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December 14, 2016
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May 23, 2001
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May 2, 1952
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? , Approved For Release 2001/0 A 8/02R: 81 01028R-OarkT40-01 EL U Iiit INFORMATION CENTRAL . INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT COUNTRY : USSR SUBJECT : Area Description of Severo-Donetsk 25X1A PLACE ACQUIRED: DATE ACQU I RED DATE OF I THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, WITHIN THE MEANING OF TITLE IN, SECTIONS 793 AN. 794, OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REGEr LATION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS rROHISITED NY LAW. THE REPRODUCTION or THIS FORM IS PRONISITED. MI6 25X1X SOURCE 25X1A 25X1X M?RO IIMM? dMININ 4????? DATE DISTR. *xi ;- 52 NO. OF PAG 13 NO. OF ENCLS. 1 (LISTED BELOW) SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. /NINO ?IMO. ????? This is the eleventh report and further ex- 25X1A ploitation is being conducted. Requests for further informa- 25X1A tion can be accepted. This report contains answers to OSI requirements for 1. Severo-Donetsk is a new community on the left bank of the Donets River about 5 km from the coal town of Lisichansk. Its existence is ,due to the erection of a large chemical plant which is still being built, an which has just begun operations. Prior to early 1950 Severo-Donetsk was known as "Lisskhimstroi", which may be translated as the "Lisichansk Chemical Plant". Since then, the newer name has been attached to the town. It had a population of approximately 30,000 at the time of our departure 25X1A 2. Geologically, Severo-Donetsk is situated on the dividing line between the fertile Ukraine and the barren prairie. The view from the edge of town consists of sandy land on which there is sparse vegetation. The Donets River, which flows about 3 km west of the town, is not navigable, and its uoL,rse is not regulated. Between Lisichansk and Proletarsk, the next town to the north, the river is deep enough for rowboats and small sail boats, but during the flood season the cur- rent is too strong. The river inundates the east bank and swells from 75 m to a width of more than 1 km. The east bank of the river is entirely flat, while the west bank is lined by steep hills leading to a plateau on which the city of Lisichansk is located. SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION FORM NO. DCI 1951 51-4F D I SR I BUT ION * ,Approved*or Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 (20) 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1 A wasOuevitnit4tifiveonft N- 3? The*84,144 i4Wit ;4_144 tsto* 641400 -trains' On the trunk rq44'400007:eft#"Dt41.3104',' Ito Jhas two tracks.; t *iinAtiti:cp,r*41, 840 station. 0 04T0004!.- T4.441 X10,1100*Ilgwev '14944410;approrimately, the same:44,4s :the 044,fromyliefreotvg140640:44* lObaltivoir 2045 ' an elcproetaikii6e))04004e'teitivekthe tieihi1ek4o0ati44.4yse. tween,p4,444,te6,4,61700 aV"nkkt the tia1601:144the iharkev.i Vorothiloyva4-114e-meat atl$10$04aiiiikTherWii414 Sow teeing ,other, than these. 25X1A ? 4. iVntet 7reight tre ik , r, ra u an ,oemen, re_ e Ofg!lo e oat -fro .usually on open freight:, oare'.. The latVer. Wire or the tabd type, d ia; '34t:t1:0'?13*-yi;or aor.re1oauae of , their wido-4u,ge. 1on of the 4t,g4oko-i 6,4401,44Aii?v*:54, lib*cliothae' IirIV bare. : The loopmetives 14004,,ed to be eliofVand'etuiltiiilithoUgh 1,11r3iow nothing about ?-? s' ' '4 ? 5. The .nent:r,ally 1 Pftlielaionlo.r:It ;la 41)130,34*.0 UV; ;ymtrtne 444%44 I* Atii4 fa! tat ,d'avo? exprese,c.., stop. ;VI* .40 lAint irref 'in that ' trek giftirrhattizoutlylp "and therefore; nsvq Iaye a chance tW elketrt144.1igisettikbou,t 4 km the , (Ruth is fh. tOwti'Of Perefriditaret4h10114s0 also an eXprostev6:, stop. 6. i/rOi?.44:titik 1001', ise ts 447.17,44- duot404:1000I40.*04::4bou.Ve,k4 nertik4of tiettew*ctheireilwel !f4108081 the Donot aivor o the:ehleoew$40404Stre4004tb*idge4n that 41/1004110A110440110tOf the'014-bri40'0Wetill'itielble in the wat.for, itireat;f,, 410,?hiP TO' new 4444:-0460$404 two stone pillars eau is .a etee41414004.0 A:000444000 epa?-'1he4iverlie not much, wider than 6Q m at 140 sipo?.. 00, ell *ages in the Mat, *is- 04%44 day and night, by eonti,03,114ifitk,h3,ne;, or bleak, uniforms ,carrying, x41160:, of 81.- very eliVINiike.4,4*About, 50 iefrom . the brifigio 414400 were warner by signs Sita,Vthet' were. not ,permitted to oroee the: 'peer by meene'of, ?the bridge. *het were.also' forbidden to *rook ?An ARO ' by boat i hinfetetY111010111bOtifeAoeuld heArir, been, quit t hetifn, 'WW1 Or the ICAO* OT 16000114V111148.4-7ing in the shaile's 04$4i. 8. 25X1A "Lielolien,ek 1,40, 'the 404)34* :iii`firael *tit iertOtti-tteetr inothisi region. It hat a sclio01. :pf,,:144114ec_t90. '*411?24.atni#0 Oflainitqengineers, and a oat,* of anift4041i te* the X4414tetlit of `1411$4,,,,,-3itdigemento for minor orimet., ,?neh' a jelsfart,'ile .of 'peatitursiii00111;?thdc Soviet system be- cane,* 011004,6*. 4.0riy01 'OV psolietfifftgiczt its labor from oonwiate? T1eso eoicvjots mOy either be $iolirtile'thesOhave icrred oaltri,Ar those itho a al Grim nalif 'We Were -te34 'ifrankly by Saris, toifirendt 'Pet peaaii4:1017 (mutt. 4edvieed of a labor OhOitzteii in je.,,L AO is lbfin hen** boUnd- to speed up - its work in 'order? to "till, the vaea4otei eithetiviets4 rend 10044 t,e:4104_,-nek ratlei qatattiois 41t is roughly paved with WO* 'of lineotone, And-is timft. iitoillYear long by trucks. The road. Whinkrpc 4,1ipP*440eitie0 ) sat Wide.' 740010' two iz esrpe4t$40A01.101ahh40000''M abot*.the levelcisf the__ Donets. It is a da 'aro '6'+' *4"-by 441,0wertuftedAruoke 60 0,14 ib ' ea. 4iiktrairt4. from s *04 I clu,t0 WY- 114' sort Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SEMWSBOURITY IN7ORMATION 9. There arikalaghills just .outside of Lisioh4n4c, 'The coal,thereA0 of two Icindell,aiPper quality hard coal which cakesiand a )ligh anthrs4144 small 1140112?0 shafts abound, most of which ar&sxPlPitilkk withouttthe4seof machinery One of them on the tioutheast,eid.,04.W2 the tow however, provides the Don'Sbda factory iin,Pereresdne4SAfilatii Coal by means of a' nonveyor aytteh,* 10, At the W,Atiarn4iiript the city' is an Underground' gas plant, called Podnengat, Th70 4iP.4.0 4114Anel64 in two 'phafte into a furnace Thor* ,the ocal'is-bUrped:to produce 4db.. The .gas is piped to the eurfogeo.4., and is:diretqed?in'tubep otl000.440.mmto?the Bop Soda ."0.14"0"ur04 tRe. tubes' is atmospheric. .This inatallatien taw 4040, operating *hisn'.1.Waa last in,lisidhansk in the fall of 1949. The entire :40:6 Va.4 of the IionetPenOluding LicichanekOrneegt- '11mitoosfor'dertanal wi were allowed 'to ge there for defintto,purok., rto,, y, posee only, and even then were carefully guarded. 11. tve*W044-14.;a4v4i4?liOnitii.blii-WOMA-OOnnaotion.with the ids.?8004410t6 all thi 74.',o,050r00,0,40pteit 4 Pe ero.., onet in town. 'aitem eoUlf travel. eve iiiiitut4 -:frOm RibiehnOyee' .14 '.1tra north of levatod!DenstsiW,4r and return ' !MO' i in the 'evening: - ' The. :-- shuttle trains wre een IVO** riot,:;.. cars 64 mh$4,111,i4PYW4t*'all'hirnde ot',waathotio the...i.,14xiA . , 11 l ? ?, . . . ? trains.?14i0 cit Ag04 :, to Optiaid'tooteht? earl :with-ben0 ea ,..overeli,..,,,,.4,..4,? . and were; 'in eitillue on the outside. he '7 aeliats0 oriae. i'' -0213M1A not, perOgtt 04,10 -40: thele tra,ins?' in ao ? we 41 trpiermittaCitt40 fo . to Rul)40440: 0frir'ciell:ie;thei.t0/1. we broke this rnle,loepeatedlyiftv,,, ? t.G4, ,, reeeeee"ii1000eit":te,:lie. the' 40huttle trains stopped' about 10110..00116,0, 'side the 004'. *eel ttMe 'yak 20 "tainUtee.' 'Whereatylrainal!..usiCte4,1 tlo ..rum otiy, 1130,rtha'*ratfte'warranied'iti they,ari'now roplellectiwzOit.,b,v 4 . iimota lo's ''' 12+ Tfie"o4Wiart of-ii**4r0T71640tek plant which had OtarteiVaperstjens, was the ammonia oxidation gent,. 'which began operating.. in. 4144tart 19P1:4 ; Appare4tly; waif being oanducted at a ? very slow pees, bectagsai.4 May 1951, the Ilintater'bf Chemical Industry, TiotemtrOv6 waire$4,43.76. Donotek and raised Anite rimpUs; Striae then, the pace( otAU*740401.4,k#,.,: has 140.4 4t014,44' 'LIP 'considerably, We heard thatlhe.p1WPJ400,04.004140c for the, completion '0140 pear plant by the end of 3.951k. All "bu$44",''0,,. taw aetivittes in ton noticeably.:oemeed and all avadlable worre Were uoed n the lcompound of the plant. , The compressors were. Who to. ? gounted'.,4:the fall of 1951. This part of the construstionOiseicert euffereda_swere delay Oet it wasnoted that the tholes tetAbeYx. Ooll'ere in the were spaced inooireptly$,AnCthe f40,041400a4,. 11;)nfi 11;44'141)4 ripped out again And recast. 25X1A ,Tho onimenta for *he Cieratton of the plant 'want at the time of our,, departure, ehiPpoVin:frdm the outside. We WA that the &IWO* came &n 14014 for* in tank dare from the cdke plant at Oc14,40,;0164 Al doubt the validity of this Statement, it becoutiCI do not thlnk the ammonia would be pure enough for industrial ,, use. The diantittypf ammon4a brought to thO plant at that time was negligjblertheoxidation plant was only to be tooted until 04 gen1W,0+ t wee ready to produce its own Ammonia. 14. Tho ,4.19rit7 thi.iruiee In aeverowDorketak were poor woodeit..0040 twee built, on .,aattd. Only, a few of the public bitildingi *WI bwilt from li,mostona the predominant building stone in that area., ? hgnmeo had nO lUng4Pig? The German potentiate lived inimstabrieatedtot. called i! houses. Outlet. These etruoturee consisted.,of two ?tattoo, the 10wart one of Which 'bee stone' and the upper was- weed Sitlk,; cased 14 Stone with an insulating War of glass wool betwowthe wooden walls apd!the stone casing. Our houses had *tar fauowto-ti and sanitary plUmbine, The heating 1:11ant is the basementdidliot: ;:,? *Small?bUsketittetloWs4'4011 other 0 intirvals of 50_.M on on k gyer4lapab10' freak ehats-pc ftwory0 wieve Ihls Was no N 3,21 sconsvai.1% 9Pareb?dmiL SZ9ICIT Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 , 'Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A .,t SUM/SECURITY INVORIALTION ,64tAo#.e14 first beoause the pipee etanneIed the heat downward in. -:stead,of iipward..but we were ahle to eorreot this faUtt after tome , experimenting. Our house had eleotrio lighting. We feund oWitat the -jeViate did not know the eyetem of meters to moaours t40 eon. "aumption'of electric ourrent, but figured the bill for uped !trieity by counting the bulbs ip the toupee We hati 4 spY- wte to14 O f' the aPPreach of the collector -of elatrio t4110.- and wetxlwaya Itid'man,ftults When we reoeived word of hie impendingarrival. . . :15 The housing phortage in SeveromDonetek wag acute. Altheugh.the town was built ata rapid pace. the population incrEmsed fasterithan living places eould be procured for them. We paw families en several,: .,opoasione move into places even before the Windows and doore were riz4$40-44, To our surprise these hasty teat P were net ovieted.- ? 'T4!ili walalt,have been ,prevented from moving 14 tf they 4a4 bsom_oamgW *the,proCesso'but once they were installed they were loll aiOnte , it movements were strictly supervised in Severoelionetek. TWItistoit YOf. pupervision Was, as ip true everywhere in the Soviet ter4ter4 pfteiof increasing severity. Although We were at 11.rot permitts4 to go tp #uteehnpve, such yielts were later strictly for1444014. 11*- woralbarinad from the wee bank of tte Ponets5 and were pet ailaia4 go-, the river witheut a guard. ? Th4e. hpwever wae one of the regulatiens' Whiph we dieregarded gonstantly and without any Al, at, 0974. PO only rebuke whioth we reoeiwed Was delivered by our WoomMandarM when we created a near public riot by appeart404 000- trouperp.,,We had ehooked the Soviets, and were admonleted.te 0900 ' 'f'JIPOilee'en0Y henceforth* 17.,:,I4f4ettai1. ,he layout of the 2ewerc4Donetsk area 0 as fella' aum ?4,101.-0842.9, ? ; ? 4 ? %141 ? The administration Building of the Severo-Donetsk plint. A 'twol story, whitish gray limeston building, whets 25X1A the German scientists worked. The entrAtw 9 and rooms were located on both sides of a middle oprridor.' Goine east, the order of the rooms on the left'si ao Office of :the EcOnctinic Dii CtorYZIauk. (ff0Xt 140 was the anteroo10- Office of the Chief af-Personnel "Department of Leber (name umthrtcw)4,, Library (three memo). It was directed by Era Elkitenko prier to the IMM.1113.ater by the wife of tho: * FlantMapagar, YiUeeov Mr villesov did a remarkably ?..goed jot of pataloguingq4 an orderly manner the UOMe 'amount of material contaiAed therein. The library pen. Wiled 4 large number of the booke taken from Luna. an4. the majority of the beoke remelted from the mitrogom. ear. .bide and oellulose plant at Pieeteritz (Saxony). In additien, it had, a great' numberof foreign and luso an boOks on chemistry, engineering, metallurgy, buildin an ohm p -Ampng the otemioal periodicals Analytical Chemistry,. wInduetr a A ;leer 40 "Phemie et Induetrioo. and the falW4ahOs "Zontralblatt fuer 40400. The.aorataeloAho WmAry ,-was through the niddlo roam. One of the rooms WaS tors 1$4911oll as a reading room. thft nemter of velemep in the library tu have been about 2000. : SECEET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SECRET/SECURITY INURMATION 5- d. Photographic laboratory. 25X1A On the right side of the east wing- sere the following rooms a. Work room for the German scientLsts. We were all put to- gather into one room, - which was advantageous when we were given collective assignments. b. Office for rlaoement of Labor. Or Small construction room. This was used only by engineers belonging to the GIAP who Were occupied with problems con, corning the operation of the plant. At the outset their equipment was very primitive; at the time of Ott departure, however, they had genuine drafting tables. Ott only con- tact with them was when they direoted some questions to us concerning brown oxide catalysts. Their ohief was Goin, d. Ozalid reproduotion room. 8. Office of Kravzova (female), head of the Personnel Section. f. Office of the Secretariat of the Konsomolis (VLKSM). On the right side of the south wing were the following roomes a. Branch office of the GIAP. I was never inside this room and do not know who was working there. b. Bookkeeping and Accounting Office. c. Cashier's office. d. Chief of the Finance Department. e. Archives. Contained all construction plans and blue prints. This material was secret, and only a few pereione were ad.. mitted there. On the left side of the south wing the fol- 25X1A lowing room a. Office connected with the banking operations of the plant. This office was also responsible for the publishing of the production and building quotas and the announcement of quota25X1A changes. 25X1A b, Offices of the Planning De.artment (middle of the Wing). 1111 25X1A 0. Office of the First Department. This Department, headed by Suchin, was responsible for se urity, and was generally lieved tO be part of the MVD On tbe second story the. following ropms were located on the left side of the east wingt Part of the corridor was partitioned off; I do not know what offices were located in the partitioned area. b. Main Planning Office. c. Anteroom of the office of the Plant General Manager) Villesov. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A (1) Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION 25X1A d, Villceovis office (three windoWs faced the main street, and One fueed the side street), On thp richt side of the east wing, second floor, were located the following rcomos Office of the euna a or b. Office of the Gogin. y Ryabin. he was at e war o? s u e power installations there. head engineer for building and construction, On the left side of the south wing, second floor, were the fol- lowing rooms: a. Office of the Recorder and Registrar (occupied by typists).4 b. Two rooms belonging to the Construction end Drafting Depart. mut. Thin department was headed by Mn Logyinyenko. I do not know the nature of the construotion plans drafted there. o. A drafting room in which only engineers worked. On the right side of the second floor corridor (south wing) there was' a. Office of the Chief of Constructions, Rasterov. b. llakarovls office, the Chief of Pro&uatien, Makarov did not come to Severo-Donetsk He had been at Let= 25X1A for a lona, time, and spots rierman uiiswol1. He was the only man who had imagination as far as- our assignments were concerned, and who took a vivid interest in the progress of our work. He visitaa us every day to get some information, or to diens? a paint of interest. Se had a sense of humor, a rare trait in a Soviets, a. Office of Yevtushenko, the chief of the draftsmen who were working in the room across the corridor. The drawings they made were mostly of cranes, dredges, power shovels, etc. The interpreter, Devil, was also in this room. Police Ueadquarters. There were about a demon policemen sta. tioned there. They were members of the MOD, and were, according to the inscription on the building, a detachment of the Lisi. chanek Militia, (344)0anteens for laborers who were employed outside the plant. 'Wien 100 and 150 workers were fed there. (5) Office of B3ok1ceeping and Accounting. This office was furnished with International Business Machines taken from Leuna. Since March 1951 the office was headed by Boris Konstantinovitch Ohevaov, who had been our commandant for a long and arduous time. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION .7. (6) Central telephone switchboard. Telephone oonnections the town and to the plant were made by means of a dial System. Long distance oalls could be made, but took a very long time, Often several hours. Even a connection to Rubeshnoye might take one or two hours. The connections for the plant manager's office were not made through this ewitchboard; Villesov had his own die reet Wire to Moscow, and a more efficient long distance service. In the Administration Building the telephones could only be Used for official business. The German scientists did not have 4 ? telephone. The central telrne switchboard was to be moved ? to another building 4go (i7. The Personnel Section had al. ready partly moved into this building, and it planned to take over completely as soon as the new telephone center was finished* Beside oontaining the telephone switchboard, this building also housed a radio receiving station. A large receiving antenna was erected on the roof. This station picked up radio Mellow ana "piped" it throughout the area. By merely plugging yOur set into the radio wall socket, one could listen to the programs. '(7) ORS (Workers' Supply Division) headquarters for Severo-Donetske The ORS is an organiza$ion;which 1,e attached to a plant, pro- duotive combine, or governgent office to furnish it with food. stuffy and/or building,matiriale and fuel. Almost every large plant has such an ORS organization attached to it. The ORS for Severo-Donetsk wae.looited,in the vicinity of Lemberg, and was an area consisting of woods and oultivaed fields, In addition,' ORS operates a fishing boat flotilla in the Asov Sea for the purpose of supporting the plant. The produce of this area by. passes the central Distribution Officio in Moscow, being ohan- neled directly to Severe-Donetsk. The food and the wood eolaing_ , froM the ORS is. shipped to the plant by truck. Only the ema ploiees of the Severo-Donetsk'Plant were entitled to the oona sumption of the goads brought in by the ORS. The transportation did not always function well, ,and hence delivery by ORS was not, considered very, reliable. ,Sachet 'was in charge of the aRS, (i5) Hotel belonging to the Plant administration. The rooms were very small. it contained some 60 to 80 rooms. (9) An apprentice thohoel. It:10tovoompleted and was apParettly to. be furnished with work benches. By the 25X1A time owever, the school was not, in o (10) Public bath. This included four or five rooms with tubs aloo,. shower rooms and two swimming pools,:, (11) Construction and electrical engineering firm fox'the .plant,. There was no indication as to what firm it was. The building. was two.etoried,. and was built in 4 square about 12.14 ta. (12) Old bakery,. It is a:ama114,1ant; the production of which is 119 lenger sufficient forthe.pepulation'of Severo.Donetsk. It Can. at the most produce bread for 10,000 people, while SeVero-Donetek: has more'than'30,000.--' The building:looks grimy from the outside. It haa a,small sheet 4ron chimney right next to the building, (13)' New telephone center. The building was started in 1948, but wag' not finished at the time we left. The interior installations had not been started then. The building is two-storied, And: about 11 m square. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-010281400010010001 3ECRET/SEOPITY INFORMATION. Bublic club. Thie club, open te everybody, has a movie ha14 library, music Deem, amAteur theater, and 411 kends of cultural: entertaenment. The club beloege to the plant.... and le'alWaye . very crowded. The old hotel. It is a one-story etrueeuee havingabe4te30eroome with few modern coaveniencepe It is epetaeld by the plane. Repair and Maletenaece Office. BereleeZerkevaky is the *hie of this ?Mee which serves the entire community. Bere living quarter are allocated, fuel distributed, 04d repair men diee- patched. Thee ere Only two leickemitts for the community.' 044 the service is usually slo* and eneffieient. - (17) Stores (markets), There were two stereo dealing in foodstuffse an one which handled "industrial geode". Industrial good-0 2 included such things ap textiles, shoes, toerse and hardware. _ Almoet all the tradieg of the town is eons here.. Betidee !041,4-: compound, there were .only two Other stores 04d 00Meewooden:h01! which sole merchandise.. Sometimetvthe stores. remained Open . until 11 o'clock it night. The Supply of einduetrial goodee was very uncertain; nails, screws and belt Were. not available. until the end pf 1950, and Oven. then were not fully stockade Behene these etore s was a storage eepote et' the west corner was a little tavern with tables where one could get beer or vodka. (u1) Market hall (ane behind et, market stands), .The :meat Oeunt0r . . was located left ere* the entrance. The peasants stand at, 'the,' entrance selling their proeuoe. Meet people would haggle over the prioese which vareed oonsieerabler among .440 farmers* E.teee 'eerie/me premed, however, that: the more expensive goods werees better in quality. There was Always e shortage of potatoes, and sugar was not proourable until late ire195ne We usually pur- chased colleotively and had An agreement with the manager of the e.tore to set amide some foods for use Such agreements were 'not permitted by our superiors; they wanted to? eelolate. the.GerMan' group es mech as possible. They also te get inedie, mot teuch with any offeces; the only channel permitted was.. through our commandant. (12) pub11,0 4ndorgarton. A twoestory building which oietedi)efore the ware People who have official employment are virtually:: forced to bring their children to the kindergarten-. This exe chides servant girls, since they are privately employed. There was also a rule) that a child may not go to the kindergarten if. only one of the parents is working. Usually both patents are employed since a family cannot exist on the salary of one person.. (2Q) Offices of the City Council, mayor, and eivel register. Town officials hold ofeiee for a period of four years, aed are elected by segeet vote. The only flaw in the voting procedure is that there is only the provision to say eyes" to the list:? of names presented en the ballot! Qn publee holidays 25XIA that this building did net display the soviet red flag with e hammer and sickle, but only the blue and rad flag of the Ukraine. 21) New Administration Building for the TRIM, The TREeT is the ere ? gaeleation in charge of building repideneee in the town. This sets the TREST entirely apart from the organization in charge of the plant buildings at eevereepenetek. There is a separate -off figs for the allocation of living quarters for member 0 of the TRS. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP61-01028R000100100013-5 SEQRET/SECURTTT INPORMATION (22) New bakery. This building, four stories high (23), Garage for the TREST. Thie area wap barbed wire. ? The perking space could hold about 200 trucks. 'There were also some passenger oars and a half dolen:leeps. The trucks were used primarily for the traneport of materials, but OnIeW4On 'would aleo transport passengers. On the parking lot were some ? wooden buildings serving as repair shops. The toole for repair work were often difficult to obtain. There did not appear to be any storage of gasoline on this lot. Gasoline was delivered ?in barrels and dispensed by Means of hand.operated pumps. Be. . tween the garage and the railway line dismantled 'mune equip. went wa lying in the opens 04 Foodstuff warehouses. A railway siding leads to these blyinge. There was an'eleotric wire to the refrigeration house pa The other buildings evidently did not have electric, re rigera. ? /ion. The refrigeration building was built into the ground. (25)8$ rage Orage place for the Repair and Maintenance Office L7. We could see here a great number of plumbing appliances including.H bath tubs. 25X1A was to be 25X1A (26)? Coal and wood storage. :The square marked 9.4.!, locates the PI4e01 where ogal for the plant is stored. This storage is supervised.. 1)7 the Repair and Maintenance Office (TK). The coal and wood .for the TREST was located in square "3". The ATI coal was of .poor quality; it ?rumbled easily, fell through the grill of the ovens, and was therefore useless for heating purppee$, The ' TAUT coal was rumored to be an anthraoite. (27) Silos for building materials (possibly cement), They are 4 stone and are about 15-17 m high and about 7 m in diameter. (20 Storage for building materials (except lumber). Rare, in this area, are small sheds in which glass, bricks, metal frames,:eto were'kept. :(.n,) Tar storage tanks. Tar for asphalt used in road 0Onstruction: and repair is otored in tanks which are built into the ground.. There were three or four tanks, each having e volume of about 50 obm. Until May 1251 the tanks were not filled. 00) Railway station for the passenger traffic to itubethnOye. For.: ? merly there Were two trains in the morning and 'two trains at night to and from Rubeshnoye; later there was Oust one train ? operating according to schedule. There are three or /our tracks at the station, and during the day there is a small amount of ? shunting going on. About 150 m north of the station the track crosses a wooden bridge over a brook. Aoross the tracks from the station was A small ooal pile to fuel the train engines, ?A]ng the tracks was a large amount of dismantled Leuna equip- Mont. Pireotly opposite the station are several large distil. ? 44tion oolumne which do not serve ,any apparent purpose. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 ? . Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -10* 25X1A (31) Brick factory. The bricks were made of lime sandstone whioh was probably found in quarries just across the Donets River. The stones were shipped to the factory by rail, arriving in books about twice the size of one's head. In the area, which was ? abou.t 70 m square, stood four kilns, two of which were installed in 1950. Each kiln operated automatically. stood 17 m high, ? and measured 5 m in diameter at the bottom and 4 m at the tOP? The product was a regular brick but was not fire-resistant, and therefore could only be used for the outside of the plant build- ings, Some 40 to 50 people worked each shift in this factory. It operated day and night. The briok was ueed notonly for the Severo-Donetsk area, 'but was shipped as far away as Rubeehnoye. ? The kilns were fired with coal. (32) Wood workshop (DOK = wood plant) of the TREST. This was an area about 70 by 100 in which was surrounded by a wall. Logs wer, lifted from the other side of the road which skirt's the north wall and were channeled ata height of approximately dm into the area. The timber reputedly came from Lemberg. Within the, area were sawmills, and wood shops eontaining lathes,' shapers, planing machines, etc. I assume that a machine repair shop Was also located in this area, The only things visible from the , 25X1A street, however, were a,number of sheet iron chimneys. (33) Site for the proposed main laboratory. the steam' shovels were still working, an p u outer walls had net even been started. The atriet to the plant was still under construction. (34) Water tower. This structure, probably intended for the water, supply of the town, was not quite completed It 25X1A was built "or Oencrete, stood .about 20 in high, was 10 m in dia. eter, and 'had windows. ? (35) Garige of the ATE: (plant administration). This :building looked like an ordinary garage, but had no roof. As a result, all oars, parked therein actually stood in the open. The garage oould acoommodate from 50 to 60 trucks. Trucks were Used almost am!, olumively to bring the workers to the plant, There was some gasoline storage here, and a small repair shop, The road north of the garage was paved; to the south of the garage its surface was of hard-paoked sand. ? (36) Repair and Building Department. This installation was somewhat similar to the DOK of the TREST. It probably belonged to the. ATK. It contained oarpenter shops, smithies, and maohine shop. Sidorov was the head of the installation, ,and Bastishkin was the head of the smithy,. The latter had barred windows to prevent burglars from entering. Some lumber was stored in this area. (37) Storage of the dismantled Leuna equipment, We never got close ? enough to this equipment to identify many of the individual) pieces. One csould, however, see some boilers (the type that produce 50 tons of .steam per hour). Not only individual pieces of equipment were stored there, but sometimes entire installs,. tions. We ?Quid aleo identify transformers. We heard that not only machines, but all types of apparatus were stered in the ? open field. We could not ascertain if any of the equipment was ever moved from the fields. The entire area was closely guarded by a special plant guard'. These guards were dark blue or black uniforms and, in winter, brown military coats. There were 50 to ? 60 men in the detachment which guarded this equipment, Dogs ac- ompanied them while they were on duty. SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SECRET/SECURITY INPORMATION (30 Smokestack. This was oompleted in the s 25X1A a part of the boiler house of the power plant. It was about 110 in high and built of a ligat-oolored Stone, possibly lime- stone. Red warning lights for airplanes marked the tbp. The.. erection of a second smokekoack was.planned.- (39) Diagonal coal conveyor installation. The steam boiler inStalla: tion was presumed to be in the. immediate vicinity. It could. not be seen from the outside,however. The only thing we know definitely is that it Of.the :25X1A coal conveyor system, on1ythe- agona e eve or was The area of the installation was 30 by 50 m. (40) Installation with steel towers standing beside each Other. This installation resembled the Leuna high-pressure washing - plants where synthesis gas was washed With?copper-Solution to ?rempve the carbon 'monoxide. The towers were visible from the outside; there were about a dozen of them next IO the?building,, Baoh was about 1.2m high with a diameter of 50 cm, If'imy:ast- sumption is correct, copper Solution Pressure Pumps would be located inside' the building tp-pump the solution,intO'the columns. (41) Larte machine hail, This structure '(about 20 by 6(!) M) looked -- like a-bUildin which houses tompreadors-tr.pirculationpumps,- was repair? . a roc) ? eternit,(fireproof material),. (42) Off-gas tube of ammonia oxidation. This a Vertleali:tubS: made of 1-2A steel, 100 M high and 1200 mm in diameter.:: it was supported by a cylindrioal, cage-like, iron structure which tas, ? pered toward the top, and reached to about of the total height:. of the tube. The tube and its ,support stood 6riAlleavy founde- tion of concrete. sear the tube must have been the ammonia -- oxidation plornt which was not, however, visible from' the outside, The tubs emited nitrose vapors jn?.io?ng that the plant was 'in operation, ? (43) Ammonia evaporation plant and absorption and drying towersfor ? the production of ammonium nitrate. This building was. shaped'? like 4, rectangular hall with a penthouse. It the latter4the evaporated liquid ammonia was channeled into the absorption:'' towers and sprayed with nitric acid. The reacted mixture-Was ? then dried with air as it descended, arriving at-the'bottomAe. ammonium nitrate crystals, ? Only the roof of the building and the superstructUre-mere visible, from the outside. The roof of the superstrueture was about'4(Xm high. The absorption towers were built of briokt and were ap- proximately 30 m high and 10 m in diameter. The towers were built very close to each other so-that'therewere no gaps be- tween any of the structures. (44) Large warehouses, There were several of these structures which ? may have been used for storage or workshops. They were singlei!.. story stone buildings with simple steel truss roofs. They had 25X1A large gates in front. Each was numbered with a Roman numeral, Next to. . these buildings were large coal piles coke and machine parte SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 - 2$X.1 A? Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013- SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -12- (45) A light-colored, brick building, about 12 m high and 25-30 m long, surrounded by a wall. This is probably a transformer house, since there are masts for electric wires on its flat roof. The high tension line from the on Soda plant ends here. This line consists of four cables strung over wooden masts. The masts on the roof are made of iron; the insulators are disc- shaped. (46) Open ditoh. This was apparently to be used to channel waste waters to the Donets. The ditch was open up to approximately 20 in from the wall of the plant. It was a V-shape (wide- angled), approximately 3 in deep, and about 6 in wide from rim to rim. The sides were lined with stone. there, the waste waters did not nearly :11 1n a straight ?nurse to the river, whArg, it flows into a pipe pointing' downstream. Proposed pipeline. This was to be used to pump water to the plant. At the time of my departure, however, it did not reach the plant. There were two pipe lines parallel to each other, each having a diameter of about 1-1.20 in New building. This may be the pump house, but in my opinion IA would 'he too small for that purpose. The pipeline leading from this building to the plant had not been covered at the time of our departure. The road crossed over it. Gas tanks. 49A was finished in May 1951, while 49B was still being conetructed. I am not sure whether or not a third founda- tion was cast. The finished tank was 12 in in diameter, 15 in. high, and had a capaoity of approximately. 1500 cbm. I assume the others, when completed, will have similar dimensions. They were most likely for storage of the gas used for the ammonia synthesis. The tanks were of the liquid seal expansion variety. (50) Plant Security and Guard souse. This is a one-story, stone barrack where the guards lived. They wore black or dark blue uniforms having a kind of Russian blouse with no rank insignia. They came, I believe, under the command of the plant management, but it might be that they were a part of the First Department. These guards, which included some women, performed guard duty in and about the plant, such as at the gate, at the bridge over the brook north of the statior7 snd in some of the buildings. 25X1A They were always armed with antiquated weapons, mostly rifles. In my estimation their numbers would total somewhere between 50 and 80 persons. The commander of the guard prior ended his career by being sent to jail for stealing. (51) Enclosure for watch dogs. This includes a small house to accom- modate bitches in time of confinement. Of the 50 to 70 dogs kept here, 25 to 50 were trained for regular guard duty. It is quite common in the USSR to surround plants with a double fence of barbed wire and then have dogs to run between them. Only a small number are pure-bred shepherd dogs; the others are mongrels with very fierce tempers. (49) 25X1A SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/02.: CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5 SECRET/SECURITY INFORMATION -13- 25X1A (52) Airport. This was a field about 400 by 600 m. A windsock flew at the southeast corner. Taere were two or three shacks, but no hangars. Three U-2 planes, used for passenger transport to Voroshilovgrad, were ever-present at the field. The trip to Voroshilovgrad took 40 minutes and cost some 100 rubles. These planes belonged to the plant, and were dispatched by order of the plant manager. There was no regular schedule. Since there were no gasoline tanks at the field, gasoline for the planes was brought to the field by truck in 50-liter barrels when needed. There were no paved runways; the planes took off and landed on the grass. During flood time the airfield would be inundated and an area south of the town had to be used for landing. 25X1A 25X1A ? (53) Three small bridges "crossing small water courses. These bridges were 'rebuilt using iron and concrete spans starting Only the middle one was While the construction was under way, vehicles g way and drove beside the street. on field paths,. Old 'bridge '(destroyed)4 Only the stone pillars are visible in the water. (54) '(55) ? Pontoon ferry boat. .The ferry consisted of a platform on "three 'pontoons. It operated with a Diesel engine, and would carry oars And trucks When the Donets .was flooded and the bridge closed. ,(56) New bridge. This was construoted.with wooden planks laid on pon- toons with railings along,the.sides. The bridge would,carrY 4 tons safely. The approach from both sides was steep and danger- cue. When the river was flooded, the side rails were removed and the bridge was prepared for being. inundated. ((5t) Passenger ferry boat. A rowboat having a capacity .of persons:. (.513) Grain shed. This structure, open on all sides, was used .for Vain stortge, The grain waz kept in sacks, a.rare practice in the USSR. (59) Gasoline and nil storage. Gasoline and. oil was kept in tanks above -the ground. There werefive in all, each having an Approxi- ? mate oaraPity of 30-35 dbm. %(60) lisichansk railroad station. (61) ?Passenger ferry boat (rowboat). (62) Stagnant arm of the Donets River (called the "Coffeel3ean"). There.was a pump house here which pumped water.through.a 20 QM pipeline to Lesnaya Datcha, a-large Eolohose (collective farm) *bout 3.-4 km to:the southeast. 18. 'I4ohduld like to point out that all:of the buildings standing in the 'area,espooially the eastern part of.the compound, have notbeen enu- merateUabove. The latter is pretty well filled with buildings, but the'strrounding wall, approximately 6 m high, prevents idea. titioation. The plant is apparently expand4ng toward the north. The road 25X1A ,road which now leads from the town to the Donets 'River. is to be elia- mated and a new road, ed from the tow!leTtr!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"11,0,1,11 'the river bridge. 9. The length of the plant by the north road, I estimate .to be about 142 km, on the-west side, approximately 390 m, and on the east,side, 600 m. The surrounding wall is crowned on all corners with watch- towers which were not ,manned during the day. -end- XNQLOSDRE (k) Site Layout - Severo-Donetsk Area SECRET Approved For Release 2001/08/02 : CIA-RDP81-01028R000100100013-5