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December 13, 1956
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 this should be the case. Jiow fluctuatin; this concept becomes in the case of many is shown, for example; by Crepi eux-gamin (loc. cit., page 65. German edition), who occasionally speaks of partial similarities cane might call them coincidences. Can similarity be regarded as a basic criterion for identification, 1. e., for the basic concept of cornpara ive gruphology? Wha t such does not suffice herefor can at once be seen if we observe similarity to- geth.er with its opposing c.Jncept -- unsimilarity. For it is obviously not a question of two sharp concepts, which comport as contrary opposites, e. right ana left, true and false. No one can say- wi;ere similarity ceases and ur~similarity begins, and vice versa; rather, the two concepts fuse unperceptibly, and it is urn- pons; 1e to determine exactly where his occurs. h erg from it arises that the decision as to whether two things, i. e., here, two writings, are similar or not, remains for the subjective estimation of the reviewer -- and just this can be made use of the least as a standard for the comparison of handwriting. Rather, we rust here -- if no absolute standard is available to us -- at least have an ob- jectively somewhat more secure crutch which excludes mere subjective opinion. If one holds that similarity is an approximate conception, that a thing is the more simil r, the more i ; approaches sameness, and vice versa, this is of course justified and perhaps excludes pure arbitrariness on the part of the reviewer. But herewith a ad- vance not a step further in the case of doubtful and nonextraie cases, for which we are in especial need of a certain standard. Hereby it remains that the identification of handwriting would be deprived of solid ground if we were to base it on the criterion of similarity. (Cf. also Langenbruch, Ztschr. f. Menschen- kwkde, Vol 3, page 390 f., who likewise comes to the conclusion that Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R0004001 9001 1-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 the concept of similarity cannot be sharply defined. ) Therewith of course we do not say that wE also could not use this expression, above all in doubtless cases; e could use it, for example, as a comprehensive concept, or in the comparison of common writing phenomena, but not o' fixed characteristics, as, for exap1e, of the "similarities of movements' of thich Cages speaks, but in individual coricurrences only if in individual cases it is quite concretely indicated which type these are from which we conclude such similarity. Thus, we do not require this concept, as that of sc men ess, to permit the iden ti- f'{ cation of handwriting to uecline. die must always have a clear perception that in regard to this concept it is a question of a concept ?- blunt by its very nature ?- whici cannot be precisely thf~^rl cn; enty f; nn ~.Lly. T}1. > wp r: thi s concept...~ ..:v.w... ~a ~v..~. u... z_-..-"~ 1.....~..... .. n~'i rr?~7 i,)_~wo .r,y. . ...... not as a uasic one, but at best only as an auxiliary concept in comparative graphology. Later, in the discussion of the concept of character- istics, we shall see how p..micious such blunt concepts are in our field, as they are in every science. Operations conducted with the vague expression of similarity have already induced many an erroneous opinion. If one expert considers a form similar, while another eon- siders it unsimilar, there can be as little dispute over doubtful cases as there can be over taste, because it is not a question of e solid objective criterion which can be indCpendent of the opinion of the reviewer. As we have already more often than not indicated, as will becomes ever clearer in the course of our investiga tion, in the comparison of handwriting it is not merely a question of the com? parison of outward similarities or unsimilarities of script, in particular of script forms or of mere letter forms. That the forensic identifica tion of handwriting cannot be exhausted therein Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R0004001 9001 1-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 will now have become elucidated in that it has become evi den t what blunt, fluctuating, and relative concepts the expressions similarity and ur:similarity denote -- concepts by which every expert ultimately can akin understand something else. Of course the comparer of scripts will compare someuhing other than mere similarities. He will ?- and this cannot often enough be emphasized -~ ascertain whether or not several writings have been written by the same person. But he can do this only by making an attempt to penetrate to the living personality which, so to speak, has written the script in question and sta ds in the background of the factual script and the script subject to identification. Nevertheless, he can only be successful in this y detesting the expressive phenomenon and phy siologicpily=bonditionea peculiarities of the creator or crea ;ors of the script, ana the way in which such are manifest. Thus, that j:hich the identification of handwriting seeks in the script to be investigated is not -- at least not principally -- the forms ~h ch have fused in the writing pj cture and which are, so to speak, dead and rigid forms, but rather the psychical and physical nature of the writer or . riters as it appears in the total impression of the script, in the ;r,ovement strokes, the manner of filling in spaces, the peculiarity of he definition of form, and in all the individual characteristics of he handscript. Thus, it does not depend or. an outward, quite ambiguously conceivable similarity, 'which can neither be fully penetrated nor accurately defined; rather it depends on whether solid clues -- let us say, signs -- with respect to the individual and unmistakable nature of the writing personality or person are to be found in the script, i. e., it depends on solid characteristics in the sense of Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 those to be discussed in the next section. The detection of the foregoing -- not of. vague similarity -- makes it possible for us to draw definitive conclusions on the personal identity of perpe- tra for and suspect. If the agreement of such psycholor, ically- and physiologlcally-conditioned sins is indicative enough, 1~e can then drag conclusions on the identity of the writer. 2. The Concept of Handwriting Characteristics Interpretable All those who previously have seriously concerned themselves with the basic principles of the identi ication of handwriting have also been concerned with the gradation of handwriting characteristics. They have approached the question as to which characteristics are the easiest and which the most difficult to produce, suppress, or alter; which characteristics appear oftenest individually or in combina Lon; which alterations of characteristics are encountered in the majority of cases of falsification; etc. In accordance with these viewpoints, they have drawn up an entire succession of degrees, i. e., a grada- tions so to speak, of characteristics. Nev rthe1ess, it has occurred to none of them to ask what is actually meant by a characteristic in the sense of the ientification of handwriting; whether the common concept of characteristics of comparative graphology could simply be employed here; whether the latter is sufficient; and the like, It is downright astounding; that with respect to these questions no one up to now has properly treated them, for after all these questions are quite basic for the practice of the forensic identification of hand- writing. Just as I cannot undertake successfully the simplest measure - sent without a suitable and established standard, as little can I judge without such whether a factual script and a suspected script were written by the same hand. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Therefore, we should like to proceed further from the question as to what is actually meant by a characteristic in the usual sense of graphol ogy. Virtually from times in~nemorial, thereby has been understood certain pculiarities of a script which permit drawing conclusions therefrom on the nature of the character of the writer. Formerly, conclusions were dra~In directly from the characteristics on certain peculiarities o' character; today such characteristics are regarded more as indications of general basic structures or basic attitudes o?: the personality, from wh .ch individual peculiarities must first be deduced. The significance of this concept Yeas thus often changed in the history of graphology. Michon, the founder of modern grapnoiogy, rvcogi .tz' only "5i5, 1. e., sins, wish tJ.r rc and nuances (Mehode pratigue de grapholo). Thereunder he under- stands a series of those phenomena which even today are designated characteristics. His successor, Crepieux-Jamin (Traite pratique de wr.r.r.rw~rrta~nrM e.+e~w hod olo ie anti, later, 'L' ecriture et le characters"), the leader of the older French school, defines "signe" in his older writings simply as a "manif esta tion r;raphique, U i. e., a s a phenomenon in handwriting, then draws up an entire list of such general and specific signs for characteristics. In his later works he designates those phenomena, which correspond to the general concept of characteristics, as "especes" of si pes, i, e., as specific types of graphical mani- festations which he brings into a subtilized system, and from which he finally advances a very great number which he divides into seven main groups, genres. Modern graphology has justifiably deviated from this pedantic enumeration of characteristics. In this respect heirs 581$t "There is no stroke and no individual igtt in handwriting Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 which is without signilicarice; however, inver$Jy, every stroke and every individual s1 receives .4 is exact si rlLficance from the entire wry t.ng 1:icture" (be. cit., page 34). kluwever, lu spite of this, even the f,-ovt modern interrpret~ tion of handwriting cannot dispense wI th the concept of characteristic 1ri a sense similar to that of older interpretation, and so even today protocols and tables of characteri;3ties play a reat role. }evertheless, even here, a bona 'icy dei r;ition of characteristic i.s of course no- where to be ound; characteristics are invaryably merely :>rumerated and represented in their interrelationst}ip Taittr others. However, wi anai,r ticai graphologists a gr`e that a characteristic is 8 phenoriefon i.n handy;ruing ~dl:ich expresses something, viz., sc thing of to nature of he ci~drac ter of the tint i trr. That th.s definition does not suffice for the forensic identification of handwriting is obvious, since here of course the character of a writer is riot to be investigated, but rater the identity or diversity of the creator or creators of several writings is to ,e determined. Thus, to be defined, this concept requires a nodifica,ion, and, to be sure, from a two-fold paint of view. 1. Tne practice of pointing out ai:ii enumerating individual characteristics -- a practice thich was exaggerated in the older graphology, but still toddy has not yet been overcome and may per' paps never be overcome, for the very reason that the abundance of specific characteristics must be brought into a certain order -- has led to a great nuisance which often results in errors in the art of interpretation, but which has quite deva s to tin g effects in the i~ientifieation of handwriting. For example, it is of ten thought that with certain characteristics, e. g., a form of connectednesa, -81- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 an 'arch, a "festoon," the thin line, breadth, speed, and the like, one has a fixed quantity before hire, which by no means is the case. These characteristics have ana this applies to the majority of them -- such broad free play that they represent more a group of mere individual characteristics than a group of individual concrete characteristics whici often eiibody several quite diverse types. Thus, it depends completely on which of the differentiable indivi- dual fJnrs is meant in the individual case. If now the factual script and the script subject to identification are to be inveeti.- gated on the basis of such an extensive concept of characteristic, then the comparison will be carried out with a quite blunt standard z::hich in no case can lead to an exact and certath judgment. This Lack lI _l tiV1lL1 r "oncrt n?+; ^n than 'i pace; even in the case of the forensic ti J.uu v.e. +~.. then .. - identification of handwriting _. again and again to the most serious erroneous conclusions. This is illustrated by an example which we have often encountered in the practice. A very animated form, of connection is the so-called festoon," i? e.; many Writers connect letters -- more precisely, basic strokes -- 'with an indented curve which trends downward toward the line (cf. Figure IV ~cf ori. -na1i, Especially the lpwer line). Again and again to be found in identi- fica t on opinions is the observation that the "festoon is to be found us a form of connection in he factual script, as well as in to script subject to identification. This Is then considered a token of considerable accord between the two writings. In actuality, this observation -- at least with respect to its indefiniteness -- signifies, so to speak, nothing at all. Actually there is such an abundance of diverse types of festoons, e. g., deep and shallow, tight and loose, drawn-out and contracted, those ,..anifesting long and those manifesting abrupt ending strokes, to name a few, that the above mentioned eetabliabment of an accord contains no definite -82- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 assertion which can be employed in the identification of hand- writing. hoi ever, irxver$ely, the de tenrdna lion of quite specific Lic~iiy s>irite,cr in i_r...e of or of _., fes i_,.._ which is espeei, 't'1.. characteristic of the . i ~ in typ the factual script, as well as in the script subject to identifi- cation, could be, under certain circumstances, quite decisive for the establishment of the identity of the creator of both ~lritiri:s. Hcrefrom it arises that in the comparison of handwriting, charac- teristics must be strictly concretized, for also in the case of al- most all the other characteristics which function as standards in graphology, this same ph6nomenon of itiuefiniteness is to ue Found. Thus these latter characteristics could also be advanced as examples. In this sense -- of course in this sense only -- the identification of handwriting is actually a kind of "astrology," inasmuch as its charactieris Uie ca1111V V Ui+ tJr. c S.Sic arid concrete enougi... 1./~~ v 2. Thus, if, on the one hand, the concept of characteristic requires a reduction, on the other it requires an enlargement. In the case of character-analyzifg graphology it is a question of expressive phenomena: this is the science of the ex- pressive content of the personal execution of writing. Thus, a c ., chsr~icteristic is a phenomenon hich expresses some t.hi not Sri ~.. peculiarity of character, of the personal mental life, of personality, or the a ttitude of the 1 tter to its environment. For the most part it has been graphology icaily-trained handwriting experts 'who have often carried over into the identification of handwriting this concept of the characteristic as a sign of peculiarities of the character, with- out considering that here it is i'.ot only a question of expressive phenomena in the eharacterological sense. In the forensic identifi- cation of handwriting not only, and not above all, are the mental -83- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 life or the structure of the character of the person subjected to comparison in the writing to be investigated, but rather his naked identity, i. e., the question as to whether or nut one deals with one and the same person. however, the person is to be recognized not only in the expressive phenomena of his mental life, but rather in all that which in any war care bring him to light as an individual entity, in all that which not only is characteristic of his person- ality in the psychical sense, but also of his person in the physical sense. However, phenomena of both kinds are to be found in hand. writing. Such which are the phenomena of the taentul life of the writer, and such which can be traced to the biological, physical., and physiological being of the creator of the script, such which Pophal in particular has taught us t look for in tandwriting. Cer- tainly these are also expressive phenomena in a broauer sense, but not such which have anything to do with the character of he person and which could be interpretable herefor. In any case,. with respect to comparative graphology, all phenomena in handwriting are of importance, and are suitable and n r ti n C ngrA n~~n~;r nn fnr nn#a. n T+ r;r$oco ~eamr n UL 4 L ., ., ,. .r~.w~ ? VWlurJ+l~.u Vl1. .a.. v uw I Gd4, U~la V 1V .L a7 a yuGO US t,/11 of matters of a purely circumstantially-conditioned nature, as perhaps a scratching or an exceptional slipping of the pen, or strokes outwardly caused by the effects of, for example, a start due to a sudden noise or the like. (Orepieux--Jamin calls this latter phenomenon "signe accidental" and justifiably excludes it from real characteristics.) Characterology and analytical graphology, as well, have labored the problem of what is to be understood by character; comparative graphology has been relieved of this question. Of im- portance for the latter science is that which is he expression of the movement of a person, insofar as it is recognizable in handwriting. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 It is of no moment for this science whether or not the specific manner of movement; manifest as an individual form in the script, expresses something of character, i. e., any kind of arrangement, tendencies, motives, or attitudes with respect to environment. One must differentiate between purely biological functions or actions of the person as an expression of his physical life, and those ex- pressing his mental life. The 1Gtter, so to speck, are embedded on the former and are borne by than, speaking from the viewpoint of r iPTn vneo of strata" (Erich i xw ~Y _ iEt_. _ 1_ _~~cxer !l1YlLjc of the so-called y of , li Strata oa the Personality"), but "the manner of movr;ent, characteristic of a person, is nevertheless not always expressive of his character. The primary starting; point i'or reaching character lies outside corporeality" (H. W'olinik, "Basic Problems of Graphology," 1933). ~lowever; for the comparer, the phenomena of this purely biological life in handwriting are of equal value -- often even greater -r to character-expressive phenomena, 'which alone actually interests analytical graphology which at best still concerns itself with the latter, inasmuch as through th&m impulsion anc: inhibition and n ~ 7 1_ tC. 1. vitality are manifesti a:.~gsT,rr. Thus, in the identification of handwriting the tenet that no stroke and no individual sign is without significance in hand- w itin g is accorded full value. For every stroke and every indi- vi dual sign can serve as indication of the identity or diversity of persons, evi though, according to the present-day stand of the art of interpretation, we cannot directly associate them with characteristics. I t will be manifest in the course of the present investigation that, in accordance with experience, the signs in handwriting which, as such, are not directly utilizable for the usual interpretation processes, and which are thus not expressive Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 phenomena in the strict sense, possess a particularly great indi- cative power characteristics for comparison, and represent, in the hig est sense, "characteristics" for these processes. For the present, a few examples of such comparative characteristics will here be advanced. To be mentioned, for exainple, are mall commencing hooks, or light uncertainties of direction, or un- steadiness, which by far need not invariably indicate the presence of diseases, or the placing of individual strokes of letters below the line, or specific types of commencing strokes of c~ipital letters, or, finally, ruuiments of letters, e. g., half-strokes occurring in incomr)?ete forms, aiiu the like. Such handwriting peculiarities can be quite decisive for identification. Or the following might 1 r ."... . h ca m ran t~.3 ran :., , a U. - --t. ,.,. . ose pi noeiz . ~.; .,.a., i - hen handwriting wnien calla not be regarded as independent characteristics in the sense of the art of interpretation but rather only, so to sneak, as appendages of indepcndent handwriting characteristics, which are only interpre- table in to presence of these latter. Thus, for example, back-stroke hooks in cancellations, or the anticipation of upper signs, can permit drawink- conclusions on the speed of execution of handwritiri.. Such handwriting character- istics, as such, are not inuependent interpretable characteristics, but are nonetheless independent eomrpa ra tine characteristics, for the most part of the greatest indicative value. We shall later discus all this detailedly in the treatment of individual writing pictures, and above all of movement strokes. The researches of Pophal have shown us hok important and how fruitful it is to observe handwriting not only from the psychological standpoint, but also from the physiological. I t is just this type Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 of observation which indicates an entire series of characteristics which are of the greatest significance for the person of the writer in question +? above all in a purely biUal $vi~@ _= aid morph'G logically for the appearance of the handwriting. For also reflected in handwriting is his physical make-up, not only his psychical, and indeed the former, not only the latter, is decisive for the question of the personal identity of perpetrator and suspect. Therefore, the characteristics of the more corporeal life, not only of the psyche or the character, are explicated. Moreover, for corparison for the purpose o1 iuentification, it is for to most part virtually of no importance whether the un derlyinb ca use of a comps ra tive cha ra cteris ti c can inva riably be . . precisely determined in indiviuual cases; whether the cause is psychological, physiological, or both simultineousiy. The latter, for example, not infrequently can be the case in the occurrence of fading in the script; indeed this scan be traced to physical fatigue or to unstableness of character or both, e. g., faux pas of raovem~t, stroke uncertainties or disturbances, or the like. It rakes rio difference what their deeper-lying causes are. In any case, each occurrence of such type in handwriting must be utilized for compari- son. hereby, it should once again be emphasized that those characteristics which are conditioned only physiologic&lly -? because they lie under the threshold of the consciousness of he writer and are as a rule entirely withdrawn from his discretion -- represent particularly important comparative characteristics. 3. The Gradation of handwriting Characteristics It will already have become sufficiently clear to those who have attentively followed our previous arguments that all handwriting Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 characteristics are by far not of equal value. Thus, we have sei in the treatment of the school copy and its significance that characteristics traceable to the letter are to be found in many handscripts. In the development of ones handwriting, the more the individuality of a person is interfused with the school copy, the more characteristic of him must be the now-appearing characteristics. Such characteristics are ultimately to be found only in the case of such a person or one similarly inclined or of a similar nature, whip; in turn the peculiarities assumed by him from other scripts will be less singular. Thus, teen, the first thin; that every comparer of hanoir:riting 1 ea rn S t -------t:,-- ro> ;rh rm rw r ^' ' or nonconcurrence of certain characteristics is virtually of no sig- nificance for the question of the personal identity of the creator of the factual script and the script subject to identification, whereas the agreement or nonagreement of other characteristics can be quite decisive for identification. Thus, he will next distinguish the ttfre- quently-appearing" from the "seldom-appearing:' lie will compare the nincidentalt` with the 'tcharacteristic." The experiaces of the forensic practice show that many unfortunately, very many -- hand- writing experts never really get over these more or less primitive differentiations. As will shortly be demonstrated, all these concepts are too vague. In the sense of the practice, one of them is employed quite falsely, viz., that of the incidental characteristic, as is shown by the following. A characteristic can only be designated inci- dental if it has nothing at all to do with the production of hand- writing, as such, and above all with the peculiarity of the writer, ill e., those aspects mentioned in the previous section which originate only from the nature of the waiting material or from outer influences, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 and which are also called "sides accidentels" by French graphologists, i. e., "incidental characteristics," as expressed in Orman. These are the only handwriting characteristics which are completely value- less for comparison. In one w=cy or another, every of hei character- istic finds its basis in the pscho1o4ca1 or physiolgical make-up of the writer, even though we are perhaps unable to point out the exact reason in each individual case. however, in comparison one must always attempt to form a clear perception as to how each i.ndi- vidual handwriting characteristic has originated and how it has been conditioned, e. g., by primordial writing impulses, certain movement or formation tendencies, by borrowing from the handwriting of others, be it the result of a certain choice-relationship or for the attain- ment of a certain impression, or only by a specific type of function- ing of the muscles used in t,riting, or by falsification. At the same tame, the extent of greater connection they have with other handwriting characteristics must be investigated. Only then is deeper penetration into the p~ cif'ic "life': of the script under investigation possible. If the most primitive comparisoni practice is unable to manage without d certain gradation of hHndwriting characteristics, the underlying ret+son is vV bs` 4: ?.** .VU11U 3_ loll very nature of to matter. In the arts -- and graphology also belc!gs in this field -- nothing, as has already been mentioned, is counted, measured, weighed, or otherwise evaluated in a mechanical manner. For here it is indeed a question of the fathoming of living personalities -- be it only of their character, be it of their entire person -- rahich can never be sounded with mechanical standards, but ra ther only through the ob- servation of their vital expressions. Therefore, al3 importance is -89- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 accorded this question, V;hich o1 the expreu2ivc; pi;engr~cr cf the persor;a1ity or o{' he iridividual ira handwriting are able to render better, raoro exact, amci more deftite indication than the tilers wd.th respect to their unmistakable pccriiarity? Accordingly, it is rio oncer that ~:nalytical, as e1I as comparative, graphology =va1uates in cjuite Uiverse niauner the characteristics found by them in hand citing. ,th respect to he art of thterpretation, it r'.ii it b~ pointed out only briefly that in his art a greit role is played by dorniimnts, i. e., those cldaracter- istics i~hich give kl:ndwriting its particular stai'p and c~3uinate it, as is implied by the tern. Fio~ever, more important to his art are 4iose_charcteristics s which tcli ca tea hai e structure of to character, e. g., those expressive of only a certain attitude or focusing in relation to environment, those manifesting a certain L'orrnative impulse or will. Fence the preference shown to the move- ment picture, as opposed to tine space or form picture in present- day graphology. in any case, in the final analysis, tl.e gradation -- or, more exactly, he diverse evalua Lion w- of handwriting character- isti4S si iiaie5 a basic problem for the identification of hand- writing, for it. is decisively dependent on the answering of this question how the results of a concrete comparison and its individual findings are to be judged. In accordance with all the foregoing, f is quite conceivable that all previous investigations and publications in regard to our theme have been almost exclusively -- too exclusively9 in our opinion -- concerned with the gradation of characteristics. Doubt- less the bases herefor are the statements of Georg Meyer (see Note 1 below) and Ludwig Kiages (see Note 2). -90- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 (tote 1i Graphologische Monatshefte, 1900: "The 1orensic r identification of }iianow5. i.ting"y "5c .eXltIf C Graphology," gird cdi - t7 on published by Schne- ckert, i92.) ((Note 21 "The Problems of Graphology." Excursus on hand- writing Expertise. "Handwriting and Character" in the chapter on acquired handwriting. ) Trai1-b1azing for the d~rnt.ifi cation of hanchrritiiig hva Ueen the z': aearches of Georz Meyer, who has carried out investiga- }dons with great care and with an excellent method of proceeding. Tnvs;hich has previously been in use entails several basic errors. 1. The previous process was a purely experimental one, executed by means of the examination of persons selected for ex- perirnental purposes. However, not one of those who undertook in- vestna Lions in this field have and de use of forensic naterial. The fallowing consideration attests the fa et tha t this is a serious methodological error. Every handscript is the expression of a quite individual type of specific person. Thus the conaitiori of the handm script is decisively aependent on the personal source of this expres- sive phenomenon, and on the outer anu haler state the writer finds hiinse.lf in the proce s of writing. uelf-evidently, this also applies to the creation of an artificial script -- perhaps to the greatest degree. Georg Meyer stressed individual differences in the case of experimental disguises of handwriting. Quite interesting in this connection are the arcertainments, mace in the meanhile, with respect to the greet difference which exists between educated and uneducated persons in the manner of the creation of artificial scripts (cf. Reitgerber, krchiv fuer Kriminolor e [Archives of Criminologyi, Vol 148, page 130 f.). Forgers -- above all, writers of anonymous s cripts -- are of course to be found among both :gasses. It is much less a question of such social differences than it is of the following c the outer and inner state and mental attitude of the person utilized in experiment and of the real-life forger are -108- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 conceiva~)ly different. The former finds him$eif in thE3 so-called state of being examir:ed -- a state in which he is ,,lore or less cooly prepared to carry out the task assigned him for scientific purposes, viz., tha t of disguising his handwriting. On the other hax~u, the "genuine" forger often finds himself in an outer state of d stress. An example herefor are the frequent falsifications of order forms executed by poor commercial agents. Almost invariably, he will 'sae oppressed inwardly, even though unconsciously, by he fear oi' being discovered, or driven by geed for money, hatred, or envy. ill this will influence more or less the manner of execution and the condI- tion of his artificial Landscript. However above all the latter will depend orl to type and strength of his motives anu the diversity of inclination. Herefor we need only recall our observations on the psychology of the hand citing forger. A eertiin recognition of the type and manner of the actual execution of a forged writing can in actuality only be obtained through the observation of the criminal products of actual forgery of documents, i. e., in the atrr,osphere in which such falsifications really arise, and as reported by the forensic practice -- not in the vacuum of the experiment with ran- domly selected persons used in such experiments. (In his above m& tioned work, Hinder demonetra s ed VV My u;J6v 1Rtt4 ydj .L.1 derived forensic material.) 2. However, previous methods neglected the differences which result from the psychological condition and situation of the forger in question, not only in the *aterial by means of whch such methods were carried out, but also in the establishment and substantiation of their results. Similarly to the manner in which a machine might be investigated to determine the number of revolutions executed in - 109 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 a certain period of time, other' difiticulty of creation, n .1 t_ _ ~Z direction of attention, or the "occurrence" or simultaneous oc? currence of any type of characteristics :-ire quite mechanically investigated in accordance with their frequent or infrequent ap- pearance. }iot'Yever, here it is not a question of facts hich can be comprehended statistically, but rather of? such i hich are of diverse form each in accordance with the psychological peculiarity o''' the forger. Neither is it a question of invaria ply constant handwriting phenomena in the case of one anti the sane: writer, as we shell see in the discussion of the alternation of characteristics. ~,hereas Georg Meyer, who of course based his findings on a quite insufficient number of persons selected for exprisr.ental purposes, invariably stressed individual oifference:, grid Ki.ages invariably derivec?his fixidiris from the Science of expression and geneal psychology, their followers again arid again attain only the purely rnechanical and statistical in their experiments. Nevertheless, it was a period in which mechUriical direction, which was satirically culled "psychology ni thout a soul," still had a siron< lingering effect in psychology. Thus, this direction in the comparison of handwriting might be called a comparison of handwriting products t_ t t ~ without euziSidtra GiUli o ~u, writer. Thereby, It was 11e11 that a atava vv~ strict method based on natural science was taken up. (See i3. Mueller, Arch. f. Krim., Vol 10, page 10 f.) It was completely forgotten to what large extent the mastering of difficulties of creation, the direction of attention, and the manner of execution of the falsifica- tion of handwriting depend on the concentration capacity of the falsifier, his taler for disguise in general, his adroitness and energy, his attitudes toward the world and towarathimself -- in short, on an entire series of physical and psychical inclinations, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 capabilities, and peculiarities, upon which the occurrence of certain characteristics of course depencts in full degree. Thus it can be said that the rarity or frequency of the latter, in the case of a certain number of persons employed for expc;rimentation purposes, signifies only the presence or absence of corresponding characteristics or corporeal peculiarities in these persons. 3. In spite of their ne4act of the psychological, these here-criticized processes on the other hand hold much too close to the views of characterolo; ical grapholog. This is rnanif'est in that in the circle ~f their observation they drew for the most part exclusively on the characteristics of peculiarities worked out by the older grdp:ology, ana that they neglect the physiological conditions to which characteristics can be traced, as we have already seen in the treatment of the concept of characteristic. hoever, even otherwise, exception cdn often be taken to a bluntness of this concept. If, in the explanation of the result of these experiments, simply ?ralteration of fours of connection" are spoken oi'; ten it it overlooked tha t; for e; raple; the transition of "festoon" into angle signifies somethin}: psyci ologically quite dif- ferent from that of the reverse process. Likewise, dil these comprehensive handwriting characteristics are usually treated as fixed quantities. If one is seriously concerned with the concreti- zation of characteristics -- as must be the case in the identifica- tion of handwriting -- it is then an impossible undertaking to comprehend statistically the characteristics in question. 1e need only recall our example of the various types of "festoons"; but also in the case of many other handwriting characteristics it is quite a similar matter. Think, for example, of the possible forms of additions or disturbances of strokes. ? 111 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 L4? Yyhereas Georg Meyer and Kiages coped with the essential problems of the identification of 1iardwritirig ~iith excellent con- structive methods of proceeding end contributed to the solution of these problems, to be found in the case of their followers are solely experiments in regard to which even the object of the in- vestiE;ations appears to us at least partially little suitable. Leaving the lirmitation to the frequency or rarity of the occurrence of characteristics out of consiaeration, questions are sor,ietirnes here raised, 'with respect to iihich the answer appears to us unes- sential or self-evident for he comp~risori of Yandwriting. Thus, for example, the question as to whether "festoons" coincide oftener with connectedness or width, than do angles in his respect, can . be solved by to z;irnple consideration that, in accordance with its .__~?n~Y1n nC? ZYl ~ 1:'3~T.fl executlonal btroke, tut; .lilt-int;r p1 vvvk s ccc vcunc- andw ..4 th, while the latter renders both dif'f'icult. It al:pears to us no less sell'- ;vident tha ; strong connectedness and binding of upper sitxLs must obligatorily result from the same movement impulse. On the other hand, the investigation of the connection of characteristics and their simultaneous occurrence in a handscript does not appear called for in our opinion, if such characteristics have nothing to do with each other psychologically, physiologically, or from a technical point of view with respect to handwriting, e. g., certain .us~ t;.pes of connection, the naruier of 131 +7UrJ.luu~r.vbut1on a? .. of size in hand- script. Such experiments appear unfruitful to us. Of course in regard to these critical observations it should not be forgotten that the statistical method has also accomplished much. Our assertion is only that no further progress can be made in this direction. Certainly it is of some value to know whether a certain characteristic in general occurs seldom or often in a -112. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 handscript. Such findings, under certain circumstances, at least provide certain clues. Nevertheless, it is impossible to construct a method for the practice on such a basis, since such a method, as we have seen, insufficiently takes into consicration psychological and physiological-movement viewpoints and the differentiable indicativeness of characteristics. The individual results of these investigations, especially those which relate to frequent and rare occ~irrence, all of which we of course cannot advance here (see Note l following), can certainly be made use of by the handwriting expert as rules of thumb ana leads, so to speak for these results are quite utilizable as such (see Note 2). ([Note li These results are summarized by ittlich, loc. cit., pages 159, 16. f.) (iNote 2J The Rohrschach test, for example, also uses statistics, but only as 7 cvyrn, are} 4' rneol i 4.s ', rvn~'Iiu Ti nn \ +hn, +' ?1Y,e~ ' Yl 1` in compliance with our method is not superfluous of course appears questionable to us. how insecure the advocates of the statistical method themselves feel is attested by a casual remark of Schneickert, 1. e., it will always remain a matter of the personal experience of the expert as to which characteristics he regards primary, i? e. important for to comparison process, and which he regards secondary, i. e., unimportant or nonutilizable for the comparison process. Ro> ever, of much more interest to us than the previously - employed method is the question as to what has actually been thereby accomplished for comparative graphology, and what the identification of handwriting can undertake therewith in the practice, 1s we have seen, this method has rendered only one -- for that mater, quite insecure and, in many respects, improper -- gradation for handwriting characteristics, but only for the disguise of handwriting, not for the copying or forging of handwriting. That this does not suffice -113. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 for equipping the handwriting e .pert rJith the necessary tool is self-evident. Accordingly, it should not appear surprising that the comparison processes of the forensic practice of today are in such a grievous state. Thus, tae do not need more or less questionable gradations for he characteristics which are of importance for he comparison of handwriting, but rather ;a uAt thoci kbich in general renders pos- sible more certain work on the part of he handwriting expert. To overcome this lack i s the main concern of this gook. 1 e are in need of no further experiments for obtaining results which can perhaps be made serviceable in one way or another for the compari. son of handwriting. bough has already been effected in this .-.c. -' cuycd ~. The i eSearehes of Meyer end Kiages and, we hope, our own investigations, as well, have produced quite ample bases for the recoition of the probiercis of he identification of handwri ting . Now above all it is a question of finally rendering serviceable for the practice these findings. In this respect, up to now scarcely anything has been accomplished. The Greek expression "methodos," from which the German word "Methode" [methods ha s derived, means literally "the way toward something." xo~ard what this way should lead in the forensic identification of handwriting has always been clear, viz., toward the exposure of the forger of documents. However, with respect to the questions of where this way courses, the point of its start, the direction it is to go, how it is to be controlled in order to attain the aspired goal, nowhere in the totality of the previous literature on the identification of handwriting is a practical guide to be found, leaving out of consideration the already-proved and Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 methodologically quite valuable suggestions of k-iages. Sporadic counsels, which are otherwise casually made, could in part have a confusing effect, even then w~;en they coat, uin sornethi of proper, . g. , the indication tha t one should give a tten ti on to "pa to- lc~gica1" characteristics, or the suggestion that one s, ou d resolve forms into movement strokes, not to mention the directions which a re on the wrong track, such as the mere cornpa ri son of letters, or the undiscr;minati; employment of mere interpretation standards. I?', in accord nce with the w~i1-1nown dictum of Kant (see Note fol. lowing), method signifies a process in accordarice with principles, then it can be established with rt.:spect to the identification of handwriting that principles have now' been workea out to a point of satiety, that up to the present riot one of us has seem a process by means of which these basic principles could be ir.diviQually applied, realized, or made serviceable as far as the daily forensic practice is concerned. i ven in the e~~ se of K1a ges, w e have searched in vain for a real method for the practice. In our opinion, the distant separation of theory a n a practice i.: one of the principal reasons for the fact that the practice, which has been more or less for- saken by the science, so often today is obliged to get along with antediluvian means, so to speak. (lN oteJ "Critique of Pure Reason, of the Transcendental Theory of Method," fourth main article, Die Ueschichte der reinen Vernunft (The history of Pure Heasoni, 3.) If we are now to make available to the identification of handwriting a method based on sure principles ~- principles derived from forensic material -- if we are to make available a method patterned in conformity with the requirements of the Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 r,ially, a _tq t~1 ingression of the essence of both ariters hould be obtained in oraer to thus be aule to uecide Whether it is a question of one ana the same p?i'son. practice, of course this method can only be one >d 1ch takes into consideration the achievements of modern graphology, one whicby does not indlscriminantly bind itself to the processes, stadards, or manner of judgment of the latter science. 5umrnar1zirig briefly, our method in accordance ~Lith the examination of the factual. script for the ascertainment of genuineness or falseness, should Uttempt to fin~a those places in the script in lhI ch the natural hand of the fdls~.fier is recognizable. Ten, proceeding from the total picture of the handscript, the factual script, as questA.onabie script, should be so exEamined that the succession of the stroke picture, the movement f icture, anc~ the form picture are inveitigated comparatively ' itr: respect to coforrnative and contradictor The line of vi;;ion of the comparing hanciwritLng expert, wtsich now usually proceeds from the completed it ter forms, is thus here radically reversed. It now proceeds from the vital form of the handseript, via the i asiie of writing movement ind the tilling in of space, to forms, allowing the latter to accrue, so to speak, and thus become perceptible. Only through this subsequent determin- ation of the formation of these individual handscripts is it retrosp4ctively possible to penetrate to to person of the perpetrator which lies concealed, so to speak, behind the forged handscript, and to decide from the feeling-out of his essence whether he is identical or not with the suspect, the gonuine handwriting of whew is under consideration (see Note following). - .u6 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 ([Note1 Up to n.m, to method drati~n up here lays x where been rare.; ented or er~lp1oyed in the 1dent5. i. ca ton of handY~riting. ~ only once b. b',.a a n .,.~ro +n A s far as 1 Y;ave been abie to a;ceryt~1, ., :. pproxi= mately similar concept bean opened for d~bat,e, and this by the crirri.rla1ist liana o says that the person iust fr^st be construcLd from the hanth ritin to be compared, only after ~I~ich must the t US-ColiwtrUCte( person be Copared (i~tik.. 41X: .t . 3erran i'orc't..stC JouT~1 1J, 19Ox', pge 78L. ,lo concept mass appareiit.Ly in dener=J deC ir.ed6 (Cf. Gor Meyer in xclxi' ~u13~;ersucY~ un .: ~:~ Utrcluives Of 1'orexa3ic ~r?ciii.\/i. s.. gex. ). This ta: tr?aiik!l vesti. atIons of handrithngi, Vol 1, p~ ;o "oL. i' ). It is obvious that our method holds to ?-- and %nust hold the basic principles advanced above. ,r . , s'. iile ui.~/uD J JL ~a characteristics and their gradation has detalledly represented the standards applied in this method. :Ho such f'or he vindicat OIl of he iethOQ, its starting poiLlt, ana he direc'tiori it moat take. In the second part of our ork we shall pursue etep by step it . rocess itself, and its in- ? .7,.1 r~ ,piiCa k:Iorjs. d1."vs.uu u~. ?~Y~ ~. 3c m: Pig CuCis OF Tt~ J In +V'T'il':cr~TL31i 01 lit.ND It 1'J in this respect, the following should first be pointed out. The for?nsic identification of handiritirig consists of the exann.na~ Lion of the factual script and the script subject to identification for the purpose of determining whether they have been written by the same person. Handscrfpts, i. e., specifically, original hand" scripts, should and must be examined ?- a fact which is repcatecf.y overlooked. Bea process of duplication ever so thorouti, nothing Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 can replace the value of the original for the comparison of hand- writing. This holds true riot only for the factual script, but also for the script subject to identification. As sae shall sea later, a leading role in the comparison process is played by those charscteristics Y,;ihich are obtained from the condition of the stroke and of pressure in the hand~Iritirtg. k?owever, in the case of no reproduction -- not even in the case of the best photostats -- can the details of stroke and pressure be as clear as in the original. Herefrorn there arises for the e pert the duty of demanding the re? mittance of a copy of the original e cripts, or, if this i. s impossible perhaps because they have in the meanwhile been destroyed, of discharging h.s ,opinion only conditionally. `her? are cases in ~ahicL the incorrectness of ,an opinion with respect to co,r_pari.son can be traces to he fact that onl r photostats are m.de available to the handwriting expert. As r la terial for the forensic identifi - cation of handwriting, photostats are not suitable or are at 1eat unsatj sfaCtory. T. The Pr aration of the Actual Com aiison process Before going into the actual comparison of handwriting, it appears necessary as a rule, quite independently of already-available suspected scripts, to examine the factual script in order to deter- mine whether or not it gives the impression that it might have been falsified, and to aetermine the extent to which and the direction in which this has been effected, if a falsification is ascertained. Above all, his is intended as an introduction to the methodolo-ical analysis. Only in individual cases will it be possible with certainty to rule out in advance the possibility of a forgery by means of such preliminary examination. Quite often, especially in the case of Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 factual scripts ofr greater encompassment, i.t viii appear further indicated to examine these scripts in order to de tormt.ne which type of personality of perpretra for could here come into question, and to establish and limit at the same time the circle of the suspect in question, thus f'aciiitatirxg the work of the investiat- ing authorities. Finally, in consideration of the suspected hand- writing, prei.iminary exarinatton in accordance with the following question will invariably appear proper. In accordance with the cap~btlities evident from the handreript, could the suspect have been able to execute the script in questioi ? (x should not recom- mend s ?Qrreliminry examination" the exariination of scripts, in particular of the factual script, from the vie~rpoint of the writing material, t_. e., of writing tool and paper. Such is to he considered throughout the entire analysis, grid primarily in the comparison of strokes. e shall come hack to this i the treatment of the above, and in other places as eil. ) The second section of this chapter is dedica ted to he 4 detailed discussion of a question which is often quite decisive for the success of he comparison, I. e., that condition which the writing materia1 which ei veO for comparison must have in order to serve as a suitable basis for such comparison, and the way in which it can best bring about cooperation between the authorities and handwriting experts on a basis of understanding. 1. The Prelimina k.xarina Lion of Scripts The common process of criminal investigation in the case of falsifications of documents is the following. After the reporting to the authorities and receipt of the factual script on their part, the informer is asked by the latter whw- he considers to be the -119- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 perpetra tor. The su,3pect i.e at oc.i e ir.terro ;u tee;, ana, if to sus- pect denies he pex'pE firs tiQf, the rr~U tt r is Uuc,rtted to the sand" writing expert for review either afar or before further investi,a- ti on of the case. Should the opinion of the hanuritir,g expert rev?b that th GCeilsed is no to pC1?p ti'd BUJ, WL and cf 'ort have been consumeQ, but he pex?petrator has in the meanwhile been \ a iz1 b rd ? good. h cool uifg1y, ta.e crimiiiaL?prosecuti.ot.l aUthOXI.t~ i : iIlouJ.Dk Vi ii th1 )e1Ves the help of iiaridwriuii g e.>.per is to to greatest possible extent dlreac y at tale start of he irivestigGtiQri o a1L cases of the 1aisliICFJti0f1 oi' documents or very o2ten such exerts cn fumien the moet vaiu? able clues and leads as ttie, shat siiort -y see. It is a more or less similar manner With respect to civil cases. Here the attorney to whom the client, brings a presumably .Lorged piece of writth , e. g., a i11 or a receipt book and names a suspect, will crr~ 1 ~~ r. ri : is 7 9 YY111 Y 4 -L 4 Ud- ' v...u,.+ L1I I U 'I ?I -t to ir;mediately bring charges against this suspect and to leave the disposal of the identification of the handwriting up to the court. On the contrary the a ttorney should consult a h mdwriia-ng expert and see to it that a provisional exaririation be made to ascertain whether or not the document has been forged and whether or not the suspect could be the perpetrator. . Thus, as has been said, the handwriting expert can aid the criminal?prasecution authorities or the attorney in they early stages of the process, viz., in the ascertainment of falsification and in the search for the perpetrator. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Ii whether the eonteattd t~riting zepresunt;: a rorg:ry. This exna- Lion occurs for the :not part in the cu 5G Of obvi ous1y-di ui sc d cu1Olyf1UUu ECr'ipta? ht tsriu in u1i. cac~~u~ pia. thc vi n i. % kS irrtportarlce is the E>f~ai~:.r~a ,fora u;; to ~Jhich acgr c am in h'wch cc.r'eC 5.OII the iiecei tfui l ter'atior~ of hucc;ri tiiig ha bet:n curried out, since such exIrrlnution utmost tnvari bly r;akpossible on- c usiol~s orl he perpt;tra for lri tht 1ti? i d.? yiC.Uur UX L.L TiS. 1} r,virnii r~n r z.;'veai s uiIAe G G.~ tutr 1e geiuin r'e7rl 1'^ (f .~ im iotialuss , ll/.cr. 6 1nncco ate cx aw ri tT '~ vi '~ : ~r respect ry ir:vestigatior; ruO prOCt E Sts caf be Y G oid"d. ?ii,.C, Flo his eXa1!t':Tta ~Cn, hcweV-r, f must be Str'tssca ~ 1h ui1 riso,'ute- ness tli& U 1c c~In ier'e wu. y 1.-e ues ion of a provi?"~iona1 judit l;hich in Iriost cases requix'e > sL1~1S Uanti a t1on~hy moans J.f an e act1n ana~:sis. Accordingly, th e:uae, then one will not be able to attribute to his writer a clever, adroit disguise with a peculiar, cleverly-executed st..-1e of disffuise, or the good copying of a complicated foreign handscript. Hoever, hereby it should 4~s also be explicitly pointed out t 2.hat such that n.,~+h aster nnnrtin!i~mWYln~'C can be tl of quite great indicative value; how ever, that they are not always certain indications. In the practice one sometimes experiences quite remarkable surprises. Thus, occasionally the writer of a quite simple script turns out to be a clever copier of a complicated foreign script, or the creator of an ima4na tive disguise. In such a cases it is to be assumed that the forger must have had quit; special capabilities which perhaps were not directly perceivable from observation of his handscript. Likewise, the strength of a criminallypinclined will and the possibility of previous practice can be of great consequence. Thus, here caution is required. 13O . Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Now, with respect to the foregoing, there is occasion to point out the actually self-evident fact that all these ascer- tainment in regard to falsiication capabilities invariably have neF.ative indicative value. If, accordingly, it is to be assumed that the suspect is incapable of having, perpetrated the concrete falsification, then this is one of the: hest indications for his exoneration. If, on the other hand, it can ue assumed that he is capable of this 'alsification, then of course there are no rounds for doubting that he could actually have perpetrated the ulsifi- cation, for the same could be ascertained in the handwriting of many other persons. I t is a somewhat different matter when not only are the capabilities present, but the type and manner in ._,t_ ..1...,,_ LL A'n~ r, P,4 nn+.S wv .,n WLi.L. 4J U14G t..-vu u .,ii arc+~i H.r . v V U V E. /? ~.. w. w 41' nnnf'nrm~ +,r +h +.ho writing inclinations of the suspect; when, for exai ple, a strong tendency to trend toward the ri ht is manifest in the script sub- ject to identification, and this same tendency, perhaps sorewhat suppressed, is Lvident in the factual script. In this case, a certain doubt in regard to identity would arise, which would have to be confirmed through the valid analysis. However, a very important observation must be added to the question as to whether or not a suspect milt have been capable of a falsification. The judgment of this question depends not only on the tendencies and capabilities of the writer, but also on the difficulties entailed in the task which the writer has assumed, ie e. on the objective difficulties entailed in a falsification. The significance of the foregoing is in part overestimated, in part underestimated; therefore, in the following we shall go into this matter briefly. The afore-mentioned difficulties are greater in -131- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Lfl copying than in disguising. whereas, in the case of the latter, the disguiser still has some freedom of choice as to the manner in which he will undertake the disguise, e, g., whether such shall be undertaken by means of a partial alteration of his own hand or by means of the creation of a disguise style, whether he shall choose as a model a decorative handscript or some other; the copier, for his part, is strictly bound to his copy, i. e., the ha,~useript to be imitated. Not only must the copier imitate as well as po8- Bible the distinctive forms of the script to bL imitated, he must also compel himself to carry out a succession of movements and a distribution of pressure to which he is quite unaccustomed; he must also conform to the rhythm of the foreign script. In order to reader a really .z ood ;,;-,;y to tiori, he must ae cuaiiy fanillarize him- self with the foreign personality and the latter's expressive demeanor. In accordance with the striking statement of Georg Meyer, hardwriting is indeed "a co plicated structure which is not arbitrarily constructed by means of simple rules, but is something which develops more or less unconsciously from the total iridivi- duality of the :ricer in the course of an evolvement lasting decades" (Archi v, rier. Schriftver 1eichun 1909; page 32 f.). The possibility of previous practice, which can compensate for much which is lacking as far as inborn ingeniousness is concerned, plays a ea+ role not only with respect to the question as to great ,~ , whether a falsification can be attributed to a suspect, but also with respect to the ultimate success of a falsifica w.on. This poste sibility exists when 1Todels of thy: script to be copied are available to the falsifier -- models which he can copy, the forms and movanents of which he can assimilate by means of repeated attempts. It also c.- 0 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 represents a facilitation for him if it is possible for him to repeat the falsification in the case of its failure, i. e., in disguising, or in the case of copying in which very many incom- pletely executed official forms are available to him. On the other hand, falsification is rendered difficult when the J:aisifier is obli g;ed t4 adapt his product, e. g., a forj;ed sifr-a ture, to a certain apace, e. g., when he is obliged to place the forged product in a certain place on a contract form. Of course the condition of the script to be copied is also important a, The more individual the latter, the more difficult will it be to match it in general -- and of course less aii'ficult iaith respect to forms than witL respect to the freedom arid multifariousness of movement trrnkes whi..ch_can be virtually or definitely inimitable. On the other hand, with respect to forms, the distinctive are of course still easier to rr,a tch than the quite indistinct. Likewise, the speed and fluency of a hand.script renders difficult its being copied. Much easier to copy are he familiar flourishes in a signature placed there as a protective measure against being copied. In turn, disguising i~i11 become the more difficult and dangerous for the forger, the more the latter attempts to maintain uniformly through- out a quite special atyle of dis wise, he ore he attempts to render the forms of the dis} vise as dissimilar as possible to those of his true hand, inverting all aspects wherever possible, since this leads to distortions, exaggerations, and abortive strokes and provokes the danger of constant faux pas. The Procurement of Suitable Material for Comparison Not a few comparisons of handwriting are doomed in advance to fail solely because no suitable material for comparison is available -- -133 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 material which suffices for the execution of an orderly comparison. Not only this begin' the 'experieic?of the daily practice; it has also been an old complaint which from time to time is repeatedly heard in pro- f essional circles. Manifold indications have been made, partly by authorities, partly by institutes, as to how succh material i to be procured anu the manner in which it is to be produced. (The best such inuica Lion known to me has been brought f ora rd by Jeserich, Arch. f. Krim., Vol 93, page LL f.) Such indications have previously been of little avail. One of to reasons for this is that they have been resigned to subordinate ol'ganc~ which were not equal to the task. It can simply not be demanded of the constable or the police officer that he judge which material for comparison is suitabiE .LcJr idle' h;rt m r iii +g ~Vrdrt d i.$_ Clot. The grievance with respect to the insuf.t'icient procur~nent of material can only be allayed by getting at the root of the trob1e, but the hand riting expert must also be intercalated as Early as possible. It might here be in order to recall that which has been said above in regard th the import,,ance of to first leap, and it ;Mould be shortsightedness on the part of the crimina1ist?offici81 or public prosecutor if he were riot to confer with the expert in the procurenient of c~npax ison ma terial. Finding themselves in the same position are the defender who seeks to produce material for the exoneration of the accused, ana the lawyer who intends to institute legal proceedings on the basis of a document presumed forged. If strong suspicion in regard to a certain person does not exist, the expert wU1 attempt to ascert~in something of the type of the possible perpetrator from the factual script, thus contributing to the production of proper comparison material. From he handscripts of several suspected persons, he will, if possible, make a provisional h~.. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 sel action and it once eliminate all irrelevant material in accorctncc with t:?,e manner and viewpoints which we knave delineated above. It skrould once ae ain be ec.lphasiued that these exarnationa of the factual script or the script subject to identiiIcation are only provisional. Therefore, much that at i'irst appears unutilizable can nevertheless become important later. `thus, it is recor;;mended that the findings of such s:rrovi siosral investi a tior~S be fixed in writing; perhaps a brief opinion thereon should be made. To be then subjected to comparison are the handscripts of those persons comin ; into questi can in accordance with the results of the y)re1 Lmi.nary exar-inat,ion in connection ~;ith the other as> cer tairrrnents. (Of course we cr,. nnot procure further factual scripts. }{owever, in aiJ cases the autoriti es nLOW.u i....e ni u is selves as to khetkir other fassific~ationa or anonymous writings of to same type, which could be traced to the same writer, have not appeared.) It is recommended that one not act too anxiously; it gill, be easier to find the perpetrator ?rorrl among a greater number of suspects and their handwritings. One will be in luck if in a single suspect one has found the right person, if the latter is the only one coming into consideration. Should there exist strong suspicion toward a certain person, should it nevertheless appear improbable that this per:: on could have written the factual script, then, under certain circumstances, it is recommended that the scripts of the next of kin or friends be examined. For if the person in question has not carried out the 'alsification himself, he could have utilized another person for this purpose. lie will seek out principally those who are his closest confidants, for the sake of his own security and due to the danger of being exposed. The Frocurer~,ent and examination of the scripts of relatives is quite Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 to be recoil ended even if the provisional exar;?ination or the final analysis shows that the i. erpetrator and the suspect could not be identical, but that nevertheless there exists a striking similarity: between the writing strokes of the factual script and the script of he suspect. here, the hacLdwritirig expert should al~iays keep in mind the possibility that the factual script could have originated from a relative of the suspect. In handwriting there are doubtless at times J:'p1Lily resemblances, dccordinE; to our experience' although ;his has sometimes beers contested. Just as at times relatives can be sirniiar in facial features, in body build, in outer manifesta- tions including sinrxl gestures, or in gait; sa can the sameness ' of inherited characteristics be expressed in the movement strokes of hand~aritinr;, in which latter inborn tendencies ire mirrored Thus, under certain circumstances; #'rorn this point of view it is well if one has available the scripts of relatives as material for comparison. Of course such scripts wi11 only be called into question if there is suspicion that such relatives might have participated or might prove subject to investigation, for in criminal prosecution one must expressly avoid drawing in unneces- sariiy other persons into the investigation ?- persons who might peT'tt~~, ~iii~o k more a question of providing L. is be 1 t.. bs.tiira.~~~ 1ame'es.,. It T.t ~ y lic is he an incentive to experts to give attention to such possibilities. The obtaining of the handscripts (even in the manner of searching for them) or the summons issued to the suspect to produce such of course represent duties of hose officials conducting the investip gation; the handwriting expert merely functions as an advisor. Herefor, in the civil process there is the below-mentioned detailed process of proposal. ?l36- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Which type of comparison material is the most suitable. for the comparison of handwriting? tidhich scripta of the suspect are to be advanced? From this point of view, it is to be etressed that too much evidence can never be obtained. The more comprehensive the writing materi~ii, the greater the chances of success for the handwriting expert. Of course, mountains of handscripts should not be itidiscrimina t,ely produced; rather, one should make a se- lection as soon as possible from the scripts already found, and those later produced. According to our e?perience, an analysis can best be carried out if the x'o:lo'win. scripts which can be used for comparison are available: 1. kt least such that have been written as ri onchala ntly as possible, e. g., notes or sketches made for Th wiiter.i own in%ormation, or diaries, if such are still available, as well as informal letters to relatives or friends. 2. herever possible, a carefully-executed handwriting, C. ~;?, petitions to authorities, lettc;rs of application, available autobiographical sketches, contracts, promissorj notes, Twills, and the like. 3. handwriting samples especially obtained by the expert i'or the purpose of this investigation, or several such samples. From such material one will best recognize the possibilities of the suupect with respect to forming his handseript in various manner in accordance with the individual purpose pursued, i. s., the breadth of the variation so to speak, of his hanascript for- mation and his handwriting capability, The establishment of the foregoing iL of great importance for the comparison of handwritings 137 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 for one thing, as to whether the falsii'ication in question can be attributed to the suspect in the above-discussed sense. Further, and most important, one recognizes therefrom the various types of movement strokes, filling of spaces, dnd forms he diaposes of in his true hand -? features which, if again found in the factual script, could attest the identity of the suspect and the creator of the factual script. The latter will be discussed in more detail kith respect to the alternation o l' characteris tics and the rani - (oldness of form. To the t rea test possible extent, the writing material should have originated at approximately the same time s the perpetration, since every individual handscript more or less becomes altered in the course of ones life, as we have it y in ue~ CbOLbvGe,,..,.a of the so?cGiled acquired hanuwriti ng, To a special extent, this applis to very young and to aging people. Since a handwriting can sudden.L.y be quite strongly altered in the course of ones life, e. g., in the presence of inner crises, an opinion on the nasis of old comparison material is invariably somewhat uncertain, and the ex~ pert will only be able to Faye his opinion with reservations. In extr :rne rases the expert will be obliged to withhold entirely his opinion. The question of the obtaining of handwritink; sac,ples requires a special and aetailed discussion. Such obtaining of samples is carried out in all cases, as far as is possible. If such is to be carried out in all cases, it should be undertaken by the handwriting expert, since only be can judge which type of handwriting sample he requires for his comparison processes in the specific case and what should be looked for in the sample. Thus, for exarAple, it makes -138 - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 little sense to obtain a sample in a running hand, in the case of a factuai script which has bin ?written in prttiteci letters. I t is a like matter with respect to obtaining a sample in German-style handwriting, if the factual script has been written in Latin-style. howtvr, Yhese are only two examples; in turn, each case can make other demands on the c xidition of the handwriting sample. The ob> taining of a sa,nple is best carried out by rrieans of dictation. In this case, the explicit warring should be made tha t the suspect should not be permitted to copy the factual script or parts of it, becau'e it would then be easy for a clever 1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 imperial penal iairiJ 1>, 31), and this of course ~dso applies to the proceGs of ixlvestiratiori. The imtpt rial high Court alwo do"F tided that the piece of i ritirig need not be produced before the judge; it is only to be established that it origirta tes from to person in question. In our case, his means that the handwriting sample may be obtained by the expert. ' ith respect to the obtaining of the sample, attention should be L iven that it be executed by means of he same writing gaol as has been the factual script, 1. e., 1th 8 sinilarly stiff or flexible pen, or a ~id1ar pencil, lead pencil, copy pencil, ink pen, or any other tool which may be pertinent in the specific case. If the factual script has been ritten with a pencil, it is ............ ................. recommenced that a sample written in ink also be obtained. s a matt.er of principle, writings for the purpose of comparison should not be executed with a ball.'point, pen; unless the factual script as been written with such. hi.s type of writixig renders quite difficult he examination of the individual condition of stroke and the distribution of pressure, as we shall see in the discussion of these handwriting phenomena. The paper itself should resemble that of the falsified writing, above allith respect to its ;:absorptive capacity, and should be of the same format. In he case of the falsification of forms, forms of the same type should be employed wherever possible, and the handwriting sample should be entered into the blank spaces in a manner similar to that of the factual script. On the other hand, with respect to addresses and data con cerning the addresser, the distribution of space on the envelope should be left to the suspect, since therefrom, under certain cir- cumstances, important conclusions can be drawn (this will again be ? 14O Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 discussed later. Self-evidently, if the factual script was found in an envelope with an address and p erhaps wi t_h a fi cti tious name for the sender, a handwriting sample should also be taken from this. To the greatest extent possible, the handwriting samples should be written in the same situation in which the factual script was executed. If, for example, it is a question of scripts whidi have been dra' n or written on a ali, or of notes which have been tacked to the wail before being written, which, for example, can be divined from the heaviness of ink iri the ioti t r part of u n- strokes of to factual script, then the hands rit ng sa,'pie should wherever possible be written in the same position with the paper held at the same height. In accordance with our experiences; the exact text of the d factual script is best employed as the text of the dictation. Jn the other hand, if in exceptional cases there are some hesitations as far as the foregoing is concerned, then at least the same or similar words, or at the very least, the same letters as appear in the factual script should appear in the handi ritIg sample. The say pies should be written in th G same handwriting system as the factual script. Should the suspect otherwise tend to use habitually another writing system, i. e., Latin style in the presence of a factual script written in German stele or vice versa, then a sa,.ple should also be taken of a writin in the alternate style. If the forger uses a specific type of writing, e. g., printed letters, es- pecially-printed letters, or a specific type of ornamental writing, then the suspect should be required to prepare a sample in which- ever of the foregoing types is in question. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 The dictation should first occur at a rl~,rmal tempo; by anu by the dictation should be a ccelera ted up to a point of rapid writt . Or several different sarples can be undertaken in various degrees of speed. For one thing, the foregoing ie necessary, because it hereby showy much of the possibilities and capabilities of the writer, as far as his being able to diversify his hand- i;rit rig is concerned: It is further necessary because rapid writing most certainly prohibits a disguise of ones hand in writing he sample. Much has already b* en >~akrich is customary in the German civil process with respect to the pro- duction of documents (the proces which concerns the factual script and the script subject to identification). This is delineated detailedly in the ninth title of the 2r0, Article ul~, f. It is not necessary to represent it here, because it plays a relatively small :aie in the practice. For the ,Host part, this et teed, time~consumiflI;, and complicated process is avoided in that the lawyer of the complaining party files a legal complaint with the prosecuting authority and leaves up to the latter the production of documents, just us in the case of the further execution of the entire process. If the civil process is already pending, then a move in accordance with Article 149 of the Z O can be proposed on the settiement of the civil process until the conclusion of the penal process. Thus practically rernainnr for the process in ac- cordance with Article u15 If. are only hoCo cases in which the exe- cution of a penal process is riot possible, e. g., because the per- petrator has in the meanwhile died, a fact >ithich of course does not hinder the execution of the civil process against the heirs. It times, comparison material can also be taken from the collections of handwritings of many central police stations, e. g., the I eueral criminal court or the cantonal police authority of #urth, where the handwritings of all "writing criminals," which have appeared in a specific district, are kept in accordance with a special registry system. This system will principally be of use in the case of writers of a series of scripts. Further, it serves more for the 1414 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 purpose of searches, analogously to fingerprint collections. (Those who are interested in more details in regard to the fore- going mi,ht consult the quite informative article on an aduress given by Lieutenant Bachmann of the cantonal police of Zurich. This article appears in the Siss paper Der Polizeibeamte {Police Officials, 1951, pa{se 308 f.} Only ma rk=finally, a i' e a more rema rks on the trea t~iient of writing material shall be added to this chapter, because they ap- pear r~ecessar;; insofar as here the necessary carefulness is often lacking. Not infrequently the assessor -- and above all, the hider assessor -- receives the factual script, which in all cases is irreplaceable, in a state which renders difficult tV an extra- ordinary degree the technical examination, be it t ,a t itYi~a s in he i eantime become smeared, be it that it has been distorted by subsequent additions, in the case of which it is often no longer to be certatiy established whether the additions are constituents of the original factual script or >rfheter the:; can be traced to the official or expert concerned. It should be a basic principle that the factual script be taboo, so to speak, for both official and expert, apart from scei ng to it that the original script, or the script subject to identification, not be distorted by descrip- tive} indicative, or emphasizing strokes. In those cases in which the expert cunsiders such, perhaps for the purpose of demonstration, as absolutely necessary, he should make his notations on a photo- stat of the original -- not on he original itself -- since such can have a disturbing effect anti, under certain circumstances, can distort the entire handwriting picture. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 biith respect to the preservation of the writing material, we should recommiend that the authorities place the factual script and the scripts subject to identification in a special envelope which nhould be large enough to prevent unnecessary folding and bending. Further, the authorities should assemble everything along with: the documents in a special portfolio, or they should so fasten the envelope that the ~:ritings can be removed without having to take apart the other documents. I'or the pert must be able to get at and assemble the scripts for examination and com- parison, independently of the other documents. Most inconvenient is the custom which is prevalent in ;.any Laerider of the Federal Republic, i. e., permanently fastening; together the documents #d t[iti' vi1G1! mtVW.U(ft5 iy ol.noi.rlg or clipp.u uiiein tuge 4ier'. Should tLis also be the case with the handscripts, then his can make considerably difficult the examination of therm, because an extensive leftward--trencing stroke is usually no longer visible. This has a pGrticulariy disturbing effect if a handscript must be photog'aphed. There then remains a choice of taking apart the hole file, which is dangerous as far as the order of the documents is concerned, or of renouncing the reproduction of the left broiler and usually a part of the writing of this border as well. II. The Execution of the Method and the Process of the Co arison of Handwriting The Seekin Ou;t;of Faux Pas on the Part of the Forcer in the Factual Script The process of comparison begins whenever the factual' script and sufficient and suitable comparison material are available. It has been a point of dispute whether the? handscript of the suspect or Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 the factual script should first be examined. 7e recommend begin- ning with the observation of the factual script, and for three reasons. First, because such will already have been examined in one respect, viz., whether it has indeed been forged; thus, one is already familiar with it to a certain degree. Second, the comparer might not be able to approach the factual script quite so iraartlaliy, if he already has a strong visual imprt sion of the handwriting of the suspect. Thus, he may no longer receive the appropriate im- pression of the factual script; rather, he trtay view the factual script mechani ce i1y in relation to the other from he point of view of cuniparison. In order to understand the third., anti indeed the most important, reason why we recommend comr;encing with the factual script, we must once again stop to considr~r use rnu puipo _ of the comparison. With our method, the intention is. to penetrate to the person of the perpetrator on the basis of the factual script, ire order to compare the person manifest in the latter with he pee- son of the suspect which may be concluded from the script subject to identification, and thus to be able to determine whether or not both ure identical. Under these circumstances, is it really worth while to rigidly take it upon oneself to compare characteristic against characteristic or even letter against letter, quite without giving consideration as to whether or not this writing stroke of the factual script has been artificially produced through the forma- tive will of the forger, or whether or not this stroke is a natural part of the phenomenal picture of the actual handscript of the forger? Of course, basically, the willful and knowing handiwork in the factual script is of no interest at all to us or only indirectly, for what we seek is not the peculiarities of the falsification product but the true essential expression of to forger embodied in the factual Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 script, i. e., the forger's rlatur-il hand which he has concealed behind the hull o?' disguise or of imitation. The irholra purpose of the compai Son process is to remove this hull, to remo ye the makeup from the handwriting i'orger _.. his actor on the stage of hand~rriting, as it were -- to tear awa~r has mask, i. e., to expose hirr- in he truest sense of the word. Thus, it wu not our intention to satisfy ourselves with the mere observation of the hull thro~.n up by C'aisiiication anu cuisguise, rather we d11 first of Gil make the a tteinpt to find breaches in this hull through which we ar able to penetrate, . e., to find starting points by means of which we are able to remove or expose the hull of diuise. In addition, w~ must have a clear perception with respect to the folios irib; arc there such betraying aspects in the fuctuai script? hat is their cause? whet do they look like, arid how can ~;e find them.7 ire already know that there are such -- such which are the result of he insuppressability of certain movement impulses and writing habits which are expY'eGsed partially in complete faux pas, partially in handwriting; phenomena which make it still apparent that such forces were indeed suppressed but that their suppression has not been fully effectuated. e have already represented in de? tail in the section on movement anct formative forces t1 e reasons for this phenomenon and have formulated in the first basic principle the findings of our investigation in this regard. lie might refer to this latter basic principle, as well as to that which has been said on the psychology of the handwriting forger, in order not to repeat ourselves. We have yet to make an analysis with respect to the diverse foals of phenomena of the faux pas of the forger, anti, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 therewith, with respect to the type and manner by means of w hich these can ue: t and rno& t certainly be detected. e have 1ikm i se already investigated the type, extent, and 1'requEncy of unconscious and unintentional reversions to the true Land of the 1'aisiiier, and how such are dependent on the iai is er's u re ux adroi traess, ability to forge, anu concentra tion capacity. hereby, it migYit again be stressed that herefor, in addition, the objective diffi- culties of to concrete fa i cfica ti.on, which have also been previousl~r treated, are decisive. 01' course, in addition to all the preceding, it is of great importance to 1aiov, the type of handwritin habitually employed by the forger. In the case of disguises, those who normally write an indefinite, lithe singular, script will be best capable of perpetrating an altera- -Lion of hand, , ithout having to fear reversions. Such will also find it rr.c~ t easy to adapt to a eeript kha ch is to be copied. fi. kith respect to the phenomemil fonns of faux pas, it should b established that such z+r~ e :presued quite diversely, each in accordance ith u-ihether it is a question of a aalsifieation throu . l disguise of one; true hand or through the copying of a foreign hand. In the case of the former, such iill ae principally recognizable as departures from the disguise style, for every dis- ;uiser ultimately seeks to produce he latter in a dis zuice of handwriting, even though it may be of the most primitive type. In the case of copying, the faux pas will be e~cpressed as departures from the foreign handseript which is copied. In this case, above all with respect to verb, clever but obstinate forgers, at times ap- pearing will be strokes which correspond to neither the script nor the forger's true hand. However, such misfires, i. e., unsuccess- ful places in the copy, by and large are recognizable as having i49 . Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 been forced by the breaking; trough the barrier of the forgers awn writi.ri forces, habits, and tendencies. Thus, one may reckon that one has before one the natural script of tree falsifier. How now do ti;e find those places in to factual. script in which the h anawriting forger, au are actor, has stepped out of his role? r s far as the inetYlod is concerned, it should be men- wioriea here in antieipa ti.on that we coo not yet concern ourselves at the beginning of the co;iparison with the examination of the factual script kith respect to tdividu.1 characteristics, since this will occur later in he eventual syst~na tic individual ana- lysis. Rather, we first seek out for the time being entire parts of the script, i. e., words or word series -- under circumstances, entire sentences -. but also mere sv11ab1es or letter groups, which have found their way into the falsification product via the true hand of the a`orger. Thereby, e shall so proceed that, by next examining the factual script, we are able to determine >r~hich places arc not in accordance kith the tot 1 i:^pression of the script of the falsifier, from the general observation of the ap- pearance of the factual script. The determina Lion of such becomes the easier, the more formed out the Factual script, as such, is, i. e., the more pregnant and uniform in general he style of dis- guise or the script which is copied appears. Especiai]y striking are such parts of handwriting which are not altered through faisi- fication, above all in the case of strongly stylized scripts, such as printed letters and quite pronounced decora tine scripts (Cf. Figure III 'With appendix C). However, here their cotipreheneion is most pressing, because through such stronglystamped form types the naturalness of formation and even movement strokes are for the most part extensively suppressed, so that often these places of Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 faux pas, as r~aily certairn starting; points for the comparison process, escape us. In the case of indefinite hndwritings as the object of a copying, the reversions to he true t?and of the forger ti i1 be ?~:posec1 trough s trong ~ r consequenccs of the riove- merit anti the pregnancy of the form stamp. C)f course such strokes which ~,re not in accorcance with to remaining h indi ritin : picture, in the case of dis uises, can ori4nate f.'rom Laisification, i. e., they can be inconsistencies :~f the style of disuisirig, be it exaggerations or mistakes made in he ciis;u1L by the t'orger in relation to the model assumed by rll.rr-. Therefore, all the parts of the handwritir~g which are not in agreement with the r?maining han~-Jriti ng picture must be examined to determine whether or not they make a na tur~1 impression. Thus, as reversions to the natural hand of the falsifier, such parts of the handscript which manifest a lesser degrce of stiffening in relation to the remaining factual script 9flC which appear more relaxed, i. e., rnanifesting a lesser number of inhibition characteristics, will above all core intc question, in correspondence i ith the four experiences set forth in our basic principle. With respect to he concept of stiffen- ing, which has been elucidated more detailedly above, it should be repeated that it is here, in regard to faux pas, above all a question of the contrast of enforced, artificially-effected uni- formity to a point of rigidity, in relation to Un animate flowing -- a vibration, so to speak -- of the natural script in essential characteristics, i. e., here, above all, in sire, position, breadth, pressure. A se~ingay infallible indication of nonartificially- written or formed handwriting is the presence of a natural rhythm in movement and form, i. @., a periodically light, ever-recurring alteration above all in the above?rnentioned characteristics Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 phenomena which ~e shall later discuss in more detail. In addi- tion, there is in the natural script almost invariably a certain flowingness and a natural interconnection of writing strokes in the whoie. Here, with respect to the artiiicia1 creation of Land- writing, we come back to the pertinent f'ormulatioi: of Saudek in regard to the reduction of the wr~iting impulse. The reduction to the letter-impulse, which usually effect: a certain incoherence, ii not a disrremberment, of the artificial script, ~:ii1 be lacking in the unctis ;uised characteristics hhich have crept into the factual seiipt. These latter characteristics will be borne by a uniform irrtpulsc: which here extends w iforrniy over several words, nr_.an ent;.z'e sentence, or at lea; t to a word or a syllable even to the entir'E u.~dis ?prised piece of writing -- thereby ef'f e;t- an}j a natural coherence which is not only limited to the so-called connectedness, but is visible in an overlapping uniformity of he writing stroke. Also to be given special attention are the fo+_low? ing, l heti, er the pressure at those points which we are inves~ga= twig for the determiriatiori of faux pas manifests itstlf as elastically alternating, in correspondence with the stretching i nd bending of the fingers participating in he writing; or whether the unrhythrnical pressure produced by the unnatural writing of the forger is perM ceptible. Also of importance is the speed of production of hand- writing. The artificial script ?- be it a disguise or a copying -- can be produced only in the most moderate tnpo: in the case of the disguise, because of utifaruilia~ity with the forms to be created; In the case of copying, beeause the copier must be concerned with accurate matchiri. Thus, if to be found in he factual script are places which have been written considerably faster than the remain- lug script, then it can be as?umod with some degree of certaintiy - -l2 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 that some natural moverf1 iit impul cs of the forger Lave compelled this acceleration. It en be a uxmed that, as is said, the t?mp: ramment of tie forge has pr;nctratea the harrcwriting, i, e., thGt ~?Jrj have before us his true hand. It is a like matter with respect to conr~ectiri; forms anc_ the ctual script fonnatiorl. If ~.ord ceric,s, individual words, and letter series in pronounced festoon or thin line connections are found in he fctua.l script i hich is constructed with anivIcr conneeteaness, ten concicierable suspicion exists tk1]t faux pas are present. Ur +n exaggeratedly disgaiaed script may suddenly raecolr,p thin and temperate, or the same phenomena may be manifest in the unsuccessi`ui parts of a falsification executed by copying. Or a large and broad actual script may suddenly become sma ier acid mci'e ui.c i1 L1`d ttu. in the seeking out of reversions of the forger to his true hand. In many cases, the fact that the f~rer "rat corrected such yrci 's 'will ?.11 r 11S the U.;.r~ their ~u,nx pas re uuer' easier ~~l.i us detection of ~ ~ of S. _3 ~ .sf' pl etely erase through caricella Lion that which he first wrote and the latter remains in evidence, then we have one of the rare cases in which we can see the forger at pork, as it were, and can pursue the process he has carried out. Such fortunate Cases, rihich are not at all seldom, are of .rent value for the coxnparisori of hand- writing, because, with respect to that which remains in evidence under the corrections in most cases there can be no doubt that this is the true hand of the forger ?- a certainty which we otherwise only rarely attain. Of course one should have a clear perception that not every correction must of necessity be connected with a faux pas. It can also be that the forger was not pleased with a script l3 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Lion should be given all such phenomena, in order to Find success presence pill be the more evident. Should the forger fall to com- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 disguising stroke, arid that he then erased i t. whether this be the case can u:~uaJ.1y ea ily be determined from the Nt1.1i-r cog.' nizable strokes. However, ornc nut further have a clear percep- tion -Uha t here are also ijann1ess correction: , so to speak, by means of which occasional orthographi ca1 . istakes or other mis- takes have been rectified. lwioreover, there are many writers who have tr.e habit of rnakirig rancor corrections after looking over their writing, as iias already been rneritionec earlier. Such cor- rections are cosmetic rei:arations, as it Twere, or are effected for the sake of greater clarity and better lei ibility. Occasionally, a role can here by played by the phenomenon, long familiar to grapholog sts, that many persons ake mistakes in writing if the content of that ich is being i~ritten is farce, e. g., in the case of writers of arionyrnouc scripts. One need only bring to mind defamatory petitions. Alterations due to exaggerated self- control are represented for the most part by corrections of loops, stronger aefinitior~ of four., and the like, and are easily dif- ferentiable as such from other corrections. Moreover, such habit, if it also appears in the script subject to ids itificatior,, iDrovidcs U direct comparison staridard. (Cf. hero also E;.chneickert, ?the Uraphological Judgment of Corrections in Earrdwriting," Arch. f. Kam., Vol 113, page 89 f'. ) All these diverse types of mistakes justify the monition to approach the evaluation of corrections only with the greatest circumspection and care; to moreover approach similarly the diseernibility of the incomplete erasure. It is clcrr how the corrections which are important in ccm> parison have originated. In most cases the forger does not know that he hs given himself away or how this has occurred, or how it can be reOo nixed that +~e urldts wised hands ~ript is at hand. It Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/07/23 : CIA-RDP81-01043R000400190011-1 is this very i. xiorance 1hi.ch affords the rnost oppor~uriities for the cumpUrison of handwriting. hoever, it is not infrequent3.y -tie case teat he dis;: ui er notices that he has reverted this true hand;riting strokes; li.kei~ise, it is cLot infrequent h 4Ici v 44. c LLLW copier becomes awnre for he same reason tbat the irti 13t of of thL fares n Strokes hriot succeeued, or that he at least has a presentiment tha t this could give him away. Then he will con- cei.Vab1v attempt to erase to 1'r ms thw arising, aria he does this usually by st.r5idng out or scratching out. But not always dogs this eras1ri r become completely effectuated: It may be hat the cancelling Line eoe& not fully cover that which ii written beneath; it may be that he era'Ure does not fully blot out the ,.... .~ .r8 ..., .. i . 11 ..~.....r- 1.1...- ?4% .,. 3. TuL C' .ti. Cis ..L GMCod. t/l Ull' ... J.JW a .3..1. a: 'v ., n