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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Denied Q Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 AUTHOR: G.P.NiCHIK SOURCE: STATL PUBLISHING HOUSE FCR THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY MO SCOYI 19 5 3 pp. 23-24, 124-297 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 (UNCL) AERIAL GUNNERY (STREL'BA v VOZDUKHE) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 AUTHOR: G.P,NICHIK SOURCE: STATE PUBLISHING HOUSE FCR THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 (UNCL) AERTAL GUNNERY (STREL'BA v VQZDUKHE) MOSCOR 1953 PP? 23-2~,~124-297 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 G. D. ~ichik Chapter II TO THE AUTt]tATIC AERIAL GOAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 At the very begiffi-ing of tha coibat tlae of aviatioa, nae etas made of special conce~rationa, and bullets, which were drq~ped on heavy troop and as wall as on the enenay~a lighter-~an.~,air craft and air- The nae of each devices in fighting fibs aerostats and airplanes oP the a near bras reaponeible Zor shaping aerial tactics. The advantage of altitude was ale'apre 3~ -'required, and the arrows and bullets ~rere released fr? above i-hile passing over ~ z~ ,, y------------------------dddddd target. 3E In the RuaaiaQ air ioarce, eacteneive nae was made of P. A, Slesarev~ a "tl3ring ate"; Q. A. Sleaarev vas the designer and builder ~ the heavy airplana 4 0_.J ~"S~-atogor". He designed special calla which allowed the alternate release of 42_.,.~ ~ill.eta and arras. Also widely used at the tine were the bullet-releasing devisee ' the engineer l~eolpaka--~iiroe~hnichenlco. I This type o2 aerial weapon was e~tfect$.ve to a degree when need against groin reonnel and aerostats, bat Tae Quite ineffective is action against enenq plaaee. i Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ..,~ ~\ !1 - 11B~J> - Bonn ~Arraw ?-- 67mm -+ Sleaarev Bu11eL ~..-- 7Smm ----^ Bullet with tasges~ia- feattering Mg. 1. lircrsf't arraea. lrraa of Fig. 2, a'Fl~ingp ballets sad! srrars, ibis ~ ~~ ~ ~ airmen on aced by airplanes sgainst ensq peraon- sr~- troops blie4s sad airplanes r~l aml aircraft, before firear~s amd baabs crone into ase in tbs air farce. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Fall oaf object thrara EP~'ECT CF ACTIIAL $P~ Og PI~W$CTII,g TRAJECT~ 1, ~ gel.,_ocities I `' -- It hed happened to everyone to thrar sass relatively heavy object troy the _~ windos of a fast-QOViag train or wtamobile. Ioa cannot help noticing that the object keeps falling alongside of yan 3~ z .~ until --- . ' _i their .,.~ ~. Relative and Absolute Iattial Yelooi~ies oaf Projectile. he Tri~af _ ~ ~, ~, ~ ,~ ~ ~~ ~~ Q _ , ~ ~ ,~ ~ ~~ ,~ ~ ,~ J .i bath of objet (relative to ?~ ,railroad car, it reaches the ground. This seam that the train or oar have isparted to it own velooity, and that at'ter you have released its the object continues to 'bath of objet ' '.relative.to~' the ground ~~ . 75. ~z_i _,iras the S G 11i get the sass piotnre i! era fire a~grn installed os an airplane. At the I s~osenc: os its esit iras the body of the jqn~ velocities are,isparted to the shell I _ _ '_ J X' ~ A -as tht--bars--saia~.-aad..that...at the.-notioa...at._the....eStplaaeM~. ~ ~ -lSn-relati0a_to-tbe...~. aAd t0 -tie plane~...xhe_ Teloaity Of t~he_ pr0~ectile . at- tbe._~.._.~. e~irdar oaf a toot-~savia`g train. Chapter VI to travel at this velocity in the direction of your oen motion, while falling daRward becanee of the pall of gravity. The relatin velocity of the ob~ect~ i.e. its velocity in relation to the railroad car, will be directed vertioa~j damsarde while.ita velocity relative to the grounds i.e. its sbaolnte velocity, sey be .obtai>ed w the aw of the vector of train ,speed` and at the vector of the speed of ta11, in'? '! crewing due to the pull of gravity. If ere de , ~ not hike air resistance into accaaat~ the j aatio>d of the released object erl1.1, tollox a paratvia. STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 I Relative to the air, the velocity of the projectile will be different. To they vector of relative initial velocity will be added the vector of the airpl.anets speed and the direction and magnitude of~projectile velocity h~i11 be represented by the diagonal of a z~,r?~~elogram constzucted from these vectors. The resulting city is termed relative initial velocity, and designated as vo. moment of its exit will equal the velocity at which the gunpowder gases propel it_...~ out of the boxe of the gun, or that initial velocity which would be imparted to th~ projectile if the same gun were fired on the ground. In aerial gunnery this velo- VCiOCZLy. Ovtalii@d.b~T 511mminp_ r~..iat.iu. Wis. ". i. y.w.l 'i vtvi.lll~ auiu l+i1G&Ci:t1$13 UeeQ 02`..tH_E! airplane is termed absolute initial velocity and represented by vol' " lative,ihiEial locity ~~~'' Absolute in velocity o projectile Y ~~ Ik flection angle ~ ~ Actual speed.~j Fig. 76. This is the path of a project- -~ file fired from an installation aboard a ~. plane. 4.~._. of-~l#gar-~o-1,$p_.degress,.xh~_firing aft.. For bevi.tyta..sak~,_w4 x~~.l, ca7.1_thie ~1 ~ __~.._....~gle_s~y__the._angZe-off _ of..th~ piece. STAT Fig..77. Eiiect of actual speed on the position of the trajectory of the projects file. Construction of triangle of velo- i cities. The angle formed by the pI.anets fore and aft axis and the bore axis i at the ~ t moment of f ' firing may be described as tha angle of inclination of release relative j to the lane. 1t is re resented as ' p P ~o. This angle is measured from the aft end of the planes axis and may vary from 0 degrees, when firing is in the direction ~ = ~o . S~'ea ~ 0~ _~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 1 i :` _., The angle la+~ed b~ the vector of abeointe initial veiocit~j and the fors said ,i ;aft szis of the lane is ~ r~oi the abaahate .. , p angle-at4, and is reprasented a: ~os~ ,_ The angle famed blY the veatoa~s of the relative and absolute initial relocities! i ~" _., is called the angle ad d?tleoti~a and .-. ,. ~ r~saeatnd as ~ ? .._ The magnitude and direotioa o~x~t ~..... -~re].OCity~ 5F,-_ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Actual Speea Ballistic Coefficient - .~ ~ 7 ? titude Coeffic`ent ~ Density of atmosphere at _~_._ ~ al t~i tude o f f iri P Fig. 101. Dependence of linear lead on vario~a facto~a. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Velocit ~~~ y of Target y Determined _ Absolute Initial Velocity t? Ballist.^ efficient Velocity of Target i/r a~ Vu ~ i~~ y initial Velocity ,~L?G?Le ined // '~~' 'D t r ' v ec m e e ~yC??to~ Ballistic Co fficient; ~. ~ALtitude Coefficient ~Adgle-off of Piece ~ sIC~T. -+~1~3i Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 _ ~~ the Probles at 8 T~'get 9elocit? Iti is this Proble~ ire trill, atteept to salve in the paregraphe that iallde-. 1000 (---,.._ f~~ i 800 600 400 ~, _. ~lt is sufficiently A glance at the tarmula far linear lead night suggest that linear lead is di< rectly proportioned to range. Hanover, this is not precisely correct. The Bean lified_ in the I~it~ar ~etbod_ of all velocity as the PI'o~ectile farming the denc~inataa? oP the farnmula, depends in turn r+~ge oi' i'i.re, and deer?aeee as rangy ~' increaatid. Tlrue, for instance, if far a range of 100 m linear lead equals 30 m, tar accurate for a range of 200 m it ,practical .purposes, 9ri11 ~ not 60 m, as th at linear lead is proportional to range one might expect it it sere directly pro? portional, but sams~rhat greater, as result of a decrease in mean velocity, Therefoa~e, it is said that, as range is increased, linear lead i'or a given target velocity increases in a Pr'agresaion, i.e. ~ rapid- - ly than range, In practice, and at the Fig. 103. Linear lead increases grade- ranges of ae~ria1 fire, this progression i? ally as range it Increased. neg],igiyle, and linear lead ~ ~ cae~ sidersd as directly pr'opartional to .~~__ r~? The effect at altitude an Bean velocity, and therefore am ' ~~, the nagnitude ad j ~ia:esr lead is ' ~---! ' ne8ligible. ~ ,,,,__1 _ Target velocity, as ue have alrsadl- pointed ant, cannot be detereei,ned 5 rl_..,,? ~~'hi ~~ - the 6a~'? I'~ has to bpi estiaated tsar the type of airer~ to erhiah the tar S~ 1~? ?erial cam, u a rule, ta~a place at ?~ mss. ~m'efaoy it ~~.~ _.... -~---~ .p..a as a Given enespr p].asts it ~ _... _ __._ .. ~ ... ____._ __.___ __ 1 5 6 ~,.~_ ~, it aq be aseuaed that fn aai~I _,~ 39_- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 combat, it ie traveling at that very speed. ' Thine means that, to determine targ~at veloeit~, the ginner suet etu~r ene~q air craft acrd knar bast to recognize their type and, consequently, their ~inuer speed. The speeds of modern pursuit planes Part' insignificantl~r tram type to t1pe. Likdtriae, the speeds ad various types as bombers std transport please differ little within each class, It is thus possible to sesame, far exaaple, that all fighters have speeds of 700 loq/hr, all bombers speeds cf 500 lam/hoc, and all lra~nsrart pla3res speeds of 250 1ae/tu'? The airborne guYmer has then onlyt to determine ghat clue of 4Li'V1-si 1e lla i^ ~V1a7~ Yv 11 ~ 1aF-ws, 1~ a. w luau evY v R:avviada vud vaaegy~ ~/lOaiQ ~WiVe1aO in the elaaa of fighters, baaba.~e aoc cargo planes. Nair that ire have solved these particular problems, we say proceed to tie matteoe od' calculating linear lead. ._ Since we have agreed to eonsid~ linear lead as prupor~ionai to range; to __-.catego~e target velocities into three groups according to target type; and to _._ neglect the effect o! altitude an the magnitude of linear lead, we ~ solve the __ problem in the ftSlawing sinner. xe will calculate linear lead far each class of airplane far a range ai 100 ae ~__ caeputing mean projectile velocity for a range of 100 a at an average flight alti- __ tads, far ezample~ 4000 a. Then, once we knar linear lead for each class o2 air- :, ~--- pleas at ai range od 100a, it will be sia~ple to compute it faa~ angr given range of -, ~, ~ _~= _~ fire. The lead to be alla-ed far in firing will be u slay tines greater ar leaser than that far a range os 100 a as the range to the target sill be greater ar hesser .~ ~. I _... thaw 100 a. ,_~ .~ It, for ezampU~ when tiring at tightere, linear lead far a range of 100 a ~; atonnta to 25 b then at a range of 200 a it will be 50 a, st a range of 300 ae ?~ 5 ~__. r r as aai 100 th t 5 2,~--~ ~.i+~~. .. .... t~..a.At.oet .~.17a! MAtfl` {~1 4~1/- ~!1/'Y ' Yi~Y~ Yet vaa~ craw ~~ ~~w~ ~~~ --7~~ far a mar p~rablea arises, that of letting forrard in practice the fiitnre Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ; g an er a, a ~ and se forth, i.e. u aaap- tiaee u 25 a tr ramie sa grea STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 position to the distance awa3r from the target that has bsen oamputed. The target Keay be situated at varying distances Eras the gunner, and the lead dietaaae will vary in apparel sire, aeening greater as the range to the target is saaller, sad smaller as the range is greater. In addition, the target may be moping in a di? . rection perperdicalar to the line of sight, or at aRy other angle in relation to it, _~i.e. the target angle may vary considerably. lfhen the target moves perpe~diaular]1 ~to the line of ais, linear lea3 will be visible at its entire length; when it more at angle, linear lead will appear shortened, and its seeming magnitad8 sill. sumo lei T* ar r ~,.~. ?~ .~~~ ee.. distance. we always use some unit of seaeurement? .. _ -.. . 1]i T,hie cam, the distance Lo be aeaeuY'ed a Iar ~ rraa tlae oDServaT. Tne meas~e we ma3- use in this paMticnlar eitnstion is the length of the fuselage of aar targefi. Fo!'eshortening 4~4 `-~ s3~ c~~~ ~~ Foreshortening 3/4 '~. ~` ~ ~ _ jr t~t~ ~- i `J ~ Foreshortening 1/4 ~ no t'~< ~~ Foreahortenin~ ?,/4 ~~ ~, ~ , r _ ~~ ~ j~~o J i 7I..~ 1~ J ..' ..,_;1~'ig, 10~, The muter of fuselage lengths to which ihtnre position ~ be carri laaepepaan-~ Io=' praCLlCal pYrpOlei~ oz ~Q ~y ~ e ~~' va ~ ,4 ~~. STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 If, for exsmpZe, the linear lead to be shared far is 30 m, while the le _ _. _ ._ ngth of the _~~fueelage oP the target sgw~la 10 ^, we allay far the distance required if wil cart; the point of ai^ 3 fuselage lengths f ot~rerd fra^ the nose of the target along i~ rs ..._ late end aft axis. _ _ __, I'~ ~ be calculated in advance hoer ~ fuselage lengths the point ~ aim must _~ __.'be mated when firing at a range os 100 ^ st a given class o! aircraft, and then this number af'fu~elage lengths aa3r be increased ar decreased far different ranges, de- Pending oa her ~ times the range of fire e^oeeda or is inferior to 100 ~. _ The angle ad position of the target has no bearing on the problem When one fs -- using this method, since the apparent length os the fuselage will decreaa~A to the the point ;af sin when firing at a range o! 100 ^ for each class of aircraft, sad i t.~ ?? multip~r the niZmbeP of fuaelag8 leegtha in the lend distance fac that elate __. acme extent as tt~e apparent lead distance. Tharefr~re, the apparent lead wil]. cc~ntsia th? same number of apparent i~selagea as when the angle o4 position equals 90 degree ~ _..The eighties r-ethod wherebg the set forxard point is found by using the fuselage _ length of the target as a unit of measure is called fuuelage raging. _' llhen firing at a range of 100 m, the follaRing lead distances should be need _._ fair modern airplanes: I as target and a range of lA0 ^ by the rnt^ber of hundreds o? meters in tie I _~ r _ 4 Far het fighters 3 fuselage lengths Far comrentional fighters 2 fuselage lengths For medium bombers 1.5 fuselage lengths Far transports 3/!t ad a fuseless length. Titus, in fuselage rangia~g, one moat remember her ^at~r fuselage lengths to carrT; rfor~a the folla~ring operations: ? detsrseine the elasa to which the target belongs ? deta~ine, in same matmer, range td target in hundreds of meters STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Determine type of target aad class y=nD,~ Calculate future position by multiplying the coef- IYGYaa, ~'vy riiscance lIl h~dreds of meters Determine distance to target in h~uaditids of meters Shift sight so that sight ass is pointing to crosshairs ~Wh~ target is at calculated future position in relation to. crosshairs, open fire Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 aite 5 u~ ,,~ absolute initial projectile velocitT. ~e;irill. becoeae acquainted with the rnlss anid~ S~ -- - --{ techniques of sighting in C~pter II, where we exeanine the design ai cea;isin se-riaij ~.~i---_._..__._.__ _.____ _ _.._ .__ .__._ _____ _ _. _ .__ _ . _ .. _.. _.__.._--- --- S6J r ~1 VY3btIC 10 li1VtTJli.tOt- 1 vt tii~uvi.a~ 'vu STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 I2lapter Z FIRING ON (RtOUfiD TARGhT3 FROM T~ AIR Horr the Telocit _?ad' the Ground Target Ia Taken into Acoowat Around targets are possessed of considerablT smaller velocities than aerial targets, but they are usually fired upon at greater ranges. Ranges of fire on ground ._ targets are usually betAeen 600 and 1200 m, and are therefore approoefmately tRi.ce ar large as those involved in aerial fire. In firing fr? strafing or pur~ai air?? __ crafty the piece is ai?ed pith the body of the airplane and the plane f`~ies straight at the target. In aerial combat, pnrauit planes ueuallJ attempt to approach the _ target fra~e the rears cone rithin as close rangy as possible, anti then on]y open __ fire. It a fighter it auccesaf~il. in executing this maneuver, he has sufficient time y_ for flring~ since the attacker and the attacked are moving in the same direction, and tba gain of the oae on f~he other ie neg].igible? then Miring from a barber at an attacking fighter, the gutumn' likeRiae has anfficient time to aim and fire. An exception to thin is fire fray opposite courses, ehen~ in order to fire far as short a tree interval ar one second, a modern intercepta~r moat open fire at a range. of 2500 to 3000 a. ...` llhen firing an a ground target, the pilot directs hir plans at the target ~~ ;and dives at it; the target a~ the ground move toeard him at the speed at ?hioh -1 L,_ _, ___ a. aa..a_.. TI ~1.. ..fie,,. l.a. , '.n..A r-~' !~_ 1~A ~ rwr wA~rtrtrl_ than Aacsh ~~ second spent in adoring and firing bringr;the plane 150 m closer to the target. ~~ l~hrthermore, to bring the place out of the dive, it it neeeaaary to have available C~ a reserve of altitude of 200 to 300 a, s3~nce, on cooing art of the diver the air. 52 ~ plane loser altitude and, i! the reserve is insufficient, roar the rink of collid ~~ ...I__rith..thr .~tex'~t.~a._ ii. tiu_ Planr _b~~4n _ its dive on the tart iroa a r i --gtam~--- _._ _ _. ______.. _ _ ._ _. __. _ ___~ ~#,~__g~ will..be beerin~ an the.. target tor_ on],y 900 to 1000 m:_ ___...~ _ _ -- , Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~~ whioh he will cover in b to ? seconds. to that tiros interval. he wi11 have to aigt kNhen a fighter attacks a bomber at dark-night-the sighting is done directly _Ths .target. at~I.e then eeu~ Zero: ~~rbfore. its foreshortening also equals Zero --~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 t31L13t be e5tabl'_Shed v0 r,l'1~'G t,tl@ T'el+?''~)1~: an~.u~ cr; its~u.: ~u,~_,..~. , . ... _ v .. - - - ~~ ! ~ I. ~~.~. ;fit--of_ .tl3s _,~~,~,e ct~.o ..the taa ~e:t _rrnul.d M t ra1re~.. ---_ z?e1~1~i.ve _ file e ?urs~Qr -:~ tsnce`- A_,A,! = ~?t and ~~urn up in I~o3.nt Av. To h~t the twrget tt~e 6 _ _..~..-......_~.._.._..__...___. _~.__._ . _. _ .... . rt~n ~,t oint A tzlcin ~ ~.nt, .... _._ _ ...._ _ ..-. __ _ _- _._.. . _ .. _ p G a accou.r~~ trio Pr ~ectzle ).a;; ~ J i 8 _ 1 Fib. 188, SigY~tirg v~lzen Tiring; or. i~arail 1C ~ l':f siTnn7_~ i~':'.?~~ 'l,ll'? ~Pp~I-,7U~:^ ?S i?i8 1'.c ~Te 2~.Y'??r~T C'o3";B l a ~ - ~2 - For SOC:ie ?v?'_'";'e conci'_~,i.ons o~ s:`-n'7~~,71~ c0e~"-C?_entt~/~~ ~:r~tst b~ c?~ cv~ted ?n 24 As r.,ceding cases mt.;ioer i~ ~e~rpserts the zone number ~n ~r~liich the adaarce . in. ~, P _ _ _ 26 48. 50, 52 54 5b 't and in sighting the. cemter ~~ tde r Ong Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 A:IA' 1. cotarses o~ same direc~.an. Sighting vthen 1:'irinU on prallel cour~as oT t, ~ Sarre direction re~azix'es tt~e study of the ~oJ.i ovr3.ng three cases: 1) When Y1 ~ u, when V1 ~ vu ?r:d. When Y1, In the First case the relativs taxge _,ve1~tY 3.s orien' Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ill ~ ~ .-/ 1' -~ i)eS,-1; t: ;??,~ f^Ct t'.:''t +'~.~ ~oove forrn.L.a CC%1Cg . 7t .)' e?r tp }~C V'im'' C;1:1~11?i~ ,.~..o. L ~f riY,~~ on ~_ -.r~11e1 courser of the o;~;,o:;; t~ ,-?; reel' ~, ._~ r~.'-~::er i,,efec~'.~~a s' :ce 4U~ 4 ,^ 111 h;n ,.ao-7 f Torn a~ ~ftS reSU~t' in gi!C'~ :-?~~i, relatiV: 2.Pr;,~..r si'~ft5 ~y Of the 1;?.r~?t ti:?t 1','rl~ gunner F70~11`? ;'~=1Ve I'1,~ t? ~ a~ ~ i;;ht prop?.rl~r~ 3Q~ I J 32~~~ General Rues of Si ~;hti.n; f ::1.~'C~nri ~f; .-i :~~'v Vr?C4.i~1" ~1 2n~i ].!~ 'S~l ~~~ T?'~ '?~ ? ~,~.1'l,et 1i111.St ~1t' rile Ce:~ '. (1. t}'l1Tl "~.~'llz U1, ile ~)Qj`i~S_~;Jlt 90 ~~?fit ~~:. .;?^V;'i,l'I~IVS ."0'.__. iy; '1riC't;^.:l ~:~.~t.l ~.1? tC,~l the ~ .~,,.,,,~,~.?~ fog t??e : nrrlp ,r ~11~~ci is ~?re ..~.p z =s ollorts in ';,~;;,~ on Let 1.S See YIOZr'~'~1'3t t'lP, ~?Ln'.?$r ?rroul~? ;~~.Ve t0 ~0 'iC h7t t.''1e t~.rg?t? On a ;~ cgiopl a ;~u~rer cou~.~ not , ossit,lY pre~ar? '>.r:'~slf for s~~'~~ al c~.ses of ~i ri n,.; since '~e COli2? 1CrOSS title t;,r Je ~, un~~er ~~!? "1oS'`v llr?~,~,~,P,Cte'~ Ci rCl'.I'1st~nCBS. 40 Or t~7?t L'E3-'_S'J!^?~ ;Ze 1;luSt ~1oYi^:~~.~~ COi'ink.Ci?''-~'. "O 42 osition ?r~ the outlines of ti?e si ~;~ltir~ ~ ones. 44 a t ~~~e It does K~thout sayin; that ;~novrl~dge of ~pposite di rect7. on) ~.s inadequate since e?Fh of them ar_plies to a sl ecY fi c target ?elocity. Since r,he velocity oY aerial ta~gets .;may v~.r~r prewtly a Winer must knout .he values of each coefficient Yon at leas 2 - 3 grips of targets ?+ith a rather ~imi.lar velocity. .fit present, ~ can clas~i.fy fighters tfith p.'ope'L1ing pourer and - --T--------_.... omber9 into 'one groug assuming that the v~locit}~ of aircrafts of this group equal Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~l;lllst ~J r l^C; ~'"~.1. ~ 11':~ '.~'11~ ., .. ~.,1~'3 ~Jl l,i~~t t" l,wt ..1~~, ~] ~_tr '~,11i,1(' i .r_ "..,r~~. r:1w1.V . _, .. 1 ~., ,., ~ oar ~ ~ ?~ I~C11?lr l)f? rii,'?'~WJ:', iiQ~l~lrCl LIlG C4ai.fi.Q;_" of tw,he'ii11,;. ~Cl 1::'.Q .~3C'CIL. C:~a_!~ .: .1. I~ 'e:VC3 ._ ~ ~ ~ ty,~l ,lit en?inl^ ;7P)'o 3n~ ijl r?jrrl'i~'.i~r' t}~F? ~^,,;jrl~,~?~ !1{~ ~',J?tL r:l.T~t' iq!St C"J~)Y1Ca,Cle tk r~~v~ it \.a.3y 1.. J J.i ... ~_l. `V .. ~ ~ ~......_..,,.....,......... .. .. ~~ ~ lJ~ li 1 a , , , ~,. r ~~ ~ o. 1?~ t, t.1? t~.r.:,~~`:~, ~: c .,,e ~ ~ ~ J:1e t~.r i; ~?~ 11 lad= tre rsls.?tivn t^_r;;et vrloci.ty vri 11 be Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 bU0 ki.lo~leters 7 !r Yl)Llr, 'rJlla..1'3 ,het"~ ;)roa:lt.l.ltlci 1 ~.?.illbesi'~ au.u~: c~. rv~.v,.,~~~ .... ..~~ -_ ~ ~~ ~.Q9Q .lciloc~eters per hour belon to anutl~er urot~. '~Lus, fc~ each irk ~.~. X11._ .case . .p ~ _~of f~i ring t~~FO valLes c:f. coef{'i.c-~_ent~lo lmr~t be r~.~:,e~~bered and a total of six ca 5 __,.._ __....... _ leff~ cients to cover all co.ses of f~ ring. `. IT1 s?;;'.it1~~,n, the ;;unrer i,tust re:~elabr~7?t 1. to size up the target end classify it in one of the above groupq; 12_ ~ 2. to est~.bli sh the zone nu~ber end ;fi n~ fix' rrnl?~tive angle of lead by ~,~_~ _imzltiplyi.r,g it by the appropr~_ate coeffi_c~;ent; t~ 1]SE t1!~ rink Of ~lle boxed(?llt e1S c~ I~L??-SlLre l.n 5~.~'~!t~nn ~n~~ d?rP,Ct?11~ v _..; ~ r the vi s; ble :soli on of the target toirard type center o ~ the rir_;, open ire . 20~ 32~?~. ~V~iat iiethod of S',~laind Sho~.~~d 3e ~ver_ ?refe~r.ce in 9eri21 ~tmrer~~ A ~ rye r.~y nor subdivide all ~~~tho~zs of s~_~;htir_g into t~?ro ;;-roues; ~t~~ods of sight 26~.'r_g ti~rith ?ccount of file absofuto target ~~:~.ocitT, and ~~thods of s:g'^.ting Frith accou~ 1 "3 of the relative target velocity. f --t ()~ In using e.ll these methods sig'nti ng i~ done ~r~_th the help of e sti mats ng by eye 32 ~ o that as far as ~:cct:racy '_s concerned both groups rave a.n i;lentic~~ va,Iue. In 34 oth grour~s the ,;tuner ma}dn ~.Lovrance for the L.near target velocity uses a ,:~easur sti mating the recessar~r lead b' e;;re and complrirg ; t Frith the linear or ar~;lLldr tale ava~iable. In fuselage ~lgrt~.ng, for ~.nstance, the target fuselage serves as 40~ ,~e~' ','.~E ~r'O~gCt~; 48 Ii t!~ ~tu:r,er ~~ill ~ee~ !pis gun poir en', at t'r:e target after co~'olr~;n the r~ 56 tie .~rojecc:'1e lLTlCei' V"'.r~.'?tir? _._''~~n'r C^r?'', t`'7?'!'. .,n -: ~ ~Ct-.~r~?~:~., ~},~~ .'~`', ;alL~.t%~1~r f,11e^e V?litrS i Or:'!7'?,~ tip? n?CAScP.I';;' angle Af lea"? velccity cihich will preciselq e~u~l t;he ~r target nrr7h.in~; I I _..._._ _r._.~I___ .__.__ ~_.._ __._.__.._-.___ ''q~1~~ .! ,',1.-.Se~, by e~'~. Spea~:.r~ Sen-I STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~~~t~~ s~~ ;,t_ IlleC~l~i?:~ _~.: ttll'1l5 G3~1 be TLCOl?;?3~t a~ ari?r rllolj1~321t, 1..e ~ tae ~n~rU].c!.2' tF:I`Lrr?t Vey G~W , ~, ttr u The i,i:ne o~ ~'l:~fi'a of the ~)ro,jectile cara be sst~bli sl~~-e r} by measurin to ecienae. Literall~i 1~ -- -- - -1---- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 r J. ~ !t0_~. j.1"It' ^ ''? (,jJ::V~.Cii t 0 V.'.'?Y7 t;:''3 rn 1, ~ ~' ' ~)t i ~ II _ .. Th~~.s ~iel'in7.ti~~n ~.s cl.eaz'h" ~~1,?r~rs"'~~~ori ,~.f 1~.~ ;:~o:~.nt.eri olxt ~h,?~ta ~,-i.~i, the ~~~elp of a 1~._,~,i~:"~1~; rsvo~ri1;,; fl~r_r~ieel. Fouc~vlt ?st~b].~.s'..P t,~ig rot~~t'.or. of ':?~ earth about its o1Tr~ ~!_ce sj nce '~ _ ,~ ~,;. the st~.te a t.echn~)lo;;~' ac ~'~~', ~)ei~.o~3 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 +.'irn ire a~n~,r ~li.rec~l,,.~~n ,'ri.ll ?~sl;ave ~ir~ t?iis 9ner;;'~r; ;?~ar.r~er, The re~ic~.~.on of a m~ ,,,lroscope to the forces t'7at .pct upon its ass is completely .~ different. tide .Unoiv that the axis of a t re op volv3nf, on a hori.~ontal plates does not remain .. ;stable in its direction, but ~~ices a ci rcle and tli.s conic revolution of tre axi ! i s is 'not arbitrary but takes n~.aCe ~~, a cert?..n d~xectian, at a definite Goeed and vrith _a defy-Hite anCle of t~~-~er. i?~e slovrer the rotator of `1~e top, the greater the a, ml ~~ at ~rle vertex of t?re cone, If vre char~roscope, ~ shall see Harr hour these ;,ror~r`~ies may be anpl_~ed in order to ~'orr. the anCle of lead ar_d the elev~.tior.. 101. Formation of the Relative Angle of Lead bl tie Si,~t-mechanism of a Pursuit Plane 'Nhen it co~aos to thn auto^~atic formation of the relative angle of lead vrith the si h}rmechanism of a mobile gun instaLation, the problem of esti:~ting the angular target velocity presents no difficulty, since the angular velocity at which _. __ .. ......._._.-J ,o~ aux... . Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 tllrll?n ;tale !?ntil'e ?rCl'2ft? ~c)n~":'.~uer!ti;,', ?.t '., rleCeSS?r1r t0 1^_1017 i10Yi t0 find t~"ie 3n;'U~"r V?lOC1t~r Flt ;~'~~i.Ci, ,,.:e ?:!rCrBft tLLnR'.S 5i"Ce tl_e ;t.1T?-Sl.`7t C10es nOt ~'.~t In It is ,Much ~~ore difficult to deter~ni_re tine ^nntllar target valoc~.ty rr~ th th? }lelp Or ^. ~11t0!?lFl i,1C ^ _ '')`,-?'L'CIl ^n? S:1 in 3, ~UI'SUit plane ? T~iB S'_,tlt?-n13C11aniSGl in ~~Ul'Slli ~ tliGpeS iS St2tien~._;~ Cher?fore~ ti?' Si,?,ht ?'?~.S C~.YI 0'.~i~r be adjusted bV' t~~le`~ >-''t-j)tt?C~1?T).i,;~;11 ~~.5 ,lz'.'i~~tl.i ~~ild 1)d u1.1~~:.~ ~~ relation ?o ~t,he '?.:ircr~~.ft. 1r V'~OC~.t~r ~t '.'F%".^.;~ t''le '~T'Cr' Pt f,?mpg ?n'{ '`' tf? ?XiS Of t?L? ?.~~'CrafU ''','eT?e Con- ti (l~.nvl~i Ori,?rlter :~0'i"?.I'CI t'.? '~~r?pt, '.7??. '.'(Ol;_, -! G~)t~.lrl t' o aT-~;'?l)1.^,^ .t ,,,.,~~,t VQ~.OC,'1tV~'. ~t i)S SPe x!017 i1o17 t`-! S '?nf?1I11I' t';.r et V?~OC~_t . !1? IT1J t0 ? Or?! the C.n~1.P. Ul tinUe reVOIViIl7 ~.1 i, ,`,~'!E? 1'i,-'1e in `'t' "' d~2'''C~`~On i'E;naI',~~855 0~ ?Tl:r tlll'riJ and 1T10V8S Of ti"t3 ~1L'Cr~ ~t. ~jr :?.i'~G'? - '",~.c Sr~l Or;' G;;" 2t ''l~.C". t:',a ~nr*1 e ~ ; 11"??Tl t~"]e ,~~ rcraft ... , r- 2.'C:~ _Y ti?0 ~^i:t S Or t~1e ,.,',OSCO~!e inCrP.ses, ~t '.S nOSSlble lt,C' BStabl~ Sr tYk? untL- ',~'.).C~l `,'''.e ".irCr2fi; ttlrl?S. 1 __erl) t[".e ^n;;ular tl?1^C; ~:;; at "rich ;~L' ?.Lrcraft 71I'nS coui1 be '~ter,>T~ed b~~ t~'e ral five ar~;tL~.r tuifi of the _.rcraft rd t~lat of the dw~.ce. i~~ ?~o1_i_o~,rs, ;;F,wt t':e .gin ~llar ta.rCet veioci i,,;r could a.lsc be est~.bl.she~.l. T''',: thB ?nOV? j~3-??r)~Oco ?r,~~r tllg ~;,rrOSCOile Ctrl be )It?~'_Zed r-'_'~Ce o?~'e of ~tS aY~S"..l`""_'S I'9S1StS ~rizr C:.'~.',~83 Of t~OSi_tZOn ~.r! S'1~Ce. ?~,ry'osrot!e ~.n an ?ircr~''t -~rere ~~-~.I~p.: r2ni ri ?aoti or., _ !s wcs 1?:o~Ild eo~- ..,. 1~_J~-!.7V,1 1~, U:.V. :'i Vi'', I~CC_1C''., .,V '~J'v1. I:l U~ .. .. ,'~:'!' VG1 Vl:1U~ r>U _. '_IC VJ.I.'G Ui~l c: ~u ,rii [,~ .., vu1;. v'v ~ ,_ ..~ .. .... ... _. ..... .. .,.. ... ..~..a ~~ ~Q ,ic,pr _nr rel~LlOrl t0 ~~hA -'i2'Cr~lft. For a better urderstr2ng of this oper?.t~ on, let, lls ima~~re that the ~'oseope ~lleJ, t~ ~ha,t? of_ the a-ircra.ft. `~tr? ~." C~ ~,I`^C'~,,:r" Z?cl. ~)'r' S11Ci~ ~?n:_laI'~'~hl e .''`"Q~)e2'`v' ~`i l - JIJ 1 ~.ti"~ ~-rS,o .,.,_..};~lh !1F '~,lt,a ,?-1n n^ ~,~~.1 ~.,~ ?~...: i(1'"a ''i rl!~ 7~ n.',~.~.~~. .,_ .... ~:(~ ?..'SL ~, `~'~ 'i V7 M1'j", ('r _i?`''.U'I' } J `/ V!?l' ~T,. ~Jilr'. ~ ~ ? ~..."~ Or `.~ t7?~~ _C'1Z ~'_ ..~,~'~f'i17r~' .'l i'Ol!~.~, l7h 'i^r~l ?~ ~~(1 I,~ n ? t, ., .,, _ ., -~~ C 7 .~~ ., .ei C r ~~~1'$ ii ~{?, "-'. r'i ~p ~ gin., _ .. ~.7j,, L~~.n?,-?r i?.~J Lam.,,, .,a.i. L ,. .... 1, :. ? ' 7 t, . r, q ht,~,.,-? i. S? U.. -.1 ,. V %L',v '. :l' , .. _r~('C :-~.f~tr .ti. i._ ~. ~~: :p ~~. ~ _ 1 L ~'n ~'.~.~'1 f '~''~G ''~l_s Of l.? ~,,;2'OSCO'10~ ~,'ia _ ~r .J+.y `1,r'1, "t, .Jr~~lLr r.,v,-. ~~~~' 3_~.S ~~f ~'?iirv __i:+QC... n _ y, ~^i:~ .?1r1',r=?"~ lil 1'Q;"l'~ ~r :?.~~ .a.. ,,:~CGrt'_?.;' t',.~ v^~'J.~?}?i _, ri ",ip ~r+o (`"~i ')YI O~ ~~. ~~~ ~.SL'0~.~ a- -, ''~ be~~.r, ~~~~.t~;, ~i,11fV ?~~' Of '',l'1g ~~~rn~00~-;~ '-ri1,--'. S~? :~e 7il ~.'~~-". ~~I'a?t :1t~Per ~.a~:7.:".~ Or OV2r',l'].Il%; '.t. ~v :~anip~ai.^.t?x!n 1-,j_G rr)rtrnl_ ~~-lee1S tip =i0t 2.Cii?_eVBS ~' ti?at tt:e ~.s cf. the ~ys'oscone pol.nt, steadily at the target,. This beco~es poss~bl3 vrhen t~~e ar~vlar velocity at r;'n~_ch the a.~ci.s off' ~lre gyroscope tom:?s coi:~'cides vr~t?i ; 3 , ,?~.." the relative zr.{;u1ar target vslocity. r. ~ , { 4r If the angular v.locity at rrh~.ch the aircra~'t `.tip rns zrere ei+,~~ r ?rQa,ter or r ~ ~ ~.~ smaller than the annular t net TJ9. Ocit - the t arae'~ t. ~~ ? ~,~ , ~', ' ~ ;..., ~ ~'~ L 3, ~ ~ rroulca ~t~ ~r ~.~; oph~.nd or __ *.-: ~ => ~ ~. ~. S2?I.~.;: t~~e_ .the ~ is of the ? ircraft. z . e .. it ti'roial~ a. r ~ ~ .. f ` a ~ 1. ,; b~h_r~ ~~.he ate s of the ain- ~~ ~ ~ ~ cr~ft~ncl th~t_ oi? the ~ro~co .e or catch vn ~,~.+.~~ the: Hoax ~ ~ ' ? } p ~ rf n ,~ _._ P r~v.,r, ~ t.7., ~n~,l., t ..tvre~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 'tl.~n l~ ~;n?11?:~ ~~r'r~1,~., .,~,, ~ ~','.';r? ~t~~.~t~ll~?~ r' V?~- i j ,. , 1.0C]. titer .. L"~ nl1 t i ~; .~ . ~'~ ,~lro~co,~~ ~.:_.,~ ,ll.rns ^>.~'_- ~~~o .,~ ~, ,,aT~ ~11~., -~ ~ > ~~.ven t,:ot~a~t,3- ~, ~? ~., r,r. ~> > ,..~- ..n r. r. i. .. .. ...,. ~ ~ ~ 1 tit'"' _. ~ ~' a:.... ._ ! (h,l~ .1 ~1^n,.~l~t ? .. ..f^' ? .,~ . ~ r .? 1 1 r, ~..~.-L.!.Yl ;`... ..,1~ ~r!1p h~l~}1'71` ~~ ;)(' .i. (tf' f,. ~ ?r--~.~,,,^.~ ~~. ?'1~)~l {. . ? .. .~. Y..4~ .. :.11,(;1' i. r, ~:" lr ~ w'r'.'t r ~. ~rC~'~ ~~ ? J~ rt,~l ~ , .. :. .i _, - -IJ fir' 'it. _~~.r Zr. ~(.(`1. ~~~~ :1,. .. `.i ~a~'(tn1- _(11'r.j Y'[r ' 'u ,~,.T} " _ 1?': ~pn a,t `,_lr~ ~1~. ,. '\_ L; .'?'. f+t ^i. ~r r ~.r. ~~ ..'1"~^ "~ ~ ._ -. ._ , ~ ~ ~ ? . r ~ ?~., . __ .. ~_ _. .....,._ (7?' ., I rtn C ^',~ i. .,~~ a'rlry ~v,~?7,~ ~, .r ,?hn~ ,~.~, Y ~ ; ,.. .. , ....~ - ._ - __. _ . _ :'_ ' ^. ~? ' --r ~~ ~ _. ;ray?' ~ - ? -- ~' ~~ w; " of ., t1';,I? "T'(~ "^~, .lP l T'1 I ~l, .gin ~ 7 ' _ , ~'Jr .._ _._ _ ~ ... _ .'~~~~' ~ 1`71 /'~ 57..1 :1 ~. S ~Il 1 ]~ r'' -,,/ ,:~ ' P ~-' ~S - .- ,M ,~. ..0 1~0211,~ ~eSr~ ^J'n ^~,~.t ~?~ ?, f' ~,~ ~??a r~.'._~~~~~ ?.).,:(t 1':"`."' 1t ;`?i:.Ar qr.,o T /~ r,,. ~,. -, _ d. n ~~ _ ~, ,.~r . . r., .. ._ ~''l: ~.r). J::~ 'r. ..d'!~ 1?~,~~~~:r ~ ~ - _ '_1_~' lvt(~Y'~,?~ ,? IJ,~7'" q::'~.1~. ,'h ~-~`- ?-'~'c+ ;]T. ~';~ ?,^i `~ 1 `-G 'J`'~ '~ ..! ~2' t Yr?8G V' .!lr'' ; 1~C?'~O?t`'cS ~rtr' i r.:._.,? ct 10"i??' \7ni.?~!;'. i, .03 ? ~~'tie .. "Pftil S ~_ ...? ~. rL'I?7 P'~ ^Y'~ i' nnr~ `?ir~t-Lr. ?~i,.' r`'~~e ?r:A .. ,~: v:.~'.'.? ~t~l'~-.~1~ i.t?rJ~ _.Ir.r~ J~ t~ .j, ttre C?d t12~! V p~. ":~ ~10I??.Z~' 1T? ~r}ls?a ?_rCr?_J. ~; t''_'?C(? 'e t''~^ .:in{'~].0?Y ~_? r,'r1P =LX'' S ~_ ~~_.~ l,, . _ l1l0~ bj'~.Tl^^ '.Yl 11?l? r~ tj} ih L n ~ i" ~z "the ~ t ._ ~~ e I,ar;,e :, _ :~.^.rs, t',~. tree ~7~ ~~e a~;T,.ste?. ^u _ fO110,,~r~P~ t~~v' V].51.'D1? t~.r~B~; ^'?Ot]x'i'Y~2'lt~ Tr t~: a'^..5 Of .r~~~,, ;1T'OSC1J~e ]?n=,e(~ be~11.n'~ I _-'the ~~~~ s of t'r_e a:.rcraft by jn arT~1e ..".~t ~rot.~~? ?ollo~rr than t'~e ar~~le betYreen F,he ari.s of the ~tu~ner~s ?rcr~ft and the ' __..~xi.s of the ,gyroscope tirola?.c' be ~?'o~,or~; o~,al ;o +,;~,~. relative ankle of lead. Tl~zs w..._, :;,;,. ~ wn~le,_rrould exactly egtTal the necessary ankle or learn for a certain ra_r.~e of Y'~ ; 1 _ ~.r_~ ~ Lf ~it_rrere. to bs applies? to other ranges a.t vntll_~1 nave to be ~1 ire ~_sre~ ~' ].;lCreasB~ _.._.~ 1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ;according to a decreased or increased time of flight of the projectile and by the i -~respeative range. ~ - Consequently, a device must be used tro increase or decrease the angle that /narl,~c[r THE A,ris or~r~ ? CY~eOSC~OAE cm,WciDi`5 jNI7lI %'A~TT A~ 7Ti~ I`T./~IC ~ ,~ ~+~ o ao4e pi. $ o~ , 9 / s ~e ~ 1 4/ ~~lative lead y bngl e As the gyroscope follows the axis of the plane, it lags behind it to an extent equal to the slue of the lead angle `~-~Fig. 194 In the process of tracking tk~e target ~b__~the sighting mechandsm forms the relative angle 4II ~of lead. S f)_._. i~i ~ 1.. L~~_~l 1 Jl_ be made forms betxe~ the axis of the aircraft and the aids of the gyrnscope in accordance xith a given range or fir- ing. ode knox, that the angles ted by change in range, but xe also knox that the angular velocity of the target chap- gea greatly xith the range and ie inversely proportional to it. Since the angle of lead has to be increased in firing at a remote target and we knox that in our sight-mechanism it is auto- ; naatically decreased ae the angular target velocity de- F creases, a device moat be 1 applied that eonld take thie~ factor into account. Zwo i ad~uatmenta xould hate to to the changed time of -t~Bht-o~-#.he-.Pro~ectile.,___and .ad~uatment~_ neaeasary_ia _Yfex oi_.tht _changesL----- by this range corrector: ad~uatmenta according Inie_ is requir~a_ to preTent tuat.. the. _ .angle. _ . STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 o ra~':e i;l1e vci.s o`' t~.~ ~?;~-r~~.sco;x~ turn ' a certain -~~irecti.on, t.~a force ~,sr- ~end~,ciL~.r~i^ to _i.~~~ a c~rQCtion and oriented ~ acco~ingly must be a~a,~?l~ed .fit.., ~,~~,~?_.; .,_I i ~ _...~ Lf, for instance, the gyroscope rotor turned clockwise (looking along its axle from F ' ~~ ~; followd.ng the law on the di recti.on of the ~. precession tovrard the rear end of the ..~ axis of the gyxoscope. When the aircraft `turns to the left upward force would be ., Itail to nose} vdule the aircraft turns tothe right, tive would apply downward farce ~_ __~ applied, v~~en i t climbs, this force t;rast lie directed to the right; vrhen tha avccraft 1 ~t __, _ ;~ ttu~ns dormvrard the force is fi.rected to tY~e left. Thus, the axis of the .gyroscope f; _. I ,.~ .'+.,.,.,....~.1`-~1......tt.. ......... ?i` ~-1- a..rny~ '~~. ~iitPC~' in1 fS. fA.C'F ?~~AV.ar. only b8 Qyi7G4 a7 .l lJ1.LVR vcw c.Jy;.J vs ._.. ?' _...._.,__:....._ .. .... .... .. .... ... _.. .. . _._ _ __I acting ~ih~le the aircr~?.ft =ups. Tl.ey. r~.vsfi? bo r,cre_-.secs as ~~ ; t;~~e e~ :~rr~ ft r=? ~~o : rc:reases and the axis pf the gyroscope adjusted o ;, ~ -;position relative to the axis of t?he aircraft, 2 4 --a Vt~ ~ tu" ' ' a: t f -~~en the aircraft ceases to turn - the act.on of these forces gust also stop ar~d r.o longer act vrher. t's~e ;~ r, _. `in rectian~alar flight. r1V-~ Zpt us attach anon-aa~etic metal disk to the end. of the rotor axis and let Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 _; us b~.lar:ce it by a corresponding shift of ~e rotor along the ass of rotation. ~~~~ aircraft proceeds S i To solve th9~ task ~4e shall have to resort to electric. er~.neer~rg. t ~~Te shall then sPt up the gyroscope i n ar. aircraft so that the rotor axis would r run parallel to the aircraft axis vrhile the d~,s:K -F?ould be on the side ~of~.#~et~il. 3 --lflp~~site the center of tY~ disk a stationary c~~tic ,,ole ~~~~ot~~.c~ be attached. Ae R~ ,_ --~ the gyroscope is set in motion, t11'e disk attached to th9 axis vx~uld rotate 3.ri the' ~> 2_,~ 36~ laW direct induction atrrents are always produced to inhibd.t the .motion by Which taagnetic field of the magnet. ~e know that in siru.lar cases induction currents or so-called Foucavl t clarrerrts are produced in ee~a~ c~sk~:, .leeording to_ th3 Lend is they are produced due to their m~.gnetS.c ,action. Consequen#1y, i.P tl~e. magnetic,po2e were paced opposite the centr~r of the disk, tl~ magiietic s~atian oY th? curxente~ ' - produced in the disk as the gymoscope rotor revalues, tirvvld live a br2king e~fsct ; Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 _.. -. .,~ - ~ ~ L 5_.....,..._. ~ ~$I18 ~ .' A aa~.~'1 ~~~ ~?~~ 1'~3Ll~.t .,~ta'S, ~.hA ','1'0 CO, 0 'V~O~a7.~~'~-4~,._t`I; _" ..~vw~ u.,au wio ?~.u-Sil'~1.1,y l3 rs~iu.ng a 19iTi~Ltu71. ~77,I1a? Tillf- QVT090!-p0 ma7.I!'Ga].T1e Lle j _ __ ...._ .. , ....4_.._. _...w_ _._ ........... ~~, opposite the center of the gyroscope c~:ek to the rg~~~by ~umiryg:""T~o~"I~anw? u'~'Z~ ..~ currents produced :in the disk opposite th~ magnetic pole will f ollow a direction in t~ ~Y{l~ieh their action resists the direction ~f the peripheral sped of the disk near the 4 ~~.J center of *~he r.~agnetic pole, i.e. the kra.]~tng effect on the disk Rould be directed 14 _..i __~ upward as the rotor revolves to the rig,~t 1 Sinc? the force is directed upward chile 1 ~ __s I _-the vector of the peripheral velocity of ~he disk conducted tYrough the end of the ~n~i ~ _I vector force is directed to the righi~, th rear end of the rotor axis of the gyros- z ~_ .1.n.1A, n.n..1..7 .ini'7. A,w* *.. a. 1. r. >.'., ..Ll. n.>.,., .r L^rv-;. .l'1- lt~ 1.~ __, Magnet In rectlinear fliv6t Rvar vieN Disk of gyroscope a) I Magnet Turn to lef t Rear view brP,king force :~-~ Direction of~ precession Direction of aSvnr;lOn P1tcblAg Turn to rigb~t Rear vieM irection of :.-_.~ precession J C) Diving .Rear view . ,,_-.r-~ d) ; a Direction of rotation Direction of rotation o~ Direction of~~i TOtation f) Arbitrary in space ~~ Direction of rotation gy using a magnet, it is possible to aka the axis of the gyroscope fol- of the aircraft. 50 ~ ~- a~ ;ice s ado ct s certain fo}~ce, it could be made possible that each I 52_ angular velocity at which the aircraft turns -- i.e. each angular target velocity 5 ~ ._.I imuld eorrss nc ~p ~ oreclete~r fined anglb _ that. foa~s__b~tw~een the axis of the sires j arai't and tha~...Q~ the .gy~4~ao~e.__~hi~_ attgle,. in turn,_.equs7s, o the_requir~d~~ ~ _ _ _ ~I Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 09 0~ yt~G4 ~g$1 `G ~ QS ~ ~`+'-.I D*ec*;__ -.;..~ ~~ rotation Rear view vv cu STAT Sanitized Copy Appr oved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~~ -~of lead that corresponds to a certain ran~ e. ;; ;~ -_~ ! ~; b---j t l ~. ---,~- - Such correspondence would not exist erge ar other ranges, since the aaan ' ~. C velocities will change as well as the tim~ f of flight of the projectile xhile the E _ _ ~ ; lateral velocity remains the same. ~ ~, ; 'Phe required angle of lead must be determined so that the range can be set. `~ ~.~ .. .. ~A VQNV,7o 141Vi~vV \i? V~av ~i~~~v.r~ V'......... ~ whpno~n9 fha palnci,ty at xhch the.. --:gyroscope revolves the desired effect vrould not be produced because the disk fly- For that purpose, the force that acts upon the a~as of the gyroscope must be changed However, this can only be accomplished by'either changing the velocity at which the wheel of the gyroscope is characterized bT great inertia so that any corrections ---'of the angle of lead formed by the gyroscope would be made with great delay. There- .: - fore, rare have to resort to the second method: changing the value of the force by ,, ~' changing the magnetic field. By using an electromagnet instead of an ordinary -- magnet this io easily accomplished. A change iu the strength of the current in the J -- i - electromagnetic circuit would result in a change of the tension in the magnetic -field. This change affects the value of the acting force that affects the axis of --.the gyroscope. The range may be fed in the sight-mechanism by regulating the slide; ~ __ -; of the rheostat that is connected to the electromagnetic circuit. Allowance moat --, be made in the rheostat winding for the angle of Lead formed by the gyroscope, so -'that it world correspond to the range setting is the sight-mechanise. This includes -~ changes in the angular target velocity in conformity xith a given range as well as _; `' the effect of a given range upon the angle of lead. ~ ~' 56_(?n the task of foraiag the angle of sight. ~ ,~~ Thtm, the problem of forcing the angle of lead aromatically can be solved. ~ In sighting, the pilots teak is confined to saneuvsring his aircraft and j ~$~ I 50_..ieaintaining the optical sight that is connected to the gyroscope axis on the target and adjusting eontim>usly the range. 54 ~ Belot ne shall rep.rt on asthods of tangs setting, but first wee shall d~rell ~ lgl Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 1Q2. Forming the Angle of Sight For the formation and adjustment of the angle of eight in aaoordanoe with a .given range, the same technique a9 used to form and adjust the angle of lead may be applied. Let us vianalise another electromagnet placed above the main electro- Source og current pheostat r'9.r;. 196. Tba ?~.ngle of lead ~~^_de br the ~;rmscone ,aa.;yr be ~~~a;ie to deuerrl on the range, provided t'r~at an electroma,~;net is used ;.nster~d ~~i an arc~nar~ magnet. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Alua~inium disk Gyroscope ~ r^~~,, /Y~ ~ Scale of e ! %~ distances Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 a~ixiliary '~~`` Direction of electromagnet rotation ~electromagne~ i When electromagnets are inactire ua v~ ~~ Fore Aid s ft ..-; ~ , ~~~. n~. ~~ ~~~-~--="_ ---~- .....mss ~~ ylane When electromagnets '~~. Axis of gy or scope are actuated Sighting angle `~-. Fist. 15'7. This shoti~rs i~orr k:~ angle of sight is l?or~~ie~? by .,jeans of ar. au~.liary electro~~a ;net. r~a;;net located OppOSi to tiro center of the -~~moscor)e disk and serv! r.; `~o iom the against ~,:e rotor :~over.~ent. If the rotation o? J?.e ~,rroscol:~e ~~err elocin~.se, this angle of lea:l. tJndar t:~~e action of Foucault cc_?rer.ts the bra,drr ef~ect is ,lirected force rroll.~ be directed to ~_~e left. ;iith to 1~e 1p of t~:e lavr of prcession, it is pilot =~rould deflect upward, %~t ;weans, t:K~t t:~.e fro~it of '~i.e g~~osco:~e axis ~+ould easy to establish that t're rear e:'.,i c~ the ro~or a;L.s ~~~th ~;ne ~_s:: closest loo the By ::gar: e uve rin -_; the a. i rcr~~ t, t:. e axis of the ~-yroscone can be alined ,; t;: tl~e target. In t'nis case, the axis of t:~ ai.rcraft and, therefore, fife axes of the faun-barrels mounted on t.e aircraft mould be direct- strenath of the ed above the target. By ci^znfing the/current in tip electromagnetic circuit, tape angle bet3reen the axis of the gyroscope and the cis of the aircraft r~uld be made to equal exactly the angle of sight at a M iven range . By a f urtl-~e r c'nan ge of the adjusted for any range. It is, hovrever, necessary to adjust the sight-~~chanisn strengrth of the current in the electromagr~eti c -minding, the angle of sight can be to the chan~+ed range . The same applies to the rheostat slide that i s connected to Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 .. --~ the electromagnetic circuit. The rheostat winding could, of course, have to be .~~ad~ueted accordingly. ., _~ I Now, the only proulem left is the finding and setting of the range. c~ i _ _ _ _. _ __ _.._ _; ~-~103. Range Setting with the Help of a Sight-Mechanism ~; _ ""I There are two ways to find the accurate range. Both are based on scaling the I ~~ _.~ ~ ' ---jangles of a given base that can be chosen, either by reference to the gunners aircr ?_ or by reference to the target. Deperding'on the site of this base, the methods of .._, j 1ZlRlil~ Vuv +Rnn+ A.rA knnttr~ .Z9 ilmeLnoa Lp uc~vrmtaic qua r aiabv i:i ..sfn..arrno t.n t.}'IA ~-gunner+s plane, and 2) method to determine the range in reference to the target. `+ In the first case, the range is found by scaling angles a and ~ and solving the -- two angles of triangle AAoC and side (base) AC=B. However, this method is not use.: ..__~ in aerial gunnery since it would be toe much to expect the gunner to determine ang- ,# ;,~ _ ~, lee ~, ~ (Fig.19g). ~ ni n~? the angle at- which the base is visible, we may find the range with the In the second case, a given target length serves as the base such as, for in- stance, the length of the fuselage or the, length of the span (Fig.199)? After deter- ~~_._1 5 ~ .._T9~._:~~a~--- .~ __ g fg; 19~} _ pr4acigle--ef-f ie~-~g_ 5 6 ~ i' f arence to th~.~]&A,~~t~ '~_..8~_ ? . reference. to the_targst. STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 help of the follovrinf; fun,7lil.a that his alts;: ~,~ b3en +iuoted: D = 1000 l~~ . ~ 1? Since a target aircraft may be at various foreshortenings, and sometircns the span is visible, sonetir.~es the length of the fuselage and sor~etimes both, the dis- tance betrrean the most re:aote points of the v?. si~ble silhouette of tha target is considered as t'cie bzse. Th.s length is considered equal to the mean arithmetic value of the len,:;-th of tho sn ~n and that of tho f t~s ela;~e, ?~_ .e . ?-:alf tYie sum of the leng~?h of the span and the fuselage. Tfi.s principle is the basis for fin~lin, the range with a range finder in autom-- alit sight-r~ec?~:%anisras. i'he ~u-uZer does not `.:ave ~o inri the range ~Y calculati on but merely has to set it automatically with tip help of the sight-mechanism. 1~Ihen using/ring-t~~pe si~~t?-mechanism, the gunner estirkztes tI~ target angles by the eye throu;~ a range grid in the s~.ght-mec'nanis:~. If autoc~a.tic range finders y,?ere also constructed along this principle, the gunner ti~rould not only Nava to scale the target angles and estimate the range, but 1~auld have to set it smile si~ti.ng, so as loo form the angle of lead and the angle o_? si gratin 'Iovrever, the idea is to relieve the gunner of this operation and to have an automatic range finder. ?n_t ~.is itaa,~,9.ne that in the field of vision of the sight-rlecl~.nism t}+ere are ~~ t?o p.s:ots ~rr~.ch the rur..rer raay either draw together or pull apart Frith a raecl~_tnical `ll~e ,;upper rrould er.closo the targe~~ bettreen u:e balls ~ ajusting the pivots accor~iinl;~~. ~videntl,r ~~,~ ~'i stance bet,reon tr~se b~11s ~~~uld indicate the angle at ~~+hich tl~e target is vi Bible, i.e. tY:e range (~+zth a given size of a target). T'r_e motion of the ;:ivots can be trans,~.tted i~mediately to the rheostat slide ; of tine electror;n.gnet~cof the sigh#,-meaism }~ la s f rA ollonr tfre tar iarith the_ entire Y ~ ._. `?...._.. aircraft maintaining the .]:ins of ~.ght on the target Th _...~of the p~.lot's task c~~ists in the fact ghat trac R... ..s..~i,f'~..~~y~ ~___.. not done with the help of ,.~ _ _. . +the aA.s of the aircraft but ,{ I , to put it p~ir _ ,with the .._.. _._..~..__,._.._.__,-.~. `~ aids of t?>9 ~Iroscope ~ihich is not rigidly connected with the aircraft. ~tl ~ the field of vision ~ sharp turn ?f ~ contra ~~yg -;produces a "floating'/of the point of aim acco~ing to wi~.~.c~ the axis of t .__mechanism is adjusted and only a highly skilled pilot is able to ~ `~ ~ ; maintain the raobi ~ i5 ~~,axis of the gyroscope steadily on the target ?rh;le turnin his g aircraft. In all P ~,~ __Iother respects, the pilot's operation is reduced to purely mechanical acii ; __'is hour he ha ens. Here t , - 54,,,,~~a,,,,ped a of the range fi.?~de~r ;.brin ` . ~ - ._ g~.ng_ .together the _imagea and s ncloa ing the . -- ~ ~. ~ 6~;~et^3n a circle t Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ax s of the oscope ; ' ;. ~' - ' ' __.~~th that of the aircraft on the sams vertical plar~ and unde gYr r the angle of sight --bY th e nagnets of th p on ;mast correspond to the ~~ximum ran ~ ~ ? in this positio> ~ ~"-of th e range find ' y r, .; er the ~ ` ' ~~.__~ ~ axis o ,;Yr'oscope is most ?trigidl '~ cornec vrith the f the Y ted ` :' `~ ,, c~.sta.nce from the .~ 3 4 ~ . ~ ~ n ~ t a 3 7.~.~, o ns _... _.... _ ` _ _~! Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ,. 1 Of = V:' ?10',t~~:>?,.; ,.,~,I,~a ';i?C~). On3i"t~;.i r)n .i~.?,.,~~,: ti~~?'~ ~~,.~?rr?~ t.1~3n~a~ ;;~ ~,} ~' ')_lYl-~n'?t~~.~t~ OIi 1 ~ r i, i r n , ~ a 1 ,^^',, o q I .., ,. _, ., r r '0 Ct'.OI' it ~~: C1L...~1L1P1_._._. 1 .utl.. a ~e _ , U ,?l~ . ~_ .~. ~~rai ~.~ argil v,~ ;~rcl :C~; i'e. ~ ~ 'r,.,:. ~;. T .1 ~ '_'~~~~,~;a 7- ?'~'' ?'"::r~ t1 911e";...;11 .":'_tn'.~_'ri~.G'? 1Q x"~~,Ll'1r8(~? 1}@ 3'3 .~l'~:t FiO ~rOt~:Ct $ '.1_ l; L' ii;),'~~)-, " t?'t0 ri.>'D...0 .. "t..l.~._.4..'~ '?,1' p:a,~ .5 ... ~ 1)Ot1,pl: =."_ ,,~'~..:~tion for ~~OiGn-~ ^t~` D~CrI'r31^.i f'~~1~~?~y a.n'1 iL ))^,~.~ ;?)?'?'F?t :nct,al~ni-~j_0?t f'f12' SP"~'_^, ~~~i~'T'7.Cc~~. f7.T'f:~ S 1 t??~cs ;..n~'~a,17.~'_, ,,,r .-~.~r ,ls"~ be yet vp; ol~ -~'~ ~,^~'~tor~, ;n fire bac:~~r-~rd and ~.~o~r.rvarcl,4 On t,n'- rnr ini,"~r~ c~,?1'_' ~)3,C;:?.'?.1"". ,^'_I`9 r',n~i ix~ -, ) n~;?=. fOr fOT".;2_I'~ "_''~1 11n~la.rd f].rF ,: _ ' ~"''Ij.lifl `t l1 "j 77? ~V,,' ?)0'1!:,ST'S ~r0 ~'7t; 9 llj'1.- ~;~ ;;~.~~: S t''t10.:3r;~ Q~.li`5 ~.I~.~ Cd~'~^~'::"~0~'~ r? ._~.'_,Y; c .n (1T inf'Ar ?P -i 1l (~t]?r'r r~O^^' ?~~ P "?t 11~'~ J~ ti.:a~__~ .j ;h+,e~h ~.`,1~')21S ?~ ~n ~~C1~ul"',!~ Oh V'.r~nll"7 ~3C!-~)?"`~ I,, ~,1",'.',CitS nn ~~,~.~r' ?trt)(~T~S ~r?~~ ,lo >;a^r~'S~, ?nal-,L,r 1'')c1r ~:~~ :~)8?'S c~.r0 l'~.SU~I~~r i L' _. _ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~.p ;!Llr"ll:'..t a~l.'.nes i)r ~_' ~ ~'i, 1_,p1''}lpi'^i a9 ~'~i;';Qtz~-C~,a+,?`J~. ~r.st".l.l.'Z~7Qn3, 51.nCe OILL,j' t~2~' I (vi !_Sirin:; is ~~~~;.i7_ated l~~r z ~~,~_:otg control ~~v1>.f1e ^' ~i~ U?; r.;.; ;.~ one by ~~.1^r:`~1 ~~1.5~ ; _~~?.. ____. i e,nt' ~~~ :>>rcr~ft. R~'~t!)tC-CO?1I;I"~~ ~'llil-i)lr'.,~]~'~.`,7_I?T1~S r',"'}Ll'r`.' tti?'1 17.:ie 0{' 1C(;l.L~.':+.~1'.;'", !i'8Ch'l?i.s~'1,S in glrs,~,.~~,i, ~~,. t,._;,ir,t~_Cn,'.,_'~!l, of ') ~,'.r7_e~ of -'-eC~' ?.; ,; f? ~s :`;e ~_ ~s the ~ ca ,~i..c ~.evzc s ~. ~.. ap}1i Of .~. ~,-Sv~::i? i~~ i111'~iUEf!';lii:i.C ~?lOCi_~.le i.t moves, A,l,e 1r.nta.:l,ar vEloci t?,~ ~t ~~~~}i.ch the ~~-Q; ~ht t.,mn. ral atip~ ' _ _. !the aircraft ~rouL:l, of coltr:se, ~~~cise7.,y e~,na? the z??lative t2rbet velocity. . TYiere-~ ~;re lava =w do ~s ~o det-en>dne the angular v~loeity at rrll'.ch the ~;un-sight ~~ ttu?rs wrlative t,,e ai rcr:.~'t ??hi.1.a t}~~~ t~r~et ~.~ t r~c,:ed b~* the suit ati.9. At th_s l~o?nt, ~?re carte of apply the reticle of LYE ~,.zr.-sigl>t follo>rring the ~ ~~p?arar.t or ~ctt~.wl move~rt of the target to astablish the value of the relati ve or absolute lead ~:s vre 'r>ave ~nE ir. rinrr-t`rpe s;^ht-::~echanisMS. T^e angular ta,~et val nc~'~.-~ chanaas ar?startle for trot reasnn, correct9.org in t~~e ?nnle ~f laari ' r for:~e~? ~~~ the sight-mechan'sm must be ;jade const~rtly in~;smuch as tl~e an.~ul.ar target; velocity changes, This ~s i~1e first charzctsristic of sidhtir_U ~4.+?li the help of siht-a?ch~nisms in r~en~~te-control and, f;ereral.ly, r~ob~.le gun-i_rSt'.llat~ or..sti throughout the si }~it'?.'1~; o;~erat.on ~d control of the fire tt?e si Ott 3~C.s rtu.st '~ curt; ruo'zsl~r no.~_:?ted at t:~,~ tar~*et or, ~ n other ronls, t}1e reti cle i n tl~ sigh+?- !aec~-~.~~is~:~ n?l_t be continously ~~intained or_ ;he trget. Cor:trar~~ to tnP auto:^ati c ~ s i its i n _~u suit planes and to thQ sight-mechanisr3 in ordirur;? ~obil.e ;ur.-~~?t~~.~?ationt~, tl,e ar_-ular tar;et velccitf is deterr~.ned in the si ,^}:t--meth^ris:~.s of ra*~ote-control ir?sl~llati ons in the fo ~:~ of its cot~- ponents rnn tree hoa?izontal ?r:d v?rt~_c-,.1 ~?lyres, i .e. the an~111~r veloci t;;? of the turn of the optical bEa,~ Weer the verb dal :as.s and the angular velocity at ~thi CYi it turns near its horizoTtzi a~.s ire fot~n:' @~arately. This xoord peculiarity I, ~, , ~~ _...; i i -_..'~ of sighting t~ith remote-control gnn-installations results frog the na.t~se of combat ~~ S~.-....? ,~ t~~~ activities of mecLum and heavy bombers . Contr=...ry to fi~,hters, light bond~ers and .., ~,~~ dive bombers they are in level flight in icombat missions. That weans that du~.ng I i r~---.~ a turn one of the sight ax3as is arrays i~1 vertical posit3.on and ;t i.s, therefore, i } -ap{~o _ _ _ .._~. get ~~-ty re:~at~v~e tY-ie axi.e and the ~ __?~. te_.~t.~_gractcal_the an tar tar _ _ ~ n _, ~ '.......__~ ~b ~._~.~td_i~_~erpe~dieular.., die refer to a char_cterist3.c as a rYtazactera.5tic at= 207 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 STAT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL sighting" instead of calling it a charact ristic technique of aeaau_ping the angulsr #,aaRaet-r~elesity, ainae the eight-aisehaai -aet~-3.i~ set enl~ :~o-~te f~ ~ha-~-e~-- n of lead in the dir 44~oacmTe in the horiaentai plane as X11 ae in the vertical pleas. `the eight-mechenie make the bore of the mtchiae-gun parallel to the set for- nerd line of sight, i.e. to have it deviate from the fore and aft exec of the plane at an angle of ~y in the horizon- -+ tal plane and of ~n in the vertical. Qn tiaxaa ti~rv ang~.ea z.n aCCOi3ilt ! one iII she vertical plane and ~ the other in the ho isontal plane. 'The third char acteriatic of eight-' img ie a result of ~ the so-called paral- i l,a~c position of the ! gun and the eight- mechanism, i.e. the ~~-~dieplaaesent of the eightaaechaaiss relative the gun. This difference in position sty be shifted relative the gun along the ~longittudinal, norsal and lateral axes. i Since the lateral cad norsal azes of the ~iroraft fuselage are not very long, the ', lateral displaae~satt of the sight-aeahani ~ relative the ggmt xn].d not be great ~ it is,t~refore, disregarded and. only the plsaessat along the loagittidinal azis of the aireraft xhieh sun be quite aonsider~ble~- is taken irate aeoomnt. We sha11, heaeesor~h, refer to the distaaae betNeea'the sight-aeauaniaa cad the ~r seu~d 56 o is~~i ~iura`37,a~t p~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ection of the viaibl target movement Frith this method of mea- suring the angular target velocity, but e,~is Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL i I~a~CCI"] `L II.;;:~ ~CCOllnt 'i..Y~, i:.~.ri..n.o ~ 1 ,, fl`p.1 ;71~~g11.9 ;_~n!r ,.:'~1 ~ a ; 0.1',"; ??C1~~ i S Z.?,, ~ ,. ? + . ~~>.l ~~ ~ ~~:~. ~ j .!: L_c s "'.1'C~ tf?0 Sl..~.l~~.~ Qtlp_r1_C1" a?p ip ~,~-ir;!. (~, e1, t- .. _ "J- ''1_~ t~~g rut' ,> _p?~ r'; C~. the n0?-_ ~: ~.~r~ ~f ~,? iaT'~r'!' r''~1'.- i?n ,?t~rrnl"' ~~ ~tT~t? ~~rr~~ :"`.'1:;'p' ~~ y !J . _ / '~? ~~ .~:~r:~_~ort~~ T',T~_-i: '1~~.;.~ ?'_~ -.~r?f:;r'il rlr?~,? 1;11rn?,; ?. L, .. ~ (li''.~. ;?1 "V ;P 1!07'1 'L rJ''r',~l aTl ~l ? l~pn Ol9o n7,~7'1 .~_:a L1 7.1 ~:'. _ ... ~~ C ~ 1 ~~ r ;1 P Win; tai pr fi'.,o t 7':>'-t ~T'!;1 b~r Y`;~p~n~ '~p ~_ ~:', r !~:1_5ta21C2 T~ "~,':~-~ `' ~'~ ~alati_ve ?p.~;ie of lead rye rn~st ~ ~ n~? 01.1?. r~~. ati ~ urge t veloc; t~~ yr . Ti_i s can 'oe tune 1~"r w?,1; r," the velocity vector of t:!e aircra_ft direc~F~ed in the opposite di recd or. tq the ~nctor of absolute target velocity vu. Ralati~n set fer- rr~.rd p^'"~t '~ 9ril.?1 be located along the vector of relativa target valocity yr and at a :ii:, aance Eton pc~:i.nt Ao egt>ti,l The ?~,.r~11.ax c0rt;,l:i.c,~~t;^~~ fi,ti10 ,=e~~~,ral a Lx, - AoAy " nrt. If the gun were also Zocated in poiz~~ 0~ and the trajectory of the projectile Rould be rectiangul.ar ~.thout descending or laming the axis of ~"~ f,~ur. barrel. ~ _~~.... w~._,...:~.~.~...____ 5 fi~.I nnzst also be aimed at point ~ alor~ line Ollry in corder to h~~ tha ~,a,rget;"- In~"? ? iIl :: f:l.('.;i..tC?`' tllia ~.~, (JJ. t~If' ?~~r'C'ia1.1F~ }:~ . c.5 f;0 be 'r?1 ,1]. -_.x:~ ~~ ir~? ~~?14Fr 1'fita ~ t::e 11 ~t~111~q of r ~~ ~ ~C?`~r3T" ~i;0 ~~.T"tl~,Y UT?31'd~~!011i ,, ~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 E -~ p .1 1. 1, 1 ~ ,,, .~, ~ n ,~ U; r i r., V'r;~ 1~ ':1 ~. i Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL ~,~lAb ~~lwt ~]c~111S t~'1e t~l~'9t ~)~r ,~'ra +~ ~ ~,~ a;~, .~?~Y~ ~'?: .:~ ~ no1~ zon.tal cr,,~ ,,~. ~,i~~lo ~ h~ ~,~~,e ~ 'rsrti c~l . T?~e ~1tn barrel ;;~t~~ ? ?,;~ tt :. ,? a,.. o.F :, ~ 1 w ~1?~A ~:1' ~I '' 1 t;'1 . tl3n i1C;r zon'.31 p' ~~,,e .lens+e~~i' z ~ es ~~ , ; s ;r = E Cdr-E ~}1 ., ~ ~ , ~ 11 ,; F, j,~ ,tea .~ ' ,? t' ~ ? ._ .. ~,. r" ~ ? Cor.~ec':,,~ Q~ ii ,,r.~ _ ~?1 - ? ~ . ~. --~ ~_V '^.~-~~_Jr7 ~? n?; ~~_._,.~~~_?,,r~ ~.,,~ ~.~.~ Cd'z?~:'_~"t3 `?r ti~a 1,-,?~..._ tro ti!m1'~+'in'~. .._ .. _ ~ , ' . '.`:r if :a1' ~ ::'_tACl '~0 ~:'? ' ! i - Of 41 to ~ t ritG~ _?nl^!'}~n~a = ~- i s' J _-~.? a ..`.r-,` . ~ 1!!P ;'~tlr l~ T"~(~t !7? !1?'., C~, `~11t li~,S ":n? 1+,~t,' jV.,y a.!.? ., i. ~ ~' - -_ '`07,x' ~ L 'r t~:n ~.a11i'fi (lj 1 j"~?~~.~'. ~. I'')I. .L.i ~a? rn~r,~r~ A',a ~, ~~ ~-- ~X~-S n,P ?r'i~ GIs'; ~~~ii' ~-~. ~~1,,,? ~o t;1Q set fo~~rd 1i~~3 ~~^ ~;tp r~~pC'~?.?' ,'0'.''.~~_, not i'~'~~ ~1-,r01~1, } ~ .~- , t,J t~:b tJ,',~7~P `'f ~~~}~~.. 1..:~.r ~? Con sQ'.uen J, it I.~.P 41: _ +^^ 1~ trot ~' e _. "7-~ 11G1'1ZOh~y._~-- ~T~~ t~~~~~~C;~-~,.J ~'~ ~~ ~.n nl,~nr,~ -itr ? _ ~ wYi_s to~,a.rd rel~t-ive set Tor.,~?d po;_nt, ~ . iii t;~io~;t chan~i nil ?.r.-'~`~hing n t~?e posy.+;_nr oT thA siC~3t w>? ' o~ t,;~e un, 7_et ?8 us cor~sidar some othez' ~?cj,,ors that affect '~ir'inLi o~ratians irtr ~:obi13 inst,~.7.1a- Si7.,~ tions. ,-,~,, f In T~.rin~; From mobile insf~allations' the ~~ nro~ect~le lays ur!~~er u.~e ankle ~ar~ed r ~! ~ bar t~'!e 3?Lj.O 0~ the ~~, ..._~,.~....y........... -rplane, i . e . 1;n e re ' ~ ~ ~ ar 3p;~arent deflection of t}~ tra~erto ~~, i C,~~t.I?T T.~n/~ T.7~ ~ A~ 'f'~~ wjv ..~11 .. ,...... ...,!>..........,.,.....,-....,.-..~, -....,.... v+ w 3v a.zi 4L"El.L v ? 118 nave 3L*e ~ d;'y* t th9 - -- - `--- d tha ~ w_.--------_._.._ ~I'tt~OZ19 _..._T_._._ .. ~zn barrel Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 01:}''.x31' 1`;(1j~,7~;, 1.X1 t'lr?~a8i, .~~ t,: #, t~~.~~ ~~'~:1T'irI?i, ~_`. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL anot be defleoted frog the est lorwa~.rd line of mite ~.. -air-arati: eo-aa. -to allox for- the-pra~s~tila had, ~ ~ shifted iron the relative set forward point by the diatana that equals the leg valve (Fig.20b). If have to be oriented along line OlA to allox for target t movement and pro~ec- file lag and the _havs the bore of the machin~+-gon parallel to line 0 A t I urn- 4~ l ~ piece be turned f~-~ ring it furthermore at an angle of ~ $~ iY the horizontal 36 thermore relative 3~ plane. The poeitioa of the piece xith aceoimt of tar t vel- ~ ~~' 8~ line OlAt in the hoii- oeit~ and lag rill be defined by anglem ~ ~ and ~ ~? izontal plane by 40 42--iaAgle p:~r , xithout deflecting it in the vertical plane. Thne, the gun-barrel xi11 be its a position defined by angles ~$ argil ~e relative the aircraft. Angle ~ a in the horisontatl plane rill be formed it anguLr correction ie aide in the lag to the hnll angle of the target ~_ ~ ,and thin correction added to angle ~~. ~fith a aimr error, angle ~ e'csn be considered equal to angle ~ . t 3inae the piece ie in point 0 inetai'i of being in point Ol, re ronld aaloe the bare azis parallel to lice OlA b7 terming the angles of eight ~ ~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 in direction of the fL'ght of i.e.-.the. ad~nating_pa.inL._cat_~. gun-barrel e~uet be Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL ~1'hp a~~~;leg tr:- t :ief~.ni to the pog ~ ,ion of i~he ~,w~_barrel rLlatl.ve tlu' r;wv~e rya ~irCr'i't ^~,c ~'r~.tr~ allo~.nce for t,ar;;et v-~~~7ci.ty al~c~ i~rojert.~leL-~~ ~roul~ no~+ be '"- V ~11n~? fnr ~,aro?f: v?1`Cit~- and nr.ojectile l.a in th~~ aisles of =,i~A~~t q ar.a~ '.n _"orm the ankles obtained bar these cor~~:cti ons r=2th tare ~~-1;x!~-barrel, ~fl1e Lore axis :~o:_ld base a ~nosition t~a,a11e1 ~`~ the lip C~A~. After its a~lea~ the nro jecti le "~ 11 pa; thrown NO' nt Ay at a ~?; Gt~.r.c~ ? l,~ Z to t}:e line?r V'~.Iue of p rallax p . ~,, _ tin~~r the effect cf gravity th? projectile fal'..s belo~~ ~~: Lre of departure ~~i"? 207;. ror that reason, it rr?11 pass b~loTM point A st a c.s~,ancs e~u21 '.~ nroject`le f?11 a ~?" ~~ t departed ~~ong line 4t A. ~o alias f^r `.^e ~.roject~~le fall _ the bore of the fur. mist be directed (p~~ri ded t:~~.t i t i s ir: ~~,`_nc Gl)1on~ '_.:':e _ OlB ~?rhile tr:e wdjustir.~; roi~,t ;s ~isli?c4%i above point A b;,r t~~ vz?,.~e of pro~ec`~ile ,? _~ fall a or, in other 5~ords, the bore of ~,'~ :;12r. '.s t~~rrdd relative to lire OlA ~- 1 -- yard bar angleDg~, s~`~k1o~1t cnanir.-; null arle(~rz? _.. I~~ow, ~ 1, posit_or. of tine piece relit=~ the ~rcraft ~ defa_ned by ar~glest~l5 , _._ and ~ s and angle ~ s ~? ll equal angle ~1Z. Since the piece ie in point 0 its axis ~~+i].1 be prallel to lira OlB after arg?~~ ~~ 8~ x an:? ~' are fonaed. :: ~__ ~ s s .~-~ ~e shall find angleat~8 and ES after raking correction to ?110 far the fall w; ..., `~' in the earlier obtained angle s ~ $ and Ey. 59. . _---- 5 6 ,.~._,,.,,._ a Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 __.~ =but the projectile, the ~S s ~Z z ~ + Q y~ + 0L ~ and ~ y = x + Qy ~, therefore ~e ~~~~~+QZ~ ~8=~?~~+g~, see that finally, after alloxing for target velocity, sad the lag and fall of ~ ~.,--- ___~Fig.207 gb allow for gravity drop, it is necesaaiy to have .i ~, _,the bore of the sachfae gtm parallel to line OlB, turning it ~~~ urtheraore upward at as angle of 0 ~ . The position of bore of the gnn is parallel ~`-,o the line A ~ 'Pnw } tiai ..w~s_ v~ai ? ? v v.r ~. ? :re.v on, the projectile falling wader the effect of gravity at~ a distance BAs and lagging under the action of the actua]; velocity of the air_ craft at a distance A1~~Z xill not hit relative point of iapact A~, but nil,l ; pass it at a distenoe equal the value of a 0 _...~ the piece xith aecou~ of target velocity, lag and gravity ~~ a.~~ p is defined by angles ~ z sad ~ s. SO 5 parallax p. To have' the pro~eetils hit relative point of iapact A~, the bore of the gym meat be pointed to point B by tarr- ing the ands of the bore further iron position OC by angles Qp~r sad Qp ~ ~, (?ig.206) iaatead of ad~ustiag it to the parallel line O.B. --- ------ - - - 1 STAT 213 a Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 1Li'ter th] s a~lrii ti,>n~1 l-uI'r, I,h~~ uoI?e of t~r~e -gun rroulrl be ~~ n pos]tion OB, ie- f inA -i ,,~. 4,i, e 1''.l , ~ 1 ~ r? r~ g o.{' e3ev~ti?n --- an? the re].nt~v^ an^ e of elw?~: pion io .~c~~.~ ~r.nle;~ vo ?rd go cor.r~~ci:itms,~4prt~ an-~Qp~,kn~~~~t? as ;~nuul~r plr~llax Corr':C~' Ony C'1'Rt, be ?d ed ~f~0 t})e e;?.I'l~~.er fn7`:`a~c?Tl~~ra~p~ ~i3~ ~ ?'~ 7 ;, S, .--. co ~for?~it;T ~~rith the dull 'n+;le of fire t~rg~~?t wa~td ti:e an,71e of site of uar~et ~. ? i'oS7, t e nr~~jectiledenart~n.~; in direction OB ,ri1.l f~11 b~~ i;.~t.lr~co H,4 = S ? T, ,,,,. t?,_. ,. , ;'ec;; of ~r~P; t,Y3 f~'rt~.er:~~r~, ;_t ;~_ll ,,r. }a`..~, ,.+,?~n.ce ~ AAy z end nsss thI',~t~cr~t I'3~':i,1~ r~n;n1 ~.r _. _ - 1. _ .. .. ... YfIL'.le T,!lP, !~ro,'?C ;;.le ~S 1'~ {'1 _~}~+v ~'P,B v:^"'t , r.~ ! 1 ? 180 re2 nil th; ^ ~`~i T?t the ~nr-1es of ?lev-;tion vo ~n:l Oo .+_uhl be es~abL.s'r.~ed cc~r~iinir to .~o ~ `P s t +QPy' . and go ~ ~ $~ P~ , but ~ Have estabL.sred that ws ~~'?dY~ ?~z~Y, and ~S ~~}~~ +~~~~ therefore, ?~re sha.ll finally obtain +`+e see, that it order to _"ind the rel3ti.ve hull ~ n~le of elevation do, t?r~e corre^l.or.~~ng corrections in lead ~y~', in ?.a; BZt~, and =.n ~?arallax ~,p~, mtlst be added to the hull angle of the target,( To `'~_nd the relative elevation 8o the correction. in lead ~~, in the projectile fa]_l. js>M and in P -*allax,dp~ has to be added to the male of site of the target. Thus, vrhen the siP,ht axis is in pagit.ion OlAo, the bore gads mgt be in posita4n OB. The piece rxust occupy this position as a result ox" tracking the target >~th ' the axis of the sight before i t approaches poin+ Ao? Tl~~ ^ 'Zaps er.,~ because the angular target velocity has to be establi ~~.pd to ~~TO!ce the correction. However - the-angular. target velocity can, in ',urn, be defined as the angular valoc~.ty of .:,~ _ she turn of the sight, That means, that, the t?.rget has to certain ' ~ 1 be traclred for fl ' ..._. H ~I 1 2L4 ~ Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 _~..- _ _ ~ -- ~ _~~ Position OB-of th~s__.~ -~--_- ~~- `! `~- .;.~~~,. bore oP the gun cor- reaponda on.~y to the ~aral l ax moment at which the eight axis is in _ position AlOo. As soon ae tracking the target xith thq ~gi g_1 ~~. axis is done alogg e AoAy, the bore of j the gun gust asstme~ ether positions according to the Fig.206 Zb allow for parallax, it is necessary in addit- nex firing Condit- ion to turn the bore of the machine gnn at an angle of Q p~ ions which change in the horizontal plane and Q p ~ in the vertical, and dir- as the relative tar-} -~` ect it at boint B. ~e position of the piece xith acoount get sove~ooent change ;___ of all factors is defined by angles Yo and 80. In the paoceea __. ~'__ of tracking the tar- ~~ ~_~~ get xith the sight i ,, Y~. axis, special mechaniama must allow for corrections D y ~ , d z~ , and D p ~ to ~~ jthe hull angle of the target in accordance Mith firing conditions and with the net ~e ,~8~ of the target soveme~. Corrections ~y~ ~a~ and dp~ to the angle of site of the ~,~~ get seat also be made. Unless these eorre~Ctiona are signalled to the fir instal- -.,~ lation, the piece is connected with the s seehanism ,- --~ ight- ao that its ids alwsTa re- ;;~ seine parallel to the azis of sight regardless of how the sight oay turn; the anal et ii. a 4~.....,_ .__~_ ~~ - -~- a~ w-:c~?.w equal times of the ?iaht-mac, i.e. correspond to Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ,-~tiee by the eight axis ao as to eatabliah~this ._.. ..__~_- __ _ __ i ~ angular velocity and to measure it .~ y the hull an~yL~ of the t~lr}~ot iJ and the si~ _ .....,.. . _..__..._..___._..._._,_.,.._.._.._.._.._...~,~ . ~ angle of the target ~. 'phis applies to '.-_~!'~?'1t ~ ~y cal],.a rough airrdn? of the his. Signa7.].~ag .the ,~ ~ A~lar--oo.xrectior~r_ LL `to allo~r for lead, Ian;, f~.l and the paraxlax~of the piece frost turn ?.e,dditiona]ay at _ _ ~.__ ...__. .._..._._..._,_~....w~.._.._..__...~ _, angles ,d yt~1, ~ J~, and ,~p(~ in the hor1zor+t~1 plane and by angle s ~ yf ,b~~ , ~ _~ P~ in fire verti.~al plar~ occupying the position necessary to hit the target. .;Since firing co-_xlitions change continuously, t!~.ese corrections must also be race can _..tinously and signalled to the installation. ~~~rreC~;i'nn~il~'nt~~s~'ier~'.X"tii .~~._~.,..,~ .~_..~.. ..... _ { a/1 ii' asv --~ """"emu J "`O4iii W3 G R C , ~. ~, V lly,tAl 4tI ~,7CZD ~ Tile.. T~.~ urns 3n or zan or ~r~fc$"~~~d~rac~ion Vin' ~ ir~a~lriri~ t~ie~`~ ~rh prc~~ .:i Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 POOR ORIGINAL Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 plane -- either the vortical or the horizontal. The axis of the frame of the loxer t - -- axis of thg viexer regulator ource of current and perpendicular to its vertical Fig.210 Diagram of device alloxing the determination of axis of rotation. angular correction on target velocity. Pivots that -are passed through solenoids I -- the latter are connected xith the viexer -- are attached to the frames of the gyroscopes along the rotor axes. (Fig.21C). Bach pivot carries movable contact 2 at its ems. This movable contact is enclosed by tea stationary contacts 3 xhich are also connected to the viexer. For a better ~mderatanding of the principle of detsrsining angular velocities - at xhich the viexer turns, let us examine the action of the loxer gyroscope that -__ is connected xith the vertical rod of the sight-mechanism and scales the angular ~~~ velocity of the turn of the viexer beam iu the horizontal plane. -~ .; As the viexer turns about the vertical a~da, a eight holder on xhich~the --~ i ~a ;irate of th_ e_~roacope is attached turns__along with the vie~rer abo~ the aam~e __ .. ,...~ _ _.,- f ~~a~de S6~ _ i gyPO3cope is perpendicular to the vertical axis at xhich the the upper gyroscope -- to the horl2~nta1 axis. J . ~~~ Gyroscop In stationary; ll viexers the axis oY the upper gyroscope is parallel to that I ! ~~ - ~ _ cilia ~ I i, ~. ... _ _.__ ~~ ~ - -- ~ I loxer svroscope is i T ~ -- - on the same verb- D B f f E cal plane xith the: Voltage + viexer turns; that of Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 i tt,P. ~,~: , " '~,' ~~ ~;~-r~sco~e ~~? i.l. _~ otate i n a ;l ?~^ct;.on ; ari?nc? ~. cul~r t4 tt! e ._.Ji~1.1`$Ct10T1 '.n~ vv h_?+_Ch th858 ~CJrCe ~1,C~'.!i, "1C3 ~.~Q ~':nOiY th31', t1~ :,~ r8ater i',i18 V~'lOC1~~, ~~1L,SCQ~ip, ,1 , _ .. __ , . .. ~ ~, p, . _ ....~ ,. _ . f,.. ~.--r ._~;,t'Ie ~,relter t>~e ?.~tir.C :force. Corgerne~~c.7,hr, in ors cas:.. ,.*~e t1~e ax_~~ n... fi, . " .,,: _ r~~= -~c~~;~'~e ~?rill 'it another on tYb ~.a~ma~, xf/contact 3 ~ cloaea, the ;aotor gill revolve in #h~s8p~a~te ~~:raa~t+nn, ~`~-e brush lead x.11 take t ~~ plaoe to the left ani the current irrthe~aolenoid cixcuf-t r~.ll be~S.n' do flagr in the! reed direction.. Tha. rotor contizn~ea ~ to revolve as long are on,, of oortaate 3 sector CB b r velue CGl. For t~rat~ s n Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 ~_ ~ _ .. ._ G Ct`A';S8 and :~~1 inCreaa~~i~-;'lw;~ i~tenaern,r'z'e?t~rr~1~.:Plorr ~l!11'1;a ',: ^'. E? r'ol?ncl~1~ }r1.r,''!?''. _ I ~ ,~, ..'T~e..cr~r'~~or.t irter.9it,* '~ II incre~sa lt~~+~i1.;tf!e ,t+~,rrnot~.r, ~':iA r z of the ~o3wna~.-~_.,~~:} ~;;i~s-~T? .~1. ;;st , :=:i~~e ~ t~ rar~air~ co:,.. Lr;,,~; ~ r~Y, ; ?:creas2 . `~ _ ~ ~ the 3!''~lt~.ar t~.Tf;e ~ YelOC7.t~r '?^Ot11.C~ bring ?.~~Olit ? L'3? ;?'_" ~r~ _~t18 ~ 1~ :1~1f`.i. ~' ?- ~ L ~~+i d~ l ,~ ~ ~ i .',~ _T' tore V`? eia'Er tLtY'rls, t1iB ~;~.~T'OSCOp1C "?oP]ent, '70t.L.~ `.nCT'E3Se '?Il.! ;;? ir?.:"`e t''Oli1.C? Cl~? at ' :,,?,i ~]so .increase, t,::e ,....J ,? ? ~ ~ l'TAf J Z tl :~^_s is ~'~.C r~_v's.; i .~Ql~~. ' i.~? ~.nw..?'? V^ 9M~ C~.OS# t~?~' f 2'???!!@ Of' '~.,~'L' 4~~T`0900j~ i~ u':1? )i~,,_ I op;".05'.te ^,,.^.;'t1C}v. ~h8 matOr i"+ii.' h`. '. = i'tc: .. '_""'v~.r3"'-7 ,..i`: ?? ,.?, f'~?; ,~ +S, .. `~ ^?~J-L:' 1~:, l~~i >I ..... 'J.L:1~ V11C: 4' ~-._.,' C ~r vct.C u Ul V 3tZp J 1J 3.L'2r, ,,j,, ~,y'~p y, n.. _ y, ~`lB~ieTl~i ~ th8 ,,,Ts.,,.l. ~ ,..t ifY+ri {~ neatir~_ aro~wt~...a~d creak !~. alx-ut ...:L,.....,. 2?!. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2010/08/30 :CIA-RDP81-010438000700170001-1 J.so ~ equal at _each ~t, ~.. ,..._ ~.V~r. ~ , ~. ;,1?5~;112i1W q., tii18 r^.I~,;B +,~' ~.'.?~f,r';;j I','~e ~,~iTCr;3.Ytr(?I?i.t}r 9~ tE`?' a`t~~_,~.1J, _~'~4X?~...t4....~ ~P,X.'-._._. ---~ _ t