) Yield of potatoes by strains which showed different resistance to late blight under conditions of Sakhalin (C /ha) Strains Years: 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 19f7 On an average fi 8 years tirallskii Seianets 7-585 Krwinoufimskii Moskovskii Seianets 6-103 Olbrid Kamerasa.no. 1 Seianets 998 . BerIikhingen ' Pilot . Sakhilinskii no. 4 Cobbler ? Mestnyi alyi .225 384 308 311 418 309 328 222 273 218 250 192 404 541 302 431 417 420 310 299 315 300 204 227 _181 432 313 394 329 280 270 296 230 149 186 182 431.;310 242 340 318 212 251 157 249 212 195 267 174 316 252 213 231 222 229. 270 131 192 138. 177 354 261 374 341 328 333 295 208 157 135 161 188 212 271 343' 294 230 282 144 240 299 .162 252 2142 209 20 201 114 246 220 233 229 155 135 146 135 321.1 316.1 312.1 310.4 , 292.0 290.0 248.5 234.1 '212.3 201.8 198.8 185.4 ? , During our research of many years, the phytophtora-resistant strains of potatoes produced higher yields, under conditions of, Sakhalin, than the -regionalized and the local strains.(tab1e.2). Their yield exceeded the standard by 73.2-34.0%. Besides that the_ttOers of these strains were of good marketability, had a sufficiently high starch content, we're less infected with fungus diseases and kept in storage better. We came to. conclusion, on the basis of our research, that all the phytophtorai.resistant strains, which were studied by us; were infected with-late blight under conditions of Sakhalin island that are very favorable to the development of the fungus ,Phyto-, phtora infestens. Although there was no full immunity to late ,blight in resistant strains, the diseate appeared on them, as a ? rule, 2-3 weeks later and their resistance was very high in corn- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1082 parison with other strains. These strains provided also the highest and most stable yields. All this gives a-reason for thinking, as before, that the introduction of phytophtora-resistant strains of potatoes into production is the most fundamental measure for over- coming the losses, which are caused by late blight. LITERATURE 1. S. M. Bukasov and A.. 1*. Kameraz - Selection of potatoes. M. 1953. 2. 0. F.. Maklakova - To the question about resistance of potatoes to late blight. Reports Of. VASKHNIL, nO.,9, 1952. All 3. F. S. Solodovnikov - About selection, seed growings_agrotechnics of potatoes and vegetable crops. Alma-Ata, 1950.. 4.. J. S. Nilderhauser and W. R..Mills. Resistance of Solanum Species to Phytophtora infestans in Mexico.? Phytopathology 43, 1953. 5. W. Rudorf. Der augenblickiche stand und die Aussichten der Zachtung resistenter Sorten der Kartoffel. Der ZUchter, 24 Band, Heft 2/3, 1954. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A...1003 ver4 Vorontsov, A. I. Koordinstsionnoe soveshdhanie po Eashchits Less [Coordination Conference on Protection of 'Forests] Vastnik Sellskokhozisistvennoi Naukis vol. 44 no. 4. p141-142. April 1959 . 20 V633 (In Russian) The traditional methodical Coordination Conference on Protec- tion of Forests from pests and diseases, which was organized by the Committee on the Protection of Forests at the Department of 'Forestry and Agricultural-Forest-Amelioration of VASKHN1L [All- ? Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences imeni V. 1. Lenin]. It was pointed out at the Conference that there still are large losses from pests and diseases in the forests of our country. In 1954-1956; the Siberian silkworm moth reproduced in great masses on the areo about 4 min. hectares In coniferous forests of Siberia; and valuable wood stands were lost on an ate* not less than 180 thousand hectares with a stock of wood over 30 men, cub, m in the reclaimed forests alone. At the present time there exist foci of gypsy moths in the European part of RSFSR on an area .of about 2 mm. hectares; this represents a grave danger to forests and fruit plantations. Owing to a badly organized preservation of wood the Predsedatell Komissii pa Zashchite Lesa pri Otdelenii Lesovodstva I Agrolesomelloratsil VASKHNIL [Chairmen of the Committee on the . Protection of Forests at the Department of Forestry and Agricultural- . Forest-AMelioration of VASKHNIL] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1083 national economy suffers annually enormous losses, comprising not less than 10 billion rubles per year. A well adjusted accounting of damage, modern forewarnings about the appearance of pests and forecast of their appearance and propagation for the next year, prove to be the -basis without which an effective protection of forests is impossible.' The Conference listened, with satisfaction to the report about the or- .ganisation of a department-for forecasting of mass appearance and spreading of pests and diseases in forests at WHIM (All-Union Scientific-Research OT/Iiiiiii7lie*Forestry and Amelioration). Never- theless, the work of forest pathologists on localities on the con- ., trol and forecasting of pests and diseases of the forest is not regulated, as yet, by specific instructions from the Union or Republics Ministries of Agriculture, and is conducted from case to case: This situation must be changed immediately. It Is necessary to work out a regulation about the work of control and forecasting, which must be followed by the departments of forestry and all the forest farms in their work. The Conference mentioned a necessity for developing theore- tical'research and generalization of work, which reveal the causes of the mass propagation of harmful organisms In the forests. Such a distinct knowledge of the rise of foci of mass multiplication will permit to organize correctly the work of forecasting and to im- prove the methods of control. At the present time. the chief feature of forest protection ? ?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1083 is the wide scope of aerial chemical works. It 16 necessary to Improve these works and to Introduce into production more effective methods of spraying with mineral-oil emulsions, as well-as the fine- drop spraying, to use helicopters, to develop the aerosol method ' of control; it is necessary to construct midget, light duty machines and. good hand apparatuses of a type of Czechoslovak RAO-1. The most important problem of scientific organizations during, the next ? few years is the mechanization of forest protection: ? The Conference paid a special attention to the introduction of the achievements of science into_production. An opinion was expressed that each scientific-research institute, university and experimental station should patronize one or two forest farms, 4 where they must fully liquidate foci of pests and reduce to the minimum the harm, that is brought to the forests by harmful organisms. A desirable form for the application to the forestry of attain- ments in forest protection, is development of systems of forest- protective methods according to tones, and their inclusion into the organizational technical plans in forest management of forest farms. . - Systems of control of chief forest pests must be coordinated ,and conducted in a planned order. One of such systems is the com- plex of methods for the liquidation of the May-beetle in the forest- steppe and the steppe zones. At the basis of the system Iles the chemical method of control of beetles during the time of their sup- plementary feeding, which should be conducted in a combination with 'Agrotechnical and forestry measures that can be Ichanged In accordance Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1083 with conditions of the place of growing and of the geographical situation of the forest farms. The biological method of control of pests of forestry is only slightly developed in'our country. For instance, in Belorussian (Begin p.1421 Scientific-Research Institute of Forestry research Is conducted during the course of 20 years on the application of egg-eater Telenomus and Trichonramati- , . dae for the control of pine moth and of other pests of conferous ' needles and foliage of trees. Nevertheless, the results of these. works are doubtful. Along with this there are data, which per mit to consider as effective the microbiological method of control of Siberian silkworm moth and the pine moth, of garden pests, and so on, but this method so far was introduced only slightly.. Up to the present time the scientific organisations for forest protection did not develop a method for evaluation of losses from pests and diseases and evaluation of economic effectiveness of in- dividual measures for the protection of forests.. The Conference mentioned that of late forest phytopathology is behind the requirements of the industry. ' Effective methods of control of Fares annosus, Dutch disease, neerianke (gray rot?), vascular oak disease, wilt of maple and of other leafy varieties.. It is important to mention that the developed system of measures for the control of lodging of seedlings, of the brown edible mush- room, (Agaricus me Ileus), and others, are not being introduced into. production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1083 In the coordination of work, or Its trend and timely applica- tion.by the industry, an important role must be played by the Com- mittee for the Protection of forests, which was organized at the Department of Forestry and Agricultural Amelioration. The Conference pointed out that, in 1958, the research on forest protection was successfully developed at the All-Union and -the Ukrainian Institutes for Plant Protection. Data, obtained at these institutes are of great methodical and practical value. The work is successfully developed at the Leningrad Scientific-Research .Institute of Forestry. For instance, a method was developed at the Institute for forecasting the mass appearance of Siberian silkworm Moth; the Co-workers of the Institute conducted aerial- chemical control of nun moths in forests of the Rumanian People's Republic; research on phytopathology was also conducted.. Kharlkov Scientific-Research Institute of Forestry, which is closely con- nected in the work with forest farms of the eastern part of Ukraine, has developed and introduced into production a system of measures ? for the control of the leopard moth in the steppe forests and a method of mechanized introduction of Hexachloran dust for the pro- tection of young cropsand plantings against larvae of May beetles. In this method, the. consumption of dust was reduced to 2-3 kg per 1 hectare. The All-;Union Institute of Forestry and Mechanization of Forest Industry has successfully carried out tests of a method of chemical protection of the honbarked wood. Important research Is conducted at the Moscow Forest-Technical Institute. In 1958, systems of forest protection measures were Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) . Trans: A-1083 developed at the Institute for the State National Forests of the central zone of RSFSR; causes were studied for wilting of pine forests in the Moscow region end methods of application of phosphoro- organic insecticides in forest industry. Besides that, through the Somov expedition of the South-Eastern Trust "Lesproekt" [Forest Project), a system of forest protection measures was applied to the forest management of the "Buzulukskil" pine forest. Interesting work on studies of mass propagation of gypsy moth in Bashkiria have been carried out by the Bashkir Branch of the Academy of Science of USSR. Actual research of methods of determination of entemoresistant wood species was conducted here. The Conference examined also the basic problems of control of gypsy moths in central ?blast's of RSFSR and adapted specific suggestions for the development of the work of protection of forests in USSR from pests and diseases. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Tran A-104 vg/W Resources and prospects for the development of animal industry in Kazakhstan* (Editorial) ? Vestnik Sellskokhosialstvennoi Nauki? vol. no. 5, p.3-10. May, 1959. 20 V633 (In. Russian). ? The Kazakh SSR occupies one of the first places, among the brotherly united republics, in the production.of agricultural products. As a result of reclamationof 20 zaln hectares of vir- . , gin and waste lands, Kazakhstan became the largest region for the production of commerical grain and occupies a second place after RFSFR. In 1958, kolkhozes and.sovkhozeS of Kazakhstan sold to ? ? the State almost 10 times as much grain, than they annually de- livered before the reclamation of vIrgin -end vette lands. As a result Of forming, in the regions of virgin and waste lends, of big grain soVkhotes, to which now belongs the chiefrole in the production of grain, many raions of Kazakhstan., for instance Esillskii, Ruzaevskil, OktiabrIskil, and To the resu ts o' the n te. Session of VASHRNIL, Kazakh Academy of fkgricultural Sciences, Departments of Biological Sciences of the Academy of Science of USSR and of Kazakh SSR, which took place 16-20 March of this year In the city of Alma-Ata with the participation of active members academicians and of corresponding members of VASKHNIL and of Kazakh Academy of Agricultural Sciences, academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Science of USSR and of Kazakh SSR. Many representatives of scientific- research and experimental institutions of Kazakhstan, Kirghiz's, Western Siberia, and others also took part. Members of the Session heard 70 reports at the plenary and sectional conferences, as well. as many scientific reports. The Session heard a message of the 411 leaders of branch sections about the accepted decisions and approved / an extensive resolution. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1084. others, became the biggest producers of wheat. Over 60 new, virgin soil, sovkhozes sold to the Government, 1111958, over 2 min puds-[pud=36 pounds] of grain each, while all the virgin land sovkhozes 633 mm n pude of grain. ? The successes of Kazakhstan in the field, ofanimal industry' are considerable also. During the 5 years, which elapsed after the September Plenum of TsK KPSS [Central Committee of the .Communist Party of the Soviet Union] tin 1953), the long lagging Of the animal industry in the republic has been overcome. During. this tiite the livestock of large cattle increased by 943 thousand head (23%), of *Sheep and 'goats by 7.8' min head (42.3%), and swine by 746 thOutand head (by 2.5 times). During this same year , period production of meat in the republic (in live weight) Increased by 138 thouSand tons, milk - by 679 thousand tons, wool,- by 21 thousand tons, eggs by 250 mm n pieces. Nevertheless, the positive results of development Of animal industry are only the beginning of a sharp rise in this important branch ofagriculture in the re- public. Comrade D. A. Kunaev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Ilezakh'SSR, said, while opening the United Sessiono-which was de- dicated to the problems of increasing the productivity of animal industry in Kazakhstan: "The Seven-Year-Plan, which was developed by our Party, represents a scientifically based program of the further vigorous tise in all branches of national economy, of con- siderable growth of the economic potential and constant increase of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1084.. the living standard of the population. The greatness_of the Seven-Year-Plan now delights not only the entire Soviet people, but also the whole progressive humanity'''. ? The 21st Congress of the Communist Party set big and responsi- ble problems before the workers Of Kazakhstan. During the current seven years, 119 billion rubles will be invested in the national ? economy of the republic, or by 20 billion rublei more than during the entire preceding 35 years.. The 21st Congress of RPSS set up a-problem of further rise In all branches 'of agriculture, which will provide the satisfac- tion of the graving requirements In food and agricultural raw 111 materials. Simultaneously [Begin 'p.41 with this, the.necessity was pointed out for obtaining a maximum amount of production from the unit of area at the smallest expenditure of labor and capital. "As in the years past", said Comrade D. A. Kunaev, "great attention is given to the development of grain farming, in the first place, by the increase of the yielding capacity of the grain crops, especially of wheat - the chief grain crop of Kazakhstan. Kol- khozes and sovkhozes should harvest annually not less than 1.5 billion pude of grille.. The January (16th) Plenum of. TeR 'US$ [Central Committee of the Communist Party] of Kasakhstan, which discussed the results of the December Plenum of TsK HPSS and the problems of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, admitted it possible to have at the end of the year 1965 up to 75 mm n sheep and goats, up to 7.5 min head of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (4) . Trans. A-1084 large cattle, up to 2.6 min of swine, up to 1.8 min of horses, up to 30 min head of poultry. At the same time, the 16th_Plenum of the TsK KP of Kazakhstan set an aim to bring the production of meat in the republic, already in 1963, to 1251 thouiand tons (in slaughtered weight), that is to realize the specified plan not In 7 years, but in S. It is planned to obtain 9 c of meat in 1963 per 100 ha of agricultural land instead of the 3 c, obtained in 1958. The hard-working men of agriculture in Kazakhstan took upon themselves a socialistic oliligation, in 1959, to deliver and sell to the State 800 thousand tons of meat (in live weight) as against 328 thousand tons; that is, over two times more, than in 1958. The United Session of scientists of. four Academies, which examined the Most impertant.problems of development of the animal Industry In Kazakhstan, has acknowledged that (or the realization of all the problems, which were raised by the December ?, Plenum of TeX KPSS, the, republic has all the conditions for bringing the livestock of cattle and poultry to the specified quantity at the end of the year 1965 on the basis of further strengthening Of the forage base, of specially wide. Introduction of corn, of the greatest retention of young animals, of liquidation of barrenness of the cows and loss of mature cattle, as well as In- provement of feeding, maintainance of animals and their care. Consequently, the problem is. toutilize completely all natural and economic features and possibilities ofeach oblast', each Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (5) Trans. A-1084 raion, kotakhot and sovkhoz for the development, in Kazakhstan, of such branches of animal industry and in such their correlation so as to provide the maximum yield of commodity production. For the solution of problems of animal industry in the coming seven years the correct evaluation of the economic effectiveness of different branches of farming, including also animal industry is of great importance; the correct Working out of such system of objective indicators, which would permit evaluating the branches economically correctly. It becomes possible on the basis of correct economic evaluation of branches of animal industry, to detect the resources for their further development and Increase the effectiveness, to determine the most efficient combination of 111 branches. National economy can be efficiently organised only in that case when this or another branch will be economically effec- tive and will answer the requirement of national economy. Natural conditions of Kazakhstan are exceptionally favorable for development of sheep breeding. Radical changes occurred during the last WO years in this branch of animal industry, and this provided a considerable increase in the livestock of sheep (by 7,222 thousand head). There were 26,330 thousand sheep in all categories of farms on January 1st, 059. Experience of leading kolkhoses and sovkhozes, as well as of many shepherd brigades showed great possibilities, regarding the reproduction of sheep herdd,and increase of production of'mutton and wool. For instance, over 20 shepherd brigades of Chimkurgansk sovkhoz, using harmonal Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-I064 stimulation of multiparity of sheep ("SZHK"), obtained 135- 150 lambs from every hundred mothers and clipped from 2.6 to 2.9 kg of wool (countervail weight) from each Astrakhan sheep. Th. brigade of the chief shepherd, Dzhangildinov,? (Atbasarskil soVkhos, Akmolinsk region) obtained 110 lambs from every hundred mothers and 6.1 kg of wool from each sheep. The Seven-Year-Plan specified that at the end of 1959 there should be up to 30 mm n sheep and goats; among these up to A m16, head at kolkhozes and.soVkhozes; and at the end of 1965 up to 75 mm n head. In connection with this, it is supposed to obtain from the 11,665 thousand mothers, available in 1959, the same number of labs as against the 9,400 thousand of lambs, which were actually obtained in 1958. It is contemplated that the plan for the production of mutton be realized in the course of five years. It is planned to pro- duce 250 thousand t of mutton (in live weight) In 1959. It is considered, in connection with this, taking off about 5 min sheep from among those putting on flesh. As practice has shown, kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Kazakhstan can successfully carry out the planned assignments on the increase of sheep livestock, production of mutton and wool, by mobilizing the resources. According to data of the Ministry of Agriculture of Kazakh SSR, during the fall of 1958, at the season-of mating end of artificial insemination, the mothers were in a good state of fatness. This permits (Begin p.53 to assume that in 1959 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A.-10814. kolkhozeS and sovkhozes will obgain a higher commercial yield of lambs. By means of correct organization of the spring mating of Karakul sheep, whose lambs will be slaughtered for Karakul furs in the early spring, it will be possible in the fall to obtain p second lambing of lambs. This method of increasing the livestock of sheep received a wide spreading in sovkhoses of. the South-Kazakh Oblast'. The reduction of insideuthe4arm slaughtering of sheep can produce a vast economy, as well as a sharp reduction of losses of sheep from various diseases. All this will require great or- ganisational and zootechnical work both on the part of specialists, as well as of scientific workers. In pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan, under conditions of nomadic and semi-nomadic economy, the process of breed formation of sheep was directed basically to the improvement of Kazakh fat-tailed ?:1 sheep, which were well adopted to breeding In deserts or semi- deserts and which were characterized by a good meat-fat productivity. .high early-maturing and excellent capacity for fattening. Along with this, the fine-wooled sheep breeding was developed very slightly In Kasakhstan before the revolution. During the Soviet period, and especially in the.last several years In Razakhstan In north-eastern and south-eastern ?blast's the fine-wooled wool-meat-and meat-wool line received a wide develop- ment. In accordance with the problem of bringing the livestock of. sheep and goats up to 75 mm n head in 065, it Is considered necessary Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A..1084 to develop fivebasic lines of sheep breeding in the republici 1) fine-wooled wool-meat. 2) fine-wooled meat-wool, 3) semi-fine- wooled meat-wool, 4) meat-fat fat-tailed, 5) Karakul fur. De- pending on zonal peculiarities and, on the range of requirements on the production of sheep breeding, its corresponding lines will be represented by different breeds and intrabreed types of sheep. At the end of 1965 in the republic as a whole the following specific numbers are expected in the basic lines: fine-wooled and semi-fine-wooled - 59%i meat-fat fat-tailed - 23% and Karakul fur) - 18%. ? Sheep breeding is developed relatively lightly in Central Kazakhstan, an area of 100 min ha, with extremely varied, basically severe, natural climatic conditions. It is considered, during the next seven years, sharply to increase here the numbers of sheep and allocate them, according to zones and lines asfollowsit.in the steppe and dry-steppe zones the fine-wooled, in the semi- desert the semi-fine-wooled and the meat-fat; and in the desert. the meat-fat line: As ayesult of further development Of Meat-fat and meat-wool-sheep breeding in kolkhozes and sovkhozes, with a simultaneous qtialitative improvement of the herd by.highly productive breeds, Central Kazakhstan will become an important base in the republic for the production of mutton, of the coarse, semi-course and semi-fine-wooled wool and of sheepskin fur raw materials. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1084 In accordance with the projected plan for the next seven years, the Session recommended further improvement of the existing, ? and breeding of new breeds and breed groups of sheep that will .be characterized by high productivity and, first of all, by fleshi- ness: Kazakh fine.'-wooled and Kazakh Arkharomerino, meat-wool semi- fine-wooled, early maturing meat-wool (HemOshirt X Kazakh) groups of fine-wooled sheep in Pavlodarsk oblast, and in the south of the republic .also Degaressks Kargalinsk and Edilibeevsk breeds - and breed groups. In regions, that are set aside for meat-fat sheep breeding, .it is recommended widening the measures for crossing the unimproved ,fat-tailed herds with Edlifbaevsk, Kargalinsk and Saradzhinsk sheep; this will permit to Increase the production of mutton and of rug wool. It Is recognized as expedient in Hazakhstan.to or- ganize pedigree sovkhozes for the workwith the following breeds ? and'breed group: meat-wool semi-fine-wooled, the early maturing meat-wool, Tsigaisk, Degeressk, Saradzhinsk anditargalinsk.' It is recommended to the scientific-research institutions of ? the republic to conduct the work in sheep breeding, according to peculiarities of different economic tones, In the direction of Increasing meat productivity of Abe fine-wooled sheep of the wool-' . meat line, without reducing their basic wool productivity and im- proving the quality of wool in every way. It is recommended to organize in talons of Central Kazakhstan semi-fine-wooled sheep 111 breeding, and early maturing meat-wool fine-wooled sheep breeding Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. .4.4084 In northern rations of the first zone of Kazakhstan. It Is intended, as the next 'problem, considerably to increase the number ("udelinyi ves") of females, especially, in meat-wool fine-wooled and seml-fine-wooled lines, as will as in meat-fat sheep breeding. Further research on the regularities of growth and develop- ment of sheep, and working out of methods of raleing their ferti- lity, early maturing, better remuneration of feed by meat pro- duction, as well as studies of quantitative and qualitative changes Of mist productivity of sheep, depending on the organization end ' (Begin p.6] technique of rearing and the age of slaughtered sheep, permit considerable raising of the economic effectiveness of sheep breeding in kolkhozes and'sovkhozes of Kazakhatan. Cattle breeding is an important source for production of beef and milk - the second leading branch of animal industry in the re- public. At the. present time, In Kagakhsten, 54 head of large cattle fall for each 100 head of the population, or by 15 head more than on the average in USSR. High rate; in the increase of large cattle and in the production of beef were established in the republic during the last two years. These rates can bs-retained for the following period also. Beef cattle industry, with which 255 sovkhozes.and kolkhozes of 47 talons are occupied, la one of the most important and large resources of meat production In the republic. On January 1, 1959. 111 in Kazakhstan, in the zone of beef animal industry, there were Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1084 1,406 thousand head of large cattle; this comprised 44.3% of the total livestock of this type of cattle in the republic. It is suppoCitd widening considerably in the future the zone of the beef cattle industry. In this zone, during the next 34 years the basic mass of large cattle livestock must be represented by high- blood crossbreeds of the Kazakh whitehead and the Kalmuck breeds; as well as by breeds Santa-Gertrudis and some other local breeds.- During the years of Soviet rule, and, especially, after the collectivization of agriculture, this branchunderwftt.great qualitative changes. A large body of pedigreed cattle (about 70%) was produced in the republic; It was concentrated, basically, in ? ? kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Breeding of two new breeds of large cattle In the republic played a large role in the pedigree trans- formation; namely, of the "Alatauskaie (by means of crossing local cattle with the 7Shvitskil" [Swiss] in the south-eastern mountain- foot hill zone) and the Kaiakh whiteheaded (by means of crossing local cattle with Hereford in the dry-steppe and the semi-desert zones). In this -same zone local cattle Is bred; it is improved by crossing with the "Astrakbanskii". As a result of crossing local cattle with "Krasnostepnyin [Red steppe] and Simmental, large bodies of crossbreeds were pro- duced in northern, north-eastern and north-western Kazakhstan. In the presence in the republic oft 31% of cattle of Kazakh white- headed breed and its crossbreeds, 27% of the red steppe breed, 14% of nAlatauskalan, 14% of Simmental, 4%.of "Astrakhenskala, and 3% Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 12) Trans. A.-401314. - of the "Aulleatinskale, a problem is faced increasing still more the numbers of pedigreed cattle in the republic. This will -permitincreasing beef and milk productivity of cattle still more in the future. In connection witkthis,' large cattle ofjmany valuable milk-beef breeds will be imported to-Kazakhstan during the current Seven-Year-Plan. Further specialization In animal industry will proceed still further In proportion to the increase of livestock of large cattle of beef and milk breeds. In this respect the important role belongs to the councils, formed in Kazakhstan, on the work with Oszakh-whiteheaded breed, with."Alatauskalan, and "Aulleatinskaiei ? as well as to the. zonal council on the work with the red steppe breed. Organisation, in Kasakiistan, of a network of State Stations for breeding work-and artificial insemination Will permit elevating the breeding work with laige Cattle to a higher standard. The United Scientifit Session thought it necessary to recOm- Aland to sCientific-resetirch.eatablishments of Kazakhstan to work out apprOOriate forms of combination of beef 'Cattle husbandry . with milk and other branches of animal-industry in all the regions. of Kazakhstan.. The Session recommended organizing in Kazakhstan' Special farms for bresding work, in Order to develop specialiied beef cattle breeding and organize Mass growing. of pedigreed live- stock, especially, bullsa-producers.. A method.of industrial Crossing will be worked out In 'order 411. to obtain early maturing young beef cattle. The United Scientific Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/16: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1084 . Session also recognized it necessary to recommend the organization of intensive mill( cattle breeding around large cities and indus- trial centers. Heavy-duty and light mechanization must be intro- duced to the kolkhoz milk farms and sovkhozes, as well as conditions must be produced for self-service and self-feeding of animals. It is also anticipated to solve great problems in wine. husbandry in, Kazakhstan: at the end of 1965 the numbers of swine In the republic must be increased up to 2.6 mm n head, and the production of pork by,the end Of 1963 mit rise to 355 thousand t. Kolkhozes and aovkhOzes attained certain iuccess In the last - few years in this brgnCh; nevertheless the farms did not -exhaust the existing possibilities. According to the estimates of the Ministry ofAgriCulture of. Kazakh SSR, it is possible to obtain from mothers, existing on January 1, 1959, during the course of the,year not less,than 2.2 ? min of suckling pigs and to fatten about 1,700 thousand swine, prop viding the production of pork at a rate of 132 thOusand t (in live weight) as against 57 thousand t in 1958. the livestock of swine must increase up to 1,100 thousand head by the end of 1959.. The Session set before scientific-research establishments of Kazakhstan (Begin p.7] a problem for developing a system for conducting swine husbandry, taking into account natural economic conditions and peculiarities of agriculture in different zones of the republic; to produce a good breeding base for raising planned 111 breeds of swine; to study and recommend to the industry effective Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-1084 methods of intrabreed industrial crossings and obtaining intra- linear crossbreeds in crossing inbred lines for the maximum uti- lization of heterosis. .Poultry raising is an important source for obtaining cheap nourishing meat underconditions of Kazakhstan. This branch receives an ever increasing spreading in animal industry of Kazakhstan. .It is sufficient to say, that in 1958 alone the livestock of poultry increased by 48%. In 1958, the incubator- poultry raising stations (IPS) sold to kolkhozis and sov4hozes 0,365 thousand head of young birds. Al the beginning of the current year there were 3,682 thousand mature birds at the kolkhozes 0 and sovkhozes of the republic. ,During t1 current years kolkhozas must accept from the IPS, as well as from their own incubators, not less than 42 min chickens and fatten not less than 27 mln head of poultry. At the present time there are, in the republic, not less than 500 thousand head of waterfowl. In the presence, in the republic, of an immense number of water reservoirs it 1s fully possible to grow hundreds of thousands of ducklings on these water reservoirs; utilizing the natural forage at its maximum. According to esti- mates of the Ministry of Agriculture of KaZakh SSR, during the cur- rent year the kolkhozes and soVkhotes of the republic can fatten and deliver to the State not less than 15,000 t of meat of water- fowls. Effective methods of raising chickens by the nest-damp 0 method, as well as over a deep bedding, especially In mass raising Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A-I084. of poultry for meat, are of great importance under conditions of Kazakh SSR. Development, by the scientific institutions of Kazakhstan, of efficient systems for raising chickens for meat, the so-called broilers, will permit considerably to increase the pro- - duction of bird meat during the course of the year.with the smallest expenditures of labor and capital. Kazakhstan can-also become a large base for production of eggs and egg output. In connection with this, the Session recommended to the scientific-research institutions of the republic to con- centrate the attention on the formation of a breeding base, on the raising of the egg-laying capacity of birds, especially, of - ? meat-egg breeds. In this respect, the works on commercial crossing and hybridization of animals, on the basis of development of in- bred lines, and crossing with the aim of utilizing heterosis in poultry raising will be of great importance. The United Session, taking into consideration the latest scientific data, as well as the leading experience of kolkhozes and aovkhozes, considered it expedient to begin the development of systems of conducting various branches of poultry raising according to natural zones of Kazakhstan.' Formation of breeding bases will ' greatly assist In the raising of meat qualities and in the egg- laying ability of hens. An important condition for increasing the production of poultry meat is the development of poultry raising around large cities and industrial centers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) Trans. A-10814. Horse breeding and camel breeding must have further develop- ment during the current Seven-Year-Plan. The problem Is raised, in 1959, to Increase the livestock of horses in kolkhozes and sov- khozes up to 871 thousand head, and by the end of 1965 on the whole for the republic up to 1,800 thousand head. At this time the production of horte meat must also grow to 85-90 thousand t as against the 47 thousand t in 1958. The Session considered it necessary to draw the attention Of scientific institutions of Kazakhstan to the development of methods. of raising and improvement of productive qualities of horses and camels as applicable to different zones of Kazakhstan. Along with this the breeding work with planned breeds must be improved, as, well as the-work on development of specialized moat and milk types of horses. The Session raised before scientific institutions of Kazakh- stan several practical tasks and scientific problems, in accordance with assignments for the Seven-Year-Plan. Scientific methods for Intensification of reproductive functions of animals should be developed for carrying out the chief problem concerning. the increase of livestock of agricultural animals and of meat produc- tivity by the animal Industry; methods.and.technique .of artificial insemination, applicable to different kinds of agricultural animals; zootechnical and veterinary measures on questions of raising of all the young agricultural animals, which come into being and the re- taining of the female body of the herd. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A,1084. The Session considered necessary, as one of the Immediate teaks, in 1959, for scientific-research establishments of Hazakhstano, to render scientific help on eff4cient organization to agricultural agencies, concerned with putting ,on flesh and fattening of the entire meat contingent of large cattle, sheep, goats end horses, as applicable to natural and production conditions of various zones of Ikazakhstan. . The Session recommended, concerning the increasing of pro- ductivity of animal husbandry, to continue development of pure- bred breeding of agtkultural .[Begin p.83 _animals, to develop methods for creating constitutionally different productive end stud types within the breed, *siren as toimprove the breeding, according to lines and families, in order to create a breeding base of animals, valuable in hereditary qualities, and, first of all, of producers. Effective procedures must be developed for using various methods of crossing in order mainly to increase meat and other kinds'of productivity of animals in commercial herds; it will be expedient to develop methods for drawing up plans of breeding work with a breed, as a whole, on instances of work with. Individual breeds of large cattle and sheep. Testingtof producers on the quality of their descendants will be organized at Stations on Breeding Work and Artificial Insemination, as well as in all breeding herds. Serious attention should be given to development Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1084 of scientifically based methods of evaluation for provision of farms, with fodder, taking into consideration its 'value; to prob- lems.of effective use of feed resources by means of inclusion into ? feeding rations of various Stimulators, trace elements, entibio- 41. tics and others. The problem-thematic plan, recommended by the Session, provides for wide studlei of the quality of animal.hui- bandrY production (of meat, Wool, and others) in developing methods) of efficient feeding, selection, and ()there; studies of the most , efficient veterinary-zoohygienic conditions of maintenance and utilization of sgriculttral animals, In conformity with characteris-_ tics. of natural zones of Kazakhstan. The United Scientific Session pointed out In its resolution that, at the present time, the attention of scientific institutions and of all the scientists of Kazakhstan, who work in the field of? agriculture, must be focused on such scientific problems, the successful solving of which will help a quick increase of the live- stock of cattle in the republic and the growth of the production .of animal industry products, with the smallest' expenditures of labor and capital per unit of productiOn. Scientists must furnish to the Industry such advice, the introduction of which will provide increase of labor productivity, increase in the yield of animal industry production per 100 hectares of agricultural lands with a simultaneous reduction of its cost. The Session mentioned that the reduction of labor expenditure and of the cost of animal industry's production will be helped by. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1084 further specialization of breeds and of the intrabreed types, by the wide use in animal industry, of complexes of machines and of special outfitting for the electromechanization of animal in- dustry farms. Especial attention, in this respect, must be given to the.MschaniZation of the water supply, the milking of cows and shearing of sheep, preparation of combined feeds, removal of silage from trenches end its distribution to the animals. Accomplishment of 'these tasks depends to a great degree on the cOndition or the fodder base in kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Kazakhstan Is a republic of unbounded steppe spaciousness which Is very favorable for successful development of sheep breeding, animal industry, swine husbandry, horse breeding and poultry raising. In the territory, equalling 275,800 sq. km, 9.2 min: ha (3.0) fall to the lot of natural hayfields, 165.8 mm n ha (60.1%) to natural pastures. Although the productiveness of natural for- age lands is.comparatIvely small (from 8 to 50 c of hay per' hectare)1 nevertheless, it is possible to obtainyearly from the existing area, on. the average not less 'then 70 mm n t. of feed (in conversion to hay). The lacking need in green pasture forage and hay can be made up by. means of increasing the yielding 'capacity Of hayfields *All over the whole republic 3.45 c of fodder (in conversion to hay from one hectare) are obtained, on the average, from natural and forage lands: in mountainous regions - 5 c, in forest-steppe and steppe - 4.5, in the semi-desert - 3.55 and in the desert 2.1 c. It is possible to obtain 14 times more feeds, than at the present time, 0 from the entire area of forage lands with the planting of fodder crop Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1084 and pastures. It will be necessary, for this purpose, to accomplish a great complex of measures on the superficial, as well 88 radical, improvement of natural hayfields. The practice of kolkhozes and sovkhozes of Kazakhstan showed a high effectiveness of additional' sowing of perennial grasses (crested wheat grass, alfalfa, espar- setts), as well as of annual crops (winter rye, oats, barley and others), of rejuvenation of couch grass - sedge pastures' and hays. fields by periodical plowing. A considerable increase of yield Of grasses is obtained from introduction of organic, mineral and bac-! teriel fertilizers to the.moUntain, estuary and water meadows, that 11 are. weAmoistened. - Estuary irrigation, particularly a system of multi?storey estuaries, formation of steppe estuaries of shallow filling and of oasis irrigation, under conditions of Kasakhstan, are recognized as viry effective measures that increase the productiveness of pastures. The practice of many kolkhozes of sovkhozes of Kazakhstan has shown that, on the average, 200-300 rubles per 1 'hectare of: the estuary are required for the estuary irrigation, for Instance for the construction of directing and water-retaining [Segin41.9] .embankments and wateq. drains. With a yield of 20 c of hey per hectat the outlay for estuary irrigation is repaid in the course of 3-4 years. Kolkhoz 7imeni Voroshiloven, Novorossilskii raion, Aktiu- binsk oblastIr obtained with estuary irrigation, on the average, about 17 c of hay per hectare on the area of 1,000 ha, and on the ? nonirrigated hayfields only 4.5 C. At the Karagandinsk Experimental Station from 45.3 to 67.8 c of hay per 1 ha were obtained with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans. A-1084 with the estuary -Irrigation, while on nonirrigated sections of hayfields - from 5.6 to 9.2 c of hay per I ha. Under conditions of Kazakhstan the estuary irrigation represents a big resource for e sharp improvement of the forage base. According to approximate estimates, it will be posSible, in-the near future,. In Kazakhstan to carry out estuary irrigation on an area of ,a.5-4 mr41 ha.' According to estimates, made by the Pasturing Committee of SOPS [Council for studyof Productive Resources] of the Academy of Science of USSR, It will be possible in the next few years, by means of radical improvement, to put into agricultural circulation (it is meant to plant perennial -grasses as well as some grain crop's), not less than 35mm. he, or 20% of the entire area of natural forage lends in the republic; among them 10.44 min ha In the forest-steppe and steppe, 18.61 min. ha in the semi-desert, 1.16 min. ha in the desert, 5.24 mm. ha in mountain 'regions*. From the total area of 35 min ha, suitable for agricultural recla- mation, about 5 mm. ha Can be introduced into the field crop ro- tatiOns; these are, basically, chernozem or chestnut soils, Or soils with a small part of solonetz [dark strongly alkaline soil]. Over 30 mln. ha -.mainly complexes and compositions of zonalsolls and soils of hollows and gullies with a considerable amount of sOlo- *Formation of planted hayfields is of special importance for the desert and the desert-steppe zone, situated in the south-east and south of the republic, where over og of all the pasturing territory are situated and in the fall-winter period a vast-live- stock of cattle. of kolkhozes and soVkhozes is concentrated. In Alma- * Ata and Taldy-KUrgan ?blast's, in 1958, about 100 thousand ha were allotted to planted hayfields; this permitted to form considerable, assured stocks of hay. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (22) . Trans. A-1084 nett - can be utilized under plantings of perennial grasses or can be diverted to grass crop rotations with one or two fields of grain or annual fodder crops. In modern animal industry, field fodder production, in the system of field or fodder crop rotations, is an inalienable part of the forage bast. Its proportion and structure, under condi- tions of Kazakhstan depend on many different soil-climatic con- ditions of individual ratans of the republic, on the kind of the ratted cattle and of the production trend of animal industry In kolkhozes and sovkhozes. In 1957, 4157.7 thousand ha were taken in Kazakhstan under cultivated feed crops, among these 753 thousand ha under silage (among these under corn 614.2 thousand ha) and 159.7 thousand ha under annual grasses. During the current Seven-Year-Plan-the role of field forage production will grow still more considerably. Corn has shown itself as an exclusively valuable crop in the strengthening of the forage base in Katakhstan. Leading kolkhozes and sovkhozes in the steppe and dry-steppe zones and in eastern oblast's of the republic, utilizing the scientifically tested complex of agrotechni- Cal measures, obtained 300-350 c.of green mass of corn qft dry lands, and in southern and south-eastern Oblast's on irrigated lands - up to 700-600 c per hectare. ? The United Session considered it necessary to recommend to kolkhozes and sovkhoses a great complex of measures on the expan- sion of planting areas and raising of corn production. It was, parti- III Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (23) Trans. A-1084. cularly,-recommended to plant on each farm both the medium-ripening- and the late-ripening varieties in order to obtain high yields of corn ears of milk-wax ripeness. The highest yields of corn, at smallest expenditures of labor, are ensured by planting it on . fertile sections of irrigated lands and estuaries by the checkrow method and obtaining two-three Plants per hill. Considerable in- crease of the yield of green mass and of corn ears Is ensured by . - good care of. plantings; particularly by pre-sprouting and after- . germination cultivation of the soil - rolling, harrowing, applica- tion of organic and mineral fertilizers, and on irrigated lands and on the semi-provided dry, lands the planting of trigonella for green fertilizer. Kolkhozes and sovkhozes will, in every way possible, strengthen the forage base in conformity with the planned tasks on develop- ment of animal husbandry and increase Its productivity. Along with superficial improvement and efficient utilization of the existing natural forage lands** each farm will (Begin p.10). develop forage production, particularly, sowing of grasses on field Sections, which are not included in field or forage crop rotations. **General attaching is meant of hayfields and pastures to kol- khozes and sovkhozes; also introduction into practice of pasture and mowing rotations, the so-called "corralled" (cage, portion, small areas).utilization of natural planted hayfields in order to raise their capacity and to reduce losses of grass yields, awing to their trampling down. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 124) Trans. A-1084 In connection with.this, the Session recognized it necessary to recommend for wide application the experience of raising the productivity of-pastures and hayfields, that are situated on solonets and solOnetz complexes, by means of terrace. (niarusnol") plowing of soil and a following planting of perennial grasses,. since this method has been tested under conditions of Stalingrad, Saratov, North-Kazakhstan and Western-Kazakhstan oblestss. Along with this, the Session considered it expedient in the near future, to start building hydrotechnical installations and, first Of all, for the estuary irrigation Of the most valuable hayfields and pastures. According to data of experimental institutions, under condi- tions of Kazakhstan (In northern raions), the planting of perennial grasses in double or tripe alfalfa-grain and esparsette-grain mix- tures are the most expedient. It was acknowledged necessary, beginning with the year 1959, to use spring harrowing (In 2-3'4'. "sleda" (tracks?]) on the entire area of perennial grass plantings, with the exception of subcovor crop plantings of grasses during the first year of use. It is possible to obtain In the southern raions of Kazakhstan high yields of alfalfa on irrigated lands, with improved agrotechni- que, and crested wheat and esparsette besides that on dry lands. In droughty regions of the republic the field forage production must develop through widening of planting areas of sorghum and Sudan grass. The Session recommended, for increasing the harvest Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (25) Trans. A-1084 of plant protein, to widen the planting areas of chick-pea, vetch' ling, peas, soybeans and certain other cereal-legume crops, and in northern, sufficiently humid, raiont in the irrigated zone - of vetch and vetch-oats, mixture. In meadow-pasture crop rotations it is most expedient to as- sign the annual and perennial grasses to pasturing and hay, as well as the grain-forage crops, while In crop rotations, situated near farmsteads, the labor consuming and hard totransport crops-- corn for silage, green and succulent forage, as well as potatoes for fodder and fodder melon patch Crops. The Session recommended to scientific-research institutions of Kazakhstan for development during the current Seven-Year-Plan a large complex of scientific problems on increasing the corn production; on raising the prodiictiveness and efficient utilization of natural forage lands; on the boosting of protein production, on cultivation of new and Improvement of the existing varieties of grasses and organization of their seed growing; on Improving the technology :of. provision of fodder, mechanization of forage production, and others. In the presence of a large machine-tractor fleet:, the kbl- khozes and sovkhoze4 of Kazakhstan have 411 the possibilities for wide mechanization of forage production; first of all in culti- vating corn, as well as in conducting hay harvesting. This will permit obtaining, annually, high and stable yields of grasses and 111 different forage crops in amounts which will ensure full require- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (26) Trans. A-1084' ment of the growing animal industry in valuable fodder. The Session recommended conducting afseries of specific measures for the improvement of water economy constructions for irrigation and water supply for pastures, as well as estuary irrigation in the republic. Mentioning considerable successes, as well as shortcomings, in the work of the scientific institutions of Kazakhstan on the working out of problems of biology of agricultural animals, the Setsion has outlined also some specific measures in this direction. Having approved the suggestions of the Kazakh Academy of Agricultural Sciences on problems of economics and organization of animal in- dustry the Session outlined basic measures in this field; carrying out of this will hasten solvingthe problem of a sharp rise in production of the output of animal industry in the republic. Speaking at the United Scientific Session, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Kazakh SSR; Comrade D. A. Mummy, said that the scientists of Kazakhstan made a.,valueble contribution to the development of agriculture in the republic: They assisted, by their research and valuable suggestions, in the growth of yield trig capacity of agricultural crops,. In the increase of livestock of cattle and in the raising of the cattle's productiveness. Along with this there. are great shortcomings in the work of scienti- fic research institutions of the republic, which hinder the progress of agricultural science and further development of the kolkhoe and sovkhoz production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (27) Trans. A-1084 Individual scientific-research institutes and experimental stations work without coordination, duplicate subjects of scienti- fic research; often Give advice to agricultural industry, which Is economically ungrounded. He said further that it is necessary, on the basis of fundamental criticism and self-criticism, to find the causes, which hinder the development of science and agriculture, and evaluate correctly the immediate tasks of the scientific-research institutions for every kind of help to kolkhozes and sovkhozes In the accomplishment and overfulfillment of the seven-Year-Plan for the development of agricultural production in Kazakhstan. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1085 vg/M Staroselts PrImenenie menLaiushchtkhsis kontsentratsU pri iguchenli novykh preparatov etod 1ogar1fmi- cheskogO Opryskivanile) UMethod of thenging concentrations ift the s Udy of new preparations (method of loge rithinic spraying)] Vestnik SeL'skokhos.thlstvennot Nauki vol. May 1959 ia? v633 no. p.1104 P.I104 (In Russian) In evalu t log thc.eft cUvencssof applIcation of rte1pre- paratlons for the control at wecd, one has, ss a rule re- sort to their comparison with the already known herbicides. 'quently one dose chosen for comparison Is quite insufficient, and it is necess ry to test Several doses. Nevertheless, when their number Is great then the results are not precise awing to the cumbersemenesa of the layout of the experiment. Evaluation of effectiveness of the compared preparations is very approximate to a certain degree since the most comparable Aata can be obtained only in comparing preparations In doses which produce a similar effect, but not In comparing different effects of similar doses. Dia with a limited amount of studied doses (2 they can be corn pared only by resorting to interpolation. Nauchnyl Instituto Udobrenii 1 va [Scientific Inst cides"irneriVt Professor Ia. V. Same lov un is dam irnerd Professore ert liters and Insectofung Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1085 A much fuller characteristic of preparations, under comport- ton, can be obtained while using them in a full series of gradually increasing doses. A similar method was suggested by P.O. Shitt for studying areas of plant nutrition. Success in realizing the of doses was attained in utilizing changing gradual changingfpncentrations, the so-called logarithmic spraying; R. Gregory reported about this atthe First East-African Conference on Herbicides. Logarithmic spraying is based on the principle of gradual reduction of herbicide doses as the Sprayer moves along the field, owing to dilution of the initial solution of the herbicide. Thus, the passed course is the logarithmic expression of concentration of the herbicide solution. .A certain concentration corresponds to each section of the field, and, In order to determine the concentration, it is suf- ficient to know the distance of the section from the beginning of the field. The obtained results permit comparing the tested preparations by means of comparison of curves of their effective- ness as a whole and of Individual points, that are characterised by the same effect. Method of logarithmic spraying-opens up great possibilities for a more detailed evaluation of new preparations in respect to their comparative effectiveness. It is very con- venient,for the rating of the selective effect of preparations, depending on the doses, it permits characterising their degree of toxicity more accurately for weeds and for cultivated plants. This method opens wide possibilities in testing herbicide. mixtures, which are receiving wide distribution abroad. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) ' Trans. A-1085 In field experiments, in 1957, we conducted logarithmic. spraying with herbicides* with the aid of two knapsack sprayers of the type "Avtomaks", mounted on a cart. One sprayer was filled with water, the other with the solution. The sprayers were con- nected by a hose so that as one became emptiedthe liquid from the. other flowed into it, thus, gradually reducing the Initial con- centration of the solution. The general area of the fields was 100 sq. in, the experi- mental seas of the elementary fields in-fractional calculation of variants with changing concentrations - 7.5 sq. m; fourfold re- plication of experiments. The speed of movement of the sprayer 20 m'per minute. Expenditure of liquid - 1,000 1 per 1 ha. Each field was treated with one passage of the sprayer, the speed of movement [Begin p.I11] of which was checked by a stop-watch. Uniformity of distribution of the preparation along the entire width of the field (3.5 m) was provided by 10 sprayers, situated in pairs at a distance of 70 cm end having 5 pipe-lines of similar length so that at each moment all the sprayers would throw out the solution-of One and the same concentration. ? At a uniform speed of movement of the sprayer and constant per second expenditure or liquid, the amount of the intrOduced * Further on we intentionally use a more general term "spray- ' ing with changing concentrations" instead of the term "logarithmic spraying", inasmuch as the logarithmic curve of reduction of con- centrations is not precise for us and it is necessary to strive for its greatest correction. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1085 herbicide must drop rectilinearly from the beginning to the end of the fields. In the construction, used by us, the pressure was formed In the reservoir only during its lokading, and waS not upheld further on; therefore, with the drop of the level of liquid, the pressure in reservoirs was reduced approximately by 25%, since the sprayers were filledonly full; as a result of this the per second outlay of liquid wasreduced also. Distri- bution of the dose of working'substance from the beginning to the end of the field occurred according to a curve presented in the diagram. (figure 1). In treatment by the usual method the sprayer with water was disconnected. . Title of figure 1. Distribution of doses in spraying with changing-concentrations. Words in.figure 1. Al the tops doses (kg/ha). At the bottomr Elementary fields. Experimental, . length of the field. General length of the field. Rating of the density of the stand of oats and of weeds was conducted on experimental nmetrovkan (Square meter plot]; two square meter plots in the usual spraying and 9 on the field with changing concentrations of the-eolution. The height of plants was determined by measuring 10 stalks situated along the diagonal line of the experimental square meter plot. Weld of the total mast was calculated at harvesting, while the yield of grain from each. field was determined frim two test sheaves, which were dried to an 111 air-dry condition. On fields with changing concentrations the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP801401426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) . Trans. A-1085 harvest was calculated fractionally (acaording to elementary fields) and then underwent the threshing. - A. field experiment was laid out in oats plantings in order to. study the herbicidal characteristics of the anti-grassy weed pre!. paration ammonium trichloroacetate (TKHA-a")*(TCA-a) and to compare' it with the already approved preparation of the same type - sodium trichloroacetate (nTilti-nn) (TCA-sj. Utilisation of.a.cultivated: plant in the experiment .uaranteed.a greater accuracy-of data, awing, to the fact that the experimental plants were evenly distri- buted on the section and'were.similarly developed. Although this method has its shortcomings, it, nevertheless, gives, good results in studies of the comparative effectiveness of the preparations. TCA can both be introduced into the soil, as well as used for -spraying the above ground mass. In the given experiment, the effectiveness of TCA-s and TCA-a were studied in spraying the plantings during the period of full tillering of oats (June 20). The method of changing concentrations was compared with the usual spraying. In changing concentrations, the spraying was begun with a dose of 50 kg per 1 he and was gradual- ly reddced to 0. 'In variants with the usual spraying TCA was.in- troduced in the dose 'of 16 kg of the working solution per 1 ha. On the next day after spraying, as a result of the effect of TCA, yellowing of the tops of leaves was noted. In the usual spraying ? of plantings it was impossible to ascertain by sight the difference ? In effectiveness of the action of the preparations. About half of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1085 'the plants were damaged, and the remaining ones somewhat lagged in growth. No substantial differences in the Action of TCA-s and TCA-a?were noticed either right after spraying, or later on (table 1). Table Effect of sodium trichloroacetate and 'ammonium trichloroacetate on oats After the usual spraying (one ionth after treatment) Variants of the experiment Number of plants per 1 sq. m Average height of plants ? (cm) Control 240 69, TCAs 118 58 TCA-*115 57 On fields, treated with changing concentrations, owing to the fact that the initial dose was considerably higher than the usual, oat plants were affected at the beginning of the field very strongly, while towards the end the injury, was lessened. On fields treated with.TCA-a the plants grew brown and dried up to a greater distance from the beginning of the field than in the variant with TCA-s. In table. 2 results are cited of estimates of undamaged stalks of oats, which were conducted on,9 experimental square meter plots, situated along the length of the field (Begin p.112] at a distance of 2 m from each other (figure 1). Such a spacing of the experi- mental square meter plots corresponded to doses of TCA in the limits from 4 to 50 kg per 1 ha. (table 2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1085 'Table 2 Effect of sodium trichloroacetate and of ammonium trichloroacetate on oats in treatm?. witn cnansy cunceni.ravvans ? Doses (krha) Number of undamaged stalks per oat Height of undamaged I so, in I stalks oat (cm) TCA-s TCA-a TCAs -a .0 .0 12.5 17.5 23.0- 29.0 35.5 42.5 50.0 174 162 142 151 130 118 121 120 76 172 . ,. 153 127 119 135 ? 115 100 105 72 68 2. 58 57 53 55 51 47 71 62 56 ' 54' 52 141 45 45 43 Data, cited in table 2, show considerable growing of the ? effect with the Increase of doses of herbicides; whereupon, in 'all cases, the effect of TCA-a,appeared stronger than TCA-s. ? Graphic representation of these data (figure 2) in the form of straight lines deprived of deviations, permits determining by haw many times TA-* was more toxic than TCA-s. Connecting both straight lines by a horifOntal line, it is possible to deter- mine by the crossing points the doses of both preparations, which produce a similar effect. Title of figure 2. Effect of the growing doses of ammonium trichloroacetate and of sodium tri- chloroacetate on the impairment of oat stalks Words In figure 2. Starting at the top left: Healthy stalks per 1 mz. TCA-sodium. ICA- ammonium. At the bottom: Doses (kg/ha) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1085 ? In order to reduce the density of the oats stand to 125 healthy. , stalks per 1 sq. m, 31 kg of sodium TCA per 1 ha were required in our experiment. This same effect wasettained by Introduction of 22 kg of ammonium TCA. In the given case the latter acted. stronger by 20% than the first. Similar results were obtained also in the determination of the height of oat stalks. As a. result of treatment of plantings with TCA, there were less of .healthy oat stalks, and, besides that, lagging was noted in their growth. With the increase of TCA dose the height of plants decreased re- gularly from 71 to 43 cm. In treatment with ammonium TCA, the height of plants to 55 cm 33 kg of TCA-sodium were required to be introduced. In treatment with TCA-ammonium only 19.5 kg per 1 ha were required (figure 3). Title of figure 3. Effect of increasing does of ammonium trichloroacetate and aodium trichloroacetate on the height of oat plants. Words in figure 3. At the top: Height, cm. TCA-ammonium. TCA-sodium. At the bottom: Doses (kg/ha). In this case the ammonium salt of TCA proved to be more ef- fective by 411% then sodium salt. The cited data permitted to ascertain a stronger toxicity of TCA-a, which in the experiment proved to be more effective than TCA-s by 30-40%. Use of the method of spraying with changing concentrations permitted determining more accurately the difference of the effect of the preparations 111 and to express them quantitatively. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1085 Crops from sections, treated with changing concentrations, were harvested on August 23, and on the next day from section ' treated in the usual manner. Results of yield estimates are. cited in table 3. As it As seen from table 3, the treatment of oat plantings with TCA by the usual method produced a negative effect on the yield of grain and Straw:, having reduced it almost by 2 times; whereupon TCA-a produced a.somewhat stronger effect than TCA-s. :treatment of plantings with changing concentrations of TCA pro- duced still stronger changes in the oats harvest,.which-decreased regularly with the increese of doses. The advantage [Begin p.13) of TCA-a Was noted in variants with all doses (Cigure 4). Table 3 Effect of sodium trichloroacetate and ammonium trichloroacetate on the yie d of oats 1c/ha) Variants of the experiment Yie of Grain I Straw Control 16.3 - 15.3 TCA-s 10.2 10.9 TCA-a 8.8 8.8 Title of figure 4. Effect of growing concentrations of ammonium trichloroacetate and sodium trt- chloroacetate and sodium:trichloroacetate on the .yield of oats. Words in figure 4. At the top: kg per field". TCA- ammonium. TCA-sodium. At the bottom; Doses (kg/ha). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 o Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1085 A similar effect was produced by a 1/3 lower dose of ammonium TCA than sodium TCA. Thus, in order to reduce the harvest on the field at 0.7 kg (medium effect) there were required 26 kg of TCA-a per ha, while In using TCA-s for the attaining of the same effect - 39 kg of the preparation. Similar results were obtained In comparing the effectiveness of various esters of 2.4,-D. In the usual, field method; when each ester was used in only two doses, differences between them were not as great and definite so as, on this basis, to give a preference to one of them. But in comparing these same esters by a method of changing concentrations, when their effect on plants was traced 111 in doses from 0 to 2 kg per 1 ha, it was established, with a suf- ficient definiteness, that octY1 ester 2.440 was more effective in treatment of grain crops than butyl ester 2.4-D. Having a simi- lar toxicity for the weeds, it harms the cultivated plants less In Increased doses, therefore it can be used In higher doses (by 25%). On the basis of data of our experiments, in the workshop or NIUIF (Scientific Research Institute of Fertilisers and Insecto-? fungicides imeni Is. V. Samollovj, in 1958, a power-driven "logari- thmic" sprayer WAS produced; which gave good results In testing new herbicides. The described method of spraying with changing concentrations is very convenient for the initial field evaluation of new pre- parations. By means of improvement and Its wider utilization Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1085 under production conditions, it Is possible to characterise more fully the studied preparations and make better plans for further field tests of these preparations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A.m.1000 vg/M Bolsunovskaia, 0. V. Plenum Oosuderstvennol Komissii po Sortoispytanliu Sellskokhoziaistvennykh Kul' tin [Plenum of the State Commission on Variety Tests of.Agricultural Crops] Vestnik Selsskokhotiaistvennol Nauki?-vol. 4, no. 5, P.140-141. May 1959 20 V633 (In Russian) A Plenum of the State Commission on Mariety Tests of Agricul- tural Crops at the Ministry of Agriculture of USSR took place in Moscow, on February 19 to 21, of the current year. 'Inspectors of the State Commission, workers of the MSKIi (Ministry. of Agriculture] of USSR, of.RSFSR and of scientific-research institutions took part in the Plenum. A series of important questions was discussed at the Plenum and appropriate resolutions on them were adapted. Inspectors of the State Commission of United Republics, Comrades I. S. Lovehlkov, M.&. Shalaev, E. D. Eiginson, I. M. Ognev, P. K. Galitsinskil, V. S. Dshanelidte, T. A. Topchibashev, V. A. Shilinis, A. T. Delimarskii, A. S. Meleshkin, A. L. Sotnikov, I. F. Nenakhov, Ts. A. Torosian, B.. B. Ousson and A. F. Raud addressed the meeting with reports about changes in the operative variety regionalizing and about the work on State testing. The speakers told about peculiarieties of work on variety testing in connection with problems, which were raised by the 21st Congress of the Communist Party, as well as depending on conditions in the re- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-I085 publics. It was emphasized in all reports that (Begin p.I41] special attention is paid, in.regibnalizing the varietietfto . their qualitative evaluation in order that industry obtain new highly productive and high quality varieties. The newly regiona- lized variety of winter wheat "Betostala 1"-(selection. of the Kras- nodar Institute of Agriculture) in Crimea_ oblast' and Krasnodar' kral answer these requirements, as also do the variety of peas "Stolenskii 812,, regionalized in Smolensk oblast', potato variety "Detskoseltskil" (selection of the All-Union Institute of.Plant. Industry), which was regionalized In Leningrad oblast', and others. According to the report of the Chief of the Section of methods ? and Aarotechnique of the State Commission, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Iu. N. Nalygin, a resolution was adapted about the need of introduction of supplements and changes into the method of State variety testing of agricultural crops. Instead of the existing system of variety testing on small and large plots and In the in- dustrial testing, beginning with the year 1959 only competitive and industrial variety tests will be conducted. For certain, chiefly, labor consuming crops' and "mnogosborovymn (difficult to harvest?) the minimum size of plots in competitive testing is established as 50 sq. m, retaining the 4 to 6-fold replication. Industrial tests (with direct supervision of workers of the Variety Test Plot) will be conducted, first of all, at that kolkhot or sovkhoz, where the variety plot is of at a farm nearest to it. 411 In the absence of the possibility to lay out the experiment on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1085 these fermis, they can be conducted also on other farms under the leadership and observation of agriculturists,of these farms. Changes were introduced also in special methods for crops, mainly for corn, olive family, silage, vegetable, and melon patch crops, potatoes, grasses, and, others. Beginning with 1959, a mathematical treatment of yield data of competitive tests is being introduced with the use of methods of variation statistics. -Introduction of this method gives a ? possibility of determining the authenticity of data on the yield- ing capacity of tested varieties, in comparison with standard regionalised varieties and the accuracy of experiments on the variety test plots. ? In the current year an-organization is foreseen at the State Variety Test Plots for testing expanded collections of varieties. All the varieties, which undergo competitive variety testing in this sone, as well as valuable varieties from other zones, will be included in the tests. Besides that, into these collections will be included those varieties from other zones, which must be examined for the resistance to one or another characteristic (winter,hardiness,,lodging and others), the evaluation of?which Is Impossible or very difficult to conduct in their own zone, owing to the peculiarities of meteorological conditions (absence of bleak winters, of a sufficient amount of rain). Here too will be tested all the local varieties, varieties which were developed by 411 plant breeders, who conduct experiments outside the scientific-re- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1085 search institutions, as well as varieties of foreign origin. - K. N. Oodunova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, gave an 'account, in her report, of the new problems of the State Com- mission on testing on variety test plots not only the varieties, but also the -effectiveness of new agrotechnical measures. Organi- zation of this work is of special importance, since the intro- duction into agricultural Industry of progressive agrotechnical methods plays a deciding role in the raising of the yielding capa- city of agricultural crops! Chief of the Department of Fruit-Berry Crops of the State Commission, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences V. M. 11.,ebedev, ? gave in account of problems Of fruit-berry and grape variety, test ? plots, in connection with the resolutions of the 21st Congress of the Communist Party. Along with he told about the work on the organization of variety test plots, about development of methods , of variety testing of fruit-berry crops, and others. The Plenum considered 295 suggestions about the Inclusion into State testing of new varieties of agricultural crops and species of bombyx of Soviet selection. A decision was made for testing 229'varietiespincluded among these are 11 varieties of spring wheat, 11 of-corn, 15 of cotton, 21 of potatoes, 3 species of bombyx, and others. Besides this, 90 varieties'of foreign selection were included in the testing. The Plenum made a decision on ex- cluding from testing 412 tunpromising varieties Of agricultural crops and species of bombyx. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 V. ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1085 Chief of Department of the State Commission, V. S. Ourchenko, presented it report on changes in the network of State Variety Test Sections, The Plenum considered the problem of awarding the authorship for development of new varieties. One hundred fifty fivetpplica- tions were examined for 97 varieties, whereupon the authorship was assigned to 106 plant breeders; included in these were such varieties as winter wheat "Lutestsens 230", spring wheat "Pshenichno- pyrtinyi gibrid 56", [wheat-wheatgrasX hybrid]; sugar beet "Belotserkovskaia odnosemiennala" (single-seeded], tomatoes - "Skorospelyi.VOlahskil 288" (early,ripening, Volga]. Lively debates developed about the reports that were heard; members of the State CoMmissiont intpectors and specialists of the State Commission, as well as specialists of scientific.. research Institutions, took part In them. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A.4087 vg/M, Zhukovskill P. M. Vtalmootnoshenlia methdu khOziainom I gribnym parazitom na ikh rodine 1 vne es (11: uchenilu ob iskhodnom materials. dila selektsii) (Interrelation between host and fungal parasite in their place of origin and beyond it (To the studies of initial material for selection)) Vtstnik-Sellskokhoziaisivennoi.Nauki, vol. 4, no. p.25a34. June 1959 ? 20 V633 (In Russian) 6, Research In the field of immunity of plants to infectious diseases is, mainly, of fragAmentary nature. As beforei certain aspects of immunity are treated in this research, but the problem, as a whole, remains just as difficult, although its urgency grows from year to year. Both theory and practice lag. Many articles are published about morphological, histological and histochemical factors of immunity; about the effect of mineral and organic fertilizers, particularly trace elements, effect of time of planting of cultivated plants and many other agrotechnical methods for the Increase of resistance to diseases. The theory of immunogenesis of plants, suggested ,by M. S. Dunin, is well-known. In the near future the theory of D. D. Verderevskil will be published about . phytoncidal origin of immunity to parasitic diseases. Professor; Active Member - Academician of VASKHNIL (All-Union Academy Of Agricultural Sciences !men! V. I. Lenin) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (2) V Trans. A-1087 In spite of doubtless value of all these publications, practi- cally, they can be but slightly used in selection and genetics. _Genotypic immunity in geographical connection, as we intro- duce it In the present article, is of the greatest importance. This will serve as one of the divitions of the science 'of initial botanical-geographical material for selection. Unfortunately, the work on studies of immunity of agricultural plants is organized unsatisfactorily in our native agricultural science. The parasite, its races, cycles of development in various geographical-zones is not sufficiently studied comparably with the 'ontogenesis of the host. 'Physiological races of the parasite 411 and individual biotypes, and, the more so, their genesis, are almost not studied at ill, while the methods of study of races are not sufficiently reasoned :out. The races are but :those strains which display a different character of reaction to certain pure- line varieties of the host. Artificial inoculation Is used little; .this is inadmissible, since natural infection does not take place annually. Besides that, the regime of successful inoculation is not yet ascertained for many plants. It was established that growing potato seedlings at high temperatures and insufficient access of oxygen cause the infection of seedlings by those races of Phytophthora, which do not affect them under normal conditions. In the dry climate of Central Asia, at a comparative low humidity of air, even in regions of artificial irrigation, epiphytotics of leaf and stem rusts are almost unknown among plantings of wheat. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1087 [Begin p.26]. Study of cycles of the parasite often proceeds according to a false course, since the initial loci of infection of the host sometimes remain unnoticed by the observer, If he ex- amines its morphogenesis insufficiently attentively. Often plant . breeders check their new variety on the resistance to rust on an unfertile infectious background, foregetting, or not knowing, that .the rust fungi infect the perfectly healthy, well-fed, but not the weak plants. The basic feature for planning the selection work for immunity is the knowledge of prevalent physiological races and their distri- bution in the given geographical region. It was demonstrated that 0 races of stem rust of wheat and crown rust of oats, even those collected from various countries, show long stability in respect to their reaction on the host, it was proven that new virulent races. of the fungus arise by means of hybridization and mutations. ? It is possible to obtain new aggressive races of the stem rust of ? wheat in artificially crossing its heterozygous -races. There exists a genotypical resistance to diseases. Many wild relatives of cdltivated. plants possess it.,,It.was formed histori- cally at the place of origin of the host and the parasite. N. I. Vevilov was the first to express this idea. Now we have many facts and we can say, that, if the species of angiospermous plants did not have high resistance or even immunity in their place of origin and of the parasite, they would have died. Owing to genotypic Immunity of many wild relatives of cultivated plants, even their Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10 Trans. A-1087 hybrids, provided the selection of parental pairs was fortunate, are characterised by such a high resistance that they at times rescue big sections of the plant industry on the terrestrial globe; it was thus, for instance, with the cultivation of sugar cane in Indonesia, with coffee cultivation on Ceylon; and now only the development of hybrids of cultivated potatoes with wild immune species from the section of Tuberarium can save the potato Industry on the terrestrial globe, including also USSR, from constant apt- phytotics of Phytoohthora, canker, pathogenic viruses and other diseases. Wild relativesof cultivated plants usually do not posses 411 absolute immunity at the place of origin of the parasite; this can be considered as a regularity. They possess the so-called "field resistance" (field resistant, FeldrVatens), or tolerance. The fungal parasite, as a rule, infects only certain parts of the plant, producing a limited sporulation and necroses. This per- mits such relatives for thousands of years to survive as hosts in the paresitels place of origin, and the parasite to survive as a constant pathogen of infection. In those geographical regions where the place of origin of both the parasite and of the host coincide, there takes place a parallel *volution of the host, which produces new, more resistant varieties and forms, and a parallel evolution and adaptation of the parasite, that produces new, more virulent races (the so-called aggressive races). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I087 Let us demonstrate this on the example of three plants: wheat, oats and potatoes. The place of origin of wheat is Caucasus and the central and eastern provinc*s.of Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, as well as western provinces of Iran, adjoining it. This was proved by a large number of endemic varieties of wild and cultivated wheat. It is only in this foremost Asiatic focus on the terrestrial globe that this species potential of genira TriticumiAspilops and Secale is concentrated. It is exactly here that were formed the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid orders of Triticum L. Wild diploid species of einkorn - Triticum aeailopoides.and Tr. thaudar, which occupy' considerable areas, are widely spread in the region of mountainous steppes of Asia Minor. Tr. aegilopoides can also be met in Syria, Palestine, Georgia, and on the Balkan peninsula. Many endemic species of wild and cultivated wheat were described as occurring in Caucasus, (Begin p.273 although some of them prove to be synonyms. L. L. Dekaprelevich described such endemic species for Georgia as hexaploid Tr. macha, tetraploid Tr. palaeo colchicum, .Triticum georpicum) Tr. tubalicum. M. G. Tumanian described for Armenlia diploid Tr. urarti, and Makushenko described Tr. armenicum. M. M. lakubtsiner described for Armenila the endemic hexaploid' species Tr. vavilovi. P. M. 2hukvskii described for Caucasus ancient species, endemic in culture Ti. timopheevi and Ti. persicum (now, Ti. carthlicum). The French geneticist, Dr. H. Heslot, 111 descirbed for Iran a new endemic primitively-cultivated tetraploid Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1087 species, which he called Tr. isvahanicum. The German geneticist, Dr. H. Kuckuck, has discovered in Iran, on one of the hills in the Eikhtiari oblast', the center of which is the city Shahr Kord (Chigha Khurj a section of ancient cultivation of the spelt (Tr. svelte), which corresponded to the European spelt in its morpho- logical and anatomical data. Yet in 1923, in Persian Kurdistan, around the lake Unita. I have discovered sections of plantings of spelt (its type is preserved in Leningrad at the Herbarium of wheats of VIR (All-Union Institute of Plant Industryj); it was classified by us, at that time, as a speltoid of the soft wheat, ? but which, nevertheless,. proved to be a genuine spelt. Tr. durum, ? Tr. aestivum, Tr. prOdum, It. compactum, and even in some places Tr. turanicum are cultivated in Transcaucasia in. great diversity; whereupon these species here are very differentiated. It Is true, such tetraploid cultivated species of wheat as Tr. durum, Tr. ,tiraidum, Tr. polonicum and 11. dicoccum originated and differentiat- ed in Ethiopia and the Mediterranian countries of North Africa. Species of genus AcRilops are widely distributed, in Caucasus and in adjoining countries of Asia Minor and of the Near and Middle East. Some of them took part in the origin of cultivated wheats. It is now acknowledged that the soft wheat (Tr. aestivud) contains in its karyotype genomes of Tr. monococcum, Aegilops souarrosa.and,. apparently, ask speltoides, naspellts" (Tr. speita) - genomes of two first partners. This confirms the origin of hexaploid wheats in countries of the Near and Middle East (Tr. aestivum, Tr. Baena) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) ? Trans. A-1087 end Transcaucasia (Tr. machio. Tr. vavilovi). The aggregate of the cited data.permits,considering, with full certainty, that the process of species formation of wheats in the . described botanical-geographical-part of the terrestrial :glob* clams about during many millonia (archeological research has confirmed it). ? Along with this, the Caucasus Is the main and, apparently, primary focus of development of the leaf (Puccinia triticina) and stem (P. praminis tritici) rusts. During the course of millenia occurred a divergent form-develop- ment of wheats and a parallel form-development of virulent races of rusts, which was accompanied by.an adaptation to the host, that 411 is to various species and forms of wheat. Polymorphism of wheat could not proceed in the absence of parasites. Where species of wheat originated and differentiated, there too sprang up various races (strains) of rust. The Caucasus, and the countries adjoining. it, being the place of origin of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats, became also the birthplace of the leaf and stem rusts of wheat. It Is natural, therefore, that Caucasus. and Asia Minor became the strongest Infectious background, where species of wheat developed that.were the most resistant to leaf and stem rusts in the world: Ti. Itegilopoides, Ti. monococcum, Ti'. timopheevi, Tr. persicum (now Tr. cartfilicum). The amphidiploid.11.., funolcidum, developed through artificial crossbreeding of Ti. timooheevi and Ti'. persicum, is also characterized by this high resistance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1087 But although the most resistant species of the host originate in the place of origin of both the host end the parasite, they, never- theless, probably do not possess an absolute immunity. (Begin p.281 This is confirmed both when studying wheat as well as oats and potatoes. Without possessing absolute immunity, as an ideal man144 festation of resistance, they have "field resistance" and tolerance, which permit them to survive in the place of origin of the parasite during the course of thousands of years.- Yet, in 1923-1924, we recorded for Georgia a Oonsiderable susceptibility to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) of certain forms of Triticum persicum (Tr. carthlicum) and partly to leaf rust in Georgia. M? M. lakub, ? tamer confirmed this for Azerbaijan and Dagestan. In Georgia we had to deal with infected plants of Tr. monococcum. 14. M. Iakubtsiner observed individual 'plants of Tr. timopheevi, that were infected with stem rust in Western Georgia, that is in the birth- place of this species of wheat. The hard wheats (Tr. durum), which have a reputation of being resistant to rust species and were col- % lected frOM various countries of the globe: Balkan peninsula, Indostan, China, Asia Minor, Jordan, Egypt, Algiers, Cyrus, Sicily, Spain, Greece; Czechoslovakia, South Africa, USA, USSR (Ukraine, Kirgizia) and Others, and which were planted in Dagestan (Derbentsk base of VIR), were infected to 3-4 points (according to a 5-point system) except for the Caucasian and Balkan forms, which were in. . fected to 2 points. All soft wheats (Tr. aestivum) from different countries were infected still stronger. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) ? ? Trans. A-I087 ? The. German Institute of Plant Industry sent us, in 1957, . 19 samples of seeds of various hybrids of wheat, resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina). Not one of these, hybrids, in- cluding the variety indicator, was less infected than to 4 points (according to the 5-point system) when planted in Caucasus (Kuban and Maikop Experimental Stations of VIR). The celebrated varieties "Kenya" (714, 745 and others), which are resistant to all races ? of rusts in Australia, New. Zealand and to the 30 prevailing races. in Canada, proved to be susceptible to leaf and stem rusts and to powdery mildew in North Caucasus. More than that, the wheat variety NovoUkreinks 84, whiCh was selected especially for re- ? as:stance. to leaf met in. North Caucasus proper was Infected there and in Dagestan with leaf rust to 3 points; varieties Skorospelka? 3 and Bezostaia 4, which were developed of late for the same pur- pose in Xrasnoder krai0. were infected in North Caucasus to 2 points. The. I2-chromosome fractions ofhybrids Tr: fUndicidum. X Tr. ephaero7 poccum were infected'in Dagestan to 1-2 points, possessing tolerance_ but not full resistance, ...There is no doubt that in Caucasus we find the place of origin of the leaf (Puce, triticina) and stem (Pucc. eraminis. tritici). rusts of wheat, the species, which since olden times were connected with species of diploid and tetraploid wheats. It is natural that in the place of origin of Triticum L., during the course of many millenia, appeared also the specialized parasites of this kind 111 with many aboriginal physiological races, which are virulent even Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R014.26R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 10) Trans. A-1087 to Tr..monococcum, Tr. timopheevi, Ti-. carthlicum. It is possible that the extreme susceptibility of hexaploid wheats (including - ? eeitivum) can be exp4ined by the presence in them of two genomes of the genus Aegilops (aux. squarrose and Ata. speltoides). Origin of genome "0" in the most resistant tetraploid species Tr. timopheevi, remains unknown. At the present time we possess a polyploid order Tr. timopheevi. Besides the tetraploid timo- pheevi (2 n=28), known to all, hexaploid forms (2 n=42) were also established in its natural population in its place of origin (in Western Georgia); these were isolated by V. L. Menabde Into an . independent Species Ti-. shukovekii Men et Eris, as well as the ? octopiold. form"( 2 n=56)? which was artificially obtained in Prance by Dr. Heslot; whereupon octoploidy.was Connected with the mutation of coloring (a black spike). This octoploid form the author ear- marked as species Tr. timonovum Heslot. Thus, Tr. timopheevi Zhuk. gets into the range of a super-species or conspecies. We cite (Begin p.291 this fact in order to point out a continuing,evolu- tion of the very old species Ti-, timopheevi, and the increase of susceptibility to leaf rust partly in hexaploid, but especially In octoploid form of Tr. tlmopheevi. . According to the plan for this article, we must be interested In what happens after importing the host or parasite separately, or both together, to other, far removed, geographical regions of the.globe. It Is known that in North America the local wild species of grapes are resistant to Plasmopara viticola (mildew) the place of origin of which is there also. These species possess a genotypic Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1087 Immunity to this parasite of the-class of-Phycomycetes. When after the discovery of Columbus, the best varieties of excellent Euro- pean grapes were Imported to North Amends, they, at once, started perishing there from this disease. On the other hand, Plasmopara .vitiCOla was brought to Europe with the cuttings of American species, that were resistant to phylloxera. Discovery of the Bordeaux . mixture in France by Milliarde saved the European viniculture, but up to the present time mildew still remains as a dangerous disease in the Old World. .An especially striking example is the' intrusion of potato late'blight (Phytophthora infestans) to Europe from North America. ?The fungus from the tame class of Phycomycetes 111 was brought in 1830, and 16 years. later, outside the place of origin of the fungus, sprang up the devastating epiphytotic of Phytophthora in Ireland, where potatoes became the basic. food plant. One million people died in Ireland owing to the famine, while 1.5 min migrated to other countries.. Something similar occurred, in 1949, in Chile. The reason was that there did not exist any crop of Solanum tuberosum in the place of origin of Phytophthora in Mexico and it ? Infected there wild tuberiferous species of potatoes. In the Old World the cultivated potato S. tuberosum was already widely distri- buted in the middle of 19th century. Having.reached Europe,' Phytophthora founds very susceptible host outside its place of origin, and since that time the Old World stands before a problem . of control of this most dangerous parasite. The geographical fac- etor here was of deciding importance. Solanum tuberosum never pos- sessed a cenotynical immunity to any of the races of Phytophthora. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-1087 An intensified selection activity in Europe on developing 'new varie- ties of potatoes is hampered greatly now by the appearance of new local aggressive races of Phytophthora. When comparatively re- cently S. tuberosum was begun to be cultivated also in Mexico (instead of S. anadioenum and others), in the place of origin of Phytophthora, all the numerous Mexican races of Phytophthora "attacked" the new-comer,from the temperate sone of Chile; a coun- try that did not know Phytophthora up to. 1949.' The cited data show the importance of seCondary foci of form- development of the liarasite,',thatispring up outside its place of . origin. Argentina has a reputation In USSR as a country of wheats that are immune to diffirent.species of rust, of flexes immune to fusarium wilt, and othert. Indeed, such Argentine varieties as Magnif4e,.Klein petise, La Prevision, Klein Cored', Klein 11-66, Klein Comets, Klein AMalla Klein, and others, stand out 'sharply by their resistance to leaf and stem rusts in North Caucasus and in Dagestan, that Is in the place of origin of these parasites. But in Argentina proper they do become infected with certain /aces. Apparently not only these geographical races of rust, but vicarioUs raced as well are absent in Caucasus. A great number of physiologi- cal races of stem and leaf rusts exist in Argentina. 'Mere they differentiate Puccini' triticina and P. rubinovers tritici as species of the leaf rust. .One should point out, that in Argentina, awing to Dr. Jose Vallega, the talented specialist:on immunity of plants, 111 the work on studies and mapping out of physiological .races of rust is organised excellently. [Begin p:30). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1087 Both the wheat end its rust were brought in to Argentina from the Old World after the middle of 16th century, probably, by sea.' It is possible, nevertheless, that the stem rust, from which Argentina is. suffering, end, perhaps, the leaf rust also were native. 1110.the light of work of Guyot, in France,-the stem rust of wheat (Puccinia oraminis tritici) infects many genera of Cereals; they are native to Argentina also. When wheat got into Argentina, the local races of stem rust adapted themselves to it easily. Rust uredospores are carried a long way by air also. Craigie showed the existence of "spore showers" of uredospores. It was noted in North America that the southern wind brought rust uredo- spores from a distance of over 1,000 km and distributed them over an area of more than 0.5 min sq. km. There were so many of them that on a tingle acre, which was slightly "lieeded" with uredospores there were. 10 trillions of them, and on.a heavily "seeded" - many times more. In USSR a case Is known of the "spore shower" of uredospores in Stalingrad oblast, which has formed an island of infection in a vast area of uncontaminated fields of wheat. Pro- bably intercontinental drifts of uredospores are possible. through the air. In the case of absence of intermediate hosts for stem rust (species Berber's, Mthonia) and therefore, a dropping out of the phases of spermogonia and aecidla, the epiphytotics are only pos- sible owing to the overwintering of uredospores; but then it is not Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( Trans. A-1087 known, how will that reflect on the emergence of aggressive races. However, there are many barberries, meadow-rue (Thalictrum) and other hosts of rust in America. In any case, the emergence in Argentina of the secondary focus of form-development of wheat rust is indisputable. Com- position of races in the primary (Caucasus and the adjoining oblestts) and in the secondary geographical foci is entirely different. This fact introduces a geographical correction in the genotypic immunity of species. OenOtypic immunity of the host is formed historically In the place of origin of the parasite, and there, although it is not ob- solete, it is fully reliable for the purpose of selection. Outside the place of origin, the resistance of the host depends greatly on the virulence of local geographical races of the parasite. 'Let us analyze the evolutionary interlinked species Avena pterilis (wild) and Av. blyzantina (cultivated). The first species is widespread in Palestine (Israel). Its local name "common oats" points to its widespreadness. Here, in its birth place, it is Infected with crown and stem rusts, whereupon their races are identical to those which were removed from the cultivated genus. In spite of susceptibility to infection, the forms of wild oats Avena sterilis do not suffer and show exceptional resistance (tolerance) to both species of rust (PuCcinia coronifera and ' P.praminisovenae). ,The life cycle of crown rust is ensured in Palestine, owing to the presence of Rhamnus alaternus and R. ales- ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A 1087 tinus. It was established that race 270 of crown rust Originated endemically in aecidia of local buckthorn. Many Palestinian races 'of crown and stem rust are highly virulent, but a series of.varle- ties of cultivated Am. byzantine, originating from Av. star ills, is resistant to them. The most virulent race 6 of stem rust of oats comprises 97% of all 'races and was collected from 14 genera of cereals. Dr. Wahl points out that oats Av. sterilis and. byzantine sprang from one geographical .area. Evolutionary development of the . host and the parasite, their mutual adaptation here too prove to I be interconnected. [egiwp.31] ?. A prolonged struggle for survival between the host and pare- sitee.produces an adequate resistance of the heat to races of rust. . of high virulence. In the selection of potatoes forresistance to diseases, the most essential is the resistance to Phytophthora and to .virus diseases. It was pointed out previously that potato blight was a historical disaster. In USA, in the state of Wisconsin, at .the collection nursery of wild potato species, of interspecific hybrids and cultivated varieties, many thousands of 'clones are studied for their resistance to blight; as a result of this many clones were isolated that are resistant under local geographical conditions. Intensive work on development of blight resistant varieties Is conducted bathe German Democratic Republic, In Western Germany, in Holland, Sweden, England, USSR, Australia Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (16.) ? Trans. A-1087 and others. Each country developed varieties that are resistant under local geographical conditions. But thisIs almost an illu- sion. In the, place of origin of Pbytophthora in Mexico ptacticaily almost any of these varieties from the Old World and USA, which were put out for pale as blight resistant* come to grief (J. Niederhauser). In Mexico, our common potato (S. tuberosum). is a new crop. Its yields are small. January plantings (early), during which the cycles of the host (potato) and of the parasite (late blight) do not coincide, produce healthy potatoes, but the plants are'develop- ing during a dry period. .Artificial irrigation raises the cost ? of the crop extremely. May plantings at the beginning of the rain period could be giving high yields, but they are infected with blight, since during this period favorable weather conditions are formed for its development. Spraying with fungicides raises the costs too' much. The Way out of this situation is development of blight-* resistant varieties. Under such conditions, ever Since old times, a struggle against blight proceeds here in the hexaploid wild species of Solanum .demissum and the diploid wild species. At the present time here was established a great number of physiological races of Phytophthora, to which many tens of varieties of S. de- OPIP MOINIONINO are resistant. missum.A But there do.not exist absolutely immune varieties of S. demissum. There are forms outstanding in their "field reel- stance" or tolerance. Blight infects only the lower leaves, and it does not spread further: sporulation is limited, there are Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-1087 clearly expressed necroses (Niederhauser). This permits surviving of S. demissum in Mexico for millenia against such a dangerous infectious background. Thus, on the example with potitoes, we see. that in the place of origin of host and parasite occur their parallel formodevelopments and parallel, reciprocal adaptation. Against the same several infectious background in Mexico, since olden times, exist such diploid tuberiferous wild species of potatoes as S. bulbocastanum, S. pinnatisectum, S. cardyophyllum, S. polyadenium, and others # which are considered even more re- sistant to blight than, S. demissum. S. bulbocastanum has been studied already quite well (Graham, Niederhauser and Servin). It was found out, that this species, in general, Is extremely self- sterile and is composed of cross?sterile and cross-fertile plants. ? After inoculation of 1146 seedlings of S. bulbocastinum with races 1, 2# 3 and I. of Plytophthors infestans three types of infection were observed: a) considerable resistance with small necroses on lower leaves, b) resistance with imperceptible sporulation of the parasite and c) susceptibility, expressed by large sporuleting injury. Seedlings, possessing resistance to Mexican races of blight are not always resistant to Guatemala races, and vice versa. Both diploid and triploid forms are met in populations of S. bulbocastanum. [Begin p.32]. Genotypic immunity of the host is formed historically in. the place of origin of the parasite* but it is not absolute and is expressed in the form of .field resistance and tolerance. In the crucible of many centuries of strunale of the host ,and parasite), Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (a) Trans. A,..looT both pertners evolve and both survive. The botanist, who is occupied in introducing the plants, the geneticist and the plant breeder must have a world map of geographical localisation* of genotypes, resistant to diseases, superimposed on geographical feel of origin of parasites, connected with them. It is useless to look for resistance to blight In many wild tuberiferous species And In cultivated local varieties. of potatoes (20, tubsresvm) in * South America: that is, ewayfrom the place of origin Of the para- site, historically localised inftatco and Guatemala. ,Resistance to reot?knoteell4Orm (ieterodere Fostochlensis) is geographically, Centered 112-highiimounteinose regions of north- western Argentina. Its carrier is the wild large-tuber diploid species Salyut* ytioneltts. The tetraplold cultivated species S. padipenum (H. BrUsher)I-Which sprang from it, crinteins nematode- resistant forms in its range. It is useless to bolt for genotypic inmilnit'y or strong tolerance of wheats to leaf rust beyond the place of their origin in Caucasus, ? In Iran and Asia Minor. Only in the case of development of a strong secondary geographical focus of form-development or the parasite, producing Its isoluted.geogrtphical races (Argentina)* it is possible to find there races tolerant for the primary focus. Tolerant genotypes,undotbtedly transfer this characteristic to their hybrids,.however not through simple one-pair combinations with.susceptible partners. Transfer of genet of resistance is hardly possible in direct crossing between two species. It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 DeclassifiedandApprovedForRelease2013/09/15:CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-.1087... is necessary to introduce intermediate species or varieties* which would serve as a bridge. 1. V. Michurin called them "go-between% History of development of such valuable Varieties of wheat as "Prellud, Novinka* AVrors* Ardito* Magnir shows the impOrtence of multiple-phase crossings. In selection for immunity this 'way was utilised in the work with sugar cane. John Niederhauser* in Mexico* succeeded* finally* in developing s potato variety Erendire* Which is highly resistant to blight in the place of origin of the parasite in Toluca (Mexico). The scheme of development of this variety it as foliows: Chippewa 4145 7 hdin X Richt vs 528-410(USDA Lobel X 25691(USDA),----7 ($. demissum XS. tub rosum) end a in the selection of cultivated plants for high resistance to dangerous diseases one should* first of all, use the highly re- sistant and tolerant genotypes from the place of origin of the host and the parasite* and further on successfully utilise them In the gradual (bridge) crossings. Instruction about initial materiel for selection requires establishment of regulations for t planned introduction. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1087 LITERATURE Vaviloir, N. 1, Centers of origin of cultivated plants. "Trudy" Works] on applied botany, genetics and selection, v.17, no. 2, 1926. Vavilov, N. I., Studying of immunity of plants to infectious diseases. "Theoretical principles of selection. v.1. 1935. (Bellin p.333. yavilov, N. I., Botanical-geographical principles of selection. Theoretical principles of 'selection, v.I, 1935. Dunin, M. S., Immunogenesis and its practical use, 1946. 2hukovskii, P. M., Agricultural Turkey, 1933. 2hukovskii, P. M., Studies In the field of hybridization, im- munity and transplantation of plants. "Trudy" (Works] of TSKHA (Timirlasevskil Agricultural Science Academy), , 1944. 2hukovskii, P. M., Species composition and a new species of wheat. Doklady AN USSR, a new series, 1949. 2hukovskii, P. M., Cultivated plants and their relatives, 1950. Mukovskil, P. M., Problem of immunity of cultivated plants to diseases. Problems of Botany, vol. 2, published by AN (Academy of Science] of USSR. 1955, Transhell, V. G., Review of rust fungi in USSR (Conspectus Uredinarium URSS), 1939. Iakubtsiner, M. M., Immunity of wheat species to stem rust. . Journal "Socialistic Plant Industry". no. 20, 1936. Graham, it., Niederhauaer. J. and Servin, L., Studies on fertility and late blight resistance in Solanum bulbocastanum in Mexico. Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 37, no. 1, 1959. Guyot, L., Role des Graminees spontanees dans lispidemiologie de la Rouille noire des Cereales en Europe et Afrique septen- trionale, 1959. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) . Trans. A-1087 Heslot, H., Triticum lopshanicuota une nouvelle 'specs de Ble cultive originaire Compte rend. d. sc. de Mead. Sc., t. 247, Ms 2477, 1958. HesIot, H., Obtentiox experimentele (Pun tetre,ploide aberrant Triticum timonovum. 11)10" t. 248, P.452, 1959. danos tiartines, E., Estimacion de losAcaiisados pop las royal; de los census. Revista de Invest. Ar., tomo 5. no. 4, 1951. Malls W. ond Niederhauser. J., Observations on races of Phvto- hthora infestans in Mexico. Phytopathology. V. 43, no. 6ir Montaldo, A" El cultivo de las varledades di papas roalstentes al Tiraon. Doletin tecnico, no. 1, 1953, Chile. Niederhauser, J. and Mills, W., Resistance of Solanum species to Ph ophthore infestans in Mexico. Phytopat. vol. Op no. 8, 1953. Niederhauser, J. Cervantes. J. and Servin. L. Late blight in Mexico and its implications. .Phytopat., V. 44, no. 8, 1954. Niederhtuser, J., The blight, the blighter and the blighted. * Transactions of the MeV York Acad. of Sc., ser. /I, vol. 19, no. 1. 1956. Niederhanser, J., Erendira, nueva variedad de Papa, resistente al 'Mon tardio. Agriculture technica en Mexico, We. Rudorf..G. y otros., Investigationes sob?* lq=nided en trigo. Publ. Univ. Mae. La Plata, 19.33. Village, J. y Favret, La'royas de los coreales en Argentina.- Revista lblA, Ano 5. no. 54.0 1952. Valleys, J. y Pavret, Rates flsiologicas de Puccini* Oaminia tn , tic! qua ataquan s TritAqea tbiephoevi. Revista dc Invest. Agric., t. 1, no. 3, 1947-. Vallega, J., Rasa* fisiologicas di Puccini* rubl20.ivera tritici comunes en Argentina. An. Inst.. a. L, Wahl, 1., Studies on crown and stem rust on oats in Israel. Bull Res. Coanc. Israel, vol. 6 1), no. 3. 1958. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R0142614010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1088 vg/A Prutskov, F. M. Kulttura rise v Hitae (Rice growing in Chine) Vestnik Sellskokhosiaistvennoi Wauki, vol. 4, no. 5, p.97402. May 1959. 20 V633 (In Russian) Origin and Evolution of Cultivated Rae in China ' - It is known from Chinese literature that in China rice is a ? very ancient crop. This fact is testified by entries in the books' of Kuant Chishi (700 years B.C. (n. e. New Era)), Lu Dia-sin (195 years B. C.), and Hua Nantchzhi (122 year B.C.) in which cultiva- tion of rice is mentioned. The antiquity of rice growing in China Is indicated by other facts as well. For instance, rice plants and grains were found in excavations dating back-to the New Stone Age in China (2,000 years The word "rice" was found on bone writings (kostianaia pistmennostt) (1401-1223 years B.C.). Tribes of Yang Shao (lanshao) 'culture (3 thousand yearsB.C.) were already growing rice (5). On the basis of the very oldest literary sources and contem- porary investigations, a well known Chinese learned professor, Din In, considers that in China the cultivation of rice was begun ? Candidate of Agricultural Sciences. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 .(2) Trans. A-1088 approximately 5,000 years ago, that is, earlier than in any other country in the world; during the Chou Dynasty (1100-200 B.C.) rice planting.was developed widely in the basin of the Hwang Ho,' [Hhankhe] River (4). In Soviet and in foreign literature it is indicated that the ancient countries that cultivated rice were India and China (1). Some authors believe that in India cultivation of rice was begun earlier than in China; in reality, however, the utilization of rice for cultivation was begun in India considerably later than in China. This can be confirmed by citing a fact such as this: the work "rice" (vrihi) was noted for the first time in India in the song "Atherva Vida" (1,000 years B.C.). According to data on years of research conducted bye' number of authors, in individual countries, the utilization of rice for cultivation took the following course': 4 in 1-2 centuries B.C. rice penetrated from China into Japan; 2) in the 9th century. B.C. rice was,exported from India to Iran, and from there to Europe, Africa and America.; 3) in the year 1084 B.C. growing of rice was begun on the island of Java.* On the Malay archipelago, rice was Imported from the continent by (people of] Austronesian nationality ' and it was called by the Malay name of "Bras" and "Rad? (11). The Latin name of rice'which is "Oryza",did not originate from the Hindu "Arishin as was indicated earlier in the literature, but from the Ninboisk (0u-Li-Za) that later spread in India. The ancestral form of cultivated rice is considered to be the mild species Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP801401426R010400040001-5 38 of 0. Bath's L. f spontanea which is distribute In a number of countries of southern Asia. A form of wild rice of the same type was found in the marshy areas in the South of China. As regards its morphological characteristics, the wild species is not very different from the cultivated rice forms, In particu- lar, not from pryea, Bettye L. subsp. Keng (the Japanese branch) and ?ryes sativa L. subsp. Helen (the Indian branch); the wild species has however, a more flocculent shrub, more fruitless blossoms, the grains in the tassels are arranged more. .loosely than In cultivated forms, and the wild form inherently loses a great deal of grain. ? As a result of natural' and artificial selection that has taken thousands of years, China has developed different forms and varle- Tr' finc. ties of cultivated rice. Professor Din In divides rice grown in .. the KNR (Chinese People's Republic] into the following forms: 1) varieties of the Hsien forms (04. S. L. subsp. Helen) and Keng (forms] (0. S. L. subsp. Keng), 2) varieties of early (spring) and late (summer) planting, 3) aquatic and dry-valley.rice varieties, 43 glu- tinous and non-glutinous varieties. These rice forms developed as a result of.the.influence exerted.by external, environmental conditions 4in 1953, in s suburb of Loyang Molan), grains of the-Keng form a of other formss-were found In a grave of the Han Dynasty (206 years B.C. to 25 years A.D.). The rice cultivated, at that time in districts situated south. of the Yangtge River belonged to the Hsien form whibh is confirmed by entries made in the book "Shovent" during the 1-In epoch (1700 B.C.) where the word "Nanhaithehl (or Nankhalchthir de- noting Helen rice is mentioned. During the Sung (Sun) Dynasty (1011 A.D.) 1500 tons of rice seeds of the Hsien form Were imported from the Fukien [Futsyzianl] Province Into districts north of the Yangtze Ri- ver in which, from that time on, the area planted. to rice of the Helen ? form increased considerably. [Footnote continued on next page]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 38 The Haien and Meng forms emerged under the influence of vari- ous climatic conditions: early-ripening forms (of early planting) and late-ripening (of late planting) emerged [Begin p.981 under the influence of dissimilar diurnal length at different times of the ' . year; aquatic and dry-valley forms of rice formed under the influence of varying soil moisture; glutinous andron-glutinous forms developed , as a result of variation occurring In the .composition of starch dur- ing the cultivation process. The evolutionary process of cultivated rice can be presented by ,the following scheme: -'Non -Glutinous Aquatic- 0-*Early ripening-- -Kilutinous d+Hsien (subspecies)? Dry-valley Wild .(0-. S. subsp. Hsien) rice ---- -*Late ripening (0. S. L. F. -.Keng (subspecies) s2cOtanta) (0. S. subsp. Keng) The Japanese scientist_ Kato (6,7), in 1928, divided rice in ac- cordance with the fruitbearing degree of the hybrids and the serum reaction of varieties into two branches: the Japanese (Meng) and the ? 4,(Continued from page 3]. Chfnese scientists express the opinion that in the process of a long evolution and adaptation to conditions prevalent in the mountain districts of the tropics and in districts with a temperate climate, the Keng form exposed to the influence of temperature and other environmental conditions developed from the Hsien form. This hypothesis has been confirmed by data on research carried out by Chthan Bei-lian, (or Vellionq (10) and Chen Chthu- shen, regarding the vertical distribution of the Keng and Hsien forms in the Yunnan Province. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1088 Indian (lisien) although the so-called Japanese strain (branch) was imported. into Japan during the let and 2nd centuries A.D. from China where the Helen and Keng strain had been isolated many years earlier. . Matszo (8,9)i another Japanese scientist, collected 1431 -varieties of irrigated and dry-valley .rice and after investigating them, he divided all rice varieties on earth into three form: A4 /4 A and C. The A form belongs to the Japanese branch of Keng which Is s . distinguished by a stable stem, rernsiveness to fertilizers, high productivity, dark-green color .of leaves and its suaceptibi- lityrto Piricularia [fungus]. ? The 'D foim belongs to the Indonesian form of. Keng which is characterlied by a light-green color and a alight pubescence of leaves, ,a stable stem and a more considerable resistance to Piri- cularia than that of form A. 'The C form belongs to the Indian branch, that is to the Chinese form of Hsien; the leaves of the plants have a light-green color, the stem is least stable, the plants more resistant to Piricularia than these of form B. Matszo con- siders that these rice forms' have developed under the action of diverse Climatic and soil conditions ';at different latitudes of the globe. Rice ot the Haien form that is more adapted to unfertilt soils and to their water deficiency have become widely distributed in the Hwang Ho [KhUenkhe) River basin. In the same districts are 111 distributed rice varieties belonging to the King form. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1088 .On the Shores of Lake Tal Mu [Taikhu], in the mountain districts of the province Hunan, Kwangtung Nuandun], Fukien [Futszian], Shensi (Tsziano.si], and in the mountainous areas of the islands of Hainan and Taiwan, that is., in the districts with more fertile soils, is distributed rice of the Keng form.- During the evolu- tionary process, the formHelen became more adapted to conditions of a tropical and subtropical climate, and the form Keng to condi- tions of the warm belt and the mountainous districts in the tropics. At the present time, the. varieties cultivated in the subtropical zone belong Almost completely to the Helen form which here is considered as the basic one. On the basis of observations of the individual varieties in the province of Yunnan, Chen Chzhu-shen-established the conditions ? required for the distribution of rice forms In zones in which two yields of rice are obtained within a year*. Varieties of the . }Oen form are distributed in regfons where the average yearly air temperature is above 170, varieties of the Kong form - in regions with an average yearly temperature below 160. The lowest air tem- perature (13?) is observed in:the Littlen (LItatical and.Chaoton uezdal. These areas are marked by a great: deal.of.clogds and fogs, ' hence, here low rice yields are not infrequent. *Average yearly temperature - above 17? (C], average for January - above 15?, average for October - above 200. 1[A rural administrative unit within a district equivalent to one in a U.S. county] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1088 Vertical distribution of rice forms:-varieties of Hsien forms are distributed below sea level; in districts located at an eleva- tion of 1700 to 1900 meters above, sea. -level are grown varieties of Hsien and Keng forms, but higher than 1900 meters - only Kong forms.. Atcording to observations conducted by Chen Chshu-shen, in the belt in which both forms are grown are encountered varie- ties that ere difficult to identify by their morphological charac- teristics. Grains of different forms(Hsien and Keng) are-often found on plants of one variety. .In the Yunnan Province cultivated rice is distributed (stretching] from the low hot areas (500 in above SEte level).to the warm plateau (2400 M above sea level). Cn the basis of his own investigations and observations and also on the generalized works of other authors, Din In calls rice of the Haien type a subspecies (O. sativa, subsp. Hsien). He be- lieves (Begin p.99] that the Keng form has become differentiated and has developed from the basic Helen type (2,4). We consider that the facts cited tbove are sufficiently (con- vincing] to cause a change in viewpoints as to the origin of cul- tivated :rice and that certain corrections be made in the classifi- cation of rice forms. It is desirable that in future the'lterml "Japanese branch of rice" be replaced by "Chinese form of Keng" (O. sativa subsp. Keng) and the (term] "Indian branch" by "Chinese form of Helen" (O. sativa subsp. Hsien). Changes of this type made in the classification will be in accordance with the historically evolutionary process of rice culture in China. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1088 Realm and Ecological Characteristics of the Most Important Rice Forms and Varieties In China, rice growing, especially of the irrigated kind, is Pic , itt widely distributed - from the province of Helluntsysn.[Kheilunts- sian] to Hainan in the South, from the Island of Taiwan in the East to the. Sinkiang-Uigur (Sin'tszian-Ulgur) Autonomous District in the West. At the present time, 26 million hectares (26,69% of the .area occupied by all other grain crops) are planted to irrigated . rice, the harvest of (rice) 'grain comprises 45.64% of the totAl grain harvest in. the country. From 1949 through l956, the cropping area under irrigated rice in the Chinese People's Republic [KNR) increased by 7159 thousand ha, and the total grain harvest in- creased by 35475 thousand tons; average productivity per unit area (ha) increased by 6.61 centners. In the year 1956 the average productivity of irrigated rice comprised over 27 centners per ha, and in. a number of southern districts it exceeded 75 centners per ha. In China, large areas are occupied by early irrigated rice: its share is approximately 25% of the total rice harvest in the coun- try. In the year 19574 early rice grain was gathered on the average of 22,75 centners per ha - .by i.4 centners more than in 1956. In Southern China natural conditions are more favorable for obtaining two, and in some districts even three, rice crops within. a year. This zone includes the provinces of.Cheklang IChzhets-sian), kweery711.11 Fukien [Futszianj, Klangsi [Tsziansi], Hunan, Hopeh [Khebell, Shan- 7 111 tung [Guandun], Shensi [Guansi), Szechwan [Sychuang, Yunnan punInon11. and Kweichaw [Guichthool. the districts tnuth nf tho Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 9) Trans. A-1088 Hwang Ho River [in the] province of Kiangsi iTsziansu] and Anhwei fAnflthol], and also those south of the Tsintlin [mountain] range that are part of the Shansi Province and of the provinces of Hantau and Tsin Hai. .This zone has a warmer climate and the largest quantity of precipitation. ? In the Yangtze River basin precipitation reaches 1000 mm, the vegetative period usually lasts from 250 days to 300 days. In districts south of the Min range frosts scarcely reaches over occur, the average annual precipitation/0500-2000 mm. Here three crops per year are harvested. The southern part of this zone is In the subtropical belt where climatic conditions are very favorable for the cultivation of many agricultural plants. In this zone, 111 over 60% of the entire tilled area occupied primarily by the rice crop is irrigated. .The young crop of irrigated rice comprises a large portion of grain crop plantings. - Ali a rule, in the north-western and north-eastern zones only one rice crovis harvested. In the.northern districts, the climate Is comparatively cold, therefore, here rice plantings comprise only 5% of the irrigated rice area in the country.* However, in the Korean lantbin Autonomous Okrug" (Northern Korea] Oirin Pro- the productivity.of irrigated rice increased from 20.2 up, to 37.-5 centnere per ha. The distribution of rice forms according to zones and in- dividual Chinese provinces is shown in the table. *Earlier it was considered that the northern districts are totally 111 unfavorable for irrigated rice growing. **(Equivalent, more or less, to a district within a district of a U.S. county..., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) . Trans. A-1088 Within the last. thousand years, Chinese farmers created over 10 thousand irrigated rice varieties. Yet as a whole (according to the latest data), they number 'about 50 thousand varieties of irri- bated, semi-irrigated and dry-valley Tice (developed] by native farmers and breeders. There are in the Shantung-(Guandun] Pro"; wince alone 6717 native farmers' and breeders' varieties of early and late irrigated rice; of these 169 varieties have been recog- nised as deser/ving of widespread utilization in production. In the Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of Eastern China (City of Nanking) a study is being made of 6000 rice varieties the.majority of which were gathered in native provinces. Large numbers of native varieties are available in the southern provinces and in the North East. in the Chinese People's Republic, cropping areas under se- lected and improved varieties are on the increase. It is planned within the next few years to switch completely to planting from varietal Seeds. The best varieties of Irrigated rice are: Hsien-dao [Sian-deo], Reng-dao (Gen-dao), Hodao, Ludao, in the Hunan and Kiangsi (Tsziansi] provinces'- Nantahao (Nantakhaol and Shenli-se. In the North-East the varieties of,lua-chshi-2 and Chin-sh-5 are more distributed, in the northern regions of China - the variety Wren'. In the eastern part of China, the highly productive varieties are: Nantahao, Shenlise? Chshunnun-4, Chshuiu-nun-853, 412, Lao Lechin. These varieties occupy 20% of the total cropping areas (allocated(' for rice. Replacement of poorly productive farmers' varieties with highly productive ones will increase the country's rice production by an average 10-15%. (Begin p.100). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (II) . Trans. A4088 At the scientific research establishments of the Chinese People's Republic is conducted important research work with a view to im- proving local farmers' varieties, replacing listen form varieties with those of the Keng form (in order to change rice with one yield for rice with two yields), and creating.more productive varieties. On the basis of experiments in phase analysis of rice, conducted at the Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of Eastern China, it has been established during the last seven years that passing through the vernalization stage required temperatures of 19-300 (C), depending on the variety. The passing through the . vernalization stage at optimal temperatures required 12 days. The vernalization stage cannot be accomplished at temperatures of ? 3-5?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 ( 12 ) Trans. A-1088 Table, Zones Provinces North-East Rice seeding* districts Hwang Ho River basin The North-West Aligns of elevated Weas (plateaus) Rice seeding districts in the Yangtze River basin Rice seeding . districts of the ? Chutsian River basin Central and Northern Manchuria (north of 42? north latitude Southern part of Manchuria. Provin- ces of the middle and southern current of the Hwang Ho River Hanisu and Sinfchl- an-Uigur Autonomous Oblast' Elevated areas of the yunnan, Ouichou and oychuan provinces -Provinces of the mid- ? die and lower cur- rent of the Yangtze River Southern part of the Yunnan Province and the provinces of Kiangsi [Gutman, . Ouandun, Fukien (Ft- tszians), and is- lands of Taiwan and Hainan Forms of Rice Early ripening and ultra- -early ripening Keng form va- rieties at a high latitudef there occur a few Hsien form varieties at high latitude Early ripening, medium ripen- ing and medium-late ripening .Keng form varieties Early ripening Keng form va- rieties. Earlier there were ,ultra-early ripening Halen.form varieties of high latitude . listen form varieties of eleva- ted areas of low latitude and Keng form varieties of eleva- ted areas (including the distri bution of the Shanlichen varie- ty the grain of which is 3 mm long and is bare with non-pube- scent leaves) Medium and late ripening varies ties of the Keng form, early, medium and late ripening varie- ties of the listen form (the Shenlichen variety has also been encountered) Early ripening Haien form vi, ? rieties of low latitude, late* ripening Hsien form varieties (the Shanlichen variety is en- countered) and the osaamOp va- rieties of the Keng form. Al present, other Kengi form varie- ties are also beingj distributed. gltq4nous ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 13) ? Trans. A-l088 . As regards the light phase, the rice 'varieties distributed in China can be divided into two groups. The first group is comprised of varieties that are not sensitive to the length of day. These include the early ripening varieties In the southern part of China, early-ripening and medium ripening varieties of in Central Chihli, and the medium ripening .varieties of the North-East and North-West. In long day (18 hours) (6ultivation) the varieties of this group are a little late in.heading, and in shortday (10-12 hours) not over 30 days. ' The second group is composed of varieties sensitive to the' length of day. It includes varieties of the southern districts ? of China and varieties grown in the rest of the districts for the Purpose of obtaining two yields per year. These varieties are very late In heading when grown during 18-hour long days. There is a certain relation between the passing of the individual stages of development and the reaction of plants to a long day. (Begin p.101). For instance, rice varieties of high latitude regions react poorly to lighting. Natural conditions of China contribute toward the -formation of various ecological types of rice, hence different ecotypes are en- countered even within the limits of one form or one variety. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-1088 Agrotechniques for Obtaining High Yields of Rice Rice is one of the highly productive grain crops in China. , In a number of volosts*, uesdi** and provinces, high and stable rice yields are obtained on large areas. The productivity of this and other crops has increased especially as a result of the coepera- tion extended by China's agriculture. Chinese rice growers achieved outstanding SUCCOSSE18 in the .year 1958. In the Provinces of Anhwei (Anlichol], Hupeh (Khubei], Kiangsi [Tasiansi] and Honan UKhenant], on an area of 1,154,666 ha planted to' early rice, the average yield obtained was 75 centners per ha. In the Province of Honan [Rhenan], average productivity of rice reached 104.4 centners per ha, in the Province of Riangsi (Tssiansi] - from 75 centneraip to 225 centners (per ha] on an area of 76666.6 ha. In the DanIchen Ueed of the Honan Province thee per hectare average of the productivity of early rice amounted to 412.5 centners [per ha], and on a field comprising an area of 1.79 ha it was 675 centners (per ha]. On the agricultural cooperative (farm] "Poputnyi Veter (Trade Winder, Hupeh (Khubeil Province, the yield of rice grain harvested on an experimental field in the year 1958 was 1219.5 centners per ha. On an experimental field of the cooperative (farm] no. 2, Machen Used, EUpeh (Khubei] Province, the rice yield was 1219.5 per ha., on * LA rural administrative unit within an uesd.1 0* (An administrative district equivalent, more or less, to a district within a U.S. county.] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) the cooperative [(erm3 Ts n cooperative tfarml "Dunfen tung h * ice gathered on an area of 1.03 ha. ' A very village rice uneAr theClt -of- Trans A-1088 2772 cent s. AnIkholj Province d to )1 centn the he per people a commune Of on an experl- s (sic l of to 92 9ions (sic) plants were transplanted 666 ha) The rice thick green.carpet, is a resultant of the untiring of the achievements of ental.field meesuring 025,,mu were? g# dry gre In which# when c nvertedo amounte per he. Prior toinforascence, onto th small fiel from an ar s Planted so close that The obtaining of hi 9h ric r ork of Chinese science and advanced experienc On leading farms e great deal of tti ice. Seeds ere wetted preliminarily they are planted on well Ce wsfl developed seedlings are used for plantin the seedbeds are planted 4-6 rice plants used on rice fields are soybean oil other types of fertilleors. The fundamental agricultural meth Ods: paid to r germina no dsdd cly healthy each hIU on fertilizer* sulfate and of cooperative a depth of 50-60 c quantities (manure mu C0mprse on experim j were as4ollows plowing was carried t a fertilizers were applied in leaves of ee ne meal and mineral Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 de Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 fertilizers pia was brought up to 105 9 m 900 thousand, or i3OO,O0G (1050 whole Periled of rice vegetht1n the plant Irrigation was carried ou Trans A-1088 density of the plants hectare instead of me. During .the tended Ctrefu on time, weed contr wee conducted, the young crop:was protected from wind* (with the Id otecreens) birds were scared sway' and other measures were conducted. At the agrieulturs1 cooperative he basic fertilizer was applied at der early rice and 120 tons per titles of a Lxtreof lieu ? ferent waste meter s were used as t?Uieei nel river silt used 0 tons In addition, utse d Deep plowing and tillable soil layer, soil system and maker' ul, Unite ive siab plowing Is practiced (at a depth o OW dried olut. lee fields (of early a 13 times. Fields designated for s harrowing D4d a normal deve1opnent of the fleas available to it. Wtnter 18-20cm)and harrowing of is carried out 12 ly rice are plowed Ids for seeding of e it harvested, as as to enable and to,enable 1i-tin9e coopers- le c led out receding irri- the first year before winter sets in, .en late rice are plowed at the time the fields are freed. Then the fields a the soil to absorb water readily when it is irri its mineral salts to dissolve in the: water. in tive and in other leading farms Irrigation of 11 after the water that entered the fields during t; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Stt on has eflcQmp1etClt used up. Three to five dJs afterthe appearnceof sproutsn the water is drained from e fields of early Trans A-10 8 plant has 0 rice. Fields 6 stems upied by the young crop of Iota rice ere drained approximately 45 days after the appearance of sprouts when branch-. tog has reached 1748 stems. The fields are left without water until the surface hae hardened which Is conducive to branching and strengthening of the root system of rice plants and also prevents heir early lodging.n p.102). After the fields have dried t they are again watered. Leading farms introducefro lizers into the soil (so-ca iliz Is and the tall fertilit fL.ldt of late ric nd concentrated spikes), that ng or intlorescence during the period of head 4 (khvOS e) fertilising introduc- ? On the ure of shortly before the ripening of fertilizers (30 tons of utsu liquid mud and manure) and 60 kg ammonium sulfate Per he), as rule ere introduced at three (different) stages Apart from the [application f the basic organic fertilizers, fields of early rice ere fertilized-twicet prior to heading and before cr heading, and on the fields of late rice three timest prier to heading,during heading period and shortly before Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1088 completed. Inter-row treatment and Weeding on fields of early rice are carried out twice, and on fields of late rice - three times. Planned treatments of Inter-raw, weeding, irrigation, timely draining off of water tram fields and introduction of fertilizers, as well as many other measures contibute toward obtaining high rice'yields. On the state farm of Fuchen (Linshan Uezd, Kwangtung (GUandun) Province), high stubble, up to the very tassel, is left when the yield is harvested and later it is plowed under. Using this method, as well as other agrotechnical measures, the state farm of Fuchen, which is situated on clayey soils, has improved the soil struc- ture and increased soil fertility. In the year 1955 the state farm harvested 77.5 centners per ha of grain and, by virtue of rice productivity, became one of the leading farms in the Tienshui (Tsinochouj district. The soil-climatic conditions of China are very specific, yet many agrotechnical method used in growing rice can be applied to the rice growing regions in the USSR as well. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans, A-4088 Oushchin M,, 19 1-01"1 Din In - Wild rice in the Province of euanthin and the varieties developed from It "Agronomlie, Zburnal Universitet* imeni Suntiat-tena, no. 3 Kenton 1933 Din In Preliminary report on the cultiva and_of HalenAiteng species in ancient China a ' species classification at the present tiMe. Zhurnal.Universiteta Wm' Sun lat.-sena, no Origin of rice growing in China. Universiteta La ni Sun'Iat'sen, flO. 7 En-de he new Stone Age in Chine. Kato Study of the relat rice with the aid of a se language). Kato - Relationship ductivity of hybr language) Matsao- Study 1952 (In the nd di tribution e method of "Agronomile, 6, ?Manton, 1949. Agronomilae, hurnal Renton, 1959. p g 1955* hip betwe fferent types. of um. Tokyo, 1929 (In the JapanOe rice forms ec?ordIn Tokyo, 1928 (in sgo - Theory end praot (In the Japanese longue 10. Chan Vellian Distribution phe agricultural ,production. u col the one hundred year annIversnr Of I Runmingi 1955. Uno Malay rice, Tokyo 191* (in Japanese C regions and their ection dedicated to V. MIchurinis birth. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ?Trtrit? 41.4-1V89- vgjA ? razvedeni1u u krupnogo rogatogo', Vestnik Sellakokhez no. S. P?131'436 (In Russian) ce attle) tvennd Naukla Vol. My r959# 20 V633 d Ar ti- In, Febru ry of 1959 a c ference s. hed.in Mosor Ly the Ins group of the Permanent Committee on Economic and Scienti- fic Technical Cooperation within the Realm of Agri Lttwe between Member Countries of the Gount1 for Econ Mutual Aasistance [CENIAl; the principal problcms discussed were th braedthg and rtliicial insemination of ctt1c. The Conference was attended by de1egate Nine reports were heard and discussed at piens y Member of the Ministry of Agriculture USSR, P E lo P nted a report titled "Structure of breeding farms and breeding manage ? the ment in the USSR and in countries ofApeopleos democracies dwelled briefly on the history of the USSR and noted gre t successes Ca de e? of Alu Sc f.Ag cultural Sciences im V. He development of breeding in eating purebred livestock, (VASithN n)) [Al -Union Academy Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1089 in improving old and in developing new cattle breeds. He demon- strated, by giving specific examples, the achievements eal r increase of cattle and in raising its productivity during the last five- year plan as a result of the completion of meaiures providing for a steep rise In agriculture planned by the September Plenum of the Central Committee )(PSS (Communist Patty of the Soviet Union) (1953). At the same time the speaker pointed out a number of *shortcomings in the organizing of breeding matters and artificial insemination of cattle in the USSR. In connection with the increased tasks of raising the production of livestock products, the reconstruction of the structure and system of breeding management begun in recent ? years is being continued in the USSR. This structure provides State and kolkhoz breeding plants (elite farms) for the basic - cattle breeds (they are produced at the base of the best breeding sovkhozes, horse plants, kolkhoz breeding farms, experimental farms of scientific research establishments and training establish- ments that have the most productive pedigreed cattle); breeding and reproduction farms that are being organized at the base of breed- sovlitiozes Ing and the better industrial sovkhozes, kolkhoz breeding farms, experimental farms of scientific research establishments and train- ing institutions; State breeding work and artificial insemination stations that are being organiied, primarily, at the base of the State breeding nurseries and the State factory stables; State, interkolkhoz and kolkhoz stations for artificial insemination 111 (being organized on sovkhozes, training and experimental farms, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 on he better br n nary h pitais). n charac democracIes that and haracterlstics the speaker arrivad.at the conclusion that fundamentally they are similar to the breeding system In the USSR In the report Breeding of purebreds as a method of improving roblems it Trans A-I089 of kolkhozes' and e form countries of t counts of ta onal experience cattle"by Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, E. Novikovs of breeding purebreds and of its role In matters of Pod! the zootechnical evaluation of znimls, selection and pr when breeding purebreds MWTO exami ed. Qntbe f the peop cal data of the USSR and of countries the author of the aing one breedin of breedings th t demonstrated that the desirabil od or anOther Is determ ned by the develo level of productivity and the degree o at Improvement. In districts Inwhich pedigreed livestock trig is developed and cattle productivity is h the basic ich Cattle has marke tab method 'is the breedin been Improved but urebreds. In ?bias e and in districts that r (non-pedigree) Itvestock $ Possible to use the vcthod of cross n with a view to breed transformation or cattle and a rapid increase In its productivity. In the USSR and in countries of the people's democracies the value of animals is determined by a complexity of cheracteris Ica such as origins ductivity. Having analyzed crit lances development afta pram. the methods for animal evalu- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (43 - Trans. A-1089 ation approved of in instructions for the appraisal of cattle and for the registration of animals in pedigree books, [Begin p.134) the speaker demonstrated that in making a more complete and accurate animal evaluation it is necessary, in particular, to take into consideration thee productivity of cows for no less than three butterfat lactations; fAi. and protein content In milk; returns from produc- tion [compensating] for expenditures for rearing, feeding and main- tenance of dairy cows; generalized indicators of milk production and pedigree; indicators of direct ancestors (mother and father) and nearest relatives (sisters, stepsisters, brothers); objective indicators of external evaluation and of quality of beef from cattle of different lines jnapravlenli). Taking these Indicators into consideration, more improved and more simple methods of animal evaluation should be worked out. in E. Novikov's report, much .attention wis paid to the analysis of methods to be used in the evaluation of breeding bulls as to the quality of progeny and the further improvement of these methods. The speaker dwelled also on the Characteristics of selection and mating (podbora) methods under conditions of wide-spread use of artificial insemina- tion. The VASKhNIL Academician, N. Rostovtsev, presented his report "Effectiveness of various crossings' In dairy cattle". From the position of Hachurin's Materialistic biology and Pavlov's physiology, he at the beginning analyzed a number of theoretical problems of breeding and improving animal breeds. The speaker demon- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R0142614010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1089 strated the, role and the place of different methods for breeding and crossing purebreds in raising pedigree and utilitarian cattle, the need of a substantiated choice and of the combination of these methods in relation to the specific conditions of the farm and the 'composition of the herd. In confirmation of the fact that inter- breed crossing does not always produce the desired results, Academic N. Rostovtsev cited examples of unsuccessful crossing of East-Friesian cattle with laroslav and Brown-Latvian, and Reds. Steppe (cattle) with East-Friesian. In the second part of the report, Academician N. Rostovtsev acquainted [his listeners] with the results of his long experiments in crossing Black-Spotted cattle with Red Zebu and Gray Ukrainian with Kostroma which he con- ., ducted at a number of sovkhoses in the different cones of the coun- try. The results obtained in these experiments were good. On - the basis of the data obtained, Academician N. Rostovtsev arrives . at the conclusion as to the desirability of utilising hybrid bulls of the first and second generations with Black-Spotted and Red Zebu blood in utilitarian herds of Black-Spotted cattle with the objective of increasing butterfat in milk. For a further improvement of hy- brid animals and the strengthening of their inheritance of butter- fat and abundance of milk, he recommends crossing second generation hybrid cows of Black-Spotted blood with second generation hybrid bulls of Red Zebu blood. In the report "Improvement of a dairy herd after the ex- perience of the pedigree.sovkhoe Maravaevotn? by Doctor of AgriCul- ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (6) Trans. A.4-1089 tura' Sciences, S. Shteinman, which was read by A.Mitropoltskala, were examined the methods of breeding work used on this sovkhos and the data obtained. As a.result of systematic, thorough breeding work, improved feeding and conditions of maintenance, a highly productive herd of dairy cattle of the Kostroma breed has been produced on the "Haravaevon sovkhos and animals excelling in pioductivity,not only during one lactation, but during their entire life were obtained. In the report by Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, P. Eisner, certain organising and methodological problems of evaluating breeding bulls of dairy and meat-dairy breeds were elucidated. ? The use of breeding (bulls] that eonsiderably surpass the mother stock as to their qualities and firMly transmit these qualities to the progeny Is one of the mosteffective means of improving cattle rapidly. The-importance of such breeding .bulls has increased especially in connection with the mast use of artificial insemina- , tion from which a thousand and more, calves are obtained annually from one bull. The breeding value of bulls can be determined more accurately by examining the quality of their progeny. A bull cenriot, however, be evaluated by the milk production of his female progeny before they are 5.5-6 years old, when they finish . their first lactation. Up to this age the breeding value of a bull must be judged by its origin, appearance and development. Hence the speaker deems it necessary to Continue work on the im- provement of methods for the evaluation of bulls by their pedi- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ; Le Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. 1-1089 gree and individual properties. In the opinion of the speaker, a direct evaluation of the productivity of the bull's female offspring under the usual farm conditions and a,simultaneous comparison with their mothers as well as with [heifers) of their min age. In using any evaluation method, 'the problem of the unification of indicators of the amount of milk produced in one milking, with due consideration of the animals age, is the most complicated bne. The report "Camtemporary situation and prospects of arti- ficial insemination of agricultural animals", by VASHMIL Azademl- clan; V. Milovanov and Prof. 1. Sokolovskaia (the report was'read ? by I. Sokolovskala), reviewed briefly the history of the develop- ment of artificial insemination in the USSR and other countries, ? Its role In increasing animal productivity, in hastening the crea- tion and further impiovement of pedigreed cattle (Hegin'p.135) and of the scaleAuse in different countries. In the USSR, the GDR [German Democratic Republic - Com- munist], the Hungarian People's Republic and in other countries, apart from the ()blast' and rural district tokruchnyel stations, central stations for artificial insemination have been established. These stations house the best breeding bulls, chiefly of an elite class and an elite record which, however, in most cases, have not Als yet been tested as to the properties of the progeny. For the purpose of increasing fertilisation, the authors of the report recommend practicing varied feeding of the bulls and cows. To insure total nutritionneas and food value. the rations of. heaaelino Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1089 ? .bulls must include 70-75% of the grain portions of plants, and conversely, the rations of cows, 70-75% of the green portions of plants. The basic problems of the technique of artificial Insemina- tion were critically examined in the report. Special note WAG made of the need of producing instruments and materials for arti- ficial insemination from synthetic materials that insure low prices, simplicity and better sterilization. Corresponding Member of VAMMIL; N. Surlakov, In his re- port, elucidated certain problems of organizing efficient use of cattle which, In connection with the tasks set for a sharp increase ? In the production of meat and milk, and a decrease in their net cost, acquirc.exceptional Importance. The speaker cited data to the effect that in the USSR the age of cows at their first calving is very often 33-36 months, in the GDR - 30-33 months, in Czechoslovakian Republic - 27-33 months etc. On the basis of an analysis of available material, the speaker arrived at the conclusion that in cases of feeding full value feed and normal development, heifers of dairy and dairy-meat breeds can be inseminated for the first time at the age of 15-16 months. Milk production during the first lactation when calving occurs at a younger age is usually somewhat less than when calving occurs at a more mature age, but the total quantity of milk and calves obtained during the whole utilization period is ? greater in the first (younger) cows. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-I089 On the basis of an analysis of data on scientific experiments and practice at individual farms, the speaker finds it desirable to reduce the dry tsukhostolnyil period of cinils from 60 days to 35- 45 days. In determining the duration of the dry period, it is *necessary to take into consideration the state of being well-fed, productivity and the level of feeding dry cows. In the report, considerable attention waS paid to problems of increasing beef production. In examining problems of loote cattle maintenance and'of mechanising labor in animal husbandry, the speaker noted that their utilisation in practice will provide ? a sharp increase In labor efficiency in animal husbandry and a decrease of the net cost of meat and milk. In the report of the active member of the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science, P. Pehenichnyi? titled "fundamental problems Of directing tupravleniej the ontogeny of agricultural animals", the general principles of the regularities of the growth and development of organisms under the influence of condi- tions of external environment, and also problems of directing em- bryonic and postembryonic development of agricultural animals were examined briefly from the position of Michurin's biology and Pavlov's physiology. In the opinion of the speaker, it now has been sufficiently well elucidated when, under the influence of the surrounding environment, tissues, organs and entire animal organisms are most variable. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. k-1089 The youngeit and least differentiated tissues, organs and organisms are the most plastic. Organisms in the developmental stage that are ready to pass from one stage into another, and organisms with a shattered heredity are subject to the most notable changes. INoticeable changes may appear in the tissues, organs and in the entire organism of growing and-of adult animals with a more intensive metabolism and more intensive activity. 'Knowledge of these regularities permits animal breeders to approach the guidance of organism development with greater substantiation. Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, 1. Mesarosh (Hungary) pre- sented a report on control, methods for sterility in cattle. For 0 the purpose orpreventing sterility, he first of all calls atten- tion to the need of proper rearing, feeding and maintenance of cattle. .Besides the general nutritiousness of feed. rations, it is essential to take into consideration their complete food value. Deficiency of mineral substances, especially phosphorus and cal- cium, vitamins and microelements in rations may cause sterility in animals. ? I. Vani reported that in'the Hungarian People's Republic breed- ing of purebreds is the basic method for improving cattle. Besides this', good results have been obtained in experiments conducted in crossing Hungarian Red-Spotted cattle with Kostroma cattle. The hybrids of the first generation produce an average milk yield of 3-4 thousand kilograms with 4.5.4.8% of butterfat. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-4089 Professor Ian Paionk Poland) noted that i and his colleagues employ complex evaluation no external appearance and development of offspring. d to type and corree o the structure and P 1 ) ody structure of the of he udder. In breeding, he nimals as tivity and A. great deal of attention' rdals,and evaluationof is that are s are not entered in the iras udder, 20- points are $e a ;ad out of 100.. given an udder evaluation cPJtStete breeding register) Is carried out in accordance 3.: farms, an effort had been evaluate of semen as to gr ?10 PO Selection and evalue - veloped method. eding. bulls on made to 'utilise to pedigree h and develo pr n the productivity of daughters during the first lactation. spring a used ing bulls verified as .to arg,. -until thtyAio years old. Doctor K.Barteh for BerchJ work conducted in determining pro he quality of t vestigations of the properties of milk obtain elfr of 11 breeding bulls undergoing tests, he establis S ad s on s of in the daughters a close re lation between the content of butterfat end protein In milk Ac? cording to his data, there has been observed between butte'rfat'.and protein in the 11( of co .corre1etion coefficient of 0.5-0.7 and e regression coefficient of 0.3 .5. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-4089 ? Doctor 1. he d tha:tend his co epUbi the expo the USSR and other democratic countries in mproving the organizing of breeding work and of artificial insemination ,The Republic ha established centers for artificial insemination and for tr01 of sterility, central for the distrl breeding sires d the supply inary equipment. Moso1a told about his exp.rhnce in organizing tech Republic, nd mating In PPraistl of pure d also on the n by means of dee9freOzin9 and preservation with carbon dioxide. Professor M. Lebedev dwelt on problems concer artificial insemination articular on problems flebre?ng, f using inbre yping herds on coo development of new methods for sto gan art' Ing of breeding work under conditions of wide..e cial insemination the basis of experiments ork condu in the Leingrad Oblast., be oititheda plan for speciicmeOs. men t Professor E. Arzumanten noted d for further Improve*. ed r methods for the evaluation of built by Ithe records of] their daughters on different farms for the determination of the age of heifers with A view to their first insemination depending on breed and other cond tions especially emphasizedl the of breeding farms at the earliest Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Shmell in breeding prac (13) Trans. A-1080 s and me lzer3rep?rtd aboutan experiment exited for their Impro Ilc. Much attention paid to ment in the German Democratic Repu the organizing of productivity controls Cows under control com- pris (of their total nub*rL twelve control tests are 04 ried out annually.. In the 1 ment and external appearance are re not admitted for appraisal if type as to body structure or corr the State Breeding Register n of bulls* the general evelop to consideration Ir mothers do not conform tructure of tht udder. made for the total milk production [of a cow3 as well as for each part (dolls) of the udder, In the year 1958, art Nflas carried out on 56.8% of t bulls attached to a farm is car tor of Veterinary Medi fictal insemination in the Republic rge stations f have bee stations semen owl and 'lettere. d out every 2.5 * T. Maeveldi Replacement of 3 years reported that r artificial insemination (3040 bulle.in each) bl shed in the Polish People's Republic, Inmost stored at 0441 (Ci temperatures At eie stations* tests are made of methods for st ri and by conservation of acids. AS a result of discussion o the Conference adoptedseries The delega regular exchange semen at 79' temperature On turn f important recommendations. e Conference noted lenCe between countrs of en sty that a e people's Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans, A-1089 democracies will assist in accomplish' g the tasks laid down for a sharp increase of the production of livestock products at the earliest possible data. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 *runs. .R.'?.1VVU vg/M Konstantinov, P. N., and Plotnikov, N. LA. K voprosu o metodike polevogo opyta [On the methods of field experiments] Vestnik Sellskokhoziaistvennoi Naukt, vol. 4, no. 6, p.35-42. June 1959. 20 V6.33 (In Russian) Correct organization of field experiments appears to be one of the most important conditions of agricultural research. All agricultural procedures (methods of soil cultivation, planting, kinds and norms of introduced .fertilizers), as well as the studied varieties, must be given comparative scientific-agricultural and economic evaluation under definite specific conditions of the experimental establishment and of agricultural production. Field experiment permits detecting production importance of these or other agrotechnical processes or of the introduced new crops and varieties in dose connection with the industrial and natural con- ditions. It is possible, on the basis of data of a correctly conducted field experiment, to obtain important conclusions for the agricultural industry. Prof. P. N. Konstantinov, Active Member-Academician of VASKHNIL (All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences imeni V. I. Lenin]; N. LA. Plotnikov, Candidate of Pgricultural Sciences, Moskovskala Sellskokhoziaistvennaia Akademiia imeni K. A. Timiriazeva [Moscow Agricultural Academy Lucia K. A. Timiriezevl Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1090 It was yet In the report of the President of VASKNNIL (All. Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences been' V. I. Lenin], P. P. Lobanov, at the-Jubilee Session of the Academy, dedicated to the .40th Anniversary of the Great October Socialistic Revolution, that attention was drawn to the necessity of paying special attention to questions of methods of the experimental work; this should provide for the increase of accuracy and authenticity of scientific data.. At the same time Academician P. P. Lobanov mentioned that at many institutes and experimental stations improvement of methods of the experimental work is not any more a subject of constant ? attention and care, while many scientific workers .do not even use the required and the most objective method of mathematical analysis bf experimental data. We became familiar with the work of individual varietal plots After studying data, published in the information bulletins of the State Commission on variety testing of agricultural crops, as well as the reports, presented to VASHENIL, by the All-Union Scientific- Research Institute of Fertilizers and Agricultural Soil Science. As it is known, the central apparatus of the Gossortsett (State Network of Agricultural Experimental Stations] provides leadership in all the work of State Varietal Plots; and the methodical super- vision of experiments with fertilizers In the geographical network was entrusted to VIUA (All-Union Fertilizers and Soil Study insti- tute]. It is pertinent to point out that both the central apparatus Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - (3) Trans. A-1090 ? of Gossortsetl, as well as the VIM, which have highly qualified cadres of scientific workers and specialists, pay great attention to problems of. methods of field experiments. Nevertheless, at ? 'State Varietal Plots And In the work of the Geographical Network of Experiments with Fertilisers, serious violations of methods of the field experiment and of agrotechniqde are being discovered. Let us cite several instances. Thut, in 1956, at the Pil-Khensk Varietal Plot, in TuVinsk Autonomous Oblast', oats Were harvested without an accounting according to replications in various systems of soil cultivation. Khovalinsk Varietal Plot, Tadzhik SSR, also calculated the yield of oil flax varieties not by sections, but ? . summarily. At the Minliarsk Varietal Plot, plellabinsk oblast', harvesting of the yield was conducted One month after the ripening .of mitring wheat and oats in ,the experiment on variety tests; at the Kitabskii mountainous Varietal Plot, Uzbek SSR, varieties of ? oil flax were harvested In 47 days after ripening; thisled to great losses in yields. After such (Begin p.361 most flagrant violations of methods, :data of' experimentscannot be taken into account. Exceptionally careless behavior in regard to scientific research, was permitted by V. M. Takmursin, former superintendent of the Gorno-Marilakii Varietal Plot In Mari ASSR, who ly upset the methods and agrotechnique of the eiperiments. In 1956, he conducted'a summary harvest (for a series of experiments) of. grain crops, ignoring the compulsory accounting of the yield according to replicationa. Comrade Takmurgin, both in his initial Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1090 ? records and in his annual report, showed the yield of grain ac- cording to replications in order to escape the responsibility. for violation of methods of experiments. Of course, single cases cannot characterize the work Of the system of State Variety Tests a ... asAwhole. It was shown in a short report about the results of variety tests.of agricultural crops for 1956, printed in 1957,- that the greatest number of varietal plots conducted the experi- ments on variety tests of agricultural crops without any violations of methodical and agrotechnical instructions of the State Com- mission and the experiments were accepted with a satisfactory and good evaluation. Yet, it is recorded in this ,same report that Al, in individual cases deviations took place from methodical principles, accepted by the State Network of Agricultural Experimental Stations. Basic violations of methods and agrotechnique at the State varietal plots are as follows: planting with an insufficient number of replications; planting of varietal seeds without the standard variety or a control variant; incorrect planting in respect to various predecessors; inaccurate conducting of analyses; planting on poorly cultivated soil; violation of planting dates, absence of sufficient care, violation of the irrigation regime violation of dates of harvetting and threshing of the yield, and others. In many cases, in 1956, the experiments of industrial testing of varieties were not accepted in view-of the fact that varieties were planted after different predecessors on different dates; different systems of harvesting were used, as well as recording Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1090 S of yields of various varieties by different methods, and so on. According to data of the State Commission, in 1956, 2,645 experiments, or 2.2% of the general number of conducted experiments_ were rejected, while in industrial testing - 320 variety. expert- meats, or 5.2% of the number of the conducted experiments. At the Ak-Havak Experimental Station of V1US (Uzbek SSR), In 1957, an experiment with fertilizers Under cotton was Laid out in a fourfold replication on a plot of 1057.4 sq. m. Dif- ferences in yields according to replications conspicuously ex- ceeded the differences in the variants of the experiment. Yields of the first and second replications, which were situated in the ? first "lams" [stage, row or bed], were considerably lower than the yields of the third and fourth replications of the second bed. Evidently conditions of the environment, and, in the first place, the degree of fertility.of these beds were different. It is impossible to analyze data of these experiments and draw correct conclusions from them. In the experiment, conducted, in 1957, at the Oshsk Experi- mental Station,'Kirghlz SSR* in which doses and dates of intro- duction of nitrogen under cotton were studied, very variegated data of yields, according to replications, were also obtained and did not permit the making of correct evaluations of variants of the experiment. In the report of V11JA on studies of forms of mineral fertilizers in the Geographical Network for the. years 1956-1957, defects were pointed out in the conducting of experi- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1090 ? menta at some of the experimental establishments; departures from the suggested schemes of experiments and methods, accOuntings of yields' by insufficiently accurate methods, arbitrary exclusions, with giving any reasons, of data on yields of individual repli- cations; absence of data on agrochemical characteristics of the soil of the experimental plot; insufficient conducting in experi- ments of necessary research -and observations; absence of mathema- tical analyses of experimental data, and others. Variegation of data on replications in a series .of experiments must be considered an essential defect. ' [Begin Pan. ? Professor P. G. Naldin in his speech at the All-Union Con- vention of Workers of Agricultural Science.(in 19S6). while discus- sing the results of field experiments on the study of organic-mineral mixtures, conducted by the experimental establishments of the Geographical Network, emphasised that out of 125 experiments 79 were acknowledged as reliable, or 63%; the remaining 37g of ex- periments were rejected. Many experiments were rejected by the experimental institutions themselves. P. G. Naidin came to a conclusion that not less than 50% of field experiments, conducted at the experimental stations, proved to be defective. There are still more rejections of experiments that are conducted directly at the kolkhOses. Many scientific-research establishments, State Agriculteral. Experimental Stations and State Varietal Plots conduct their experimental work in compliance with the accepted methods; this 411 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1090 then permits, on good grounds, recommending to the industry more improved and effective agricultural measures, new crops and varie- ties that are prospective. Apparently, the most widely used methods in the experimental establishments of USSR, are the nonstandardixed checkerboard (shakhmatnyij, as well as the standard-paired per- centage method in field experiments,' which provide for obtaining dependable, trustworthy data. It Is necessary to pay the most - serious tatention to the choice of the plot of land in laying out the experiments. A detailed physical...chemical and morphological soil examination must precede the selection of the plot. The Plot must be typical, situated on the predominant type of soil with the most unvarying typical relief, plants, etc. Besides the natural soil variegations, the plots can differ also, on the strength of their previous use under various experiments with a different tit.. lege of the soil with the introduction of various fertilizers 'to different site areas, and so on. Therefore, it is necessary care- fully to study the history of the section before laying out an experiment. Knowledge of the history of the section will permit conducting the soil examination with a greater effectiveness; also, better to understand the variegation of the field and to organize the methods correctly. Work on an unstudied plot, ass rule, .leads to the fact that the researcher commits a gross error, utile recommending agricultural methods, varieties, and so on that were not well-grounded in the experiment, and, thus, impairs the agri- cultural industry. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) ? Trans. A-1090 The possibility of conducting an experiment on an unstudied, unknown plot is excluded in general. Unfortunately such errors * are yet permitted In field experiments. For example, an experi- menter, under conditions of Irrigation In Rostov Oblast', while studying the structure of the yield of spring wheat, compared the obtained data according to two varieties Melianopus 69 and ? Al'bidum 43, which were plantedt ? the first over spring plowing (predecessor - cotton), and the second over fall plowing (prods' ? cessor - winter wheat). More than that, the yield of grain of spring wheats per hectare was determined in the experiment ac- cording to two sample sheaves, that were harvested from a single square meter of the planting. As a preliminary examination before conducting the experiments, we consider it absolutely necessary to carry out trial plantings on slightly studied plots for the purpose of making more precise (for definite specific conditions) the basic elements of methods of the field experiment: the size of plots, number of replications, accuracy of the experiment, shape of plots, and so on. None of the physical-chemical soil analyses (although they are needed) from the experimental plot can give such a detailed, Idea about the variegation of the soil fertility, as a fractional accounting of the harvest. The plant proper appears to be the best reagent to the soil and'other-variegations of conditions of ? the environment; Knowledge of the history Of the plot, data on soil examination and trial planting are the basic materials for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-I090 ? the formation of methods for field experiments. If there is no need for making trial plantings in conducting experiments under production conditions [Begin p.38] (provided the .experiments are laid out on large plots with a sufficient number of replications), then in experimental crops'rotations, under stationary conditions, the trial plantings must be conducted without fail. , In Our country not enough attention is yet paid to the quality of the planting material and to the origin of seeds. At certain State Selection Stations and Varietal Plots in one and the same experiment seeds of some varieties are used with a germination of 80-85%, while others with a higher germination (95% and over), and ? often nonconditioned seedi are Used (according to varietal purity and typicalness). In State variety tests, it is especially important to take into consideration the effect of the place of origin of seeds on the yield, when varietal plots receive seeds (for comparative test- ing) from selection stations (originators ofseeds), which work in the most diverse soil-climatic zones. It was established, that . seeds of one and the same variety (grains, those requiring culti- vation Inpropashnyel, or other crops), which were brought in from other zones that sharply differ in nature, produce different yields when compared with the yield of seeds of local reproduction. Tett- Ing the seeds, obtained from different geographic zones, can lead, and often does, to inaccuracy and most gross errors, because the aftereffect of such a factor, as the origin, does not permit, with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15': CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-I090 sufficient authenticity and correctly, to evaluate the varieties during the first year of varietal tests. It is necessary to aim, taking this into consideration, at such an organization of variety tests that the varietal plots would be provided (for experimental purposes) with seeds of different varieties, preferably of local reproduction and of high varietal purity. One should not disregard this rule also in.agrotechnical experiments. Without startinEi a discussion of different opinions on the problem of the size of the experimental plot, we think it necessary to stress, that the size of the plot is determined in relation to the probip* of research, to the variegation of soil fertility, kind of experimental plot, agrotechniquepand others. Individual central organizations, which conduct scientific-methodical supervision of a large network of experimental fields, situated in various soil. climatic zones, not so long ago legalized the experimental plot for many crops to be the size of 100 sq. in with a 4 to sixfold re- plication. From our point of view such recommendations require a serious reason. It is necessary to take into consideration an intricate complex of conditions of the place of the experiment's layout and of its purpose. That is the reason why it is diffit. cult to form such universal, infallible methods. Nevertheless, , basic principles for methods of the field expeilment'must?be worked out and improved by means of extensive carrying-out of methodical experiments. In practical experimental work certain adherence to basic elements of methods must be followed. Thus, apparently, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1090 one can accept the recommendedarea of plots for many natural zones; and, in particular, 50-100 sq. m for crops of continuous planting, and 100-200 sq. m for crops requiring cultivation, which are tilled with breaks. ' In field experiments; laid out under industrial con.. ditions of kolkhozes and sovkhozes, It would be proper to have plots of an area not less than 0.25-2 ha(depending on the crop) in order to mechanize the work. As yet, tars large Mechanized farm there are no sufficiently well-grounded methodical directions on the best sizes of experimental plots. The most efficient allocation of plots, at which it. would be possible to cover, to a maximum, the full variegation of condi- ., tions of the environment-by each variant, and, first of all, the variegation of the soil fertility, appears to be in important fac- tor. In multistage allocation of variants of the experiment,. especially an leveled, uniform sections, this is provided by the checkerboard ishakhmatnyll method. On variegated sections (ac- cording to their soil fertility) the checkerboard method requires, for high accuracy of the experiment, an increase of the plot area (Begin p.39) and of the number of replications. In these cases the use of the paired percentage method, with a smaller number of applica tions would be appropriate In order to obtain reliable data (of 'great comparability) and which will permit a simplified treatment of the - numerical data. In a field experiment, regardless of the method used, the chief attention must be paid to the observance of high agrotechni- 111 que (cultivation of soil, planting, care, harvesting, and soon). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-1090 Conducting field experiments on a low level of agrotechnIcs will not permit the researcher to obtaih.correct conclusions. Such experiments must not be taken into account. Replication of variants in the experiment must be compulsory. The increase of the number of replications is more effective than the raising of the 'size of plots for a greateraccuracy.of the experiment. With a minor complexness of the soil covering of the plot, which was levelled in respect to microrelief, on plots of a size of 50-100 sq. m, it is possible to lay out the experi- ment with a smaller number of replications (4-5);* in the presence of great variegation of the field (a heterogeneous microrelief) the number of replications must be increased. Under industriarcondi- tions, with the site of the exporimentel plot of 1-2 ha good re sults are obtained from a twofold replication during favorable Years; 3, 44 5 and even6 replications per 1 ha are insufficient on a variegated background during unfavorable years. Taking into consideration the complexity of conducting field experiments under Industrial conditions, especially of sowing and ham-resting? and sometimes also the absence of sufficient experience of the experi- menter, it is possible to recommend a threefold replication in the presence of sufficient "lee of experimental plots; but with a two- fold replication and when according to replications, the difference 'Two - 3 replications for the paired method. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1090 In the yield of variants is great, the experimenter finds him- self then in a difficult situation. One can permit a twofold replication in the limits of a field which is homogeneous In fertility. Of course, the computation of the yield, according to variants, including the control, must be conducted an areas of similar size and at a high level_of agrotechnique. Industrial experiment appears to be an obligatory, deciding link In the researcb of the agricultural technician, plant breeder, tester of machines, and others. Sometimes it is hard to make a correct industrial evaluation of varieties (for instance with a sharply differing shattering of grains or resistance to lodging) 40 in small plot experiments an variety tests even with careful her - vesting and threshing. Experiments, conducted under production con- ditions, will help to gain an understanding of this matter. Besides this, the industrial experiment will permit making an accurate production and economic evaluation of new, more effective agricul- tural methods, crops and prospective varieties. Such experiments must be conducted in kolkhozes and sovkhozes applying high agro- technical methods. Unbroken harvesting of each plot of the ex- periment Is considered to be the basic measure for computation of the yield in both the industrial experiments, as well as under conditions of experimental establishments. Expediency in the use of one or another means of computation of the yield is conditioned by many causes. In experimental institutions, as an exception, during the rainy weathers the calculation of the yield can be per. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-'1090 mitted by evaluation of two test sheaves or by isolation of sec- tions. Independent of the fact, which method (checkered or paired) was used by the researcher in the experiments, the analysis of data must be conducted according to the type of the year (dry, medium or moist). This produces a much better Comparability of the data's averages. Quite often, in experiments of many years .standing, data according to 3.4 typical years permit understanding the results of the experiment much better and make correct con- clusions, than data on a large number of atypical, extreme years. It is necessary determinedly to condemn the tendency in individ- ual cases to maks the agriculturally poor quality experiments seem to be sound with the aid of mathematics. ' Each mathematical'proces- sing of experimental data, [Begin p.40) by any method, must be preceded by the most careful agricultural analysis. The researcher must know positively in all cases that the experiment was conducted under conditions of the most. favorable agrotechnique, with a suf- ficient size of plots and number of replications, that there were no substantial violations of methods and technique. Without entering into detailed discussion of different opinions on the Importance of mathematics in the agricultural experimental work, . one can mention, that mathematics (biometric methods of research are meant here) is needed and useful. It is necessary Intelligently to strive for applying mathematics in the experimental work. . Un- fortunately, agriculturists often do not have sufficient mathema- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) , Trans. A-1090 , tical training, and the mathematicians do not know the agricul- tural science, as a result of this some of them approach the ilo- logical problem from the narrow mathematical point of view, and the others cannot use the biometrical methods of research with sufficient fullness and qualification. Experiments, in which .one is supposed to obtain serious, large increases of yields, according .to variants (for examples in experiments with effective fertilizers, with prospective kinds of soil cultivation, and some others), can be conducted with an accuracy of the experiment not only in the limits of 5%, but also a lesser one. On the contrary, In the experiments where the researcher must detect delicate, insignificant differences be- tween the compared variants, higher demands must be made. We, of course, do not deny that the average (m) errors of mean values (M) of the accuracy of the experiment (P) and the,. coefficient of authenticity (t), and others are the importaht statistical indices, and there, where it is necessary, they must be determined. In England, USA, and other countries great importance Is attached to problems of utilising mathematics in the analysis of data of? biological experiments. Scientists of Bulgaria. Poland and other countries write about this important side of biological research.. Professor "Oencho Oenchev" (Bulgaria) in his work "Importance of the.mathematical method and of statistical regularities in.biology and agriculture" makes an attempt of proving the necessity of maths- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) Trans. A.4090 matical analysis of experimental data. He does not share the idealistic opinion of the role and importance of mathematical probability in natural science. But he asserts that "Wide intro- duction of any measure in agriculture can be recommended in that case when its positive economic effect will be proved as a regu- lare'but not an occasional, phenomenon by means of carefully tested ? experiments and correct and objective interpretation of the obtained data by way of application of a mathematical method". . We fully agree with the correct thesis of the Bulgarian scien? tist, that good results can be obtained only In the combination of good experiments withgood mathematical elaboration of obtained ? data. Unfortunately, in many experimental establishments of. USSR the statistical methods of elaboration of experimental data are ignored the most often, or are utilized obviously insufficiently. Authors of articles, published in journals?ftemledelie"[Agri- ' culture] "Nauka i Peredovoi Opyt v Sellskom Khozialstve" (Science and Loading Experience In Agriculture), and others not only do not cite any indices of mathematical analysis of data, but in many cases even do not write about conditions and method of conducting the experiment. The accompanying calculations and observations In the program Of the experiment are of important value. They help in detecting the interconnection of the environment with the studied phenomena, In interpreting-correctly the obtained results of the experiment. Under-estimation of the importance of this research, absence of 111 necessary computations [Begin p.411 hamper the possibility of. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. P-1090 making sufficiently well-grounded conclusions and lead to a re- jection of the experiment. . The problem at. selection of the experimental plant merits attention, in particularly, in agrotechnical experiments. It is known, that reactions of varieties to different conditions and agricultural methods (fluctuations of meteorological elements, cultivation of soil, fertilliers and others) vary greatly; this Is connected with the biological characteristics of varieties. Especially changeable is the behavior of varieties and forms, that are not adjusted to ecological anclindustrial.conditions. An . agricultural ecotype must serve as the expeitmental plant. ' Branch and tonal scientific-research.inetitutes, which are entrusted with the selentific-methodical leadership in the entire experimental network, must pay more attention to problems of methods, carefully to analyze defects In the wor4 of,e*perimental stations and not permit gross violations of methods of the field experiment. The All-Union'Agricultural Academy men! V. I. Lenin, et the leading scientific-methodical center, must take measures for a deciding improvement of agricultural experimental work in scientia. fic-research institutions. it is necessary to foresee, in the thematic plans of the institutes, the theoretical and practical problems, connected, with the improvement of methods and technique of field experiments, both under conditions of experimental insti- tutions, as well as of the production, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (18) Trans. ,A-1090 Taking into consideration the ever growing development of agricultural experimental work In our country and the increasing requitement in trained cadres of experimenters, it is necessary to introduce a special course of methods of experimental work in agricultural higher institutes of learAing (nvutyn]. It is quite expedient to have independent Chairs in individual large agricul- tural.tiigher institutes of learning after the example of the Moscow Agricultural Academy talent K. A. Timiriatev. The student must be well trained methodically for his subsequent agricultural activity. It is beyond doubt, that an agriculturist, regardless of the .fact If he is working in an experimental institution, at a kolkhot or sovkhoz, cannot dispense with the conducting of field experi- ments in his industrial activity, end, consequently, do also with-. out solid and deep knowledge of methods of the field experiment. We consider that the necessity has matured for the publica- tion of a series of fundamental educational and practical hand- books on-the problems of methods of the experimental work. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R014261A010400040061-5 vg/m Andreev, S. V., Martens, B. Kg, Stepanov, A. S., and Trushinskii, A. N. Kamera iskustvennogo klimata dila issledovaniii v oblasti eashchity rastenli tA chamber of artificial climate for research' in the field of plant protection) Zashchita Rastenil ot Vreditelei I Boleznei, vol. 4, no. 6, p.17-18. Nov/Dec. 1959. 421 21 (In Russian) This set-up was developed and.produced in the Biophysics Laboratory of ViZR [All-Union Scientific Research institute for the Protection of Plants]; it consists oft 1) a phytotron - a chamber in which arc placed the experimental and other objects of research and in which are installed special sources of light and semi-conductor transmitting elements of the regulating appara- tus, 2) conditioner - units for artificial production of required climatic conditions, 3) water supply devices and 4) the control. panel.- The volumetric capacity of the chamber Is 15 m3. Racks are also provided for placing experimental plants" mesh isolators with insects, and so on, as well as a eoll incubator for obser- Vation of plantt, of-soil-inhabiting insects and microorganisms a a different temperature of the soil. Along the walls of the chamber, at the top and, at the bottom, are two P-shaped air pipes, whichare connected to the conditioner. The air is fed along the upper pipe, and returns to the conditioner ? along the bottom pipe as carbon dioxide accumulates in it. L\ ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 .(2) Trans. A-1091 In this manner the necessary climatic conditions are produced and upheld in the chamber. A vestibule is constructed in front of its entrance; a water system faucet and a sink are provided there, as well as bactericidal lamps for disinfecting the clothing of those working with pathogens of infectious diseases of plants: The chamber is lighted with the aid of a set of lamps equipped with mirror reflectors; luminescent ones and a spot mercury arc- quartz lamp. of extra-high pressure, producing a spectrum of ultra- Violet radiation in a wide range of wave lenghts. Al miter filter wait constructed for the absorption of infra-red thermal radiation, producing a harmful effect On plants. Such a combined illumination of the chamber was produced with the aim to approximate daylight to the maximum degree in its spectrum composition. ? The ceiling, of the chamber is made of glass. The walls are made in the form of panels, that are fastened to a dismountable metal structural frame. .The air, entering the phytotron, receives' the necessary mois- "tura and temperature in the conditioner, inside which are mountedi the evaporator of the refrigerating machine for air cooling, the fan, the air humidifier, two electric heaters of air, that moves through the conditioner, and of water, which enters the atomizer of the humidifier. Regulation of temperature and humidity is attained by means of separate switching in or off of the above cited devices. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1091 The humidity of air can be regulated by the change of tem- perature of water, which is fed to the sprayers. Switching in andstopping of the refrigerating machine, of electric heaters, of the fan [Begin p.18) of the pumps are pro- duced from the control panel, which has a button mechanism. Here too are installed the control-measuring apparatuses, with the aid of which it is possible to conduct the measuring of climatic para- meters inside the chamber, as well as automatic regulation and up- keep of the assigned regimes. The layout of these apparatuses, based on the use of semi- conductor thermal resistances, was also developed by the Biophysics Laboratory Of V1ZR. M. A. Bergfelld also took part in the production of the phytotron, besides the authors. Title of the pictures. Chamber of arti- ficial climate: 1) general view of the phytotron. 2) Interior view. 3) Con- trol panel. 4) Glass ceiling of the chamber, over which are placed the re- flecting incandescent lamps. 5),Three- chamber humidifier of the conditioner with the atomizers. Photograph by V. A. Thin. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Kalashnikov, A. I.1, Samoletov, A. I., Salgannik, M. O., and Kostin, I. O. Opyt ispolltovanila malykh dot radioaktivnykh itluchenli pri inkubatsil III (Experiment with small doses of radioactive radiation in the incubation of chicks) Vestnik Seleskokhotialstvennoi Nauki, vol. 4, no. 8, P.47-50. Aug. 1959. 20 v633 (In Russian) ? The use of radioactive radiation as a biological stimulant in the incubation of eggs of agricultural fowl is an entirely new business. It is known that certain scientific establishments have tried to investigate the influence of radioactive radiation upon incubation eggs, but in these attempts the production percent- age of healthy chicks proved lower than that of control (unexposed) groups. The cause of this failure is clear to us: the doses of radioactive radiation applied by different laboratories were too high and they had been used at random without any theoretical calculations. In our investigations, we took into consideration the fact that radioactive radiation occurs in nature and, consequently, it a factor of external environment. Gamma rays that represent rigid electromagnetic waves and possess great energy and high penetra- tion power are of specially great importance. Gamma rays are a 411 1 Director of the Tomilino Poultry farm Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1092 necessary condition in the life of any living organism. Hence we refute the opinion that natural ionising radiation is harm- ful for an organism. Agricultural practice utilizes effectively ? not only the electromagnetic waves of day light, but also infra- red (heat) and ultra-violet rays the beneficial influence of which upon a living organism is beyond any doubt at the present time. As a basis for our calculations, we used the Magnitude of natural radiation (equalling approximately 0.0003 roentgens?with. In 24 hours4 or 0.0000002 roentgens per minute) which we adopted as a unit and provisionally called KR (cosmic radiation). Further we were confronted by the essential problem as to the II/ exact time in the development of an embryo in which supplementary ionising radiation can be utilised as a stimulating factor and In what doses. At the very beginning, we assumed that the embryo undergoes a more intensive development after every 3 days of the Incubation [period] (beginning with the day the eggs are placed in the incubator) and, proceeding from .this circumstance, we established the days of the incubation (period] on which irradia- tion was to be conducted (1,3,6,9,12,15 and 18th day of the incu- bation). Irradiation was carried out with the aid of uranium and thorium salts that produce a soft gamma-radiation. During the (treatment] session, a container with isotopes was put into an incubator, or the eggs to be exposed were taken in their boxes [lotok] (at the same time as controls) into one of the rooms of the incubation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1092 building. A notable, positive effect [beginj).48] was first obtained from a dose of 0.00002 roentgens per minute when exposed to a 10 minute treatment. The best results were observed when ? [eggs were] exposed to a dose of 0.0001 roentgens per minute directly in the incubator and when exposed to a dose of 0.0002 roentgens per minute in a room of the incubation building. We determined the hatching results by the number of fertilized eggs which we obtained from one chicken coop with an identical col- lection. The experiment conducted In December 1956 (at an exposure of 360 eggs outside the incubator) demonstrated that the batch of 11/ healthy chicks hatched from the control group comprised 90.4%, from the group irradiated with a dose of 0.014 roentgens - 92.8%, and from a group irradiated with a dose of 0.021 roentgens - During the following three experiments irradiation was carried out directly in the incubator that contained 720 eggs (the control boxes contained 360 eggs). As a result the batch of healthy chicks in the control groups equalled 89.6%, when irradiated with a dose 0.014 roentgens - 96.6% and With a dose of 0.021 roentgens - 94.3%. Both methods used in irradiating eggs (directly in the Incubator and outside of it) have demonstrated the presence of a stimulating factor. Further, we defined more precisely the size of the dosage and the duration of exposure in experiments which we conducted out- side the incubator. In 1957, we irradiated eggs in one, two, four, seven and nine replications for 10 minutes each [za odin *mans). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans e A?I092 A total of over 10 thousand eggs yereexposed to radioactive radiation. All variations of the ,experiment produced a positive ? effect. The best results were , however, achieved in a seven replication irradiation with a dose of 0.0002-0.0003 roentgens per minute. During a one-time ten-minute irradiation, the embryos received altogether 0.002 roentgens, that is, approximately as much as from natural radiationyithin seven days._ Such radioactive action produceda notable positive effect: (the yield) obtained from 1222 irradiated, fertilized.eggs comprised 95% of-healthy chicks, yet in control groups (1218 eggs), with all other con- ditions being equal, the brood comprised 87.2%,.that is. 7.8% less 41/ In 1958, different variations were, used in experiments, in- cludino changes. of chicken coops and seasons .of, the year. The most effective one proved to be the same method of .irradiation: 0.0003 roentvens ;ler minute, or0.021 roentgens for the whole incuba- tion period. There was scarcely any differente between the ir- radiation dosages which we used and the doses of natural radia- tion. This fact eliminated (our] misgivings regarding the injurious- ness of these dosages In ontogeny and, in phylogeny. Observations of the development, egg production and reproduction of chickens that had been exposed to radioactive irradiation during the period of embryonic development.confirmed.this fact. Radioactive doses that influence a living oLanism and pre used-in institutes and laboratories (tht.7 are exrmessed in hundreds, thousands and even more roentgens, rnd scverely disturb metabolism, cause destruction Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) ' Trans. A-1092 the fourth day) and the nineteenth day. The grentest effect was one day before produced by irredintion on the nineteenth day last day-of incubation whe* the embryo transfers from allantoic oxygen nutri- tion to air respiration. It is assumed that in irradiation during this period there occurs a partial decomposition of water mole- . cules that are found in the air enclosing apace Epuga] at one end of an egg and that there forms molecular oxygen that can serve as supplementary food for the embryo. Experiments with single irradia- tions have demonstrated that radioactive (even one replication) influence exerted on a specific day of the incubation period can prove sufficient to increase the brood of chicks %, that is to obtain approximately the same effect that one does in a seven re- plication irradiation. This fact can be explained by' the circum- stance that the after effect of the penetrating radiation can be connected with the' initiation linlitslirovanie] factor which is in complete accord with Academician N. N. Semenovls theory concerning chemical kinetics, although this hypothesis still requires,profound supplementary testing. Consequently, a single irradiation can produce the Same results as a multiple one. Experience his demon- strated that a seven replication Irradiation1 with all other con- ditions being equal, guarantees :-, more stable, favorable results. At the end of 1958, we conducted a series of experiments in continuous irradiation of embryos; for this purpose we placed the irradiation source in the incubator beneath the brooders (lotki] for the entire incubation period. For the-20 days of Incubation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A.-1092 each embryo received 0.6 roentgens, that is, 300 times more than in intermittent irradiation. The positive result obtained in this case scarcely differed from the effect obtained in intermittent ? irradiation. Lately, we developed a method whereby eggs are irradiated in the first days of the incubation (5-6 days) and on the nine- teenth day. In experiments conducted by this method, the indi- cators obtained of the brood according to breed were as follows: New Hampshire (Nolu-gempshir) - 80.5% of the eggs placed (in the incubator) (zalbzhennye] and 92% of those (that were] fertilized; controls 71.7% and 85.6% respectively; Leghorn, - 89.8% of those 411 set and 94.4% of fertilized eggs; controls 84% and 90.2% respectively. In this case, too, the result was approximately the same as in intermittent radiation, but in more prolonged irradiation the effect seemed to become fixed and more promising. It must be noted that in the event high grade eggs are in- cubated, then the irradiation effect is not particularly consi- derable - the brood is increased by no more than 5-7%. Stimula- tion is considerably more effective in cases in which the eggs delivered for incubation are of a somewhat lower grade. On Decem- ber 21, 1956, for example, 116 eggs each in the experimental and the control group were placed in an incubator. In controls, the ratio between the brood hatched and (the eggs] placed for hatching comprised 77.5%, and the ratio of those fertilized was 84.9%; in the experimental group it was 92.3% and 97.2% respec- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R0142eR010400040001-5 (8) Trans: ,A-1092 ? tively; on August 18, 1957, 120 ecgs each were laid (to hatch) in an experimental and a control group, the brood of the control group comprised 83.4% of the (eggs] laid to hatch, and 88:5% of the 0 fertilized [eggs]; in the experimental group it was 92.5% and 97.3% respectively. On December 11, 1957, out of 120 eggs laid to hatch, the brood of each group among controls [Begin p.50] com- prised 79:1% of those laid to hatch and 92.2% of those fertilized; In the experimental group the brood equalled 90.8% of [.the eggs] laid to hatch, and 98% of those fertilized. On January 18, 1958, after 120 'eggs were placed in each group, in controls 80% were .obtainid of the eggs laid to hatch and 83.5% of those fertilized, 111 and in the experimentrl group it was 88.3% and 96.3% respectively. Observation of the subsequent development of irradiated chicks demonstrated that the fowl developed normally and that its egg pro- duction and ability for reproduction was somewhat higher in ir- radiated chickens than in nonirradiated ones. Uithin two years, the radiobiological laboratory of the Tomi- lino poultry farm conducted 120 experiments and exposed a total of about 50 thousand eggs to radioactive I-radiation during the in- cubation period. In some experiments stimulation Was small (2..3%), but the brood of chicks in experimental groups was in no case smaller than that in controls. In our experiments the lowest threshold of penetrating radia- tion energy has been established at 0.0002 roentgens, after which there begins a notable stimulating influence of irradiation. This. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1092 dose can be recognized as the minimal concentration of the energy activation element. The upper radiation threshold beyond which depression phenomena can be observed can be found within the limits of 20 roentgen. A dose. of 26 roentgens produced an increase in the number of chicks that suffocated within .the egg and reduced . the total brood to 90.5% (among controls the brood equalled 92.4%). In the same incubator with a dose of 2.1 roentgen, the brood com- prised 94%, that is, 1.6% higher then in controls. Thus, the range of useful radioactive influence proves to be very wide - from 0.0002 roentgens to 20 roentgens. In order to establish an optimal regime it will be necessary to conduct new experiments in combina- . tion with other factors: heat, humidity, oxygen exchange etc. The data that we obtained permit in part utilizing radioactive iced's- tion in production practice, as well as in selection. In future, the postembryonic development, the production and reproduction ability of .hens that have acquired the radioactive impulse during the embryonic stage will have to be tested on con- siderable numbers of fowl. For this purpose, a big batch of eggs . has been placed in an incubator at the Tomilino chicken farm. ? (English, German and French summaries are on page 50] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426.1ZIC)47000A400C7g vwin Oaleev, O. S. Metod polucheniia methlineinykh gibridov so sterillnol pylltsoi materinskikh form ? (Method of obtaining interlinear hybrids of maize by using the sterile pollen of female forms] Vestnik Sellskokhoziaistvennoi Nauki, vol. 4, no. 6, .P.43-54. June, 1959. 20 V633 (In Russian) Utilization of heterosis is a powerful means for increasing productiveness of agricultural plants and especially of such that submit themselves to hybridization comparatively easily. As it is known, corn belongs to the number of such crops. Its dio- eciousness and spacing of male inflorescences, which is convenient for emasculation, permit to conduct a controllable crossing on hundreds and thousands of hectares. One man can emasculate 5,000 plants during an eight-hour workday without particular exertion. Additional expenses for the production of hybrid seeds, which, usually, under conditions of the Krasnodar krai comprise 8-12 man-days per 1 ha of hybridization section pay well for themselves, since the hybrids, especially the interlinear, considerably sur- pass the ordinary varieties and hybrid populations. The effect of heterosis in interlinear hybrids is 3 times higher than in inter- varietal. Kubanskaia Opytnaia Stantsiia Vsesoiuznogo Institute Rastenievod /7 III (Kuban Experimental Station of the All-Union Institute of Plant In' dustry] ? /09y Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1093 An unfailing condition for obtaining high yields of hybrid seeds is the 100-percent pollination of plants of the female form by the male; this can be attained only by a timely (before blooming) 111 removal of all inflorescences from plants of the material form. Nevertheless, removal of tassels under production conditions is not conducted altogether perfectly. Thus, during the course of the last four years on many varietal plots of the Krasnodar krai comparative studies of the yielding capacity of hybrid seeds Were conducted; they were grown in kolkhozes and at the Kuban Experi- mental Station of VIII (All-Union Institute of Plant Industry]. Results of these studies show that the yielding capacity of seeds of the hybrid V1R 42, grown at the kolkhozes, is lower by 2.8 c per 1 ha on the average, than the seeds, grown at the Kuban Experimental Station, where a careful removal of tassels was con- ducted (table 1). Table 1 Yielding capacity of corn seeds, grown in kolkhozes and at the Kuban Ex ha erimental Station (c/ ) Number ybr d V1R Yield of seeds of h 1 42 Year of In planting with seeds experiments at the station in the kolkhoz 1955 5 46.1 44.6 1956 32 57.5 53.0 1957 11 - 26.9 25.6 1955 5 - 67.2 65.1 Average 56 49.9 47 .1 The blooming of corn coincides with the most strenuous period of agricultural works - the harvest of grain crops. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1093 And the process of detasseling cannot be mechtnized.in any we, (Begin p.441 and in the presence of large areas of hybri- dization sections on the farms a great number of people are cupied with detasteling. All this compels, In the starch of more improved methods of hybridization, to turn to the plant proper, particularly, to the utilization of the characteristic of pollen', Sterility, which was given the name of cytopiaamiC male sterility. The vale sterility; transferred. along the female lini (through the plasm) was yet discovered in 1931 by the Soviet scientist M. RhadthinoV, and; independently of him, was described by the: American, M. Rhodes. But the practical utilization of the male sterility 'refers to a'much later 'time. N. Jones and N. Everett, In 1949, suggested the use of lines with cytoplasmic male Sterility for obtaining hybrids without the removal Of tassels. They gave a description of the main peculiarities of this method.' It was ' experimentally established by works of various scientists, that cytoplasmic male sterility can be introduced to the hereditary. .type or the required line by means of reverse repeated (saturating) crossings and selection.' Such lines can serve as female plants for obtaining simple hybrids with male sterility* and the latter - , as female forms of double hybrids; the male line of the'female simple hybrid must retain male sterility in the descendants, while ? *A certain raising of the productiveness of labor can be attained only through a mechanical transportation of the workers along the rows (use of a power-driven cart). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (4) - Trans. AA093 the remaining two lines of the double hybrid - the parental forms of tht male simple hybrid, on the contrary, must reestablish the fertility (fruitfulness) of the hybrid. The presence of two such types of lines, which determine either the fertdlity or sterility, permits, o use such :a scheme of pro- . duction of hybrid seeds, which fully or partly excludes the neces- sity of emasculation. (removal of inflorescences) of female plants.' At the present time in USA two types of cytoplasmic sterility 7' Texas and "Aiodshep ".[IojapYare used for the production of hybrid seeds. The Texas type is the,most-widely distributed; most of the prove to be fixers in respect to it. There are lines, which .exclude this type of sterility;' that is, they restore fertility. The presence of two types of lines, which determine the sterility or which restore the fertility, makes this type of sterility the , most valuable for the selection. A preliminary cultivation of two similar duuble hybrids is required, one - fully fertile, and another - sterile for the industrial utilisation of sterility of the iojap type. The fertile onalogue, blooded with the sterile, provides the'' necessary fertility of the plantings. In the Soviet Union along with the Texas type of Sterility, the Moldavian type is also widespread; it received its name from the corn variety Moldavian yellow ("Bessarabka") and the Moldavian orange. The first crossings, which started the practical use of this type of sterility, were conducted by us at 'the Kuban Experimen- tal Station of V1R in 1953. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , (5) . Trans. A-1093 ? The plants, which differ In the type of sterility, react differently to the pollination with the pollen of one. ana the *ale line .For instance, in pollinating * plant with the Texas type of sterility by the line A34, it retains the male sterility in the offspring stably, while a plant with the Moldavian ,type re- store* fertility in the descendants. These types differ also in the outward appearance of tasselsi in plants with the Texas type the degree of sterility is Much higher, the anthers degenerate ? stronger, they very rarely protrude from the spikelets and never open Up, that is ndyer spread any pollen; in the. Moldavian type the anthers often protrude from spikelets and often contain a small amount of pollen with germinating power, but they do not open up; ? owing to this fact the tassel continues to remain sterile. The degree [Begin p.451 of sterility changes somewhat depending on the place and condition of grOwing the plant. Classification of lines. according,to their reaction'to dif- ferent types of male.sterility. Numerous crossings, in which plants with sterile male inflorescences were uied as female forms, have shown, that in the World Collection of VIR tAll-Union Institute, of Plant 'industry] there are lines which are suitable for the pro- duction of both the female forms with sterile pollen, as well as the male forms4 restorers of hybrid fertility. Each source of steri- lity was studied separately; the reaction of lines vials tested se- parately in regard to Texas and Moldavian types of sterility. ? Degree of fertility was evaluated according to the 7-point scale: blooming of tassels proceeds normally, a lot of pollen it formed (6 points); single male flowers are sterile (5' points); up to 50% Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (6) trans. A-1093 of flowers are normally developed, form a great deal of pollen. (4 points); tassel almost fully sterile, only single anthers discharge pollen (3 points); tassel is sterile, a small amount . of pollen forms In anthers, it Is mostly underdeveloped, In blooming the anthers protrude from anthers but do not spread pollen (2 points); sterility Is expressed still stronger, during blooming .only single anthers protrude from spikelets, but they alWays re- 'main closed (1 point);. full sterility - anthers degenerated strong- ly, do not contain any pollen with germinating power,and'never protrude from spikelets too. Plants, appraised at 5-6 points, form the fertile class,. at 3-4 points the semi-sterile, at 07172 points the sterile class. Besides that, the Special condition ortassels? in which the anthers, remaining sterile, !never leave the spikelets, but contain a small amount of pollen, was.appraised at.a point 01. Sterility of the Roldavian'type was appraised at points 01, 1 and 2, and the Texas- at. only 0 and 01, and Very,rerely 1. .The studied.lines, in respect to the Texas type of sterility, were assigned to theft following groups! ? 1.- Fixers (In crossings with Sterile plants dependably re- tain the male sterility in the descendants) no. D203,, no. D230, no. D255, .no. D273,. A45, A21, A344 A39# A73, A111, A116, A131, A158, A165, A166, AI71, A172, 8# 9# 15# 16, 33, 47, 119# 374, C1/4.# C42, L, F4 R3, VW% M13, 0S420, 1.289, CN, 1328, C-6-29, 38-11, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1093 187-2, Cr-30, 0-380, J-22. ? 2. RestOrers of fertility (excluding male sterility in ? descendants): 24, 28, 1-153, LR, W15511, A34411, W153R, UW5, $1325, SV19, SM-1, VH, K-1-1 and K. ? 3. Semi-restorerS (Intermediate between the two first groups); M14, Iti 701, 01128, 25, 62, 206, A71, ND283. ? The remaining lines, studied by us, produced single fertile 'plants in the pollination of sterile plants of the Texts type. ? As it is seen friim the cited data, there is a sufficient number of line fixers in the ifIR collection, and very few .re- storer'llnes. There are comparatively many of them only among the Argentine lines (50% of studied Argentine lines proved to be- good restorers). These lines are: UW5, $1325, SVI9, SM-1, VK and K-1-i. But the Argentine lines?have a long growing season, and there- fore are unsuitable for direct use in medium-ripening hybrids; lines- 1-153, 153 and A344 virtually'differ very little from each other, and, apparently are analogues. Lines 2411 V.115511 and LR? were not yet sufficiently studied. Lines with the Moldavian type of sterility are more difficult In utilizing for the purpose of selection. Extent of manifestas tion of this type depends to a greater degree' (Begin p.461 than the Texas type on conditions of the environment. This type of steri- lity is retained more or less satisfactorily by the following Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-I093 lines: 144 A21, A31, A42, A73, A114, A131, A148, A155, A158, A165, A166, A334, A344, A357, A374, A375, A392, 15, 17, 22, 28, 49, 85, 90, 187, 0h51, M13, L$ 0$420, WF9, M14, NU 38-11, CS426, L317, W22, 41, Cr30, Cr36, 4226, C-6-29, N10203, ND283. There are still fewer restorer lines for the Moldavian type ? of sterility than for the Texas. To their number can be referred A34, A116, A71 A471 Und partially- A111, A340, A347, 8, 9, 16 - and 23. The characteristic of lines of regionalized and prospective VIR hybrids is cited separately (table 2) La respect to both types of sterility. ? 4Table 2 Reaction Of self-pollinated lines of regionalizedand prospective corn hybrids of VIR in hybrids with Texas and Moldavian types of cytoplasmic male sterility (according to data of Kuban Experimen- tal Station of VIR and of Krasnodar Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture, in 1958) Pollini- zer lines Fertility (sterility) of the hybrid in using It as a ' female form of plants with sterility yollini- "zer lines Fertility (sterility) oi the hybrid in using it as a female form of plants with male sterility Texas type Moldavian type Texas typelMoldavian type VIR 11 SF VIR 53 VIR 20 VIR 55 VIR 26 V VIR 60 SF 25VIRV1R 21 FS VIR 64 VIII 75 SF V1R 29 viR 38 SF VIR 82 VIR 93 SF VIR 39 SF SF VIR 100 V1R 10 VIR 109 V1R 41 VIR 115 ? F ?iIR SF V1R 116 SF VIR F. VIR 118 VIR Is. VIR 133 VIR 51 VIR 157 SF 1ii 52 (Footnote for table is on next page). VIR 158 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (9) Trans. A,-1093 Footnote. Conventional signs of hybrid plants: "Sw - sterile, ' wfw-:-Tertile, "SF" - semi-sterile with a predominance of sterile plants, "FS" - semi-sterile with a predominance of fertile plants; lines of the Indicator of sterility.are marked out by underlining. In 19581 necessary crossings were conducted for the purPoie. of drawing up a characteristic of the entire collection of self-. . pollinated lines. .The existing data can be used in the work of production of double hybrids, whose tassels need not be removed dur- ing growing of hybrid seeds. Cultivation of sterile analogues of the lines. Work of production of sterile analogues (duplicates) Is conducted with lines, that retain the male sterility Well in the descendants, using the method of reverse saturating-crossings (figure ' Any varieties, hybrids and' lines, which possess' sterility to a. high degree (point 0 and 01)?, is well as the female.type of In- heritance of this sterility are Imitable as a source of sterility. Three to 5 specimens are pollinated with pollen of the selected ? line, into which it is intended (8egin.p.47) to introduce the sterile plasm; simultaneously with this, the plants of lines, which were used as pollinieers, are self-pollinated., The next year a repeated pollination of sterile plants of the hybrid of the same line is conducted; at the same time a hybrid family, Which showed the greatest degree of sterility is used as the female; while as the male - the descendents of that self-pol- linated plant of the line, which was the pollinieer in the ob- taining of the given hybrid. During the third year this process Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/16 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) trans. A-1093 is agate repasto4, but when Solettlag=fenils families e*d plants one takes into considsration? not ooiy the degree of sterility of tassels, but also the alialoty of tRass tonal's* and; plaits 111. with this lins taken. Suet* saturating :itroweing* and selection are coati-await antii that tins when the hybrid boson**, in its external appearance of the plant sad sir, .so 'atotio to ths has that,' virtually, it is lapassibli to distinguish then. lisvarthsless, the obtained tarn differs fro* tits tins by the sterile feria of the tassel and, .therefore, is .111.4 the sterile analogue of the Oran tbs. It is obtalasd?aftor 5-6 generations of saturating ? eroilings: We of crossings on a large scale (especially during the last stages of saturation), together with a directed selec- tion, rodudos this tins to h, and sonetinit *von to 3 years. Ur* of diffetontr genorations,, saturated with lines VIR 27 VIR 100 V/R 53 and V1R 64 are daplotelt In f in 2. Title of tIgur 1.- *gnus for obtaining s stsrIls ana- logue- afa cern line. Words In figs, .1. TopAjast Goaerstions, Saturating Wee* iftet. ii?tton Unst Reproduction. Vadat- the figure. Canventional synbois: ITS - plant, pritssasibCsals sterility of Taxa/ type a A - fertile self-PollOttid Urtit,B AT, - sterile analog** ?f has A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (ii) Trans. t-1093 ? Certain sterile flalogues of the third generation of the saturation ,re tested in special crossings, which confirmed that the analogues are the same in he-editary respect. Thus, for 111 instance, in the preliminary test, in 1958, the simple hybrid with male sterility Fa (44 ms X38) ms yielded 70.9 c per I ha, and Its fe:tile analof,ue F1 (4008)-71.9 co that is both harvests were virtually similar. The sterile analogue of the line was kept up in reproduction with the aid of its fertile analogue, which took part also in the saturating crossings, Thus, an improvement of the original lines as fixers is conducted simultaneously with the reproduction of sterile analogues. In those cases when no sterile analogues are produced for the fixer lines, and they are utilized in the female simple hy- brid as a Aale form, the work of their improvement by the above cited method is carried out specifically. But in these cases the saturating crossings are limited to one generation. such a work was conducted at the Statian with the lines V1R 38, VIA 29, VIR 11, and others for their utilisation In crossing* with the sterile analogue of the line V1R 44. As it Aready has been pointed out above, there are very few restorer lines in UM Vlit collection. Meanwhile their number slxuld not be smaller them that of the fixers; in a double hybrid one or two lines, out of four, must have [Begin p.48] a restora- tive ability. This problem can be solved by producing new fixer lines 411 o.nd analogues restorers for prospective lines, which are restorers (by nature). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. k-I093 Title of figure 2. deneratiOns of saturating crossings with the parttelpation of the lifse a) V1R. 27 ipel? liniser)1 b) V1R 100 (pollise nir); e) V1R 53 poi. lintser); 4) V1R 611; (pollinfser). Words in figure 2. Tep lines n; original; b; original. Second lines Gensrationsvi* 2, 3, 4, Oeneratioos: I. ** 3, 4. Third line* 01 origlas4,1 4, original. Fourth lines Geaerstions: 1,2, 3, I. Generatienss Use of cytoplasmic stela sterilltY in new lines. In growing new4laesAt the Ruben isperimental Station* IA original method of their evaluation hes been applied; it consisted of the followings studies of the reaction of now lines on the male sterility and, consequently* detectien'ef restisrers, le conducted beginning with the third generation-otesit?pollination When the combination ability of the.line Is already* stabilised. This work ceincided with the studies of the Omnbination value of the line. _ Simple hybrids* possesslitamole sterility were used as tester, (analysers); *wins to this both the reaetien to sterility and the 0 combination value of the line are exposed simultaneously. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1093 ? In this way one can raise a ureat numter of restorer lines In a coNparatiVoly short time (5-7 years) provided the initial ma- terial includes the factors of restoration of fertility. The ? worth of this method consists yet in the fact that restorer lines ere selected for specific hybrid combination, in which a simple hybrid with male sterility serves as a female form. For outstandinc fixer linos the sterile analogues can be produced already beginnino with the third generation. These lines, later on, can be included into testers (taking place of the worst line or of both lines), owinG to which the quality of testers will be improved, as well as of hybrids with their participation. Selection of lines by the new method is being conducted at the Station already for the third year and gives cood results. Ten new lines of the ceneration with a Good restorative ability is intended tn be delivered to the collection from the 1959 harvest; vterile enalocues are being produced for 5 fixer lines. [erin p.491 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 trans. A-1093 111).4=ma .. Ath\h6cil 7 o oopcprgEon 5 Ol.j-FirPo-r--171 ? 2 III I 6 hi , .5? 186M/ N 7 nth] 41TS recrep c myActonl [wpm*. 4444 Tempe fryAcka ciembri. dil4.1r0 , 7JJZZ,120, _ i4, ;),?2,E2anfl.ginRLIns2PAI Ypoirro0 sinnRintra Vpoxo0 Orsx7hsx0x10 Prsx B PBC. 3. Cxenn Ce.imatnn-11. IICIIT,ITflhIlI SI camoomanetinhIN 71 11 11 nil Eyitypyam iipn IICI1021b- aona unit 11,11T011.1113NIZITIMCCICOrl NurimEoii tre '1121 1,110CTis ' Title of figure 3. Diagram of seleetion and testing tl self-pollintitedllinee Of corn in utilizing tyte- _ platmic male sterility. HOrdt in 1igute.3, Top: generation. 10 both squereS. Tester with male Sterility. In both oblong quadran- gles the word "tester" is repeated 18 times. Under the quadrangles the wordt Harvest. Undef the mall quadrangle the word: Harvest. Between the two middle small quadrangles the word: or, That Something newt which we introduced to the methods Of Selection Of lines atiditybridal it graphite/1y reflected by the below told] cited diagram on raising and testing of new lines of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. P-1093 corn, that are utilized in hybrids with sterile pollen of female forms (figure 3). This diagram represents an improved variant of the most widely distributed, at the present time, diagram of selec- III tion in testing new lines (loo up Rumffeldts "Utilitation of the effect of heterosis In the selection of corn". Collection of articles "Uhridnala kukuruza" [Hybrid coml. Publisher of foreign literature. Aoscow, 1.955, P.143). We tried to preserve from the old diagram as much as possible, up to the correlation of forms, in order to show that something new which changes it substantially. Let us mention one more very important advantage of the new diagram. Pmerican specialists think that selection of hybrid basing itself on inbred lines with sterile pollen, requires a much 1Dnger period than the usual selection. In order to create a sterile analogue of a line for a hybrid, it is necessary to spend 5-6 (fegin p.501 years, and for obtaining hybrid swede with the aid of this tins and their testing several more years will be re- quired. It is possible to raise a still more fruitful hybrid durinc this time bi the usual methods (on a fertile basis). Our scheme removes such a lagging in selection, which is con- ducted on the sterile basis. Lines yet in the process of inbreeding find their place in hylrids. The sterile tester points to this. Sterile analogues are produced for the most outstanding fixer lines in order to use them later on for obtaining more productive testers. In this way the Idea of continuity of selection of interlinear hy- Lrids is realized very succesfully. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) Trans. A-1093 Production of analogue restorers of fertility for prospective lines. Beginning with the year 1957 work is being conducted at the Station on the production of analogue restorers on the basis of the existing lines. Since the year 1958, this work was con- ducted together with the Krasnodar ScIehtif1c-Research Institute of Agriculture according to only one program. Transfer to the lines of the restorative ability is attained by the following method wtich are varieties of the method of crossing. The first method (figure 4) is applicable to all fixer lines, flalthe t'.1 CITA! 2 ckpetradanni ETs - FR (Us- FR)R-C ff (Ms- TOR -Ci R-C i 5 I PS-FOR-C1R-C}R^C IV -7 ARETS"F RA-C1R-CiR-C)R-C I ?0 9c 0-6 Comoseernerfue nothopym mommmente Ptak.Vill?rMlie 6 CR 000 0 0 0 0 Title of figure 4. Diagram for obtaining an analogue restorer of fertility for the line of corn, which is alixer of sterility by nature Words in figure 4. Top line: Generations. Scheme of crossings. 7th line: Selfapollination. 8th line: Repeated self-pollination. 9th line: Reproduction. - Conventional signs: ETs- plant, having male sterility of the Texas type Fr - a fertile form, having restorative ability 41, c - fertile self-pollinated line, that does not have a re- storative ability CR -fertile self-pollinated line, which acquired the restora- tive " ability. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. AA093 In the first crossing any pl.nts, varieties, hybrids or lines, which possess cytoplasmic mele sterility, are used as the female form, and a restorer line as a male form. In further crossings 411 only restored, normally blooming plants of hybrids participate as the female form, while as a mete form the line to which it is supposed to transfer the restorative ability. One or twofold self- pollination of fertile plants is conoucted among the most restituted families after the products of saturation practically cannot be distinguished from the pollinizer line. The analocuviirestorer can be obtained also by way of direct crossings. In this ease a line is used as the female form, and the restored plant* of the hybrid as the male. The necessity in such crossings arises when the blooming of the line is several days in advance of the blooming of plants, intended for use as the female form. [Begin P,51] The second method (figure ) is alvlicable only to lines which already have sterile atialegues. It consists of the fact that during the course of all generations only the sterile analogue of the line is used aF, a female form, while as a male - during the first crossing a restorer (line, hybrid or variety), and further on the restituted plants of the hybrid. Topping off this work are, as in the first method, the self-pollination of restituted plants end selection of the analogue restorer. Utilizing the sterile analogue, it is possible to "introduce" 411 the restorative ability into the hereditary type of the line by one year earlier. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1093 ATs- FR (ATs- FR)R A Title of figure 5. Diagram of obtaining an analogue restorer for the line of corn with the use of the sterile analogue of this line. Words in figure 5. Top line: Oenerations. Scheme of crossings. 6th line: Self-pollination. 7th line: Self-pollination. 8th line: Reproduction. Conventional sigps: Ala - sterile analogue of line AO A - a self-pollinated lino A FR and AR - fertile lines, having restorative abilityata The third method (figure 6) is applicable to the intermediate group of lines (restoring the fertility only partially). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 19) Trans. A..1093 ([Ts' D)Ts-D RE Ts D)Ts D [is' D)Ts-DITs- D Ts-D Title of figure 6. Diaaram of obtainingian analogue restorer of fertility of a eern lindf, which by its nature proves to be a sisai-resterer. Words in figure 6. Top line: Generations. Scheme of crossings. 6th line: Self-pollination. 7th line: Self-pollination. 8th line: Reproduction. Conventional signs ETs - a plant hiving a male sterilil.y of the Texas type D - a fertile self-pollinated line 13 DR - an analogue restorer of line Dig DTs - the sterile analogue of line D6 Saturating crossings were conducted In the same way as in the production of sterile analogues. Sterile plants of the hybrid for the product of saturation) are utilised in all generations of saturation as female forms, and the line as a male form. The saturating crossings are conducted up to the time when full simi- larity is attained between the product of saturation and the original line. Peculiarities of the method consist of the fact that the saturated sterile plants are pollinated by the mixture of pollen of the line, and in the 1st stage of saturation is con- ducted a one-twofold self-pollination of restored plants; (Begin p.521 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20i Trans. A-1093 direct crossings are also possible with the use of restituted plabts as pollinizers. Another analogue of the line - its sterile form, is produced simultaneoasly with the cultivation of the analogue ? restorer. It Is necessary to utilize, during the last stage of saturation, not the mixture of pollen, but the pollen from indivi- dual plants of the line and self-pollination in order to isolate the sterile form and its fertile fixer. During further cultiva- tion of descendants of saturated plants in individual families It becomes clear which of the participating families of self- pollinated plants of the line are suitable as fixers tnd as restorers. At the present time the work on transmission of the restorative ? ability is conducted an 18 prospective lines. Owing to the use of the above cited methods, sterile analogues with the Texas type of sterility were produced for 8 lines and with the Moldavian type of sterility for -2 lines. Material with the Moldavian type of sterility was obtained from the third genera- tion of saturation in 60 lines. Restorer lines were Isolated; several lines with partial restorative ability are being improved. First experimental hybrids with male sterility were produced. One of them (V/R 42 ms), in 1957-1956, WAS successfully tested on variety test plots of Krasnodar }cyst, having surpassed its fertile analogue (grown from common seeds with detasseling) in the yield of grain by 1.5 c per 1 ha on the average for 2 years (table 3). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) ? Trans. A-1093' Yielding ca acit V of hybrid VIR Variety Test Plots vkazsIi 1. Krasnogvardeiskil Labinskii Severskil Average Control (i/ZR 42 - fertile) 46.1 55.5 ? 57.1 51.6 -Table 3 42 ns (c/ha). AYbrld VIR 42 ms 50.8 48.1 56.9 56.6 .1 53 In 1958, the expediency of utilization of the male eternity !tithe production-of hybrid seedswas confirmed also on the example 'of other hybrids (table 4). table 1.1., Yielding capacity of new hybrid of the Kuban Experimental Station, which were grown on a sterile female blots (data of the station. Hybrid Yield of gra A test in 19S61 Oha) Surpassing the yleld of- the fertile analogue V1R 313 V1R 327 ms +3.9 VIR 344 ms , +2.6. 73.0 68.2 66.1 All these hybrids had one and the same female form "Slava sterillnala", which was obtained by means of crossing the sterile line V1R 44 ms with the normally fertile line VIR 38. The diagram of obtaining the seeds of hybrid VIR 42 me (figure 7). differs little from the usually accepted plan of pro- duction of hybrid seeds. The selection station, the same as usual, reproduces seeds of foil!' parental: (Begin is.53) ,self-'. pollinated lines. Seed growing eovkhozes of the I group produce seeds Of simple parental hybrids, while the seed growing sovkhoxes of the II group, as well as, regional'semkhozes [seed graying farms] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans'. A-1093 produce seeds of the first generation of the: double hybrid for comMero cial plantings. The suggested plan his the following characteristics. The sterile analogue of line VIR 44 ms is maintained in reproduction 410 with the aid of the fertile analogue of this,linc. The planting. of two analogues is conducted in the same way as the planting on the hybridization section in obtaining' a simple.hytrid. The sterile analogue is sown as a female form, and the fertile - as the male. The tassels .are nOt removed from female plants. As a result of such %hybridisation" It is not the hybrid thatjs obtained, but the same sterile o o t line VIR 44 as, Conventional signs.: 9 - Sterile female plants ?- Fertile female plants or. Fertile male plants 0 - Sterile plants (seeds). ?- Fertile plants (Seede). Title of figure T. 'Diagram of seed growing of Corn hybrid VIR 42 as, cultivated without4etasseling (male lity of the Moldavian type IS utilized, reproduction Of the hybrid Is carried.out with it. fertile form. Mixing of this two hybrid 'forms is accomplished during'. harvesting),,.. . Words IA figure 7. First section: First years- Reproduction of seeds of the line at the Experimental Station. Second sections second year. Production, Of seedt of simple , hybrids - parental forma of hybrid VIR 42 Line 44ms; Line 38; Line 40; Line 43. Third section: 'Third year. Production of seeds of the double hybrid.,F1(44msX18)ms.? Fourth section: Fourth year. Commercial plantings of the double hybrid. Mixture Of seeds of hybrids VIR 42ms.and VIR 142. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (23) Trans. A-1093 In growinn the parental form of "Slava steriltnaia" the tassels were not removed from the plants of the line VIR 44ms since they are sterile and hybridization proceeds in a natural way. It is not necessary to remove the tassels also in growing the seeds of the double hybrid. The parental form "Fvetoch" does not possess the restorative ability; therefore it is necessary for the restora- tion of tne double hybrid in commercial plantings to add to the "sterile" seeds approximately the same amount of fertile seeds, grown in the usual mariner. Thus, in producing ateds of hybrid VIR s the use of luaus' labor in hybridization is eliminated only partly. Hybrid Vn 4, apparently, will be used in agricultural production in the curse of the next 2-3 years. The Kuban xperi mental Station VI R pissed on 111c of seeds of ste7ile line VIR 44m5 to the production from the 1958 yield; this will permit during the current year to Lay out hybridization sections for the produc- tion of seeds of the first eeneration of the parental form of "Slava sterillnaia" on an area of about 1,000 ha, and the yield [2egin p.54] from this area can provide, in 1960, for laying out sectilns for obtaining hybrid seeds without removal of tassels on an area of about 30 thousand ha. At the present time the Kuban Experiment Station of VIR and the Krasnodar Scientific-Research Agricultural Institute work ac- cording to a joint program on the production of such hybrids, in which the need for detasseling would be completely eliminated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (24) Trans. P-1093 Some of these hybrids already are undergoing station variety testing. In. the years 19591962, they willbe tested on variety test sections and, beginning with 1962, they will have a mass distribution In kolkhozes and sovkhotes. One should mention another important advantage of the new method Of hybrid seed.production. up to the present tie, owing to the shortage of seeds of the first generation, the plantings of hybrid . corn rarely exceeded the bounds of old regions of its cultivation; therefore in the notthern'regioas of the country varieties and . even subsequent generations of hybrids are planted, and on an area of about 10 min hi heterosis Is not taken advantage off. In 410 Changing to the sterile type of seed grOwing this disadvantage will be fully eliminated. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/16 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-I094 vgfil Sidon:Ivo F. 174P and Zubkota,'S. V. Kholodoustolchivost kukurusy (Cold resistance In maize] Vestnik Seliskokbotialetvennoi Muhl, vol. 4, no, 6, p.55-60. JUne 1959, 20.1(633 (In Rustien) One of the basic biological characteristics of corn Is the Increased-requirement for heat; this restrlets the pOssibilities of its advancement to the north. Its lots ripening and, conse- quently, tete liberation of the field for planting of winter crops 0 reduces also the value ofCorn ala cromoCcupying the fellow. In connection with this, the production of cold resistant hybrids " . and varieties becomes ofgreet importance, [along with a better preparation of seeds for planting, selection of larger and smoother seeds, use of fresh reproduction seeds,for planting, air-heet warming, disinfection and other mealitires. Nevertheless, the second course it only auxiliary since in this'Case the hereditary nature of corn plants Is net subject to' alterationand one does not: succeed in obtaining considerable changes in the Increase of told resistance of plants.. - The advancement of corn into more northern regions Compelled the USA plant breeders, Yet'at the beginning of the-present century, vsesolusnyl Institut Beaten evodstva (All-Union Institute of Plant Industry) ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (2) Trans. A-1094 . to pay, attention to ,the production of cold resistant forms-of:corn. Its a reapit,of this, the cold.lesistint variety Golden 01ov was ? isolatid; it underwent wide distribution in the state of Vlsconsin during' the twenties of the current century. During the lest 20 L. . . . years a series of cola resistant verietieS were produced in Holland, , - ?Germany, Poland and othercountries of Central Europe. Important . ? work on prOduction of cold resistant varieties IS :aonduCted by plant bleeders In mountainous regions of Caucasus and in.countries' of the Balkan'penlnsula. The World Collection of Corn of VI4 WI-Union Institute of Plant:Industry) contains e large number. of vanities, hybrids and 0 self-pollinated lines, which differ 10 many Important properties.. and charatteristica, including cold resistance. The aim of the .present work is to oil* a-preliminary cherictei in, cold rialstence of a series of corn specimens from various cointriess Cold lealstance of various corn specimens was studied during the period of seed germination and during the Period from the ep- Pearance of sprouts to the onset of temperatures, which were staple and comparatively favorable for the:growth of corn, in the -incubator at et temperature of 3, 6 and 104. Two hundred specimens in all were taken for the experiment; among 'these 168 varieties, 26 hybrids' and 6 self-pollinated lines. -The-spicimens Were planted in Petri dishes into' the sterilited (reasted) sand, which wee'moletened to. 60% before planting. This moisture content was upheld duringthe-. ?, course of the entire experiment. Not 's lOgle specimen germinated r ? 4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans.. A-1094 , ? ilk the variant with a temperature of 30; therefore, further on'the- analysis will be cOnducted only of data obtained from variants of germination-at tenperatures of 6.and 10? (table 1). Specimens:from Holland had the greatest 'cold resistance ?"SrOnesPelaiS (Medium ripeni4).35. and V6-121, which germinated . on the 10th cleir at a temperature of 6evthe first to 30,, while , the second oils to 36,61.. The.Srednespelila 39 andSredneposdniaia 42 germinatetto 2311, the local. from Dagestan ASSR to 16%s Mi4oVskaia 25 from PashUir ASR and Skoroopelala 10.(frOm Holland) to 10%. All the re., - 'maining specimens of this group germinated to lass.than-10. .The least cold resiatant.ltheyttprouted Only On the 10th day - at temperature Of 400) proved to_be the local. varieties from. , .- 1 Georgian ssge a large number (Begin p.561 LTett-continued after. , table 1). Table 1 Performance of various specimens of corn in cold reilstance during the period Of aired germination - Orkgin I1SR Varieties, which germinated at! 6e on the 10th day itybrld chIsminikii MB and Milovskala 25 (from Vashkir ALSR); Knbardlosk ale belaia cubo- vidnaia (from Ka- bardino-Balkarlan ASSA)0 local K-8764 (from pegs- sten ittsR) ? fr on the 7th day Mottos Kavkatskaia theitalas Vbsmiriad- nalas.Dagestanskaia H.-9349s K-11993 and K41997 (from Dage- ?stan,Arql); etetin- skaials Sterling Gorsklis K-12365 (from NorthwOsse- tian'AS5R); Oh- skaia,l, Sibirskaie Krasnala (from -Western Siberia)'; Kilfbenes. K-1172. ,K-9247 (from Kir- _ bizia); hybrids 104' ontl_k2th_AAYLiming Aubanikil., __ Pervaia is vsekhjfrom Krasnodar kral); Egip- totsorens K.01821; K-4018, K-4920, K-55690 it..70740 K.83611 K4484, K-10748,, K-10749, K-11953, K11954 (from the Georgian MR); hy- brid Volochisskils fl'. merchenskala tubovid- nate, K4975, K430319 1(-91I3 (from Dneprope- trovsk Oblast). Goretst Ranni , P Gotski (table continued on next pace) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (4) Trans. A-1094 ("toble-1 continued) ? Hollend 410) many Yugoslavi ? ktungarY ?;Argentina USA Mexico Africa S Varieties., which ? germinat 10? on the 7th day Ur ed at:. h 16- ey 6 ti iti bial ? on t e th d se nsaa ea ? kremnistaia, K-9415. (from North-Ossetian 6 ASStt). 66 on the 10 day - Eirly-ripening .3 ? : lo Medium--ripening I ? n .1 ' ft? 16 ft . 29, - n . 42 VC-121 rettMais ? (Fat 'corn] ? K-12673 -5709 ? 35: -39, tukovinsitli 1,2,3 (from Chernovtsy. oblast'); 'hybrids Kollektivnyi stepnlak (from Dne'pro- petrovsk oblast'). Hybrids CB-32, ? CB-424, pening 8, Early- - ripening 9, Medium- ripening 22* Me- - dium-rlpening 22, Modiumripening 26, Medium-ripening 40, CIV-6, 1115x 1185. ' Brounir Hybrid Mittenve- sheri 12 khetes Mammoth, Country Gentleman,. Doll ? K-2940 Early-ripening_ 2, Early -ripening Early-- ? ripening' 5, .Medium- ripening 19, Medium-.. riperiing 20, Medium-- . ripening 32, -Meditus- ripening 37,- Medium- ? ripening 41, Mediuma.. late-ripening 48, C-144 py-160036, PI-180163,- CI V-1.113.41, CIV-KB-184::?, 1, Mandorfei, K-557,. K-12061* K42724. Albansk V bell zuban Badenskaia., early golden. ear: Pleistunan ? ?- 3 K-5713 . Hybrids U-28; 5;Irnple - hybrids' 36$, 26)(23, ?- 3x26, 214x20, Wisconsin 453, ?olden Bantams' Bratillan blue, Boone County, Silver King, K-278, K-302, K4857?8; K4.5897, K-10811 K-2077 K-3538 tftgin-p.571 of sped imens from USA, as well as the comparatively larCO number ? of specimens from Holland."' Nevertheless, the latter must be tested for the second time since there might have occurred an influence of. accidental foctorii - the quality of seeds.and so on. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - Trans. A*1094 . ? ' Part of specimens, occupying an intermediate situation be- -tween the two groups cited above, are of interest. These speci- mens sprouted at a temperature of 100 on the..7th day to tt various degree, : As much as itch- temperature is not the most favorable ?for the germination .of corn seeds, the specimens which sprout under such conditions in a shorter period can be considered to be more ? cold. resistant. Onlya.smallmumber of specimens sprouted to ?? .40% aid more. The most cold resistant among them proved to bi the specimens from mountain regions Of the Dagestan ASSR and Uzbek SSR." A comparatively high cold resistance?wss shown also by bridu pukovinskil 1 and Sukovinsitil 2 (table 2). Iible 2 , ? Amount of seeds, that 'germinated at a teTperature of 10? on; tilt seventh day, in different specimens of corn - f of Varieties. "Risvala belaia /rice whieel 'Local K1172 . ' Local K-9381, K-11993 Hybrids Bukovinskii 1 and ? 'Bukovinskii 2 Local K-10071 - . K.12365 ? K-11997 ." K-5299 " R-10750 . Hybrid Ma rtenvesher f' 5 Origin ?germinated seeds .. 56.0, 52.0 48.0-43.3 36.0-36.0 ? .18.0. 14.0 13.3 12.0 12.0 ? 12.0 Central Asia The same Dagestan ASSR Ukrainian SSR, Cher.' novtsy *blast' ? .Central Asla, North-Ossetian ASSR Dagestan ASSR Central Asia ? North Caucasus Hunpary 'There are varieties and hybrids of both the foreign selection, as well as those produced in USSR among the most.cold resistant ' %specimens, - lte studied. cold- resistance of different specimens of corn ? ? ? during the first Period Of grow in two wayst .1) by eayly plantinde OS -corn into -the ground and 2) by keeping gernanated (naklitinuv- 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans._ A-1094 ? shieplaj seeds Under condttiOns of reduced temperatures (.379),-. The early sowing of seeds Into the ground permits, at the IsaMe time, to evaluste?ths. initial material and to seleet.therOold, resistant forms during the most crucial period of life of the corn plant - at the beginning of the forMation of vegetatiVe and ?, ? ? . generating organs. The, value 'of this method is reduced, by the ? fact, that-the regulation Of the influence of climatic donditionS ? Is restricted to only the tireof planting. The early, sowing of corn 'Is practiced in certain regions-of Rumania; owing to thio* with the onset of"Aorm weather. after the recurring spring fall. of temperature, the seeds begin to grow fast. This method can be used also in many regions of the Soviet Union in planting corn varietiei, which ate_coldrivistant during the first period of development. . On May 11, 1951vsteds of 200 specimens, of, corn were sown On the fields of kolkhoz "Iskre of Veevolothsk raion, LenIngrai ? , oblast', on the section of the Vegetable crop rotation (predicesslor-- ,? potatoes),.. At the moment of planting the teMPerature of the air was 15.2?, and the-temperature of the soil 10?. On the 10th day ? Simultaneous sprouts appeared on all planted specimens* and at the end of-May all specimens attsined the phase of 2-3 Icel./es. (Begin p.58) Beginning with May 23 the temperature dropped and during the. night of May 28 to 29th a frost was recorded. Part of [Early-riPerlinid [Medium-ripening] the specimens - SkorospelaleA' I BrednespelalaA' 29 Srednespelais 33 - (from, Hol land), Maleksberger (from Germany), Vassfele 11603 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. 'A-1094 .(from Hungary), hybrid MDX63-54 and self-pollinated lime .153R (from USA) - were damaged only slightly. But pert of the speci- mens were -lost entirely. Ruse Yellow, Ruse white, Ruchl Oostila Sulleva white(from klbania), hybrid, 7735, /745;7746 (from Canada), hybrid KZ, Corn 191; self-pollinated lines 42, 179, MER, VVO (from USA). The frost served as a provocative background ,for discovering the most cold resistant -forms, as the damaged plants found them!... selves under conditions of low temperatures, whiCh continued during the course of the first ten days and of the most part of the second ten days of.the month of June.. . Observations of the dynamics of growth of plants showed very considerable -differences among the studied specimens (table 3). Thi evaluation of damage after the frost on May 29, accepted 'by us, was drawn up according to the following principle: mark 5 leaves were very slightly toiched by the frost; 4 - yellowing of leaves; 3 leaves were damaged by frost by it; 2 - leaves were damaged by f; 1 - leaves were damaged by 3/4. Evaluation of plants on June 17 was conducted by.teking into consideration the characteristics of the growth of plants during *According. to data of the nearest meteorological station, the average daily temperature of air during this period watt In May - 30th' 8.6?,.31th 10.104 in June, 1st - 8.9?, 2nd - 8.0?, 3rd - 1140, 4th - 10.801 5th - 11.0?, 6th.- 9.3?, 7th - eth 1-1.4?,. 9th - 13.8?, 10th - 22.2?, 12th - 21.40, 13th - 14.2?, 14th 11.5?, 15th - 11.0?, 16th - 12.6*, 17th - 43.6?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1094 this period: mark 1 - the plants ers strongly inhibited, the frost damage Is expressed fairly strongly; 2 - the plants are leis inhibited, but the frost damage, nevertheless, is expressed quite strongly; 3 - plants started growing, but frost damage is yet quite strongly expressed; the plants began to grow, frost damage is expressed already slightly; 5 - plants have formed new leaves, damage of leaves by frost is hardly notiCeable. As it is seen from'table 3, specimens C-2, Saratovskii hy- ' [Medium-ripening] brid, Beloialtoe psheno, Grushevskala (USSR), SIF-412, SrednespelyiA 36 and 37 (Holland), Bukevarskii zuban and Rumski slatni zuban (Yugoslavia), self-pollinated line 8-8, hybrids 653-7655, 652-651 ? (US,k). .have good indices on cold resistance. Such specimens as the self-pollinated line 191 and K-127912'12797, 12805 and some others (USA), white dent (Korea) proved to be unable to withstand the reduced temperatures during the course of a prolonged time and suffered strongly during this period. It.was recorded that not even one of the specimens, which suffered strongly from frost, attained the maximum mark of evaluation, which the specimens had that underwent a.slighter deluge.. The negative effect of reduced temperatures during the PeriOd from May 29 to June-17 was the strongest for late-ripening southern ? varieties with a long vegetative period. Studies of col4 resistance of corn by means of keeping the [nakliunovshiesjaj burstAseeds during the course of two weeks at a temperature of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) .Trans. A-I004 34o were conducted with a collection of 5&speciments. On'June 6 the seeds were planted into the. open _ground; dry seeds, Which were soaked In water for '24 hours, served as a contiol. Keeping the geriminated (nakluinuvshiesiaj seeds at a reduced temperature should have caused a sharp reduction of the field sprouting In heat-loving specimens. On the basis of different'-field germination* of seeds, which were soaked for g4 hours -at room temperature before planting,' and of seeds, which were kept at.(text is continued after table 3) (Begin p.59) ? . Table 3 Evaluation of corn specimens for cold resistance during the first - period of theirLgroWth ? Evaluation In Subspecies Origin ? marks Variety on. on Ma 2 MDX63-514'' flint c8412 dent Aeleksberger flint .S-2 and Saratov hy- brid Beloiaroe psheno, Omsk 1 and Pervenets Medium-ripening 36 and 37 dent Bukovarski suban and Rumski slatki =then "Algonguinn (Algon- quin] and self-pol- linated line 0-8. Hybrid Early Blend Shindelmaiter and- Vorargelber flint Pervomaiskala ft sweet S. USA Holland Germany Saratov ?blast, ? Western Siberia Holland YUgoalavia USA Canada Germany Orenburg oblast' 14 4 4 14. 14 (table continued on next page) June 1 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) . Trans. A-1094 Olorila 1anetakogo ,Sterling 'Ornshevskala - Indian corn Medium-ripening 31, 33 and 34 Laningradka - Self -pollinated lines 62 and 153R White dent Rymplia Turzyi and Matta DoMniaska .Chimgauer. Vass fele 15 OS Self-011inated line 191 - Shcidski zubin, vosadski slatni au- ban. end Bellski zuban CB.45, C4.6, Amdera 221 1111kurusa uluch- shenala 261 ? proved corn] Hybrids Pioneer 377 and 382 ? Mostard Erli Peri Ottawa C0-13 Allan - imeretinakii hybrid Kartuli krUgi and. Adzhamestskala be-: Jetta Hybrid early: Moira Domniaska X Oran,. shevyl-Tyrgu Frumot Odesskala 10 Osetinskaia 1 and G476 ' Medium-ripening 15 Moscow ranniala Somata rannialt and Rannkala ahemchu- china Mestnala and Polud- menno semennale halals flint dent flint starchy dent flint . dent ft , flint ft? ft dent dent and.flint dent ft 0 sweet dent flint dent flint dent dent flint ft dent sweet dent (table 3 continued) Germany 4 North Caucasus . 4 Dnepropetrovsk *blast' 3 USA . 3- Holland Leningrad oblast' USA Korea Rumania Germany Hungary USA Yugoslavia Holland. Zakarpatak .oblast USA Germany Canada North-Ossetian ASSR Georgian SSR Rumania Odessa oblast' North-Ossetian. ASSR Hol land Moscow *blast* North Caucasus 3 3 3 2 2 3 .14 4 4 It 3 3 14 3 3 3 It 14 3 3 3 1 14 11 14 14 4 14 3 3 3 3 3. 3 Albania 3 3 (tables continued on next page) ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1094 Hybrids ;%NR- .1 Wisconsin $5, self pollinated line M144 8/11 Self-pollinated line '1 Silosnala kukurusa Silage corn table 3 continqed dent ? USA 3 3 USA: 3 .2 Germany 2 2 (Begin p.60) reduced temperatures, it is possible to give an idea about the cold resittance of the specimens. Hybrids Kollektivnyi, V1R 25, Progress, Uspekh, Krasnodarskik4, ChB, V1R 10, V1R 370 V1R 16, Bukovinskil land certain others proved to be the'most resistant, as well as several varieties of the selection of northern regiong of corn cultivation for seeds and varieties of selection of foot hill regions of Caucesuss Chishminskala 1, Voronschskais 80, Hhartkovskaia 23, Rotenbergokaia, Dnepropetrovskaia-, Sterling, Htbardinskala white dent. Seeds of certain varieties and hybrids did not germinate at all after keeping them at a reduced tempera- ? tures hybrid ViR 42, variety Hartuli'Krugl; secede of hybrid V1R 50 germinated only to t5%. The cited method of evaluation merits attention for use in practical selection work. since it it practicable to any 'selection institution which has the most primitive refrigerator. The simpli- city in conducting this work permits to make an evaluation on cold resistance toe large number of selection material without especially large investment end expenditure. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Trans, AA095 veM Ivashko, A. A. Noveishie priboiy dila issledovanii v sel'skom khogialstve itogam Meshdunarodnol peredvizhnoi vystavki priborov v Moskvee) [The newest devices for research in agriculture (On the results or the International Travelling Exhibi.. tion of Devices in Moscow*)) Vestnik Sel*skokhozialstvennol Neuki, vol. 4, no. 6, p.88.47. June, 1959 20 V633 (In Russian) The international Travelling Exhibition or Devices, intended for agricultural research, which was organized on the initiative 410 of VASHMNIL (All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences Lien! V. 1. Lenin Is an event, which will speed up the development of science and the rise of agricultural production both in USSR, as well as in the countries of the socialistic camp. This first exhibition, which represented an international result of progress In the field of measuring devices for agricultural purposes, was visited by about 90 thousand persons during the period of its stay in Moscow, beginning January 25 and up to March 25. The liveliest interest, that was aroused by the exhibit on, confirms its actuality and opportuneness. Acquaintance with mor* than a thousand exhibits in all the fields of agricultural sciences gave the possibility to the specialists to become oriented in the Candidate of Technical Sciences 411 * See journal "Vestnik Sellskokhosiaistvennoi naukin, no. 2, 1959. P.143-145. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A4.1095 selection of Methods and experimental devices for the solution of scientific problems. The exhibition has pointed out new'possibi- lities, which are opening owing to the creation of new swans and nethods of observations and messurings. Specialists of designing and apparatus-building establishments saw at the exhibition examples for development of new devices* both ? for sae:air-lc research; as well as for the control and regulation . of agricultural processes, for determination of the Quantity and quality of production. Undoubtedly the exhibition will spur the organisation of wide production of devices fOr agricultural purposes in our domestic enterprises. . In.1958, the Academy of Agricultural Sciencesimeni V. I. Lenin began development of the construction of agricultural de- vicest the Central ExperimentalsOesigning Bureau on .Building of Devices has been organised and an experimental apparatus-bUilding factory began to work.. The exhibition will produce a great effect also on the ? .coordination of device building among the participating countries. .The exhibition has shown that the modern nomenclature of devices; needed for scientific research in the field of agriculture; Is so wide that its mastering is difficult even in the country with * highly developed apparatus-building industry. And as much as. nany of them are required in very small numbers, it is obvious, that their production In every country will be economically inexpedient; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 -(3) ? Trans. A-109.5 ? (Begin p.811 and for many countries even impossible. The survey ? of eXhibits, which were presented by countries participating in the exhibition, showed that .there are groups of device* which are.better'presented by one of the countries and, naturally, ? it would be more expo-client to produce them in the-given country instead of duplicating them in different coUntries. Economic expediency of such i coordination of apparatus- , building is so much needed: for all the countries Of the Socialis- tic camp,, that the exhibition will justify itself highly by solving ? this one question. Data of the exhibition's survey permit to express certain ? preliminary conclusions. For instance, a group of. devices for polarographic research of the chemical compositiOn of substances received its highest, development in the Czechoslovak Republic.* Here began and developed the method of polarographic research under the leadership of its creator, Academician V. GelrOvski. In the Hungarian People's Republic devices for research or fibrous materials (cotton, wool, fabrics) have a wide distribution, ,The Polish People's Republic is almost the only country, which pre- sented a system Of devices for research in the field of forestry (horticulture) and singular apparatuies for studying the. biology of plants. The German Democratic Republic has presented high ' quality optical apparatuses and laboratory equipment for various purposes. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R01040004000115 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (4) Trans. A-1095 In USSFylevices for.research in the field of animal, husbandry and veterinary science, for examination of tractors and agricultural 'machinery, apparatuses for research with the use of radioactive isotopes, radiations and semiconductors were the best presented. ' The level of development of the measuring technique for the. basic branches of agricultural science, as well as. by countries, .can. be presented in the following table. . . . Class' ' . Number of devices . countries according to' ? omudou 11441i4040d asTastiunil German Democratic Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak' Republic . USSR , . . ? . . . - I. Devices for research on , Plants, soils and the surface layer of air . 25 39. 26 40 194 g. Devices for research on anti. ma1 husbandry and veterinary science ' 36 12 3 114, 106 3. Devices for evaluation of quality and quantity of agricul- tural production , 26 8 7 12 57 4. Devices for examination of the work of tractors and of . agricultural machinery 6 14 1 1 47 5. Devices for-the examination - ? of work of power installations 28 . .4?- 16 67 6. Devices and equipment for the general, purpose e3 31 4 53 115 7. Devices, based?on use of. radioactive isotopes and radia. tions i 8 1 ? 4. - In d11:i212 05 45 153 ' 6g Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1095 . (Begin p.901 The table shows that the'development of device-building is uneven for both-the various sections of agricultural sOlences,.as well as the countries. For instance, the western countries pre- sented very few devices for examination of work of tractors and , agricultural machines since the machaniaation of agricultural . processes began' there only recently. In these countries there. are also few devices, based on the use of radioactive isotopes, radiations and semiconductors. .The highest development, in all the participating countries, was in devices for research of the chemical composition of plant materials, solls,,fertilisers# as well as physics of the soli ind of the surface layer of dlr. More than 300 device; weredesigned for these purposes among the number, of those shown at the exhibi- tion. This Is explained by high development Of chemistry in all . the branches of national economy. One should point out, that there were exhibited very few devices for the research into physical-mechanical characteristics of plants; this appears, to .be the result of very slight develop- . ment of elaboration in this field. Very few devices were produced also for research of gaseous exchange. and photosynthesis of plants. Only three apparatuses were shown for this important problem, among which two were the first experimental specimens. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6). Trans. A-1095 The Committee, appointed by the Presidium of the AcadeMy, selected 1411 devices among all the sections of the exhibition (173 native and 238 foreign),. which 'were the most promising for use in.scientific 'research. end in agricultural production of USSR. In their selection the Committee. invited specialists from scientific-research institutes of VASKHNIL, TWO% (Timiriatev Agricultural Academy], of the Academy of Science of USER, from the All-Union Society of Apparatus-Building, from the exhibition, as wail as .specialists from among the visitors: Two circumstances were taken into consideration during the selection, actuality of research; for.which the devices were destined, and the existence of other means of.measuring for the given purposes. If for onepurpose there were presented several designs or types'ofdevitee, then by means of comparison those devices were chtlen?-which possessed the greatest number of positive qualities: high productiveness, accuracy, facility in exploitation, and so-on. Along with the selection, the Committee determined also the meant of.supplying than to the scientific institutions; The Committee recommended buying about 7,000 specimens of devices for operation in. scientific-research and educational institutions from among the '77 kinds .of selected foreign apparatuses. Besideg this, it was recommended to buy one specimen each of the 99 kinds of devices, which presented interest in their separate parts, for their study and use in development ornew apparatuses. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1095 Pert of devices, which were required in considerable numbers of specimens, were recommended for mastering by the national produc- Let us now point out some of the devices, among the number of the selected by the Committee, which metit.special attention. Czechoslovak Republic presented five devices for polaro4 graphic research in the.section of apparatuses for plant research.. ? Each of:them is fore special purpose, and all of them represent a scheme of apparatuses_for.scientific-research of paramount im- , ? portance. Micropolarigreph M-103 (figure 1) was designed for determining the contents of various substances in solutions. It . is used in biochemical and chemical research in mass analyses. The device is composed of a galvanometer, of a photographic adapter, abscissa lamp, potentiometric cylinder with a drive rnd a . polarographic (Begin p.911 machine with electrodes. The remark- able thing in these devices is that with their aid it is possible. to conduct mass determinations of contents of a large amount of different substances, including also the contents of vitamins In fruits, vegetables and other products. Polarigraph AP-55 was designed for polarographic analyses, requiring increased exactness. Polariscope (figure 2) gives a . new possibility for scientific research to observe the course of the polarographic analysie on a screen. Title of figure 1. Micropolarigraph (Czechoslovakia). Title of figure 2. Polariscope (Cze- choslovakia) Title of figure 3. Automatic polati- graph. (Hungary) . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1095 . Hungarian automatic polarigraph deserves special attention . (figure 3). The device can. conduct an analysis of solutions of a very small concentration to 106 mole/liter in the presence of .very small amounts of.the solution (0.1-0.2 milliliter). The result can be observed during the process of the analysis directly ? on the polarogram, awing to the presence of an electronic amplifier and a mechanism for direct registration. Moreover, no darkening of the room is required, no photographic work for developing polar0- grams, nor any special vibroprotecting mechanisms. The potential arising on the electrodes can be read during the process of analysis ? at any mOment not alone on the polarogram, but also on the control'. voltmeter. This Is attained by the fact, that the moving of the paper ribbon and the change of the voltage through the potentio- meter.are.carried out by one motor;. thus, a .synchronism is attained between the speed of the ribbon and the voltage. The time of polarogram recording can be adjusted to 3, 6 and 9 minutes. The . device Is disconnected automatically after the end of the analysis and the recording of the polarogram. .The order of polarization ? of chemical substances in the solution [Begin p.923 and the re.. cording of polarograms, can be adjusted, as desired, at a vOltige increasing from zero or decreasing from the maximum. The mechanism, feeding the paper ribbon, can work alto inde- pendently of the voltage. Owing to this, registration of the change of the diffusion current is possible at constant voltage; this also permits prodUcing amperometric titration. Current measure- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) - . Trans. A-1095 meat can be carried out also with the precision from 1.109 to 8-10-6a, in 28 stages.' A resistance is provided for In the construction, with the aid of which it is-possible to Check the'efficiency of the de- vice. It is possible to register the'differential.by a special mechanism made of RC elements,. In'cates when the voltage in the supply system fluctuates more than by 10%, the feeding can be conveyed to the electrOdes from an outside stotage battery. Nevertheless, ,with all the positive characteristics, or this device, according to the information of specialists, substantial kinks exist in some specimens, which hamper their use. Automatic titrimeters (Hungary) present a great interest. Titrimeter of the type 7-77-1/C (figure 4) wtrks according to the principle ore potentiometer. After this end of the Process of titration, when the potential reaches a definite intensity, the device is cut off automatiCally. The peculitrity of this de- vice consists of the feet that the titrating, solution is measured. Out by the unit of the electronic control. The dose of solution,' ' which Is fed in titration, decreases from 1.5 to 2.0 ml at the beginning to 0.025-0.050 ml at the end of titration. Whereupon ? the decrease of doses, as well as the-change of time intervals between the feedings is in,proportion to the logarithm of the concentration of the titrate.' Accuracy of registration of the neutralisation potential is ?5 in volt. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (.10) Trans. A1095 Title of figure 4.. Automatic titrimeter (Hungary). .. - Three devices were shown at the exhibition. for. research on gaseous exchange and photosynthesis of plants and microlrganisms. ' The Warburg apperatus (German Democratic Republic) is a set of 12 Erlenmeyer flasks into which the examined objects are placed: particles of plants, bacteria, and so on (figure 5). During the process.of.t.heir respiration end photosynthesis the Composition of gaseous fluid changes in the flasks, and, consequently, also. does its pressure; this Is registered by manometers, that are con- nected with the flasks. In order to keep up the needed temperature in the flasks the device is provided with e water bath with an 'electric heating apparatus, a thermoregulstor and an agitator. Microrespirometer (figure 6), which was exhibited by the polish Academy of Science, Is a new, interesting development in the field of research on'photosynthesis.of microscopic Objects.. The nature of operation of the apparatus coimistes in its revealing .the possibility ,for Investigation of the gaseous exchange and Photosynthesis Of bacteria, of plant particles, of several. cells, and so on. This is etteined by a Miniature construction of a respiration chamber of a',volume of 0.7 cub. cm into which the microscopic object Is introduced in a drop of water, which is , placed on the covering glass (Begin p.93) that hermetically closes the chamber. The'respiretional chamber is connected with a sensitive manometer, which is filled with p liquid that does not adhere to the glass. A special microscope is mounted over the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( II) Trans. A01095 manometer's dial for a precise.reckoning of its readings. Use of an iliuminating mechanism with light filters for various degrees of illumination of the investigated object with different colors of the light spectrum proves to be the novelty of this device. . The Institute of Physiology of Plants of the Academy of Science of USSR presented at the exhibition a device for research,: of the Gaseous exchange and photosynthesis of plants with the use of the carbon isotope 04. The air with C1402 circulates In- a closed system of the device and bathes the investigated leaf, which may be separated or inseparated from the plant. If the carbon is abSorbed by.the leaf then the radioactive radiation, which is re- corded by the counting tube during a certain period of time, Is reduced. This device. Can be_utilixed.for exemination of the gaseous exchange of plants under field conditions, if the electric motOr mounted on it is replaced by a clock-work spring,Inechanism. :Title of figure 5. Warburg apparatus' (Ger.- _ man Democratic Republic). ,Title of figure 6. Microrespirometer (Poland). Title of figure 7. Davies for determining the speed of movement of microparti- cies (Poland). . A device for measuring the speed of movement of microscopic particles in plasmas (Polish People's Republic) is shown in figure 7. The main point of the device consists in the fact that a re- volving scale is mounted in the eyepiece of the microscope and it Is connected, kinematically, with the Kymograph. For measuring Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-1095 the speed of movement of,m1Oroparticlels observed under the microscopes -a similar to it speed of the scalels.set up with the aid of t buncher; and it it then automatically rectirdwi on the kymograph. It is the only device Produced for the first time for such purposes. Among the devices designed for research in the field of ani- mal husbandry, (Begin p.94) the devices for research of physic).- logical functions of animals: respiration, pulse, movements in diges- tive organs, and so on, are of considerable scientific interest; also devices for research in the composition of blood, composi- tion of feeds, and others. ? Title of figure 8. Radioteleactograph by 14 V. Panin (USSR). Title of figure 9. Automatic classifier of cotton fibres in length (Hungary) Title of figure 10. Measuring device of radiations (Hungary). Radloteleactogr!tph of D.V. Panin (figure 6) permits to con- duct investigations of the physiological condition of Animals on . pastures, situated at a distance up to 15 km from the researcher. A sending apparatus with a transmitting instrument, from which radioimpulses can be transmitted to the receiving Station and 'register on a paper ribbon, is attached to the animal. The portable sets for artificial insemination of tnimals, shown at the International Travelling Exhibition, are of Greet practical interest. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (13) Trans. A71095 The Hungarian People's. Republic presented a group of devidis ? for.examination of fibroua,materialet cotton, wool and other*. The automatic classifier of cotton fibres in length (figure 9) 1s - ?of special interest among them. The apparatus measures the length of fibres, classifies them in groups by length and records the ? diagram of the quantitative distribution of fibres eccording to ? these groups. The device takes place of the painstaking and labor consuming work of laboratory workers, and in-3-5 minutes gives the full characteristic of the cotton specimen in the form .of a'diagram, ? Over ten devices were exhibited, which measure the moisture 40 within grains, the soil and in other agricultural objects. The Hungarian electronic hygrometer egigromatik" attracted the atten- . tion of specialists among them. It was designed for a quick de- termination of moisture in groins of various crops. The principle of its functioning is based on the dependence between the moisture and the dielectric properties of the grain, which is placed into a special hopper of f certain volume. This device can (Begin p.95) measure the humidity with an accuracy up to 0.5%, if its contents In the grain do not exceed 30%. The device is convenient for transportation (its weight is 8 kg) and for measuring moisture both ? for scientific and production purposes. In the section "Radioactive isotopes and radiations in agri- culture" about 60 devices were exhibited for the examination of the effect of radiations on agricultural objects, for control and 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-1095 , autdmation of technological processes and for other purposes. . The Hungarian composite calculator Orion 1873 (figure 10) is eipecially useful for scientific research. It consists of an .electronic counter tube, an integral amplitude discriminator, high-voltage stabilized rectifier for feeding.gas-dischargi and. scintillation counters andka tripping system. This universal device takes place of four laboratory apparatuses. The Hungarian piesoelectric.doubleebeam pressure indicatOr (fictive 11) was marked as the most important among the number of devices, designed for research on power plants. It reOresents a complex of devices and appliances for investigation of pressures of gases in cylinders of Various engines. 411 Title of figure 11. Piezoelectric double - beam indidator of pressure (Hungary). -Title of figure 12. Diaprojection appara- tus (Hungary) At the International Travelling Exhibition of Devices; along with the measuring devices new, original equipment for icientific- reasearch and educational laboratories were also presented. For instance, in figure 12 is shown a portable diaprojection [Begin p.96] apparatus (Hungary), with the aid of which it is possible.to pro- ject on the screen microphotographs of biological and other objects with a 1,000-fold magnification. The German Democratic Republic presented sectional laboratory tables (figure 13), which attracted great attention of specialists by the efficiency of the construction, .as well as by the heat and acid-proof coatings. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDF'80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Tratis: - Title of figure 13. -Laboratory teble . Merman Democratic Republic). : At the.International Travelling. EXhibition, along with dc vices cit Complicated layouts, were alto shown simple, but Very effective apparatuses. For .initance, en ultraviolet illuminator differed from an Ordinary table, lamp Only by the use of a mercury- quartz lamp SVD-120A; nevertheless the interest of visitors of different specialties In this' appuratus was exceptional. Actually the. device can be useful both for scientific-research, as well at .for solving Many production problems,. Out are connected with the determinatiOn of quality of the most different Organid. materials. It Is?suffiCient,?for instante, to illuminate the seeds with it . In order to discover on them any changes, which cannot be dis- covered by any other methOds. The device is based on the long known property of all substances-to give off, when placed in ultra- violet rays, a luminiscent radiance of a special color, inherent only to the given substance, it is possible by this simple reliable and convenient method to discover any changes on the surface of seeds, plant leaves, fruits, tubers and other agricultural products, any mechanical or chemical changes at the very beginning of their development, when they are as yet imperceptible to the naked eye. It Is possible by the simple device of Prikladov to determine the contents of moisture In seeds. The Committee recomMended to make a set out of similar devices for field laboratories, agri- culturists and zootechnicians of kolkhozes and sovithozes. It is Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) 'Trans. A-1095 recommended to include into the outfit the portable laboratory of.. Peive for determination of the Most Important chemical elements . of the soil and of fertilisers; a refradtometer for the determine- , tion of contents of sugar in beets, fruits, vegetables and other agricultural products; a toluene themometer in a durable steel hol- der, Which would be convenient for the determination of the temperature of soil, seeds, that'ere Stored in great messes; soil and silo borers for taking specimens; a portable device for determi- nation of the quality of fodder*, end others. (Begin p.97) Out- fits.of these devices will help agriculturists and tootechnicians eq.kolkhozes and sovkhotes to solve production problems not by groping and guessing, but on the basis of objective measurements. A survey of exhibits at the International Travelling Ex- hibition showed that for the-most part, in the field of construc- tion of devices for agricultural purposes, the tendency of scientlets and designers is for automation of the operations of analyses and measurings; for shortening their length to the maximum; for In- creasing accuracy and objectivity. An ever greater development is accorded to those measuring devices, which act without destroying the objects of research; for instance, the moisture content of plant material without their desiccation, or of soils without the destruction of their natural .structure. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-1095 It is particularly important that the exhibition is & travel- ling one. In moving from country to country it will be constantly enriched with new exhibits and, therefore, will not alone sum up, but pima present the dynamics of development of international apparatus construction for egriculturel purposes. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 vg/M General Meeting of the Department.of Biological A Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of USSR'iOI Akademii Nauk:SSSR, levestila, Seigle Biologi- cheskaia no. 4, p. 38-.6Z0.. July/Aug. 1959. 511 Sa2B (In Russian) The General Meeting of the DepartMent of Biological Sciences took place on March 24-25 in the Conference Hall of the Main Botanical Garden. The report on the activity of the Department of Biological Sciences, for 1958, was discussed during the sessions, as well as problems of biological science in the light of decisions of the 21st Congress of HPSS.(Communist Party of the Soviet Union). The activity of the memters of the Department. during the past year was also analysed. Election of a new Academician-Secretary took place at the. General Meeting in connection with the expiration of ? the time of the commission of the Academician V. A. Engeltgardt. Two scientific reports were heard during the last, evening session, on March g5Cof I. V. Tiurin "Soil-geographical and experimental works of the Soil Institute mini V. V. Dokuchaeva of the AN SSSR (Academy of Science, of USSR], their scientific and practical value" and of E. A. Asratian - "Effect of decJticati? ,of the cerebrum on the regulation of the function of the organism". Academician-Secretary, V. A. Engellgardt came forward with the report about the activity of the OBN (Department of Biologi- cal Science). In connection with the fact that the text of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-I096 report was manifolded earlier and .sent out to the members of the General Meeting, the speaker mentioned only briefly the Most im- portant scientific and scientific-organizational problems, which characterized the activity of-OBN during the year 1958.: Basic attention was given Over to problems of,the. biological science in the light of decisions of the 21st Congress of RPSS. Dwelling on the Importance of historical decisions of the 216t.Congress and on. the serious critical remarks about some deficiences.in. the work of the scientific institutions of OBN, the speaker pointed out that to the lot of the Depirtment of Biological Sciences of AP SSSR fell many exceptionally important problems, .ince biology developed theoretical premise* for both the medical ?al' well as for the agri* cultural sciences. Basically, the report was given over to the consideration of prospects of development of individual trends in biology for the next seven years: The speaker pointed out that in the resolution of the 21st Congress of KPSS those basic branchosrof biology, were named,- which must be developed by biologists during the next seven years in the' first place; namely, biophysics, biochemistry, microbiology, virology, agrochemistry, selection and genetics. In the development of these sciences, such problems as per- ception of physico-chemical and structural principles of elementary living processes, research on the morphology and physiology of cells and mastering the processes of metabolism acquire a special Importance. Work on the studies of protein structure and of nucleo- - ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1096 proteids is of fundaiental importance. ? It is necessary to deepen the research on the. Clarification of the Interaction ofthe form and function at the microscopic level and, especially, submicroscopic studies of structures In . the field of cytology and genetics. Much attention must be given to the investigation of chemical and physical elements of heredity as well as development of the. emergence and inheritance of Charac7 tertstics of the organism and the role, in this process, Of inter- . action of the organism with the en4ironment., Of utmost importance are also the problem* on the study of mechanisms end rules of -action of nuclear radiations on the Meta- bolism, as wall as development of measures for the protection from the effect of radiation. Research on biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms end viruses must be developed, while working together with bio- chemists, cytologists, biophysicists. One should' expect the mastering of bacterial synthesis of manyAipecific,substances-products of vital activity of microorganisms; this should find wide use in the economics of the country and in medicine. Progress In the physiology of man and animals must be the bast* for solving many important and actual problems of theoretical and practical medicine, as well at of the animal industry. The work. on studies of coaditions of existence and efficiency of men . under extreme conditions, development of measures for efficient protection of the organism from the-effect of radiation and measures ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1096 to counteract the effects of these reactions, acquire a special im- penance. such attentiOmmust be given to the development of physio. logical principles for high yields, in this direction, in the first place, one can expect great discoveries in the field . of photosynthesis. All this Will bring us nearer to mastering the given process in plants and will help, finally, in realising photosynthesis under artificial (industrial) conditions. Hitch attention must also be paid to the regulation of physiological processes in plants. (Begin p.6393 An ever fuller and versatile mastering andHutilisation of ? soil resources, as well 84 of the plant and animal world of the Soviet UniOn ars requited., it is necessary to increase, during' the next seven years, the work on the control of agricultural ,and ? forest pests (EUrygaster, silkworm moth, weeds, and so on), On pathogens and carriers of diseases of men animals and agriCulturil. crops. For a much quicker and a more purposeful perception of the country's resources, it is necessary to work out new methods and new practical forms of their studies. At the same time a wide, complex method of research, combining field investigations with experimental work, must be of special value. On the basis of such complex, many-sided studies of natural resources, a regionalizing of the USSR territory for national econo- my purposes should be made; directions be prepared for wide circles Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (5) Trans. A-1096 of practical workers, as well as methodical manuals for e more efficient industrial utilization and conservation of these riches; also for Ulu control of all sorts of phenomena, which reduce their value. The scientific activity of academicians and of corresponding members of the Department was described in the report of the Assistant Academician-Secretary, Academician V. N. Sukachev. The speaker again mentioned the small number of academicians and cor- responciing membeibiologists in the Department which is one of the greatest according to the number of its scientific establishments. The extreme overloading of academiciens-and corresponding members with work was mentioned again, as in the preceding years. OBNis Bureau, is yet, did not carry out the work on investigating the overloading of members of the Department. . Reports and the acquaintance With the record of the OBN aroused lively discussions. B. N. Stepinenko, Kh. S. Koshtolants, V. L. RyzhkoV, F. N. Pavlovskii, A. A. Imshenetskii, 14. S. Oillarov, G. V. Nikollskii, A. N. Bakulcv,A. V. Palladin, V. N. Chernigovskil, N. A. Avrorin, V. P. Namara, E. N. Alshustin, and others took part In the debate. The meeting pointed out that the scientific and scientific- organizational activity of OEMs institutions was carried out according to a plan approved by.the Presidium of the AN SSSR for scientific-research works and the plan of Inculcation. The staffs of permanent scientific councils on problems were manned and new Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trani. Ag-1096 ? scientific societies Were formed for the improvement Of the organization of research. The scientific councils on problems and the societies are the most successful forms of organizations for guidance of science and for coordination of the scientific activity of institutions of different services. Data were de- veloped on three new problems end appropriate reports, concerning them, prepared ("Hydrobiological processes and means for control- ling them", "Biochemical principles for Improvement of technology of the food industry, "Main questions of physiology and morpho- logy of animals and man"). Remaking of such reports as "Basic regularities of the biological effect of nuclear radiation" and "Physical., and chemical elements of heredity" was carried out. The Presidium approved two new societies at the Academy of Sciences the All-Union Society of Blochemitts and the All-Union , Microbiological Society. More precise definitions were introduced into the structure of scientific Institutions that enter the makeup of OBN end the branch offices of the AN SSSR. In several :scientific institutions the laboratories, that were too large; were subdivided and new structural units were formed. Al the Institute of the Morphology. of Animals, for instance, such inde- pendent group* were formed as the group of biochemistry of 'cellu- lar structure*, ecological phyviology? cytology of the Protozoa and the ecological morphology of water memmals. At the Institute of Biophysics,? in order to subdivide overlarge laboratories of radiobiology and biophysics of living structures, independent Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , (7) A.1139t, groups were formed, having the right of an office - an office of physics of biopolymers, an office of special Methods of micro- scopy, am office of theoretical principles for the protection from radiation, and others.. It was pointed out, that during the past year the international' scientific contact has grown considerably and became stronger, especially with countries of people's democracies. Collaboration with China was on a large scale; 50 biologists went there to take part In the development of 19 problems in biology. In all, about 280 Soviet biologists visited the foreign countries; among them 180 took part in 42 international congresses and meetings, and about 100 went for a protracted work in scientific institutions and fOr rendering consultative help. At the same time it was mentioned at the meeting, that sub- stantial deficiencies have their place in the activity of the Department of Biological Sciences. To the number of these, in :the first place, belongs the weak bond with scientific-research and production organisations in agriculture, Individual branches of light and food industry, as well as sanitation. . A great defect appears to be In the case that no proper con- nections were organised with institutions of the Department of Physical-Mathematical Sciences of the Department of Chemital Sciences, DepartMent of Geologital-Osographical Sciences of the Academy,of Science of USSR, and so on. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . Trans. A-1096 A serious omission in the workof.the OBN's Bureau was the ? 'absence of discussions and debates on general biological problems during the current year. 'Considering the problems of Biological Sciences in the light of decisions of the 21st-COngress of HPSS and tilting into con- sideration serious critical Comments which weie made at the December Plenum of TsK gliss tCentral Committee ,.of the Communist: Party of the Soviet Union] the. General MeetInp stressed the great responsibility of the Department of Biological Sciences in the formation of theoretical- Principles for practical measures in. the field Of agriculture* of sanitation and other branches of national economy of USSR. '.1Begin p.640] The results of scientific works, at theyaccumulatevmust be widely tested and actively introduced Into practice of the . national-economy and sanitation through the institutions of VASEHNIL _tAll-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences meal V. 1. Lenin], of the Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR* Ministries.and.Councilii of:National Economy. The General Meeting adapted a resolution* the text of which Is cited below: ? 1. To approve the basic trends in the development of bio- logical sciences* which were stated in the report of the Academii. alw, V. A. Engellgardt* taking into consideration comments and wishes expressed. during the discussion of this report. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1096' To entrust the'CeN's 86reau with the ititrodUction to the Pre- sidium of the .AN SSR (Academy of Science of USSR of. particular , suggestions on the silicification of the prospective plan for the development Of biological sciences for the next seven years, on the basis of decisions of the 21st Congress of the Patty 'and the December Plenum of the TsliI{PS. 2. In connectiOn with unfortunate or inaccurate formulations In the presented report, which were mentioned et the General Meeting of theAUpartMent, to entrust the OBN's Bureau in a week's time to adjust and'finally to edit the text of the report after consultations with the Directors of the Institutes.' 3. At the present level of development of science, the. use of achievements of physics, chemistry and other allied sciences is of extreme importance for the sOWing of biological problem*. In order to unite the efforts Of biologists, physicists, chemists end other Specialists, the 6eneral Meeting conilderis it highly desirable to coordinate the activity of the OBN with the Department of 1hysical48themat1cal Sciences, Department of Chemi- cal Sciences and bepartment of Geologicali.Geographical Sciences for the solving of a whole series of big interdepartamental problems, ind in connection with it asks the Presidium of the AN SSSR about, the formation of interdepartmental problem councils for .solving the most essential.complex problems. 4. In every wayito strengthen the contact between the Depart- ment of Biological Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of USSR with. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (10) . Trans.- A-iovb the AcadAmy of Medical Sciences of USSR and theVASKNNit, by widening and brisking-up the activity of the Councils 4n-Probleis, attracting for the solution of the main problems a wide circle of scientific and practical-workers. _r. 5. To draw the attention of the OBNys Bureau to the need of greeter corrdination, actual help and strengthening of scientific - ? bonds with'the ACademfee of Sciences of the allied republics, with ttle.Sibirlan Branch of An.sssR and the subsidiary ofAN SS$R. 6.jTo entrust the Bdreau of the Department of Biological Sciences with persistent trying to get. from the Presidium of AN ssut the means for widening the working areas of scientific establishments of the Department by ,worof construction of new buildings, as well as by assigning some money for material-technical equipment,for institutes and laboratories of the Department, in order to create for them condition; for Wide utilization of the newest methods of research in byogY.. 7. To attract the attention of the Presidium of AN SSSR to the need of formation in the system of AN SSSR of a factory. for the manufacture of. apparatuses, as well as of special laborateries for the output of Synthetic organic substances, labeled (Or a definite state. _15. The General Meeting entrusts the Department of Biological Sciences to put into practice the conducting of debates and dis.. cussions on the basic and the most important general biological .problems, which effect the interests of.biologists of different. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 a?- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (it) . Trans, A-1096 a. specialties, attracting a wide number of active members, both among tclentiets and practical workers. To .recognize, as a certain -success for the DepartMent, the founding of two new journals - "Cytology" and "Paleontology To entrust the Bureau Of the OBN to continue in persistently carrying out of the realization-of the full program of the planned periodic publicetionsi it is also very desirable that the individual reports of the academician* be published in a combined book. 10. To draw the attention Of the OBN's Bureau.to the ez.. pediency of debating at the meetings of the Bureau of only the fundamental and big organisational problem* of the biological - science, but solving the smell current matters during the courtit. of. work. 11. The General Meeting states the matter *bout the wholly Insufficient personal staff of the tepartment of Biological Sciences, and in connection with the vast-problems, facing the biological ' science, addresses the PreiidiuM of the AN SSSR with a request for the expansion of, the body of active members and of corresponding-. members of the Department. After adapting the resolution, the General Meeting expressed the confidence that biological Scientists, inspired by the decisions of the 21st Congress,of.the Communist Party will devOte all their strength, knowledge and energy to the job of construction of the Communist society. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. t-1096 After the approval of the report, V. A. Engeligsrdt made an announcement that he resigned as the Academician-Secretary of the Department of Biological Sciences since the time of his appointment has run out. The Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of UR, N. M. Sias/dans was chosen as an acting Academician-Fecretary of ON fOepartment of Biological Sciences]. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 /rens. A-1097 vgAl Litvinenko, S. N. voprosu ob lzuchenli rostovykh stimulistorov-gibberellinov (On the study of growth substances.. the gibberellins] Botanicheskil Zhurnal (Momkva) vol. 44, no. 5, p.645-647. May, 1959. 451 R923 (in Russian) v.; During the course of the last.twenty years the researchers show great interest to.the new, very active group of growth sub stances-gibberellins. ? . The history of discovery of gibberellins Is connected with the ? study of disease of the "bad shoots" or "bakanse" on rice, con- slating of an extreme elongation of seedlings, which; on the whole, leads to weakening and death of plants. A fungus Oibberella fuJikurok - the pubescent stage of Fusarium moniliforme turned out to be the pathogen of the disease. Jabuta and iisyashi (1939) 'obtained an active substance, which was called gibberellin in the name of the pathogen of the disease from secretions of this fungus. ? Later on, Stodola and his co-workers (In 1955) obtained gib- berellic acid by a fermenting method, on an artificial medium. tan c as Sad a em au I ra nskoi SSR,, Kiev (Botanical Garden of the tcademy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, Kiev). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1097 Gibberellins proved to be substances of extremely high Physiological activity. The meter solution of gibberellin, in dilution 1 1,000,000, speeds up the growth end development of plants byany times: beans, peas, corn, pepper, tobacco, millets, tomatoes, soybeans, and so on. The history of discovery, production and study of gibberillins Is set forth with much detail in the reference Journal "Khimicheskie siedstva easfichity rastenii" [Chemical means for plant protection] (1958). A group of Soviet.scientists,'headed by Professor M. Kh. 'Chailakhlan conducta.an important work with gibberellins, that were received from USA. Results of. their research are interesting ? and convincing; gibberellins speed up the growth and development of plants, especially of annuals; speed up *flowering and fruiting; break up the period of rest in seeds (Chailakhian, 1957, 1958a, 1958b)., Significant are the experiments of Czechoslovakian physiologists Ia. Hrekule and A. Martinovskaia (1958), who confirmed the positive effect of gibberellic acid on the development of wheat and millet. These authors worked with growth substances that were sent in from England. LA.Krasillnikov (1958) obtained and tested a preparation very similar in effect to gibberellin, In 1958 in Kiev, V. I. Bilal (Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Science of Ukrainian SSR and D. IL Verner (Institute of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) - Trans., A-1097 Organic Chemistry of the Academy of Science of Ukrainian SSR)' obtained for the first time in the Ukraine .the'crystallized berellin. We started the work on studies of the effect of the native gibberellin on the growth and development of plants in the Botani- cal Oardsn of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. Our first problem was to satisfy *ourselves of.the physiological activity of the newly obtained substance. Therefore the conducted experiment bore a doubly reconnoltertrig, ? character. The following plants Were taken for treatment with the growth substance: aromatic tobacco (Nicotiana odorsta).and Chinese aster (Callistepus sinensis) plants of a short day; gentian (Oentiana cressicaulis) and sea lavender (Limonium sirardianum) - plant* Of S.Iong day; privet (LiaustrumvUlgare) and Pyricantha coccinea - shrubs. -The grass plants were taken when week-old. In a phase of two true leaves, and the shrubs - in a. phase of two seminal leaves. Part of plants of each kind were treated each day withthe water solution of. gibberellin In a concentration of 0.0025%. The control plants received water instead of the. gibberellin solu- tion. The plants were treated according to the method applied by M. Rh. Challakhlan; that Is, the.volution of the growing substance was daily applied with a pipettes one drop to the point of growth. The experiment.was Started on June74,1958. All the plants were kept in a hothouse. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1097 At the end of the first week of treatment it became apparent, ? that the experimental plants Calisteohus sinensia and Nicotlema . odorata overtake the control plants In growth and development. ABegin p.646] If the control pleats had at this time 2-3 rosette leaves, then In plants, treated with gibberellin, the stem. started to develop. In 'plants of the long day (Gentians and Limonium) no any' difference was noted betWeen the experimental and control sped-,' -mens during this period. The same was observed also in the'shrubs :? (LioUstrum and Pyracantha). - At the end of the second week sines the beginning of the traatment the results of the effect of growth substances became apparent especially prominently in Nicotiaria odorata, the control plants were yet in the phaike of the rosette, while those treated with gibberellin had a stem 7-10 cm high with a mass of flower buds at the top. The leaf Media of experimental plants were larger, wider, their petioles longer than in the control plants. Title of figure 1. Nicotiana odorata at the end of the 5th week since the ? beginning of the experiment. At the left - the control plant; at the right - the one treated with 0.0025% gibberellin solution. Title of figure 2. Callistephus sinensis at the end of the 4th week since the beginning Of' the experiment. At the - left Is the control plant; at the right - the one treated with the 0.0025% gibberellin solution. At the end of the 14th week, that is 28 days after:the.beginning Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I097 ? of the experiment, the tobacco plants began .to.bloom, having a stem 15-20 cm long. The control plants still remained In the phase of a rosette. ? One should point Out, that the difference in concentrations oe.gibberellin solutions (0.0025 and 0.025%) did not reflect on - the tempos of growth and development of tobacco: plants of both variants almost did not differ one from the other. .The plants of tobacco are shown in figure 1 at the end of the 5th waek.since the beginning of the experiment. The plants of the Chinese ester developed epproximately at the same tempo as the tobacco plants, .and started blooming at the end Of the 4th week' (Figure 2). Plants of the long day proved to be insensible to growth sub- stances ; during the course of 7 weeks no difference was observed in the growth and development of. experimental and control plants. As to the shrub plants, gibberellin produced a noticeable effect on them: In both variants Of treatment at the end of the 4.th week the plants attained a height Of 10-12 cm and had 8-10 true leaves, while the control planta were. only 3.5 cm high and had only 2 true 'leaves (figure'3). (Begin p.6471 Title of figure 3. i strum vulgare at the end of the th wee since the beginning of the experiment. At the left - the control plant; at the right - the one treated with a 0.0025% solution of gibberellin. Our small preliminary experiment indicated, that gibberellin, obtained by the Ukrainian researchers proved to be a highly active 111 growth substance. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) . Trans. A-1097 The technology for obtaining gibberelin from native strains' of Gibberella fuilkurol, which. is being developed by V. I..Bilai end D. A. Verner, will permit to organize the production of.this growth substance at the Kiev factory of bacterial fertilizers of the Agricultural Ministry of the Ukrainian SSR. Further work on studies Of gibberellin effect on plants can be , developed according te the following basic direction*: a) checking the effect of gibberellins on the widest possible collection of plants - herbaceous (with a differing-photoperiodic reaction), shrubs and trees, in Order to study the stimulation of the Increase oUthe vegetative miss and speeding up of flowering and fruiting (for instance, obtaining seeds of blennials,during the first year); b) studies of the effect of gibberellin on the size of the period of rest, especially in seeds of tree varieties that are hard to sprout; .c) studies of influence of gibberellin 'treatment for the root- ing of tree cuttings; especially of the hard to root forest end, fruit varieties; .d) as a particular case for speeding up the growth, it is necessary to study the possibility of preparing, the wilding* of fruit varieties for grafting during one year instead of two, as it usually takes place in nurseries; e) testing of gibberellins for treatment (spraying) of fruit trees during the petiod.of flowering in order to reduce the shat- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1097 'tering of ovaries; ? f) studies of. the required high agrotechnical background for treated plants, which ers developing in accelerated tempos; . g) comparative studies of the effect of gibberellins and auxins on the plants; h) examination of the mechanism of the effect of gibberellins on the mechanism of plants; . 1) studies of the most favorable doses and best methods of treatment of various plants; J) indispensable t4;sting'of growth substances on all the above points under production conditiont along with the experimental. Suchsis-the far from full enumeration of questions end problems, that arise in.serious and deep study of gibberellins. LITERATURE: Rrasillnikov, N. A. (1958). Soviet "gibberellin". Vestn. AN SSSR, Krekulep In and Martinovska (1958). Effect of gibberellic acid on the development of Triticum and Panicum. Sot. Diurnal, 7. Chimicheskie tredstva eashchity rastenli (Chemical Means for Plant Protection], 3. (1958) Challakhien, Kh. (1957). Effect of.gibberellins on and flowering of plants. DAN SSSR, 6. Chailakhien, M. Rh. (1958a). Chemical stimulators for and flowering of plants. Sot. Zhurnal, 7. Jabute, T. and Hayashi, T. (1939). Biochemical studies on fungi of the rice. Bull. Agr. Chem, Soc. Japan, 15. the growth the growth nbakaneen Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 A Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 to Trans. A-1097 StodoIa, F. H. and others (1955). The microbiological production of cibberellins A and X. Arch. Biochem. and Blophys., 1. Received at the editorial office on August 20, 1958. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 vsig Razumov, V. 1., and Gibberellin I vozmozhnoa rastenievodstve [Gibberellin end the possibil t utilisation in plant growing polszovani Vestnik Sellaltokhosielstvennoi Matadi vol. 4, no. 9, p.68-78. September, 1959. 20 v633 (In Russian) A eubs.tance, producing an unusually strong effect o was discovered in Japan over thirty years ago; Itis sec a fungus Gibberella fujkuroI, parasitizing on rice. Later on 411 (in 1939) this substance was Isolated In a crystalline for in connection with this * wide possibility arose for examining its ef- fect on many physiological functions of plant organisms. Never- ? theless, It was only during the last 3.4 years, in different countries of the world, that wide research on this preparation. was unfolded. The obtained results turned out to be unexpected and striking. It was found out that ibbe el n not only stimu- lates the division end growth of plant cells Speeding up the growth of different organs of'plants, t elso disturbs the state of rest in seeds end tubera, as well es accele tes the develop. p1 tee by ment of certain plants. it IGqulte apparent that the research on the effect of gibberellin on the plant organism will permit to seso uzny natiuanvods EAU-Union Institute of Plant Industry Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1098 study the life of plants deeper., it is assumed, along with this, that with the aid of gibberellin it will be possible to increase . the yielding capacity of certain agricultural plants. im'asmuch as gibberellin is produced-by a parasitic fungus,. one can assume that this substance is foreign to the plant and Its reaction must 'be regarded as purely pathological. Yet, at the present time one can hardly consider such an opinion as well- grounded. The matter is that research of microbiologists has ascertained the presence of fungi and yeasts which secrete gibberel- lin-like substances (2) in the Soil near the root system. Apparent- ly these substances can be absorbed by the root system and enter the plant tissues. ,And what is more, In the developing seeds of beans (13,'35) end of certain pumpkin plants (30) a substance was ? discovered which issimilar in its physiological effect to gibberel- ?, lin. All this compels one to think that gibberellin is a substance that is not foreign to plants. On the contrary it, probably, takes part In several Important physiological processes. Other- wise it would he difficult to understand the causes, owing to which gibberellin is able to influence such diverse and crucial processes of the metabolic activity of plants. The piesent report has as its elm to throw light briefly upon certain results, obtained An the experiments on the use of gibbertl- lin, chiefly by foreign researchers. Declassified and Approved -For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-I098 mETmop OF REACTION OF GIBBERELLIN ON THE PLANT , Fungus Oibberella fujikurok secretes into the medium, in which it is cultivated, at least three substances t Gibberellin Ali Gib- berellin A2 and gibbereilic acid. The later one is the most :active physiologically, although all the this* substances are alike in their effect. They dissolve well in alcohol and water.. ando.thereforei water solutions are usually used for reaction upon a plant. [Begin p.69] The method for introduction of gibberellin is very simple. It is either introduced into the soil in large concentrations, since a considerable pert of it Is absorbed by the soil, or is applied directly to the plants; this is done much more often. The means for influencing the plants with gibberellin are different. They come'to the following methods* .1) application of e drop of solution (mixed with a moistener) on the top or side bud; 2) application of gibberellin in lanolin to the bud; 3) spraying of the plant, most often of the top bud-and nearby leaves; 4.) dipping of leaves with a removed tip (for a better absorption) into a,- solution of -gibberellin or submerging of tubers and seeds.into solution of the preparation; 5) injection of the solution into the ? ? stem of the experimental plant with the aid of an injector. In* field experiments only the spraying of plants from a sprayer is ? practicable. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-I098 Concentrations of the solution differ, depending on the crop and .the purpose that the researcher has in mind. Weak coil- centrations (10-100 mg per 1 L) with a single or double reaction produce stimulation of the growth of stems and leaves. A daily treatment during the course of 30-50 day, with a solution, con., taming about 200-1,000 mg of gibberellin per 1 L, is required In order to make genie biennial'placits bloom during the first year of plintifig.. In order to increase the percent of setting of fruit in eurantiacette the solution of 250-1,000 mg Per 1 L.'s active, while in respect of grapes, for the same purposes, Just 5-100 mg per 1 L are sufficient. A still smaller concentration of the solution is ? sufficient for a change of morphology of an ivy leaf or for in- creasing the petals in the geranium flower (10 mg.per.11ter). Ef- fectiveness of utilization of-gibberellin depends greatly on the age of the plant. The treatment of plants.at an early age is much. more .effective. ? Let us examine briefly those reactions of plants, which can be produced by the use of gibberellin. Elongation of the stem is the most characteristic reaction of plants to the use of gibberellin. Marth (36) describes the results of research that was conducted with 49 different plants. All of them reacted to gibberellin with the lengthing of the stem. Certain kinds (beans, aurantlaceae seedlings, tomatoes) increased the length of the stem by 3-6 times, while others (spruce, pins tree, gladioli) very insignificantly. Vary interesting research is described with Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (5) ? _Trans. A?1098 genetically dwarfplents (mutants) of peas (I0)vMsise (42), tomatOes (44). Dwarf plants attained to size Of normal plants - as a result of treatment. It. $s true* the reaction of plants was not fully unanimoue.. Frap among 6 corn plants four reaCted.positive- ly* while two other Plants remained dwarfs.- One'can force, with the aid of gibberellin, the bushy forms of .beans to produce winding stems,' which increase their lentth by several times as compared to the control. In one of ruch everiments (SO) the height Of the control plants was '7 a, while of the ? experimental - 112 cm. The'same reaction is peculiar also to seedlings of tree varieties; thus* for instance* aucalyptuses, in 411 the'control* had a length of 12 cm, While those treated with gib- kerellih'- 47 cis (49). a One can influence both the vegetating plants as well as the deeds for the stimulation of. the item growth. The plants of. dwarf peas (37)* grown from seeds that were soaked in a gibberellin -solution* increased their growth- when compared With the control plants. tBegin p.701 ' The rate of reaction to the treatment with gibberellin is determined to a considerable degree by the conditiOn of plant (owing. Thus* in peas the height of stems* in growing them under conditions of a ',94-hour day (when usually the growth is inhibited): Increased mOre.intensely*.under the effect of gibberellin* than of those cultivated during the long*, 18-hour dey (54). Observa- tions of several researchers of the growth of plant; that were treated with.oibberellin and crown at reduced temperatures (10-13?)i. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (6) Trans. A-1098 which areunfavorable for the growth, are quite substantial.' It proved-to be, that gibberellin as If widened the temperature range ? of growth. The forage grasses, treated in the early spring, began to grow'actively? while on-the control sections no growth was discovered yet. The treatment of seeds pi peas and beans with, gibberellin, and their planting at reduced -temperature, speeds Up the appearance of sprouts very much MI. If these ObterVations will be confirmed on a large number of crops, then a possibility will arise for obtaining early young growths after early plantings, which will be important tor the control of weeds and for widening of the range of the vegetation peried. Spreadino out of leaves. The *lee and number of leaves usually Increased along with the elonoation of the stem under the. ?influence of thegibbers114ft treatment of plants:. Thus, es a result of treatment, the leaves Of cucumbers covered an area of , while the control.--9.2 Units (26)'. Sitilar_obeervations were Conducted on potatoes (23), 15arley (27) and other plants. Increase-of the size of the leaf area was also recorded-in the-, work with cuts of leaves that were floating over the solution Of gibberellin or water (27). Often there was no increase in weight of leaves during the. increase of the leaf area, as they became thinner, the contents of chlorophyll in them becoming reduced. No intensification of - the process Of eynthesiS was noted in leaves that were treated ill - with g1Pperellin (23, 21). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A4098 ? Several ofthe researchers mention that the increase of leaf area was recorded in far from all plants under the effect of gib- berellin. Sometimes the gibberellin treatment led to sharp changes in the morphology of the leaves. The leaves of tomatoes changed from complex to simple ones (45). In the work of Robbins (47) a .branch of the adult ivy plant,.having mature leaves, after treat- ment with gibberellin (10 mg per 1 L), produced a shoot, which was strongly colored with anthocyan and bore leaves Airith three lobulest such leaves are characteristic for the juvenile phase of ivie develop- ment. Crescent lanceolate leaves, characteristic for adult trees (49), formed on one-year seedlings Of eucalyptus under the effect of-gibberellin treatment-(100 mg-per 1 L).. As we see, one and the same preparation produces a different ,effect on plants, causing-on some the appearance of juvenile forms of leaves on adult plants, while in others - formation of leaves, characteristic for adult trees, on seedlings. -Channes,of other orpans of plants. Under the influence of flower buds in certain plants - geranium (54), ground ivy (43) - the size of the. corolla can increase at the expense of the growth of petals. In cucumbers MO, treated with gibberellin and growing on a soil, welt fertilized with nitrogen, the number of male .e flowers, pr4ceding the formation of the female flower; increases. Abiterility of male flowers is produced (39) In torn plants after treat- mentor immature inflorescences the site of 6-7 cmlwith gibberellin (1,000 mg per 1 L). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) . - Trans. A-1098 Treatment of plants with gibberellin leads not alone to spreading out - elongatioi of the already existing cells, but it ' also increases the speed .(Beuin p.711 of division of meriste- matic cells of. the cambiogenetic zone (9). It Is Interesting to Mention IriCortniction with this, that the tissues of the callus of the carrot, cultivated omen artificial nutrient medium, grew more intensely .in the case When gtbberellin was added to the medium (7). Addition of gibberellin to nutrient media is used for cultivation Of plant tissues (40)? for growing embryos removed from seeds (24), for germination of ripe pollen (15) and its development in iso- lated anthers, beginning with the stage of maternal cells of microipores to the formation of tetrads.(51). Gibberellin stimulated, In most cases, the growth and develop- ment of the studied objects, n TREATMENT WITH OIBBERELLIN AND YIELD OF PLANTS If, as a result of treatment of plants W4th gibberellin, the growth of steis and leaves was stimulated, did this cause'an . Increase of dry weight of these plants every time? -Results of research give a contradictory answer to this question. Stimulation of growth and, at the same time of yield, depends in many repects on the choice of the correct dose of treatment and on the provision of plants with the flaw of nutrient substances. In the experiments with beans (50) the dry weight of control.plants comprised 2 g, of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. .A.4098 thote treated every 5 days with .gibberellin (50 mg.per.1 1.) 2.1 gi and of those treated daily - only 4.5 g. Several authors observed en increase ln.the.y4eld of vog0a tattye mass of forage grasses as a result of treatment'of pinnts with gibberellin, particularly in meadow grass (17, 24, 31, 36). It is posOble to increase the yield of the first mowing of grasses 1.54.2 times (31) by combining the treatment of plants with gibberel- ling (277 g per .1 ha) with fertilisers.' The folloWing moWinbs'can be high also, after i'repeated treatment. If one does npt do - that, then the yield will be lower, than on the control sections (38). Nevertheless the. rate of the yield of forage grasses, depends on the combination -of doses and dates-of treatment with gibberellin with dates of harvests and introduction of top dressings. Where- upon, the question remains 1 unsolved about the ability for over- wintering of gressesi which were treated with gibberellin during the summer. There is a reason to suppose that the ability for over- wintering of forage grasses will be strongly reduced after re- peated treatments with gibberellin. In the work of Wittwer (54) it 'Ii reported about the increase . In yield of several vegetable crops (celery, tomatoes, peas, beans) as a result of their treatment with gibberellin. Information about potatoes is contradictory. There are re- ports of both the positive (23) as well as negative (24) effect of - .treatment of potato plants with gibberellin on the yield of tubers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1098 Data, obtained In the Laboratory of Physiology of the All. Union Institute of Plant Industry, In 1958, In experiments with the wild variety of potatoes S. demissum, show that treatment of planta with week solutions of gibberellin leads to a. reduction of yield Of tubers,' Moreover, the higher the concentration of the solution was used the More was the weight of the tubers reduced. Potatoes. were grown at a 12-hour day (table 1). 'According to data of foreign authors, experiments with corn, sugar beets, barley, rye, and wheat (for grains). did not Produce any expected increase in yield. Nevertheless, this does not yet form 6 basis for a categorical- [Begin p.72]: conclusions:. (Text continued after table 1) ? Table 1 Effect of gibberellin an the growth and tuber formation of potato. AJausjx.s uz vris wLzu yarzety z. camissum ? Concentration of oibberellin* Height (cm) Dry weight (g) leaves try weight of tubers (p) stems o - 15 0.64. 2.0 16.4 . 0.1 mg/I.. 15 0.59 2.02 - 15.3 1 " 16 0.47 1.22 13.9 ? 10 " 20:- ', ? 0.62 .1.25 -11.1 100 " 29 ? 0,75 1.20 8.4 - *Spravina was condacted 7 times in every two days. - Corn reacted positively to the treatment with gibberellin in experiments of 1. V. Mosolov (3); the yield of ears in the ex., periment proved to be by 143% higher than In the control; the yield of green mass of clover after treatment with gibberellin increased by 150%. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - (11) Trans. A-1098 Quite definite results were obtained on several crops In treat- ing flowers and fruits at the beginning of their formation. L. Rappaport:(45) treated floral racemes of tomatoes.with a solu- tion of gibberellin (1 mg per i and obtained 114. fruits on a plant, while on the control plant there were only three. A. Persson and L. Rappaport (41) conducted experiments with tomatoes, which had sterile pollen. There were 0.7 specimens of parthenimarpic in fruits that set ivAthe control, while after spraying With gib- berellin (500 mg-per 1 L) there were 15 specimens per plant. Effec- tiveness of treatment with gibberellin for obtaining partheno- carpic fruits in tomatoes is Indisputable. .At the same time while quantitatively the yield Increased,, neverthaless, the size of 111 fruits of experimental plants was somewhat smaller than of the ueual fruits. ' Treatment of flowers of pears and figs with 'gibberellin (25- . 100 mg per 1 L) gave very noticeable increase In the number of fruits. The treatment with gibberellin (250.4,000 mg,per it). was very effective in the sense of increase of the number of fruits - of lemons, tangerines and oranges.. Spraying of almost ripiufruits- of the aurentiaceae lends to the increase JA them of vitimin C. The most astonishing Conclusions, as the result of treatment with gibberellin, were obtaiiied on fruits of grapesj this is seen from the work of Weaver (52) after treatment of flowers and of fruit, which were Just set, of the seedless variety "Korinka chernalan tplack currants] with the solution of potassium salt of gibberellic ? acid (table 2). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040601-5 (12) Trans. A-1098 ? Table 2. Bffect of gibberellin on the weight Of berries and bunches of cranes Control (without Treatment with ibberellin - Indices, treatment) 1 mg 74 m. S. m Weight of?A berry 0.26 0.? 0. . 1. 1 1411.101...94i.A110,.........L.91.6 , 206J. 36,6 00 g n p. Title of figure 1. Bunches of grapes,. variety, ? Black currant: A - of the untreated can ' trol plant; B - ringed, but untreated with ' ? gibberellin; C -' without ringing but treated%11ththe solution of gibberellin ('mg per 1 1.); D? - without ringing but treated ? with the solution of gibberellin (20 mg per liter) As it is seen from the'tabli, the Weight of the fruit and of the bunch increased-by:5 tIMeititen'compared with ? the control (figure 1).,. Correspondingly the yield of grapes in- creased from each bush. -Felling off of fruit is 'absent after ? treatment, the bunch fortes more loosely and this reduces diseases. About the sans 'result, was obtained with varieties that have seed's-. ? One can conclude from the above cited that the yield of certain egricultural'plents-caA be Influenced by_means of gibberellin. BREAKING THE REST PERIOD?OF SEEDS AND BUDS. , WITH THE AID OF GIBBERELLIN During the progress of selection work, and sometimes under . ? conditions of agricultural production it is sometimes .necessary to u35 for planting the newly gathered seeds or ttibers, Which are as yet in a' state of rest. Nevertheless, the.recommended methods ?for breaking the state of rest are not sufficiently effective. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400640001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1098' L. Rappaport, with coauthors (4.6), working in California aimed at receiving two yields of potatoes per year; for this purpose the second planting was dime with the newly harvested tubers. Oibberellin was utilized for the overcoming of the period of rest. Tubers, which were submerged for 5 minutes into the solutioh ? ? (SOO mg of the preparation'per 1 L), germinated uniformly and fast, Whereupon all the eyes, present on the tuber, sprouted; this led to the formation of multiple-stemmed buthes of potatoes (figure 2): in the work, carried out in Netherlands in the city .of Vageningen (19); nine different varieties of potatoes were tested. A:fast and Uniform sprouting was recorded for tubers . treated with gibberellin. In the Laboratory of Physiology [Begin p.710. Of Plasits of the AllAinion Institute of Plant Industry (Ts.M. Mashes) newly harvested tubers of eight different.varie- ties were sprouted. Tubers were selected with a different length of the period of rest - from 35.to 412 days. On the 20th day after treatment with gibberellin (solution in water 0.004%, length: 30 minutes) all the Potato varieties had sprouts of,from.1 to 6 cm. Varieties with a long period of rest had thicker end stronger . sprouts than the varieties with a shorter period of rest (table 3). Title of figure 2. Sprouting of potato tubers, Kathadin varietyl On the left - untreated tuber, on the right gibberellin treated. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A.-1098 'Tfhle Speed Of sprouting of newly harvested potato tubers after their treftment wItn gincerelLin -......,.......................... ' Varieties Length of the period of rest (days) - . Size of after treatment the sprout (mm) on ' '-ah day. 12th day- Arran Banner ' 112 12 35 Arran Consul- 112 12 60? Majestic 112 Brigitte 110 0 4 47 Britta ' 63 . 1 15 Lorch 3 13 Erstling' ..gZ . : 6 Eigenheimer 35 ._- ig 16 The conducting, in-southern regions-of-USSR, of comparative L. test by planting two-harvest varieties of potatoes and of the ? newly-harvosted tubers of common varieties, treated with gibberel- lin, was of unquestionable interest: It IS possible to Use's gibberellin treatment of.female plants before harvesting the yield in order to break the period of rest in potato tubers., According to the report of L. Lippert (32), . the treatment of plants with. gibberellin .(500 mg per.14er), 4.weeks. ? before harvesting gave better resulti. In certain cases the _possibility for obtaining misshapen . ttlbers is not excluded after gibberellin treatment of potato plants. Spouting of most of the eyes on the already formed tubers occurs under female bushes. The eyes that sturted growing dn not form a sprout, but a stolon?.which,carries a young tuber. As a result of this a mass of young daughter tubers are produced (figure 3). Conditions, under which such deformities occur, are not ,ascertained. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 -(15) * Trans. A-4098 It is supposed (32) that this occurs in using gibberellin in a con- centration 10 mg per it. Date of experiments, C'onducted in the Laboratory of Physiology of the Ail-Union Institute of Plant in- dustry, show that the time of treatment is of great importance in obtaining of suchmalformations. If the treatment of plants is con!?.i.c. ducted during the period of the beginning of formation of tubers, then the deformities occur, while a later treatment (1.0 days after ? the-endof blooming) does mit produce any misshapen tubera. [Begin p.751 Title of figure 3. Character of tuber sprouting in the soil after foliar application of gib- berellin to femaleplants. Gibberellin treatment for the purpose of breaking the rest period it applicable not onlyrto potatoes, but also to the bud, of many tree and fruit varieties. It is known that Peach plante, after leaf fall, require a temperature +70 during the cOurst of not less than 27 days, since without this cooling the leaf buds cannot open normally. In growing ,the'plents,which lost their leaves; in warmth, it was succeeded to compel the resting buds to start growing by treating them once with a gibberellin solu- tion. (4,000. mg per 11.).. But, if the peaches. have already Obtained a certain cooling (18 days out of the required 27), then C weaker concentration of gibberellin - 10 mg per 1 L - can be active. The author makes a conclusion about the possibility of growing peach ? trees, using gibberellin, In more southern, warmer regions; where Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) , Trans. 44.4098 7_ they are not cultivated now. Clear results were obtained in expert- milts with Japanese camellia (33) and pine (Pinus elliotti - which, when grown at a short day, very soon enter a deep rest. - Tbis rest period can be broken, without changing the length of day, by treating the plants with a gibberellin Solution. Experiments with tree peony (6) proved te be successful. It requires temperature of 1-10? during the course of at least 3 months for Its. sprouting. It was possible to break the state of rest, excluding the cooling, but treating these plaints with gibberellin (100 mg per liter). Experiments are known of overcoming the rest in seeds of many crops. Seeds of apple (Malus Arnoldiana) re- quire stretification during the courts of 30 days. They can sprout also without stratification, but in this ease the seedlings pro- duce a rosette'form. Gibberellin treatment (10.mg per -1 L) provides an active growth .of the stem in height without the stratification of seeds (5). Lettuce seeds sprout better in the light and badly In darkness, but they germinate well in darkness after gibberellin treatment of. 100 mg per 1 L 125). G. Shamsiev, in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of the institute of Plant Industry, conducted experiments with barley varieties, which possess a-well-expressed period of after - harvest ripening. The seeds were harvested and sprouted during different phases of ripeness, as well as.were sprouted.after dif- ferent periods of their storage'. The age of Seeds was figured from the moment of their heading. The seeds were grown in Petri dishes Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ( 17) Trans. A-1098 - over filter paper, which was moistened with water (control) or gibberellin solutions of 200 mg and 20 mg per liter. Dependence of the speed of seed germination on their age was clearly shown in the control'. Sprouting of seeds on gibberel- ? lin solutions occurred very quickly, but in. this case also the speed of their sprouting depended on the Age of the seeds. Gib- . berellin cannot produce a uniform sprouting of barley seeds, which 'were harvested from plants on the 31-48 and Degin p.761 even on the 101 day after heading. Such seeds are not ready for sprouting in their physiological state and their treatment with gibberellin cannot produce full germination. Besidee that, the seeds of the 411 same variety of barley were sprouted over water and gibberellin solution (0.2,1) at a temperature of 10? and 200. The newly har- vested seeds sprouted more uniformly in the control at 10?.. It is known that the reduced temperature is favorabie for the germina- tion of, seeds that are in a state of after4larvest ripening. The same dependence on-the:temperature was retained also In sprouting 'the seeds over the gibberellin solutiOn. Constquently,.Ma this case also, gibberellin did not subatitdte fully those conditions which are favorable for the sprouting Of newly harvested Seeds, but only speeded up the process of germination. ? Acceleration of the development of plants with the use of gib- berellin has been mentioned by many researchers. The American scientist, A. Lang (29), in 1956, caused a flowering in Planta Of 411 - the winter race of henbane under conditions of .increased temperature -Trre T-et'alts were olotained with the early variety of carrots ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013109/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 '(18) Trans. A-I098 (29), with campanula (14), endive (22), erabidopsis (48). It appeared that gibberellin possesses One more physiological charac- teristic - to replace vernalization of plants. Nevertheless, this Is far from being so as the subsequent research has shown. All the attempts to force the typical. winter ryes and'wheats (28) or the biennial plants of sugar baste, which acquired a greet "extent of winter crop qualities" rstepene ogimostil (16) to form spikes with the aid of gibberellin proved to be without results. The report of Wittwer (53) merits attention; he treated the t? plants of Cabbage, of turnips, rutabaga end other biennial plants with gibberellin at a temperature of 10-13? and 18?. The flowering of experimental plants was noted at 10?, but no flowering was ob- served at the temperatureof.18*.notwithatandin the strong e/onga- tion of stems Of plants that were treated'with gibberellin. In a later work (54) Wittwer points out that it is absolutely necessary to grow them at a reduced temperature (10?) In order to compel the biennial plants to flower under the effect of gibberellin. Ap- parently, gibberellin itself cannot replace vernalization, but it can speed it up under such conditions when the process pro- ceeds'very ,The results are approximately the same from the use of gib- ? berellin in respect to plants of a long-day. If such plants are grown at a short day, they do not flower and do not form spikes. Flowering of certain plants of this group is possible under condi- tions of a. short day with a gibberellin treatment. Such results ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 k. ? -Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1098 were obtained'on plants of spring henbane (28), catchfly, nip-. plewprt (28), conef lower (fludbeckle) (4a 12, PPM (34). Spring , rye (28), 'Oats, cornflower, chamomile (Acthusa Cynapium - 34) .-and others do not react to gibberellin 'treatment and remain in a . vegetative state under conditions of a short day. -AA At.is teen from all the above said, plants of a long day behave differently after t.gibberellin treatment..-One'shOuld point out, that all the plants of 'a short day do not accelerate development if they ere.treated with gibberellin and are grown under conditions of a long day.. Regardlessk-of..the opinion of certain authors (11), the accele- ration of developmentof plants is by no means a generel'reaction -under the effect of gibberellin. Only aAlmell number of plants, in graving them it-a certain length of the day (a tittle below ? than the critical.length Of.the.daY4, can 'respond 0 the gibbereT- lin treatment by an acceleration Of flowering. 'One 'can make the following conclusion by summing up the above cited: gibberellin is a physiologically active substance, which influences a series of very important physiological processes. In this respect the, research [DeginP.77) on the use ofgibberel-. lin presents ajmeat scientific interests' since it 'opens up pos- sibilities for penetrating deeper and perceiving many arucial pro- cesses in the life of plants. At the same time some possibilities open up in the use of gibberellin also for the purpose of its practical use in plant industry. Nevertheless, it is necessary. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1098 in this direction to conduct research for establishing exact doses In gibberellin treatments and of those conditions of growing, which can produce the desired effect. LITERAIURE 1. Breehnev, D. D.Iflfluen?of gibberellin on the growth and development of plants. "Vestnik Selfskokhoziaistvennoi Naukin, no. 10, 1958, p.15-22. 2. Rrasillnikov, N. A. Soviet gibberollin. "Priroda", no. 7, 1958, p.81-84. 3. Mosolov, I. V., Mosolovs, L. V. and Demchinskala, M. 1. - Effect of gibberellin on the growth sad development of plants. "Udobrenie I Urozhain,. no. 11, 1958, p.I1-16. 14. Challakhlan, M. Rh. Effect of gibberellin on the growth and development of plants. "Botanicheskil Zhurnaln, vol. 43, no. 7, 1958. 5. Barton, ?1" V.- Growth response of physiologic dwarfs of arnoldishe Sary to gibberellic acid. Contrib. of the Boyce Thompson Inst., 1956, v. 18, N. 8. 6. Barton, and Chandler, C..- Physiological and morphological effects of gibberellic acid epicotyl dormancy of tree palooy. Contrib. of the Boyce Thompson Inst., 1957, v. 19, $2. 7. Bergman. L. - Einfluss von gibberellin auf des Wachstum von Oewebekulturen des Callus von Daucus carota. Planta, 1958, 'Bd. 51# Rf. 1, pp.70-73. 8. Bourdeau, P. F. - Interaction of gibberellic acid and photoperiod of the vegetative growth of Pinus 'Bilotti. Nature, 1958, v. 182# N 4628, p.118. 9. Bradly M. V., and Orone, J. C. - Oibberellin stimulated cam- ? bial activity in stems of apricot spur shoots. Science, 1957, v. 126, N 3280, pp.962,973. 10. Brian, P. W., and Hemming. - The effect of gibberellin acid on shoot growth of pea seedlings. Physiol. Plantar, 1955, v., ant., 669.671. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans. A-1098 24. Aim' J., und'PfAff, C. - Uber Gibberellin Sure.. Ztschr. . fur PflanzenernEhr. Ming. Bodenkunde, 1958, Bd. el, N. 2. P.133-141. 25. Kahn, A., and Goss, J. A Effect Of gibberellin on germination 'of lettuce seed. Science, 1958; 125, N 3249, pp.645-646. 26, Kribben, F. - Gibberellin-silUre und Blattwachstum. Die Naturwiss., 1957; 44;AL-15, p.429. 27. Kuraishi, S. and Hashimoto,- T. - Promotion of leaf growth ? and acceleration Of item elongation by gibberellin. Bot. Mas., Tokyo, 1957, v. 70, N. 826* pp.86-92. ? 28. Lang, Am Gibberellin and flower formation. .Die Naturwlas., 1956,0, H. 21, pP.544-545. 29. Lang, Am - Induction of flower formation in biennial Hyoscya- mus by treatment with gibberellin. Die Naturwist., 1956, H. 12; pp.284-285. 30. Lang, Am, Sandoval, J. A., and Bedvi, A, - Induction of bolting and flowering in Hyoscyamus end Samolus by a gib, ? berellin-like materidl from a seed plant. Proc. of Net. Acad. of Un. Stat. Amer., 1957, v. 43, N 11* pp.960-964. 31. Leben, C.-- Effect of gibberellic acid on growth of Kentucky bluegrass. Science, 1957, v. 125, N 3246. Lippert Systematic induction Of sprouting in white potatoes by foliar applications of gibberellin. Plant 'Physiol. 1958, v. 33, N 2, pp.132-133. . 33. Lockhart, ?J., and Bonner, J. - Effects.of gibberillic acid on the Photoperiod controlled growth of woody plants, Pleat Physiol. v. 32; 145, PP1492-494, 3144 Lone, T., and Boechi, A. - Sviluppo vegetato e riprodUative di alcune longidiurne in rapport? all' azione delle,acido gibberellico. Nuovo glorn..BOtanico, Italiano, 1956; v.63, N 35, Plac Millen, J., and Suter, P. J. - The occurrence of gibberel- lin A2 in plants Isolation the seed runner bean (PhaseOlus multiflorus). Die Naturwiss., 1958, v. 45, H. 2, p.46. . 36. Marth, P. C., Audit', W. V., and Mitchell, J. W. - Effect of gibberellio acid On growth and development of plants of various genera and species. Satan. Gat., 1956, 118, pp.106-112. 32. Declassified and Approved For Release 2913/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? -(21) Trans. A-1098 11. Brian, R. W. - Role of gibberellin-like hormones in regula- tion of plant-growth and flowering. Nature, 1958, V. 181, N 46161, Pp.1122-1123. - 12.'Bunnow, Bo, und Harder, K.- Blutenbiidung won Adonis und .Rudbekla durch Oibberellin. Naturwiss. 1957, V. 444 H. 16. 13, Bunsow, K., Penneri J., und Harder, K. - Blumenbildung bet Bryophyllum durch.Extrakt aus Bohnensamen. Naturwiss. 1958 V. 45. H. 2, PP.46-47, 114. Carr,'D. J., Mc Comb, A. J., and Osborne, L. D,, Replacement of the requirement for vernalisation in Centaurium Minus Mvench by gibberellic acid. Die Naturwlas., 1957, v. 44,-.H. 15, ? PP.428-429. IS. Chandler, C. The effect of gibberellic acid an girminntion and pollen tube growth. Contrib. of the Boyce Thompson Inst. 1957, v. 19, N 2, 0.215. 16. Compbell, O.K. O..- Some responses of sugar beet to gibberel- lic acid. , Publ. Inst. Internat. flitch. Bett., 1958, 21 at. Corns, tt. 0. - Effects of foliage treatments with gibberellin In forage yield of alfalfa. -Kentucky bluegrass and winter wheat. Canad..Journ?Plant Sc,, 1958,-v. 38, N3 PP.314-319. 111 17? 18. Donoma, C. W. and. Walker, D. K. - Effect of gibberellic acid on breaking of rest period in Marta peach. Science, 1957, v. 126., N 3284, Pp.1178-1179: 19. Doorenbos, J. - Effects of gibberellic acid on sprouting of potatoes. Netherlands JoUrn. of. Agric. Scf., 1954,v. 6, PP.267-271. ? f' 20. Dure, L. S.,.and'Jensen, W. A.. - The influence of gibberellic acid and indoleacetic acid on cotton embryos cultured in vitro. Botan. Oez., 1957, V. 118, N 44 Pp.254-261. .21. Haber, A. H., and Talbert, N. E. - Photosynthesis in gib- berellIn'treated leaves. Plant Phyatol.. 1957, v. 32, N 2- 22. Herrington, J. E., Rappaport, L. fluence of gibberellins on stem endive. "Science", 1925,-1957. 23. Humphries, E. C. - The effect of on the growth of Majestic potat v. 4(1, N 3, PP.346-351. ? and'Hood, R. J. 4. The in- elongation and flowering of pp.601-602. gibberellic acid and kinetin o. Ann. Appl. Biol., 1958, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 :'CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , /runs. A...a098 37. Moore, T. C. - Effect of gibberellic acid-on the growth of pew seedling when imbibed through the seed coat. Nature 1958, v. 181, N 4607, p.500. : 38. Morgan, D. C., and Mtge, G. G. Gibberellic acid and the growth of csiop'p1ants. Journ Agric. Sol., 1958, v. 50, pp.li 49-59. 39., Nelson, P. M., and Rosimano.E. C. - Chemical induction of malt sterility In inbred _maize by use of gibberellins. Science, 1958, v. 127, N 3313, pp.1500-1501. 40. Nickell, L. - Gibberellin and the growth of plant tissue culture* Nature, 1956, v.-181, N 4607, PP.499-500. 41. Persson, A., and Rappaport, L. is Oibberellimi-induced systemic fruit set In a male sterittomato. Science, 198, V. 127, N3302. 42? Phinney, B. O. - Biochemical mutants in maize dwarfism and Its reversal with gibberellin. Plant Physiol., 1956, v. 30, 20. 43. Plack, A. - Effect of gibberelLic acid on corolla site. 411 Nature, 1958, v. 182, N 4635, p.610. ? 44. Plummer, T. H., and Tomes, M. L. Effect of indoleacetic acid and gibberellic acid on normal and dwarf tomatoes. Botan. Otte., 1958,-v. 119, N 3, PP.197-200. , 45. Reppaport, L. Effect of gibberellin on growth, flowering and fruit set the Earlypak tomato. Plant Phytiol., 1957, .141 5, PP.440-.444. 46. Rappaport, L*, Bippert? L. T., and Timm, H. - Breaking the rest periOdi with gibberellic acid, Amer, Potato Journ., 19574. v. 34. N 90 47. Robbins, W. - Oibberellic acid and the reversal of adult, Hedera to juvenile state. Amer. Journ. of Botany, 1957, V. 44, N 9, PP.743.q46. 46. Sarkar, S. - Versuche cur Physiologic der Vernalisation. Biol. Zentralbl.; 1958, Bd. 77, H. 1. v. 32 ? 49. Scurf laid, L., and Moor. - Effects of gibbarellic acid on species of Eucaliptus. Nature, 1958, v. 181, N 4618, pp.1276. 1277. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 :.CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (24) Trans. A-1098 O. Thunber, G. A., and Douglas. - Inhibitory effect of gib-. 'berellins on nodulisation in dwarf bean (Phase?lus vulgare). Nature, 1958, v. 181, N 4615, pp.1082-1083. ? 51. Vasil, L. H. - Effect of kinetin and gibberellic acid of ' excised anthers of Allium cepa. Phytemerphology, 1957, Ar? 7, N 2. A 52. Weaver, R. J. - Effect of gibberellic acid on fruit set and berry enlargement in seedless grapes on Vitis. Nature. 11584 v..181, N 4612, pp.851.852. 53 Wittwer, S. H., and Bukovac, N. J. - Oibberellin.effects on temperature and photoperiodic requirements for flowering of some plants. Science, 1957, v. 126,-N 3262. 54. Wittweri S. H. and Bukovec, H. J. - The effects of gibberellin on economic crops. Economic Botany, 1958,-v. 12, N 3, pp.213- 255. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A.-1099 v0/14 ? Damanskeia, ? Sredstvo protiv galiovot .nenato [Means for control of root-knot es iHeterodera radicicola)] Zashohlta Rastenli, vol n Nov./Dec 19$9 (In Russian). Ic ate ne not es 6, ?p.41. 42 zi \ preps ions are uc Ily d for the Contr *worm; Hong these *Wisps is widely advertised. 'soli migant that possesses fungicidal lnsecti- herbicidal and, nenatocidal characteristics. It was used USA and in Holland for the control of citrus and potato nema- todes in Its latter capacily *s preparation is the sodium salt of methyldithiocarbamic acid C 3 ) with specific gravity 1,233 and-active element or 52 (USW end 31% (of imported .production). It is a liquid of yellow color, smelling like barring, causing irritation and burns when it touches the skin; it Is used In the form f a water volution end aft soli is adsorbed quickly by Its par Ici and several other substances arc pr r in roduction into the s. -RethyllsothlocyanIts ducts of Its decomposition. Roots as a neMatocide strictly locally in tI place of introduc- ,tion. 1956, 'I4osstasra tMoacov Plant Pr ducted tests of ."Vapse, of na con.. ye make, in a Mo ow bur.bun Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 .t Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1099 vegetable sovkhos "men! M. Oorlkii" on a crop of tomatoes. Two basic problems were proved: the effectiveness of the 'action on the nematode and the phytocidal character. The preparation was in- troduced by two methods: by surface watering with e,following digging over and smoothing of the sot] or by an Injection through an in- jector to the depth of 12-15 cm With a following covering over of the openings and rolling,of the soil. In the first case doses were tested from 10 to,50 g per 1 m2 and in different concentra tions of water solutions; in the second case - from 20 to 40 g/m2 In a dilution of 2 L of water. In the firat series of experiments the soil was dug over a week later in order to let out the aCcumulcied gases. Tomato 410 seedlings of the variety "Luchshil is vsekhn (The best of all) ? was set out 28 days after treatment of the soil. Tomatoes took root and developed-normally in all the series and variants of the experiment. Taking of stock was conductedtwo months after the beginning At the experiments. Phytocidal characteristics of "Vapamn were taken into consideration only by way of comparing., the growth of stems of plants and the general trend of development of the crop. The content of products of !Vapare in the plant was not examined. The obtained results have shown that the preparation is effec- tive In doses from 20 to 50 g/m2 and does not produce any visible. pathological changes in plants in the process of their growth and development. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 vw4-4 .2 KuchaevZ, A. 0. Primenenie antibiotikov protiv nasekomykh vreditelei rastenii (Use of antibiotic's against insect pests of plants) VZstnik Sellskokhoziaistvennoi Nauki, vol. 4, no. 7, p.138-140. July 1959. 20 V6.33 ? (In Russian) The microbiological method for plant protection was first proposed and tested in our country by I. I. Mechnikov 80 years ago; in the control of the grain beetle, Mechnikov suggested uti- lizing the microbes Bacillus salutarium and Metarhisium anisopliae that are pathogenic for this beetle. In stibisequent years many Soviet as well as foreign investign- . tors demonstrated the desirability of using biological measures . In the control of injurious insecti. Attempts to use microorganisms in insect control did not, however, always culminate in the desired results, because the biological andecological bases of the problem were not fully developed., At the present time there arises the question as to the use of antibiotics in the control of plant pests. We have investi- gated this problem on the 'gypsy moth Porthetria diipar L. which inflicts great losses on agricultural and forestry economics. ? ? . . (InstituE Mikrobiologii AN SSSR) (Institute of Microbiology, . Academy of Sciences USSR) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (.2) Trans. A-1100 In mast propagation, the caterpillars of the gypsy Moth tat the foliage of plantings Which leads to.a loss of the.annual increment and the, drying up of trees. The gypsy moth eats, the leaves of more than 100 plant. species. The more susceptible 'species are oak, apOle trees, maple, mountain ash and others. 10 it-Search for antiblotict-that would produce a deadly effect uptin_the-gypsy moth, we In the fill of 4957 collected its out. positors that were kept in a refrigirator at a 2?-4*.temperature, ft93. In the winterof 1957/.8, caterpillars were developed under laboratory conditiona so 'doing,' it was establithed that they ate the leaves of oak and or mountain ash best of 101. We selected these plants for further ,work. To test antibiotic action exerted upon caterpillar Of the OrMinoth, we took 34 antibiotic preparations of actinoMyCetCy ?bacterial, fungal and Synthetic 'origin. In table '1 are cited, the characteristics and some properties of tbese preparations. The intiNotie substances undergoing tests were pleceafor 12 hours in containerS in the form Of solutions of each antibiotic separately In a concentration of 80.100 unite/ml. Cuttings of plants were 'placed in.the containers with antibiotic solutiOns. The (degree of] antibiotic penetration (Aegin p.139) into ..a plant was calculated by the method which we described earlier a crushed'mass of leaves ,was placed onto the plate (gazon ? a lawn] of the test-culture Staphyllococcus_eureus 209. The experimental - results were estitated after 12-18 hours by the presence or absence 11, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) 'Trans. A..1100 of a depression zone of the test culture encircling the cluster of crushed leaves. Characterization of antibiotic preparations Name of preparation Name of the pre- paration producer Table 1. used in tests Biomycin SyntoMycin LeVomycetin Penicillin Streptomycin Terramycin 111 Phytobicterio- ' mycin Orisemin ?Chloromycetin Erythromycin Tetracyclin (Achromycin) Chloroampheni- coll Viomycin Polymyxin Bacitracin Usnic acid Actinomycin 76 2703 Aft' . Iltparatton 070 Act. aureofaciens Synthetic prepara- tion Act. venezuelee Penicillium nota' ? tum Act. globisporus Act. rimosus Act.lavendulae 696 Act. griseus IS Act. venezuelae Act. erythereus Act. rimosus Act. venezuelae Pct. puniceus var. floridae Each. polymyxa Bacil. subtilus Lichen Act. globisporus Act. globisporus fluorescens Act. globisporus vulgaris ction of pre- *ration in unit olations for taph. aureus 1 000 000 1000 729 2400 2800 800 000 1200 729 , 729 729 2400 1000 1200 27 81 27 10 000 2800 243 Source of prepara- tion Preparations available for sale Moscow Same 40.11-Union Sc.-Res. Inst. of Antibiotics, Moscow Same Inst. of Epidemiology and Microbiology im. Gamalela. Moscow Laborat. of Minist. for Food Indust. Peking National Inst. of Med. Research. London Same ft rt fT Botan. Inst. Azad, Fclen, USSR, Leningrad Inst. of Microbiology, Acad. Scien. USSR, Krasilinikov Lab. Same ft (Table continued on next page] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans,. A-1100 ? iTable : Name of the pre- paration producer ' 1 tontinued frotxulal, Action or pre- paration in unit solutions for Staph. aureus cmg/m1) Source of prepare- tion . ? Name of, Preparation Preparation 1149 Preparation 1706, 1916, 2739 Preparation 119, 194, /19,829, 12050775 Preparation 77, f1-42 Preparation 592, 1040 Preparation WK S Act-. aurantiacus . . . , . Act. griseus - , ? Att.violaceus Act. rimosds . Att. globisporus Act. Lavendulae 1260 80-1800 . 000-10000 1200-1800 270 2100 , Inst. or Microbio- logy, Aced. Scion. USSR, Krasil!nikov .1,40. Seine . . ., . ? tv . . ? . 4 . As a result of analyses it has been clarified that most of the antibiotic preparations penetrated Into the leaves:of.oak and mountain ash and were found there for a period elf 7 days. Those that failed to penetrate leaves were Actinomycin 76, the pri :parations 070,'.1205, 719, 829, 2739 and usnic acid. The ones that , proved toxic for plants were biomycin, terramycin, preparation 2703, and in part grisilin: they cause Wilt or lose of leaf turgor. The antibiotic preparations that were not absorbed by plants ? from the solution were applied to the leaf surface by spraying the ? same concentrations. Plants thus treated remained normal the same as control plants. During the following stage of our work we tried to elucidate the influence of thy antibiotic subitances introduced into plpnts Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved Fo.r. Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (9 _Trans:. ?P-1100 (Begin p.111,0) upon the development of gypsy-moth caterpillars. . '4'e set up these experiments as fellows: Just as soon as the gypsy moth ' caterpillamwere brought out of the eggs, they were transferred (i5-20 specimens) to a breeding place with oak leaves 'treated with antibiotics. The behavior and development of the caterpillars was under observation for 20r251lays.. During the entire experiment oak twigs were changed as the caterpillar ate up the leaves, and every tims.ths (twigs' were treated with the 'appropriate antiblo- ,tics. - 'The'eXperiment*s demonstrated.that-tccording to the action exerted upon the caterpillars, the matibtotiC substance; can. be ? divided into 4. groups (table 2): the first group includes the antibiotics that do not exert any notable' influence upon the develop-, ment of caterpillars; thc second group - those exerting inhibitive action upon the development of gypsy moths, the caterpillars moved with difficulty were sluggish, ate the leaves passively and, toward the end of. the observation, lagged in growth behind controls (controls cm,?exPeriraental 2-3 cm). But all 135 caterpillars _ were alive: The third group includes antibiotics that exert stimu. ' listing action upon caterpillars. The caterpillars that were given such antibiotics moved around, ate the oak leaves quicker than those . in control, and in site they surpassed somewhat control caterpillars. 'Thelburth group includes antibiotics: that exert deadly action upon caterpillars of the gypsy moth. These are preparation 2703 which 0 killed on the average 35% of caterpillarsby the 8th day, actinomycin 76 which destroyed 4614 73Z of caterpillars died from preparation 1205 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. ii-1100 (and] the native liquids 119, 194, 819, 1775. The greatest effect was prOduced by preparation 719 which killed 100% caterpillars on the 6th day. Table 2 ________ Length of : observation 4 (days) _ Number of living 'caterpillars Caterpillars perished (%) ?... ? Characterization of Group ? ?reparation* At begin- ning of ex- periment At end of experiment caterpillars . : . Levomycetin, pen!- streptomy- cin, grisemin, pre4 ',oration 070, chlo. romycetin, erythro. myrin, chloroam- phenicoll, ylomy- cin, polyliaxine, bacitracin, usnic acid, preparations 1916 106 100 20 , ? . 150 175 f.1 caterpillar dovecillin, lopment normal, size 4-6 cm . B omyr n, terra- mycin, syntomyrin, tetracyclin, pre- parations 1149, R-42. 77, 592, WKS , i - $ A caterpi are alive but with poor mobility, sluggish, size 2-3 cm. Iii Phytobacteriomycin, preparation 2739 " 25 40 ' 40 0 Caterpillars ate oak leaves vigor- ously, very mobile, size from 4.5 to, . 64 cm. Preparation 2703 10 40 26 35 Caterpillars with poor mobility, ? Actinomycin 76 10 30 16 46 size 1.5-2 cm. eat leaves slowly rv" Preprations 1205, 119, 194, 829, 1775 " 10 100 27 ? 73 Preparation 719 6 50 50 ' 100 . ' ill Controls 25 60 59 0 Size of caterpil- lars 4-6 cm. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R0142ER01040064660-1-5 .vgri To melt (the plans of) the Plenum of TSR R.P.St5 ICentral Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) (an editorial) Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, no. 6, p.1-3. Nov./Dec. 1959. ' 421 21 - (In Russian) Everywhere, in every corner of the country, hard working man ? in agriculture, as well as all the Soviet people, greet 'the next. Plenum of ?TSK KPSS in a proper manner. Kolkhozes and sOvkhotes successfully completed the plan for selling grain to the State, as well as other products of agriculture; the preparation of ,animal husbandry products was increased considerably. 411. , At the Plenum questions will be raised about further develop- . .ment of agriculture, about a still greeter increase of production of agricultural commodities. In connection with thise'sach powerful reserve as protection of agricultural .crop from pests, dkjeases and Weeds acquires a serious importance. Computations shoW?that this Can give to the .country hundreds .0 millions of poods (pood = 36 pounds) of additional bread and other products. Preplanting treatment of seeds, for example, dependably pro- tects the grain plantings from smut 'and many other dangerous pests. Pccording to data of the Agricultural Institute of Central Regions of the Non-Chernozem Belt (Nemchinovka) use of granosani for this . II/ purpose, produces an increase in the yield of sprinc wheat of 2-3 c Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. 4.-1101 per ha and of barley 3-4 c. Protection of plantings from the bug lEurygasterj, grain moth, Hessian and frit-flies, and Other pests' and diseases would give the possibility for obtaining on the Whole for the country additional stocks of grains not lest than 500-600 million-poOds.tinnually. Of still greater. importance are the measure, for the control of pests and plant disesses in cultivation of technical And vegetable crops, orchards ,end vineyards.- A timely treatment of 'cotton plantings with mercaptophos in order to protect it from the cobweb mite produced an intrease of 3.6 c/ha at the kolkhOS'. "men! Chkalova", Kulbyshevitk reion Tadjik SSA, end at the kolkho? z "Vakhsh"; of the same ralon, over 4 c/ha. Violation of rules of control of the cotton-boll worm, in 1958, was costing many kol- khotes of the Azerbaijan SSR up to-7-8 and More centners of cotton fiber In losses ? per each hectare of cotton plantings. Last year at the kolkhoz "Druthba narOdov", Krasnogvardelsk .raion, Crimean Oblast', the vineyards.were treated for the control of mildew on an area of. n ha and the harvest of 0'4'1)04 obtained was on the average of 99.4 c/ha, while at the neighboring workmen's association "imeni Lenin", where the protection of vineyards was . conducted only partially, over 30% of fruits were infectedlwith, mildew, and the average harvest from an area of 91 ha comprised. only 28.7 c/ha. Control of many pests does not always require the use of Chemical products. There, where the farm is Well cultivated, where 411 fall plowing is conducted properly and in good time, as well as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 16.71 ?8,41118491, ell"Aeiryi ' other agrOtechnical measures are carried out, the losses of harvests are prevented, and the danger of damage by pests to ?plantings is reduced to a great degree. Overrunning of fields with weeds Causes great losses to the 'farm. ACcording to data of the Novosibirsk Agricultural Institute, shortage of spring wheat and other cereals-comprises about one third of the yield, owing to this cause: Of deciding importance here is the cultivation of land, the timely and high quality carry- ing out of agrotechnical_measures, such as the preplanting cleaning of seeds from weeds, plowing and cultivation of fellows, fall plowing, destruction of weed plants on the shoulders of roads, on boundaries, on waste lands. Herbicides find an ever wider use in the control of weeds. Numerous data show that chemical weeding of cereal plantings, at very small (8egin'p.2) expenditures of money and labor, as a rule, provides, an increase in yield of not less than 2-3.c/ha. In 1957, at the kolkhos "imeni Lenina", Nevinomyssk talon, Stavropol krat, as a result of eradication of weeds with herbicides on each of the 5136 hectares of plantings of winter wheat, a har- vest was obtained on the average of 21.3 ciha, while on the fields with similar soils and conditions of tillage, but without the use - of herbicides, the average yield comprised 17.7 c/ha or by 3.6 c/ha less. The increased provision of agriculture-with chemical substances, as well as machines and equipment for their use, the growth of cadres of leaders and specialists at kolkhoses and sovkhoses, as well as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 t Trans. A-110I ? the connectedwith it raising of the general level of dIrganista- tion of production, permitted during the latter years cohsidetably to improve In many regions of the colintry the protection at 'sowings and plantings from pests and diseases. Summing up the results of. their work for the Plenum of 'TSR WS, the agricultural workers can report about many achievements also In the field of control of plant pests and Osiases. During the current year, ais-In the pre-, vidus years, the work on extermination of locust, including also. those that migrated in vast swarms to the territory of Turkmen-SSR from the bordering regions. of Iran, was conducted succeSsfully on an area over 250 thousand ,hectaris. One can, say that this one of the most serious, enemies of agriculturevutose devastating raids, even at the present time,:prodacs'enormous losses in the bordering countries of the Middle East, does not represent a great dancer 'for agriculture of our country.et the present level of equipment of the service for plant protection in USSR. The work On chemical treatment of sowings that Vas carried out in regions of the widest distribution of such dangerous pests of cereals as prygaster integriceps and the grain moth, made it pos- sible to prevent great losses of yield from these pests on an area of more than 5 min ha. ? KoIkhozes and sovkhoges of cotton raising regions did not , ,permit, during the current year, any significant daMages to cotton' plantings by the spider mitt (Tetranychus urticas), which, in re- cent years, carried away 15-20 or more percent of the grown cotton yield. The solving of this problem was helped very much, Of late, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) . Trans.- A-1101 by the increased provision of cotton-growers with the new highly- effective systemic preparation 4. mercaptophos. The agricultural toilers of Azerbaijan SSR provided an effective protection of cotton plantings from the most dangerous enemy. of this crop - the cotton-boll worm (Chlorides obsolete). Use Or new chemical preparations - polychlorpinene, oil emulsions and DDT pastes, in combination with a good organisa- tion of protective work, gave the possibility reliably to guard the plantings of sugar beets from damage by the beet pest (Dothynoderes) and many other insects, which up to the present time caused great losses to plantings of this most valuable crop. Much has been accomplished for the improvement of protection of other technical crops, vegetables, fruit plantings and vine- yards. This has been facilitated to a great degree by the socia- lietic competition for the best protection of the harvest from pests and diseases, which was developed on the initiative of agricultural workers of the Rostov oblast'. Nevertheless, far from everything was done yet. The problems, which were set by the'21st Congress of RPSS, on the increase of production of agricultural commodities, urgently requires further Improvement of the service of plant protection, of carrying out In this field of systematic measures. It is very necessary to establish a certain general State rule for the accomplishment of a minimum of protective and especially of prophylactic works on the extermination of the most dangerous pests and diseases of plants; in the first place of those having the ability for mass reproduc- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1101 ? tion and spreading on a large territory. These functions mutt be performed by the State Service, which must alto carry on the State supervision of .the Completion by all the ferns, institutions,'ind Individual citizens of the Soviet Union of the compulsory measures; for the control of pest* and diseases of plants, talon as weeds. As the, discussions of this problem among the practical workers have shown, the most rational would be the organization of oblast' (kral) station* of plant protettion; the regional instructors 'should be under the stations subordination; there also.should be (depending on the. ecological and other conditions) a necessary number of task forces, non-financed by State, which are equipped ? with machinery and apparatuses. Such task forces, along with carry-, lug out Or work, financed by the State, (Begin p.3) mutt. also provide necessary help, according to agreements, to kolkhoset, ? sovkhozes, collectives of workers and employees, and the owners of Individual *lotions, in the protection Of plants from pests, diseases and weeds. The success of the Job, to a great degree, depends on a further provision of agriculture with reliable and sufficiently -effective means of protection. The agricultural toilers have t right to appeal to the chemical and machine-building: industry, to '.the plannin? and leading organisations, and, first of all, to the Oosplan (State Planning Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR] and to leader* of SovnarkhOzes (Councils Of the National ? Economy] with the request in short time to satisfy the.needs in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1101 effective means for chemical control of pests and diseases of plants and of weeds, in highly-productive and technically precise machines and apparatuses for the use of these substances. In the first place, it is necessary to increase production of fungicides, particularly, granosan, of trichlorphenate of copper, TMTIO (tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to quicker solve the problem about the output of hexachlorobenzene. The chemical industry has all the possibilities and must fully satisfy the requirements of agriculture in polychlorpinene for the control of the beet pest (Bothynoderes punctiventris) and the . and the Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineatals master the ? preparations of diene synthesis, and in the first place of.hepta- chlor, which is extremely necessary for the preparation of combined insecticides and fungicides, as well as concentrates of emulsions, which produce a high effect in the control of many pests of sugar beets and other technical Crops. It is time, finally, to remove the deficiency in chemical substances for the protection of orchards and vegetable crops; for instance, estersulfonatt, carbophos and methylmercaptophos, to organize a wide production of copper oxychlo- ride and zineb, which can replace the very difficultly available copper -sulfate. Special attention must be paid to the provision of agriculture with herbicides, which continues to be on an intolerably low level. It is necessary to guarantee production of 2M-4X,' along with the ? preparations of the type of 2.4-D, dichloral urea, and especially Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A.-1101 0 of symasine and atrasine,- the most effective for the erill1ca0on of weeds in corn plantings: 'While trying to'solve the problems for-provision of agricul- ture with machines And apparatuses for the control of pests and diseases of plants, itis necessary seriously to think' about the reduction of their cost, since the selling prices are yet very high, especially for hand. apparatuses.. The need for introduction into production of flew effective methods and means for the ,control of pests and diseases of plants and weeds urgently pushes forward the question about strengthening the technical and methodical help to kolkhozes and sovkhoses, GO 111 well as to workers and employees, who have personal plots Of land, in the organizatiOn of their crops and plantings. The agricultural. agencies must take care of advising the farming industry and popu- lation about the time for protective work, of wide propiganda'on the achievements of science and Of the leading experience, about new ,chemical substances, machinery and apparatuses. Further improve- ment of provision of agriculture with new, more improved means for control of pests and diseases of plants, and help of the State in .the quickest acceptance of these means, undoubtedly, will help a fuller utilisation of additional reserves for the ftstest increase of production of agricultural commodities in quantities, that will fully satisfy their requirement by the population and by the national economy. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 vg/M Kulibaba,IU. F. Zamenitell bordosskol'zhidkosti (Substitute for the Bordeaux mixture] Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4. no. 6, p.41-42. Nov./Dec. 1959. . , 421 Z1' (In Russian) The new preparation of the basic copper sulfate, developed by VIUIF (Scientific Research Institute of Fertilizers and Insecto- fungicides), was. tested by us, in 198,Oi concentration for. the control of apple scab. The poison chemical is a finely ground greenish color powder, that can be wetted, containing .0.55% of basic copper sulfate (26-32% Cu in conversion to metallic copper), 5% of sulfite liquor, 1% of dextrin and not more then 2% moisture. It advantage over the Bordeaux mixture is in the fact that it is sold ready to be used and Is utilized for spraying plants in the form of water suspensions Without the addition of lime. The solution for the working- liquid is prepared by a simple mixing of the preparation with water. The toxic element is copper In the form of the basic compound 3-CU(0102aCuSO4: The basic copper sulfate does not produce any burns on the apple tree even In a 2% con- centration. The experimental 'orchard (sovkhos "Mikhailbvskil pereval" Gelendthik raion, Krasnodar krai) of an area of 2 hells situated Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 P,I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2), Trans. A-1102' in the Valley ,of the river Doguab. The trees are 30 years old, variety "genet Simirenkon, a thick top of trees, well developed; agrotechnical measures [Begin p.42] are conducted every year. ,Ten trees were taken under the experiment. Half of: them were treated with the new preparation, the other half with the 1% Bordeaux'mixtura (standard). Altogether five sprayings were con- ducted with the aid of ONK [name of a sprayer]: May 31, June 23, July 3, 12 and 25. Forty liters of 1% suspension of copper sul- fate.were used up for each tree. One should mention, that preliminarily, during the period of the green cone (April 10) the apple trees were treated with a 4% Bordeaux mixture. To the moment of the first experimental treat- ment the experimental trees had a mark of 0.1 for scab infection. The effectiveness of the tested preparation was determined by taking into account the scabs on leaves and fruits in the harvest, according to the method of VIZR [All-Union Institute of Plant Protection], by the Chief Scientific Co-worker of the Gelendzhik base of the Station, O. M. Sokolov*. All trees were infected with the scab.' The percent of development of the disaase was as follows (see the table). Date of account in June ? June 26 July 8 ?July 23 On the average 2 Experiment 1.3 15.3 27.3 27.3 , 18.3 Standard 3.3 33.3 33.3 53. 30.6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Oki ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1102 The amount of infected fruits and the degree of their in- fection. in the experiment were smeller (in marks): 0 - 75.5%9 I 17.6%, II . 4.7%, III . 1.9%, IV - 0.31', while in the variant with the Bordeaux mixture: 0 - 41.8%; I - 39.9, II . 6.67r4 III . 6.3% and Iv - 5.4%. The percent of development of the disease on fruits cc,mprised, correspondingly, 8.4 and 23.3w. Thus was established the effectiveness of the basic copper sulfate for the control of apple scab. The washing off of this preparation Is somewhat lower than of the Bordeaux mixture, All this permits recommending it for a wide r,roduction test for the control of scab in pit fruit orchards as a possible substitute of the Bordeaux mixture Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 V9/14 Lipsits, D. V., Khithniak, P. A., and Sasonik, Kh. V. ,Deistvie gaMma-igluchenlia na rak kartofeliia- [Effect of gamma-rays On potato canker] Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, no. 6, p.47-48. Nov./Dec. 1959. 421 Z1 (In Russian) At the present time a great number of investigations is already known about different ways for utilising ionising radiation in agricultural practice: for retardation Of potato sprouting, as mutagenic factors,' for the 'stimulation of growth and develop- ment of the plant, for sterilisation of fruits, vegetables, meat . products and others. Some of the icientiitis iaise-a question, about the use of radiations for disinfection of the soil from pathogenic microor- ganisms. The first such suggestion was made by A. A. Geiro* In respect to the pathogen of potato canker. During the course of two years we studied this problem with the aid of the gamma-emitter Co60, in the form of 12 Cobalt- nickel wires of total activity (on April 27, .1956) of 132 milli- curie. Having first insulated them by thin rubber bags, they were placed in clay containers, filled with soil (mixture of garden soil g. Chernovtsy. lhoesolutnala stantslia po Raku Kartofelia VI2R (City of Chernovtsy. All-Union Station on Potato Canker of the ill-Union Institute of Plant Protection]. 411 * Buill. itobretenii !Bulletin of Inventions], 1957, no, 3, p.59. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A..1103 with sand in a?ratio 1:2), that was inoculated with the canker pathogen (100 g?sporangial powder per g kg of soil). The con- , tainers were placed in a special small house behind massive masonry.. The control containers, which were not subjected.to the radiation, were fitted out in.the same Way. The mdisture content in the con- tainers was maintained at the level of 40-50$:of full capillary ? water capacity, with the exception of the winter time, when waterin6 was stopped. After the end of the experiment the wires' were removed and a.biolOgical testing of the state of the fungus was carried Out, for this purpose the irradiated soil was mixed with 8 times is much of similar soil; Containers were filled with it and potato tubers, of a variety susceptible to canker, were planted there (the first biotest was conducted in standard boxes). . At the first irradiation WO wires were placed into one con- tainer, and further on all the 12, in order to increase the dose of irradiation of the fungus sporangia as much as possible. When calculating the power of the dose*, we utilited the fol- lowing basic formula where D is the dose of irradiation in roentgens at the distance R from the source of irradiation (in cm), t - time in hours, 14 - activity of the source of irradiation (in K - the - '--trffiriathors express their gratitude for the valuable advice to 0 A. I. Zaltsov (Coordination Section of Research on the Application of Atomic Energy in Agriculture, VASKUNIL (All-Union Academy of Agricul- tural Sciences linen! V. I. Lenin] and to S. P. laelishchev (Timiriatev Agricultural Academy) ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1103 constant, showing what power of the dose of gamma-raysi is being created by the point source of radioactive isotope by the activity of 1 millicurie, at the distance of 1 cm in 1 hour's time (for Co" = 13.5). Nevertheless, we bad to introduce into this basic formula severaircorrecting coefficients, which allow for the re. duction of the rays in the soil and by moisture, present in it, as well as a certain decomposition of Co" and scattering of the rays. The layer of sand, 8, 6 cm thick, reduces by two the gamma-rays passing.through it. Consequently, one can consider, (Begin 0.48), with a certain approximation, that in our Case the layer of soil, 7 cm thick, reduced the rays by 1.62 times. Correction for moisture had to be approximate, since In our case it was not strictly con- trolled, and during the cold time of the year, as was said pre- viously, the ,watering Was stopped altogether. Considering that. 1 cm of water was present in the 7 cm layer of soil, and that the ' layer of half absorption of gamma-rays Co60 for water. Squalled 15.7 cm, we obtained a correction value of 1.127. By virtue of the matter that not only direct gamma-ray quanta ("gemma-kvantyn), but also the reflected ones tell on the fungus sporangia, the total intefl. city of the radiation, consequently, must have been increased approxi mately by 20%. Calculation's have shown that after the first ir- radiation.the sporangia of the canker pathogen in direct proximity of the source of radiation, received (in rounded off figures) a dose of 1756 thousand roentgens and at the periphery of the con. , tamer - 20 thousand; after the second irradiation, corresponding.. 1y,% thousand and 62 thousand; after the third - 17,975 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (41 . Trans./1l03 ? thousand and /56 thousand roentgens. Data about results of biological testing f the Condition of the canker pathogen are cited in the table. ?.! ? . . - Time of irradiation. . Dose at the pr1phery of er how- ? sands of roentcens) Experiment ?Control Plants In all Canker infected . _ . Plants in all ' Canker infected July 13, 195b-February 16, 1957 February 16, 1957-June 10, 1957 June 10, 1957.April 30, 1958 . 20 62 ,156_ /5 5 6 6* ? 2 1 0 0 30 r ) . 5 . 6 11 4 3 5 * The biotest was conducted a iecond time. The obtained results indicate, that under the effect.of gamma- rays in a dose above 150 thousand roentgens the canker pathogen already does not infect the tubers of the ;susceptible potato variety. Apparently, the cause of this is in.the loss of the ability to germinate =by the sporangia. We failed, to see, in microscopic examinations, any replier differences between the irradiated sporangia and the nonirradiated. It seems to us that the Obtained data can serve.as initial rnatcrial in the construction of the machine that is intended for the liquidation Of isolated foci of potato canker by the effect of gamma-rays. In it the gammt-emitter must not be made suspended, as A..A. 0eiro has suggested, but in the .form of a cultivator ('freta") or rode that are stuck into thOoll eta depth of 25cm. The ' ?? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I103 weiOlt of the protective arranement for the machine in question will not exceed 4.5 t. iAle should mention., in cinclusion? that the use of amine-rays for sterilization of the soil does not create In it any Induced or residual radioactivity. ',7e intend, latPr on, to define more accurately the effectiveness of amms-rays at dif- ferent temperatures and moisture contentof the soil. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 J-1:11.111W, vg/M Poliakov, I. Ia. Nekotorye itogi prebyvanila Amerikenskoi Entomologicheskoi Delegatsil v snsR [Certain results of the stay of the American :r.ntomological Delegation in USSR) Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, no, 6, p.6a57. Nov./Dec. 1,)59. 1421 Zi (In Russian) The American delegation of stecialists on the protection of plants visited USSR from July 10 to August 9. Its members were: Paul W. :-,sman (heed of the delegaticn ) - President of the Ento- molocical Society of the USA (a :systematic, specialist in the Lomoptera orono), Head of the Section nf Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction, Agricultural Research service of the Depart- ment of Agriculture of the VA; Lev F. Curl 4- Assistant Chief of the Section of Control of Pests, of the Agricultural Research Service of the Department of Agriculture of USA; Herbert L. Eviler, Assistant Chief of Agricultural Research Service (specialist in the use of poison chemicals), Theodore S. Davich, chief of a plant protection station of a Texas colle,e, specialist on cotton; Professor Halbert M. Harris - Chief -ntomologist of the Experi- Aental Station and of the State of Iowa (systematic specialist on Heteroptera croup nd on methods of corn protection), Carl B. huffaker, Associate sntomologist of ti f Section of Eioloilcal Control at the California University (specialist on biological methods of protection from weeds md harmful insects), John V. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 E) Iran'. ,a1Li0.5 Otmun, Head of the Entomology Department at Purdue University, State of Indiana (specialist on control of bloodsucking insects domestic and warehouse pests). The American delegation visited many raions of Georgia., Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Hitakhstan (virgin lands), besides Moscow and . Leningrad. In all the American guests, accompanied by the author of these lines, 9ot the better of over 25 thousand kilometers of airplane flight and about 3 thousand km of automobile driving during the.Pourse of one month; they visited 22 scientific-research . institutes and experimental stations, 2 academies of agricultural. Sciences of the republics, 1 training ruchebnyi") institute and Rolkhoses, sovkhOzes and training farms.' The trip through USSR permitted ourcolleagues to receive a sufficiently full idea about the problems of protection of plants in different sone* of fruit- growing, cotton growing, sugar-beet raising, in growing of grain crops in old and new regions, as well as ways and methods.of'their solving and of practical work in kolkhoges, isoVkhoses and experi- mental farms.. During the process of interchange with the delega- tion,the state and trend of plant protection in USA became clear to a certain degree. In Moscow, during a meeting with our ento- mologists, the American specialists briefly told us about the condition of some sections of work in USA. They shared their im- pressions of the trip In USSR at the reception of the Assistant- Secretary of Agriculture of USSR, 0. A. Borkov. In general, the delegation appraised highly the work that is being conducted in IISSR on the protection of plants; they, in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) 'Trans. A*1105 particular, mentioned that. in our country pre-plenting,treatment with insectofungicides is conducted to a much greater extent, aviospraying and aerosols are,used on a far wider scale, and the service of accounting and prognosis Is well organised. Special interest was evoked by the research, conducted 'In OUT country,, on methods for utilising predatory parasites for the control of pests. The matter is, that during the last 15 years USA intensely developed the chemical method and legged behind . USSR in the biological method. The guests appraised, as a very,. positive phenomenon, that we pay much attention to the combining of agrOtechnical, ecological and chemical measures-of action on pests. The delegation acknowledged the high level of scientific work on plant protection in USSR and showed great interest in the ways used for its coordination on a state-wide scale and implanta- tion of results obtained into production. (Begin p.573 At the same time the Americans think.that, on the whole, the problems of plant protection in USSR are less complicated than-in USA, where the specific makeup of pests is more.varied end where, awing to wide and insufficiently careful application of poisonous pre? parations, many species have already developed a resistance to poisons. In the opinion of the guests, work of identification of the species makeup of pests Is conducted on,a much wider scale in USA (yearly the Central Bureau alone makes 112 thousand'identificatiOns), low-volume rniskooblemn60] spraying is'being utilised and pre- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-II05 parations of diene synthesis - aldrini dieldrin, endrin and others, as well as,the granulated (for control of the corn borer) are. utilized on a large scale (in' the USA). ? In the USA the'danoer of mass reprOduction of Mediterranean fruit fly, which caused greet harm to horticulture, has been 'basically liquidated. Fifty-eight .thousand glass and plastic fly traps are used for its detection. ,Dermeatidae, which damaged grain in.store'houses, have bein'chedkedvthe harmfulness of the Colorado potato beetle Is being fully averted; this has been attained on the basis of systematic detection,of foci of the pest and the use of.. thorough exterminating means at the Obvernmentla ? expense. .. The cutworm Is controlled by aldrin. Tent fumigation Is very . well and effectively utilised, whereupon even in disinsectization of large grain-storages and elevators impenetrable fabrics are used. -It is also interesting to mention the applidetfon of .i bio- logical method of control of weeds. on the basis of import of in- sects, which are able to destroy them. So far then i is only one positive example, but it is very convincing. The weed Hynericuis perphoratum Spread over 4 mm n ha of pastures, depreciating their value, but was practically entirely destroyed during the course of 5 years as a result of introduction of two species of insects from the genus Chrisolina. Itis necessary to point out that the prevalent opinion, that the biomethod of control of pests it widely used In practice in USA, was not shared by the members of the American delegation. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (5) .Trans. A-1105 During the last 15 years, as it was mentioned previously, the chemical' method has doMinated absolutely. One Must have in view that in USA under the biological method are implied, first of all, development of agrotechnical.and ecological measures, develop- ment of resistant varieties of agricultural cropso'and onlyrafter. that - the utilization of cntomophages and disease .pathogens. Nevertheless, a tendency is appearing for enriching' the fauns ,of :cntomophaoes by .metinp of their acclimatization: A suggestion was made about the exchange of entomophages between Our countries. ' The report of the delegation about,organitation of scienti- fid work on plant protection in.USA.was Of great interest, in. the Department of Agriculture exist* the Agricultural Research- . Service with a_ Branch for the Control Of Pesti, which ensures the development and introduction into practice of methods of plant protection. Control of 20 of the most agressiVe pests IS conducted at the expense Of-the Government. .The Service regulates the sale of both poison chemicals, as well as thealachinery. As Mr. Haller reported, approximately 100 min .-dollars are being spent for the scientific work of plant protection annually. Extensive research is conducted at the Stations end In Laboratories of the States. At the same time, in order to obtain Mass uniform material, arti- ficial nutrient media are widely used for rearing.experimental insects for this purpose. According to the words of Mr. Davich, the nutrient medium for the cotton-boll weevil wts synthesized from 40 chemical substances. In a week's time 5 workers can rear 15 thousand individuals of this genus. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) ?Trans. A-1105 Extensive work on the evaluation of the preparations and. determination of effective forms for. their use are cf,nducted also In laboratories and sAations. of chemical firms. In the opinion . of Mr. Haller, the scientific work for evalUatIOn of each new pre- paration costs .1-2 million dollars. Special attention should be .accorded the [US] experience with ' the publicising of knowledge 03o:id harmful insects and methods for their control among the population, 'which is strengthened by an output (Or tale Of various portable means (of control]. iThus, for fine-drop spraying with different Preparations, the industry pro- duced 'siphon Jars [aerosol bombs] of various holding capacities in rgreat numbers. It is sufficient to unscrew the cap of such'a can and press a. button in order to start spraying. A clearly printed label is pasted on the can, informing against which pests the con- tents of the aerosol bomb can be used. In conclusion I would like to point out the mutual advantage, of a direct Contact between specialists on plant protection of 'USSR and USA. The trip of American entotivslogists to-USSR permitted .their better understanding of the fundamental .problems of plant pro- tection In our country, and [permitted] our specialists to learn lot of new things about the practice for the et:intro' of pests and. diseases in USA. This gives a basis for hope that the contacts of. -specialists on the protection of plants in :USA and USSR will continue to grow. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 qff ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1107 vg/M To strengthen the connection of biology with practice. (Editorial] Akademil Wauk, Vestnik, vol. 29, nO.-3, March, 1959. 511 A1c141, ( In. Russian) Soviet people; under the leadership of the CoMmunlit Party, V The scored a great historical victory in the job of building a toe'slistic, society in our country. New rand problems are atbefore .the Soviet People by the 21st Congress of the XPSS [Communist party of' the Soviet Union). They Inspire the Soviet people, including the scientists, to further'. ? All creative successes in the building of the first Communist society in the world. By' further developing the heavy Industry, in'every Way possible, as a basis of the entire national economy, it Is heccessary to ? .provide, during the shortest time possible, a sharp increase in agricultural production and, thus, to create for the Soviet people an abundance of foodstuffs, and the necessary raw materials for Industry. "Creation of a material-technical basis for Communism", /7 N. S. Krushchev mentioned in his report to the Plat Congress of HPS! 0107 "requires the flourishing of science, of active participation of scientistsin the solVing of problems, connected with a further many- sided develop:lent of production forces of our country. The Seven- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1107 Year-Plan opens up before our scientists and scientific institutions the-widest field of activity. There is a place to apply one's energy and knowledge!" The development of all fields of knowledge, including the biologIcal aelpce - the basis of agricultural and medical sciences, Is of creole Importance in the carrying out of ptOblemt of the 7- Year-Plan. "The importance of the complex of biological sciences will .be growing, especially, in proportion to the application of achievements' of physics and chemistry in biology. Ilhereupon,a . great role will be played by such branches of the science as Moa. chemistry,"agrochemistry, biophysical microbiology, virology, 411 selection and genetics". (Prom "The Control figures of develop- ment of national economy of USSR for the years 1959-1965", which were eOproved by the 21it Congress of the KPSS). A bond between theory and practice, of science and production acquires exclusive importance during the new stage of the unfolded construction of the Communist society. The December Plenum of the TsK of KPSS (Central Committee of the Communist Party], where re- suits of.victoriet,.scored by our country during the last 5 years In the business of the sharp rise of agricultural production, were summed up and new problems'raised.for a further rise in productivity of plant growing, animal industry and an increase in ,the general culture of agriculture, paid special attention to the strengthening of the, bond between science end production. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (3) Trans. A-4107 This refers to a large degree to biology; its development is ? the necessary premise for a mighty raising of agriculture, as well as of forestry, fish industry, sanitation, of industry, reprocessing raw materials of plant and anims1 origin. (Begin p.141 The expanded Session of the Presidium of the Academy of Science of USSR and the Department of Biological Sciences togetheewith the ' 'active members of the Department took place.on January 20; the Session discussed'the work and problems of the Department of Rio- logical Sciences in the light of resolutions of the 'December Plenum of the Central Committee of HPSS. On the basis of thc report of the Atademican-Secretary of the !II Department of Biological Sciences, V. A. Engeligardt, of tho core- port of the Committee Of the Presidium, which examined the work. of the Department, and of the dIsdussions, which developed after this, a resolution was adapted; in it was given the evaluation of the activity of the Department and its chief: problems were pointed out. The resolution states that the Party end the Soviet Government render generous help and support to science, in our country _bio- logidal science has unlimited possibilities for the application of results of scientific-research-activity to practice. The bond between science and production is not one-sided, since while working for practice, science, in its turn, gets from practice new important -facts and ideas, which are subject to. scientific development. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (10 Trans. A-1107 The Department of.Diologicsi Sciences Of the Academy of Science of USSR includes a large circle of scientific establishments, In which problems are developed that are important in theoretical respect; chemical structure and biological functions of protein substances, regulation of heredity and vitality of plant and animal ' organisms,, physiology of the highest nervous activity,, interaction between ,the cerebral cortex and the internal organs, regularities of effect. of nuclear radiation on biological Objects, directiOn of Metabolism of microorganisms, biological prinCiplee of parasitism, : photosynthesis, nutrition and Ovelopment of plants, efficient use and-indretse of 'productivity of soils of USSR, the fauna end flora of .USSR. scientific, )rinciples of forestry, and others. ' .DUrinithe last 2-3 years, the Department accomplished the work on coMpliation of ptospectUve plant (notes) On 16 leading pr6bleme Of biology for the next period. To. this work were attracted scien? tists and representatives of Mlnistries, of 0oiple0 IState Planning Committee of the Council of Minipters of the USSR) of USSR, and other establishments, ' The department strove toi'tna development of its research in ?those direCtiOne, which, along, with the solving of.genetal problems of science, would also be widely useful in practice.. Thus, treat of_virgin and-Waste lands in the country, having prospects for new recitmetions, were detected; a State Soil Map of USSR for basic agricultural regions was cotpiled (by the S011 Institute, imeni ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans: A-1107 V. V. Dokuthaev); high-yielding wheat-couch grass hybrids (on an area of about 200 thousand ha) were developed and are being introduced into agriculture; they yield up to 60 c of grain per 1 ha (The Main Botanical Garden). By means of matching the pairs, hybridi- Action and selection, under specific conditions of growing, a herd of cows was created, which way distinguished by a high content of fat in milk. (5.1% against 3:5%) and by the heavy weight of animals (on the farm,of the Institute of Genetics). Preparation "M-1" has been introduced; it Inhibits the sprouting of tubers of food potatoes during storage; this raises the yield of commercial potatoes by 10-14% (Institute of Plant Physiology imeni K. A. Timiriesev). Effective methods for drying and storage of newly harvested grain, as well'as of fruits and vegetebles were developed (Institute of Biochemistry imeni A. N. Bakh). A doctrine dvut natural focalisation of diseases of Men, animals and plants was formed (Zoological Institute). A series of helminthiasises in men and.animais was studied and measures developed for the control of these diseases (scientific-research institutions' under the leadership of Academician K. I. Skriabin). (Begin p.5] All this shows that the Institutes of the Department of Bio- logical Sciences are able to raise and solve scientific problems of great practical importance. Nevertheless, the scientific-research work of the Department, as it was pointed out in the resolution, was not sufficiently directed Declassified and Approved For Release.2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1107 , ? for solving the basic, problems, which fide agriculture, forestry, sanitation, industry, which reprocesses raw materials of biological origin, and fish industry. The practical result* end suggestions' Offered by the Department's institutions, by the December Plenum Of -TsK RPM. ? The Presidium-of-the Academy of Science of USSR and the CUreau of the Department did not direct'the.work of the Institutes *Uf- . Siclintly peristently in the rendering of cotistant'and eystematic 'help to the practice.- For this purpose it was necessary that the :Departmont'aystematically cooperate in Its work With other departments of the Academy, with Ministries of Agriculture, Sanitation and the ? Academy Of Medical Sciences of 'USSR, as well as more often conduct experiments and tests of its suggestions directly at sovkhoses, kolkhoses, medical establishmentsind factories. ,The Department's'Eureau did not pay sufficient attention to practical uses of biological research; it controlled very loosely the course of introduction of the accomplished scientific-research -works. Undoubtedly, the guarantee of success of introduction Of 'such works lies the close contact of the scientific-research 'net1? .. tutions with industrial, agricultural and medical establis:ments. It should find its, proper development. Yet, extensive measures cannot be carried out by individual workers and institutes without ? constant help from the Department and the PresidiuM of the Academy. The resolution draws attention to the.serious mistakes in 40 c,omprehension and conducting of criticism of scientific work permitted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) ' Trans. A-1107 by the 'Department's Pureau. ? Oiling to the mcasureS adapted by the Party, all the necessary . condttions Were set up.for the development of scientific research , and all the scientists were given the opportunity for fruitful .wOrkr Nevertheless, certain biologists, instead, of centering.all. 'their energy in a further creatiVe.development of Soviet biology ? .and utilizing its attainments in the national economy, Made the criticism of certain' principles of the Plichurin doctrine and dis- crediting of the achievements of the AtadiMician Ti D. Lysenko, .and of his followers., almost their chief aim. -Al the same time, these Critics gave few suggestions for basic improvement in different 111 _ fields Of 'agricultural production, on the basis oftheircwn acienti- ficf,research wOrkS. The "Botanical Journal made it e point during the last several. years to-criticize certain principles of IklichUrinis doctrine and, ? In particular, the achievements of Academician T. D. Lysenko and of his followers. Such an attitude of its editorial staff was wrong and it hampered the development of SoViit biology. The Bureau of the Department, reciardless of repeated instructions from the Presidium of the Academy, did not take any measures, and the Presidium did not correct the editorial staff of the "Botanical Journal" in good time It Is necessary to stress that premises, ways and approaches' for the establishment of-scientific truth can be different and it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-1107 is not always clear beforehand which, of these ways and approaches will faster and better lead to the solving of the raised scienti- fic and practical problem. . Each truly scientific'trendvissuing from principles [Begin p.63 of dialectical materialism, can develop only on the basis of exactly established facts, which were 'obtained both from the scientific experimeht and from practiCe. Therefore, each controversy, arising among scientists, who examine one and the same problem, but who follow different routes in its development, must be solved not by wordy disputes, but on the basis of conducting ? joint experiments and mutual experimental and practical verifications. Scientific criticism must be permeated with the spirit, pf , goodwill and mutual assistance, it must place before itself the problem of strengthening the 'materialistic positions in'science. The history of .science, and,.particUlarly,.history Of biology knows instances when scientific disputes, solved by methods of. experimental verification", helped a rapid disclosure of the scientific truth and ended .up In extensive scientific discoveries. Practicemuat be the tinal criterion of the truth of the theory. Presidium and the Department of.2iologidal Sciences pointed out, during their joint Session together with the active members of the Department, that the efforts of, biologists Of the Department must be directed to the formulation and development of important theoretical . problems Of biology, which would help in the solving of national ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans.. A-1107 economic problems in the field of acriculture, stnitttion, food and light industry, as well as fish industry. At the stme time it was particultrly mentioned that the PrO- gressive development of modern.biology'is impossible without the wide, bold and creative use. in biology of achievements of physics and chemistry. The penetration of physics and chemistry into bio- logy will lead to the enrichment not only of biOlogy, but also: of physics and chemistry. - The Departmentos Bureau sulst, together with the ,leaders of scientific establishments of the Department and with the attraction of the interested Ministries and Services, define more accurately and supplement the basic directions of the 7-Year-Plan of the De- partment in the light of resolutions Of the December Plenum of TSK - Km and problems, which were raised ,by the 21st" Congrest .of the MSS; develop, in the shortest time possible, specific measures on the.organitation Of wide introduction into practice of the most important result* of research, which were carried out in the violent'. fie establishments of the Department, set i course for the establish- ment of extensive cooperation with institutions of other depart- ments of the 1,4ademy Of Science of USSR, ? VASIMIL (All?Union' Academy of. Agricultural Sciences imeni V. i. Lenin], Academy of Medical SciencesOf USSR, and branch institutes of sanitation, as. well as with industrial establishments. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1107 In-view of a greet theoretical and national economic importance of the question about the complex development of biology, chemistry and physics, the Bureau of the Departments of Biological, Chemical and Physico4lathemat1cajc1ences must define the course of the plan of Joint research for the three departments and work out the suggestions about the organisation of a complex of research by biologists together with physicists and chemists. Tha rparticipants of the Session acknowledged as correct the criticism, set out by the newspaper "Pravda", about the wrong . position, which was taken by the editorial staff of the "Botanical The editorial staffs of biological Journals have suggested , helping by all means In the development of the materialistic natural science, and fight against idealistic conceptions., The Bureau of the Department of Biological Sciences must carry out a systematic guidance of the journals of the Department and give help to editorial staffs in the organisation of discussions on essential and disputed problems of biology, baited on results of experimental works, guaranteeing a correct, businesslike creative discussion of these problems. ,(Begin p.7] A series, of measures on tha'rendoring of immediate help to the institutes of the Department were provided for the carrying ot out of problems, that face the Department of Biological Sciences. The construction organisation, of the Academy must guarantee the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. P-1107 completion of the building for tie Institute of Biochemistry rimeni A. N. tiakh" in V959, of two school buildings for the institutes of the Department in l'AC, and give an estimate about reconstruction and expansion of the building of the Zoological Institute in Leningrad; e question was raised about a building for the Institute of Cenetics. It is necessary to realize the resolution of the resiOium, of the year 1957, about the formation of the Institute of Radie... tion and Physico-Chemical BiolPgy and to provide physicists 7..nd chemists to take part in its work. The Iresidium, Department of Biological Sciences and the active members of the Department expressed their strong conviction that the creative efforts of Soviet biologists will be directed to the development of important scientific problems, to the extended use of physics and chemistry, havin6 in view the omnifarious develop- ment of the bond between science and practice; this will provide the greatest help of biologists to the work of the expanded construc- tion of the Communistic society. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Vlar4 4flovanov, Dostithcnhla 1 eadac seltskokhoziaietvenn Iskusstvennouo o h shivotnykh [Achievements and aims of artificial Insemination of farm aninalsj Vestnik Seltskokhestaistv nnol %auk', vol. 4. no. p.92449. ceptemher, 1959 20 1/633 (in aussien) ficial insemination of sericulturel a has been widely implanted into the practice of 5oviet anlal husbandry. In over 35 can animals were zirtificially Inseminated In 175e not less than 50 rein, that Is about half of all the female livestodk of %heep und cows 13 expected to re insellnated in 1959. Artificial Insemination is applied fzkr wider in URttn In other countries (fire 1). For instance, in USA, Owe the livestock of animals is vory eret, In 1956, only 6 nin head were artificially insemi- nated, that Is six times less than In U-c11. In the comparative ranee of female livestock of cows and sheep In artificial Insemina- tion, Uliz occupies a third place In the world. The skApe7iority Is held ty Eenmerk (92) and Czechoslovakia (7P41). Nevertheless natural c nations of these email countries cannot be compsred with extremely varied end, often, difficult conditions of the huee territory of the sovIet Union. Already now there exist In Talon,. with 140w:artificial in mination of cows (for tn tome uzny industry) tva sA 'Jn1on Inst. f Animal Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1108. Prishekaninsk Vologda.oblasti, 'Borodiansk raionsyliev oblast', . LebodIfiekli !talon. .S.WW Oblast', Aramil'ek :oolong Sverdlovsk oblast'.' rind Othere);:end In many obi:Letts of the Ukrainian .SS, in 1956, 80A of the entire female livestock of tows (PoltaVa,Niev end- ? Dnepropetrovsk Oblast's') Were artificially insedinatid It is proposed, by the year 1065,_to inseminate artificially, 85% of the female livestock of cows and &Mot female livestock of sheep; that. is, virtually, the entire basic female livestock. In um artificial Insemination is especially widely used in sheep. relaing. An 1958 20 rain febiale$ (57% of the female livestock)' 'wet* inseminated infthiirMaimeri- Sheep breeders ere-trying, in .' 1959, to inseminate not less than tO Aln females (about A/4, of the , 411 rentals livestock of sheep). Title of figure 1. Artificial insemination of cows end 'sheep In 1958-1959 (the- . Countries, where leis than loin females 'were:artificially inseminated annually,. ere not cited): A - range of female , livestOck of cow* and sheep (In %), B - amount of females inseminated-during the year (min head). Words in figure 1. Above the figure: 114 B. First lines USSR ,Second *lines USA . Third line: Bulgaria Fourth liner England (incl. Scotland and Ireland) Fifth line: France ? Sixth line: Ceechoslovakia ' Seventh line: Rumenta ? 4ighth line: Denmark Ninth line: Federal Republic of Germany Tenth lines German Democratic Republic, ' Eleventh lines Netherlands ? Soviet methods (Bsoin p.933 'of artificial insemination of sheep ? are successfully used by sheep breeders of Bulgaria, RUmania, China,., Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - (3) Trans..A-1108 ? Mongolia, Albania, and Others, inseminating, yearly, millions of female sheep with excellent results. At the same time not one capitalistic country, until now, could Utilize artificial insemina- tion of sheep so widelycsithough during the Course of over 20 years repeated-attempts-were made in this respect.. . During thelast three year*, artificial inseminatiOn of large cattle (mulch) has spread widely in USSR. In /955, 1 min cows were artificially' inseminated in 057.- 2.5 min; in 1958 - 5 min 443 thousand, but in 1959 It is planned to inseminate artificially 10.6 ran cows; this will comprise i part of the female livestock in the.country; this is more than in ingland and USA taken together. Thus, If this plan will be carried .out, then, in 1959, the Soviet 411 Union will overtake USA not only in the percentage of the range, but also inLthe.total number of artificially inseminated cows per year.(fiGure 2). Title of figure 2. Dynamics of growth of ' artificial insemination of cows in . 'USSR and USA. ? Words In figure 2. Right, outside the ? figures Cows inseminated (min head). Inside the figure: at the top - USSR; at the bottom USA. Below the figure - Years: 1930, 1940, 1950, and 1960. , In unsR the rates of increase of artificially Inseminated cow* are cart:fatly high. In USA, in peat years, the artificial insemination of cows grows, on the average, by 5-6% per year, and In the Soviet. Union by 100% per year (that is, it is doubled).- Such *rapid 'growth became possible because In USSR artificial Insemination in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (la Trans. A?,..1100 kolkhOzei and sovkhozes is being organized by the State Stations on Breeding tork (Begin p.943 and Artificial Insemination and by State and interkolkhOt Stations of Artificial Insemination: This form of work was used yet during the prewar years at Nizhne- Tagillak, Prisheloninsk, Ifolokolsmsk,Molochanak and other State Breeding Ferns. During the postwar years arose the problem on ? reorganization of artificial Insemination; numerous projects for orgsnitation.of special Stations for artificial insemination were developed locally. Reorganization of work on artificial insemination told both in a sharp increase of theists of inseminatiOn of cows as well ? as In the rise of the yield of young animals. For Instance, at Novopokrovik State Station (Kirghiz SFA, the oldest in ths Union, 'during the 11 years 0,27Crcows were artificieliy inseminated; fertility (translator', note: the word.eterilnosts (sterility), in. the original is undoubted, an error] comprised during the first years 94-95% (during the last 7 ysars.96-97%). The eucceSses of Kuibyshev Oblast' Station on Artificial Inseminstion, the largest in USSR, are'well known*. In some.of the talons of this oblast were obtained 100-105 calves per 100 cows, and on the whole for the. oblast' the barrenness was reduced from 23 to 3-4%. ? In Belorussia artificial insemination is as.yet not-used suf- ficiently (only, 6.4% of cows ere artificially inseminated) and the ? *About the work of this station see article of P. P. AgapoV in the newspaper 0Sill'skoe khozialatvo" for March 17, 1959. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' Trani. A-1108 barrenness up to the prosenttim, la extremely high -.up to 33%. utth the, oroanitation* Stet* Stations for ArtifiCiel intemins* tion the. situstiOn hat changed sharply. In the region of the sett.: vity:of Vitebsk IntirralOn StatiOn,frara among 14,40 ertificially. inseminste4 cows, .111? -proved to)). barren (less than 81), that , PIA times lest than for gelorussis es a whole. In'Orshenvk ralop ertificiel insiminstionfteducedloarrenness of cows to 3.504 while In koikhOses of Chashniksk.relon, whire artificial insemination was not used Only 1l cows Were inseminated) the barrenness 'reached 22.7g. nt the Gam* tiOe st the kolkhos. men' Lenin'', Vitebsk vision, in 19.5E6.97 Calves were obtained per .100 cows after int 411 - insiminationr. At the'llO t giler' OblestAgriCUltural Ex- perimental Station, organised two years ago, the barrenness of .3,800 cows comprised not more than 3-514 (aecordinp to the report of All. soottchnician of the Ststkon, E..0. Zheinina). ;ne.could. cite many similar instances***. They etiow that introduction of artificial:insemination helps 'in a rapid and.mees reduction of . ? barrenness. Along with this there still are Many stations of art!- ficial'insemination- whore, on account of ,badly organised work, the , fecundity of animals is law, infectious diseases *ere wlde6: spread, and so on. Uork at the lagging stations must be lifted to the level of the letidinc ones. The leading stations, in their turn, have . inekheuttible poisibilities for the improveMent of theirwork. **According to a report of 643 Scientific Co-Worker of Most' Agricultural Station, L. H. Gorokhov. Aft 041, See. Collection "Experience in the organisation of artificial MI' insemination of agricultural ant:hale, Mo, 1159. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1108 Artificial insemination permits using better bred producers. In the ealtic,region all the producers at the stations of artifitial insemination are the elite Ones; In Kirghle SSR 80% of elite bulls are used; in RSFSR 71%, in Ukrainian SSR .6 70%; the situation Is much worse in Transcaucasia; in Azerbaijan -.64%, In Georgia - 581, In Anonia. -.43% of producers are elite. Introduction of artificial insemination improved the use of pedigreed producers; up to 800-1.000 cows received the semen.of one pedigreed bull. In individual cases were obtained up to 5,000 calves end over 18 ? thousand (18,414) lambs from one producer; fgegin:p4953 this virtually, permits refusing the utilisation of bed producers. The number of descendants of elite producers, obtained at kolkhoses and sovkhoses, rose sharply. For instince, in Muibyshev oblast', in 1956, (before the organisation of the station) only 1 thousand elite calves were obtained,. while in 1958 33 thousand. The attained successes -show that we have found new, progressive forms of organisation of artificial insemination and this method became thi most important means for mass breeding improvement of animal husbandry at the kolkhotes and sovkhOsss. During the next seven years, artificial I:fulmination must be expanded still more. Animal husbandry workers ere faced with real problem of artificially inseminating the entire female live- stock of large cattle, sheep, goats, swine end horses at, kolkhoses and sovkhoses, using only the elite and the record-breaking pro- ducers; of obtaining during the period of the Seven-Year-Plan two " Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7). Trans. A-1108 or three generations of animals descending directly fOM the best pedigreed producers of the country; that is, entirely to stop using poor-quality males. .This will help radically to renew the herds of kolkhoses und seVkhoies, replacingall inefficient animals with 3/4 or 7/0 thoroughbreds. Such 's replacement' it nece,sary in order to raise the productivity of animals, which later on viii depend - not onlyon the abundance or. feeds but also, to large degree, On the hereditary characteristics of animals. . ' It Is necessery to create, at the present time, specialised beef cattle for a sharp ries in the production of beet. Of a deficiency of pedigreed. producers Of speCiailsea beef breeds of ? cattle, it Is necessary to Utilize the ezperience.cf production of the Kazakh Whitehead Melogolov6i9 breed, numbering at the present time 300 thOusand head. It was only the use of arti- ficial insemination that helped to produce such block of 0:amble In the presence of seveval dozens of pedigreed bulls or the beef breed. A Similar work, but on a much larger scale, mat Conducted by Soviet animal husbandmen in Creating the multimillion herds or ? fineswooled sheep, utilising *limited number of highqdeilty 'flneswooled rams. We think that it is'neceecary In ths basic regions of the - beef cattle industry to formlarge methanisea'statiOnt of ertt., fitial inseMination (which 10111 be supplied with refrigerating plants, evie and eutOstransport and radio communicetion4 there should be collected 400 or Mors pedigreed bulls of specialized Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. t-1108' beef,brieds. Each such station can serve, under conditions of South-East and of Raeakhstan, up to a million cows (by loading . the deficit (numbers of] producers with from 5 to 10 thousand end more females per year). In the regions of beef anlIal husbandry these stations can utilize the bulls all the year round and pre- pare stOcks of frozen semen for the pairing season: This will permito.during the course of 7 years, obtaining it multi-million block a 3/4 thorouijhbred cattle of beef breeds. . Besides that, the bulls of .beef breeds must be also used In the regions of milk production. The semen of such bulls must be used to leseminete Inefficient cows, whose calves are not suitable as replacements of the milk herd. The obtained calves 111 can be grown,for fattening locally or transported to regions of virgin lands for the formation'of blocks of beef cattle. In Conformity -with problems or the 7-year national economy plan, the 'Workers in anima industry require serious help from' scientific establishments in order to develop the breeding work, as well as artificial insemination. It is necessary to develop a more improved and practicable technique of artifiClal insemina- tion for mai* production and use; that Is, It is necessary to .develop.construction and technology for the preparation of, -vices (Begin MO for artificial insemination from synthetic polymeric materials; for instance, devices, prepared to be used only once, will facilitate the work and remove the possibility Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001--5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9)1 Trans. A-1106 of Sproadintj-inteptious diseases (single-use thermos** for the. transport of semen, tubes for artificial vagina, INedtorS, catheters for insemination* and others); it is nedeeeary-t6 , . 'prove simple cnd practicable.!Sethods.for short...term storage of. semen, without coolin0 and for prolonged storsee of:813%144n frosen state with the use of liquid nitrogen (at- -193?). as well as 14 a dried state; tb improve methods ofinaemlnation of females for a further increase of. their fecundity. 1S.1959, the Central Station of Artificial Inseminition of .:.1421i (All-Union Scientific liestarch Institut* of LIviatock Dreed. Ing] constructed 0 thermos for shi0Oing semen tb-be-Usid,but once; 111 it vas very convenient for :large stations. of artificial ihtemina- tion. The thermos .consisted at afbox (of cortogitid cardboard). end a polyethylene little bag, which is herMiticallysealed after filling it With fisius.of-t,tmen and an Ice block. :The spice between the carton Walls and the little bag -is filled with heat- nexerial, (ihivino, sawduato'cheff,,peet crumbs, and, ses on). The cost6i.thecardboerd thermbs Is considerably lower' then Of .that aide of glass or foamy plastic, and Its production can be easilYorfianiged locally; transportation expenses a-re slow lowered considerebly owing to the light weight of the thermos. But the slain advantage is that the cardboard thermos need not be returnedlo the etation, and this prevents the possible spreading of infection. The suEgeeted thermos is useful for transport end (' keeping of semen at temperature 0., but cannot be used for the- transportation of frozen semen. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) ' ?'Itans. A-I108 .Durinu the lest two year', workers in animal husbandry show .great interest in the rew'method of :storing the semen:witty:Alt cooling, et e.tempeiliture of. fro 410 to +25!.; IntrOduction of ,this method prorviOusli., when the use of sulfonamides and antibiotics ih the Stor,Ing of semen was not mastered, was.not possible since' at the cited telverstbres microorganisms developed very rapidly .and the semen became unfit for use. The method suggested by. Van-Demsrk and his coworkers,. In 19$6-4957, for the keeping of the bull semenOnwhich bacterlostetic eubstances,and.cabon.. dioxide were Used did not prove to be worthwhile. Checking this method on fecuhdity, both in our country and .abroad, pro. duced'queeilftable iisults. , in MR, during the present yr, 4. 11..Sytine developed a. Ibicarbonate-phosphateft.mothod for storage of Nitta acme:C*11th- out cooling. in this case carbon 'dioxide, dissolved. in the medium, Is produced in a_ chemical way, 'by c partial decomposition of the -bicarbonate, which forths 11.pert of the medium. In addition to ' this, one succeeds -1n regulating the concentration of carbon dioxide Yore preciseOP and it keepa more stably. Already 100 cows were inseminated at the pedigreed-cattle breedihg,form- 'rplemkoel nAlcksandrovon,by this method (it ern be used also . In swine hus)-andryl. The given method permits preserving ampules, with semen not less than Z days, without ice or thermos, In a simple box with InsulatinG materisi. At the present time the-suggested ,method is undergoing a wide production test. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-11?8 Nevertheless, it.does not solve fully the problem of pre- servation orthe semen and cannot replace the method of its In- definitely long preservation in a frOsen.statevfor'instence, in dry ice at a temperature of minus 781 this-latter method is ? used in the work of the Central Station of Artificial Insemination of V121.4 by the Stations.of the Ukrainian And Lithuanian SSR, as well as other.institUtions of the tOviii Union. Thu methodpermitted' Iransporting the semen of hills, exhibited it VSKW (All-Union A4ricultural Exhibition], to transpoler region (city Of Voriltsk), to the extreme south (Tedshikttan) and to foreign countries ? (hlbeilia).".(Begin P.97) 111 , But dry ice is in short supply, and Ate production directly at the !tattoos of artificial insemination is economically and technically inexpedient. Therefore it is recOmmendedlo use 11..010 nitrogen ell a cooling Medium with minus 193? as the boiling tilopereture (that is by 119- lower than dry.ida); this permits pre- serving.the semen. The experience of preserving 'the semen 10 liquid nitrogen (mitts already at VIZI1 and the All-Un on Institute of Horse Breeding. The industry can furnish it in large quantities as a,sideproduct in obtaining liquid oxygen. There exist small- slas set-ups for compression of air, they.con be furnished to the stations of artificial insemination. The only-technical difficulty is the preparation tf high-quality containers for conservation of the liquid nitrogen. High?quaitty containers with vacuum-powdet heat insulation are known; they preserve the liquid nitrogen. In the courts of three weeks without overcharging. Organisation of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A..1108 industrial production of such containers would considerably simplify the organisation of trtificial insemination of cows. .Such con- tsiners, with liquid nitrogen and.empules with semen, could be de- livered once in three weeks to the points of insemination and re- placed with new ones, as the need arises. This will sharply reduce transport rehandling of the semen, end the three-week _pre- servation of it locally, which coincides with the period of re- currence of the rut of the cows, will permit to inseminate each . cow with the semen of a certain bull. - Along with this, it is necessary radically to improve the training of animal husbandry workers in problems of artificial insemination and breedinc work, as the Stations carry out the work with all kinds of agricultural animals. In view of this all the animal husbandmen must be faitiller with the technique of?breed- ing work and artificial insemination, whereupon the training of highly qualified specialists must combine deep knowledge of braids tog work of different Rinds of agricultUrel animals and Of art!- tidal insemination. The most important and responsible problem, at the present: time, is to develop a new system of conducting the breeding work at kolkhotes and Bovkhoses. Within the next few years the breading work in kolkhotes will be conducted with the aid of artificial insemination; this will permit discontinuing the us* of low- ? quality produters-and, an t limp scale, actively and systematically to influence the reproduction by organising a mass and rapid Ma- III , ,provement.of the breed and of the productiVity of agricultural animals Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? (13) ? ?MM.' A4I08 in,sovkhotes end kolkhoses ft the same tine, in lntroducing artiiicial insemination 'it is necessary _especially carefully.to choose the pedigreed producers, clearly to plin the breeding , work, to conduct accoUnting and records of the origin end produCti- vittr.of the genealogical analysis of female herds, to organise a, correct growing of young animals, its evaluation and record of 'productivity.: . We suggest the followinglieneral system oi work for breeding ' and artificial insemination: 1) the bail* tor mass improvement of commercial animal hull-. bandry Ofkolkhoses Must become the interkolkhoS (cooperative) 111 stations of artificial insemination, formed at the expense of kolkhoses (sifter the example .of 0111khovatskala and other inter,. ? kolkhos stations). Their bail; problem is the improvement of cattle by.means of a wide use of the best.producers,vhieh are obtained primarily from "piesikhopes". In the recions of ,commercial animmthusbandry (Milk, beef and ',stool) it is recommendid'systemati- cally to conduct alternate Crossing or to use semen from two- throe breeds. for the utilisation of advantages of hybrid descen- dents. It is also desirable to have bulls end rafts of beet breeds for obtaining eariromaturing young beef antnals from the less produCtive females. All the breeding work (Begin p.8] On farms,' Serviced by such stations, mustbo.dirated to the formation 'Of ' more-productive, healthy cattle, which pay we for the feed, independently of the degree of thoroughbreeding. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (14) Trans. A-I108 2) in regions, producing pedigreed cattle, State stations on breeding work end.artificial insemination 'must do the work; they . Should be formed on the basis.of State stud stables, State breeding ? farms and breeding sovkhoset. These organisations, having to do ro with basic blocks of thspghbred cattle, which are improving the ? bread, should supply the regions of commercial animal husbandry with 'pedigreed producers. Therefor., it is necessary here to conduct highly qualified end syStematiO breeding work.. In Udikhozes, .which have breeding farms, all documentation about the origin of 'ramie, Conducting of pedigree records and of -pedigree books must be centered in the hands of specialists, who conduct these re- cords impartially. State breeding stations must conduct a centra- 1, listed record of all Inseminated animals in their region; where- upon they must be given the right to issue pedigree certificates and conduct pedigriebodke. In order that the initial pedigree record be absolutely correct, the insemination of kplkhoz cattle in regions of activity of State stations must be entrusted with the technicians of the station, who must draw up the nitial breeding documentation. For definition of pedigree qualities end Checking of data about the Productivity of kolkhos thoroughbred animals, the State breeding 'Motions must have highly qualified judges or experts. ?.The expenses for their upkeep must be paid'for by kolkhozts in the form of pay not only for the insemination of females, but also for.the evaluation of animals, Issuing of pedigree certificates, recording in the pedigree bock, and so on.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDI;80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A-.1108 ? For speeding up of.the qualitative improvement.of animal - husbandry, it is necessary to raise the role' of sOklicizes, which must furnish the semen 'of the'best ,iroduCers to interkelkhos and State stationse.or organise stations of artificial insemination, not financed by the State, for servicing the holkhotes. At the pre- sent. tiMe the valuable producers in sovkhoset are, utilised-to I'2?. These animals Must be used to the full for the Improvement ofthe,holkhos cattle (with a laid of from P.,'to 20 thousand females per year, dePendiric on their pediGree value): ? lnt3Anection with the preeminent' transfer to artificial' Insemination new requirements are 'lea bet forth:to the methods 111 of the breeding wOrk., first of all, the requirement in_pedigresd. producers will be reduced by 40-50. times. Kolkhotes, Serviced by the stations, Will stop bilying-prodtice4 and, In ConneCtion ? with this the pedigreedoscattlefbreeding ferns will find, t dif ficult to sell their ordinary thoroughbred material. . Along with this, the demands Of the quality of pedigreed producers ilitt:croweiceedingly. Already now the stations On pedigreedE?cattle breeding %toil( And artificial insaMination undergo great difficulties in acquiring pedigreed producers of required, ? ? quality. The semen of mediocre producers does:nOt'find,any market, and the stations must liquidate them. i.ater on, ai th ? Improvements In breeding work will proceed at the state breeding stations, the requirements in quality of.producers will grow still higher. This must be taken. into Consideration by all therworkers:: . All eT th0 breed!nti lefts: ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) Trans. A-1108 Under new COnditions the problem of evaluation of the pro- ducers aicording to the descendants also requires serious study. The workers of agricultural science must help the Stets breeding _stations in the organization of systematic checking of the quality of the,descendants of all the used pedigreed producers, of systematic development of card indices for.the breeding ac- counting, of compilation and conducting of pedigree books, and in the greatest possible utilization of (Begin p.99] the most outstanding producers for obtaining'from them not less than 20- ? 25 thousand of descendants per year. At the present time there are few producers in our cOuntry 41, which were checked according to the descendants, but even the simple, replacement of second-rate producers by the elite will produce -11 very appreCieble result. A mass introduction of artificial.inseminstion into animal husbandry of sovkhoses and kolkhdees piste forwerd imeny difficult problem* before the agricultural science,., but at the,sane time At opens up prospects, that were unprecedented earlier, for a crea- tive zootechnical work With huge masses of animals and Creates' possibilities for very rapid pices in improvement and formation .of highly valuable breeds of animals in our country.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-I109 vgM 'Helicopter for the protection of plants ' (A talk with the Deputy of the Chief Designer, HuznetsoV) ? Zashchita Rastenii, vol. tiov./Dec. '1959. ? (ln Russian) no. 6,,p.22-23. 1421Z1 ? Of late the helicopters are being widely Used for the control of pests and diseases of plants along with airplanes. MOTs and more farms express their approval for this type of chemical treatment as the most sensible and efficient, especially on broken terrain.' What are the 'prospects for the use of such machines in the 111 near future? This was the question that the editorial office addressed to the Deputy of the Chief Designer, 11.-A. Kuznetsov. This is what he said. Helicopter MI-1, developed by the collective under the leader- shit', of the Chief Designer, M. L. Mil', was equipped with apparatus for the control of pests and diseases of plants, for spraying and dusting, about two years ago. Already the first tests, in orchards end vineyaids of Crimea and of Krasnodar krai, have shown that . the new way of lutilizing these machines promised great advantages. Indeed, a helicopter does not need an airfield, it can take off from a small patch of land; this is especially important in zones of intense gardening and viniculture, where each hectare of the area is Valuable. A helicopter spends considerably less tins than Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2), Trans. A-1109 the airplane for idle runs, for turns, and Bo on; it flits.easily over.broken terrain, where it is impossible to use not only the' airplane, but also land equipment. Spedific advantages of these machines became apparent. On the strength of their aerodynamic characteristic*, the wave Of the sprayed poison Chemical is pressed to the earth by the descending streams of air from the rotor, providing excellent covering of leaves both On the tipper and the under side, along the full extent of the tree or WO. With the use of the airplane as it is known, a considerable part of the poison often drifts to the side, and the remaining poison, basi- cally, reaches only the upper part of leaves. ? . Operation tests of the helicopter gave positive results and have shown the possibility of its Wide application. Nevertheless, -Certain deficiences Were also discovered,. which demanded improve- ment of the special apparatus. We took into 'consideration the remarks of farmers and of specialists of GosNIIGVF (State Scientific Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet] and provided for im- proving the quality of the treatment. Thus, in the initial variant the spray booms of the sprayer were installed only at the sides; they did not go under the fuselage; therifore't narrow strip* a gap, remained along the Center of the run, where the centering of the leaf surface was very weak. The defect was liquidated by in- stalling injector nozzles under the fuselage on an additional spray ? boom. The construction of injector nozzles was changed for the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1109 improvement of dispersity of .drops by using nozzles from land sprayers with eddy-forming devices. Spec iii ejectors were installed for drawing OfUof liquid frOm *pray booms; this%permitted to* avoid the inflow of the solution after the shutting off of the sprayer. "The introdtced -changes substantially improved the work of the spraying and dusting apparatutes. It is necessary to point-out thit A1-1, according to its flight character, basically is up to the requirements for the. exploitatiton On the protection of plants. It is completely safe; has 'a Sufficient reserve capacity; Can be filled with chemicals' without shutting off the rotor; this, considerably shortens the . time of filling. Already nOw, as the tests have shown, itt use In mountain.orchards,and, vineyards is Cheaper and more effective -then all other methods of treatment. Nevertheless; the coot ' of operation Of a helicopter is still very high and the detigning hOresu pewits basic attention to the improvement of this parti- cular indicator. 'Since 1957, the resources otthe machine (t* ? is, the time Of work without a Capital overhauling) were Increased twice and a further Substantial increase is being planned. The working load of the helicopter was raised considerably. It -can now take 150 to 400 kg of poison chemicals instead of the former 260 kg. This was attained by increasing the sturdiness of.construc- tion and removal of equipment not needed for agricultural work. Productivity per 1 hour of flight has.thus-been raised by a time 411 and a halt-and comprises, while spraying vineyards up to 151a. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 4 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1109 Asa result of this, flying only II, hours.per day.(2 to 2.5 hours: early in the morning end 1.5-2 hours before dusk) the helicopter replaces the work of 150 to 200 men. The productivity of the helicopter can yet be, Increased as a result of a more efficient organization and 'spacing of filling 'platforms (Begfn p.233 near the treated sections by the shortening of the flight course,', and soon. ' From the point ot view of national economy, the universality. of the helicopter and the possibility of its ustvall Over the Union la of great importance. With this aim in views.we are developing _a simple device, which will permit using,our machine both in spring ? and in the fall for distributing poisoned baits for the control of rodents on the edgeS Of fields and of Water reservoirs. It is also expedient to use it in the fall for defoliation of cotton. The design permits a quick re-equipment of the helicopter to a patsengets sanitary or mall variant; this will perMit using it also in winter time. There is a'full justification for ascertaining that the light-; weight helicopters, of the M1-1 type, will find a proper place in the practice of plant protection; and will permit making one more step ahead on the way oftechnicel progress in this field. To Speed up their introduction into agricultural production on a wide scale - this Is ,the aim of our collective during these days, which precede the calling, of the next Plenum of TsK KPSS (Central Committee of, the Communist Party or the Soviet Union). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1110 vg/M Kolesnikov, A. V. ?lsuchonie nukleinovykh kis lot u rastenii. (Study of nucleic acids in plants] Akademila Nauk. Veatnik, vol. 29, no. 3, p.130-132. March, 1959. 511 Akl4V (in Russian) The Department of Biological Sciences of the tcademy of Science of USSR conducted a visiting scientific Session at the Bashkir Branch of the Academy. In contrast to previous joint Sessions of the Department with the Branches, where results of studies of natural resources of the specific territories were discussed, the Session in Ufa bore a doubly thematic character: it was dedicated to summing up the first results of the studies of nucleic acids In plants. . ? Interesting data were obtained, during the past years, about the Importance of nucleic acids In the carrying out of the most im- portant vital functions of the organisms; and the Soviet biologists, who were occupied with the studies of nucleic acids, keenly felt ? the need for comparing the experience of their research, the newest data and defining further ways for development of the problem. Over 100 men from institutes of the tcademies of USSR and Ukrainian SSR, from Bashkir and Moldavian Branches took part in the Session, is well as men from some other scientific-research esta- blishments, Moscow and Bashkir Universities, Moscow Agricultural Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1110 Academy &men! R. A. Timiriazev", pedagogical and agricultural Institutes. During the course of the Session (from November 25 - ? ,to 28, 1958) over 30 reports were read and discussed." While opening the Session* P. A. Genkelt, Assistant of the Academician..Secretary of the Department of Biological Sciences, emphasized that the study of nucleic acids of plants is one of the new trends.in biological sciencsp'whiCh has many prospects, In so far asthe detection of regularities.of'nucleic.mstabolism in plant organisms pushes forward considerably the'soiving,of many scientific problems of physiology and .biochemistry of plants. Be expressed confidence that the Session will not only sum up ?.(Begin p.131] the results of the aCcomplished research, but also will serve as a starting moment for thworganigetion or systematic . work, on the scale of the entire country, for the studying of this group of compounds, which play an important part in the life of the higher plants. A. N. Belozerskii addressed the Session with a reviewing report "NuCleoproteini and nucleiC'ecid and their biological importance". Reminding that, during the last 10-15 years, several works have shown the connection of nucleic acids with the processes of growth, reproduction, heredity and morphOgenesis, as well as with the bio- synthesis of protein, the speaker paid special attentiOn to the specificity of nucleic compounds, mainly the desoxyribonucleic ? acid (DNA), and pointed out to the importance of working out the 411 problem about the.participation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the synthesis, of protein. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) 'Trans. A-1110 A group of reports was given over to the detection of the nature and biological role of nucleic acids (A. S. Spirin "The chemical nature of the infectivity of plant viruses", I. S. Kulaev."Poiyphosphates and.their physiological importance", Zh. .A. ? Medvedev "On the mechanism of RNA's reaction to aminoacitis and peptides.in the synthesis of proteins",.and others). The Speakers revealed the leading role of RNA In the definition of the specificity 4 of plant viruses* gave certain data which indicate the connection of polyphosphates, insoluble in acids, with RNA. A supposition was expressed that polyphosphates, which are insoluble In acids, take direct part in the synthesis 'of protein and of nucleic adids,. ? supplying phosphorus and energy'for these processes. The results of research set forth in the reports showed the heterOgeneity and different -functions of RNA in the synthesis., depending on its localization In the protoplasm and organoids of the dells'activa- tion and transfer of amino acids and peptides from one fraction of ,RNA to the other, permanence of the bond of RNA with peptides.. In a series of,reports new methods of reseerch on nucleic acids in plants were described (V. 0. Konarev *About the complex - formation of RNA-pyronine", V. Ca. Konarev and S. N. Amirkhanovi "fluoroMetric method of definition of activity of rIbonuclease", and others). .A.,thought was expressed that pyronine, inasmuch as it possesses a. specific affinity with RNA, which goes beyond the limits of the usuel- physical adsorption, and is capable of entering into reaction with it in a steady correlation, it dan be utilited for a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1110 quantitative cytochemistry of nucleic acids, for the study of the reaction of RNA with other components of the cell, as well as for the fluorometric accounting of RNA's dspoigmerization bg 'various factors. Reports were also presented, which characterized the role of nucleic acids in form development processes in plants (V. G. Konerev, N. V. Slepchenko and others). It appeared from the re- ports, that nucleic acids are centered in the most crucial organoids of the cell, that they constantly interact with the Constitutional proteins of the cytoplasm and the nucleus and have a direct con- nection in the synthesis of a series of morphological structures ornonprotein nature. It was established that the stepped'up con- centration of RNA precedes the regeneration of the cellulose sheath on the surface of the plasmolyzed protoplast and in points. of formation of secondary enlargements of the,cell wall, in the forming of fibrovascular bundles. A task his been under- taken.of A deeper study of mechanism of participation of nucleic acids in the formation of structures and products of specialized metabolism, determining economically valuable characteristics of plants, and, in particular, the role of nucleic acids in the formation of reserve nutrients. According to the report, made at the Session (by G. S. Kuramshin and V. K. Khangilldin), a vigorous accumulation of nucleic acids preceded the intense accumulation of dry Substance both in the entire plant, as well as in its separate. organs; this permitted speaking about the possibility of influencing the plant through nucleic metabolism, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Trans.. A.4110 Data, obtained up to the present time about the contents of nucleic acids in certain structural elements of the cell, were . described in the report of M. S. bodintsova "Ribonucleic acid in ? structures of a plant cell", intention was paid to the fluctua- ? tions of the mountof RNA in chloroplasts 'of young apd old leaves, as well as to the'hIgh percent of content of this acid In microsomes (up to 91; to the absolutely dry weight). . In the reports Of E. 2. Oltnina."Nucleic acid* in seeds Of. ; apple and cherry in the state of rest" and of N. A. Warova (Begin p.132) "About nucleic acids in tissue' of flower crops - in the state of test" it was shown that nucleic acids play an Ilkimportant role in the formation ofreproductive organs, during , their, passing into. the stats of rest and their emergence from IL' In a young globular seed and in the actively dividing metistematiC tissue of the cell, the plasma of the cell and-the large nucle0a!, luses in nuclei are saturated with RNA, while DNA Is Concentrated in the nuclei. In proportion to the formation and growth of the bud . the content of nucleic acids in it is gradually reduced, especially ? at the expense of RNA. ,In the pasaing of.bud cella into the state of rest and cessation of cell division, the contents of DNA are ? reduced considerably and RNA disappears almost completely. ' Later. , on, in the germination of seeds a synthesis of nucleic acids pro- ceeds from the decomposition of reserve netrients. The rise In 'the contents-of CNA and RNA before the emergence from the state of rest was detected both IA buds and In bulbs of flower plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (6) Trans.A-1110 It. G. Butenko in the report "Intensity of synthesis of nucleo- proteins in the upper shoots of soybeans and lupines, grown at a different length of day" pointed, out the dependence of synthesis of nucleoproteins on the photoperiodical regime. As-it proved to be, the synthesis of nucleic acids during a long day was always higher regardless of the photoperiodic reaction of the plant itself. The effect of the envirOnment on.the contents of nucleic acids was etteblished In the 'youngest and most active organs of the'plant. M. A. Ali-Zade in the report "Effect of water regime' .on, the content of nucleic acids in points of growth of a tea.bush" cited data, which indicate that the water regime, considerably 111 Influencing the growth processes, has an effect also on the contents of RNA: the active or slowed down growth of the buds always responds to the rise or fall of its content. ,' Two reports dealt with nucleic- compounds In the soils (I. A. ? ,/4azilkin "Nuclease activity of microorganisms of gray forest soils" and of 1M. 14. Barangulov "About nucleic acids of Soils". The ability of many groups of microorganisms to secrete'ribonuclease was pointed out, alto the dependence bf nuclease activity on the ,microbe complei. In that or another type of soil. It was shown that the content of nucleic acids correlates to the content Of humus In the soil and that DNA considertbly predominates over Rat in the nucleic complex of the soils. A suggestion was expressed, that nucleic acids play an important role not only in the phosphorus 0 -regime of soils, but alto in the physico-chemical and biochemical .processes, occurring in the Oils.. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA'-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1110 The necessity of further development of research on the follow- ing most essential questions was pointed out in the resolution, 'Opted by the Session: nature and biological role of nuCleo- proteins and nucleic acids in plants; biosynthesis of nucleic acids; .their role in the phenomena of heredity; role of, Internal factors in the -contents, distribution, and condition of nucleic acids; effect Of external conditions on the Content and state of these acids; nu- cleic acids and plant morphogenesis; role of nucleic acids in the general and specialised metabolism of plants and in the formation of reserve deposits. Attention was 8180 paid to the necessity of improvement of 111 methods (especially the quantitative) of studies of nucleic acids. The Session recognized it expedient to entrust the instittte. of Biology of the Bashkir Branch With the.Coordination of works on biology of nucleic metabolism of plants and expressed a wish to conduct the next session on this problem in 1960. The Bureau of the Department of Biological Sciences approved ? the work of the Session and confirmed the basic trends of scienti- fic research on nucleic metabolism, recOmmended by it. L. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1111 vg/M Sulthoverkhov, F. M. Metody I effektivmost, kormleniia ryby v prudakh (Methods of feeding fish in ponds and their. effectiveness] Vestnik Sellskokhoziaistvennoi Nauki, vol.; 114 no. 8, p.58-67 August, 1959. 20 V633 (In Russian) In the Control Figures for Developme7t of National Economy of USSR or the years 1959-1965, which wire approved by the 21st Congress'pf the CommunistParty of thp0Soviet Union, it is pointed .:4 s out that_the-increase in the yield of Mp.will be achieved by utilization of new industrial regions in open seas and oceans, by a wide use of ponds, of lake-river reservoirs and water storage places, that were constructed in the country, which can produce annually not lessthan 6-8 mm n centners of fish. Developing the problems of nutrition of fish since the year 1935, we tried to find a possibility for utilizing in pond fisheries the wastes of food industry and of agriculture; those that are cheap, easy to transport and keep well. Oil cakes and wastes of grain crops satisfied these requirements, in our opinion. In experiments, during.the year 1938, casior bean and hemp oil cakes, wastes from, the screening of grain crops, as well as the \ dried flesh of mollusks.war e tested. Candidate biol. science, Vserossliskil Nauchno-Issledovatellskii 0 Institut Prudoyogo Khoziaistva (All-Union Institute of Pond Fish Breeding] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1111 It is.known that fish, propagated in ponds (carp, trout and others) eat up well the artificial feeds and at the 'same time give a good increase,.- According to certain foreign data (6,7,9) fish is fed rye, barley, wheat, peas, lupines, lentils, vetch, corn and industrial wastes in-the form of the cocoons of the mulberry silkworm. lt,was established also (4) that carp uses artificial feeds as well as the warm-blooded animals do. As a result of feeding fish with wastes that were not used in the animal industry, In 1935, we, for the first time, obtained 14.6 c of fish per 1 ha of pond; that is, the yield of fish from a unit of area was increased considerably. Later on, at the State fisheries of the northern raions of the central belt, as well as in the south of our country industrial experiments were conducted on feeding fish with various wastes. At fisheries in each zone 2-3 ponds were set aside, which had a natural fish productivity established for many years. Feeding of fish was done with two or threefold stocking of fish. The quality of feeds was determined according to the. chemical com- position, consumption and the size. of expenditure of feeds per unit of increase of fish. In all cases the stock.weight of the carp and Its increase from consumption of natural food in ponds were excluded in calculations. We conducted about 80 economic experiments when 30 kinds of feeds were tested. Experiments have shown, that the carp eats up willingly (without a thermal treatment) almost all kinds of oil Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1111 cakes, when they are given in a pure-state; included are also those containing alkaloids (cottonseed and castor bean), as well as oil cakes of the mustard family, containing.mustard oil, 'which cause renal and urinary bladder disturbances (rapeseed, winter- cress) in warm-blooded animals, bitter oil cakes, whichypoll the taste of. milk (camzline seed oil, safflower), and oil cakes which have an unpleasant smell (perillic); The plain taste-of fish is so great that in feeding Salmo irideus and carp (experiments of 1956) with feed mixes which contained 15% of the technical flour sweepings, poisoned with arsenic, no poisonings of fishes were noted. - .Carp can utilize well different sweepings from macaroni 111 mills, from hulling mills, elevators, bread factories, as well as wastes of grain, of combination feeds, of dough, which cannot be used in animal industry on account of some admixtures (Begin p.59) (earth, metal., glass); as well as wastes of rye, wheat, peas, vetch, lentils, seeds of Siberian acacia, and other crops, con- taining up to 40% of healthy seeds; it was established that seeds of weeds can be the basic feed for fishes. Seeds of different plants contain sufficiently large quantities of nutrients. According to data of Mann (5) seeds of cockle contain: 15.3% crude protein, 16.6% fat, 56% Carbohydrates; seeds of bindweed: 10.5%. crude protein, 2:1% fat, 68.5% carbohydrates; seeds of wild lentils: 27.2% crude protein, 0.7% fat, 62.4% ' carbohydrates; seeds of common wintercress: 28.2% crude protein, III 28.2% fat, 22.9% Carbohydrates. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1111 It is possible to include in the feed mixes certain kinds of fresh animal feeds, which help in assimilation and better utilization of oil cakes, grain wastes and seeds of weeds. To the number of these belong: undesirable small fish, wastes obtained during processing of fish (at a moisture content of 75-78% they contain '14.4-15.8% protein and 2.5-4.2% fat), fresh blood, con- fiscations from slaughter houses, mollusks, tadpoles as well as frogs, Which are obtained in water 'reservoirs. They contain a smaller amount of proteins (5.6-10%) and fat (O.6-i.8), but the fishes consume them well in mixes. Chemical analysis of oil cakes, taken by us for carp feeding, 111 has shown that they contained an insignificant amount of calcium. Atthe same time it is known that salts of calcium and phosphorus are very important for the growth of fish. In 1950, we set up en experiment on feeding fish with feed mixes that were balanced in nutrients and in mineral.composifion. For this purpose we added chalk* which contained 51.2% of pure calcium to oil cakes; it is assumed that under the effect of gastric acid, particularly the hydrochloric, calcium becomes assimilable. Certain researchers (8) have maintained that the medium of carp's intestines is alkaline, and therefore the assimilation of calcium (In the form of chalk) is impossible. The others (3) doubted the changelessness of the medium of the alimentary canal of fishes. In our experiments we determined the reaction of the medium of the intestines CT 50 carps with the aid of a potentiometer at different temperatures of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1111 water, using various feeds. It proved to be that the medium of the front part of fish intestines, at a, temperature of water of 10? and lower, is neutral or slightly acidified, and is always slightly acid at temperatUres of 15-20?. The medium of the second part of carp's intestines has a pli6.5-7.4, depending on theldnd. of feeds; pH is neutral the most often while feeding on natural food, but in feeding oil cakes, which have tots of protein, and In the presence in the ration of 0.05-0.09% of calcium - it is acid (pH=6.4-6.8). After feeding oil cakes. with th*e addition of chalk (contents of calcium in the ration are 0.52 to 0.68%) the medium of the intestines becomes slightly alkaline. It is obvious that the breakdown of food in the first part'of the carp's in- testines proceeds under the effect of acids; in this case calcium is absorbed in an ionized form. Since the digestion of food in fish occurs primarily in the second part of the intestines under the action of enzymes, which react on food in a neutral or alkaline. medium, the feed.must contain a sufficient amount of basic elements for the neutrAlization of the excess of acids, which form as a , result of decomposition of protein. In the presence of, fatty acids calcium, as it Is known, forms insoluble calcium soaps (fatty acid calcium), which is emulsified by bile. In connection with this calcium can be absorbed in an alkaline medium in the form of an emulsion. (Begin p.60) Methods used in our experiments on feeding fish in ponds were. as follows: we put into a box the oil cakes, granulated in a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1111 ? crusher, or the grist; we diluted in a barrel the pulverized chalk at a rate of 2% to the weight of oil cakes. This mixture we poured into the box with oil cakes, mixing it to the consistency of thick dough*. The obtained feed was dropped down to the feed- ing places from spades or with the aid of a hand dump truck, mounted on a boat (figure 1). Figure 1. Boat dump truck for distribution of feed to fishes: a) loaded (1- feed, 2- handle, 3- hinge, 4- boat); b) in- verted. The. thick dough, lowered into the pond, absorbs water; as a result of this the weight of the feed is increased, and the moisture content reaches 78-80%. We added 2% of chalk to the feed ? mixes, besides this, in the experimental ponds. We fed fish at a twofold density of stocking. Both in the control and the experi- mental ponds the use of natural food, during various utilization of oil cakes, was approximately the same.. Weight of the content of intestines of Carp (food with the addition of chalk) as a rule, was smaller in experimental ponds than in the control ponds. The obtained data on the growth of fish, that Is on the utili- ? iation of feed for the increase of fish, have shown the possibi- lity of reducing the expenditure of feed per unit of increase of weight of carp (table 1). * For obtaining a thick dough the amount of water must be equal (in weight) to oil cakes. At such a proportion the moisture of the feed mix comprises approximately Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1111 Table 1 Results of experiments on the reduction of outlay of feeds . Years Place where the ex- pertinent was conduct- ed Feed and feed mixes Mean weight (g) of two-year olds in. ponds Expenditure of feed per unit of the increase of weight of fish in ponds Control Experimental Control Experimental 1947 1949 1951 1949 1951 1954 Savvinskii-fishery? Moscow ablest' Sawa place ? . n . Fishery "Oktiabr," Belgorod oblast' Fishery "Progress", Kursk ablest' Savvinskii fishery, Moscow oblast, ' ' , Cottonseed oil cakes (90%) + flax oil cakes (10%) . Cottonseed oil cakes (100%) Cottonseed oil cakes (100%) Sunflower seed oil cakes (100%) Soybean oil cakes (60%) + cottonseed oil cakes (WM Seeds of Siberian acacia (90%) + flou sweepings (10%) . , 291 . 356 476 . 328 . 500 . 380 358 378 . 496 420 528 460 - . ? 7.4 5.9 5.8 5.6 - 6.5 . . 5.6 ? 3.8 4.0 3.6 , . 3.5 , 4.8 4.6 - . ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-11I1 (Begin p.61] In the fall the mean weight of fish was higher, in all the experiments with the addition of chalk, than in the control. Reduction of expenditures Of feeds per unit of increase of weight comprised 2633%. The effectiveness of the addition of chalk to oil cakes was checked during different years in fisheries "Spartak", Kursk oblast', "Kliuchiki" and "October" in.Belgorod oblast', Addition of chalk to various moistened oil cakes reduced their ex- penditure per unit of increase of weight by 28% on the average. In 1952 we determined the effectiveness of feed mixes, balanced according to nutrients and protein, in most of the fisheries of the RSFSR in feeding carp with the combined feed 4-r, consisting of 60% cottonseed, 20% rape and 8% flax seed oil cakes, 10% of grain mixture or flour sweepings and 2% of chalk (Table 2). Table 2 of comparison Of nutritiousness of the cottonseed oil cakes and of the combined feed -r Indicators Com Results 4. Cottonseed oilcake ined feed 20,9 (:411 1 = Digestible proteins per 100 g of feed Sum of nutrients Protein ratio Ratio CatT 31.5 68.7 1:1.18 31 = 0:32 97.14. Expenditures of cottonseed oil cakes (without chalk) per unit . of increase of weight comprised 6-6.5kg, and of combined feeds, similar in composition to combined feed 4-r, and which did not Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 S ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1111 contain chalk, - 5.8 kg per 1 kg of increase of weight of fish. Expenditures of the combined feed 4-r, on the average, at all fisheries of RSFSR were 4.2 kg per 1 kg of increase of weight of fish. Average saving (compared with normal expenditures) equalled 27.6%. At several of the fisheries ("Leninskoe", "Nara", "Osenka", Moscow oblast', "Niva", Voroneah oblastl, "Dvurechle" and "Progress", Tambov oblast', "Para", Riazant oblast') expenditures of the com- bined feed comprised 3.7-4.0 kg per 1 kg of the increase of weight of fish, and the saving of feeds 31 to 35%. We also tested grist in fish feeding. Expenditure of grist per unit of increase of fish (under all other equal conditions) was higher than of oil cakes on account of a.smaller amount' of fat and considerably large losses in distributing the grist (the floury substances of grist do not fall to the feeding places but settle around them in the form of a cloud). Some agglutinants ? were begun to be added in the form of flax seed oil cakes, mill technical sweepings, rye or wheat flour dust, flour from grain wastes in order to reduce the losses of grist. In feeding carps .with balanced feed mixes of different grists and oil cakes, under industrial conditions, the expenditures comprised: in feeds with. predominance of oil cakes - 4 to 4.2 kg, and with the predominance of grist - 4.6 to 5 kg per 1 kg of increase of fish (table 3). "Experience has confirmed the high effectiveness of feeding carp different oil cakes and gnats, which contain a fuller collec- tion of amino acids. Feeding fish with one kind of feed badly Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1111 influenced the increase; as a result of this its productivity was reduced. Observations of Tsunts and Kronheim (23) have shown that plant feeds were bedly utilized in threefold stock1ni, of fish. Mixes of various feeds were comparatively badly utilized in our experiments in feeding carp only In sixfold and higher stockings. (Begin p.62) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 " ? (11) Results of use of balanced feed mixes in fisheries Fishery uoktiabr" Belgorod oblast' "Nave, Voronezh oblast' "nezburan, Kaluga oblast' "Neprelke Tula oblast' Years Feeds, balanced in mineral substances 1955 Mixture of differ- ent grists with ad- dition of flour and grain wastes + 2% of chalk 1954 nixture of oil cakes + 2% of chalk 1.955 The same 1955 Cottonseed, peanut, soybean, sunflower 1956 seed oil cakes and gnats + 2% of chalk Cotton seed grist, sunflower seed oil cakes and grist + 2% chalk 1955 Aixture of various gnats with the ad- dition of grain.' flour feeds +.2% of chalk 1956 Sunflower seed, soy- bean, rape oil cakes cottonseed grist, grain-flour wastes, fresh animal blood + 2% of chalk ilk ? Trans. A-1111 Table 3 1 Fish produc- tiveness Results of feeding Density of stocking (in multi- plicities) Area of feed.' ing the fish (sq. ri.) (kg/ha) 4.) 0 16.4 0 *I a al 0 ?44 g V 0 of CO g w V4 O. 6.1 DID Mow natural 'total 41:43 0 o C. )f Ow of COOL) to of ofq V 0 6 142 350 2080 507 5.0 5 102 350 1968 549 410 5 102 350 1978 510 4.0 3 200 24.0 661 500 4.2 2 200 320 700 400 4.1 31 290 1151 520' 4.6 3 - 30 290 732 453 4.5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (12) Trans. A-1111 Apparently, in using balanced feed mixes the density of stocking can be increased, and instead of 6-7.5 C per I ha, 20-25 c of fish and more per ha can be obtained.. in highly concentrated stock- ing the fish utilise feeds better, and the high natural fish pro* ductivenese of ponds Is attained in that ease when fish is fed strictly according to norms under conditions when the natural food in ration comprises not less than 17%. With such * ratio of natural and artificial feeds in the ration in ponds, that are not fed by current, 21 c of fish per 1 ha were obtained at the fishery "Oktiabry"; at the fishery "Niva" up to 25 c end in the finishing pond no. 3, which is fed by current1 at the fishery - 28 c. At the fishery "Spertak", in a fivefold stocking of fish, 15-20 c of fish per 1 ha were obtained, whereupon the natural food, on the average per season, comprised a little over 20% in the total ration.. in May the amount of natural food in the ration of fish is very great, then it drops, reaching the minimum at the end of June, and remaining at this level during the course of the entire August (table 4). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1111 Wit_ _Lk. Proportion of natural and artificial feed in the ration of carp at a fivefold stockin in to the total wel ht Months Mean index of filling of fish intestines Natural food _ Artificial feed May June July August September 3.0 2.0 2.2 2.8 2.2 90-95 ' 50-60 15-20 10-20 , 20-25 ...10 40-50 80-85 80-90 _ - 75-80 . The oxygen regime of water in ponds deteriorates during the second half of summer; the use of nutrients of the feed drops as a result of this. It was established, that .with a denser stocking and correct feeding the natural fish produc- tiveness of ponds rises sharply. Increase in the yield of fish per unit .of area during a dense stocking and feeding is attained not only at the expense of the feed, but also on account of a more intense use of natural food by fish; its use proceeds some- what differently in dense stocking and feeding, than under simi- lar conditions and at the same density of stdcking but in. the absence of feeding (2). Sometimes even at two or threefold stockings the fish do not utilise all the natural food. At the same time after the departure of chironomids or a mass dying away of zooplankton the fish often do not find sufficient amount of food even at a normal density of stocking. In the first.case fish use more fully the supplies of natural food in ponds, and.in the second, they feed normally and grow during the course of the entire vegetative period. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 14) Trans. A-1111 During the first vegetative period, when the fish are still small, the supplies of natural food in ponds are not used fully. In denser .stockings and feeding of fish the supplies of natural food are used better, and the natural fish productiveness of ponds is increased. During the second half of the vegetative period, when the requirement of food grows in the fish, the deficient amount of nutrients Is compensated by artificial feeds. Title of figure 2. Hydrochemical regime of ponds during feeding of fish. At the fishery "Spartak" (a cloudy day, August 18 and 19): 1 - pond no. 21 (sixfold stocking of fish); 2 - pond no. 8 (threefold stocking of fish). Al the fishery "Oktiabro" (a cloudy day, August 20- 21) in the pond no. 7 (fourfold stocking); 3 - section covered with duckweed, 4 - zone of open water. Words in figure 2. At the top: 02 in m1/1., At the bottom: hours. Irregularity in the development of natural food during the course of the vegetative period [Begin p.614.] can be used In the feeding of fish for obtaining maximum natural fish productiveness of ponds with the smallest outlay of feeds per unit of increase. For in- stance, at the kolkhoz "Imeni Lenin", Petrovsk talon, Saratov oblast', in 1953, in feeding carp with grain wastes and seeds of weeds (beginning with the second half of the vegetation period) . 15.3 c of fish per 1 ha was obtained froma pond of an area of 5 ha; and only 6 c from the same area but with a natural fish productivity. At thissake farm, although the feeding of fish was started late, the 0 two-year .old carps attained, on the average, 800 g of weight. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15) Trans. A.4111 It was ascertained at the Savvinsk fishery of Moscow oblast that With a more intensive utilization of natural food by fish, chiefly during the first half of the vegetation period (with two- fold stocking), the natural fish productiveness of ponds has grown by 35..40%, and in threefold stocking - by 73-84% in cora-. parison to the natural fish productiveness, obtained with normal stocking (estimated for natura1 fish productiveness) and without feeding the fish. Many years of 'observations at the fishery "Partizan", Voronezh oblast', have shown that threefold stocking a.nd feeding of carp have increased fish productiveness of ponds by 85-92% (table 5). Table 5. Effect of feeding fish in dense stocking on navuras.lisn proouctivenesv oz pones. . Years Density of stocking of Fish productiveness /on the average kg per 1 ha) fish Natural From -total feeding ' X936, 1937, 1938 Single, without feed- , 1939 ing 249 . 249 1940, 1941, 1945 Threefold, with feed- ing 480 486 166 1943 Normal, without feed- ing 267 . 267 At fisheries "Kliuchiki" and "Oktiabion, Belgorod oblatitt, natural fish productivity of the finishing ponds with tWofold stocking increased by 40-43%, at threefold by 60-72%, and at fourfold by 75-92%. The worth Of the increase of fish production at the expense, of raising natural fish productiveness (as a result of dense stocking and feeding of fish) exceeds the cost of feeds, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16): Trans. A.,1111 used for feeding the fish, as well as the expenditure of labor. Partial increase of natural fish productivity is connected with the fertilizing effect of fish excrements, the amount of which, at the usual moisture _content (77-80%), surpasses the increase in. fish by 22.times.2 It was established by experimental observations that with an increase, equalling 10 c per 1 ha, the amount of fish excrements comprises 22 tons, and with an increase equalling. 20 c per 1 ha up to 45 tons per 1. ha. Analysis of fish excrements has shown that the unassimilated part of oil cakes, which entered the pond in the form of excrements, considerably surpasses the recommended norms of fertilizers for ponds in the amount of nitro- gen. It was established that fish droppings contain Many more biogenous substances (nitrogen (Begin p.65] and phosphorus) than poultry and swine droppings. According to our observations, with a single feeding, a fish remains at the places of feeding 1.5-2 hours; all the rest of time it Is looking for food along the entire area used for finishing (.or fattening]. The best time for distri- bution of food is the early morning (not later than the sunrise) when, as a rule, there is no wind. The feeds, distributed in the morning, are characterized by an increased content of oxygen and their use by the fish helps in the improvement of the gaseous regime of the pond water. Our observations (in l93) have shown that with the reduction of oxygen up to 0.5 mg/L a fish spends energy for obtaining it Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-1111 from air (it rises to the surface and swallows the air); as a result of this the carp not only stops growing, but also loses weight; during reductions of the amount of oxygen (below 0.5 mg/L), and this usually happens in the morning before sunrise during windless, cloudy weather, the night fishkills occur. ? A sharp imp/overishment of water in oxygen is caused., basically, by the decomposition of organic substances, as well as the nightly use of oxygen by hydrobionts. During clear sunny days the amount of oxygen in water is reestablished up to the :formal saturation. In strongly concentrated, stocking the medium becomes so impaired that fish consume the set out feed badly and do not assimilate it. It is possible to Improve the condition'of the medium by giving to the fish mixtures that are balanced in nutrients, in mineral' composition and vitamins' (which provide the smallest expenditures of the organism per unit of increase). In our experiments the best'results In the use of feed were obtained in those cases when for 100 g of the feeding mix the sum of digestible substances comprised: for the yearlings not less than 70, for the two-year old fish - 65 and for the three-year old - 60. Protein proportion in the ration must be narrower for the yearlings (1:0.4 - 1:0.5), medium for the two-year old (1:1.- 1:1.5) and wide forAhe three- year old (1:2 - 1:2.5). Towards autumn these proportions must comprise 1:1.5 for the yearlings and 4:3 for the older age groups, since the, accumulation of fat in the organism of fish proceeds more Intensively at a temperature below 18?. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1111 If there are not enough carbohydrates and fats in the feed mix, which are used by the carp at the end of summer for energy expenditure and the laying aside of reserve substances, then the fish loses weight. At the fishery "Nivel', Voronezh oblast', in feeding (beginning on September 20 and Up to October 10) of the two-year old carp with oil cakes, the fish in all finishing ponds lost,more than 10% of weight. When a fish stops feeding the losses in weight are explained by the fact that its intestines are fully cleared, and the body tissues lose moisture in the curtailment of metabolism. During the second half of the season (at a reduc- tion of temperature below 18?) loot, mixes with a wide protein proportion are required both for the improvement of growth and the raising of effectiveness of utilization of feed per unit of weight increase of fish, as well as for obtaining of a better quality (a higher content of fat in the flesh of fish). In using balanced feed mixes, that include the required nutrients, the amount of outlay narrows down to the sustaining of normal active life of fish and the obtaining of production (in- crease), which was specified in the plin. Irilufficient feeding inevitably causes a reduction in the growth of carp and increases the outlay of feeds per unit of production. Some of the authors sug- gest standardising the amount of feed for fish, depending on its . weight (1,9 and others). One cannot agree with these suggestions since the relative amount of feed consumed by fish is reduced with III* the increase of its weight (in proportion (Begin p.66) to its Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (19) Trans. A-1111 ?growth and increase in age) from 24% for the yearlings to 6% for the two-year old ones. We suggested to take, as the'basis for the method of standardization, the doily increase of fish during the course of the season. We estimate the amount of feed according to the outlay per unit of increase of Weight of fish and the amount of artificial feed in, the total ration. For instance, if the mean daily increase of weight of a two-year old carp in June comprises 6 g, and the outlay of the feed mix per unit of increase - Ii. g, then, at a threefold density of plantina, one third of the increase will be provided by the natural food, and the daily norm per head will comprise 16 g (6)(10(2,/3); at a fivefold density, where the arti- ficial feed in the ration will comprise 4/5, the norm of feeding will be equal to 19.2 6 per day per head (00(4/5) (table 5). Table 6. Approximate mesh daily increase (in g) of yearlings, two-year old and three-year old c r Month 10 day periods Northern (up to parallel) raions the 55th _ Central belt (55-51 parallel) - ,-- -------, Southern and south. eastern ral ns (to the south of the ? 55th parallel) 0 0) c , .?-? ?id m W - )?-? Two-year old ones cii W 0 W 14 'CI .0 ?44 I-4 0 c .4 ????M)1 u W ? 0 >4 Two-year old ones Three- year old ones `earl ing 0 W 1 0 LI )1 ^4 (-'0 Three- year old ones April May June 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 ?di" .011. .- - - - 0.1 al. ? 2 2 3 14. 5 ?? 2 3 4 7 10 SO '' - ... - 0.1 0.2 .0 MO 1 2 2 3 L. 5 NV 2 3 4 6 8 12 - - .. - - 0.1 0.3 o1 2 3 3 4 5 6 2 k 8 10 12 14 (Table continued on next page) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1111 (Table 46. continued) Approximate mean daily increase(in g) of yearlings, two-year old and. three-year old caresfeedino z ..) c 0 X 10 day pirlods Northern raions (up to the 55th parallel) Central belt (55-51 parallel) Southern and south- eastern raions (to the south of the 55th yareAlel) L & el C3CO CO N4 >..,- Two-year old ones a- Three- year old ones Yearlings 1.0 ow ec )s 0 h old ones 1 m 16 CA 0 (1) "4 ,Two-yea old one .0 I-4 go 0 ? ) CO CO la I. C 4 CO 0 >t July ? Au- gust ' . Septem- ber Octo- ber 1 2 3 1 2 3- 1 2 3 1 2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 MD . 5 5 6 6 6 4. 2 - - Oa . 10 10 12 12 12 8 4 2 - ID -. 0,3. 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 . 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 . 6 6 6 7 7 7 3. 1 - - . 12 14 14. . 14 14 10? 8 4 - - . 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 ? 0:1 6 6 7 7 7 t I. 2 1 - -. 15 , 16 16 16 15 12 10 6 3 - - On the basis of control catches, conducted during the course of many years, it is possible to compile a diagram of the mean Increase of weight of fish for the given fishery and estimate the. norms for feeding the fish. Our examinations of the contents of. the intestines of fish, conducted at the fishery ?Spartale, Kursk oblast', have shown that at a temperature of 20-24? the art!- tidal feed (castor bean oil cakes with wastes of rye) is retained In the intestines of the fish over 20 hours. Therefore we recom- mend to feed the two-year old carp (at a 2-4 fold density of stock- ing) once per 24-hour day. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans. A-1111 LITERATURE 1. Eleonskii, A. N., Pond fish breeding. M. 1946. 2. Eleonskii, A. N., and Kutnetsov. N. F., Effect of concentrated plantings of carp on the productivity of fish breeding ponds. Trudy of Mosrybvtuta (Moscow Technical Institute of the Fish Industry and Fisheries, imeni A. I. Mikoyan), no. 2. H., 1939. 3. Suvorovs E, K., Principles of ichtyology. M., 1948. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-iile (Summary and Literatur(---'' vg/M Eiubov, R. E. Deistvie I posledstvie ioniziruiushchikh iziuchenii kobaltta-60 na rost? razvitie I urozhainostt khlopchatnika, (Effect and results of ionizing radiations of cobalt- 60 on the growth, development and yielding capacity of. cotton) Akademlia Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. Izvestiia, no. 5, P.28-39. 1959. 442.9 Ak132 (In Azerbaidzhan. Russian Summary) Summary, p.38-39 In recent years much research has been conducted on the clarification of the effect on plants of small doses of ionizing ' radiation from artificial radioactive isotopes"with indicator [tracer] activities" ("pri indikatornykh aktivnostiakh"]. The most im- portant are the works of P. A. Vladsiuk [I], who proved that .a preplanting treatment of seeds with small doses of ionizing radia- tions or the introduction of different isotopes into the soil faci- litates the utilization of available nutrients, the conditions of metabolism, and a considerable increase in the yield and productivity. of plants. A. A. Drobkov (3], N. G. Zhezhel (4], A, N. Giullakhmedov (2], 0. K. Kedrov-Zikhman, A. N. Kozhevnikova, L. N. Plotashchik (5], on the basis of several years of field and vegetative experiments, 0 conducted with natural radioactive isotopes under different soil- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1112 climatic conditions with various crops, came to conclusion that the introduction of negligibly small amounts of radioactive isotopes under different agricultural crops produces a positive effect on the development and yield of plants. We studied the influence of ionizing radiations of C06? on the growth, development and productive capacity of cotton in the year 1956. The effect of ionizing radiations of C060 on cotton (variety 108F) was studied under conditions of a small greenhouse. Filling of containers and introduction of fertilizers was conducted on June 23, 1956. Fifteen kg of mixed sierozem [gray desert soil] and meadow soil of the Udzhar talon (Shirvansk steppe) were placed into each container. The labeled cobalt nitrate COO was intro- !! duced into the soil at a rate of 250* 500 and 1,000 millicurie per container. In two variants ordinary cobalt nitrate (1.02 and 2.04 g per container) was introduced along with the labeled cobalt nitrate. The effect of the ordinary cobalt nitrate was compared with the effect of the radioactive cobalt nitrate C060. Nutrients were Introduced into all containers - nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate end P205 in the form of superphosphate at the rate of 6 g of the active element per container. The planting was conducted on June 23, 1956. A planting was again made on June 3, 1957 In order to study the aftereffect of the radioactive cobalt. On the basis of conducted experiments one can make the following conclusions. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1112 LITERATURE, p.37-38 1. Vlasiuk, P. A., Effect of nuclear radiations on plants. M., 1955, p.127. ?. Giultakhmedov, A. N., Influence of uranium on the development and yielding capacity of cotton." "Izv. AN Azerb. rO"R", 1957, no. 9. 3. Drobkov, A. A., Effect of radioactive elements on the yield and quality of agricultural plants. In the collection of works "Use of microfertilizers VASKENIL", Sellkhozgiz, 1941. 4. Zhezhel, N. G., Influence of natural radioactive substances on the yielding capacity of agricultural plants. 1955. P.149. 5. Kedrov-Zikhman, 0. K., Kozhevnikova, A. N. and Plotashchik, L. N., Effect of cobalt on agricultural plants under conditions of liming [Begin p.38] of turf-podzolic soils. In the col- lection of works "Use of isotopes in agrochemical and soil research", Publisher: lzd-vo AN SSR, E., 1955. 6. Kuzin, A. M., Peaceful use of atomic energy. Materials of the International Conference in Geneva, in 1955. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 vg/M Dvoriankin, F. A. Obnovliaetsla IL"klassicheskela genetika"? (Is classical genetics being revived?) Voprosy Filosofil, vol. 13, no. 12, p.128-138. Dec. 1959.. Not in DA library. (In Russian) Of late the idea about the "revival" of "classical genetics". begins expanding.ever wider in the scientific literature. This idea found its reverberation in an entire series of articles in biological journals, as well as on the pages of the journal "Voprosy Filosofii (The Problems of Philosophy). Thus, for in- stance, in no. 6, for the year 1957, was published an article by N. P..Dubinin "Method of physics, chemistry and mathematics in the studies of problems of heredity"; in which is. announced the "revival" of modern Vtismannism (the latter, usually, in such articles is called differently by its followers, depending on the age of its revived theoretical principles: for the long past it is "meta- .physics", for the recent past it is "formal genetics", and for the modern state -'always and only "classical genetics"). The "revival"'consists in the fact .that the author, in the name of the trend, retracts a series of theoretical principles, which were defended by native "classical aeneticiets" against T. D. Lysenko, about twenty years ago, as the foundation of "dialectical materialism in biology".(see contemporary reports in print about Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1113 the convention at the editorial office of the ,journal "Under the Banner of Marxism", in 1939). How much indignation at that time was caused by the criticism of these genetic principles by the Michurinites. Indignation of the followers of Vaismannism was caused also by the speeches of philosophers, who did not want to support Morgan's genetics as an unfolding of "dialectics" in modern biology; the theoretical exercises of G. Miller, were represented as such, for instance. N. P. Dubinin calls the principles, that are defended now by the geneticist, as it really should be, metaphysical and me- chanistic, but this forced acknowledgement he presents as a re- . sult'of an independent progressive development of "classical genetics" without any conflicts. Nevertheless the foundations of - the same idea are still preserveds independence of the hereditary process from the life conditions of the individuals. "Classical genetics" no longer insists on the monopoly of the cell nucleus in the determination of hereditary characteristics, since many geneti- cists consider probable as. additional and subordinate determiners (for secondary hereditary characteristics) also the role of the chondriosome apparatus, plastids and cytoplasm granules* conteining RNA, and of other particles, which can'be recognized as being cap- or able reproduction. The number of such postulated "determiners of heredity" does not change the general position: the organism is divided into two natures, the causes of hereditary characteristics remain individual and autonomous, independent of the general bonds A ty Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1113 in the world. With the exception of the modern chemical interpre- tation,.'the postulation of many phases of internal determination of heredity in cytogenetics is known from the prewar works of Darlington; division'of the material basis of heredity into nuclear and plasmic was Introduced as e result of the 20-years research on inbreeding of rye of 0. Nielsen. But no matter hew many individual types of "hereditary units" would be suggested, the idea proper of the possibility of. hereditary transmittal only where there appears an ability for self-doubling, remains a denial of the trim development by way of new growth. A reason for the admission of collections of secondary genes -uplastama" end "plazmona" - was 0 seen in the fact that a series of real hereditary characteristics did not conform to the scheme of "Mendelirovanie" (Mendelisationj and could not, thus, be referred to the nucleus. The idea of A. Weismann which serves as a basis for the attribution proper of the function of determination of hereditary characteristics to the nucleus; was dictated by the tendency to substantiate the independence of heredity from the environment, which influences the age formation of individuals. The need for some basis of this idea gave rise to the hypothesis about the germ plasm; it, as though,'could preserve stable characteristics awing to a simple equivalent division, which precedes full age development of [Begin p.1293 individual-producers, and, therefore, is "not subject" to the influence of peculiarities of individual development.. This 411 criticism may seem to be "old", but it cannot become newer as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (4) Trans. A-1113 long as. modern Weismannli ekplanation. rministic the reproductt?n of complete rganisms, with . the entire aggregate of hractertst,icst Is -aceomplished:bY. the nucleus of the gamettavecterding.to..Morgen!s:_theories, and..a all the .protein components Of the cytoplasm, Incieding_allo the ftblocetalyzereeenaymes, are subordinated ?to it then, virtua. theory about the mono at'long as genetcs..leans role of the nu lew remains the the idea of heredity (bated) on immu abiiity of d structures and the recombination of their sections. Thisbefore, remains a reduction of all form movement of matter to the initial quantitative mechanistic move ment to the denial of historism in the development Of the causes themselves of evolution. This, as formerly, represents variability as autogenetic Independent of the character o influence of ternal factors on metabolism, independent of the previously occurred development (phylogenesis) inasmuch as it is expresse In the entire bodily organize Ion of living beings, In the type of their metabolism, In the frequene and 'development in he new form to the peculiar tlet of condition the composition of nu '''material'foundetions sider the conception remains outside the recognize 'the qualitat and proport on of owth v?lopment reactions of Individuals offormatlon, and not rI structures.. be in the use of on rM nsuffl I n order to con heredItyIlstic? This conception toricel 014100k on nature since It does not ve development, of the CaUSCS themselvesof Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1113 variabilit? y. ' No wonder that the "classical geneticists" insist to strongly on the idea that the combination of sections of DNA molecules with four different bases are so varied and numerous.- This is the same calculation of the fact that the number of independent cases increases the probability of accidental expedient (adaptive) com- binations, which cen-by themselves provide all the diversity of living.forms for all the ages of evolution, and it remains for "natural. selection" only to adapt to the single system of living nature wholeseries of successive, changes, independent of the con- ditions of development of species, but which proved to be adaptive 111 by accident. "Selection" here is not the moving power of the progressive movement, acting owing to the renewal of the "gradual multiplicity ,of living forms" at each new level of evolution, but is only the recorder of the events that occurred before and with- out it. This is a step, back from even the classical Darwinism, a true carrying out of the idea, proclaimed- by Weismann about.the return from Darwin to Empedocles in order, under the disguise of formal recognition of a historical principle in biology, to refute it and leave in the problem about causes or adaptability of changes "a wide field for faith" (Weismann). ? The conception of organic development, established by Charles Darwin consisted of the inheritance of tendencies for variability, that are-caused by the conditions of life; it explains the succis- siveness'of the adaptive changes, which are useful for the pre- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-1113 . servation of the speciei (descendants) in a certain ecological situation, which is conditioned by the interaction of organic forms. Darwin's selection - is a variability of formation of complete individuals, changing during all the periods of their age. But in Weismann's conception of "mechanistic selection" the changes* in principle* do not depend on the peculiarities of ontogenesis and are, without fail, accidental for the conditions of life; there- fore their adaptiveness is preadaptive and breaks up with causality This is a preformistic, indeterministic "theory". What progress then has modern "classical genetics" attained in comparison with this idea and utilizing the newest chemical inter- 111 pretation of "genes"? What Is its explanation of the causative .connection between the previously selected accidental and the newly, accidentally originating mutations. They are not connected by the essential bond-historical successiveness, by the trend of changes. Denial of the principle of heritability of changes, acquired in ontogenesis, this is a denial of historical conditiona- lity of consecutive adaptations, which lead to the progress of general organization. It cannot be based on the rigidity of struc- tures of the "hereditary substance", since by pure reproduction of something similar to oneself can be "explained" only the constancy of living forms if it Is attained by the immutability of heredity and invariability of relations of organisms to the environment. There are no conditions for such a constancy in the living move- ? ment of progress and differentiation of animals and plants. Here Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-11I3 constancy is achieved by the renewal of species in new generations under changing conditions of the environment, "development anew" (Lysenko). The primary adeptiveness of Changes can be attained only by way of form developing reactions of individuals adequate to the effect of the enVironment. A mutual adaptation-of entire living forms is achieved only by selection, which extends over the entire life process of generations. It cannot be predetermined by chance mutations, even if they were caused by the environment as a simple stimulus for an indifferent variability. (Begin p.130] True, N. P. Dubinin reports that the "hereditary substance" is no longer described in "classical genetics" is an imperishable "philosopher's stone", which transmutes substances, but remains inviolable to change. The possibility of influence of external factors on the "hereditary substance" through internal change is permitted. It is spoken even about the possibility of admitting the dependence of the quality of mutations on the quality of factors causing them. But all this is only a wordy "approach" to the idea of unity of the 'organism and the environment, since its role again comes to a push from without, which causes random changes, which do not depend either on the character of activity of factors; or on the complex of conditions of existence according to directions. Moreover, it is known that in cytogenetics, even during prewar years, it was spoken of a certain dependence (but not of conformity) between the "mutagenic" factors and the frequency of "crossovers", Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . (8) Trans. A-I113 as well as of the increase of the percentage of mutations in Irradiation of Drosophila by X-rays; it was written about this also in connection with the effect of polyploidy under the effect of treatment of plants with colchicine. The theory of chance variation WAS at one time directed by the mechanistic materialism against the "plan of development pre- determined by the Creator"; but, in fact, it never takes biology out of the faulty circle of preformation, since it represents evolution as a miracle of preadeptation (adaptation to future con-- ditions of existence), inasmuch as the numerous series of adoptive changes, on which the evolution is built, do not have, as a nature of their cause, the results of evolution of the living environ- ment itself of the organisms. If the geological conditions of existence of organisms on earth remained unchanged, and the re- quirements of selection did not depend on the qualitative changes of interactions between species, which are determined by the developing demands of the progressing new organic beings, then one could yet think, that the innumerable combinations, possible. for organism structures, conditioning the form, can provide an adaptive evolution by a purely mechanistic selection,the most corresponding to the unchanging conditions of life. But the "conditions of existence" are not alone a complex and changeable value, but are also a progressing cause of a new variability. They are created In a "biological rotation", owing to the interaction of regularly 411 changing geological conditions of life which do not depend on Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1113 the aninfals and plants themselves, with other condition of life, but namely, on "mutual relations" of organic species, which are progressing irregularly, and are replacing by their own selves the complex of species formations. Relations of species, new and "sur- vived" from Old historic natural formations, regulate by their own selves also the effect on organisms of abiotic, physical and chenii- cal factors of the environment, "biologize" all the ecological factors of life. The mutual relations themselves of Species de- pend on the accumulation of progressive changes in the general organization of beings, together with which change the demands and abilities of organisms. Whereupon the type of interrelations between the species, which determines by itself a'qualitatively specific natural formation in each *geological period, changes again, depending on the replacing of living forms, dominating during this period, which by their "way of living" impose the type of relations in the given formation.of species to all others. Provision of such conditions of natural, selection by changes, which do not de- pend on the developing conditions of existence, is simply impose. sible. ? All this requires understanding the ecological factors as a naterial basis of heredity and of its variability, existing in the system of organization of the living environment, while the other, - the basic, physiologic-morphologic, as the material basis of heredity exists in the "nature of the organism", that is in the characteristics of corporal organization of beings as a whole, and, 111 according to the progress of the scheme of the organism, this ma- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1113 terial foundation changes qualitatively. To reckon that in this complex system of interaction of the organism with the environment all the organic development can be provided by accidentally appearing and eternally acting-recombina- tions of the links of molecules of the "hereditary substance" - this means to reduce the causes of self-movement of the living nature to the evolution of a chemical form of movement Of matter and not admit the qualitative paaaages to new, higher forms of movement of Matter. In this exposure of the metaphysical under- standing of the world was the Whole essence of the criticism of the mechanicism [or mechanistic materialism), which was expressed 111 by. Engels at the appearance of Darwin's theory of development. "Classical genetics", retains, in the system of theoretical. Ideas, the theory of mechanical selection of Empedocles and the Idea of Aristotle about an extraneous powers which animates matter. This ideal antiquity will remain as a preformation autogenesis so long as the "classical geneticists" deny the three Darwinist prin- ciples of the "historical method in,biologyn: 1) adequacy of the variability in the "nature of the organism" (Begin p.1311 which takeup in their own way the "factors" of the environment (principle of "unity of phylogenesis and ontogenesis"); 2) adequOcy of the variability in the nature of conditions of life, which cause gra- dual changes by its repetition (principle of "unity of the organian and conditions of existence"); 3) adequacy of the.trend of the ? newly arisen successive changes in respect to the character of con- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-1113 ditions of existence, which determine by themselves the preeminent survival and reproduction of organisms (principle of "accumulation of successive changes in the direction of selection"). Darwin's old ideas outstripped by far the theoretical level of the newest positivism In biology. These principles, which were developed by materialism in biology, as a result of ancient studies of natural relationship between species and. inside the species, and their relation to "physical conditions of life", which were tested by Darwin's analysis of practice of artificial form development, undoubtedly, are necessary for a causative explanation and study of heredity. 111 They all are united in the well-known law about the heritability - of new characteristics, which arise under the effect At the environ- ment on the organism in the process of individual development of animals and plants. This biological law is understood incorrectly, In a limited way, if it is not extended to the recognition of the formation and acquisition by the whole "system of living nature" of new causes of development, which arise as the result of the evolution itself. Without the recognition of this classical legacy of materialism in biology, the attempts to explain the character of heredity only from within the organism, the attempts to explain only morphologically (by structures) or only chemically (structurally-enzymatically) will always be unsuccessful. The search for organic "material bases" of ? form are not in vain: they will lead to success in the perception of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (.12) Trans. A-1113 ways of origin of the living organic substance from inanimate sub- stances_ - this is the problem of chemistry. But the living remains as such only in an organic system; it is necessary to look for. causes of its evolutionary variability under conditions of a biolo- gical process. Organisms are bodies which are subject to'age and are directedly developing; their qualities change according to how the conditions of the environment direct the differentiation of the living body; the basis for the trends of this differentiation every time are the morphologically irreversible results of the preceding develop- ment. Structures and processes, conditioning the initial stages 0 of the formation of substance of the living organism of a certain kind, can be simple and relatively constant, but their complexes very intricate. And, inasmuch as in the aging process they are the ones that act, and not their origins, it is they that acquire a similar, and even greater, importance for the determination of the species character and for different varying directions of all subsequent processes of the formation of individuals. All of them - the basic and the derivative components - are the only ones in the system which comprise the material bases for heredity; they determine the trends of further variability; the bases, which depend on the history of development of the organism from the accumulation of that which is acquired. The other necessary aspect, determining the heredity, is provided by the environment - conditions of individ- 411 ual development of the hereditary type in its single fort - in Indi- viduals. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (13) Trans. A-1113 In this fact is the essence of our difference of opinion and not in the recognition or denial of successes of modern biology; this latter is always contemporary and is always developing through .struggle. If one judges from half-admissions,. "classical genetics" stands on the "verge of great 4d1scoveriest" and plane to "openly," acknowledge (de jure) the inheritance of the acquired charactdris- tics and the adequirCy of variability in respect to the character of action of environment on the organism. But we will have to wait for this admission again for about thirty years. "Classical genetics" does not hurry with the admission of the newly arising 411 realities and is afraid of simple materialistic truths, but it is very generous with the advertisement of the retarded and forced ? acknowledgements as their own discoveries - such is their style. Behold, how they present the same miracle of preadaptation in a laboratory coverall of 20th century - as a great progress of "classical genetics" which, they said, opens up possibilities for directing the nature of organisms with the application of methods of mathematics, physics and 'chemistry to biological research. This is very flattering to the representatives of these sciences: at last they dragged out the "helpless" biology. But it proves to be, that they only drew it up to the old psycho-Lamarckian idea about heredity As a "mneme"; exactly this idea lies in Oamov's hypothesis about the "code of hereditary Information", in which the will of progenitor- organisms is dictated to descendant-organisms. .And at the same Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (1L.) Trans. TA41I3 the audienceisdazt1edby the message that the recognition of i I y of the acquired characteristics is equivalent to the recognttnotthe stream of information from the descenda ts to the genitor understan ing that the weird np ogenitors e ns ditary. plasma and the word "descendants" the organism. There is not a si gle word mentioned in the article of N. Du inin about the matter that the problem about the causative - effectfr, Pprichinno-sledetvennyle] connections between heredity and environment in individual development was raised (Eegin p.132) and experimentally solved by the works of T. D. Lysenko, D Dol ushin and others; they examined (using a large collection of ill varieties), since 1926 the regularities of the phasic process of, growth and development, There is not one word about ,the fact that whole army of agrobiological researchers of tht Soviet Union on the one hand the followers of Michurin, and on the other the followers of Mendel - debated ,in print and experimentally. All the leading speclaUsts and theorists of selection solved the question of heredity, applying in practice the theories, developed, by them, to the work of socialistic reconstruction of fields and arms. And all of them sanctioned Michurinis idea about controlling the nature of organisms; they approved Michurints trend In biology, adapted the principles of the theory of phasic development and broke away from ,formal genetics. Only the armchair and the labora- tory geneticists who oriented themselves to the "Western school's Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (15). Trans. A-1113 remained with it; but they cannot even keep .up the pace with it. Nothing is said that even the projects of new experiments* which were accomplished by foreign geneticists, whom N. P. Dubinin cites now, were caused by the decisions of the August Session, which, engrossed the, attention of biologists of the whole world in the problems of regulating the. nature of organisms with the aid of the effect on the organisms of controlled factors Of the environ- ment. in' the main, N. V. Turbinin in his article "About philoso- phicalproblems of modern genetics" comes forward from'the,same positions (Journal "Voprosy Filosofii" no. 2, 198). The same . ideas permeate the article of D. F. Petrov "About certain philoso- phic problems .of the doctrine about material basis of heredity" (in the same journal, no. 7, 1958). There is a point in dwelling in more detail on the essence of questions discussed in these articles, and first of all on the problem about the "material bases ofheredity". 24 Truth and lepends about material bases ot heredity. Could one, following N. P. Dubinin, N. V. Tilrbin and D. F. Petrov, consider the natural nonrecognition of Che theory of genes as a '"rejection of attempts to give a materialistic explanation" to nature's phenomena/ Apparently not'. As it is known, I. V. Michurin also agreed with the "theory of gemmules" of Darwin, which, nevertheless, admits a causative ekplanation of the inheritance of Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (16) Trans. A-1113 acquired characteristics, but positively denied Morgan's chromosome theory. K. A. Timiriatev considered, in general, every theory about "hereditary units" as a survival of preformation. Charles Darwin thought that the rise of consecutive changes during all ages of life of individuals is the result of direct end indirect effect of conditions of life on the forming individuals but not a result of chance. . D. F. Petrov asserts that the doctrine about the "materiel bases of heredity" began with the discovery by G. Mendel of "discrete ,character of inheritance" and the discovery by him also of the "basic unity of heredity". But the history of biology does not confirm this: 1) phenomenon of the so-called equality of the first generation of hybrids and the "splitting of -descendants into forms of the generators" was known yet in the time of Pallas (see, I. I. Mechnikov); 2) the discrete character of inheritance was known long before Mendel, but was explained in all its signi- 'licence In the theory of selection by Darwin; Darwin's entire theory of selection is based on the recognition of the possibility to isolate the inheritance of individual differences and bring their development to a full conversion of the initial form with the aid. of selection; 3) in the works of Buffon, and differently by K. Wolditenabout hereditary ("generative") substance, which Is separated into the conditioning conservative reproduction of heredi- tary characteristics and into being susceptible to the effect of the environment. This is the history of the problem which has Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (17) Trans. A-11I3 ? been dragging on for ages. It is ridiculous to date its beginning from Batson, who "discovered" G. Mendel. Disputes about heredity have deep roots: beginning with the known works of Hippocrates, Plato and Aristotle (the eastern, more ancient, theories are not widely known) they were not con- ducted, by any means, around the question whether it is necessary to consider the internal structure and the composition of the "egg" and "semen" as a direct material basis* for the reproduction of the parental type in the posterity("inheritance") and the cause of development of a specific living form ("heredity"). Disputes ran In another directions should one consider the:characteristics of the "semen" or "egg" formed by the entire organism of the generators 111 'or formed independently of the body. Secondly, the disputes centered around the problem, should one consider it natural and necessary that under the effect of external factors arise new living structures and new hereditary characteristics, as, for in- stance, K. F. Wolf thought, basing himself on the studies of the egg and buds; or should one accept the "hereditary substance" ("rudiments of life" of preformism) as one that cannot be influenced by the conditions of the environment, as was believed by the op- ponents of Wolf. (Begin p.133) At the present time the disputes proceed on the same plane as the discussions of K. Wolf with the followers of the theory of preformation; theoretically the new consists in the fact that since the time of generalizations of I. M. Sechenov (and, maybe, of ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 (18) Trans. A-1113 K. F. Rullierf yet another idea arose in, biology: should one consider the material bases of heredity conditioned only by the intraorganism characteristics, only by "Internal structure" of living beings or consider that material conditions of existence of organisms exist in the external environment, which acts on the organism and provides for their development, and are the second (equally necessary) material base of heredity in view of the fact, that it is impossible either to obtain, or preserve any living form outside a certain environment (It: F. Rullier, I. M. Sechenov). The material bases of heredity are produced in the "body organize- tion".of living beings (Marx); they are provided in the form of 411 material possibilities of development (Michutin); the Other neces- sary aspect is provided in the material conditions of development,. ? which are determined by the environment. Materialism consists in seeing and representing nature in such a way as it is, without any preconceptions. 'It is not enough to recognize that heredity is conditioned by the composition and structure of the eggcell or zygote in order to be a materialist in biology. The main thing Is to understand that the world is united In its materiality, and to see in the peculiarities of physico-chemical structure of organisms the result of not only direct causes, depending on the action of some organic substances on others in the organism, but also understand this interaction' as the result of universal material bonds, to consider it the product of the whole history of development of the living in the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP8OR01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ( 19) Trans. A-1113 Interaction with the environment. The histOry of development, which created certain systems of successive formative processes of metabolism of matter, which are feasible-only in the presence of specific "Internal" end "external" conditions, is expressed.in a material phenomenon the "organism". But the old followers of the preformation theory have also based their ideas about the "history of species" on the hypothesis about "hereditary substance" ("immortal rudiments_of life"), which survives earthly "catastrophes" and conditions all the future diversity of living forms. One should not hide oneself from history and conceal the origin of the bases of modern chromosome theory 411 from this idea of preformation., WeismanntS idea of heredity ts called "classical genetics" because it "returned", in the defini- tion of Johansen, "to classical views of Aristotle" from Darwin, "who corrupted the theory of heredity" (according to Johansen), by authorising the inheritance of changes, caused by conditions of life during all the periods of life of the organisms. But, ac- cordin to "caissical" views of Aristotle, the body of the being has the same relationship to the "hereditary substance", as a picture to the paint on the palettes they form the picture and not it them. After Darwin explained the ecological causes, which determined the trend of successive changes in generations' through the pre- servation of the most adapted (selection) and development, in this 111 way, of entirely new living forms (varieties), biology centered Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (20) Trans. A-1113 Its attention on the search for ontogenetic causes of evolution (A. N. Severtsov); that is, of causes which cause individual deviations from the maternal type. "Units of heredity" in the 19th century "revealed" absolutely everything, and G. Mendel only followed the "general vogue". Thus,,Charles Darwin suggested the "hypothesis of pangenesis", in which he tried to connect In one theory the basic ideas about causes of directed individual development according to stages, aboUt regenaration, about inheritance and acquiring of new ,charac- teristics under the effect of environment, De Vries gave his theory of "pangenes", K. Negell - the theory of "idloplase, which was later adapted by Weismann, who, incidentally, then con- nected the "hereditary substance" with the chromosomes; their own theories about hereditary particles, _"molecules" were presented by Haake, T. Eimer and others; in short, Darwinists, Lamarckians, and pure followers of the idea of preformation, they all were occupied with these units. The affirmation of D. F. Petrov that R. A. Timirlastev? as If, highly valued the discovery by Mendel of the "hereditary unit" is a deep fallacy. He only protested against the affirmations of "classical geneticists" (Batson and other of Mendelliifollowers) that Mendelism replaces the "antiquated Darwinism" and pointed out that they preservation of characteristics in crossing, discovered by Mendel, removes the objection of Jenkins concerning the impossi- bility of development of new growth, inasmuch as they, as if, will Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (21) Trans'. A-1113 ? be put out ("levelled") by crossing a changed individual with an unchanged. The true opinion of K. A. Timiriezev about absolutely all the theories of "hereditary substance" was such: "The same fate awaits, probably, the whole assembly of "ultreopticheskikh" (tiltramicro- scopic?) entities, by which certain scientists (Darwin, Nagel!, Weismann, de Vries, and others) as if tried to explain the facts of heredity, which attracted attention during the second part.of the century, but, in reality, only Paraphrased them (Begin p.1341 in vaguer expressions". (K. A. Timiriazev; Works, vol. 8, p.77-78). You see: "they tried to exgain" but did not explain, but only 111 paraphrased. This was the opinion of K. A. Timiriazev about this subject. "All these attempts represt only the remnants of theories of preformation, emboitement and so on, which had such a wide distri- bution in the 18th century. As also at that time, these attempts represent instances of unlawful intrusion into the field of biologi- cal dynamics of the static mentality of 'morphologists, which was engendered by their obsession, as if a form can be explained by another form, preceding it and if the visible connection is, at last, broken, then one can lust fabricate a series of unseen forms, and thus into Infinity" (In the same work, page 78). Does it then turn out to be that K. A. Timiriazev, without recognizing the "hereditary units", also "refused the attempt to give a materialistic interpretation to heredity", "to open the ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (22) Trans. A-1113 door to vital*? NO, D. P. Petrov made a mistake by choosing such conception.. The Search for organic material collies, conditioning the reproduction of the "general constitution", "Internal structure" ? and-"mode of conduct" Of organisms was not by chance; not they? 'themselves, but only certain theories were caused by the effect of imperialism; this refers only to 1:eismannts treatment of heredity as isolated from the regular development of the environment and - .-based'on the Maithuslan "struggle,of embryos". VS can never say this about Darwin's !theory of gemmules". But as to the fact that all these theories still remained in the limits of remnants of the preformation, K. A. Timirlarev Was right.' These theories, both of Darwin. and of the Neo-Lamerckians, did not take into con- sideration the results of development, and, particularly, did not. Consider the evolution of the organisms of living beings themselves and the importance of the evolution of methods of organiettion of substances into new dynamic systems of. various types. These were "mechanistic" theories, since they followed from the idea that only the peculiarities of the organism, and then in a purely morphological ("structural") sense, can explain by their awn selves all the heredity, as if it was capable of existing all by itself in any kind or environment. The other side of the unity Ifts.forgOtten - the organism -,the Medium, which conditions by itself the realisation of hereditary possibilities In ontogenesis, 411 and which guides their further development by its direct 'action ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (23) Trans. A-1113 through metabolism (principle of "assimilation" of Lamarck) and by indirect action - through preservation and reproduction of in- dividuals with adaptive characteristics and tendencies for develop- ment (principli of selection of Charles Darwin). The theoretical biology of the predominant trend as yet only drams near to the understanding of the idea of K. F. Rullier and I. M. Sechenov that the organism represents in itself a unity of the general organization and the environment; that is, of the internal and the external conditions, which provide a certain form of a being. Of course, this idea-biology's awn dialectic penetration into 111 the essence of that which is called an "organism", - must be , specified, must obtain prods in simple facts. Biology, since the second half of the 19th century, took two courses in the examina- tion of the nature of heredity. -One of them - Darwin's, Michurints - led to research on the nature of the organism through its manifesta- tions, through the conduct of organisms in a certain environment. This means that one must study the characteristics of biological bodies according to the type of relations of different organiza- tions of the living to similat ones and of similar to different combinations of conditions; then the causes of form are perceived according to form developing reactions of organisms to the environ- ment. This trend can be called "physiology of conduct", and in ? it is the Timiriezev's plan - "experimental morphologV"; these methods for studying the nature of organisms were used by Darwin, Pavlov, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (24). Trans. iv-1113 Miichurino-Burbank, Timiriasev, and is used by Lysenko and, essential- ly, by the entire agrobiological practice. The second way - this is the physico-chemical research into the ".internal structure" of the organism, which specifies by it- self the physiological basis Of that or another formation and conduct of individuals, of course, again only in a certain environ- ment. In this way one could distinguish two trends' the morpho- logical and the physiological. The first consists in looking for everlasting identification of certain structures by others pre- ceding them, by forms, which anteceded in phylogenesis the contem- porary one, end by structures of the embryo, which consecutively 411 condition each other in the individual development. Or again one could proceed by means of physiological experiment, that is, seek the possibility of directing the process of metabolism; this would require their preliminary studies. 'Timiriatev considered possible and prospective only the physiological explanation of the Internal organic causes of formation, but always connected with , experimental morphology. He considered it hopeless to search for purely structural causes. ' He hoped for "enormous success of the doctrine of enzymes", which seemed to him [Begin p.I35] to be the key to the explana- tion of ennumerable conversions of organic substance into living bodies". He paid special attention to the polarity of characteris- tics of the nucleus and of the protoplasm: "may be there would appear a chemical explanation for the above cited morphological Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (25) Trans. A-1113 dualism - protoplasm plus nucleus: one would represent the basic material for obtaining the entire endless diversity of substances in the organism, the other would include the condition for ac- complishing this differentiation" (in the same book, p.89). One should not think, that the idea about eneymatic action of the, nuclear matter and the whole physiological trend in the ex- planation of formative processes appeared only 5.7 years ago and was not known to anyone at the end of 19th century. One should not think also that, In 1929, T. D. LysenkO referred the phasic processes of ontogenesis to the category of internal biochemical conversions according to accidental assumptions and arbitrarily in his field and laboratory experiments, and the explanation of heredity brought to a certain type of internal and external meta- bolism. All this was the result of the truly classical physiological trend in biology. Where should the results of this physiological way lead) In the opinion of K. A. Timirlazev, who Mimed up the development 'of biology in 19th century? To the study of the "Initial origin of substance in plants and animal", that is "the process of their nutrition", ihe completion of this process of seeking the material physiological bases was seen by K. A. Timirlazev in the uniting of both methodical trends - in the creation of "physiological, experi- mental-morphology", which, controlling the nutrition, will "model" the organic forms. The physiologist can control the development Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (26) Trans. A4113 of plants by changing the composition of food (in the same book, . P.91). Here is a clear answer of Timiriazev to the question in what do Darwinists see the material bases of heredity. The followers of Michurin proceed in their research in their agrobiological way, by means of experimental morphophysiology; they examine the forms of the bond between certain combinations (by complexes) of material external factors and the form development, which are outlined yet in the process of individual development, which pass then into variability, that lasts for generations", that is into the develop- ment of new forms of life. The gradual changes and sharp con- versions of plant forms are disclosed also at the same time. Physico-chemical physiology looks, together with cytophysio- logists, for internal organic causes of conversion of substances and for a basis for development of a certain form. Agrobiological "physiology of conduct of the organise studies heredity In a controll- ed field and laboratory environment; studies form development reactions of hereditary type on the environment. They are not antagonists, nor competitors, but two methodical lines of a simultaneous development of two sides of the same question about causes of form development; these are two methodical trends, both equally necessary to biology. But it is a different story, how the facts are interpreted, what the trend of the theory is, what is its service to the world ? outlook and to which one in particular. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (27) Trans. A-1113 The followers of Michurin are convinced, on the basis of experimental studies of productiveness and form development of organisms in a controlled environment, of the fact that every living form (the whole totality of hereditary characteristics, type of growth and development, type of reproduction) is conditioned by physiological metabolism. Therefore they cannot oppose their way of research to biochemical physiology and they never opposed It. They are only against reducing biology to chemistry. But, besides that, they also do not want to stand stilt in waiting until that time when physiologists and biochemists will be able, at last, to explain what type of metabolism explains the differences, 111 say, between the most winterhardy wheat "Liutestsens 329" and the typical spring wheat "Liutestsens 62". The Michurinites, as agrobiologists in their specialty (and not biochemists), explain this from the point of view of "physiological conduct" in the light of the theory of phasic development.- This explanation offers also sufficient understanding of the nature of heredity in its unity with the environment of formation, and permits finding a practical guidance for the controlling of the nature of organisms, that is their productiveness and form development of descendants. But quite another matter is the unacceptability of the con- ception of an independent "hereditary substance"; it in principle includes in itself.the division of the essence of life into a form, depending on the environment, but which is not essential to form 111 development, and into a heredity, which does not depend onAhe Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (26) Trans. A-1113 environment, but which also conditions the form. Modern biology refuses looking for purely morphological "hereditary structures" - the genes, as corpuscles of "hereditary substances"; physiology proceeds along the way predicted by K. A. Timiriatev. Very soon, with the aid of physics and chemistry it will become convinced of the fact that one cannot attribute to any one individual substance (a component part of the organism) [Begin p.136) a monopoly for the organitation of "self-reproduc- tion", and, consequently, also a monopoly in the determination of inheritance. This is a function of the entire living organi- zation, of the whole organism, of the entire self-reproducing and developing biological system. This is the result of successive phasic processes, a product of organic substances which are in Interaction, a result of all processes, which lead to irreversible morphological age development of the individual. Any separate substances, any structures in the composition of a complex living body are not able to self-reproduce outside the organism, as well as any of the simplest living systems - viruses and phages - specifically are inoperative outside the organism and are not composed of DNA alone. And on the contrary, even the extracted substances can play a specific role in the reproduction of hereditary characteristics, when they enter in e connection with the organism. Michurinites consider the philosophy of dialectical materialism as the only true methodological key to the understanding of the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (29) Trans. A-1113 essence of natural and social phenomena. Therefore they acknow- ledge the opinion of Marx as unconditionally correct: "Any trace of different elements, as sucho'disappears completely in a living organism. Here the difference consists already not in a separate existence of different elements, but in a living movement of func- tions differing from each other, which are all animated by one and the same life. Thus, their difference itself does not precede, In a complete form, this life* but, on the contrary, itself . constantly flows out of the life itself and as much again con- stantly disappears and is paralyzed in it "(K. Marx and F. Engels "From the early works" p.224). Material basis of heredity (that is the basis of constancy of reproduction of a certain living form), this Is the whole corporal organization of the multicellular beings, the whole cell, the entire complex of components, which stand below the cell of-living structures; everywhere this organism base actually becomes realized (from the possibility of becoming a reality) only in conjunction with a definite environment. As to the "classical genetics", it represents a transitory nonscienctific system of concepts about heredity as about some- thing separate from the organization of beings, which Is left over only as a housing for the "hereditary substance", "that is, It. is capable of its own evolution" (G. Miler). Its purpose was to draw up "convenient" .hypotheses into which the facts of heredity could be "fitted", but the reasons of the historic opinion about Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (30) Trans. A-I113 living nature would be excluded; also the idea of unity of the world in its materiality will be removed, as well as the idea about the general causative-effect connection among nature's phenomena. The direct cause, which gave rise to WeismannismOlas been forgotten at the present time but the system of these ideas, hidden under biological terms impedes the development of the physiological trend in the study of heredity. Loading a postulate over another postulate, the Neo-Kantian trend in genetics re- treats in parts, around borders, but preserves the base - "the theory of chance in variations". It is known that formal genetics has renounced the initial concept about the "gene" as an unchanging protein molecule, "Inductively" controlling the development of the individual. A switching to interpreting the effect of genes as enzymatic did not take place in view of the protein nature of enzymes and, consequently, their definite participation in the process assimi- lation-dissimilation. .It was necessary to find a new unchanging support for the "reproduction of one similar to oneself", such as the "classical geneticists" consider-the inheritance essentially to be.. That is why a support for concepts in the same lines was ? sought for in the form' of the "rigid structure" of the DNA molecule. And since the protein enzymes are synthesized also in the cyto- plasm, an entire scale of stibordinations between, the nuclear Substance and the enzymes has been. invented it order somehow to establish a preconceived control of the nucleus over the proto- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 plasm through an " odiary" RNA. After that it was nces to admit the autonomy of certain RNA m cases of Insubordination to the materna of Mendel as crossings whe sequently new Only one components of assimilation and dissimilation; that In the organism nothing ules in order to explain edity to the rules ws. But there remained remote interspecific these rules are realized only an exception* ?con- sumptions became necessary* so on. ng'is forgotten iittddltion to this, that all the living organism arise anew during he process of mains unchanged afld the constant here is fluid and Is renewed by conversions. To represent any components of the age process of heredity's development as predeterminators of all the characteris- tics ,of the organisms which are Inherent to a developed individual this thtn means to presume the possibility of transferring the Influence of the descendants to the ancestors Ince all he Sub.' stances are produced by the organism. We are deeply convinced that chemistry,engaged o the problems of heredity, will quickly put an end to the theory of unchanging structures and their mechanical combinations. (Begin P.1371. Therefore when D. F, Petrov speaks about the necessity of - development of an understanding of genes as DNA molecules "which have their own metabolism, connected with the environment de- pending on it and able to Change In different directions under the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (32) Trans. A-1113 I. influence of various influences of the environment", then we can say calmly: this is a prophecy about the rapid end of the theory about the special "hereditary substance". The gene-enzyme, which takes place in metabolism, which is again reproduced in this meta- bolism, arising again in the evolution of a living being, which is directed by the influence of conditions of existence, which preserves the succession with the history of development of organisms, which permits new hereditary characteristics to arise - this al- ready is not the same "gene" with which we began our controversy with the formal geneticists. But the Michurinites did not, have any intention to deny diverse qualitativeness of components of a living organism, to 110 deny differences in the functions of organic groups in the process of internal metabolism and in formative processes. On the contrary, their agrobiological facts, their genetic experiments and studies of phasic development of the morphophysiological, age process of plant development have permitted long ago T. D. Lysenko and his followers to ascertain that a living body is of different qualities genetically; that during the time of development the state of the ? organism changes since its biological requirements change, as does Its selective relation to factors of the environment; that for the realization of the vegetative process other complexes of con- ditions are required than for the generative progress, and so on. But let us return to the now existing "gene" and not to its as yet mythical conception. In fact it proves to be that the effect Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (33) Trans. A-I113 of environment on genes, which Is now recognized by "classical genetics" is only a wordy declaration, an illusion of the progress of genetics. , Thus, D. F. Pettey is indignant at M. A. OlishanskIi (see no. 6 for the year 1958) that he does not want to see the difference between the points of view of Gamov and N. P. Dubinin; the latter asserts that 'mutations arise under the effect of certain peculiar!- ties of metabolism and that the mutagenic factors of the environ- ment produce mutations through the change of metabolic processes' in the cell". This triple tautology seems like an oath of loyalty to the idea of the unity of organism and environment; but further on come explanations in the footnote, which show that the depen- dence of mutations on the quality of the influencing factors . must be understood, so to say", in the Pickwickian sense". If adequate hereditary variability Is understood as a "presence of a specific spectrum of mutations, which corresponds to a certain factor in the environment and is conditioned by the very' mechanism of the action of this factor", then such an "adequacy", as it proves to be, was established yet ?by V. V. Sakharov in 1938 (but, in fact, It was spoken about yet before him). But this "spectrum" turns out to be a group of differently directed changes, not characteris- tic to the nature of the factor that caused it; its role is to give rise to a mutation, but of which kind they will be, that is already the work of an accident. More then that, even when during 0 an experiment changes are obtained known to be adequate to the nature Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (34) Trans. A.4113 of the environment, then they arc explained by the "classic genetics" with-the aid of a known subterfuge, with the aid of an assumption that the detected adequate changes already existed before the action of the factor. D. F. Petrov writes: "Thus, in utilization of low temperature as a factori? which increases the hereditary variability, and growing the treated materiel at a low temperature, which is critical for the studied object, it is. possible to obtain a sem- blance of greet purity of the emergence of forms with Increased frost resistance". Now then, the direction of mutations is only an appearance. The* environment here Is just sorting that which has been created accidentally and by itself: "all the. immutable 111 forms, and the forms that.were,changed in other directions, die end only very rare forms, in which the mutations arose accidentally, which lead to an increased frost resistance, are preserved".. This is a typical "explanation", which you should, please, use in selection ed in medicine in the style of "controlling the nature of organise according to Dubinin and Sakharov. If there' arise thermophilic, winterhardy, frost resistant races of organisms, or those resistant to antibiotics, the explanation is always the . same; it excludes the causative-effect connection between the state, of the environment and variability. it is such: different non- directed 'changes arise accidentally, but only those of them will remain which are suitable to the given environment, although they did not exist in the initial culture, so long as it was not sub- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (35) Trans. A 1113 jected to an effect. With such an "explanation" one can only expect a favor" from the goddess of Chance, and the entire evolu- tion becomes a miraculous picture because of a coincidence of amaeing chances, which fall into the hands of the artificial or ? natural selection as soon as they are needed by a man or by the natural environment.. But if you ask the authors of such an explanation of chances: were the changes arising in the experiment actually taken into account, was it really found out If they proceed in all possible directions; was the survival of the known frost resistant plant during (its) emergence and the loss at the same time (Begin p.1383 411 of the thermophilic (plant] in this environment taken into account or did any conversions take place? It will prove to be that nothing of the sort hapPened. Simply, after having obtained, at a law temperature, forms that were changed to various degrees, they, nevertheless, explain prejudicially that, apparently, there were present here some thermophilic variants which simply could not survive: in other words, that which they assume they offer as an argument for the proof of their assumption. Such is, in fact, this Myth about the revival of Weismannts "classical genetics", which at the present time has "recognised" the possibility of influence of external factors on the heredity ' through Metabolism, and which has "discovered" .(with a delay of half a century) the possibility of controlling the nature of ? organisms by means of obtaining rare, but accidental, although always- adequate mutations. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (36) Trans. A-1113 And this is presented as a "living reflection of dialectics". But how arrogant are the "dialecticticians of accidental unforeseen _happenings" in their relationship to Michurin's doc- trine, which has shown in Its field practical methods of control- ling the heredity: T. D. Lysenko, in their opinion, does not take into consideration the very important circumstance that this adequate,phenogenetle reaction was conditioned by natural selec- tion, which preserved the forms with such adequate reaction. it Is known well that in those cases where the appropriate natural selection was absent in the past, an adequate reaction did not -take place". Thus speaks D. F. Petrov. This means that which 411 does not arise before selection cannot be produced by selection. Such is their "recognition" of Darwinism. It IS known well that selection has for centuries created different breeds by combining selection of horses for trotting, with constant training and regime; Selection for milk productivity was combined with a specific ration and a method of milking the cows; selection for the capacity of a hunting dog to make a point was connected with a constant care for the development of the new instinct, which Is foreign to the initial nature, to "refrain" from catching living birds. But according to "classical genetics" it is well-known that selection only finds the new, which occured before it and without it. lhe doctrine of Johansen, preached by D. F. Petrov about '"genotypical" and phenogenetic" reactions of the ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 6 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15 : CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 4 (37) Trans. A-1113. organism organism is typical for Johansen, who was a Kantian; he divides the natural facts into the appearance - "phenomenon" and - the "essence", which is as if elusory to us. But facts of practice show that the "appearance is substantial" and "the substance appears" especially if one starts writing about philosophic problems of the doctrine about material bases of herdity. There is-no A division, on principle, of the organism into a "genotype" or "phenotype" in which the latter changes adequately to the effect of the environment, but does not change the "hereditary substance" (this modern entelechy), preferring "rather to die" than include itself into "inappropriate factors". Evolution is not interested 111 in those perishing on account of objection -to include the changes of the external world that do not fit them the history of develop- ment and of progress Is not founded on them. "Phenotype", in the best case, is only an idea about a single form of realization of the hereditary type, whichcorresponds to the characteristics of the given environment; a conception which reasonably contains only the reflection of the fact that each hereditary form exists in multiformity. And how can selection note and preserve an adequate phenogenetic reaction if it does not affect heredity? All the reactions of organisms are conditioned by their heredity; all of them express the response movement, acquired from the effect of the environment, at the basis of which lies the pro- perty of all living bodies - irritability. ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (38) Trans. 1-1113 It Is not proper to teach dialectic materialism with the aid of noncritically absorbed Hantianism of Johansen and on the basis of this to convict a Nichurinite, T. D. Lysenko, who does not agree with the agnostics in the6failure of the attempt to give a materialistic explanation to adequate variability". Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 'Trans. A-1114 vg/M For further technical progress (Editorial] Zashchita Rastenli vol. 4, no. 5, P.I-3. -SePt./Oct. 1959. 42121 (.In Russian) - Majestic problems of creating the economic-technical base of Communism in our country, which were set in the resolutions of the , 21st Congress of -KPSS (Communist Party of the Soviet Union] and of the June r.lenum of TsK KPSS (the Central Committee of the Communist Party], have found the liveliest response in the heart.of each Soviet citizen. Socialistic competition developed in mills and factories,' mines, construction works, transportation, in kolkhotes and sovkhozes, in scientific-research organizations and structural ? bureaus for an early completion of assignments of the Seven-Year- Plan, for a further technical progress in all the branches of ?. national economy. The semiannual results, published in print, about the ac- complishment of the State plan for development of national economy' of the USSR for the year 1959, attest to successes attained in this matter. They beceme possible, owing to the heroic efforts of Soviet people and the wise leadership of the Communist Party, which is confidently leading our people from victory to victory. Nevertheless, the Soviet people are not used to becoming soothed by that which has been achieved. It Is natural to then to strive , ahead for conquering new boundaries in production, science and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. Ais1114 technique, and In the building of the communistic society. Comrade N. S. Khruthchev pointed out in his speech at the June Plenum of the TsK KPSSI ?A steady growth of productivity of labor is of deciding importance in the building of the communistic society... The fast and steady growth of productivity of labor and the high rate of development of national economy can be provided only by way of technical progress, on the basis of the best achievements ? of Science and technique, as well as the leading experience". The June Plenum recognized It necessary to center the attention on solving the problem, raised at the 21st Congress of KPSS, both ? in agriculture as well as. in all other fields, namely, liquids- 111 tion of hard manual, labor on the basis of complex mechanization of cultivation and harvesting of cereal and technical crops, pots- ? tOes, vegetables and others. One of the Week -spat of this problem until the present time Is, undoubtedly, the control of pests, diseases of agricultural crops and weeds. An economic-technical base was created in our country during the years Of the .SoViet rule; it permits to realize, on a large scale, measures for the protection of plants from pests, diseases and Weeds. Yearly, over 20 min ha (hectare m 2.471 acres) are . being treated by the chemical method alone. Industry puts Out, in large quantities, over 100 kinds of various poison -chemicals, tens of thousands of tractor, horse-motor and knapsack sprayers, dusters, combined machines, aerosol set-ups, bait-spreaders and Aviation apparatuses for these purposes. . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-11114. The use of those facilities permitted* of late, considerably to reduce agricultural losses from pests and diseases. Neverthe- . less, the present needs of kolkhozes and sovkhoxes are yet badly satisfied by the chemical end machine-building industries, and the scientific-research and design organleations conduct very slowly the work on production of more improved preparations old mechanisms. For instance, preparations for spraying are put out with a small content of the active element - 5.5% DDT dust, 12% BHC dust, and so on. Coefficient of effective utilization of these poisons in dusting is very low - 25 to 15% and even less. Thus, it is necessary, In practice, to'use large norms of chemicals and often 111 obtain an insufficient effect. At the same time a series of new Organic compounds? such es the wetting ILT powders, polychloropinene, polychlorocamphene, ethylsulfonate, mercaptophos, sineb, captan, and especially the herbicides, for which the domestic technology ? of production has already been developed, were either not produced at all, or are produced in very limited quantities. Further lagging in, say, the preparation of enriched Hexachloran (with the content of gamma..isomer 90-95% and more), which is needed for the produc- ? tion of combined substances for seed treatment, end which reduces the expenditure of labor for the treatment of seeds almost in. half; it els? raises the yield of cereals by 1-2 ciha Ecentner m 100 kg] by. reducing the infection with diseases and by pests, as well as by its positive effect on the growth and development of plants. It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (41 Trans. A-111/4. Was established that, for instance, the application of one ton of Merouran, for the preparation of which 120 kg of enriched BHC are needed, preserves about one thousand tons of grain, While for .corn the economic effect of this preparation , is :still. greater. Besides ,this, the production wastes of the enriched Hexachloran. (nontoxic !Somers) -(Begin p.23 .are utilized for putting out . Other, very valuable, preparations for the protection 6! plants, namely, hexachlorobentene, 2,4,5-T, pentachlorophenolate of sodium, trichlorophenolate:of copper, and others. ...-It is quite .obvious that further technical progress inlhe chemical method of-control..of peetso'diseases and weed a IS 11. thinkable without the fastest relearch and organization of produc- tion of new,"more effective and economical poison chemicals, that are less dancerous to men and animals; for instance, herbicides for technical crops, systemic poisons against .suctorial insects, preparations of a complex activity, and others.. Is it not that several years ago effective substitutes for copper sulfate were found zineb and captan, as Well as copper Oxychloride, which permitted 'reducing the expenditure of scarce copper; Comrade N. S. Khrushchev spoke at the June plenum of the TsK IIPSS about the necessity of economising It (copper). But their. MS8s production' as yet has not been organized. Expansion of the output. of highly effective poison chemicals must be Indissolubly connected with a correct and full use of 41kthe existing technique, as well as with the production of more im- proved and efficient new machines for the protection of plants. It Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I114 is not a secret that often, even-In-the presence of horse or tractor-drawn dusters or sprayers, the treatment of plantings is conducted Manually from.gaUie bags. Precisely by such.?mithod", for Instance; were flax plantings treated with CDT. at many farms-of Pskov, Kalinin and Moscow oblastis. ,There are cases when the equip- dent is sent to those regions where it cannot be used. Thus, tractor-drawn duster-sprayers 011,10-15 were sent.to,the former Veliko.; lukskaia oblast'; for several years they were not used for their. direct purpose, while, at the same time, in other oblestss there were clearly not enough of these apparatuses., The matter stands very badly with seed treating machines of high productivity. There are very, few of them,on.locations and very often the seed* must be treated on the farms in barrels, heaps or, simply, In the body of a truck. Many inventors and 'innovators - .(lsaev, Tarnovich and Starostin) suggested several valuable attach- ments to a grafn.combine for the liquidation of this gap, as well as to other machines and to grain-loaders (Taresov, Rider, Ratush, and others); but this Is only a temporary way out of a forried difficult situation. .liolkhozes and sovkhotes are anxiously awaiting to receive as soon as potIlible the highly productive seid treating machines; and, first of all, even PU-3.0 in aufficient numbers. , Scientific and structural organizations (TsNIIMPROM (Central Scienti- . fic'Research Institute of the Cotton Industry], lig. NUR (Uzbek Scientific Research (7) InStitute for Plant Protection] and others) must, at last, prOduce a necessary machine for the mechanisation Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans. A-I114 of centralited treatment of cotton ascii with a preparation of.e complex action and incorporation -of this operation into the con- tinuous production process at the cotton-cleaning plant; this machine will permit using this progressive method' at any cotton- cleaning plant and, thus, will fully free the farms from this labor-consuming pperatioh during the tense period of cottonplanting. Widegpplication of chemical preparatiOns for the protection of cotton 1. for the. control of weeds, defoliation and desiccation :also:requires the building of special machinery. In this respects story about the sprayer-duster MN, which was distributed by ' "Ufbekselfmash" (Uzbek Agricultural Machinery Plant (in Tashkent)), even in 1949, basically for the defoliation Of cotton is quite Instructive. During the Course of 10 years this combined, mounted machine was being worked over and improved, and now Is put out under the brand OUN-4-6. In Uzbekstan alone there are over 7 . thousand such machines in uie.: Experience of many years of ex- ploitation shows that, basically, they are used not for defoliation and desiccation of Cotton (these works are now done for the most part by Airplanes) but for the protection of alfalfa fields and of cotton plantings from pests and weeds, and moreover mostly as. sprayers, rarer as dusters, and very rarely as both forms' simul- taneatsly. Thus, for instance, in Andishansk *blast, from March to. June, 195$, *daily 320 such =Chines worked on spraying weeds and mulberry trees, end -from May to August up to 500 of such =Chines were used for the treatment of cotton, whereupon only 1/3 fOr dusting* and the rest for spraying. Ihe question arises, is.it expedient Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ' (7) Trans, A-1114 further on to produce such combined machines for cotton-growing. farms? Obviously, it is time to change to the production of separate Mounted sprayers and dusters. This will permit reducing sharply the outlay of metal and ,reduce the cost of the machine. At the same time there should be produced more sprayers than dusterai approximately by 3-5 times. Heavy-duty blower sprayers OPV and OW were produced for the'machanisation of.chenical protection of . agricultural crops; last year they passed State tests and received .positive appialsal; they, undoubtedly, represent a step forward; as compared with OES, OKP-15 and OW-15. The new machines have .great productive capacity, provide good effectiveness of treatment and each of them Is serViced only by one tractor driver, who operates the working parts of the machine from his cabin. Apparently, the designers must dO one more step ahead for the technical progress; render automatic the operation Of the flow of working liquid. - depending on the height and thickness of tree plants. Letter on 1t willbe expedient to transfer attention to the production of Mounted systems, ?which 1414 permit carrying out the application of conceni. :trated liquids and aerosols. It Is necessary for factories to organist faster the produc- tion. of new, more improved apparatus, for the protection Of plants; to make them better and cheaper and to propagandist them wider; to increase the output ofAtxperimental lots for this purpose, is well as of advertisement posters, brochures catalogues, end so on. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) Trans. A-41114, Agricultural aviation finds its widest application on, the fields of kolkhozes and sovkhozes. More improved and powerful , Iak-12,'An-2, ts well as the helicopter 'Mae in to replace Po-2A airplanes. It is necessary.tOspeed up the development of special apparatus end focilities for mechanized loading, IWO% will provide' 0 higher Coefficient of useful employment of poison chemicalS. Synthetic materials should be used much wider in the produc- tion ,of special machinery and apparatuses for the protection of plants. The, first experiments showed the prospectiveness of teXto- lite gears, caprone bushings and tips* vinyl.plastic Eviniplas- -tovyke) spray booms,and.valvee., tanks made Of plastic, and'so on. 111 Replacement of cast iron, brass, bronze and copper with these Materials will prolong the time of service 'of the special machines, will reduce their weight and Cheapen their Cost As it is pointed out in the resolution of the June Plenum of ' the.TeK RPSS, science must play a great role in speeding, up. techni- cal progress in all branches of natiOnal economy. Further creative development of science and technique, in s continual link with ? ? practice of communistic building is the most important problem of all scientificaresearch organizations, of all Soviet scientists-. Our scientists. (Begin p.51 entomologists, phytopethologists, ? bacteriologists, virologists, zoologists* Chemists,'mechanizers and other specialists - have done a greet deal of good by developing :Methods of plant protection and having created preparatiohs and 410 machines necessary for this, but a whole lot has to be dont yet ?' for full liquidation of harvest losses in plant industry frOm pests, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R01040004-0001-5 - ; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans :A..1114 diseases and,weeds, and for the prevention of their mass repro- duction. It is necessary for the scientific organisationt:oi our coun- try, working for the protection of plants at the present stage, :of development of agriculture, to keep up a Stronger connection With production, better to find Out Its foremost needs, strongly to direct their strength for the quickest solution of the chief. problems ant for fast introduction into production of all the achievements of the native and foreign sciences. Along with this, it is necessary, urgently, to work out methodical and theoretical questions, since they will permit opening the way to further technical progress. 111 Unfortunately, one observes yet a lot of routine, inertness and ? technical lagging. For instance, the Ali-Union Scientific-Re- search Anti-Phylloxera Station has existed in Odessa for many years; it was called upon to develop methods for the liquidation of foci of the dangerous pest of the grape vine. This Station has done a lot of good in recommendations of control methods, but it paid Very little, attentiOn to such an important question, as the development of an authentic method for the determination of infectiousness. And even now yet, as it was 100 years ago, in production they resort to such a labor-consuming, and, mainly, imperfect method as digging and examination of the root system of each bush. ? Arother instance. ViZR (All-.Union Institute of Inant Protec- 111 tion) has an experimental base.-,Slavianskala - in Krasnodar kral, at which it conducts experimental work, particularly on Euryoaster, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-I114 Yet the economic-technical possibilities of this base are very limited. It lacks many thIngs, even the usual laboratory equip.' cent, special machinery and,constant supply of electric energy, and, naturally, it is Impossible without this to conduct research at a modern scientific level. It is time for scientific institutions on the protection of plants to pay serious attention to the.equipping with modern apparatuses and Machinery. The June Plenum of TK KPSS directed its attention to the coordination of scientific-research works. VASICHNIL (All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences 'mini V. I. Lenin] carries out 111 the coordination of research in the field of plant protection; yet it is ih need of considerable improvement, especially,, the coordint- tion of research work on mechanization and the main thing 7,organita- ? tion of control for the carrying out of decisions of coordination conferences. ? Further technical progress in the protectioh of. plants is closely linked with the tfaining of cadres and the raising of their qualifications. Organizers of the control of pests and disc:kites of agricultural crops were chosen of late it many kolkhozes and ' sovkttozeill they were given special training at study courses,' in agricultural technical schools, and some even in colleges. Such cadres must be formed at each kolkhoz and sovkhoz and their quali- ? fications must be raised systematically. The modern, evermore complex economicEtechnical facilities, which are used for the protec- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (11) Trans. A-11114. tion of plants, require special deepened training of cadres; and not only of those who are directly occupied in this field, but also agronomists of other plant industry specialties, as well as the mechanisers, and even the managers themselves of the farms. They, who'use the newest technical facilities in the fields, orchards and forests, who introduce Into prodUction the newest attainments of science and protect the harvest in a practical way, -require daily help. Having included themselves into socialistic competition, and having taken upon themoelves new, increased obligation's in honor of the forthcoming next Plenum of TsK IIPSS, the workers, engaged 111 in the protection of plants, will render practical help in the preservation of harvest from pests end diseases and In proper manner will meet the opening of the Plenum with new labor suc- cesses. \__\\111,-) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? .Trans. Alll vg/M KhOkhriakov, M. K. .illkologi Is l=prakticheskie voprosy fitopatologli '44ycology and practical problems of phytopathology). Zashchlta Rastenii, vol. 4, no. 5,1;425-26. Sept./Oct. 1959. .421 Zi (In Russian) Mycology, as it is known, is, the science of fungi. It encon.1- passes the questions of systematics, as well is of morphology, cycles of development, specialization, geographical distribution, variability, and other biological characteristics of fungi. ? Modern mycology has attained importance in very many fields of national economy and science, in people's nutrition, public health, in veterinary medicine, communal economy, and so on. In the present article we will charaCterite its importance only in agriculture, and, mainly, in the field of phytopathology. ? It is sufficient to say that phytopathology had its origin . In the bosom of mycology, and later on isolated itself as an Independent science, including sections on bacterioses, viral diseases and flowering plant parasites. The bond-between mycology and phytopathology remained unbroken up to the present time, and at times it Is hard to tell where the first one ends and the second begins. Already conducting of a correct diagnosis of a ( , k fungus plant disease presumes not only the presence of appropriate mycologic knowledge, but also sometimes the use of rather complex diagnostic measures (humid chambers, isolation of. the fungus to a pure culture, artificial inoculation of plants, and so on).:. .The Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1115 bond between mycology and phytopathology remained unbroken up to the present time; and at times it is hard to tell where the first one ends and the second begins. Already conducting of a correct diagnosie of i fungus plant disease presumes not only the presence of appropriate mycologic knowledge* but also sometimes the use of rather complex diagnostic measures (humid chambers, isolation of the fungus to a pure culture, artificial inoculation of plants, and so on). The choice of appropriate measures for control depends on the correct determination of the pathogen. At present mycofloristic research is conducted on a wide front in almost all the republics of the Soviet Union, as well as the accumulation of knowledge about the species makeup of fungus diseases And of their geographical distribution. This will permit defining more accurately the areas of fungus plant diseases,. as well as the dependence of their development on climatic conditions and, in its turn, will produce data for conclusions about the ex- pediency of quarantining individual diseases, as well as about the connection of fungal parasites of cultivated plants with the flora of fungi on 'weeds and wild plants. However, the center of attention of modern mycology lies, neverthelets, not In the geographical investigation of the fungal flora, but In a deep- study of the character of development of its individual representatives or groups, discovering different stages or forms especially in the part of of spore-bearing in the cycle of their development. Further on, it is Important to determine the Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-1115 range of infected plants, or specialization of fungi, their dif- ferentiation into intraspecies forms, physiological races, bio- types. It is also necessary to conduct other experimental re- search of their biological characteristics. Studying the biology of living organisms In their development and in connection with factors, surrounding them, mycology examines fungi in all the phases of their development not only on the plant in question, but also on cthers .too. Studying the variability of fungi, mycology solves both the purely theoretical questions, for instance the ways of form and species development or systematics, as well. as the doubly practical ones. Thus, while studying in parasitic imperfect fungi the higher spore-bearing forms, which usually winter and, up to this time are unknown to'science, mycology investigates the overwintering forms of the parasite and, conse- quently, finds out the sources of spring time infections caused by them, besides defining more accurately their systematic depen- dence. As a rule, additional reservoirs of infections are found in the range of plants infected with fungi. Data, obtained as a result of this research, can serve as a basis for methods of control; for example, an appropriate tilling of the soil, destruction of intermediate hosts of certain species of rusts (of cereals, currants and others) or Of weeds. It will be also possible, on the basis of these data, to recommend how to conduct certain crop rotations, in which the crops affected by 411 fungi would return to the same field only after a lapse of time sufficient for the inhibition Of the development of the fungus. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 'Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (h) Trans. A-I115 The practical' Importance of studies of fungi -specialization ? is seen, if only, from the following two instances. UP to the present time formal systematics considered that ergot with large horns, which infects the ovary of such large-grained cereals as rya, barley and others, belongs to one species Cleviceos purpurea Tull while grasses withiminute ovaries (foxtail, timothy grass; meadow grass, bentgrass and others) are affected by another Species Cl. microcephala Tul., which is characterized byminute sclerOtia,' and the manna grass by Cl. Wilson!' Cooke. Conclusions were made from this that ergot does nett pass over to cereals from .the cited plants. Meanwhile,.as the research. of L. I. Pshedetskaia (1953) ? on cross infection of a collection of grasses with different forint of ergot has shown, the latter quite easily infects any grass, changing the site of its sclerotia (horns) depending on the size of their ovaries. Thus it proved to be that all species of ergot on grasses are synonyms, that is, forms of one species, having a wide range of hosts. And this means, that it is necessary to control the disease not alone on cereals but also ()mother grasses; ? It is necessary to increase the eradication of grassy weeds, use -a crop rotation, excluding the repeated planting of crops, which are Infected with ergot, on one and the same section. A similar example with the pathogen of potate clinker -? Svnchytrium endobioticum Parc. Research of V. 1. Potlaichuk (1951) .has shown that here too, in spite of the high degree of,parisitism of the pathogen, (Begin p.263 its specialization did not prove, so narrow as it was supposed: it infected also some other repre-. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-I115 sentatives of the potato family (Solanaceae) besides potatoes. A herbarial mycologist, approaching the problem formally, without the use of the experimental method of research, and having discovered S.,endobioticum on tomatoes or thorn apple, would.con- clude that he has to do with a new species of fungus; and, having described it as such, not only would complicate the synonymy of names, but would also delude the practical men in agriculture. By considering the form of fungus on tomatoes as a separate species, which is unable to pass lover to potatoes, the practical men, in such a case, would not organise appropriate crop rotations and would permit the planting of potatoes an the same field after the canker infected tomatoes; and in the case of discovering canker on the thorn apple would not pay any attention to this and would not undertake measures for the liquidation'of the focus of infec- tion. All this would lead to unpleasant results. Consequently, a more precise determination of the systematic status of the fun- gal parasite Is of both narrow theoretical interest, As well as of perfectly, practical interest. These instances show the unity of fungal systematics as theory with practice. Data about ergot, cited above, show that fungi are changeable organisms, which change their morphology, depending on the ex- ternal conditions and, first of all, on the factor of nutrition, particularly on the host-plant. Formal systematics of fungi considers, up to the present time, that if a fungus has been 111 discovered An another plant, on which it has not yet been observed, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans, ftelll5 end, If it somewhat differs MorpholOgically from the previously known, that it should, as though Without question, be a new species to science. But .modern. mycology considers that It. Ls neces- sary to experimentally check in each case: if the fungus moved, to the plant in quettion from another one, and if it changed its - in connection with'it. Research'of the LabOratory of Mycology "'men* Professor A. A. IachevskW of VIZR DM-Union Institute of Plant-Protection) shoWs precisely that far less 'species of fungi exist in nature than are described in literature; that their classification, at times, is built on unstable, unessential features; it proves to be 111 artificial, end in many cases needs a critical revision. Precise diagnostics of plant.diseases,can be guaranteed Only by the de- .velopment of natural classification of fungi with the attraction of Modern methods of research. Fungi, being unstable organisms, change not only under the effect of the Substratum, but also of the:geographical fector. Study of these characteristics in the development of parasitic fungi provides a basis for compilinE, tonal systems for their'con.- trol; .Thus, it was found out, that crown rest Of grassesp?whlOf has common buckthorn as its aecidial host In the northern regions' of the European part of USER, has, besides this, buckthorn Palles in North Caucasus, and in the,Far East-Dahuria6 buckthorn. Leaf rust of wheat in the European part of USSR usually over winters in the form of uredomycellum on winter 'crops', but in . Eastern Siberia, where winter crops of wheat are absent, it adapted Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ('T) Trans. A-1115 itself for overwintering In the stage of teliospores, which, upon gelmination in spring, infect the weed Leptopyrum fumarioldes; and, from the latter, the rust passes over to the wheat. Therefore there cannot be a single instruction for the entire Soviet Union for the control of cereal rusts, but should be differentiated according to zones. Thus, study of the cycle of development, of specialization, variability and other biological characteristics of economically important parasitic fungi produces a key to the solution of purely phytopathological questions about the methods of overwintering of the fungus, about sources of the renewal of the infection of 110 diieeses, about the range of affected plants; all this, in the long run, permits to establish methods for control of the studied diseases of plants. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1116 vg/M Haravianskii, N. S. Predposevnaia obrabotka semian kombinirovannymi preparatami (Preplanting treatment of corn with combined preparations) Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, no. 6 p.42. Nov./Dec. 1959. ti,21 21 tin Russian) kukuruzy seeds I. At the experimental farm of the All-Union Institute. of Feeds, in kolkhozes" imeni Lenina" Ukhtomsk raion, and "Malek", Rhimkinsk raion, in 1956-1958i for the treatment of corn seeds the 50% dust of TMTD was tested in a combination with one of the following pre- parations: 15% heptachlor, 20% dieldrin, 10% aldrin and 12% gamma isomer of HCH, as well as zinc phosphide in combination with HCH, and mercuran. From 20-50 wireworms were counted per 1 m2 at the experimental sections. Shedding of seeds and sprouts, caused by their damage, comprised in 1956 - 20% and in 1957-1958 40 to 63%. One should mention that all the preparations raised the energy of seed sprouting, and TMTD with heptachlor or aldrin (200 g/c) and zinc phosphide with HCH (0.5 .kg of each per 1 c) the most markedly (by 8-20%). ?MID with heptachlor and zinc phosphide with HCH in the cited doses showed the best effectiveness in the control Vsesoiuznyi Institut Kormov EA11-Union Institute of Feeds). Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1116 . of pests. In the first case there were registered 34.9% of shedding of seeds and sprouts, damaged by virewtrmsj in thesecond case - 14= to 5%; damage toplants caused by the frit-fly was reduced by 45-37x as compared with the control. The greatest death rate of the Wireworm (5040%) was attained at a moisture content of soil (estimating from the full water capacity) of 40-60%. These pre- .. parations did not produce any negative effect on the growth and ? development of corn.' The yield .of green Masa, grown on heavy clayey soil, increased by 25% (firma 376 t0.470 c/ht) in the variant with TMTD.and heptachlor, as compared with the control. Production experiments,, during the current year, on an area of 40 ha have 111 confirMed-the high effectiveness of TMTD with heptachlor; this ? provides a basis. for recommending it for.preplanting treatment of seeds of corn as a substitute for mercuric insecticides. It was established by our research thst the most favorable .dose for mercuran, for treatMint of seeds planted into light soils, was 1QO g/c (development of plants is impaired, with .a larger out- lay); and into soils,- which possess a greater adsorptive capacity, " 200 to 300 g. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 - Trans. A-1117 vg/M Paramonov, A. A. Wazrevshie voprosy fitogellmintologli (Urgent questions In phytohelminthology). Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, no. 6, p.25-28. Nov./Dec. 1959.- 421 Z1 (In Russian) Of late the control of nematodes.(phytohelminths) acquires: an ever more important meaning. .It came to light that these pare- sites cause enonmou'Imultimil.lion losses to the agriculture of our country, including also the hothouse industry; this is the 411 result of the widening of tones of damage of the most well- known stem nematodes of onion and garlic, potato-and partly Of Strawberry, and especially of the wide distribution of root knot nematode; and also beyond the borders of their natural area - in the northern zone, where they established themselves in hothouses. ? - *It is rufficient to illustrate the above said by the fact that the root-knot nematode is now widely spread in Moscow's hothouses and on certain farms in the Roscow oblast'. It is quite clear that this is a direct result of 'unsatisfactory state of problems of prophylaxis of hothouses against them. This IS also true for other Species of plant nematodes. Thus, the problem of limiting the zones of harmfulness of phytohelmlnths in our country is one of the first. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 y (2) . ' Trans. A-1117 ' Agriculture and business are interested in the studies of means end methods of spreading of phytoparasitic nematodes. tnd In the development of miatures which will inhibit this. process. It seems necessary ,to us already today, for instance, to compile-. yearly oblast' maps of spreading of-root-knot nematode at hot 7 1 house farms having in view, that new farms, and, all hothouse combines, which are free trom nematodes be advised of the sources, of. danger. This hind of wOrk?could be conducted by the ?blest' _Agricultural Administrations. An urgent publishing of printed. instruCtions on the prophylexis, of hothouses against toot-knot' is nematodesAalso needed. One should bear in, mind that,Ohytonematodes ? ate microscopic ? organism of high_ viability and the protection of hothouses. frolt,thet is almost as delicate 0 problem as Is the proo tection of farts (hothouses) from.virutes, bacteriosis and Mycoses. And how does this problem get on in practice? ,For.eiample, the regime of: transportations of onion. and,. garlic on barges and in. freight cars, at well as the regime of storage.of plant production at the'procurement points Oftleris'conducive to the distribution,.. of onion-garlic nemstOdes. Ve had an occasion to'observe.a cats of delivery of onions for scallion growing from Masan, Oblast! to one of Mbseow suburban hothouse farms. The Onions were dirty, with soil adhering to them. The onion nematode is capable Of ens- - Mosta. Is there anything remarkable in the fact then, that such shipp3ngs contaminate the tare, conveyance, freight cars, points of destination of the freight? It is .time to think about the tatter. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A-liI7 that it is necessary to Include compulsory anti-nematode measures In the organization of transportation of agricultural products, which aro subject to storage, as well, as during their storage. At the present time the question became ripe for the forma- tion of a network of,anti-nematode points under the supervision of agricultural agencies. It is necessary to study the fauna of phytohelminths; in order to have data for the organization of. ? the internal quarantine -'the foundation of control?of.the wide . ? distribution of root...knot nematodes and stem nematodes, hoterodera of cereals, potatoes and beete)citrus' nematode*, and many other species; beingifor the.most part, polyphagous and capable of 111 high ecological adaptability.. (Begin p.26] The next problem of first rate importance must be the studying of mechanisms of pathogenic effect of phytohe/minths on the ? plants, especially the cultivated one. It le only of late that it became known that phytohelmInths possess highly active ecto- enzymes, which are capable of subjecting to hydrolysis the car- bohydrates, to split proteins and lyse propectic (propektinovye] 'cell walls of plant cells. Under their reaction the plant tissues' undergo complex changes; their normal physiology is broken, their biochemical characteristics change, and deep destructive processes set In. As a result of this arises an Intricate complex of-pstho- genic factors. Nematodes,.themselves'dangerous to plants, attract the development of viral, bacterial and mycotic diseases. This ? ? load becomes too heavy for the plant end it dies. Nematodes-, as Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (111 Trans. A-1117 a title, do not leave the infected organ. They only move from one place to another. And only a full loss of a plant organ (for in- stance, of a tuber, of an 'onion bulb, of a garlic clove, and so. on) makes them return to the soil-and invade new plants or roots, tubers and so on. This is-typical fOr'many phytohelminths. In connection;with this one cannot help emphasizing that ' all or almost all counteractive means, known to us, as a rulei ere not connected with en exact study of 'biology and phytopathology of harmful nematOdes, phys1ology of the diseased plant and bio- ? chemical processes, Which are Caused by the vitel activity of phy- toheiminths. Mbst.of them are bUilt'on accidental empiricism. -For instance, mechanisms and Causes of,action of nematodel chemical preparations are little ,known. Such a condition hinders.intentional Enteelenapravlennoen] production of such preparations. But-it LS a fact that many of theta became nematodidel only because still yesterday they were insectitidal. But there is a distance of huge size between nematodes and insects. We need specific nemato. cidal preparations. It is the problem of NIVIF (Scientific Research Institute-of Fertilizers and Insectofungicides imini is. V. SamoiloV), in connection with Specialists, to produce such preparations on. the. basis of studies of physiolOgy:of'phytohelminths. Absence of developed knowledge .of physiology of this groupOf parasites and of the diseased plant all this determines' one more , leading characteristic Of the:greatest amount Of modern."nematoci- 410 del" chemical preparations. The greater part of them are toxic to Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (5) Trans. A-1117 the plants. This fact determines also the method of their use. We, as a rule, are powerless in helping the plants during the course of the vegetation. itself. Ile wait for their death, for the removal.of the remnants of the yield, In order to disinfect - the soil after that. However, there is not a single preparation in existence which could exterminate the nematodes even in hot- houses. Even chloropicrin produces only a temporary effect. Naturally; a thought suggests itself about the necessity of mea- sures for treating the plants by controlling the .nematodes during the course of the vegetation proper. In.connection with this, the necessary research was conducted _ at the-Helminthological Laboratory of. AN SSSR [Academy of Science of the USSR]: Nevertheless, the fact is that if during the periods between rotations we disinfect the soil and reduce the Kurabers of nematodes, then during the vegetation periods we are raising it unintentionally. Therefore therapy is urgently needed, especially for hothouse farms. The physiological research is aimed at just this. It is closely connected with studies of possibilities for treating plants for controlling phytohelminths. The ways for se/lying Specific problems are set and are being partially realized. The'cited laboratory tries to solve two basic problems: a) what . are the best dates for the use of remedies on plants for the con- trol of phytohelminthi and b) on which principles the treatment should be built. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (6) Trans...A-1117 The answer for the first question is being successfully developed both for the open and the covered ground by way of studies of dynamics of the quantities of nematodes, in conjunction . with the:factors of such dynamics. .The treatment is more succese- ful when the number of nematodes is smaller. Exactly during such ? periods the. therapeutic methods are the most effective. Under field,conditions the number of phytonematodes undereoes regular fludtuations, which are now partly possible to determine prog- noptically. In the covered ground and especially in respect to ? ,root-knot nematodes the problem is quite clears the treatment is .needid, first of all, at the beginning of the vegetation, before" ? the appearance of buds, that Is during the period of plant growth. The answer to the second question was also partly given t ,it As more expedient to choose such chemical preparations, Which do not produce a nematocidal effect, since they are usually toxic to ? plants also, but use a 'nematostatic preparatioh (by analogy with . ? bacteriostatic); one that does not kill the nematodes, but in-. hibits their reproduction. Research, which was conducted,in the 'cited laboratory, has shown that, apparently, (Begin p.273. there are many such preparations. Some of the thiocyanogen and salicylic compounds, which produced's .nematostatic effect were tested in particular. Further on it proved to be that ammonium nitrate produced the same effect. Methods for its use were first developed for the rot' nematode end later on for the tomato root-knot nematodes. It was found that dusting soil in hothouses with dry ammonium ?nitrate would be the Most effective; in respect to tomatoes, for Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (7) Trans. A-1117 Instance, three times, using 80-100 t per bush (area of the root system of the plant) during the first half of the vegetation; before budding, approximately every 10-15 days (research of L. S. Turiygina). Observations have shown that the numbcr of galls, as well as their site, was sharply reduced; this was connected with a sharp decrease of numbers of ova in the sex tubes of the parasite, These data permit to hope for the introduction of the cited method of tratment to the farms. Doses for treatment of cucumbers are bring worked out now (T. Pokrovskela). However, the hothouse farms themselves must take part in this simple and accesible work, detcrmining the doses of saltpeterfbr the cumu- li, ber crop. It Is possible that at different farms there will arise some variations in dosing, ti e think that the chief purpose of ammonium nitrate is the treatment of plants in discovered foci of gall nemetodiasis of hothouse crops. Therefore at the present time the laboratory is working out a problem about an early diag- nosis of the gall nematodiasis without the dislocation of the root system of hothouse plants. The method will be developed at the end of 1959. The problem arises, what to do about the treatment during the period of budding? An attempt was made in the laboratory to use the auxins (growth substances) in combination with a leaf feeding for this purpose. Sodium salt of 2.4.5-trichlorophonoxy- acetic acid (2,4?5-T) was used, according to a method developed by Lu. V. Rakttin and A. V. Krylov (1957), in the following Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (8) . Trans. A-1117 modification: 40-50 mg of 2.4$.-T per'l of Water were usid for the treatMent of tomato buds. Ammonium .nitrate, potassium chloride, extract from superphOsphate and boric acid were used for leefi! 'feeding (S. G. Nauge, 058). Such e.treatment produced an increase in the yield of tomatoes, notwithstanding the pfesence.of root- 4 knot telworti; this indicated the therapeutic effedt, which increased the vital resistance of plants.: These examples, ehOW that the course taken has Justified itself, by using treatments with the. aid of . preparations, which Inhibit the nematodes (auxens draw oft the. labile substances from the roots and Cause a reduction in nutrition of root:sknot nematodes) (ftramonov,,1954). One cannot doubt that the treatment of plants to control phytohelminthiasis 11111 develop also in other directions. They, of course, will be numerous. But :Only one thing Is clear: treatl- ment of_phytOnematodiasis of plants it necessary and that this trend is progressive, new and searching; it Is closely connected with. deep study of *physiology, of phytongmatodes, and the study of physiology of the diseased plant Is inevitably connected with It.. This complex can .surmount the routine, which narrows the methods of nematode control only to the decontamination of soli.' No, both are needed: decontamination of the soil between rotations, and a blow to the nematode daring thecourse of the vegetation proper. Only a combined action, only a double blow, both during the rotation and between rotations, can produce a.real and lasting. effect. But this is not all yet. The morient arrived, when it Is necessary to . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (9) Trans. A-1117 think (at least in respect to hothouse farms) about including antinematode measures into the everyday and normal agrotechnics ? for agricultural crops. The control of nematodes must be con- ducted systematically, and not only at the time when the Catastrophe has arrived: it must be one of the aspects of agrotechnics. And it is exactly in such a case that the control of nematodes will be truly effective in the plans described above. Extermination of nematodes, at feast at hothouse farms, can be possible only on such a basis. , The nematode problems, which are discussed in this article, can be solved only on the basis of thorough theoretical research. ? So far such research has only been started. The helminthological Laboratory of AN SSSR did not as yet step out into practice. The very first steps in the proper theoretical research have permitted making the above cited first and modest practical conclusions. Development of our knowledge is necessary in the field of faunistics, syetematics? functional and ecological morphology, special ecology of phytonematodes, their physiology and biochemistry. The prospect- ing research, the importance of which today is not yet quite clear, is also needed. But the scientific work, in all these forms, must - be closely connected with the production. (Begin p.28) Only such bonds can overcome empiricism and help master the new, progressive methods of control of nematode diseases of plants. At the present time it becomes ever more clear that nematode* are closely connected with fungi(micellar) and bacteria. A bio- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10) Trans. A-1117 cenolo0c complex-nematodes, bacteria and fungi acts in a fir t place in a plant. Coordinated works of phytohelminthologists, mycolouists and bectriologists, ond even virologists IS the next problem, which was not as yet planned. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 , . . Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 litillUe 14?114U ( ? vg/M Tarnovich, N. K. Nekotorye voprosy mekhanizattil zashchity rastenIL v semiletke (Certain problems of mechanization of plant protection in-the 7-year plan) ' Zashchita Rastenii, vol. 4, Sept./Oct. 1959. (In Russian) no. 5, 1).17'181; 421 21 .The 21st Congress of ?PSS [Commtnist Party of Soviet Union] has placed before the workers, engaged in the protection of plants, a responsible. problem - masterfully to organize the control of pests, diseases and weeds; fully to utilize this important reserve for obtaininc additional yields of agricultural production. The 'providing of kolkhozes, sovkhozes and RTS (Repair tractor station], with production apparatus and machines is of great importance for the solution of this problem. AcCording to the preliminary estimates of the MSKH SSSR ' 'Ministry of Pgriculture'of the USSR], it is projected that in 1965 35% Of the area under cereals will be treated with poison chemicals, as .well as all the sugar beet plantings, cotton, oil crops, orchards and vineyards, 750 Of flax-"Dolgunets" (long staple flax), 251 of vegetables, 7.50 of potatoes and 10% of brush- woods. About 150 thousand tractor and automobile dusters and sprayers, as well as 45 thousand horse-motor and hotse-drawn onts will be required for this purpose; 47 thousand machines for treat. Head of the Laboratory of Mechanization of V1ZR 4A11-Unionlnsti- tute of Plant Protection] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R61426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A.1118 ment Of seeds, 2.5 thousand bait Spreadersvmany.soil and standing. 'plants ditch-diggers, end to on. A-still Wider application will be found also for aircraft sprayers, clutters and bait spreaders. ' Development of systems of machines for the protection of . 'agricultural crops. frOM pests, diseases and weeds must be com- pleted Wing the years 1959-1965. The growing needs of farms ? require that. these machines be characterited by high productivity, that little metairmetalloemkost17] be used for their construction, that they should have power-operated working principle, which would reduce the expenditure of labor and would-improve the quality 111 of treatment. Special attention mutt be givento the production of lOw-volume sprayerspiterOttol generators, heavy seed-treating machines for treating seeding material, to the mechanisation of secondary processes (preparation of solutions, hauling of poisons, loading, end so on). ? SOtentists and deSigners ate facing serious problems in solving this vett program. The problem-thematic plane of scientid. fic-research institutions for the years 1959-1965 include the fol- lowing problems. , Research On hydraulic, pneumatic and hydropneumatic methods of liquid dispersion and determination of best methods for the formation of dispersion systems; theoretical and practical solu- tion of the problem of regulation of dispersity in the process of production of aerosols and of fine-drop atomisation 'of liquid. Application of electrification and ionisation of the air-liquid Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R014.26R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A...1118 streams In order to increase the coefficient of use of 'the working liquid and to reduce the losses of the smallest particles of chemicals. Development of .methods of preparation of stable su- spensione and emulsiOns with the aid of vibrators and sounds of .high frequency. Making more precise the technological process of thermo-chemical treatment of seeds. Research on. the techno- logical process of depth fumigation of toil against phylloxera in.vineyards. Research on the technological process of Weed con- trol in plantings ot technical crops during the preemergence'and post-eMergence periods (with the use'of'screens for the protec- tion of seeds of the basic crop. Development of typical machine ? unitts.pumps, reducing gear, poison feeders, mounted systems, and so On.. Selection.of antitorrotive materials, resistant to.the effect of poison chemicals, (Begin p.18) studies of ?plastics and their Use in the production of machines. Development and intro- duction into production of progressive technology, and soon. Such are the theory and practice in the field of mechanise- ? ? tion of the protection of agricultural crops in the years 1159- ,1965. Many collectives of engineers.and scientific co-workers are occupied with their solution. OSKB (State Special Design Bureau] at the factory "Ltvovsellmashn, 05KB-1 Of the Moldavian . Council. of National Economy, SKB (Speical Design Office] of the Leningrad Council of National Economy, MO on'cottons.and others,. together with V1ZR Pal-Union Scientific ReSearch institute of ? Plant Protection and V1SKROM (All-Union Scientific Research Institute Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 t, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (10 Trans. A-1118 of Agricultural Machinery) have already produced a series of new designs for machines and apparatuses: 34 brands are now either being put out or are under production, 43 are in the stage of development or are being tested by the factories or by the State. The experience, accumulated both in our country, 114 well OS abroad, is being ailensively used in designing the new technical equip- ment. One should point out that the mechanization of plant protec- tion is being developed at an inadequate rate. The total volume of chemical treatment, of field crops and orchards is considerably lower than in some foreign countries. While the basic field work: plowing, planting and harvesting are mechanized in our country to 111 more than 95, the protection of plants is only to 25-30g. The cause for this lies, to a large degree, in the fact that agriculture does not receive enough technical equipment-for the control of pests and diseases of plants. During the. last 10 years only 50 thousand tractor sprayers and dusters were produced; by many times less than in USA. Production of these machines _was not put in good order until the present time. Orders are placed in factories, which do not produce them basically. Building of one brand is sometimes divided among 2-3 establishments. Many designing bureaus Of the country, for example 1.1vovskoe? Kishenev- shoe, Lenitigradskoe are working without cd-ordination, thus per- mitting unnecessary parallelism. As a result of this, agriculture 'receives expansive machines and apparatuses, not always of the proper quality and in insufficient numbers. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R01040004.0001-5 (5) Trans. A-1118 The arisen situation in the production of technical-equip- ment for the control of pests, and diseases of plants, as well as weeds, is intolerable. A speedy and radical improvement Is needed in this matter. It is necessary to separate out specialized ? factories. This will help in raising the quality of the manu- facture and reduction of the cost of machines for plant protection; will increase their output. Realization of supervision of the activity of scientific* research institutions and of the State Special Design Bureau by . the State Scientific-Technical Committee of the Council of Ministers wilt permit using the engineering force and the material-technical possibilities correctly and purposefully, generalizing the experience of their work and solving quicker the problems important for agri- culture. Mastering the achievement of science and practice, extensive introduction of mechanization will give the possibility to kolkhoges ? and sovkhozes to raise the effectiveness of measures on the prq- tection of plants and sharply to curtail the damage, which is caused by pests, ,diseases and weeds to agriculture. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1119 vg/M Dzhiembaevs H. T. K sisteme lashchity seltskokhozialstvennykh kulltur na tselinnykh zemliakh Kazakhstan* (Concerning the system of protectiOn of agricul tural crops on the new lands of Katakhstan] Zaahchita Rastenils.vol. 4, no. 5, p.20-23.Sept./Oct. 1959. -VI Z1 (In Russian) Over a thousand species of harmful insects and about 900 pathogens of diseases of agricultural crops are to be faUnd in Kazakhstan. Such. variety of them is conditioned, to.a consi- derable extents by the great geographical extension of the republic and by the difference of natural and economic zones entering it. That is the reason why in the obtaining of stable and high yields a prominent, role must belong to the control of pests and diseases based on a system of measures, , which take into account the zonal peculiarities. The northern part of the republic can be divided into five regions in the entomological respect (according to D. P. Aleksandrov). The first- Podurallnyis or European. Here enter the administra- tive raions at the foot of Ural mountains of West Kazakhstan and Aktiubinsk oblastts. 'Pests of fields vegetable and melon-patch crops here do not differ from those to be found in the European 40 Kazakhskii 1ZR (Kazakh Institute of Plant Protection] Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (2) Trans. A-1119 part of, USSR. Both climate end soil favor normal development of millet midge, Apameapaludiso cutworm moth, Calliotamus italicuso grain moth and pathogens of smut, rust, root rot and other diseages. Into the second - the West-Siberian region enter the northern administrative forest.isteppe raions of the Kustanai, Kokchetav and Paviodar ?blast's and the entire North Kazakhstan oblast'. Here the conditions are favorable for the development of Gomphocerus sibiricus and Paracyptera microptera, frit-fly, Loma melanopus, grain moth, leaf-chewing owlet-moths, cruciferous sawfly, leaf beetle, Phylotrittai the same diseases are to be found hire as in the first region. In the third, the Central Kazakhstan region, into which enter the ***ions of West Kazakhstan oblast, that are situated to the west of the Ural river, the central raions of Aktiubinsk oblast' southern and central ndons of Kokchetav oblast', the northern raions of Karaganda oblast', left-shobre raions of Pavloder and Semipalatinsk'oblast's and all the reions of Akmo- linsk, grain moth, leaf-chewing owlet-moths are widespred, as well as stem borers, thrips, best webworm, stem fleas, Aelia acuminate, Phyllotreta concinna, seed-eating weevils (curculio Tychiuk and erytomas), alfalfa leaf weevil and Eurygaster .integri- clu. Besides the diseases, cited for the two first regions, here are also to be found fusariosis and ergot, virus diseases of potatoes, bacteriosis of vegetable and cereal crops. The fourth - sand and flatland erosional region (all the right-bank steppe raions of Pavlodar and Semipalatinsk ?blast's central administrative Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 (3) Trans. A71119 raions of Kustanal oblast' and large areas of Akmolinsk oblast') is characterized by frequent dust storms, which cause soil erosion, especially during the winter and sprinc months. The pests here are the same as in the Central Kazakh region, but they cause a trainer damage. Stronger 'harm is done here than in .other re- gions only to sunflowers and vegetable - Melon patch crops by Opatrum'sabulosum, to millets by.Pirdileus calceatus, to the mustard family by diamond-back moth, to cereals - by beetles of genus Anisoplial outbreaks of reproduction of Calliptamus italicus and of beet.webworm, of clover and wheat mOths *re also possible. The fifth - Altai foot hill region .includes the entire East Kazakhstan (Begin p.21] ablest' with the exception of,Zalsan basin. This region is characterized by a sharp vertical zonality. Here are to be found the same species as in the West-Siberian region; besides them, the pests of clover, as well is beet webworm, grain mite, larvae of scarabaelds are of importance. Focal distribution of pests is characteristic for the region in question, as well as for other mountain-foot regions. There exist subregions in each. of the enumerated regions, Which do not differ sharply one from the other in the composition of basic pests. Whereupon one notices a decrease of moisture- loving species in directiona from north to south and from west to east along the entire zone of reclamation of virgin and waste lands with the exception of the Altai foot hill region. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/15: CIA-RDP80R01426R010400040001-5 Trans. A-1119 Everywhere, with the exception of the fourth erosional region, in order to accumulate and preserve moisture, grain crop rotations, requiring cultivation, are basically introduced: 60-70 are under grain crops, mainli, wheat, and 0 to 20% of plowland under clean and serial [counties] fellows. At individual farms - grass crop rotations. It is thought that for the habitation of pests, with the excepti