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January 15, 1957
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 CLASSIFICATION -E-C-R-F-T CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY (V 59-34, E 150-4b) SUBJECT Kolyma Region i PLACE ACQUIRED DATE OF INFO. TRIR IO 1VIT 00RTA1RS tfl0IRNIO AnUM"71* RATlOtAL OS!!W oI TRS 11R11R sTAtts ? 1118 T.s Rn5W Or Tint xspw 1 Aa so O.LO..$1 ARP sLASAR00RR. ITS Tl*RSRlssgI of Tilt tls[fATM. OI ITS COIITlRTS Rl ART Wilt TO At VYIT/1O P P 0* n ~I Wl1Tl0 Aft YS tspossocnoo op TOTS saIR IS raompTtR. REPORT DATE DISTR, 15 Junuary 1957 NO. OF PAGES NO. OF ENCLS. SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. 46 These include a city plan of Magadan a city planar Orotukan (N 62-16, E 151-42), and sketches of: a. A reservoir site ten km northwest of Magadan. b. The site of a naval radio station. c. Magadan airport. d. Camp Matrosov. e. The Matrosov Mining Works. f. Villages and installations in the vicinity of the Stan-U)tina Mining Combine. g. The gold mining plant of the Stan-Utina Mining Combine. Comments: Recurringly throughout the report~refer to "Soviet Kclyma" as bein, peninsula *..,~vn it is ^clitallZI .t Of the ,ns?.n ~ 1dnc7_, 2. No geograynu.c or administrative designation "Soviet Kolyma pnically spec g, the Kolyma River emerges at the confluence of the Kulu and Ayan-Uryakh rivers, which have their soya.ices in the 25X1 25X1 Pas-Kystabyt Mountain Range. The Kolyma River flaws approximately 2 600 km into STK E X NAVY NSRB ~- DISTRIBUTION ---~ ARMY Air? (." FBI nV Kolyma Bay, an adjunct of the East Siberian Sea. There also exists a Kolyma (Gydan) Mountain Range, which stretches in a northeasterly direction alonb the Sea of Okhotsk and Shelekhov Bay to the Chaunskaya Guba. This area has many peaks ranging up to 2,000 m. The greater part of both these areas is loc_-.ed within the Magadan Oblast, an administrative unit created December 3rd, 1y5 when it was separated from Khabarovsk Kra y. Soviet Kolymar may be 25X1 that section of the Magadan Oblast,which is in the immediate vicinity of the Kolyma River, However, the quadrant formed by the coordinates in the first paragraph does not include Magadan. CLASSIFICATION S-E-C-R-E-T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 - S-};e.(., E.-~J 3. The Kolyma River is,approxiately 250 km away, as the crow flies, at its nearest point to Magadan. Coordinates for Orotukan are N 62.-1u, E 151-42. For Spornoye read Spornyy (N 62-21, E 151-06). 5, For Butygyshag read Butygychag (z 61-19, z 149-11). 6. For Magada, here and throughout report, read Magadan. 7. According to previous repozts,tLe Chief Directorate of DaLstroy was and is in Magadan. See per Xa, page 17. 8. Farr Nagae'va read Nagayeva (N 55-29, E 150-40); Gertner Bay is located at (N 59-30, E 151-00). 9. Nora (N 64-14, E 130-16) is in the Yakutsk ASSR. 10. Correct spelling is Ust-Omehak (N 61-09, E 149-38). ii. Coordinates for Omewikchan are N 62-21, E 11;5-48. 12, Approximate coordinates for Matrosov I are N 51-37, E 147-50. 13. Approximate coordinates for Matrosov Il are N 6 -40, E 147-51. 14. Approximate coordinates for Timoshenko are N 61-3Z, E 147-54, 15, Budennyy probably should read Budamogo (N 61-35, B 148-00,approximately), 16. For Katorzbani read Fatcrzheniny. Approximate coordiffi.tes for Gorkiy (N 62-40, E 150- 20). 17. Tgansha is possibly andzha (N 60-33, F 150-a8) 18.1 Correct versico is Susumau(N 62-47, E 1b8-1-0). 19. Approximate coordinates for }3lgen are N 62-48, z 150-50. 20. Taskan is located at u 62-59, E 150-20. 21. For Yagadnyy read Yagodnyy (N 62-33, E 7.49-40). 22. Coordinates for Ust-Utinaya N 62..34, E 151-28. 23, Seymchan i? located at N 62-53, E 152.26, 24. The Chukchi are also known as the Luoravetlany. 25. The M'. B and the MW were merged in Minch 1953 into an entity call-d A;e MVD? In the fail of the same year, the than MAD eras once again derided this time f ato the ICra and the M?D0 26. Bukhta NNakhodka is located at N 42-48, E 132-51. 27,. Coordinates for Irkutsk are N 52-16, B 104-20. 28. Coordinates, for Khabarovsk are N 48-30, E 135-06, 29. Gulag (Chief Directorate of ramps) was transferred in April and Ma; 19;3 to tbLs Ministry of ;fust`ice fu,d was returned to the 14VD probably in Januaa7 1954. 30. Sverdlovsk. is located at N 56-50,; E 60-38. 3:1. Norilsk is 1ocat~&d ac N 69-.80, E 88.06:, 32, CooRdf:rated are Ular,-U'de (N 51i-4550, as 107-371,, Chita (N j2-03a E ] 13-30 " Mogocba (14 .5345" F 9.,.-.,.5 Skovoroc?is)o (N 53-59, F 1 3 - 5 No rrentirrv, the , : rcd;ino- Ata dy-~? line is made in he Dir.-Actives of the XK of t;fa roax;F nit , 'c lk ;'Y on the Sixth Five-Year Plan u ~.:r.. W_}w Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 33. 34. 35, 36. 370 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 -3- Correct coordinates for Anadyr are N 64-45, E 177-35 Coordinates are: ryndinskiy (N 55-10, E i2443) Atka (N 00-50, E 151-48), Penzhino (N 63-30, E 167-55). IJarkavo possibly (N 61-40, E 170-25). Coordinates for Krasnoyarsk are N 56-02, E 92-48. Coordinates for Vladivostok are .N 43-08, B 131-54 and for A]ioa Ata N 43-12, E 76-57. Coordinates for traxtsevichi are N 52-44., E 25-20. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 E C R E T -_ KCLWA Table of Cgntents I Geographic Location II Natural Conditions III Natural Resources IV Climate V Administration (a) General (b) Administrative district of Yagadan (c) Southern Administrative district (d) Southwestern Administrative district (e) Western Administrative district (f) Northern Administrative district (g) Indigirka Administrative district Population (a) General (b) Forced Colonization (c) 1951 (d) 1955 VII Ways and Modes of Travel (a) Central transport.tion center (b) Roads (c) Airports (d) Railroads (a) Kolyma River IX Industrialization (a) Mining (b) Consumer goods Industries (c) Conatrtction Industry (d) Plan Fulfillment, ' Product ion Figures k Rorer. System and Wage Structures (a) Norms (b) Payment XI System: of Distribution (a) Economic Orfanizations (b) Dependence upon the Imports and Supplies (1) Food (,) Testiles (3) Gasoline and Oil (4) Other fuels (5) Yachines and Tools (E.) Construct is n Materials (7) prectical Iir plements (c) Means and Routes of Transport (1) Land Connections With Siberia (2) Air Route (1) Sea Route (d) Points of Diatrlbn&ion (1) Supply Eases Free Market (3.' bezear ;,.': lack ':aa?ket Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 L C R E T (1) General (2) Newspapers (3) Radio Agitation Clubs Films Literature Theatre and Musical Life Health Conditions XIII Frame of Mind and Attitude of the Population XIV Ystrosov Mining Works (a) Organization (b) Plant Location (c) Mining Plant Metrosov Stan.Utina Yining Works (a) Organization (b) Plant Location (c) Plant and Equipment (d) The Cold Washing Plant in Stan-Utina (e) The port of Ust-Utineya (f) Brick factory at Ust-Utina (g) The Cold Sand Nine Rechka ;'VI Camp Conditions (a) General (b) Composition of the Political contingents in the prisoner cainps. (c) Selling places for the prisoners in the camp (d) (e) (f ) (g) (h) (I) Camp guard System Cultural program in the Camps Health program Diet Job classifications of the prisoners Working Conditions XVII Attachment to the Report on Kolyma XVIII Postscript to the Report on Magadan (a) Documents (b) Living Conditions in Magadan XVIX The Railroad Connections from Siberia to Kolyma (e) Individual Means of Supply (1) Sovkhoz and Kolkhoz (2) Machine and Tractor Stations (3) Factory and Plants (4) Fisheries and hunting (f) General Review Living Cond;tiocs (a) General (b) Living Space (c) Cultural Program Observations on a Flight from Magadan to Sverdlovsk (a) Airport at Magadap (b) Airport at Nikola'yerrsllt` (c) Airport at Khabarovsk _i(d) (e) (f ) (h ) (i) Airport at Ma jammbi Airport at Irkutex Airport at Krasnoyarsk Airport at Novosibirsk Airport at Sverdlovsk Flight Distances ~' : ; ti? D iracn on railroad trip Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Geographic Location S E_ R E T Soviet Kc]yma lies in the Northeastern part of the?t'SSR between 60-66 cegrees of latitude and between 146-160 degrees of longitude. Soviet Kolyma takes its name from the Kolyma River which 1as-its source in the Cherkovo-Mountains and which flows about 2400 kilometers into the Arctic Ocean. k'hile Kolyma itself, aeon geographically, is a peninsula, it is re- garded by the rest of the USSR as part of the whole continent and is referred to in conversation as part of the "Motherland" (or iainlend) 1 II Natural Conditions The entire area of Soviet Kolyma is almost exclusively worrtainous, with the exception of the area around Magadan and the Kolyme River valley? The region has the character of highlands with mountain chains. as high as 2000 meters, which are referred to by the Soviets as peaks rather than mountains - for the mountains themselves rise above lands which are already high. As a result of the climatic conditions (see IV) the area has sparse vegetation. The former forest areas were almost completely despoiled through the indis- criminate cutting down of the trees during the years from. 1935-1945, so that today one finds high forests only in a few places. The cultivation of vegetables and potatoes is possible only in a few places, -due to the natural conditions (stony soil) and the severe climate. One finds relatively larger agricultural areas with scvkhozes and koll"hozes in the southern edmin4etrative area, in the vicinity of Magadan, near the Kolyma River.3 In 1952 greater attempts. were made for the cultivation of vegetables and potatoes, to which purpose the population received instruction to hake the fallow land arable, to refine it for the purposes of cultivation. This attempt brought no satisfactory results, but is being continued, III Natural Resources IV The area is rich in natural resources, which are mined in open and underground mines (See IX a). The following are prospected: Tin, zinc, platinum (in marginal quantities), uranium, cobalt, gold, tungsten, and also hard and soft coal. The chief wealth is in gold production. Prevailing continental polar climate, although the area does not extend past the Arctic Circle. The onset of winter occurs between the first and the tenth of September, but this does not apply to Magadan and the region near Magadan where it begins in the middle of October. The heaviest snowfalls come in the second half of September, and in the months of October and Nov- ember. The melting of the snow begins in the riddle of May. Temperatures': Low temperatures - area Alyaskitov: 65 degree C.; area ifbtrosov (Tenkin) - 60 degree C.; also given as Tenkin, Kholodnyy - 55 degree C.; k otukan - 50 degree C.; Spornoye - 60 degree C.; Magadan - 40 degree i,:.4 Average tempera- ture in the region is rrinus 4C degrees C. Y_eaviest frete is in the months of December and January. Also in the few warm summer months of July and August there is often a frost in the night. In the rronths of February, March, and April there are heavy storre,perticulerly in the area of Butygyshag.5 The hottest time of the year is from mid-July until rid-August, high point of the temperature going to 40 degrees above zero C. at midday, and roan temperatures about 20 degrees above zero C. In the month from July until August there are severe mosquito plagues. After a mild winter there is a summer of heavy precipitation; after a hot summer there is a severe winter. It is certain that the quilted cotton and felt clothing imported for protection against the cold are insufficient protection and do not satisfy their purpose. They are thick and heavy and hinder one's rcvements. Since in the sum-or a sharp cold sets in as soon as the sun goes down and in the night hours there is a frost, one must wear the quilted cotton jackets in the summer months. As a er Indirect subordination e for Kolyma; regional administration Usvitlag, Magadan. Chief Directorate of Correctional Labor Campo C1- ..-'I Operupolnomoohennyy MVD to Chief of,,the eubcamp 20 Chief of the work and planning section 3? Chief of the cultural and educational section !.. Chief of the political 5. Chief of the special 6. Chief of the medical 7. Chief of the supply section (chaet? intendantskogo snabzheniya) 8. Chief of the administration section (khozchaet?) 9. Regimen Chief (nachal?nik rezhima) and Chief of the guards (Nachal?nik nadziretel?noy sluzhby) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 SECRET _35- At the present time the whole administrative set-up of the camp administration can be seen from the prototype TO, of the smallest administrative unit, the Lagerpunkt (sub-camp). The section chiefs of the individual sections of the lagerpunkt are not responsible to the chiefs of the Lagerpunktq?, but are direct- ly responsible, with few exceptions, to the chief of the corresponding section of the chief directorate of the district. For example, the chief of the labor pool section of a given Lagerpunkt is not subordinate to the chief of the Lagerpunkt, but instead is subordi-note to the Chief of the Labor Pool Section of the Camps Section and this man in turn is subordinate to the Chief of the Labor Pool Section of the Camp Administration.. The chief of the camp is only responsible for economic aspects, supplies, and the personal custody of the prisoners. For the rest are appointed the special administrative sections with whom he cooperates. Supervision'of the prisoner contingent and of the officers of the camp administration is carried out by the N.VD case officer (operupolnomochennyy). In 1954 the then existing penal camps were divided into three groups: Group I Camps for severe treatment Group II Camps for general treatment Group III Camps for lenient treatment The dividing of the contingents of political prisoners into three groups was not based upon the crimes for which they had been sentenced but upon their behaviour while serving their time in camp. The camps in Group III for lenient treatment are assigned to special areas where the prisoners live without guards and have the possibility of living among the local population. For the camps in Group I and Group II there has been no administrative change. Until the end of 1955 the reform in the camps of the Kolyma area had not yet been affected. (b) Composition of the Contingents of Political Prisoners in the Penal Carps By far the greatest part of the political prisoners (about 70%) can be considered as a politically indifferent, although dissatisfies, mass-of people, who were caught up in the periodic mass arrests which occurred up to the year of 1954 and were arrested and sentenced. After the and of World War II, the greatest part. of the political prisoners consisted of former member of the Soviet Army, who during the course of the war were taken prisoner by the Germans, and after their return to the USSR were accused as betrayers of their country and almost all were sentenced to 25 years of forced labor. Only about 20% of the political prisoners are actually consciously opposed to the Soviet regime. This group is=for the moat part composed of members of the intelligentsia, of Balts, Western Ukrainians, and members of national minor- ities. About 5% of the prisoners are Communists who do not look upon the Soviet regime as a true Communist regime and for this reason belong to acme opposition group or other. They are certainly anti-Soviet, but they are not anti-Comirunist. About 5% of the political prisoners are still today, in spite of their having been sentenced to 25 years of forced labor, pro-Soviet. (Breakdown figures for the entire population of the Kolyma area under XIII). Only a small part of the political prisoners, perhaps 10 to 15%, are of Great Russian nationality. The political prisoners are preponderantly Western Ukrain- ians (about 50%) who were sentenced because they collaborated with the German occupation forces during the war or because they belong to or helped the Partisan organizations. About 10% of the political prisoners are from the Baltic peoples (Lm vans, Lithuanians, and Estonians), also about 10% are Belorussians, all of whom were arrested for the same reasons as the Ukrainians. National minorites (Caucasians, etc.) coirprise about 20%, who served in the various legions of the German armed forces during the war, ccmplete the contin- gent of these camps. Carman war prisoners are with few exceptions (of 22 German citizens only 3 were war prisoners) in special war prisoner camps (in 1955 such Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246A031900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 -37- camps remained ci y is the area of Sverdlovsk) 3y The pereentage of ethnic Germans (Volkedeutech), earticularly from the Ukraine, was about 3%. The Western Ukrainians among the prisoners must t?e considered as not politically anti-Bolshevik, but as a markedly nationalistic group, for the most part; they are as greatly hostile to the Poles, fiungarians, and Belorussians as they are to the Great Russians. In 1954/55 all of the prisoners who were not Soviet citizens were gathered to- gether in the Magadan carps for the purpose of returning them to their homelands. The prisoners came from the following countries: Chinese about Poles about 25 Hungarians about 25 Czechs 10 Rumanians " 20 Bulgarians " 10 Jugoslavs " 20 (of whom about 10 were of Russian nationality) In total there were about 220 foreigners who until May 1955 were gathered to- gether in the Magadan camps. The transporting of these people from Magadan was begun in July 1955 in the following order: tke Poles, the Rumanians the Jugoslavs, (others over and above the 20) whose citizenship was not clearly proved, remained in the Magadan transfer camp. In the camps for criminal prisoners where the chief contingents consist of Great Russians and Eastern Ukrainians, only a minimum numter of other national-, ities. The political attitude of these prisoners, as far as one can speak of, it is for the most part, pro-Soviet. (c) Selling places in the Camps Selling places for the purchase of food, luxury items (with the exception of whiskey), clothing, and necessities, have been located in the general camps for criminal prisoners since the lifting of the rationing system in the USSR (1948) and have existed in the special camps for political prisoners since 1953. After their establishment, since 1953 the supplies of these selling places correspond to the wares of the local civilian sectors. The prices in these selling places correspond to the generally prevailing State-set prices. In particular it is to noted that: 1. The deliveries of wares offered for sale, particularly of butter, sugar, first rate canned goods, and cheap tobacco are in no proportion to the demand. 2, A certain amount of the goods delivered are damaged and dan?-erous to health (for example, rancid butter). 3. In coder to dispose of wares in little derrand there are tie-in sales. 4. Because of a lack of small change (a general state of affairs in the Kolyma area), the prices are rounded off to a higher figure. 5o 1954 was extraordinary for the rreat amount of better canned goods from China. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 S E C R E T -38- 6. At the end of 1954 there was suddenly noticeable a greater shortage of sugar and butter. (This shortage of sugar and butter was also true of the stores for the civilian population where butter and sugar were given out only in very small quantities.) 7. Fabrics were particularly notable for their very bad quality. 8. The selling places, which are generally open daily, were, in many camps, in 1955 only open on an irregular basis due to a shortage of goods for sale. (d) Camp Guard System The guarding of the prisoner contingents is usually done by the military units of the MVD. These units, counted as military groups, are not in a subordinate relationship to the camp leadership of the MVD but are under the orders of their current unit leaders. In the performance of their regular military ser- vice they are assigned to special duty with the MM This fact determines in general their relationship to the contingent of prisoners. Above all they dis- play a markedly loyal attitude toward the criminal prisoners and since 1954 their attitude toward the political prisoners has become tolerable. Of course, their relationships were just the opposite from 1949 until 1954. The guards for the special camps for political prisoners were specially in- structed taught that they were dealing with enemies of the people. When they reported for duty they would give the password by saying, "In the camp of the emenies of the people .............." In these years the contingent of political prisoners suffered extraordinarily under the terroristic measures and tyranny of the guards. The number of guards consists of a two man convoy guard for 1 to 10 prisoners. In general one could reckon on 1 guard for 11 prisoners. During a march the prisoners were arrayed in five rows, and until the end of 1954 the political prisoners had to march with their hands folded behind their backs; moving the hands was forbidden, and if a prisoner took one step to the left or the right out of the line he was in, the convoy shot at thin without warning. The prisoners were also forbidden to speak while on march. At the onset of darkness or when they were marching in larger columns, dogs were also added to the complement of the guards. The guards were equipped with hand weapons (carbines and machine pistols). Before and on holidays the guard was increased. The guarding of the camps themselves was done from watch towers, this arrangement of the watch towers having been set up with the view in mind that in any given case the camp area could be covered with cross fire. The watch towers were equipped with telephones and search lights. In the night- time the camp was brightly lit by the search lights. The camp itself was surrounded by a fence taller than a man, and the area ad- jacent to the fence inside was a barred zone and outside of the camp around the fence there were laid out three barred zones. It was forbidden to approach nearer than 5 meters to the inside barred zone and to approach 10 meters from the outside zone. The traffic in and out of the camp vent through two separate controls. The first control, the control of the military guards, registered the entrance and the exit; while the second control, the control of the admin- istrative supervision of the camp (Lageraufeeher) supervised visitors. Enter- ing the camp with weapons in one's possession is forbidden to all military and civil persons. The internal camp supervision is carried out.by the MVD camp inspection office. This supervision is generally less stringent than it was before 1954. There is a camp inspector responsible for each barracks. Once a month there is a search of every possible storage place or receptacle in the camp. The possession of metal objects (knives, etc.) is forbidden. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 SECRET -39- (e) Cultural Program in the. Camps The cultural program in the camps for criminal prisoners was always a very active one and strongly permeated with political content. Until 1953 the cultural program for political prisoners was completely inadequate,. although it too was strongly permeated with political content. Since the end of 1953 there has been an increase of political activity in all the camps due to the broadening of cultural installations (cinema, theatre, lectures, additional professional training, teaching illiterates to read, construction of a camp library, setting up of sport centers and competitions, increased consignments of newspapers and magazines). Particularly notable is the attempt to indoctrinate the prisoner contingent with a patriotic tendency. Based on the fact Vat money is taken only from living people )"Lebendigen") in 1954 for the first time the Soviet State made a tax on the contingent of political prisoners for the State Loan, under ex- actly the same conditions as held for the free population. The usual practice of the "voluntary compulsion" led to the fact that the loan in most camps was oversubscribed. One might note here that the criminal prisoners were given the opportunity to subscribe to this State Loan somewhat earlier than the political prisoners.' At any rate, UP the political camps this was significant as a rarity, the fact that they had some treatment as "free" citizens. In the camp Orotukan only ten men from the contingent of nearly 900 prisoners did not subscribe to the loaf&. In camp Matrosov nearly 90% of the prisoner contingent subscribed to the loan. Under the motto "Peace to the World" petitions were circulated to the entire area of the USSR for the world peace movement. The camps also had these. The writers of this report themselves had experience with this action in camp #1 in Magadan in April 1955. The interest in the participation in these lists was very great among the political prisoners of Soviet citizenship, although, because of the means used to obtain these signatures, one cannot determine whether people who signed were actually convinced of the validity of the peti- tions. The contingent of 220 prisoners of foreign nationalities who had been brought to this camp as the first atop on their repatriation refused to sign the petition except for the part of the foreigners who conetitued former Russian emigres from Manchuria and the part of the remaining nationalities who were friendly to the Soviets, (f ) Health Program The health program in the camps of Kolyma corresponds to the general prevail- ing picture of conditions in the camp. When measured by European standards they are insufficient and.in no way correspond to the needs, which arise part- icularly because of the difficult climatic conditions, and the consequences thereof. Surgical facilities are particularly short. This shortage makes itself noticeable above all others in the case of the aid for the unfortunates in the plants, especially those dangerous groups who must work in mining, in high and deep mines. The practical measures and devices for accident prevention in the plants is completely inadequate. For example, in Magadan in 1953 at the excavation work for the foundation of an apartment house an accident occurred when because of Insufficient propping up of the foundation walls, there was a sudden landslide of all the earth that had been dug out. There were twenty women working there as penal laborers who were buried with the masses of earth and as a consequence of rescue measures coming too late only three of the women were pulled to safety still alive. The number of accidents in the mines which turn out to be fatal is proportionately high, and most of them are through poison- ing through gas seepage. In September 1954 alone the mine Matrosov had 5 fatal accidents of which 3 were poisoning from gas seepage. In the year 1949 Camp Kholodnyy with a total strength of about 1,000 men had over 200 fatalities through illnesses (particularly malnutrition and mine accidents). S E C R E T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 SECRET _W_ (d) Diet For diet in the prisons there were five separate categories established: 1, Basic Maintenance: Consisted of 60C grams of black bread, 500 grams of cabbage and fish soup, 200 grams of barley mush, 500 grams of greats which had been cooked in meat, 7 grams of sugar. 2. Additional Maintenance: Consisting of: 700 grams of black bread, 1,000 grams of soup, 400 grams of mush (made from greats, oats or some other grain), and 14 grace of sugar. This additional maintainance was given out to prisoners who are held for investigation for more than a year. r4aintenance for the Sick: Consists of similar norm to #2. Tha - make-up depended upon the current medical recoerendationa. 4. Choosing one's own food: This can be done upon the recommendation of a doctor with the approval of the current board of examiners. 5. General Maintenance or the so-called "1rlnisterstvennyy poiok": Issuance of it is dcne through the m c examiner board with the State Attorney. Maintenance in the work carps is the same except that the bread ration is raised to 800 grams. For the camps in the Northern area the bread ration is 1,000 grams, otherwise the ration is the same. (h) Job Classifications of the prisoners The contingent of political prisoners is divided into several work categories. As a consequence of the mass arrests which took place in recent years, it is not to be taken for granted that the prisoners are predominantly from the in- tellectual professions. The greater part of the prisoners c-naist of unskilled laborers and illiterates. Particularly conspicuous is the great number of agri- cultural workers. The majority of the intellegentaia of the political prisoners come from the Baltic nationalities. The contingent of Western Ukrainians is in- tellectually undeveloped, obsessed with nationalistic feelings of hate, is hostile to every other national group, and is totally without wider political views. (i) Working Conditions In the political labor camps there prevailed until 1953 the exploitation of the labor force in drudgery. There was. no monetary compensation. For fulfilling the norm more than 110% a few men were given additional rations, which consisted of up to 200 grams more black bread and up to 200 grams of mush. Work performance was compensated only beginning in the middle of 1953. They earned as base pay the pay of the free citizens corresponding to the State Norms with deduction of from 39% - 51% of the earnings by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and an additional reduction cf from 260 to 300 rubles per month for the security of the standard of living in the camp. The costs for the guards were included in the deduction for tFe standard cf living made by the camp administration. The work norms for the prisoners corresponded to those for the free citizens. In order to raise the work capacity they Introduced the idea of giving time off for exceeding the norm. In 1955 it was as follows: SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 -41- For General Workers 121% 131% 141% 151% 1/2 clay off 1 " " 1 and 1/2 For Special Workers 106% 1/2 day off 111% 1 a 116% 1 and 1/2 121% 2 For Managing Workers (engineers, brigadier) 1/2 day off 1 " n And in order to increase the amount of work even more, work ccntests between the various work groups were introductid, whereby the victorious brigade re- ceived additional benefits, parts.,ulaarly scarce items of food and better work clothing. These so-called "Socialistic Competitions" were uncerway on a month- ly, half yearly and yearly basis In 1953 there was a widespread uprising at the camps of Karaganda and Norilsk which was put down by the bringing in of troops from the regular army with tank support.$1There was considerable datage down by the rebelling prisoners, After the uprising was put down and the camp rebuilt by an entirely new con- tingent, those of the rebelling contingent. who remained alive after the upris- ing were shipped out and distributed among the various camps in the Soviet Union. A part of this contingent of rebel: ng prisoners came from-the area of Norilsk to the camps in Knolodnyy and lubileynyy where they organized in 1954 a strike that lasted a':most 2 months. The reasons for the striko; in Norilsk were the shockingly inhuman wcrking con- ditions. As a result of the stringent guard measures by the operating sections in the carps, strong stri'.ce movements ray ely occur. XVII Attachment to the Report on Kolyma Price lists for goodu in free trade for sale in Magadan (as of September 1955) Black bread kg? .90 rubles Gray bread 1,20 " White bread 1st kind 2,,40 " White bread 2nd kind 1.080 " White rolls 100 grams from o80 " Cake 100 " It 1,50 " Ice cream 200 1.60 " Rice k;0 Prepared foodstuffs of various sorts from 2 to 6 rubles per kg._ 9000 " Oils and Fats Butter .cg o 28.70 rubles Combined fats n 13.00 " Lard (from China) n 20.00 " Margarine ].8,00 " Bacon " 26,00 " Pork 22.00 " Canned Beef 80C grams 14,00 " '4f 4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Fish Salt herring Canned fish (fl eked and kg. in tomato sauce) 400 grams 7,00 Tuna fish in oil 400 " 11.00 Lemons each 3.00 " Eggs (official price) each 2.50 " (These were not obtainable in official stores and on the black market they were from 7 to 10 rubles, depending on the season.) Tobacco Makhorka Cigarettes in pkg. of 20 Matches' Pure alcohol 9f proof. Wine Black tea Coffee (in bean; Ersatz coffee 50 grams 8.00 rubles .5`; rubles from .45 to 6.0(` " 3 package 20 " 400 grams 45.00 1litre from 30.00 " 50 grams from 3.70 to (.40 " kg. 6000(') " 250 grams 3.00 " Underwear for men consisting of an undershirt and long unde.:pan%e 60.00 rubles Sport shirt from 25.0( rubles Ready made suit from 70.00 to 400,00 " Winter camps " 45.00 to 4COo0t) " Cotton Jackets 95.00 " Leather shoes from 6:5100 " Wool scarves from 25.00 Toilet soap from 1.80 " ('"oilet articles such as shaving gear, combs, shaving brush, mirrors were un- obtainable in free trade in Magadan) Envelopes .l() rubles Writing paper from 2.50 Radio receiver from 12040 The above mentioned prices are based on the full ruble (auf voile Rubel; sic), LVIII Postcript to the> Report on Magadan The policing power was carried out through the militia troops. They were sent out for any disturbance of the p*ac.e and order and for tY?e .-egu:!aticn of road traffic.. Their reputation among the people is a bad one. They carry pistols and blackjacks. Their uniform has a background color of blue with a brick red piping. Their service grades correspond to those of the army, (a) Documents (cf. section VI (b) The official personal identity card Is the Pasport. Every Soviet citizen must be in possessa.ori of one. They can tell from these if the bearer has been a political prisoner. For these categories of people there are curtain definite numbers (in the Pasport). There are frequent controls of the Pasport, especially in tte areas in which the forced settlers live. In the night time, particularly in they city area, Magadsr+ i:s gua=rded by police patrols, The strength of these patrols consists of two to thre-o men, and they often have police dogs with them. An official curfew is in force for restaurants close at midnight. The number of police is very nigh In proportion to the numbers of the population. Those who do not have I'D care or who have flose papers are ptiniahed, the punishment being variable and depe:.aden`; upcn the reasons for not hiving the identity card. In the entire USSR there are always a very great number of police at railroad stations and airports, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 - (b) Living 'onditions in Magadan In the dwelling communities one frequently finds communal kitchens for ccoking meals. Only the apartments of newer construction have their own kitchens. Meals are cooked in wood stoves, since there is no cos'. available for house- hold needs? Electric stoves are rare, but. one sees frequent hot plt^;tes. There is no gas supply for cook stoves. The apartments are lighted exclusively by electric light (110 volt). Newly built apartments have running water and central heating. Permission to go to Magadan is relatively hard to Fat? Former political prisoners are assigned to Magadan only in exceptional cases through the Special Komendatura?, In every case permissior to live in Magadan depends or the information from one?s place of work. 1VIX The Railroad Connections from Siberia to Kolyma Completing XI (c) 1 one can add that in the frame of the State Plan construction of a railroad connection through Kolyma to the North is planned. This line is thought of as an auxiliary line of the Trans-Siberians Railroad and goes with this railroad line via k..?kutsk, Ulan, [kla, Chita, Nogocha. to the highland of Skovorodino32 There the auxiliary line will begin, going in a N.N.E direction to the port city of Anadyr (longitude 178, latitude 65).33 a small. scale before the war in the Skovorodino area. The work let` up during the war and was resiaaed after the war on a far greater scale with the introduc- tion of large contingents of priscners and of free workers. There are many difficulties due to the large areas of marsh lands. the route will be something like t}is: Skovorodino-Tyndinski- the valley of the River Gonam - the valley of the River Maya-Arka - vicinity of Magadan - Atka - Penshine - 11'erkova - Krasneno - Anadyr,- ' It will be p single track railroad and later on a few auxili-ary lines will run furtl er to t) a East and Jest. X:f X Observations on a Flight from Magadan to Sverdlovsk ?gadan to Sverdlovsk in a pass- enger aircraft of "Aero lot , type IL-12; the distance wEe about 7,500 lm, which was covered in 26 flying hours with 6 stopovers. The stops made were Niko:laevsk, Khabarovsk, Magada gachi, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Novas: birsk. 35 Concerning the tliht the following observations s (a) Airport at Magadan As already reported, this 13 a grass surfaced air field without concrete off strips, without automatic direction signals, without repair shoF hangs_rs, and without hangars for airplanes (these last two i.t?oms are under ccnstruetlon) Undergroung tank &pota are likowise non-existent. '.!%1e airport lies about 12 kiss. distant from Magadan in a northwesterly direction in the viciri': of the Thentr rl- naays Trasse. It has an area of about 600 by 250 meters. The place is under Aeroflot, in the line Khabarovsk to Magadan and back (al?a;ost daily) and twice a week there :3 s a din ect flight to Moscow - Magadan anc lock. Outside of two pF&a- enger aircraft of type n-12 and three passenger aircraft of t,pc 11-2 there were only three other planes, single-engine biplanes of the Soviet Air `crce., TL-12 had a three-van crow and a stewardess and had room or 24 pass- engers and their luggage. It cruised at about 320 kr:. per hour,. The flight from Magadan to Khabarovsk is either direct or with one stopover at. Nikolaevsk, Source's plarestopped for a short tine at Nikolsevsk0 this was a prewar project which was begun on Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 S E C R E T (b) Airport at Nikolaevsk This airport does not have concrete airstrips. Fl;rther observations about the technical equipment and the facilities were not possible since the stop was made in the darkness and was a very short one. Fror the fleeting observ- ation one could say that this airport was a grass field. (a) Airport at Khabarovsk a port s arge, great y bui t up air traffic center of extra- ,ardinary significance for air traffic in the USSR because of its direct con- neeticns with Vladivostok, Sakhalin, Magadan, the peninsula of Kamchatka,, Moscow, Alma Ate, and Peking.36 It has many concrete take-off strips, and has modern airport buildings. There is a bus line and taxi service to the city of Khabarovsk. Work on the construction of the airport was begun in 1950 and it is still not completed. The fueling of the planes is done by motorized tank cars, which get the fuels from, underground fuel tanks. The size of the airport permits the takeoff and landing of all types of present day aircraft. there were about ^C passenger panes of type IL-12, LI-2 as well as five twin-engine planes of older construc- tion, also four single-engine seaplanes of older construction, four single-engine biplanes for 2-men crews, three helicopters, and a squadron of eight single-jet fighters of the Air Force. This fact leads one to assume that a unit of the Soviet Air Force is stationed there. The air traffic is lively. Nearly every fifteen minutes a plane takes off or lands. The pressure of flight passengers is extraordinarily great due to the bad connections with other modes of transportation to tie Far East regions. It corresponds to the second class travel traffic on the chief lines of the German Federal Railroad. Particularly striking is the large number of so-called "simple people" among the air passengers. This is an observation one can make of most of the Soviet airfields. Because of a shortage of aircraft, Aeroflot is not in the position to cope with the press of air passengers. The current introduction of transport planes into the passenger service also does not cover the demand for tickets. Therefore it is not .& rare thing to see passengers bound for tie Far East areas waiting in Khabarovsk for 14 days until they obtain tickets. In the issuance of tickets members of the ministries and officers of the Soviet Army get preference, (d) Airport .at Magadagachi ine por es no concrete airstrips, has no special technical equipment and is only good as a tev*norary or emergency landing field, The airport buildings (made of wood) are very primitive, rather like a field airport. (e) Airport at Irkutsk The field is a well-built old airport w many concrete airstrips. The u ngs have facilitieP topping over- night and there is a restaurant. There are autobus and taxi a city. There cars many passenger planes there, (f) Airport at Krasnoyarsk This is a newly-built airport with modern buildings, many concrete airstrips and indications in the morning hours that it has extraordinarily lively traffic. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/03/22 : CIA-RDP80T00246AO31900030001-4 S E C R E T -ro (g) The Airport at Novosibirsk Presently being enlarged; an airport with repair shops, airstrips which are not concrete but are plastered, The heavy traffic points up its significance as the central Siberian airport. It has direct air connections with Moscow via a jet mail plane. There are the jet planes of a Soviet Air Force unite (h) Airport at Sverdlovsk A newly-built modern airport with modern new equipment, concrete airstrips, and modern airport buildings, It is the chief airport of West Siberia, There were 30 passenger planes of types IL-12 and LI-2 there. Some of these machines bore the marking of the Soviet Air Force, The take-off and landing of two jets was observed. (i) Flight Distances Magadan to Khabarovsk 1,E00 km. lchabar k to Irkutsk 2,100 " Irkutsk to Krasnoyarsk 900 " Krasnoyarsk to Novosibirsk f50 " Novosibirsk to Sverdlovsk 19400 " (j) Observation on railroad trip from Moscow to Brest.-Litovsk. On the railroad trip from Moscow to Brest-Litovsk (rid December 1955) near Ivantsevitchi (about 130 km. east of Brest-Litovsk) there was an airfield near the railroad track which had jets.37 Lively activity was observed with take-off and landing maneuvers of Soviet Air Force jets. 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