RADIO ENGINEERING
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STAT
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SOME BASIC RELATIONS PERTAINING TO HIGHPOWER
KLYSTRON AMPLIFIERS
by .
M. S. Neyman
Active Member, A. S. Popov Scientific Teclm cal Society for
Radio and ElectroConnninication Engineering
This article survey some basic relations determining the design
of highpower klystron amplifiers.
Special attention is turned
to analysis of band limitations of the frequencies passed by
the output oscillatory system and to the minim= allowable
feed voltage. Also a description of the conditions in which
these limitations become less valid.
1. Introduction
Klyatron amplifier engineering has been lately progressing along an arduous,
peculiar and tortuous path of development. Klystron amplifiers have been developed
less rapidly than other types of superhighfrequency amplifiers. However, the
pessimistic opinions often voiced about the possibilities of their further develop.
ment have been refuted by facts again and again.
The paramount idea underlying the nature of the operation of klystron amplifi
ers, namely, the idea of velocity modulation of the electron beam has been formu
lated by D.A.Rozhanskiy as early, as in 1932, as published literature (Bibl.l) indi
cates. However, a year after the invention in 1938 of toroidal vibrators the first
workable klystron amplifiers began appearing in 1939 (Bibl.2).
At that time, klystron amplifiers had a low efficiency of the order of 15 to
20% owing to the large losses incurred at collisions of electrons with the grids and
walls of tubes in the drift space, and also owing to the relatively disadvantageous
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grouping of electrons into bunches at velocity modulation in only one control gap.
Therefore, klystron amplifiers used to be designed for low power only; power of the
order of tens of watts. Such a situation continued throughout nearly the entire
nineteen forties.
It was only at the turn of the forties and the beginning of the fifties that
major modifications had been introduced in klystron amplifiers so as to increase
sharply their efficiency and amplification factor.
A longitudinal focusing magnetic field was applied, and this reduced the losses
from the collisions of electrons with the side walls of drift space. The grids were
eliminated and the interaction of electrons with the fields between grids was sup.
planted by their interaction with the fields of the gaps formed by transverse slits
in driftspace tubes. This eliminated the losses formerly incurred by collision of
electrons with grid conductors. Lastly, there were introduced two or more succes
sive drift spaces with passive resonators near the intermediate gaps. This had im 
proved the longitudinal focusing of electrons into bunches, and it also had increased
sharply the amplification factor.
The considerable increase of the actually attainable electron efficiency to
values of the order of 40 to 50% and more has made the development of highpower kly
atron amplifiers more profitable. In the last few years numerous descriptions of
these devices have been published (Bibl.3 to 6). The power these devices develop
already is reaching tens of kilowatts at continuouswave operation and tens of meg.
awatts at pulsed operation.'
Still, all modern highpower klystron amplifiers require very high, feed volta
ges and have narrow frequency passbands. Moreover, for waves longer than 50  60
cm, the dimensions of klystron amplifiers are too large. These shortcomings hamper
greatly any more widespread use of klystron amplifiers. 
The present paper analyzes the causes of the abovementioned shortcomings and
the possible ways and means for their partial overcoming.
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~. Uesirn limitations of K1~'stron A,.nplifiers
th will be expressed in centimeters meters and electrical
Hereafter in this paper length
Volts, watts and ohms.
parameters in amperes, traverses the ft
Let us survey the conditions in which an electron beam
space of a tworesonator transit 'rlystron amnlifl longitudinal defocusinP,, which ass m eS an
According to the elementary theory o: pi',i?7), ;re
of side walls (r 
bear^ in the absence
area of the 
re r current is de
infinite crosssectional
focusing of electron ranches for the fundamentalf querc?'
degree of w::ose argtm'~ent eouas
ermined by Ressel's function of ,he firs`.. kind J1(x),
2r. c N sin h% (l)
t vn 2 h
lectromagneti
c are the wave length. and velocit;~ of free ec waves; T o
Here and . the lergth of
the velocit;: of he electrons started by feed voltage Uo; s is
? and h is
is U0 ,
drift space; ? is the ratio of ar:pli`.ude of control voltage to voltage
longi'.udinal defocusing, related to the action of space charge.
the parameter of and is expressed the
der.sit~' of the electron current
This parameter depends on .'0 .
? following formula (Ri'l?8)
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correction factor x that is higher than. unit:: and takes
On introducing sone she ul
into accocn., the effective attenuation of the defocus anon bean,d^ameter and owing which to
also takes
timate value of the crosssectional area of the el ict be represented in this
into account the influence of the ,side walls, eq.(l) can
foum hs
sin 
2~c c t'
X = a v, s h (3)
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hs _ It
% 2
the magnitude of x is at its maximum, equal to
2 it r " .102 c _x U. 4
x = ~_
Xn,ax vo .2 h 3 uo a
to
Assuming that
Vn U, 2
C 5" I
which is correct at ( vo ) 2 1, when the correction deductible from the theory of
c
relativity is still small, we find
The' maximum of the function J1(x} is present at x 1.84.. Having to satisfy
 / a px Uo
Xr,.,rSV 33 1
the condition
X,,,d? > 1,84 P, (6)
we obtain the following condition for current density ?y
i
1 0 )?2 25 a ! px l' Ua s.
3.1,84'
` J
(4)
(7)
Considering that the maximum of Bessel's function is obtained in?a rather
blunted form, the multiplier (scan be assumed to be somewhat below unity.
The corresponding length of drift space s equals,in accordance with eqs.(4)
and (2)
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1 a U,,
3 ?
S =
0
2
0 Vr
10
(8)
or, considering eq.(7),
1,84 L U 4
(9)
X 1000 N 0 ?
The application of egs.(4), (7), (8), and (9), corresponds to the conditions'
presentat short waves whenthe lengths of drift spaces are not large. At longer
waves, for instance waves of the order of 100 cm, when it is desirable to reduce the
lengths of drift spaces, it may prove expedient to select the argument of the sine
in eq.(3) below 2 , i.e., to assume that
hs =p, ,~
x 2
(4)
where o'?< 1.
Considering that, whenthe argument of that sine is selected below 2 , the
sine varies somewhat, it is possible to take the coefficient much below unity.
to, 'Then, eqs.(7) and (9) will assume the following form:
10 25n (Nx sin `5'
3.1,842 ` 2 )
> 1,84 UO 2
1000 N
(9')
The multipliers 6 and (i' should, of course, be so selected as to preserve a
quite satisfactory bunching of electrons.
Proceeding fromhere on we'will employ eq.(7),,on keeping in mind the necessity
of replacing 6 by at a reduced length of drift space.
sin T
Considering that
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p()  P
.
U? is
r
voltage.
3. Case of Solid Cylindrical Electron Beam
Present=day highpower klystron amplifiers operate with al electron beam having
a circular crosssection (Fig.l). On designating thea.diameter of the beam by D; `we
~. have
4
WIN/O/I For a good interaction of electrons with gap fields, there
should be
Fig.1
D Ad,
where d stands for gap width, This width is, in turn, limited by the requirement
d ~Lq  v? aUo
B B c ~500B
where Xq stands for the distance traversed during one oscillatory period by an elec
where P is the power of electron beam, 10 is the feed current, and'S is the cross
sectional area of beam, we find according to eq.(7) the limitation for the lowest
value of feed voltage as imposed by the conditions of longitudinal repulsion of
electrons
(10)
As can be seen from the above inequality., the crosssectional area of the elec
tron beam should be large in order to ensure the possibility of applying a low feed
3
2 3.1,84 ?.
UO > P
25 n ? S C Px
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S
' (3
)
T agUo. 1
at Po = 20 kwt
On considering the latter limitation we obtain in accordance with eq.(10) the
requirement for the minimum allowable feed voltage
tron accelerated by voltage Uo. The adopted values of the coefficients A and B are .
determined by the conditions of the interaction between the electron beam and gap
fields (Bibl.8, 9).
The following limiting requirements are obtained for the diameter and the cross
sectional area of the electron beam:
5
Uol > 0,415. 10'?Po( x ? ~
For instance, assuming that 5 _ and B = 5.5 and A = 1.6, we obtain
s
Vo > 1,72.10'0
(12)
< 4
D B )Uo ,
500
U, > 12,5 xe.
Published literature (Bibl.(4) contains a description of a 30cmwave klystron
amplifier with very similar data. For that amplifier, Po = 19.5 kwt and Uo = 13
kilovolts. Gap Width measures half an inch, which is corresponded by B  5.7.
Thus, the assumed value of is evidently approximate to the real one.
?X
!.~ A Bend of Frequencies Pasped by tron Am
Electron Bess.
In view of the very high voltages of the klystron amplifiers of the here
described type' it is necessary to apply output oscillatory systems with a very high
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resonant resistance R, and hence with a high quality Q when in loaded state. This
is equivalent to a narrow frequency passband.
The following are the formulas for the necessary resonant resistance R and
quality Q:
R=U= u0= EU,
it 11 /o it P.
U2
Q = R . E. UO
.
Pr 7, Po Pr
(15)
(16)
Here U is the amplitude of alternationg voltage on output gap; I1 is the first
harmonic of the current exciting the output oscillatory system; f = U is the in
tensity of mode; yl = is the coefficient of the first harmonic of current;
0
and Pu is the parallel active characteristic (Bibl.10) of the output oscillatory
system, related to voltage U.
On considering requirement (]4) we obtain
8
5
E 1
R 0,s?ia B
A
Po
(17)
Assuming'that in the abovereviewed example P0 = 20 kwt and UO = 12.5 kilovolts,
and also assuming that = 0.8, we find
U0 12,5'? 100 =6300 ohms.
0.
? R = _  = 0.8 20
78 Po
Thus, there is obtained a relatively very high resistance and, consequently, a
narrow passband..
In effect, it is difficult to increase the characteristic Pu of the to=vidal
vibrator' even at a relatively large gap between the ends of drift tubes. 'In prac
tice it can barely be madehigher than 60  70 ohms. Therefore, the necessary qual
ity obtained amounts to a value of hundred or more units, which. corresponds to an
outputresonator frequency passband of the order of 1% or less from the carrier
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present only at very high powers of klystron amplifiers.
Therefore, quality Q =.30 at loaded state is corresponded by the conveniently
obtained characteristic
frequency (at computations in terms of half power level on the edges of the fre
quency passband). Passbands of such an order are actually observed in practice
(Bibl.4).
As can be seen from formula (17), resonant resistance varies very slowly with a
change in power, that is to say, as the root of the fifth degree of power. There
fore any much more favorable conditions for the width of the frequency passband are
For example, according to
formula (17), a four fold expansion of the passband is corresponded by an approxi
mately thousandfold rise in power.
In this respect, a characteristic amplifier described in literature (Bibl.5) is
the superhighpower pulsed klystron amplifier with a pulse output power of the or
der of 20 mwt and with Uo = 400 kilovolts, Io = 250 amperes, and Q tt 30. The pass
band in such an amplifier is thus comparatively wide.
For that amplifier, we have (assuming
= 0.8)
R = E Uo = 0,8' 4250 = 1280 ohms.
71
R 1280 43 ohms.
Q 3Q
Let us also note that, as can be concluded from eq.(17),. a reduction in resis
,tance R and expansion of frequency passband are also possible to achieve by reduc
ing the amplification factor (reducing the magnitude of ') or by reducing inten
sity F i.e., weakening the braking of electrons by the field of the gap;
5. K1,ystron Amplifiers With Enlarged CrossSectional Area of the Electron Beam
As can be seen from the. aforecited formulas, it is possible to reduce the nec
essary feed voltages and expand the frequency passband by eliminating the limitation
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imposed by requirement (13) on
the crosssectional area of the electron beam.
This limitation becomes dispensable in, for example, the event of a multibeam
klystron amplifier described in the book by Warnecke and Guenard (Bibl.9), Chapter
XXXVII, and to an even greater degree, in the event that none of the electron beams
is solid and all adhere to the walls of the driftspace tube (Fig.2).
Fig.2
T
For such a multibeam klystron amplifier the
inequality (12) is replaced by the
b S 2 d,
(17)
where b stands for thickness of the electron layer
(Fig.2), and At stands for a somewhat smaller co
efficient than A.
The overall area of all n rays (at D " b)
approximately equals
S 7c Dbn _I rD 2nd,
or, on taking into account inequality (11)
i
D z
$
A'
a
n
L/o
1000 B A
where D is the diameter of each beam.
Correspondingly, inequality (.10) assumes this form
Uo > 1,84 120 Po B a
n o A' nU
For resonant resistance we obtain
(18)
(19)
(20)
E Uii 1, 84 2 B ?. 9 (21)
II Po ( n / I90 Ii A' nD \ fir.)
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0
As can be seen from the above, resonant resistance is not affected by power.
On selecting a sufficiently high value of ?D it is possible to obtain compar
atively low values of U0 and R. For example, if it is nedessary that 'R be not over
1000 ohms, this should be the formula
nD 0,12 (1_ X4) 71 A' \N ) ?
we
Assuming that At = 12 and, as before, B = 5.5, YT = 0.8, and
nD > 0,27.
Naturally, the amplifier's design should be adapted. for ensuring a fairly ade
quate decoupling between the output oscillatory system and the preceding oscillatory
system.
For the required voltage we have
U0. V E RPo . (22)
In the example described here,
and
Y1
assuming that R = 1000 ohms, P = 20 kwt,
0
Uo 5000v,
Io5= 4.
I
Thus we obtain a relatively. low feed voltage and a relatively high feed current.
Let usnow turn our attention to the frequency passband of the output oscilla
tory system. Let us take note of the capacitance of the gaps, which, at the pres
ence of several largediameter driftspace tubes, constitutes nearly the entire ca
pacitance of the output 'oscillatory system and may, therefore, *be used for an ap
proximate appraisal of its characteristic p u.
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0.
The linear capacitance of gap width d between two flat tapes having a width h
(Fig3) is determined by the following approximate formula
C  1 In h en,
1 2 i d crn
Therefore; for the abovediscussed example, it can be ap
proximately assumed (on increasing capacitance somewhat) that
r n d)# 4
Fig3
CC,rDn= nD In h cm.
2r. d
Correspondingly
15X 30X I
r. C n D h
In d
(25)
Assuming, for instance, that h = 20d, we obtain, in the event of ~D = 0.27
p? 37 ohms
(23)
? For the necessary loaded quality of the output oscillatory system, the follow
ing formula. is obtained on taking requirements (21) and (25) into account
13 ( ~ I h
t8')s _
(inJ!.
Q ( 4
Pu 3 \ r Ti A' l .) d
(26)
Here, the, righthand part does not depend on Po, U0?and /.
Assuming; as before, that B = 5.5, At = 1.2, u = and = 20, we find
Qm?n 27.
Thus, in these conditions, we obtain a low necessary loaded quality correspond
ing to a comparatively wide frequency passband. Of course, the above computations
.are approximate.
As before, it is possible here too to expand further the frequency passband by
reducing the amplification factor, i.e., the magnitude of ...~_, or by reducing inten
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sity F. The enlargement of the crosssectional area of the electron beam permits,
not only to reduce the feed voltage and to expand the frequency passband but also to
obtain certain other benefits.
1. In accordance with inequality (7), the density of the electronbeam current
1 .
decreases as U0 2 . This may be of vital importance inshortwave operations when
the current density necessary for the most. effective performance of anamplifier and
increasing in proportion to the reduction to lambda2, has a very high value that
is difficult to attain.
2.' At longwave operation, a reduction in voltage may prove expedient from the
viewpoint of reducing the necessary lengths of drift spaces determined by require
1
ment (9') and proportional to Uo 2 , and hence also from the viewpoint of reducing
the lengthwise dimensions of the tube and the length of paths traversed by electrons.
At the same time, the dimensions of the oscillatory systems are reduced by in
creasing their usefully utilized capacitance, which is also important at verylong
,:.wave operation...
These circumstances may expand somewhat the boundaries of the wave band within
which the'l.clystron amplifiers can be applied.
6. Khvstron Amplifiers With Two and More Drift Spaces Arranged in Series
Although the formulas described above pertain to klystron amplifiers with a siri
gle drift space, they canalso be related to amplifiers with two or more drift
spaces, upon being somewhat modified, (in particular, with regard tocoefficients G
and X).
We have been so far concerned only with the problem of expanding the passband
of the output oscillatory system. A corresponding expansion of passband for the in
put and intermediate oscillatory systems can be achieved by their ballast loading.
In view of the relative smallness of the amplitudes of r  f voltages occurring in
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these oscillatory systems, the powers emitted in the ballast loads will he low com
pared to output power, so that the overall efficiency will be decreased only a lit
tle. Naturally, the amplification factor will be somewhat. below its maximum possi
lble value. However, this circumstance is not veryimportant in view of the very
high amplification factors inherent in klystron amplifiers with two or more drift
spaces.
Appendix
Beside .the abovedescribed, as per inequality (7), limitation for the electron
beam current, imposed by the longitudinal debunching action of the space charge, it
is also necessary to take into account the current limitation due to the decrease
(the socalled "sagging")of the potential inside the drift tube at the presence of
the electron beam.
This second limiting factor assumes the following form (see Bibl.8, p.78) at
the presence of a longitudinal focusing magnetic field and allowing, as is usually
done), for .a decrease in potential by no more than 10% 
3 _
1, H
0 H.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Fok,V.A.  Field of the Vertical and Horizontal Dipole Elevated Above the
Earth's Surface. Zhurnal Experimentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Vo1.19
(1949)
2. Fok,V.A.  Fresnel Diffraction From Convex Bodies. UFN, Vol.XLIII, Bulletin 4,
April (1951)
3. Fok,V.A.  Fresnel's Reflection Laws Compared with Diffraction Laws. UFN9
Vol.}JCXVI, Bulletin 3,November (1948)
4. Altpert,Ya.L., Ginzburg,V.L., and Feynberg,E.L.  Propagation of Radio Waves.
Gostekhizdat, (1953)
5. Kalinin,A.I.  The Calculation of Field Strengths of Ultra Short Waves in the
'Illuminatedt Part of Space. Radiotekhnika, Vol.10, No.9, (1955)
6. Kalinin,A.I.  The Calculation of Field Strengths in Shadow and Twilight Zones
at Propagation of Ultrashort Waves Along Smooth Spherical Surface of the
Earth. Radiotekhnika, Vol.11, No.6, (1956)
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THE APPLICATION OF FICTITIOUS MAGNETIC CURRENT FOR SOLVING
THE PROBLEM OF ANTENNA RADIATION OVER A PLANE WITH
NONHOMOGENEOUS LEONTOVICH BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
by
Description of a method of solving the problem of the rad
iation of a system of side currents over a plane with non
'homogeneous Leontovich?boundary conditions.
A system of currents in area A exists over surface z = 0 (see diagram). The
part of surface directly under the antenna is metallized within the confines of
.the following limitations: ,
area S. Outside the confines of this area, Leon
tovich boundary conditions apply on surface z = 0
Etg
(1)
Ht?
If
Here the subscript tg denotes tangential com
ponents.
The problem is solved on considering' the
1. Current distribution in antenna A has,a circular symmetry in relation to'
axis Z.
2. Area S represents a circle with a,diameter of 2 a. The beginning of the
cylindrical system of coordinates lies at the same point as the center of the cir
cle.
3. The field created by antenna A in free space has a wave structure of the
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U
rr tyre. This l iir i t ation is not important, because the prof leer can he solved com
rletely analogousl' for the case of TE. waves froii primary antenna A.
Despi'.e .the aboveintro?iuce:l limitations the analysis of many metallize isyster.
antennas with such mounting can he reduced to a problem of electrodynamics.
In solving the here poseur nroblerr we stall use the formulas obtaine'i in G.T.l:ar
kov's paper (hibl?l)? Let us separate the process of solution into two stages:
1. First we will solve the problem of the radiation of the hereexamined sys
tem of currents over a plane with uniform threshold conditions (1), which, at the
lirritatiors adortel, have this form
(2)
In accordance with Fitl.l the rectangular component of the electrical field
strength for the given system of currents in free space will he writter as follows
Er pnm.rr j dV V J E.n.vdxl (i )
n,o XW
E:nx=s,a
r0 (/T'  B)
Let us analyze eq.(15). Here
F, (x) Yx' 'K' Br? (x)
(V x'K'B) a FM(x) f' (I,rx'K'B)
Considering this, let us find, upon taking into account (13)
00 00
E, a  $ 1; (r') x J1(xr') r'dr' J, (xr) dx +
~t s+o 0
B Fr Yx)
14'x'K'B
E" _ FM (z) x'K' Jl (xr) dx.
wt r+o (yfB)
0
00
J1(xr) dx  1m (r) + f ~XBFM () B
J J1(xr) dx.
0
The firstitem in the aboveobtained formula corresponds to an instance when a
magneticcurrent sheet spreads over an infinitely conducting plane of boundless di
mensions,(instance B = 0). The second item owes its appearance to the fact that B
is necessary in the instance cited. Considering that the introduction of boundary
conditions (1) is based on the assumption that B is low, we can justifiably expect
that the magnitude of Er at,the surface of magnetic current will be chiefly deter
mined by the first item in eq.(16.). Hence a wholly comprehensible physical order of
the construction of successive approximations for solving the problem posed. On re
garding the parameter B as low, we can assume in the first approximationthat
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(15)
(16)
(17)
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Let us set such a magnetic current distribution as to cause the following equa
tion to be valid within the limits of r = 0 to r = a on surface z = 0
E, 1.11 +Er'j.rj=0.
(18)
where the first item is determined by eq.(11) and the second by eq.(15). By the
same token, in the first approximation, an infinitely conducting shield is formed on
surface z = 0 within the limits of r = 0 to r = a, and the boundary condition Etg ='0
is satisfied on its surface. Outside this area the field components expressed by
egs.(11) and (14) satisfy separately the boundary conditions (2), whence it follows
that the full field which is their sum also satisfies these boundary conditions.
Thus, we obtain from eq.(18), upon considering eqs.(17) and (11), the following
formula
1, (r') s (' ~X B
B F(x) J1(xr')dx.
Otd t = 2 8( w Q)+
0 I10
00
+ ~ rp r
S rp (t) cos _(2 + w) td t + (S) cos (Q  a)) t d
0 0
where b (,; c) stands for Dirak's delta function. This resuilt, as was to be ex
pected, coincides with the generally known interpretation of the spectrum of the AM
signal: The spectrum consists of a carrier frequency f) with an effective value of
A2
on whose both sides there are sidebands with displaced spectra of the modulat
ing signal
ao
(P ? vj = r, (.) cos (2 ? w) t d c.
2a
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The cons;ierat ions touched upon here necessi tale a more precise deli rr: t.i on of
rre concept. of the spectrum of signal power, and a more distinct separation of L;'he
*wo different. aspects of that concept.
Let us consider eq.(11) as the definition of the concept of spectral density of
rower; it. is not difficult to observe that this concept can be endowed with totally
different contents and rreaning as depending on the definition of the ;:unction R (:).
On selecting the iefini*.ion ('a), i.e., the autocoherence function, we compute the
spectrum of t..te tuneaverage signal power P. This spectrum can he also found exper
imentally by' investigating sigrlal f (t) by means of a suitable spectral arparatus
and measuring a number of frequencies for sufficiently long time intervals that
should at any rate ne no snorter than the uniformity limit of the signal. Let us
conditionally term this a physical spectrum, necause it may ne determined up to any
desired degree of accuracy cy means of physical (spectral) measurements. The concert
of spectral density will rave a totally different meaning if the autocorrelation
function be interpreted from the viewpoint of the random process theory
R(')= J S Xrx,tuz(xi,?tz :) dxrdx2
Here w2(xl, x2, ) stands for the twodimensional distribution, which depends,
in the case of stationary signals, only on the value of the time interval z between
'I':e correlated values of signals and not on its position relative to the time axis;
t'.e integration applies to any value x of the signals it the group. In this case
',(v) stands for some statistical characteristic of the group whose sense becomes
clear if we represent the group by the Fourier integral
b
f(t) $ la (v)cos 2,t Fb(v)sln2rvl1 dv,
on considering the coefficients a (v) and b (v) as random functions; the power
spec trumv) stands for the groupaverage value of the randon magnitude a2 (v) + h2
1 in which connection
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b
J rh(~)(1 = J x' w1 (x) dx
where w, ()') s`ar, is for ':r.: iirer'si?on:r1 iist ri' u`.ion :n'ieren?lert, of '.irr.e. :i':ch 1
spec' rime co?:l I e err A i '' a'. i:`.ical.. as its :irmi, s' e,i from '.r'e nr;rsir?:~. snec',r
J .
:i:?` ?ra11; . canno`, he o''ser" ie i h?' rreans of .1r.; ? ph;: si cal ] ? real. izai le spectroscope.
con
If a Fro'ip of sifnal3 is stationary and ergoiic, ho'.r lefini aions of .he
cent will lead * o one ar.a the sure guar.'.if.a`.ive result, zec,..:se. the ergodic croner'.;
ensures }.ne equ:.valency of '.ir:eand rro'rraveragir;~ operations. However, as we rare
seer. above, uniform signals w_.n a wholly defi,r .e rhysical srec'.ricr. are o. necess
aril: s ;a`,jonar.. , and In sucr cases `..here is no er po i i c r ro']r ani hence also ro s*.a
` _s' _ca' specs, rr. A ~?rcai exar. r le of s?:c' a case i s t' a ?roi;r (>): ,e exis :ece
of the r. s_cal srec tr?ur of a' signals carnct be 'ioub,.ei, alltough .re sar.e cannot
be sail of ;heir statistical snectrrnr:.
The iif ferentiation e.weer the concepts of tr:e nn;; sic%] and the s :a,istical
spectra apnarenttl:: serves to eliminate the not. infrequently arising mis'mierstard
ines and tc pain a clearer comprehension of .he term "statisi. i cal spectrum".
Article received off: F4itors on 29 Decemi'er la''
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SIl?4PI.IFIED ANALYSIS OF TilE CIRCUITS OF RADIOFREQU&NNCY
JUNCTIONTRANSISTOR OSCILLATORS WITH SELFEXCITATION
by
P. D.l3erestnev
This article derives simplified formulas for oscillated fre
quency and selfexcitation conditions for two selfoscillator
circuits (corrmonemitter and commonbase) as linked to col
leb',or circuit. The coupling between the input and output
circuits can the of the transformer, air tot ransfor;. er or capac
simplest form when expressed in Y parameters.
Figure 1 depicts the circuit of a selfoscillator where Y01 stands for admit
Approximate formulas for oscillated frequency and selfexcitation conditions of
ar oscillator can he obtained on proceeding from the assnption that a transistor
represents an active linear fourterminal network with Y parameters. These parame
ters are easily measured and lead to an equivalent pi network of the transistor, sin
.liar to the equivalent circuit for a superhighfrequency electron tube. I'oreover,
t.e formula for the voltage amplification factor, as used below, is obtained in its
Fig.1
stability criterion in Fig.2.
tance of oscillator load. Let us disrupt the
feedback circuit at points aa, and let us load the.
feedback coil Lfeedb with the input conductance of
transistor, Yinp, (Fig.2). We will solve the
problem of the selfexcitation of the circuit and
of the frequency oscillated, by applying Nyquist's
For the circuit in Fig.2 the voltage amplification factor is
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The system is unstable if
K= U`& IKIe''=a i ib.
I K ~ 's IAndCD  0,
a> ],And b=0.
(1)
(2)
Consequently, it is necessary to find the formula for the voltage amplification
factor and to separate the real and the imaginary parts. On making the real part
Fig .2
equal to unity it is possible to determine the
conditions for selfexcitation. On making the
imaginary part equal to sero it is possible to
find the oscillated frequency.
Before deriving a formula for the voltage
amplification factor for the circuit in Fig.2, let us introduce the following desig
nations:
circuit admittance
YM =  I. + CK RK } t m Ct,
active component of circuit admittance
CK RK = RK
o K Q I 1
Ph
circuit characteristic impedance
L
PK  Ch
quality factor of nonloaded circuit
F'r3921,.E/v
(3)
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Q =_ ~K
R,,
(,)
active component of the admittance of oscillator load  Gnp (the reactive com
ponent of load conductance will be ignored, beca'ise it can be compensated by tuning
the circuit)
coefficient of circuit connection from the output side of the fourterminal net
n1 = Us
transformation ratio from the input, side of the fourterminal network
U.
(7)
(8)
At small signals the relationship between the voltage and current variable com
ponents of the fourterminal network is determined by the following equaAions in Y
parameters:
I t = Y11U1 + Y12 UI ,
? ~2 Y21 U1 + Y21 U2. I
(9)
Here Y11 . . . Y22  character admittances of the fourterminal network repre
senting the transistor. These admittances appear to be of the complex kind and, for
a commonemitter circuit, can be represented by comparatively simple combinations or
resistances, capacitances and inductances (Fig3) (Bibl.3).
As can be seen from Fig3 the analytic formulas for these admittances can be
presented in the following form:
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I I I
C. , WIC4t C11
?~ i
t1 I r2 I + r? ` .1
ro r1,  1 (r,1 + r0) r1, tl + ,, C2 C2
0 C11 11 it
56
(10)
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at ro r11
Fig3
section bb),*'the related formula can be thus presented
As for the commonba'se circuit, the characteristic admittances of the network
can be expressed by characteristic admittances of the commonemitter circuit in the
following form:
. Y?
(12)
(13)
(17)
The formula for network load (admittance of circuit in?Pig.2 to the right of the
?.
where
Y1f~ 1
r12
f1acis,
Yi1= 1 = r91
r!1?+?1rLtf r21+.."L:1
"L21
2
1+h 41
r2
,
Y?= 1 +J?C,,.
1s
I Y,, f n' Y?n + Y., i,
AI
.1 i
td, ns U,
The formula for input admittance of the network has, as is known (Bibl;2) the
following form 
Y'.
"'(f
1
Y11 
Yu Y1
Yu + 1'k .
(~9)
Substituting formula (19) in eq.(18), we will determine the value of Yn by the
parameters of the circuit, load, and network
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Y;i=Y11+Y12+Y21+Y2, Y11+Y,1. (14).
Y12(Y12+ Y,2h (15)+
,1
I2
21, (16)
Y21 ? (Y

+ Y
r22  Yea. ? ?
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Taking into account eqs.(7) and (8), and also considering that I2 =  U2Yn, the:
.
second equation in the system (9) can be used to obtain the formula.,for the full
voltage transmission ratio of the entire system in the following form
Substituting into eq.(24) the values of Y21, Y22, and Yn for specific circuits,
'and taking.into account egs.(l) and (2) it is possible to determine theconditions
.for selfexcitation and for the frequency of generated oscillations.
For the commonemitter circuit the formula for thefrequency of generated os
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r.r,1(1)'Cit >> 1.
r,'ur'C?>> 1,
l.tIn l >>,12C11
' >> a, L11
r11 r. CM
r0C,f '
then eq.(25) can be easily reduced to this form
(29)
(30)
= ~'  (31)
  I
~I+C [ n;c.+Lsl
(G }r11,21
a! L,,,
From eq.(31) it can be seen that the greater is the collector capacitance Ck,the
higher is the stability of the selfoscillation frequency. It is to*be noted that
eq.(31) is also correct forlower radio frequencies (f  100 kilocycles).
The condition for selfexcitation in a commonemitter circuit will be written
in the following form
n,  1f n2  4MN
r,,(rer?"2C111) _ 'L1,Cn
Cit + I) r'Ci, 4
1
N  r1, (G + n1 )  w' L:1(C,; 1 n2 Cn)t L,.
r.4. L? L.
11
. 02)
(33)
(34)
The inequalities (26) and (27) are correct for frequencies of f '> 1'megacycle,
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and the formula for M becomes simplified
r2,
On frequencies of f { 100 kilocycles
r~z C?
,b1_? re' (r.rii w'C;1 . 1)  w'L,1 C11?
rn
(35)
(36)
'For the.commonbase circuit the formula for the frequency of. generated oscilla
tion,is the same as that for the comnonemitter circuit [eq.(25)], but the value B
.is to be construed as referring to the following expression
B n FL!,  L,; Fr2t C~ nI ru (CnLl, (G+ / 22
If we take into account inequalities (26) to (30); the formula for the fre
quency of generated oscillations for the cormonbase circuit will be obtained ex
actly the same as the formula for the commonemitter circuit [formula (31)].
The condition for selfexcitation in a commonbase circuit has the'.following
form
n, Vn"4MN
n= 2M
11 1 + '21(r?r,,w Cif I)
elk L" C1,
, 11+ 1) r.2 w~ C11 +1
rat (''1
0 C2
r2, 2 C') + L,
On frequencies of f ; '1 megacycle
M+r'L L1,
re reCt,
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C)
On frequencies of f 100 kilocycles
M 1
It should be~noted that in the case of inductive coupling
In the case of capacitive coupling
Cs",
where C stands for the capacitance from which feedback voltage is taken.
sv
At autot rans former coupling
where Ll = 1. + N stands for inductance of coupling.
Experimental verification of eqs.(31), (32) and (37) has proved satisfactory.
In computations of the selfoscillation frequency the verified error did not
exceed 10%,and when verifying the condition for selfexcitation the error did not
exceed .20n.
The table below cites X=parameter data for three Sovietproduced transistors
of the P6G type:'
Uk =  5 volts, Ie = 1 milliampere
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p.
Article received by Editors on'26 January 1957
P6G No 1
P6G No 2
P6G No 3
f in kilocycles
f in kilocycles
f in kilocycles
Parameters
Components
100
500
1000
100
500
1000
100
500
1000
r
73.5
73.5
73.5
78.5
78.5
78.5
72
72
72
ohMs
C
Y
?000
micro
9.8
7.8
7.5
9.4
7.L
7.25
9.55
7.4
7.2
11
microfarads
r
kiloohms
1.1
1

1.5
1.3

1.2
1.1

C12
micro
15


18


14


microfarads
Y12
r
kil ohms
570


640


650


L
?e
micro
nrys
20
18.1
17.5
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.2
16.8
16
Y21
r
ohms
30.4.
27.8
1.92
29
22.2
1.97
30
27
3.49
C
mice
69
35
26
89.5
43
38
87
43.5
32
microfarads
Y22
kiloohms
32
12.2
9.1
38.2
10.6
8.4
41.2
10.9
7.65
1. Giacoletto,L.J.  Terminology and Equations for Linear Active FourTerminal
Networks Including Transistors. RCA Review, Vol.114., No.1 (1953)
2. Shea,R.F.  Principles of Transistor Circuits. New York (1953)
3. Tarasov,V.L.  Systems of Transistor Characteristics and Parameters. Materials
of the VI ScientificTechnical Conference of the Higher Militar%V 'School of
Aviation Engineering, Report 57, Kharkov (i956)
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CONCERNING THE SYNTHESIS. OF AMPLIFYING CIRCUITS
by
S.V.Samsonenko
Description of a new mathematical.procedure for analysis of
transient processes in amplifiers. Proposal to employ this
procedure as the basis for synthesis of multistage systems
according to various standards of signal distortion.
A particularly interesting factor in the designing of amplifiers for pulsed de
vices is the synthesis of their parameters according to some given standards of pulse
distortion. Here, as a rule, the various standards of signal distortion determine
various technical. characteristics of the pulsed device. For example, steepness of
pulse front characterizes the accuracy and resolving power of the pulsed range find
er, overshoot characterizes the contrast of television image, distortions corres
ponding to the optimal signaltonoise ratio yield the real sensitivity of the
pulsed receiver, and so forth.
It is obvious that a definite form of pulseform distortion is important for
every type of radio line, wit11 h the allowable value of such distortion depending on
the 'concrete conditions of operation of the pulsed device. The thus resulting dis
tortion stardards`are to he regarded as initial values in, computing a given ampli
fier circuit.
One fundamental difficulty in the synthesis of amplifying circuits is the com
plerityy of the mathematical apparatus which, as a rule, is based on operational cal
culus. The application of orthogonal polynomials considerably simplifies a solution
of this problem.
The present paper employs the method of orthogonal polynomials to furnish rating
formulas underlyyingthe synthesis of any amplifying circuit. In particular, this
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paper furnishes t he formulas of relationships between the values charact,erizir,F am
plifier parameters and such standards of signal distortion as front rise lime accord
inr to the interdecimal interval, amplitude of the first overshoot, and front rise
time according to the maximum steepness of transient process. With the aid of this
method it is facile to obtain rating formulas for raking such synthesis also accord
ing to the other standards of signal distortion that are of practical interest.
The application of orthogonal polynomials makes it also possible to simplify
considerably the computation of the transient process, especially in multistage am
plifier's.
t z:,) paper begins by citing the foundations of the aforementioned mathematical
apparatus and also some definitions which will be used hereafter.
System
Let us assume that a single break shock acts upon the linear system depicted in
Fig.l, with a transmission factor F (p). The signal E (t) which is thereupon ob
tained on the output will be hereafter referred to as the transient function of the
system. As is known, transmission factor F (p) represents a transient function con
verted according to Carson
I `p (P) E (l) e'r dt.
where p is complex variable.and't is elapsing time.
Let us introduce the standardized transient
1?1 t
P(P}
Fig.I
U(t)  E (t,
E(_x)
and also the steepness of the standardized transient
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f (t) = dU (t)
dt
Let us thereupon investigate only the systems for which the E (?.) equals a con
slant value 4ermed stationary level. It is clear that for such systems 11 ('r) 1
and f (n)  0. Let us examine only the systems (amplifiers) with zero initial condi
tions. for which U  0 at t  0. In this case, the following. expression applies to
the standardized parameters
as a.
J f (t) dt _ $ dU (t) s 1.
! U (t) aPt dt.
ti
In accordance with the theorem of differentiation in the range of the real var
(1)
Let us also introduce the standardized transmission factor of the system, K (p),
as a standardized transient response converted according to Carsonts law
K (P)
P
iable, the following formula applies to systems with zero initial conditions
K (P)  f (t) dt.
(2)
(3)
The purpose of the analysis is, as isknown, to determine the formulas for
U (t) or f (t) as functions of'the parameters of a system, which is effected with
the aid of operational calculus by means of converting eqs.(2) or (3) at a given
formula for K (p). If the system is of the multistage type and is determined by an
equation of a,high order, the computations become greatly involved; the formulas
thus obtained for some simple systems are so cumbersome that their computation, and
the determination of the system parameters ensuring the necessary form of transient
process, is an extremely arduous process. The present paper proposes a simpler way
of analyzing transient responses, as based on dissociating them into H?rmite poly
'nomials.
F'r392U/v 65
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2. Jissociation ],,to Iiermite Polyno
Threshold theorems of the probability theory (!3ibl.1), as apnlied to the ana;
psis of the asymptotic properties of' the transient, responses of multistage amplifi
were used L.A.I?!eyerovich and G.P.Tartakovskiy (Ibibl.2) todemonst.rate that at
_a number of stages equal to n the form of the curve of the transient mode on the
I output of a system strives, at, the presence of break shock, to approximate Krampfs
function, while the steepness of the transient process tends to approximate the Her
mite function. Hence, it is natural to examine the transient responses of a rulti
stage s;lstem from the viewpoint of their approximation to Kramnfs and I!em..itefs
''unctions, by representing them accordingly in the form of functional series whose
coefficients should be functions of the parameters of the s:stem.
As demonstrated in a previous paper (iih1.3), such a dissociation, as annlied
to the steepness of the standardized transient response, can be representei as fol
lows
OR
f(t)= E
o
x2
Here rof (x)  ( 1)Ve ~ Hv (x) is the with derivative of Ermitfs function,
i!v (x) is Hermite polynomial of the with order,
By are dissociation coefficients,
x is the standardized variable x ` , Al where t stands for elapsing time
and Al stands for a constant value which can be subsequently determined (see eq.(9)
at v = 1).
In order that dissociation (h) have sense, the coefficients By should exist.
It can be demonstrated that coefficients B.
exist for all systems whose transmission
factor has separate points on the left semiplane. Without giving proof of this
statement at the time let us pass over to determining the formulas for the dissocia
T ;.ion coefficients itv. For this purpose, let us multir)1i, both parts of eq.(4)?
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1)' $f (t)H,(x)dx.
_a
ail` (x) an.i carr;? out an interration rar'ginP t'rom  to Proceedirr' from the re
~ we o:.taj.n the
quirement of ort.hogonalitY of herm.itian polynomials weighing e
following formula on the twosided infinite interval
(5)
Su:^stitutiniz, hermitian polynomials into eq. (5) and carr;fint o'it integration
within the arovementioned limits, we obtain
B = M,  1
B0 A, A
M, M 1 _ 6 M,
B, A3 B~  _ Ai Ai
1 1
B~ M, 10 M,
A; A'
(6)
where I: star,'i for the central moments of the standardized transient
1 v
'
response of a system, determined b;' the formula
co
.y1  $ (t  A,)' f (t) dt.
m
(7)
On removing the parentheses and integrating, we obtain
Al, A,  A . ,tt.,  A3  3A1 A, 2A?
M4=A,,, 4A, A,+6A;A,3A;
M. _ A, A,_1 At ~tv21 A,_,A' + . . (1)'At
(8)
where Al, A2, A . . . A stand for simple moments of the standardized transient
response
ao
A, J t'f(t)dt
00
r?'r392 P/v
67
(9)
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Obviously Av is the parameter of our system, which characterizes it in a def
inite manner. Another previous paper (BiblJi.) demonstrates that the moments of the
system AV can be expressed by moments of separate stages a', where
(10)
and q. (t) stands for the steepness of the transient response of the separate ith
stage. This steepness is determined through the standardized transmission factor of
the ith stage, Iii (n) with the aid of the Laplace transform, by the following form
00
,r . ~"~r(t)t` dt,
0
Go
Kr (P) = $ epr (t) dt.
U
If a system consists of n different stages and its transmission factor is
K (P) = rI Kr (P).
rI
then, by introducing the logarithmic transmission factor (Bibl.2, 4.), the connection
between AV and ?{V) can be presented in this form
?r
A.d
rl
n It
As= v(?2 + ?t)
rI
As ?33?ixi. +2?i')31?i [ (?
1 ?1+l.Lr ?i)3
r_1 r1 rI ri
Ai = ( ?q  3x~'  4xi a3 + 12o aZ  6 ) +
3 ?2  ?i~18 +
r_ r f1
+4 l.Lr ?r) l`( ?3 3?i ?2+2?i'J +
rr ri
(( n (( n ( n
2 at
ri rr J rr
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On the other hand, in the event of identical stages K (p) = KO (p)
Al=na,
As=n( as  ai)+nsai
A 3 = n (~9  3a1a2 + 2a1)  3n2 (a=  ai) al } n9 ai ( l3 )
A,r(a43ai4a1a9+ 12%a2 6a1) }3n'(as(xl,)s{
+ 4ns al (a3. 304% + 2a1) + 6n' a, (as  ai) + n' ai
Analogous formulas can be obtained for central moments:
n
Ms M3=1113")'
s tt ri
If the stage moments are known, the substitution of eqs.(8) and (12) into the
formulas for coefficients B,, and hence into series (G.), will yield a solution to
the posed task.
When using this series it is to be considered that, for practical purposes, the
petty details of transient processes usually are of no interest; therefore, on being
satisfied withan accuracy of the order of 5 to 10%, it is possible to discard mem
bers in the dissociations whose absolute value is below 5 to 10% of the modulus of
the first member. Inasmuch as the value of functions (Pl (x),cp2 (x) . . .,is of one
and the same order, and Bo = 1, we can ignore the members for which
B, < (0,1 . 0,5) v!
Proceeding from this assumption, it can be presupposed that a definite sum of
the series, consisting of four members, will yield thegeneral formula for the
.steepness of the transient processof a system
f (t) = fl L (X) + 2 ?,,,(X) 31 pill (X) + 1 _ B41 
' pnu (X) 1 . (16)
It is easy to.make the transition from.steepness f (t) to transient process by
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means of integration of members. In effect, considering that
and also considering that
f (0) A1dt = U(x)
x x
f y (x)dx = O(x) an of S p" (x) dx = cp"' (x) ,
00 60
where T (x) is Kramp's function, we obtain the following formula for the transient
U (x) = (p (x) I 2' (r'. (x)
`,, (x) f a,
4!
(17)
For the multistage systems consisting of identical stages the formulas for co
efficients B%, can be still more simplified. In this case
B1 ? 1; B,
n
a
Bt ~`~ + d2  6? + 3
P1 Pi P&  3 P9
a= 2 bas 3 c ; d=3a'
a1 a1 al
Considering that the values a, b, c, and d, have one and the same order, only
members of the order of n should be considered in formulas for Bv, and the members
of a higher power, and _ can be ignored. Thereupon, the coefficients will
1; B, a  1: B., = 0: B. s S 
(19)
Analogous simplifications can be obtained for an amplifier with nonidentical
stages.
The computation of transient processes according to egs.(16). or (17) is much
simpler than if done according to the formulas obtained by the operational calculus
method. In effect, the multipliers determining the evolution of the process with
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time  the derivatives of Hermite and Kramp functions  are tabulated, while tre
coefficients R,, are constant numbers at given parameters of a system. Moreover
there is no increase in the difficulty of such computing of a system consisting of
differing stages, while the analysis of such a system by the operational method
would he very complicated.
In order to conduct computations according to egs.(17) and (18) it is necessary
to know the formulas for By as a function of system parameters; for this purpose it
is necessary to establish a relationship between stage moments and stage parameters.
3. The Calculation of the Moments of Transient Responses of Amplifying Stages
If the set stage transmission factor pertains to Ki (p), then a(i) can be com
puted by applying conversion formulas to the formula for Ki (p) and thereupon com
puting the integrals according to eq.(10). But this procedure leads to very cum
brous calculations at even a small increase in the complexity of a stage circuit,
and therefore we are presenting below a simpler method of solving this task and elim
inating the need for resorting to conversion formulas. In effect, the general form
of the transmission factor for most amplifying circuits. should be represented by a
fractionalrational function of this fora
1(1 (p) =
where n > m. 
On dissociating the formula for Ki (p) into a series according to positive
powers of p, and on substituting into eq.(11), we obtain
1 4 at P a2 P'+  nmPM
1+bjpFb2P'+ ??FbnPn ,
(20)
OD 00
1+ E CAP ,p(t)av'dt,
r1 0
(21)
where C1, C2 . . . CC are determined by means of identical conversions. It is to be
noted that the lefthand part of this equality converges within a circle with a
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as for
radius extending to the first separate point, and with center at point p = C;
the righthand part, it converges virtually for all p's located in the righthand
semiplane: thus both parts of the equality have large areas of convergence on the
plane of the complex variable.
On representing e Pt in the form'of an exponential series
1  pt + P"  (PIN + .. .
21 31
and substituting into the righthand part of eq.(21), we obtain
Ob so
Y
1 + IC. Pra,( 1)r P1 ,
?1 .1
where av =r tvf (t) dt is the moment of the with order of the transient function of
u
stage. On making equal the coefficients in this formula at equal powers of p, we
obtain the simple formula
Q a ( 1)rvlCr.
r
(22)
Table 1 cites values of av computed for some forms of the transmission factor
a
according to eq.(22). Moreover, considering that the connection between central and
simple moments for individual stages is expressed by a formula analogous to eq.(8),
Table 1 can be used as the basis for computing the central moments of stages. The,.
results of the calculations for some forms of the transmission factor are given in
a general form in Table 2.
An example is provided in Table 3 which cites the values of moments cv and ?v
for specific stage circuits computed according to the formulas in. Tables 2 and 1.
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4
.0
4
a
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Table 3
Type of Stage Circuit
Standardized
Transmission
Factor
Stage
Moments
Central
Stage Moments
2
I: a
pl=O; P?1
K(P)? I+p
a,
3
a3  6. o,  24
tJ3  2; Pi = 9
p iwR,,C
1+ mp
a1  1  m;
P1?0; I'2
(P)= 1}p1 mp=
a,_2(12m)
12mm1
a3 
P3
p  iwRoC
6(1  3m + m2)
2(13mm')
L
.
a
3(624m+
p
,
,
CR;
24(1  4m + 3m1)
+ 18m2 + 4m'm')
1,.. Examples of the Analysis of Transient Processes By Means of Orthogonal Polynom
a. ResistorCoupled Amplifier Without Correction. In accordance with Table 3
and eqs.(18), we have
a=1; b=2; c'=6; d3;
dissociation'coefficients
1 2 6 3 6
B2 =  1; B3 =  ; B. _ = F i   { 3
n n' n~ n n
and the transient process will be, in accordance with eq.(111)
U (X) (X) + 1  n I' (X) 3I V, (X)' +
+ 24 (n? + n'  n { 3) ?,u (X)
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In the particular case of a sixstage amplifier (n 6), we have
U (x) 'P (x)  0,416 G' (x)  0,00925 cp" (x) + 0;0875 ,?" (x). (23)
The graph of this function is depicted in Fig.2
b. ResistorCoupled Amplifier With Parallel Correction. In accordance with
Table 3 and eqs.(18), we have
 m'2m b _ 2 13mm'
(1m)' (Im)'
c .6 14m+2m'm' d=3 (I ?m'2m)'
Fig3
In the particular instance of a sixstage amplifier and m = 0.36, we have
a = 0,33; b =  0,98; c =  7,05; d = 0,402;
B3 0,94; B, 0,0272; B4 = 2,613.
In this case the transient process formula will be
U (x) CP (x)  0,47 tp' (x) } 0,00455 p? (x) + 0,1 ce" (x). (2~ )
The graph of this function is depicted in Fig3.'
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Fig.2
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4. Synthesis of Amplifying Circuits
It can he concluded from an examination of eqs.(23) and (2h) that multistate
amplifiers are not greatly affected by the third and fourth members of the dissocia
tions; therefore. if a computing accuracy of the order of 10% he recognized as suf
ficient, the corresponding formula for the transient response can be represented in
the form of a t: inomial
U (x) = 0 (X) + 2' ,, (x), (25)
and the steepness, in this form
f W = Al {(x)+ 4c."(x)}. (26)
df.(t)=0.
dx
(27)
On substituting the Hermite functions into eq.(27) and taking the derivatives,
we obtain, after reduction
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76
Thereupon the problem of the synthesis is reduced to investigating the applica
tions of eqs.(25) and (26) to various types of signal distortion. Let us conduct
syntheses of amplifiers.
a. Synthesis According to a Given Steepness of Transient Response (Pulse
Front). Considering that the steepness of the front is variable, it can be set in
various ways. In a number of practical cases it is important to know the maximum
steepness of pulse front, which is the most characteristic point on the pulse front
and as such is'most easily recognizable by station operators. Therefore, in the_
given case we will adopt the maximiun steepness of transient process at the, output of
a system as the initial parameter for the synthesis..
The coordinates of the point of maximum steepness are determined from the fol
lowing equality
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I e t.rar
in eq.(25) t ne member with 'e coefficient, I'l let,errinirr the as;nrme',r of
sien` process. we, of course'. ci:'tai.n L}'e s;7anet.rical transient process in wic` tre
tire coordinate of ' ne maxim'mi steepness coincides with .i'e time coordinate of ' ^e
cer' er of '.}'e rise fror'.
On sul"s' i`:a inf t^e value x 0 into eq.(2(~) we o'tain the value of rr.axirru.~n.
steepness as a of circuit parameters
The root x  0 is the soughtfor roof., ''ecause It, correspor"is to 'J e r)oin', of
max chile of the transient. process. lr ef"ec'.' upon liscardira,
i.m~~r^ steepness in the r;i
xl H' (3x')1 J==o.
f(A)=
0,4
A,
R,
2
(28)
At a set steepness, the derivation of tris equality in relation to circuit
parameters presents no diff,cuities.
Inasm':ch as all the aboveexpoundei reaso'ing applies to standardized ransien:
responses, a valueopnosite to steepness represens the frot&t rise time f
'f
0,4(1 =1
Usually, all problems of ",he transient process are solveri in infinite time
where t' is time in seconds and is' the ti.mensional' coefficient, wi,ic: de
pends on circuit parameters.
therefore the front Lime rieterminalle by eq'.(2) is
also dimensionless, and the front time in seconds will be
0,4 (t  Q. ~~
This foemi.la can serve for compuLinp the iuraLion of the front of the transient
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vrocess on the output of any multistage system upon substituting into it the values
of Al, i;2 and correspondinE to the given circuit.
At a practical synthesis it is also necessary to consider the resultant ampli
fication factor of the system, and then the problem of synthesis has to be differ
ently formulated. In this case, the set values are: a) time (or steepness) of tran
sient process; b) parameters of amplifier tube S and Ck; and c) required amplifica
tion factor. The solution of this proFlem by means of eq.(26) is easily applicable
to any circuit.
b. Synthesis of Amplifier According to Overshoot of Transient Response. In
this case. the initial value for the calculations is represented bar the amplitude of
the first overshoot of transient response ;.. The amplitude of overshoot for the
standardized transient response will be, in accordance with eq.(25)
A = d' (X1) _f .1! ' (x1)  1 ,
2
(29)
where x, is the time coordinate of overshoot, determined from the following require
f (t) = 0, i.e., . (x) } 2= " (x) = 0.
On substituting here the formulas for Ermit functions and carrying outthe re
ductions, we obtain
 1 = 0.
x2 ? B.
B.
are interested in the positive root, of this equation, which will be
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At substitution of the value of this root into eq.(29) it can be seen that the
amplitude of overshoot is a function of the value of B2. A graph of this relation
ship for larger values of.B2 (132 . 1) is depicted in Fig.l4, and for smaller values
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of 1', (1n,) 1), in F'ig.5.
af(&)
at 1) 6
l>Q
5
;
5
421(18,1027)ai Q5> 18,1>0.3
Bl
A?/o = 9,5 (B2  0,63).
At small values of B2 this relation
ship has a nonlinear character, but for
practical purposes it can be approximated
with sufficient accuracy *,,~y two straight
lines
As for the coefficient r'2 for an am
plifier with identical stages. it is?.ie
ermined by the following equation
This formula can serve, together with the graphs in I~ig.It. and 5, hoth for com
puting amplifier parameters according to a given value of overshoot and for deter
mining the amplitude of overshoot according to.known parameters of multistage cir
cuit. On substituting the value of moments for this or that amplifier circuit into
eq.(30)we obtain rating formulas for a specific multistage circuit schematic. The
conduct of the related computations presents no difficulties.
c. Amplifier Synthesis According to Rise Time Corresponding to the lnterdeci
mal Ordinate Drop (0.1  0.9) of the Transient Response. The rise time correspon.i
ing to the interdecimal ordinate drop is determined by the following formula
F''f ;92) 8/V
IL is clear from Lhese graphs that the relationship /, _ p (t2) has a linear
character at larger values of h2, and is
o/f(Sz) .5(IB,IQb3) at 18,1:1
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approximated by the formula
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tmo109 = tog  tot = Al (x0.9 x0.1.).
(31)
where x0 9 and x0.1 are determined from eq.'(25) by deriving the following equations
U (X".9) = eP (x0,9) + B. T,. (X0.9).
U (x01) = (x0.1)+ 2
On deriving these equations graphically we obtain the relationships x0.1 and
x0.9 as functions of R2 (Fig.'), on the basis of which the soughtfor relationship
is detertr.ined.
L x61 FT7"I
FI
11
E
' I I I T
4s j r  1
0.5 45 a4 OV 0 01 4= 06 0.8 '(1 !2 1' Tb 5,
Fig.6
As can be seen from the above .graph, relationships x0.1 :1 (b2) and x
0.9
;,2 (B2) have identical inclination, but only x01 varies in the field of negative
values of x; in this case, the value of I) (1?2) is determined by the sum of values
of x0.9 and x0.1, and not by the difference 'in these values. On carrying out the
summation (Fig.6), we find that ' (B2)does not depend on B2 and equals a constant
value of(") = 2.6. Then the dimensionless duration of the interdecimal drop will be
To,l0,9 = A1.2,6 .
This formula also furnishes a solution to the problem of the interdecima'l
interval synthesis.
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RIPPLE FILTERS OF LOWPOWER RECTIFIERS
by
L.L.Dekabrun
Some specific proposals about computing the elements of
the pi filters widely applied in lowpower feed sources.
The methodology of the analysis of rectifier processes is fairly well developed
by now. On the basis of a series of rational postulates all the information necess
ary in rectifier designing has been reduced to suitable graphs and formulas (Bibl.l),
which are cited in student handbooks and manuals. Taut there is much less information
available about the designing of ripple filters; moreover, the available information
leaves us with a feeling of dissatisfaction. Thus for instance, some works (Fibl.2)
cite empirical choke computing formulas which have to be considerably deviated from.
Other works (Bibl.3) make attempts at analyzing filter processes (more exactly,
filterchoke processes). It would be worthwhile to review briefly these attempts in
7 ? order to get an idea of the situation in this field as a whole.
In Bib1.3?it is assumed that the maximum dynamic inductance for a?given choke
is achieved when the choke core displays the maximum dynamic permeability (u.d)mak
i.e., whenthe magnetic state of the core corresponds to a bend in the magnetization
curve. The value of the air gap in the magnetic circuit is selected such as to at
tain precisely this state of the core at a set direct current component in the wind
ing. No importance need be attached to the error committed by the author of Bibl.3
in the determination of induction at the bending point of the magnetization curve at
divers air gaps in the magnetic circuit (in Bibl.3 every value of air gap is corres
ponded by a specific value of induction at the bending.point of the magnetization
curve, whereas actually this bending of the curve expresses merely the properties
of the core and is always present at one and the same induction in steel, regardless
.
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U(
of the value of the air gap). It is incorrect, to relate choke computations to a
? definite coincidence between initial magnetizing of the core and the henri in the mag
netization curve, because the dynamic inductance of the choke,
L,r =
0,4aSew'
(1)
determining, the smoothing properties of the filter, is chiefly affected by the num
ber of choke turns w, and not by permeability of steel ?d, because the cited length
of core remains lesser than or comparable in value with the length of the normal air
gap Iv up to an induction of 10 to 12 kc. Moreover, none of the existing handbooks
cites a complete curve of magnetization of transformer steel which would make it
possible to establish reliably the induction at the bending point. The tables cited
in the existing handbooks can merely be used to determine induction'at 25 ampere
turns per centimeter, i.e., far behind the bending point which ranges at 3 to 1,. kc.
? (Incidentally, from these figures it can be seen how prdfitable is it to use at the
bending point a steel with'a saturation induction of 15 to 18 kc.).
Experience shows that the basic characteristics of. the feed source, that is to
say, its internal resistance and value of alternating voltage background, depend
very considerably on the proper choice of ripple filter elements and on the mode of
dperation of these elements. Therefore, it is.relevant tb devote serious attentiopy
to these matters.
The dynamic inductance of a filter choke at an initial current of Io in its
winding is thus expressed
dl
C dt >ta
It
(2)
where Eb is the change in chokewinding voltage caused by a change in initial cur
rent Io by a value of dI during a time dt. 
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I DDC
4
Hence the dynamic inductance of choke, determining the smoothing properties of
. .
Ld = w'S [ ~B ] ? 101
e d (1r) B.
_ Ld = w' dB
Ldp S, ( d (Iw) JB. ? 10
.
where Bc is induction in the steel of the magnetic circuit, and SC is.crosssectional
area of the magnetic circuit.
Equation (3) can be transformed
a filter, will be
A direct cause for the appearance of voltage is the variation in magnetic
flux 4 in'the magnetic circuit of the choke
0
Ed = w ( dt ?108
_dt ) o,
(3)
It is clear that (p 0 stands for magnetic flux conditional on winding current Io,
and d4) stands for the change in the flux caused by a change in magnetizing current
by the value of dI.
Considering that
0 = BC Sc, (4)
Ed  w S, ( dB )a. 10_8 wSC de C ? : /1. ? 10` _
 \ I / dB l ( dl ti e
= c L d(/w) ]B, \ dt )fo ' l0
(6)
It is convenient hereafter to deal with inductance.per unit of crosssectional
area of magnetic circuit
To 'determine Ldo the following formula is necessary
B = f (1w)
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(7)
(8)
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Fig.l 
will assist us in establishing some
Figure 1 depicts the method of
at divers values of the air gap lv in the magnetic circuit. This formula can be ob
in the case when the length of magnetic line in. steel lc is known, i.e.,
tained only
when subsequent analysis cannot remain general any more and has to be specific and
to pertain to some definite transformer steel forging selected for a given choke.
However, before treating of specific chokes with numerical formulations of corres
ponding conclusions, let us review the problem from its qualitative aspect; which
general laws.
plotting a magnetization curve for a magnetic
circuit without indicating the
scale of
the axes of the coordinates. The air gap
in this circuit has a definite value. In
order to establish some induction Bl in
this circuit, it is necessary, on the one
hand, to have the following ampereturns
(ai2')ct=(aw)collc, (9)
creating a magnetic flux in the core and,
on the other hand, to have these ampereturns
B,
(aw)vl = 0.4 a IWI
for creating a magnetic flux in the air gap.
B..f (aw)
TV
in Fig.1 represents the magnetization characteristic of a given magnetic circuit
with a given air gap. It is obvious that such curves can be plotted for any value
of the air gap t so long as this gap is not such as to cause induction. in steel and
v
induction in air to differ substantially from each other. The equality of inductions
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:O
is fairly reliably guaranteed by the following formula
S, [ail 100 (CM] .
ib FCM1
This inequality remains true in all practical cases. and therefore the magneti
zation curve as plotted in Fig.l does not have to be subsequently corrected. This
plotting, and the subsequent graphical differentiation, yield the following formula
dB_ = f(Iw)
at (1w)
at divers values of the air gap, which is illustrated in Fig.2 where it is obvious
IV2 > IV1?
These curves illustrate very demonstrably the effect of the air gap: at suffic
tion, it is obvious that
(1o)i < (1o)2 < (10)3.
iently large magnetizing ampereturns the air gap increases choke inductance. How
ever, the formula for choke inductance includes not only.the determined value dB
d w
but also the number of choke winding turns w.
Every'value of ampereturns plotted on the axis of abscissas in Fig.2 is cor
responded by a specific value of the number of turns which depends on the value of
initial winding current 1o. In Fig.2 there are plotted curves 1, 2, and 3. express
ing the relationship w = f,(Iw) at three different values. of I . In this connec
0
Thus in Fig.2 'there are concentrated all the data necessary for explaining by
eq.(7) the specific dynamic inductance of choke, Ldo. In this connection, we can
plot a chart for any value of the current I0, as illustrated' in Fig3 which demon
strates very graphically that at a given current Io it is advisable to take a great
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00
I
d8
dfflK
Fig.2
Fig.3
area of the wire will sooner or later prove inadequate for ensuring a safe thermal
mode of operation of the choke. Accordingly, in choke designing it is necessary to
set a limit on the number of turns which will enter the choke port without endanger
number of turns in a choke introducing a commensurate air /dap andmarnet,ic circuit.
It appears that the increase in Ldo will be steady; however, at sufficiently large
air gaps the leakage fluxes will begin to exert a considerable influence and the
abovecited chart will cease to be valid.
It is evident that the number of choke turns cannot increase indefinitely, be
cause, owing to the limited area of the port of the choke core's o the crosssectional.
ing the safety of the thermal aspect of operation of the crosssectional area of the
winding wire for a given current. For chokes with enameledwire windings the wind
ing current, density should not exceed 2 to 2.5 a/mm2. A proper value of the air
gap tv is'chosen for the thus obtained number of turns, and then the'transformer
steel forging selected for 'the choke is utilized to the maximum degree.
The foregoing is illustrated by the calculation of a specific choke with an
open Sh40?core having a port area of So = 20 x 60 = 1200'rmn2. At the customary
"pileup" ?reeling the crosssectional area of the copper in the winding takes up 25 
to 50% of port area. At the allowable current density of 2 a/mm2 the number of
initial magnetizing ampereturns awo varies from 600 to 1200. Upon plotting the
magnetization curves for the given core for divers values of the air gap lv and upon
determining dB at the abovementioned value of magnetizing ampereturns, we will
FTS9248/V 87
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DC
obtain the following formula
/A  f (t"),
eu~
illustrated in Fig.4.
The curves in Fig4 indicate that the optimum air gap for the Shh0 core meas
dB/dRW
Fig.4
Fig5
a) Sh/+0 X.40 steel; b) Sh32 x 32 steel
ures 0.5 mm; when the core port is properly utilized for the winding (here we have
in mind the air gap in every leg of the magnetic circuit; thus the full air gap meas
ures 1 mm). Atsuch an air gap the dynamic inductance of the choke is approximately
ing turns, depends on
choke. Fig5 depicts
core at a circuitleg
The speoific diameter of wire d and, consequently, the specific number of'wind
20 times higher than in the case of a completely closed' magnetic circuit:
the value of the current I 0 which should be passed by the
air
full response curve of a filter choke with a?Shf,.O X 40.
gap'of 0.5 mm and a portfilling, coefficient of 0.5. For
comparison, Fig5 also depicts the curves
same portfilling coefficient.
These curves indicate that the choke
FTS9248/V?
for a choke with a Sh32 x 32.core at the
increases considerably the internal resis
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()O
tance of the feed source. which is undesirable no matter how one looks at, it. V. is
therefore natural to pose the question of how to cause the feed source to have the
least internal resistance at a given value of output voltage pulsation.
The available comparative data on all forgings of the transformer steel applied
at present in lowpower feed sources lead us to select the parameters of the flfilter
a)
Fig.6
a) Rectifier; b) Toward stabilizer
or load
(Fig.6) in the following, order of sequence:
1. Capacitor C and the resistance or
transformer and kenotron R1 are selected by cal
culating the maximum peaks of charge current al
lowable for the rectifier's kenotron; all the
related necessary information is provided in the
aforecited book by F..P.Terent'yev. At such values of C1 and R1 we can ensure the
minimum amplitude of pulsation of the filter input voltage U1.
2. Choke inductance Ld should correspond to this formula
mwLd~(10  12) m 1
WC~
i
(12)
wherem is the'number of phases of rectified voltage; w is the frequency of this
voltage. In a case to the contrary the kenotron of the rectifier would be overload
ed by current pulses. The type of core and the chokewinding data are'selected ac
curves depicted in Fig5.
3. The necessary value of the
rectified voltage
cording to the value of choke inductance found
.current I 'and the comparative characteristics
0
from eq.,(12), the known value of l,he
of various forgings analogous to the
smoothingfactor for the, fundamental harmonic
U' `  Y (1  m1 w2 Ld Cap )'+ 171? w2 R2 Cz ; n:' w2 Ld C,
Ti = U, 
(13)
is used to calculate the value of capacitance C,, of LI' 'filter. In eq.(13) U1_
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c~ c
stands for the alternating component of the filter input voltage, which is computed
by the methods described in fihl..l; and U2 stands for the alternating component of

the filter output voltage, whose value is determined by the technical characteristics
of the consumer.
Such a ripple filter has the minimum dimensions and increases most minimally
the internal resistance of the feed source.
Article received by Editors on 29 March 1955
1.
Terentfyev,P.P.  The Power Supply of Radio Equipment. Svyazfizdat (191.3)
2.
Malft,P.A.  Rectifier an.i Amplifier Equipment. Gos.l:inoizdat (191L9)
3.
Kazarinov,I.A.  Selenium Rectifiers for Communications Enterprises.
Svyrazfiz
dat (1952)
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J.:J.
I 0
SIMULTANEOUS OSCILLATIONS OF 7+4O FREQUEAXIFS IN A
SELFOSCILIATOR WITii SELFBIAS
by
G.M.Utkin
Active Member, A.S.Popov ScientificTechnical Society for
Radio and Communication Engineering
A previous paper by the writer (Bibl.2) furnished a general theory of two
circuit selfoscillators with multiple circuit frequencies. The present paper dis
cusses an analogous selfoscillator on taking into account selfbias from grid cur
rent. At a low inertiality of the selfbias cell in a twocircuit selfoscillator
(Fig.l) it is possible to have stable oscillations of two frequencies, be they mul
tiple or asynchronous (Bibl.3)? To demonstrate this,
let us investigate the stability of the modes of syn
chronization and of beats at'a lowinertia selfbias
from grid current.
The equations for the selfoscillator shown in
Fig.l, with selfbias for the frequency multiples of
Fig.l
n  3 and with a linearbroken approximationof the plate current characteristic,
r
? have been formulated in Bibl.l. During the derivation of these equations, the com
pound form of plate and grid currents, having the aspect of a series of higher
frequency pulses periodically repeated with a lower oscillation frequency, has been
approximated by a cosinusoid inscribed between the platecurrent pulse envelope and
the axis of abscissas, as illustratedby broken line in Fig.2 which depicts the form
of plate current and its approximation when two multiplefrequency voltages are act
ing on the grid. As a result, the necessary plate current harmonics prove to be
functions of the angle of cutoff of the plate, current
for the selfoscillator assume this aspect:
FTS921,.8/V .
envelope, and the equations
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cuits; S, Sc are the
(2 SRS Y11) U,.
Tl (U, ==
T,U'~= 2 SR2I$UlU2.
TE,l= 2 S, Reis (ee)U1I E,I,
To = Am T2  SR2 2 U~~ 7n + 4 b2 R2 on1 In+1 , sin ~Q~
T1' , = 4 SR, 7.1  In+1) sin q,
transconductances of the idealized characteristics of'plate and
2' T
71612
2 T
w262 c
The equations for the :synchronization
lQ
b)
t
= R C are the circuit time constantsand
mode are obtained from (1) it:U1 = U2 =
= Ec = m = 0, and have this aspect
I(r) r
I(t)?T [1+CW(ar+YA
Fig.2
S. R, i = 2, 
S'R2 11 Ui = 2 Us.
I ?e 2 S, Re 10 (ee) U1?'
Am = (Awl + Aw") sin*?, .
Aw, sine?
n
where U1, U2'and m are the amplitudes and general phase difference in the grid vol
tages of the fundamental frequencies; Ec is the bias voltage; pw = w2  nwl is the
general circuit detuning;
W1 is the correction for oscillation frequency in the first circuit in relation to
its natural frequency; Yl (0) are the coefficients of dissociation of the cosinusoi
dal pulse into the cutoff angle 0; R1, R2 are the control resistances of thecir
grid circuits T1 =
selfbias cells*
the designations:
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(1)
(2)
Thelast two equations use the
first two equations and introduce
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,&Mp _ Olds 7r
2 70 I
7n1  7n Hl
2 271
(3)
Let us investigate the stability of the modes of simultaneous oscillations of
two frequencies on the assumption that the angle of cutoff of grid current 'is small,
i.e., that Rc is sufficiently large. In this case, the bias voltage equals the sum
of the voltage amplitudes of the fundamental frequencies and, at a low inertiality
of the selfbias cell (Tc x 0), it continually varies with them. In this connection,
it is found that the angle of cutoff of the plate current envelope is not affected by
the voltage amplitude of the higher frequency (actually, there is some relationship
between them, but a weak one). The justice of the above statements can be easily
verified by substituting Ec =  (U1 + U2) into the formula for the cosine of the
angle of cutoff
EE E, + Us
cose=  U
whereupon we obtain
cose=lU,`
Considering that the first two equations in the initial set (1) are?not affected .
'by phase *, the study, of the stability of the system atvariations in voltage am
plitudes is reduced to a study of these first two equations in set (1). On composing
the corresponding firstapproximation formulas it is not difficult to ascertain that
the conditions for system stability in face of variations in amplitudes correspond
to the satisfaction of this inequality
(4)
This result is the more probable the higher is the multiplicity of frequencies.
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The above inequality is always satisfied at the assumptions adopted: an in
crease in Ul causes a decrease in A and hence also in the coefficient y
? When a system is stable in relation to the variations in amplitudes, it is pos
sible, to have simultaneous oscillations of either the multiple or nonmultiple fre
quencies corresponding to the synchronization and beat modes. The detuning on the
threshold of the synchronization mode is determinable from the requirement for sys
tem stability toward variations in phase w. The requirement for the "phase" stabil
ity of a system is easily obtained from the fourth equation in set (1) and has this
(Awl +Aw") Cos Cf>0.
As depending on the plus or minus sign of the expression in brackets, the range
of stable values of phase cp is  2 < w < 2 or 2 < 3 n. The extreme val
ues correspond to the thresholds of the synchronization mode. The formula for the
detuning on the threshold of the synchronization mode is obtained on substituting
+ 2 into the fourth equation in set (1), whence it follows that
A i  Aar' + Am'.
The present article will not expatiate upon the peculiarities of the synchron
ization and beat modes, because these have already been discussed in detail in
A conducted experiment has corroborated the conclusion about the possibility of
the existence of simultaneous oscillations of two frequencies outside as well as in
side the synchronization zone in a selfoscillator with selfbias. These simultan
eous oscillations of two frequencies continue uninterruptedly at a.smooth change in
circuit detuning from, one synchronization zone to another,
Article received by Editors on 1 October 1955
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1. Utkin,G.M.  SelfOscillatory Systems With Two Degrees of Freedom at Multiple
Frequencies. Candidate Dissertation. V.M.Molotov Moscow Electrical Engi
neering Institute (1955)
2. Utkin,G.M.  SelfOscillatory Systems With Two Degrees of Freedom at?Multijile
Frequencies. Radiotekhnika, No.10 (1956)
3. Utkin,G.M. 'Mutual Synchronization of SelfOscillators on Multiple Frequencies.
Radiot.ekhnika i elektronika, No.1 (1957)
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short waves has been jointly convened by the A_.S.Popov ScientificTechnical Society
for Radio and Communication Engineering, the AllUnion Scientific Council for Radio
Physics and Radio Engineering of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and the Institute for
Radio Engineering and Electronics, USSR Academy~of Sciences.
The conference members listened to and discussed fifteen addresses devoted to
CONFERENCE ON THE PROBLEMS OF FORWARD SCATTER OF
ULTRA SHORT WAVES
In January of this year a conference on the problems of forward scatter of ultra
the theoretical and experimental studies of troposphericand ionospheric forward
scatter of ultra short waves. As is known, during the last six or *seven years many
studies of the forward scatter of ultra short waves have been carried out in a num
ber of countrieq. The investigation of this new form of propagation of ultra short
waves is of 'great practical importance to radio communications, longdistance tele
vision transmission, radio navigation, etc.
In hisprefatory address Professor A.G.Arenberg, Doctor of Engineer"ingSciences,
surveyed the state of theoretical and experimental studies of the related,problems
and outlined the principal tasks of the conference. 
Five papers were devoted to problems of tropospheric scatter.
P.P.Biryulin's paper discussed an integral equationfor the vector potential of
scatter field in an environment with a fluctuating permittivity. The sequence of
approximations obtained when deriving that equation takes into account.the multiple
scatters of various degrees. Unfortunately, the related theory has not yet been
A.S.POPOV SOCIETY NEWS
perfected to a point where it can yield numerical results and can be compared with
experimental data. The physical premises of the theory are not either well founded
as yet.
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u C:
V.A.Zverev described in his paper the methods of computing the mean intensity
of the scatter of radio waves on random irregularities upon taking into account the
width and form of the radiation pattern of the receiving antenna. In this connec
tion, it has been found that the computations of scatter intensity published in lit
erature are correct only when the dimensions of the receiving antenna exceed consid
erably the correlation scale. The lecturer also reviewed the opportunities for an
experimental determination of the correlation function.
D.M.Vysokovskiy's paper was concerned with a critical analysis'of the derivation
of the general formula for the effective area of the scatter of ultra short waves in
the troposphere. The paper furnished a derivation of the formula for power at the
reception point in the event of broad antenna radiation patterns, and it described
some aspects of reception. With respect to narrow antenna radiation patterns; the
paper evaluated the influence of the irregularity of turbulence on the magnitude of
the loss in antenna gain. The paper also contained formulas derived for taking into
account the influence of refraction on the diffusion propagation of ultra short
waves, and demonstrated that it is possible to consider that influence by introducing
the effective radius of the Earth into the appropriate formulas. The influence of
multiple scatter or. the magnitude of field attenuation was appraised, and it was dem
onstrated that this influence can be ignored in a great majority of cases.
The paper by A.A.Semenov and G.A.Karpeyev described the results of an experi
mental investigation of rapid fluctuations in the amplitude of signals reflected
from two fixed reflectors and received by two spaced receivers. The this obtained.
scale of instantaneous values of signal amplitudes proved approximate to the logar
ithmically normal law, which clashes with the theory of multiple reflectors on the
Earth's surface, which was originally adopted as the working hypothesis. This indi
gates the predominance of the influence of the irregularities in the troposphere
itself.
The paper by L.Ya.Kazakov and A.N.Lomakin was devoted to a survey 'of the prin
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Q C,
ciple of performance and design of a radiorefractometer used for measuring the irreg
ularities in permittivity. It also described the problems encountered in the appli
cation of measuring methods and the evaluation of data. Preliminary experiments
have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the intensity and dimensions of ir
regularities. The measurements also have demonstrated the varying character of the
distribution of intensities as depending on altitude, and the presence of intensive
stratified irregularities on divers altitudes, and also sharp changes in intensity
on the threshold of the cloud ceiling.
Ten papers and reports were devoted to the problems of ionospheric forward
scatter.
A.N.Kazantsev surveyed the materials of the VIII Plenary Conference on Iono
spheric Forward Scatter of Meter Waves, convened by the Comite Consultatif Interna
tional pour le Radio, and the program of scheduled research in this field, and also
he briefly described the principles of the new form of communication constituted by
utilizing the reflections of meter waves from the traces of'meteors.
Ya.L.Al'pert described in his paper the results 'of ,a theoretical analysis of
ionospheri'c?scatter of radio waves at a correlation factor having the form of
(' =
P (r) eap l. r
I
where 1 is the scale of irregularity.
i
Utilization of these results makes it possible to employ the analysis of exper
imental data for determining the fluctuations of electron density and the optimum
dimensions, of the scattering irregularities.
B.N.Gershmants paper derived the effective area of ionospheric scatter upon
taking into account the turbulent shifting of the ionized gas. The obtained results
are comparable with the data of the theory of BukerGordon and VillarsVeiskopf.
M.V.Boyenkov surveyed the problems of the use of the forward scatter of 6  10
meter radio waves by reflection from ionospheric layers, and the future perspectives
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10(
The reports by V.A.Bubnov, A.I.Khachaturov and S.I.Sotnikov describe
cases of longdistance reception of meter waves, reception of programs from foreign
television stations, etc. Emphasis was placed on the possible importance of bring
ing the related studies to the attention of radio clubs and radio amateurs so as to
gain en masse actual experimental data about the forward scatter of ultra short
of this form of communication. described
The papers by S.F.rlirkotan and L.A.Drachev, and also by Yu.V.Berezin,
frequency
the methods of investigating the irregular structure of the ionosphere at he re
s aced reception, by means of recording the variations of the phase path of t
p
fleeted pulse. d divers
this field by the USSR Academy of Sciences, and of bringing these matters to the at
. tention of the institutes of the said Academy, and especially the Institute of At
mospheric Physics, and the Main Directorate of the Meteorological Service, minis
tries of communications and radioengineering industry, and the faculties and labror
waves.
ce noted the great theoretical and prac
The resolution adopted by the Conferen
tical importance of developing omnilateral studies of the forward scatter of ultra
short waves in the troposphere and ionosphere, and it also formulated concrete pro
posals concerning a number of scientific and organizational problems.
The resolution pointed out the desirability of coordinating further research in
atories of higher schools:
The Conference approved a motion for publishing a collection of the papers read
SEMINAR ON TRANSISTOR ELECTRONICS
From March 114. to March 21 of this year the A.S.Popov ScientificTechnical So
ciety for Radio and Communication Engineering (Section of Transistor Devices and
Small Parts), in collaboration with the Polytechnical Plu'seum, convened a tenday
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` and to send a copy to each participant. Only then can the mask posed to the seminar
be regarded as completely fulfilled.
In view of the previous experience in convening such'seminars, the Governing
Board of the A.S.Popov Society has resolved to convene.during OctoberNovember 1957
? a special seminar on the problems of popularizing the use of printed circuits, small
parts and ferrites.
A new seminar on transistor electronics is planned to be convened in the next
AllUnion seminar on transistor electronics, in Moscow. The seminar was attended by
600 experts working on electronic matters in plants, designing bureaus, and
over
scientifictechnical institutes of various ministries and agencies, including about
300 scientist and scientifictechnical workers sent to the seminar from 4.3 cities.
The lectures read at the seminar were aimed to explain the foundations of the
theory of transistor devices and their app]ications in the radio engineering cir
cuits. These lectures also surveyed the physics of the operation of transistors,
methods of computing lowfrequency, highfrequency and pulsed circuits, and aspects
of operation of these circuits at changes in temperature.
The participants in the seminar observed that the conduct of such undertakings
is favorable to the realization of the directives of the XX Congress of the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union with regard to the introduction of transistor devices into
the Nation's economy. At a time when relations between the enterprises are not yet
well organized the conduct of this seminar is doubtless conductive to an exchange of
experience.
It is necessary to print as soon as possible the lessons read at the seminar
year. Theprogram of that seminar should be so scheduled' as to reflect to a great
degree the problems of the design and computing of transistorized equipment and of
the omnilateral utilization of printed circuits and small parts. The program should
envisage a date for the exchange of experience among the participants in the seminar
and for the organization of visits to neighboring enterprises.
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VIII th PLENARY ASSFjBLY OF THE INTERNATIONAL RADIO
CONSULTATIVE COF1;ITTEF (CCIR) IN WARS'Vv7'
August 9  September 13, 1956
Study Group
Study Group 1,. is concerned with investigating the problems of the propagation
At its first session the following two Subgroups have been
of surface radio waves.
formed: 11.A, under the chairmanship of tfiillington (England); and hB, under the chair
manship of HerbstreYt (USA).
The area of studies of Subgroup IVA was as follows: 1) Study program and recom
mendations on "Propagation of Surface Waves over Nixed Routes"; and 2) Study program
and paper on "Propagation of Surface Waves over Uneven Terrain".
The area of studies of Subgroup 11B included: 1) Study program on "Influence of
Tropospheric Refraction on Frequencies 1elow 10 me"; 2) Study program on ''Time Var
iations in the Field Strengths of Surface ;laves"; 3) Resolution on "Plotting Curves
of Propagation for Frequencies flelow 300 kc"; 1,.) Recommendation on "Presentation of
Data on Antenna Radiation"; and 5) A novel question broached by the Czechoslovak
delegation, "Determination of the Electrical Parameters of the Earth's Surface".
The recommendation on "Propagation of Surface Waves Over?Mixed Routes" has been
modified in the sense that the use of theoretical methods is currently recommended,
in all possible cases and,whenever this is not possible empirical methods may be em
ployed upon considering the limits of their suitability.
A study of the "Propagation of Surface Waves Over Uneven Terrain" served as the
subject for a. paper describing briefly the results of various theoretical investiga
Due note was taken of the theoretical work on the solution of the problem of
the propagation of radio waves over mixed routes. The paper included presentation
i~ Continuation of report published in Radiotekhnika, Vol.12, No.3, 1957.
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of doctur.ents containing the solution of this problem upon taking into account. .he
sphericity of he Earth (Godzinski,,, Furutsu), even though this was not presented as
,?et in a form suitable for practical computations.
The paper on "Influence of Tropospheric Refraction on Frequencies Lelow 10 mc"
appraised the difficulties related to applying the methods of geometrical optics to
these frequencies and also to the influence of troposphere on fairly low frequencies.
The paper concerning the resolution on "Plotting Curves of Propagation for Fre
quencies Below 300 kc" pointed out the necessity for a cautious approach by the CCIR
toward the use of these curves for determining field strengths on frequencies below
300 kc, owing to the influence of the ionosphere, which is not considered in these
The recormendation on "Presentation of Data on Antenna Radiation" has been com
pletely modified so as to recommend that data on antenna radiation be presented in
the form of field strength or power relationships and also by means.of introducing
the concept of "simomotive" force.
The novel question of "Determination of the Electrical Parameters of the Earth's
Surface", presented by the Czechoslovak delegation, has met with endorsement by the
whole Stud, Group and, after evaluation, was approved.
Study Group I,. had also adopted two proposals for new resolutions. The first
resolution expresses the wish that the Secretariats of the CCIR should complement
its published atlas of curves for the determination of field strengths of meter
waves by adding thereto an appendix explaining the method of computing field strength
at e4uivalentradius values and soil parameters differing from those for which the
curves in the atlas are plotted. The second resolution expresses the wish that the
Secretariate of the CCIR should draft and publish a new atlas of curves for deter
mining field strengths at higher frequencies (up to 10,006 mc) and higher antenna
heights (upto 20,000 in), which is needed by aviation services. The resolution con
stains tentative data for the related calculations.
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U
Study Group 5 is concerned with investigating the problems ofthe tropospheric
Study Group 5
propagation of radio waves. At its first session these two Subgroups have been
formed: 5A, under the chairmanship of Allen (USA), and 5B, under the chairmanship of
Rauden (England).
The area of studies of Subgroup 5A comprised: 1) Study program on "Measuring
the Field Strengths of Radio Signals"; 2) Problem "Measurement of Field Strength at
Direct Proximity of Obstacles"; 3) Recommendation on "Optimum Methods of Expressing
Field Strength at Pulsed Transmission"; h) Recommendation on "Field Strength Meas
urements. Types of Receiving Antennas and Equipment for Every Frequency Band"; and
5) Recommendation on "Field Strength Measurements. Influence of Local Conditions on
Interpretation and Accuracy of Field Strength Measurements".
The area of studies of Subgroup 5B comprised: 1) Study program on "Curves of
Tropospheric Propagation for Distances Much Greater than LineofSight Distances";
2) Study program on "Tropospheric Propagation of Radio Waves; 3) Problem :'Radio :Dave
'Propagation Data Necessary for WidePand Radio Systems"; 1~.)Recommendation on "Data
Presentation at Studies of the Tropospheric Propagation of Radio Waves"; and 5) Rec
ommendation on "Curves of Tropospheric Propagation for Distances Much Greater than
LineofSight Distances".
The study program and recommendation on "Curves of Tropospheric Propagation for
Distances Much Greater Than LineofSight Distances" led to the adoption of a reso
lution for postponing the revision of these curves until after the Vlllth session of
the CCIR, and not during that session, because of the enormous scope of the related
work. Also there was formed an international. working group which should within a
year or a year and half complete the work on the revision of tropospheric curves
upon utilizing all the currently available data. The revision of these curves will
consist in the plotting of new curves for higher frequencies and higher time percen
tages, in determining the corrections to be introduced for propagation over sea
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U U
surfaces, and in an appraisal of the spread of field strength values sterrr:ing from
the diversit; of climatic conditions and antenna heights.
The study program on "Tropospheric Propagation of Radio Waves" has been sub
'ected to some modifications. Considering that irregularities of the troposphere
cause the forward tropospheric scatter of ultra short waves,, the newly modified pro
gram turns attention to the necessity of a broad study of these irregularities
(their intensity, form, dimensions, etc.) with the aid of special sensitive, low
inertia radioengineering and meteorological instruments. Attention is also turned
to the necessity of investigating the correlation between meteorological conditions
and the conditions of the tropospheric forward scatter of ultra short waves. Con
siderinr that at such scatter the value of field strength is substantially affected
meteorological conditions, the program proposes the compilation of charts of iso
lines of the vertical gradient of air permittivity, based on meteorological data ob
tained b;' means of radiosondes, as the first step in the development of radioclima
tologi.
The question of "gave Propagation Data Necessary for WideBand Radio Systems"
in its original version pertained only to the systems operating on the 'oasis of the
propagation of ultra short waves approximately within the lineofsight li;its.
On the last session of Study Group 5 the United States delegatioh introduced a
proposal ,for a new, important study program and recommendation under the overall
came of "Radio Transmissions Utilizing the Irregularities of the Troposphere". The
new study program includes the investigation of problems of great practical impor
tance to the design of communication systems utilizing the phenomena of the tropo
spheric forward scatter of ultra short waves; the investigation of fading and of the
influence of meteorological conditions, determination of the maximum band of trans
mitted frequencies, antenna efficiency and gain at the use of spacedantenna recep
tion.
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Study Group 6
Study Group 6 is concerned with investigating the ionospheric propagation of
radio waves. The chairman of this Group, Dellinger, was absent, and Bailey (USA)
deputized for him.
Five Subgroups were formed at first, and afterward a sixth one was added.
Subgroup CIA (Chairman: SmithRose, England), was entrusted with the following
issues:
1) Study program and paper on "Selection of Basic Index of Ionospheric Propaga
tion"; 2) Recorrinendation on "Forecasting the Solar Activity Index"; 3) Study pro
grain, paper. recommendation, and resolution on "ShortTerm Ionospheric Prognoses";
4) Study program and paper on "Basic Information for Prognoses of Ionospheric Prop
agation"; and 5) Paper on "A Centralized Organization for Rapid Exchange of Informa
tion on Propagation".
Subgroup 6J3 (Chairman: Millington, England), investigated the following proc
1) Study program on "Radio Wave Propagation on Frequencies Below 1500 kc"; 2)
Study program and paper on "Ionospheric Propagation on Frequencies of 3C  300 me";
3) Study nrorrarn on "Pulsed Transmission Experiments at Inclined Incidence"; 10) Rec
ommendation on "The Study of Absorption in the Ionosphere"; and 5) Study program. on
"NonLinear Effects in theIonosphere".
Subgroup 6C (Chairman: Crichlow (USA)), reviewed a number of problems relating.
to atmospheric interference: 1) Study program and recommendation on "Measurements of
Atmospheric Radio Interference"; 2) Recommendation on "Review of Data on Atmospheric
Interference; and 3) Recommendation on "Counters of Local Lightning Flashes".
Subgroup 61) (Chairman: Grosskopf, West Germany) was concerned with the problem
of fading at ionospheric propagation (study program).
Subgroup 6E (Chairman: Roberts, International'Frequency Registration Foard)
investigated chiefly the issues raised by the International,Frequency Registration
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hoard, and also the question of protecting the frequencies applied in radio astron
Finally, Subgroup 6F investigated a question shared with Study Group No.7:
"The Utilization of Modulated Transmissions on Standard Frequencies for Evaluating
the Reliability of the Prognoses of Radio Wave Propagation".
Subgroup 6A
lation of world charts of critical frequencies of the F2 layer for specific hours of
the day (every 2 hours, round the clock). Study Group 6 should investigate the pos
sible advantages of such charts. Basically no new recomm;ndations have been, made
arent the problem of shortterm ionospheric prognoses.
The problem of solar index prognoses' has been investigated chiefly by the Di
rector of the CCIR, Professor van der Pol. However, it was stated that "tile methods
explored by the Director of the CCIR and based on the technique of autocorrelation
In the revised version of the lecture paper the index of countries and institu
tions furnishing longterm prognoses has been expanded by adding the Soviet Union
(?IIZMIR, Ministry of Communications) thereto. A like addition has also beenmade
with regard to shortterm prognoses and rapid exchange of information on propagation.
A recommended method of improving ionospheric prognoses consists in the compi
England and New Zealand proposed that the basic index for ionospheric prognoses
should be constituted by the socalled "ionospheric number of sunspots", i.e., by
some given number of sunspots determined by measuring the critical frequencies of
the F2 layer (index JF2). However, the small working group formed after discussion
(consisting of delegates of England, USA and the Soviet Union) adopted a revision
proposed by the delegate of the Soviet Union. This revision consists in that the R
index (golf number) should continue to he used for longterm prognoses, because it
is the simplest and most homogeneous index in the circumstances, but the possibility
of a future application of JF2 and other indexes should at the same time be explored.
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':ave n:o! l?ett to a corrn1et.et;' sa}.ist'actorv rret.hod of forecar,'.irj? solar tC`..i i'.'~~?
In a technical circular issuel l,,? van her Pol, the Director notes ' ~?1' ''~'
short,1 ' exnect.ed maximum solar activit;' (which perhaps wi 1.' occur as soon as j r the
middle of 10r7) will he very bich and will apparently exceci all hither',o ooservej
rnaximu r limits.
Subrroun 6i~
St:rgroi:p Fl' investigated in detail the results of a rulti]ateral experimental
study conductei by the Europear l3roadcastinc Union (With the participation of Eng
land, France, Pollard, Finlarl, Yurosla=,ia, and other courtries) and concerning `.he
proparation of medium and lonr waves. The o?stained experimental curve o:" field
strength at, ri rr". t is sl'apel rr':cb lower than the curve accepters on the Cairo i? eeti: r
r,rt it coincides sat,isfactori l: (ail distances 'r) to 2000 !=) with the curve accented
ir' the International Frequency Registration !'oard. Tne latter curve was plotted or,
the Copenhagen Feeting by a stud;' group under the chairmanship of Professor V.N.Kes
senikh (USSR).
',T The principal questions investigated by Subgroup OF nertained to the long
distance propagation of meter waves  especially by means of tneir ;orwarJ scatter
ing from ionospheric irregularities. The study program points out that the scatter
is successfully used for radio communications at distances of 1000  20U,4irt, espec
ially in the arctic and subarctic areas. The program postulates future investira
tion of the mechanism of such scatter  the seasonal, *diurnal and momentary cnarges
in field strength, the influence of solar and geomagnetic activity, the most sui;
able types of modulation, etc.
The Chairman of Study Group 6, Dailey, who leads studies on forward scatter or
radio waves in the USA, delivered a special lecture on this sub,iect, on the confer
ence. He pointed out the special importance of this form of communication in polar
areas, and he emphasized that the worse are the conditions o.f ordinary propagation
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of radio waves in the polar aurora zone, the better are the conditions for effectirt;
communication by means of the wholly reliable forward scatter of meter waves. hail
ey noted that this kind of radio communication, which extends over distances of the
order of many thousands of kilometers, has a good nerspecLive of development., and
he pointed out the actual existence, of an experimental line between America and Eng
land via Iceland. The paper of the Czechoslovak delegation mentioned the?possibil
ity of superlongdistarce radio communication on frequencies much higher than the
minimum applical?le frequencies, hhy propagating radio waves between the lower bound
ary and the maximum ionization level of a single ionized layer.
The program of research on returninclined sounding (;'return scatter") actually
constitutes a new study program containing a number of interesting proposals: inves
tigation of divers forms of scatter (from the Earth, from the E Layer); determina
tion of the scatter coefficient as a function of frequer?.cy;.nature of the scattering
surface and the angle of incidence of the ra?:; and investigation of the change in
antenna radiation pattern at considerat.le distances from the transmitter, etc.
Subgroup tiC
On the VIIth Plenary Assembly of the CCIR in London the Soviet Delegation did
not accept any of the resolutions pertaining to atmospheric radio interference, in
view of the'negative Soviet attitude toward the American charts of atmospheric in
ter?erence.
In the interval of time between the VIIth and VIIIth Assemblies a special stud;:
group consisting of representatives of England and USA compiled new charts of atmos
pheric interferences based on a greater number of measurements, although with a
broad application of interpolation. The Soviet delegation made the motion that
these new charts "can be used, with great reservations". 'In the accepted compro
mise phrase the words "with great reservations" were changed to "with some reser
vations".
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L
Subarot~p 'D
the studies conducted with regard to
This Subgroup issued a paper describing
the Soviet Union, and supplying
the topic, including also the studies conducted by
a t,rief resume of the law of the distribution of field strength variations.
Sticgr~ 6E
Subgroup 6E has been principally concerned with questions posed by the IFRB to
the CCIR. The first question was whether it is feasible to iise the curves of maxi
mum applicable frequencies plotted in Mexico City on the basis of Paper No.1,62 of
the Bureau of Standards.
The delegate of the Soviet Union transmitted to Subgroup 6E a repor`, furnishing
a comparative analysis of some results of the computations of the IFRn. as made by
and demonstrating that the novel
the American, Czechoslovak, and Soviet methods,
version of the American. method yields, as a rule, lower results. The first question
powers. including the .USSR, Rumania, and Czech 
existing methods of computing field strength.
The labors of the CCIR and, especially, of the three
consisting of representatives or six
oslovakia, for investigating all the
posed by the. IFRB remains pending.
The second problem was that of selectilg a rr et iod of ce.n.puting field strergt}'.
On the motior of the delegate of,the Soviet Union, Subgroup 6E adopted ,ananimousl;
a resolution  later ratified b;? the Plenum  for organizing a special study group
with radio wave propagation, manifest tangibly thespirit
lion (which iri a number of cases was violated
States alone /sic/). A'preponderant majority
study groups concerned
of international coopera
by the representatives of the United
of problems was solved cooperatively,
h ichmakes the Warsaw Conference much different from the London one. Naturally,
w
this was largely owing to the active position of the Soviet delegation, which sub
mitted a great number of papers and introduced a number of valuable resolutions.
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Stud,., Groin 7'
The labors of Study Group 7, which is concerned with the organization of the
world service of standardfrequencies and time signals and the techniques of the
transmission and reception of these signals. have been somewhat advanced at t^e
VIIIt`?,
Plenary Assem' l; .
The paper compiled on basis of the data on Question No.R7 includes a '.a:ula'tion
of the characteristics of the stations transrr,ittinr standard frequencies and time
signals, which' comprises also data on the Moscow station. Tie number of the sta
`ions transmitting standard frequencies and tirre signals has risen from six to ten
during the interval between the VIIth and VIIIth Plenary Assemblies. In addition,
four stations are in the project state and should be set into operation cetweer. the
end of 1956 and the.spring of 19:7. There are also four other stations transmitting
standard frequencies and time signals with a high degree of stability and accuracy,
but not operating on the frequencies set aside for this kind'of transmission.
A new study program and two novel questions have considerably exnan:led he pro
grar. of labors in this field.
The study program concerns the investigation of the possiilities for improving
the transmission of standard frequencies and time signals for the purpose of reduc
ing mutual interference among standardfrequency transmitters. This program under
takes a study of the possibility of reducing interference by means of utilizing
special forms of transmission such as single sideband with suppressed carrier or
two sidebands with suppressed carrier.
A novel question has also been posed: the investigation of the causes of the
decrease in the stability and accuracy of the reception of standard frequencies and
time signals. It is also recommended that research be initiated on determining the
optimum forms of time signals and receivingequipment characteristics that would en
sure maximum accuracy of reception. 
From the engineering viewpoint an interesting bit of information supplied by
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3,,ix Troup T coneerne,i the frequency startdar1 , Lsecl Orl the utii i7at on o:`
to ?,% e 1river
a' omic resonance of cesium, whic" was developed in the USAA. According,
,iced data. this standard ensures a stability of no less than 5 in the
co?.irse of the entire life of device.
Study Grown 8
Stud; Grown 8 is concerned with problems of the methodiolopy and tec:,nical _cnar
acteristics of :reasurino equinment of ti'e stations of ?,r'e ir.terr.ational Control Ser
vice. The fundamental trend of the labors of :.i,is Group is dictated r:? ..:e reeds of
%e IMF purporting to facilitate its work r perfec.inr' t? e cor..rol of .:.e star ilia:
of *reg1iencies. occupation of `.:e _freq?ienc;? spectrum, an.i xri.ith of radiation bane.
The activities of Study ~'Group R durir.r ',".e '. Iltt'' Plen?ir?? assen rly were ex~essed
two stud: rrorrams and two questions.
The activities of Stud.Troup 0 during the VIII1 Plenary Asser'l:= were con
dr:cted b;: two Stu?ir 3ulprouns: PA, whose larors were cer.tereu on the question ol'
"Automatic Control of the Radiation Spectruun" and on the study rrogram or. "1?:easure
meets of Radiation Spectra by Control Stations", and F,, wh:c: examined t"e rro:lers
relating to the stud;; program on "The Accuracy of Field atrer.f th NN:easurements by
Control Stations" and '"easurements of Frequencies Over c~G r!c by Control Stations".
:iFhteer, documents were presented on the above pro^lerrs 3 tud?y Group P. The
lanors of the Group nave become somewhat advanced, and a result of .he `:III" ' Plen
ary Assembly was the issuance of 10 documents including a modification of t'e recor
mendation on "The Accuracy of Field Strength t;easurements by Control Stations".
whicr contains a table of the values of the accuracy of measurements which s` oul.i be
satisfied r`, the control devices used for measuring frequency.
The recommendation that was formulated concerning the automatic control of the
occupancy of the radio frequency spectrum cites tentative technical features of au
t.orrati c control equipment corresponding to the features reconmendied by Soviet organ
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Amon
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MTz.
() '
izaLions (SLate lnspcct.orate of EIectrocollJnun]Ca`.101i$ an'l the :iCJWl i I I:Ca^car
Institute of the hinistry of . olrununications).
A complement to the study prograi on "l req'renc., Measurements by Control 3a
ions" refers to the necessity of cotparinr the statior radiation spectra neasureel
directly on tra??sr:itters NO those that are measured tiy lore distarce or a control
station, developing new equipment for control of wide radiation hands (anout 10 Mc
in a range of over 30 nc), and conductiflF a re]ininary erarination of the possih1e
measurements of wavefora characteristics on control stations for s:?stems for which
Ms is of r asic importance (for instance. for television).
3` ui: Group o
Study Grour c] is concerrre 1 tiritn stud:?ir.r the problems pertaining to radio relay
lines. The CCIR has : eFun its labors in t?:is field comparativel:: recently and no
recor mendatiors were adopted ur.tii the :11t} Asserrrly. ire rlroun irvest_Fated ter
^ro= ierrs ar.l one researcr. rroFrar. The Group was divided into four Subgroups art,
noreoer, each 3"group createi two or :.Tree worl?inr gror?ns for drafting he pro=ects
of recommendations a^i reverts. The Commission nrerared 311 new aocunents, i nclulA :
23 recomnenlatiors, reports. I resolution. 2 new questiors. and 2 new research
pro ?rai s .
The principal cortents of these aocrrent,s are s'c;me i ur as follows :
Interra`.ional linage of freq.renc;rmultiplex radio relay Jives and st,ar.lardiza
`.ion of t: eir basic features: This involved the determination of the characteristics
of radio relay lines which should be standardized on the divers forms of interna
tional connection. Considering that such standardization has peen deemed to ce as
yet premature, there have been adopted recommendations determining the advisable
p:ir'trr e!.ers of the basic characteristics of the following three forms of radio rela
s"s'.ers: yourchannel, interned iate frequency, and radiofrequency. These recorr
ren?iations concern such c'.arac'Leri3L2cs as the number of chaf]rels, values of inter
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:lei1a'.e t'reglierc; t':?egnency tlevia..ion, frequerc iiaislon or sip '.r:.rY; or.r:r:1.
sl''lu1taneons1: on ore 1re. and so fort.)'. There w'is also alop',ed a recorrJnr:rrlt,Aon
for determinin, the allowable freq :enc;' instal 111',;' on '.l:e trlrsmi tter s o' radio
relay lines.
,~':ality Of commurications on ra?iio relay lines: The a'iontefl recorrmen'la'.iof de
'emines the socalled standard hypothetical circuits for ray io relay '_ ire s. These
ci rcui s (for lines wi+.i, an 12  ;C channel capaci'.;? and for lines with c?ipacit ' of
o?.rer ~C c"inrels), which have a efini`.e lenrtl' and struc'.':re. should provide i'.4 ?i
2CCe `O .1e esir?rers o" rmiio rela;' ,;;stems.
Arot} er recorurer :atior ',e ~ e a lopt.e'i es,.at l l s`' ei ',he allowz l e roise level in
'e'enone cl.ar'rel. at t. 'e eni of a 2`,;CUi?:rr s'.arlard circ':it. This recorr:enda~ ion ie
?,er?'nes '.r'e :rear noise rower per i?c?.r, ar i i t aprears to 're ?,e:rorary, . ecat se .,e
al? owal?le noise power rer si or:.  r i t3 of `:r.e ras not ye+ teen determined, and ,e
lnvestization of tl.is pro:~ien: sicu,ld re cor,:ir. e.i.
All tnese recorrine'_iations are corsorar z, wits t1 e prorosai presented c,? '?ne So
v;e ; ielegat ior. lire recomrenla, for ieterm_ninr the allowable noise level inciu :es
an arrenlix descritinr a Sovietproreseu rretioi of corrr%,_*ni she asic pararreters of
equirment.
,t'tx,llar,? equipment for radio relay lines: r~?e aioptei reconirendations te;,er: ire
he retl?o?is of ersurir:c' reserve equipment on ratio relay lines, the anplica;ion of
sne,,.al control curren,s at transn,issior of ',el.evision signals and b00 telephone
conversatiors, and a r.ethol for r?easuring the quality of radio relay line charnels.
A rew r4uestior has l.een approved for investigation, for the purpose of drafting
a recormendation on the me*tho.is of effecting service communications and on the re
a?:i rements nosefi to service channels.
Timedivisionmultiplex (pulsemodulation) radio relay lines: No apreen,ent
could he reached atout the related protlems and thus no recon:rilen 1ations on the ; asic'
cr arac terisr,ics of stch lines iconld be drafted. Even the rough drafts of recorJllen
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.iations which were prepared at a rreeting of Study Group 9 in September of y/51, were
not arprove.ieither. however, the Group did compile a list of basic characteri3tic3
which should oe standardized at international linkage of pulsed radio relay lines.,
It was proposed that at such international linkage the recommendation to e adopted
s could specify that the receiving part should accent the terms of the trarsr'ittinr;
:`art;'.
Stud,.* Groun 10
The labors of this Groun were oriented toward two ;asic trends: radiofrequency
roadcastir.F and sour.1 r ecor,ii r.r for international exchange of programs. Accordir.r
ly, the followin7 documents pertaining to radiofrequency i roadcastinr nave been ex
anined and approved.
1. Recomlr,endatior or ultra short wave ii, broadcasting. The discussion ranged
a'ovt the documents presented b? the German Federal Rebut lic, France and England,
corcerning the frequency deviation. protective ratios and minimum field strength
L?a, are necessar:? for satisfactory reception. The narers rresent.ei :r t.1e a` ove
raved co,:rtries rrorosed a freq??e^c;' deviation of + 75 kc. This value has also c.een
sunnorted b:? the L'3 delega;:ion. The Soviet delegation demo^strated the pertinency
and some alvartar?es of the application of a frequaenc: deviation of + 5C ''c, and.this
value has been unar.imousl:' apnrove.i together with the deviation of + 75 kc.
Also adopted were the Soviet=recommended field strengts, staraards for lownoise
zones  250 rw; for towns  I mw; and for large cities mw.
2. The Polish administration proposed an antenna which makes it possi:'le to
reduce spurious radiation. At a session of the Group the antenna was approved and
a report was drafted to recommend that this antenna he listed in the CCIi antenna
ook. Also, a program on prac_t.lcal research in spurious radiation of classic direc
+,ional antennas had been formulated and unanimously approved.
3. lnvestigaLion of the pro lent of ensuring the reception zone wit.h the nec
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a, Na I' A"
essary field strenpth by means of ant.ennhs operati.nr at son.e anpie .o ~ac? r, ?rer?
Such an antenna system makes possible a more uniform covering of the recep'?ion zone
owing to the expansion of the enerry radiation lobe in the main direction, provided
that the said zone have considerable scope and width. Also, this system males it'
rossible to obtain a more uniform field at the use of a single frequency.
with regard to sound recording for international exchange of programs, the fol
lowing resolutions were,examined and adopted: 1) adoption of the types of magnetic
tape adapters proposed by the European Union and supported by the Soviet delegation;
2) during the examination of the problems of sound recording on mapretic tape, there
was adopted a Soviet proposal that tape data t'e recorded on the side of the record
representing the continuation of the unused cart of tape.
The Group reached no specific agreement about the standards for the width and
tolerances of r,agnetic tare.
As for movietape recording for exchange of television programs. t:e Group
adopted a proposal. made Iny the Euronear Union that sound arl irnare he rot! recorded
or a single tape by means of magnetic or or.'ical track.
This Grour (chairman: Esninp, Sweden) was concerned exclusively with. television
r ro''lems .
Its :,asic labors were conducted by five Subgroups, concerned with the following
problems: ]lA  color television' standards; 11h  formulation of requirements for
longdistance transmissior of television signals on conar:urication channels; 11C 
}lackandwhite television standards; l1D  quality of television images; 'and 11E
protective ratios at, planning the distribution of television stations and freq?;ercy
channel division.
. i'TS92hc8/V 11.5
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,.olor Television
The sessions of the Group at the VIII}' Plenary Assembly of the CCIh in i1arsaw
were preceded by demonstrations of various color television systems in the UJSA. .rF
land, Hollani ani France in the sprint of 195,6.
The results of these demonstrations were cited in the chairnants"report.. It
had been supposed that an AllEuropean color television s;,sterr woiil'i be settled upon
in ;Jarsaw. The discussion revealed that, at research or the develonrent of a color
television system, most countries rave prefererce to an adaptation of the NTSC s,rs
' em to European conditions.
The Soviet delegation advised that at present it the USSR principal attention
is turned to ievelopine a combined color television s:?s'.err, with a sin:le su:,
carrier and quadratic components, hecause this s;,sterr appears to `e the most thor
our hl; tested one.
The En.=lisr and French delegations were catevoricall,y opposed to tre selection
of any specific .television s,: stem on the present 11' enary Assen . : asiro tt ei r or
'osi Lion or the insufficiercy of the hitherto co:: i?.cted research in this fieii. T e
French delegation insisted or. the conduct of cornarisors of ',.~.e 1,TSC s,'s'er wi. e
s:.st.er.s developer in France.
The discussion coneinuinr, throughout the three sessions of the Sul,croun .Jeldec
no definite results and was halted in view of the iifficulties involved it a corrn3r
ison of the qualitative and technical indices of the NTSC system, wick!, is al read!:
in operation. with analogous indices of the Frenchdeveloped systems which are still
in the laboratoryexperiment stage. The United States delegation dii not nartici
r,ate actively in the discussion, upon advising that the USA does not propose to al
ter its viewpoint as to the selected NTSC system. It was pointed out that in this
year several hundred thousand television sets will he manufactured, and that their
output will continually increase.
In view of the absence of sufficient data for the adoption of definite color
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television standards, and also in view of the atsence of an unanimi of opinion on
.his pro'.blem, the VIIIth Plenary Assemi.ly of' the CCIR adopted no definite resol?.
,ions as to an European color television system. It was merely resolved that .r,is
problem should be reexamined on the subsequent *session of the Commission..
It is assumed that, after that session, and before 191,8 is over, there will be
convened the second European conference on a revision of the Stockholm plan for the
division of' frequency channels for television and ultra short wave FM broadcasting
in the I. II and III hands. This conference should arrive at a new plan for fre
quency division in the IV and V bands. At that time, Study Group,5 of the CCIR
should have ready some more precise data on radio wave propagation in these bands.
Requirements Posed to Communication Cnarnels for LongDistance Television
Transmission. An evaluation of these requirements, conducted by Subgroup 11P, was
based on the set of standards drafted in 1955 in i'russels, upon taking into account
the new proposals presented :;' England, Pollard, Switzerland. and the German Federal
Republic. This included the formulation of new requirements as to the qualitative
indices of the television channels of radio relay and cable lines. This :iociment
also included methods for measurement of nonlinearity. of the amplitude characteris
tic, amplification factor of communication channel, and transientresponse toler
ances in the range of low and medium, video frequencies, and so forth. All these in
dices were established only with regard to transmission of blackandwhite televis
ion signals.
Upon a proposal by the Soviet delegation and the representatives of the CCIF9,
there was adopted a resolution for regarding the above requirements as a desirable
aim and not as standards which should be maintained on the existing or projected
communication systems. The possibility of adopting these requirements as standards
for a hypothetical control line should, in accordance with that resolution, be in
vestigated by a combined CCIRCCIT team.
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Subgroup 11C examined a report including information or. the blackandwhite
television standards established in various countries. This also included evalua
tion of the basic parameters of the OIR, and the Subcommission adopted a resolution
for including these parameters in the CCIR's report on`blackandwhite television
standards. Also, this Subcommission drafted a naner complementing the recommenda
tion (on television standards) by the point on the gammacharacteristic coefficient
of televisio^ transmitters which, on taking into account the modulation characteris
tic of the receiving tube, should he below unity.
The new research program envisages an investigation of problems relating to
correction of the distortions of television signals at single sideband transmission
(q?iadratic distortions, phase distortions in transmitters and receivers, etc.).
Subgroup 11D appraised the data presented by various countries with regard to
evaluating the quality of television ir:ages. The Subgroup approved the resolution
of the Soviet relegation that this problem be reviewed anew on considering that the
met; ods of evaluating the qualit,, of television Lmages should not dener.:i on the tel.
As for the protective ratios at planning of the distribution of television sta
tions and frequency channel division, Subgroup 11E examined a report on protective
ratios in television. It adopted the proposal that the standards specified in this
report can be applied only at planning the, distribution of blackandwhite televis
ion stations. 1?;oreover,'1t was pointed out that the determination of protective
ratios should take into account the frequency responses of television receivers, be
cause the curve of protective ratios cited in the report was plotted without consid
ering these responses.
The new research program envisages the investigation of' problems relating to
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cn on the blackantiwhite
This also included evalua
nission adopted a resolution
)lackandwhite television
rplementinp the recommenda
icharacteristic coefficient
the modulation eharacteris
of problems reiatinp to
single sideband Lransrission
's and receivers, etc.).
is countries with regard to
up approved the resolution
.new on considering that the
hould not depend on the tel.
tri>,ution of television sta
ned a report on protective
standards specified in this
of blackandwhite televis
ermination of protective
of television receivers, re
was plotted without consid
n of' problems relating to
determining the gain in protective ratios at the use of the system employing the
offsetting of the carrier frequencies of television transmitters at a considerab:
difference between the carrier frequencies of offsetting stations.
Study Group 12
Study Group 12, which is concerned with tropicalzone broadcasting, and whirl
has Mr. Ralig (India) as its chairman, reviewed Recommendation No.87 (London, 19;
and established new power limits for transmitters operating on tropical broadcast
frequencies (below 5060 kc): not over 10 kwt for distances of up to 0 In, and not
over 30 kwt for distances of up to 800 km.
For transmitters operating in the tropical zone on frequencies of over 5050
(i.e., in the customary radiofrequency broadcasting bands), the Group cancelled
power limitation and recommended that the power applied there be the same as that
established on the MexicoCity conference on radiofrequency broadcasting.
Furthermore, the Group approved three reports on: noise in radio 'broadcastin,
bands; improved methods of computing the field intensity of the space wave on
? tropicalzone broadcast transmitters; and the design of receiving antennas for
tropicalzone broadcasting. The Group also approved the study of the .new problem
of feeding tolerances in tropicalzone broadcasting.
Study Group 13
The problems investigated by this Group include:
1. Publication of service codes for the international telegraph service. 2
Identifiqation of radio stations. 3. Marine equipment for identificat2on. L..
Classification of bearings for short wave and ultra short wave radiodireotion fi~
ing. 5. Technical characteristics of marine ultra short wave FM equipment. 6.
Testing Of an emergency radiotelegraph 500kc receiver on marine vessels. 7. L
'speaker equipment for ship artd coastal stations. 8. Preventing of noise in radi
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Study Group 12
determining the gain in protective ratios at the use of the syst9m employing the
offsetting of the carrier frequencies of television transmitters at a considerable
difference between the carrier frequencies of offsetting stations.
Study Group 12, which is concerned with tropicalzone broadcasting, and which
has Mr. Ralig (India) as its chairman, reviewed Recommendation No.87 (London, 1953)
and established new power limits for transmitters operating on tropical broadcasting
frequencies (below 5060 kc): not over 10 kwt for distances of up to 0 Ian, and not
over 30 kwt for distances of up to 800 km.
For transmitters operating in the tropical zone on frequencies of over 5060 kc
(i.e., in the customary radiofrequency broadcasting bands), the Group cancelled the
power limitation and recommended that the power applied there be the same as that
established on the MexicoCity conference on radiofrequency broadcasting.
Furthermore, the Group approved three reports on: noise in radio broadcasting
bands; improved methods of computing the field intensity of the space wave on
tropicalzone broadcast transmitters; and the design of recdiving antennas for
tropicalzone broadcasting. The Group also approved the study of the.new problem
of feedingtolerances in tropicalzone broadcasting.
The problems investigated by this Group include:.
1. Publication of service codes for the international telegraph service. 2.
Identifiqation of radio stations. 3. Marine equipment for identification.. 1,..
Classification of bearings for short wave and ultra short wave radiodireotion find
ing. 5. Technical characteristics of marine ultra short wave FM equipment. 6.
Testing of an emergency radiotelegraph 500kc receiver on marine vessels. 7. Loud
speaker equipment for ship and coastal stations. 8. Preventing of noise in radio
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t) L
reception on ships. 9. Radiotelephone observation of the 2182kc distress fre
quency, and equipment for that frequency. 10. Alarm signal for use on the 2182kc
distress frequency.
Five Study Subgroups were formed. The Soviet delegation was able to participate
in the work of only two of these Subgroups.
1. With regard to the problem of identification of radio stations, five docu
ments were presented at the session. The Soviet delegation attempted to reject the
documents recommending the methods of identification not acceptable to the USSR,
without opposing the problem itself. The Soviet proposal was not seconded, and the
Soviet delegation reserved its opinion as to three of the documents while voicing in
advance its positive attitude as to the question of further research.
2. With regard to the problem of the equipment and classification of short
wave and ultra short wave radiodirection finding, these two reports were anproved:
"Short 'gave and Ultra Short Wave Direction Finders", and "Marine Identification De
documents presented differ in their appraisals of the accuracy of radio direction
vices". The nature of the issued documents (reports). speaks for itself: the session
could not develop any concrete recommendations on the given problem, because the
finding, their observations were not based on unified methods, and theresults they .
obtained are not identical.
Group 13 examined and adopted the following: recommendation on common technical
characteristics of ultra short wave FI marine equipment, and the new question of
spurious radiations of ultra short wave FM equipment. '.Document No.761 introduced
the new question of investigating the degree of necessity of applying the interna
tional selectivecall system in mobile marine stations using. the ultra short wave
band, and the advantages of this system.
Study Group 1A
1. The principal labors of this Group were centered on compiling a vocabulary
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oG
of radio engineering terms in accordance with a recommendation of the CCIR (London)
Assembly. The chairman of the Commission, Professor Tullio Gorio, sul,mi`.t,erl to it a
draft, of the vocabulary he~compiled, which contained both the definitions formulated
by the CCIR and the definitions formulated by the International Electrical. Engineer
ing Commission, and also definitions taken from the dictionaries of various national
organizations. After examination, the Commission resolved, on basing itself on the
draft of vocabulary compiled by Professor Gorio, to divide all terms into the fol
lowing four groups: Group B  terms requiring no definition; Group C  terms whose
definitions are cited in the draft of the dictionary of the International Electrical
Engineering Commission; Group D  terms whose definitions are taken from the diction
aries of various national organizations; and Group R  terms whose definitions will
be supplied by the CCIR (that is to say, by the CCIR's vocabulary).
For purpose of information, the terms in Groups C and D will be published in
the form of an appendix to the CCIR's vocabulary. All investiatinp com;,,fissions of
the CCIR have been enlisted in the work on compiling the definitions of the CCIR vo
carular,>. The completion of the work of the vocabulary was undertaken by.the "na
tional correspondent" of the French Administration, who will enlist "national cor
respondents" of England or the USA for the purpose of hastening the Englishlanguage
version. TheGroup approved the report on this. matter.
With regard to the adoption of the universaldecimal classification for the
standard' classification of documents and articles concerning radio, the Group com
posed and approved a new report which pointed out that there is not enough related
data for approving this system at the present Plenary Assembly, but the matter
should be resolved.at the next Plenary Assembly of the CCIR.
Commission for'Technical Assistance to Technologically Underdeveloped Countries
The Administrative Council of the International Telecommunications Union pro
posed at its xIth Session (Geneva, 1956) that the next Plenary Assembly of the CCI
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lJ which communications engineering is poorly developed.
In compliance with the proposal of that Administrative Council and the letter
of the CCIR Director, the VIIIth Plenary Assembly set up a temporary commission for
provision of techrical assistance. The leader of the Soviet delegation, Z.V.Topur
iya, was elected as the Commission's chairman. The Commission includes representa
tives of the delegations of 23 countries.
The agenda of the Commission includes, in accordance with the resolutions of
should explore the waysand means for providing technical assistance to countries in
the XIth Session of the Administrative Council of the International Electrocommuni
cations Union; examination of the ways and means of providing technical assistance%
to technologically underdeveloped countries for the purpose of a harmonious devel
opment of the internal and international electrocommunications of these countries,
and compilation of resolutions on this problem.
All work on provision of technical assistance is organized by the Secretariate
General of the Irternational ElectroCommunications Union. The Secretariate of the
CCIR (and also of the CCIT and CCIF) confines itself only to consultation and in
quiries posed to organizers, who are members of the Administrative Council of the
? International Telecommunications Union. The role of the International Telecommuni
cations Union in the work of providing technical assistarice?is a purely consultative
The Soviet delegation drafted and submitted to the Commission for Technical
Assistance several proposals on the forms and organization of technical assistance
within the framework of the CCIR.
The Soviet delegation recommended that a permanent committee be set up and at
.tached to the International Telecommunications Unionfor the purpose of coordinating
the work on the provision of technical assistance. In making this proposal the Sov
iet delegation proceeded from the assumption that the character of theparticipation
of the ITU in the work on provision of technical assistance is an unsatisfactory one,
T
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C5
CCIT and two directors, with the aim of continuing the st,urlies of the ways and means
of improving the technical assistance of the ITU. The Assembly also had confirmed
the program for the study of the problems of providing technical assistance as based
on the proposals of the Soviet delegation concerning the forms of technical assis
tance within the framework of the CCIR.
Final Plenary Sessions
The work of the CCIR sessions reached its apogee at the period when the mass of
documents drafted by the study groups was submitted for examination to the Assembly.
A part of the documents was not totally approved by the study groups themselves, and
the differences in opinions were reviewed bar the Assembly..
Altogether, over 1000 documents were presented to the Assembly. The great ex
tent of activities of the stud,. groups and the increased number of documents and the
related considerable overburdening of the work of the Secretariate during the con
vention of the Assembly, have necessitated the raising of the question of reorganiz
ing the activities of the CCIR. In this connection, the resolutions adopted propose
a system of work similar to that applied by the corranitteet of the CCIF and CCIT,
where the study groups ply their activities uniformly throughout the threeyear in
tervals between plenary assemblies instead of concentrating their activities in the
period directly preceding a plenary assembly.
For the purpose of greater economy in expenditures, it was proposed that the
study groups should convene their meetings not separately but iointl;r; to comprise
mutual problems. The proposal recommended that the following experimental order of
presentation of documents should be introduced: the contributions of the,'partici
pants of the study group should be sent to the chairman of the corresponding study
group interested in examining them (one copy), and to the Director of the CCIR for
translation, printing and transmission to the interested members of the study group
(three copies). The result of this experiment is to be commrinicated at the next,.
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,r lJ
j
IX t1' Plenary Assembly of the M11. Henceforth, the plenary sessions of '.r.e CCIR
would be concerned only with the reports of the representatives of investigating
commissions, while all preliminary documentation should be dealt with on intermedi
ate sessions of the commissions and distributed only by participants in these com
missions. Therefore, to obtain all documents, it is necessary to inform the CCIR of
the commissions in which a given national administration will participate.
Also, there was adopted a special resolution on reducing preliminary, documenta
Lion and size of all documents.
The documents that are of theoretical interest only and bear no direct relation
to the undertaken problems and research programs, and the papers containing detailed
ments should contain a minimum amount of special mathematical formulas or designa
tions and experimental data. Lost of the documents approved at the VIIItr Plenary
original material, should not be submitted to the CCIR. Instead, only brief annota
tions of such materials should be sent to the CCIR for purposes of translation and
publication. Originallanguage copies of such documents can be distributed directly
by a given administration to those expressing a desire to receive them. These docu
Assembly were also approved by the Soviet delegation, which has reserved its opinion
only with regard to several documents that were not acceptable to it for various
reasons.
On the concluding plenary session the head of the United States delegation in
vited the IXth Plenary Assembly to convene its sessions in the USA.
The head of the Soviet delegation invited the Xlth Plenary Assembly,_which is
to be held in 1958, to convene in the Soviet Union.
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The collection contains following articles:
1. Fok,V.A.  Theory of Diffraction from a Rotating Paraholloi?r; 1.
Pelkina,DN.CG., and Vaynshteyrr,L.A.  Radiation Characteristics of Spherical
Antenna Surfaces; 3. Ielkina,M.G.  Radiation Characteristics of a Stretched
Rotating Ellipsoid; 11. Pelkina,M.G.  Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves
on a Disk.
These articles are corcerned with the rigorous theory of the diffraction
of electromagnetic waves on conducting bodies.
The book is designed for radio physicists and radio engineers concerned
with superhigh frequencies.
Zvorykin,V.K., and Morton,D.A.  Television: Electronic Problems of the Trans
mission of Color and Monochrome Images. Translated from. the English; edited by
Professor S.I.Kata::ev. Foreign Literature Publishing House, Moscow, 1956. 780
pages, + 1 inset. Price h6 r. 10 k.
An exposition of the physical foundations of television, including the
description of the principal units and circuits of television equipment; a
survey of the problems of the theory and practice of color television and of
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the optimum utilization of television setups.
Some Problems of the Theory and Computing of the Elements of Radio Reception
Circuits.' A collection of articles edited by A.P.l3eloyusov. Oborongiz Publishing
House, Moscow, 1956. Transactions of the Sergo Ordzhonikidze OrderofLenin Moscow
Institute of Aviation. Bulletin 65. Price 7 r.
This collection contains articles by.:
Belo:rusov,A.P.  Sorting Out the High Frequency Signal and Noise at Detec
tion; and The Calculation of the Complete Ultra Short Wave Autotransformer
Input Circuit; Protopopov,A.S.  Energy Relationships at Combined Detection
of Signal and Noise; and The Calculation of a Single Amplifier Circuit Under
Matched Line Load; and Volfpyan,V.G.  A Diagram of the Input. Circuit of a
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l)!
TAF,I,E OF COIITIDN I'S
P%Ce
Some "'asic Forrrulas Pertaining to I'.irhPower Klystron Amplifiers by 1
M.s.....:..........?.
Approximate Methods of Computing the Field Strer,ptt; or Ultra Short slaves 17
With Consideration of Terrain Relief on A.l.falinir. . . . . ?
Tne Arnlicati on of Fictitious 1 a.=,netic Current for Solving he Problem of
r' .
e~T?tenncl, Radiation Over a Plane .._,.n honnomogeneous l..eortovic'; 31,,
:?oundary Conditions by 0.:+.:'eresnin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some ?asic Corcep' s of the 3ipra:. Tneory i ; V.U. Fur.iL:. e . . . . . . . . . . .
3imnlified Ara1:'sis of n he Circuits of RadioFrequency JurctionTransistor
Oscillators Jitn Self::xcitatiO' by P.J. ~erestnev . . . . . . . . .
ConcerninC one Synthesis of Arp2if inF Circuits by S.:'.Samsonenko . . . . .
=z
Ripple Filters of sowPower ?ec i Piers L.1 ..)el?a"rt.r . . . . . . . . . . .
3imal ;areons Oscillations of "wo L're