Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 27, 2016
Document Release Date: 
October 28, 2013
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
March 1, 1964
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8.pdf21.27 MB
Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 JOURNAL_ OF THE ENGINIERING ? SCIENCE ? TECHNOLOGY FOR MOTION PICTURES ? TELEVISION ? INSTRUMENTATION ? HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY. 177 Technical Report of a Visit to Motion-Picture Facilities in the USSR ? Frank Capra, William E. Gephart, Jr., Ethan M. Stifle, and Deane R. White, Leader X196 Cinematography in the USSR ? V. G. Komar 202 A Study of Noise in Television Camera Preamplifiers ? Koichi Sadashige 206 Some -Photographic Studies of Optical Masers ? Thomas J. Pavliscak 213 A New Heat-Developable Motion-Picture Print Film , ? Noel R. Bacon and Robert B. Lindemeyer 216 R?m?? Resumenes ? Zusammenfassungen 217 American Standards: Dimensions of Raw Stock Cores for 16mm Motion-Picture Film, PH22.38-1964; Dimensions for 200-Mil Magnetic Sound Record On 16mm Film Base, Perforated 1R-3000, PH22.97-1964; Nomenclature for Motion-Picture Film Used in 'Studios and Processing Laboratories .(Sections 5-7), PFI22.569-1-944 221 A Note on a Simplified Striping Technicjue ? Alboighasem Rezai 222 Letters to the Editor: Sound-Delay Bitterns ? Fred Wunder ? H. Dussoult ? and Max,Mejia Vides 223 Erratum aricl Addendum volume 73 ? number 3 MARCH 1964 Los Angeles? , IN , THIS ISSUE : Advance Program of Technical Papers Sessions, Equipment Exhibit Directory AMBASSADOR HOTEL APRIL 12-17 IADeclassified rri 1 and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 :CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 -- ?? ? ? 1 el _ Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 JOURNAL of the SOCIETY OF MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION ENGINEERS PUBLICATION OFFICE TWENTIETH AND NORTHAMPTON STREETS EASTON, PA. Officers President, 1963-64 REID H. RAY, Reid H. Ray Film Industries Inc., 2269 Ford Pkwy., St. Paul 16, Minn. Executive Vice-President, 1963-64 ETHAN M. STIFLE, Eastman Kodak Co., 200 Park Ave., Rm. 2910, New York 17, N.Y Past-President, 1963-64 JOHN W. SERVIES, National Theatre Supply Co., 50 Prospect Ave., Tarrytown, N.Y. Engineering Vice-President, 1964-65 DEANE R. WHITE, Photo Products Dept., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Parlin, N.J. Editorial Vice-President, 1963-64 HERBERT E. FARMER, Dept. of Cinema, University of Southern California, Univer- sity Park, Los Angeles 7, Calif. Financial Vice-President, 1964-65 JOSEPH T. DOUGHERTY, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 45 Rockefeller Plaza, Rm. 550, New York 20, N.Y. Convention Vice-President, 1963-64 GEO. W. COLBURN, Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory, Inc., 164 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago 6, III. Sections Vice-President, 1964-65 WILTON R. HOLM, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 7051 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood 38, Calif. Secretary, 1963-64 ROBERT G. HUFFORD, Eastman Kodak Co., 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood 38, Calif. Treasurer, 1964-65 BYRON ROUDABUSH, Byron Motion Pictures, Inc., 1226 Wisconsin Ave., Washing- ton 7, D.C. Governors, 1963-64 MAX BEARD, 10703 E. No!crest Dr., Silver Spring, Md. ROGER J. BEAUDRY, 47 Hampshire Hgts., Islington, Ont., Canada WILLIAM E. GEPHART, JR., 4537 Placidia Ave., N. Hollywood, Calif. RALPH E. LOVELL, 2554 Prosser Ave., Los Angeles 64, Calif. KENNETH M. MASON, Eastman Kodak Co., Prudential Plaza, Rm. 2430, Chicago 1 JAMES L. WASSELL, 919 Harvard Lane, Wilmette, III. Governors, 1964-65 EDWARD P. ANCONA, JR., 3170 Lake Hollywood Drive, Hollywood 28, Calif. ROBERT A. COLBURN, 247 West Cooledge Ave., Barrington, Ill. J. S. COURTNEY-PRATT, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J. EDWARD H. REICHARD, 1 3059 Dickens Street, North Hollywood, Calif. ROBERT C. RHEINECK, 81 Grand Ave., Englewood, N.J. WILLIAM H. SMITH, Allied Film Laboratory, Inc., 9930 Greenfield Rd., Detroit 27, Mick Governor, 1964 RICHARD S. O'BRIEN, CBS Television Network, 485 Madison Ave., New York 22, N.Y. Governors and Section Chairmen, 1964 C. RUSSELL DUPREE, 9 Third Ave., Denville, N.J. JOHN P. KIEL, Photo-Sonics, Inc., 820 S. Mariposa St., Burbank, Calif. Section Chairmen VICTOR D. ARMSTRONG, 117 de Leon Rd., Cocoa Beach, Fla. B. JAMES BACH, Cinesound Ltd., 559 Rogers Rd., Toronto 15, Ont., Canada MICHAEL W. BARLOW, CFCF-TV, 405 Ogilvy Ave., Montreal, Que., Canada JAMES W. BOSTWICK, General Motors Photographic, 465 West Milwaukee, Detroit 2, Mich. JOHN FLORY, Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St., Rochester, N.Y. HAROLD W. KINZLE, Wilding Inc., 1345 Argyle St., Chicago 40,111. KARL LAROCHE, JR., 2209 Euclid Ave., N.W., Huntsville, Ala. STEWART A. MACONDRAY, Palmer Films, Inc., 611 Howard St., San Francisco, Calif. ` DUANE M. MUIR, Methodist Radio and Film Comm., 1525 McGavock St., Nashville, Tenn. JOHN!. NEWELL, Western Cine Service, 312 S. Pearl St., Denver 9, Cob. CURTIS M. POE, 6025 East University Blvd., Dallas, Texas 75206 WILLIS M. WARREN, Wilmo Corp., 3322 M St., N.W., Washington 7, D.C. WILLIAM H. WHITE, 1454 So. Gordon St., Atlanta 10, Ga. CHARLES W. WYCKOFF, 69 Valley Rd., Needham 92, Mass. Editorial Office 9 East 41st St., New York, N. Y. 10017 Editor?VICTOR H. ALLEN Advertising Manager--DENIS A. COURTNEY BOARD OF EDITORS Chairman?PIERRE MERTZ 66 Leamington St., Lido, Long Beach, N.Y. 11561 HARLAN L. BAUMBACH RUSSELL C. HOLSLAG GERALD M. BEST CLYDE R. KEITH J. S. COURTNEY-PRATT GEORGE R. CRANE BERNARD E. DRIMMER HAROLD E. EDGERTON CARLOS H. ELMER CHARLES R. FORDYCE JOHN G. FRAYNE LLOYD T. GOLDSMITH LORIN D. GRIGNON A. M. GUNDELFINGER CHARLES W. HANDLEY EMERSON W. I. K1SNER RALPH E. LOVELL HERBERT W. PANGBORN BERNARD D. PLAKUN WALDEMAR J. POCH ALLAN L. SOREM R. T. VAN NIMAN DEANE R. WHITE W. T. WINTRINGHAM HAROLD WRIGHT CHARLES W. WYCKOFF YORKE Papers Committee Chairman?C. LOREN GRAHAM, Eastman Kodak Co., Color Technology Dept., Kodak Park, Rochester 12, N.Y. THE SOCIETY today is the result of nearly fifty years of achievement and leadership. Its members are engi- neers, scientists and technicians skilled in every branch of motion pictures, television, instrumentation and high- speed photography. Through the Society they are able to keep abreast of current technology and con- tribute continuously to the technological advancements and education in these fields. Membership is open to any interested person accord- ing to his qualifications. The Society's Headquarters welcomes inquiries from individuals who may apply for these grades: Active (annual dues, $20.00), Associate (annual dues, $15.00) and Student (annual dues, $5.00). All members receive the Journal. Subscriptions to the Journal are available to non- members at $16.00 a year (outside continental United States, add $1.00 for postage). Single copies are $2.00 for one-part issues; $2.50 for special two-part issues. A 10% discount is allowed to individual mem- bers and accredited agencies on orders for subscrip- tions and single copies. Residents in countries that participate in UNESCO may use UNESCO coupons for payment in the event other means for remitting are not available. In addition to information about membership, sub- scriptions, technical activities, standards and test films, a list of priced and gratis publications is available from the Society's Headquarters Office, 9 East 41st St. New York 17, N.Y. SOCIETY OF MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION ENGINEERS, INC. Headquarters Office: 9 East 41 St., New York, N.Y. 10017 Cables: Somopict Telephone: Area Code 212 TN 7-5410 Executive Secretary: CHARLES S. STODTER Published monthly by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc. Publication office 20th and Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. Second- class postage paid at Easton, Pa. C) Copyright, 1964, by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc. Permission to republish Journal text material must be obtained in writing from the Society's Headquarters Office, 9 East 41st St., New York 10017. The Society is not responsible for state- ments of contributors. Printed by Mack Printing Company, Easton, Pa. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80+00246A026400180002-8 Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers VOLUME 73 ? NUMBER 3 ? MARCH 1964. Technical Report of a_ Visit to? Motion-Picture Facilities in the USSR By FRANK CAPRA, WILLIAM E. GEPHART, JR., ETHAN M. STIFLE, and DEANE R. WHITE, Leader A brief report, "Comments in Moscow on Motion-Picture Industry," appeared in the Decerqber 1963 Journal, pp. 957-8. Some additional background and general information are given here before the main portion of this technical report. At the Society's Technical Conference in Los Angeles, April 72-17,1964, an entire session will be devoted to some personal reporting of the visit, a full discussion of equipment and facilities with many color slides, and a report on Soviet color film, particularly raw stock samples and processed color negatives which were obtained on the trip. Color prints made in the United States from the Russian negatives will be projected at the Conference. The illustrations in this report are from photographs by William E. Gephart, Jr., and Ethan M. Stifle. Background In 1962 negotiations were completed between the United States and the Soviet Union covering cultural exchange visits in several areas. One of these contemplated an exchange of visits by technical people familiar with the motion-picture industry. The first exchange visit was made by a party of three citizens of the USSR to the USA early in 1962. Those visitors were E. V. Akkuratov, 0. I. Ioshin and B. N. Konoplev. In ac- cord with arrangements with the State Department, the SMPTE acted as official host during that visit, though the main responsibility for its program remained with the State Department. Early in 1963 the State Department turned to the SMPTE for assistance in organizing a reciprocal visit. The 1962 nego- tiations had contemplated two pairs of visits in this field in the years 1962 and 1963. In view of the delays that had been encountered, completion of two pairs of visits by the end of 1963 seemed quite unlikely; but this fact enhanced the im- portance of completing the ,first pair, because otherwise that which started as a plan for exchange would become a one-way street. The Society was requested to aid in securing three delegates to join with a fourth named directly by the State Department. Financial obligations were involved, as the State Department, acting in accord with general policy relative to these visits, would not give direct financial support to the delegates suggested by the Society. The matter was resolved with the selection of Messrs. Gephart, Stifle and White, who could go with financial backing from individual companies and the Society. The fourth man of the delegation, as arranged by the State Department, was Producer-Director Frank Capra. Itinerary Review of recent Russian journals and records of the State Department indicated that motion-picture work was being done in a number of cities. Eight of these were selected and suggested to the USSR for inclusion in the itinerary of the proposed visit. The formal reply from the USSR accepted six of these. On October 21, in Moscow, problems associated with travel time and the effect of the national holiday on November 7 and 8, the 46th anniversary of the October revolu- tion of 1917, were discussed between the USSR State Corn- This report was received on February 13, 1964. mittee for Cinematography and the US delegation, with the result that one more city, Tbilisi, was dropped from the itinerary. This still left the group with a tight schedule but one which eventuated in visits to eighteen sites of present and proposed motion-picture activity distributed over the remain- ing five cities: Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Odessa and Alma- Ata. In brief: Four studios in active operation that were said to account for about half the total feature film production in the USSR were visited. One of these, Mosfilm, the largest studio in the Soviet Union, appeared clearly the leader in technol- ogy as well as in quantity of output. Each of five theaters visited was selected for its special sig- nificance in the motion-picture program in the USSR. The Leningrad TV station was viewed as a busy operation that makes extensive use of motion pictures in its program. Visits to the Scientific Research Cine Photographic Institute (NIKFI) in Moscow and to the Central Design Bureau in Leningrad gave an appreciation of the developmental effort being expended in this field. Observation of the facilities of the State School for Cinema- tography in Moscow showed an operation which em- phasizes the importance attached t ) motion pictures in Soviet planning. The actual itinerary became: Travel Log of Visit Saturday, Oct. 19? Left New York City Sunday, Oct. 20 ? Arrived Moscow Monday, Oct. 21 ? Met with State Committee for Cinema- tography, (First Session) A. F. Barinov, Deputy Chairman, presiding Tuesday, Oct. 22 ? At Mosfilm Wednesday, Oct. 23 A.M. ? Visited State School for Cinema- tography P.M. ? Visited Release Color Printing Plant Thursday, Oct. 24 ? At Alma-Ata, visited Kazakhfilm Studio there Friday, Oct. 25 ? At Alma-Ata, because no return flight open Saturday, Oct. 26 ? Flew Alma-Ata to Kiev via Moscow Sunday, Oct. 27 ? At Kiev, visited site of new studio under construction and saw cine panorama (Kinopanorama) pro- jection in theater in city March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 177 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Monday, Oct. 28 ? Visited Dovzhenko Studio Tuesday, Oct. 29 ? Flew to Odessa and visited, Odessa Kinap (eine equipment factory) Wednesday, Oct. 30 ? Returned to Moscow, visited Mosfilm processing laboratory Thursday, Oct. 31 ? Flew to Leningrad, visited Lenfilm Studio Friday, Nov. 1 ? Visited Central Design Bureau Saturday, Nov. 2 ? Visited release color printing plant, TV station, and large re-recording room in Leningrad News Reel Studio, equipped for 9-channel sound re-recording Sunday, Nov. 3 ? Sightseeing, returned to Moscow by train that night Monday, Nov. 4 ? Met with members of Union (Club) of Moscow Cinematographic Engineers Tuesday, Nov. 5 ? Visited Scientific Research Cine Photographic Institute (NIKFI), visited Kremlin Palace of Congresses Wednesday, Nov. 6 ? Visited Rossiya Theater Thursday, Nov. 7 ? Watched the parade in Red Square as guests of State Committee, reception by U.S. businessmen, attended by Krushchev in evening Friday, Nov. 8 ? Worked on notes for report, dinner party for our hosts Saturday, Nov. 9 ? Visited the Circular Kinopanorama Theater at the Exposition grounds, particularly the exhibition of cine equipment Sunday, Nov. 10? Visited Leningrad Theater, Moscow, met with State Committee, (Second Session) and dined with group Monday, Nov. 11 ? Returned to USA (Total mileage ? 17,000; In the USSR ?6,400) Organization of Motion-Picture Production in the USSR As a background for interpreting the technical situation found, the following resume (prepared by Frank Capra) of the organization and direction of motion- picture production, as explained by top Soviet film officials, is presented to tell how feature films are conceived and produced in the Soviet Union. Art Committees Ideas for pictures, scripts and the finished films are approved or dis- approved by Art Committees. An Art Committee is generally a com- mittee of 25 persons, composed, of seasoned Party members, writers, direc- tors, actors, critics and artists from other fields. Their functions seems roughly com- parable to our executive producers. Ideas for pictures come most often from film directors, but they can also be initiated by the Art Committees. Judging from the fact that there are four such committees at Mosfilm Studio, each committee supervises a maximum of about ten films per year. . Let us say a director gets an idea for a feature picture. He takes it up with the Art Committee for discussion. The politi- cal "message" is argued back and forth. If the Committee finally approves, the director himself may write the script, or assign the writers he asks for, or the writers are suggested by the committee. The idea now gets the green light to go into script form. As the script progresses, further meet- ings are held with the committee, which analyzes the writing, makes suggestions for changes, and generally sees to it that the writers don't hook or slice out of bounds across the Party line. If the finished script is approved, the Art Committee helps select or okays the cast, and the picture goes into photog- raphy with the director functioning as a producer-director. Budgets An official was asked, "Does the Art Committee approve or set limits on the budget?" The answer was vague. Since there is no profit motive, costs are relatively un- important. At any rate, the controlling factor in whether a picture is made de- pends not on cost, but on whether it has artistic merit and advances the Com- munist cause, or follows the current Party line. During the shooting of the film, the Art Committed sees the rushes or rough Fig. 1. Class and instructor at the State School for Cinematography, Moscow. 1,78 cut sequences. If it has any suggestions it passes them on to the director. The director is not obliged to take the suggestions, but if he doesn't he will have to take the full responsibility for the picture and, as one man put it, "If he makes a political mistake, I would not like to be in his shoes." But if the director follows the sugges- tions, then the responsibility is shared or shouldered by the Art Committee. Final Approval Before the film is released to the public, it has to be reviewed by the appropriate State Committee. If any tough problems arise out of the film, it is most probably passed on to the Central Committee for final judgment. It is a fair assumption that any film disapproved by higher authorities will likely not be released for public showing. Thus one can see the tight control the Party has on the contents of a film. The artistic presentation is more or less left up to the creators, but the themes and messages presented must have Party approval. One can very well imagine the prob- lems of a director working for 25 exec- utive producers! Fig. 2. Art instruction at the State School for Cinematography, Moscow. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 : CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Salaries All artists and technicians are paid a yearly salary, for life, subject, of course, to good conduct. Students. at State Schools are paid a living wage while learning. If they grad- uate they are assured of a job. Beginners get a certain Starting salary. After several years of service they get an increase. After many more years of ser- vice they arrive at the top salary. The general impression was that the top Salary was around $12,000 per year. Bonus System .A creative artist who works on big hit picture gets a bonus (for directors this bonus is about $8,000). The bonus for a moderate hit is. probably, half as much. For all other films there bonus. . ,? .Worker Training Basically, the new workers coniinginto the motion-picture industry are trained in two schools, one in Leningrad .for operators and technologists, and one in Moscow for the "creative" . workers: script writers, directors, camera'- men, sound recorders and editors an'd-. prise) film critics.* We visited only this latter school, which is, provided with very complete facilities in which 'prin- ciples taught can be put into imniediale used by the students. Of course this school teaches the accepted or dictated basic concept of the motiOn.-Pieture medium as a creature of today's domi- nant political party. This is particularly important because of the reported :pres- ence here on scholarship of More. than 100 persons from 23 underdevelOPed countries. This will terid to fay& use 'of Russian equipment 'and acceptance Of their philosophy. The course for writers, directors' and camera men is 54- years; for all Others year's. 1 The professors are experienced; seasoned professionals, but 'the istrators are undoubtedly key Party, men. Q? lasses: are -small and give OppodunitY - for much individual instruction.. , ApPlicantS, are .chosen on the baSis. of . previous ? education, 'adeptness .in. 'their ' chosen profession ; and Of :course; ,.for their conformity of .political .thinking; No maverick can get into dr stayin.:thiS school?This . :,quite , understandable;-? inasmuch as the students. are the future? -molders of -public opinion .With'itiarari; teed jobs on . graduation. ,fiere-: they educate the educators.-: The .school has excellent camera?anii sound .equipment.; its own. stages (for. new ones ? are under construction);film laboratory; editing and projection Noi4; ifs own art Classes; ? its. own -Iihrary. of - See also, on G. Williams "Worldwide train- ing in film and television production," 'Jour. SMPTE, 72: 279-281, Apr: 1963. films and of scripts from all over the world. They use only 35mm professional equipment in their film classes. The students make many films, some of which attain theatrical 'distribution. Eighty per cent of the creative working talent in films and TV were trained in this school. The other 20% are probably mostly actors who graduated from dra- matic schools. At present there are 700 students, in- cluding many- foreigners, in the State School. Another. 700 study through spe- cial correspondence courses. The school has an aura of eliteness about it. Many :apply but feware chosen. Release Channels Three main.: channels ?for. release of motion pictures were indicated: per- manent theaters, television and mobile projection units. Permanent theaters of variOus sizes :are available to people living .in popu lOus ,regions. TV programs can also reach people at home, living in much the same, area. .Mobile Unit take motion pictures to units and groups'Out of reach of the permanent theaters. There is an important admihistratiVe difference be- tween the'situationS in the USSR' and in the USA: the" USSR, release of pietures .`thrOugh_ :the theaters and through TV deterrinned , by one governmental center that is expected to make' the' twd methods of release Sup- plement :ea'ch' other 'without- the com- petition evident in the , ? Permanent Theaters' The showpiece of the permanent the Palace of Congresses in the Kremlin: ThiS la'rge theater. .,000 seats,", is shown, of course to,. many Moscow visitors, and has been described at length in the journal Tekhnika Azno i Televideniya from which these-data are taken. Wide Screen Wide (35mm Regular Formal ,4namor- (35mm (70mm) Phic) :1X Screen width. 27.0 25.0 13,7 meters meters 'meters Screen height. 12.2 10.0 10.0 meters meters meters Total light... 45,000 24,000 20,000 lumens lumens lutnens Uniformity ratio 0.6 0.75", 0.77 Relative aper- ture of opti- cal systein f/2.0 1/1.8 Steadiness of image in 'gate 0.03rnm 0 . 025mm Arc current 180 amp Positive carbon diameter. 12mm Negative carbon diameter 14mm Reel capacity 1500 meters ? Flutter, optical tracks 0.3% Flutter, magnetic tracks ; 0.4% While it is outstanding for its size as a motion picture theater, it is designed for many other uses also. 'In it are held large meetings, or congresses, theatrical .and operatic presentatiOns, aricl.;,, of courSe, such events of ?outstanding interest :in the Soviet Union as the recent wedding of Cosmonette Valentina TereSlikOVa' and Cosmonaut Adrian NikolaYeV: Two features were included for such ' uSes. Multiple sound circ'uits' perrnitted con- duct of meetings requiring instantaneous translation as required to .permit Clele7 gations to select a.langnage provided for them to understand the ii-iesag:e". Of :a speaker: Small ipeakers in the 'baek Of each seat in the auditorium permitted sound boost when needed without the obvious discrete sound radiation centers sometimes evident. A large theater, 3;000 seatS; "Was built and put in use prior to the opening Of the Palaee. This was the 'Rossiya Theater which had many Of 'the Sati-ie featire's Fig. 3. The ,Circt.11ar Kinopatiorarna Theater at the Exhibition Grounds;Mostow. Capra, Gepha-14; Siifle-anil-Whiie:'.:"MotionTiCtureTacilitieS in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 4. One of the eleven pairs of 35mm projectors used fpr the exhibition of pictures in the Circular Kinopanorama system. included ?such as provision for multi- lingual gatherings. Two smaller theaters were housed in the same building and Were well attended at the time of the delegation's visit. . One of these was showing cartoons, land had a large proportion, of young people in the audience. The two cartoons Shown while the delegation was in the theater, seemed to us heavy handed with '.a .;-"Message." The second theater was .showing news or documentat:y., films. Again the choice was one that carried the Message This was in keeping with the. impression created by papers and )rriagazineS on sale on the stands. The tech- ' Meal quality of the filtns shown was ade- 'qte. .;? The, Palace of congresSes. and the :Rossiya Theater are both pilots or proto- :tWes of -theater construction under way and planned for the future. The program -attests to the belief that motion pictures '-have not reached their peak usage in the :USSR and that the provision ? of large theaters .is appropriate to the long range qilanS of the Soviet Union: The discussions in connection with this phase' Of theater development included sorne assessment of the role to be antici- pated for 70mm (wide-format), 35mm anainorphic (wide-screen), and 35mm 4 X 3 format . (normal) pictures. All projectors seen which could handle 70mm' films were the dual type, that is, also handling 35mm films; thits,. With appro- priate' changes of projection ? lens any type of 35mm or 70mm *film original could be shown. Thirty to fifty theaters were scheduled to be so equipped by the end of 1963 and further increase was anticipated. We heard discussion of the proposition that all feafure film produc- , tion ought to .be in 70mni, leaving to the laboratory all the.stepi. required preparation of other..foimats- froth such Fig. 5. The pick-up unit of the nine-channel stereophonic sound system at the Circular Kinopanorama Theater. wide format originals.. The . equipment involved will be discussed at another point.. ? , ,,.The three other theaters visited, were ,clearly for special purposes. one,oL these ?for. Circular , Kinopanorama. presenta- tions was located on the: grounds .of the Exhibit of Progress of National Industry in Moscow. A theater visited in Kiev ,was provided ,with the, three t interlocked. projectors :required for? Kinopanorama presentations.; A 'small Moscow theater, called the Leningrad Theater, .was set up for rear projection. onto a translucent screen and as .also the site of a , test instllation. 'Of autoinatic "changeover equipment; These' three theaters, will now be considered in greater detail. The screen of the Circular 'Kinopano- rama theater Was divided into. eleven arc segments. Eath such segifient had two screen areas,. one above the other, to provide greater height than would have been available with the format of the frame used on each film. Accordingly, for full screen coverage, 22 35mm projectors were used. Each projector was powered by a 1-kw xenon lamp. Sound records were Carried as magnetic ?tracks on a separate fully coated 35mm. film. The reproducing equipment appeared to be their standard type for nine-channel stereophonic reproduction. ,The entire system was controlled from' a, central console with interlocking circuitry to assure the synchronism of all units. The demonstration . witnessed ie- :minded one very much of filmed material used in the USA, though: the actual scenes photographed were clearly of Soviet origin.It is interesting to note that' USSR experience also indicated that a twenty-minute viewing period is ?about right for a standing audience. The theater `interior was said . to be 16 . tefsrl- ,'-diaine ter, ? posSibly . SI ightly larger than the one at Disneyland though that unit operates with a 16mm, not a 35mm system. ? In discussions of plans for the future it .was indicated that if, or when, additional *units are built or. changes are made, the present 22-projector system may, be re- placed by an 11-unit system using ana- Morphic lenses set to increase the verti- cal image on the screen image. It appears that the extra height permitted by the: double screen system is consid- ered important, though not all scenes of the demonstration film shown made use of this double height. ? The Kinopanorama film seen at Kiev was not impressive. The prints, were dirty, the separate sections Were mis- matched or, had faded unevenly and the mating. edges. were unduly promi- nent. Vertical registration was main- tained acceptably; and this was the only favorable comment that the ,delegation could make about, the brief test seen. In discussions of the possible future of this type of presentation, reference was made to tests which had been conducted in the USSR an attempt .to appraise the feeling of "presence" or "participation" for a viewer of the three-film Kinopano- rama type in comparison with that for a viewer of -.a wide-format (7-0mm) presentatiOn. the result .showed the wide-format film as only slightly. in, ferior to the three-film system in this respect and far superior in ease of handling and freedom from troubles. As .a net conclusion, no further growth of the. Kinopanorania. type of presenta- tion is anticipated and its ultimate replacement by 70inin films with six-.. or nine-channel stereophonic sound is prob. able.' The Leningrad Theater' installation was quite different-from the other. The theater was small., some 300 seats only, Ma1?64 ''JOIiiiial'of the Sl1/44PTE VOltiine- 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 6. Control desk for the Circular Kmopanorama system. and on one side was a restaurant area apparently serving light lunches, oper- ating at a higher level of ambient light than the main seating area but not fully screened from it. The intensity level on the 6 by 8 ft (estimated) translucent screen was such that the picture could still be distinguished from the table or counter area as well as from the main seats. (We did not see popcorn there.) In the projection booth were two 35mm projectors with 1-kw xenon lamps as light sources. The system was spe- cially designed to reduce labor in the booth. To this end, conventional film reels and magazines had been replaced by an unconventional film handling system. The unwinding film came from the center of a roll which was carried by a circular array of rollers fastened to a large annular plate or flange. This re- sembled some of the systems used for continuous projection of long lengths of film. However, this film was not in a closed loop, but wound up on a plate and roller assembly in a bottom magazine quite similar to that which would have been used if the film had been handled on reels. The film was therefore ready for reprojection without rewinding merely by taking the completely rewound unit from the bottom magazine and put- ting it in the upper magazine and thread- ing the projector, pulling leader from the center of the unit. The plane of this upper magazine was horizontal, laid on its side as compared to a conventional unit. The heart of the system, which was under test, was automatic start, stop and changeover equipment. A piece of metalized tape had been fastened to the film edge (extending over the per- forations and reperforated) at a selected point near the end of the reel. The metal was sensed by a high-frequency sensing system as it passed into the projector and the resulting signal actuated a sequence device which actuated the units as required to start the second pro- jector and stop the first. It was indicated that this system was in its debugging stages, preparatory to final design deci- sion. The one changeover observed went smoothly, but it was not clear whether or not it was fully automatic. The operator might have performed Fig. 7. Outside the Leningrad Theater, Moscow. part of the switching function on signal from the sensing unit. Leningrad TV Station A visit to the large TV station at Leningrad gave one glimpse of the methods used to handle film as a source of broadcast material. Much filmed material is available from the motion-pic- ture studios of the USSR and can be handled here whether in 35mm or 16mm Fig 8. Projector used in the Leningrad Theater, Moscow. (Note the horizontal plane of the unwind reel.) form. While no figures were given, the 35mm form was judged to predominate. Material originally photographed as wide-screen (anamorphic) or wide-for- mat (70mm) originals is released through TV by preparation of 35mm normal (4 X 3) format films through laboratory copying procedures which permit the 35mm copy to follow action as required for optimum quality in the narrower format. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 181 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 9. Multiplexer unit at the Leningrad TY Station: 16mm projector, foreground; and 35mm projector ready for opera- tion in the background. Fig. 10. Film-recording unit at the Leningrad TV Station. Documentary and news films are pro- duced by station personnel who have camera and laboratory facilities avail- ? able. Reversal processing and conven- tional negative and print procedures are available for-use as needed. , The multiplexer for the film to TV camera step had three 35mm and two 16mm projectors as well as two posi- tions for 2 X 2 slides. The standard frame rate for sound films in the USSR is the same as in the USA, 24 frames/sec. However, the TV frame rate in the USSR is 25 frames/sec correspond- ing to the customary a-c frequency . in use, 50 cycles. Experience ,has shown that films and soundtracks prepared at the 24-frame rate can be projected ac- ceptably at the 25-frame rate. This per- mits use of somewhat simpler equipment than in the US where a conversion is ',required from a 24-frame/sec rate for film originals to the 30-frame/sec rate required by TV standards. A compact cine-recording unit was also exhibited. It benefited from the close agreement between frame rate standards in the USSR TV and motion- picture systems. Mobile Projection Units Alma-Ata, the capital of the Kazakh Republic, was the center for one of the large distribution sYstems which utilized mobile projection units. The reason given for the use of these 'units was that there were many people in, the Republic too remote from permanent theaters and TV stations to benefit from' them. Accordingly, the State sent out mobile units to bring the pleasure and benefit of motion pictures to these small remote groups on farms, at mines or in other occupations causing people' to.: live 'in small .diSpersed - groups., The Republic ? was said to have three to four thousand _permanent theater units and about nine thoUsaild mobile units.. In .spite of their number, we did not see any-of the mobile units. HoWever, we were shown a type of 16mm projector, deSignated the "Ukraina," equipped with a 400-watt incandescent lamp and provided with pickups for both photographic and mag- netic sound records. This was said to be commonly used in these mobile units. Some comments about its construction are given later. Studios and Associated Laboratories As mentioned earlier, the four studios seen in operation account for about half the feature film production in the USSR. These four were located at Moscow and Leningrad, in the Russian Soviet Fed- eral Socialist Republic; at Kiev, the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet So- cialist Republic; and at Alma-Ata, the captial of the Kazakh Soviet So- cialist Republic. Each of the other twelve Republics is said .to have some local ca- pacity for film production in the capital city. Some of these operations must be on a rather small scale, judged by the total production figures given. The original plans had included a visit to the studio facilities at Tbilisi, the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Repubr lic. , These. plans were cancelled to .im- prove the travel schedule after it was stated that the studio was then 'closed down for reconstruction!? No figures were mentioned showing the output of :this stUdio. Feature film production in the USSR was estimated as about 120 for 1963. Further increase. to about 150 'per year is forecast for the near future, and there \vas a suggestion that this might be can- siclered a saturation figure. That would Provide, it was pointed out, three films pr week for any theater needing changes 'at such frequency. Forty per cent of film production is reported to be in color, .and sixty per cent in black-and-white. Mosfilm (at Moscow), the largest studio in the USSR, accounts for some 30% of the feature. film production for the nation. Five stages were usable at the time of .She Visit and two more Were under, construction.' The largest of these had a floor area of twelve hun- dred square meters. Lenfilm (at Leningrad) was currently producing pictures at an indicated rate of sixteen per year, about half that of Mosfilm. The work was being done on five stages: Two additional stage's, un- :crier construction at a separate site about 30 to 35 minutes away by car, were forecaSt to be in operation a few weeks after the visit. , . The Dovzhenko , Studio (at Kiev) Was started in 1928 and has produced a wide variety of films during the interven- ing years. The 1963 production rate of feature films was given as eleven or twelve, made with three stages. Three .new units under construction, were' fore- cast for. completion and, initial ,use 182 q%4ar:Ch -1964 journal of the SMPTE, ,Volume'73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 : CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 early in 1964, doubling the studio caPac- ity. Kiev is the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist 'Republic, as mentioned earlier, and original dialog is recorded in the Ukrainian language. Pictures chosen for showing in other parts of the country must have the dialog dubbed in whatever language is suitable for that area. Some organization figures were ob- tained at Kiev.. These showed ' that a staff of 1,500 people were employed there to provide for all aspects of activities of: the Dovzhenio 'Studio ? stage; work; set and costume production; processing, . etc., Forty actors are on regular salary. ?:?f? Extras are available from a list of 5,009 people, most of whom work regularly at other jobs.: ' Kazakhfilm (at ,Almas-Ata) was.nthe smallest of the units visited. It had only Stn Fig 11. Exterior of cazakhfilni . dio at Alma-Ata. two stages available for current use,: but , . ? like the others,had plans for expansion. We were taken to a very, attractively located 40-acre site at the edge .,of,the city where a new studio is planned., -A ? three or four Iyear .period 'i'vas 'siiggeSted before our next visit if we wished to ;Wait until we could see this new, studiqf corn- pleted and in operation. Three or Jour films were to be coMpleted, ;as.- Aheir- 1963 production, all made- originally ,in the Kazakh language. Studio activities here were not lirnited to their feature film production -but eluded Work handled by separate units in the larger centers. For example, thirty to forty features -per year .frOrn, other Republics were dubbed into ,local lan- guages for release. Local newsreels. in. five languages were produced and, ,te, quired fifty to ninety, prints per. yveek. Research and ,scientific films, from local ? technical sources were also :.processed in the studio laboratories. mc esptt de corps was notable here. The studio-staff appeared outstanding in their eRthusiasrn and attitude toward their work. This was particularly impressive in view of the range of :racial and, presumably, national backgrounds evident among the staff. There was another point of Special interest in that thiscity had been the site , of: additional- motion-picture aetiVity ? during war years when it had been nec- . essary. to move such activity &Mil, posed Sites su4r as Moscow and ,Lenin-? grad :For a period in the past, therefore,. !this, city was probably the major ',center I .4, film ? production in the USSR, ,but such is not its present status. ? ? ,New Studio for Popular Science Films While speaking of studios' arid. plans for their expansion, mention should be . 'Made of the 'development 'Under way at ? Kiev of a neW unit for producti'On a - ;Educational and Popular ,Science Filnis. 1This is located On low, level land 'a short i:listance' from -the-Dnieper_RiVer -and r'a few Miles froin-the.6ity center.,COnstruc tiOn has been Started on buildings'.and 'Fig: 12. Directors and actresses and other staff members at Kazakhfilm Studio; Alm- Ata; Frank Caeprais the extreme kight. roads- Of a total _complex. . which will have a production capacity for about 100 educational and popular science films per year, and, in addition, about, 15 cartoon subjects. Three closed stages and outdoor shooting areas are planned including, we understood, a good sized tank for water' scenes. It rvas mentioned that use was planned of 35mm equip- : inept for, taking with release as requited on either 35mrri or, 16nim print stocks. So far as we, could 'learn, these films are: planned thiefly? for adult training or 'education"as distinct from films planned for incorporation into The early years of School 'training. , Studio Facilities Whil& it is impossible to speak of an 'average 'studio from such limited visits as this trip :afforded; it 'is possible to -.:outline general current :practice)as cheated by The facilities keri....Stich:',:Pr,a?c1:,:' Capra, Gefohart;LStifle inaliThite:'t'Alaiiotrf!,,i6tn;iailitie in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 1 ? tice ineluded ',.stages ' with''free 'floci4r areas, up to 1,200 square meters and 'a ceiling height of about 18 'meters .,(66' ft). Catwalks near the ceiling provided a working base for the many 'operation's facilitated by overhead access. A high monorail system. made it possible to move many heavy and awkward .unitS to desired locations. These could preassembled set units, ,dr heavy, lighting fixtures. Power for lights was distributed through overhead -wiring and., , theif operation was controlled frOin -a sivitch', ing console at the catwalk level by an operator who received instructions froni the director on the set itself. Niches were provided in the walls at a height Sorrie, what below the catwalk in which'. ⪙ lighting units could be stored- when:snot . in use. : ? Continuing -the,discuSsion in Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 13. Plan of finished studio for Educa- tional and Science Films, Kiev, taken at the site. ? vein, one saw frequently a. Druzhba . 35mm, camera mounted on a stand or modest dolly to take the pictures while the. synchronized sound.. recording was . being done in a separate recording room. on fully, coated 35mm magnetic filin .(Fig. 1.5; see also the paper by V. G. Komar; immediately following in this 'Journal). The Druzhba camera is housed ,for'Use on sound stages and includes a 'viewfinder which sees the picture through the taking lens by means of mirror seg- . :merits on the shutter;, that permit' the . 'camera. Man to see the camera -image during?the "closed'! portion of the shutter 'Variations of this basic operation were encountered. While the Druzhba t.catriera is clearly well thought of, it is by jno means the only model. of.35min cam- :era in use. the Rodina camera was in .use where synchronous operation and :sound recording were riot reqUired. Rodina unit is shown on the tripod this ,Scene taken at the Moscow State Schobi ;for Cinematography (Fig. 16). -The- camera hand 'held in this same scene Was not identified, but. a Konvas .camera was seen at Lenfilm (Fig. 17)., At:Lenfilm..there,wasra special camera Fig 14 The most 'advanced structure at the Kiev site for educational and science film production: built for operation at a spot remote from the ,camera man. A photographic unit and an associated TV Unit were mounted tOgether and 'earineeted eableS With a kinescope and a control unit. Through the contralS; the operator eciuld oPerate the camera to give conventional results using the kinescope to give the visual image needed to follow operations. This was .shown as .part of the equipment for feature film production, but it is clear that this system could also be used Where there was some element of hazard as well to a person actually at the camera location. Pictures in "wide fon-hat" (70mm) were taken with a camera of Russian design and construction. The develop- ment of the 79mm system in the USSR has been carefully planned to provide prints which meet proposed interna, tional- difnensional standards as needed for interchangeability, but the decision Was made to use the same width of stock for camera .uSe. This of course, is a de- parture 'from US practice, where the negative stock is a 65mm film carrying a perforation pattern common to both 65 and., 7,6turn widths. ,The.Russian?19inm camera, housed in its noise deadening h6using, is quite a' bulky and irnpoSing Unit. It appeared -that only in news work wbuld one be apt' to encounter '16mrii equipment, hut therdloo, we believe the 35mm units predominated. ' ? Infrared Process Photography? ; ; F On one' stage, 'the infrared method was 'uSed for Making traveling mattes fOr process combinatiOn shots. This set included ah infrared background scfeen 36' ft Wide by '18 ft high with 9,066 lamps uniformly distfibtited over 'the rectangle indicated Which consumed'500 kw of power when lit. A plastic streen filter over the entire area absnrbed the Visible light tci the extent that it appeared to glowonly a 'dark red while transmit- ting: a large PerCentage of the near infrared. Foreground action,' well in front the 'screen, was 'illuminated nonrially for the 1 black-and7white .or color 'photography planned: The cara- era contained two films held in register in the gate and a -special". dichroic beam splitter .(see fig. 6,in the paper,by V. _0: Koinar, innnediately following 'Fig-. 15. A Druzhba caniera at Mbsfilm attended by the chief ,of the camera department. 1.84 Test ;set-at ,the Stafe-SchoOl-for Cineniatography,'Moscow. A Rodina camera is -tin the triPod: MiiCh1964-Ljourrialkif the SMPTE; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 17. The Konvas camera. Fig. 18. Camera and control equip- ment with closed-circuit TV view- finder for remote operation. in this Journal). One film, of normal type, recorded only the visible region of the sliectrum brought to it`ihrough the beam splitter from the foregound ac- tion only. The other film was sensitive to the infrared which it received through the beam splitter and recorded infrared radiation originating from the back- ground screen except where that was covered by foreground elements and action. This foregound was negligibly weak in infrared, hence the image on this infrared sensitive film was an all-or- nothing type. Reversal processing of the infrared sensitive film produced a posi- tive matte, which was used in conjunc- tion with the action record on the other film to permit the separate photography of backgrounds without overlap of any foregound element. Samples of the work shown indicated that the technical problems incident to this process had been met quite satis- factorily. In the finished print the major clue that it had been produced by this method lay in the high degree of image sharpness of both foreground and back- ground, since lenses used at customary apertures would not give such a result. Sound Recording Single-channel sound is of course the simplest basic method for any sound re- cording at all and is well established in the USSR as it is in the USA. Orig- inal recording was done with magnetic tracks from which photographic tracks were made when required by the release program. Three other systems accepted in the USSR used four-, six- and nine- channel stereophonic records. The four- channel system was normally employed with their "wide screen" (35mm anamor- phic) system. The six-channel system was the simple system used with "wide- format" pictures. The nine-channel system also used with this taking system was the basic system used to meet the special requirements of Kinopanorama or Circular Kinopanorama presenta- tions. All these stereophonic systems depend on magnetic sound records at Fig. 19. Camera for wide-format (70mm) production, with B. N. Nonoplev, Chief Engineer of Mosfilm. all stages of their production and use. Four- and six-channel records are carried by magnetic stripes on release prints but when nine-channel stereophonic sound is used, the necessary nine tracks are carried on a fully coated 35mm mag- netic film and the reproducing unit is separate from the projector or pro- jectors, but operated in synchronism therewith. Each type of sound-recording system has it own problems associated with in- sertion of special effects and with dubbing of the dialog when the language is changed. The complexity of such opera- tions is probably greatest for the nine- channel system. Only one room was seen completed and capable of operation with this system. This was located within the News Studio at Leningrad. A correspond- ing group of equipment units was in evidence at Mosfilm in Moscow, but they had not been assembled into a workable system. The room at Leningrad occupied the space of a moderate-sized theater. The screen covered one wall. A long Fig. 20. Camera on set arranged for infrared process photography. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 185 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 22. Frank Capra at cOntrol console of a six-channel stereo- phonic dubbing room. Fig. 21: Ninprchannel control paneyn the: dubbing room provided at the Leningrad News 01. Studio. ? f; multichannel control console Was located - at the rear of. the room, just in front of the projection booth. The rest of the floor area was available for the placing and operation of sound units as required to give the stereophonic perspective re- quired. The-.needs of six-channel and four- channel 'stereophonic systems were met in the same manner, and in fact, clearly ? appeared to be the. ahtecedents of the nine-channel system. These older rooms were somewhat smaller than the nine- Chanel installation. .Single-channel work was, of course, least. demanding and 'could readily be accomplished in facilities. capable of the more Complex operatiOns. 'StUdio,:Processing Equipment and Control Design Of develePing machines ap. - Fig. 23. Detail of top mechanism of color film developing ma- chine. peared quite conventional, the designs resembling Arri and Debrie machines in use elsew,here. Less stainless steel was in evidence than used on many US . ma- chines, but the plastic's used in its stead seemed well chosen and adequate for their function. Pumps and piping, flow meters, heat exchangers and 'tem- perature controllers appeared conven- tional. No complete tabulation of through-put speeds was attempted, but the impression was gained that 'these had not been forced as:high as now com- mon in the USA. Processing,of black-and- white and color negatives and positives was -routine as required for the produc- tion program with 35mm and 70mm negative films and with 32, 35 and 70mm positive films. Duping procedures were also routine for black-and-white produc- tions but manufacture, and processing of interpositive and internegative color 186 Mireh, 1964 cif:the SM PIE Fig. 24. Electroprinting soundtrack onto Striped 70mm print film using the Six- Channel stereophonic System. films was not routine. At one studio laboratory (Mosfilm) color dupes. were said to be made by reversal through uSe - of Agfa Type Mfilr.n. It was stated that for black-and-white production the gamma level of the nega- tive was usually held at 0.50 ? 0.05 with the positive gamma carried to the 2.5 to 2.8 region. This negative gamma is low in comparison to US custom. ' As was noted befote,.when'the release is to have -Stereophonic sound, the sound records can remain as. Magnetic track . -throughout. A, step .designated electro- printing is provided to put the final tracks on the appropriate magnetic stripes available and used for-either four- or six-channel-reProdtiction. Where the final .releaSe is to have -a .photographic record, soundtrack negatives ,can be re- NOlume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 25. Magnetic pick-up unit and photographic track recorder unit for production of photographic soundtrack negatives at Kazakhfilm Studio, Alma-Ata. produced from the magnetic originals by conventional equipment types and, in the case of color films, the printed track can receive a conventional applicator processing step at the appropriate point in the processing cycle. The developing machine equipment permits choize of sulfide or redevelopment treatments as chosen for the stock and system in use. The chemical aspects of process control were accomplished in laboratories with conventional glassware, burette stands, etc. In retrospect, there is no recollection of seeing electronic pH meters, but such equipment might well have been avail- able and still not specifically noted, though the small number of pictures taken in such laboratory rooms do not happen to show them. Sensitometry appeared to be based on step tablets as the exposure modulating device. The associated densitometers were chiefly of the conventional design indicated in the picture (Fig. 28). In only one case was an older style of visual type equipment noted in use, presumably being used there to meet some local situ- ation of availability or convenience. Color densitometry was done with quite similar units equipped with filters for control of the spectral region chosen. Request was made for interlaboratory comparison of color densitometers and the delegation agreed to seek ways by which this could be done. At time of writing, this has not been completed, but it is expected that this will be made part of the test of color stocks and color print methods undertaken and outlined at a later point in this report. Studio Printers At the studio laboratories the printing equipment included quite a range of types, chosen for versatility. The prob- lems associated with quantity print pro- duction are mainly in the hands of the Mass Printing (Release) Laboratories. Contact printing for black-and-white and color are, of course, primary opera- tions. Control of color balance in the color negative to color positive step is Fig. 28. Densitometers at the State School for Cinematography Moscow. t Fig. 26. Soundtrack applicator unit on a color processing machine at the Dov- zhenko Studio, Kiev. Fig. 27. Chemical laboratory at Mosfilm usually obtained with "subtractive'.' compensating filters in the optical path. "Additive" light control, using apertures cut in an opaque mask was also shown. Fig. 29. Densitometer used for color control work at Mosfilm. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 1.87 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Reduction printing from 35min orig.. inal to a double row of 16mm format images on 32mni stock was in eommon . use. The geometry Of the system required the use of '32mm filth perforated 1 and 3 as distinct from US practice which uses 1 and 4 positions for film which is even- tually used in 16mm sound prints. (The 1 and 3 perforation position places one row of perforations near an edge and one near the center of the 32mm film. The 1 and 4 perforation places one row of per- forations near each edge of the 32mm film.) Looking to the future, there was some Opinion that the Use .of wide format (707 min) for photography of feature films might increase considerably. In order to. keep decisions on this point independent of provision of 70mm projectors in theaters, laboratory steps were planned to permit release in the wide-screen (35- mm anamorphic) format and also as the Fig. .30. .70mm printer at Dovzhenko Studio, Kiev; light control by "sub- tractive".filters. -4-X 3 forrriat;-- expected tci Continue in use in TV from 70nim original negatives. Another related need, in some ways Of mOre immediate interest, lay in the.con- version of the wide-screen format (35mm anamorphic) to the 4 X 3 format for TV release. Optical printers to permit .each of these conversions were shown. The printer for the wide-format to wide- screen conversion appeared to be'a direct optiCal step printer with suitable 'ana, morphic lens block introduced into the . system. The conversions from either wide format or wide screen to the 4 X* 3 format included .the ability to follow action as the main center of interest moved across .the screen. Two tYpes:of equipment were seen. In one case, the Wide-format picture was projected onto a.Small screen and a. por- tion of that image rephotographed to yield the selected 4 X 3 action area. Selection of. angles as designed and con- trol of relative motions allowed Ane se- . lected 4 X :3 format area to follow the action. In another form direct, lateral motion of. one part of the optical system of a much More conventional appearing optical printer was used to give,the selec- tion of printed area. In either case,: pre- prOgraMming was used to allow oper- ator to determine the Motions required .to give the desired seleetion of 4ction and adegree of automation was indicated for the "actual printer control from the program determined.. Other Studio Equipment ? Editing tables for the various; formats were basically similar in design and gave the needed opportunity for synchronized picture and sound editing ,operations.. Splicing equipment followed conven- tional design. Costume design and preparation was a ,part of each,studio operation. A filter manufacture- and supply ger; vice was in operation at Mosfilm to meet the needs of camera men and laboratory workers. Samples seen appeared to be Of good quality. A catalog showed a large selection of available filters including glass, dyed' gelatine and interference types. In addition, it. was stated that special filters are made to meet special needs not covered by the catalog listings. Make-up was also? manufactured. at Mosfilm. The quality .claim Made Was that "It is as good as Max 'Factors,' but the delegation had no cippOrtunity to check that claim or judge the quality by any other standard. At 'Lenfilm a small colorimeter was 'demonstrated which allowed measure- ment of make-up after application. It waS stated ..that this Unit was of particular value in assuring constancy of make-up shade during a prolonged period of shooting. An optical printer, of great versatility had been designed and built at Lenfilm to produce trick shots and special effects. The unit appeared so attractive that in- quiry was made concerning its commer- cial availability. It was stated that its ,engineering ciesign had been brought to the point that its manufacture in the USSR was planned. For formal answer to the question concerning its availability we were refeired to the, Ministry ':of Foreign Trade. Accordingly, ,a letter of inquiry was dispatched after return from the trip. The reply was definite ? this equipment is not being. made for export. Another incident of the Lenfilni :visit may be of particular interest to the mem- bers of the SMPTE. At the Library there, which is quite a sizable collection ,.of books' and periodicals, an SMPTE Jour- :, nal was evident, but the cover was of ,un- \. ..nsual color. A few inquiries revealed that this'was part of an edition being printed Fig. 31. Reduction printer at Kaiakhfiliii, Fig. 32. 70mm editing table seen at Mosfilm. n.188 '3, 1964' journal 4 the ?SMPTE'::. VOliime 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 33. Splicing table, Moscow Release Color Printing Laboratory. by photo-offset in the USSR from a copy obtained through normal subscrip- tion channels. It was stated that this was cheaper than taking an equal number of direct subscriptions. This event speaks for itself as evidence of the wide acceptance of English as a widely used technical language. Color Release Printing Laboratories Two methods of making color release prints co-exist in the USSR. The system which has the larger capacity uses multi- layer color print stock while the system with smaller capacity uses imbibition dye transfer printing. Color release printing laboratories were visited at Moscow and Leningrad. Each of these laboratories was said to have a capacity of 40 million meters of 35mm release print per year for Fig. 34. Special effects printer at Lenfilm. multilayer printing. In addition to the 35mm print capacity mentioned, the Moscow laboratory could produce 20 million meters per year of 16mm prints. No corresponding figure was obtained at the Leningrad laboratory. Imbibition printing, limited to 35mm, was done only at Leningrad where the 1963 production was estimated at 7 million meters and 1964 production was expected to be double that, or 14 million meters. Multilayer print stock was used for four types of release print, 70mm, 35mm anamorphic, 35mm 4 X 3 format and 16- mm. The volume requirements for 70mm prints are still small and prints are sup- plied directly from studio laboratories. For the other three types, the studios turn over the necessary negatives, ap- proved sample prints and sound records Fig. 35. Continuous printer, Leningrad Release Color Print- ing Laboratory. to the release laboratory which fills the bulk print orders. Orders for 1,000 prints were described as frequent with occa- sional demands for 2,000 copies. In this color field, necessary dupes are made at Mosfilm and the release laboratories work from the dupes so furnished or from original negatives when the size of print order warrants it. All 16mm printing seen was being done by reduction printing. 35mm printing was being done pri- marily on continuous printers which looked like the Model E printers of Bell & Howell manufacture. This appearance was more than coincidence and was ac- counted for by the fact that, during World War II a number of Model E printers had been furnished from the US for use in the USSR. It was stated that these units had been worn out in use, but the design had been adopted and new Fig. 36. Applicator used in magnetic striping of prints, Moscow Release Color Printing Laboratory. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 189 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 units built so that the ten printers of this type at Mosfilm and an unspecified, but presumably similar, number at Lenfilm vere direct descendents of the original units. ? Color balance control on these units was accomplished in routine use by "sub- tractive" color balancing 'filters. Experi- mentation was under way with an "addi- tive systern.using apertures of selected sizes in an:opaquetpask for light control. No: 'opinion, was expressed. concerning . quality :differences. observed with ? their application .of these two control methods. Processing -was carried out with de- veloping machines of conventional de- sign. These machines were basically simi- lar to those encountered in the studio laboratories, and made similar extensive use.ofplastics in their construction. The Moscow printing laboratory had fourteen machines operating typically. .at 2,000 ft/hour. One unit was being operated on an- ;experimental basis ; at 3,000 ft/hour and used infrared heat and. air impinge- ment:. in ;the -drying section to: reduce ? machine size .The ,Leningrad laboratory . appeared to,be similarly equipped. ? Application of the stripe for magnetic sound r'ecords required on many release prints was part' of the function of these Telease. laboratories. Equipment in use was operating at a stated speed of 6,000 ft/hour and applied a layer about 20 Fig. 37. Three glass wheels, used in the Film Restoration Ma- chine, Moscow Release Color Printing Labor- atory. microns thick by a simple hopper-type coating operation. On 32mm stock, the striping pattern gave a narrow balance stripe as well as a normal width sound- track. Film restoi'ation machines' were' pro- vided to extend the useful life of films by reducing the visibility of scratches inci- dental to 'handling. The, unit. was :quite compact and provided for the use of one to three treatments by 'glass wheel aPpli-? cators (Fig., 37) . 'Solvent. treatments were mentioned, to reduce the' severity of base side' scratches and an ennulsion-side treat- ment involving the .application :_of a casein solution was ,indicated, .thOugh n9 specific formulas were given. Dye Transfer ' .The imbibition ',dye transfer, printing process in operation at, the:Leningrad laboratory was used, for 35mm 4 X 3 , . - format pictures only. Cartoons were its tnajor, possibly its only, regular product. ..the chemistry , of the process had been developed ,basically at NIKFI ;(Scientific Research Cine Photographic, Institute) with some' supplementary , work at the film coating factory at Kazan. - There was Some hint, in the general discussion of the place of this system in the program of the USSR motion-picture industry, that it had its primary value as a means of supplementing limited production of multilayer color stock. This could explain its use, in. spite of present sharpness and definition limita- tions evident on the screen. Of course, its long-range value would be enhanced if the quality level is improved over that presently obtained. The success of such a system depends on several factors among them the avail- ability of printers yielding matrices which Nvil 1 transfer the separate dyes in accurate register. Ostensibly; the printers in use in Leningrad should be adequate for this job. Transfer took place on registration wheels, possibly thirty inches in diameter. A total of six transfer units were pro- vided, each designed for one transfer operation. The raw stock used for the final print was silver bearing. Original exposure was on a continuous printer (based on Model , E, Bell & Howell design) provided with a registration sprocket to control the plac- ing of the key image in the film. Silver registration image and silver soundtrack NAere processed in the conventional man- ner before the dye transfer steps. The six transfer tmachines mentioned thus provide for two production lines of three Machines each to yield final cOlOr' prints. The receptor film is dried and wound up after each transfer step in the order yellow, magenta, cyan. This 'laboratory received original color negatives from the studios and Made the color. separation matrices required. The necessary differential,hardening was pro.- . . . duced by a pyro developer. An .automatic recording spectropho tometer operating in the range 400 to 700 inillimicrons- Was exhibited as a control unit of major.importance to the process: Equipment Manufacture Contact with 'equip-tient manufactur- ing facilities was limited to a visit to one factory (Kinap) located at Odessa. , Motion-picture work here had started in the early thirties as' a center for equip- ment repair and for manufacture of spare 38. Trans'fe'r wheel of a dye-transfer unit;Leningrad Fig. "39. Recorditlg,spectrophotometer used for color control in the Release Color Printing Laboratory. , , , , , , Leningrad Release Color Printing Laboratory. 1.90 March 1964 ?journal of:the 'SMPTE :. Volume 73.... Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 parts. The site was evacuated during the war, and the buildings were burned. It was rebuilt in 1946 and now is a main producer for some of the items needed by the motion-picture industry. More than fifty items are on their product list in- cluding projectors with light outputs from 150 to 30,000 screen lumens for 16, 35 and 70mm installations; camera booms and cranes; splicing equipment; film perforators; animation stands and other items of laboratory equipment (except developing machines); and theater screens. Some of these items were repre- sented by descriptive brochures and others were available for direct inspec- tion. Three models of projectors were seen under construction. One of these, the 16min "Ukraina" projector was mentioned in connection with the mobile unit phase of motion- picture presentation. This projector. was a moderately heavy unit with a 400-watt projection lamp and sound pick-ups for either optical or magnetic track. The lamp was designed for low-voltage use and had a rather heavy filament coiled into a flattened spiral which presented a nearly planar 4 X 3 source area to the condenser lens. An acceptably uniform field over the gate area was produced rather simply. Some curvature of field was evident for the projection lens in the unit seen most closely under test condi- tions. These units were asserribled on an assembly line on which a projector was completed every five minutes of full operation. The other projectors seen were being hand assembled, suggesting smaller out- put. The mechanisms could handle either 70mm or 35mm films. Projection lenses were interchangeable, to give proper results with wide format, wide screen or 4 X 3 format pictures. Arcs of different power were available and their KP5-A model was rated to yield 15,000 screen lumens from an arc operated at 120 amp with a wide-format (70mm) gate and lens system. Another unit desig- nated KP30-A was of higher power, rated to give 30,000 screen lumens with an arc operating at 190 amp and 70mm gate and lens. These projectors utilized dichroic mirrors back of the arc to give maximum screen illumination with re- duced gate heating. However, water- cooled jaws for the carbons, and water and air cooling at the film gate were com- bined to keep the system under control. All the 70mm projection seen was in color, but clips of 70mm black-and- white films were exhibited. It was not clear as to how these black-and-white films would behave in the gates of such projectors. The heat absorption of the silver deposits would surely be greater than that of the color films and there would be, accordingly, greater danger of unsteadiness of focus. Many of the other units seen at this Fig. 40. The Ukraina 16mm projector, as manufactured at the Odessa Kinap. factory were quite conventional in ap- pearance, including such items as a film perforator, a film synchronizer for han- dling films of matched lengths, and a microfilm copying table (which, of course, is not strictly a motion-picture item). Screens were manufactured by taking strips of original plastic some thirty inches wide and assembling them into continuous large areas. One type was a matte diffusing screen with a slightly figured surface. The component strips of this material were joined by a film weld- ing technique using the heating effects of a high-frequency system. Another type of screen carrying a metalized surface and perforated to improve sound transmission was joined by adhesive tapes to form a firm butt joint. One thousand screens per year, distributed among eight different types, was indicated as the normal out- put. An animation stand, seen in process of assembly, particularly attracted the at- tention of the delegation. The stand it- self was substantially built and had the capacity for many different motions. The control was from an operating console and the combination created the impres- sion that, when complete, it would be a very efficient working unit. No com- pleted unit was seen during the visit, and the impression remains unchecked. Equipment Design Ideas for good equipment design could, of course, originate at various points. Each studio seemed to have some ingenious people trying to make improve- ments. However, it appeared to be the practice to funnel these ideas through the Central Design Bureau at Leningrad for consideration and final production de- sign if accepted. It appeared that this Bureau studied some problems in their own right, without waiting for ideas from outside. Many of the design engineers working here were women and there was Fig. 41. Film transport system of 70-35mm projectors manufactured at the Odessa Kinap. Fig. 42. Film perforating unit, one of the products of the Odessa Kinap. a general air of competence about the place. The design work has included a wide range of equipment and the statement was made that over 150 different kinds of equipment have been developed here in the ten years of activity of this organi- zation. Their work has included design of microphones, sound recording and re- recording equipment, developing ma- Capra, Cepliart, Stifle andWhite: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 191 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 43. Microfilm copying stand made at the Odessa Kinap. chines, and lenses for cameras, projectors and printers. Recently, equipment de- signs for wide-screen and wide-format presentations have occupied an impor- tant place in their program. If only a few units of any particular item are required throughout the USSR, such as five or six, the entire requirement will be produced by the Bureau. Other- wise, the designs will be sent out to one of the "Kinaps" for production of the equipment. Although we did not see any assembled spray processing equipment anywhere during our trip, we were told at Central Design that they do have a spray machine for black-and-white film at Novosibirsk which operates at 26 to 28 C and a linear film speed of 3,000 meters per hour. Nitrogen is used to prevent oxidation. Component parts for a machine of such design were shown us. Fig. 44. High-frequency screen welding unit used in the manufacture of plastic screens at the Odessa Kinap. Other equipment is worthy of men- tion: (a) A small microphone unit with built-in high-frequency radiator for cordless use appeared neat, light and workable. (b) We were also shown a cardioid microphone, flat 100 to 8,000 cycles which had a narrow angle of sensitivity. (c) A condenser microphone designed for nondirectional use in motion-picture studios was described as flat, 50 to 15,000 cycles. (d) Nine-channel amplifiers, as used in nine-channel stereophonic recording and reproduction, were displayed. (e) A new transistorized amplifier for general recording use was on their test bench. Fig. 45. Enlargements of the embossed pattern used on plastic screens. 192 (f) Use of printed circuits was in evi- dence. (g) One unit for making 35mm 4 X 3 format prints from 70mm originals was shown in which action could be followed by mechanical movement of equipment elements. (h) In their optical department they had recently redesigned a lens of 16mm focal length, f/3.0 for 35mm film usage to a considerably smaller unit operating at f/2.8. Performance data were not immediately available in full detail though "adequate" definition was claimed ? with an axial resolution of 60 to 70 lines/mm. (i) Anamorphic lenses were on display as used for 35mm wide-screen purposes Fig. 46. Enlargements of the embossed pattern used on per- forated metalized screens. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 47. Remote-controlled animation stand under construction at the Odessa Kinap. The control console is left foreground. and one for a 1:1.25 squeeze for 70mm film. (j) Their lens test benches appeared to be well-designed and well-built; whether constructed there or purchased was not determined. (k) A zoom lens for 16mm professional use had a focal length range of 17.5 to 70mm with a maximum aperture of f/2.4. (1) A 16mm transistorized magnetic film sound recorder was shown. This operated at 15 in./sec and was flat 50-15,000 cycles. In a discussion of reward for invention, it was pointed out that in their system a person awarded a Certificate of Inven- tion might receive a bonus payment up to 10% of its value as determined over a 5-year period. A person obtaining a USSR patent was said to have more con- trol over the use of his invention, but would not share directly in extra rewards of the bonus type. If the patent was valuable to other countries, he might get money from them as reward for his invention. Fig. 49. Transistorized amplifier under test at the Central Design Bureau, Leningrad. L., , Fig. 48. Microphone units in the en- gineering design office of the Central Design Bureau, Leningrad. NIKFI (Scientific Research Cine Photographic Institute) The visit to this research unit was one of the highlights of the trip. Dr. V. G. Komar heads a group of workers some of whom have been contributing for years to the photographic literature. Dr. Komar himself has been active in the motion-picture field and was part of the delegation from the USSR at the Inter- national Standards Organization meet- ing at Harrogate in 1958. The total staff of the Institute was stated to be 1,300 people, 150 of them having research training of the PhD level, 300 having technical training, but short of the PhD level, while the remain- der were assistants with lesser training. This organization is the central USSR laboratory for photographic research. It clearly covers photography broadly in- cluding radiography, films for nuclear particle records, and general photog- raphy as well as motion pictures. General planning of the research for motion pictures is under the guidance of a council of 40 to 50 leading motion- picture specialists (scientists and engi- neers) from the Institute and from van- Fig. 50. Display of lenses designed at the Central Design Bureau, Leningrad. The small lens, lower left, is an 1/2.8 redesign of the adjacent larger f/3.0 lens. Both are 16mm focal length for use with 35mm films. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White: Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 193 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ous studios. The day-to-day progress of the work is under the supervision 6f the department heads, working with the Director of the Institute. ?? Xenon sources'for projection have been .developed in the lighting laboratory and ? are in use with d-c sOurces for units of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kw. A 1.0-kw unit for a-c operation (symmetrical electrodes) was also shown. Work is under way on a 5.0-kw lamp. Stated present lamp life is 1,000 to 1,500 hours on the 1.0 and 3.0 kw d-c units; 2,000 hours on the 0.5-kw unit and 500 to 600 hours on the a-c .1.0-kw unit. ? A 16mm shutterless projector using the a-C type bulb was shown illustrative of equipment now in production based on their work. Reel capacity was 1,320 me- ters. Film pulldown was the claw-type and was said to have a wear life of about 2,000 hours. The unit was rated as giving 2,500 screen lumens. The projectors at the Kremlin Palace of Congresses are rated as giving 45,000 screen lumens when projecting 70mm film. At NIKFI work is directed toward a unit to increase this to 60,000 lumens. They are working with 16mm positive cored carbons operated at 300 amps in comparison with 12mm carbons operated at about 200 amps for the 45,000 lumen installation. The reflector is an ellip- . soidal mirror, 60 cm in diameter, with a 15-layer interference coating to give good visible reflection with reduced heat at . the gate. Rotating carbons, water-cooled arc carbon jaws, water-cooled gate mem- bers and air blasts to help control the .arc and cool the film in the gate were all in evidence. . In the NIKFI camera laboratory was one 70mm camera under test, intended for use at 120 to 140 frames/sec. Regis- .tration pink .were used two perforations below the picture. We understand this is their standard location. One of the* 35mm beam splitting cameras used for their infrared method of processt photography was evident. A 70mm vesion using the same principle was on a test stand. The increase of the 'geometrical complication for 'this size unit was very evident. Lens to film dis- tance had to be increased very greatly because of the,larger geometry. It is by. no means certain that this will prove a practical system in 70mm. Presumably the camera lenses had to be specially designed to give the long back focal 'dis- tance required. ?. The workers in the optics laboratory were familiar with the spatial frequency and trankfer function methods of describ- ing system performance. They used auto- matic equipment to produce plots that were identified as spatial frequency re- sponse data. The actual coordinates were not identified on the curves so produced. One lens on display was rated as 12.5- mm focal length, designed to work as' a wide-angle lens for 70mm photography. It was rated at f/3.5. No performance data were available. The front lens ele- ment was some 6 in. in diameter...Vis- ually, the diaphragm looked appropriate to the rating indicated. Electrical power circuitry studies. in- cluded power stabilizers which,were said to hold voltages to ? 1% for set lighting and projection lamp usage. Much. use ?is made of rectified a-c for. their arcs and xenon lamps. The printer development laboratory equipment included a precision camera by which to produce special test films to be used in testing resolution and steadi- ness of printer systems. It was claimed that such test films could be made theie for any format in current use. The main responsibility of the sound laboratory deals with sound reproduction for cinematography. However, many theaters are used for multiple purposes, and accordingly theater acoustics and sound re-enforcement systems broadly are studied here too. There are some 120,000 sound systems in the USSR and One of the proble'ms ahead is the standardization and con- version of these units to transistorized types suited to theaters of the sizes chosen in their construction program. The work in this laboratory tends toward the development of basic information which will in turn be used by the Central De.- sign Bureau (Leningrad) in equipment development and design. The architectural acoustics laboratory has facilities for experimental study of sound characteristics in auditoriums from scale models. A scale of 1:40 was indi- cated as that usually used. With this scale model, tests were made at 20,000 cycles and interpreted as showing effects of shape, ,construction materials, fabrics and the like. Film Stock Research at NIKFI The announced goal of synthetic organic work at NIKFI is the production of the special organic compounds, dye's, 'color formers, etc.: useful in photog- raphy. Enough glassware and equipment 'were in evidence 'to suggest that success .or failure would depend on people, nOt equipment. ? . . . Gelatine studies are a specialty of a Fig. 51. Portable 16mm magnetic recorder at the Central Design 'Bureau,' Leningrad. .494 March Journal Of the SNIPT. Fig. 52. 16mm shutterless 'projector with xenon arc source developed at NIKFI, Moscow. Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 laboratory at the Kazan film factory rather than in Moscow. It was interesting to note two spectro- photometers set up for use that were indistinguishable, on casual observation, from a type sold a few years ago by the General Electric Co. We entered the emulsion formulation laboratory only after discussion had developed the fact that we would be shown research equipment only and would not discuss formulations. This pre- caution was taken as it is believed quite unlikely that reciprocity in the US would extend beyond this same point in case of a visit of Russian scientists. Very small scale making equipment was shown in the one laboratory visited. It appeared that test quantities are coated on glass. A plate whirler was in evidence which might be used as an aid in coating small test plates. In the sensitometric laboratory the routine step wedge test tablet is of the -0 of two type with 21 exposure steps. Each step is about 8mm square. The sensitometer most used gives 1/20-sec exposures and is arranged to permit easy insertion of any chosen filter into the beam. Associated with the sensitometric test equipment was a resolving power camera claimed to give useful results up to 500 lines/mm. A microphotometer, designated MF-4, was set up with automatic recording equipment. This looked rather light in construction in comparison with the rug- ged systems sometimes thought necessary for precision work at high magnification. A reciprocity law sensitometer was set up for use, covering the exposure time range 10 sec to 10-7 sec. It appeared to be a compact, well-designed instrument with considerable use of pushbutton con- trols. It was indicated that this might be made available for sale but later inquiry through the Ministry of Foreign Trade elicited the information that no export of this unit is planned. In the film base laboratory two small belt casting machines were in evidence. They were not in use at the time and nothing is known as to their capacity or their ease of control and operation. The work was directed toward the accumula- tion of basic information concerning the characteristics of film forming materials and the influence of composition and coating variations on the structure and properties of resultant films. It was indicated that polycarbonates were under study for base use. Base samples tested had shown good tensile properties, as measured by break and shock tests. Work was cbntinuing on the problem of subbing such base. NIKFI work on color films icdirected toward the completion of the introduc- tion of masked color negatives and their subsequent further improvement from the first embodiment. Considering all Fig. 53. Model in architectural acoustics laboratory, NIKFI, Moscow. This model represents the Rossiya Theater on a scale of 1 to 40. circumstances, it was inevitable that the discussion touch on comparisons with Eastman color films. At present. the Russian group considers it unnecessary to push to as high saturation of colors as can be obtained with Eastman materials. International exchange of color nega- tives is a distinct possibility and devel- oped samples of the masked Russian color negative were furnished the US delegation to develop information on printing and duping problems that may be encountered if such exchange occurs with the US. WARNING: NITRATE BASE MAY BE ENCOUNTERED. The current Russian masked negative requires exposure cor esponding to about 35-40 ASA. Increased speed is an objec- tive of research and it is expected that one stock will be developed for direct use with incandescent lamps which can be used with a ,filter at the same effective speed under daylight conditions. Second Visit With the State Committee The original plans of the delegation contemplated return to the US on Sun- day, November 10, just three weeks after the arrival at Moscow. The State Com- mittee for Cinematography requested that this part of the plans be changed to permit a second conference before depar- ture. This change was made. During the meeting the State Committee invited comments on places where the delega- tion considered improvements possible. Two such points were made. Nitrate film is still in use in the USSR for part of the 35mm film required. No label or edge mark was found designat- ing such film as nitrate, though a match test of small pieces clearly showed the rapid burning rate characteristic of nitrate base. Studio and TV practices do not meet customary US standards for the handling and use of nitrate.. The matter of personal safety may be a suitable sub- ject for decision in the USSR alone but to the extent that films from the USSR are articles of commerce in international trade, there is a real international interest which is not well met by unlabeled ni- trate film. Unless or until this matter is cleared up, all 35mm film from the USSR is suspect. The statement was made that all 16mm and 70mm film is on acetate base. ' The second matter brought to the attention of the State Committee was filin cleanliness. A large proportion of the prints seen showed dirt, some of which was clearly print through from dirt on a negative. No film. cleaning equipnient , was seen in the USSR beyond the restora- tion machine noted, which was not pri- marily a cleaner. Since return to' the USA, the journal Teckhnik-a Kinai' Tele- videniya has been found to contain- arti- cles about film cleaning processes and equipment. This material clearly ante- dates this visit ? but was not shown to us at the sites visited. Acknowledgment: All the delegates thanked the State Committee for' the care. which had been taken to push through the croWded schedule" of this three-week visit. The assistance of M. Z. Wysotsky, Deputy Chief Engineer'. of Mosfilm, was Cited as particularly valu- able as he had taken three weeksTrom his regular post and done much to, aid in securing the breadth of contact -achieved. Notes In addition to the entire session at the 95th Technical Conference, .V: G.' Komar's paper which follows imme- diately. in the pages of this Journal sup- plements the delegates' report .'especially as to cinematography. Capra, Gephart, Stifle and White; Motion Picture Facilities in the USSR Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 195 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 .Also of possible supplementary, in- terest to some readers t may be three articles which have been translated from the Russian and are available as manu- scripts on .loan from Society Head- quarters: (1) L. G. Golshstein, I. Ya Levin and T; I: .Maksinrciv, "Optical printer," Tekhnika kino i televideni yq, 3, No. 10, 5862, (1059): :(2),- M. M. Lisogor, "The 'Rossiya' Universal Cine Theater," Tekhnika kino i ieleVideniya, 6, No. 5, 1-8, -(19.62): (3) 1. B. Gordiichuk, cf The. present state of the manufacture' of eine ap- paratus in the .USSR," Tekhnika kino televideniya, 6, No. 5, 37.19, (1962).. Cinematography in the USSR The status of the Soviet cinematography industry is reviewed and its organization, technique's, equipment and projection systems are discussed. Uses of high-speed photography in scientific research and the development of processes and equip- ment for photography in space research and the study of nuclear processes are touched upon briefly. The technical premises for international cooperation are reviewed; and the basis for the exchange of films is viewed as one of the most serious problems faced by the engineers of many'countries. CINEMATOGRAPHY in the USSR is a large, complex industry that is in a process of ?development., From 1957 to 1162 the number of projection units (with paid admission) increased by 73% and by the beginning of 1963 had reached 120,400 units (32,000 of these for 16mm film); along with this, town' theaters grew in number by 33% and amounted to 19,600. *Although the majority' of the motion- picture units are state property, a con- siderable' number are public property of the trade-unions and collective farms. Despite the growth of cinematography and television,. the demand still exceeds the supply. In 1962 total paid .admis- sions exceeded 39 billion, which is 28% more than 'in 1957. In.1962 this averages out to 18 admissions per person: 21 for city dwellers and approximately 14 for rural inhabitarits. At present there are 39 motion-picture studios in the-Soviet Union, 20 of them producing feature films. From 1957 to 1962 the number of full-length Produc; tions released annually was between 116 and '143 and feature films released num- bered from 90 to .115, annually. The . country's biggest Mosfilm studio pro- duced from 22 to 26 feature films an- . nually, in this period. A number of studios* are now being reconstructed, henee the total capacity of the studios is expected to rise to.some extent in the on- coming years. About half he pictures. distributed in the Soviet Union are imported, pally of which are produced in Weitern Europe and America. Presented on May 8, 1961, at the Society's Convention in Toronto by Dr. V. G.' Komar, Professor, Director of Cinema and Photo Re-' search Institute (NIKFD, Leningradsky Prospect 47, Moscow, (USSR. Owing to delay in publi- cation, changes have been made in the paper to bring it up to date. This revised manuscript was. received on November 19, 1964 Owing to the large number of films exported and imported 'and to the many languages spoken within Lthe USSR., film. dubbing is of great importance. Dubbing. is carried out in seven *Soviet national languages and :subtitle ?inser- tions in 25: , ? Because of the vastness of the Soviet Uiiion and the large nurnber 'of,spa'rsely populated rural areas, it. is necessary to print Motion pictures in great release quantities?from 1,000 to 1,500. cOpies and in sorrie cases up to 2000 prints;' therefore, there are independent film printing enterprises. ? . The output of film prints on, 35mm within' 1957-1962 increased by 29% and in 1962 totaled some 478 'million meters (121 million in color). During the sande time 'the output of film prints on By. V.. G.- KOMAR; 16mm film grew by, :35% and arnoqiited. to 128 million meters (22 million meters" in color). ORGANIZATION Since early 1963 'cinematography has been controlled. by. the State .Comniiitee for Cinematography 'of- the Cabinet Council of the USSR: Minister A.*. V. Romani:iv is *president of this .Cothmittee and. Eng.' A: F. Barinmi, vice-president of the. State Committee for Cinema- tography, who .is spans& on cinernatog- raphY industry. In Some Soviet -Union republics in 1963 . State' committees: for cinematog- raphy of the Cabinet bitincils of these republics were set up to control the okra- tion Of the local Organizations. The Major 'Studies' are under the direct . control Of the 'State Committee' for Cinematography Mosfilm, ?Lenfilm, Gorky-Studio, the central documentary , studio', the. popular science studio and printing enterpriSes:, Subordinate to the State Committee for Cinematography are alot the. Main Cinematographic sre-, search,, design and training organiza- tions. ? Fig: 1. Cinerna and Phsoiii RseXieh'Institute (NIKFI), Moscow. Fig. 2. MO'sfihn StudioNUscoii,..1' c?!': 196 Mara;1964. Jniirrial of 'the ,S114.13TE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ivmv=7-47 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 :-CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 3. Sound camera Druzhba for 35mm film. ? Fig. 4. Lighting unit with a 1-kw xenon lamp in the Sibir projector. Basic research in'motion-picture tech- nique, light-sensitive material and proc- eises is fulfilled in the Soviet Union by the Cinema and Photo? Research 'In- stitute (NIKFI). This . institute canae into existence in 1929 and is located in Moscow (Fig, 1). There are branches which were established in 1957 '13Y 'the largest raw-snick film works. in Kazan (Tartar Autonomous Republic) and Shostka (Ukrainian Union Republic): NiKFI branches preferably engage in improving the technology Of raistoek film production and in the industrial application of new develcipments at the works. ? - Construction of: new equipment is carried out mainly by the Central engi, neerihg bureau (TsKB), in Leningrad; the Moscow Cinema ApParaths' engi- neering bureaus (MKBK), and the Special Cinema Equipment engineering. bureaus (SKBK), in Odessa. ? Many enterprises 'manufacture ? mo- tion-picture equipments. The largeSt 'of -them are the ? Leningrad' Optical:WI.; ? chanical Works (LOOMP),.the -MOSF6Ai MoSkinap'Works, the ? Odessa: Ciffeirig APparatus Works and the Sainarkand '? Cinema Apparatus World. ? All 'work on 'the developinent24 cinematography .technique is performed according to a common schedule so :that . research, design' and industrial organila- titans cooperate in solving problems` :Of motion-picture technique, light-sensitive materials and photographic processeS. - 'Motion-picture' engineers and tech: nolOgists in the field of manufacture i Of motion-picture equipmenf and films 'as well as in film treatment are trained , the Leningrad; Cinema Engineers In stitute' (LIKI) and in other 'eandatiOnal institutions where separate investigations in the'giyen,field?are also Carried did.. The :State Committee' for ,'Cinein42 tograPhY; spiinsars, 'in addition:: .film (rig..2)-and other studios mentioned abOire;- :the':Ublieation'bf - the;monthly magazines Tekhlika ? kino t te1evzdenzya: and Kinom'ekhanik. the edition Of the journal-Of scientific and'applied cinema- tOgraphy' and, photography is Under the 'sponsorship of the Academy Of Sciences of the USSR. ' -Besides ''state -institutions 'there is the Cinematography Workers' Association, a public Organization 'which is engaged in -cinernategraphy. The Science and TeO.thiology Department of this assoCiation 'ii headed Konoplev, who is also vice-president of the international ? rhotion-picture technical' organization, UNIATEC: The Cinema- Workeri' As- soeiation ,and ? NIKPI are 'Members of this :organization. In 'November, 1962; they organized the 5th UNIATEC Con- vention in-Moscow on'the subject; "The Future of Cinematography Technique"; the 'convention played a pOsitive role in ? international information 'ekehange. on developments. :in motionLpicture ? tech- pique and, the avenues of further prog- ress. ^ , TECHNIQUES Cinema :equipment Production started as early as'1923-1924'and the production .. Of raw:Stdek-.4filin 'began :in 1930=1931. 'By the ve of World Wai II Soviet? ;industry had already ? PrOdheea equip inent>:ancr:firrns of ..many 'q7Pes . and in quantities essentially covering the needss of: cinerriatOgraphy:;, ?Ferment in''tlic ?Soviet motion picture ?industry. ,was es pecially, high during the %years 1950? '1962. Within this lapse Of time, raw-snick film Production Was increased 3.3 times. ? At, typical trend in' today's cinema? tography feehnique development is the constantly', increasing' turribut 'of .ciliema ,APParatus and filrn. ? 2:', ? J.Another trend may be stated involving the and production of the entire of versatile types of equip - Merit' and materials for use in cinema-. tOgraPhy.:TodaY the faceis`th-it the .moL: fion-pieture.:indhStry builds virtually all _types of equipment installations and film Materials ''.required ' for production, re leale printing,and4orbjeetigh: ? ? SOViet industry builds various types of "Komar : ' CineMa'tOgiliPhy in the USSR'. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ; 35mm 'cameral: Sy'richrdnoilS, ileiit hand cameras and . such for composite and trick photography. .'Thee accord t? modern. requirements. instanee, sound camera "Mir" (3KSSImOdel) ex.7. cels other types It weighs 66:kg-and has ndise level'Under 29 db (With filin'and from one-meter '-distanee):`Good formances distinguish the 35mm` sound camera Druzhba (Fig.. 3)." There'. is also production of 16min and .?inin cameras. Industry prOducesilenses"With 16min'to 300mm focal lengths for ihnott ing Onto 35mm film. Further' productions are lighting equipment ' and Special , ' transport facilities for filin,...shoOting; filmprinting; film "Cutting and, projec- tion deVices, sound recording :and sound_ reproduction apparatus, ete. It is a remarkable 'fact that (hiring recent years, in which einem-a: techniquci have advanced vigorously,' the range of the parameters of cinema eqUiprnent'hag . widened steadily so that it is nowlpoSsible. to Present motiOn pictures in auditoriums' of different seating capacities: In .partie7 ular, the maxiniurn light flux, of Soviet7 made projectors for 125071962 increased' by 13 times and the acoustical caPaeity of theater sound reproduction Units rose ,5 times. This made practicable the 'Pres:- . ?entation of motion', pictures: in , toriums ranging from those of liery small dimensions to those that , can ' accorri: Modate 6,000 spectators and-, screen sizes ranging from the small to the ver'. large used in modern. cinematography. projection systems. , ? : ? :? ' This trend of greater projector , flux and higher acoustical' lioWerr? nf sound repreduetion qpiipnient" con- tinue because there is a dernand! for' -presentations on rather arriPle open:areas to larger audiences. ', ? ? Work 'done up to now fOrAhe Picture industi-y has', been im'irriarily for! improving cinematographic: irriagei'and: sound quality along with 'raising nent economical indices. Itis 'implied' that in the accomplishment Of .thisiWork cineniatography is based oriniciOein tech: ' 19 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 nological principles that are inherent in the achievements in related fields of science and technology. The development of modern Soviet cinema technology is characterized by the growing utilization of the following facilities. Xenon Light Sources The advent of xenon lamps in the Soviet theaters in projection applica- tions dates back to 1957. Since that time the operation of a considerable range of theaters with xenon lamps of one kilo- watt has proved their merits: homo- geneous and stable screen brightness, economy, lack of deleterious exhaust products, simple handling and long life (Fig. 4). There has been two years' experience in projector operation with xenon lamps of 3 kw under theater conditions. Their effective light flux, with rotating shutters, amounts to from 11,000 to 12,000 lm. Thus, it is expected that soon the pro- duction of cinema projection equipment having light fluxes within the range from 700-1,000 lm up to 10,000-12,000 lm (for medium-sized theaters) will be changed over to xenon light sources. Studies of lighting systems with 5-kw lamps have proved their potentiality for projectors with bigger light fluxes for larger auditoriums. Parallel to this, it has been found feasible to use for small auditoriums low-power xenon lamps of 0.5 kw. It is interesting to mention the results of investigations of 0.8-kw water-cooled capillary impulse lamps with xenon. The light spectrum makes these lamps su- perior to known capillary impulse lamps with mercury, and this is important for color film shows. A projection unit with xenon impulse lamps is undergoing a test run in a theater in Moscow. Photoelectronic and Semiconductor Devices The theaters of the Soviet Union use extensively photoelectronic multi- pliers for sound reproduction from prints with optical soundtracks. By 1950 the usual photocells in the projec- tion units throughout the country had been replaced by photoelectionic multi- pliers, as a result of which it became pos- sible to increase the amplifier input sig- nal tenfold, to simplify it and to raise the reliability of the unit. In recent years work has been done to find out the ifeasibility of using germanium and silicon photodiodes for the purpose. Such semiconductor devices as diodes and transistors are very promising for cinematography. The d-c supply for projector light sources in the USSR, beginning in 1949, was entirely re- equipped with semiconductor rectifiers with automatic current stabilization. At first, selenium rectifiers came into use, and nowadays we widely use germanium 198 and silicon ones. Selenium and silicon rectifier units with stabilized arc light current were created for studio lighting purposes. In the last few years new types of amplifier units have been designed com- prising germanium and silicon transis- tors: units of 15 w for portable projec- tion units (with a germanium photodiode without electronic tubes) and units of 25 w for stationary projection units (preamplifier and power stage amplifier), for synchronous sound recording onto 6.25-mm magnetic tape in newsreel shots at the speed of 19 and 38 cm/sec. Ever greater numbers of types of amplifier equipment for sound recording and reproduction will be fitted out with transistors, instead of the tubes used. Automation Design work is carried out with a view toward automating various cinema proc- esses to improve the quality of motion- picture photography, printing and dem- onstration and for better economical effect. Automation in film production is intended to release directors, cameramen and sound operators as widely as possible from miscellaneous auxiliary operations and let them concentrate more freely on the solution of artistic problems. Sys- tems which would be able, for example, to memorize at rehearsals and after- wards to reproduce exactly the move- ments of the cameras, the scene lightings, the sound accompaniment and so on, would be rather helpful in motion-picture production. In making film shots Soviet studios use remote on- and off-switching devices with memory elements to control the lights. Research is underway to achieve full automation of film printing, treatment and examination when performing these processes at a single installation. Auto- mation methods have been devised for such motion-picture shows in theaters which would provide automatic change- overs throughout the entire show from beginning to end. Wide introduction of devices serving these aims into cinema theaters is planned. Acoustics and Electroacoustics of Large Auditoriums Currently, large theaters are being built. In 1961 the theater Rossiya in Moscow (Fig. 5), which accommodates 2,500 people, was put into operation. In the same year the Congress Palace in the Moscow Kremlin was inaugurated, its auditorium comprising 6,000 seats. This house is multipurpose and serves for congresses, conferences, opera stagings, ballet performances, concerts, musical shows and film projection. The designers of the novel sound am- plification system and equipment in the big auditorium of the Congress Palace (engineers of NIKFI, TsKB and March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 LOOMP) were awarded the Lenin Prize in 1962. The above-mentioned equipment and the acoustics of this auditorium provide for a high quality of sound reproduc- tion. At present, several large cinema thea- ters and multipurpose auditoriums are being constructed in different cities of the country: for 3,000 and 4,000 viewers in Moscow, for 4,000 viewers in Lenin- grad and Kiev and for 3,000 in Tash- kent. All big multipurpose auditoriums are investigated via preliminary models on a 1 : 40 ratio and 20-kc ultrasonic fre- quency. This has been proved practical in determining auditorium design, acous- tical treatment and acoustical proper- ties. . A method of ultra-acoustic modeling has been designed by NIKFI and is used to solve acoustic problems. This helps in investigating not only sound reflection patterns by short pulses but also in determining reverberation time. Composite and Trick Shots Film studios are making wider use of various composite shots for trick scenes to save production time and money. Most notable is the traveling matte method which uses an infrared-sensitive mask film and a trick camera which simultaneously passes two films through its film gate (Fig. 6). The actor is photo- graphed in the normal manner against a background screen, through which in- frared radiation passes from lamps be- hind the screen. Background and set details are shot separately. The two films are then put together. Many shots in pictures made by Mosfilm and other studios have been made by this method. Attempts have been made to shoot a motion picture using a trick camera exclusively and photographs instead of real architecture for background (for instance, the picture Man to Man). This experience of an enhanced application of the process opens inviting possibilities of achieving considerably easier and cheaper motion-picture production. Video-Tape and Video-Film Recording Soviet TV stations utilize TV video recording devices with 70mm magnetic tape. Equipment and tape as well are made by Soviet industry and provide satisfactory quality so that the TV image which was recorded onto magnetic tape does not differ practically from the usual image on the screen of a TV set. At TV stations the programs are also recorded on 16mm and 35mm film. To this end apparatus is used in which photography is accomplished from a kinescope screen with afterglowing. De- vices are being tested for photographing a kinescope screen by means of cameras with rapid film pull-through which have certain advantages. There is a project for making wider Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Fig. 5. Theater Rossiya, Moscow, demonstrates motion pictures on 35mm and 70mm film. use of the aforementioned methods op- erating with tape as well as with film for television program records. Raw Stock The raw-stock industry produces a variety of films. To meet the require- ment of cinematography, today's pro- duction embraces color negative films of the previous maskless DS-2 and LN-3 sorts and of new ones with mask couplers: for daylight (DS-5) and tungsten (LN-5). These materials, with mask couplers and a color positive film (TsP:9) with reversed layer position, have presented the opportunity to improve color rendi- tion and image sharpness and, if neces- sary, to obtain brighter saturated colors. The experience with these films during the last few years justifies a further changeover of the country's entire color picture production to negative films with mask couplers. It is planned soon to substitute in pro- fessional cinematography a new set of motion-picture stocks for the previous sorts. This set will comprise four nega- tive film types of different sensitivity, while a negative and a positive dupe and a positive film will yield better image quality by virtue of improved gradation properties and sharpness, lower grain and higher physical-mechanical per- formances. A film from this set, Y/Ch- type negative, having more than 400 ASA, is released by industry. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH The photographic processes, cinema equipments and various sensitive ma- terials of cinematography are increasingly being utilized as tools for scientific re- search. One example is the applications of high-speed photography. Speeds up to 100 million frames/sec have been ac- complished. These were achieved by means of photographic lenticular rasters representing glass. plates covered with a multitude of small optical elements (ob- tained from a sensitive collodium layer) of high optical qualities. The elements are closely spaced at intervals of a few hundred microns. Such finely structured photographic rasters permit, primarily, increasing still more the speed of photog- raphy; they are also applied to stere- oscopy and color television. Cinematography and photography have also been used by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in cosmic space research and for the study of various nuclear processes. Special photochemical processes and equipment were used to photograph the back face of the Moon on October 7, 1959. A high-quality image was obtained on board the auto- matic station in spite of nongravitational conditions, considerable temperature var- iations and intense cosmic radiation. The image corresponded to the require- ments of subsequent transmission to Earth by television methods. Soviet industry puts out a wide assort- ment of photographic materials for sci- entific research which are designed for a great variety of wavelengths of different radiations. Imposing numbers of nu- clear photographic materials are pro- duced for the study of cosmic radiations and nuclear processes. Among them are hypersensitized emulsions comprised of gelatine substitutes. These possess good stability, a low fogging factor and high sensitivity up to 80-90 grains per 100 microns in the trace of a relativistic particle. ASPECT RATIOS The last nine years have seen a wider use of various motion-picture systems differing from the standard? ones with the classical aspect ratio of 1.3 to 1. Among them are: (1) wide-screen motion pictures using 35mm film with ana- morphic optics, (2) wide-gage pictures on 70mm films, (3). Kinopanorama on three 35mm films, (4) Circular Kino- panorama (Krougorama) with 11 or Komar: Cinematography in the USSR Fig. 6. Trick TKS3-camera for shots by the traveling matte method with infrared radiation. . . 22 35mm films, (5) 3-dimensional (stereo- scopic) films both according to the polarizing method and without the use of glasses, and (6) multiscreen projection (Polyecran). Since cinema studios as well as most of the theaters are state property, we can carry out standardization more fully and the types of systems used are re- stricted to those of the best quality. Wide-Screen Systems Wide-screen cinematography based on 35mm film, anamorphic optics and four-channel magnetic sound has be- come popular since 1955. By 1962, ten such features had been released. By the beginning of 1963 in the USSR there were about 2,700 motion-picture theaters equipped for wide-screen pro- jection with anamorphic lens and stereo- phonic sound. Cinema theaters, Where projectors with anamorphotics are to be installed, are also furnished with stereo- phonic sound reproduction equipment. Nonanamorphic wide-screen cinema- tography with an aspect ratio of 1.65:1 to 1.85 : I is not practiced. This method is considered artistically inferior and with- out marked advantages over the standard method. Further increase in the number of wide-screen theaters is planned. All new motion-picture theaters and film clubs having over 300-400 seats will be' equipped for 35mm wide-screen pro- jection. Wide-Gage Cinematography Three studios release 70mm pictures: Mosfilm in Moscow; Lenfilm in Lenin- grad; and Dovzhenko-Studio in Kiev. Within 1962-63 five 70mm pictures were released and in 1963 seven pictures were scheduled for production. Currently, the wide-gage feature War and Peace is being taken. The above studios have 70mm cameras of various types: sound, silent, hand and 199 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 high-speed photography up to 90 frames/ sec. .70mm projection units are employed' for composite shots. A 70mm trick? camera is being, designed to Photograph by the traveling matte with. infrared ' radiation. Four different release printers ? are available for printing dupes and release prints from. 70mm negatives: contact printer for 701-nm, one for printing. wide- screen 35mm with anamorphic another for standard 35mm, and one for . optical printing .Of Kinopanorama re- leases onto three 35rnm films. Optical machines permit-the most im- portant part of the frame to be chosen, during the printing process; however, the resulting prints appear to be, some- what inferior to the original. in. artistic quality..Nevertheless, these methods are considered Of high ? practical iiiiportahee frOrdtheeeorioriiical Pointof ? Production centers, have beeri ???Set. up::oriel-at " the ' Leningrad ? "Newsreel Studiofor re-recording 47, 6- and 9-ehan- riel _stereophonic ,soundtracks 3 and . an- other. at . the Kiev Film-Printing Plant for the release of such soundtracks on 70mm pints. These centers are fitted out with" new equipment securing high- quality sound. By the beginning of 1963 in the Soviet' Union there were 13 cinema theaters equipped with apparatus for 70mm stereophonic motion pictures: This equip- ment comprises KP-15 and KP-30A projectors designed for the efficient light fluXes of 20000 and 40,000 lm, respec- tively, with powerful arc lamps (Fig. 7). These permit showing 35-'? and 70mm . films on 15- to 30-meter ?Wide. screens (Fig. 8). A target has been set relating to further development of wide-gage cinerriatog- raphy and the: inauguration of a large number Of new theaters equipped with 35/70mm :apparatus. The.,70mm release ?is expected to increase gradually and to constitute an important part in :the total release of feature films. Kinopanorama . .:Since. the ,development. of kinopano-- rarna , in =.-1?57, :.12 features .'i.have been. i!ig. 7: Arc lamp of the 35-70mm KP-30A prole:C.6i for-46,060- 1M,light flux ',(with shutter rotating). Fig.. q. Screen -(28-m wide) and loudspeaker. assemhlies: 12-m. high- installed .in the, Kremlin Congress Palace.for wide-gage film prpjection:;:..,. made. The Kinopanorama has been a success in the homeland and abroad.. Eight Kinopanorama theaters operate in .the Soviet Union and one with Soviet equipment was opened in Paris in 1959. Since 1960 PSO sound camera's (Fig. 9) have been used in the Kinopanorama production. Filming is carried out on three 35mm films. It has a moderate weight (55 kg without the blimp), a low noise level (32 db) and provisions for rapid replacement of the optical ele- ments comprising lenses of different focal lengths. These merits of PSO cameras made it possible for Y.. Koun in 1961 to shoot the first Kinopanorama play film.. It is supposed that before long the experimental shots of a , panorama pic- ture should be accomplished on 70mm film with subsequent optical printing to three 35mm films. ? In comparing the Kinopanorama proc- ess using. three 35mm films .with that of the wide-gage on 70mm, it is noted that the former provides wider artistic pros- pects through" its substantially' larger shooting angle and greater frame .area (by 1.85 times). Thus, increased angular dimensions of the screen, better image definition and better rendition of perspec- tive are easily obtained. However, Kino- panorama technique is more complex. Therefore there .are no projects en- visaging the further development of Kinopanorama and picturei of this sys- tem will be released on a limited scale. Circular Kinopanorama ? A- Circular .KinOpanorama theater has been 'operating in Moscow at the Exhibition of the National Economy of the USSR since '1959. In 1960 a similar' theater was opened in Prague,' Czechoslovakia, with Soviet equipment. The Central Documentary Studio filmed four programs for these theaters. . Since the length of the show is limited because it must be viewed standing and since it is impossible to see the whole picture because of its 360? scope, this system is shown only on a limited scale at exhibitions and in parks in only a few towns.' Three-Dimensional Systems For several years, four, stereo theaters have. been Operated without the use of glasses; and three' theaters,' on the polarizing method which uses glasses. Stereoscopic pictures are released regu- larly. In 1963 Mosfilm shot a wide-screen stereoscopic film intended for polarized projection. Hence, these varieties of projection will continue, though on a limited scale. The necessity of -keeping the?atidience motionless for the method using no glasses and of providing glasses for polarized presentations prevent .wider . application. Multiscreen Cinema .Since 1960 the, multiscreen method of 200 March 19W . journal ofihe:511,PTE ,N9ltime 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 simultaneous projection on seven 35mm screens by seven synchronously operated projectors has been exhibited at the Exhibition of National Economy of the USSR. As with Circular Kinopano- rama, it is planned to utilize multiscreen cinema on only a limited scale. Trends Experience has proved that the dif- ferent forms of cinematography de- veloped in the Soviet Union are not an- tagonistic. Each has its specific properties and offers different means for artistic expressiveness that justifies its existence and development. The systems currently in use are not considered to be the final word in cinematography. The history of cinematography tech- nique shows that the vital new forms are those which closely approximate the natural conditions of human beings. Consequently, the evolution of new forms will correspond to this fundamental principle. The awareness of the general develop- ment trends of cinema technique ensures correct estimation of the possibilities of future advance and makes possible the proper guidance of research for dis- covering new forms of cinematography. Investigations are carried through in an effort to contrive entirely new forms that would give the audience a wider choice of cinema entertainments and to provide those in the profession with the technical means necessary for artistic freedom in the creation of motion pictures. INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE Our cinematographic techniques and forms have been derived independently. Thus, there are some similarities and certain deviations from those of America and Europe. In order to establish a tech- nical means toward motion-picture ex- change, and to solve problems relating to the export and import of films, it is necessary to consider the fundamental parameters of the various systems. In spite of some variation in film di- mensions it has been found that the wide- screen system used in the Soviet Union ? as to the dimensions and location of anamorphic image and of magnetic tracks on 35mm release prints ? does not interfere with a' mutual exchange between different countries. Fig. 9. Camera for shooting Kinopanorama pictures onto three 35mm films (without blimp). On the basis of experience with wide- screen cinema, we have come to the conclusion that the use of a single aspect ratio of 2.35:1 on a film for release prints with both a stereomagnetic and an opti- cal one-channel soundtrack is logical. According to norms adopted, in our country, wide-screen pictures with the 2.55:1 ratio will not be released. The international practice with Cine- maScope indicates, too, that the said unification is justified. The wide-gage form which is currently used in the Soviet Union differs in some ways from Todd-AO, as, for instance, in the negative width, having 70 instead of 65mm, and so on; however, the film prints of both systems have an equal film width of 70mm, frame height with five perforations, an equal projection rate of 24 frames/sec and the,same dimensions and location of the ?magnetic tracks which allows for exchanging film prints between countries. Kinopanorama uses nine-channel stereo sound recording instead of the six-channel system used in Cinerama and Komar: Cinematography in the USSR and Cinemiracle. This creates better conditions for recording and improves the quality. However, considering that the export of films usually requires sound re-recording, the changeover from .a nine- to a six-channel soundtrack does not create any difficulty. The, dimensions and location. of magnetic tracks are such that in theaters equipped for Kinopano- ratna, direct projection of Cinerama -is possible. The use of Circular Kinopanorama and Circarama is limited and, therefore, of less interest; however, also in this case the eleven available 35mm projec- tors for Circular Kinopanorama (the lower screen circle) correspond to the eleven 16mm for Circarama. Thus, with the required optical printing and .sound re-recording, exchange is possible. It is the opinion of the author that the creation of technical premises for international cooperation and. exchange in the field of cinematography is one of the most serious problems faced by the engineers of many countries. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 201 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A Study of Noise in Television Camera Preamplifiers Performance criteria on video preamplifiers for use with image-orthicon and vidicon camera tubes are formulated. Recent developments in transistors have pro- duced units having a noise figure sufficiently good and a gain-bandwidth product sufficiently high to be useful in the design of all-solid-state TV cameras. Where the best possible signal-to-noise performance is essential, vacuum tube input circuits are still superior to transistors. A hybrid tube-transistor cascode circuit offers advantages. ATELEVISION system is a special case of a pulse transmission system in which the pulse width, amplitude, rise and fall time and pulse shape can vary in a com- pletely random manner. Such pulses are generated by the television camera tube, an optical-electrical transducer. After going through various transmission proc- esses they are finally displayed on a kinescope: The video preamplifier, which ampli- fies the feeble electrical pulses from the camera tube to a level suitable for trans- mission, is a vital link between the televised scene and the signal which is displayed on the viewing kinescope. ' At present, except for some isolated exceptions, two types of television camera tubes are used throughout the world for both broadcast and closed-circuit ap- plications. These are the image orthicon, a photoemissive device, and the vidicon, a photoconductive device. Characteristics of Image-Orthicon Video Signal The video signal from an image or- thicon is characterized by its relatively high amplitude and contains the noise generated by the ' orthicon scanning beam. Since the output signal is from the electron multiplier, which can be con- sidered as a current generator with high internal impedance, the source imped- ance viewed from the amplifier input stage is that of the load resistor. Typical video signal current levels from the image orthicon operating under normal conditions are from 4 to 40 ?a. The noise characteristics of the tube have been analyzed by various researchers.1,6 The signal-to-noise ratio can be expressed as follows: S _ Is,,t/ 2 ( T(5 ? 1)1/2 UQ13] 1 1 6 ? = 5 ? 1 A? where /0 g = total photocathode current, amp, = transmission of target mesh, %, Presented on April 24, 1963, at the Society's Conference in Atlantic City, N.J., by K. Sada- shige, Broadcast and Communications Products Div., Radio Corp. of America, Camden 2, N.J. (This paper received in final form, January 30, 1964.) 202 = secondary emission ratio of photo- cathode side of the target, Q = electric charge, 1.60 X 10 ?19 coulomb, B = video bandwidth, cycles/sec, and M = highlight modulation of return beam, 70. Since the signal-to-noise ratio is directly proportional to the square root of the reciprocal of the target electric charge, an obvious way to improve the signal-to-noise ratio is to increase the target-to-mesh capacitance at the ex- pense of sensitivity either by increasing the size of the picture at the target, as in the 41-in. tube, or by decreasing the spacing between the two electrodes. Table I shows the signal-to-noise ratio of various image orthicons along with their target-to-mesh capacitance values.2 With this information and the typical video output current values, we can compute a figure for the noise current output from the image orthicon. The value for 7389-A, a tube with high average signal-to-noise ratio, is approx- imately 0.050 ?a. Since the noise is essentially the beam noise, its power spectrum is essentially constant with frequency. Measurements of noise samples at various frequencies within the video band, using a narrow passband communications radio receiver, substantiate this assumption.3 1 By KOICHI SADASHIGE Characteristics of Vidicon Video Signal The mechanism of video signal genera- tion from a vidicon is similar to that of any photoconductive sensor, as shown in Fig. 1. The amplitude of the video signal out- put is governed by the polarizing po- tential applied to the target electrode (target voltage), providing that the face- plate illumination is not the limiting factor. Ultimately, it is limited by cath- ode emission and , aperture response ex- pected from the tube. Representative values of video signals for vidicons hav- ing different picture sizes are shown in Table II. If the signal current is increased beyond these figures, degradation of the aperture response will be observed. Other undesirable effects, such as geo- metric distortion and generation of spurious signal, may also be observed. The beam noise, or white noise con- tained in the video signal generated by the vidicon, is very small by com- parison with that of the image orthicon. Thus practically all the perceptible noise energy is contributed by the ex- ternal video amplifier. This fact con- tributes to the difference in noise spec- trum distribution patterns for image orthicon and vidicon. Assume that full storage is taking place and there is no gain or loss of electrons at the target. The noise current from the vidicon, in amperes, can then be expressed as: = (2QB415)i/2 where Q = electric charge, 1.60 X 1019 cou- lomb, Table I. Comparative Characteristics of Image-Orthicon Tubes Showing Target-to- Mesh Capacitance and Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Tube type Target-to- Tube mesh diam., in. spacing, in. Target-to mesh capacitance, Signal-to- Sensitivity noise 'index, ratio II 5820-A 3 0.0022 100 5,000-10,000 40:1 7293-A* 3 0.0018 120 8,000-16,000 37:1 4415* 3 0.0018 120 35:1 8093-A* 3 0.0012 180 5,000-10,000 50:1 7513* 3 0.0007 300 3,000-6,000 55:1 7198t 3 0.150 2 10:1 7629 t 3 0.010 20 32,000-64,000 18:1 8092-A*4 3 0.010 20 18:1 7295-A* 0.0022 300 approx.5,000 55:1 7389-A* 0.0010 600 approx.3,000 78:1 * Field mesh type. t Special high sensitivity tube with an extra wide spacing. t Magnesium oxide target. ? Based on exposure at knee of transfer characteristic curve and frame time of sec II Ratio of peak-to-peak signal current over rms noise current. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 B = bandwidth, cycles /sec, and 4,g = total target current, amperes. A typical value of the noise current for a bandwidth of 5 mc and peak-to- peak signal current of 0.3 ?a. (1-in. vidicon) is 0.0007 ?a, giving a peak- to-peak signal to rms noise ratio of 430 to 1. Design Criteria-Thermionic Tube Front End Conventional thermionic tubes are rapidly being replaced by solid-state devices in television camera circuitry, especially in the video amplifier circuits. Solid-state devices have made remarkable progress in important video parameters such as gain-bandwidth product and noise figure. A comprehensive review of design criteria using thermionic amplifier tubes is very instructive. A typical arrangement for coupling the vidicon to a tube-type preamplifier is shown in Fig. 2. Here RL is the vidicon load resistor which converts the current swing to a voltage swing. Cs is the total stray capacity across the input of the amplifier including the vacuum tube input capacity. RN is the shot noise equivalent resistance of the amplifier. If the gain of the first stage is sufficiently high, it approaches the equivalent noise resistance of the tube used in the first stage: RN2 RN3 RN = (RN1 - - Al2 -422 RN1 when A >> 1 1, 2, 3, ... = video amplifier stages No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, etc., RN = equivalent noise resistance of the amplifier, RN3 = equivalent noise resistance of the first stage, RN2 = equivalent noise resistance of the second stage, RN3 = equivalent noise resistance of the third stage, A1 = voltage gain of the first stage, and A2 = voltage gain of the second stage. Because of the shunting capacity Cs the input voltage or current to the amplifier attenuates at a rate equal to 6 db/octave after the corner frequency wc, as set by the time-constant RL and Cs. The attenuation in the signal and the noise inputs to the amplifier from the camera tube output is equal. A high-peaker amplifier stage having a gain-frequency characteristic identical to the inverse of the attenuation curve is inserted in the preamplifier to com- pensate for this loss of high-frequency video input. The noise generated by the first-stage tube, which is spontaneously added to the noise of the vidicon, can be expressed as follows: ENA = [4KTBRN 4KTRN (4r2B2R126,82)]ii, 3 SCANNING BEAM CATHODE TARGET I (PHOTO CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL) AMPLIFIER a-. TARGET tl POLARIZATION POTENTIAL Fig. I. Mechanism of video signal genera- tion from a vidicon. where K = Boltzmann's constant, 1.375 X 10 -23 Joule/K, and T = 300 K. For the typical circuit values of RL = 50 X 103 ohms, Cs = 30 X 10-12 farad, and for first amplifier tube having an equivalent noise resistance of 100 ohms, the noise value expressed in current is 0.00008 ?a. Because of the high-peaker circuit, this value, if seen from the output of the amplifier, increases at a rate of 6 db/oc- tave, starting at the corner frequency. At the low end of the video spectrum, where the noise is mainly contributed by the vidicon, the signal-to-noise ratio measured in a given bandwidth or point signal-to-noise ratio remains rela- tively constant. Beyond the frequency where equal amounts of noise are con- tributed by the vidicon and the amplifier -in this case, 1.0 mc/sec-the point signal-to-noise ratio decreases linearly at the rate of 6 db/octave. This relation- ship is shown in Table III and also in Fig. 3. Because of the amplitude-fre- quency distribution, this noise pattern is sometimes referred to as a triangular noise. It is interesting to observe that in the middle and lower frequency regions of the video spectrum, where visual acuity to noise is highest, the signal- to-noise ratio of a vidicon system is . 512 - 256 128 1119 0.300 'to IN' O.005uo 121 /77 Cs HIGH FEUER-0 CIRCUIT RL z LOAD RESISTOR Cs TOTAL STRAY CAPACITY RN EQUIVALENT NOISE RESISTANCE (FOR TRIODE, RN 2.5/TRANSCONDUCTANCE) Fig. 2. Typical arrangement for coupling vidicon to tube type preamplifier. Table II. Comparative Characteristics of Vidicon Tubes Tube type Picture Signal Bulb diag- current, diam. onal ?a. 4427* 7735* 8134t 8480t 8051* ML-2058G*.t 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 2.00 0.30 0.62 0.62 1.00 1.00 1.40 0.08 0.30 0.30, 0.40 0.40, 0.86 * Magnetic focus, magnetic deflection. f Electrostatic focus, magnetic deflection. I Tentative data. Table III. Point Signal-to-Noise Ratio of a Vidicon Camera System. S/N is ex- pressed in relative ratio of noise power in a given bandwidth to peak-to-peak video output voltage. Current values for both signal and noise are expressed in ?a. Fre- quency, Inc INV INA INT 13 S/ 0.1 0.0007 0.00008 0.00070 0.300 430:1 0.2 0.0007 0.00016 0.00072 0.300 420:1 0.4 0.0007 0.00032 0.00077 0.300 390:1 0.8 0.0007 0.00064 0.00100 0.300 300:1 1.6 0.0007 0.00128 0.00150 0.300 200:1 3.2 0.0007 0.00256 0.00260 0.300 115:1 6.4 0.0007 0.00512 0.00512 0.300 58:1 considerably superior even to the best image-orthicon signal-to-noise ratio. The image-orthicon preamplifier is quite different from the one for the vidi- 01SG VIDICON NOISE 64 - 32 16 4 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.60 3.20 6.40 FREQUENCY 400 300 20( 100 ? Hg. 3. Point signal-to-noise ratio of a vidicon system; frequency in mc/ sec; relative noise output in power in a given bandwith. Sadashige; Study of Noise in TV Camera Preamplifiers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 203 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Table IV. Point Signal-to-Noise Ratio of an Image-Orthicon Camera System With a Low Noise Input Amplifier Stage. Fre- quency, mc/sec 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.4 IN (Image Orthi- INA IT con) (1) (1) Is S/N 0.050 0.00008 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.050 0.00016 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.050 0.00032 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.050 0.00064 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.050 0.00128 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.050 0.00256 0.051 4.0 80:1 Table V. Point Signal-to-Noise Ratio of an Image-Orthicon Camera System With a Relatively High Noise Input Amplifier Stage. IN Fre- (Image quency, Orthi- INA IT mc/sec con) (2) (2) Is S/N 0.2 0.050 0.0008 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.4 0.050 0.0016 0.050 4.0 80:1 0.8 0.050 0.0032 0.050 4.0 80:1 1.6 0.050 0.0064 0.050 4.0 80:1 3.2 0.050 0.0128 0.051 4.0 78.5:1 6.4 0.050 0.0256 0.056 4.0 71.5:1 con. The basic configuration of the preamplifier is very similar to the vidicon circuit. A difference is the location of the corner frequency, which is about 200 kc as compared to 100 kc for the vidicon. This is due to the lower value of load resistor normally used for the image orthicon. It should be noted immediately that the value of the noise current for the image orthicon, typically 0.05 ?a, is several orders of magnitude higher than the noise current generated by a high- transconductance input amplifier tube. Thus, providing a specially low-noise input circuit does very little to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio for an image orthicon. The relationships are shown in Tables IV and V. In Table IV the noise current is computed for a high-transconductance triode input circuit having an equivalent noise resistance of 100 ohms. In Table V the noise current is computed for an equivalent noise resistance of 10,000 ohms, a value for a medium-transcon- ductance pentode. Degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio just begins to occur at the higher end of the spectrum. The all-important low- and midband per- formance is unaffected by this hundred- fold increase in the noise resistance value. This explains why very little attention from the viewpoint of noise performance was given to tube-type front-end designs for the image-orthicon preamplifier. Application of Transistors to Video Preamplifier In general, transistor noise sources are categorized into four major areas. They are: 204 (1) Thermal Noise Any conductor operating at a tem- perature other than absolute zero degree (Kelvin) generates noise, and it is caused by agitation of free electrons by thermal energy. Average noise voltage, EN = (4RKTB)1/ 2 Average noise current, IN = (4GKTB)V2 where ? K = Boltzmann's constant, 1.375 X 1023 Joules/K, T = temperature, degrees Kelvin, B = bandwidth, cycles/sec. R = resistance, ohms, and G I/R. In the case of the transistor, the thermal noise comes from the base spreading resistance r (2) Shot Noise Shot noise occurs whenever current flows because the arrival of electrons is completely random. The expression for the shot noise current, as expressed previously for the noise current of the vidicon tube, is as follows: /N = (2QB/17c)1/2 where /Dc is the value of the direct current through the device. One interesting fact is that the two diodes in a transistor, the emitter-base diode and the collector-base diode, de- velop shot noise in a coherent manner. This is because the shot noise in the two diodes comes from almost exactly the same carriers. In calculating the noise output, if the noise from the emitter is counted in full, then only the incoherent portion of the noise from the collector should be considered. (3) D&iision-Recombination Noise This noise is generated when carriers are separated or recombined after going through a junction and if a net change in charge takes place. (4) Flicker Noise This noise is most commonly referred as 1/f noise because the noise power for a given bandwidth increases inversely with frequency. The exact cause for the generation of this noise is not yet fully explored. Of these four noise sources, the first two, the thermal noise and the shot noise, are referred as white noise because the energy per unit bandwidth is con- stant throughout the radiation spectrum. These are the noise sources presently governing the high-frequency noise per- formance of transistorized video ampli- fiers. Because of generally high current gain of contemporary high-frequency tran- sistors, the third source, the diffusion- recombination noise, does not add much to the total noise and its output decreases March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 very rapidly with frequency. Therefore, in the following discussion, referring to Fig. 4, the noise sources are simply classified into two categories, the white noise, which includes the thermal noise and shot noise, and the semiconductor noise, which is mainly the 1/f noise. The semiconductor noise increases the power in a given bandwidth inversely with frequency at a rate of about 3 db/octave below the corner frequency as shown in Fig. 4A. The current gain of the transistor, unlike that of thermionic devices, is not constant throughout even the limited video frequency spectrum, but decreases in the higher frequency region because of the inherent transistor time-constant. If this loss of gain in the higher frequency region is to be com- pensated, then the increase in noise output takes place beyond the corner frequency set by the device time-con- stant. This is shown in Fig. 4B. The am- plitudes of both semiconductor and white noise from high-frequency planar units are low enough for them not to degrade the signal-to-noise ratio of the overall system if the input current from the image orthicon is at its normal high level. The general practice is to feed the current from the image orthicon directly into an amplifier having a flat frequency- response without resorting to the use of a high peaker circuit.5 By holding the input impedance of the amplifier to the neighborhood of 10 ohms, the corner frequency can be moved out beyond the useful video bandwidth. In this case no special compensation for the input time- constant is necessary. There are two basic characteristics of transistors which can play an important part in the design of low-noise, wideband video amplifiers such as are necessary for a vidicon camera system. First, the corner frequency for semi- conductor noise as well as the upper corner frequency decreases as the col- lector current is decreased. Second, the amplitude of the white noise is a function of the collector current, and, for the low-noise region (collector current less than 500 ?a), it decreases almost linearly with the collector current. These conditions are shown graph- ically in Fig. 5 for two arbitrary values of collector current. This indicates that although the general shape of the noise energy distribution remains the same, it can be moved up or down through the video frequency band and the absolute value can be varied by varying the collector current. By proper choice of collector current, the area under the curve, or the total noise energy in the video band, can be minimized. Some of the silicon planar transistors having a low base resistance and a high gain-bandwidth product exhibit a performance similar to that of a triode having a noise resistance of 300 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 SEMI?CONDUCTOR NOISE AREA NOISE AREA 44/0 FREQUENCY Fig. 4. Transistor noise distribution; both hori- zontal and vertical scales are logarithmic. VIDEO FROM VID1CON VIDEO OUT Fig. 6. Typical arrangement of the hybrid cascode in- put circuit. to 120 ohms, or a triode with 8,000 to 20,000 ?mhos transconductance. By using a collector current value of 100 to 200 ?a, the corner frequency of the semiconductor noise can be lowered below 100 cycles while the upper corner- frequency is maintained near 10 mc, making the noise distribution spectrum practically flat through the video band. One of the, interesting developments offered by transistors is a hybrid cascode input circuit. In this circuit configuration, the output current from the plate of the thermionic triode is fed into a feedback transistor amplifier having a very low input impedance. A typical arrangement is shown in Fig. 6. This configuration makes the voltage gain of the tube por- tion of the amplifier practically zero, thus also making the value of the Miller capacitance zero. Reduction of the input capacitance has a linear role in raising the corner frequency from which the high-peaker action must start. By chang- ing the top half of the cascode circuit as in Fig. ?6 from a tube to a transistor pair, the corner frequency can be raised by about 20% in the general electrical and mechanical arrangement used in a vidicon camera equipment. The result- ant improvement in the signal-to- noise ratio, especially in the midband frequency area, is quite apparent. Amplifier Requirements for Specialized Applications There are a number of instances where a video amplifier having exceptional noise performance is required. For astronomical or space-object observation, the image-orthicon tube must quite often operate several lens-stops below its knee, APERTURE RESPONSE IN % Lai (/) o_ 1./.1 HIGH COLLECTOR CURRENT LOW COLLECTOR CURRENT // 10 100 IK 10K 1001< IM 10M USEFUL VIDEO SPECTRUM Fig. 5. Basic characteristics of transistors; both horizontal and vertical scales are logarithmic; frequency in cps. 100 80 60 40 20 VIDICON (40 GAUSS FOCUS FIELD) TYPICAL COMMERCIAL 16 MM FILM' RESULTANT APERTURE RESPONSE Fig. 7. Aperture 16mm film. yielding only a few tenths of micro- amperes of video signal current. The preamplifier for such an application must possess an inherent signal-to-noise ratio far greater than the unit used for conventional vidicon camera systems because the contribution of the noise from the camera tube is far greater in the image orthicon than in the vidicon, yet the amplitude of the signal current is comparable. Another example is the vidicon film- camera system, especially if the 16mm motion-picture film is its main intended material. 16mm film, either color or mono- chrome, requires special attention for processing use in a television camera system. Because of its relatively wide density range from the highlight to the black, an additional gamma correction in the order of 0.7 is essential. The measured aperture response curve of a commercial 16mm film is shown in Fig. 7, indicating that response is down by approximately 10 db at 3 mc. Consider- ing the fact that a 1-in. vidicon aperture response is down about 6 db at 3 mc, a total boost of 16 db at this frequency is necessary in order to restore picture sharpness. It has been shown previously that a vidicon camera system operating with a 0.3 ?a beam current and having an amplifier with a 100-ohm noise resistance has a signal-to-noise ratio of 200 to 1 at 1.6 mc and of 115 to 1 at 3.2 mc. With a 16-db boost applied at 3 mc, these figures fall to 70 to 1 at 1.6 mc. Gamma 2 3 4 FREQUENCY IN MEGACYCLES response curve of a typical commercial Table VI. High Transconductance Thermionic Tubes for Video Amplifier Input Circuit. Tube type Plate Tram- supply conduct- volt- ance age Plate (Gm, (Eb, current micro- (RN, volts) (lb, ma) mhos) Gm/lb ohms) Equiv- alent noise x esist- ance 7308* 100 30.0 25,000 0.83 100 7586t 75 10.5 11,500 1.10 200 7586$ 75 21.0 23,000 1.10 100 7722* 160 24.5 33,000 1.35 80 7768 200 24.0 50,000 2.08 60 7788? 130 35.0 45,000 1.28 60 7963* 100 15.0 26,000 1.73 100 * Twin triode connected in parallel. t Nuvistor. Two triodes connected in parallel. ? Pentode connected as triode. correction further degrades this figure. Within the last few years, a number of ultra-high-transconductance tubes have been developed for special applications such as telemetry receivers and wideband IF amplifiers. A transconductance figure of 50,000 ?ohms is realizable in these tubes, and by careful selection of plate and grid bias voltages to minimize the flow of grid current, an equivalent noise resistance in the neighborhood of 60 ohms can be obtained. The relative performances of various tubes in this category are listed in Table VI.4 The signal-to-noise ratio realizable by an input circuit using such a tube in a hybrid cascode circuit is still approx- imately 4 to 10 db above the best figure attainable from an all semiconductor input stage. Sadashige: Study of Noise in TV Camera Preamplifiers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 205 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Conclusions In the foregoing discussion, only problems concerned with signal-to-noise ratio are considered. Other important amplifier characteristics are completely ignored. We feel that a relatively straight- forward approach offers ready solutions to such problems as frequency and phase responses, amplitude linearity, heat dis- sipation and power consumption. Even in the area of the signal-to-noise problem, we believe that in the near future, new semiconductor devices and refinement of circuit configuration can conceivably surpass the results now obtainable only with the best thermionic tube amplifiers. Acknowledgment: The author wishes to express his sincere thanks to Dr. H. N. Kozanowski, Manager, Advanced De- velopment, Broadcast and Communica- tions Products Div., Radio Corp. of America, for his helpful suggestions and encouragement in preparing this paper. References 1. E. G. Ramberg, IRE Trans., PGME, Dec. 1958. 2. R. G. Newhauser, "New television camera tubes in perspective," Jour. SMPTE, 70: 979-982, Dec. 1961. 3. L. E. Weaver, "The measurement of random noise in the presence of a television signal," BBC Engineering Div. Monograph, March 1959. 4. "Amperex application bulletin for tube type 7788," Amperex Electronic Corp., Hicks- ville, LI., N.Y., 1961. 5. Yasushi Fujimura, "Study of transistor video amplifier with feedback loop," Tech. J., Japan Broadcasting Corp., No. 10, pp. 689- 697, Nov. 1962. 6. B. H. Vine, "Analysis of noise in the image orthicon," Jour. SMPTE, 70: 432-435, June 1961. Some Photographic Studies of Optical Masers Three methods for recording properties of optical maser emissions are discussed. First, a series of 400,000-picture/sec records were made of the maser emission. Second, the polarization of a ruby optical maser was recorded with a unique high- speed photographic technique. Third, the coherence of maser emission was ex- amined with a wavefront shearing interferometer and recorded with a conven- tional 35mm camera. These techniques and some initial observations that were made of maser emissions are described. LTHOUGH many high-speed cameras A have been devised, a general purpose camera which is best suited for all appli- cations has not been developed. Thus, in the field of high-speed photography Many *different and varied designs are in current use. Each has its respective ad- vantages' and disadvantages which pre- clude or, lirnit its use for certain applica- tions. , A fiber-optics camera, which was origi- nally designed to take x-ray pictures, has proved to be a valuable instrument for recording maser emissions. It records series of 75 pictures at the, rate of 400,000 pictures/sec with a resolution of 32,000 image elements. This camera, which was developed by ,J. S., Courtney-Pratt," has two distinct advantages: (1) light is collected and transmitted with a high efficiency to a photographic plate with a consequent reduction in the light re- quired by a factor of 10 to 100; and (2) the geometry of the design allows a minimum movement of the photographic emulsion to record separate images. As a result, the recording rate can be in- creased by a large factor. This paper describes investigations made of the spatial distribution, polari- Presented on October 17, 1963, at the Society's Technical Conference in Boston by Thomas J. Pavliscak, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 6200 E. Broad, Columbus 13, Ohio. (This paper was first received on September 19, 1963, and in final form on February 10, 1964.) 206 zation and coherence of maser emission. Only the spatial distribution and polari- zation were recorded with the fiber- optics camera; coherence was recorded with a conventional 35mm camera. A Fiber-Optics Image Dissection Camera An image dissection camera is one which records an image by sampling the light intensity at a large number of points uniformly spaced over the image. Hence, the picture is "dissected" into a? large number of dots of varying intensity much as in a newspaper picture. Similarly the larger the number of dots per picture the better the picture 'quality. If the dots are very small, they can be separated by relatively large distances, but still pro'- vide sufficient information to produce a picture of good quality. Thus, many pictures (arrays of dots) may be recorded interspersed on a single photographic plate. The dissection of the image can be achieved with a fiber-optic block, shown schematically in Fig. 1. The block is composed of an array of parallel light guides imbedded in an opaque matrix. Each light guide is a 0.001-in.-diameter, 1-in.-long flint glass fiber with a thin concentric sheath of crown glass which transmits light by total internal reflection along the fiber. Hence, light from an image on one side of the block is trans- mitted to a photographic emulsion on the opposite side via each of the fibers. By March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE . Volume 73 BY THOMAS J. PAVLISCAK moving the photographic plate rapidly past the fiber-optic block, each fiber will trace a streak record of the variation of the image light intensity on the photo- graphic emulsion. Individual pictures are composed of an array of dots re- corded simultaneously, i.e., one dot from the streak record produced by each fiber. In order to select all those dots corresponding to one picture and ex- clude all others, the processed photo- graphic plate must be aligned in the camera in precisely the position it oc- cupied when it was exposed. Thus, the fiber-optic block will mask off all image elements not corresponding to a single picture. To aid in this alignment a small xenon flashlamp which produced a flash lasting 2 or 3 ?sec (microseconds) was triggered in synchronism with the optical maser. Light from the flashlamp was allowed to fall in a narrow strip along one edge of the fiber-optic block. This produced a single set of sharply defined dots which greatly expedited the align- ment of the photographic plate. With the processed photographic plate properly aligned, the camera mechanism can be operated slowly by hand so the recorded sequence can be viewed in slow motion or copied with any convenient camera. Three models of a fiber-optics image dissection camera have been designed and built by J. S. Courtney-Pratt. The first could record 6 to 10 pictures with 20,000 image elements (40 lines of 500 dots per line), and the second could record 80 pictures with 1,800 image elements. The latest design can record 75 pictures with 32,000 image elements. The principal advantage in this design is the elimination of a mechanical shutter that is necessary in conventional high- speed camera design. A detailed dis- cussion of the camera is given by J. S. Courtney-Pratt.1? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Ruby Optical Maser The light emitted by a pulsed ruby optical maser is widely known to occur in a series of short bursts called spikes. Each spike commonly has a duration of only a few microseconds, but the whole series of such spikes usually occupies an interval of 50 to 200 ?sec, each time the ruby is pumped above threshold. In- dividual spikes of light are not of uni- form intensity across the whole end face of the ruby. Possibly each filamentary spike represents oscillation in one mode. The study of these modes of oscillation would seem to require observation of the individual filaments in their natural sequence. Thus, high-speed pictures appear to be useful for recording the temporal and spatial variation of the? light output. ? The maser crystal used was a "pink" ruby rod containing approximately 0.05% Cr2O3, 0.57 cm in diameter by 5.09 cm long, with its C-axis* approxi- mately 60? to the cylindrical axis. The rod ends were coated with silver in such a way that one end was opaque and the other a few per cent transmitting. It was held cantilever fashion along the axis of a General Electric FT524 helical xenon flashlamp. A 5,000-volt power supply was used to charge a 500-?f capacitor, which in turn discharged through the flashtube when a triggering voltage was applied. In addition, a 290-?h inductor was connected in series with the capacitor to protect the flash- tube by limiting high current surges. As shown schematically in Fig. 1, the apparatus was arranged so that the maser emission emerged from the par- tially silvered end of the crystal and passed through a 6,950 A interference filter. It then 4ruck an 11-cm lens, which foeused ap eight-times-enlarged image of the maser face on the fiber- optic block of the camera, where the emission was recorded on Kodak type I-F or IV-F microflat, 4 by 5 by 0.25-in., glass photographic plates. Many series of high-speed pictures of the maser emission were recorded. Unscrambled records of these series were copied in turn with either a Contax 35- mm camera or a Bolex 16mm eine cam- era. A single enlarged unscrambled picture is shown in .Fig. 2, and the odd- numbered frames of a 400,000-frame/ sec sequence are shown in Fig. 3. Same- what similar sequences of pictures of maser emissions have been made with a Beckman and Whitley, Model 102, framing camera at 500,000 frames/sec by Dayhoff and Kessler." These pictures were recorded on 35mm film in a series of 80. Examination of Fig. 3 reveals that individual spikes of light are emitted in a seemingly independent fashion, with the pattern of light varying in some erratic * The Caxis is the crystal orientation axis. 5000 4000V D.C. WORKING 2900 45V FROM BREAK l'E---WIRE TRIGGER PULSER HT LIGHT TIGHT BOX? FLASH 787 PNEUMATIC i/?'DRIVE HT TRIGGER RUBY A SLIT 1k \--FILTERS \--II CM. LENS .XENON HELICAL FLASH TUBE LIGHT TIGHT BOX FOCUSED ADAGE OF'TNE RUBY Fig. 1. The arrangement of equipment for recording maser emission. ? ffs. PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE FIBER OPTIC IMAGE DISSECTION BLOCK PLATE CARRIER .45V BREAK WIRE \JOGGLE RELEASE CATCH Fig. 2. A photograph of a maser emission obtained with a fiber-optics camera. manner from picture to picture. In general, the patterns observed do not seem to have any simple geometric con- figuration, but the emission has been observed to sweep over the picture from one area to another; and certain frames, such as number 25 in Fig. 3, appear to bear semblance of an interference pattern. Series of pictures made by Dayhoff and Kessler with the Beckman and Whitley camera have revealed similar patterns in the emission, viz., "Bar"-type patterns that swept over the picture for a duration of essentially 5 ?sec were observed." If events of very short duration oc- curred in the maser emission, it is con- ceivable that some may have been ob- scured by an integration of the light intensity on the photographic film, for the interval of time that is necessary to move one fiber diameter. Since approxi- mately 2 ?sec are required to move a fiber diameter, events of shorter duration may be obscured. Thus, the fiber-optics camera may not record all the details of the emission. On the other hand, the Beckman and Whitley camera will not, record events occurring between frames; consequently, the time resolution Of ? both cameras is limited to essentially 2 ?sec. Since the individual spikes in the emission may have a duration of less than Pavliscak: Photographic Studies of Optical Masers 207 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 this, it is difficult to use these cameras to obtain a great deal of quantitative data about them. Nevertheless, both cameras provide good pictures of the vacillation of the emission for speeds of essentially one half million frames per second. In particular, the picture sequences taken with the fiber-optics camera and un- scrambled with the Bolex 16mm camera can be shown in cine fashion and vividly illustrate the process. Perhaps the only camera currently available that could obtain pictures with a greater time resolution is an 3 5 7 9 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 image converter camera. Space Tech- nology Laboratories, which produces such a camera, has recorded some optical maser pictures with exposure times of only 5 to 200 nsec (nanoseconds), and between 15 nsec and 10 msec, picture separation. The primary disadvantage with this camera is that only three pic- tures can be recorded in sequence with present models. This restriction, which is imposed by the construction of the camera, might be somewhat reduced by current . plans to provide the camera with a movable film. This would allow 41 43; 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 - Fig. 3. A sequential record of maser emission obtained with the fiber-optics camera. 61; 631 65 67' 69 71 73 75 77 79 208 ^ March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 series of three pictures each to be made in sequence at a repetition rate of 2 kc/ sec. Although this seems a little slow, the latitude of selection, allowed in ex- posure, and picture separation help to compensate for this disadvantage. Many other possibilities exist for the recording of high-speed maser phe- nomena. For example, one might con- sider a Kerr cell used in conjunction with an image dissection camera. With this arrangement both the exposure and the exposure interval could be selected. However, this combination of devices is similar to that already utilized in the image converter camera. Thus, although many such arrangements of existing equipment could be combined, a real advantage may not be obtained. Many combinations of devices, which have proved useful in high-speed photography, have been discussed by J. S. Courtney- Pratt.8,9,12'13 Pictures that were recorded of the maser emission with the fiber-optics camera showed the general characteris- tics of the emission, but they were not fast enough to obtain clear records of the individual filaments and spikes. D. F. Nelson and others have emphasized that different rubies have different emissions.23 The emission pattern is apparently a function of the crystal perfection and the flatness of the ends. Thus, although photographic records for many different crystals would be desirable, one would not expect to observe consistency from crystal to crystal. Polarization Experiment High-speed pictures of optical maser emission have not included any indica- tion of the polarization of the emitted light. In order to study polarization as a function of space and time, sequences of pictures were made of the light after it had passed through a specially de- signed optical system. Since the emission time is so brief for a pulsed optical maser, a well-known device such as a Soleil Compensator cannot provide a con- tinuous history of the polarization on the maser surface. To effect the desired response, a prism (Fig. 4) was con- ceived by J. S. Courtney-Pratt and constructed by the Karl Lambrecht Company of Chicago. It is composed of two identical quartz wedges of opposite rotations, i.e., righthand and lefthand quartz, cemented together with an optically inactive cement. Plane polarized collimated light that is passed through crystal quartz, parallel to the optic axis, has the plane of polariza- tion rotated in direct proportion to the thickness of the quartz traversed. This rotation is 15.75?/mm for a wavelength of 7,000 A. A narrow pencil of plane polarized light ao, shown in Fig. 4, will pass through the length of the prism undeviated, since the amount of right- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 hand and lefthand quartz traversed is equal. On the other hand, for a narrow pencil of plane polarized light to either side of ao (e.g., al or a2) the plane of polarization will be rotated in either the righthand or lefthand direction, in proportion to the difference between the amount of 'righthand and lefthand quartz traversed. The maximum rotation of 197? occurs at either edge, where a differential thickness of 12.5 mm exists. Thus, if the prism is illuminated by plane polarized light and viewed through a Polaroid sheet used as an analyzer, three lines will in general be visible. If the Polaroid sheet is aligned for maximum transmission in the absence of the prism, these lines wil correspond to transmission at the center of the prism where the plane of polarization is undeviated, and near the edges where the plane of polariza- tion is rotated +180? and ?180?. When the plane of polarization of the source is rotated, the three lines trans- mitted will be displaced to the right or left, respectively, for clockwise or counter- clockwise rotation. Thus, if the polari- zation was rapidly varying, one could observe that fact by recording the rapidly varying horizontal displacement of the lines. To determine the polarization of a narrow pencil of light, it is necessary that the light be diverged into a horizontal line, whose width is equal to the width of the prism. Thus, light will be transmitted through the prism polarizer combination at three points as previously described, and the position of the maxima and minima of intensity will indicate the polarization of the source. If a series of narrow pencils of light were aligned in a vertical line with respect to the prism, they could be examined simultaneously. Each of the narrow pencils along the original vertical line would be spread in the horizontal plane, and then would be transmitted through the prism as pre-' viously described. If the entire source were of the same polarization, the light transmitted by the prism polarizer com- bination would appear as three vertical lines. Conversely, if the narrow pencils were not of the same polarization, dis- continuities or slopes would be visible in the transmitted lines. The relative horizontal displacement of these dis- continuities would, thus, be indicative of the changes in polarization. The property that makes the instru- ment particularly useful is the complete absence of any mechanical adjustment to determine changes in the polarization. A high-speed photographic record of the patterns transmitted by the prism pro- vides a (continuous) history of the polarization of all points on a line source. Owing to its unique properties, the prism is particularly well suited to the study of the polarization of the emission from a ruby optical maser. In order to apply the technique, however, a slit must be used I97?CCW OPTIC OF BOTH R.H. & L.H. QUARTZ Fig. 4. Courtney-Pratt 197*CW prism. ? HT MASER FILTER-- I TRIGGER A II CM. LENS CONVEX CYLIN- D.RICAL;77 LENS. CONCAVE CYLINDRICAL LENS SLIT (a) VIEW OF HORIZONTAL PLANE WIDTH (b) VIEW OF VERTICAL PLANE CAMERA POLAROID SHEET -- LENGTH COMPOSITE LEFT & RIGHT HAND QUARTZ PRISM ? - -- ILLUMINATION FROM A LINE SOURCE FOCUSED LIGHT FROM THE RUBY Fig. 5. The arrangement of equipment for obtaining polarization records. to restrict the area of the maser under study to a line source. A slit for this pur- pose might properly be placed at the ruby surface, but the physical arrange- ment of the apparatus would make this inconvenient. Instead, the slit was placed in the optical system so that it is equiva- lent to one placed on the ruby. A sketch of the arrangement of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 5. The system was arranged in such a way that only one selected line on the ruby surface was examined for polariza- tion at a time. Figure 5(b) indicates that an image of the emission from the end face of the ruby is formed on the prism in the vertical plane by an 11-cm lens; the light in this plane passes through the cylindrical lenses parallel to the cylin- drical axis so that it is undeviated. Conversely, in the horizontal plane? Fig. 5(a)?the light passes through the cylindrical lenses transverse to the cylindrical axis so that the light is deviated. Consequently, in the hori- zontal plane, light traversing the 11-cm spherical lens is focused on a slit by a convex cylindrical lens which restricts the emission to a line source. This light Pavliscak: Photographic Studies of Optical Masers is then passed through a concave cylin- drical lens which ? spreads the line to a width equal to that of the prism. With the fiber-optics camera properly po- sitioned with respect to the prism, the polarization of the emission of many points along a line on the end face of the ruby can be recorded simultaneously. The fiber-optics camera was used to record many sequences of polarization records, an example of which is shown in Fig. 6. These records showed little deviation from a single plane polariza- tion for experiments made with a ruby whose C-axis was at 60? to the rod axis. Nelson and Collins have reported' no deviation or departure for the whole of the emission in an experiment that used two phototubes and a Glan-Thompson prism." Consequently, further study seems worth while, particularly with the ruby C-axis parallel (or nearly parallel) to the cylindrical axis. At the time this experiment was performed, .additional investigations with crystals possessing different crystalline orientations were desired; however, suitable crystals were not available at that time. Initial plans also included investigations of the polari- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 209 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A....v.* .*** s ? * Fig. 6. A polarization record. HT MASER FILTERS SODIUM OR WHITE \ I / ------LIGHT REFERENCE.SOURCE //1 ?LENS & IRIS \ / \ -.1 ?ADJUSTABLE SLIT \ , 8 IN. LENS PIN HOLE / .002 IN. DIA. / ',? I TRIGGER ? 1.5 IN. LENS PARTIALLY SILVERED LENS HT MASER i.5 M. LENS PARTIALLY SILVERED MIRROR FOR USE WITH REFERENCE SOURCE PIN HOLE TRIGGER CAMERA 7-1/4 IN. LENS ii CM. LENS 500wf 29001 MICROSCOP II 1 GROUND GLASS SOURCE Fig. 8. The application of a microscope for aligning equip- ment. GRUBS & PARSONS INTERFEROMETER sow 2soith Fig. 7. The arrangement of equipment for an interference experiment. zation of the neodymium t maser. The only alteration in the arrangement of the apparatus would be the substitution of an infrared polarizer sheet, type HR, in place of the ordinary polaroid which was used for the ruby. However, the difficulties encountered in obtaining good photographs of the infrared emis- sion with the fiber-optics camera pre- cluded such an investigation. In general, however, one would expect the neo- dymium emission to be unpolarized, since' it is not crystalline in nature and hence would be expected to have no preferred direction for polarization. It can be concluded that the emission frorn a ruby optical maser with its C- axis 60? to the rod axis is approximately plane polarized. The emission may have consisted of many spikes that originated from different quanta and are individ- ually but not collectively plane polar- ized. Further study of polarization, t Neodymium is another of the many active maser materials. 210 particularly with the ruby C-axis paral- lel (or nearly parallel) to the cylindrical axis would appear to be useful. Interference Experiment Although various interference ex- periments have been performed with ruby optical masers, an experiment with a wavefront shearing interferometer has not been reported. A major advantage of the instrument is the property that an entire wavefront is superimposed upon itself with some lateral displacement, hereafter referred to as shear. As a result, the instrument allows one to test points on the entire wavefront simultaneously for coherence. The II/articular points on the wavefront that are tested are de- termined by the size of the shear ad- justment. The instrument also has a second advantage, i.e., characteristics of the wavefront can be obtained from a computation performed on data pro- vided in the interference pattern.',4,5," Other interference experiments which have been performed were not as versatile, e.g., a two-slit Young's in- terference experiment is limited to the study of selected points, rather than the entire emitting area of the maser.24 It was hoped that the experiment, with the wavefront shearing interferom- eter, would verify conclusions made re- garding the distance over which the emis- sion was coherent and, furthermore, would indicate its spatial distribution. The instruments used were Grubb- Parsons wavefront shearing interferom- eters, models WS1 and WS3. The WS1 was a fixed unit in which both shear and tilt were permanently adjusted to pro- vide a shear angle and fringe separation of 0.01 radian. The WS3 instrument was provided with both a variable shear and tilt; shear was adjustable from 0 to 0.05 radian, and fringe separation was adjustable to a minimum of 0.0015 radian. In order to employ the interferometer, an optical system was designed in which the interferometer could be calibrated with a reference source, prior to operat- ing the maser. The optical arrangement is shown in Fig. 7. Emission from the maser was first incident on a lens of focal length 1.5 in. positioned approxi- mately 3 in. from the crystal surface. (This distance was made as small as prac- ticable to minimize the uncertainty in the light emission due to the diffraction spread of the beam.) A lateral un- certainty of about 0.006 in. in the point of emission resulted from the 3-in. separa- tion. The 1.5-in, lens focused light on a pinhole which eliminated light due to oblique modes. The effectiveness of this restriction to unidirectional modes was, of course, determined by the size of the pinhole. Light passing through the pin- hole was focused (by a combination of two lenses) on one of the surfaces within the interferometer. Interference pat- terns, in the sheared wavefront leaving the interferometer, were observed directly and recorded on a photographic emul- sion. A reference source, which was focused on an adjustable slit, was arranged at right angles to the ruby axis. Light pass- ing through the slit was, in turn, focused by means of a partially silvered mirror on the same pinhole as that on which March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 the maser beam was-focused. Thus; the light from either the reference source or the ruby could be selected at ..will, and passed in ,exactly the same, .,manner through the interferorneter: , - In order to align the optical systein, a microscope with a beam .splitter was emplOyed as shown in Fig. 8. Light from a convenient source was passed ' through the beam splitter and the objective lens in such a manner that an image of the pinhole could be viewed through the. eyepiece; however,, for convenience ,the eyepiece was removed and the irnage Was " projected on a ground glass. If the sys- tem is properly aligned,. some light will pass through the pinhole and be re- flected ,back from the: silvered ruby surface so that it is coincident with the image of the pinhole. A: final' cheat of the alignment Was made by 'triggering the Maser and observing the ground glass for evidence of the ruby emission,, at the position previously occupied by . the ithage of the pinhole. Th' ,reference source and ? the? beam-splitter position. were then adjusted so that the path of the light emitted from the reference source was Coincident with that, of the ruby iburce. The microscope was then. removed, and two lenses .were ,added which focused the wavefront emerging from the pinhole, at a point where' the interferonaeter could be placed:: Finally, the interferometer was ?positioned on a platform that allowed micrometer adjust- ments along the _X-, Y-, and Z-axes. Initial interferometer'adjustmenfswere made while observing a sodium reference source. These adjustments Were re-. peated; ' while viewing- a White-light source, to equalize 'the., path lengths within the interferometer; proper ad= justment was indicated by the appearance. of a central black fringe in the inter- ference pattern. $ Interference patterns were recorded on a photographic 'emul- sion, held in, a' suitable position With re- spect to the interferometer; While the Maser was operated Above, tlireshold. Many interference patterns were re- corded with various shear settingS -so that coherence could be studied,H Seyeral other studies of coherenee have been made with other techniques, such as A Young's experirnent.24 Results from the'Young's experitherit indicated that the coherent emission 'was .r.e- stricted to areas not greater than 0.5 'mm distant froth' one another. Another ex- periment that ha's been performed con- sisted of the superposition of the einission from the opposite ends of a ruby. Maser." One might expect that the ihterference patterns obtained with the wavefront shearing interferometer_worild be .similar ? N' rather annoying, experimental. difficulty encountered V?ai the appearance of a, third image in the interference pattern Mid& `certain conditions Considerable difficulty ,:was e.xperi-1 enced in eliminating this irnage_arid obtaining proper adjustment. , to this ekperitnent Jiecause the maser emission consists of nearly plane standing waves Consequently the emitted light frOin either end of the crYstal would have :a :,,fiXed Phase difference and would, therefore, be interferable.Al2 examina- tion of the interference patterns did in- dicate definite .similarities. It Was hoped that the interference pat- . term, obtained with the wavefront shear- Fig. 9. Records of interference patterns. ing interferometer, would indicate the manner in which . coherence existed in the ruby' emission. If the emission was not coherent over ' the entire', emitting area, the photographs Might' Show patches of fringes On a fringeless field, thus indicating the spatial distribtition,of the coherent light. Such results ,.would be useful in studying the Origin of the oscillations. Another observation might be the appearance of discontinuities or bifurcations in the fringe patterns; Pavhscak Photographic Studies of Optical Masers Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? ? 211, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 this would indicate general boundaries where discontinuities in coherence ex- isted. No evidence of either was obtained. However, contrast was observed to diminish to the vanishing point with in- creased traverse shift. This diminished contrast indicated that coherence does not exist for points too far apart. For very small values of shear a rather uniform fringe pattern over the entire emitting area was observed as shown in Fig. 9(b). For large shears the resolution of the fringes was reduced, as shown in Figs. 9(c) and 9(d). In order to ob- tain maximum resolution of the fringes, it was necessary to eliminate "off axis modes" of oscillation, which tend to obscure the fringe pattern. Minimiza- tion of these modes was achieved by operating the maser just above threshold with the previously mentioned pinhole in place. Two different sized pinholes were used for the photographs taken; they were 0.5 mm (0.0197 in.) in diam- eter, and 0.04 mm (0.0015 in.) in diam- eter. Data taken indicated that the 0.5-mm-diameter pinhole is virtually useless for restricting the unwanted modes; whereas, the 0.04-mm-diameter hole was effective. The effectiveness of the 0.04-mm pinhole is demonstrated by the clear fringe pattern in Fig. 9(f) and the virtual absence of a fringe pattern in Fig. 9(e). When the maser was operated below threshold, the fringes were observed to disappear, as we would expect, since natural fluorescence is not coherent. Figure 9(f), made with the small pinhole, shows no discontinuity in the interfer- ence pattern, thus indicating that the emission is coherent for a shear of 0.30 mm. In Fig. 9(g) the shear was increased to 0.51 mm, and a mosaic pattern with little evidence of coherence was ex- hibited. The circular patterns evident in Fig. 9(g) are probably diffraction pat- terns from the dust particles on the lens in the optical system. Photographs taken with shear settings greater than 0.30 mm but less than 0.51 mm showed a gradual diminishing in resolution and contrast until the fringes were no longer dis- cernible. No sudden changes in fringe patterns were observed for a small change in shear. From the data taken, it was con- cluded that the emission was coherent for at least a distance of approximately 0.45 mm on the end face of the maser. This identical experiment could be performed with a diffraction limited optical oscillator. Such a device has been described for which the output beam di- verges less than twice the diffraction limit." This arrangement eliminates the loop gain of the "off axis modes" and, consequently, provides a high Q for the axial mode of oscillation. Thus, a narrow beam with fewer divergent modes is ob- tained. The experiment could also be performed with a gas optical maser. Greater monochromaticity of the gas 212 maser emission might allow examination of fringe patterns with very large shears. One might also consider performing this experiment with a Mach-Zender inter- ferometer, rather than the Grubb-Parsons instrument; however, this was not done, since it did not seem to provide any real advantage. It may be concluded that the coher- ence of the emission seems to be uniform over the surface of the ruby, when the areas considered are not separated by more than 0.45 mm, since no deviation from this has been observed. Irt addition, no sharp discontinuities in coherence were found to exist over the entire emit- ting area of the maser. These results agree with the results of Nelson and Collins.24 Nevertheless, it seems advisable that additional data should be taken, to search more extensively for unique features which might be discernible in the emission. In particular, high-speed pic- tures of the interference patterns seem to be warranted. Infrared Maser An effort was made to obtain pictures of the emissions from an infrared maser with the fiber-optics camera using the same method described for the ruby maser. The particular material used was neodymium or specifically, 2% by weight Nd203 in barium crown glass, prepared by the American Optical Co.; primary emission for it occurs at a wave- length of 1.06 microns in the infrared. Several pictures were recorded on Kodak type 1LZ photographic plates. However, they exhibited poor resolution because of a surprisingly high infrared transmission in the sheath portion of the fiber-optic block. Consequently the pictures were of little use. This problem could be elimi- nated by using a fiber-optic block with sheath portions that are opaque in the infrared. Conclusions The application of three new photo- graphic techniques for recording the properties of optical maser emission have been described. Some particularly note- worthy observations were made from the limited data that were obtained. First, the emission of a ruby optical maser with its C-axis oriented 60? to the rod axis is approximately plane polarized. Second, the emission of such a maser appears to be uniformly coherent across the end face of the maser. This coherence diminishes as the distance between the areas under consideration is increased. The apparatus used could not detect coherence for areas separated by greater than 0.45 mm. Acknowledgment: I would like to express my appreciation to J. S. Courtney-Pratt for his help and encouragement during the various phases of the experiments. I would also like to thank J. W. McLaughlin for helping in the alignment and operation of some of the equipment and for unscrambling some of the sequences with the Bolex cine camera. References 1. W. J. Bates, "A wave front shearing interfer- ometer," Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), 59: 940, 1947. 2. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics Pergamon Press, New York, 311-315, 1959. 3. G. D. Boyd and H. Kogelnik, Private com- munication. 4. D. S. Brown, "The application of shearing interferometry to routine optical testing," J. Sci. Instr., 32: 137-139, Apr. 1955. 5. D. Brown, "A shearing interferometer with fixed shear and its application to some prob- lems in the testing of astro-optics," Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B, 67: 232, 1954. 6. G. Clark, S. Ridgway, R. Wuerker, and C. York, High speed photographic study of the structure of ruby laser emission, STL Prod- ucts. 7. R. Collins, D. Nelson, A. Schawlow, W. Bond, C. Garret, and W. Kaiser, "Coherence, narrowing, directionality and relaxation oscillations in the light emission from ruby," Phys. Rev. Letters, 5: 303-305, Oct. 1, 1960. 8. J. S. Courtney-Pratt, "Fast multiple frame photography," J. Phot. Sci., 1: 21, 1953. 9. J. S. Courtney-Pratt, "Image converter tubes and their applications to high speed photography," Phot. J., 92B: 137, 1952. 10. J. S. Courtney-Pratt, "A fiber-optics camera," 6th Intern. Congr. High-Speed Phot., Scheveningen, The Hague, Netherlands, 1962; Proceedings, H. D. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon N. V., P.O. Box 113, Haarlem, The Netherlands. 11. J. S. Courtney-Pratt, "Some uses of optical masers in photography," Jour. SMPTE, 70: 509, July 1961. 12. J. S. Courtney-Pratt and D. P. C. Thackeray, "Apparatus for high speed photography," Proc. Intern. Congr. High-Speed Photography, 3rd, London, 1957. See also J. Phot. Sci., 5: 32, 1957. 13. J. S. Courtney-Pratt, "A review of the methods of high speed photography," Repts. Progr. in Phys., 20: 319-432, 1957. 14. E. Dayhoff, and B. Kessler, "High speed sequence photography of a ruby laser," Appl. Optics, 1: May 1962. 15. G. E. Devlin, Private communication. 16. J. Ditzenberger, Private communication. 17. R. L. Drew, "A simplified shearing inter- ferometer," Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), B, 64: 1005, 1951. 18. V. Euthor, and J. K. Neeland, "Observa- tions relating to the transverse and longi- tudinal modes of a ruby laser," Appl. Optics, 7: July 1962. 19. P. Kisluik, and D. Walsh, "The interference between beams from the opposite ends of a ruby optical maser," Appl. Optics, 1: Jan. 1962. 20. J. Kotik, and M. C. Newstein, "Theory of laser oscillations in Fabry and Perot resona- tors," J. of Appl. Phys., 32: Feb. 1961. 21. M. Lipsett, and M. Stranberg, "Mode control in ruby optical masers by means of elastic deformation," Appl. Optics, 1: May 1962. 22. J. McKenna, Private communication. 23. D. F. Nelson, "The polarization of output from a ruby optical maser," J. S. Singer, ed., Advances in Quantum Electronics, Columbia University Press, Ness' York and London, 1961. 24. D. Nelson, R. Collins, K. Rodgers and J. Ammons, "Spatial coherence in the optical maser," J. Appl. Phys., 32: 739-740, Apr. 1961. 25. S. Porto, and D. Wood, Private communica- tion. 26. A. L. Schawlow, "Infrared and optical masers," Solid State J., June 1961. 27. A. L. Schawlow, "Optical masers," Sci. American, 204: June 1961. ? 28. J. Skinner, and J. Geusic, Private communi- cation. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 : ?;? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A New Heat-Developable Motion-Picture Print Film A dry photographic system applicable to the motion-picture, television and educational film industries. Metro-Kalvar, is described. The system is based upon the phenomenon of light scattering accomplished within a film of thermoplastic resin coated upon a base of transparent polyester. This basic system of photog- raphy utilizes ultraviolet exposure and heat development. Details about its depar- ture from traditional motion-picture print materials and procedures are outlined. Developmental tests and equipment are discussed. The Basic Kalvar Process The Kalvar Photographic Process is based upon the phenomenon of light scattering, rather than upon that of light absorption as in conventional silver halide materials. The two cases are com- pared in Fig. 1, where the incident light is absorbed by the silver grains within the developed silver halide film and the in- cident light is reflected and refracted by the scattering centers within the de- veloped Kalvar film. The film consists of a thermoplastic resin, coated upon a base of transparent polyester. Within the ther- moplastic resin, which is normally coated to a thickness of slightly less than 0.0005 in., an ultraviolet-sensitive compound is uniformly dispersed. These molecules of sensitizer are shown as black dots in Fig. 2. Upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation, this photosensitive diazonium salt is de- composed, releasing nitrogen and other volatile products. The internal pressures created by these decomposition products within the thermoplastic vehicle consti- tute a "latent image" of internal stresses. Upon application of heat, the resin crys- tallites soften and the gaseous decomposi- tion products expand. A reorientation and ordered recrystallization of the poly- mer into microscopic vesicles takes place. These vesicles, since they are of a differ- ent index of refraction than the surround- ing medium, scatter light incident upon them and thus constitute the image. The light-scattering vesicles vary in size from less than 0.5 micron to 2 microns in diameter. Unlike the bubbles that might be formed in gelatin by a similar method, they consist of cavities enclosed by a shell of more highly ordered crystallites than the surrounding medium. As a result, the vesicles are highly resistant to environ- mental changes and mechanical stresses and provide an eitreniely stable image. Sensitivity and Exposure Kalvar film is not a camera stock. It is Presented on October 15, 1963, at the Society's Technical Conference in Boston, by Noel R. Bacon (who read the paper) and Robert B. Lindemeyer, Metro-Kalvar, Inc., 550 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10036. (This paper was first received on October 21, 1963, and in final form on February 3, 1964.) a comparatively low-speed material with primary photosensitivity in the near ul- traviolet, peaking at 3,850 A. The amount of radiation required to produce maximum density at this wavelength is about 200 milliwatt-sec/sq. cm. The spec- tral response curve in Fig. 3 shows that the photosensitivity is not limited to a narrow peak but extends from below 3,500 to above 4,300 A. The film is not photographically sensitive to ordinary levels of visible light for short periods of time. Exposure times are determined only by the amount of time required to ab- sorb the 200 milliwatt-sec/sq cm of ac- tinic radiation. Times of less than 1/100 sec ' have provided adequate exposure. One user of substantial amounts of heat- developable microfilm working with a variable aperture, continuous contact printer-processor is currently operating at a speed of 170 ft/min. Medium- to high-pressure mercury- vapor lamps which have a high intrinsic brightness, coupled with a desirable spec- tral output, have proved to be efficient light sources. A high-pressure air-cooled mercury-vapor lamp rated at approxi- mately 1,000 w is currently employed on one of the developmental motion-picture printer-processors. Latent-Image Stability The temperature of the film during ex- posure should not exceed 110 F. Tem- peratures above this will result in a higher diffusion rate of the latent-image-form- BEFORE EXPOSURE By NOEL R. BACON and ROBERT B. LINDEMEYER ing gas, with subsequent reduction of the maximum density obtained. Since the latent image is comprised of a given amount of gaseous nitrogen, it has a definite decay time dependent on the permeability of the emulsion's thermo- plastic vehicle to nitrogen. The decay time can be adjusted by adding modifiers to the basic vehicle resin to increase or decrease its permeability. A current heat- developable microfilm has a latent-image diffusion time of less than 30 sec and is finding useful application as a reversal processed material. Metro-Kalvar mo- tion-picture emulsions require approxi- mately 8 hr for the latent-image gas to escape completely. Experiments show that the film should be developed within 3 min after exposure. Since one of the film's major features is its simplicity of development by heat alone, this short latent-image life is no problem. All equipment provides for con- tinuous development immediately follow- ing exposure and as an integral part of the machine. The inherent latent-image decay precludes the design of printing equipment employing the "down one side ? back the other" configuration as SILVER HALIDE FILM ? KALVAR FILM LIGHT ABSORPTION LIGHT SCATTERINO: Fig. 1. Comparison of the two systems of photography. AFTER EXPOSURE crystallites ? molecules of sensitizer 0,x amorphous polymer Fig. 2. Schematic of Kalvar Film's process. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 AFTER DEVELOPMENT decomposed photosensitizer Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 213 .2 .1 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 Fig. 3. Spectral response of Kalvar film. Dp.v. (net) Dp.v. (background) - / Dp.v. (net) after 4 hours at 150?F It I 140 180 220 260 TEMPERATURE ?F Fig. 4. Kalvar film densities with constant exposure and development time, varying development temperature. D.p.v. = density projection visual. 2.4 2.0 0.4 currently used in several 35/32mm high- speed motion-picture printer applica- tions. Development and Image Stability Kalvar film is developed by heat. Any method of heating the film sufficiently will produce the image. A wide variety of techniques have been employed, includ- ing heated rollers, heated platens and even forced hot air. The calculated en- ergy requirement to develop the image is approximately 0.635 watt-sec/sq cm/mil thickness of the film. The gray scale of the light-absorption (silver) type of photographic image is a function of both exposure and develop- ment; the gray scale of the light-scatter- ing type of image is primarily a function of exposure. To ensure optimum image characteristics and stability, development must be held within relatively narrow limits. Development times are closely re- lated to development temperatures be- cause total development occurs at a fixed heat level whether that level is reached in seconds or milliseconds. Experimenta- tion has shown a requirement for the emulsion to come to a temperature of 240 F. This temperature was arrived at by comparing the three curves shown in Fig. 4. It can be seen that as the develop- ment temperature increases, the back- ground density of the image decreases until approximately 220 F is reached. The upper curve, showing net visual pro- jection density, increases rapidly to ap- proximately 180 F, after which only limited increase is noted from higher de- velopment temperature. The dotted line, reflecting the relationship of develop- ment temperature to thermal stability of the image, is somewhat more critical. This curve shows the loss in net visual projection density after the developed film has been subjected to 150 F for 4 hr. Design and selection of development heat sources for the desired high-speed opera- tion of the motion-picture printer-proc- essors has required careful consideration of heat transfer characteristics .and ma- chine speed vs. dwell-time variables. Current practice employs a revolving Teflon-coated aluminum drum with heat provided by a 500-w electric blanket lam- inated to the inside perimeter of the drum. A precision thermostat controls temperature to ?2 F of the desired setting. Fixing and Image Stability As with most photographic processes, a fixing technique for the heat-developed film provides for image permanence. After exposure and development the nonlight-struck areas of the film still contain undecomposed sensitizer. The fixing technique consists of exposing the film overall to ultraviolet light. Applying about four times the amount required for maximum exposure completely de- composes the residual sensitizer. The film must then be protected from tempera- tures in excess of 150 F for a few hours to permit the gas to diffuse completely from the film. The properly exposed, de- veloped and fixed image is one of the most stable of all photographic images. The thermal stability of the image is closely related to the development tem- perature, as discussed earlier in this re- port. Medium- and high-pressure mercury- vapor lamps, which have proved success- ful for initial exposure, function equally well for the overall fixing exposure. Sensitometric Characteristics of Light-Scattering Films As a consequence of the unique char- acteristics of these light-scattering films, the sensitometric units and standards cur- rently used in silver halide photography do not apply directly to this type of pho- tography. For example, the meter-can- dle-second exposure units used to express ASA speeds of silver materials are founded on the relative visibility curve of the human eye and obviously cannot be used for heat-developable films, which are sensitive to wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. Similarly, the familiar sensitometric terms, such as density and contrast, must be redefined when applied to the proper- ties of light-scattering materials. The de- gree of opacity of the exposed and de- veloped Kalvar image can be measured in terms of diffuse transmission density as outlined in ASA PH2.19-1959. However, when light is incident on the exposed and developed film sample, part of the light is absorbed, part is reflected and part is transmitted; the transmitted and reflected light is highly scattered. The visual diffuse transmission densities of the film are quite low. In fact, the charac- teristic curve of a typical Kalvar motion- picture emulsion based on visual diffuse densities has an average gamma of 0.35 and a density range of about 0.60. To those unfamiliar with the light-scattering type of photographic image this im- mediately indicates an extremely low contrast material with limited density range. For a photographic medium depending on light absorption, the diffuse density is close to the specular or projection den- sity. This is not true for a light-scattering system as may be seen in the generalized schematic, Fig. 5. In any practical use, a photographic material is viewed or pro- jected through an aperture of finite di- mensions, here labeled A. In the light- scattering system a substantial portion of the transmitted light is scattered outside the angle over which light is collected by the effective aperture. At the same time, the effective density of the heat-developed film strongly depends upon the cone an- gle subtended by the light-gathering ele- ment, whether it be the eye, a pro- jector lens or the photosensitive receptor of a densitometer. This is shown in Fig. 6 where the effective or projection density for various apertures is plotted against the logarithm of the exposure. These characteristics have been taken into consideration in the design and de- velopment of new measuring techniques for the photometric evaluation and proc- ess control of Kalvar photography. The primary objectives in the development of these new techniques have been to, pro- vide measurements that will readily cor- relate with the traditions and experience of the photographic industry and that will accurately represent the product's capabilities in ultimate projection view- ing. This departure of ultimate use condi- tions from the conditions during diffuse density measurement is of concern in all types of photography. The American Standards Association Committee on Sensitometry is currently giving careful consideration to this problem. A recently created ASA Subcommittee, PH2-28, has been charged with the responsibility of revising the Diffuse Transmission Den- sity Standard to include other types of density such as projection density. The March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Kalvar Corporation is playing an active role on that subcommittee. Practical Sensitometry and Control Techniques Current techniques employed to pro- vide sensitometric evaluation of various Kalvar emulsions and process control represent only a slight modification of procedures widely used in the photo- graphic industry. A sensitometer is used to expose strips for basic emulsion characteristic evalua- tion. This unit employs an ultraviolet light source carefully positioned in rela- tion to a curved aperture containing a calibrated density modulated wedge. Exposures are developed on a small laboratory hot-roller capable of main- taining set development temperatures to ? 2 F. Sensitometric strips are read on either a standard motion-picture densitometer providing visual diffuse transmission den- sities or a projection reading densitometer with modified aperture providing read- ings directly relatable to ultimate pro- jection conditions. These readings are plotted in a standard H&D characteris- tic curve for routine evaluation of speed, gamma, density and exposure scales. These same readout and evaluation tech- niques are employed for process control where the sensitometric strips are exposed and developed on the Metro-Kalvar Motion Picture Printer-Processor under varying conditions of machine speed and light intensity. Research and Development The technology of silver halide pho- tography has been evolving for over a hundred years. The light-scattering prin- ciple of image formation has been known for nearly the same length of time; but it is polymer chemistry that has provided the means to create light-scattering images in a practical way. Metro-Kalvar was formed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and the Kalvar Corporation to adapt the Kalvar Process to the motion-picture, television and educational film industries. Progress toward that goal has included basic research and formulation of appro- priate film emulsions at the Kalvar Cor- poration in New Orleans and design, fabrication and testing of bread-board printing and processing equipment at the M.G.M. Laboratories in Culver City. The manufacture of a pre-production prototype 16mm printer-processor has begun at Calvin Productions in Kansas City. The specifications for this machine include a desk top model, an operating speed of 70 ft/min, separate sound and picture printing heads and 1,200-ft film capacities. Research has been conducted on the problems of splicing the polyester-based films. The cements employed with con- ventional film splicing are ineffective with polyesters; however, tape splicing has been used with excellent results. High- strength values are retained, since the tape employed is also polyester. Conclusion In conclusion, it is appropriate to set forth the major advantages of the Metro- Kalvar System: (1) With maximum sensitivity in the near ultraviolet region, the need for a darkroom is eliminated. (2) It is a dry process, requiring no chemicals for processing, because heat alone develops the image. (3) The basic formulation of materials provides for prolonged shelf life and con- venient storage conditions. (4) The unique structure and distribu- tion of the light-scattering image affords high resolution, excellent image stability and grain-free projection characteristics. (5) The combination of a pre- dominantly thermoplastic emulsion and a tough polyester base provides for a scratch-resistant, long-wearing film. (6) The standard 3-mil thickness of the high-strength polyester base allows 1,000 ft of film to be wound on a standard 600-ft reel. (7) The combined process of exposure and development provides immediate ac- cess to results. Discussion George Lewin* (Army Pictorial Center): Is it possible to put this Kalvar emulsion on conven- tional cellulose acetate base? Mr. Bacon: It is. Mr. Lewin: Do you arrive at the optimum ex- posure for your soundtrack by cross-modulation or inter-modulation tests? Walter G. Eggers (M.G.M. Laboratories, Inc.): Conventional cross-modulation tests have not proven, at this moment, of any value as far as Kalvar film is concerned. The densitometry of Kalvar is a new field, and the numbers we derive from a densitometer that has been developed for Kalvar film are not meaningful in the same sense that silver halide densities are. When we try to draw a cancellation curve we are, in some cases, comparing apples against oranges, because the * Deceased November 1963. film Fig. 5. Schematic of function of Kalvar density. 3.0 2.5 - 1.5 tel 0 1.0 0.5 1/22 f/16 1/11 / f/ 8 . f/4.0 . f/;.8 projection density at various relative apertures diffuse density 0 5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 RELATIVE LOG EXPOSURE Fig. 6. Projection density as a function of aperture. two densities; that is, the density of the silver optical transfer and the Kalvar print have to be measured by different parameters. We have, however, investigated this by means of listening tests. I might ask you a question: What did you think of the sound on this particular print? Mr. Lewin: Well, I felt that the sound was quite adequate. Was it area or density track? Mr. Eggers: That's variable area. Mr. Lewin: And is it reproduced with a con- ventional photoelectric cell? Mr. Eggers: The conventional cell. Mr. Lewin: Have you been successful with the variable-density track as well as area. Dr. Robert T. Nieset (Metro-Kalvar): No work has been done on variable-density pursuits. You can see that, with the limited maximum density that we had, the dynamic range on variable-density recording with Kalvar would be pretty small at the present time. I'd like to add one other comment: since the soundhead always looks at the soundtrack with a much smaller physical aperture than does a projector lens, the control of exposure with relationship to sound and picture is not as critical as it would be in the silver case. The density of the soundtrack, be- cause it's being used with such a small aperture, is always much higher than the density of the pro- jected image. Bacon and Lindemeyer: Heat-Developable Motion-Picture Print Film 215 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Re-sumers Resumenes Zusammenfassungen The Society is grateful to the following authors for supplying translations of their abstracts: T. J. Pavliscak?French, Spanish German; Koichi Sada shige?German. Special assistance by Jean-Paul Vallee is also acknowledged with gratitude. La cinematographie dans l'U.R.S.S. V. G. KOMAR [196] L'auteur passe en revue la situation actuelle de l'industrie cinematographique sovietique, ainsi que son organisation, ses techniques, son ma- teriel et ses systemes de projection. On (Merit brievement les applications de la photographic a grande vitesse dans le domaine des recherches scientifiques, le developpement des procedes et de requipement photographique dans les recherches interstellaires et retude des procedes nucleaires. Les conditions techniques de la cooperation internationale sont examinees et la base pour rechange de films est consider& comme un des problemes les plus serieux auxquels les ingenieurs font face dans de nombreux pays. Etude sur les bruits des preamplifica- teurs de cameras de TV KOICHI SADASHIGE [202] Les normes de rendement des preamplificateurs video des cameras a tube image-orthicon ou vidicon sont bien etablies. Les recents per- fectionnements des transistrons ont permis la mise au point d'appareils dont le facteur de bruit donne assez de satisfaction et le produit gain-largeur de bande est suffisamment &eve pour que ces appareils puissent entrer dans la conception de toutes les cameras de TV con- stituees d'elements solides. Cependant, lorsqu'il est essentiel d'obtenir le meilleur rapport signal/bruit, les tubes electroniques restent superieurs aux transistrons pour les circuits d'entree. Le circuit hybride a tubes et a tran- sistrons en montage castode offre aussi des avantages. (Jean-Paul Vallee) Etudes photographiques sur les "Maser" optiqu es T. J. PAVLISCAK [206] On passe en revue trois methodes d'enregistre- ment des proprietes des emissions faisant usage des phenomenes "maser" optiques. On a commence par des enregistrements de l' emission a 400.000 photographies par seconde. On signale aussi l'enregistrement d'un "maser" optique a rubis au moyen d'une technique inedite de photographic a grande vitesse. Finalement, on examine la coherence de remis- sion due au phenomene du "maser" avec un interferometre a decoupage de la forme d'onde et on l'enregistre avec une camera ordinaire film de 35 mm. On decrit ces techniques et certaines des premieres observations faites sur les emissions du type "maser." Un noveau film de tirage cinemato- graphique developpable ala chaleur NOEL R. BACON et ROBERT B. LINDEMEYER [213] L'article decrit un systeme photographique de type sec Metro-Kalvar applicable aux industries de films cinematographiques, educatifs et de television. Ce systeme est base sur le phenomene de la dispersion de la lumiere realise a rinterieur d'un film de resine thermoplastique reve'tu d'une base en polyester transparent. Ce systeme photographique de base utilise l'exposition aux rayons ultra-violets et le developpement a la chaleur. Les auteurs expliquent en detail les principales differences par rapport aux matieres et techniques traditionnelles de tirage des films cinematographiques. L'article decrit egale- ment les essais et l' equipement de developpe- ment mis en oeuvre. Cinematografia en USSR V. G. KOMAR [196] Se revisa el estado actual de la industria eine- matografica en la Rusia Sovietica y se discute su organizaci6n, tecnicas, equipos y sistemas de proyecciOn. Se mencionan brevemente los usos de la fotografia ultra-rapida en inves- tigaciones cientificas, asi como el desarrollo de procedimientos y equipos para fotografia en la investigaciOn espacial y el estudio de los procesos nucleares. Las premisas tecnicas para la cooperaciOn internacional son revisadas, considerandose que las bases para el inter- cambio de peliculas es uno de los m?graves problemas que confrontan los ingenieros de muchos paises. Un estudio de los ruidos en los pre- amplificadores de camaras televisoras KOICHI SADASHIGE [202] Se formula el criterio acerca del funcionamiento en preamplificadores de video para uso en tubos de camara imagen-orticOn y vidic6n. Los desarrollos recientes en transistores han pro- ducido unidades que tienen una cifra de ruidos suficientemente buena y un producto que tiene una relaciOn de ganancia a anchura de banda suficientemente elevada para ser de utilidad en el disefio de las camaras televisoras con luminosidad de la imagen por capas de material fotoconductor. Cuando el mejor rendimiento posible de selial a ruido es esencial, los circuitos de entrada de tubos de .vacio son siempre superiores a los transistores. Un circuito hibrido de tubo-transistor en cascada ofrece algunas ventajas. Algunos estudios fotograficos de los fenOmenos Opticos del tipo "maser" T. J. PAVLISCAK [206] En esta obra se estudian tres metodos para registrar las propiedades de las ondas producidas por los fen6menos Opticos del tipo "maser." Primeramente se obtuvo una serie de registros de tales ondas a la velocidad de 400.000 fotografias por segundo. Luego, se registr6 la polarizacian de la luz de un "maser" optic? de rubi mediante una tecnica fotografica de gran velocidad, muy especial. Por Ultimo, se examin6 la coherencia de la emisiOn con un interfer6metro del tipo de division de la forma de onda y utilizando una camara ordinaria de 35 mm. En el estudio mencionado se describen estas tecnicas y se exponen algunas observaciones iniciales de los fenOmenos aludidos. Una nueva pelicula de impresiOn eine- matogrifica revelable con calor NOEL R. BACON y ROBERT B. LINDEMEYER [213] Se describe un sistema fotografico en seco, Metro-Kalvar, aplicable a las industrias de cinematografia, televisi6n y peliculas educa- tivas. El sistema esta basado en el fenOmeno de dispersion de la luz que se efecttia dentro de una pelicula de resina termoplastica revestida sobre una base de poliester transparente. En este sistema basic? de fotografia se utiliza exposician ultravioleta y revelamiento con calor. Se bos- quejan los detalles de esta innovaci6n en los materiales tradicionales de impresiOn cinemato- grafica y se describe el procedimiento. Sc dis- cuten las pruebas y equipos de este desarrollo. Filmwesen in der U.d.S.S.R. V. G. KOMAR [196] Der gegenwartige Stand der sowjetischen Filmindustrie und ihre Struktur, Technik, Ausriistung und Projektionsverfahren werden beschrieben. Kurze Behandlung der Anwendung der Schnellphotographie far wissenschaftliche Forschungszwecke und Entwicklung von Ver- fahren und Geraten zur Anwendung der Pho- tographic far Weltraumforschung und in der Studie von Kernenergie-Vorgangen. Die tech- nischen Voraussetzungen internationaler Zusam- menarbeit werden untersucht und die Grund- lagen far den Filmaustausch werden als eines der schwierigsten Probleme der Ingenieure vieler Lander beschrieben. Untersuchung von Gerkuschen in Fern- seh-Kameras KOICHI SADASHIGE [202] Die Arbeitsweise von Video-Vorverstarkern far den Gebrauch mit Image Orthikon und Vidikon Rohren ist formuliert. Karzliehe Entwicklungen in Transistoren riefen Verbeg- serungen in Gerausch-Pegel und Bandbreite- Fahigkeit hervor, geniigend hoch um im Ent- wurf von Fernseh-Kameras von solchen Fest- leitern Gebrauch zu machen. Wo man die best- maglichste Vorfahrung im Gerausch-zu-Signal Pegel verwenden muss, findet man dass Rahren immernoch der Transistoren vorgezogen werden. Eine Mischung von Rohren/Transistoren Schal- tung ist vorteilhaft. Photographische Untersuchungen opti- scher Maser T. J. PAVLISCAK [206] Es werden drei Methoden fiir die Aufzeichnung der Eigenschaften optischer Maser el-al-tem Erstens, wurde eine Reihe von Aufzeichnungen der Maser Emissionen mittels 400.000 Aufnah- men pro Sekunde hergestellt. Zweitens, wurde die Polarisierung eines optisthen Rubinmasers mittels einer einzigartigen Technik der Hoch- stgeschwindigkeitsphotographie aufgenommen. Drittens, wurde die Kohasion der Maser Emission mittels eines die Wellenstirn schneidenden Interferometers untersucht und mit einer gewohnlichen 35 mm Kamera aufgenommen. Es werden diese Verfahren beschrieben, sowie einige vorher durchgeffihrte Beobachtungen von Maser Emissionen. Ein neues Verfahren fiir Kopierfilment- wicklung durch Warmebehandlung NOEL R. BACON und ROBERT B. LINDEMEYER [213] Der Artikel beschreibt em n trockenes photo- graphisches System, das Metro-Kalvar-System, mit Anwendungsbereichen in der Kinefilm-, Fernseh- und Lehrfilm-Industrie. Die Grundlage des Systems bildet der Lichtstreuungsvorgang, der innerhalb eines Filmes aus thermoplastischem Harz auf durchsichtiger Polyester-Basis durch- gefahrt wird. Dieses Lichtbildverfahren ver- wendet eine Belichtung mit ultraviolettem Licht und Entwicklung durch Warmebehandlung. Kurze tbersicht der Unterschiede gegenaber ablichen Kinefilm-Kopiermaterial und -Ver fahren. Erarterung von Entwicklungsver- suchen und -geraten. 216 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 American Standard Dimensions of Raw Stock Cores for 16mm Motion-Picture Film ASA Reg. U.S. Pol. Off. PH22.38-1964 Revision of PH22.38-1952 ? UDC 771.332 1. Scope . This standard specifies the dimensions of 2-, 3- and 4-in, raw stock cores for 16mm motion-picture film. 2. Dimensions The dimensions shall be as given in the figure and in the following table. Dimen- .sions 3. Concentricity Allowance Inches Millimeters A 0.627 max 15.93 max 0.590 min 14.99 min B 2 in. 1.968 ? 0.010 49.99 ? 0.25 310. 3.000 ? 0.016 76.20 ? 0.40 4 in. 4.000 ? 0.016 101.60 ? 0.40 C -1.020 ? 0.008* 25.91 ? 0.20* D 1.177 ? 0.016 29.90 ? 0.40 E 0.157 ? 0.008 3.99 0.20 The concentricity of the inside and outside ' diameters of the core shall be within 0.020 Bore C to fit freely to hub with a 11000 0.004 - 0.000 in - 125.40 0.1 - 0.0mm) diameter. ? in. (0.51mm), one half of the total dial runout. APPENDIX (This Appendix is not a part of American Standard Dimensions of Raw eluded to facilitate its use.) A nominal 4-in, core is manufactured, though not cur- rently used as a raw stock core, which is used at pres- ent for film take-up on high-speed film printing and processing equipment. Such cores are used so as to minimize possible damage to film by reducing the initial starting torque necessary for windup. (This large core reduces the ratio of take-up tension from the out- side of the roll to the inside of the roll, thus allowing greater film tension control) The keyway is provided as a means of driving the core for take-up or of providing holdback tension on a feed spindle. The dimensions of the keyway shall be ade- quate to clear a square-ended key. The manufacturer may, at his discretion, reduce the cross-sectional area of the core, so long as it does not interfere with the stated dimensions, and in addition may provide a slot into which the film may be lapped in Order to spool it snugly to the core. Such spooling is usually designated as "wound on." When the film is Stock Cores for 16mr Motion-Picture File, PH22.38-1964, but is in- spooled on a collapsible mandrel and the core is in- serted after spooling, ills usually designated as "core inserted." (This latter designation is not to be taken as referring to whether or not the end of the film is lapped into the core.) In the spooling of film to be used in high-speed cam- eras, it is the usual practice to snub the film onto the core without lapping the end in a slot so that the end will not be crimped. Such a crimp passing through a camera mechanism at several thousand frames per second may seriously damage the mechanism. The maximum value for Dimension A is the. minimum width of 16mm film as described by related American Standards. The core should not be wider than the film in order to-ovoid difficulty with tight-winders, widely used in the industry, which have fixed flanges for guid- ing. Except for the slot and keyway, the periphery and bore should present smooth, unbroken surfaces. Approved January 13, 1964, by the American Standards Association, Incorporated Sponsor: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc. Decimnl Clonifintion ,Ct;ipitrirntoLi.itnitz,,ttirt oAw eroi,xii.iii)isty:etlitrit,Isissocietiou, Incorporated Printed in U.S.A. AS5151264/50 ri p ud 2A1 a2G Sb w o. g to roet as N., o S' -1 o t?-) o wow no ,ts.)ts' z Et s mo< t??)c,PDcot's D0y, .o ts.) t.t.) ts4 0 0 ?-?: co CA 00 Cn CD t,; 0" 0-? 01 CD CD 0". .1 153 53 R3 31' cn 113 0 m. I:9 5. o a ? < CD rD ? 0 ? ?-?? rt. ^ CD 0- > 0 CD o? ^ g? C'el- 0" ??': 0" ?-? O nt < i_sci-) ft). PA 6- a. w sprepuris tivapauw panoiddy CD nws ?-? " 0 o' C.r: ;:t :???-, a. Crqi 5.0'1 la..n spmpuem 13) 3 ?CD 0 0- 3 3 CD3 a. CD a. seonoead Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 1?0 CO March 1964 Journal.of the SMPTE Volume 73 American Standard Nomenclature for Motion-Picture Film Used in Studios and Processing Laboratories (Sections 5-7) ASA Reg. U.S. Pag Of. PH22.56a-1964 Addenda to PH22.56-1961 UDC 778.5001.4 5. Photographic Sound Note: All definitions in this section will be under- stood to be photographic unless the term "magnetic" is used. 5.1 Photographic Sound. Photographic sound is a sound record in the form of a photographic image. 5.2 Sound Negative. A sound negative is any film that, after exposure and subsequent processing, produces a negative sound record on the film. This sound record requires the steps of printing and processing of a second film in order to obtain a reasonably faithful reproduction of the original sound, by the conventional scanning system. Note: The negative image may be obtained by exposure througK a positive sound image; by direct recording; or, by the reversal process, from another sound negative. 5.2.1 Original Sound Negative. The original sound negative is the sound negative that is exposed in a film recorder and, after processing, produces a negative sound image on the film. 5.2.2 Sound-Effects Negative. A sound- effects negative is a sound negative upon which sound effects have been recorded. It is ordinarily held in library stock. 5.2.3 Music Negative. A music negative is a sound negative upon which music has been recorded. It is usually an original sound negative but may be a library nega? tive. 5.2.4 Sound Cut Negative. A sound cut negative is a sound negative that is composed of sections of original sound negatives spliced in sequence. Page 1 of 4 pages Note: The sound cut negative is generally in exact conformity with the sound work print and produces a single sequentially spliced negative. The print of the sound cut negative providei all, or portions of, the re- recording print. 5.2.5 Re-recorded Negative. A re- recorded negative is a sound negative which is exposed by re-recording and, when processed, produces a negative sound track image. 5.2.6 Sound Release Negative. A sound release negative is a photographic sound negative in the form required for the final printing operation onto the release print raw stock. Note: The sound release negative may consist of re-i-ecorded negatives, intercut original sound nega- tives, duplicate negatives of sound records, etc., de- pending upon the choice of available material or the intended use of the print. 5.2.7 Special Sound Release Negative. A special sound release negative is a sound release negative made for the purpose of obtaining a sound track which has character- istics other than those obtained from the sound release negative. Note: Three common forms of special sound release negatives are these listed under, .and Special Sound Release Nega- .-, five for Use in 16mm Release of 35mm Pre- print Material. The special sound release negative for 16mm release of 35mm original material is a photographic sound negative, either 35mm or 16mm, recorded with specific characteristics for reasonably faithful repro- duction of the original sound on 16mm repro- duction equipment. It may be re-recorded Approved January 13, 1964, by the American Standards Association, Incorporated Sponsor: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc. a Universal Decimal Classification C.opyright 1064 by the American Standards Association. Incorporated 10 East 4011, Street, New York, N. Y. 10016 Icilited in U.S.A. ASA1M264/60 from a print of the 35mm sound release riega- tive or from the 35mm re-recording print. Special Sound Release Nega- tive, Foreign Release in English. The special sound release negative for use in English ver- sion for foreign release is re-recorded from the re-recording print, except that the dia- logue track is modified to remove American colloquialisms. Special Sound Release Nega- tive, Foreign-Language Version. The special sound release negative for use in foreign- language-version release is usually re- recorded using all of the re-recording tracks, except the dialogue track, for which is substi- tuted a special synchronized dialogue track in the foreign language for which the release is being made. 5.2.8 Sound Release Dupe Negative. A sound release dupe negative is a duplicate negative of the sound record prepared specifically for printing the sound track of release prints. 5.3 Sound Print. A sound print is any posi- tive obtained by printing from a sound nega- tive, or direct positive recording, or, by the reversal process, from another sound positive. A sound print provides a reasonably faithful reproduction of the original sound through the conventional scanning system. 5.3.1 Sound Daily Print. A sound daily print is the first sound print made from the original sound negative for checking sound quality, technique, etc. 5.3.2 Sound Work Print. A sound work print is a sound print that usually consists of intercut sound daily prints, but may also in- clude other sound tracks of sound effects or music, or both, on the same or separate films, with synchronism constantly maintained with the corresponding picture work print. 5.3.3 Sound-Effects Print. A sound- effects print is a sound print made from a sound-effects negative, or from another sound-effects print by reversal processing. Page 2 of 4 pages 5.3.4 Music Print. A music print is a sound print made from a music negative. 5.3.5 Re-recording Print. A re-recording print is a sound print prepared specifically for use in re-recording to produce a re-recorded negative. Note: A re-recording print may be a print from a sound cut negative, a specially intercut print, or a combination of both. It usually consists of several sound records on separate films that include dialogue, sound effects, music, or any other required material. The term is used interchangeably to designate the entire group of associated films or any individual film that is part of the group. 5.3.6 Re-recorded Print. A re-recorded print is a sound print from a re-recorded sound-track negative. 5.3.7 Sound Check Print. A sound check print is a sound print made from the sound release negative for the purpose of checking negative cutting, printing lights, sound qual- ity, etc. Note: When a sound check print is required, it is usually made prior to the first trial composite print. 5.3.8 Sound Master Positive. A sound master positive is a sound print on special film stock that is usually made from a sound re- lease negative for the purpose of producing duplicate negatives of the sound record for release printing. 5.4 Composite Print (See 3.2) [3.2 Composite Print. A composite 'print is a positive film having both picture and correspond- ing sound on the same film, which may be in edi- torial or projection synchronism.] 5.4.1 Composite Daily Print (See 3.2.1) [3.2.1 Composite Daily Print. A composite daily print is made from an 'original composite negative or original sound and picture negatives, and is used for checking photography, sound quality, action, etc. It is in projection syn- chronism.] PH22.560-1964 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 6. Magnetic Sound 6.1 Magnetic Sound Film (See 1.2) [1.2 Magnetic Sound Film. Magnetic sound film is a film base having film perforations along one or both edges and bearing a ferro-magnetic coating, either completely across the film or in stripes, the coating capable of accepting and re- producing sound records. Note: Unperforated materials usually are referred to as magnetic tape.] 6.2 Full-Coat Magnetic Film. Full-coat magnetic film has the magnetic-coating com- pound applied across the film from edge to edge. 6.2.1 Full-Coat Between Perforations Magnetic Film. full-coat between perfora- tions magnetic film has the magnetic-coating compound across the film from perforation to perforation. 6.3 Magnetic Striping. Magnetic striping is a process by which a magnetic-coating com- pound is applied in the form of single or mul- tiple stripes, having specific widths and place- ments, to either surface of a film base which 'may or may not have a photographic emul- sion. 6.4 Balance Stripe. A balance stripe is a magnetic coating or coating of c3i/rother ma- terial that is equal in thickness to; bot may be narrower than, the stripe used for recording. It is applied along the opposite edge of the film. Its primary purpose is to equalize the effective thickness of the two edges of the striped film in order to obtain uniform wind- ing. The stripe is sometimes used for the recording of additional sound or control records. 6.5 Magnetic Original. A magnetic orig- inal is the original or first sound record on a magnetic film. 6.6 Magnetic Transfer. A magnetic transfer is a magnetic sound record obtained by elec- trical re-recording of a magnetic original onto another magnetic film. Pogo 3 of 4 pawn 6.7 Magnetic Master. A magnetic master is a final edited or re-recorded magnetic sound record used for transfer to a magnetic release print or for transfer to a photographic sound negative to be used for manufacturing prints with photographic sound tracks. 6.8 Magoptical Release Print. (See 7.4) 7. Release Prints 7.1 Release Print. (See 1.15.2) [1.15.2 Release Print. A release print is a print made for general distribution and exhibition. It may be on films of 8mm, 16mm, 35mm or 70mm width. Some release prints are composed of two or more 35mm-width films which are projected simultaneously in lateral alignment.] 7.1.1 Composite Release Print. A com- posite release print is a print having both pic- ture and sound records in projection syn- chronism on the same film. Note: The sound record may be photographic, magnetic, or both. 7.1.2 Domestic Release Print. A domes- tic release print is a release print intended for distribution within the country where the print was manufactured and having dialogue in the language of that country. It may be a composite print kr may have magnetic sound track or tracks on\ a separate film. 7.1.3 Foreign-Version Release Print. (See 3.2.6) [3.2.6 Foreign-Version Release Print. A for- ..eign-version release print is a composite print in projection synchronism with dialogue made spe- cifically for the. particular language involved. Note: Sometimes superimposed titles in a dif- ferent language are used on the print. A super- imposed title consists of printed words (usually transparent) overlaying the picture image.] 7.2 4namorphic Release Print. An anamor- phic release print is a release print in which the picture image is compressed later- ally, requiring a deanamorphosing lens on the projector to cause objects in the projected picture to have correct proportions. PH22.5613-1964 7.3 Wide-Screen Release Print. A wide- screen release print is a print which has no anamorphosis but, when projected, produces a screen image having an aspect ratio greater than 1.33 to 1. Note: Some prints are mode from negatives ex- posed in a camera aperture having an aspect ratio of 1.33 to 1, but which have been composed for projec- Page 4 of 4 pages tion to yield a projected picture having an aspect ratio greater than 1.33 to 1. A wide-screen print may also be obtained from an anamorphic negative by deanamorphosing in the printing process. 7.4 Magoptical Release Print. A magopti- cal release print is a composite release print which has both magnetic and photographic (optical) sound tracks. Index. Boldface numbers refer to paragraphs. Balance stripe 6.4 Film, magnetic sound 6.1 full-coat 6.2 full-coat between perforations 6.2.1 magnetic master 6.7 magnetic original .6.5 magnetic transfer 6 6 Magnetic striping 6.3 Photographic sound 5.1 Release print 7.1 anamorphic 7.2 composite 7.1.1 domestic 7.1.2 foreign-version 7.1.3 magoptical . . . 7.4 wide-screen 7.3 Sound negative 5.2 music 5.2.3 original 5.2.1 re-recorded 5.2.5 sound cut 5.2.4 sound-effects 5.2.2 sound release 5.2.6 special 5.2.7 foreign-language version . foreign release in English . 16mm release of 35mm preprint ma- terial sound release dupe 5.2.8 Sound, photographic ' 5.1 Sound print 5.3 composite 5.4 composite daily 5.4.1 music 5.3.4 re-recorded 5.3.6 re-recording 5.3.5 sound check 5.3.7 sound daily 5.3.1 sound-effects 5.3.3 sound master positive 5.3.8 sound work 5.3.2 Stripe balance ..... . . . magnetic 6.4 6.3 PH22.56a-1964 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 American Standard Dimensions for 200-Mil Magnetic Sound Record on 16mm Film Base, Perforated 1R-3000 ASA Ha. U.S. Pat. Off. PH22.97-1964 Revision of P922.97-I 956 ? UDC 778.534.425 1. Scope 1.1 This .standard_ specifies the location, dimensions and recording speed of a 200-mil magnetic sound record on 16mm film base With perforations along one edge. 1.2 The film is normally used for sound without picture. 1.3 The dimensions oft he magnetic coating are not specified here but are assumed to be wide enough to permit the placement of a sound record in 'accordance with this 'stand- ard. 2. Sound Record 2.1 The location and dimensions Of the sound record shall be as given in the figure and table. 2.2 The recording speed shall be 24 per- forations per second (approximately 36 ft per minute). 2.3 With the direction of travel as shown in the figure, the magnetic coating is on the upper side of the film base. TRAVEL Dimensions Dimensions Inches Millimeters A 0.200 ? 0.002 5.08 ? 0.05 B 0.103 ? 0.002 2.62-4 0.05 C 0.628 ? nom 15.95 nom 3. Film Base The film base used shall be of the low- shrinkage safety type, cut and perforated in accordance with American Standard Dimen- sions for 16mm Film, Perforated One Edge, PH22.12-1953. Approved January 13, 1964, by the American Standards Association, Incorporated Sponsor: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc. Copyrigla 1961 by the American Standards Association, Incorporated 15 gamt 401It Street, New York, N. Y.10016 4 Universal Decimal Classification j?riAllitiZk?Uo' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 : CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A Note on a Simplified Striping Technique Ed. Note: The following was obtained first as a correction of brief information .in the May, 1963, Journal's ProgieSs ' Report and further as a 'repoet on praCtical, operation. At about the same time as these develop- ments in 'Iran there were commercial de- velopments in U.S.A.I,2,3 These ,are . no longer in effect. SINCE 1952, a striping process devised ' by the author has been used in the Iran= film Studios for dubbing ,into I"erSian,.a practice that is very popular in Iran. An Iranian patent was', granted the author in 1953. The process is simple .and economical. The machine can, be put together using only these .Components: six to eight 16min rollers (or ' 35mrn rol- ler, depending on the work to' be'done); a plate on which these rollers ,,cari mounted; art :arm to hold the tape spool; a small container to hold the cementing liquid; and a guide roller to. guide :the tape into the ceinenting liqUid .4nd onto the film. , The plate with rollers 'mounted on ? it (Fig. 1) can %then be placed in front 'of a? projector (on a spool or sOrnething similar) in such a position that the supply arm of the projector can feed the film into the machine and take it back easily, and smoothly (Fig. 2). ? - ;. The f-in, tape can be cut to the Proper width in many- ways. The crudest but easiest method is to use two right angles, some Cardboard, part. Of a razor blade and two nuts and bolts. By? putting the cardboard in betWeen the angles, a groove is made as wide as the tape; then a bit of razor blade; is' inserted in the cardboard diVidine the groove into two parts, one part being as wide as the stripe of tape required (Fig. 3). The f-in:'tape can then be mounted on a rewincler and pulled through the groove while a small pressure is applied On it bear the razor blade. Using more than one razor slitter will, of course, increase the number of stripes made. , ? For our studio work we have designed a more efficient cutter which' operates , automatically and can cut the tape in up to five striPs in one Operation (Fig. 4). The cut tape, wound on a spool of the same width, is then placed on the'supply arm of the device with the end 'passing through the cement container, under the guide roller, and stuck on the film With the base side of the tape up. The projecz Mr mutt be Started immediately; other- wise the liquid cement may dissolve the base and cut the tape. The base is re- moved within one to three feet from the Point where the tape sticks to the film. It comes off easily and within a few sec- onds the operator, should know the best place at which to remove the tape base. On this simplified device the base should be pulled off by hand, but on our studio model it is removed automatically (Fig. 5). One advantage of this system is that ? the width of? the stripe can be varied from to f in. The location of the stripe is also easy to adjust or change. By screwing the guide roller in or out, the operator can choose the tape's position on the film. If a balancer is required on By ALBOLGHASEM REZAI Fig. 1. Plate with rollers mounted on it. The guide roller of the tape is inside the cement holder. Fig. 2. The supply arm of the projector feeds the :film into the ma- chine and takes it back on the take-Up. the other side of the film, all that is neces- sary is to mount iwb tape spool on the supply arm and have two grooves on the guide roller. ' In order to show how siMple the mech- From a communication on August 10, 1963, by* . Fie. 3. Cardboard fitted between two Albolghasem Rezai, 'ho is Director ,of,Iranfilm ? ? . Studios, Khiaban Bagar, Kouche Semnan, angles to make a groove as wide as the Teheran, Iran. tape. Mai:di:1964 :JOU'ihal Of the SMPTE Volume' 73 Fig. 4. Slitting machine used in studio work. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 221 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 100 parts chloroform 60 " acetone 30 " alcohol Fig. 5. Removal of tape base by machine ? a studio model. anism can be, a very elementary model has been made. The cement holder is a 100-ft film can cut from the middle and soldered together. The rollers are ordi- nary 16mm projector rollers. The arm can be anything as long as it can hold the tape spool. Another unusual thing about this process is that the stripe can be applied on either side of the film, emulsion or base, with the same ease and without any special treatment such as taking the emulsion off the film. A different cement should be used for each side. For the base side using Scotch Tape 111, the formula is: For the emulsion side using the same tape, the formula is: 20 parts phenol heated until it melts 4 " shellac 5 " thinner 10 parts of the above is then mixed with 8 parts acetone and 20 parts of chloro- form. While the "homemade" device de- scribed above is not intended to take the place of more elaborate equipment for professional use, it has been entirely adequate for our purposes. Its very sim- plicity is its most important quality. Since it does not require special tape or complicated equipment, it can be used by anyone. References 1. Andrew H. Persoon, "Magnetic striping of photographic film by the laminating process," Jour. SMPTE, 60: 485-490, April (Pt. II) 1953. 2. U.S. Patent 2,628,929, Feb. 17, 1953, Minne- sota Mining & Mfg. Co. (This was special magnetic tape coated on a temporary base, with a layer of heat- or pressure-sensitive ad- hesive on top to permit transferring the coating to film and stripping off the tape base.) 3. "New laminated soundtrack," Home Movies, p. 202, June 1957. (The article cites eight Canadian and U.S.A. film laboratories then equipped to use the laminated tape.) Letters to the Editor -- Sound-Delay Systems Dear Sir: I read with interest the paper on the Disc-O-Sound Delay System (Tithe-Delay System for Sound-Picture Syncing) by Henry Dussault, in the November 1963, Journal. There is certainly a need for a method of editing single- system sound film and recording the sound opposite the picture does simplify the editing of sound film; however equipping cameras and projectors with special delay units could become cumbersome and it seems to me that a simpler method could be devised. This would involve the adaption of a conventional tape recorder to handle 8mm film. The guides would have to be slightly widened and the heights of the heads varied for centering on the magnetic soundtrack, and an additional playback head (4 in., i.e., 56 frames) installed ahead of the recording head. The output of this playback head would then be fed to the recording head through the regular amplifier unit. After the film which was exposed in a conventional single- system magnetic recording camera has been processed in the film laboratory, but before it is cut, using the method suggested here, it is run through the tape recorder, starting at the end of the film. This would move the sound 56 frames forward to a position opposite the corresponding picture material. It then may be cut and edited as in Mr. Dussault's system. After this step, the film would then be run through the tape recorder from the beginning to the end (after shifting the heads to the opposite edge of the film) which would move the soundtrack to its proper position 56 frames ahead of the picture, and the film would then be ready for projection on any conventional sound projector. The first time the film is passed through the tape recorder the sound will of course be played back and recorded back- wards but this should not present any difficulty as most pre- recorded tapes are made this way. The exact speed that the tape recorder is run is not of any particular importance as long as the frequencies produced do not fall outside of the frequency response of the recording amplifier or the heads as the magnetic soundtrack will be passing both the playback and recording heads at exactly the same speed. I believe that such a system has certain advantages over the Disc-O-Sound delay system. Using the method I have proposed, any single-system magnetic sound camera or projector can be used without the need of adapters; the dub to move the soundtrack is made under laboratory conditions, not in the field; and only one piece of equipment (the adapted tape recorder) is used to move the track both backward and forward between editing. December 23, 1963 FRED WUNDER 135-21 Francis Lewis Blvd. Jamaica 13, N.Y. Dear Sir: I found Mr. Wunder's comments on my paper on the Disc-O-Sound system very interesting. I am favorable to critics and appreciate criticism as a stimulus to ideas leading to improvement. I believe, however, that Mr. Wunder has overestimated the disadvantages of bulky equipment and considerably underestimated the real advantages of a system which permits immediate editing, and immediate projection with sequences interchanged as desired. Obviously, such a system, whether adapted to conventional 222 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 or custombuilt equipment calls for a certain increase in size and weight of machines, but its usefulness has been demonstrated. The time-delay system has been designed specifically to elim- inate certain disadvantages such as the need for expensive double-system recorders; synchronous motors; re-recording in the laboratory; -the sound-picture gap; and the cutting off of "unconcerned" picture or sound in splicing. The method preferred by Mr. Wunder, which involves the adaption of a tape recorder for film use, requires additional recordings and still leaves the picture-sound staggered on the projection film and does not take care of eventual cuts and splices. Mr. Wunder's idea is good, but it is not a new idea. In fact, similar methods have been in use for almost 30 years, while the time-delay system has been specifically designed to overcome the disadvantages of the double system. It is my personal opinion that the time-delay-equipped camera can be regarded as its own sound process laboratory able to deliver a ready-to-edit, trouble-free film. I have been gratified by the response to my paper. So far, I have received six letters from readers of the SMPTE Journal. A television station wishes to purchase a set of time- delay adaptors for newsreel work. I appreciate these expressions of interest, and especially I appreciate criticism, such as Mr. Wunder's, for the opportunity it affords to evaluate the time- delay system by comparison with other systems. December 30, 1963 H. DUSSAULT 11 St. Jude Blvd. St. Zotique, Soulanges P.Q., Canada Dear Sir: I have read Mr. Dussault's interesting paper, "Time- Delay System for Sound-Picture Syncing." It seems very similar in many respects to the one developed by me and patented under No. U.S. 2,729,454, January 3, 1956. The patent "related to sound motion-picture film and projection thereof and in particular motion-picture film where- in each picture frame carried its own soundtrack and wherein a picture and sound relating to the picture are projected simul- taneously." The system was designated Simultaneous Sound- ' Track and Picture System or STAP System. Mr. Dussault's Disc-O-Sound Delay System seems to have basic similarities to the STAP System. In the Disc-O-Sound Delay System the elements of the delaying mechanism are incorporated into the recording camera or projector, while the STAP System uses an independent or additional delayer recorder. An important advantage of the STAP System is that Erratum there is no need to introduce any modification to present sound recording on film equipment (optical or magnetic). The system has been tested successfully, first with one Cine-Voice camera and later with one Auricon Pro-600 camera, without modi- fications. The arrangement provides for quick audio playback to check errors and unwanted sounds after each take and for full recording of all takes for future references or use, should the optical recording spoil by overmodulation, too low contrast developing, burning off of lamp, etc. The original recording on tape still remains. It also permits fast and accurate editing of the track and the picture of the original film. (Once a neg- ative is edited it should be printed in projection sync to ob- tain release prints.) The system is ideal for newsreel work and for low cost productions where no background music is to be used. An- other advantage is that commercials can be taken off kine- scope productions without interfering with the program. For a good many years I worked on the idea of producing a film such as that obtained through the STAP System. In the early days I tried a disc, a drum and a tape loop, ending up, however, by using a recorder capable of producing both the delaying effect and a recording on tape to permit im- mediate playback after each take to detect errors or unwanted sounds. Herewith is an example of one of the early tests made by the author; it's an enlargement of one take with a Cine-Voice camera. February 17, 1963. Rudolf A. Stampfl and William G. Stroud, "Automatic picture transmission TV camera system for meteorological satellites," Jour. SMPTE, 73: 130-134, Feb. 1964. On p. 133, caption for Fig. 8 (due to rearrangement of page make-up for forms at press time, engravings were trans- posed after clearance by the authors, to cause the cloud photograph reproductions to be wrongly identified) : For: (left below) reproduced on Muirhead D700 S; (below) reproduced on Fairchild Scan-a-Fax. Read: (left below) reproduced on Fairchild Scan-a-Fax; (below) reproduced on Muirhead D700 S. Addendum: The following Discussion was omitted from the pages of the February Journal: Discussion LeRoy M. Dearing (L. M. Dearing Ct.' Associates): What could you tell MAX MEJIA VIDES Juan Mora 445 Col. Costa Rica San Salvador, El Salvador, C.A. us about the spectral response of the particular storage vidicon on the APT camera? Dr. Stamp/I: The sensitivity of cameras used to televise cloud pictures from outer space is adjusted to reject the blue light and to have maximum sensitivity in the near infrared. This region lies in most cam- eras at 0.5 microns. This camera carries a filter which rejects the blue and lets the near infrared pass, approximately from 0.5 to 0.75 microns. Addendum J. Robert Mann, Jr., and Norman Leigh, "Electrical installation techniques for a large film production center," Jour. SMPTE, 72: 863-868, Nov. 1963. These acknowledgments and credit were omitted from the paper: Acknowledgments: Architects for the MPO Grand Central Studios were Herbst & Rusciano of New York City who were responsible for the design of the entire project and its many special facilities. Julius Goldfarb was Professional Engineer for the project. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 223 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 F111;1.711111A111 Ambassador Hotel Aavo11.11 Los Angeles April 12-17 Technical Conference Sessions On the following pages is the Advance Program of technical papers. It is the largest and most comprehensive of recent years. Program Chairman John M. Waner has been responsible for seeking out many special papers. These papers, in addition to those gar- nered by the Topic Chairmen, have provided a very full program that will richly reward those who can attend. The Outline of Pro- gram on the following page shows the format of this most substantial technical conference. Ladies' Program A full and exciting Ladies' Program for the 95th Technical Conference has been organized under the chairmanship of Mrs. William E. Gephart, Jr., with Mrs. Robert G. Hufford as co- chairman. Ralph E. Lovell of 3M Co., as Conference Assistant Arrangements Chairman, will assist the committee. The Ladies Hospitality room will be set up in the Garden Room of the Ambassador beginning on Sunday afternoon. Ladies attending the conference are advised, however, that their registration must be done at the Conference Registration Desk in the foyer of the Ambassador Ballroom, where tickets for the Monday Get-Together Luncheon also may be pur- chased. These special events are scheduled for the ladies: Monday: Two-hour sightseeing trips in private cars after the Get-Together Luncheon, followed by a Get-Together Tea. Tuesday: Trip to the famous mission of San Juan Capis- trano, followed by luncheon at Laguna and time to browse in the shops at Laguna Art Center. Wednesday: Free day. Thursday: Dutch treat luncheon, followed by excursions first to the new Hollywood Wax Museum, then to Disneyland. Friday: Tour of the Walt Disney Studios, where a picture will be seen in production, followed by luncheon. Many of these events will be free to the ladies through the courtesy of several firms. These firms will be noted in the Ladies Program. Official hostesses besides Mesdames Gephart and Hufford will be Mesdames Herbert E. Farmer, Ted Fogelman, Jack P. Hall, Wilton R. Holm, James W. Kaylor, Neal Keehn, George Kendall, John P. Kiel, Ralph E. Lovell and Harry Teitelbaum. Technical Conference Equipment Exhibit Visitors to the 95th Confer- ence will see the largest and most varied display of profes- sional equipment ever shown under SMPTE auspices. Until now, the previous Los Angeles meeting, in 1962, constituted a record in this respect, but this time, under the expert guidance of the Exhibit Chair- man, George Kendall (Moviola Mfg. Co., Hollywood), every available inch of space in the two large exhibit rooms adja- cent to the sessions auditorium was reserved more than six weeks before the date of the meeting. For details of the equipment that will be on display in the 81 booths set up in the Sunset and Belvedere rooms see the Exhibit Directory beginning on page 238 of this Journal. Tentative Schedule of Committee Meetings 14'ednesday, April 75 8:00 A.M. (Breakfast) Publications Advisory 9:30 A.M. Board of Editors 10:30 A.M. Papers 12:30 P.M. Editorial Luncheon Engineering Committees which will meet during the week are tenta- tively listed below. The final schedule will appear in the Conven- tion Program. All Committee Members will also be notified by mail. Monday, April 73 10:00 A.M. Laboratory Practice 2:30 P.M. Color Tuesday, April 14 10:00 A.M. Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography 2:00 P.M. Sound Wednesday, April 15 10:00 A.M. Television 2:00 P.M. Film Projection Practice Thursday, April 16 10:00 A.M. 16 & 8mm 2:00 P.M. Film Dimensions 224 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? 4 - ?, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Advance Program his Program is. as complete. and accurate as was possible at press time. It may contain errors, and some changes and additions are expected before the Final Program is printed for the Conference'.' For example, the process of clearance, ? required for certain papers, may resUlt in unforeseen delays prior to final scheduling. If very brief Conference attendance has to be planned to hear only one .session, or a specific paper or papers, members are advised to inquire the week before the Tech- nical Conference by telephoning the Society Headquarters in New York (212 TN 7-5410) or Program Chairman John M. Wexner at Eastman Kodak Co. in Holly- wood (213 H011ywood 9-3101). Outline? of Program Sunday 10:00-4:00 Registration Monday 8:00 Registration 9:00 Motion Pictures, Television and Education 12:15 Get-Together Luncheon ? Guest Speaker 2:30 Television Engineering and Production 7:45 Television'Engineering and Production ? ? Tuesday A:45 .CONCURRENT SESSIONS ?? ?Laboratory Practices ? Television Engineering and Production 1215 High-Speed Photography Luncheon . 2:30 Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography 8:00 Soviet Motion-Picture Industry Wednesday .?? 8:45 Equipment Papers and Demonstrations 1:45 CONCURRENT SESSIONS Sound Recording and Reproduction . Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography Thursday 8:45 CONCURRENT SESSIONS ? Special Photographic Effects and Cinema- tography - Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography 1:45 Special Photographic Effects and Cinema- tography 8:00 Time-Lapse Photography Friday 8:45 Small-Format Films 1:45 Projection Practices Association of Cinema Laboratories Spring Meeting, April 11, 1964 Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles 8 :00 Breakfast Meeting for ACL Board of Directors ? Garden Room. 10:00 Meeting of ACL Members ? Regency Room. 12:00 Luncheon ? Colonial Room. ? ? 2:00 Equipment and Techniques Forum ? Regency Room. (This Forum is open to SMPTE mem- bers.) SUNDAY?APRIL 12 10:00-4:00 Registration 8:00 A Pre-Release Feature Film MONDAY MORNING?APRIL 13 - 8:00 Registration .9:00 MOTION PICTURES, TELEVISION and , EDUCATION An Experimental 8mm Film Production Workshop for Teachers LOU T. WISE, Toronto (Ont.) Board of Education The Toronto Board of Education, Teaching Aids Department, is conducting an 8mm film production workshop for 35 teachers. The objectives are four: ? to encourage teacher production of 8mm films peculiar to individual requirements; to promote ' programs of student film production; to encourage teachers to suggest ideas for 8mm single-concept. films to. be produced' in :the Teaching Aids Department; and to encourage wider use of motion pictures in the classroom and, through involvement in production, a greater awareness of the effectiveness of films. Considerations in the Establishment of a Television In- structional Communication System KEN 'WINSLOW, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. Rapidly developing television technology offers ,a solution for some of the communication problems of education. Specific application of a television technique requires consideration of many design, application and utilization alternatives. Adminis- trative, academic and physical points of departure are con- sidered. Origination, distribution, display and delay functions, and voice, picture and .control services of a television instruc- tional communication system are considered and grouped by operating elements. The resulting analysis is reviewed as to architecture and engineering, standards, staffing and cost.' A Branching Teaching Machine Incorporating' Sound Motion Pictures DONALD G. PERRIN, University of Southern California, Los Angeles A research project at USC required a teaching machine to present sound motion-picture information in a stop-start manner with the capability of branching to. different sequences on the basis of the student's response. Four projectors allow immediate access to the branches, while relay logic maintains synchronism between the units. The unit, which employs standard film pro- duction procedures and off-the-shelf equipment, is low in cost and simple to program. March 1964 journal a the SMPTE VOlume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 223 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A Method for Time Compression of Instructional Tele- MONDAY AFTERNOON vision Materials JAMES LOPER, California State College at Los Angeles An experimental study in the visual and aural comprehension of compressed speech required the development of techniques for synchronization of sound and picture elements. Original video-tape recording, electronic film transfer, skip-frame print- ing, and compressed audio tape recordings are used in the process. Samples of original and compressed material are pre- sented. Filming of Speech Therapy Clinic Sessions Via Tape to Film Process LAWRENCE J. SCHRAM, Orange County Schools, Los Alamitos, Calif. The California Speech and Hearing Association produced 6 five-minute films of clinic sessions with speech handicapped children. Shown at the CSHA Conference, the films provided quality sight and sound reproduction by utilizing a tape to film process. Thus the association was able to produce a thirty- minute black-and-white film with sound at a minimum cost. The use of two cameras, plus the ability to do retakes almost immediately, eliminated the need for film editing and provided a more relaxed setting for the children. Auto-Instructional Technology and the Motion-Picture Engineer LEO PERSSELIN, Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles The technology of teaching machines and programed learning refers not so much to special kinds of hardware as to how hardware can be put to use. This is clearly reflected in the way today's proliferation of teaching-machine hardware shows an increasing emphasis on use of the motion picture. Devices coni- mercially available and under development utilize as many as four motion-picture projectors in synchronous operation. This emphasis strongly suggests that the creative motion-picture engi- neer stands in the same relationship to the field of automated instruction as he does to other major areas of applied. motion- picture technology. Professional or Amateur Television? CHARLES A. CALLACI, Anaheim City School District, Ana- heim, Calif. A professional broadcasting approach is necessary for efficient communication in educational television. This approach can only be made through professional standards for equipment and facilities, personnel and procedures. Where educational TV operations have limited funds for equipment and flourish, the on-camera personality is of utmost importance. 12:15 Get-Together Luncheon Guest Speaker: WILLIAM DOZIER President, Greenway Productions, Inc. Beverly Hills, Calif. 2:30 TELEVISION ENGINEERING and PRODUCTION The Plumbicon TV Camera Tube E. F. De HAAN, NV Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, The Netherlands The Plumbicon TV camera tube is basically a vidicon with a photoconductive layer of microcrystalline lead monoxide. The tube is 20 cm long and has a useful sensitive area 2 cm in diam- eter, and resolution is claimed to be comparable with that of the 3-in. image-orthicon. The Plumbicon is being used in experi- mental color TV cameras in The Netherlands and England. The Electronic Lap-Dissolve FRANK BAIRD-SMITH, JR., National Broadcasting Co., Burbank, Calif. After a brief review of the history of electronic lap-dissolve mechanisms, the principles and embodiment of an advanced design utilizing balanced emitter-followers feeding light-con- trolled resistors are discussed. Test Device for Closed-Circuit and Broadcast TV Camera Systems GIDEON FIAT, Photo Research Corp., Hollywood The Spectra TV Optoliner is a test instrument that provides measurable and reproducible illumination at known levels and color temperatures. Integrated illumination and interchange- able test patterns, mounted to tolerances of 0.002 in., are self- contained. Optoliner permits accurate comparisons of perform- ance of TV camera systems. Stabilization Techniques in a New Video Processor ROBERT A. DISCHERT and NORMAN P. KELLAWAY, Broad- cast and Communications Div., Radio Corp. of America, Cam- den, N.J. The video processor of the RCA TK-22 film chain utilizes a gain control system that contributes materially to the overall stability of the camera chain. Included in the processor is a clamp, clipper, gamma correction, remote control of gain and black level, and a control system that stabilizes the entire process. Review of Telecine Systems D. R. MORSE, British Broadcasting Corp., London The Non-Additive Mixing of TV Signals W. L. HURFORD, Radio Corp. of America, Camden, N.J. A new approach to the problems of the generation of self-keyed inserts, special effects, and lap dissolves is presented. The present additive method of producing video dissolves is contrasted with the non-additive technique, and the many operational advantages which may be obtained by the extension of the non-additive mixing idea to title insertion are described. This technique also lends itself to the generation of special effects in the same equip- ment used for dissolves and keyed inserts, thus making possible a single device for the performance of all three functions. 226 J. March1964 Journal Of the SMPTE Voltime. 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 MONDAY EVENING 7:45 TELEVISION ENGINEERING and PRODUCTION Empirical Correction Factors for Television Filming EDWARD P. ANCONA, JR., National Broadcasting Co., Burbank, Calif. Visual characteristics of the image from a television film are in- fluenced by the projector, the TV camera tube, video operation, the receiver, and home viewing conditions. A tutorial discussion, oriented to. the background and experience of the cinematog- rapher rather than the electronic technician, is given of these factors. Empirical corrections that should enhance the art and effectiveness of television film images are suggested. The Color Television Dilemma: A Technical Survey of Color TV Systems JOSEPH ROIZEN, Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Calif. The very nature of color television is so complex that a number of solutions to the problem can yield relatively similar results. Since its introduction in the United States, the NTSC color TV system has been subjected to considerable competition from other systems claiming to be simpler, cheaper or more precise. There are technical details that separate the NTSC's 525-line system from its 625-line counterpart, and from the specific modes of op- eration of the color systems being proposed for European -tele- vision, such as the line-sequential French (SECAM) system and the phase-alternating (PAL) German system. Field-sequential color television for broadcast applications has not been completely discarded. Dr. Camerena of Telesistema, Mexico, is currently conducing experimental transmissions with a bi-color TV system using a rotating filter on a monochrome camera. Pickup and display devices for color TV developed abroad will also affect future color systems. Considerations in Color Film Production for Color Television JOHN M. WANER, Committee Chairman A joint subcommittee of the Television and Color Committees has been working to establish recommended practices for density and contrast range for color films for color television. During the subcommittee's work it became evident that optimum control of release print density range could be achieved only if the original photography were carefully controlled; therefore, it was felt es- sential to provide an appendix to the recommended practice which would discuss in some detail the "Considerations in Color Film Production for Color Television." Certain factors in color TV film transmission and reception make it desirable to control the characteristics of the color print, and the degree and type of controls which can be applied are affected by properties of the color film. The density range of the color print is most effectively and economically controlled in the staging and photography, rather than in the final printing. Re- flectance of fully illuminated scene elements which are to be re- produced with good detail should be held between recommended maximum and minimum limits to control the "reference white" and "reference black" of each scene, and face tones should be properly related to these limits. For a fully lighted day interior scene, a lighting ration of 2:1 is recommended. Higher ratios may be used for special effects and night scenes. March 1964 Setup of Color Monitors by Instrumentation ALEX QUIROGA, National Broadcasting Co., Burbank, Calif. The television control room might be regarded as the equivalent of a motion-picture screening room. For the screening room, precise standards regarding screen brightness and color tempera- ture (degrees Kelvin) are prescribed by the ASA. The FCC alsO suggests precise standards to balance the color monitors. Many of the present setup techniques fall short of meeting these stand- ards because of psychophysical viewing conditions, which are de- scribed. Subjective evaluation is eliminated through an instru- ment that measures low and high lights on the TV receiver. Film Requirements for Color Television W. H. CHEEVERS, British Broadcasting Corp., London An Economical and Simplified System for Color Television GUILLERMO GONZALEZ CAMERENA, Telesistema Mexicana S.A., Mexico City A bicolor, field-sequential TV system has been planned with the primary purpose of obtaining full-color television by the most economical means possible, and at the same time resulting in a more simplified and practical system. The system is demonstrated with video tape and an adapted receiver. TUESDAY MORNING?APRIL 14 CONCURRENT SESSIONS 8:45 LABORATORY PRACTICES An Editing Bench for Industrial Film Production GEORGE W. TRESSEL and STANLEY J. ANDREWS, JR., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill. A unit editing bench serves as the basic building. block for a flexible industrial film editing room. The bench, a self-contained, free-standing unit, incorporates multiple-track sound equipment, as well as most of the equipment normally desired for industrial editing. Dimensions have been chosen to create privacy and a comfortable work center. The bench incorporates a sound .wall that acts as a partial room divider and lends. itself to changing space and location problems. A Modern Concept of Optical Printer Construction HAROLD A. SCHEIB, Cinema Research Corp., Holly.twiod To satisfy present-day operating requirements, recently developed construction techniques were employed in building a new type of optical printer. Many problems of high manufacturing costs and awkward equipment maintenance were eliminated by utiliz- journalof the SMPTE Volume 73 227- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ing commercially available components for the drive system and assembling them in modular fashion. A variable-speed motor drive, an electronic programing system, a large, stable optical bench, and an automatic fader mechanism complement the operating versatility of the unit. Use of Xenon Flashtubes as a Light Source in Color and Black-and-White Scene Testers CARL W. HAUGE, EDWARD H. REICHARD and LEONARD L. SOKOLOW, Consolidated Film Industries, Hollywood The Cinex Exposure Tester has been widely used for many years to make timing tests from black-and-white negatives. By replacing the incandescent lamp in this tester with a xenon flashtube, with its capacitor-discharge power supply and resulting stable and re- producible light output, a superior testing machine has been de- veloped. The exposure gate has been modified to contain a series of neutral density steps matched to the printing machine lights; for color, a selected range of color filters is added to the neutral densities. The resulting intensity-scale tests closely match print- ing-machine exposure times, thereby resolving film reciprocity differences normally present in Cinex tests. These modified units have been used for several years in black-and-white testing with 30 w/sec to the xenon lamp. By in- creasing this input to 300 w/sec, the tester is adaptable to color scene testing. An Automatic 35mm "A & B" Composite Color Printer SIDNEY P. SOLOW and EDWARD H. REICHARD, Consolidated Film Industries, Hollywood A high-speed color printer for making composite prints from 35mm original color negatives is described. The printer, operat- ing at 120 ft/min, incorporates fades and dissolves in the prints without the use of duplicate effects-negatives. Scene-to-scene color and intensity changes, as well as variable length effects, are moni- tored by means of a transistorized radio frequency proximity cue detector. The lamphouses, readers and fader systems, with slight modi- fications, are of the latest Bell 8c Howell design, similar to those used in the B 8c H Additive Printers. A single light valve is em- ployed for intensity control, and color control is accomplished by a system of multiple-layer, single-frame color filters. The lamp- houses are designed for future installation of two more light valves and dichroic mirrors, should conversion to additive color printing be desired. The printing machine is controlled by a punched paper tape that programs predetermined intensity changes and fade lengths. A New Medium-Speed Reversal Color Film for Motion- Picture Use H. W. VOGT, Photographic Technology Div., and T. J. MUR- RAY, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. Eastman (or Kodak) Ektachrome MS Film is a daylight-balanced, reversal color film for 16mm and 35mm motion-picture and in- strumentation use. Film structure, sensitometric characteristics and recommended printing methods are discussed. Measurements reported include granularity, modulation transfer function and reciprocity failure characteristics. Standard processing yields op- timum quality at an exposure index of 64. Process modifications also make possible the use of effective exposure indices from 16 to 256. For special engineering applications, an effective expo- sure index as high as 1,000 can be obtained, but with considerable Joss in quality. A picture demonstration is presented. A History of Spray Processing RALPH D. WHITMORE, JR., Ox berry Corp., New Rochelle, N.Y. Spray processing has been commercially successful since the middle thirties when it was first used at DeLuxe Laboratories in New York. Since that time, many laboratories have installed spray equipment and in some cases have completely eliminated immersion processing. Some of the data resulting from the in- dustry's extensive research on spray processing are discussed. 228 Lubrication of Motion-Picture Film FREDERICK J. KOLB, JR., and EDWARD M. WEIGEL, Man- ufacturing Experiments Div., Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. Projection performance of processed motion-picture film is im- proved by lubrication whereby the coefficient of friction is con- trolled within the range that gives steady, reproducible position- ing of successive frames with the least strain on the perforations. Printer effectiveness can also be improved by lubricating the negative to facilitate a constant pitch relationship to the raw- stock, and to minimize minor abrasions. In spite of extensive re- search work on film lubrication and the wide experience gained over the years, considerable misunderstanding of this subject still exists. The pertinent background is reviewed, processes and ma- terials for lubrication are examined, and several procedures of proven effectiveness are described. Photographic Evaluation Parameters SAMUEL BOUSKY, Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Calif. Photographic science terminology is reviewed as an outgrowth of silver halide background, with present-day extension to encom- pass (1) increased variety of non-silver halide processes, (2) transi- tion to more fundamental physical concepts and (3) modification to analytical methods of communication and information theories. Although theoretical developments and mathematical derivations are avoided, simplified transitions are indicated from such es- tablished parameters as exposure index, resolution, latitude and granularity to the more recent concepts of energy sensitivity, spatial frequency response, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. CONCURRENT SESSION 8:45 TELEVISION ENGINEERING and PRODUCTION Operational Adjustment of Picture Monitors in Tele- vision Studios C. A. SIOCOS, Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Montreal Results are given of surveys and subjectives tests made seeking a consistent method for the day-to-day adjustment of picture moni- tors in order to secure relatively constant picture conditions. Ex- pressions are derived giving the desired degree of uniformity of ambient light falling on a row of monitors and others giving the white-to-ambient and black-to-ambient luminance relations pro- ducing the highest degree in similarity of appearance between monitors in different ambient light. Considerations regarding the practical application of the above expressions are also discussed. These considerations include guide posts derived from a survey of operational preferences of many practicing technicians. CBC Vidicon Telecine Operating Standards, With Par- ticular Reference to the Gray-Scale Characteristic S. F. QUINN and J. BOWIE DICKSON, Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Montreal The various factors influencing the choice of vidicon operating parameters for telecine ?are ? considered together with the con- sequent vidicon light-transfer characteristic. Measurements have been made on the components affecting the overall telecine gray- scale characteristic, which has been computed graphically. Further computations have been made using the telecine char- acteristic and a typical film print-through characteristic, and the resultant curve is shown to be similar to that of the image- orthicon camera. The usefulness of a gray-scale slide in general telecine operation is shown to be limited by shading errors. New Animation Production Techniques Using Video Tape MILT ALTMAN, National Broadcasting Co., Burbank, Calif. Recent developments in the field of video-tape recording make it possible to create animation effects. These are accomplished by recording images on a single-frame, "stop motion" basis. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 The recorded images can be artwork, three-dimensional ob- jects, live action, or a combination of the three. Various aspects of an electronic animation system are discussed, with emphasis On its value. as a new production tool. Examples of animation using the new system are shown. The.TP-66 16mm TV Projector A. E. JACKSON, Broadcast and Communication Div., Radio Corp. of America, Camden, N.J. A 16mm film projector designed to cover present and predicted future needs of broadcast television is described. A system of rapid sound stabilization has been developed to eliminate the need for pre-roll. Automatic loop restoration, servo-driven screen brightness control and pulse-operated control circuits make the projector suitable for use with automated systerns. A New Television Switching Equipment H. MIRZWINSKI, Marconi Co., Ltd., Chelmsford, England With the growth of television there has been an increasing de- mand for larger and more sophisticated switching equipment. The use of relay or semiconductor matrices is not economical in cost or space with increased size. In a search for an alternative switching element, the choice fell on the standard type of Post Office uniselector or stepping relay. The unit and its advantages are described. New Solid-State Sound-Mixing Equipment for Television D. B. MANNING, Marconi Co., Ltd.,'Chelmsford, England Modern television studios call for more and more microphone channels. Sound-control desks have, therefore, become increas- ingly complex. The introduction of transistorized modules has enabled the production of compact designs giving full facilities. A typical transistorized sound-control desk is described and sub- sequent developments are discussed. Image-Orthicon Operation . EARL FARIS, American Broadcasting Co., Hollywood The critical, complex, little understo6d and controversial imagel orthicon operation is further confused by the characteristics of the increasingly used 41/2-in, tube. This study includes a partial investigation of the "saturated target" and "linear" modes of operation with a review that includes "redistribution" and "spurious signal" phenomena and a comparison between the commonly used 3-in. 5820 (7293 screen-mesh version) and the 4 1/2-in. 7295. The various operating modes of the 7295, including the linear mode with its limited light-contrast capability that re- quires control of set reflectance and lighting, are explored. TUESDAY NOON High-Speed Photography Luncheon Guest Speaker: ? H. E. BAUER, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Economics of Photooptica I Instrumentation The economic value of photooptical instrumentation analysis has long been recognized by the aircraft, missile and space-vehicle industry. It is proposed that engineers may significantly increase their effectiveness in developing and utilizing photooptics by applying certain economic disciplineg that are now available. These techniques have been developed through the efforts of industry and the government to improve the effective manage- ment of major development programs. Typical of such tech- niques are value analysis, PERT-time and PERT-cost. The modern engineer must update himself not only in his technical specialty but also in economic and management specialties. TUESDAY AFTERNOON 2:30 INSTRUMENTATION and HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY "Seeability" and Resolution in Space Reconnaissance CHARLES R. JEFFS, JR., and KINGDOM KERR, Douglas. Air- craft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Reconnaissance of the earth from space platforms located at an altitude of 100 miles may be impractical if only resolution criteria are used. The results of Cooper's flight during the Mercury pro- gram indicate that preconditioned resolution leads to a recon- naissance capability that may be defined as "seeability." Factors affecting "seeability" and attempts to reduce the confusion of "seeability" with resolution are discussed. Photographic Instrumentation for Reentry Measurements W. G. PLANET, Barnes Engineering Co., Stamford, Conn. Photographic instruments have aided immeasurably in the ac- quisition of data during the reentry phase of ballistic missile tests. These include ballistic cameras for trajectory determination, spectral cameras for chemical and thermal studies, and an assort- ment of non-dispersive, high-resolution or high-speed cine cameras for spatial and aerodynamic studies. Some typical photo- graphic systems used on these tests and details of their choice by function and performance capabilities are discussed. New Frontiers in Ultra-High-Speed Photography K. R. COLEMAN, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England Use of Time-Lapse Motion-Picture Photography in the Study of Cloud Dynamics C. E. ANDERSON and L. R. KOENIG, Douglas Aircraft Co.,- Santa Monica, Calif. Many characteristics of the formation and development of clouds may be profitably studied by photography. The application of time-lapse photography to the acquisition of data concerning the dynamical properties of clouds is reviewed. Tools of acquir- ing, reducing, and interpreting data are discussed. Time-lapse photographs of developing convective clouds are shown. Use of Color Film in Manufacture of Large-Area Color ? Map Transparencies E. E. GRIFFITH, Technicolor Corp. of America, Burbank, Calif. Large (36-in. by 36-in.) color transparencies are being manufac- tured for use as -land mass simulation. Information is coded in each of three color images to permit simultaneous readout of three information channels. Factors in the selection of the color film for this unusual application are discussed. There are highly specialized procedures for the printing, processing, retouching, and cementing of color maps. Problem areas in manufacture, in- cluding crosstalk, register, and printed-in defects; are discussed. Instruction in Photooptical Instrumentation D. B. HOWARD, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. The history of one of the first practical courses in photooptical instrumentation offered in this country is traced. The great demand for such instruction is noted. March 1964 Journal of the'SMPTE Volume 73 229 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 TUESDAY EVENING 8:00 PANEL PRESENTATION Soviet Motion-Picture Industry DEANE R. WHITE, SMPTE Engineering Vice-President; WILLIAM E. GEPHART, Jr., Governor, SMPTE; and ETHAN M. STIFLE, SMPTE Executive Vice-President As reported briefly in the December 1963 Journal and quite ex- terisively in the March 1964 Journal, a delegation of the SMPTE officers noted above and Frank Capra, the motion-picture director- producer, visited the USSR as a delegation forming one unit of the Cultural Exchange Program negotiated between the Soviet Union and the United States. The visit dealt with the technical aspects of motion-picture production and presentation, as de- veloped in the USSR. Eighteen sites were visited in five cities: Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Odessa and Alma-Ata. These included studios, theaters, processing laboratories, an equipment factory, a television station, a design bureau and a research center. Much of the equipment seen was quite similar to corresponding items in the USA and elsewhere. A few units showed independent design features that appeared interesting. Many photographs were made of units seen; these photo- graphs describe the equipment in greater detail than could be done by words. Samples were obtained of processed color nega- tive, color negative raw stock (masked) and color print raw stock now in use in the USSR. The report is given in three parts: (1) Plans for the trip; changes suggested in Moscow; coopera- tion received in making the visits scheduled; incidents of the trip; observations and general conclusions; (2) Technical description of equipment, illustrated with many color slides; and (3) Report of tests made on Soviet color film?particularly, raw stock samples and processed color negatives?obtained on the trip. Screen quality is shown with US color prints made from Russian negatives. After these presentations, the delegates will be available to answer questions from the audience. WEDNESDAY MORNING?APRIL 15 8:40 EQUIPMENT PAPERS and DEMONSTRATIONS BY EXHIBITORS New ColorTran Light (Paper and Demonstration) HERBERT A. HOLLANDER, ColorTran Industries, Burbank, Calif. Model 120S Arriflex Sound Blimp for Arriflex-35 Cam- eras VICTOR JAMES, Arriflex Corp. of America, New York Remote Control Lenses for Vidicon Cameras, With and Without Automatic Diaphragm Control, and Zoom Lenses for Professional Motion-Picture Cameras With and Without Viewfinders (Paper) WALTER STEUER, Zoomar, Inc., Glen Cove, N.Y. Luminance Standard and Precision Log-Linear Photom- eter (Demonstrations) HAROLD P. FIELD, Gamma Scientific, Inc., San Diego, Calif. Eclair GV-35 High-Speed Camera With Transistorized Speed Control; Eclair GV-16; Gear Head (Demonstra- tions) J. P. CARSON, Eclair Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. New Special-Effects Optical Printer for Motion Pictures, Including Related Devices and Innovations (Paper) HAROLD A. SCHEIB, Research Products, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 230 Two New Models of "Vista-Sell" Projectors (Demonstra- tion) HOWARD TURNER, DuKane Corp., St. Charles, Ill. The Palmer Television Film Recorder and a New 16mm 2400 ft Modular Magazine (Paper) JOHN CORSO, W. A. Palmer Films Inc., San Francisco, Calif. 16mm "JAN" Projector Modified for Use With a 450-w Xenon Light Source (Demonstration) FRANK H. RIFFLE, Carbons, Inc., Boonton, N.J. Atlas Portable Projector (Demonstration) WALTER E. MCCORMICK, Atlas Projector Corp., Culver City, Calif. New Modular Optical Printer and 16mm High-Speed ? Film Inspector (Paper and Demonstration) ROBERT TROY, Ox berry Corp., New Rochelle, N.Y. New Improved Model 224-A Photoopfical Data Analyzer (Demonstration) R. H. LAWRENCE, L-W Photo, Inc., Van Nuys, Calif. Underwater Camera Housings and Underwater Lighting Equipment?SeAQUArtz (Demonstrations) CLIFFORD SAWYER, Birns & Sawyer Cine Equipment Co., Inc., Hollywood, Calif. Transist-O-Sound Wireless Microphone for Television Newsreel Sound on Film (Paper) DOM CAPANO, S.O.S. Photo-Cine-Optics, Inc., New York New Transmission Densitometer 0-4.0, With Certified Kodak Status "M" Printing Density Filters and Visual Filter for Soundtrack (Demonstrations) FREDERIC MCCURDY, Macbeth Instrument Corp., Newburgh, N.Y. Development of Lawlette Film Processing Machines (Paper) F. W. SYLVESTER, Newman & Guardia Ltd., England WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON CONCURRENT SESSIONS 1:45 SOUND RECORDING and REPRODUCTION Cinerama Theatre Acoustics M. RETTINGER, RCA Broadcast & Communication Products Div., Burbank, Calif. Acoustic problems arising in hemispherical enclosures are dis- cussed, and then the acoustic design and the results of acoustic measurements of the recently completed Cinerama Center Theatre in Hollywood are described. This theater features a "geodesic dome," or quasi-hemispherical vault. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A Simple Approach to the Quality-Control 'Problems of 16mm Variable-Area Soundtracks for the Smaller Studio and Laboratory ? GORDON WILLIAMS, Walt Disney Studios, Hollywood; and MICHAEL STRONG, World Wide Pictures, ? SherMan Oaks, Commercial negative and print tolerances produce some prints with unacceptable sound quality, so additional control is neces- sary. 6,000-cycle cross-modulation tests are found to give more ac- curate control than the conventional 4,000-cycle tests. Use of a short, one-shot cross-modulation test on the negative and a simple cross-modulation distortion meter, designed for operators with no special training, indicates both direction and amount of density correction necessary to obtain optimum results. An Improved Method of Level Control for Broadcast- ing and Recording JAMES F. LAWRENCE, JR., Teletronix Engineering Co., Los Angeles An improved audio compressor-limiter system has been developed, making use of a new linear optical attenuator. The shortcomings of existing systems are overcome by producing light instantly and in direct proportion to audio level through the use of electro- luminescence. The light controls amplifier input level by means of a photo-conductive cell. There is no distortion due to limiting, and the attack time for the system is 10 Asec. The Performance of Photographic Soundtracks on East- man Color Print Film, Type 5385, With Special Ref- erence to 8mm Usage J. G. STREIFFERT and J. F. FINKLE, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. It is shown that a top-layer dye soundtrack reproduced with an S-4 type photosurface compares very favorably with multilayer dye-plus-silver tracks. With high-quality reduction printing and reproducing equipment, substantially the same performance can be achieved at equivalent wavelengths and track widths on 8mm film as on 35mm. Tracks on 8mm film made to be scanned with a slit 0.020 in. in width have been found to have more than adequate commercial quality if proper attention is given to sen- sitometric conditions and dirt and damage control. A Prefabricated Acoustical Window RALPH LANE and CLYDE TUCKER, Miller Sliding Glass .136or Co., Burbank, Calif.. A A new prefabricated acoustical window maintains an hermetic seal and provides a chambered frame assembly. The window has a minimum certified rating of sound transmission Class 48, and will receive any type of glass from 7/32 to 1/2 in., including heat-absorbing, one-way mirror, tinted and safety glass. Simplified Blooping, Synchronization, Camera Drives and Slating LOREN L. RYDER, Ryder Sound Services, Inc.' Magnetic Sales Corp., Hollywood, Calif. New techniques for blooping, synchronizing, camera drives and slating are now available. Advancement into the new techniques may be made in steps, but each step must fit into an overall, feasible pattern. The relative merits of several systems are dis- cussed, and specific recommendations are presented. CONCURRENT SESSION. 1:45 INSTRUMENTATION and HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY Pinhole Optics JOHN M. FIELD, JR., Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif . A space-flight simulator is being designed that utilizes closed- circuit television cameras that translate along a track and view a model. As the distance from the cameras to the model changes, conventional glass lenses would require continual refocusing. A pinhole requiring no refocusing was considered and was found by experiment to produce quite adequate images for this application. Thus the, pinhole assumed an important part in a large-scale space simulator. The problem of finding the optimum diameter for the pinhole is discussed. Several mathematical methods for determining an optimum pinhole diameter are presented. The basic theory and the primary assumptions for each method are discussed, and the results of the various methods are compared. Pinhole Optics and Simulators A. H. GALLAS, C. A. GILBERT and A. B. H1TTERDAL, Doug- las Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. .A description of the operational advantages gained by use of pinhole optics in the design of a visual flight simulator is presented. Television engineering problems associated with the use of pinhole optics, particularly with regard to the scene lighting required, are outlined. The trade-off between a common lens system and a pinhole lens system is discussed. The need for unique manufacturing and quality control methods to produce satisfactory pinholes also is considered, along with some associated problems in designing peripheral visual display equipment. Finally, a theory of the choice of pinhole focal length and aperture size is discussed. Physical Characteristics of Xenon Flashtubes FRANK S. BARNES, University of Colorado, Electrical Engineer- ing Dept., Boulder, Colo. The physical characteristics of xenon flashtubes are reviewed. In particular, i the spectral output of xenon lamps is discussed in terms of watts per unit wavelength for different wavelengths and current densities. Attention is given to the effects of varying the pressure, length and diameter of the flashtube on the total light output, and the conversion efficiency of electrical to optical power. Additionally, the influence of the exciting pulse shape on the conversion efficiency is described, along with some problems in impedance matching for the driving source. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Photography JEROME S. GOLDHAMMER, Chicago Aerial Industries, Bar- rington, Ill. ? Current capabilities of photo-reconnaissance and surveillance techniques are neither as limited as commonly believed pre-Cuba nor as omnipotent as claimed in the lay press post-Cuba. Photo capabilities and limitations are compared with the performance potentials of other possible reconnaissance sensors, such as tele- vision, infrared and radar. Choices of sensors for specific needs are indicated, and growth possibilities are discussed. Photography in Astronomy R. M. CAMERON, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Astronomy was one of the first sciences in which photography was used as a prime means of qualitative and quantitative analy- sis. However, photography in? astronomy is filled with problems of great magnitude?figuratively and literally. The intensity and spectral range encountered in studies ranging from the Sun to the faintest stars and galaxies within reach of the larger telescopes require meticulous considerations of the spectral and sensitometric characteristics of photographic emulsions. Highlights of problems encountered are discussed along with past and current techniques employed in astronomical photography. Anticipated advancements in techniques also are discussed. Time-Lapse Photography of Chromospheric Phenomena JOHN FRITZEN, Lockheed California Co., Burbank, Calif. In an observatory monitoring the chromospheric phenomena visible in the hydrogen alpha emission of the Sun, a telescope, together with an .0.5A filter and camera, is used for time-lapse photography. The resultant films are separated or recombined through the use of standard optical printing techniques for the study of various solar events. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 231 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Photooptical Instrumentation in Medicine IRVING REHMAN, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles Photooptical instrumentation, with special reference to techniques and problems in medical photography, is briefly reviewed. Spe- cialized instrumentation in endoscopy, infrared, ultrasonics, photomicrography and electron microscopy is discussed, along with instrumentation, recording and monitoring problems in cineradiography and other x-ray techniques. The application of closed-circuit TV in medical training, surgery and research also is discussed. Automatic Lens Design Illustrated by a 600mm, f/2.0, 24? Field Lens BERLYN BRIXNER, University of California, Los Alamos Sci- entific Laboratory, N.M. Representative prescriptions, together with performance evalua- tions, are given for six designs in a sequence developed to im- prove performance of an eight-element, ballistic missile camera lens. The lens was redesigned with the LASL computer program, which analyzes lens performance statistically by multiple ray tracing and minimizes image defects by the least squares method. The design giving best performance uses ordinary low-index glasses. This work was done under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. WEDNESDAY EVENING 6:45 Cocktail Party. Banquet and Dance THURSDAY MORNING?APRIL 16 CONCURRENT SESSIONS 8:45 SPECIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC EFFECTS and CINEMATOGRAPHY Traveling-Matte Photography and the Blue-Screen System WALTER BEYER, Universal Pictures Corp., Universal City, Calif., and Chairman of Research and Education Committee of American Society of Cinematographers Traveling-matte systems available for feature film production are summarized. The blue-screen system as it is presently used, in- cluding all specifications for equipment and photography on the set, is discussed in detail. Emphasis is given to use of the blue- screen system with transparent subjects and fast-moving objects. Technique for Composite Motion Pictures JOSEPH WESTHEIMER, Westheimer Co., Hollywood A method for making composite motion pictures for black-and- white presentation is described and illustrated. This technique, which employs the use of the blue-screen traveling-matte system, provides a greater degree of flexability to the producer, with a saving of both time and money. Demonstration material consists of illustrations from current television film shows and com- mercials. Demonstration of Modern Composite Cinematography LINWOOD G. DUNN, Film Effects of Hollywood, Inc., Holly- wood Excerpts from the 70mm Technicolor Ultra-Panavision produc- tion, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, are shown to illustrate modern techniques in photographic effects. A composite scene that required twenty-one exposures in the camera is shown in breakdown form. Other examples of special-effects cinematog- raphy also are shown. 232 A New Rear-Projection Process A. ARNOLD GILLESPIE, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc., Culver City, Calif. Standard rear-projection process uses "center-line" single or su- perimposition projection of background plates on a translucent screen. M.G.M.'s new "laced" process uses extracted halves or thirds from a single original negative and "spread" projectors. Two or three extractions are used to make a single photograph- able background, the segments having been "laced," or blended together. Considerable gain in quality and scope is reported with the new process. An Aerial-Image Unit for Industrial Animation GEORGE W. TRESSEL and STANLEY J. ANDREWS, JR., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.. The aerial image unit is a valuable tool for inserting diagrams in industrial motion pictures. The principal problems associated with such a unit are design of the field lens for minimum spherical aberration, and critical alignment of the optical train. High- quality projection lenses and large aperture are also necessary to prevent color fringing caused by the condenser system. Electronic Control Unit for an Industrial Animation Camera GEORGE W. TRESSEL and STANLEY J. ANDREWS, JR., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill. Industrial animation involves specialized camera controls inas- much as a minimum of cell-by-cell animation is used. Instead, a great deal of cyclic, scratch-off, and build-up animation is in- Volved. An electronic control unit with parallel time-delay con- trols greatly simplifies these operations. The usual elaborate animation camera log is replaced with a simple cue sheet. The board includes control for an aerial image unit with provision for multiple framing. Visual indicator controls provide an im- mediate check for camera modes and conditions to minimize pos- sible error. Considerations in the Design and Construction of a 360? 16mm Ten-Camera Rig JACK BEHREND, Behrend's, Inc., Chicago A number of cameras are coupled for the synchronous photog- raphy of a 360? field. Special consideration must be given to the selection of these cameras as well as their mechanical coupling, optical integration, the structure of the assembly and electrical controls. Some of these alternatives are strongly influenced by the script and reliability considerations. The relationships between photography and projection also play a part in the philosophy of the design. Variable-Beam Reflector Spotlight for Quartz-Iodine Lamps ROBERT E. LEVIN, Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., Lighting " Div., Salem, Mass. A variable-beam spotlight utilizing the compact quartz-iodine lamp has been developed. Significant gains in optical per- formance and reduction of size and weight over conventional units are realized. The small source size permits new forms of reflector optics to replace the conventional lens systems. The theory of design and operation are discussed, and the photo- metric performance is reported. The system is planned for use in cinematography, television and related areas. CONCURRENT SESSION 8:45 INSTRUMENTATION and HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY Photographic Flame Analyses JOHN H. WADDELL, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. The photography of self-luminous subjects has always created problems. Among these subjects have been missile launchings, March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 nuclear explosions, arc welding and burning hydrogen. Each of these types of luminous bodies has individual characteristics, and a logical pattern for these analyses requires a knowledge of brightness and spectral characteristics of the flame, color and neutral filters and film sensitivity. A hydrogen flame is practically invisible but when photographed on infrared-sensitive film through a deep red filter, the flame becothes.observable. Another example is the photography of arc welding where puddle formation can be photographed, as well as the ionization of the arc at the electrodes. The technique here is to vary the exposure?each phenomenon being studied at a different 'ex- posure. The exposure may vary 30,000 times to secure the necessary spread. Jump and Weave in High-Speed Motion Pictures JOHN H. WADDELL, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. High-speed motion pictures have a tendency to jump or weave when they are projected. Several causes for this tendency are suggested: (1) Ambiguous American Standards for the perfora- tion of film: The tolerance summations are not equal when using T-2E against 1 + 2C. This discrepancy is compounded by the film manufacturers' hesitancy in giving camera designers their working standards. (2) Pitch variation in the film, which is reflected by slippage on the film on the sprocket at high velocitieV and accelerations. These velocities may be up to 300 ft/sec, which may be reached in 0.4 sec. It is impossible to design a sprocket tooth that will fill the perforation, and to design 12 teeth 0.3 in. apart in engagement. (3) The use of "green" film, i.e., film that is still maldimensioned after develop- ment, in the projector. Processed film should cure for 48 hours before projection. Accurate Coded Timing-Light Generator ROGER BOY De La TOUR, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Photographic techniques are extremely useful in the study of fast phenomena or transient conditions. In such studies, it is necessary to know precisely the time elapsed during the dif- ferent phases of the phenomenon. If more than one high-speed camera is used, 'it is important to correlate the time indications for all cameras, so that simultaneous photographs can be as- sembled. The easiest way to record time is to mark it on one edge of the film by means of a time-coded light. An accurate coded timing-light generator, giving precision of a fraction of a millisecond, has been built and is described. It is capable of coding many cameras simultaneously at distances of many hundreds of feet. The master unit is triggered by a crystal. controlled oscillator. Transistorized multivibrators generate the timing for the length of the different pulses indicating the seconds, the tenths, hundredths and thousandths of seconds. A transistorized switch applies 350 v to a NE 5IH neon bulb. Slave units are used at each camera location. They can work on dry batteries and are fully transistorized. The complete system is composed of the decimal system above, marking one edge of the film, and of a real-time digital master connected to the real-time slave units and lamps that mark the opposite edge of the film. An Automatic Camera Tracking System W. J. GIBSON and D. H. SMITH, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. An automatic camera tracking system is one in. which the servo control loop is closed by the optical light path. Deviations from the optical axis of the object being tracked result in error signals derived from the television signal. The error signals are used to command a change in camera mount position so that the object being tracked remains on the optical axis of the tracking system. Either negative- or positive-contrast objects may be tracked., Analysis of Stress Wave Propagation by Photoviscoelastic Techniques CHARLES W. FERGUSON, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. An experimental procedure for determining stress wave action in a dynamically loaded model structure 'is developed. A high-speed framing camera is used to record dynamic fringe patterns in photoviscoelastic materials. The theory of linear viscoelasticity is then used to relate fringe time histories to stress (or strain) his- tories. The materials used for the models exhibit linear viscoelas- tic behavior. Response to load is a function of rate of load appli- cation. .Theoretical analysis of complex viscoelastic structure materials is usually difficult, and in some cases, not possible. The need for a quantitative experimental technique for the assessment of such structures clearly exists. Results of research indicate that quantitative photoviscoelasticity techniques are feasible. A Cine Spectrograph for Reentry Measurements BERNARD D. PLAKUN and WILLIAM C. SCHUPP, Barnes Engineering Co., Stamford, Conn. The cine spectrograph records a reentry event as a consecutive series of spectrographic records. Wavelength and time resolution, wavelength, coverage and running time are the principal per- formance factors. Frame rates of from 10 to 30 frames/sec and a capacity of 1800 frames are considered adequate for reentry observations. Spectral performance is affected by target size and the accuracy of target tracking. A dispersion element using a pierced grating and prism combination enables considerably im- proved spectral resolution over a grating alone. High-Speed Photoinstrumentafion for a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel . . ROBERT L. LEIGHTON, United Aircraft Corp., East Hartford, Conn. Application's of high-speed cameras and short-duration- light sources to measure pressures, forces and flow patterns in a high- velocity (up to Mach 25), short-duration (10 msec) wind tunnel are described. Details of the measuring techniques are given, in- cluding the optical layouts, lighting, synchronization methods, data reduction procedures and measurement accuracy. Far-Infrared Photography A. T. IRELAND, Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Because film does not retain its sensitivity at far-infrared wave- lengths, pictures are obtained through the use of other de- tectors. Methods of obtaining such pictures are outlined. Limitations of the equipment and results are discussed. Several practical applications are mentioned, slides -are shown of results obtainable, and equipment is demonstrated. March 1964 ,Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 233 iEC Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 THURSDAY AFTERNOON 1:45 SPECIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC EFFECTS and CINEMATOGRAPHY The Mitchell SSR-16 EDMUND M. DI GIULIO, Mitchell Camera Corp., Sherman Oaks, Calif. There is a growing need in television news-gathering for a 16mm, single-system sound camera that is lightweight and silent, with low wow and flutter, yet still retains professional pin-register quality. The solution of many of the problems generated by these stringent and often contraditory requirements is described. Electronic Cam: A Production Method for Television and Feature Films ALFRED JETTER, Bavaria Atelier G.m.b.H., Munich-Geisel- gasteig, Germany Background of the Electronic-Cam system of producing motion pictures for television is outlined, and current applications of the system in several installations are discussed. Particular reference is made to the application of Electronic Cam to films for color television. Ill9' ;1 A Portable Industrial Motion-Picture Kit GEORGE W. TRESSEL, STANLEY J. ANDREWS, JR., and DANIEL S. GIROUX, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, A 500-pound kit incorporates complete field equipment for a highly mobile motion-picture group. Nine uniform cases are sufficiently small and light so that they may be shipped by air and easily handled by one man; yet they contain cameras, acces- sories, and facilities for tapping power and lighting large pieces of industrial hardware. Tests have led to equipment that delivers maximum light output with flexibility. Using this kit, two three- man units have photographed 90% of the footage for the Atomic Energy Commission's Geneva Conference film program. 35mm Camera Apertures, Composition Areas and Printed Picture Sizes As They Affect Theatrical and TV Pres- entations WALTER BEYER, Universal Pictures Corp., Universal City, Calif., and Chairman of Research and Educational Committee of American Society of Cinematographers Present 35mm composition discrepancies between wide-screen and television production are outlined. A solution is proposed and illustrated through slides and motion-picture film. A Universal 35mm Film Format SIDNEY P. SOLOW, Consolidated Film Industries, Hollywood Present-day 35mm motion pictures are photographed to be ex- hibited either in "wide-screen" (1.85 to 1) or in anamorphic "scope" (2.35 to 1). The former always, and the latter frequently, wastes film area and projection light. A universal, mildly anamor- phic compromise that would display all of the available image area and utilize all of the projector illumination is advocated. Other advantages are discussed. Practical Tests Chart for Studios C. W. BAKER and E. W. KAGE, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. In present motion-picture work, no standard "lily" or gray scale exists for determining exposures and color balancing for print- ing. A new 6-patch chart that is designed in various sizes for different-sized motion-picture sets and may be used with both color and black-and-white film is described. The chart is made from inexpensive, commercially available materials. The materials have been tested for batch-to-batch quality and have good color stability, as illustrated with spectrophotometric curves of fading tests. The reason for the choice of six patches is shown with typical sensitometric curves for these films: Eastman Color Negative Film, Type 5251; Ektachrome Commercial Film, Type 7255; and East- man Double-X Panchromatic Negative Film, Type 5222. The use of a scene luminanct meter with the chart for the determina- tion of camera exposures is described and illustrated. The method of lighting the chart and its placement in several sets also is de- scribed and illustrated. Panel Discussion on Exposure Control HAL MOHR, President, American Society of Cinematographers, Moderator Exposure Control Devices and Their Use in Original Photography HAROLD P. FIELD, Gamma Scientific, Inc., San Diego, Calif. Thoughts on spot photometry as applied to motion-picture and TV scene lighting, including some observations on color char- acteristics, flare, and polarization in spot photometers, both with regard to exposure determination and luminary (brightness) ratio measurements, aiKe presented. 9; Exposure Control and Stray Light Component JAMES W. HARRIS, New Zealand National Film Unit, Welling- ton, N.Z. Stray light needs more attention. Though too much will degrade the image, enough will give overall threshold exposure, which may explain the success of some "magic eye" systems. While existing exposure-control systems all have weaknesses, experience with visual judgment of reflex finder brightness suggests that this is a system which could be made reliable, the need being for a standard brightness or image to be placed alongside the normal ground-glass image. The equipment necessary for this could also provide means of increasing effective emulsion speed by a revival of pre-fogging technique. An Appendix is submitted suggesting a new standard by which cameras could be rated for their stray light component. Peculiarities of Telefilm Exposure Control HAROLD WRIGHT, Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa, Ont., Canada The telefilm medium has exposure-control problems peculiar to that medium. The telecine transfer creates electrical tone- scales, and transmitter modulation requirements place severe limits on tone-scale excursions in the "white" direction. Thus, high-luminance areas in a scene, of little photographic signifi- cance, take on a significance far out of proportion to their sub- jective or aesthetic effect. This significance can be determined, and accommodated, if exposure is controlled by a narrow-angle, telescopic spot-photometer type of exposure meter. A Compromise Solution: A Reflectance Meter That Incorporates Exposure-Control Advantages of the Incident-Light Meter BURTON J. ASKOWITH, Martin Company, Orlando, Fla. Accepting the premise that optimum exposure control is a func- tion both of direct incident light (E) and of reflected light (B), it can be shown that the required change in aperture or exposure (p A) may be expressed as the sum of two terms, one related to the incident-light meter (ME), the other to the reflected light meter (ME): = f(ME) E f(ME) P E (The term-r is the average scene reflectivity.) Data are shown to indicate that a practical reflectance meter can be built to approximate this sum, using the combined visible and near-infrared reflected light in spite of the variability of the infrared ambient relative to the visible. 234 March 1964 . Journal of the .SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 THURSDAY EVENING 8:00 TIME-LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY Time-Lapse Photography at Moody Institute of Science IRWIN A. MOON and F. ALTON EVEREST, Moody Institute of Science, Santa Monica, Calif. The techniques of time-lapse photography have added much to the understanding of physical and biological phenomena. In- strumentation for time-lapse applications to specific subjects over the past twenty years are reviewed. There are two broad categories of equipment: that for the camera-controlled exposure used ex- tensively for outdoor situations, and that for intervalometer- controlled exposure for artificially illuminated subjects. Photo- micrographic time-lapse arrangements normally fall under the second category. Some Medical Applications of the Cinematography of Cells C. GEORGE LEFEBER, Pasadena Foundation for Medical Re- search, Pasadena, Calif. The use of time-lapse cinematography for biological research is introduced with an example of the well-known technique em- ployed to record the opening of a flower. By way of introducing how animal tissues are studied, the dissection of a salamander to produce a living culture is illustrated. Lung cells frbm this animal show four phenomena which could not have been understood without cine techniques: Rapid outgrowth of cells, food intake, movement of enzyme-bearing mitochondria, and cell division. Human cells from a thyroid cancer add other activity features: wrinkling and rotation of nuclei. Various cine setups are il- lustrated, including instruments for recording cell changes pro- duced in perfusion chambers from double microscopes to permit film comparisons of treated and untreated cells. A scanner and electron recording device for the analysis of the contractile motion of certain brain cells are shown. FRIDAY MORNING?APRIL 17 8:45 SMALL-FORMAT FILMS An Improved 8mm Film Cartridge ARTHUR C. MUELLER, Bell dr Howell Co., Chicago A cartridge for use in a double-8mm camera simplifies threading, eliminates the need for rethreading for the second-half run, re- quires less camera power to operate, and aids in obtaining sharper pictures. Automation for 8mm Single-System Sound HANS NAPFEL, Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corp., Plain- view, N.Y. Many advances have been made to automate the 8mm camera. These range from motor drive, through automatic exposure, to power zoom. Approaches to simplification of the sound-recording aspect and general operation of a single-system 8mm sound camera are explored. Factors Affecting 8mm Sound Print Quality E. A. EDWARDS and J. S. CHANDLER, Film Services Div., East- man Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. The balance of functions in obtaining high-quality 8mm release prints is described. Experimental results relating to both picture and sound quality are presented. System Modulation Transfer (SMT) Acutance: An Objective Method for Rating Picture Sharpness EDWARD M. CRANE, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. The areas under the modulation transfer curves of all components in a photographic system, including the observer, are adjusted for magnification and combined into a formula for "system modulation transfer (SMT) acutance." When film is the vari- able, proposed standard curves may be used for equipment and observer. Values of SMT acutance range from 70 (passing) to 100 (excellent), and they differ by one unit if a sharpness dif- ference is just perceptible to a critical observer. Sharpness Calculations for 8mm Systems J. E. PINNEY, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. A method for computing sharpness ratings for color films based on modulation transfer function data has been described by Crane. Good agreement was found between computed sharpness ratings and qualitative judgments of sharpness for several 8mm color print systems. Hypothetical improvements to a model 8mm system illustrate how the potential sharpness of a system may be estimated and system improvements planned. Optical Printing With a Small-Diameter Light Source JAMES D. CLIFFORD, Photographic Technology Div., Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. A concentrated-arc lamp has been used in a typical optical printer to print 8mm color internegatives from 16mm color originals, with considerable increases in sharpness compared with conven- tional light sources. Engineering requirements and operational characteristics are discussed and exploratory experiments in the "-lime of the light source for other printing applications arg de- 'scribed. (xi toi Economical 8mm Commercial Prints C. LOREN GRAHAM and WILLIS L. STOCKDALE, Photo- graphic Technology Div., Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y An economical system for producing quality 8mm commercial prints is described and demonstrated with appropriate motion pictures. The proposed system features contact release printing. Contact release printing is made feasible by significantly improv- ing the quality of the internegative by an improvement in print- ing technique. This improvement is accomplished through modi- fication of a typical optical printer. FRIDAY AFTERNOON 1:45 PROJECTION PRACTICES Usage and Special Applications of the 70mm Release Print WALTER BEYER, Universal Pictures Corp., Universal City, Calif. Statistics on 70mm installations are presented, and technical -as- pects of 70mm drive-in installations are treated in detail. Special applications of the 70mm print as an image carrier also are dis- cussed. The Cinerama Single-Lens System GERHARD LESSMAN, Cinerama, Inc., Los Angeles Cinerama, a three-lens process for projecting a 146? true field of view upon a deeply curved screen subtending a large audience angle of view, has two drawbacks resulting from the fact that it is a mosaic projection process. It is almost impossible to maintain perfect registration and picture steadiness between adjacent pro- jected fields or to project the three fields with even illumination and color balance. It is shown to be theoretically feasible to pro- duce the "Cinerarnic" effect using a single-lens camera and pro- jection system with the conventional deeply curved .Cinerama screen. A single-lens system now has been developed and put in commercial use for projecting any so-called wide-screen picture onto a Cinerama screen with appropriate corrections for the per- spective transformations involved. This system comprises a spe- cial rectifying optical printer lens which transforms the rectilinear perspective of a conventional negative, with or without anamor- phosis, into a positive print with appropriate perspective modifica- tions for projection onto deeply curved cylindrical screens. Special projection lenses have been designed to compensate for the March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 :235 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 perspective and projective requirements of projection onto curved screens. A camera lens with a 146? field of view has also been de- signed which, when properly utilized for motion-picture produc- tion in the Cinerama single-lens process, will totally simulate the original three-lens system. Motion pictures taken with the single, wide-angle lens camera with appropriate utilization of auxiliary cues to depth perception are in all respects equal to the traditional three-lens Cinerama projection but without the defects of the mosaic process. Carbon Arcs for 16mm Film Projection C. E. HEPPBERGER, Arc Carbon Div., Union Carbide Corp., Chicago; and E. A. BOWEN, Arc Carbon Div., Union Carbide Corp., New York The characteristics, operating data, and performance of a high- intensity carbon trim for the projection of 16mm film are de- scribed. The color quality, magnification, optical speed, power of the projection lamp, intensity and distribution of the screen light are discussed. Earlier papers are reviewed, and projection im- provements consistent with pending trends in illumination are suggested. Xenon Projection Lamps: A Resume DON V. KLOEPFEL, General Film Laboratories, Hollywood Constantly increasing use of the xenon lamp as a projection lightic source in review rooms Prompted a survey which would indicate some of the lamp's distinctive characteristics under typical opera- tion. Data supplied by the survey are presented. New Test Film Catalog Xenon Light Sources for 16mm' Projection - EDWARD LACHMAN and FRANK H. RIFFLE, Carbons, Inc., Boonton, N.J. New xenon light sources have been developed for 16mm motion- picture and small-format slide projection. Modification of a well- known projector is described and operational results evaluated. Additional xenon sources in standard lamphouses also are de- scribed. The New Siemens "2000" 16mm Projector HORST MASCHGAN, Siemens & Halske A. G., Berlin, Germany The Siemens "2000" Projector, manufactured for over a decade, has been succeeded by a model with these features: Maintenance- free operation; reduced weight; improvements and simplification in layout for easier service; increase in light output; inclusion of a small, transistorized amplifier in the existing modular construc- tion system; .improvements of various parts for increased re- liability arid ease of operation. Atlas Portable Projector WALTER R. McGORMICK, Atlas Projector Corp., Culver City, A portable projector capable of reproducing pictures of all aspect ratios, using magnetic soundtrack , and picture, of, optical sound- track and picture, or composite prints with loptical sound, is described. The, design includes new applicatiorlS of tight loop sound head, lamphouse techniques, projector drive mechanism, stop-start and reverse, and remote control. The Society's 1964 Test Film Catalog was mailed recently to past purchasers of test films. The new catalog, copies of which are available from SMPTE Headquarters, incorporates the latest listings, along with price changes that became effective on January 1, 1964. The catalog lists sound and picture test films for television, and for 70mm, 35mm (standard, wide-screen and anamorphic), 16mm and 8mm equipment. These films are used by manufac- turers for design and inspection; by television engineers; by theater projectionists and other persons responsible for "in service" maintenance of projectors and sound systems; by equipment dealers for demonstration purposes, and by audio- visual equipment users for quick performance checks. Every Member a Membership Committeeman The Society's National Membership Committee strongly urges every member to remove the tear-out application blank from the January issue of this Journal and use the form to sign up an associate as a member. Your Committee can contact only a small percentage of prospective members. By bringing others into the Society, every member can help maintain SMPTE in its position of leadership.?Edward A. Winkler, National Member- ship Chairman, c/o Eastman Kodak Co., 200 Park Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017. 236 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Los Angeles Technical Conference Displays and demonstrations of all the important new developments in equipment for: Cinematography?Color and New Photographic Materials?Motion Pictures and TV for Education?Small-Format Films? Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography? Space Technology?Medical Photography ?Laboratory Practices?Projection Practices? Sound Recording and Reproduction? Television Engineering and Production 11111 III I 139 40 141 SUNSET.' ROOM 133 1.32 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 SESSIONS AREA..... " BOULEVARD "ROOM 218 217 216 215 214 213 212 211 .210 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 III 110 109 108 107 106 105 11:112111111111111 REGISTRATION AREA ? ? 131 EXHIBIT OPEN APRIL 13-16, 1964 Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles Technical Conference March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 237 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Exhibit Directory Amega Corporation Booths 230, 231 11817 Wicks St., Sun Valley, Calif. Ampex Corporation Booth 111 401 Broadway, Redwood City, Calif. Exhibiting: Ampex 4-head videotape television recorder with special pre-recorded taped material from the National Association of Broadcasters Convention. Personnel: Bob Day. Arriflex Corp. of America Booths 201, 202 257 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: Complete Arriflex-16 and Arriflex-35 lines, and Siemens 16mm sound projector line. New items: Arriflex 16M with new 1200' magazine and universal fiberglas blimp; Arriflex-35 Model IIBGS with built-in sync generator and automatic clap- sticks system, and special blimp; 1000' adaptation stand for Arriflex-35. Personnel: Paul Klingenstein, Victor James, Michael Zois, Abbott Sydney, Asa Wruck (Export Mgr., Siemens & HalSke). Atlas Projector Corp. Booth 232 10834 Washington Blvd., Culver City, Calif. Exhibiting: Atlas Portable 35mm Projector Models 962 & 963?all aspect ratios, magnetic or optical soundtrack and picture, or composite prints with optical sound; Atlas Laboratory Vieiving 35mm "?Projector Model 186; Atlas Replacement 35mm Sound Head Unit Model 3100. Personnel: Walter R. McCormick, Jr., Robert Spector. Bach Auricon, Inc. Booth 108 6950 Romaine St., Los Angeles, Calif. Exhibiting: New "Angenieux-Bach" 12 to 120 zoom lens, custom designed for Auricon 16mm camera; complete lines of 4 models of Auricon cameras; double-system optical-sound on film recorder; new all-transistorized "Filmagnetic" recording system for Auricon cameras with interchangeable, re- chargeable batteries; Auricon tripods, microphone boom, etc. Personnel: Peter Waldeck, William Straube, Gary Koester, Howard Stephens. EXHIBIT HOURS ^ e 2T41_4WirMilig J_Mitalg7 Monday, April 13.... 2:30-8:00 2:30-8:00 Tuesday, April 14. 11:00-8:00 Wednesday, April 15 9:30-4:00 Thursday, April 16 11:00-6:00 Admission to the Exhibit will be by Registration Badge or Exhibit Pass. Passes may be obtained free of charge at the Registration Desk. ' 238 March 1964 Bell & Howell Co. Booths 143, 144, 145 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago 45, III. Exhibiting: Visual readout display of additive color printing systems for continuous printing as well as step printers; new program tape checker and duplicator (Design 6173 D) with correction or insertion feature. Personnel: J. L. Wassell, S. R. Kurtzweil, G. Foster, J. Terry, C. Zichterman. Birns & Sawyer Cine Equipment Co. Booth 129 6424 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: B&S SeAQUArtz Underwater Lights, port- able 30-v and 110-v models; underwater camera housing for Arriflex-16 and -35; stop-motion pro- jector; camera sound barneys; camera heater barneys; fishpole sound booms; Omnitar telephoto lenses; hi-hats for Arriflex-16 and -35; nickel cad- mium batteries for Arriflex-16 and -35 and battery chargers; instant splicing blocks, 16/35mm; ball socket adapters and fluid head adapters; Trickstar lenses; Tridown triangle. Personnel: Jack Birns, Clifford Sawyer, Charles Lipow, Gary Boren, Hal Ray. Cinema Beaulieu Booth 207 941 Westwood Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. Exhibiting: Beaulieu RC 16 16mm Camera; Beaulieu MCR 8 8mm Camera. Personnel: Harry Mazur, Otto Herskovic. Cine Electronics Systems, Inc. Booth 206 225 East 46th Street, New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: 450-w xenon light adaptation in a portable 16mm projector, with power pack and ignition sys- tem; new condenser block for large-size front or rear screen still projection at short distances; Xenosol-3 lamphouse. Personnel: Stewart W. Jones, Seymour Kazmeroff. Cinerama Camera Corporation Booth 229 11930 W. Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. Exhibiting: New automatic iris control for Cinerama Camera Corp. Monitor Series Photographic Re- corders, unit responds to light intensity changes over field of view of objective lens. HS-35A Photo- graphic Recorder; 300 FPS, dual pin registration, integral boresight with reflex viewing, 8-speed transmission, integral control box. Personnel: Guy H. Hearon, Burton Berniker, Breen Lansford, Karl Gensike. ColorTran Industries, Inc. 630 S. Flower St., Burbank, Calif. Booth 203 Exhibiting: Advanced group of pre-boosted high-inten- sity. quartz-iodine lighting systems and- electronic controls; new ColorTran feather-light quartz-iodine focusing lights, backlights, strip lights,' and stands. Personnel: Herbert A. Hollander. Journal of the SMPTE 'Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Andre Debrie of New York Booth 234 14-29 112th St., College Point, N.Y. Exhibiting: TIPRO Optical Printer, QUAD 8 for the simultaneous printing of four 8mm images onto a single strand of 35/8mm-5R film; MATIPO 35 Contact Step Printer; 16mm single system "CS 16" camera (magnetic sound) ; 16mm double band projector for TV applications; 35mm Aiglonne America for in-plant processing of 35mm movie and microfilm; Sonocolor SFC2 Magnetic Striping Machine for application of magnetic varnishes to film. Personnel: R. J. Harrington, M. Nanocchio. DuKane Corporation Booth 222 St. Charles, Ill. Exhibiting: Full line of sound filmstrip projectors in- cluding the Micromatic and Flip-Top projectors; new Vista-Sell continuous flow filmstrip projector. Personnel: Howard V. Turner, A. F. Hunecke. Eclair Corporation of America Booths 225, 226 8078 Woodrow Wilson Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. Exhibiting: Eclair Products: 300 studio reflex camera, 1000 ft. film capacity; GV-35 hi-speed camera; GV-16 medium speed camera; Camematic 35mm instrumentation camera; Camerette 35mm camera with techniscope or normal (4 perforation) opera- tion immediately interchangeable; Cameblimp ; Gyroflex tripod, silent combination gyro and gear and free head with immediate declutching from one mode to another; Crab dolly. Perfectone recorders. Personnel: J. P. Carson, Harold Dreyfus, Lea Benedetti. Filmline Corporation Booth 215 43 Erna St., Milford, Conn. Exhibiting: New ND-100 Filmline portable 16mm nega- tive/positive continuous film processor designed and engineered for major networks, completely self-contained, built of stainless steel; features friction drive with built-in overdrive system feed-in, take-off and controls at one end. Complete with re- plenishing system, impingement drybox, Filmline micro-venturi squeegee, spray-rinse between de- veloper and hypo; produces at 60 fpm or 4 min. dry- to-dry cycle with one man operation. Personnel: Edward B. Krause, John Koteas, John Grady. Frigidheat Industries Booth 134 P.O. Box 6037, Nashville, Tenn. Exhibiting: New automatic thermal units for precision temperature control of processing chemicals: Model 30A-5 designed for small volumes of from 5 to 50 gallons; Model 60A-12 designed for larger volumes of up to 150 gallons of solution. Personnel: J. 0. Ewing, Mrs. -J. 0. Ewing. NEW! WITHOUT BOOSTING! Order code LQH10-0 OVER 1,500,000 CENTERBEAM CANDLEPOWER! ColorTran's New Quartz-iodine, High-Intensity HI-SPOT * Draws only 8.3 amps, using new PAR 641000W' 3200?K 150-hour, or PAR 64 1000W 3400?K 16-hour quartz-iodine lamps * Operates direct from 120V AC/DC;without boosting Other ColorTran Quartz-iodine Lights/For motion picture, TV and still photography IDEAL FOR: Photo-Instrumentation At 3', produces 44,000 footcandles in pattern 0.5' x 0.8' Long-Throw At 100', produces 160 footcandles in pattern 8.0' x 14.0' Environmental Chambers At 10', produces 13,000 footcandles in pattern 0.9' x 1.5' No boosting required. Operate directly from 120V, AC/DC. Focusing Quartz Light ? Smooth continuous focusing from spot to flood. Quartz-King 500 ? Using new B5-32 (1000W, 3200?K, 500-hour lamp) pro- duces extremely broad, flat, smooth light. Quartz-King Dual-Lights?(Dual-1000 and Dual-650) Wide or Medium Flood from a single housing. Cyc-Strip ? For high-intensity, even lighting of large areas, high back- drops and cycloramas. PAR 64 Follow Spot ? Produces up to 401,000 Centerbeam candlepower. Mini-Lite ? 11/2 lbs., 2" deep, barndoors in 4 directions. Back-Lite ? 11/4 lbs., world's first portable backlight. 630 SO. FLOWER STREET, BURBANK, CALIF. WRITE FOR FULL DETAILS 6,__D *1-ran / 0 PHONE: (213) 849-5991 NIIK/ COME AND SEE, US AT BOOTH 203 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 239, 240 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ARRI FLEX 35 CELEBRATES ITS ANNIVERSARY Literally born a classic, the first Arriflex 35 became commercially available in 1939. This brilliantly conceived professional motion picture camera in- augurated a new era in cinematography. The inge- nuity of its original mirror-shutter reflex system is today's most imitated feature... both a tribute to, and an acknowledgement of Arriflex's leadership. Its many exclusive features plus lightweight compact design, ruggedness and economy of op- eration have provided Theatre, Television, Industry, Science and Education with their most important and versatile cinematographic tool. More than any other motion picture camera, Arriflex has made possible the "new wave" of cinematography that was the cover subject of Time magazine's recent article, "Cinema as an International Art". Arriflex was singled out in this regard. We take pride in having contributed to the suc- cess of Arriflex in the U. S. during the past decade, and extend our heartiest con- gratulations on this 25th Anniversary to its originators, Dr. Robert Richter, Dr. August Arnold and Mr. Erich. Kaestner chief design engineer. And to the thousands of Arriflex owners, who have given meaning to its capabilities: Sincere thanks for your invaluable contribution to this memorable occasion. IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENTS THAT MAINTAIN 4RRIFLEX 35's LEADERSHIP - AS TODAY'S MOST ADVANCED PROFESSIONAL MOTION PICTURE CAMERA Arriflex's familiar silhouette has remained basi- cally unchanged through the years because of its masterly original design. But many internal im- provements and additions have been incorporated during the last ten years to keep pace with the demands of-modern technology and Motion 'pic- ture industry requirements. Among the most -important improvements are: NEW! Reflex shutter with approximately 1,800 shutter opening _ NEW! Magazines with larger capacities for color film and new improved film take-up mechanism. NEW! Cardioid cam-driven transport claw for high precision film movement. NEW! Variable shutter. NEW! Signal generator with electric "clap-stick". NEW! Stronger variable speed handgrip motorwith "forward" and "reverie" switch. -NEW! Transistorized governor controlled motor. -- NEW! Adjustable matte box with leather bellows. NEW! Comprehensive accessory system, from sound blimps to time-lapse mechanisms. March 1964 journal of the, SMPTE. Volume 23 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ...celebrate with us! YOUR TRUSTY OLD MIGHT BE WORTH $1,50000 ARRIFLEX 35 If you are the owner of an old Arriflex 35 "that has seen its day", take advantage of our 25th Anniversary Offer. We will accept up to 25 old Arriflex 35's, REGARDLESS OF OPERATING CONDITION, in trade against a new model and allow you $250.00 towards the purchase price. AND, IF YOURS HAS THE EARLIEST ORIGINAL SERIAL NUMBER, of the traded-in cameras, WE WILL REFUND YOUR ENTIRE PURCHASE PRICE up to a total of $2,500.00! So, if you have been thinking about a new Arriflex 35, take advantage of our 25th AnniversaryTrade-In Celebration. Your traded-in Arriflex might be worth $2,500.00, or at the very least, $250.00 if you act fast! PARTICIPATING DEALERS: Mark Armistead, Inc., Hollywood Behrend's Incorporated, Chicago Birns. & Sawyer Cine Equipment, Hollywood Brooks Cameras & Supplies, San Francisco Camera Equipment Company, New York NOTE: This offer is good until May 1, 1964, or until twenty ?whichever occurs first. List of names and serial Camera Mart, Inc., New York Camera Sales Center, New York Florman & Babb, New York SOS Photo-Cine-Optics, New York Village Camera Shop, Detroit -five old Arriflex 35 cameras have been traded-in numbers of trade-ins will be furnished on request. CORPORATION OF AMERICA 257 Park Avenue South New York, N.Y.10010 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 241 erTh9rIRY*ANT K? I iiLA K?I I? Ai Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Gamma Scientific, Inc. Booth 216 5841C Mission Gorge Rd., San Diego, Calif. Exhibiting: A-500 FL luminance analyzer for TV light- '. infobleins, and, the,A-500 EC luminance analyzer for photographic appliCation, hand-held,.high-defi- nition photomultiplier spot photometers; 700M log linear photomultiplier photometer for general pur- pose light measurement with a fiber optics probe and monochromator, incident light, and telephotom- eter heads; Model 200 luminance standard, a highly stable and accurately calibrated luminance source. Personnel: H. P. Field, R. H. Akin. Gordon Enterprises Booths 119, 120 5362 N. Cahuenga Blvd., North Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: Complete line of motion picture and photo- instrumentation equipment; Kenyon gyro stabil- izers; Fastax high speed cameras. Personnel: Alan Gordon, Grant Loucks, Roy. Low, Sid Bugelholl, Ted Lane, Andy Lempke. Gryphon Corporation Booth 101 P.O. Box 854, Burbank, Calif.- Exhibiting: HB-2 air squeegees for film processing machines; Model S stop-motion flashlight for dark- room inspection and maintenance use; Gryphon processing-machine film inspection viewer; Gryphon combination 16/35mm filth roller constructed of type 316 stainless steel; Gryphon film splicer using tape to make butt splices' in various sizes and styles by simple adjustment. Personnel: Harlan L. Baumbach, Mel W. Jones. Karl Heitz, Inc. Booth 224 480 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: Kinoptik Apochromats from 1.9mm f/1.9 (197?) to 500mm 1/5.6, including new 9.8mm 1/1.8 for 35mm movie and TV cameras; Robot 35mm motorized cameras including new 18m with built-in 24-v motor and perfect 4-sprocket hole registration; Camex Reflex 8mm cameras with behind-the-lens CdS meter for continuous monitor- ing while filming; Alpa 6c 35mm single-lens reflex camera; Tessina motorized 35mm subminiature reflex. Personnel: Jack Pill, Bill Bontrop, Ted Lipton. Frank Herrnfeld Engineering Corp. Booth 131 5716 Camille Ave., Culver City, Calif. Exhibiting: Model 1503 Color Densitometer; Model 1531 Constant-Time, Variable-Intensity Sensitom- eter; Model 1557A 16mm Continuous Printer; Model 1566 16 to 8mm Reduction Printer; Model 1583 Constant-Power Take-Up Motor. Personnel: Frank Herrnfeld, Oscar A. Garbino. Hi-Speed Equipment, Inc. Booth 127 73 Pond St., Waltham, Mass. Exhibiting: Pictures and slides of Hi-Speed products for the photographic laboratory, including film process- ing equipment. Personnel: Alex Bagdasarian, James Donovan, Bert Gade. (.141 ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW ? EXCLUSI The Miniola Editing Machine Continuous movement suitable for negative and positive viewing ? Film paths declutchable ? Projected picture 6,/4" x 41/2" ? Instant stop , and reverse ? High quality sound ? 2000' capa- city ? Separate-magnetiOi,-s'eparate optical and combined 'optical and qath6p,c heads Syn- chronous and _double speeds. .Program -timer. (optional) ? Footage count6r:Vortable The "Miniola" is designed to meet the requirements of the smaller budget 16mm film producers while offering the same precision ajd many-of the facili- ties Of the higher priced models. It is portable and can be bench mounted or a purpose built' stand supplied. It has a continuous movement with drive of a novel design giving instant stop and.reverse without the aid of magnetic clutches, -brakes and electronic relays. The upper film path is for picture and the lower film 'path for Separate optical and separate mag- netic sound. Either film path can be moved inde- pendently of each other through de-clutching the sprockets simply by, lifting the knob on the front of either sprocket. Precision cut sprockets and both film gates are in non-magnetic stainless steel. The machine can 'be bench mounted or-used on a special stand that is available as an extra. For literature or Demonstration, Write to: FLORMAN 8z RABBI INC. Serving the world's finest film makers 68 West 45th Street', New York 36,-N.Y. MU 2-2928 ')4isn1ox3 ? M3N ? 3/11S1113X3 ? M3N . 3AIS1113X3 ? M3N ? 3AIS1113X3 ? M3N ? 3AIS1113X3 ? 242 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 111111111111111111 NEWMAN and GUARDIA sell international IIIIIII1I?11 11111?1111111111111111111111111MOSIOSISM1111111111?11?11 Lawley Optical Printer Lawley Junior Processor Lawley Step Printer Lawlette Processor _ Newman & Guardia have exported Lawley Laboratory 'Equipment all over the world during the past 10 years. Wherever there is a need ? in film and TV studios, in, Government Departments and the Armed Forces --for the processing and printing of film of any Booth No.118 gauge, in any quantity, negative / positive, reversal or colour, there you will find Lawley Laborato:rY Equipment. In addition to Great Britain Lawley Equipment h,as. been supplied to: elossimailso Finland Norway Sweden Denmark Germany Poland U.S.S.R. Portugal Malta Belgium Turkey Kenya I weirsIoneleseseellemosoloolo IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII1111111111111111111111111111111 France Sierra Leone Nigeria Iraq Hong Kong Gibraltar Sardinia losoloosseessions1111111iiimensemooselese Italy Cyprus Ghana Singapore New Zealand Malaya Jamaica Egypt South Africa Canada India Australia U.S.A. Eire Switzerland Mauritius Jugoslavia and 6 other countries. NEWMAN & GUARDIA LTD ? HARLOW ? ESSEX ? ENGLAND ? A MEMBER OF THE BEARD AND FITCH GROUP Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ell & Howell modern research and engineer- ing has produced this completely new additive color printing system, that permits you to deliver color prints with a color accuracy and fidelity never before possible. The new Bell & Howell Model "C" additive color printer as- sures color Stability, and control through the use 'of dichroic mirrors which separate a single 1,000 watt light source into the three primary. beams. For scene-to-scene correction, each pri- mary beam can be Modulated through 50 steps in values of .025 Log E. In addition twenty-four, points of .025 Log E values of exposure are . _ available manually, to allow for any necessary emulsion 'corrections-. Program Ta pe Checker WITH INCREASED QUALITY AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL The pre-se- lected color tim- ing 'information. is easily and quickly pre- preigram med on standard com- puter tape, which automatically controls the Model "C'', Printer. Besides, scene-to-scene. color changes, fade lengths of 16-24-32-6'4-96' frames and zero close for ex- tended scenes are. also coded on the program tape to allow the production of release prints from original negatives at 180 feet per minute. All printing information can be double ehecked from the punched tape by an accessory ? tape' checker-duplicator. - Other fea.tures -are 2400400t capacity . . . Single 1000-Watt lamp (optional 750 and 1200), , proximity reflector type . . . Edge light printing separately controlled at aperture . . . Instru- ments 'internally illuminated . . . Slow-start "Circuit to prevent film damage . . . Internal air pressure. Accessories include 1000-watt rectifier . . . 16mm, 35mm' and 35132mm soundheads and RF cue kits. PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMENT DIVISION 7100 McCORMICK ROAD CHICAGO 45, ILLINOIS Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 MODEL "C" FEATURES?Ability to make scene-to-scene color corrections . . . Six fade lengths (16-24-32-48-64-96) separately controllable by pre-punched program tape ... Zero close to allow extended scene printing . . . Over 2000-foot capacity . . Single 1000-watt lamp proximity reflector type . . . Edge light printing separately controlled at aperture . . . Instruments internally illuminated .. . RF cue system available as accessory to supple- ment standard notch cue. . . Slow-start circuit to prevent film damage . . . Internal air pressure . . . Pre-wired for sound head installation . . . Automatic stop in case of negative break. ACCESSORIES?Tape checker-tape duplicator unit (6173C), 1000- watt rectifier (6160), RF cue kits (6395) and 16mm, 35mm,. 35/32mm soundheads. OTHER MODELS AVAILABLE?Model "MB" automatic high speed printer, for black and white or color printing (where scene-to-scene color corrections are not required). This model is pre-planned and pre-drilled for up-dating to the Model "C" at any time. Both Model "C" and Model "MB" are available for the following sizes 16mm, 35mm, 35/32mm, 65/70mm, 70mm type I, and 70rrim type II. Demonstration Film Available A three minute color sound film has been prepared demon- strating the additive color system of motion picture printing. Examples of color correction are shown, as well as demon- strations of the unique new light valves combined with tape controlled operation. To preview this film write or phone James L. Wassell, Director of Marketing, Bell & Howell Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago, Illinois 60645, (312) OR 3-3300. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Hollywood Film Company Booths 140, 141, 142 956 Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: High speed inspection projectors; edge numbering machines; tape, overlap, repaid splicers; ultrasonic splicers; fade and light change printer units; tab applicators; Pyral magnetic stripping machine. Personnel: Harry Teitelbaum, Ben Teitelbaum, Warren Strang, Lillian Kaye, Jim Bost. Houston Fearless Corporation Booth 115 11801 W. Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. Exhibiting: PD-9 motor driven pedestal for black-and- white or color TV cameras; PD-3 pedestal for camera capacities up to 285 lbs; hi-hat for motion- picture or TV cameras; cradle heads for pedestals, tripods or hi-hats; new cam head with interchange- able cams with a horizontal tilt lock in the neutral tilt position. Personnel: Bert Rosenberg, Gail Hildreth, Keith Walker, Art Kjontvedt, Ed Stephens. Kollmorgen Corporation Booth 221 347 King St., Northampton, Mass. Exhibiting: Representative sampling of the Kollmorgen projection lens line including the Snaplite projec- tion lens. Personnel: J. E. Brogan, L. Salig. L-W Photo, Inc. Booth 208 15451 Cabrito Rd., Van Nuys, Calif. Exhibiting: New Model 224-A photo-optical data analy- zer for viewing and analyzing 16mm motion pic- ture film with variable speed to 24 frames per sec- ond, immediate stop, single frame, all modes for- ward and reverse, built-in viewing screen, frame counter and electro-magnetic drive system. Personnel: Bob Lawrence, Sam Bowerman. Macbeth Instrument Corporation Booths 210, 227 P.O. Box 950, Newburgh, N.Y. Exhibiting: Model TD-204 transmission densitometer, custom built (0-4) equipped with Kodak Status "M" printing density filters and visual filters for sound track; Model TD-102 (0-4) color transmis- sion densitometer; Model TD-100 (0-3) black and white transmission densitometer; Model RD-100 color reflection densitometer; xenon short arc (XBO Series) lamps; xenon water cooled (XBF Series) lamp; mercury high pressure (HBO Series) lamps. Personnel: Frederic McCurdy, Peter A. Jensen, War- ren B. Reese, Harvey Ellis. Magnasync Corporation Booths 213, 214 5547 Satsuma Ave., North Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: Magnetic recorders/reproducers for mo- tion-picture production in 16mm, 17 mm and 35mm featuring the Magnasync 602 Series Recorder adapted for transferring I" sync-pulse material to magnetic film; complete magnetic film dubbing/ interlock equipment with looping facilities, includ- ing studio type G-960 Consolette; i" multichannel communications recorder/reproducer for 24-hour program source surveillance. Personnel: Bob Dickinson, Jim Green, Ted Diamond. 70 franchisers and installations in 23 countries around the world PERMAFILM, INC. 79 FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK 3,N. Y. ALgonquin 5-5757 ? Cable Address: PERMAFILMS?NEW YORK PERMAFILIVI of CALIFORNIA, Inc. 7264 MELROSE AVE. ? HOLLYWOOD 46, CALIF. 4-AS 5ettitatE Aeototottal TM 246 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 AGAIN ? ? see the PROVEN synchronous_ magnetic film Sound Recording Systems at the S. M. P. T. E. show! Tilsc.11.1,01Pc 0 ateraw- FILM RECORDER ISOUND SYSTEM 11111AGNASYNC CORPORATION A subsidiary of Monogram Industries, Inc. 5547 Satsuma Avenue, North Hollywood, California Phone: (213) TRiangle 7-5561 ? Cable "MAGNASYNC" Send for detailed literature Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Magnetic Sales Corporation 1147 North Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: Professional synchronous tape recorders for motion pictures and TV: Stellavox with Ranger or Pilote synchronizing heads, dryfit rechargeable batteries, wired for sync reproduction, bloop power, remote start and stop, and automatic mixing; Nagra three speed (15", 7k", 3*") with Neo- Pilote synchronizing heads. Ryder synchronizing and blooping devices: synchronizing transformers, camera sync generators, blooping oscillators and remote start control for recorders and resolving equipment for Siemens projectors. Personnel: Leon D. Selznick, Loren L. Ryder, Ronald R. Cogswell. - Booth 114 Metro-Kalvar, Inc. Booth 204 550 5th Ave., New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: Metro-Kalvar 35mm filmstrip printer-proc- esgor; Metro-Kalvar 16mm motion picture printer- processor producing in normal light at a speed of 75 fpm; samples of spliced Metro-Kalvar film products. Personnel: R. B. Lindemeyer, N. R. Bacon. Meyer Reed, Inc. 1 Booths 132, 133 1624 N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: Ascorlights; Pathe motion picture cameras; Sinar products; color analyzers. Personnel: H. Joe Meyer, Travis Reed, Cec Sly. D. B. Milliken Company Booth 102 131 N. 5th Ave., Arcadia, Calif. Exhibiting: New items: Kinescope recording camera; automatic exposure control accessory for Milliken standard high-speed line. Complete line of 16mm high-speed motion picture cameras and accessories. Personnel: T. H. Truesdell, L. F. Meyer, R. C. Kiteley, C. G. Holzapfel, G. A. Crandall. 3M Company Booth 135 2501 Hudson Road, St. Paul, Minn. Exhibiting: "Scotch" Brand Video Tape No. 379; 3M Company's new video tape No. 388, designed to permit "stop-motion" on helical scan recorders capable of such. Personnel: Robert Ferderer, A. J. Blower, E. M. Bruno. Mitchell Camera Corporation Booth 130 666W. Harvard St., Glendale, Calif. Exhibiting : Mitchell SSR-16 Reflex Motion-Picture Camera; Mark II 35mm Camera with Sound Blimp; professional 16mm motion-picture camera modified for high-speed photography. Personnel: R. Bruce Hill, Edmund Di Giulio, Donald Tucker, Les Brown. 'Mole-Richardson Company Booth 113 937 North Sycamore Ave., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting.: New quartz lighting equipment; incandes- cent lighting equipment; arc lighting; lighting con- trol. Personnel: Larry Parker, Howard R. Bell. SMPTE CONVENTION BOOTH 114 THE MAGNETIC CENTER for professional synchronous tape recorders SO,NvoX SYNC GENERATORS for D-C Driven Cameras SYNC TRANSFORMERS for A-C Driven Cameras CAMERA BLOOPERS Hand held for any Camera CAMERA BLOOPERS Installed in any Camera SOUND BLOOPERS for any Recorder 1147 North Vine Street NAGRA and SYNC TRANSFER DRIVE AMP. for Sync Control of Sprocket Recorder SYNC TRANSFER SERVO AMP. for Sync Control of Tape Recorder SYNC TRANSFER STROBE LIGHT for Simple Manual Synchronization WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF SYNC WIRELESS TRANSMISSION BLOOP REMOTE RECORDER START MAGNETIC SALES CORP. Hollywood, Calif, 90038 248 March 1964 Journal-of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 MINI1111111.- ,1A;37' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 MT's:0a -thca QuiLaart XL-ax.mmi_xxig- ..A.T.TRICCON 1.6 xriuna. Cat,mierab? NEVER DISTURB THE AUDIENCE WITH CAMERA NOISE! Does the scene above look familiar? You may be interested to know more about its significance relative to your sound recording needs. Here is Auricon Professional 16mm Motion Picture Sound Camera Equipment, operating right in the middle of an audience ? actually within inches of the surrounding spectators! Yet, despite the complex precision mechanisms-that are recording a full-color picture and every whispered word of the speaker on the rostrum, not even a murmer of distracting camera noise is heard by the audience. This quiet, dependable recording of 16mm Sound-On-Film Talking Pictures is the special engineering "magic" of Auricon! Except for the red signal lights glowing on the Auricon Sound Camera, the audience has no way of knowing that the Camera is running. In fact, even the click of the On-off switch has been muted! Auricon Cameras are versatile and easy-to-handle because there is no bulky, sound-proof enclosure "blimp" such as all other 16mm cameras use when recording sound. Professional Producers and Cameramen choose Auricon to shoot pictures synchronized with Optical or Magnetic "Double-System" recording equipment, or to record "Single-System" sound on the same film taking the picture. Write us about your sound recording equipment needs today! All Auricon Cameras are sold with a 30 day money-back guarantee. You must be satisfied! VISIT US AT BOOTH 108, SMPTE SHOW 33.11LCII AtTRIC COAT, G94 E3 R.,ornaine Street, Hollywood SS, California, 1--pollywooct 2-rDe31 MA.1?TTJVA.cmuR.ER.s OF, scDT-7141i - 0/?T - FILM 12,ECORADI1-TC1- EQUIF'MENT SINCE 1931 IVI1E1 IC ALL /4101100 HollYvi? 1.4S1VIM S 1LTIV-131- 0 AT- M.1fla 0A/VIMRAS CINE-VOICE II AURICON SUPER-1200 AURICON PRO-600 $998.50 & UP $5667.00 & UP $1871.00 &-UP 100 ft. Runs 23/4 min. 1200 ft. Runs 33 min. 600 ft. Runs 161/2 min. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Motion Picture Printing Equipment Co. Booth 126 8107 N. Ridgeway Ave., Skokie, Ill. Exhibiting: New Peterson single and double head con- tact printers in 16mm and 35mm. Accessories: semi-automatic shutter; push button shutter; four? speed fade unit; sound printing head; printer light probe; Peterson R. F. Cueing System; patch ap- plicator. Personnel: Walter Peterson, Bruce Peterson, William ? Morris. Moviola Manufacturing Co. Booths 235, 236 5539 Riverton Ave., North Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting; Bench editing arrangement for video tape, including hand rewinds, power rewinds, and sound reader equipped with timer counter; Moviola's new editing table with latest model hand rewinds in- corporating greater efficiency braking attachment and swivel base; Moviola automatic power rewinds for coring and rewinding 16mm, 35mm, and 70mm film automatically; library readers for reviewing 16mm film at high speed or sound speed; Moviola crab dolly and film editing machine; bench editing arrangement for 16mm film with motor drive for synchronizers to transport track at sound speed. Personnel: Mark Serrurier, Al Romoli, Bruce ?Dalton, George Kendall. Neumade Products Corporation Booth 112 250 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: New items: Super "X" power film re- winder; imprinted non-emulsion colored film leader. Storage facilities for film, video tape, audio tape, disc records, filmstrips, slides; film handling equip- ment. Personnel: Lee E. Jones, Robert E. Hempel, Ronald N. Jones. Newman & Guardia Ltd. Booth 118 Edinburgh Way, Harlow, Essex, England Exhibiting: Processing machines: Lawlette color model, smallest machine permitting color film processing to professional standards, rearrangement of tank links allows nearly all color films to be processed; Lawlette high-speed model for high-speed and documentary film processing. Continuous printer. Personnel: S. G. Fitch, L. H. Howes. Oxberry Corporation Booth 105 38 Hudson St., New Rochelle, N.Y. Exhibiting: Inspection projector: Oxberry Model 40-B 16mm high-speed film inspector permits rapid in- spection of film continuously at variable speeds, forward and reverse, with optical rotary inter- mittent to eliminate damaged sprocket holes; Ox- berry Series 100 portable film processor for 16mm or 35mm black-and-white film, small low cost de- veloping machine designed to give highest quality compatible with size limitation, 12" wide, 18" long, 2' high. Personnel: Ralph D. Whitmore, Jr., Robert Troy. W. A. Palmer Films, Inc. Booth 110 611 Howard St., San Francisco, Calif. Exhibiting: Palmer television film recorder including - TYPE 92B. PLAYBACK SYNCHRONIZER Responsible for tape to film transfer? Check out ths ddition to the distinguished MTE line of synchronizing FOR SYNCHRONIZATION OF 1/4" TAPE IN quipMent: You'll find no 'other gives you of the 92B's PLAYBACK WITH SPROCKET DRIVEN FILM important-benefits: WIDE RANGE, can cOrre'ct speed deviations of +20% to ?20% .froin sync' Spded.- ' ' CONTINUOUS ? DISPLAY OF SYNC CONDITION so user knows eXactly whether tape is in sync. Oscilloscope semi-circle pattern moving clockwise indicates tape speed fast, counter- ? clockwise ? indicates tape speed slow, semi-circle standing still indicates precise sync speed. In addition, Comparator-driven dial-registers % deviation from 71/2 or 15 i.p.s..normal speed. SYNC SIGNAL LEVEL IS INDICATED BY VU METER, an Attenuator provides for boosting weak signals 20 DB. Also a ? Volt Meter indicates voltage to capstan motor. ..1-IAS MEMORY if sync signal is lost, tape runs at last sync- ; controlled:speed; ADVANCING OR RETARDING TAPE TO LIP-SYNCHRO- ? . NISM with picture; When screening, is achieved with a Spinner ? Knob Framing Control.. VERSATILE REMOTE CONTROLS for operating tape re- corder -at :the. Synchronizer are incorporated. FULLY AUTOMATIC. Choice of automatic speed control for sync transfer work or manual speed control for special effects, pitch change, trimming time spots,' etc'. ' COMPACT: All solid state. Entire 92B unit mounts in 12'/4" of rack space, weighs 38 lbs. , COMPATIBLE. Can be used with tape transports including Ampex 350, 351;354, 300, 400, and others. Uses 60 cycles or 14KC control track supplied by MTE type 87, 88, or any other control track generators, or sync head. ' ECONOMICAL. High 'Utility in film studios, music studios, in- ? plant film production facilities. Solid state reliability eliminates maintenance. M' ? ? ? ? MAGNA-TECH ELECTRONIC CO. INC.-. 630.-9T,H AVE.- N.Y. 36, N.Y. 2.50 March 14 ivotirn4 Of the SMP.TE Veltithe'7?3 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 0 Revere-Wollensak Division 3 COMPANY Time? Yes, a watch movement is stopped cold by a Wollensak FASTAX high speed motion picture camera. When these pic- tures are projected there is no question what is happening. High speed photography was the way engineers saw motion- of the escapement when it engaged pins on the fork . . . made certain there was no bounce. FASTAX camera studies are helping solve motion, vibration and stress prob- lems in electrical, mechanical, chemical, medical and physical fields. See for yourself how speeds up to 18,000 pictures per second absolutely stops action. Clip the coupon for action. REVERE-WOU:ENSAK DIVISION 563 HUDSON AVE., ROCHESTER 21, N.Y. Please send me your 0 Brochure F100 on High Speed Photography. 0 Folder showing camera models and capacities. Name Company Address City Zone State COME AND VISIT US AT BOOTH 223, SMPTE SHOW March 1964 Journal of the,SMPTE Volume 73 251 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 This is the first truly Totally new and totally Mitchell! The remarkable SSR-16 combines famed Mitchell pin-registered precision with superb reflex viewing and single-system magnetic sound?in a professional camera that is truly lightweight, portable, flexible and simple to operate. Hand-held or tripod-mounted, the SSR-16 is ideal as a general purpose camera, and virtually noiseless. It is unsurpassed for on-the-sp sound filming: news, sports, documentaries, military combat, special events. It accommodates standard 16mm 400-ft. and 1200-ft. magazines and the majority of standard films, lenses, mounts, and accessories. It's available with inter- changeable motors, and with a pic sync for conversion to double system sound. For high quality professional film work, the SSR-16 is in a class by itself?in the finest Mitchell tradition! Write for illustrated brochure. NEW MITCHELL SSR-16 SEE THIS REMARKABLE DEVELOPMENT AT THE 95TH ANNUAL SMPTE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE/APRIL 13-16, AMBASSADOR HOTEL, BOULEVARD ROOM, LOS ANGELES, CALIF, 252 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 magnetic sound 1ELL R-!6 evv.itc, Through-the-lens-viewing. Focus tube reflex viewfinder has 10X magnification eyepiece, coupled to rotating 1700 focal plane shut- ter with 1/51 fixed exposure time at 24 fps. Bright image is larger than aperture. Three-lens turret accommodates many standard lenses and zoom lenses with quick-change mounts. Professional controls. All controls are located at rear of camera, in- cluding on-off switch, 4-digit foot- age counter and reset, film tach, buckle trip reset, and quick re- lease connectors for power and sound. SSR-16 operates on light weight, rechargeable battery pack or external AC power supply. Mitchell movement. Film thread- ing is quick and easy with only three drive sprockets. All guides and locks are interlocked with compartment door to prevent mis- threading. Single registration-pin and single pull-down claw hold film within a frame-to-frame toler- ance actually better than avail- able film perforations. Magnetic sound recorder. Oper- ates with any 100 mil prestriped film. Separate 12-lb. unit pro- vides 2 microphone inputs plus high impedance channel with input channels independently controlled in mixer. Full moni- toring and playback capability in- cluded as well as self-contained power supply. SINGLE SYSTEM REFLEX Mitchell Camera Corporation, 666 West Harvard Street, Glendale, California March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 253 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 camera, monitor and sound recording unit produc- ing 16mm film from broadcast or closed circuit transmission, or tape playback; Palmer 2400' Maga- zine. Personnel: William Palmer, Stewart Macondray, John Corso. Photo Research Corporation Booth 109 836 N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: New Spectra TV Optoliner for vidicon im- age orthicon and color TV camera systems, provides test instrument for standardization of TV systems? and self-contained illumination and inter-change- able test patterns, mounted to tolerances of 0.002; Spectra Miniature TV Camera. Personnel: Karl Freund, James K. Branch, Gideon Fiat. Photo-Sonics, Inc. Booths 138, 139 820 So. Mariposa St., Burbank, Calif. Exhibiting: 70mm full frame (2.25" x 2.25") camera- 180-360 fps; 70mm full frame (2.25" x 2.25") camera high-speed intermittent, 10 to 80 fps; 70mm ballistic synchro camera; 35mm high-speed rotary prism camera; 16mm high-speed rotary prism camera, 3 models; 16mm thin line, underwater high- speed camera; tracking mount. Personnel: John Kiel, Darrell Lassiter, R. W. Lorenzen. Plastic Reel Corporation of America Booth 218 612 Blvd. East, Weehawken, N.J. Exhibiting: 8mm plastic film reels?all sizes; 16mm plastic Reels-Plio-Magic film reels, 50'-2200'; 8mm & 16mm Reel-Paks, reel and can combination, 50', 200' & 400'; 16mm and 16/35mm processing spools; bushings. Personnel: Walter Elterman, Allen Braverman. Precision Laboratories Div. Booth 217 Precision Cine Equipment Corp. 928-930 E. 51 St., Brooklyn, N.Y. Exhibiting: Precision Sound Readers, optical and mag- netic; Precision Unitized Synchronizers; power film slitters; film slitter and editing equipment, includ- ing editing tables. Personnel: Irwin R. Sheldon. Prestoseal Manufacturing Company Booths 121, 122 37-12 108th Street, Corona, N.Y. Exhibiting: New items: Automatic film/tape splicer for 16mm-35mm film with push button control, inter- changeable splice programmer, and built-in splice tester, models for magnetic film and video tape, choice of butt, reinforced or overlap splicing; Splicing console with remote variable speed control winders, editing light and storage. Standard splic- ers: Hercules Intermix reinforced for splicing dis- similar film bases; Miracle Model Butt-weld. Personnel: Leonard A. Herzig, Hans E. Baumayr, M. Michael Cerick. Producers Service Company Booths 123, 124, 125 1145 N. McCadden Pl., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: The new Acme triple head special effects optical printer equipped with electro-mechanical ALL FILM IS SUSCEPTIBLE to scratches and abrasions... Scratches can, and often do, occur during the first run?subsequent use and handling make such blemishes more and more apparent. Motion picture film is not, and cannot be made, scratch-proof ? 254 421 Weit'54th Street, New York 19, N. Y. COMPREHENSIVE FILMTREAT REJUVENATION restores originals and prints to their initial, scratch-free condition. COMPREHENSIVE Rejuvenated prints are shown in first-run theatres throughout the world. Rejuvenated film stands up in repeated use like new film. COMPREHENSIVE Filmtreat Rejuve- nation costs you so little, saves you so much. Write for literature and prices. COMPREHENSIVE FILMTREAT March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE -Volume 73 829 No. Highland Avenue, Hollywood 38, Calif. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 1964 Brings akswitlly in the F9MEGFI SOUND SYSTEMS All recorders, dubbers and mixers have plug-in head assemblies and plug-in amplifiers which are interchange- able from one unit to the other. RECORDER MODEL R-1 PORTABLE OR STUDIO Lightweight single case complete record-play system up to date for 16mm production. RECORDER MODEL R-2 PORTABLE OR STUDIO Two case complete synchronous recorder with amplifier- mixer. 16mm on y. Recorders priced from ;1300.00 Dubbers priced from ;900.00 SEE US AT BOOTHS 230, 231 RECORDER MODEL M-2 PORTABLE OR STUDIO The M-2 recorder has two microphone input channels, plug-in amplifiers and many other outstanding features. Available 16mm, 171/2mm and 35 mm. MODEL E-1 MIXER 4 CHANNEL MIXER FOR PORTABLE OR STUDIO USE Module amplifiers feature "space age" enclosure which plugs into the front panel of all AMEGA recorders and mixers. Complete line of selsyn, sync-selsyn and interlock motors compatible with all equipment. SEE YOUR DEALER OR WRITE FOR DETAILS. MANUFACTURERS OF MOTION PICTURE SOUND DEVICES P.O. BOX 25, SUN VALLEY, CALIFORNIA RO 7-0250 AN AFFILIATE OF OMEGA ENGINEERING COMPANY Cable Address: AMEGAMAG North Hollywood, California March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 255 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 servo systems that operate the automatic follow focus for both the camera and the aerial image pro- jector; Acme 16/35 combination cameras and pro- jectors; adaption of the Bell & Howell additive color head to step printing. Personnel: Mike McGreal, Oscar Jarosch, Howard Pear- son. Quick-Set, Inc. Booths 103, 104 8121 N. Central Park, Skokie, III. Exhibiting: New, models: Gibraltar cradle heads for movie and TV work; vibration-free dollies with special jack screws for lifting wheels off floor. Super Quick-Set, Samsom, Hercules, and Gibraltar complete line of tripods, pan heads, dollies, etc., for photographic, television, remote control, high- speed or instrumentation usage; units capable of handling loads from 5 to 200 lb on pan heads and elevators, and 500 on tripods. The 'units include and full length, with or without elevators, pan- heads incorporating friction and/or geared con- trols, power and hand operated pedestals and con- soles. Accessories include Pelco adapters, special apparatus for easier attachment of heavy cameras, and Lo-Hi units. Personnel: A. J. Briglia, Paul Mooney. Red Lake Laboratories, Inc. Booth 128 564 San Xavier Ave., Sunnyvale, Calif. Exhibiting: 16mm High-Speed Motion-Picture Cameras and Accessories: 16mm x 100' Hycam, variable from 10 to 8500 pps for full-frame 16mm and 20 to 17,000 pps for 8mm model; new 16mm x 400' Hycam, variable from 16 to 10,000 pps for full- frame 16mm and 32 to 20,000 pps for 8mm version. Personnel: Robert D. Shoberg, Ted F. Meyer, Jr. Research Products, Inc. Booth 136 716 N. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: New custom built optical effects printer for Acme 70mm, 35mm, 16mm, or 8mm projectors and cameras. Engineered to meet any specific type of work, the basic printer encompasses a new modular, replaceable drive system, unlimited sequencing for skip frame printing, a new type lamp house and projector head assembly. Personnel:. Harold A. Scheib, Jack Glass. Revere-Wollensak Div., 3M Company Booth 223 725 Hudson Ave., Rochester, N.Y. Exhibiting: High-speed photography and radar bore- sighting equipment: Fastax high-speed cameras; Mirrotel radar boresights; related photo-instru- mentation products. Personnel: Fred M. Emens, Richard J. Wollensak, Robert B. Herden, Charles B. Wade, Thomas H. Bowman. S.O.S. Photo-Cine-Optics, Inc. Booth 220 602 W. 52nd St., New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: Tel-Amatic closed circuit TV transistor- ized camera; Sound Seal portable fiber glass blimp for the Arri 16mm camera; Transist-O-Sound wire- less microphone system for television news sound on film reporting; S.O.S. Tel-Amatic 16mm con- This latest volume in SMPTE's high-speed photography reprint series brings up to date an authoritative record that the Society began publishing in 1949. The papers many of which have been supplemented since their original publication in this Journal?cover these topic areas: $500 Less 29% to SMPTE Members on single copies. Less 25% to all pur- chasers on orders of 5 through 49 copies; 33 1/3% on 50 copies or more. In New York City, please add 4% sales tax. 256 Just published: VOLUME 2 OF Instrumentation and High-Speed Photography (SERIES II), Cine Applications General Instrumentation Reports on the Sixth International Congress on High. Speed Photography Space Technology and Image Sensing Television Applications High and Ultra-High-Speed Cameras and Techniques This new volume features a cumulative index for all eight volumes in the two SMPTE high-speed photography series, and abstracts in French, German and Spanish. (volume 1 of Series Ills still available at $4.00, with the same discounts.) Address your order to Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 9 East 41st Street, New York, N. Y. 10017 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ANNOUNCING the new PETERSON CONTACT PRINTERS Come in aud see or write for information about our: visit our display in booth 126 at the SMPTE Conference in Los Angeles SOUND UNIT FADE UNIT LIGHT PROBE R. F. CUEING SYSTEM PATCH APPLICATOR Motion gicture [Printing 8qttiprnent eoinpany 8107 NORTH RIDGEWAY AVENUE SKOKIE, ILLINOIS March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 257 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 tinuous contact printer; two position transistor- ized mixer for Auricon sound-on-filni amplifiers; S.O.S. Tel-Animaprint hot pre-ss. Personnel: Alan C. Macauley, Jan T. Macauley, Dom J. ? Capano. Spindler & Sauppe, Inc. Booth 209 2201 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. _Exhibiting: Complete line of selectroslide automated 2 x 2 in. slide projection equipment including pro- jectors for manual, remote forward/reverse, re- mote digital readout of the slide number, and re- mote random access operation; 2 models designed for multiplex and uniplex operation in closed-cir- cuit and broadcast television. Personnel: Norman A. Sauppe, Paul Weichhart. Stancil-Hoffman Corporation Booth 219 921 N. Highland Ave., Hollywood, Calif. Exhibiting: New magnetic film recorders: Model S6 for 16 or 17-1/2min with low power consumption for field operation and silicon NPN low noise transistors in the amplifier systems; Model S7 heavy duty unit with synchronous and electrical interlock drive. Personnel: William V. Stancil. Stewart Filmscreen Corporation Booth 205 - 1161 W. Sepulveda Blvd., Torrance, Calif. Exhibiting: Stewart seamless projection screens: Ul- - tramatte front projection screens for theaters and review rooms; Stewart T-Matte Blue and Stewart Hi-Tran screens for rear projection and motion- picture production; Stewart TV-Blue for TV back- ground-projection; rigid rear projection screens for in-wall and console installations; Porta-Pro portable screens; complete framing systems; ex- amples of World's Fair installations. Personnel: La Mar Roy Stewart, Marshall E. Stewart, Roy C. Stewart, Patrick H. Stewart. ' Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. Booth 233 730 3rd Ave., New York, N.Y. Exhibiting: Complete line of existing Sylvania profes- sional lighting equipment for studio and location use including the redesigned battery portable unit; new items; iodine lamps. Personnel: Edward A. Gilchrist, Richard H. Lindeberg, George Mulcahy, Dr. Robert Levin. Traid Corporation Booth 137 17136 Ventura Blvd., Encino, Calif. Exhibiting: Consolidated Systems Corp. gun camera line: Models KS-27B, KB-3A, KD-7; new daylight load 100 ft. magazine for gun cameras. Vanguard motion analyzer with automatic readout to Clary ? printer; Automax data recording cameras; Photo- Sonics high-speed cameras Models 16mm-lB and 16mm-1B/AC,; new "G" load Adtrol timing light generator for high-speed cameras. Personnel: Robert King, Dick Freeborg, Carlos Elmer, Mike Schuster. 4 The OXBERRY FS-4300 Filmstrip Stand features ? automatic focus, remote control rackover with reticle projection, 1:1 Capabilities. Now available with? Variable time exposure of shut- ter to handle new high quality slow speed color stock Converts to MP-4200 Animation Stand by addition of. compound The OXBERRY Master Series MP-4200 Animation Stand has over 200 accessories available to tailor the equipment to meet specific studio requirements and budgets. Now available with? Automatic cel cycler Electronic controls interlocked for shooting coordinated pans with zooms The OXBERRY Model 20-B Camera for the above equipment features OXBERRY's proven system of interchangeable single and double frame 35 and 16mm components. Designed for industrial and edu- cational use with limited budgets the Model PEC and TE Unistand are manufactured to the high professional standards that has made OXBERRY the world leader in its field. For further information, write on'company =letterhead sto: COXESIEIRRIf CORPORATION* 38 Hudson Street, New Rochelle, New York-10801 Telephone (914) 636-8138 ' World-wide sales ' and service facilities Formerly called The Animation Equipment Corporation COME AND SEE US AT BOOTH 105, SMPTE SHOW 58 Mareh 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume Offices: 7445% Sunset Boulevard Hollywood, California 90046 Telephone 12131876-2140 515 Ipswich Road Slough, Bucks, England Telephone Slough 2-9666 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Big News in ilm Reel Savings! WITH EXCLUSIVE FILM REELS YOU ... SAVE:MONEY WHEN YOU BUY THEM- SAVE ,MONEY WHEN YOU USE' THEM! TROUBLE-FREE PERFORMANCE YEAR AFTER YEAR, SAVINGS YEAR AFTER YEAR. BECAUSE THEY ARE MADE OF SPECIAL COMPOSITION PLIO-MAGIC MATERIAL, THEY WON'T CUT OR CRIMP FILM ... CAN'T RUST ... OR DENT OR BE BENT OUT OF SHAPE. THEY NEVER SCRATCH FILM OR TAPE AND ? THEIR LIGHT WEIGHT MAKES THEM EASY TO HANDLE, ECONOMICAL TO SHIP. CHECK THESE FEATURES... (Stainless Steel center core ? Available with your own trademark or imprint ? Guaranteed against breakage ? Available in all sizes, 8mm and 16mm, to 2200 SEE US AT BOOTH 218! We've some interesting things to SHOW you.. and a FREE GIFT to GIVE you ... so stop in! (SMPTE Exhibit, April 13-16, ' Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles) PLASTIC REEL CORP of AMERICA Mailing Address: Box 750, UNION CITY, N. J. 1111 Office and Warehouse: 612 BOULEVARD EAST, WEEHAWKEN, N. J. Our West Coast Representative' is: STICKEL-McALLISTER 4357 MELROSE AVENUE, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 11,1rch-.1964 JoOrrial of the. SMPTE Vciltinie 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 25'3. : Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Treise Engineering, Inc.' _ Booths 211, 212 1949 First St., San Fernando, Calif Exhibiting: Film '.,processing machine; film sprockets; waxer; spools and spool bearings; sound track ap- plicator; air squeegees; heat exchanges. Personnel: J. Carl Trelse, Paul Sparre, Ken Bell..-'' XeTron Div.' Carbons, Inc. .Bpoth 228 400 Myrtle Ave., Boonton, N.J. Exhibiting: Complete XeTron line of xenon lamphouses. and power supplies: JX modification kit to convert Jan projector for xenon operation with 450 watt ' bulb; CX-9 lamphouse for small format slide, 16mm and 35mm projection; "300" lamphouse with 900 . or 1600 watt bulb for 16mm or 35mm projection; "400" lamphouse with 1600-2500 watt , bulb for 35mm' or 70mm projection Christie-XeTron power supplies. ? ./ ?"'""r7., ' Personnel: Frank H. Riftle.?" J , , ? , , 4 ; ? J Zoornar; Inc. Booths.116, 117 55 Sea Cliff Ave Glen Cove N.Y. " ?Exhibiting : r Zoom lenses 'forl-motion ?picture cameras: ' rAnienieiix` 16mm 'and '35thni; , and new 24-240mm , Witli viewfinder for Mitchell NC and BNC cameras; 're/note' controlled for Vidi con cameras ,including new, zoom lens with zoom range of 1:20 (1.5300mm focal 'length for .Vidicon cameras,' and 12440min focal ?ilength for motion inetni'e frame). tEleetric zoom ;drives for 16mm anc11.35min" motion 'picture lenses. Personizel Walter Steuer, Claire Redman, Martin, - J Miller. RESEARCH PRODUCTS, INC. invites you to see the newest concept in OPTICAL PRINTERS ? Booth 136 SMPTE Show. ANGELES ...or write for detailed brochure and specifications. RESEARCH PRODUCTS,. INC. 716 North La Brea Ave., Hollywood 38, Calif. ? Phone: (213) 933-9305 1') f; Education Industry News :The Inter-Society Color Council Will hold its '33rd' Annual Meeting May 4-5 at the Statler Hilton Hotel, New York. Comthittee reports will be made during the first day of die 'meeting. and a symposium on the general subject of Color in Education hat been arranged for the second day by the Council President, William J. ,Kiernan. Symposium moderator will be F. L.'Wurz- burg, Jr., Speakers, and their subjects, will be George Kay, Colorr Education in Art; Samuel Schenberg, Color Education in Science; Randall M. Hanes Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Concepts; and Prof. Isay A. Balirikin, Two Worlds of Color? Or One. Further information is ?available from Ralph .M. Evans, Inter- Society 'Color. Council,' Eastman Kodak co.; Photographic Technology Div., Bldg. 65, Rochester, N.Y. 14650. The 1964 IEEE International Convention will be held March. 23-26 at the Hilton Hotel and the .Coliseum in New York. Theme of the Convention will be "A Glimpse of the Future." An attendance of more than 75,000 engineers and scientists from 40 countile'S'ii :Cected. An tOtal of 320 papers coyeling latest developments in every area of 'eleetrical and eleetronia en- gineering is scheduled for the technical pro- gram includes 64 technical sessions A high 'poinenf the program will be a she-- . cial evening.., symposium on .,..?"Modular Magic" t6 'be held .Mrehi24. A panel of outstanding :uthoritie;;---in'oderated.-1 by Patrick Haggerty, President of Texas In- sn'-'urnents; Inc., will, discuss the impact ,of processes and. techniques for fabricating microelectronic integrated cirduits. Chair- ! man' of the Ge'neral;Con-nnittee is G. W. )Technical "Program ? Coininittee ,Chairman ,is....Ferdinand Hamburger, .,Jr. Infoi7n-l'atiOn about 'the IEEE Convention is' aVailable fidin The Inititute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Box A, Lenox New York 21; -N.Y. ' ,?:, c, The Fiiit International Conference of Womein: Engineers :and Scientists will be 'held 'June 15-21 in 'New York. It is sPOnSored liy-the Society. of Women :En- gineers and the .therne will .be "FocuS' for 260:- March :1964 of:tfie?114PTE:s?ircili;Me 73' Declassified and Approved For Release 20.13/10/28 :.CIARDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Curtain going Automation... ? First showing VENUS 00,0 1 / ?up on Automation in splicing comes to the motion picture industry! anywhere of the splicer. completely automated Fast, accurate, Butt Splicer ? For the first time? built in Splice Inspector and Testor ? Dark room and daylight ? \ splicing a breeze. ? All splicing "Know-How" built into the Splicer ? No Scrape, No Cement, No Pressure Tapes?Goof Proof! ? Intermix ANY type of Film Base ? For 16 or 35mm film sizes ? Last but not least ? a Butt,Reinforced or Overlap Splice. A machine that does all this.. .still attractively priced. 17 years of world leadership in splicing led to the design and development of this unique splicer. Come see it in booth 121-122. Presfoseal Manufacturing Corp. 37-12 108th Street, Corona 68, New York Cable: Prestoseal West Coast distributors, Magnetic Recorders Co.; Los Angeles. 95th SEMIANNUAL SMPTE CONFERENCE APRIL 13-14-15-16 AMBASSADOR HOTEL LOS ANGELES March,1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 261 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? Xenon, Xenon-Mercury and Mercury Lamps for solar simulation, lasers, in- strumentation, photochemistry, search- lights, projection, communications ? Operates DC, AC, pulsed, simmer-flash or modulated in wattages from 80 to 5,000 ? Features high intensity, high brightness, full spectrum, long life, complete reli- ability, rapid start and no maintenance ? One universal starter for all lamps II Only Hanovia makes the lamp and all as- sociated equipment such as electrical con- trols and power supplies III Made in the U.S.A. Write today for complete technical information. * ENG6LHARN.,HANOVIA, INC. fit,: ? Ninnouir LAMP DIVISION 100 CHESTNUT STREET ? NEWARK S, NEW JERSEY 69A 262. Mara. 1964 journal of tbe? SMPTE the Future?Developing Engineering and Scientific Talent." Director of the Confer- ence is Dr. Beatrice A. Hicks, President and Director of Engineering, Newark Controls Co. Information about the Con- ference is available from Elsie Eaves, Public Relations Chairman, 18 Third Ave., Port Washington, N.Y. 11050. The 1963 Science Technology and Gen- eral Dictionary Catalog is published by Associated Technical Services, Inc. (A.T.S.). The catalog serves as a reference to and source of hundreds of currently available technical dictionaries in 35 lan- guages from all over the world. English editions of 23 outstanding Russian, Hun- garian, and Chinese books in bio-sciences, engineering and chemistry are also listed. The catalog is available from Associated Technical Serivces, Inc., Dictionary and Book Division, 855 Bloomfield Ave., Glen Ridge, N.J. Special translating services are also avail- able. Recent emphasis in translating is on papers in Japanese and Russian containing research data on electrophotography (xe- rography), photography, photochemistry, etc. A.T.S. was established in 1949 by a chemical engineer and a chemist to provide an exclusively technical translation and literature research service. A.T.S. has a specialized technical reference library of several thousand volumes and also main- tains close liaison with associates and sources throughout the world for patent and litera- ture searches as well as for procurement of hard-to-get scientific material published abroad. The Sixth National Electromagnetic Com- patibility Symposium sponsored by the Professional Technical Group on Elec- tromagnetic Compatibility of the IEEE will be held June 23-25 in the Los Angeles area. The theme will be Down-to-Earth EMC in the Space Age. Information is available from the Technical Program Chairman, John A. Eckert, Dept. 3441/32, Northrop Norair, 3901 West Broadway, Hawthorne, Calif. A Department of Space Science and Ap- plied Physics has been established by the Catholic University of America with pro- grams of study leading to post-graduate degrees in the areas of Space Science; Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer; Aerospace Engineering: and Applied Phy- sics. The new program is intended to in- tegrate scientific theory and technology. The curricula will balance instruction in science with training in the skills of ex- perimentation and inventive technology. Research conducted under faculty super- vision includes work in such areas as plasma behavior in geophysics and space physics; basic problems of blood flow and non- Newtonian fluid mechanics; and radiation heat transfer. Laboratories in Plasma Space Science; Space- Propulsion; and Fluid Physics have been established. Further information is available from Dr. C. C. Chang, Head, Department of Space Science and Applied Physics, The Catholic Uni- versity of America, Washington, D.C. 20017. Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 - *Truly Mo0ular... Construction additional complete cabinet assemblies can be added without rnaphiije modification ? - enables machine- capacity and fle?dbility. to be increased when desired ? Jet Spray Processing, ? Impingement drying; ? 35/16 Combination,-: - negative or positive ? Full Instfumentation.,: ? Friction or Sprocket Drive ? Torque Motor Ta4-up.---" ? Magazine or Daylight' Loading ? Built-in Utilities o Simple Installation o Easy Maintenance - MODEL 200-s Jet Spray Processori' , For further information, wrlite'on cornizany letterhead to RALPH D. WHITMORE, Jr.. C/OCIEVERFtlif COIRPOIREATICON* ,38 Huason,Street, New'Rochelle, New York 10801 Telephone (914) 636-8138 World-wide sales and seryice facilities Offices: ? 7445% Sunset Boulevard ' )515 Ipswich Road? Hollywood, California 90046 Slough, Bucks, England . Telephone (213) 876-2140 Telephone Slough 2-9666 Formerly called The Animation Equipment Corporation OXBERRY FILM PROCESS NG MACHINES are manufactured for 16, 35 and 70-rnm--color, black and white, microfilm and reversal films. Both jet spray and immersion type ? machines are available. 100 SERIES? Models from 2 tp.20 FPM 200 SERIES ? Models from 20 to 75 FPM 300 SERIES? r Models from 75 to 250 FPM7-7 .COME AND SEE ? US .AT BOOTH 105; SMPTE SHOW , March 1964 joiirnal -of the. SMPTE -.Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 : CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 263 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 A Symposium on cineradiography in the medical and biological sciences, or- ganized by the medical group of the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, will be held March 18, with facilities and hospitality provided by the CIBA Founda- tion. About 25 speakers will discuss problems associated with cineradiography. There will be representatives from the Faculty of Radiology, British Institute of Radiology, Society of Radiographers, In- stitute of British Photographers medical group, and the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain medical group. This Sym- posium is an exploratory one, and if the findings warrant it an international sym- posium will be considered. A technical re- port covering papers and discussions will be issued within one month of the Sym- posium. Copies of the report will be avail- able upon request from: The Hon. Public- ity Officer, Medical Group of the Royal Photographic Society, 16 Princes Gate, London, S.W.7, England. Also scheduled is the annual Exhibition of the Medical Groupiif the Royal Photo- graphic Society of Great Britain which will open March 3 at Tavistock House, Tavi- stock Square, London, W.C.1. The exhibit will be on display to April 20. The British Film Producers Association, 49 Mount St., London, W.1., England, has issued a report on the National Pro- ductivity Year Conference held during November, 1963, in Eastbourne. Among conclusions drawn from papers and dis- cussions as set forth in the report are in- eluded such statements as: "The Film Production Industry is not a production- line factor . . . Nevertheless, work study as an aid to productivity appeared to be as important in this (cinema) industry as in any other industry ... The sales side must be of sufficient strength and attraction to ensure an adequate financial return to the production side. . . There is a need in this industry for the removal or relaxation of trade union restrictive practices, which are related to production techniques and equipment of many years ago . ..." Harry F. Olson, Director of the Acoustical and Electromechanical Research Labora- tory of the RCA Laboratories, is the re- cipient of the John Ericsson Medal of the American Society of Swedish Engineers. It was presented to him at the annual banquet, held Febuary 8, in New York. The medal is presented every second year and alternately to a Swedish citizen or an American citizen of Swedish extrac- tion in recognition of outstanding and valuable contributions in the field of acous- tics. Dr. Olson is a Fellow of the SMPTE and the recipient (1955) of the Samuel L. Warner Memorial Award. On that oc- casion he was cited for outstanding achieve- ments in "audio engineering, including his work on the velocity microphone, the duo- cone speaker for high-fidelity sound re- production, and for his contributions to the development and improvement of phonograph pickup and recording equip- ment, underwater sound equipment, and sound motion-picture and public address systems." Among other honors he has been awarded the Modern Pioneer Award of the National Association of Manufacturers (1940); John H. Potts Medal of the Audio Engineering Society (1952); John Scott Medal of the City of Philadelphia (1956); and Achievement Award of the IRE Professional Group on Audio (1956). Dr. Olson holds more than 90 U.S. Patents on devices and systems in the acous- tical field. He is the author of three books, Acoustical Engineering, Dynamical Analogies, and Musical Engineering, as well as numerous papers on scientific and technical subjects, among them (with co-author John Pres- ton), "The Electrostatic Uniangular Micro- phone," in the November 1958 issue of the Journal. Norwood L. Simmons has been appointed General Manager of the West Coast Division of Eastman Kodak Company's Motion-Picture Products Sales Depart- ment. He succeeds John L. Courcier, a veteran of 45 years in the film industry, who died January 6. He joined Kodak in 1937 at the Kodak Park Works in Ro- chester, N.Y. For the next four years he was associated with the company's film manufacturing operations. In 1941 he moved to the West Coast Division in Hollywood. In 1954 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Division; in 1958 he was appointed Assistant Manager and in 1960 he became Manager. In 1963 he was appointed Manager of Engineering an SMPTE publication CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN FILM PROCESSING Prepared by a Special Subcommittee of the Laboratory Practice Committee of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers WALTER I. KISNER Foreword by E. H. REICHARD Subcommittee Chairman Chairman, Laboratory Practice Committee Society of Motion 264 CHAPTERS 1. Introduction 2. General Principles 3. General Aspects of Motion-Picture Film Processing 4. Mechanical Evaluation and Control 5. Instruments for Photographic Control $5.00 6. Control Strips and Sensitometric Curves 7. Sensitometric Control of a Standardized Process 8. Chemistry of Film Processing 9. Chemical Analysis and Control 10. Economic Considerations in Establishing a Process Control System Two-page bulletin with description of subject matter of each chapter available without charge upon request to Society Headquarters Available only for cash with order or by Company Purchase Order Single copy price $5.00 (less 20% to SMPTE Members, Libraries and Booksellers), F.O.B. Destination 5 through 49 copies at $5.00 each, less 25%, plus foreign postage, F.O.B. Origin. 50 copies or more at $5.00 each, less 33,/:%, plus foreign postage, F.O.B. Origin. Within New York City Add 3% Sales Tax Picture and Television Engineers March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 9 East 41st Street, New York 17, N.Y. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 , o' ? ? Y , ou'll find that everything you ye been hoping for in a premium type, medium speed black & . white negative material has been built into new Ansco Ver'sapan?, film ! ? - ? Here is a :brand. new camera material with the Soft gradation, fine grain and high resolu- tion that brings a new quality look to your black ,& white pictures. The superb photographic qualities of Ansco Versapan are built right into. the film?do not depend on special processing treatment to pro- , duce superior results. NEG)"ITIVE! With its medium speed Of 80 Daylight & 64 - Tungsten,. Ansco Versapan is well suited to a ? wide range of lighting cohditi6ns. Try a test , ? roll -Zif Ansco Versapan before you shoot your next important black & white assignment! Avail-. - able in all Standard 16nim (T2531) and 35mm (T5531 ) Ansco PHOTO PRODUCTS OF GENERAL ANILINE & FILM CORPORATION BINGHAMTON. NEW YORK 4255 W. Touhy Ave., 1001 N. LaBrea Ave. Chicago 46, III. Los Angeles 38, Cal. 405 Lexington Ave., New York 17, N.Y. MaYeli ?t4. SMPfE "Volume 7 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 -265 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Services and his appointment to the post of General Manager was made effective January 17. Vaughn C. Shaner succeeds him as Manager of Engineering Service, West Coast Division. Sidney Dimond has resigned his professor- ship in the Boston University School of Public Relations and Communications to devote his time to Creative Associates, Inc., 176 Newbury St., Boston, a firm he founded 11 years ago to produce historical programs, documentaries and educational programs described as "sounds on tape and record." Mr. Dimond is especially interested in educational programs for highway safety. In 1956 he produced This Is Impact, a series of recordings con- taining comments made by accident victims and relatives of highways fatalities, of excuses offered by apprehended speed- ers, and of sounds such as the clang of a jail door shutting behind a drunken driver. The recording won the National Head- liner's Award as the best American radio series of 1958 and the National Safety Council's Public Interest Award. He also did a tape called How to Stay on the High- ways which is used widely in high schools throughout the United States. Harlan L. Graham, Jr., has been ap- pointed General Manager of the Du Pont Photo Products Dept., Wilmington, Del. FAIRCHILD IS FIRST! ... MODEL 673 DYNALIZER ? DYNAMIC EQUALIZER MODEL 688 50-WATT POWER AMPLIFIER MODEL '661TL AUTOMATIC ATTENUATOR MODEL 662 PRE-AMP LINE AMP MODEL 663 COMPRESSOR MODEL 665 EQUALIZER AMPLIFIER MODEL 668 LUMITEN MODEL 664 EQUALIZER with professional audio equipment COMPLETELY TRANSISTORIZED from microphone input to loudspeaker terminals! FAIRCHILD IS FIRST with professional quality preamps, line amps, compressors, equalizers, noise reduction systems, anti-feedback devices, apparent loudness controls and power amplifiers! ... all transistorized! Advanced engineering concepts assure ultimate performance and ther- mally stable maintenance-free operation. Each FAIRCHILD transistor- ized device is compatible with each other and even more amazing each device is compatible with other existing conventional vacuum tube equipment. And now FAIRCHILD offers a new design and installation boon to sound engineers ? the INTEGRA/CONSOLE CONCEPT ? which allows complete housing and util- ization in? a functional, attractive and expandable package of all speech input equipment needed for the most advanced recording, broadcasting or sound reinforcement installation. INTEGRA/CONSOLE CON- CEPT allows expansion at a later date if desired ? minimal invest- ment for maximum utilization. FAIRCI-IILD R10E C400 R4D5ItNh GA vEe() .11 LI Po nMg E N IslandT CO CR IPty0 R1A TNIOVNI 266 He succeeds George H. Loving, who was killed in the airplane disaster near Elkton, Md., December 8 (Journal, Jan., 1964, p. 60). Mr. Graham, who began his career in Du Pont's Parlin, N.J., plant about 25 years ago, transferred to the company's Wilmington headquarters in 1950 as Assistant to the Director of Production, and then became Assistant Manager at the Rochester, N.Y., plant and later at Parlin. While at Parlin, he was active in the es- tablishment of the "Cronar" polyester film plant. He was appointed Director of Sales in 1958 and about a year ago he was made Assistant General Manager of the Photo Products Dept. He is succeeded in that post by Joseph A. Dallas. Mr. Dallas has been Director of Manufacture for the Du Pont Explosives Dept. since 1960, and has held other important production and sales positions during a 30-year career with the company. W. E. Pohl has been appointed a Vice- President of Technicolor Corp. A recipient of four Academy Award Scientific Achieve- ment plaques, Mr. Pohl has been impor- tantly associated with Technicolor's tech- nical activities in many capacities for 34 years. In this new capacity he will continue the duties and responsibilities of Technical Director of the Motion Picture Division and, in addition, will assume the direction of the Corporation's Systems and Proce- dures program. The author of a number of technical papers, two that have appeared recently in the Journal are "The Manufac- ture of 8mm Prints at Technicolor," pp. 606-607, Aug., 1961; and "Large Area Negative Printing," pp. 72-73, Feb., 1959. Gale Livingston has been appointed President of the Westrex Division of Litton Industries. He was formerly Vice-President and General Manager of the Westrex International Division. He will maintain headquarters in Hollywood. Mr. Livingston has been with Litton Industries since March, 1962. He has held various manage- ment and executive positions and for many years was Executive Vice-President of an international pharmaceutical firm. Harold R. Day has been appointed man- ager of the Thermoplastic Recording Project of General Electric Co., Schenec- tady, N.Y. Dr. Day joined General Electric Co. in 1952 and was with the Research Laboratory until early in 1963 when he transferred to Syracuse as Technical Director ? Deformable Films for Defense Systems Department. Later in the year he was named Consultant in Thermoplastic Recording for the Electronics Laboratory. John A. Leermakers has been elected a Vice-President of Eastman Kodak Co. and has been appointed Director of Kodak Research Laboratories. Dr. Leermakers joined the Research Laboratories in Rochester in 1934 after two years at Harvard University as National Research Fellow. From 1934 until 1938 he did re- search on cellulose acetate dyes, optical sensitizing, the properties of photographic gelatin, and film emulsions. He was ap- pointed supervisor of experimental emul- sion making in 1938 and in 1944 he became March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 OXBERRY 1200 SERIES MODULAR OPTICAL PRINTER X = HORIZONTAL y = VERTICAL Z = OPTICAL AXIS A. Camera and Viewer B. Main Projector C. Aerial Image Projector D. Beam-Splitter Projector E. Beam-Splitter Aerial Image Projector ? Modular concept permits many major features to be on 1 printer! ? 60" flat cast iron bed for rock-steady stability-allows greater enlargement and reduction! ? Built with 1 thru 4 projector heads! ? Patented Aerial Image and Beam- Splitter Aerial Image projectors with 3 dia. enlargement thru 1:1 to 4 dia. reduction?allows combining 35, 16 and Cinemascope in a single pass! ? Full Aerial Image scope of over 30 diameters with camera! ? Tilt facilities enable any scene in any projector head to be straightened! ? Choice of three auto-focus sys- tems available, permitting focusing through 1:1! ? Modular system receives 65 and military 70mm cameras and pro- jectors! FILM SIZES AND FORMATS HANDLED BY 1200 SERIES OPTICAL PRINTER ?70 MM MILITARY 10 PERFORATION PULL DOWN ? 65 MM ? 35MM DOUBLE FRAME ? ? 35 MM 2 PERF. PULL DOWN ? 35/32 MM ? 32 MM ? 16 MM DBL PERE. 2=0: ? 16 MM ? DBL. SGL. PERF. 8 MM ?N ? ALL FILM SIZES WITH THE SAME CODE MARK CAN BE USED IN THE SAME CAMERA OR PROJECTOR For further information, write on company letterhead to: Cl/CIES E F1 FLY COM PO RAT I ON* 38 Hudson Street, New Rochelle, New York 10801 Telephone (914) 636-8138 World-wide sales and service facilities Offices: 74451/4 Sunset Boulevard 515 Ipswich Road Hollywood, California 90046 Slough, Bucks, England Telephone (213) 876-2140 Telephone Slough 2-9666 ?Formerly called The Animation Equipment Corporation THE MODULAR SYSTEM OF CONSTRUCTION PERMITS MAJOR FEATURES TO BE ADDED AT ANY TIME ? ELIMINATES BUILT-IN OBSOLESCENCE! Basic Printer with Camera and Projector 4 11:El Z.Aerial Image added to basic printer LI Beam-Splitter and Aerial Imagi added to basic printer I 1 Beam-Splitter Aerial Image, Beam-Splitter, and Aerial Image added to basic printer C EU B:L=1 sa:E=1 Isoz=1 Any variations of above modules can be made! *OXBERRY LEADS THE WAY! 1955?Combination 35/16 Camera and Projector! 1956?Follow-focus through 1:1! 1959?Aerial Image! 1961?Beam-Splitter! 1963?Field Titling System ? Advanced Design! NOW ?MODULAR CONSTRUCTION COME AND SEE US AT BOOTH 105, SMPTE SHOW March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 267 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 technical assistant to the Director of the Research Laboratories. Edwin W. Templin has been appointed Chief Engineer of D. B. Milliken Co. Formerly with Westrex Co. as Chief Engineer, he has been responsible for the design, development, production and ap- plication of studio and scientific recording. Much of his recent work has been in miniaturized systems for aerospace applica- tions. In his new post he will head a rapidly expanding engineering program which includes the doubling of the firm's en- gineering facilities and the tripling of re- search and development facilities. James D. McLean, who recently resigned as President and Chairman of the Board of Highway Trailer Industries, Inc., of Chicago, has formed a development firm dealing with general management, product development, marketing and engineering problems in the electronics, aerospace and transportation industries with offices at 760 N. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles 69. Mr. McLean has served as President of General Dynamics/Electronics, President of Hoffman Laboratories, Inc., and Vice- President and General Manager of Philco's Government and Industrial Division. He is presently a Director of Struthers Sci- entific and International Corp. of New York. HBIATIC ligller" processes 16 mm reversal film at any speed up to 6000 feet per hour Nothing extra to buy, the FILM- ATIC "super" has everything to deliver superb quality process- ing economically, whether the work load is a single hundred foot roll or thousands of feet of film to be handled without interrup- tion. Operating on reversal film at just an average speed of 65 feet per minute, it delivers the first processed scenes (dry to dry) in approximately 5 minutes. 010.111411C processes TV color film in your own lab Here is the Standard COLOR- MATIC Model "C" Film Processor (with the light-tight cover re- moved). These processors are assembled for the many different color film processes such as An- scochrome, Ektachrome and Ko- dacolor from 16 mm up to 70 mm wide at various outputs. Ansco- chrome processing speed up to 1800 feet per hour. Ideally com- pletes your black and white lab facilities. call our plant location, 215-348-2031 for information on all types of continuous color or b & w processors up to 70 mm HILLS MANUFACTURING CO., INC. P.O. BOX 335, CHALFONT, BUCKS COUNTY. PENNSYLVANIA. 268 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Joseph W. Minsky has been appointed to the newly created post of Manager of Engineering, Video Products, for the GPL Division, General Precision, Inc., Pleasant- ville, N.Y. He was formerly Manager of Engineering at Thompson Ramo Wool- dridge, Dage Division. In his new post Mr. Minsky will have the responsibility in the technical area of adding to the GPL Pre- cision television line, expanding video and video-related controls for industry, and investigating aerospace television designs using microelectronic techniques. A. C. Keller, Director, Switching Ap- paratus Laboratory at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York, has been elected to the Board of Directors of the Waukesha Motor Co., Waukesha, Wis. Robert B. Lindemeyer has been appointed Director of Technical Services for Metro- Kalvar, Inc., 550 Fifth Ave., New York. He has been with the firm since September, 1963, and prior to that he was with Ameri- can Machine and Foundry Co., of Santa Barbara, Calif., where he held a man- agerial post. He was graduated in 1958 from Iowa State University, where he had held the Joseph Weed Television Scholar- ship and where he had worked in various capacities with the University's Film Pro- duction Unit. Following graduation he taught a course in "Films for TV" at American University in Washington, D.C. He then served as an officer in the U.S. Navy attached to the U.S. Naval Photo- graphic Center in Washington, D.C., where he was first a producer/director and later was appointed Officer-in-Charge of the Television Kinescope Films Production Facility of the Air Force Systems Com- mand, a position he held until 1962. Two new appointments have been an- nounced by Photoronics Corp., 36-17 Prince St., Flushing 54, N.Y. Richard A. Hayes has been appointed Vice-President of Engineering and H. B. Voorhest of Anaheim, Calif., has been appointed Ap- plications Sales Engineer for the West Coast. Mr. Hayes is a recognized authority in the field of electrooptics. He was formerly with General Dynamics, Fort Worth. Mr. Voorhest was formerly with Perkin-Elmer Corp. William B. Allen has been appointed Manger of Engineering of the Video and Instrumentation Div. of Ampex Corp? 401 Broadway, Redwood City, Calif. He was formerly Manager of the Elec- tronics Laboratory, Ballistic Missile Div. of Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles. In his new post he is responsible for the develop- ment of Ampex magnetic recording equip- ment for television broadcasting, space exploration, defense, industry and medi- cine. N. Donald Ringsred has been elected President of the Alexander Film Co., Colorado Springs, 'Colo. He has been as- sociated with the firm since 1945. After 12 years in the Colorado Springs office, he moved to Detroit as a sales representa- tive for the firm. For the present he will maintain headquarters in the firm's new Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 CAMERA EQUIPMENT CO., INC. ONLY FROM CECO CECO REFLEX MODIFICATION FOR THE 35mm B&H EYEMO CAMERA Conversion Net $1200.00 Camera with Conversion Net $1500.00 This modification is also available for Mitchell and BAH 2709 Cameras at... Net $2500.00 CECO PRO JR. FRICTION HEAD TRIPOD with Revolutionary Ball Joint....TR8VB Net $200.00 Assistant's Ditty $7.50 CECO HI-SPEED EDITING TABLE With Torque Rewinds, Single -System Sound and Counter. Acceleration to 240 feet per minute. Available in 16mm and 35mm Models Net From 82975.00 3 YEAR LEASE available THIS SUPERB FILM MAKING EQUIPMENT BAUER SELECTON 110 16 mm XENON OPTICAL & MAGNETIC PROJECTOR 5000 ft. capacity allows 21/2 hrs. of uninterrupted showing. Light output with 2000 watt Xenon measures 4,100 lumens, Fills a Clnemascope screen over 40 ft. wide. 2-speed synchronous motor. SOUND BLIMP FOR KODAK REFLEX CAMERA Net $2435.00 KODAK REFLEX ACCESSORIES: Matte Box Net $295.00 Single Speed Stop Motion Motor Net $815.00 Additional Single Speed Drives (1/4, 1/2, 1 Sec.) Net $185.00 110 V. AC-DC Variable Speed Motor with Tachometer Net $625.00 Balanced Tripod for Blimp Net $610.00 Pro. Jr. Spring Head Tripod for Camera with Ball Joint CECO MODEL TR6VB Net $250.00 CECO PROGRAMMER for Time-Lapse Applications Net 595.00 1000' MAGAZINE FOR ARRIFLEX 35mm CAMERA Complete with Veeder-Root Counter... Net $410.00 CECO 400' CONVERSION for CINE VOICE CAMERA Net $450.00 With Super Silent motor, built-in Veeder footage re-set counter Net $595.00 NOVA III 16mm HIGH-SPEED CAMERA New features include .simplified Timing block and Film Chip Reducer.. Net for $2185.00 16mm CECO PROFESSIONAL FILM VIEWER Net $415.00 (Also available with Single System and/or Double System magnetic in- stallation) For full information and literature on these as well as the thousands of other professional cameras CECO, write or phone today. NICKEL CADMIUM PORTABLE POWER SUPPLY for Kodak Reflex, Auricon, Arriflex and other Cameras with 110 V. Synchronous motors. Complete with built-in charger... CECO Model PS 40 DD Net $325.001 INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHERS, Please Note! ?Ask us about our NEW "IN-PLANT STUDIO" PROGRAM. 1111?11111?11MIIIIIMM and acceSsories available from CAMERA EQUIPMENT CO.,INC. FIRST IN SALES, SERVICE, RENTALS AND REPAIRS SUBSIDIARY OF CECO INDUSTRIES, INC. NEW YORK, N.Y.-315 West 43rd St., 111 6-1420 / HIALEAH, FLORIDA-51 East 10th Ave., TU 8-4604 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 269 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? offices in Maple Office Center, Binning- - ham, Mich. The announcement also stated , that the firm planned an expansion of ,its sales force for added emphasis on such ser- ;vices as the firth's film distribution center And the laboratory. Three new staff appointments have been announced by Thomas H. Fraser, Presi- dent of Fraser .Productions, San Francisco. Hubert Salisbury has been appointed ;Manager of the Cinematography Depart- ment and Ray Nolan has .been appointed Manager of ?the Editing Department., Bettie Griswold has been appointed Traf- fic Manager. Mr. Salisbury was formerly associated with the?film industry in Great Brit?in and Mr. Nolan was formerly with .the National Film Board of Canada as ,director, editor and cameraman on various documentary film projects. James L. Cacldigan has been appointed Director ? of Broadcast Services of ? the Weather Corp. of America, 611 Olive St.; ;St. Louis, Mo. 63101. Mr. Caddtan's previous posts have included Director of Programing And Production of Du Mont television network, and Vice-President of Odyssey Productions: In his present post MODEL 7700 STEP CONTACT PRINTER for making precision 35 and 16mm fine grains ? Sarne printerhandles both 35 and 16mm film. ? Reversible drive, single frame or continuous. ? Rapid magazine type man- ual filter changer. (Com- binations up to 12 filters.) MODEL 40B 16mm HIGH SPEED FILM INSPECTOR ? Variable sOeed drive '40 to 150 feet/min. ? Frojects ono;franie: at a time. ? Revertible operation?one knob control. .? Scratch free rotary pr.ism. MODEL 41 HIGH SPEED FILM INSPECTOR-- available for direct connection to dry end 'Of 16mm film processors. Automatically ? synchronized for all processor developing , speeds 40 to 200 feet/min. . For further information, write on company letterhead to: CMIB IE Ft FM CORPORATION* as Hudson Street; New Rochelle, New York 10803- . .:Telephone (914) 636-8138 , .World-wide sales and service facilities " 7445% Sunset Boulevard 515 Ipswich Road 1 Offices: . Hollywood; California 90046 ' Slough, Bucks, England - Telephone (213)876-2140 Telephone Slough 2-9666 *Formerly called The Animation Equipment Corporation 270 VISIT US AT BOOTH 105, SMPTE SHOW' ? MarCh'i964:? Journal of ihe SMPTE he will be in charge of ,liaison between ; the broadcasting clients and the firm's4:oro- fessional meteorologists. Film. bookings by the American Medical Association during 1963 showed a gain of 16.8% over the previous year, according. to a recent report from 'Ralph Creer, Direc- tor of Medical Motion Pictures and Tele- vision. This is the 11th consecutive year that the AMA film library, has reported increased use ?of its 400 films. Greatest increase in?film bookings was to nursing schools and. the next greatest increase' was to para-medical schools. Increases in book- ings were also reported by medical schools and civilian hospitals. Films, made available, without charge by General Motors Corp. to schools, civic groups, churches, service clubs, youth groups and other organizations are listed . in a catalog available from General Motors Corp., 1775 Broadway, New York 19. The 1964 film catalog lists 48 16mm sound films which take the audience behind the scenes in industry and cover a variety of other subjects ranging from safety and driver education to sports and the funda- mentals of science and mechanics. GM films were shown before 460,000 audiences last year, totaling more than 19 million persons. In addition there were 143 tele- vision showings. The eighth Tiros satellite, launched in :December, is equipped with a specially designed teleVision. camera to "take pictures cover, itorms, .and other meteoro- logical events which will ? be transmitted back to ground stations. The pictures will be. recorded by facsimile 'rather ;than. on .Although not of the same quality as the film pictures they are expected to . proVide as much information As needed for meteorological analysis. The new Ty system (known as APT (Automatic Pic- ture Transmission)) has been installed in the new Tiros and APT ground, stations have been established -at thine, 50 loca- tions throughout ,the world, including NASA stations at Washington, D.C.; Wallops' Island, Va.; and Fairbanks; Alaska. The new Tiros and its seven pred- ecessors were designed and built by the Radio 'Corp. of America under the tech- nical direction of .the Goddard Space Flight Center .of the National AeionaAtics and Space Administration. Tiros 'satellites have been described fn papers in the Jour- nal, including "A Narrow-Bandwidth Video-Tape Rec6i-dei fof Use in- a Satel- lite," by Joseph A. Zenel :(pp. .818-820, Nov., 1960); -"Interpretation 'of Cloud Pictures From the Tiros 'Meteorological Satellite," by John 'H. CotioVer (pp': 21-25, Jan.', 1962) ; And. "Design of Satellite Tape Recorders After 'Tiros I," by 'A. 'D. Burt, S. P. Clurmana. nd T. T. Wu (pp. 787-791, Oct:,.1963). Relay II, second in the Relay series of ex- perimental *communications satellites de- signed and built by Radio Corp. of Amer- ica's Astro-Electronics Division, is a low- altitude active communications satellite, basically the same as its predecessor, Relay . I. Certain changes have been incorporated Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ? NORELCO AAll Universal 70/35mm Projector ? NORELCO FP-20S Pulse-Lite 35mm Projector ? NORELCO FP-22S Super Pulse-Lite 35mm Projector ? NORELCO FP-20 Standard 35mm Projector ? NORELCO FP-20G 35mm TELE-CINE PROJECTOR ? NORELCO 16mm PROFESSIONAL PROJECTORS ? NORELCO 16mm TELE-CINE PRO- JECTOR ? ISCO PROJECTION LENSES for 16mm, 35mm and 70mm Noreke MOTION PICTURE EQUIPMENT DIVISION NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS COMPANY, INC., 100 E. 42nd Street, N.Y. 17, N.Y. ? Phone: 212-OX 7-3600 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 271 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 with the objective of determining the potential longevity of a communications satellite of this type. Changes include an improved solar array; elimination of timer; unpressurized traveling wave tube; improved power circuitry; and desensitized command circuitry. The 25th anniversary of the introduc- tion of the Arriflex-35 has been recognized by Arriflex Corp. of America, 257 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10010, by the announcement of a "trade-in celebration." According to the announcement, "any old Arriflex-35" will be worth a "sizable amount of cash," if traded in on a new model. The announcement noted that al- though there have been numerous impor- tant improvements, the exterior design of the camera has remained b.a'sic'ally un- changed. As a feature of ;the anniversry celebration, the person trading.: iii an Arriflex-35 will' receive a credit of the original purchase price up to $2,500 on a new mOdel. , Photographic services for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lunar Landing Program will be provided by the Resea'rch and Development Divi- sion 'of Technicolor, according to 'a' recent announcement. The firm will provide THE NAME: 1*--pnk.F04.00 SPAY DEVELIF THE SPEED: '2 IL RESULTS: The professionctl processor. .for. The professionctl WRITE TODAY FOR COMPLETE INFORMATION. 272 FEATURES: ? ? Completely self-contained ? Speed: 200 fpm positive; 100 fpm negative, (16 or 35 mm ? perforated or unperforated) ? All spray design .` Impingement drying ? ? ? Fresh water flush-down ? Stainless steel tliroughilit = i' hi:speed-- EQUIPMENT,J.NC. 75 Pond Street, 51:Masnciln'seits , . Originators of Higt? Speed Spray Processing gquipment. VISIT US AT BOOTH 127 'SMPTE SHOW complete management services for the installation, Operation and management of a photographic laboratory to be constructed at the new Launch Operation Center at Merritt Island, Fla. The Technicolor 8mm Instant Movie Projector will be distributed in Japan by Yashica, Inc., according to an agreement announced by Technicolor Corp. The Japanese firm specializes in the manu- facture and distribution of photographic equipment. Potter's Photographic Applications Co., Mineola, N.Y., has been appointed dis- tributor in the New York Metrcpolitan area for the Amphicon 190 and 200 tele- vision projectors. The projectors, which _ feature big-screen projection (up to 8 ft wide with the 190 model and up to 15 ft wide with the 200 model), are manu- factured by Dalto Electronics Corp., Nor- woOd, N.J. An earlier model, the Amphicon 108, is described in the February,1961 issue of the Journal (p. 139) The 3M Company has started production at its new. magnetic products plant in Camarillo, Calif., according to a recent announcement. The plant covers 125,000 sq ft and is equipped to produce 3M's en- tire line of audible range, instrumentation and video tapes. The new plant has facili- ties capable of increasing total production of the division by nearly 50%, the an- nouncement stated. Red Lake Laboratories, manufacturer of the Hycam High-Speed Motion Picture? Camera and other photoinstrumentation equipment, has moved its office and factory from Sunnyvale to 2971 Corvin Dr., Santa Clara, Calif. The new quarters will provide a substantial increase in engineering space, the announcement stated. Andre Debrie Mfg. Corp., subsidiary of Belock Instrument Corp., 14-29 112 St., College Point, N.Y. 11356, has been ap- pointed exclusive U.S. distributor for Sonocolor of Paris, which manufactures a magnetic striping machine for all sizes of motion-picture film. A recent adaptation of this machine' is capable of applying four magnetic stripes simultaneously on the 35/8mm-5R film stock used in the Debrie "quad" printer (Journal, p. 917, Nov., 1963). Evershed Power-Optics Ltd., 214 Harle- quin Ave., Brentwood, Middlesex, Eng- land, has been appointed exclusive agent in the United Kingdom for equipments manufactured in the United States by Bach Auricon, Inc., according to a recent announcement. It was also announced that existing service facilities for Auricon equip- ment will be augmented at the firm's new factory in Brentwood. Maieh 1964 tiouinaroi-tiie 8MPTE iirolume 73 Clifton Precision Products Co., Clifton Heights, Pa., manufacturers of flight con- trol synchronizers; computing resolvers,' syrichros and subminiature servo motors, has been acquired:by Litton Industries, 330 N. Foothill Rd., Beverly Hills, Calif. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 5197 Two of the most difficult problems in sound recording have been made easier. Polished Gevasonor Magnetic Film Type 2.01 minimizes dust collection, and lowers wear on sound heads. The iron oxide surface of Gevasonor Type 2.01 has been especially polished, which guarantees : 1 Closest possible contact between film and ' sound heads ;Improved uniformity of reproductions. 2` Minimum wear on sound heads ; assures consistent quality of high-frequency reproduetion. 3 No dust build-up on sound heads produces better recording quality. Gevasonor Magnetic Films : Type 2.01 : full coated in 16,- 17.5 and 35 mm width; Type 2.02 : of higher sensitivity than the normal film Type 2.01 (+ 5 decibel) with less distortion (0.5 per cent) ; used for special work ; Type 2.21 : 35 mm magnetic film with two tracks ; mostly used at the editing stage of 35 mm film production ; Type 2.11 : 35 mm magnetic film with clear edges. All Gevasonor Magnetic Films have a semi-glossy coating ! Write for further information .on these products : GEVAERT PHOTO-PRODUCTEN N.V., 27 Septestraat, Mortsel (Antwerp) Belgium In the U.S.: THE GEVAERT COMPANY OF AMERICA, INC., 321 West 54 Street, New York 19 In Canada: PHOTO IMPORTING AGENCIES LTD., 345 Adelaide Street, Toronto 2B, Ontario GEVAERT 0 .0 0. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 273 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 moinola constantly adds new products to its roster of depend- able equipment to serve the changing needs of the Motion Picture, Television and Photo Instrumentation industries. Synchronizers Rewinders? Power, Conventional Crab Dollies 70 mm Viewer for Type I Film Editing Tables Sound Reader for Video Tape Library Reader for 16 mm Sound Film Write for free literature?specify items that interest you. moiola manufacturing co. 5539 Riverton Ave., North Hollywood Calif. Telephone: TRiangle 7-2173 Cable address: Moviola, North Hollywood, Calif. 274 VISIT US AT BOOTHS 235, 236 Also announced was the acquisition of Advance Data Systems, a firm which is developing revenue control systems for the transportation, entertainment and distri- bution industries. Clifton Precision Prod- ucts will become a division of Litton's Components Group; Advance Data Sys- tems will become a division of Litton's Business Machines Group. Traid Corp., 17136 Ventura Blvd., En- cino, Calif., has been appointed national distributor for Vanguard Motion Analyzers (Journal, p. 743, Sept., 1962). Vanguard Analyzers are used in medical research, reduction of oscilloscope data, evaluation of flame, missiles, high-speed mechanisms, vibration, shock and similar work re- quiring analysis of film. Zoomar International Inc., Glen Cove, N.Y., has announced an arrangement made with Bell & Howell Co. for the sale of Angenieux lenses thoughout the United States for the Bell & Howell lines of 16mm motion-picture cameras. The lenses include the 12-120 zoom lens, f/2.2, with reflex viewfinder as well as fixed focus lenses in "C" mount for the model 70 series cameras. Purchase of RCA studio equipment at a price of more than $11 million has been announced by Subscription Television, Inc. The firm is currently establishing a home cable television service in the Los Angeles and San Franciso metropolitan areas. The equipment, to be installed in its studios, is capable of transmitting live, tape or film programing. Transmission, utilizing the new equipment, will be directly to the homes of subscribers with signals carried through cables installed by local telephone companies. Included in the purchase are four TR-22 transistorized TV tape record- ers; six TK-26 vidicon color-film camera chains with twelve 35mm and two 16mm projectors and two TS-40, 3-channel video and audio master control switching con- soles. All equipment has full color capa- bility. A display of art, photography, and ani- mation art from the studios of Reid H. Ray Film Industries, 2269 Ford Parkway, Saint Paul 16, Minn., was exhibited during February at the College of St. Thomas. The display included 16 black-and-white photographic enlargements, 14 color trans- parencies, 30 color art lay-outs, and 8 black- and-white motion-picture art samples. Featured in the display were 8 photo- deviations, a recent innovation in photo- graphic processes. Association Films, Inc., 347 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017, has acquired an operating interest in Industrial Film Main- tenance, a Canadian film service organiza- tion located at 135 Peter St., Toronto, Ont., according to an announcement issued jointly by the firms. The new firm will be called Association-Industrial Films. As- sociation Films was founded in 1911 and is one of the ,largest nontheatrical and TV distributorS. in the world, the announce- ment stated. Industrial Film Maintenance is engaged in television commercial film procurement, distribution, syndication, film editing, sponsored motion-picture distribu- tion and TV monitoring services. Technicolor Corp. has announced pur- chase of 36,000 sq ft of property adjacent to the Technicolor motion picture plant in Hollywood. The need for additional space is necessitated by continued expan- sion plans, the announcement stated. The new property will be used mainly for the enlargement of the Engineering De- partment preparing for the firm's entry into the television processing field. Four newly appointed distributors for the Technicolor 8mm Instant Movie Pro- jector are Charles Beseler de France, S. A., Paris, for France; Centro. Audiovisual, S.A., Madrid, for Spain; Meijlink N.V., Rotterdam, for the -Netherlands; and Scan Print AB, Stockholm-Solna, for Swe- den, Norway and Finland. Contracts were arranged by Robert Kreiman, General Manager of Technicolor's Commercial and Educational Branch, during a recent European trip. Mitsui & Co. of Tokyo, Japan, has been appointed exclusive representative in Japan for Prestoseal Manufacturing Corp., 37-12 108 St., Corona 68, N.Y. Prestoseal spe- cializes in the design and manufacture of editing and splicing equipment for motion-picture film, microfilm, magnetic and computer punch tape. A new audio-visual division, established by Photo-Consultants, 12 E. 37 St., New York, N.Y. 10016, will specialize in the production of films and slidefilms. The new studio and production facilities will be under the direction of Murray Duitz. The Maier-Hancock Hot Splicer, the professional film splicer distributed by Traid Corp. since 1960, will be sold ex- clusively through the Maier-Hancock Sales Co., 14106 Ventura Blvd., Sherman Oaks, Calif., a newly formed division of Maier- Hancock Corp., according to a recent an- nouncement. Manager of the new division is Arthur H. Bolt., Agfa AG., Leverkusen, Germany, and Gevaert Photo-Producten N.V., Mort- sel/Antwerp, Belgium, have announced that the industrial activity of the two firms will be combined in a single economic unit and will include the entire industrial ac- tivity in the scientific, technical, com- mercial and financial field. Since 'formal mergers across the frontiers are not yet legally possible, the economic unit will be realized through the formation of a new Belgian and a new German operating com- pany. Agfa and Gevaert will each hold 50% of the shares of both operating com- panies. Activities of the two operating companies will begin July 1. In pursuance of the formation of this unit, Agfa will take over several companies of the German photographic industry affiliated to its parent company Farbenfabriken Bayer AG., Leverkusen, in particular Leonar- Werke AG., Hamburg; Mimosa GmbH, Kiel; Chemische Fabrik Vaihingen/Enz GmbH,, Vaihingen/Enz ; and also the 50% Bayer subsidiary. Perutz-Photowerke GmbH, Munich. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 r- Introducing an ADDITION to the most versatile .line of professional motion picture cameras TANEW RIFLEX 161V1 DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY AS AN ADVANCED MAGAZINE CAMERA Illustrated with 400 Ft. Magazine FEATURING: Gear-Driven, Sprocketed, Quick-Change Magazines To 1200 Ft. Capacity ? Built-In 60 Cycle Sync Generator ? Automatic Electric "Clapsticks" PLUS: Mirror-Shutter Reflex System ? Registration Pin Move- ment ? 21? Divergent, 3 Lens Turret ? And All The Other Time-Proven Arriflex 16S Features. Ar.2.2.1]1M,EX CORPORATION OF AMERICA Illustrated with 1200 Ft. Co-Axial Magazine On Arri 16 Tripod 257 PARK AVENUE SOUTH, NEW YORK, N. Y. 10010 COME AND VISIT US AT BOOTHS 201, 202, SMPTE SHOW March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 275 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Abstracts Abstracts of papers appearing in other journals, chosen for their importance and timeliness, are published in the Journal from time to time. Most of these abstracts are translations, chiefly from the U.S.S.R., and are made available to the Journal by the Research Laboratories of the East- man Kodak Company. As a rule, trans- lations are made of the foreign language abstracts, not of the paper itself. The re- spective complete original texts can be consulted at some libraries. Current issues of Tekh. Kino i Telco. can be consulted at, or borrowed from, the Society's Head- quarters Office. Those requiring definitive and thorough searches of current literature and patents are referred to ABSTRACTS of Photographic Science ?2 Engineering Literature (APSE), published monthly by the Engineering Index, Inc., 345 East 47 St., New York, N.Y. 10017, with the editorial cooperation of the Society of Photographic Scientists & Engineers. The subject areas are grouped below: Cameras and Equipment (Except High-Speed) Cinematography (Underwater) Film and Its Properties Film Processing (Color) General High-Speed Photography Lamps and Lighting Projection Sensitometry Sound Effects Television Tests and Measurements ECLAIR Catalog Code eclair COPPOPATiONOFAM,IICA NPR (Noiseless, 'Portable, Reflex) 16MM CAMERA PRICE LIST Item AND ACCESSORIES CIRCE *CAMERA -.With variable shutter, piece.? gate protector, Including tripod CICLO Automatic clapper wit CIRMA *MAGAZINE oaxi C1MPE CIMBO CIMUS. C1MAL CIMOT CIRCO CIB CI C1CAB CICSY CIPF1 CISUP I MOTO S .*24 Ira e cycle fully ratatin ye- lens-?l cect 2 V. ? transistor governed- User Net Price 2,396.00 788.00 -cond.Synchro Frequency ea/4200 - . ? 24 frar .es per second.Synchr F pc .erator 50 Cycle A.G. 24 fran,es per second requency generator 60 A. C. cycl r pe ..s per se ycle A.G. BATTER! S AND atter ync,hro Frequency gener 4S. ond.Synch Fr er 666.00 666.00 666.00 666.00 6.00 666: 00 .Standa a charger for Cl ovides both nOrma 1 120V. A.C. and 220 and fu e otection . Spare v r .ync fl .0 L CCESSORIES 4-Cadmium 'n in metallic athe - A .0 160.00 -123.00 4.00 wi ?ou e filter h UR CICOF SUPPORT r-RMEDLIATE - For "CAMEFLEX moun CARRYING CAII . For camera, 2 magazines, matte-box, zoom lens. CIFIX tripod intermediate, battery and charger *Basic camera package includes camera head, magazine and OmPE motor. Camera head cannot be bought separately. ? Standard lens for camera is Angenieux 12-120 MM Zoom. ? If camera not ordered With zoom or two lenges, there is a .charge of $ 50. per. empty' socket. Turret accommodates two lenses. YPe otating type 1.310.1?. YE. LE IPFKM 276 125.00 30.00 66:00 90,00 camera service center, inc. sales affiliate ? CAMERA SALES CENTER CORPORATION C7_-----333 WEST 52nd STREET ? NEW YORK 19. N.Y. PL 7-0906 CAMERAS AND EQUIPMENT (Except High-Speed) Noise and Steadiness in 35mm Motion- Picture Cameras, Brit. Kinemat., 43: No. 3, 94-96, Sept., 1963. At a meeting held on September 11, the Camera, Special Effects, and Processing Committee of the British Film Producers Association discussed noise and steadiness in 35mm motion-picture cameras. The discussion centered around register pin cameras of the Mitchell or Newall type.? R.F.F. Improvement in the Distribution of Exposure Over the Frame in a Camera With Focal-Plane Shutter (In Russian), N. T. Zakaznov, Optiko-Mekhanicheskaya Promishlennose , 46-51, No. 1, 1963; Tekh. Kino i Televideniya, 7: 86, Sept. 1963. The problems of a theoretical basis for improving the distribution of exposure over the frame are discussed. It is con- cluded that a reduction in the unevenness of exposure over the frame in cameras with focal-plane shutters would have to be brought about by the greatest possible increase in the path of travel of the shutter in combination with the use of a spring drive.?S.C.G. The Distribution of the Effective Ex- posure in Photographic Cameras (In Russian), E. T. Dubatovko, Optiko-Mekhan- icheskaya Prom:yshlennose, 36-45, No. 1, 1963; Tekh. Kino i Televideniya, 86, Sept., 1963. Problems are discussed connected with the distribution of the time of the passage of the light. This quantity is defined as the time during which light passes through a given point of a plane in which the ex- posing elements (discs, blinds, etc.) move. It is shown that with small dimensions of the cross section of the light beams in the plane of the shutter the distribution of effective exposure is the same as the distribution of the time of passage of the light.?S.C.G. CINEMATOGRAPHY (Underwater) Underwater Pinpoint Photography, Har- old E. Edgerton, SPIE Journal, 2: No. I, 3-5, Oct./Nov., 1963. Lowering a camera to a position just above the sea floor is a critical operation. The "pinger" method of camera-to- bottom positioning has proved to be an excellent technique. A sonar transducer on the camera sends one sound signal directly to the surface, and another to the bottom. The bottom signal, reflected from the sea floor, rises to the surface where its delayed arrival time is measured against the camera signal beamed to the surface. An Alden recorder is used to record direct or reflected signals received. March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 FILM AND ITS PROPERTIES A 16mm Title for Overlay Printing, R. F. Ebbetts, Brit. Kinemat., 43: 69, Aug. 1963. Fine-grain motion-picture positive film is recommended as a material on which to obtain, by reversal processing, titles with clear letters on a dark ground of density above 3.0.?G.I.P.L. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 . ; . 4 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 we work with you ...against the clock Wherever the world you are, if you're near a major airline, you're close to our laboratory's fast schedule for cjuality pro- cessing. Here are a few typical examples from our files. In our home town, 35mm or 16mm negative in by 11 p.m., developed and dailies ready 9 a.m. next day. 16mm Ekta- chrome developed overnight. Ektachrome in for developing ...color workprints in custom- er's hands in 3 to 4 days total elapsed time. (Same schedule for Honolulu customers.) 17,000 miles and through cus- toms four times; Ektachrome developing and workprints de- livered in 5 days. 35 mm color or b&w negative in 4 days. Three days round trip for de- veloping and dailies, for 35mm color or black-and-white neg- ative, including four custom stops along the way. For 35mm or 16mm, anywhere in Puerto Rico or the Canal Zone, the round trip takes three or four days for most processing assignments. 16mm release prints in quan- tity and top quality, color or b&w, from 16mm A and B rolls through dupe,f ive to ten working days. 2-8 How about you? Jet transpor- tation, combined with General Film's fast gearing of proce- dures and facilities, has solved many producer problems. ask us for complete information We have a new price list awaiting your request. We will be happy to quote delivery schedules. We believe both the prices and schedules will be to your liking. We know you'll like the quality! GENERAL FILM LABORATORIES A DIVISION OF PACIFIC INDUSTRIES. INC. 1546 N. Argyle, Hollywood, California 90028 Telephone (213) H011ywood 2-6171 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 277 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 FILM PROCESSING (Color) The Control of a Color Process, C. T. Davies, Brit. Kinemat., 43: No. 3, 84-93, Sept., 1963. Apart from the very necessary ancillary processes of fixing, bleaching, hardening and dye stabilization, the processing of a color film involves the relatively complex chemical reactions necessary for dye formation. Factors subject to direct control in the laboratory may be listed as follows: (1) Temperature of the solutions; (2) Concentration of the reactive chemicals in the solutions; (3) The rate at which the chemicals are replenished; (4) Machine speed, i.e., time of immersion; (5) Relative humidity and temperature of the drying cabinet; (6) Control of printer illumina- tion; and (7) Mechanical control. GENERAL Graphite Pore Structure Evaluation by Serial Section Kinematography, J. W. Stammers, J. Phot. Sc., 11: 351-354, Nov./Dec. 1963. The method and techniques employed in the investigation of the pore structure of graphites by serial sectioning' combined with cinemicrography are discussed. Some of the simpler problems? associated with the working of graphite samples to a good finish and yet with reasonable speed are also reviewed. 278 ULTRASONIC CLEANER for MICROFILM MAGNETIC TAPE MOTION PICTURE FILM Presented The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Award of Merit for Outstanding Technical Achievement. The CF2 Film and Tape Cleaner represents a major break through in the reproduction industry. By utilizing ultrasonic energy, microfilm, motion picture film and magnetic tape are thoroughly and rapidly cleaned without mechanical scrubbing and wiping. Protects against deterioration from surface contamination Provides assurance of maximum reproduction quality Film and tape emerge clean and static free with color balance undisturbed The cold boiling effect (cavitation) of ultrasonics performs the entire clean- ing operation . . . film and tape are touched only by solvent, eliminating the possibility of scratching, abrading or tearing. Forced air, flash dry-off, removes the solvent leaving absolutely no residue. The CF2 Ultrasonic Film and Tape cleaning process Li completely auto- matic, requiring the operator only to load and unload. Costs less than 1/20 of a penny (.002c) per running foot to operate. Available on lease. Descriptive brochure will be sent on request. Patents U.S.A. 2,967,119 Belgium 582,469 France 1,238,523 Canada 618413, 618414, 618415 Luxemburg 37,634 Great Britain Pat Appl. 30703/59 LIPSNER- SMITH CORPORATION ORC,HARD 3-4030 3475 Touhy Ave., Chicago, Illinois March 4964 : Journal of the SMPTE Effect of Magnetic Blowing on the Arc Quenching Period in Alternating Current Circuit-Breakers, D. Domonkos, Periodica Polytechnica?Elektrotechnik, 66: 125-147, No. 2, 1962. Magnetic arc blowing plays an' important part in a large group of low voltage circuit- breaker switch gear. The induction of the blowing magnet enhances the rate of growth of the voltage across the arc and decreases the back-striking voltage. In the quenching of the arc the back-striking as well as the thermal relations are of importance. The arc can be quenched at very low currents when, after back-strik- ing, the conditions that would maintain it disappear. With a given blowing magnet the arc duration is expressed by t AI -0.5 Constant A varies almost reciprocally with the number of blowing magnet turns. At critical current the duration of the arc is 3 to 4 times that measured at maximum current density. HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY Effective ?Exposure Time in High-Speed Camera's (In Russian); G. Belinskaya, Zhur. Nauch. i Priklad. Fotografii i Kinemato- grafii, 8: 370-74, No. 5, Sept./Oct., 1963. Two determinations of effective exposure time., in high-speed cameras are con- siderdd. One determination, which pro- vides for a time parameter called the "effective' exposure time,". starts out from the operation. of the light shutter, de- pending only on the optical-mechanical characteristics of the apparatus. In the second determination, a time parameter called' the "real exposure time' by the author (more correctly "photographically effective exposure time") is proposed. This parameter depends both on the operation of the shutter and on the properties of the photographic material. The first definition of the time parameter is introduced as the basic characteristic of the shutter, while the second is the characteristic of the combination of shut- ter and photographic material. Formulae are derived for determining the photographically effective exposure time by utilizing the whole of the char- acteristic curve of the material. These formulae are used for setting up nomo- grams which allow the determination of photographically effective exposure times. Calculated effective exposure times for different shapes of shutter aperture are given.--S. C. G. LAMPS AND LIGHTING Working with the Xenon Light Source of the "Sibir' " Motion Picture Projector (In Russian), V. Kriv,tsun, Kinomekhanik, 33-36, Apr., 1963. The constructional details of the xenon- 'arc light source of the Sibir' motion- pieture projector are discussed.' Recom- mendations are given for the adjustment of the light source and the reflector. A description is given of the power supply.? S. C. G. Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 . 40iw Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 for information on Y) ? a new color film: KODAK EKTACHROME MS Film If you use color motion-picture film as an engineering tool_where you get only: one , chance at the picture, try KODAK EKTACHROMK MS Film. It has the latitude to.-Comi_tiP with a good 'picture eVen when the light level fluctuates in a distressing manner Neither four stops overexposure nor two stops Under is too much. It 'is sharper; than its predecessor. It uses the same ME-2A process. Its official speed is ASA 64..- If you want some, call 716 LO 2-6000, Ext. 3257, or write: Photo- recording Methods Division, EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester, N. Y. 14650 Kodak for information only, MIMMEMN. ?IIIIIMINNIM a new color film: Mar.4096f1 journal of WPM. vo.un Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 279 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 REELS CANS CASES PROJECTION LAMPS ALL LAMPS ALL MAKES More than 200,000 in stock at all times.. . . Immediate shipment! No order too big or too small! Send for Price List. MOTION PICTURE ENTERPRISES Inc. TKRRYTOWN, N. Y. 10592 phone: (914) ME 1-4767 j New York City Warehouse phone: (212) CI 5-0970 reports . . . Karl Freund photometry is our business 280 SPECTRA TV OPTOLINER Opto -Mechanical TV Camera Tester The new light-weight SPECTRA TV OPTO- LINER threads directly into camera lens mount for precision testing by engineers, manufac- turers and users of closed circuit or broadcast TV. Integrated uniform light source is adjust- able to produce a standard test pattern of known intensity and color temperature on the tube faceplate. Eliminates human and mechani- cal variables of external test patterns Write for brochure. PHOTO RESEARCH corp. 837 N. CAHUENGA BLVD.. HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 90038 US AT BOOTH March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Elimination of Emulsion "Melting" on 76-mm Film Prints (In Russian), B. Korovkin, Kinomekhanik, 32-34, Mar.) 1963. The increased light flux in two Soviet 16mm projectors has presented problems. The air flow in the film gate is inadequate to prevent evaporation of moisture from the emulsion, which condenses to form drops of hot water which damage the film where they fall on it. The measures which have been taken to overcome this difficulty by redesigning the film gate are described.?S.C.G. Modern Light Sources for Motion Picture Projection (In Russian), G. Irskii, Kino- mekhanik, 25-32, Mar.) 1963. A review is given of modern types of arc lamp, including the xenon arc, and of new types of incandescent lamp with mirror envelopes.?S.C.G. PROJECTION Performance of 16mm Portable Sound- and-Picture Cinematograph Projectors, B.S.I. News, 27, Dec., 1963. Specifies certain requirements for 16mm portable cinematograph projectors with optical and/or magnetic sound repro- duction, such as are used for audiences up to 200 people. It does not deal with the details of mechanical and electrical design except in so far as these may affect per- formance or convenience in use. It specifies such requirements, and prescribes such tests, as will ensure a satisfactory picture and sound performance, safety, and film life. SENSITOMETRY Practical Motion Picture Sensitometric Control, L. J. Wheeler, Brit. Kinemat., 43: 36-51, Aug., 1963. A simplified method of sensitometric control has been established and tests show that, to obtain consistent results, the following points must be watched: (a) Batch-to-batch variations in developing solution concentration; (b) variation in volume of "unit-packed" developer supply; (c) accurate dilution of the concentrated solution; (d) batch-to-batch variations ffi photographic speed of the film stock, particularly telerecording Type 8374; (e) exact setting of lamp voltage in the sensitometer; (f) constant checking of the developer temperature in the processing machine; (g) precise adjustment of film loop length in the developing solution; (h) accurate control of processing-machine speed; (i) accurate calibration of the densitometer each time it is used and repeated calibration during long periods of constant use; (j) accurate interpretation of density measurements and careful plotting of these measurements. Under present conditions and including all operation! tolerances, films nominally processed to a gamma of 0.65 are held within ?0.04, while films nominally processed to a gamma of 1.0 are held within ?0.06.?G.I.P.L. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 , . . - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 M.T. E. SERIES DUAL MAGNETIC DUBBER for your mixing studio features: Two completely independent film transports and motor drives Maximum capacity and minimum space Units can be joined for multiple installation 3000 feet (17" diameter) reel size capacity Forward and Reverse operation High speed through sprocket optional Automatic loop setting device Available in 16mm, 35mm, or combination Plug-in magnetic heads pre-aligned Recording components available Electro-magnetic reel spindle brakes Interlock phasing circuit incorporated for product catalogue please write Magna-Tech Electronic Co., Inc. M ? T. E. 630 Ninth Avenue, New York 36, N.Y. JU 6-7240 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 281 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 New & Improved Transist-O-Sound Newsmen! Mix Sound Automatically As You Shoot! NEW?VOLUME LIMITER allows cameraman to open the Mike Controls fully and still obtain a normal track level. At last! A really lightweight (23/4 lb.) amplifier that goes quickly to where the news is... lets you interview or describe, while mixing actual on-the-scene sound! Everything?including meters is mounted under the camera. All-transistorized for long life, low noise level. Uses ordinary portable radio type bat- teries. Send for brochure; ask about rentals! NEW IMPROVED 23/4 LB. TRANSIST-O-SOUND WITH EX- CLUSIVE VOLUME LIMITER. Complete with all batteries? ONLY $425 with Volume Limiter SOS PHOTO-CINE-OPTICS, INC. East Coast: 602 west 52nd street new york 19, n. y. ? 212-PL-7-0440 West Coast: 6331 hollywood blvd. hollywood 28, calif. ? 213-467-2124 ? VISIT US AT BOOTH 220 IT'S NEW! IT'S NEW! IT'S NEW! only ATLAS equipment offers faithful sound stage audio/visual reproduction in a package MODEL 3100 ATLAS REPLACEMENT SOUND UNIT ? Standard equipment with Atlas Model 962 or 963 projector ? Easily adapted to fit all Four Star or XL sound heads ? Assures less than 0.110 of 1% flutter plus dirt-free running ? Use with either magnetic, optical, composite optical tracks ? Atlas tight-loop configuration, eliminates pad rollers and loose loop ? Precision construction and materials throughout and, for precision high-quality projection ... MODEL 963 ATLAS 35MM PORTABLE PROJECTOR ? Light weight, use anywhere ? Model 3100 Atlas Sound Unit standard equipment ? Reproduces pictures of all 35MM aspect ratios ? Remote control, features forward-reverse-brake for film; off-on for sound ? Dowser for sound and picture for continuous operation two machines ? 1000-2000-3000 foot reel capacity ? Choice of optics (extra) Write for further information and detailed specifications about Model 3100 and 963 plus other Atlas products. ATLAS PROJECTOR CORPORATION 10834 Washington Blvd., Culver City, Calif., Phone VE 8-1107 VE 9-0550 precision equipment for audio and visual motion picture reproduction See our Exhibit. Booth 232, SMPTE Technical Conference Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles 282 March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 SOUND EFFECTS Radiophonics in the BBC, F. C. Brooker, BBC Engineering Monograph, No. 51: 5-19, Nov. 1963. The term "radiophonics" is taken (in the BBC at any rate) to mean the pro- duction of sounds from natural or artificial sources to convey the mood of a broadcast program, but not the creation of musical compositions as such. This monograph describes the BBC's Radiophonic Work- shop, the type of work which it under- takes, and the equipment used to create the desired sounds. Since the end product is almost invariably a tape recording. much of the equipment is r ecessarily concerned with the manipulation of tape recordings using fairly standard equip- ment. However, in order to carry out some of these manipulations, several ancillary pieces of equipment have specially de- veloped and these are described. The electronic gunfire effects ger erator is also described, although it is not strictly a part of the equipment of the Radio- phonic Workshop; it was developed for direct, or "spot," effects in studios some years before the workshop came into being. TELEVISION The Calibration of VHF and UHF Field-Strength Meters by Means of a Standard Field Generator, B. J. Spencer. Marconi Review, 26: No. 149, 171-181, Second Quarter 1963. Experience has shown the need for extreme care in the checking and cal- ibration of field-strength meters in order to achieve satisfactory overall accuracy. In general there are two methods of calibration. In one of these the constants of the individual parts of the apparatus are measured, e.g. gain of aerial, feeder attenuation, receiver response, etc. These constants are then lumped together so that the field in which the aerial is im- mersed can be determined from the receiver response. The second is known as the "standard field method," in which the aerial is immersed in a known field and the appara- tus is calibrated as a whole. The method may be subdivided according to the way in which the field is determined. The field may be measured using a standard aerial and detector, and this may be called "the standard receiver method." Alternatively the field may be determined from the path geometry and measured ground con- stants, using a standard transmitter. This is the "standard generator method," which is described. If independent level standards are employed in calibrating a field-strength meter by standard field and step-by-step methods, and the results agree, considerable reliance can be placed upon the instru- ment. Determination of the Power Radiated From a Long-Wave Aerial by Field- Strength Measurement, G. Millington and B. J. Spencer, Marconi Review, 26: No. 149, 132-143, Second Quarter 1963. At low freauencies for which an aerial structure may be only a small fraction of a Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 CINE LIQUID 1 RIVIRSAL MST OIVILOPEA The old-fashioned "mix-and-mess" of bulk chemicals can go right in the ash can. Hunt research brings you a totally new concept for processing B & W cine reversal film, CINE LIQUID CONCENTRATES. A complete all liquid system for reversal processing, it takes the guesswork out of "mix-it-yourself" chemistry and does away with the waste of bulk chemical inventories. The Cine Liquid system includes ? Cine Liquid 1, Reversal First Developer, ? Cine Liquid 2, Reversal Bleach Solution, ? Cine Liquid 3, Reversal Clearing Solution, ? Cine Liquid 4, Reversal Redeveloper. At last the problem of developer degradation has been overcome through the exclusive Hunt patented Developer Activator*. By simply adding the Hunt Developer Activator* to Cine Liquid 1 (First Developer) or Cine Liquid 4 (Redeveloper), the user is guaranteed a ready-to-use factory-fresh solution regardless of how long the concentrate has remained in inventory. When using Cine Liquid Concentrates, you'll find them in easy-to-handle 5-gallon Cubitainers, each of which produces 20 gallons of con- sistent working reversal chemicals. Insure a successful finish to the processing cycle by using Flash-O-Graphe, the perfect companion fixer for this system. For more detailed information write for Photographic Information Bulletin No. 11. Patent 3038801?Foreign Patents Pending UNT - PHILIP A. HUNT CHEMICAL CORPORATION, Palisades Park, N.L.Branches in Principal Cities,PHILIP A. HUNT COMPANY (CANADA) LTD.,Toronto Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 The only professional portable HOT SPLICER with a built-in CARBIDE SCRAPER BLADE* The Maier-Hancock Hot Splicer was designed expressly for continuous, heavy-duty work. The patented built-in scraper which is GUARANTEED FOR LIFE, cuts work time in half and eliminates slow hand scraping. You get "low visibility" precision splices that are stronger, and free of annoying combination frames. Two sets of pilot pins permit splicing with perforations toward or away from operator, pre- cluding need to loop film around splicer when using "A" and "B" rolls. More than 11,000 Maier-Hancock Hot Splicers are in daily use by motion picture and TV studios, schools, special study groups, industrial plants, and government agencies. , Model 1635: For 16mm or 35mm film. / Model 816: For 16mm or 8mm film. (Scraper Pat. No. 2544082) See your photographic dealer or write for detailed literature. rni MAIER-HANCOCK SALES CO. 14106 Ventura Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, California *Should scraper blade ever need sharpening, we will sharpen it for a nominal charge of $1.00. NEW! MOLORAMA QUARTZ CYC-STRIPS Four-Light Strip Three-Light Strip One-Light Strip efa-,Widemiton, 937 North Sycamore Avenue, Hollywood 38, California; 654-3660 Designers and manufacturers of incandescent and arc lighting equipment. Write for literature. ,284 VISIT US AT BOOTH 113 wavelength in height the radiation resist- ance may be small compared with the loss resistance comprising the conductor and earth resistances. It is then difficult to find the radiated power accurately from measurements of the input power and terminal impedances. If the field set up at a distant point is seriously below the value assumed in designing the transmitter and aerial system, it is difficult to know whether the discrepancy is due to a poor estimate of the radiated power required, or to un- certainties in deducing the radiated power from measurements made at the trans- mitter. This article deals with the measure- ment of the actual radiated power by a field-strength surveY in a region around the transmitter using a specially designed transitorized measuring set under condi- tions where simple Hertzian dipole theory for a plane perfectly conducting earth can be applied. The Plane of Polarization as a Factor in VHF and UHF Broadcasting, M. W. Gough, Marconi Review, 26: No. 149, 117- 131, Second Quarter 1963. The prevailing preference for the use of horizontal polarization in the vhf and uhf bands both in broadcasting systems and in point-to-point links has prompted a critical appraisal of the consequences of this policy from the propagation view- point. Attention is focused on those regions within the visual range where destructive interference between direct and surface-reflected waves may cause deep nulls wherein the field-strength is much below the desirable "free space" value. Consideration of representative frequencies in the broadcast bands I-V inclusive shows that the use of vertical polarization?rather than horizontal?can confer a substantial increase in field- strength in the nulls (particularly for oversea paths), under practical condi- tions. Long-Range Interference in Band HI, C. E. Parkinson, Marconi Review, 26: No. 149, 107-116, Second Quarter 1963. An analysis of field-strength measure- ments, recorded in Hereford, of Men- dlesham and Chillerton Down I.T.A. transmissions is given, as a means of assess- ing the probable levels of co-channel interference which would be experienced by an ancillary television station broad- casting in Channel 11. The results are compared with those from similar surveys which have been summarized in C.C.I.R. Document 64. The correlation between the incidence of high signal levels and anticyclonic weather conditions is dem- onstrated. Vertical Aperture Correction Using Con- tinuously Variable Ultrasonic Delay Lines, BBC Engineering Div. Monograph, No. 47; May, 1963. Part I of this monograph describes the principle of operation, construction, and calibration of a simple vertical aperture corrector which has been made possible by the use of ultrasonic delay lines. The performance of this aperture corrector and some of the problems involved in the design of an operational version are discussed. The method of calibration is based on a 'Calibration Factor' obtained March 1964 Journal of the' SMPTR- Volume 73: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 REEVESOUND E RECORDER for outstanding optical and magnetic motion picture sound tracks Throughout the world, wherever motion pictures are made efficiently you find the Reevesound DL Optical Recorder producing quality sound track negatives and direct positives. This workhorse equipment is the first choice of professionals for 16mm and 35mm optical tracks. Operation is straight forward, main- tenance approaches zero and reliability is high. Now available are models for 35mm negative and direct positive, 16mm negative and direct positive and 16mm mag/optical. If motion pictures are your busi- ness, it's good business to look into the famous Reevesound DL Recorders. . REEVESOUND Company, Inc. ? 35-5436th St., Long Island City 6, N.Y/A subsidiary of Reeves Soundcraft Cofp: REEVESOUND ft ? ail March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 285 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 90% of all Japanese ITV cameras 12.5mm ?f/1:4 12.5mm 1/1.9 25. mm f/I.4 25. mm f/1.9 50. mm 1/1.4 50. mm 1/1.9 75. mm 1/I.4 75. mm f/1.9 -150. mm f/4.5 All available in C-mount Use COSMICAR lenses. For further details, write today: ICHIZUKA OPTICAL CO., LTD. 2-568, .51-11MOOHIAI SHINJUKU-K1.1, TOKYO CABLE ADDRESS : "MOVIEKINO TOKYO" FB, EDITING TABLES Only F & B has combined greater durability and eye- appealing lines in the design of an editing. table. F & B engineers skillfully blended steel, Micarta and your favorite shade of green into a form that is both more attractive and more durable. - - Heavy-gauge steel construction. Attractive green hammertone finish. Durable top of light gray Westinghouse Micarta. Spacious 60X28 inch work area. Convenient height ?331/2 inches. 9X12 inch light box with diffusion glass. Electrical outlet box and light switch. Back rack with V-shaped shelves. Handy utility drawer. $1?Nn795 Table Only (without light box, .L drawer and rack) $80.00 mom ? Extra Liners $4.00 each As illustrated, but without casters $38.00 Barrel only (without casters, rack & liner) $18.00 $43'5 F & B FILM EDITING .'BARRELS.. Heavy Heavy fibre construction ? Hard glae finish sTop 'dimensions: 15" X 28" ? Bottom dimensions: 12" X - 24" ? Depth: 30" ? Height (with racklecasters): 66" ? Staggered rack pins make film handling easy ? Roll-easy hard rubber casters ? .Cotton drill liner. 3FIL.ORMAN & BABE, Imic. Serving the world's finest film makers 68 West 45th St., New York 36, N. Y.?MU 2-2928 iy4E,q1.:164 _journal of,t4e.smr7E -Volume 73 by a simple and convenient Pulse pro- cedure. It is shown that the steady-state amplitude/frequency characteristic, and also the effect of the aperture corrector on signal-to-noise ratio, can be determined from this factor. In Part II the construction and charac- teristics of an ultrasonic delay line using mercury as the transmission medium are discussed in some detail, and an experi- mental variable delay unit suitable for a 405-line television system is described. There is an account of the diffitulties en- countered in constructing the video delay unit and some indication is given as to the possibility of extending the use of the line to television systems requiring a higher video bandwidth. In addition to its use in the vertical aperture corrector, Such a unit may have, other television applica- tions. Radio-Wave Propagation and the Plan- ning of VHF and UHF Sound and Television Services; G. A. Viekers, The Marconi Review, 26: No. 149, 55-92, Second Quarter 1963. The importance Of the detailed planning of vhf and uhf sound and television, services if the desired service area is to* be achieved within the limited number of available frequency channels .and without causing undue co-channel interference is stressed. After a summary of the chief features of radio-wave propagation in these broadcast bands, the field strength requirements for satisfactory reception are reviewed and the relative performance in the three television bands is contrasted. Since the planning requires a knowledge of the relationship between the radiated power and the, field strength at each receiving locality, the various available methods of establishing this relationship are discussed, with special reference to the theoretical or "paper" method used extensively by the Marconi Company. A description is given of the estimation of co- channel interference levels and the Prep- aration of predicted coVerage maps, and the article ends with a review of some Of the many practical aspects of the plan- ning,, including the selection of trans- mittingsites. Field-Strength Surveys of VHF and UHF Broadcast and Television Service Areas, G. ' A. Isted,. Mdrconi Review, 26: No. 149,93-106 Second Quarter 1963. ? Notwithstanding . the high degree of accuracy attained by prediction techniques in determining the probable performance of vhf and uhf television and broadcast. services, practical measurements of field- strength still have most iniportant func- tions to perform. This article describes principally the ? techniques used for final measurement surveys; this is followed by a discussion of pilot surveys with ,the aid of a balloon. .The apparatus used, for mobile and, fixed long-term surveys is described, drid some discussion is devoted to cal- ibration, maintenance and .automatic re- cording. The 'effect of fading Signals on the measurements is also discussed, and means are described to meet the problem. The reporting procedure is an important feature of a practical survey, and this is dealt with in the article. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 inspect every foot before it leaves your plant with the HE High Speed Heavy Duty Inspection Projectors -- 16mm & 35mm models now available. NEW The projector is a converted front shutter Simplex with a two pin intermittent. 16mm or 35/32 film runs at a speed of 144 ft. per minute while 35mm film runs at a speed of 165 ft. per minute. 1. A variac controls the light intensity. 2. A 500 watt lamp is used for 16mm and a 1,000 watt for 35mm (a blower is used to cool the lamphouse). 3. A 21/2 inch projection lens is furnished with each unit. 4. A start-stop lever controls the power to the lamp and motor. 5. The magazine and take up core takes up to 3,000 ft. of film. 6. Upper guide rollers are made to handle the film from either direction . of the feed reel. , 7. A free wheeling take off flange is pro- vided in the magazine. 8. A lamp near the takeup reel permits hand inspection of the film prior to takeup. NOUVEAU Le projecteur contient un obturateur Sim- plex anterieur transforme avec deux cla- vettes intermittent. Les films de 16mm ou 35/32 tournent avec une vitesse de 144 pieds a la minute, tandis que les films de 35mm tournent avec une vitesse de 165 pieds a la minute. 1. Le regulateur de voltage d'intensite d'eclairage. 2. La lampe de 500 watt est necessaire pour les films de 16mm, et de 1000 watt, pour les films de 35mm (un yen- tilateur est mise pour rafraichir la chambre de la lampe). 3. L'objectif de 21/2 est instale. 4. La manette de mise en marche et d'arret controle en meme temps la lampe et le moteur. 5. La boite de films avec noyau peut con- tenir 3000 pieds du films. 6. La roue superieure est construite de maniere de recevoir le film dans les deux directions, nourrie par la bobine centrale. 7. Une roue est instalee pour liberer rapidement le film de la boite. 8. La lampe se trouve pres de la bobine recepteuse, et donne toute facilite pour inspecter le film a main dans le projecteur. ? designers and manufacturers of film and video tape editing equipment ??? HOLLYWOOD FILM COMPANY NUOVO Questi proiettori sono Simplex transform- ati, otturatore at fronte, meccanismo di scatto di due punte. La velocita di proie- zione in 16 o 35/32mm e di 144 piedi per minuto, e in 35mm, di 165 piedi per minuto. 1. Controllo manuale della luminosita della lampada. ? 2. Lampada di 500 watt per 16mm e di 1000 watt per 35mm. 3. Obbiettivo di proiezione di 21/2". 4. Maniglia per controllo di motore e lam- pada di proiezione. 5. La cassetta porta pellicola puo con- tenere 3000 piedi. 6. I rulli superiori di guida sono construiti per operare con film provenente di ambi lati della bobina svolgitrice. 7. Disco con montatura sporgente net magazzino. 8. Una lampadina illumina la bobina av- volgitrice, permettendo l'ispezione man- uale del film prima che si avvplga net proiettore. NUEVO Esta maquina es un proyector simplex con- vertido, obturador al frente y movimiento intermitente a doble grifa. Para 16mm o 35/32mm, la velocidad fija de proyeccion es de 144 pies por minuto, para 35mm es de 165 pies por minuto. 1. Un reostato controla la intensidad de la lampara de proyecciOn. 2. Para 16mm se usa una lampara de 500 watt, y una de 1000 watt para 35mm (un chorro de aire ventila las lamparas en ambos casos). 3. Cada unidad esta provista de un lente de proyecci6n de 2 pulgadas y media. 4. Una palanca de control opera el motor y la lampara simultaneamente. 5. Capacidad de proyecciOn: rollos de hasta 3000'. 6. Los rodillos de guia superiores operart con la pelicula en ambas direcciones. 7. La tapa de la bobina de carga es desenroscable. 8. Una lampara ubicada junto a la bobina de toma permite la inspeccian manual de la pelicula antes que se rebobine en la bobina superior del proyector. - REELS / CANS / CASES 956 N. Seward, Hollywood 38, Calif., HO 2-3284 ? 122 W. Kinzie, Chicago 10, lii., 644-1940 ? 524 W. 43rd St., N.Y. 36, N.Y., LO 3-1546 COME AND VISIT US AT BOOTHS 140 141, 142, SMPTE SHOW March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 287 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 LOWEL-LIGHTM the modern Sun Reflector by Lowel-Light. Portable, lighweight. The Van flector has a bright even re- flection you can soften or diffuse by a finger-operated lever. Mylar and aluminum slat con- struction is rigid in wind, rolls up in seconds for storage or travel in its own carrying tube. Floods like a spotlight, doubles as a shadowless indoor "fill." Washable, scratch resis- tant surface. Special stand allows, pan, tilt & height adjustments. 4 x 4 Vari-flector complete with stand and case (7" x 42") . $149.50 2 x 2 Vari-flector Hand-hold model $24.50 2 x 2 Stand mounting model $39.50 Pat Pending 2 x 2 Fiber carry case (4" x 24") $9.50 LOWEL LIGHT LOCATION KIT Everything in one compact case 41/2" x 271/2" x 61/2". Six Lowel-Lights. Six Lowel barndoors, two 9 ft., 5-section PIC stands, three 25 ft. extension cables, two 25 amp fuses, 12 yd. roll gaffer taps ... complete $124.50 Lowel-Lights Model K5, five Lowel-Lights with gaffer tape and case $34.50 Gaffer Tape, 12 yard roll . $1.95, 30 yd. Lowel Barndoors ...$5.75 each For further information write: ION IIIII NIB M === the CAMERA MART inc. 1845 Broadway, New York 23, N. Y. PLaza 7-6977 OM MS MMM INN MI 288 TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS Apparatus for Measurement of Non- Linear Distortion as a Continuous Func- tion of Frequency, H. D. Harwood, BBC Engineering Div. Monograph, No. 49, July 1963. Measurements of the non-linear dis- tortion products generated by a system, such as a loudspeaker, which has more than one degree of freedom must be made as a continuous function of frequency if a true assessment of the distortion is to be obtained. Various methods of performing such measurements are reviewed and the limitations are indicated. A description is then given of a new system by which the individual harmonic and intermodulation distortion products can be measured as a continuous function of frequency. In addition the working principles are de- scribed of a new type of stroboscope which is capable of operating at constant illumination up to unusually high rep- etition rates; this device is suitable for examining vibrating systems for resonance modes which may give rise to distortion through excessive amplitude. Details are given of the circuits employed and the performance obtained from an equipment constructed on these principles, and the results of some measurements are shown. current literature The Editors present for convenient reference a list of articles dealing with subjects cognate to motion-picture engineering published in a number of selected journals. Photostatic or microfilm copies of articles in magazines that are available may be obtained from The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., or from the New York Public Library, New York, N.Y., at prevailing rates. Bud und Ton vol. 16, no. 9, Sept. 1963 Uber die Herstellung duplikationsfAhiger Ori- ginal-Bild-Negative (The Manufacture of Master Negatives for Duplicating) (p. 274) Hilmar Mehnert British Kinematography vol. 43, no. 1, Jan. 1963 The Production of Television Test Charts (p. 4) L. J. van Rooyen and G. D. Shevel Film Technikum vol. 14, no. 8, Aug. 1963 Vorbereitungen f Ur em n europaisches Farb- fernsehsystem (Preparations for a European Color TV System) (p. 260) H. F. K. Rfickprojektionsanlage ffir Film und Fernsehen der Kamera- und Kinowerke Dresden (Back Projection Unit for Film and Television of the Camera and Kino Factory, Dresden) (p. 262) Gerhard Pierschel Fujitsu vol. 14, no. 4, 1963 Life of Transistors (p. 4) T. Niimi Switching Time in Diodes and Transistors (p. 89) S. Tanaka and K. Katori Hitachi Hyoron vol. 45, no. 12, Dec. 1963 Compensation of Beam Landing Errors for the Shadow-Mask Type Color Picture Tube (p. 74) Takemaro Sakurai, Koro Shushido, Jihei Nakagawa, Kihachiro Koizumi and Eiichi Yamazaki ech. Jour. Japan Broadcasting Corp. vol. 15, no. 11 A Miniature Television Camera for Interview Use (p. 1) Y. Fujimura, K. Suzuki and T. Hirashima Temperature Rise Tests of UHF Transmission Lines (p. 41) K. Endo and K. Takewaki International Projectionist i/ol. 38, no. 8, Aug. 1963 Film Shrinkage and Frame Registration (p. 4) Robert A. Mitchell Jour. Brit. IRE vol. 26, no. 2, Aug. 1963 A Frequency Meter With Continuous Digital Presentation (p. 109) P. Wood On the Measurement and, Interpretation of Nonlinearity in a Television System (p. 141) J. B. Potter vol. 26, no. 3, Sept. 1963 Direct Wide-Band Phase Shifters (p. 227) P. V. Indiresan Jour. Inst. Elect. Comm. Engrs., Japan vol. 46, no. 12, Dec. 1963 Anode Aperture Effects on the Performance o Electron Gun (p. 23) Jun Nishida, Hiroshi Hamada and Masazumi Terada An Analysis of Signal-to-Noise Characteristics of an FM System by Means of a Discontinuous Model of the Modulating Signal (p. 38) Akima Journal Inst. Telev. Eng. Japan vol. 17, no. 11, 1963 Recent Progress of Video Tape Recording FM Transmission System in VTR (p. 2) J. Yoshida and M. Inatsu The Recent Progress of Single Head VTR (p. 11) K. Sugi and M. Yagi The Recent Progress of 4 Heads VTR (p. 19) M. Okazaki and K. Kano Life and Reliability of Video Tape Recorder for Broadcasting Quality (p. 23) S. Sonobe Compact Type VTR (p. 27) N. Kihara Magnetic Characteristics of Magnetic Micro- powders (p. 31) K. Yokoyama The Present Situation of Domestic Video Tape (p. 39) G. Akashi TDL Synchro Video Tape (p. 44) M. Namikawa and S. Tochihara Measurement of Video Tape Temperature (p. 48) Y. Sakai and K. Honi vol. 17, no. 12, 1963 A Flat Picture Tube With a Single Plate De- flection System (p. 11) M. Takahashi and T. Kawamura Vidicon Type Camera Tube Using Mosaic Target (p. 19) Y. Kiuchi and H. Takahashi Low Noise Amplifier for Vidicon Camera (p. 25) Y. Tokunaka Protection of Transistors Against Over Voltage in Video Amplifiers (p. 31) H. Marabayashi, H. Ikeda and K. Waal. Jour. Phot. Sci. vol. 2, no. 1, Jan./Feb. 1963 Tanning Development and Its Application tO Dye Transfer Images (p. 1) A. G. Hull Factors Affecting the Quality of Black-and- White Reflexion Prints (p. 27) J. L. Simonds On the Relevance of Photon Noise and of Informational Assessment in Scientific Pho- tography (p. 31) P. B. Fellgett Visual Contrast in Photographic Prints (p. 35) C. J. Bartleson, R. H. Jenneiahn and W. W. Woodbury Printed Out Dodging Masks (p. 421 L. Chalkley March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 IN THE EAST...IT'S MOVIELAB FOR COLOR AND BLACK &WHITE DEVELOPING COLOR NEGATIVES . ADDITIVE COLOR PRINTING ? REDUCTION PRINTING INCLUDING A & B.'. pm SLIDE FILIVI ',PROCESSING BLOWUPS 0" INTERNEGATIVES ? KODACHROME SCENE-TO-SCENE COLOR BALANCED PRINTING i EKTA'CHROME DEVELOPING AND 'PRINTING ,?REGISTRATION *PRINTING .PLUS COMPLETE BLACK AND WHITE FACILITIES INCLUDING CUTTING 14dbms, FILM , MOVIELAB BUILDING, 619 WEST 54TH ST.,. AND TAPE VAULTS AND THE FINEST ?SCREERING?F-AaiLIfiEs' IN T-HE 'EAST 'NEWYORK 19, NEW YORK ? JUdson 6-0360 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 10111 BLACK 6 REVERSAL PRINTING PROCESSING COLOR PRINTING OTHER SERVICES ? Work Prints ? Color-to-Color Prints ? Color-to B & W Prints ? Raw Stock ? Fastax Service ? A & B Roll Prints ? Fades-Dissolves ? Timed Prints ? Edge Numbering FOR COMPLETE INFORMATION WRITE x_41MC -7E4/ 723 Seventh Ave., New York 19, N.Y. ? JU 6-2293 290 Latent-Image Distribution and Development Rate in the Solarization and Re-Reversal Regions (p. 46)- G. C. Farnell and.J. B. Chanter vol. 2, no. 2, Mar./Apr. 1963 The Sensitometric Properties of Emulsions at a Low Level of Chemical Sensitization (p. 57) G. C. Farnell and P. G. Powell A Structural Theory for the Selwyn Granularity Coefficient (p. 65) E. F. Haugh Power Spectrum of Granularity as Determined by Diffraxion (p. 69) H. Thiry Grid Images Applied to the Assessment of Definition (p. 78) A. G. Hull and C. J. Bell Studies on the Light Scattering of Silver Bromide Particles (p. 84) D. H. Napper and R. H. Ottewill vol. 2, no. 3, May/June 1963 Printing Color Negatives (p. 109) R. W. G. Hunt Spectrometric Measurement of the Acutance of Photographic Materials (p. 121) H. Thiry The Absorption Cross Section for Light of the Silver Grains in Photographic Deposits (p. 132) W. Romer and T. Morawski The Superadditivity of Phenidone and Metol with Color Developing Agents (p. 136) L. F. A. Mason Photographic Action of Complex Cyanides (p. 140) H. W. Wood Phenidone (1-Pheny1-3-Pyrazolidone) : Oxida- tion (p. 145) S. Horrobin, D. W. Ramsay and L. F. A. Mason Investigations Regarding the Measurement of the Modulation Transfer Function and Pos- sibilities for Its Designation by a Numerical Value (p. 150) G. Langner. The Photographic Properties of Some Novel Analogues of Phenidone (p. 157) G. E. Ficken and B. G. Sanderson vol. 2, no. 4, July/Aug.-1963 Tone Reproduction in Color Scales (p. 169) P. Kowaliski Relations Between Granularity, Graininess and the Wiener-Spectrum of the Density Devia- tions (p. 177) E. Klein and G. Langner Photostress (p. 186) A. L. Window The Acceptability of Color Reproduction (p. 194) R. W. G. Hunt The Equivalent Quantum Efficiency of the Photographic Process (p. 199) R. Shaw Latent Fog Produced by Ferricyanide: Post- Fixation Physical Development (p. 205) H. W. Wood Reciprocity Failure of Solarizing Materials at Different Temperatures (p. 210) F. Trautwiler Sedimentation Studies of Gelatin Gels (p. 241) P. Johnson and J. C. Metcalfe The Adsorption of the Polyethylene Glycols to a Dropping-Mercury Electrode and Their Effect on Surface Potential (p. 225) P. J. Hillson The Specification of Conditions for the Incident Light Method of Exposure Determination (p.230) D. Connelly Sulphur Sensitization: The Effect of Sensitizer Concentration on the Constitution of Fog and Sensitivity. Centers (p. 239) R. A. Bassett and H. 0. Dickenson vol. 2, no. 5, Sept./Oct. 1963 The Study of Color Reproduction by Computa- tion and Experiment (p. 249) J. E. Pinney and L. E. DeMarsh Reciprocity Failure Characteristics of the Internal Latent Image (p. 256) G. C. Farnell and M. E. F. Howarth Polish Research on Graininess and Granularity (p. 260) W. Romer Color Granularity and Graininess (p. 269) D. Zwick Desensitization Effects of Solarizing Layers Containing Iridium (p. 276) F. Trautweiler The Photography of Radioactive Materials (p. 279) J. C. J. Stewart A Combined Cin d and Stroboscopic Technique for the Analysis of High-Speed Vibrations (p. 288) R. C. F. Dye March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 The Translation of Colors Into Black-and-White Photographs (p. 291) P. Mouchel vol. 2, no. 6, Nov./Dec. Photon Fluctuations Equivalent Quantum Ef- ficiency and the Information Capacity of Photographic Images (p. 313) R. Shaw The Co-Precipitation of Thallous Thallium in Photographic Emulsions (p. 321) H. Hirsch The Produaion of Narrow Slit Images by a Scanning Technique (326) K. D. Cooper and J. C. J. Stewart Some Factors That Influence the Potential at Silver Halide Surfaces (p. 334) J. F. Padday An Integrally Colored Polyethylene Oxide Surfactant (p. 337) H. W. Wood Autoradiography With Tritium Labelled Cell Preparations: Some Physical Factors Affecting Image Production in Two Liquid Nuclear Emulsions (p. 342) B. I. Lord The Relationship Between Covering Power at Saturation Density and Undeveloped Grain Size (p. 347) G. C. Farnell and L. R. Solman Graphite Pore Structure Evaluation by Serial Section Kinematography (p. 351) J. W. Stammers Electronics and Economics in the Handling of Ilfocolor 35mm Color Negative Film (p. 355) D. M. Neale, J. H. Coote and A. A. Large Preliminary Investigation of Development- Center Distribution on Individual Photo- graphic Emulsion Grains (p. 365) W. F. Berg and H. Ueda Kep- esHangtechnika vol. 9, no. 4, Apr. 1963 Introduction to the Theory of Magnetic? Signal Recording (p. 106) Z. Vajda The Technical and Economical Comparison of Oval and Circular Loudspeakers (p. 114) Rezso Karcsay Directivity Patterns of Speech Sounds and Their Relations to the Sound Recording Technics (p. 120) T. Jdrfds and T. Tarndczy Kinomekhanik Jan., 1963 The Magnetic Soundtrack in Mass Production Film Printing (in Russian) (p. 27) S. Karipidi and S. Shusharin Signalling for the End of a Reel and Systems for Transfer from Projector to Projector (in the Automation of Cinema Shows) (p. 35) V. Timofeeo Kino-Technik vol. 17, no. 8, Aug. 1963 Pilottonverfahren mit frequenzmodulierter Auf- zeichnung ffir Zwei- und Mehrspurgerate (Pilot Sound Process with Frequency-Modu- lated Recording for Double or Multitrack Device ( p. 227) H. Lennartz and J. Wehrmann Der Einfluss der Helligkeitsempfindung auf die Bildwiedergabe (The Influence of Sensitivity to Brightness on Image Reproduction) (p. 243) H. Grosskopf vol. 17, no. 11, Nov., 1963 Verfahren und Einrichtungen zur vollauto- matischen Scharfeinstellung optischer Gerate, . insbesondere photographischer und Fernseh-- kameeas (Process and Devices for the Com- pletely Automatic Focusing of Optical Sys- tems, Especially Photographic and Television Cameras) (p. 298) H. Atorf The Marconi Review vol. XXVI, no. 149, 2d quarter 1963 Weather and Radar (p. 144) G. C. Rider Nomograms for Calculating the Solar Zenith Distance and Azimuth at any Latitude (p. 163) L. W. Barclay vol. XXVI, no. 151, 4th quarter 1963 The Light-Emitting Diode: Its Application to a Short-Path Television Link (p. 242) A. J. Goss and'A. E. Sarson Photo Trade World vol. 24, Sept. 1963 Photo Trade World Trading Guide 35mm S. L. R. Cameras?Edixa Type Mount (p. 476) Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/23 : elA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 make silver recovery more profitable than ever! complete line pf,Arri:Silver:ReCovery Plants?ranging in current density from 10 to 100 amperes?is available to "phOtafipishers, X-Ray and film laboratories, ,and other large'-vOlume hypo uiers. Efficient performance; together with toddy's higher silver Prides, rnake,ArtiSiliier Recovery units a sound investment which will pay for itself in very Short time. Features: Minimum space requirements I. Maximum efficiency through optimum flow condi tions (turbulatiOn and cascading Motion) II Long service life U Automatic xeCovery of silver with a high grade of purity U Minimum manpower :reL. quirerrients for maintenance and'operatidnil 50% saving on fixing chemicals Write fOr detailed information '-and 131:iees P1R ? NUMBER MAX. ,OF MODEL(Amperes) CATHODE ....CURRENT. PLATES i10, 50 ' - 10, 25- 2 100 - 4100. c? 2i CORP7ORAII,OW-OF-AMERICk-' 57 Par:k 05:/enue 86titlic NeW i-ork-i-(5, N. Y. 6:4;1E AND 'VISIT "IA. AT THE SMOTE S1:164, 'BOOTHS 201, 202 March 1964 Journal OUtli.e:?SMPTE,, Volume :73 91 APPROX. HEIGHT APPROX. DIAMETER : 173/4" 93/4" , ,173/4" 193/4" 173/4" 83/4" 213/4" 271/2" , 213/4" 153/4"- , 35343?: ? L251/2" - 215/8" . TOTAL FLOOR FOR MAX. AREA ' SPACE DAILY HYPO CATHODE REQUIRED CONSUMP- PLATE MON OF: 547.5 100 sq. in. liters- 1642.5 sq. in. 2943 sq. in. 4586 'sq, in. 13 ft. '22 sq. ft. 250 liters _ ? 500 liters , _ 1,000 liters ?,1 ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A028400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 . NEW ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW . ?J LU ?J LU new, improved super-efficient CINE VOICE CONVERSION including torque motor and belt $445.00 (price does not include Mitchell magazines) Delivery within 15 days. ? A true torque motor--Idles at Va power. Assumes full power. No ex- cessive heating. ? Torque motor and Veeder counter assembly completely encased in insulated housing for pro- tection from cold, rain, dust, etc. ? Veeder counter effectively silenced. ? Torque motor provides sufficient power to take either 400 ft. or 1200 ft. Mitchell magazines. ? Neon cam- era running light. Accessories Available: Behind-the-lens filter slot $45.00 Lens Turret Lock for Zoom Lens operation $25.00 NEW ANGENIUX 12mm-120mm ZOOM LENS "C" MOUNT WITH SIDE-VIEW FINDER. IN STOCK! $895.00 Serving the World's Finest Film Makers FLORMA.IST ag BABB, Inc. 68 West 45th St. New York 36, N. Y. MU 2-2928 rn 1? rn 0 Irn- C M3N ? 3AIS1110X3 ? M3N . NEW ? EXCLUSIVE ? NEW . rn ? ? r? ITI rn 0 C/) rn ? F & B MINI MONITOR Height-23/s" Width-41/4" Depth-33/4" Weight-11 oz. Price $4950 A miniature, transistorized, battery- powered (standard 9 volt transistor radio battery) magnetic sound reader, complete with amplifier and speaker. CONVERTS YOUR OPTICAL ONLY MOVIOLA TO OPTICAL MAGNETIC IN 30 SECONDS Playback monitor for tape recorders (Stellavox, etc.) ? Sound reader, used with synchronizer ? Extra Booth Speaker ? Field amplifier ? Field sound reader ? Sound editing moni- tor ? Sound reader for 8mm mag- netic ? Public address amplifier ? Field p.a. amplifier ? Phono ampli- fier, hi & lo impedance ? Remote speaker system ? Amplifier to drive auxiliary 8" speaker. DOZENS OF OTHER USES, TOO! Designed and Manufactured by FLORMAN BABB, Inc. 68 West 45th St. New York 36, N. Y. MU 2-2928 ? M3N ? 3AIS1110X3 ? M3N 292 RCA Review vol. XXIV, no. 2, June 1963 High Voltage Epitaxial Gallium Arsenide Microwave Diodes (p. 182) H. Kressel and N. Goldsmith The Performance of Sum and Difference Mode Parametric Amplifiers in Television Receivers (p. 226) D. d' Agostini An Experimental Parametric Tuner for UHF Television Receivers (p. 253) L. A. Harwood and T. Murakami vol. XXIV, no. 3, Sept. 1963 System Organization for General Communica- tion Via Medium Altitude Satellites (p. 293) D. G. C. Luck On a Problem in Single-Sideband Communica- tions (p. 391) J. Dutka Communication-Satellite-System Handover Re- quirement and Associated Design Problems (p. 421) H. J. Weiss Sound and Vision Broadcasting vol. 4, no. 2, Summer 1963 Sport on Television (p. 1) Dennis Monger The Planning of Television Services (p. 6) G. A. Isted The Production of Television Test Charts (p. 13) L. J. Van Rooyen and G. D. Shevel Toshiba Review vol. 18, no. 12, Dec. 1963 Toshiba Direct Viewing Storage Tube (p. 1431) Books, Booklets, Brochures The BBC Handbook 1964 is an extremely attractive paperbound book containing a great deal of information on television in general, as well as BBC in particular. It is profusely and imaginatively illustrated, mostly with photographs from BBC pro- grams. As an example of the diversity of material in musical programs alone, a photograph of Leopold Stokowski rehears- ing the BBC Symphony Orchestra is backed by a photograph of the Beatles at the time they were presented at the BBC Light Pro- gramme at the Royal Albert Hall. In addi- tion to updating historical and statistical material contained in previous Handbooks, the 256-page 1964 Handbook contains considerable new material conveniently arranged and indexed. The book is divided into six sections: Television, Radio, Pro- gramme Services and the Public, The External Services, Engineering, and Refer- ence (130 pp. ? Constitution, Council, Committees, Contracts, . . . Index). Fol- lowing the Foreword, by Sir Arthur fforde, BBC Chairman, are brief, informative discussions by BBC officials including "Strait-Jackets Are No Longer Being Worn," by Kenneth Adam, Director of Television; "Engineering of the New Network," by F. C. McLean, Director of Engineering; "Radio's Role in 1964," by Frank Gillard, Director of Sound Broad- casting; and "The Changing World of Politics and Broadcasting," by Sir Beres- ford Clark. BBC representative in New York is J. Aistrop, British Broadcasting Corp., 630 Fifth Ave., New York 20. The handbook is priced at 6 shillings ($1.00 in the United States). The 1963 Statistical Abstract of the United States (84th annual ed.) is available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, at a price of $3.75. The 1,036- page volume summarizes statistics on the social, political and economic organization of the United States. A publication of the Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, it was prepared under the direction of Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief, Statistical Reports Division. The book is designed to serve as a convenient volume for statistical reference and as a guide to other statistical publications and sources. It contains 1,262 tables. Table 1,178 (p. 844) gives statistics for motion-picture theaters on establishments, receipts, payrolls, and employees of regular theaters, by States, for 1954 and 1958. Sources of Information on Educational Media is a 30-page booklet prepared by John A. Moldstad of Indiana University for the Educational Media Council in cooperation with the Office of Education of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. It is available from Superin- tendent of Documents, Government Print- ing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, at a price of 20 cents. The booklet contains published lists of new educational material, bibliographies and information about equipment, organ- izations (key professional organizations concerned with new educational media), graduate programs, and locations to visit. Under the heading of "Locations to Visit" are included selected listings of new media programs by geographical area. A 4-page illustrated folder prepared by Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory, Inc., 164 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago 6, shows in graphic detail how to mark 16mm work prints and originals and how to prepare leaders and set up original 16mm A & B rolls. The illus- trations and accompanying text are pre- sented in clear and understandable fashion useful for reference as well as a guide to procedure. The Educational Media Index is sched- uled for publication in April, according to an announcement from the Educational Media Council, 250 W. 57 St., New York, N.Y. 10019, and McGraw-Hill Book Company, 330 W. 42 St., New York 36. A multi-volume directory of materials (other than standard printed matter) currently available for educational use in the United States, the Index will list such items as films and kinescopes; filmstrips, slides, and transparencies; programed instruction materials; videotapes; phono- discs and phonotapes and other materials. McGraw-Hill is now completing com- pilation of the Index for the Educational Media Council under a contract with the U.S. Office of Education. Present planning includes regular revision and supplemen- tation of the Index. A specially designed electromechanical system is used to provide for flexible publication and special research and information services based on .the bibliographic data used in publishing the directory. Developing Human Resources for Educa- tional Television: Report of a Survey of Educational Television Personnel has been prepared by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Du Pont Circle Bldg., Washington 65, D.C., in co- March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ANDRE DEBRIE TIPRO RA DOES ALL 4 0101oamog ((to mix0113 03 To. picture ingenious Andre printers Aggrandissement Printer. Debrie perhaps (Reduction blowup) Optical WM modes CO 0 Eitag GnaaiD operation ? REDUCTION available original original print 35mm CONTACT BLOWUP CONTACT Designed for the finest quality black and printing, light notches the TIPRO RA may be equipped changes actuated original Register pins on ultimate pecially by band. "if both channels guarantee picture important steadiness gap aftn 03 co. quality College Point 56, New York - Hickory 5-4200 Fine 'print quality ?the result of careful engineering and pre- cision manufacturing ? is a tra- ditiiinal hallmark of Andr? Debrie film printing equipment. Such quality has its ultimate payoff in your customer's satis- faction with your production. ANDRE MEM VISIT US AT BOOTH 234 AT THE S.M.P.T.E. CONFERENCE CONTICrA3 Truly the most versItile line of cine printing equipment, Andr?ebrie printers are made to fit your specific needs. Black and white or color, 35,16 or 8 mm output on single or multiple strands, contact or optical ?these are some of the many options avail- able. Others include wet gate printing, auto- matic fading device and several methods of light changes. Regardless of the options you select, quality is assured by Debrie's "stop and shoot" or "step" method of printing. Designing -and making motion picture film equipment is our only business and has been for many years. We can build it better and more economically than your own labora- tory or engineering department. Whatever your particular equipment requirement, you owe it to yourself to check Andr?ebrie film printing equipment first. We will be glad to supply full informatia upon request. A DIVISION OF BELOCK INSTRUMENT CORP. ? March'1964 journal, of:the SMPTE 'Volume 73 293 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 STOP-MOTION FLASHLIGHT $60.00 GRYPHON "MODEL S" F.O.B. Burbank, California FOR DARKROOM MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION USE The GRYPHON "Model S" Stop-Motion Flashlight is a battery powered stroboscopic instrument designed for maintenance and inspection use in film processing darkrooms and other areas of subdued lighting. The operation of mechanical power trains and components of film processing equipment can be examined in detail by viewing in stop-motion or slow motion with equipment operating. Any speed variations, fluctuations or uneven motion will instantly be apparent. Low intensity red-orange light flashes permit the "Model S" to be used in dark- rooms without interrupting production on nearby machines. Following are some recommended uses: Checking motion picture film printers for steadiness of motion. Inspecting the film transport on process- ing machines. Examining the intermittent movement of cameras and printers. Speed adjustments can be made accu- rately by reference to a known standard. Inspecting sound recording and repro- ducing equipment. FEATURES Fully transistorized ... Compact-Portable . . . Dual Strobe Range . . . Satelight Feature ... Long battery and bulb life. GRYPHON (A) CORPORATION P.O. BOX 854 BURBANK CALIFORNIA ? PHONE 848-2411 VISIT US AT BOOTH 101 to drive YOUR perforated tapes or films by the sprocket specialist since 1908 BROCHURE UPON REQUEST/QUOTE REQUESTS INVITED ? 294 4635 WEST LAKE ST. CHICAGO 44, ILL. PHONE-Ares 312-378-1636 operation with the U.S. Office of Educa- tion. Findings of the survey are presented in a 46-page report. Pr )ject Director was Vernon Bronson and Associate Director was James Fellows. Mr. Bronson is Director and Mr. Fellows is Assistant Director of the Office of Research and Development, NAEB. The report concludes that, "The need to develop a professionally effective curriculum for television specialists and television users is intimately related to the urgent need for revision of teacher educa- tion curricula and communication media curricula." Instructional Television at the University of Akron, published in the June 1963 issue of Broadcast News, has been reprinted as a 12-page illustrated brochure and is avail- able from L. V. Hollweck, Editor, RCA Educational TV News, Broadcast Market- ing Dept., RCA Educational Electronics, Camden 2, N.J. Authors K. F. Sibla and W. Mavrides present a detailed description of the University's television system and how it works as an educational medium. Mr. Sibla is Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Mr. Mavrides is Director of Television of the University of Akron. Readings in Public Communications: A Bibliography for Candidates for the Master of Science Degree in Television and Radio has been compiled and edited by A. W. Bluem. It is available upon request from Syracuse University, TV-Radio Center, Syracuse, N.Y. The bibliography is in- tended to "draw upon the literature, arising out of many disciplines, which bears upon the nature of man in a society of which public communications are an important aspect." March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Instructional Television Materials: A Guide to Films, Kinescopes and Video- tapes Available for Televised Use, 3rd Ed., has been announced by Northeastern Re- gional Instructional Television Library, Eastern Educational Network, 238 Main St., Cambridge 42, Mass. The guide lists 324 courses available from distributors. Although some are appropriate for more than one educational level, 157 are in- tended for elementary use, 62 for secondary, 52 for college, 43 for adult education, and 10 for in-service education. Four courses are distributed by Instructional Television Libraries: Accent on Music, Exploring Nature, Patterns in Mathematics, and Primary Concepts in Science. The British National Film Catalog, pub- lished by British National Film Catalog Ltd., 55a Welbeck St., London, W.1, England, is issued six times a year. British film productions, including educational, scientific, cultural, industrial, and enter- tainment films, are listed together with brief synopses and credits. The subscription price $17.64 includes, in addition to the six bi-monthly issues, an annual cumulative volume. The Educational Film Library Associa- tion, 250 W. 57 St., New York, N.Y. 10019, has announced the availability of the five booklets listing all productions nominated Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 , Declassified and Approved For Release, 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 6i -screening at its Ainerican in 'the years '1959-65 , bound ? toSetherin4,".. special binder for. convenience as:- a rCfei--;', ence unit. ? The -unit is priced rat 4500:. Included in each listing is basic information ? about the film- or filmstrip, ,a brief,,descriP, tion, of its 'content, and the name ;,and address of the source from whichit may be purchased, rented, or borrowed.' ? ? ?MOre than 2,000 government AIMS afi listed and described in catalogs-, from Norwood Films, 926 New Sersty.AVd. N.W., Washington 1, D.C. 'Currently,' available are the 1962-63 'General CatalOgi? together with supplements 'issued ?April,' 1963, and September, 1.963. Also, available ? is a 1962-63 catalog of films on medicine, and allied sciences for professional of 'the films ? are for. sale, although sOin'eL4 them can be sold; only to authoriiedgroups: The firm also ' maintains a list of films. available for rental. The 1964 Educational Filmstrip Catalog published by the Society for Visual Educa- tion, Inc., 1345 Diversey ParkWay, Chi-. , , Cago, Ill. 60614, is available tO:teaeheriarid? administrators without charge. the Cata7_ log lists more than 1,600 filmsirips; eluding about 100 new titles, arid alsOlistS other instructional material and audib;'. visual aids. Subject material ccfiferS grade levels, from primary through'high- school. Most of ,the filmstrips are in Color, and 'many have narrations on acCornjianr, ing records. SVE is a subsidiary of General Precision Equip-tient Corp. A '22-page illuitrated booklet des'Cribing the company's organization and actiVqies. is available from Cinerama Camera Co'r,' 11930 W. Olympic Blvd., Los Angelei Arriong other activities, the firm, a sidiary Of Cinerama, Inc., is engage.din . research and dCi,elopment in the field of advanced photoinstrumentation 'for' 'it-if dustry and space exploration. ? The Videotape Minicruiser, a 'mobile tel6iii6n studio contained in a Studebaker itation wagon, is illustrated and 86Cribecl in a four-page broehure available 'f.CPin Ainpcx Corp., Mail Stop 6-1, 401 'Broad:. way, Redwood City, Calif. Features '6-f. Minierpiser are described along With its key' component, the VR-660' brdadealt Videotape television recorder. Quartz iodine lamps for professional use, operating directly from 120-v, a-c or d-c are illustrated and described 'in a.--catalog available from COlorTran Industries, '630'S. FlOwer- Si., Burbank; Calif. In addition' 'tO? a.*Ill"listing of 'the firm's quartz- iodine' lamps, the catalpi also contains inforniation On aid Coloi-Dyne elCctrOniC ? ? lighting control systeins. The Winston Automatic Gain'. ContrOl Amplifier is illustrated and described in a four-page brochure available from Fair- child Winston'Research Corp.; 6711, South Sepulveda Blvd., Los Angeles '451 The'.unit;!-which is -designed to work With' TV i: facsiinile, auclib; sinusoidal, or pulse tkpo data; it thbroughly explained NVitli block diagrams, frequency response 'etifve with recirculating. system 13ci3OTI-L134: srint,..tE SHOW ? -1 .41" ? -. f i` ? :equi!,pped 'precision-he4t1jUni,p temperature maintained with programmer set cinCI:forget i 1 FRIGIDHEAT INDUSTRIES 1I BOX 6037, NASHVILLE, TENN. 37212. I "I don't open the lamphouse door once in 30 days' says a projectionist operating hattiimple. Nojnoving ,r,4?gr the light ?sourc Focus Constant. So .I, clean- - lasts much longer.f 11 Projactsea4pure white light, evenly, Winegri'6f44 -,,OWAs.. Aistributedtover the entire screen. wo 'tfarig W'41 are ?Steady,tflickerlesswegaredlesv 1WdioSz ? of,voltage vanationvin pow risup... K-tt, e17.4.Ar.""Ar ply. "Pushibutton repeatability intensity and color. temperature. Matelifi964 the SbIPTE modelsVfor,,, matte , screens,. op"- .-irgw,mbir,tvrtr feettnd -high, gasn/sCreeit. 3 feet. Maintenance a d ,eurrelit costs?' The s'ame 'and current costs for Ocattlienzarc of equivalent ligh output. rciamtenli "IX ur thnetre,oirrenneet. E4C'T ,CORT0,401 TOLIEDO 0/1110..' 43601 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28 : CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 PROCESS WITH A LABMASTER AND SPEND BOTH SIDES OFA NICKEL If you give a second thought to the first costs of investing in film processing equipment, then the Houston Fearless Labmaster is designed for you, whether you're processing micro film or movie film. Its simple modular design trims our cost to suit your need and purse now. ... lets you increase film process- ing volume tomorrow. Three basic B&W models, 16mm or 16/35mm offer.real flexibility. And always, low operating cost, archival quality, speed. You get twice the value of your coin in dependability, too. Many of the first Houston Fearless processors are still making money for their owners. Good proof you get even greater reliability in today's roller-bearing Labmaster. And reliability rhymes with availability ? spares and service ? wherever film processing is concentrated. Send for further information today. IHOUSTON EFEARLESS CORPORATION Westwood Division 11801 West Olympic Boulevard Los Angeles, California 90064 SEE US AT BOOTH 115 296 charts, and charts covering its compression characteristics. The use of linear ball bearings to over- come frictional and other problems, thus increasing the accuracy of manual and numerically controlled machine tools, is described in detail in a 6-page technical report available from Thomson Industries, Inc., Manhasset, LI., N.Y. The report, by H. R. Havemeyer, is reprinted from the May, 1963, issue of the Tool and Manu- facturing Engineer. The EMT 140 Reverberation Unit is illustrated and described in an 8-page brochure available from Gotham Audio Corp., 2W. 46 St., New York, N.Y. 10036. The unit is a device for creating artificial reverberation. Besides reproducing acous- tically rooms of various sizes it is said to have the ability to increase the apparent distance between sound source and micro- phone. The B&K Sound level Meter, Model 2203, and Octave Band Filter Set, Model 1613, are described in a 12-page illus- trated brochure available from B&K Instruments, Inc., 3044 W. 106 St., Cleveland 11, Ohio. In combination, the instruments are used for sound, noise or vibration measurements and analysis, such as traffic and industrial noise, noise in buildings, sound distribution in theaters, product noise investigations, and noise law enforcement. Processing and printing units are de- scribed in leaflets available from Uhler Cine Machine Co., 15762 Wyoming Ave., Detroit 38. Illustrated and described arc various equipments including a combina- tion continuous printer for 16mm film, a printer (professional combination 16mm and 8mm contact) ; a 35 ? 16mm optical reduction and enlarging printer; optical . printer (16 to 8mm and 8 to 16mm); eine printer (color or black-and-white); and processing units, 16 and 8mm, for sound or silent films. The General Radio Experimenter, pub- lished by the General Radio Co., West Concord, Mass, in the September/October 1963 issue describes a new sound and vibration analyzer (Type 1564-A) designed primarily for the frequency analysis of acoustic spectra having components in the frequency range between 2.5 cps and 25 kc. Copies are available upon request from the film. Computers in Control is an 8-page bro- chure available from Manager, Marketing Services, TRW Computer Division, In- dustrial Computers, 8433 Fallbrook Ave., Canoga Park, Calif. Applications of TRW industrial control computers are described. The computers are used in various areas of industry, including chemical, electric power, television, missiles and others. The Hycam 16mm high-speed camera, Model K1001, is illustrated and described in a four-page folder available from Red Lake Laboratories, 2971 Corvin Dr., Santa Clara 2, Calif. The camera is said March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 to be capable of a speed of 10 to 8,500 pictures/sec. An earlier Hycam is illus- trated and described in the November, 1962, issue of the Journal (p. 896). A 148-page illustrated catalogue (No. 663-A) available from Burke & James, Inc., 321 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, Ill. 60604, lists more than 10,000 items of photo- graphic and instrumentation equipment. Illustrated and described are such equip- ments as professional cameras, enlargers, laboratory equipment, lenses, laboratory cameras, thin-film optics, process cameras, apochromatic lenses, vacuum printing equipment, and a wide variety cf related equipment. Camera drives and projection equipments are among the items described ii a bulletin available from L fayette Instrument Co., P.O. Box 57, Lafayette, Ind. Also de- scribed are time, memo and animation equipments. A 10-page selected bibliography on instructional television is available upon request from Ampex Corp., Video/In- strumentation Div., 401 Broadway, Red- wood City, Calif. 94063. More than 70 books, reports and other publications are included in the bibliography, which was compiled for Ampex by Richard H. Dewey of the Instructional Television Center, San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. Analyzing instruments are illustrated and described in a short form catalog (#863) available from Allison Laboratories, Inc., 11301 E. Ocean Ave., P.O. Box 515, La Habra, Calif. The catalog lists prices and gives general information on the various items. Instruments include continuously variable passive filters, equalizers, ana- lyzers, random noise sources, multiple oscil- lators and other instruments for making tests and measurements. Recording storage tubes, their operation and application, are described in a 20-page illustrated booklet, "The Image Instru- ments Electrostore: A System for Image Storage and Processing With the Recording Storage Tube," available from Image Instruments, Inc., 2300 Washington St., Newton Lower Falls, Mass. The booklet describes in detail new ideas for scan con- version techniques in military, industrial, and aerospace applications. A pocket guide, used to determine the size of the area telecast with any image- orthicon camera lens, operating at any distance from 3 ft to 1,000 ft, is available from Television Zoomar Co., 500 Fifth Ave., Suite 5520, New York 36. The Hyper-Universal Zoomar Lens and the Angenieux-Zoomar, Model 10-2-1 B are illustrated and described on the back of the pocket guide. A Note on Basic Statistical Concepts, Application Bulletin Number 101, is a leaflet available from Elgenco, Inc., 1231 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, Calif. The purpose of the bulletin is ;Po dissemi- nate information on the application of low- Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 TRI ART FOR COLOR DU ART FOR BLACK AND WHITE OVER 40 YEARS IN THE BUSINESS! Tri Art or Du Art offers you fast, de- pendable service, the highest quality film processing, the most complete facilities. And a knowledge based on more than 40 years of experience. IN NEW YORK: 245 WEST 55TH STREET, NEW YORK 19, N.Y., PLAZA 7-4580 IN CANADA: ASSOCIATED SCREEN INDUSTRIES, LTD., 2000 NORTHCLIFF AVENUE, MONTREAL, CANADA March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 297" Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 ZOO MAR For new sensational developments in optics for instrumentation, ITV and movie cameras, see us in BOOTHS 116& 117 at the SMPTE Conference and Exhibit, Hotel Ambassador in Los Angeles, April 12 to 17. ZOO MAR ZOOMAR INTERNATIONAL, INC. Glen Cove, New York 298 frequency and audio-frequency noise in the solution of engineering problems. Areas covered include definition and in- terpretation of probability density, prob- ability distribution, ensemble average, time average, ergodic process, variance, standard deviation, normal or Gaussian function, autocorrelation function, spectral density and the Concept of white noise. Special lenses for use in such fields as aerospace, aerial mapping, aerial re- connaissance and photominiaturization are described in seven technical data sheets available from C. P. Goerz American Optical Co., 461 Doughty Blvd., Inwood 96, L.I., N.Y. The information includes suggested applications, resolution values, distortion, mechanical configurations and cutaway design drawings. A detailed description of the new FCC- approved economical 2,500 mc closed- circuit service for instructional TV is avail- new products (and developments) able upon request from Industrial Prod- ucts Div., Adler Electronics, Inc., 1 Le- Fevre Lane, New Rochelle, N.Y. Futura projection arc lamps are il- lustrated and described in a leaflet avail- able upon request from Strong Electric Corp., 79 City Park Ave., Toledo, Ohio 43601. The lamps are designed to meet requirements of 35mm and 70mm pro- jectors and can be changed from one film width to another by turning a knob. Oscilloscopes and cameras are described in a short-form catalog available from Scientific Instrument Dept., Du Mont Laboratories, Divisions of Fairchild Cam- era and Instrument Corp., Clifton, N.J. Oscilloscopes, oscilloscope record cameras, pulse generators, probes and accessories are illustrated and described. Specifica- tions are included on current instruments including the new transistorized high- frequency 765 series together with plug-ins. Further information about these items can be obtained direct from the addresses given. As in the case of technical papers, the Society is not responsible for manufacturers' statements, and publication of these items does not constitute endorsement of the products or services. Erratum: The producer of the Wood- ruff/Albert 35AV1 All-Format Automatic Camera (p. 73, January, 1964, Journal) is Woodruff/Albert Camera & Instrument Corp., 141 West 42 St., New York, N.Y. 10036. This information was inadvertently omitted. The Century Theatre Acoustic Compen- sator has been designed by Century Projector Corp., a Division of United Industrial Syndicate, Inc., 729 Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019, to provide a fast and accurate means of adjusting the frequency characteristics of multiple- channel theater sound systems for con- trolled sound reproduction. It is designed as a compact unit said to have no insertion loss and not to require changes in system gain or amplification. It can be added to almost any multichannel sound system. The input is a bridging type having an impedance of about 100,000 ohms. The output is high impedance and will connect to the input of power amplifiers having input impedances of 1,000 ohms or higher. It can be used at a remote distance (in the auditorium) by using shielded cables for the connections. A compact equal-path interferometer, a precision testing tool for industrial and lab- oratory optics, has been announced by Perkin-Elmer Corp., Main Ave.', Norwalk, Conn. It is used to measure deviations of optical path in lens systems, mirrors, prisms and raw glass. The unit consists of the basic interferometer, mercury-arc light source and power supply, positioning adjustments and mounting stand. The complete instru- ment weighs 14 lb and measures 12 X 17 in. (maximum dimensions). The Basic in- strument measures only 2 X 2 X 6 in., but is said to be capable of testing optics up to the largest size. The unit is priced at $1,995. March 1964 Journal of ihe.SMPTE Volume 73 An instrument designed for precise testing of large complex optics has been developed by the Electro-Optical Division, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, Conn. The instrument consists of Perkin-Elnier's Modce 5200 gas laser combined with its Modified Twyman-Green Interferometer. Studies conducted by the company have been di- rected toward demonstrating the usefulness of the laser interferometry technique in the inspection of the synthetic crystal rod mate- rials used in solid state lasers. Using this technique, extremely high fringe contrasts have been observed in large synthetic ruby and other crystal rods. It was reported that the gas laser is an ideal source for inter- ferometer illumination due to its mono- chromaticity and long coherence length. Even at an output power of I mw, the gas laser's continuous beam is capable of pro- ducing some 3,000 times more useful light energy than a conventional are light source. It is commercially available as a fully equipped unit at a price of about $10,000. The Beaulieu MCR8 8mm camera has been announced by Cinema Beaulieu, 921 Westwood Blvd., Los Angeles 24, Calif. Features include the Beaulieu 45? mirror- shutter which intermittently transmits light to the film, with no prisms or partial reflecting mirrors interposed, and to the variable focusing 20 X eyepiece. Combined with a special ultraluminous ground glass, the shutter is designed to ensure exact "no parallax" reflex viewing with constant depth of field control. A variable shutter device permits fade-in or fade-out with a complete film stop. Other features include a frame counter, total film rewind and a precise front seating arrangement to ensure microscopic precision alignment and seat- ing of all "D" mount lenses. The camera is available with the Angenieux Super Zoom (6.5 rrim to 52 mit) at a price of $399.50, or with the Angenieux K2 Zoom (7.5 mm to 35 mm) at a price of $359.00. It will be on display at the 95th SMPTE Conference, Los Angeles. A new model 120S special blimp for the Arriflex-35 has been announced by the Arriflex Corp. of America, 257 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10010. Features OPTICAL COMPOSITE TWO DRIVING MOTORS sound speed and variable speed and motorized take up & rewind 2000' reel capacity PALMER 73-40 VLEIGH PL., NEW 2 Channel motorized versatile 16mm Editing Table with feather touch push button controls and instant stopping by magnetic brake $1745. Table 36" x 20" EDITORS FLUSHING 67, N. Y. CITY NOVA 1200-Foot Magazine Photo-Kinetics Inc. has a 1200-foot magazine for the Nova 16mm high-speed camera which is designed to take 200 to 3200 pictures per second continously variable. The control, a servo-loop design, operating on 115 v, 60 cycles, is designed to control speed of camera to within 1 percent at all speeds. Lens plates are available to accept Fastax and Fairchild 16mm high-speed camera lenses. Weight, approximately: Magazine. 60 lbs. without film. Control ? 20 lbs. Delivery. 90 to 120 days This is the "NOVA THE MOST VERSATILE ROTATING PRISM HIGH SPEED CAMERA 100' Camera from 55 pps to 8,500 pps.* with 400' mag. from 55 pps to 10,000 pps. with 1200' mag. from 200 pps to 3,000 pps. Infinitely variable controlled speed *Approx. SALES SERVICE RENTALS 16 mm standard Prism Assembly is interchangeable with 16 mm Half Frame Prism Assembly ? Speed range 55 pps to 10,000 pps (double for 16mm half frame) ? Film?uses Color Film ? Black & White Posi- tive ? Black and White Negative ? Variety of Lenses of various focal lengths & Apertures. Free brochure mailed on request Mardi 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 PHOTO?KINETICS INC. 1624 STILLWELL AVENUE. BRONX 61. N. Y., Phone: TY 2-3700 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 299 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 in-elude a rectangular -front port large - enough to clear the' fields of wide-angle lenses to 18mm, externally controlled diaphragm settings, a follow-focus mecha- nism which can be operated from three different positions, and interchangeable filter holders to spit every lens requirement. The blimp is said to be extremely quiet and suitable for the strictest sound stage require- ment._ It has the Arriflex 'floating". camera, base on which are integrated the Arriflex- 35 camera, motor and a newly designed focus and diaphragm Mechanism. An in- tegrated electrical system provides for either- a-c 'line operation or d-c battery operation. Overload switches and fuses protect the motor against. accidental 'over- loads.. Other features include a connection for a rernote-cohtroll stop-start switch, in- terior lights for scales and controls, a special frfin-thrading light which is automatically cut off When the motor is started, and an electrical chassis on which - all major 'controls. and 'components arc'? combined.: The blimp,, together with camera, motor and 4004t magazine, weighs about 88 lb. Dimensions are 24 X 16 XIS in. It iS priced at $3,360. . ? , A Conversion Kit which adapts the Arriflex Universal Fibre Glass Blimp for use 'with the Model 120 Angenieux, mounted on either Arriflex-16S or Arriflex-16M, , has been announced by Arriflex: Corp. of America, 257 Park Ave. South, New York 10. The new kit includes a long, extended front port, to accommodate the length of the lens, and mechanical parts to modify ? -the-blimP'S regular` foeirS/cliaphragfri cOn- trels se that the ineidel 120 Angenieux may be' focused' and zoomed "from outside. Installation requires no machining and no special tools. The kit is priced at $375. A special adaptation stand -tO,,aCcommo- date 1000-ft magazines on Arifiek-35 cameras has been annopnced by Arriflex Corp. of America, ?257 Park AVe. SoPth, New York, N.Y. 10010. The new stand supplements the Model 1000 Blimp, ,the announcement stated. The adaptation stand is designed so that the Arri-35 camera may be driven :by -either the standard Arri-35 synchronous motor on geared base or by.the Arri 24-v d-ergovernor-controlled motor on geared base. The stand is equipped . for Rangertone, ? Piloprne, or similar syn- chronous sound recording systems A special universal motor (24-v, a7c or d-c) is built into the-Arri stand and drives the-magazine take-up. A take-up bekeswitch, and inter- lock is incorporated into the stand. Total weight of the stand plus sync,motor, camera and 1000-ft Iriagazihe. iS :about 50 113 Price Of the stand Alone is 81,850., ;, ? ? A 1200-ft'magazine for the Nova 16mm High Speed -Camera haS,bbco announced by Photo-Kinetics, Inc., 1624 Stillwell Ave., Bronx 61, N.Y. The camera is designed to take from 200 to 3,060' pictures/see,, con- tinuously Variable. The Control ? is a servo- loop -design. operating on 115 v, 60 cycles. It is designed to' cohtrol the speed of the camera to within 1% at all speeds. The - . 1/100, 1/1000, 1/10,000 ec exposures 'Daylight-quality Light Source The EG&G Mark VI Sensitom- eter is a highly reliable-insfru-' .Thent for film process Control. Cdstly time losse`s. pirdcessing errors or misuse of film,can be Virtually eliminated. Xenon light source7duplicates -daylight, eliminates need for color filters. ? Exposure 'repeatability. with', in *3%.? ? Light .for films rated ASA -1 and better. . ? Mark VII Sensitometer pro-, vides additional exposure time , of 1/100,000 and 1/1,000,000 sec. For technical data on' EG&G's broad line of photographic and pulsed light instrumentation contact: Products,Departnnent; 180 BrOokline,Aye., Boston 15, Mass., or call 617-267-9700 TWX: 617-26?-9317 ? EDGERTON, GERMESHAUSEN & GRIER, INC. E B.-. ? LAS VEGAS ? SANTA BARBARA .30'0 camera weighs 60 lb without film and the control weighs 20 lb. A new M 1,200-ft gear-driven magazine for the Arriflex-16M has been announced by Arriflex Corp. of America, 259 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10010. The new magazine is a double-compartment type, all gear-driven. The two compartments are arranged coaxially. After the magazine is loaded, mounting on the camera is said to. have the same speed and convenience as the M 200-ft and M 400-ft magazines. The magazine may be threaded in daylight except for placing the film on the spindle in the feed compartment and drawing the leader down through the feed sprocket channel, operations that are done in the darkroom. Overall dimensions of the magazine are 15 X 14 X 3 in. It is priced at $640. A compact black-and-white processor called Model- MT-10 has been announced by Treise Engineering, Inc., 1949 First St:, San Fernando, Calif. The processor, which occupies 3 X 5 ft of floor-space, processes negative or positive, 16mm, 35mm, or 16/35mm combination. It can be supplied to process 35mm up to 10 ft/min oril6mm up to 20 ft/min. The unit is self-contained, has daylight. operation, and requires only simple plumbing and electric plug-in. Models are available especially for micro- film, radiology and television station opera- tions. Prices start at $3,150. An Angenieux 10:1 Viewfinder lens for use with vidicon cameras has been an- nounced by Zoomar International Inc., Glen Cove, N.Y. The lens is an adaptation of the.-15rrim-150mm f/2.8 lens. The; vie.'- 'finder mOdel canipe mounted to any- port- -able ,TV. camera which operates .without an:clectric viewfinder. . March A964 the,SMPIT Voltime 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 4 , =?.????? ? ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 An Angenieux 10:1 zoom lens for the Kodak Reflex Special Camera has been announced by Zoomar International Inc., Glen Cove, N.Y. The lens has a range of 12mm to 120mm, f/2.2 and* is &livered with a special Kodak Type R mount of hardened steel to ensure proper alignment over extended ?periods of use. A" 4:1 re- duction crank for slow smooth zooming and a lever for rapid zooming are supplied. The new model 250 Angenieux lens will be supplied in factory mounts for all models of Arriflex-35 cameras according to an announcement by Arriflex Corp. ? of Amer- ica, 257 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10010. The lens, which zooms throfigh 10 focal lengths from 25. to 250, is priced at 82,290. The special . Arriflex cradle is available at an additional cost. Edicomp, an editor computer developed by Videotape Productions of New York, Inc., 101 W. 67 St., New York, N.Y. 10023, and the Editec developed by Ampex Corp. have been incorporated into an electronic editing system called Edimation. Edimation is designed to eliminate en- tirely any cutting and splicing of tape and also is designed to bypass any intermediate time-consuming film editing process. In this system, the magnetic tape, which is the central element of computer systems and autom ttion systems as well as audio and video recording systems, is used to carry, remember and implement complex and precise editing instructions as well as to remember and reconstruct pictures and sound. The Edicomp is designed to carry and put into effect many and complex instruc- tions involving relatively long periods of production time and numerous changes and scene sequences. by retaining a reference point in time from which all changes are computed. During and after a long produc- tion, for example, instructions as to good and bad takes, or changes, are recorded on the video tape so that the process of "save" or "reject" later becomes virtually automa- tic. The Editec, used mainly for television commercials, is a device for ?!pushbutton editing" for the electronic splicing of two Successive scenes to an exactness measur- able in thirtieths of a second. In combining the two devices into the Edimation system, both the Editec and the Edicomp have been improved and adapted to more extensive use. An improved version of the SeAQUArtz underwater light, called the Mark II, has been announced by Birns & Sawyer Cine Equipment Co., 6424 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 99038. Tested at a depth of 1000 ft" underwater, a new model incorporates such improvements as aluminum housings chemically plated with Kanigen, a 92% nickel alloy; a pyrex glass disc placed directly in front of the quartz iodide lamp to absorb the initial thermal shock; and a specially tempered glass for the front lens to withstand pres- sure at 1000 ft. Other models are available for .use at depths of 350 ft or less. .The?un- derwater light is 7i in. square and weighs one largest a labs happens of motion CEt213 both to large world's picture please producers small and distributors DISTRIBUTORS! Overnight rushes-black & white or color 0 A & B printing o Coi;nplete optical facilities 0 Projection rooms o Editing rooms o Sound recording & transfers LABORATORIES, INC. NEW YORK CITY o HOLLYWOOD o TORONTO March. 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 301 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Professional Services MUSIC FOR EVERY MOOD Complete background music library cleared for RADIO-TV-MOTION PICTURES Quality recordings by full-sized orchestras Complete selection of sound-effects records also available WRITE FOR CLEARANCE APPLICATION FORMS AND CATALOGS THE CAMERA MART, INC. 1845 Broadway, New York 23 CRITERION FILM LABORATORIES, INC. Complete laboratory facilities for 16 & 35mm black-and-white and color 33 West 60th St., New York 23, N. Y. Phone: COlumbus 5-2180 ELLIS W. D'ARCY & ASSOCIATES Consulting and Development Engineers 8mm Magnetic Sound Printers Motion-Picture Projection Magnetic Recording and Reproduction Box 1103, Ogden Dunes, Gary, Ind. Phone: Twin Oaks 5-4201 World's Largest Library of SOUND EFFECTS RECORDS Write for free catalog covering every needed sound effect?airplanes, autos, animals, birds crowds, industrial, marine, trains, war, guns weird?also background and mood music FLORMAN & BABB, INC. 68-a West 45 St, New York 36, N. Y. RENT SEND FOR CATALOG GORDON 5362 N Cahuenga, 16mm, 35mm, 70mm Motion Picture Cameras High Speed Cameras Special Cameras Lenses Lights Processing Equipment Editing Equipment ENTERPRISES North Hollywood, Calif. REELS ? CANS ? FIBER CASES MOTION PICTURE ENTERPRISES Tarrytown 83, N. Y. N.Y.C. Tel: Circle 5-0970 . TUFF. COAT Cleans, kills static, lubricates and invisibly coats and protects all types of film against scratches and abrasions. SAFE, easy to use. NO carbon tet. Special type available for magstripe and video tape. Write for brochure "S" NICHOLSON PRODUCTS COMPANY 3403 Cahuenga Blvd. Los Angeles 28, Calif. SAVE 25-50% ON PRINT COSTS Users of Permafilm Protection and Perma-New Scratch Removal show savings ranging from 25% to 50% and more by lengthening the life of their prints. A money-back test will convince you. PERMAFIL M- INCORPORATED 79 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 3, AL 5-5757-8-9 PERMAFILM INC. OF CALIFORNIA 7264 Melrose Avenue Hollywood Webster 3-8245 302 PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION Specializing in HIGH-SPEED Motion-Picture Photography Photographic Analysis Company 190 Alps Road, Wayne, N.J. Area Code 201/696-1000 PHOTO ANALYSIS Motion Picture Photographic Special Applications I-ligh Speed Time Lapse Underwater Aeril Services Equipment Rental PHOTO INSTRUMENTATION CORP. 630 Ninth Ave., N.Y. 36, N.Y. (212) PL 7-5730 DAMAGED FILM HOSPITAL Why Junk Damaged, Scratched, Brittle, Stained, "Rainy," Worn Film? "THE FILM DOCTORS" Can Restore It To Original Screening Quality With Amazing R & R Treatments: RAPIDWELD: restores damaged originals of negatives and prints RAPIDTREAT: completely protects and pro- longs the life of new prints Rapid Film Technique, Inc., 37-02 27 St., Long Island City 1, N.Y. STilwell 6-4600 RESEARCH, DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE PHOTO INDUSTRY Complete Line of Animation, Filmstrip and Special Effects Equipment RICHMARK CAMERA SERVICE, INC. 516 Timpson Pl. Bronx, N.Y. 10455 LU 5-0730 LU 5-5995 FILM PRODUCTION EQUIP. RENT ? LEASE ? SERVICE World's largest source of equipment for pro- ducing, processing, recording, editing, etc. S.O.S. PHOTO-CINE-OPTICS, Inc. New York City: 602 West 62nd Street, Plaza 7-0440 Hollywood, Calif.: 6331 Hollywood Blvd., 407-2124 COMPLETE 16MM PRODUCERS SERVICES send for Brochure DAILY PROCESSING OF EKTACHROME COMMERCIAL & EKTACHROMETER* *"Licensed by Eastman Kodak" SOUTHWEST FILM LAB., INC. 3024 Ft Worth Ave Dallas 11, Texas FE 1-8347 ? SYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FILM RECORDER/REPRODUCER ? MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDERS ? NEW?The portable MINITAPE synchronous 13 lb. battery operated magnetic tape recorder for field recording. THE STANCIL-HOFFMAN CORP. 845 N. Highland, Hollywood 28 Dept. S HO 4-7461 PROJECTION SCREENS Professional, Seamless, Front & Rear Proiection Consulting service custom sizes for theatres, TV & MP studios, viewing rooms. Rigid rear projection for plotting and display. New "Porta-Pro" portable. STEWART FILMSCREEN CORP. Formerly Stewart-Trans-Lux Corp. 1161 W. Sepulveda, Torrance, Calif. 90503 Phone 326-1422 (213) AURICON et K-100 CONVERSIONS to 400 & 1200 ft. Filter slot Auricons & Filmos Transistor amplifiers, processors, etc. Write or details ? GORDON YODER Professional Cine Products 2222 N. Prairie Ave., Dallas, Texas March 1964 Journal of the SMPTE Volume 73 71 lb It is reported to deliver 5,000 w of exposure. The aluminum housing includes a 65,000 candlepower quartz iodide Syl- vania Professional Sun Gun lamp and re- flector. The Mark 11 1000 is priced at $450; and the Mark II 300, at $295. A double system 'sound package for the H-16 and H-8 Bolex cameras has been an- nounced by the Sonex Engineering Co., Box 1189, Glendale, Calif. The package in- cludes a sound blimp, a sync motor and a pulse signal kit said to make most 1-in'. tape recorders usable for soundtrack re- cording. Two series of sound blimps and motors are available, the professional type priced at $299.50, and a semi-pro version priced at $149.50. Pulse signal kits are priced at $29.95 for stereo machines and $99.50 for monaural machines. The Tymeter is a digital readout clock movement announced by Tymeter Elec- tronics, Pennwood Numechron Co., 7249 Frankstown Ave., Pittsburgh 8, Pa. The device shows fin, digits with front panel time reset facility; the digits can be reset individually. It is 3 in. high, 51 in. wide, 31 in. deep and weighs 2 lb. It is priced at $16.00. employmen service These notices are published for the service of the membership and the field. They are inserted three months, at no charge to the member. The Society's address cannot be used for replies. Positions Wanted Motion Picture Equipment Sales/Manu- facture. 17 yrs diversified experience with two top companies. Knowledge of manufacturing and sales procedures of theatre and sound re- cording equipment for export and related ad- ministrative procedures. Wishes position with company located in New York metropolitan area. Resume upon request. Reply to R. Valle, 1480 Hancock St., Elmont, LI., N.Y. Writer-Director. Staff experience with two of Chicago's largest industrial film studios and the world's largest producer of educational films. Free-lance experience with top New York film studios and TV producers. Have independently produced shorts. Seek temporary or full-time assignment anywhere. Write to D.K., c/o Harris, 326 West 55 St., New York, N.Y. 10019. Producer-Writer-Director. Presently employed as writer-director for aerospace firm. Experi- enced in all phases film production including planning, cinematography, editing and film processing. Extensive Multicam and educational film background; interested in educational and industrial film production or supervision. B.A. and graduate work at USC Dept. of Cinema. For resume write: Stan Follis, 15111 Graystone Ave., Norwalk, Calif. 90651. Tel: (213) 863-3475. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 TV/Motion-Picture Production. 3 yrs ex- perience free-lance 16 & 35mm cinematog- raphy, film editing. Graduate TV Production RCA Institutes. Assoc. Member IATSE. Seeking opportunity for advancement with TV or film production company. Willing to relocate. Allan Rosenstein, 1350 East 5th St., Brooklyn 30, N.Y. Audio Visual Aids Director. 18 yrs experience with Studebaker Corp. in all phases A-V work specializing in motion-picture production. Ex- tensive experience in management of photo- graphic and art studio. Thoroughly experienced in planning, organizing and budgeting. Back- ground in both 35mm and 16mm films for public relations, sales, manufacturing and advertising fields. Age 43, married with family; will relocate. Edw. A. "Jack" Price, 2417 Crest Ave., South Bend, Ind. (219) AT 9-6839. Motion-Picture Engineer. 14 yrs experience in all phases of laboratory work; repair, design and construction of motion-picture equipment; test- ing and evaluation of new equipment and products. Some production experience. Experi- enced in all phases still photography except aerial work. Speak, read and write German fluently. Desire more challenging position. Prefer Washington, D.C., area. Presently em- ployed. Married. 909 North Greenbrier St., Arlington 5, Va. Writer-Director. 7 yrs experience writing and directing dramatic feature films. Former Di- rector of Cinema and Theatre Affairs in Iraq and member of the Iraqi Committee for Study- ing Movie Scenarios for Local Production. B.A. degree from Univ. of Baghdad, with special program in cinema at UCLA. Write: M. M. Al-Yasin, 10616 Wellworth Ave., Los Angeles 24, Calif: TV Production. Wish to relocate in Los Angeles area. Young man, Married; M.A. degree in TV production. from major Midwest uni- versity. Experienced in TV direction, radio and TV announcing.. Hold FCC Second Class Radiotelephone License?qualified in operation of color and monochrome cameras and terminal equipment, color and monochrome video tape recorders, film sound recording and mixing, and kinescope recording. Resume and references on request. Box 7373, Detroit, Mich. 48202. Director-Cameraman-Editor. Young creative, productive woman seeks position preferably in the Los Angeles area (until June '64) or New York, with motion picture or television com- pany, providing opportunity for intensive train- ing and increased responsibilities. For full resume write: Scylla R. Trad, c/o Manager. of ,625 Landfall:, Los Angeles 24, Calif, or phone GR 9-5404. Positions Available Technical Sales Assistant. Assistant in Sales Department, preferably with motion-picture equipment sales experience. Duties will include work in order department and customer contacts in Person, by phone and mail. Excellent career opportunity for ambitious young man. Good starting salary. Many employee benefits: Send resume to: Victor James, Vice-President, Arri- flex Corporation of America, 257 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y. 10010. Equipment Maintenance. Assistant to Chief Engineer of. motion-picture laboratory. "Take charge"type desired to supervise maintenance of developing and printing machines, etc. Excellent opportunity for qualified. man. Salary open. Sub- mit resume to: General Manager, M.G.M.- Lab- oratories, Inc., 10202 W. Washington Blvd., Cul- ver City, Calif. 90232. Laboratory Manager. For rapidly growing mid- west laboratory. Well experienced in laboratory procedure, understand SMPTE standards, able to supervise production of top quality work, handle producer services and meet with clients. Excellent opportunity for progressive individual. Send iesume and salary requirements to Edward C. PoWles, General Film Laboratory, Inc., 66 Sibley St., Detroit I, Mich. (313) 961-7818. Cameraman. Opportunity for cinematographer seriously interested in pursuing creative career in industrial-educational-training film production to join staff- of well established studio. Must have had experience with 16 and 35mm cameras, interior lighting techniques, negative and re- versal color films. Position requires -man not opposed to hard work on the job and with a personal interest in client-producer relations. Salary commensurate with experience. Send detailed work history and film samples to F.J.H., 438 Washington Bldg., Washington, D.C. Film Editors and Negative Cutters. Send resume Box 433, Gracie Station, New York, N.Y. Motion-Picture Laboratory Personnel. Print: ing, processing, timing. Send resume Box 433, Gracie Station, New York, N. Y. Journals Available/Wanted .,These notices are published as a service to ex- pedite disposal and acquisition of out-of-print Journals. Please write direct to the persons and addresses listed. Complete set of Journals from January 1934 through December 1963. Excellent condition. For sale only as complete 30-year set. Write: Don Norwood, 1470 San Pasqual St., Pasadena, Calif. Complete set of Journals from January 1951 through December 1952. Perfect condition. Write: K. Tsien, 14 Esplanade, Mount Vernon, N.Y. Complete set of Journals from March .1956 through December 1962, including indexes and directories, in excellent condition. Write: J. B. Pesek, 369 Huntington Lane, Elmhurst, July 1937 through July 1963. Complete less June 1942 and Nov. 1955. Condition excellent, Make offer to: Carl S. Williams, 237 Colgate Ave., Berkeley 8, Calif. Jan., Mar. Pt. II (High-Speed Photography Vol. I), July Aug., Sept., Nov. (High-Speed Photog- raphy Vol. II) 1949; Jan., Feb., June 1950; July 1951. Available for trade only for the following: Trans. No. 1; Journals: Apr., May 1936; Apr., May 1937; Jan., Mar., July 1938; Feb. 1939; Mar., June 1940; Feb.-May, July 1944; Jan., Apr., Aug. 1945; High-Speed Photography. Vol. ?Gian. Maria Rimoldi, Via Plinio 39, Milano, Italy. Transactions and Journals 1917 through 1963 (partly bound). Excellent condition. Very reasonable. J. J. Kuehn Sound Film Laboratory, 59 East Illinois St., Chicago 11, Ill. Complete 1944 (except Aug.) ; complete 1945; Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Nov., Dec. 1949; complete 1950; Jan., Feb., Mar. (Pts. I & II), Apr. 1951. Complete years' issues avail- able only as unbroken lots. R. H. Cricks, Tech- nical, & Export Publicity Ltd., 101 Wardour St., London W.1, England. 11 MAJOR 1: diUTHOIV ._ AP IG h * IN MOM.. Mil MIME in Ent MOM- NOMIMMINI. =IN =1.1?11 SPRAY DEVELOPING FILM/MINE Sa?60 16/35MM NEG/POS SPRAY PROCESSOR ? DEVELOPS NEGATIVE FILM AT 35 FPM ? DEVELOPS POSITIVE FILM AT 60 FPM The S-60 is Filmline's newest Spray Processor. It is a friction drive processor, guaranteed not to break or scratch film. Absolute control of footage in each chamber insures sensitotnetric quality control and consistent development. And Filmline processors (unlike , competitive snakes) have lower film assemblies that are adjustable and remain captive in the position placed. The S-60 is the specific answer to every laboratories need for a Spray Processor? because it outperforms machines costing twice as much. Also available for 16mItt only. For the full story on the S-60 write today to: CO R PO RAT ION MILFORD, CONNECTICUT Worlds. Largest Manufacturer of Fans Processors 17- ? Film Chamber doors are completely removable for easy access to entire chamber (Not found in competitive models of similar class) ? Processing section is stainless steel ? Impingement dry box ? Precision temperature controls with indicating pilot lights for cool- ing & heating . 316 Stainless steel pumps for developing & hypo solution ? Water temperature regulator . Dual air squegee ? Feed in take up elevators for continuous operation ? Replenishment flow meters ? Manual & automatic brake for film supply ? Automatic electrical torque motor take.up ? Variable drive with film speed tachometer . Precision Thermometer & footage couoter. VISIT US AT BOOTH 215 March 1964 journal of.the.SMPTE Volume 73 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 304 6624 ROMAINE ST., HOLLYWOOD, CALIF 90038 / HO 9-7221 G. CARLET6N HUNT, president , ? : ? March 1964 .7Journal :of the SMPT :Voluine 73. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Contents - pages 224-304 News Columns 95th Conference and Equipment Exhibit, Angeles ADVANCE PROGRAM EXHIBIT DIRECTORY Education, Industry News Advertisers Amega Corp. Ansco Div., General Aniline & Film Corp. . . Arriflex Corp. of America . . . .240, 241, Atlas Projector Corp. Bach Auricon, Inc Bell & Howell Co. Camera Equipment Co. Camera Mart, Inc. Camera Service Center ColorTran Industries Comprehensive Filmtreat Andre Debrie of New York Eastman Kodak Co Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. Fairchild Recording Equipment, Inc Filmline Corp. Florman & Babb, Inc. 242, Frigidheat Industries General Film Laboratories Gevaert Photo- Producten N.V. Glen Glenn Sound Co Gryphon Co Engelhard Hanovia, Inc. Hills Manufacturing Co. Hi-Speed Equipment, Inc Hollywood Film Co Houston Fearless Corp Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp lchizuka Optical Co., Ltd Lab-TV Los . . 275, 244, 286, 224 225 238 260 255 265 291 282 249 245 269 288 276 239 254 279 300 266 303 292 295 277 273 304 294 262 268 272 287 296 283 286 290 Abstracts Current Literature Books, Booklets, Brochures New Products Employment Service Journals Available/Wanted La Vezzi Machine Works Lipsner-Smith Corp. Magnasync Corp Magna-Tech Electronic Co., Inc Magnetic Sales Corp. Maier-Hancock Sales Co. . . . .. . MitchellCorp Mole-Richardson Co. Motion Picture Enterprises, Inc Motion Picture Printing Equipment Co Movielab, Inc. Moviola Mfg. Co Moviola Mfg. Co. Newman &,Guardia Ltd North American Philips Co. Oxberry Corp 258, Palmer Editors Pathe Laboratories, Inc.. . ....... Permafilm, Inc. Photo-Kinetics, Inc. Photo Research Corp. Plastic Reel Corp. of America Prestoseal Mfg. Corp. Professional Services Reevesound Co. Research Products, Inc Revere-Wollensak Div., 3M Co. SMPTE S.O.S. Photo-Cine-Optics, Inc. Strong Electric Corp. Tri Art Color Corp. Zoomar, Inc. . . . . .. 263, . 237, 250, . . 252 267, . 256, 276 288 292 298 302 303 294 278 247 281 248 284 253 284 280 257 289 274 274 243 271 270 299 301 246 299 280 259 261 302 285 260 251 264 282 295 297 298 Meeting Calendar IEEE International Convention, Mar. 23-26, New York Hilton, New York Coliseum, New York. Optical Society of America, Apr. 1-3, Sheraton-Park Hotel, Washing- ton, D.C. NAB, Annual Convention, Apr. 5-8, Conrad Hilton Hotel, Chicago. 95th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Apr. 12-17, Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Technical Meeting and Equipment Exposition, Apr. 13-15, Sheraton Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. DAVI, Annual Convention, Apr. 20-25, War Memorial Auditorium, Rochester, N.Y. SPSE, International Conference, Apr. 23-May 2, Americana Hotel, New York National Microfilm Association, Apr. 28-30, Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia. Educational Film Library Association, Apr. 29-May 2, Biltmore Hotel, New York. AICE, National Meeting, May 3-6, Penn-Sheraton Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pa. Inter-Society Color Council, 33rd Annual Meeting, May 4,5, Stotler Hilton Hotel, New York. ASTM 67th Annual Meeting and 16th Materials Testing Exhibit, June 21-26, Conrad Hilton Hotel, Chicago AICE, ASME, ISA, IEEE, Fifth Joint Automatic Control Conference, June 26-28, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. NAVA, National Convention, July 20-23, Sherman House, Chicago. Techniques of High-Speed Photography, Dr. H. E. Edgerton, July 27-31, MIT, Cambridge, Mass. PSA, International Convention, Aug. 16,20, Queen Elizabeth, Mon- treal, Canada. UFPA, National Convention, Aug. 17-22, Oklahoma Center forcon- .. tinuing Education, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. SPIE, 9th Annual Technical Symposium, Aug. 24-28, Deauville. Hotel, Miami Beach, Fla. 96th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPT,rand Equipment Exhibit, Sept. 27-Oct. 2, Commodore Hotel, New York.' IEEE, international Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, Sept. 28,29, Paris, Franc..e.' Optical 'Society of America, Annual Meeting, Oct.' 7':9, Stotler H ilton New York. NAB, Annual Convention, Mar. 21-25,1965, Shoreham and Sheraton . Park Hotels, Washington, D.C. 97th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Mar. 28-Apr..2, 1965, Ambassador Hotel,los Angeles. 98th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Oct. 31-Nov. 5, 1965, Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Montreal. Exhibit, May 1-6, 1966, Sheraton Park Hotel, Washington, D.C. 100th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Oct. 2-7, 1966, Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles. 101st Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, May 8-12, 1967, Statler-Hilton Hotel, New York. 103rd Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Apr. 22-27, 1968, Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles. 105th Semiannual Technical Conference of the SMPTE and Equipment Exhibit, Apr. 20-25, 1969, Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami Beach Fla. SMPTE Officers and Committees: The rosters of the Officers of the Society, its Sections, Subsections and Chapters and of the Committee Chairmen and Members were published in the April 1963 Journal. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8 sustaining I members of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers For the addresses and descriptions of activities of these members, see the Society's Journal for April, 1962, Part II. New members and supplementary descriptions were published in July, 1962, and April, 1963. Progress toward the attainment of the objectives of the Society is greatly aided by the financial support provided by the member companies listed below. Acme Film Laboratories, Inc. Alex Laboratorios Cinematograficos S.A. Alexander Film Co. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, Inc. ABC-TV Network ABC Films, Inc. Ampex Corporation Howard A. Anderson Ansco Arriflex Corp. of America C. S. Ashcraft Mfg. Company, Inc. The Association of Cinema Laboratories, Inc. Audio Productions, Inc. Bach Auricon, Inc. Bausch & Lomb Incorporated Behrend Cine Corporation Bell & Howell Company Birns & Sawyer Cine Equipment Co. Bonded Film Storage (Division of Novo Industrial Corp.) Byron Motion Pictures, Inc. S. W. Caldwell Ltd., Canada Calvin Productions, Inc. Camera Equipment Company, Inc. The Camera Mart, Inc. Camera Service Center, Inc. Canadian Marconi Company Capital Film Laboratories, Inc. Oscar F. Carlson Company Century Lighting, Inc. Century Projector Corporation Cineffects, Inc. Cinema Processors, Inc. Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory, Inc. Color Film Corporation Color Reproduction Company Color Service Company, Inc. ColorTran Industries Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. CBS Television Network; CBS Television Stations; CBS News; CBS Films; Terrytoons Comprehensive Service Corporation Conrac Division Consolidated Film Industries Criterion Film Laboratories, Inc. Dage Television Co. DeLuxe Laboratories, Inc. Desilu Productions, Inc. Du Art Film Laboratories, Inc. Tri Art Color Corporation E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. Dynacolor Corporation Eagle Film Laboratory, Inc. Eastern Effects, Inc. Eastman Kodak Company Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. Elgeet Optical Company, Inc. Max Factor & Co. Fairchild Camera & Inst. Corp. Industrial Products Division Ferrania Photo Sales Ltd., Canada Ferrania S.p.A., New York Filmcraft Pty. Limited, Australia Filmline Corporation Florman & Babb, Inc. GPL Division - General Precision, Inc. General Electric Company General Film Laboratories W. J. German, Inc. Gevaert Photo-Prod ucten N. V. Glen Glenn Sound Company Guffanti Film Laboratories, Inc. Frank Herrnfeld Engineering Corp. Hi-Speed Equipment, Incorporated Hollywood Film Company Hollywood Film Enterprises, Inc. Frank Holmes Laboratories, Inc. Houston Fearless Corporation Philip A. Hunt Company Hunt's Theatres, Inc. Hurletron Incorporated Impulsphysik Dr.-Ing. Frank Frangel GmbH, Germany JM Developments, Inc. The Jam Handy Organization, Inc. Jamieson Film Co. The Kalart Company Inc. Victor Animatograph Corporation Keitz & Herndon, Incorporated KIN-O-LUX, Inc. Kollmorgen Optical Corporation Labcraft International Corporation Laboratoires Cinernatographiques CTM France LAB-TV Robert Lawrence Productions, Ltd., Canada Lipsner-Smith Corporation Lorraine Arc Carbon Co. Division of Carbons, Inc. Machtronics, Incorporated McCurdy Radio Industries, Ltd. Mecca Film Laboratories Corporation M.G.M. Laboratories, Inc. D. B. Milliken Company Milner-Fenwick, Inc. Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co. Revere-Wollensak Div. Mitchell Camera Corporation Mole-Richardson Co. Monteleoni, Inc. Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. Allied Artists Pictures Corporation Buena Vista Film Distribution Company, Inc. Columbia Pictures Corporation Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. Paramount Pictures Corporation Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. United Artists Corporation Universal Pictures Company, Inc. Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. , Motion Picture Enterprises, Inc. Motion Picture Laboratories, Inc. Motion Picture Printing Equipment Co. Movielab, Inc. Moviola Manufacturing Co. National Carbon Company, Division of Union Carbide Corporation ? National Screen Service Corporation National Theatre Supply Company Newman & Guardia Ltd. Nichion Company, Ltd., Japan North American Philips Company, Inc: Novatech Corporation Oxberry Corporation W. A. Palmer Films, Inc. Pan-American Films Panavision Incorporated N. J. Pappas & Associates Parthenon Pictures Pathe-DeLuxe of Canada, Ltd. Pathe Laboratories, Inc. Peelcraft Limited, Canada Photo Methods for Industry?P.M.I. Photo-Sonics, Inc. Pittsburgh Motion Picture Lab Precision Laboratories (Division of Precision Cine Equipment Corporation) Prestoseal Mfg. Corp. Producers Service Company, Division of Boothe Leasing Corp. Quick-Set, Inc. RCA Victor Company, Ltd. Radio Corporation of America National Broadcasting Company Communications Products Division Rank Precision Industries Ltd., England; Rank Kalee Division Rapid Film Technique, Inc. Reid H. Ray Film Industries, Inc. Reeves Sound Studios, Inc. RIVA-Munich, Germany Charles Ross Inc. Russell-Barton Film Company Ryder Sound Services, Inc. S.O.S. Photo-Cine-Optics, Inc. Sequential Electronic Systems, Inc. Smith Kline & French Laboratories Soc. s.r.l. laniro Southwest Film Laboratory, Inc. The Strong Electric Corp. Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. Technicolor Corporation Titra Film Laboratories, Inc. Trans-Canada Films Ltd. Trans-World Film Laboratories, Ltd., Canada ' Henry Ushijima Films, Inc. Van Praag Productions Video Film Laboratories Westinghouse Electric Corporation Westrex Company International Division Recording Equipment Division Wilding Inc. WRS Motion Picture Laboratory Zoomar, Inc. The Society invites applications for Sustaining Membership from other interested companies. Infor- mation may be obtained from the Chairman of the Sustaining Membership Committee, Joseph T. Dougherty, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 45 Rockefeller Pl., Rm. 550, New York 20, N. Y. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/10/28: CIA-RDP80T00246A026400180002-8