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December 16, 2016
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May 5, 2005
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June 1, 1951
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Approved For Releasq005/06/0&L-q%.-f1Re0R01731R00334101130030-3 1 June 1951 MEMORANDUM FOR: THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE SUBJECT: Psychological Strategy Board (PSB) 1. Attached are papers which have been prepared interdepart- mentally and approved for presentation to the Psychological Strategy Board (PSB) by the principal advisers to the members of that Board. 2. It is our recommendation that you authorize the distribution of these papers to the members of the PSB with a view to calling a first meeting of the Board in the near future. 3. It is suggested that the agenda :for the first meeting of the Board might be as follows: a. To consider the proposed interim procedure (TAB A). b. To approve the proposed functions and organization of the Director and his Staff as an aid to the new Director in setting up his organization (TAB B). c. To note the paper (TAB C) prepared by General Magruder regarding his concept of the Board and the organization chart which has been developed to implement this concept. They are put forward to suggest the eventual nature of the Board and its Staff. It is not endorsed by all the participants and if, as, and when it is discussed representatives of the departments and agencies should have an opportunity to present their views.. There is also attached under TAB C a paper submitted by Mr. Howland Sargeant of the Department of State commenting on General Magruder's paper. a. To consider the relationship of the Psychological Strategy Board to the National Security Council. c. To consider future business of the Board (TAB D). ALTEN W. DULTES Deputy Director (Plans) Central Intelligence Agency NSC review(s) completed. Approved For Release 2005/06/02 arkfig3har&01731R003300130030-3 Approved For %lease 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01734S03300130030-3 S-E-C-R-E-T TAB A INTERIM PROCEDURE In order to move ahead with the organization of the PSB the chairman, General Walter Bedell Smith, suggested that informal meetinge be held among the representatives of the participating agencies in order to outline the field of work of the Board. Three such meetings have been held. The first under the chairmanship of General Walter Bedell Smith and the second and third under that of Mr. Allen Dulles. This group was composed as follows: Mr. Dulles, CIA (presiding) Mr. Barrett, State (or his representative) General Magruder, Defense Admiral Stevens, JCS This group with the help of staff assistants in each agency has developed the set of papers of which this is a part. This group is prepared to continue to sit, if desired by the Board, to deal with any further preparatory measures that may be necessary pending the appointment of a Director and his assumption of his duties. Approved For Release 2005196/0Z:-Pa-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Wease 2gowogR2 9A-RDP8OR0173 FUNCTIONS OF THE DIRECTOR AND STAFF 3R0130030-3 In order to give effect to the terms of the President's Directive of April 4, 1951, the responsibilities of the Director and the functions of the Staff, subject to the Board, should be: a. to encourage the responsible agencies to produce ideas in support of psychological operations which include those matters envisaged under the NSC 59 and NSC 10 series; b, as necessary, to coordinate, expedite, and ensure the expansion of the planning and implementing of psychological policies and programs; c. to initiate and formulate proposals, including pro- posals for national psychological strategy, which would be referred as appropriate to the Board or directly to the rcap,onsibl.o. operating departments or agencies for develop- ment and execution; d. to ensure that the psychological policies, objectives and programs promulgated by the Board are within the capa- bilities of execution of the operating agencies or, if not, to rep...amend to C1i na speciaa aaml4d_ctrtiwe porsonnol and logistical support as may be required from appropriate departments and agencies be made available; e. to make a broad and continuing evaluation of current and proposed operations in the light of national plans and to recommend improvements to the operating agencies based on this review; S -E -C -R -E -T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Releaseviii$55/06/02,3:..E1-Dp8r01731R0033084440030-3 f. to assure that in the determination, pronouncement and implementation of political, economic and military policies, adequate attention is given to their psychological effects and to existing psychological programs; g. to assure that the programs of psychological operating agencies will be furthered by U. S. Government official pronounce- ments; h. to encourage, receive, and review proposals and research bearing on psychological operations from private and official sources outside the operating departments and agencies and to make these available as appropriate to such agencies; i. to provide secretariat services, including: (1) preparation of reports as directed by the Board; (2) organization of the business of the Board and expedition of decisions; (3) promulgation of the decisions of the Board; J. to assemble such intelligence and such policy and operational information as necessary for the performance of the above functions; k. to examine continually the functions of the Board and Staff in order to ensure that the facilities and resources of the participating departments and agencies are utilized to the maximum extent, (A proposed chart of organization for fulfillment of these functions is attached hereto.) -2- Approved For Release 2005/06/E12-CESAMP80R01731R003300130030-3 S -E -C-R -E -T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 PROPOSED ORGANIZATION - PHASE II BOARD Learp..??????* 11 aemaring???????????.# SECRETARIAT and IADMINISTRATIVE 0 ONAL COORDInATION DIRECTOR ? ????????????????? ??????????? 1PROGRAMPAING &I rVALUATIOr NOTE: (1) It is expected that each meMber of the Board will designate a deputy whose responsibilities include all matters over which the Board itself has cognizance. In the absence of the three principal Doard meMbers at any meeting, the Director vill act as cbairnma. The 'Mord may solicit the advice of non-govern- mental consultants as required. (2) No attempt has been made to specify uthich unit or units would perform each et the Stuff runctiona listed on the preceding page. in view of the small size of the proposed Staff this choald he left to the Director who iU allocate them in accordance vrith the ,;=142.fIcatic=of711c anT4strt, It forming these fuactiorsp hmever,.tbe Stafr 71111 te4ille to tile y=4:Irran ent;e:d,. M4111.tes of the participating de;Parlmentai ana azen=e0.0 Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Rch{Rase 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R017310013300130030-3 S-E-C-R-E-T TAB C CONCEPT OF THE ORGANIZATION TO PROVIDE DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS IN THE COLD WAR The attached paper and organization chart has been prepared by General Magruder and presents a concept toward which the Board and its Staff might evolve. No new functions as such are envisaged but it is based on a much broader interpretation of the agreed functions. While agreeing that "the Board shall utilize to the maximum extent the facilities and resources of the participating departments and agencies," the group disagreed on what constituted the "maximum extent." Under the view expressed in TAB B the PSB and its Staff would emphasize the function of coordination among existing agencies. Under the concept in the attached the PSB and its Staff would itself systematically program and control the psychological strategy of the Cold War. This involves a much larger independent planning role and much more contact with the detailed operations of the agencies than could be unanimously endorsed by the representatives. Also included under this TAB are comments on General Magruder's paper submitted by Mr. Howland Sargeant of the State Department. Approved For Release 2005t3Jog....RCIPARDP80R01731R003300130030-3 ? 4 Approved ForRel&ok 2005/06/ RWIDP8ORD1731R03100130030-3 \1209,1 REVISED* 21 Nazi 1951 PSYCHOLOGICAL STRATEGY BOARD CONCEPT OF THE ORGAITIZATION TO PROVIDE mum PSYCHOTAGICAL OPERATIONS IN Tu. 0. LB WAR THE FOBLEI: 2, To analyze the scope and mission of the Psychological Strategy Board and the tasks of the Director and the Staff; .and to derive there. from the qUelificatione and Approximate composition of the staff, FACTS BEARING ON THE PROBL1R 2, The pur2ode Of the Executive Directive of 4 April 1951, is the 'Ito authorize and provide forbore effective planning, coordination and donoUct, within the frymework of approved national policies, of psychological opera- 'done') 3. The Psychological Strategy Board is respmasible for the ',formulation and pramulgationsas gaidrace to the. departments and agencies responsible for paycho. logical operationi, of over-all national ptYchio. logical objectives? :olicies and prtgrams, and for the coordination anaevaluation of the national psychological effort!' 4. There is provided a Director, decimated by the President, rem seoneible under the Board for directing its. activities. He is assisted by. 4 staffs the organization, qua1ifications and size of which, Within limits set by the Board, are established by him, DISCUSION? 5. The Directive creates no new operaitng agency. It reedits from a general sense of need for harnessing the dispart e resources of existiag departments and agencies responsible for executing various psychological operations and intensifying the national effort. It includes under the term "psychological operations'? a uide spectrum t3f overt and covert activities - from -propagation of truthful foreign information to sub. versive operations of both a moral and a phytIca2 character.' Approved For Release 2 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Relehia4 2005106IO2U J. i P80R01731R0040130030-3 6. In face of the peculiar challenge of Bolshevict Russia, the primary objective of intensifying these unconventional national efforts is to tin the cold war and prevent declared global war. Failing this, the second- ary objective is to create vinc'd.tionr: favorable to our orthodox forces In the event of uar. If all our resources available for psychological operations wore bro...ight to bear consistently, progresrively and cumula- tively, the chances of kee Inc the peace or speedily winning the war would be immeasurably increased. If that is true, the establishment of an organisation for exploiting these resources should be consider d a major national pmject. It should not be undertaken with half measures. 7. Psychological operations are in no manmer a substitute for sound political...diplomatic actions, strong and forces or alert intelligence. Psychological operations reflect the strength of all these but trill al.. lays be subsidiary or supplementary to orthodox governmental operations. Therefore, the functions of the Psychological Strategy Board are not in competition or conflict with normal operations of the departments and agencies. Instead, the Board coordinates and steers the resources of their psychological units Into profitable channels toward national goals. 8. Soviet Russia and the satellites employ every instrumentality of government, orthodox and unorthodox, in aghting the cold war. Foreign. offices back up their propaganda; ground, sea and air forces shift and =newer in support of the psychological var. It is a ficult to say whether orthodox forces supplement psychological operations or the con. trary which is dog and which is tail. An Soviet reteurces are de.. ployed actively or potentially in support of war that is now being waged. As long as they have the initiative, our conventional planning for a future declared war is constantly thrown off balance and tends to be con- fused or unrealistic, AEI Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Reldera 2005/06/02,4RDP80R01731R061e00130030-3 9. Conventional concepts and plans based upon a L-Day which no man can predict had us into the dilemma of We dangerous extremes. Either our state of pzeparedness win be inadequate on the critical day or over...mobilization long.-drawn-out will be economically destruc- tive. Particularly is this true because war plans aro based upon the assumption that ,the cold war cannot be decisive. Planning would be more realistic if it were assumed that the cold war could be wen and, if Ten, cculd be decisive, This assumption mould occasion a modification of conventional war plans but not in such rammer or de.. gree as to alter signiiicantly the state of our prepazedness at any particular future date, The assumption 'would, however, greatly enhance the importance to be attached to current cold war operations, enlarge the concept of such operations and ensure the availability of both active and potential national facilities (orthodox as well as unortho- dox) in its concbacte 100 This conceptual background of tie Psychological Strategy Board, the importance of the rtakes involved, atd the scope and variety of operations to be coordinated - these all zre indicators of the requi.. site qualifications of the director and his staff, 110 Although tho Board does not perform psychological operations, its reEpoasibility to give isspotua to an intensified psychological effort implies considerable power of decision in the initiation and control of major projects, Likewise, while the psychological operating units vithin the depart:mats and agencies cannIt be directed by the Board to carry out its programs, the individual meoabqrs of the Board exp.officio are of such prestige as to create the presumption that the executing agencies will oencider guidance approved by the embers as being in effect mandatory. ZHU, Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved ForReleSs4 2005/06/02 : clak-qP8OR01731R0040130030-3 (atim4, 011CLUSIONS 12, Kceping in mind this implied authority, the Board, Director and Staff should exorcice functions canparable to both command and staff even though their explicit authority limits the nature of 'Iceman& to guidance, Otherwise expreseeds.the Director and Staff are respon. Bible for the emagement of the Psychological aspects of the national cold war effort. Since no single individual could have the (=mete= or time to manage the global campaign, it seems evident that under the supervision of the Directors this management must be in part delegated to staff assistants. A workable arrangenentwouldbe to employ for this purpose regional and functional specialists, each of whom would be responsible for assisting in the formulation of and directly abargvivith steering his part of a coordinated global program, 13. Nero precision can noW be given to the role of the Board, to the qualifications of the lirector and to the composition and functions of the Staff. Tnr BOARD 14, In the specific field of psychological operations the Board functions begimuhere the functions of the National Security Council leave off. The Council promulgates broad national policies and prin- ciples but its reports are too general to constitute blue-prints for implementation, The Board an the other hand adopts specific and practise cable objectives and initiates action to attain them, The Board ap. proves lines of action and programs which assign workable and coordi. mated tasks to the operating agencies, 150 The members of the Board will be able to give only limited pers.nal time to the details ofmanagement of national psychological operations., However, their decisions, %dm translated into dynamic action programs by the Director and his staff and promulgated to the repartmonts and Agencies, can give national purpose, consistency and continuity hitherto impossible in this Approved For Release 2SEt : CIA-RDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 ? Approved For Reittade 2005/06/02 2111180R01731R4A00130030-3 16 'Within the Powers of the Board, the Director should bo.aV, /wad a high degree of, initiative to act promptly andfisod.lholy in. those .gael",A7101".111g situations inherent in psychological warfare. He should ? ? be Supported against bureaucratic inertia or obstruction in bringing to bear, at favorable opportunities, all national psychological re sources in order to meintairi the offensive in the cold war. THE DIRECTOR %t 17. The Director should be a nationally known figure and have a broad backgTound in international affairs. Preferably ho should have experience in more than one aspect of the broad spectrum of activities comprised in psychological operations as defined in the Presidentvs Directive. He should be more a man of action than an intellectual analyst. He should be capable of quick and bold decisions within his authority, but methodical in directing long.range planning by his staff. By judgmont and tact he should be able to inspire boamuork in operating deparbAcnts and agencies. 10. His task is of such national importance as to deserve unhesitating support from the Board and the Procidaat himself. As prescribed by the Prosidentes Dtroctive? he shall: Be responsible for having prepared the programs, Policies, reports, and recornendations for the Board's consideration, Sit uith the Board and be responsible to it for organizing its business and for expediting the reaching of decisions, c. Promulgate the decisions of the Board, d. Ascertain the manner in which agreed upon objec., tives, policies, and programs of the Board are being implemented and coordinated among the departments and agencies concerned, c. Report thereon and on his evaluation of the national psychological operations to the Board together uith his recommendations, f. Perform such other duties necessary to carry out his responsibilities as the Board may directo Approved For Release 200 IA-RDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Rel4mak 2005/06/000P8OR01731R00Y100130030-3 THE sTATTs 19. The Staff sllould have responsibility ander the Director for the performance of the following specific factions which cannottipe delegated to operating agencies: a. Within the framework of approved national policies0and as authorized by the Board, the foreulation and premulgation in practical operating terms (not abstractions) of coordinated world. wide and regional. (2) paythological policies, (2) psychological objectives, (3) psychological programs. be Giving impetue to the detailed planning and execution by the operating agencies, c. Continuous evaluation of tie reeJlts of operations) with a view to making prompt adjustmente in the programs whenneces. sary9 d. The preparation of required reports, . e. Its own escretariat.adminIstrative duties. 20. The 2oregoing list inadequateyreflects activities required to give vitality to the conduct of the cold war. It does, however, suggest the indispensability of dynamde personalities to give flesh and, blood to the organization a Tr the Director and.6taff giveetham. selves up to pondering and planning, et shall have suceeedeci. Only in ectablishing another Ivory Tower. Ibile they must plan systematically to the extent necessary to formulate mind strategic objectives and practical programs, the Director and his prindipal assistants should sense themselves as being fell time 'at the front" In the cold War as literally as comnanders in orthodox war. 21. As principal aids the Dirac-tee should have certain regional and functional ehiefs (each with a rem: assistants) sho should be oat' standing experts in their respective 4eographic.poIitical and functional areas. These principal subordinates .pre sent in a senne?the- =meanders" Approved For Release 2005/ E17-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Ratratie 2005/0SECRELRDP80R01731R0*00130030-3 of the regional operations. Ebre accurately as a group they might appropriately be called tins wational Coo an r.......tationtivisionrdinatior The specific regional 'Staff Sectimes suggested are. (a) Soviet Russia and European satellites, ? (b) China, South East Asia and Email Asia, (c) !addle and Near East and Moslem North Africa, (d) (e) Latin America. 226 a, In intimate personal liaison with the corresponding regional heads of the operating agencies, the Chiefs of the fbragoing staff sections emarcise their steerirg...coordinating fanctiOn within the terms of the aepraved policies objectives and pro- gram formulated by the Strategy Group and the Plane and Programa Division. Also, in collaboration with the latter staff, they assist in all steps in the formulation of policies, objectives, and pro- grams applicable to their respective regions. They follow the development of the operations, evaluate the results and keep the Director currently informed of modilications which may be required in the programs, b. The regional chiefs should be empowered to furnish the authorized interpretation to operating agencies of approved policies:, objectives and programs. c. There should also be provisions for functional specialio zation as appropriate. 236 The other najor responsibility of the etaff is that of planning on the nati nal level, that is, the formulation of policies, objectives and programs as guidance to the operating agencies. These major divi- sions of the staff might be called the ........z....._11214.2.StrateGrotthelans and PromeaDivi.s.191.14, These staff divisions, should be reeponaible for the formulation and communication to the operating departments and agencies of all types of formal guidance required to initiate the projects and purposes of the Board. waTm Approved For Release 2005/04pgplWRDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 OCOV,S;42 Approved For Ree 2005Z5n1A-RDP80R01731R*300130030-3 fikatta-91C22. 26 This gr,up sits at the call of the Director and is chaired by him. Its permanent membership should consist of the Director, the Board Deeignees and a email group of profeaninnaily skilled fulI.time consultants. In addition, Regional'andrunctional In. plementers fran the Operational Coordination and Implementation Division, as well as consultants from operating departments and agencies should sit with this group, Ithen the subject of discussion requires. 250 In addition to routinp business of the Staff, the ftrategy Group considers policies, objectives and projects originated by the Board as wen as those self-originated. then approved by. the Board, they are passed to the Plans and Proems Divieien'for formulation into coordinated guidances, plans or programs for promulgation to the operating agencies. 26. It is from the Strategy Group perhaps that the most imagi- native and consecutive thinking should emerge. It is here that the global psychological aspects of the cold uar are considered as whole.. The long-range objectives having been formulated, inters. mediate objectives are adopted and strategic moves to attain than are continuously otudiod. The initiative in the col4var is seized at each f-vorable opportunity. Tho broad terms of the action required are decided. The Plans and Programs Division then works out coordi- nated guidance or programs required by the operating agencies to initiate planning or immediate action, depending upon the nature and urgency of the operation. Plans zrnd Pramc Division 27. This is the pla nine unit of the Staff which performs the mechanics of program planning. Its functions are to incorporate into coordiatted guidances, plans or programs the strategic decisions and courses of action app rovod by the Board and to promulgate them to the operating agenmies. In their final form these guidances, plans and programs, utile of broad national scope and in a global framework, Approved For Release 2005/06/02.,:c1A-RDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Re 6/02: CIA-RDP80R01731R0'?300130030-3 should constitute basic blueprints for action on the part of one or more of the operating agencies, They should not be per6 mitted to degenerates into abstractions or generalities, but should be forMulated only in terms of practicable tangible ob- jectives. 28. A key nucleus of the Plans and Programs Division should be recruited from the only area of government Ithere Systematic and coordinated planning is really understood and practiced, namely, the armed services. Thew key planners salad establieh a pattern and instinct specialists, diem from ?syehological operating agenciec, In the essential mechanics of programing, Plans and programs should be kept realistic by intimate collaboration on an ad hoc or task basis of regional and functi.onal specialists frau the operating departments and agencies and from the Operational Coordin,Ltion and Implementation Dd.Vivi.= SMEARY OF 0^.CCEPT 29. Planning and operational coorcknaticm should be based on the assumption that the cold war can be ucu. As a secondary responsibility only, should the Board permit the energies of the Staff to be diverted to planning wartime precious as distinct from current operations. A mall nucleus of planners might appropriataly be set apart for progrmwaing national. 'plans for psycholoc;ical warfare in wartime, but major consideration should be given to the currant operations of the global conflict* 30. Rembering the D-Day for the cold war occvrred several years ago, the plans and programs Irith which the Board will be primarily concerned are for a campaign being fought naa, The Board and its Staff should conceive itself to function as the ?wand and staff of an army in combat rather than as a department of &fence preparing for a war to come* SECRET Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 S-E-C-4(,E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 POSSIBLE ORGANIZATION -124ALEKI Secrztariat and Administrative DIRECTOR trate Grog. Director 'Board Designees Fall and/or part time consultants * Division Cblefs and Operational Coordinators Operational I ICoordinatorst Speech Co- Regional & .ordinator 1 Functional 1 Plans & Programs ** Management Current War iNat onal Ideology Is Doctrine * From the Government or private lift? ** Maximum use to be made of regional and functional specialists available in the operating departments and agencies. Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 -E Approved For Releakih005/utp/uz : u A-RuP8OR01731R003M0130030-3 COMMENTS OF MR. HOWLAND SARGEANT ON "CONCEPT OF THE ORGANIZATION TO PROVIDE DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS IN THE COLD WAR" The subject paper is a personal expression of General Magruder designed to be helpful in the establishment of the new Psychological Strategy Board. While most of the concepts in the paper are ones with which I would heartily agree, there are a few points to which I would take exception. These differences are mainly matters of degree rather than of kind, but it may be useful to try and express them. The following principles seem to me to be basic to the success- ful operation of the Board: 1. Our psychological program will succeed only as personnel and offices responsible for detailed planning and implementation perform their functions with greater and greater efficiency. To impose a large super-structure on top of them and to remove many of their functions in whole or in part would, I believe, introduce new requirements for coordination and liaison activities, deal a serious blow to the morale of persons now engaged in psychological operations, and in the end result in diminishing rather than increasing the efficiency of their work. Activities of the new PSB staff can result either in stifling the initiative of lower echelons or in inspiring them to greater efficiency. Every effort should be made to see that the latter result is achieved. 2. With respect to psychological programming, the principal need which the new Board and its staff can fill is that of formu- lating very broad government-wide policies, especially such policies as are presently beyond the competence of any single department or agency. The application of these policies to concrete operating situations should be entrusted to the individual agencies. It should be noted that the tendency in many administrative structures is to secure the services of competent experts and then to overload them with details to such a degree that they are unable to devote more than a very few minutes of their time to the larger picture. This is especially true in the field of psychological operations. To over-simplify the matter, it might be said that more exhaustive attention is often given comparatively minor matters of detail than to broad questions of major importance. Consequently, it is of utmost importance that the staff of the now Board and the Director himself should not be overloaded with detailed matters of administra- tion or implementation. This is one of the principal reasons for keeping the staff small and whenever possible arranging for the delegation of functions to existing agencies. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Releat402005/0180R01731R003-306130030-3 3. The number of individuals in the United States who 4 are competent to serve on the staff of the new Board is very small indeed. A few might be obtained from outside the government, but the majority of them are already occupied in existing agencies. If we strip these agencies of their most highly-qualified policy personnel, we will have lost more than we have gained since, as noted in one above, the ultimate success or failure of our psychological opera- tions will depend most of all upon the efficiency of the individual agencies. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * There are several points at which General Magruder's paper may conflict with these principles, although it is possible that the apparent conflict rests in the manner in which certain passages are interpreted. The following comments are offered by way of example: In paragraph 19 on page 6 it is stated that the staff should be responsible under the Director for the formulation and promulga- tion in practical operating terms of coordinated world-wide and regional psychological policies, Objectives and programs. It is further stated that this function cannot be delegated to operating agencies. It is my feeling that the staff should in fact delegate most of the preliminary work in this connection to operating agencies and should itself be responsible only for the final formulation and promulgation. Furthermore, this formulation should not, attempt to be in "operating" terms if this means that the needs of each medium must be spelled out, nor should it be in "regional" terms if this means that detailed consideration should be given to the differing requirements of each country. The implementation of policy by various communications media and the requirements of specific regions could more efficiently be spelled out in detail by experts in the existing agencies. In paragraph 19c, also on page 6, it is said that the staff should make a continuous evaluation of the results of operations with a view to making prompt adjustments in the programs when necessary. My Objection may be merely a matter of wording, but I feel that the words "make a prompt adjustment" implies a degree of involvement in operations which was not contemplated by the Presidential directive. Perhaps it would be adequate to say merely that the staff should recommend such adjustments to the operating agencies. Paragraph 20 on page 6 expresses the fear that if the Director and staff give themselves up to pondering and planning, we would have succeeded only in establishing another Ivory Tower. Herein, -2- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02: CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 - 4 Approved For Relealrope2005/0h/a"CfRAW5P8OR01731R003-300130030-3 I believe, there is a difference only in emphasis, but I believe that this wording might obscure the fact that at the present time our detailed planning is often far in advance of our long-term planning. Would it not be bettar to encourage the Director and staff to "pona.Qr and plaa" as long as this cerebration is harnessed to the realities of operations. As stated above, we have not given our most qualified thinkers an opportunity to think. Let us insure that some of them at least have an opportunity to do so in the staff of PSB. Paragraph 21 on page 6 suggests that the staff should include certain regional and functional chiefs who are outstanding experts in their respective geographical and functional areas. Certainly lb is to be hoped that personnel can be found for PSB who will have certain regional or functional qualifications, but PSB should not try to compete with the operating agencies when it comes to regional or functional experts. Instead, PSB policy experts should plan to rely principally on the regional and functional specialists in the various agencies. Paragraphs 23 and 24 suggest the creation of a "strategy group." It is my feeling that the entire senior staff of the PSB should be considered such a strategy group and that to create a special organization so entitled within the PSB staff would imply that the rest of the PSB staff would be concerned with details which might more appropriately be left to the operating agencies. In general, my feeling is that the PSB should strive to conduct its business with as small a staff as possible and should attempt to perform only such substantive tasks as are in addition to those now being performed in the operating departments and agencies. It may be that this conception is not far removed from that expressed in General Magruder's paper, but that paper may also be interpreted as advocating a large staff which would to a large extent duplicate or supplant certain functions of existing agencies. These comments, therefore, are intended only to highlight the dif- fering interpretations which are possible and to assist in their resolution. -3- S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 TAB D Approved For Atirease 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R017311243300130030-3 SECRET PROBLEMS FOR CONSIDERATION. 1. The attached list contains substantive problems which it is suggested the Board should consider. Although work is already going forward to some extent on all these items, the amount of progress varies considerably. It is recommended that the Board select the most important and urgent ones and direct their staffs to expedite the pre- paration of papers for PSB consideration. S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Relea*12005/&-&-.C41-AkTDP80R01731R003130030-3 I. Substantive Problems 11. 1,212E:Taralja21,saLp_ (See attached) 1. Psychological strategy in the Cold War 2. Psychological measures to insure that constructive relationships can be maintained and developed among the United States and the governments and peoples of nations, as in NATO, whose cooperation is essential to the national security. 3. Campaign to improve the personnel situation in psychological operations S-E-C-R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Relea005/06/02 : CIA-RDP8OR01731R003*130030-3 S -R-E-T 5. Survey of policy planning and research in the field of psychological operations Survey of activities evaluating the effectiveness of psychological operations III. Administrative 1. National psychological warfare and special operations personnel control and allocation 2. Measures to refine operational psychological warfare techniques 3. Cover and deception in current national usvcholop:ical warfare toward USSR -2- S-E-C -R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For ReleaN005/0U1g-t1.11:W80R01731R0033VK130030-3 SUGGESTED INITIAL PROJECTS FOR PSB I. Psychological Strategy in the Cold War Many individuals working in the field of psychological opera- tions in the Cold War have felt the absence of a "grand-strategy" -- a set of objectives toward the attainment of which all efforts can be directed. One cannot be so sanguine as to hope that such a strategy can be clearly outlined by any one agency or in a short period of time. Furthermore, it is a matter which clearly goes far beyond the competence of psychological operations specialists. These difficulties, however, do not excuse psychological operations planners from making what contribution they can toward the grand strategy, and the establishment of a Psychological Strategy Board gives them a better opportunity of doing so than they have had heretofore. It is believed, therefore, that one of the first tasks of the new board should be to set in motion a major effort to formu- late a broad, worldwide psychological strategy for the Cold War. A suggested procedure for accomplishing this is as follows: 1. Appointment of a working group composed of the nation's very best brains from both inside and outside the govern- ment in the field of psychological operations and making provision to see that they have facilities for concentrated work. The group should also include experts in political and military strategy. It is felt that the prestige of the Board will be such that it can command the services of individuals who would not ordinarily be available to work personally on such a project. Approved For Release 2005/0idlYe1AERBP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For Releas`r2005/06A-.cdAY4P8OR01731R003300130030-3 2. A working place outside Washington should be designated for meetings. It has been noted in previous similar cases that it is much simpler to enable top quality men to work on problems of this sort personally (rather than delegating them to subordinates) if they can be insulated from the pressure of routine duties. This insulation procedure is commonly adopted by such agencies as Brookings and RAND with a considerable measure of success. 3. The group should be asked to work on such very broad problems as the following: a. What psychological and other measures can be taken to restrain Soviet aggression? b. What psychological and other measures Can be taken to strengthen our allies and potential allies? c. How may the best statement of U. S. ideology be arrived at? d. How can our Cold War aims be defined? 4. The following measures should be taken in preparation for this working group: a. Make necessary arrangements for meeting place, secretarial help, security, etc. -2- S-E-C7R-E-T Approved For Release 2005/06/02 : CIA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Approved For ReleaYs 2005/6/22c:RtIFP8OR01731R003300130030-3 b. Prepare briefing papers. (For example, an analysis of NSC papers and Presidential statements having a bearing on psychological operations,) c. Arrange for oral briefings by governmental experts, as needed. 5. The full group should be asked to meet for a three or four day period at the beginning of the summer and for a three or four day period toward the end of the summer. In between the two full meetings sub-groups should be asked to work on spLcific phases of the overall problem. 6. It should be emphasized that this is not to be viewed as an effort to work out a national policy binding on all agencies. It is rather an attempt to answer two questions: a. From the point of view of psychological operations, what should our national policy be? b. How may existing national policy be exploited more effectively through psychological operations? II. A Long-Term Campaign to Improve the Personnel Situation in Psychological Operations This campaign might be divided into two parts: (1) an effort to improve and coordinate training programs, and (2) an effort to induce superior personnel who already have the available qualifications to enter government service in the field of psychological operations. A considerable amount of basic work on the first part has already been accomplished, but coordination is still lacking. An approach to the second part might be as follows: Approved For Release 2005/06/02 r bA-RDP80R01731R003300130030-3 Nuri ?fts0 Approved For Release 200SLODP8OR01731R003300130030-3 (1) Ascertain through interviews with leading experts outside the government what their principal objections to entering government service are. (2) Work out:, with all agencies affected, a long-term publicity program designed to attract first-rate personnel. (3) Approach key members of Congress with a view to obtaining their support in this campaign. III. Policy Planning and Research Survey This survey, which would be undertaken primarily by the temporary PSB with outside advice solicited as needed, should attempt to answer the following questions: 1. What policy planning for the cold war and hot war in the field of psychological operations is currently going on? 2. What basic research .P1- psychological operations in the cold ukAl cula hut war is currently going on? 3. What additional planning and research is needed, and what agencies should undertake it? IV. Survey of Evaluation Activities This survey should be undertaken along the same lines as the pb0Ve. PCB :vth 5/21 51 Approved For Release 2005/06/024 : CIA-RDP8OR01731R003300130030-3 --