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November 26, 1958
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TIC: IIETIIODS OP CREATING by Professor Penionzhi:evich, Doctor of Biological Sciences. The All-Union Poultry Breeding Research Institute, Zagora':, Iioseow Region, USSR. In the past the development of the poultry industry in Russia was based on the import of foreign poultry breeds and t their acclimatization. This was the lonjest period in the de- velopnent of the poultry industry and it showed the inpractioa- bility of the given trend. Today of the numerous poultry breeds which were imported fron abroad at different periods (a total of 64 breeds) only the Leghorn, Rhode Island and New Ilampshire Chic- kens, the Pekin ducks and the Bronze turkeys have been preserv- ed and are raised in the USSR. This confirms t'ie view ezpreszed as far back as 1895 by I.I. Abozin, the founder of scientific poultry keeping in Russia, that in rearing forei?-.l breeds their good qualities are some- what impaired because the fowls ar3 placed under climatic and nodn - tenanee conditions which differ from those under which they are created. In the Soviet Union the development of the poultry industry proceeded along the path of the inpro-:enent of native fowls, the creation of new breeds and the further inprovenent, acclimatiza- tion and hibridization with local birds of foreigg breeds which in the course of a nunber of years adapted t'.:enselves to the climatic and econonie conditions of the country. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 The breeding of many domestic fowls is based on certain general methodological principles but at the sane tine, depending upon the demands nade upon each of the future breeds, Bone of the applied methods arc consideraW.y modified and in cone cases new original methods are einployed. Worl: is chiefly conducted on the creation and inprovenent of general-purpose chicken breeds. In creating new breeds reproductive or complex reproductive crossing are made in nost cases. The principal characters aceordinG to which selection and choice of chickens for t'.e crosses are co:ducted arc as follows: egg laying, weight of eC-:s, freight of fowls, broodiness, livcbility reproductive properties, rate of feathering in chicks, early sexual maturity, high productivity for a period of many years, number of offspring, quality of neat, and resistance to certain diseases. In creating and inproving neat types of dorestic fowls (grease, ducl:s, turkeys) selection and choice of parental forms is conducted with the aim of securinC a breed which requires minimum costs for the _vroduction of one neat unit, -ivee maximum offspring per fenale and, in sons cases, makes naxinur. use of the natural feed in water basins and pastures. The Significance of External Conditions in Altering Heredity in cowls In breeding chief attenti n is laid to the influence of ex- ternal conditions on the organism of the initial breeds taken for the cross and upon the re, ultiic hybrids v:iic': are suboectucntly purebred. T+,e influence of certc._n external co:,diti .is on the c:i.n3es in productivity and bi i:Ld of the fowls has been known bit a; o and confirrecl in ::any researches, For ins+tance, high te:lperattire causes a drop in the \,eicht of oggs, the development of a t1i:_n- ner egg shell (Denion and 'iarren, 1933; Conrad.. 1939; 1.1eareii and Sciinepel, 1940; I_il:avs'-;y, 1952; i ediI::i, 1953), cnd a reduction of the live weight of the birds (Zelensl:aya, 1948; Penionz:i::evioh, 1952; Ragab and !.seen, 1953; Redil;:i, 1;:53). ::mhryoiiic mortality of cliic':er s i:: different ceogrc ):iical latitudes is clue to differences in insotrition (?enionza:oviell, 1941) and ea; laying depends upon different conditie ns of illunind- tion and tenperature (Sr_etnev, 1940), A nu.ber of researches ::,,ow - _!at t. e ,prolonged influence of external conditions on the orLanisn of c:ninals and birds not only alters their livability and .productivity of the Parents, but, what is particularly i::nort.ant, helps accumulate and fix t:ieee qualities in a nunbe: of generatio:,s in the o-4'fsprinv, and, if tinder the action of external conditions retnbolisn is altered, the newly acquired properties beconc :iereditary. The well-1alown Russian scientist and zootecluiician i:uleahov P.11. fornuJ,ated the law of the fixing of properties in heredity as follows: "This law r_anifests itself in the fact that the characteristics of the organisn acquired in the course of its life are the more persistently trc.nsnitted to the offspring the Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 longer was the action of the causes t tt induced the ohm ;os. Sirilarly, the norc the acquired characteristics are trans. mited to the offspring the Greater is the chance of their being preserved in the ftture generations". Savelyev (1952) s:towed that prolon;;ed field management helps create highly-productive chickens posseceinG Great livability and better conversion of feed as cor. ared with the control group of chickens kept in limited rances. ixeroises connected with the movements of the birds activated the development of the organism and certain internal organs (liver, heart, kidneys, ovaries). In adult birds and chicl:s kept in the fields these organs were heavi- er by 23-80 per cent. Inter the offsprings of the chickens that had been kept eithor under the sane oonditio::s or in limited ranges were norc productive and viable than chicks reared in the ease conditions but oricinatinG fro:: parents that had bacn kept for several years in a limited range. The researches of ::oropanova (1952) were conducted with the aim of studying the fifluence of two markedly contrasting feed ra? tions on the hereditary variability of chickens. Both initial groups of Leghorn pullets were equalised in all respects. In order to exclude tho influence of natural or artificial selection factors the paternal groups of each Generation were made up only of closely related pullets along the maternal line. The ration for one group of experiment pulleto was "Abundant" and for the other--"bean". These rations remained uncharged in the course of four generations. The fifth generation of both experinent ~.,,,, Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 groups were Cron under the Dane feeding conditions in order to oheclc the extent of the hereditary fixation of t':e acquired chances. The r'.ifference in live t-roic:;t in fift't Generation pullets of both groups in autumn wan in favour of the offopring obtained fron tho-well-fed mothers--by 203.4 Grano and at the age of one year--by 163.9 Crane; as retards sexual maturity they were earlier by 16.2 days, In eC::: laying for a period of oix months they produced by 42.1 more eGC and the weight of eggs-- was greater by 3.9 Crams. All Vie above differences were bio- metrically valid. It is interesting to note that the well-fed pullets of the fourth Generation aorluired certain constitutional proportion similar to those of t::o general-purpose type of chickens. By enploying different kinds of oaic'_:en fend containing vegetable and anlnal proteins in a number of Generations Dinars (1951) found that tae c''.ioks and ehiol:ens of three generations which received the vegetable diet manifested deep chances in metabolism ahd an altered type of build. The nethodoof exterting an influence upon the initial breeds and later upon purebred birds by conditions of feeding and nana- gement is of crest significance in oreatinc new breeds. In breeding the Russian !ihito o:tic1cen besides Grain and meal food the rations included considerable amounts of potatoes, pumpkin, oarrots, mantel and otter juicy feed and also food containing natural vitamins. he a result the new broad developed a capacity for oonounina a considerable amount of Juicy feed which Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 cuts the wor::1:1; costs of the products wi taout caueinc a drop It the productivity of tie birds. T:tia nethod of feeding czd field nanwwenent were used in creating the Ze(;orel: General-purpose breed of o iel:ens. In breeding the "0rt:t Caueacian tur!:ey hybrids were produced which were subsequently inbred and then the purebred fowls were kept in the pastures under conditions prevailing in the southern zone of the USSR for 9-10 wontas a year. The new duck breeds (Tirainian, Black !11rite-Brea3ted) were created on unlinited water areas grit the utilization of a large anount of natural plant and aninal foeda. These nethods led to a reduction in feeding costs and helped get hiC_:ly productive vigorous fowls. It should also be noted that selection of parental forns of the initial breeds iron fame located in different climatic zones or where different methods of nanagcaent were employed (Kushner and Eltayeva, 1953) and also the naintenanoe of mass and fenales during the prebreeding period under different conditions and different feeding (Sevelyev, 1953) exerted a favourable influence on the rise in livability and perfornanoe of the birds. Concerning Certain Problems of Interbreed Or ? The theory of hybridisation proceeds iron the precept that inereasod vitality and Productivity of the offspring are the result of the fusion of biologically full value nale and fenale sex cells poscessing different qualities. The difference in the qualities of these cells creates the stimulus for the internal oontradiotion of the living body whin:: is the cause of the high Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 livability and productivity of farm amir.;..lo and birds. Pron our point of view t::e najor points of the problon of hybridization c'tocld be thorou hly studied today are the combination of breeds for )ediCroe d narl:et pu_.,poses and the elaboration of not::odc of aeetring vegetative hybrids. In the All-Lhion Poultry Dreeding Researo:; Institute wort: has been conducted for a period of oeverc.l years on the problem of the inheritance of hharactere and the evaluation on this basis of the effectivity of single and reciprocal crosses. In studying these problo;ts its tirooood fron the fact t*i the parental forms exert an influence on their offspring with the participation of at least two major factors: a) nutrition during the embryonic period trhic:: is closely connected with the maternal organism and through it wit:: the external environment; b) heredity which both the paternal and natornal orgcnisra possess. Among Cis aut::ore worl:inj on tae problen of t::e inheritance of different characters in domestic fowls mention should be made of Burov l,.IT. (cited according to Kushner, 1955) who conducted very convincing and eontrastiv;, as reC..rds live might, crosses between Bantar., Rhode Island, Leghorn and Iangs:ian Chickens, Lebedev 11.11. (1949), Lebedev il.i:, and Libizov Ii.P. (1952) on the inheritanoe of live reight, vitality and hatchability; Iioultrie, I:in. and Cottier (1353), ilorely rand Snits (1.54) on livability. On the basis of these and many other researches its nay con- clude that such characters as live ueitjtt and viability of eabryoss are inherited by the offspring primarily fron the maternal organism. These data are con: irn ed b;,, researches conducted in the All- thion Poultry Dresding Reoerrc:: Institute by Savelyev I.IC. (1;52). The works on the in:ieritanco of resitance in c:.icl:ens of different breeds and strains to infectious and helninthous diseases (Roberts and, Card, 1926; :utt, 1935, Sturl:ie, 1943, Champion, 1954 and ot::ers) have s'_oum that in crossinG naics and females of both resistant card nonresistant strains the offspring -)roved to be resitant i.e. in this case the character is i,vierit- ed in an equal decree fron the natennnl and the paternal line. '.!it': the :_i_:: of exnerinentally chec':inG the preferential inheritance of sonarate characters relatin to the prodt:ctivity of the fowls fror the paternal and natcrnc.l or--anions and determ- iniik; the nest effective conbinot ions of :r.rental forns for interbreed crosses corres 'ondi;:j investigations were conducted in the All-Union Poultry Breeding Researc.. -nstitute. In ::is experiments Savelyev (1953) enployed hens and cocks fo four breeds for his and reciprocal crosses: the Y rlov, Russian `!,lite, Rhode Island and i'ew ::arpshire chickens. The best indices for ecg laying, early physiological naturity, and live weight were corbincd in hybrids obtained fron by crossing cocks of the egg layin;; breed originat _ne fron highly productive mothers with hens of a heavier weight to the general- purpose type. Hatchability was higher in the sincle crosses. In L.V. Saollionova's experire:r..s with Russian '!cite and Zagorsk chickens the incubating properties of the eggs in the single crosses was also 'higher t'_icn in reciprocal crosses: by 8.9 Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 per cent of the nunber of incubated and b;; 2 per cent of he number of fertilised eggs The hybrid chicks fron the reciprocal arouses a jprozinate in live weight to the Z orsk chic:, of the general-purpose type while the hybrids of the single cross are nore lilac the Russian '.'cite egg laying type of chickens in res.;ect to this character. Shal:hnova's investiations show that body neasurerent indices and the size of the hybrids of the reciprocal cross are higher than those of the hybrids of the reciprocal cross are aighcr than those of the by rids from the single cross, i.e. these indices like the live wei ;ht of the offspring are, influenced more by the maternal organisn. In dressing; fowls and in enatonical studies it was found that the amount of neat and edible ports in hybrids of the single cross is greater than in Russian '.!Mites by 12.7 per cent and in hybrids of the reciprocal cross b 21 per cent. Thus, the production of superior quality hybrids in respect to the entire set of economic characters for narket and breeding purposes depends upon the choice of initial 'breeds, individual selection cocks and hens belonging to ;roues with different types of productivity. On the basis of ex_~erinents and the analysis of the worl: conducted by the breeding state farns which show t'.e influence of the paternal and paternal organdsns on the i;zherituunce of separate econonic characters reciprocal crossing nay be reconnend- ed as the most effective (hens of t:ie general-purpose type are crossed vi G:_ cocl:s of the e;:;g-laying type whose pothers were highly productive). In this case the oftswin o as a rule panes a big live weiCht, Good feed conversion, high egg-laying, early maturity and a good exterior inherited fro:: the cocks and the hens. Only one character in these crosses, nanely, hatchability is inferior. Researches conducted in the Soviet ;'pion on the production of vegetative hybrids whose_hered.!.ty is altered by neans of paren- terai injection of blood and other tissues to recipients (Sopikov 7.950, 1951, 1954, 1957; Perdinandov 1552; Gronov and Peol;tistov 1957) have s:hovm that by rer,eated ixtrenteral injections of blool taken from donors to another breed the altered characters can be fixed and nade hereditar.- in the offsprin`;s of the roci.Aents; the liveability, fecundity and econonic productivity and also resis- tance to diseases can be increased bot:?. in the recipients them- selves and in their offs min,. This nethod has nade it possible to create a new highly- productive ;eneral-purpose breed ,;rou.) of T,eni.r;rad '":ite chic'.-ens whic:: ghost corpietely fail to brood (0.8-1;S brood- ine hens) in contract to ot:_cr --e:neral-purpose breeds such as the Rhode Island, Plynouth Roc'_ :There the percents a of brooding hens reaches 14-20;x. A brief Description of the Dreeds and :)reed Groups of Donestic Fowls Created in the LCSR The territory of the Soviet :anion includes different clina- tic zones--fror. t o districts of eternk.l icc to the subtropics and the conbination of external fr?.ctors differs in the different That is way breeds of donestic fowls are Croatia tW f10 sons in vaio:: the birds nanifest naslnun Productivity ^It livability. Breeds of Different Fowls and the Zones of their Distribution in the USSR Chickens Russian Ulliite Geese Big Grey Artanassky Pskovsky Romens'ry Shadrinc y Turkeys North Caucasian In all zone:. In uI,e USSR there are two populations: he nor thorn heavy weight and the southern with :x cruller live wei;ht Central districts (central chernozen and norchernozon zones) and the south. Districts of the center, the west, north and south. Central districts. Districts of the north-west and west. Districts of the south. Districts of the Ural'- and Siberia. Districts of _Torth Caucasus ;~.nd the south. Breed Groups of Different Fowls and the Zones of their Distribution in the USSR Chicken Zagorsksky Districts of the center, South,North Caucasus Southern Urals and Siberia. Districts of L:,e ;forth-West. rwhl..b- I1eallcovdw Poltavsly Geese $olnechnogorsky Kaluzhasky Li t ovsl:y Duck s Zerkalny Ukrainsky Black !,cite-Breasted I:ubansly Turkeys lIoekovsky Stalingrj'.dsky Black Til:aoretsky Distrion of the center. Districts of the center and i'orth Oswams Districts of the center. T:ie same Districts of the west. Districts of the center, north-west abd west. Districts of the south The sane Districts of the ::ort:! Caucasus. Districts of the center, north-west, Urals and Siberia. Below we give a brief description of the new breeds and breed groups of domestic fowls t:u:t are widespread in the USSR. C::Ic ::iTS Russian '.'bite breed by utilizing reproductive crossing of Leghorns with local Russian chic';cns. In creatin;, this breeds, selection and choice of parenta_1 pairs were conducted in such a way as to combine high ecclayiiG and big egg weight with greater live weight of the fo.rls, good fertility and livability. In the USSR they are widcs-read. On the best breeding fame the average e,;ClayinC is 180-200 eggs a year. On the State fart Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 "Krasny I:ut", Saratov Region, tie aver~G;e a gln.,yin~; of 20 tliausa" Nilekene anounte to 208 eggs a year. The record hen 'To. 6868 laid 330 *me in one year weiahiag on the average 60 grans, tl:e live weight of the hen being 2.4 kilo- Grams. I:en No. 617, which set a record in -productivity for a period of several years, laid 1057 egos in the course of 5 fears with an average weight of 62 grams; the live weii;at of the hen is 2.4 kilo- gram. The Kuchinslar Jubilee chicken was bred on the I)edigree poultry state form "I:uchinsky", ioscotr Region, by utilizing conplex reproductive crossing of tic following breeds: Local Livensl0r, ;Tew ilanshire, Rhode Island, Australorp and ite -lynout% Roc!:. The hen's plumage is fellow, tic cock's-dark: red (black: breast). The average c.g layin: on the I:uchins':y Stc.te Parn is 200.2 eggs per laying 'ien. The record hen No. 2005 laid 285 eggs in one year with an average weight of 61 grans; the live weight of the chicken is 3.10 Kilogrrns. Zagorsky (general purpose tyT)e) bred in t'.e All Lhim Poultry Breedi, : Research Institute by utilizing complex reproductive cros- sing of Yurlov, Russian '.!bite, ;Tear ::aspshire and Rhode Island chic- kens. There are two varieties as regards plunage colour and form of conb: tthite with a rose comb and salnon-coloured with a single conb. The egg-laying of the pedigree group chicl:ens of the All- Union poultry Breeding Research Institute (Za,;orks, iloscotr Region) is 201 eggs. The record 'ien iTo. 7800 laid 243 eggs in one year weighing 58 grans o:t t:,c average; t:ie live weight of the hen--3 kilograms. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 ~nx'ads v Tlhite heavy ;rei::,t L-eneral-purpose type of Chickens, nonbroedini;, created by nears of the transfuaio:1 of blood from Australorps to Leghorns in t::e course of four genera- tions. Beginning with the fifth generation the fowls were bred without transfussion of blood. Tile Pt average e;_;g laying, on e on the "Bolshevil:" State Farms, Le:iincr, d fle-ion was 132 eccs per lien; live weight of the clicl:ens is 2.7--3.2 hilograns. Pioekovsky chickens bred by utilizing hems with I'ew I*.~ crosses of Yurlov c_ric- Psisires and Brow-7n Leghorns. Adult birds and chicks were kept under the climatic conditions of the Hoscoir Region with its long cold winters. Tile average eL,; layinc at the Bratsevo Poultry plant was 200 eggs, weiCirt of the hens 2.7 kilo- grass and cool:s--3.5 ':ilograms. record hen laid 240 eggs. bred on the Poultry state farms "Borki", Tharkov Region and "Arzhenka", Tambov Region by utilizirk; reproductive cros- sing of Ronen and Toulouse Geese. The average live weight of the females is 6 kilograms and that of the ganders 7.8 kilograms. The average egg laying is 50 eggs. Bolnechnogorslar geese were bred on the "Barezkill State Pars, Solnechnogorsk District, iioscow Reggion' by by utilizing complex rig complex reproductive crossing of 1'.holnogori, Chinese and Toulouse geese. The average freight of the females is 6 l:ilograms andof the ganders 7.8 kilograms. Average egg laying-40 eggs. The record 470-60 laid 71 eggs a goose No. 3'edr, her live wei.rt was 7.4 kilograms. Lalu$Ysslar aeeaA bred by utilizing the crosses of Tulsky geese with local varieties bred in t'ie T:alt a Region. The fowls nanifest the best correlation of skeleton and muscles (1:4). In a nunber of regions of the Soviet Union (Gorgky, Cherni- gov) hybrids of the local varieties and the chinese geese are bred in large quantities. In these 'iybrids are conbined high egg-lay- ing (70-120 eggs a year) and a big live weight (6-7 kilograms), DUCK S Zerkaducks bred by utilizing complex reproductive cros- ses of local ducks raised in the Moscow Region with Pekin and Khaki- Campbells. Average live weight--e kilograms, average egglaying 123 eggs. The record clue!; ITo. 1167 laid 135 eggs, Ivor live freight was 3.1 kilograms. 1a ducks bred at the Ukrainian Poultry Breeding Ex- periment Station by utilizing the initial crossing of local Grey ducks with wild drakes in order to increase the feed conversion properties of the offspring. They actively utilize the natural feed of the ponds: 2-2.5 feed units are spent per kilogram of in- crement in weight. Very unexacti;ig. The record duck No. 1314 (live weight 4.2 kilograms) laid 225 eggs. Black White-Breasted ducks bred by utilizing reproductive crossing of local Ulsainian Black "Illite-Breasted duc:s with Pekins and I:haki-Campbells. 2-2.5 feed unit are spent in ire ' -?'it. Pent per kilograms of The record duel: ITo. 10-3363 (live weight 3.2 kg) laid 225 eggs. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 T U R K E Y S North Caucasian bred in the Stavropol Territory by utiliz- ing the reproductive crossipC of the local Caucasian turkey with Bronze and Brood-Breasted Bronze fowls. They pasture well, Tale average weight of the turkey 'lens is 6.0 kiloC;rans and of the cocks 12.1 kilograms, The record hen I?o. 751 (live weight 7.5 Ialocrans) laid 121 eggs. The Iloscovsky turkey bred in the central zone of the USSR by utilizing conplex reproductive crossilla of local '.,4iite turkeys, White Dutch, tlaite Beltsville and 7ocal Bronze turkeys raised in the Iloscow Region with the north Caucasian and Bronze Broad- Breasted (Bronze variety), Average live weight of the turl:ey hens 6.6 kilograms and of the cocks 12.6 kilograms. The record white hen IIo. 499 (live weight 7.3 kilograne) laid 139 eggs. B14ok Tikore*SkY turkeys. The turkey hens are of average weight and the quality of the nez,t is high (good correlation bet- ween flesh and skeleton, edible and inedible )arts). Their repro- ductive properties are good. Average weight of the 'lens is 4.6 kilograms and of the cocks 8.5 kilograns. Record hen IIo. 3797 (live weiS'tt 4.6 kilograns) laid 98 eggs. The report is illustrated with lantern slides of the breeds and breed groupt of fowls. S U11H'AR Y of the re_2ort by Professor enionzlL:ev ' ich, D. The iiethods of creati:l ? breeds of Donest on io fouls in the i)S3 In the Soviet u.; on new breeds of >oultry after prolonged tests of the breeding and con^erci,l of by the l oultry fins are approved Iinistry of ?'.,rieulture. Piew breeds that are still in the process of their nal;ii n~ ~` cstin ad breed and Hass reproduction are call- of uitil they are approved of by the liinistrr-. One of the najor denands Lade upon a breed is the presence of a sufficiently lame stock of foils which Hakes it conduct creative selection ;,ndcl, Possible to oice of parental pairs inside the breed for its furt''er improvement. In the USSR within a period of 40 years 3 breeds of different types fo fowls (the '.!kite I1u3s ian c_licl:en; the lar Eorsky, 1rsnasskJ Grey, I.holmo_ , Pa, Ce _ oval:y, Ronensl:y, - ~hadrinsl:y geese; and i'orth Caucasian Turkeys) and 15 breed groups: have been improved and creat ad: Pervomaisky, Z atorsiy, Leningradsl;y, I:uchinsky, iiosl;ovsky and Poltavsky chicl:ens; Solnechnogorsky, IIaluzhsl:y and Litovel;y geese; l'n'ite Iiosl:ovsky, Zerkalny, Ulrainsl:y, Dlacl: Vhite-breasted and I:ubansl;y ducks; lfosl:ovsky, Black Tikhoretslty and StalinC;adsl:y turkeys. The principle stages in creating breeds are: ing: 1/ Choice of parental pairs fron different breeds for cross- 'e cross anong the Int brood hybrids te desired characters and productivity. 2/ Selection and c::oce of pairs for t er - Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 Directional rearing, feedinG :aid nanat;enent of fowls of the new breed group; the fixin; of useful hereditary properties in each subsequent Generation; 3/ The creation of :!ic:ly ,)roductive strains and families, intestrain crossing with the simultaneous action of external con- ditions upon the organisn; 4/ If necessary in the process of creating breeds crosses to add "new blood" are enployed at the later etaces. The creation of poultry breeds for tie different zones is major conditions for ensurin hich livability and good breeding properties in the fouls. For this purpose one (or several) of the initial breeds used for the cross nust be a native. hew pro- ductive and breeding properties are obtained in the fowls by means of directional action of the complex of external conditions espe- cially during the period of the organ's development, which not only promote higher productivity,e initial forms but the prolonged action of lrhieh ensures the accumulation of these new useful pro- perties in the subsequent generations. In crossing initial forns the -)referential inheritance of separate characters fron the paternal and paternal orca.nisns is taken into account. The method of _producing veGetative hybrids by means of parenteral iitections of blood and other tissues into recipients is also enployed. A condition of paranount ir~nortcxice for the creation of high ly productive poultry breeds is selection and choice of parental pair, according to individual tests andthe obtaining of a nazinum nunber of foos_irirles from then, tr' ic' Soviet i easily aecon~li~hed in the Union inhere there are large pedicree poultry fame irorl;ing according to a unified plan. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 REFERS ITC ES ABOZIIT I. I., Poultry Breeding. The .'oultry Yard on Russian Debriyan Publishers, 1895. GROHOV A. TI. I"::OI:TISTOV P. I. , Altering Heredity in Chickens by nearer of Blood Transfusion. Hoscow, 1;57. DIITAIT, V. I:. , Protein i'utrition as a Factor of the P unetional and Morphological Changes in the Or;;cnisn. Thesis. Timi- ryazev tcricultural Acadeny in IIoscow, 1951. ZI:I%ITSI'.AYA E. V., ICholmogori Geese and their Si"nificance in the Development of Hone Geese Breeding. Trudi nauchno- issledovatelskogo Institute Ptitsevodstva, vol. 20, 1948. I:UI::SIIOV P. IT., Theoretical Yorks on ?edigree Livestock Breeding, IIoscow, 1947. KU$HITER Kh. F. and KITAYEVA 0. N., New Experinental Data on the 'oblen of Related and iTonrelated Breeding of Chic- kens. Trudi Instituta Genetila Akadenii ITaul: SSSR, vol. 20, 1953. I:USISi: Kh. F. The Genetical Bases of DreedinG '!orl: in the Poultry Industry. Trudi Institute Genetiki Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 22, 1955. KIKAVSICY L. D. , A Zootechnical and Bioloeicrl Analysis of the Age and Seasonal Changes in ]-roductivity of Chic_:ens. Trudi ITauchno-Issledovatelsi:ogo Instituter Ptitsevode- tva, vo. 22, 1952. KOREPAUOVA C. Ya., T. a Inheritance of Changes in Chicl:ens Thrder the Influence of Conditions of Feeding. Zhurnal "Agro- biologla", No. 2, 1952. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 LD_DLV li? li , Influence of Conditions of Feedi;-Z; Iianagement and tae ilethod of Selecting Parental Pairs of Aninals uron tic ffectiveness of Industrial Crosses. Trudi Pushi:insl:oy Iaboratorii Razvedenia Selsl:ol:hoz. Zlhivo, issue 3, 1949. LEBI:DEV Ii. II. and LIBIZov iI. P.. Crossing and Double hating in Iiarl:et Lives tocl:breedi:i , Selk ozgiz, 1,52. PEIIIOPTZFIIChVICH L. E. , Clianges in Embryonic ilortality of Chickens in Different Geographic latitudes. Doklady AM:ademii Nauk SSSR, vol. MII, ITO. 8, 1941. PEITIOTTZIIICEVICH E. E. , Increasing :'roductivity and Inyroving Breed- ing Properties of Domestic Fouls. Trudi iauchno- Issledovatelsl:oGo Instituta Ptitsevodstva, Vol. 22, 1952. PLITIOITZIII'.L'VICII D. %. , The Ileans and Ifethods of Innrovi1, lTative Poultry. Trudi Ilauchno-Issledovatels':ogo Instituta Ptitsevodstva, vol. 23, 1953 PEnnIOITZIU VICII E. SAVELYEV I.K. and CIIMUTOVA A. P. , The new ZaGorsky Dreed Group of Chickens. Trudi Vseso Yuznogo ITaucYuio- Issledovatelekogo Instituta !'titsevodstva, vol. 25, 1953. SI>ETNEV S. I. , Breed Testi,t' of Leghorn and Rhode Island Chickens, Sbornilc ITauchno-Iseledovatelskogo Instituta 1titse- vodstva, 1940. SIIBTII;;V S. I? : II:UhITSI;Y Li', . 'York on the Creation of the Iioscow Breed Group of C::iel:ens. Abstracts of Reports of the Timiryazev I;lericultural Acadeny in Iioseow, issue ?IV-I, 1953. SOPII:OV P.1I.. A New iiethod of Ve-etntivc / ibricization of Birds by iieans of the Transfusion of Blood. Zhurnal "Priroda", I?o.I0,1950. SOPIKOV =.ii.. Trancnission of :!credit arY Properties by Trans... fused Blood. Z:hurnal "'.zrobioloiia", iio.6, 1951. SOPII:OV P.:i.. , Alterin; Heredity and Increosirk. Vitr.lity of Animals by Means of Parenteral Injection of Blood and other Tisres to Recipients. Trudi Vsesoyuzno~o Ilauchno-Issledovatelshoeo Instituta Ptitsevodstva, vol. 25, 1957. SOPII:OV P .II. The Llteration of Heredity by Ileaas. of ''arentcral Injection of Blood, Zhurnal K;robiolocia , IIo.6, 1954. S :IMBIiYJ:OV , Ilethods of Brcedi rk.: '!or.. uita Russicn I^_tite C::icl:ens, i oscow, 1957. S'?VIlYBV I: I:. , Prolonc ed Field llanaC;enent of C::iclcena as a lIet::od of Inprovink:; their Productivity -nd heredity. Trudi Irauc.tno-Isslcdovr,tels?_oLo Instituta Ttitsevodotva, vol. 22, 1952. SAVELy y I:., IncreasinZ the Productivity / and Viability of Yurlov Chickens in Cases of Closely-Related Breeding. Trudi !T,uc:ono-Is sled ovatelsl:ogo Instituta Ptitsevodstva, vol. 23, 1953. FDR~II :',I-10V V.V. , The Search for IIethods of the Vegetative Hybridization of :animals. "Uspekhi Sovrenennoi Diologii, vol. T-.:.-IV, issue 2, 1952. S:.VDLfly 1.I_. , The influence of the paternal and maternal orcanisrs on the offspring in cases of inter- breed crossing of chickens. Trudi ITaucluzo-issledovat. Instituta Ptitsevodstva, v.23, 1953. B!TIOIT ".Z. and :'L:7:' '..'iu ~,:' D.C., Temperature and its Effect on Size in the Donestic Fowl. Poultry Science, v.12, Uo.2, 1933, COI^!,D P..II. , The ffect of high Tcnper,.ture on the Blood Calcium of Laying lien. Poultry Science, v.13, 1939. CI1:IPIOIT L. , The Inheritance of Resistance to Cecal Coc- cidiosis in Donestic ;owl. Poultry Science, v?33, I'o.4, 1954. i` U T T F.B., On the Physiolocicnl Basis to Salmonella Pul- lorun of the Fowl. :.rer. ITatura list, v.69, p.66, 1935. I101ILII:Y F.::. and SiUIi :, Comparison Between Reciprocal Cros- ses of :,uspralorp and '.':_ite Le;:horns. Animal Brecding Abstracts, v.22, p.250, 1954. Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 IIOULTRI^ T. and COTTTI: ,R G, , Influence of IIeterosis and Iiatornl ~.ffeots on Viability in an Inter- strain Cross of ":_ite Lechorna. Poultry Science, vol. 32, p.935, 1953. ROILRT ~ ^nu C; ."j L.,Tho Inheritance of Broodiness in Doncatic 7oal. ro . 3-t '!orlds goal. Concresa V.2, p.353, 1933. and 'affect of :,tnoo?nheric Tenperature on :1;;C '!ei;;ht and Viold in Fayoini and Baladi Fowl. Poultry ,cicnce, V.32, :'o.6, 1;53. 'l1R.WIT C. and ;,C"'I^': :.L, , The :-"ffoct of Air Temper- ture on :3G,:; Shell T:Ae'aiecs in the Fowl. Poultry ^cience, v.19, !To. 1, 1340. eLzO0(ia OOYTAITm L zav= uY czaChaims AND 1ULLrd,1JG $ Jon:rol - -C0oxea rutc.tces - -.iugar Deets --Raw potatoes - - - Sli.;:3r Deets A4w)1BIC A-JS.) CJn1.aisTJ IW o1JUD Ut ~:ri1Ci~ii~a Alrl) PU~~o kG % w te0 1N A g ? ( Uri,i:i ) aU.iAB =iTSiNizi iS 4Luv) CHI"--i64 AND ru~LLdla i;r xv * 'I 4LYW4n.Y CO$TSIt II ALWA; Ob' JHI:k4Ua esJ tU_L._'T:. , ,a} % ka1 L )rut?)eu tit r;i -- Co)Ke1 i. taue< n,?-JS .,vv rdCjJLT1k.:f .ii kUC,.,.1...ti1,,2zxf Y..d::L uvv c:dt as; , :11 1~LltJ ~lar~'+IJ AVXeAG.; &G%; raCiiUCTIt;Z :aY i'Si{1 vJ~ yiivJ east iia?; usaOGAat~DIP .UNTs5TJ 1r ijLl.'1.N v~5 ~~1 r11:+iiJ Ali.'*' llai4o Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 THE ALTERATION OF 074TAIN 14OPERTI AND CHARACTERS IN FOOLS 3Y WEANS OF PAREN EHAL TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD AND THEIR FIXATION T_N THE OFFSPRING by P.M. Sopikcv. (The Leningrad Bare of the All-Union Poultry Breeding Research Institute of the Lenin Ac;domy of Agricultural Sciences,Decorated with the Order of Lenin,Leningrad,US30. The problem of altering heredity in animals is of great significance in biological science. As is ':mown, environmental conditions are one of the major factors influencing these changes. Many scientists in their works dating from the end of the XVIII century to our days acknowledged the unity of the organism and its conditions of life. This principle we find in the works of J. Lamarck (18), Ch.L'arwin (9), K.A.Timiryasev (32), I.V.Michurin (21).T.D. Lysenko (19), I.E.Glushchenko(7) and others. Today the scientists of the Soviet Union and other count- ries employ different methods in order to alter the hereditary characteristics of animals; the transplantation of ovaries and testes (I,22,23,36,39), the trensnlantation of fertilized and unfertilized ova (10, II, I2,14,17,20,25,2?,28), the substitution of the yolk and egg white in incubating eggs of domestic fowls (2,3,13,20)24,26,33,35,36, 38), the para- biosis of organisms in embryological dnd postnatal periods(4,6), repeated syst:;matic parent,rol transfusions of blood (5,8,15,29, 30,31,33) and also the injection of sperm,tcstos and ovaries (31). Approved For Release 2008/06/27 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO05000240002-8 I.BARISHNIKOV I.A.,ZAX N.G. and PAVLOV S.F.,The influence of the Maternal Organism ox the colour of the Coat of Rabbits under the Conditions of the Transplantation of Ovarles.Izv