Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
December 22, 2016
Document Release Date: 
June 6, 2011
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Publication Date: 
October 30, 1956
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6.pdf1.48 MB
Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 S ZVAWATION OF TEl DRP08f WRING PR08PECTESG AND IIPLOWI011 Otasnka Mestoroshde Pri Poiskakh a n of tan Deposit Prospecting and Exploration], No 15, 1955, Moscow, Pages 7-30; 84-94 (Pages 7-30) PART I. ON TEE CHARACTBRiSTICS OF ILRCUEY AND ANTIHONZ: THEIR APPLICATION, EcONDMIC8, AND ORE TEC1210IOrl Chapter 1. Properties of Mercury and Antimorw Mercury and antimony are metals having distinctly different properties and, consequently, completely dissimilar fields of application. Nevertheless, deposits of both these metals have a great dual in cow wn;.they are frequently formed under similar geological conditions. Moreover, in some cases, mercury and antimony are extracted from complex mercury-antimony ores. Therefore, in ekam? ing the properties of mercury and antimony,, it is important to take into consideration not only those properties which determine the direction of their practical application, but also the common conditions governing the formation of tbtl k deposits. .ble 1 gives the basic physical properties of sarcury and When heated, mercury undergoes intensive expansion which, in the range from 00 to 1000 is almost proportional to the expansion of gaps. Mercury is very volatile even at normal temperatures. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Thus, the pressure of mercury vapor at 20? C constitutes 0.0013 = of the mercury colusms, while at 100? it reaches 0.279 a. Mercury vapor is extremely poisonous, and prolonged exposure to it, even of low concentration, causes serious toxic effect. In its chemical compounds mercury is monovalent or bivalent. There are numerous mercury compounds. Among these are amalgam, mercuric oxide, sulfides and sulfo salts, haloid compounds, sulfate, and nitrate. Amalgam (alloy) of mercury is oaaily formed through direct diffusion in it of other metals, such as Aug Ag, Zn, Pb, Al, at al. Among oxides of mercury there are the H820 oxide and the Hg0 oxide. Mercury sulfides are the most widely encountered mercury compounds. There are several modifications, of which 2 are the most important% red mercuric sulfide and black mercuric sulfide. The red sulfide (verailiiort) is formed when it is separated from alkaline sr,lutiona, while black cinnabar (metacinnabarite) is separated from acid solutions. Mercuric sulfides are practically insoluble in water, but dissolve easily in solutions of alkali sulfides, forming with them complex compounds of the J.%8 ?;nJa23 tn.. Of the haloid compounds the most important are the chlorides which have broad application in medicine: Y12 ohloridt and W12, also known as calomel. Sulfate of mercury, y%, which is water-soluble only difficultly, is most probably formed in nature as a result of the action of sulfuric acid not directly on the cinnabar, but on %he products of its variations - natural mercury or red mercuric oxide (sontroidite). Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Nitrate of mercury, Hg(VD3)29 is an intermediate product of the formation of the industrially important, so-called mercury fuldnate, C2Hg(N02)h. Mercuric cyanide is an exceedingly poisonous compound, and is occasionally used in wedicine. Mercury produces almost no salts of weak acids, since mercury itself is a weak base. In its chemical compounds antimorgr is trivalent or pentavalent. In acid solutions, compounds of pentavalant antimony usually Change to trivalent sntimonys thus noting as acidifiers. Acids correspond- ing to the valences of antiawrW are Sb203 and 5b205. most commonly encountered in nature are the rhombic triwdde (valentinits), or cubic trioxide (aernamontide). The combination of antimorp trioxide and pentoxide yields the tetroxide Sb2O% which also occurs in nature as cervantite. Hydroxide Sb(0H)3 is clearly amphoteric in character, while hydroxide of pentavalent antimorq is acid in character. Of great importance are antiaonu sulfides and alto-salts. Antimony trisulfide 8b283 is the principal industrial antimomly mineral. Its melting point is approximately 550? C. It is not soluble in water, but with an 8' ion, it forms a complex easily soluble ion 2(8b53)" '. Psntavalant antimony is not found in nature. In technology it is used in the vulcanization of rubber. In the sulfo-salt, 3b2S3 acts as a eulfo-anhydrides forming the so-called sulfo-antimonitea. A special group is formed by the ooahination of antimorpr with metals, viz., antimonide of sodium, nickel, and silver. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Relative3y small quantities of antiaory will increase the hardness, of such soft metals as lead end sin. Of the chemical properties of mercury and antimony, the most uignificant in the matter of explaining the formation of their deposits are the ability of their principal natural compounds, the sulfides (cinnabar and antiaonite), to dissolve easily in ageuous solutions of alkali sulfides, producing complex ions of the 2(Sbs3)''' and the Hg82 " type. Atomic Atomic Specific Hardness Color Melting number weight weight point in oC Boiling specific po electric con- ductivity with respect to silver (x)? 1.58 1o 80 200.61 13.55 Liquid at Silver- -38.7 357.25 normal tea- white Antisoq$ 51 121.76 6.67 3 (Kohn scale), 630.5 1325 3.76 brittle Lead- (approx.) white Chapter 2. Application of Mercury and Antimooy and the Economics of These Metal In view of the variety and types of applications of mercury and antimony in the most important branches of industry, both these metals are considered strategic raw materials. Application and Economics of Mercury In metal form and in combination, mercury is used in medicine, the chemical industry, the electric power industry, instrument buildin, agriculture, mining, the -am, acturs of felt, etc. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 In the basic chemical industry, sulfate of warcury is used as a catalytic agent is the production of acetaldehyde from acetylide. In the electrolysis of sodium chloride for the purpose of obtaining chlorine and sodium hydroxide, mercury cathodes are currently used that make it possible to obtain sodium hydroxide of great purity. Mercury is also indispensable in the manufacture of certain paints used to cover the underwater portion of vessels. Mercury fulminate is widely used as a detonator in explosive operations in the field of aiming. Mercury rectifiers, Quarts mercury vapor lamps, thermometers, manometers, diffusion vacuum pumps, and numerous weasuricg instruments and control apparatus would be unthinkable without the use of mercury. In agriculture compounds containing mercury are used as mordant for seed. In the field of medicine, mrcury has for many an been used in the form of mercuric chloride, calomel, as the principal component of various ointments, mercuric-organic compounds, dental amalgams, and in mart' other medications. More and more attention is being devoted to the use of mercury in the field of poser, in mercury vapor boilers and turbines. In that regard it was found useful to combine mercury and hydraulic installations which utilise the beat of mercury vapor condensation. In such binary, mercury-blydreulic power installations it has been possible to increase efficiency now 38 to 115%, while decreasing fuel consumption almost by j of the fuel used with water boilers. table 2 contains official average aaazal figures of mercury consumption in the United States during the period 19116 to 1950: Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 ?ABLE 2 ANWAL OO168QMPTIOK OP WWRZ IN THE UNITED 8TA7E8, 1946-1950 Quantity of mercury used (t) 1%) Basic chemistry (production of chlorine and sodium chloride) 28.4* 2.8 Agriculture and forestry 174.0 17.1 Electrical apparatus 251.2 25.1 Precision instruments 180.0 17.9 Pharmaceuticals Catalytic agents (production of 137.0 13.6 vinegar, etc.) 116.7 11.6 Antifouling paints for vessels 52.0 5.1 Dental medicine 36.7 3.5 Mercury fulminate 14.4 1.4 Laboratories 14.5 1.4 Amalgams 5.1 0.5 1,013.0. 100.0 5, (*) In the production of chlorine and sodium chloride,, mercury is used only in the loading of the electrolytic bath; it then regenerates itself in the course of the operation. ,It should be noted that the United States expended increased quantltieas of mercury during the war -- up to 1,880 t in 1943, primarily in the production of disinfectants for the army (total quantity of mercury used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals reached 503 t at that time), and for explosives (108 t). Based on available data concerning mercury deposits in Europe and America, from the year 7.500 through 1950 about 670,000 t of mercury were obtained; of this total. annual production in the 20th century averaged from 4 to 4.5 thousand t. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 !lore than 70% of all mercury was obtained in the following 5 deposits: Almaden (Spain), 206,000 tl Idriya (Yugoslavia), more than 90,000 tj New Almaden (US), 60,000 tj Juankavelika (Peru), 55,000 tj and the Tuscany deposit (Italy), nearly 40,000 t. Maximum production of mercury in the foreign countries was achieved in 1941, with a yield of more than 9,500 t. Purtaeraors, particularly in the twentieth century, a very large number of small deposits were under exploitation, with a total annual produc- tion of not more than 10 to 15 thousand t. Thus, in the United States in 1942, some 184 mines yielded but 1753 t of mercury. The data presented in Table 3 will illustrate the quantities of mercury produced in various foreign countries in recent years. A comparatively sharp change in mercury production total for the different years can be explained, primarily, by the fluctu- ation in the price of mercury. The increase in the price of mercury during the war or during the preparation for war is. followed 1u a marked increased in mercury production and, conversely, the drop in price during periods of economic crisis causes marked reductions in the production and complete stoppage of production in certain countries. It is also significant that the great demand for mercury during World War II, when Spanish and Italian mercury was in the hands of the Germans, resulted in the organisation of production in other countries, such as Canada, Mexico, Asia, and South America. Mercury prices in the world market are usually quoted in dollars per oflinder, which is the accepted international unit for mercury. The quantity of mercury per cylinder is strictly standard- ised. Up to 1927 a cylinder hold 34.05 kg, while beginning in 1928, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06 : CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 ?+~...v.sa my VL.IJUN ill FORSWN COUNmIIa (111 t/ (RD - IA DAL) 1928 1938 194.3 1947 1950 120 68 2 118 -- Japan 25 231 -- 45 Turkey 20.5 6 ND ND Spain 1,245 2,195 1,379 1,646 1,858 1,745 Italy 1,PO4 1,984 2,301 2,137 ND 1,839 Austria 820 5 ND ND NL -- 72 100 ND (jeans y North Aaieri( a Canc... 768 ND ND USA 687 616 620 1,790 .799 156 Mexico 166 45 155. 294 .976 126 South America Peru 11. ? Bolivia 95 Chile 95 . ND ND Africa Algiers .2 Zunis 18 Union of South 41 ? ND ND Australia and Nov Zealand -- 0.3 3 ND. ND (Not*- Based cn a survey by Minerals Industry, over-all production of mercury in 1943 was approximately 8,150 t, as against 4,80,, t in 1950.) -8- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06 : CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 a cylinder was standardised at 3k.5 kg. In. Table 4 msrcary prices are listed in dollars per ton, to facilitate comparison with prices of antiaozq and other metals. TABA4 R1 R1 PRICSS (Mt TORE STOCK ncWIGZ) Year Price 1913 1,158 1928 3, 630 1938 2,180 1943 5,660 ]950 2,350 It must also be noted that during industrial utilisation of mercury the price remains almost unreduced, and the production of secondary mercury, contrary to antimony, has almost no industrial significance. Application and Economics of Antimony By far the greatest quantities of antimony are used in indus- try sn form.alloys-with other soft metals. This process takes advantage of the property of antimony to increase the hardness of ws i '.n. Among the more important alloys containing antimony are: anti.nous lead of increased hardness, used particularly in the prodi.ition of shrapnel balls; various antifriction bearing alloys having an antimony content of from 7 to 20% (babbit); type metal (Containing 15 to 25% antimony); battery metal consisting of an alloy of particularly pure lead, alloyied with a small quantity of antimony of great purity; the so-called Brittania metal which sntiMny CobpouMa also Mn tat: .e e; ;, at:aer. jmbO a4 antimony sulfide (sb2Sj) is used In the strtdmg wlf3w et matchboxes (20% 5b253 and 80% adds ti ve) i suit e r e . t w is as added in small quantities tc artillery itslis, so -w&+* Gosk4ft "as accuracy of the shells in flight. Peat auifide of aat:a+uq S. used in the vulcanisation of ribber (red ratter). Trioxide of antimony is used in the wanafactars of ,mint, lacquer, particularly of fire-resistant paints .,aid on glass, ceramics, and in the manufacture of enamels. trichloride of aatlaoq is used in medicine as an irritant; it is also used in the b.zniahlnq of steel, particularly of armament stal. Pentachlorice of antlauny has the ability to gin off a part of its chlorine to certain organic compounds, and it is therefore used in industrial organic c:aemia,.ry as a chlorinating agent. Antimonate of lead is a fire-resistant paint known as Neapolitan yellow. Sulfatrifluoroantimonate of ammonium is a mordant used in the dyeing of fabric. Certain antimony compounds are used in making fabric fire-resistant. A number of organic antimony compounds, such as tartar emetic and atigasan, are widely used in medicine. Table 5 contains official data of average annual consumption of antimony in the United States for different purposes in the years 1945 to 1950. No accurate information is available on the quantities of antimony produced. Antimony and its minerals have been known since ancient times; however, the industrial utilisation of antimony in notable quantities has begun only recently in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the past 100 yearc probably not more than 2 million t of antimony have been mined. - l&) - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Details on antinotp min' ns in different countries are presented in Table 6. Based on information published by Minerals Industry, over-all production of antimony in 1948 amounted to approximately 45,000 t, reaching a total of 50,000 t in 1950. Table 6 indicates that up to the 1930s China was the principal supplier of antimony, delivering about 2/3 of world production. The relatively low level of production in other countries can be explained by the fact that there was little interest in the study of antimony extraction when low-cost Chinese antimony was amply available on the market. However, when the intervention of imperi- alist Japan seriously reduced Chinese antimony production, a noted increase in antimony production could be seen in other countries, particularly in Mexico and Bolivia. Comparatively largo quantities were produced in the United States. Among the European countries, Yugoslavia has the greatest potential, with an annual production in 19-40 of 4,800 t. At a result of the intensive development of the antimony industry in other countries, the world's largest annual antimor - production output was reached in 1942 almost without th. inclusion of China which has. the largest and richest antimony deposits. An important role in the antimony industry is played by production of the so-called secondary metal, regenerated fran various byproducts. This the United States covers from 40 to 50% of its requirements by using the secondary metal. During World War II the United States produced 11,400 t of the secondary metal in 1940, 15,000 to 18,000 in 1942 to 1945. go largest user of antimorp is the United States which from 111.? to 1%5 used from 19,500 to 25,800 t of antiaorp. In 1949 tae -'shed states used a total of 10,500 t of antimony. TABLE 5 ANRAL COIWMPTION OF ANTIMONY IN THE UNITED STATES Metal Production Quantity of An'tiiwrq t % Hard (antimony) lead, including battery metal 5,280 34.1 Bearing alloys 2,067 13.4 Type metal 1,oi6 6.6 Sheet and tube lead 244 1.6 Solder 151 1.0 Other 343 2.1 Total metal production 9,101 58.8 Nonmetal Production Fireproof fabric 1,370 9.0 Paint and lacquer 1,279 8.4 Olasa, enamel, and ceramics 1,652 10.8 Other (matches, resins, antimony trichloride, plastics, etc.) 2,062 13.0 Total nonmetal production 6,363 41.2 TAHLB 6 NI PWWCTION IN FOREIGN COUfI88 (III. 1,000 t) Country 1913 1923 3,928 1933 1938 1943 19b8 1950 Asia - total 13.3 15.0 23.1 14.1 8.? 1.9 4.4 1.4t China 13.0 14.6 23.0 23.7 8.0 0.4 3.3 ID Japan -- -- -- -- 0.6 0.1 0.2 Burma N N ? ? 0.1 0.8 0.1 ND Turkey -- -- -- -- 0.1 0.8 0.1 ND Europe -- total 7.0 2.6 3.1 2.1 5.4 4.2 5.4 5.0 Greece -- 0.1 0.1 ND MD 1.5 Italy 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.4 France 4.5 0.9 1.2 0.4 -- 1.3 U.3 0.3 Spain N N N 0.2 0.3 0.4 North America total 0.9 0.5 3.6 2.5 8.7 17.8 13.4 8.4 United States -- -- -- 0.5 0.6 4.6 5.9 2.3 Mexico 0.9 0.5 3.6 2.0 8.6 12.6 7.4 5,p South America -- total -- 0.3 3.7, 1.9 10.3 19.1 ?' 14.0 l~p, Bolivia -- 0.3 3.5 1.9 9.4 16.5 12.3 ND Peru -- -- 0.2 -- 0.7 2.5 1.8 AID Africa -- total 0.2 0.6 -- 0.3 1.4 3.3 6.1 10.5 Algeria 0.2 0.6 -- 0.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.5 French Morocco -- -- -- N 0.1 0.4 0.9 0.7\ Union of South Africa -- -- -- -- 1.6 4.1 8.3 Australia and Now Zealand 1.3 0.5 0.1 -- 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 current annual antiaorq requirements of Francs are estimated, at 4,000 t. Britain used 5,?00 t of antiao:q in 1946, and 1A,900 t in 1947, including 3,000 t of secondary antiaoy. In 1948, Britain increased its antimorq consumption to 12,300 t. Price of antimorq on the world market is normally expressed in cents per pound. To facilitate comparison of antimony prices with those of mercury and other metals, Table 7 lists antimony prices in dollars per ton. ANTIMONI PRICKS Year Price 1913 165 1923 173 1928 226 1933 143 1938 330 1943 362 1950 614 Naturally, the mercury and antimorq resources of foreign countries are of great interest. However, no detailed information is available. No long-range exploratory activities are being carried on in the capitalist countries. Thw, the complexity of mercury deposits led American geologists to believe that exploration for the purpose of determining available reserves is not possible. Therefore, the American mercury industry does not prepare reserves of ore deposits for exploitation. Asarican geologists evaluate pessimistically the mercury and antimony resources of their country. They consider that US mercury resources have been 95% depleted and that d6mostic mercury resources will be completely depleted in 3 Tears, while antimony reserves will be used up in 4 years. China, which had the world's richest antimony resources in 1941, carried out a long-range evaluation of its resources. Based on putlished data, the reserves of deposits in Hunan Province contain 1,415,000 t of antimony, while total reserves in all known antimony deposits in China amount to approximately 2,500,000 t. Thus, with current word production of 30,000 to 40,000 t per year, known antimony deposits in China alone could cover world require- ments for the next 60 to 80 years. As for more-iry, the situation is even more favorable in view of the rich deposits in Almaden, Idriya, and Tuscany. Below are figures comparing mercury and antimony ;?roduction with that of other ferrous and nonferrous metals in 1941 (in t): Copper 2,550,000 Nickel 136,000 Lead 1,850,000 Antimony 44,400 Zinc 1,750,000 mercury 9,500 Alumiaua 1,%5,000 silver 8,550. Tin 237,000 Gold 11290 In conclusion it is to be noted that, prior to the Great October Revolution, there was in operation only one mercury mine, the Pildtovsk Mina in the Don Basin region. The mine operated irregularly and during its most productive years did not exceed an annual production of 300 t. There was no antimoty production of any kind. Thus, Russia's requirements were covered by imports. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 Chapter 3. Industrial Types and Varieties of Mercury and Antimoy Ore Industrial Types of Ore Industrial-types of ore, naturally, are classified by those properties which?determina~their use and technological treatment. On that basis, the simple ores whose primary component is mercury or antimozO+, and the complex ores in which mercury or antimoty may be the prime or secor.'ary component, must be mentioned. Further subclassifications of industrial ore types are made on the basis of mineral composition. ? ? It must be noted that such a system of classifying industrial ? ore types is logical not only from the point of view of technology, but also fkr practical geological reasons, since this system enables geologists o search for certain deposits under specific geological conditions. I. Natural mercury ore. The primary mineral contained in Uses area is cinnabar; in certain caaes, quantities of aetacinnabarite, mercury selenide, as well as natural mercury, are contained in the ore,. Ore of this type is most commonly found, particularly in the .'ell-knuwn ore deposits of Almaden, Idriya, Monte Anists, et al. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 II. Among complex mercury ores are the followiW (a) Mercury-antimovW ores which in turn can be classified is most cor.zwnly found in small quantities as an admixture of mercury ores; however, quantities that are of any interest at all are rarely found in mercury deposits. This is probably due to the fact that the technology.of processing complex mercury-antimony ores is itself a complex process, and therefore the presence of antimonite in mercury ore has simply been ignored abroad. The only known industrial deposit having livirastonite ore is the 0lyutsuko deposit in Mexico. Until recently that deposit was looked upon as .a mercury mine. only; the mining of antimony was neglected until 1937 because of the complexity of the technological process involved. For this reason only some 2,500 t of mercury and 738 t of antimorgr were mined there. between 1869 and 1913. At the present, time the mine is looked upon as an antimory deposit. (b) kyrcury-arsenic ores are encountered quite frequently; their minura.u consist of cinnabar and realgar with orpiment (yellow arsenic) or ,ircury-containing realgar. In these ores it is difficult to etect the cinnabar because of the realgar which looks very much li.e it. Since arsenic sulfides are sublimated at temperatures hich are necessary for the pyromstallurgy of mercury-, the technology of these ores is very complex indeed. (c) In certain polymetallic and tin ores small quantities of mercury are found. Another fact worth noting is that in Sardinia several hundred kilograms of mercury have been obtained annually from dust resulting from the processing of tin ores. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 1. Natural antiaory orn. In all dopoaita of thin VP. of ore the minerals appear as antimorites and as ptodti.cto of aetS oxidation. Ores in the well-known deposits such as the antLasW deposits of China, Mexico, and the USSR is of that type. A large portion of total world antimony production is mined in such deposits. II. Among complex antimony ores the following net be noted, in addition to the mercury-antimony one mentioned earlier: (a) Lead-antimony ores whose primary minerals, such as Jamesonite, Boulangerite, and others, are common admixtures of ores in polymetall.ic deposits. However, it is practically impossible to separate antimony from lead in the course of processing this ore; thus, the and product of this process is anti noun lead. This product is of great importance, si.noe very large quantities of antimony are used in producing lead alloys. in the United States the production of alloys containing antimony resulted in large quantities of antimonous lead with a 5 to 7% antimony content. For example, in 1944, 4,670 t of antimony were obtained from such a product. Japan similarly utilised available polymetallic ores containing from 1 to 1.5% antimony. In addition to the load on deposits mentioned which contain Iahlers as an admixture, a number of natural fahlers one are known. Up to now, little attention has been paid to the processing of such ores. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 (b) An important group is aside up of MZ oa^es, these include, prirarUj , the Bolivian guarts-anliaow veins, containing a high concentration of antimony and having a gold content of 1.5 to 8 g/t. Until recently, little attention has been paid to gold-quartz veins with antimonite. This, for example, gold has been extracted for maw years from the quarts veins in the Murchison Ridge in Northern Transvaall, while antiaorp was ignored. Only after 1940 was antimony extraction begun. As a result, it appeared in 1946 that ore was extracted which contained antimony whose cost waif 4 times that of the gold content in the on. A similar can occurred at the Guadalupe mine in Cuba which, in 1920, was considered a gold mine and which in 1939 became an antimony mine. Significant quantities of antimony were obtained from gold- ore deposits in Australia and Alaska. (c) The comparatively rare but unusual antimony-wolfrain ores in which antimonits is usually associated with ferberite. These ores frequently also contain gold. Ore of this hype is found Mention must be pads' of the unique antimony-scheelite deposit of Yellow Pine in Idaho, USA, its ore contains 2.5% wolfram trioxide, 3.5% antimony, 51 g/t silver, and 2.5 g/t gold. (d) Of interest are also the antimony-nickel ores in the Turkhal deposit in Turkey. Ore found there contains up to 2.85 nickel in the form of garnierite. The we also contains such primary antimony and nickel minerals as gudoundite (FeSbS) and bravoits (PeNiS). Theme are no standard varieties of mercury and antimony ore. Different varieties of on occur in the various deposits, with every variety having specific characteristics that determine the method of processing which must be employed. In natural mercury deposits, the different varieties are classified by the amount of mercury content, since.the process of burning the ore for the purpose of precipitating the mercury differs for the various ores with different mercury content. Certain quantities of high-grade ore, with a mercury content of 1 to 2% are processed separately in retort furnaces, while the poorer grades of ore are processed in continuously rotating furnaces. While that can be done ty the smaller enterprises, the larger mining enter- prises do not maintain such a system of are classification, since the mixing of the ores from a large number of shapes assures a satisfactory flow of ore of sufficiently constant mercury content. Of great significance is the classification of mercury ores on the basis of admixture content, such as siliceous ore, carboo naceous ore, eto.i This is important, because the processing of carbonaceous ore, for example, can be done with the aid of the so- called forced burning process, assuring furnace efficiency 2 to 4 times higher than would be the case with siliceous area, In the case of the more complex mercury ores, the classifi- cation of the different varieties of are depends on the content of certain components. For example, in mercury-antimony deposits it is useful to identify those having a high antimony content and those with low antimony content. The former may be sent directly to the furnaces for the preliminary precipitation of mercury. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 The cinders are then transferred to the metallurgy plant for extraction of antimony. The low content or poor on, containing little or no antimony, must first undergo a mechanical concen- tration process. Only after the collective antimony-mercury concentrates have been formed in this manner can they be forwarded for metallurgical processing. Ore varieties in the different antimony deposits are also classified in a similar manner. However, in the case of antimony ore the identification of the high-grade ore is even more important, since as a result of manual picking and sorting of the ore concen- trates having an antimony content of no less than 30% can be obtained. Such concentrates can be directly utilized in certain branches of industry, such as the match manufacturing industry, or can be used for liquation (the smelting) of trisulfids of antimony to obtain the so-called crudum. In antimony deposits it is extremely important.to take into consideration the oxidation and airing of sulfide-oxidised ores. This is necessary because the oxidised antimony minerals, in the course of concentration, easily become pulverized, which makes it more difficult to extract them bpr gravitational means; further, they cannot easily be floated. For these reasons the poor oxidized antimony ores at the present time are almost without practical value. Hoeiever, oxidized antimony ores having an antimony content of not less than 3 to 5 percent can be subjected to sublimation (distillation burning); the end product of this process is trioxide of antiantp. High grade oxidized ores, with an antimony content of more than 10 or 12 percent can be subjected to amelting without concentration. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 In coapl.x antimony ores it is frequently possible to identify on varieties on the basis of certain admixture coaiponsnts. This is possible because in deposits of this nature the contours of indi trial ores having varying components coincide only partially. Thus in the above-mentioned wolfraa-antiaoi -gold deposits at Tellow- Pine the following ores were obtained: gold ore, with a gold content of 2.4 to 6 g/tj antimony-gold ore, with an average content of 1.5% of antimony and 2.75 g/t of gold; and wolfram-antimony-gold-silver ore, having a content of 2.5% of trioxide of wolfram, 3.5% of antimony, 51 g/t of silver, and 2.05 g/t of gold. Finally, mercury and antimony ores must also be classified in accordance with harmful admixtures, e. g., arsenic, various organic compounds, etc. All these may make processing more diffi- cult or may affect the quality of the product obtained. Determi- nation of the varieties is made by means of laboratory exper3tnts. In the Soviet Union the quality of metallic mercury, is regu- lated by OST Tam 33-40. Three separate qualities of mercury are identified; their characteristic properties and data are presented in Table 8. Brand Chemical composition in % mercury, not less than Nonvolatile residue, not more than Designation RI 99.999 0.001 Vacuum electroengineering R2 99.990 0.010 Control and measuring instr,ments R3 99.900 0.100 Amalgamation of gold; preparation of salts and pharmaceuticals Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Additional requirements are that mercury of whatever kind be silver-white in color, have a mirrorlike surface, and be fs". of mechanical admixtures (sand, soot, *to). Mercury of brand RI and R2, when shaken, must not stick to the sides of a clean glass far. Nor must mercury of these 2 brands leave am7 trot-on on smooth white paper or on a marble slab. Mercury of all brazes must be fully soluble in nitric acid having & .specific weight of Chinese antimosp dominated the world market for a long time. The only quality requirement was that it contain not less than 99% antimory and not more than 0.3% arsenic. Chinese antiaorp was refined in England. Products made by English firma contained 99.6 to 98.9% antimoxr, had an admixture of 0.1 to 0.7% lead, and contained 0.09 to 0.2% arsenic, as well as other metals in very small quantities. In the Soviet Union production of antiaor>y is governed bb OOST 1089-41. Based on chemical composition, 5 varietiso vi metallic antimorp are recognised. Specific data are given in Table 9. VARIETIES OF AHTDC)XX (IN ACCOBDAHCs WITH OOST) Brand Antimony and Of that, lead, not lama Lad Copper Arsenic Sulfur Iron Total admix- Designation than not more tuna than Ciro 99.85 0.7 0.04 0.02_ 0.1 0.02 0.15 special Patterie Cyl 99.65 1.0 0.08 0.05 0.1 0.03 0.35 ratteriea and C72 99.50 2.0 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.50 type natal alloy C73 99.40 0.4 0.2 0.25 0.1 0.15 0.60 Babbitts Cy4 98.30 0.8 0.3 0.25 0.4 0.25 1.20 solder; electrotype )4utalllc ant; governed by Ldditional coaditioas which 1 the content c? ..c: Mn, Ni, Bit Co, Au, Pt, and other metals in hundredths and thousandths of one percent. In antimony of brands C73 and Cy4, used in alloys with copper 0 or lead," the allowable copper or lead content is correspondingly O ? increased to 5%. In brands of antimoxgr used in the manufacture of arsenous babbitts, the allowable. arsenic content is increased to 3%. In those cases, the content of the element. named is not considered part of the over-all content of admixtures. metallic antimony (regulus) is produced at the plant in the In addition to etan.ards established for metallic antiaow,' there are G`"' standards for antimonous lead. Brands CCyl, CCy2, and CCy3 are standard designations for antimonous lead and quality. requirewnts are listed in Table 10. CCyl ccy2 ccy3 TABLE 10 VARIETIES OF ANTIWNDQS LEAD (IN ACCORDANCE WITH GOST) Chemical Composition (in %) Lead and antimony, Of that, Admixtures, not more than Designation not less than anti ozW Tin Copper Zinc Other 99.5 0.3 - 3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 Core alloys 99.4 3.0 - 6.0 ? 0.3 0.05 0.25 98.8 1.0 - 6.0 0.25 0.5 0.25 0.25 Manufacture of dies for diecastinq of aluminum alloys; also nix" with lead in lead plat operations Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 The roquina.nta listed in Table 10 are based on the extraction of antiaoaus Ltd through the processing of scrap metal and other materials,.vithont the addition of antimozp. The data indicate. the requirements for the quality standard desired in ..i'%iaonous lead which say be' obtained from ores aired in various complex lead-antiaozy deposits. Trisulfide of"antimorz.(antimonium crudua) is governed by technical specifications.TantU 99M1, which establish 2 classi- L? S ficatione -- CTC-l and CTC-2 (see Table 11). Trisulfide of aniinor' must be in. pieces of different site, Reaction of aqueous extr'aotion for brand CTC-1 in.teas of .ethyl orange must not be acid, not permissible.. o ?, COMPOSITION OF ANTS )NIUM CJVDUK (IN ACCORDANCE WITH TO ) Chemical composition (in %) AntiaOty Sulfur Admixtures: not more than not less than Sulfur (free) Trisulfids Residue Moisture of arsenic insoluble in aqua regia cTC-1 ~' - 73 25 - 28.3 0.07 0.7 0.3 0.2 CTC-2 `19 - 73 25 - 28.3 0,10 1.0 0.5 Undetermined Based on technical specifications Sit-TiM 901-,40, antimonous flotation concentrate must conform to the following: it must contain not less than 33% Sb2S3 and not more than 5% moisture. A dried sample quantity must pass through a 100-mesh sieve to the extent of 90%, and to the extent of not less than 60% through a 170-.ash sieve. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Ths'catch aarutaoturiv industry was a osmesatsals obtaiaad traa the first 2 ohaabsrs of flotation naohinsa of oemmentratirg plant.. High-grads concentrate is not governed to atp specific standards other than that it sort have an antiaorp content of not leas than 25%. Current prices of mercury, antimony, and certain other industrial antimory products are given in Table 12. Product Brand Price per Ton (rubles) Mercury Rl. 100,000 Mercury R2 97,600. Mercury R3 96,000 Antimony CYO 32,700 Antimony Cyl 29,700 Antiaory Cy2 26,000 Antimony Cy3 20,300 Antimony Cy4 and CyK 18,000 Antimonous lead CCy1 3,200 Antimonous lead CCy2 3,100 Antiaonoua lead CCy3 2,800 Trioxide of antimony (ver7 pure) 40,000 Antimonium crudun CTC-1 15,700 Antimoniuna crudua CTC-2 14,900 Pentasulfids of antiaorp 59,000 Flotation antiwry concentrate (33%) 5,000 Nigh-grade antiaory concentrate (30%) 3,200 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Chapter 4. Data an the 7eohnoUff of Proosssige Nsraurir and AUtipa Ore. Prooeesiaa of mercury ore. The processing of mercury are for Lhe purpose of obtaining metallic mercury can be carried out either by means of direct metallurgical conversion-or with the aid of the combined, method or the other approach depends primarily on the composition and quality of the ore. Achievements in.the field of mercury metallurgy have made it possible to*convert ore with even a low mercury content. If production, on a sufficiently large shale can be organized, it is possible to convert mercury ore that has a mercury content of more than 0.1% without first concentrating it. Metallurgical conversion yields 90% and more of mercury from mercury ore. Thus the need for initial concentration of mercury ore is determined by economic considerations. It must be remembered that if the combined method is used, whereby the ore is first concentrated and then converted, loss of the metal will be considerably greater. In the case of complex ores the task of extracting the admixtures, primarily the extraction of antimony, requires the use of the combined conversion method. Direct metallurgical conversion of mercury area is carried out by dead roasting of coarse ore (pieces 50 na in size or smaller) at 700 to 800? C. This temperature assures the rapid and complete separation of the cinnabar in accordance with the equation HgS + 02 Hg + S02. The released mercury in vapor form (its boiling temper- ature is 3570 0 leaves the furnace together with the chimney gas Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 and is collected in a special condensation apperatue. Several types of furnaces are used for the roasting of mercury ores pit furnaces of various typesj reverberatory furnaces, retort Thraaces, multihearth furnaces, and tubular furnaces. The most convenient, economical, and productive modern furnaces are those of the tubular The furnace gases, together with the mercury vapors are sucked by fans through A battery of metallic tubes and.are subjected to air, water, or a combined cooling system. In the lower portion of the condensation tubes receptacles are provided in which the metallic mercury and a byproduct, atuppi are collected. Stupp is a mixture of minute drops of'mercury and soot, ore duet, mercury oxide, and arsenic. Mercury content in stupp may be as high as 80%. Completeness of mercury distillation in' the roasting process depends on'the temperature and duration of roasting. The duration is a'variable that depends on'the type of ore which is to be roasted. One that are porous at the start, or those that become porous during the roasting process, will produce mercury more rapidly than compact The most'harmful admixture in ore,'arsenic, hampers the normal course of ,the metallurgical process.' Vapor pressure of trioid.de of arsenic reaches 760 mm at 5000 C. For this reason trioxide of arsenic is fully sublimated at working furnace temperatures and, precipitating in the condensation system, reduces the collection of'mercury, help- ing to fora large quantities of atupp. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 Plant persoaosl"xuat be protected against the taodo action of mercury vapors. Accordingly, most components of the apparatus must be hermetically seaiad, particularly the oondensation instal- lation. The processing of relatively small quantities of high-grade are or of mercury concentrates can be carried out in simply con- structed retort furnaces consisting of a series (usually 4 to 6) of iron or pig iron retorts embedded in a muffle furnace. The retorts are loaded with ore at one and which is than closed with a cover] the other and of the retort is connected to the condensation system. Mercury vapor, produced through the heating of the retorts, is directed into the condensation system. Since cinnabar is sepa- rated in the retort furnace because of oowgen shortage, the ore or concentrate mixes with lime. Under these conditions, the .follow- ing cinnabar separation reaction takes place: Wigs + 4CaO ? 48g + 3CaS + CaSO4. Though their efficiency is not great, retort furnaces, because of their small clearance and light weight, are frequently used for the processing of high-grade are in relatively small ore deposits located in areas that are difficult to reach. When the combined method of mercury are processing is used, the metallurgical cycle is preceded by the mechanical concentration of the ore. This method is particularly applicable in the process- ing of complex mercury-antiaonq ores. Such ores, after being crushed, are subjected to flrotation, zonstiaes in conjunction with gravi- tational concentration in settling machinsa or on concentration tables. Intensive research and many experiments have so far failed to produce selective mercury and antimony concentrates. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 This industry produces collective .sraury-antimany conoentratea. To obtain asroury, these concentrates are loaded into special retort furnaces. The antiaonite remains in the cinders which are then processed to extract antimony. On the whole, mercury processing plants are small and compact. The establishment of a mercury processing plant of average capacity requires a relatively small area. Such plants require power only for the crushing of the ore, rotation. of the furnaces, and operation of the blowers which suck the gases through the condensation system. Masut oil is commonly used as fuel. Depending on local conditions, the fuel expenditure is approximately 28 to 32 kg/t of ore. Use of other types of fuel, such as coal or wood, requires the instal- lation of more complex heating systems. Quantity of water used in a mercury processing plant is also relatively small. When it is necessary to construct a concentration plant, requirements of. area, power, and particularly of water increase considerably. The quantity of water required in the mechanical concentration of the ore is normally between $ and 6 m3/t/ of ore. Processing of Antiaow Ores In contrast with mercury ores, antimony ores almost always require concentration prior to metallurgical processing. Usually, antimony ores are nonuniform in terms of antimonite content. Frequently found in comparatively poor ingrained ores are pockets and irregular veins of high-grads ore which sometimes contain solid ore minerals. For this reason, the ore in normally sorted. This sorting process which sometimes is carried out right at the pit produces high-grade concentrate which, if it contains 30% or more Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 of antimony (this corresponds to 42% of antiaonite) can serve as a coaercial product or can be used in the production. of trisulfati of antimonys or can also be used in the smelting of metallic antimony black. . High-grads ores with a content of 8 to 12% may serve as the raw material for the extraction of antimony tor use of the metal- lurgical process. Ordinary ore with an antimony content of leas than 8% must first be subjected to mechanical concentration. However, it must be remembered that antimony oxides are extracted is small quantities only. Because of ttheir relative softness, antimony oxides become mixed with the sediment during processes employing the gravitational method of concentration. Nor are very large quantities extracted when the flotation method is used. As for antimonite, it can be floated with excellent results and small losses even if relatively poor ore is used which contains only 0.8 to 1% of antimony. The flotation process is sometimes combined with the gravitational method, the nettling and concen- tration on tables. If mercury is.. present in antimoty-ores, collective mercury- antimony concentrates are obtained. Auriferous pyrites and wolfram minerals (ferberite and sal elite) as will as arsenopyrite can be separated as independent concentrates in the course of the concen- tration process. Extraction of antimony reaches. 85 to 90% in the case of medium to high-grade sulfide ores (4 to 6% Sb). Extraction normally does not exceed 70 to 75% fray the poor-grads ores (1 to 1.8% Sb). Extraction of antinonq* in concentrate decreases in proportion to the increase in the content of oxide minerals in tntLeq era. .- aeon, It is very important that the extent of tee tress -e .. jzidised minerals in the ore be carefully studied. A commercial antimony product is the so-called antimonium crvdam -- antimony trisultide, liquated from sulfide ores.. However, in view of the relatively peat antimorW loss (30 to 50%) in the course of production, and in vim of the low price of this product, there has been little production of it in the recent past. Crudun is obtained through heating of antimony concentrates, having a 40 to 50% antimorpr trisulfide content, to 600 to 7000 C in crucible furnaces having a perfors'ed bottom. These furnaces, covered at the top to prevent entry of nygen and inserted into,a second furnace, are placed into a compartment kiln. When a temperature of 5480 C is reached, the antimony trisulfide is melted and flows into the lower furnace. The cinders normally contain 15 to 20% of antimony. The oxidising roasting with sublimation is a very interesting metall. ?gical process whose end product is trisulfide of antimony. The latter,. as is known, is volatile and when heated even to a temperature below its malting point (6560 c) is sublimated. Useful admixtures such as gold or silver can be extracted from the cinders. This method is of particular interest in the processing of ores that contain considerable quantities of antimory in oxidised item, in excess of 400? C,.the natural trioxide of antimony contained in the ore L, sublimated iam odiately, while the antimony trisulfide is sublimated only after initial oxidation in accordance withs :.5b233 ? 90 ' 28b203 + 6 802. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 to tranatoaAa- the nonvolatile Sb2% into 8b,,03, the necessary conditions smut be created i6 the furnace. through. the use of rednoing agents. ?? . To separate volatile trioxide, the furnace gases are cooled ? and subsequently purified in a seriesof devices,capable,of collect- ing 98 to 99% of the antimony trioxide contained in the gases. Metallic antimony is obtained from plant concentrates or.high- grade ores through the no-called. process of settlement smelting with iron in reverberatory furnaces at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 13000 C. This process is carried out ' 1n. accordance with the reaction: 8b283 + Me a 2sb i 3Fe8. Antimony, the heavier element, is collected at the bottom of the furnace, while the sulfurous iron becomes part of the matte. Fusing agents, such as soda or sodium sulfate are used to form slag of the waste material, while coal is used to reduce the oxides. The proc..t obtained through this process is the so-called blacks or grey, antimony, containing from 6 to 15% iron. 'lack antimony is further refined in a second smelting process during .+.iich measured Quantities of crudum or high-grade antimony concent ?,e are added in order to transform the iron in accordance with tht above reaction into sulfurous iron and transferring it into the matte. In the course of the settling-smelting process the admixtures of arsenic, lead, gold, and silver pass into the antimony. The latter 3 metals can be removed only through electrolysis. The removal of the arsenic, a particularly harmful admixture of antimony, is achieved through refining by smelting of black antimony under addition of soda or potassium. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Up to 80% of antimorq passes into the crude metal, while up to 9% of antiaozy remains in the matte, and up to 157 escapes in the fora of trioxide. For this reason, in order to collect the antimorgr trioxide, all furnace gases must be channelled through a dust-collecting system. To obtain the metal, antimony trioxide is reduced in a re- verberatory furnace. Antimony trioxide, frequently having a metal content of up to 75%, is mixed with a reducing agent (coal or charcoal) and with fusing agents (calcined soda or sodium sulfate). Was of antimony in the reduction process ranges between 5 and 20%. The slag which is enriched with antimony is, in turn, subjected to processing. In the reduction smelting of high-grade ores, the admixtures such as gold, silver, or lead all pass into the antimony. H}+drometallurigcal methods of ore processing are based on the fact that antimony trisulfide is easily soluble in relatively weak solutions of sodium sulfide. Subsequent electrolysis of the- antimony produces a.metal of exceptional purity (brand Cy0). The system of processing antimony ores is greatly more complex than methods used in the processing of mercury. As a rule, any processing of antimorp must be preceded by a concentration operation carried out in a concentration or metallurgical plant. Such an installation is gaits complex and costly and is economic only when adequate supplies of raw material can be counted on. The extraction of the commercial metal, if losses of 5 to 10% are taken into consideration, can yield from 80 to 85% mercury, while only 40 to 60% of antimony can be extracted from known deposits. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 RagS. 84 - 941 MKIVJRT AND ANTIMONr DEPOSITS D 7H9 588R Prior to the Great October Revolution the antimony industry was nonexistent in Russia. Mercury was extracted in comparatively limited quantities -- these only at the Nikitovka deposit in the Donets Basin -- unless one counts some minor efforts to exploit J the Il'dikanka deposit in Transbsik.Lta it the and of the past century and the Khpeka deposit in Dagestan early in the present ? e century. Knowledge of stussia's mercury and antimony deposits in ?jleneral at that time was extrimely scanty. At a number of places in Russia, however -- in the Donets Basin, in Ruthenia, and particularly in. Central Asia -- a fairly well developed mercury industry had existed in the ninth to the twelfth centuries, traces of sh ich have survived in the form of numerous ancient excavations, the remai.7s of metallurgical furnaces, ceramic tiles and condensation pipes, atone hammers, iron chisels, and piles of candleends. Traces of this ancient industry serve today as one rather important indication during prospecting for mercury deposits. Geological prospecting and exploration conducted by Soviet geologists have lad to the discovery of quite a number of anti- mony and mercury deposits in various regions of the USSR. Of course these deposits represent by no means all the potential antimony and mercury resources of the USSR. The discovery of new deposits of these metals continues to be a most important task for Soviet geologists. Geological Position of Deposits Deposits and ore outcroppings of mercury and antimony in the USSR are rather widely scattered; they occur in Ruthenia, in the Donets Basin, in the Caucasus (on the northern and southern elopes of the main range), in Central Asia, in various Farts of '%asakhetan, in Gorno-Altay, in the Kusnets Ala-Tau, in Trans- baikalia, in the Maritime Territory, and in the Urals: A study of the pattern of the USSR'a mercury and antimony ore deposits shows that these 2 metals are consistent components of a general hydrothermal process of ore formation. The conditions under which mercury and antimony are deposited, however, differ sharply from the conditions of deposit for other metals. antimony are formed in ore-bearing regions where strata of sedimentary rock overlying a hard crystalline base -- strata which thickness. In the Donets Basin, for instance, the mercury ore 'vein lies in a thick (2,400-5,400 si) Middle Carboniferous stratus of mixed shale-sandstone-limestone composition, which is underlain by a stratum of Aaoarian and Upper Visean sandy shale of analogous composition (up to 2,400'*) and by Vialan and TLmronian limestone (216-455 a)? The latter lie either directly on a Pre-Cambrian crystalline base or, in now places, on Devonian continental or oceanic sediments up to 600 a thick. -36- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 The ors-bearing Middle Carboniferous is in turn oovired bF chalet and sandstones of the Upper Cerboniterous (2,100-2,800 a). The sandy, gypsum-dolomite and salt-bearing strata of the Pazisn, which overlie the Carboniferous in the northeastern part of the Donets Basin, are characterised by considerable variation in thickness (1,700 to 3,700 a). Like the faso-Casnosoic sediment., they are absent in the region whore area are most plentiful. In the Caucasus the mercury and antimony deposits on the northern (Dagestan) and southern (Georgia) slopes of the main range lie chiefly in Jurassic strata which cover ancient crys- talline rocks. The thickness of these Jurassic strata reaches 1900 a. The Jurassic deposits, like the Chalk and Paleogene, which overlie them in adjacent regions (up to 1700 a in thick- ness), have a F],ysch Oharacter, 79% being terrigenoua deposits and 21% carbonaceous. Mercury deposits in the Stavropol' Territory are associated with Permian sandstone-oongloearate strata. Here too the crya- tallins base lies at considerable depth -- more than 2000 a. In Central Asia the geological conditions under which mercury and antimony deposits are found are extremely varied. In the Kopet-Dag they are associated with the middle portion of the Lower Chalk, whose total thickness reaches 2000 a. Here the lower 500 to 700 a are acapocid of Banwdsn limestone and the upper 1300 a of clayey-sandstona rocks of the Aptiaa and Albian. Apparently lying below the lower Chalk in the Kopet-Dag are Jurassic strata with a thickness of 2,000 a. Thus, hers too, the crystal- line base lies at extremely great depth. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 In the southern part of the Tien than, mercury and aatts 4y deposits are swat frequently associated with Carboniferous strata represented by alternating layers of limestone and shale with a total thickness of 500 to 1,500 or 2,000 mj these are underlain by Devonian, Upper Silurian and Cambrian strata, partly terrigenous and partly of limestone composition, quite variable but on the whole quite thick. The Pre-Cambrian base is most probably crystal- line in character. At certain places in the Tien Shan, mercury and antimony deposits are also encountered in Silurian and Devonian strata, but only where the latter's thickness is markedly greater. In the northern ranges of the Tien Shan there are scattered deposits lying in the upper portions of a very thick and ancient stratum of me wawrphoaed shale and marble, posshly of Proterozoic age. mercury and antimony mineralization is also encountered in effusive-terrigenous strata of the Carboniferous and Permian, which overlie either the afore-mentioned Proterozoic shales and marbles or Silurian and Devonian strata. In Altai and Western Siberia, mercury and antimony ores are found in very thick Middle and Lower Paleosoic strata of mixed coapositionj these border the Kusnets coal basin on the east (Kusnsta Ala-Tau) and west (Salair) and extend farther south into Gorno-Altayo extremely thick sedimentary strata of the Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian. In the Maritime Territory mercury and antimory ores are found in Upper Paleozoic and Jurassic strata, i. e., quite far above the crystalline base. - 38 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 While the total thickness of the sedimentary rocks with which the Soviet Union's mercury and antimony deposits are associated is very great, considerable variation in the thick- ness of the individual formations which go to make them up is quite characteristic. From all the foregoing, one may draw the significant conclusion that mercury and antimony deposits are formeJ in regions which have experienced great, complex, and often diifer- entiated tectonic movements. Formation of the deposits is associated with the final phase of these tectonic movements. The great thickness and lithological complexity of sedi- mentary strata determine hiv solutions evolve as they move along their course and to what degree they become differentiated. It is also significant to note that in cases where condi- tions favorable for ore accumulation are also manifest in ore- bearing strata -- conditions such as those which will be discussed below -- deposits are sometimes found at several levels or layers (central Asic, Donets Basin). In most cases the mercury and antimony deposits of the USSR lie in long, narrow sores, sometimes extending hundreds of kilometers. As detailed research has shown, such distribution of mercury and antimony ores is due to the fact that they are formed along large, complex zones of crust movement, usually between a depressed area and an uplifted area. Of th-A4 type, for izastance, are the fault son" controlling the location of deposits observed along the edges of the Sur!astash and Karachatyr Upper Faleosoic depressed areas in the Alay Range of Central Asia, as well as the faults bordering the Kusnsts Depression in Western Siberia. In the Caucasus, mercury and antimoq deposits are also distributed along faults marking the contours of depressions in which have accumulated extremely. thick strata of Hero-Csenosoic Flysch sediments. Unfortu.ately, such an analysis of the geological-tectonic position of.ms cury and antimony deposits has not as yet been made for many if the mercury-antimony regions of the Soviet Union. In the Donets Basin, for example, the geological position of the ore-controlling fissures is still not clear. They may be linked with the outlines of depressions of Permian age. But for the pr_ cipal mercury and antimony ore regions of the USSR, it may be considered a proven fact that the distribution of deposits is controlled ty deep faults which have clear and diverse geological manifestation and which conform to the over-all geological structure. Tno' sing Rooks, their Age and Composition The rocks in which mercury and aatimor0 deposits lie are rather varied both as to composition and as to age. They include core`owrates, sandstones, shales, limestones, intrusive igneous roots, and agglomerated effusive and tuffaceous rocks of volcanic The age of the" rocks ranges from Pre-Caabrian to Upper rtioo? ere, of r ,Area the upper age limit of ore-baring rucks in each individual region is determined by rteriod in vniah via f', Lion of the deposit took place. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 For example, in the Tien $ban the age of most of the mer- cury and antimony deposits is Persian. Consequently, the deposits favoratir, in rocks of anger age in the older Permian -- in the Carboniferous, the Devonian, the Silurian, and even in the Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian. But for the several regions in Central Asia, depending on their geologic history, other ages' of mercury mineralisation are sometimes observed: PostfJ1rassic for the Ku it' -Tau Post-Chali for the Ko t- ~~ g ang , ps Lag, P~,dle and Upper Car- boniferous for the Talass Ala-Tau, etc. All this is appropriately taken into account when prospecting operations are being organized. As far as rock composition is concerned, the USSR's largest mercury and antimony deposits are associated at times with rocks having's considerable primary porosity (porous sand- stones, conglomerates) and for the most part with brittle rocks which under tectonic deformation can form.brecciation cones containivd a large number of empty spaces (limestones, sand- stones, ciuartzites). An extremely important condition (observed in all iniustrial deposits of the Soviet Union) for the forma- tion of .Large concentrations of mercury and antimony minerals in areas I high primary or secondary porosity is that these areas b: of a relatively isolated character, with a covering of compact, Impermeable rocks -- usually clays and shales. As a rule, mercury and antimory deposits in the Soviet Union's are regions are formed in sectors which are quite broke. up tectonically. This follows logically from their location, as noted above, in zones of transition between depressed areas and Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 upthrust areas. Such zones are usually characterised t0r wry complex structural forms due to both foldirs and faulting of the earth'a cruet. This accounts for the extreme diversity of structural forms bearing ore deposits. First of all, we should discuss deposits which are in the form of a layer or bed, then those orebodies which are irregular in shape and have resulted from massive breccistion of the rocks, and finally ore veins of many different forms, often very complex. In all deposits of these structural types 3 common structural features are observed: (1) channels of access, which take the form either of well-defined fissures and cracks, individual or in series, or of zones of intensive fine fissuring in the rock; (2) ore-accumulating cavities, usually linked with the channels of access through offshoots rather than directly; and (3) a layer of impermeable rocks lying over the ore-accumulating cavity. The channels of access determine the location of deposits within the limits of ore belts and sons, but they themselves often remain virtually unoineralized, since their great extent usually gives them a through-passageway character. Ore-bearing solutions have apparently been brought to the surface through then without forming any ore concentrations (Central Asia; Caucasus, Altay, Donets Basin). The character and shape of the ore-accumulating cavities naturally determine the shape of the deposits. The latter may be layer-shaped, in the form of a saddle or mould, associated with corresponding folds of the enclosing rocks (Central Asia, Donets Hain); layers of porous rook associated with denser rocks in a monoctirae (Central Asia); or various types of bedded deposits Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 lying between strata of rock which differ litholo`icaly from each other, both sedimentary and igneous (Ruthenia). Especially noteworthy are the irregularly-shaped ore-bodies due to nassine brecciation of brittle rocks; these usually extend to the heart of tightly pressed folds (Central Asia). Ore veins are usually associated with fissures due to faulting or, leas frequently, to cleavage. Mercury and antimony ore veins often intersect more or less rigid, brittle rocks, attenuating in the softer, more plastic rocks above them (Central Asia: limestone under shale; Altay: limestone and sandstone under shale and serpentine; Kazakhstan: sandstone under shale; Donets Basin: layers of sandstone and quartzite in shale). A number of antimony ore crack-veins in Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, and the Chita Oblast even lie in intrusive igneous rocks which have penetrated sedimentary strata. They quickly attenuate and break down in the latter. There are some veins, however, which intersect even rather plastic rocks -- Jurassic shales in the Caucasus, metamorphic Pre-Cambrian shales in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, etc. But even for these veins, isolation from above is characteristic, as is shown by their enclosed offshoots and apophysee, which as a rule are noteworthy for higher-quality ore, and by independent blind- alley veins, always richer at their upper ends. It should be pointed out that veins associated with relatively plastic rocks are characterised by intermittency and often form lenticular pockets, single or in series (Caucasus, Krasnoyarsk Territory). Mercury and antimorq- deposits of the layer type are of the greatest importance for practical purposes. Figures 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 show the most important and typical structural forms of mercury and antimony deposits in the USSR. Material Composition of Deposits The Soviet Union's mercury and antimony deposits are rather varied in material composition and range from virtually single- mineral deposits of cinnabar and stibnite to extremely mixed, complex, multimineral deposits. Quarts is of the greatest importance as a gangue mineral. Intensive quarts formation is very often obserN*d in mercury and antimony deposits; it takes the form of metasomat..c replace- ment of the rock by fine-crystalline quarts, often peratoid in structure, or sometimes by chalcedony. But as.a rule this quartz formation always precedes ore deposition. First-generation quarts generally cements fragments of rock. In addition, second- generation quarts is often observed; this is nearer in time of origin to the time of the ore-deposition process itself, and sometimes almost simultaneous with it. Second-generation quartz most frequently forms well-defined grains of columnar, prismatic crystals which grow in druses in the cavities. These zones of quarts formation, which stand out sharply in relief and which are covered with a dark crust of desert tan when climatic conditions are favorable, are an important indi- cation in prospecting for mercury and antimosW deposits. It must be kept in mind, however, that such quarts zones are not always accompanied by orebodies, even in regions known to contain mercury and antimorw ores. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 Besides quarts, some Central Asian and Maritime leiritory deposits contain fluorite, whose possible importance as a use- ful by-product must be considered. Another common gangue mineral, especially in deposits which were formed in a carbon- ceous environment, is calcite. Complex carbonates and barite are less frequently encountered in mercury and antimony deposits. Still, in Central Asia there are some known mercury deposits with barite and ankerite as the principal gangue mineral. Although quartsless antimosW deposits or orebodies are a great rarity, quartzless mercury deposits with calcite or, less often, dolomite as the principal gangue mineral are often encountered, especially in carbonaceous rocks. In the USSR's mcsrcury and antimony deposits the following hypogenic ore-bearing minerals (listed in the approximate order of their frequency and `typicality) are found: In Mercury Deposits Cinnabar Metacinnabarite (Usually metacinnabarite is a secondary mineral in mercury deposits, but some researchers nevertheless at the possibility that it is of )gpogenic origin.) Pyrite Stibnite Realgar Orpiment In Antimoo Deposits [_..2 Stibnite Pyrite Cinnabar Boulangerite Bournonite Jameaonite Sphalerite Marcasite Chalcopyrite Galena Gold - 45 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 ( l] Marcasite Seloniumrbearing varieties of cinnabar Schwataite Famatinite Chalcopyrite Galena Sphalerite Gold Hematite Bismuth glance (2) Arseaop7rite Berthierite Realgar Orpiment Pyrrhotite t aa4stinite Hematite Magnetite Wolfram (farberite) Silver Bismuth glance Stannite Titanite scheelite From the list of minerals above, certain differences are apparent between the material composition of mercury deposits and that of antimony deposits] for instance, antimony deposits contain a greater number of minerals which occur in ore deposits of other metals. It is curious to note that while galena is sometimes found in mercury deposits, lead in antimony deposits more often forme aulfo-salts containing antimony, and only rarely is lead found in the form of galena. Stibnite is virtually never found in deposits where lead is present. In the latter antimony is encountered chiefly as a component of sulfo-salts, or very infrequently in the form of native antimony. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 She above list of Igpogenic ore-bearing uinersla in both mercury and antimony deposits bears witness to the genetic relationships between mercury and antimony oreformation and other types of mineralisation (see Note.) These relationships become still more apparent if one considers the complex po],7metallic deposits which contain antimoaac-bearing tetrahedrite and the presence of antimony in considerable quantities in some wild and gold-polymetallic deposits. ((Note:) The author is attempting to prove that mercury and an*.imozW deposits originate from the same solutions which first lay down gold, lead, and other polymetallio ores. The proof, however, is not very convincing, since the small quantities of lead in mercury and antimorv deposits may have been absorbed from the wall rocks. Furthermore, the idea is not verified geologically. As a rule, no locally widespread connection is observed between polymetallic deposits and deposits of mercury and antimony. -- Editor's note.) These genetic links between the processes mercury and antimony deposits, and those forming other types of ore deposits, are also indicated by the fact that the material com- position of mercury and antimony deposits depends on their geological position. This has been demonstrated by comparing such deposits in various on regions of the Soviet Union. It appears, for example, that single-mineral mercury deposits, evidently formed by well-differentiated solutions, are located in the upper portions of the thickest and most lithologically complex strata. On the other hand, deposits associated with strata which are not so thick and are underlain oy rigid, it ' L., . d consequently more penetrable rocks, of ton have a mixed, complex mineral coapositionj i. e., they were formed by nondifferentiated solutions. In other words, the composition of ore-bearing solutions is observed to undergo a definite evolutionary change in the course of their movement 0 0 0 0 ? through thick, complex rock strata. A very interesting question which has not yet been pursued 0 0 C very far In that of the paragenetic relationships between minerals c in the mercury aril antimony deposits of the USSR. Nevertheless, the factual data it hand indicates that the process of ore J 0 formiation.may be considered a very protracted and consistent one 0 which develops according to definite principles. The composite paragenstic diagrams in Figure 15 show this rather clearly. 0 They are derived from data from mineralogical study of a number of Central Asian mercury std antimony deposits. From these 0 diagrams it As evident that if the precipitation of certain minerals or their derivatives in individual deposits be disregarded, 0.. the general course of development of the mineral deposition process is a fairly consiatcnt.one. Relation to Igneous Rocks The intrusive or effusive igneous rocks, near or within which certain mercury and antlmzv deposits of the soviet Union iie, u' course cannot be considered the source of the ore- ;raring solutions involved. Geological correlation nearly always shows c_-ivincinily that they are of considerably greater age than this deposits themselves. - 48 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 A aumbsr of neraury and antimorp deposits have been formed at depths of 1,000 to 2,000 as and mercury mineralisation canting a great span along the vertical (1,300 m and more) vithout any substantial change in its material composition has been observed in. certain mineral regions of Central Asia. Those facts oblige us to place the sources of the ore solutions at relatively greater depths. The intrusion of pre-ore, ultrabasic rocks to form stocks and dikes along certain great ore-controlling faults (Central Asia) also points indirectly to the possibility that the source of ore-bearing solutions lies at coraiderabls depth. Om the other hand, it is noteworthy that the igneous rocks containing mercury and antimony deposits in the Soviet Union's ore regions (th6 Alay, Turkestan, Hissar, and Talons Ranges of Central Asia, the Donets Basin, the Urals, Altai, etc) are alkaline in character. Also typical is the presence in these areas of ultra-alkaline igneous rocks (nephelitic sysnite, barkerikite, shonkinite, etc) accompanied by a great many mir:,rals containing fluorine; these are characteristic of many mercury and antimozW regions, particularly in Central Asia. However, numerous attempts to attribute the origin of men nury.and antincaW.deposits:to this or that type of magmatic roe. have led to no results of praotical or theoretical value. - 49 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300180013-6 figure lA Plan visit of the poricttnal end of ao ors-bearing -witic1immo as eserl ing shale; bs ore bearing sandstone; as maderlying abate; d, fault; e, ore-.sins tdtb cinnabar Pigure n Cross section of a mercury deposit association with the contact of a serpentinisod intrusion of byperbasits. a, hyperbasite; b, sedi- nenter7-effusive strata; co ore deposit Figure 12 Pan view and *roes section of an antimony deposit' associated with radial cracking in a dose. Ore reins (a) in the sandstone forming the heart of the fold (b) extend only as far as the level of the shale (c), whose ore-controlling significance is thus readily apparent Figure 13 An antimony ore-rein (a) associated with a fault crack in aetamorpb shale (b). The richest ore (in black) 13 concentrated in the dew are-shoots branching off from the vein and in the wide spaces in vein Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/06: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300180013-6 MI ?t ?S ESP Figure lt, Structural diagram of a whole mercury-antimony ore Meld, a, the groat slippage which has caused the peculiarities of folded stncture1 b, ors-controlling fissures; c, ore-distributing fissures associated with the latter, intersecting an upthrust block. 1, anticlinal folds; 2j mercury ore; 3,' antimony ore; k, ore deposits tooiO 1 e ?1s Ilirerry IMAIw~Mfl "spoof - Figure 15 aransaetitI diagrams for typical kinds of mercury and -antimony de- posita-.of Ientrel Asia; 1, much; 2, considerable quantity; 3, little