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December 9, 2016
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February 3, 2000
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PDF icon CIA-RDP81-00261R000300050005-3.pdf410.38 KB
Approved For Release 200WU_- 640261 8000300050005-3 DESCRIPTION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED PROJECT ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD MATERIALS INTRODUCTION In conducting an overall review of the Agency's records control schedules, inventories of documents i storage at the Agency's Archives were provided to the various Agency o .f_ces for review. On 15 August 1977 the inventory of the Agency's Office of Security archival material was reviewed and the existence of eighteen cartons of documents held in archives under the caption "Project ARTICHOKE" was revealed. It was further ascertained that unlike those materials stored within the ency's retired records center, also located Athe Office of Security' s holdjngs within axc ive,s ?are , c t retr e vab1-e t i~f rou ug the Office o,f Security primary.-index. system. Thus, these records were riot found during the 1975/1976 Congres- sional and Rockefeller investigations. The eighteen cartons were immediately brought to Head- quarters for review and a determination as to what, if any, records existed pertaining to Project ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD which had not previously been furnished to either the Rock- efeller Commission or Congressional Committees during their inquiries into the Agency's research and experimentation with drugs. The review has now been substantially completed and reflects that approximately fourteen (14) linear feet of Project ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD material was contained within the eighteen cartons retrieved from archives. The remaining material in the cartons does not pertain to these two projects nr nn -.r n+h- - -C- +. ,.r -1_ _ _ _ tion with drugs. The review of the newly discovered materials failed to reveal any information which would contradict or change the scope of that information previously furnished to the investi- gating bodies. In essence the newly discovered material contains working papers and file material that merely provides x ...detail than had previously been available. The material, as contained within the cartons retrieved from archives, was not assembled in any particular fashion, thus the task force reviewing this material divided the documents into seven basic categories. A summary and descrip- tion of each category follows: Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261R000300050005f3~ IMPDET 1, 1 CL BY 063344 Approved For Release 20021~61R000300050005-3 1. BACKGROUND LITERATURE ON BEHAVIOR CONTROL AND DRUGS OF INTEREST TO PROJECT ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD The documents in this collection in effect consti- tute the library for the.ARTICIIOKE/BLUEBIRD Project. The bulk of this material consists of periodical articles and reprints of scientific monographs pertaining to behavior control and the effects and characteristics of drugs. It includes a number of bibliographies on subjects such as drugs, interrogation and interviewing techniques, lie detectors, hypnotism, and brainwashing. There are folders on specific drugs and chemical agents, such as Rauwolfia Serpentina, Meratran, Mitrazol, Mescaline, etc., together with several folders on non-drug related fields of'behavior control such as amnesia, ESP, electro-shock therapy, pre- frontal lobotomy, and schizophrenia. Included within the collection arc a number of classified memoranda, studies, and intelligence reports. The classified memoranda were largely produced by the Agency and concern the chemical analyses of various drugs, attempts to collect specimens of various drugs, and discussions with non-CIA experts. The classified, studies were produced by both the Agency and the Department of Defense. For example, the Agency's Office of Scientific Research produced a study entitled "Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamine." There are several U.S. Army studies on psychological warfare as well as intelligence reports con- cerning foreign drug research such as "Psychiatric Research in Czechoslovakia" and "Use of Stimulants in the Soviet Armed Forces." II. INFORMATION RELATED TO THE AGENCY'S DRUG TESTING/ INTERROGATION ACTIVITIES INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS A comparison of this material to that which was previously provided again shows that in general the newly discovered documents merely contain additional details concerning such activity rather than significant changes to our previous understanding of the Agency's use of drugs on humans. Some of this material does, however, contain addi- tional detail which warrants highlighting in this report. 2 Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 25X1C L Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 Approved For Release 2002/%L61 R000300050005-3 to,1946 with various drugs believed to aid in interrogation. The ii5formation relates to several experiments on approxi- mately eighty-eight witting American citizens using such drugs as Benzedrine, Caffeine, Scopolamine, Alcohol, and Tetrahydrocan.nabindl Acetate. A June 1943 OSS memorandum refers to various experiments with U.S. Military volunteers using Mescaline, Cannabis, Indicia, and Tetrahydrocannabindl Acetate. This memorandum also mentions an unwitting test in 1943 on a "notorious New York gangster" by one of the OSS researchers. III. HYPNOSIS Another category of the newly discovered material is a collection of files, films, and tapes concerning hypnotism. The material indicates a strong interest but little, if any, operational use of this medium. A great deal of reference material was studied and analyzed, various authorities were consulted, and several Agency employees were trained in the art of hypnotism. A program of hypnosis testing and experi- mentation was conducted between 1951 and 1954 using volunteer Agency employees as subjects. An interim report in 1954 regarding these tests states that the tests were neither of sufficient complexity nor conducted under the hazardous conditions necessary to warrant "extravagant" claims for operational use; however, there were strong indications of the potential of hypnotism as an offensive and defensive aid. There are also indications of research and experi- mentation into disguised induction of hypnosis through mechanical means, e.g.., polygraph, audiometer, EKG, etc. IV. PLANNING, ADMINISTRATION, BUDGET, MATERIALS This collection consists of material which provides information on the planning, organization, and management of ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD. The budgetary data is very sparse consisting of the proposed initial budget of $65,515, the Table of Organization for the Technical Research Staff (TRS) for 1952, and the proposed budget for FY1953. TRS (also referred to as Unit B) apparently was responsible for. BLUEBIRD research and operations and had a Table of Organization of four in 1952 and received approval for a Table of Organization Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 Approved For Release 2 Q 6 0261 R000300050005-3 FA of six in 1953. The project appears to have started in early 1950. The project name was change from BLUEBIRD to closely to that lnform W aion previously furnished, es The project received guidance from at least mid- 1951 through 1953 from the BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE Committee, which at various times was represented, by the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI), Office of Special Operations, Office of Policy Coordination, Inspection and Security Office (I&SO), the Technical Services Staff, and the Office of Medical Services. The project was initially under the cognizance of OSI, but responsibility was transferred to I&SO in October 1952. Unlike MKULTRA, it does not appear that large sums were spent on external research. There are several documents proposing various external research projects, but there is no indication that they were approved. It appears that project personnel, in lieu of sponsored research, depended instead on obtaining the results of research sponsored by others. V. PERSONNEL This collection consists of two boxes of personality files on individuals who were of interest to Project BLUEBIRD/ ARTICHOKE, many of whom were later of interest to Project MKULTRA. There is a total of three hundred fifty-seven folders in this collection. Many other names of individuals of interest to BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE are contained in the individual folders, as well as appearing throughout the entire collection of newly found material. In the main. these individuals are doctors, psychiatrists, chemists, and hypnotists who were doing work or were acknowledged as experts in areas of interest to BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE. Also included are officials of other U.S. Government agencies such as N.I.H., FDA, and the U.S. Military. The review of this material is only partially complete and the total number of names which appear throughout this material has not been determined. However, the material has not been found to contain the names of any individuals who were the subjects of any drug or hypnosis experiments. To date the review has established that while these individuals were doing work of interest to BLUEBIRD/ ARTICHOKE, it is impossible to determine from the material Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : Cli4IRDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 Approved For Release 200 f jjjR 261 8000300050005-3 N! I in the files if any of this work was actually being financed by the Agency. There are references to work.that'was being financed. by MKULTRA, but these references are to information picked up in conversations among Agency officials and no documents which would spell out the details of such financing have been noted. VI. INTERROGATION LITERATURE VII. MISCELLANEOUS are the following: A number of items were contained in the collection of newly found material which did not readily fit into the above categories. Among the more significant of these items C. Personal papers and letters of some of the Agency employees connected with ARTICHOKE. Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : 1-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 Approved For Release 200Z/,Q/pr( ( T: I ~, 11261 R000300050005-3 D. An assortment of 35mm film containing snapshots and microfilm of documents. The documents are reports on the chemical LSI) and Psychological Warfare. The snapshots appear to be typical "tourist" type photos and are of no apparent significance in terms of ARTICHOKE techniques. E. Inventories of drug supplies on hand in the ARTICHOKE office at various times. F. A number of drugs and one injection device were also found in the boxes. On 22 August 1977 a representative of the Agency's Office of Medical Services examined this material. A description of the material, together with the physician's comments appears below: 1. Automatic self-injecting device similar to that used by the military services for self-injection of Atropine to counteract nerve gas. Comment: The design of the device differe rom the Army's model only in the trigger mechanism which appeared to be cruder-and less reliable. 2. Raudixin, 100 mg. tablets, described accurately as the whole root of Rauwolfia Serpentina. Comment: This is an ethical medical preparation still used today to treat hypertension and psychotic states. 3. Thorazine Hydrochloride, one ampule, 25 mg. Comment: Thorazine is a commonly used tranauilazer. 4. Methedrine, one packet of eight pills, plastic sealed. Comment: Methedrine is a well-known stimulant crug. 5. Marezine, two small. green packets (two pills each), sealed in plastic. Comment: Marezine is an anti-nausea medication still in current use. 6. Daprisa.l. Comment: A mild analgesic containing a small amount of Dexamphetaiuine, Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : eI k-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 MAI Approved For Release 2002/05c91-, 14A > r11l?zIt6il R000300050005-3 L Barbiturate, Acetylsalcylic Acid, and phenacetin. It is not listed among the current drugs in use but cannot be considered an unusual prepara- tion. If it was removed from clinical usage, the most likely reason was because it was replaced by more effective preparations. 7. A sealed display card from the Columbia University Parkinson Research Laboratory showing the drugs listed below. All the drugs seem to have been used for the treatment of. Parkinsonism. a. Acute cholinergic drugs used in the treatment of Parkinsonism. Hyoscine Artane Thephorin Panparnit Bellabulgara Rabellon Vinobel b. Tolserol.. Comment: A muscle relaxant. c. Benadryl. Comment: An antihistamine drug used far allergies. d. Dexedrine. Comment: A stimulant medication. e. Two drugs listed as under study: Compound 08958 and MK-02 could not be identified. Comment: There is no way of-knowing what they contain without inquiring through the Parkinson Research Laboratory at Columbia University. It is my assumption that these were new drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's which were under study at that laboratory in the 1950's. 14 Approved For Release 2002/05/01 : CIA-RDP81-00261 R000300050005-3 _HAL