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December 22, 2016
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June 3, 2011
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November 1, 1956
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 RESKAYSB OF 'llfl OF AtIS HEROIWIT MABINH VASSFLS IN HOMk PONS Techntloa i Ooapoderla lbralra any Boaussynaki, goat amend Economic Maine Central Coaeittes of the Journal! Vol 3, March 1955s. Polish Merchant Marine -- Mynia, ages 67-70 Odynis The methodology of the analysis of the losses of time of hm [Poiska Marynarka Handiest -- Polish Merchant Marine) vessels in Polish ports. The volume r,nd main causes of the losses of .time of Polish ships in the year 19540 with a division into the individual ports and type of navigation. The analysis of the efficiency of transshipment in relation to the particular cargoes the most import9nt reserve of Poland's marine fleet is 0 time. Uhile the sea oourses'contain relatively =all reserves of O time, very important reserves exist in the time spent by boats in port. The servicing of a boot in port y.s made up of several functions. The speed of execution of these depends not only on the qualification standard of the workers involved and the O technical equipment but also on the good organization of the work. Ports visited by Polish vessels soy be divided into 2 main groupsl haws ports and overseas ports. Undoubtedly the servicing of t :-ish vessels in many foreign ports could be improved. This in c. , to seasonal or permanent overcrowding of some ports, to bad ??'rk organization, or to insufficient technical equipment of some ports. One of the reasons may be also the inefficiency of some pnt$agents of the PM who should efficiently coordinate the organisation of the various functions necessary for the servicing of vessels in port. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300190006-3 7h1s is the Ms M tier the P!6 should and is acting to remove difficulties arising from these causes. The main op- portunitses that the FM has of removing inefficiency in this field is the not always possible avaidsnce of overcrowded or inefficient ports and a good selection of efficient agents and a control of their work. Y.owever the possibilities for ia- provement in this direction can be but small when the functions of our fleet are considered. The fleet cannot an the whole chose its ports but must serve its functions of serving overseas trade. Consequently in this article we shall omit the analysis of the reserves of time of Polish vessels in foreign ports which would at any rate be purely theoretical. be shall however analyze in detail the reserves of time spent by our vessels in hums ports. This section of work of the Polish fleet contains important reserves, can be analyzed in detail, and thus contri- bute to a better knowledge of the situation and to the correct conclusions. In contest to foreign ports, home ports form part of the area completely guided and controlled by the Polish economy* Thus conclusions which seek to make available reserves of time are basically possible to realise. Certain statistical data of the FM for 1954 were used as analytical material. In view of certain potential differences of the different hone ports and as a result of the basically dif- ferent character of exploitation of the PL (Polskie Linie Okretowe -- Polish Shipping Lineal and the PM (Polska Zegluga rioraka - Polish see neaal, the analytical data is given separately for each of Poland's 3 ports. Furthermore our analytical material is subdivided into types of navigation,, namely into ocean lines, European lines, and tramping. We cud not group t"iis data in quarts because quarters are too short periods of time to make observations of the development of the topic under discussion. Also a great danger exists of presenting a false picture as a result of accidental group.ings. of certain types of vessels or cargo in a certain quarter. Solely the efficiency of the trans- shipment is given in quarters, because in this case this is more useful and correct. Table I shows a detailed analysis of the time of stay of Poland's vessels in home ports and is calculated in vessel hours. A serious difficulty always presents itself in the choice of a suitable comparative base for the determination of the percentage relationship of a particular phase of the stay of the vessel in port in relation to a basic unit. The acceptance as the comparative base of only the entire time of stay of the vessel in port may eaeily lead to false as- sumptions and conclusions. (Compare also riiedwiedies J., "0 mietodikie analisa proetojew Slot.,? Wodaj Transport [Mater Trans- port), No ]12/79$4 (editor)). Indeed, with the variable period of stay of particular groups of vessels, the percentage ratio, in spite of a numerical increase, does not necessarily picture in ab- solute numbers the increased length of a phase of stay of a vessel in part. comparison of the particular phases of stay in pert with the Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 a& r yttabS is even MO:.E in- correct. Vessels with a short cycle of sea trips and consequently with a greater frequency of call at ham ports would show a much hiSar proportion of loss of time in port in relation to total use than vessels with long trip cycles, for example, ocean going vessels. Such being the case, we chose a method which we consider the most suitable, aamsly the calculation of the average period of stay in port of a vessel as well as the mean period of duration of a particular phase of stay in port. Independent of this, we give (Table I) the percentage ratio of each phase to the total time of stay in port. The percentage figures and the individual absolute figures in ship-hours do not correspond exactly, because the per- centage figures were calculated exactly by the use of total quarterly period ship-hour figures, chile the mean figures of time per stay in port, were necessarily rounded off to the a:earest half-hour. Thus, while the percentage figures are absolutely cor- rect, the averages are only approximately correct. In this way, Table Is, while giving a good and clear presentation in absolute average figures, also gives precise percentage proportions. It thus shows in a clear manner the degree of concentration of certain elements, independent of their economic effects. On the other hand, Table II gives a concrete picture At the effective losses in the potentibls of the fleet, according to origin of loss, but omitting losses of time caused by holi.;ays or atmospheric conditions, since the latter 2 categories are classl.- fied as unavoidable. The data of Table II is expressed in terms of t-days of the average gross carrying capacity of individual vessels (weighted Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300190006-3 avenges). 1heps.osntage figures given With, the losses of the potential of the,-fleet due to coal express the relation of these losses to the whole and the losses in time due to the cargo itself. By way of an explanation, it ahould be added that the headings of individual columns referring to the losses of time and potential in tables I and II (P.~i, ports, etc) refer to the sources of origins of these losses. Auxiliary servicing time means the time besides the loading and unloading necessary for the servicing of a vessel in port (mooring, customs. etc). Table III contains practical net loading and unloading rates for the individual basic types of cargoes divided into ports and quarterly periods. These.retee have been expressed in mdtric t per 24 hours. Analysis of Time of Stay in Port In Table I we see ivmeeaiately the characteristic arrangement of the shipping tonnage according to the type of business of the vessels. All the ocean lines as well as most of the arrivals of the vessels of the European lines are concentrated in Gdynia and Dansig. On the other hand, somewhat fewer of the vessels of the European lines as well as the main portion of the tramps are grouped in Stettin. This pattern has an important influence on the degree of concentration of a certain type of loss of time in the different The time taken for auzilliary servicing of vessels, especially of vessels of the European lines, is considerably longer in Stettin than in Gdynia or Dansig, mainly due to the greater length of time necessary for entry and exit of the vessels anchoring at Stettin. Because of the geographical position of this port the total time required to take a ship in and out of Stettin is about 10 hours, whereas in Gdynia and Danzig the average time is about 2 hours. The aveyege time of stay in port of vessels of the huropean lines is higher in Odynis and Danzig than in Stettin and in equiva- lent to 108 hours in Odynis, 120 in Danzig, and 60 in Stettin. The main reason for this is the fact that in Gdynia and tansig greater quantities of cargo are loaded and unloaued per vessel thin in Stettin. The biggest and most time conawaing vessels of the European lines, namely the so-called Levantine vessels are serviced mostly by the port of Dei.zig anu that is why the average loading and unloading time is the longest for this port. The longer period of stay in port of tramps in Gdynia and Danzig than in Stettin can be accounted for by the bigger tonnage tramps being directed towards Gdynia and also partly Danzig. Losses of Time Due to the Fault of the PM and of the Ports The magnitude of the total loos of time varies greatly in the different parts. Gdynia is the worst from this point of view. The average loss of time per one stay in port for vessels of the ocean lines is 78 hours whereas in Danzig it is only tea hours. This is largely the fault of the port and of the FM. The losses of time of eurapean line vessels are almost identical for claynia and Danzig. On the other hand in Stettin these losses of time for European line vessels are incomparably lower. Subdividing in turn the losses of time due to the fault of the Pl*i, that is, into those due to the administration of the PM and to the crews of the vessels, we see 2 outstanding figures, namely ocean lines in Gdynia and tramps in Stettin. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 ?he eioaepticnally high loss of time due to be PM of the ocean going vessels is due largely to the very long repair stay in port of the "Boleslaw Prus" in the Fourth quarterly period in 1954. Independent however of this cause, serious losses of time oc- cur with weasels of ocean going lines through the fault of the Plid (technical causes), when these undergo s-rious repairs between long ocean trips. Firm this point of view, European line vessels of the PLO in Gdynia and Danzig do not show much loss of time. On the other hated serious loosen through the fault of the Ptgi due to technical causes occur in Stettin both in ocean liners and in troupe, It appears that the necessity fur frequent repairs an old and techni- cally incompetent tramps is largely responsible for this state of affairs in Stettin. In spite of these explanations, it appears that there is roam for iaprovemsnt of the efficiency of organization of the technical services of the PLO and the PT1! as well as their co- operation with the crews of the vessels concerned. This is es- pecially true when considering the need for an immediate begin- ning of repair work on arrival of a vessel in port. Also it is likely that there is roan for improvement in the organization of fitting repair workshops. Besides tedxnical reasons, important delays are due to organisational causes. Two basic causes contribute to this, a too late mustering of the craw as well as lack of organization in time of authority ashore. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300190006-3 The first )f ,- re^sona frequently happens is Status where delays of a few hours often occur while the cram is Wing mustered. .On-.the other hand the M has on occasions held a vessel inactive while awaiting orders from the port authorities. Some delays due to this cause were very long, as long as scores of hours. Theaa would almost always occur when vessels were transferred from time-charters (.fishing) or frank one enterprise to another. This is .the largest single contributing cause of the time losses in port of the fleet. The M values of these losses are striking in ocean line vessels in Jdynia and Danzig, especially in Gdynia, with European line vessels in Danzig, and with tramps in Stettin. Almost all these big losses of time through the fault of the ports were due to organizational reasons. In Gdynia and Danzig there existed above all a lack of longshoreman. A second cause in connection with ocean lines in Gdynia and Danzig is the inauffi- eient number of older pilots entitled to guiue large vessels in and out of port. Consequently these vessels frequently await a pilot. .. In Stettin,-,t*aides seasonal shortages of labor, tramps .frequently waste time awaiting shchor/ge space. Ocean liners with pdra.nent bases are much better off from title point of view. One of Ulu main causes of waste of time the to technical de- fici4nAs of the porta in Gdynia and Danzig is the shortage of towing aosta, hich causes bests to wait for towing. This does not amour in Stettin. Losses of Time Au to Cargo or Railroads Cargo is responsible for serious losses in time, especially in Stettin. This is mainly caused by delays in delivery of oasis, wbiah is shown in 'Table II0 in the -calculation of potential losses. This is seen at a glance from figures referring to tramps in all 3 ports. Losses of time due to wood and mall cargo in L uropean O C lines, especially in Odynia, are of lesser. importance. o The main cause of losses in time due to the PAP, is due to the failure to deliver an time wagon loads of coal, which 0 0 O together with the inadequateness of storage space causes the delay in boat loading. However an the whole losses due to the PAP are 'not of great importance.' . c 0 Losses due to?other causes are likewise of minor importance. In this category may be included waiting for the discharge of part O formalities mud night interruptions in the work of the "Pageds," whQch interr pt the loading of timber. The Influanc-' of the Losses of Time an the Fleet Potential 0 0 As we id previously, the data given in Table I only show the extent c.' importance of certain phases- of the stay in port of a vessel, inoepeadent of its exploitation and economic effects. t-days(weighted averages) of losses in fleet potential due to losses of time shown in Table I. The data in Table II is especially O interesting because it shows the sensitive points from the point of view of economic importance caused by the various categories of 1t4eb aathste Table I are not necessarily the ones which amuse the greteat loos in fleet potential and vice-versa. It must be raebered nevertheless that it is the economic losses that are of greatest interest to us. for example, it can be seen that the very serious losses due to the coal cargo in relation to the entire tramp fleet are only half as important as losses due to the poor organization of our ports. The fleet potential lost through the fault of the lit is of great importance since it makes up 26.9% of the total fleet potential loss for the 3 ports. the loss due to the Plgi is glaringly evident here, since it amounts to 88.5% of the total fleet potential loaves. It should be emphasized again however that the prolonged repairs of the vessel "8o].ealaw Prue" in the Fourth quarterly period of the year 1954 had a decisive influence on this factor. This vessel alone caused a loss of 189,333 t-days in the total of 55+,075 t-days losses in the fleet potential in all 3 ports and the 3 types of navigation in 1954. after a cor- rection for this single factor the percentage loss in fleet potential due to the FM would be reduced from 26.9% to 19.5%. Of course the importance of losses from other causes would rise, namely due to the fault of the ports to 40.6%, due to the cargo to 27.7%, due to the PKP to 8.6%, and other causes to 3.6%. Losses due to the functioning of the ports occupy an imi- portant position. here as in losses in potential due to the Pit, the most important losses occur in ocean lines in Gdynia and in the tramps in Stettin. Losses pertaining to European line vessels in Gdynia and Dsnsig also are of considerable importance. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 The shortage of labor played a decisive role hers. The inefficiency of ports however plays a particularly greet role with ocean going liners, since these are Poland's greatest vessels and thus cause a proportionately large fleet potential loss. The third (in magnitude) loss, and after the correction of the "Bolealaw Prue" the second magnitude loss, is the category of losses due to the cargo itself. It is characteristic that we do not see these losses at all in Danzig while they do occur in Gdynia. In Gdynia they are unexpectedly high, being 53.8% of the total fleet potential. The most important losses due to the nature of the cargo are those of tramps, this being of course of greatest importance in Stettin. This is caused by coal cargoes. Slight delays in loading overloads the regular lines. From this presentation, the import- ance of the efforts of the PM to deliver on time coal to the ports is evident. It is evident that our fleet loses an important portion of its productive potential due to insufficient lnwwlsdgs, and above all insufficient use of the reserves of time in the stay of our vessels in hose ports. To picture these losses in an easily understandable form, from a strictly exploitation point of vier, that is, neglecting the question of costs, the following an be seen. The losses in fleet potential due to the fault of the lift (without the accident of the "Boleslaw Prue"), which occurred in 1954, amount to the removal frow use for a period of one year, (35 days for yearly repairs) of a vessel 1,105 t or a vessel only slightly smaller than the "Warmia.* Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 ;,est. piL~rsi.-s1 due K ..e ptsv s1s .SRLC % to tang down (or putting out of action) fora period of a year of a vessel with the tonnage of 2,302 t or only slightly smaller than the "Wroclaw." Losses in fleet potential due to the cargo are quivalant to the removal from exploitation for a period of one year of a vessel with the tonnage of 1,575 t, and to the coal slave of 1,180 t or of greater size than the 'Uksywie." The entire loss of fleet potential due to avoidable causes is equivalent to the removal from exploitation of a vessel of 6,248 t or of a site approaching that of the vessels "General Walter" and "Mickiewicz." Zia above figures speak for U.maelves, and up till no.. we have not done nearly enough to increase the efficiency of servicing of Polish vessels in home ports. The most important causes which may be remedied are those due to port service and secondly those due to coal cargo. The magnitude of losses due to the PHil is also disquieting. Special attention should be concen- trated an increasing the efficiency of repairs between courses and also staff services and exploitation of the itt services in general. As an additional illustration of the working of Poland's ports we also present in table III actual net rates of loading and un- loading (after deduction of all interruptions in loading and un- loading) for several types of cargoes subdivided into ports and quarterly periods. From this short exposition we see that Stettin is quicker than Gkynia and Danzig in loadis.g and unloading of such cargo as coal, coke, ore, superphospha Ufa, cement, and grain. On the other hand, it is slower in handling timber, miscel- laneous cargo, and miscellaneous cargo eonbined witi. as handled Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300190006-3 Danzig handles tinber with the gres test speed. However this is still too slaw a rate. Gdynia has the best results with the handling of miscel- laneous goods and miscellaneous goods in combination with mass handled goods. In calculating the loading and unloading rates for miscellaneous goods, time necessary for attaching of heavy articles and the occasionally needed transfers from one crane to another were calculated. - 13 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-00280R001300190006-3 Type of Navigation in Port in Port Hours Loatard Unload liary Service Total Generally hours % hours % hours % hours % or:?anizatlon % teehaao4 TABLE I. ANALYSIS OF Mv, TIME 0!' STAT IN PORT 0-7 L'AS` EIS OF ;HE PM IN POLISH PORTS No of Ships Average Time ?tne Taken to for Ausil- Due to iS. Fault of the PM Ocean lines European lines Trams Total Ocean lines European lines Trams Total European Lima Traps Total 38 382 279 72.9 25 6#6 70 20.5 22 5.8 2 137 108 69 64.1 24 13.1 25 22.8 3 2`.:. 2 15 123 72 58.2 8 6.9 43 34.9 1 1.2 1 190 164 111 67.8 - 16 9.7 37 22.4 7 3.8 2 Dansig 20 259 190 73.1 25 9.8 44 17.0 9 3.4 3 61 120 82 68.3 12 10.1 26 21.6 3 2.7 3 23 115 63 54.7 19 16.5 33 28.7 3 2.2 3 104 145 98 67.6 16 nel 31 21.3. 4 2.9 3 Stettin 121 69 33 48.4 21 30.0 35 21.5 4 5.2 1 139 in 48 43.0 19 17.0 44 40.0 8 7.5 2 260 92 41 44.9 2C 21.6 31 33.5 6 6.7 2 0.6 1.6 1.2 101 1.3 2.7 2.2 2.2 3.4 Sac 4.9 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 Due to the Fault of the Ports Navigation hours % Utica % cal Ocean linos 22 'I European lines 7 t, Tramps 905 Total 10 Ocean lines 16 European linesll European lines 3 Trumps 10 5.6 18 4.7 4 0.9 2 0.5 6.5 6 5.6. 1 0.9 5 4.3 7.7 8.5 6.9 1 0.8 20 16.2 6.1 8 5.2 2 0.9 5 3.2 '6.2 12 4.7 4 1.1 - - 9.0 10 8e2 1 0.8 1 1.1 4.? 5 4.6 - Del 10 84 7,3 9.5 6.4 1.5 0.9 3 2.0 4.6. 3 4.1 0.5 3 4.6 (TABLE I COtmNuw) Due to the Fault Duatto'?tho Fault of of the Cargo the flP hours 5 Aolidgs asd' Int ea rtm boas Doe : to Other Causes. Atmospherla 0asadLtiam. hours % hours 5 hams 2 0.6 2 0.6 28 0.3 0.3 0e7 0.6 9 6.0 4e5 0.5 0.4 6 1 0.7 1 0.6 13 Danzig 4 1.5 1 0.5 14 - - 1 008 10 7 6.2 2 2.0 6 1.5 106 1.5 009 10 Stettin - 001 1. 1,14 4 2 1.4, 1 1.1 3 1 007 1 1.2 3 902 9 801.1 1.1 20 18.4 7A 607 1 0.9 13 13.6 5 T.4 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 TABU n. : .SSES OF rOTi*.tta TN THE Phi RESULTING -BON STAYS IN POLISH PORTS Losses PM Typm of ;la. tg?1on -day. Ocean lines 283 905 European lii w.. 3.2D,,2% 402 . 1.3% 320,1000 1% CARGO of this % :,bdyra % together % Coal 45.0 77-'" 43.1 - 16.6% 3.5 - 8.~.b9'.. 71,6& 16 a. 22.496 1414 53.8% 35.3 20,5(14 39,346 5.3 5.4% 26.9 29.6% 51.6 376,642 35.4 100% 41.14 5766.8% 28.1 518% 51.3 15,(144 78,830 17.4% 13.6 39.0% 13,593 18,544 15.8% 11.6 9.2% 15.6 86,2146 202,278 100% 19.9 100% 46.8 tmopean lines 17,556 12 022 11.9% 40.5 6.7% 27.7 TrmAps 129 710 imam Ae.1% 19.2 93.39 24.9 Total 147,266 180,606 100% 20.14 100% 25.1 55u,C' = 26.9 759,526 133,~0/9y7~/ 11. 41,899 1006 14.6 Da 9,703 , 22.2% 8.8 33,928 77.8% 29.0 PRP % t.-days % 34,995 5.6 67.51 10.6% 2.7 11,33? 2109%14,9 51,819 31.5 100% 5.7 31,170 38.4% 15.2 96 0.2% 0.1 49,757 61.4% 42.5 43s631 14s694 81,023 100% 10.1 - 33.7 100% 18.7 -Stettin 10,1480 - 3.1% 214.2 - - 0 5% 0.3 332,0561 96.9% 491. - - 9935% 4.1 343,0+1 332,667 27,606 100% 47.6 a. '97 .0 100;3 3.8 d' I clusive 519,769 25.Z'3 ; 74.9 160,446 7.8 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 t-days % t?dls s % 17,522 630,175 64.9% 2.8 69.3% 1^. 831 % 4.2 222.3% IT 1,012 76,261 3.1% 1.3 8.4% _.- 26,100 0% 2.9 0 100% L x5570% 5.4 247~3% I 6,926 110,599 36.1% 6.2 25.6% 1,321 117.143 6.996 1.1 27.9% UG 19,184 432s362 100% 4.5 100% lit) 344?5% 7.3 3?b 0% 2 18 685 677,003 905% 2.7 94.0% 3(0 21,857 720,376 100% 3,1 100% 100 68,037. 3.3 2,061,855 100 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/04: CIA-RDP81-0028OR001300190006-3 TALE in. LOANNO ANI)'tNLORIINO IN MUSE Fours Coal Coke Ore and cesent Timber train Cargo ? usestiudl.d a First quarter 1,313.' : - 2,036 821 - - 481 671 Second quarter - - 2,264 662 - 1,535 490 536 Third quarter 1,874`. - 2,465 1,068 347 - 469 878 Fourth quarter 1,500 1,043 2,938 - 576 1,477 Yearly 1,546 1,043 2,697 895. Donala 347 1,535 499 1,003 First quarter 2,271 . 1,017 4614 312 462 1,015 Second quarter 1,080 - 2,65]. - 437 1,153 307 074 Third quarter . 1,889 3,412 814 549 988 422 707 Fourth quarter 2,624 - 2,304 .- 524 1,252 544 1,203 Yearly 1,622 - 2,724 972 Stettin 510 1,113 446 893 First quarter 1,959 - - 1,111 305 1,568 465 1,452 Second? quarter 1,785 2,4114 1,269 493 2,505 404 - Third quarter 1,858 1,291 .3,263. 1,108 327 - 376 386 Fourth quarter 2,011 1,232 .24926 - 539 1,234 412 727 Yearly 1,903. 1,248 3,052 .1,180 444 1,571 413. 779 super Minos" pbospbatn laaeous hiscaLtandoos