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December 23, 2016
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September 12, 2013
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July 9, 1958
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Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? r ? ' I`r _ INFORMATION REPORT INFORMATION REPORT CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY This material contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the mean150X1-HUMniage Laws, Title 18, U.S.C. Secs. 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. -E-C-R-E-T ,?INGC?P7 - um COUNTRY USSR/East Germany REPORT SUBJECT 1. Doctrine and Theory of Soviet DATE DISTR. 9 July 1958 Anti-Air Defense 2. Organization of the PV0ra?/-aAe..4.11. PAGES 50X1-HUM 3. Comments on Nuclear Defense 4. Anti-Nuclear Defense of Air REFERENCES Facilities DATE OF INFO. 5. Aircraft Utilization for Defensive loom iocc Purposes PLACE & DATE ACC). a ARE DEF RAISAL OF CONTEAT 'IS TENTATIVE. 1. A copy of a 68-page English-language translation as well as a copy of the 50X1-HUM 60-page Russian-language original.on various aspects of the Soviet doctrine and theory of anti-air defense 50X1-HUM 2. A considerable portion of the report is devoted to the theory of as well as organization for Soviet anti-air defense. The organization of the FVOC-is given in cmaiderable detail ? and includes mention of the use and function of aircraft in anti-air defense. 50X1-HUM Distribution of Attachments: OCR Air: ORB: Loan Loan 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM STATE X ARMY X NAVY X AIR EV X FBI AEC ORR/EV (Note: Washington distribution indicated by "X"; Field distribution by "#".) INFORM,A.TION REPORT INFORMATION REPORT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ ? IA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Toitettif CONTEKPORARY ANTIAIR DEFENSE OF THE USSR 50X1-HUM I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS The rapid development of offensive types of military equipment and the sharp increase of destructive force, are radically changing all the previously existing military and strategic.5oncepts. For example, Great Britain would have committed a suicidal error had it clung to the old formula, "The English lose every battle but the last." At present, another formula applies, "The first battle 'will be the deciding one for Great Britain." This first battle is namely that one 'which will take place during the first hours and days of World War III. Here lies the main essence of sensible strategic planning for the future. -Insofar as the supposed enemy will, be the Soviet Bloc, the British High Command cannot permit itself to be pushed into abandoning conven- tional forms of armaments. For such armaments continue to play, and will continue to play, an important role in Soviet strategy for a long time. In this connection, it is impossible not to laugh at the superficial and dangerous (in its stupid illusions) lead article in the (London?) Times, 9 November 1955. In this article the USSR is ridiculed somewhat because "it does not grasp the importance of the atomic bomb," and is therefore continuing to build up its naval forces. The radical changes in Soviet strategic concepts have already mani- fested themselves clearly in the organization of the entire antiair defense system. Since about February 1955, extraordinarily intensive work has been conducted in the USSR to bring about a rapid modernization of all types of active and passive self-defeuse. , These new Soviet measures are of great practical interest to Great Britain for at least two reasons: First, the British Isles are 'within effective range of Soviet bombers and rockets; therefore, the problem of organizing antiair and civil defense in general becomes actual and 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA- P81-010 . oAnnil A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? 50X1-HUM highly important in the situation. Second, in the event of World War III the defense of the British Isles will require that the High Command inflict mass blows on the enemy's rear; however, the success and effective- ness of such blows will depend on the condition of the enemy's antiair defense. Thus, this article is dictated by the factual state of affairs and is fully justified. I can only express the hope that it will be studied attentively by competent people. I am certain that in it they will dis- cover all the important elements of Soviet antiair defense. The sources of this article are as follows: First, a study of all accessible Soviet material, published officially; second, the knowledge gained by a study of World War II in higher military educational insti- tutions of the USSR, including military academies; and third, the author's personal archives and notes on events. II. CHARACTERISTICS OF MILITARY DEFENSE WORK IN THE USSR TODAY No one likes truth that hurts. I do not like it. But the past 20 years are evidence that in organizing defense work in general, and anti- air defense work in particular, the USSR now occupies first place in the world. In the sense of massiveness of participation by the population and multiplicity of antiair-defense measures studied, the Soviet Union cannot be equaled by one Western democratic state. This is understandable and logical: in a centralized state, every- thing is done centrally. In a totalitarian state the stamp of totality lies on everything. Military states always prepare best for war. In countries having a ruling ideology and doctrine, everything is subordinate to this ideology and doctrine. The USSR possesses these qualities, and in them lies the superiority of the organization of mass training in antiair defense in peacetime. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM Great Britain does not possess such qualities, and in this lies her weak- ness which, in the era of atomic bombs and long-range rockets, may have fatal consequences if quick, satisfactory solutions are not found. Another characteristic of antiair-defense training in the USSR is that the party and government in the past year have taken decisive measures to strengthen the ideological and political education of the mass of people. Carefully studying this reversal I have found that, actually, it is very important: ideological and political work, accord- ing to the Soviet conception, is just as important (or more important) for antiair defense in the era of atomic bombs and long-range rockets as the atomic bombs and rockets themselves. I would like to ask every- one 'who reads this article to understand this and renounce the idea that only tangible weapons and material superiority are important in var. This was true during World War II, but will not be true in World War III. III. WHAT IS NO (ANTIAIR DEMSE) IN THE USSR TODAY? The Soviet concept of Antiair Defense (1,10) differs essentially from the concept we hold in Great Britain or the West in general. In the USSR the concept of WO encompasses the following: (1) ideo- logical and political educational 'work among the mass of the population, (2) active local self-defense [civil defense] of the mass of the popula- tion from air raids, (3) antiaircraft artillery, including antiaircraft rocket-robots, (4) antiaircraft fighter aviation, (5) a system of yarning and communication, (6) means of long-range influence on the flying appa- ratus of the enemy, (7) antiatomic defense, (8) antichemical defense, (9) problems of transportation and (10) long-range governmental organisa- tional measures. This structure exists in the USSR at the present time and, probably, will exist without change for many years. I shall subject its component elements to t careful analysis. eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RnPRi_ninAw 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM rir. REASON FOR AND FIRST GOAL OF IDEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL WORK IN WO IN THE USSR Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist doctrine does not admit to the omnipotence of any weapon that ever existed, as does the Times article mentioned. It teaches that ideas and ideologies are stronger than any bombs or tanks. As proof, the ideas of nationalism in Southeast Asia and the Near East, the ideas of Communism itself, the ideas of revolution and uprising, the ideas of strike by the working class, etc., are usually produced as examples. About February 1955 this line of education in the USSR vas sharply increased. At present leitmotiv number one in all branches of the armed forces is the following: The only effective weapon is the one in the hands of a person with strong and purposeful ideals. The only antiair defense that is effective is that which is based on the people and the nation, and which possesses united ideals, ideologies, policies, and doctrine; atomic and rocket bombs can destroy cities and kill people, but they cannot kill ideas, ideologies, and doctrine. And so forth. From this, then, the reason for and first goal of ideological and political work in WO soyedineniya and in general in all the armed forces is to see that each adult person inividually, and the population as a whole, understand and accept the ideology of Communism, the ideas of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin, and the policies of the party and govern- ment, and that they proclaim them absolute and just. This then, with which the West will be greeted in the event of World War III, is absolutely in- dependent of what kinds of new weapons might be used. V. THE SECOND GOAL OF IDEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL WORK IN WO OF THE USSR The organizational structure of WO of the USSR will be examined later. I shall merely note here that the following have statutes [status?] as subordinate ons: residential buildings housing not less 50X1-HUM leclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RnPRi_ni new Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM than 80-100 persons; all public establishments, without exception; shops of plants and factories; faculties of universities and institutes; print- ing plants; kolkhozes; villages belonging to sovkhozes; railroad stations; etc. The especially important ones have received emblems for successful PIO work. For example, in Moscow such esiblems can be seen on the fronts of buildings, certifying that the building is prepared for PV0. In accordance with the plans and directives of the Administrition of Antiair Defense of the Soviet Army (UMW under the Ministry of Defense, reports and lectures on ideological and political themes connected with PV0 tasks in a fixture war are given in these local organizations. An exceptional role in giving these lectures and reports is played by the Military Defense Section (voyenno-oboronnaya sektsiya) of the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge. In educational institutions these reports and lectures are given in the course of normal instruction by the military chairs and teachers. In industrial and other enterprises, and in kolkhozes and sovkhozes, there are special leaders for antiair defense training. The task of all party, Komsomol, and trade union cells consists of ensuring strict fulfillment of the directives of the MOM and the orthodox purity of lectures and reports. The main leitmotiv, the main practical task, of lectures and reports consists of the following: that effectiveness of enemy bombing is in- versely proportional to the combat readiness of the whole population; that at the cost of timely antiair defense measures, full or partial self- preservation may be achiOved; that the fate of the population in a future war will be in the hands of the population itself; that over-all anti- air defense measures in peacetime are fully justified by the interests of the population itself and, therefore, the policies of the party and govern- ment must be supported; and that there are real possibilities for with- standing and survivin any war, meaning that it is possible and necessary 50X1-HUM to believe in victo Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 1043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM VI. WHY MUST PV0 OF THE USSR FIGHT TO THE LAST MAN? Because of the threat of atomic warfare, a new element has appeared in the ideological and political education of the USSR population. In the radio broadcasts of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany, in Krasnaya Zvezda, Kryltya Rodiny, Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota? and other publications for the past several months, in one form or another, has been posed the question: Why must we be prepared to fight to the last man in the event of a third world war, even in the event atomic bombs are used? Strictly speaking the answer contained nothing new, but it presents something of immense interest for the West; therefore, I shall outline it: We must fight to the last man because there is a real hope of withstanding, surviving, and coming out unhurt from certain danger, while capitalism perishes and the cause of war disappears forever. We must fight to the last man because capitalism is rotting away, dying away, and is condemned by history to disappear; while communism, contrariwise, blossoms, strengthens/ expands, and is destined by history to be a higher society. Consequently, we have an inspiring ideology, for the sake of which we must live and die. We must fight to the last man because any war against the USSR in an unjust war. Contrariwise, the USSR strives to destroy colonial salvery and the capitalist yoke; therefore, our struggle is just. Con- sequently, moral superiority is on our side. From this can be drawn practical conclusions: the population must be drawn in PV0; the entire population must be ready for severe trial, oven for death, in the name of high ideals; and no matter what happens WO fighters must remain at their posts. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ueclassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM VII. OFFICIAL CONCEPTS OF THE USSR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ATOMIC AND HYDROGEN BOMBS The main burden of atomic and hydrogen bombardment falls on the population and on the PV0 system. In connection with this, in February and March 19550 the Supreme Command of the USSR introduced revisions into the doctrine which had existed till that time. Given below are the main themes of the new concepts, which are in operation at the present time and are the organizational basis for the entire P70 system; "Only soldiers who are conscious of their responsibility to the people, who deeply understand the sacred duty of defending the Motherland, and who piously believe in the invincibility of the idea of Communise are equipped to overcome every difficulty. The persistent study of Marxist-Leninist theory... strengthens and hardens our aviation cadres, and prepares them to fulfill cot missions under the most complicated and difficult air situations." (See Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota, official periodical of the High Command of the Soviet Air Forces, No 1, 1955, beginning page 7) "Organizing the training and education of subordinates, commanders and political workers hold that EVEN THE MOST MODERN MATERIEL DOES NOT, IN ITSELF, DECIDE THE OUTCOME OF WAR; that the outcome is decided by people who are strong in spirit and realize their duty to the Socialist Mbtherland." (I bid.) "Capitalist propaganda makes a fuss over the 'all-powerful' atomic and hydrogen bongos. But we, the Soviet people, well know that there is not, and cannot be bombs with a power to determine the outcome of war. We know and have known that the most powerful 'weapon' is the man himself who believes in the rightness of his deeds. We know that there are many means of antiatomic defense, which during war will be placed at the disposal 50X1-HUM :Iassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/17 i"14 onnnA Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 of the soldiers of the Soviet Army and civil self-defense or tne rear area." (From a radio lecture of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany) Much could be deduced from such examples. They give an unusually clear-cut idea of the newest Soviet concepts concerning antiair defense. 50X1-HUM VIII. THE QUESTION OF VIGILANCE The question of vigilance is also absolutely new. There are indirect indications that in February and March 1955 it fell under sharp discussion, according to which strict decisions were adopted by the party and government. In a directive article in Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota No 6 ['Tune 1955], the problem was literally formulated as follows: Vigilance means the prepa- ration of our fighter pilots to take off at any time to meet an air enemy, in any weather, day or night, at any altitude to locate and destroy him before he is able to accomplish his insidious scheme. For this IRE BASIC RESPONSIBILITY RESTS ON THE PILOTS OF THE ANITAIR Lblehliab OF THE COUNTRY. THEIR SACRED DUTY IS TO PREVENT THE PENETRATION OF OUR TERRITORY BY A SINGLE AIRCRAFT OF THE ENEMY. FOR THIS, THE PILOTS OF THE ANTIAIR DEFENSE ARE REQUIRED TO BE IN CONSTANT COMBAT READINESS. "Prevention of penetration of the USSR by even a single enemy aircraft necessarily demands the tireless education of [personnel in] a sense of high vigilance, WHICH MEANS, FIRST OF ALL, THE READINESS OF OUR =ASTI AND PerEAZDELENIYA FOR THE IMMEDIATE FULFILLMENT OF THE COMBAT MISSION." (I bid.) Immediately after prolonged conferences during which the new strategic concepts were discussed, frank discourses appeared on the pages of official military periodicals. For example, Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota, No 4, for April 1955, literally reported that the imperialists intend to initiate a war against the USSR by means of atomic and hydrogen bo Mb attacks against the population centers of the USSR, in order within several days to knock "WM 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized CopyApprovedforRelease @50-Yr2013/ /12 . CIA- - 0 (191nn94nn 11A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM out the basic industrial targets, paralyze ranspor a on an ? et .r? .1 the population. In this connection, obviously, in the new strategic con- cepts of antiair defense the thesis was accepted that vigilance of the PVO and the ADD (Long-Range Aviation) henceforth means the ability to deprive the enemy of suprise, locate him, and not allow oneself to be taken unawares. Then it was announced in an official governmental directive to the fighter aviation of PVO and the long-range bombers, that THE TRAINING OF PILOTS FOR FLIGHT AND IN THE COMBAT EMPLOYMENT OF AIRCRAFT IN CLOUDS IS AN IMPORTANT STATE TASK. (Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flotat No 3, 1955) Such spirits and beliefs regarding vigilance exist in the PVO system at the present time -- spirits and thoughts which have the force of state military law. The problem is today formulated thusly: inasmuch as in a future war the first hours, days, and weeks will play a decisive role, and there will not therefore, be time for the production of needed aircraft and training of needed pilots, ALL MEASURES MUST BE FULFILLED DURING PEACETIME, so that all forms of aviation will be available and present. at any time. IX. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF PVO USSR We now proceed to a study of the PVO itself and its technical equip- ment. We begin with an examination of its organizational structure. Prior to World War II, the chairman of the Council of Peoples Com- missars WSB simultaneously the Chairman of the Council of Labor and Defense. The word "Defense" meant that he was the supreme leader of all defensive activities of the country, including antiair and civilian self-defense. Legally this WAS necessary because the military minister and the General Staff did not have the formal right to give orders to the civilian population. The operational leadership was accomplished by the Committee of Defense under the Council of Peoples Commissars, KOSNK, which was directly subordinate to the chairman of SNK (Council of Peoples Commissars) and STO (Council of 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr DP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Labor and Defense). In 1941 the functions of t ' ver - 50X1-HUM to the newly created State Committee of Defense (GKO), headed by STALIN. In 1946 the GKO VAS abolished, and the KOSNK was restored under the title "Committee of Defense Under the Council of Ministers" (KOSM). Also, the statute authorizing the holdiag of the two offices, chairman of the Council of Ministers and chairman of STO, was abolished. From 1946 to 1953 the KOSM was headed by the Deputy Chairman of the SMSSSR (Council of Ministers USSR), Marshal VOROSHILOV. From March to June 1953 the duties of the Chairman of KOSM were carried out by the Minister of Internal Affairs and First Deputy Chairman of the SMSSSR, Marshal BERIYA; from July 1953 to February 1955, by L. M. KAGANOVICH; and from February to September 1955, by Marshal S. K. TIMOSHENKO. At the present time, according to unofficial information, the duties of the Chairman KOSM are being temporarily carried out by Marshal of Artillery NEDELIN. His deputy for Civil Antiair Defense is Colonel General VINOGRADOV. Main'Teaks of the KOSM Attentive study of materials relating to the campaigns of the reports- and-elections meetings and conferences in the system of the Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navy (DOSAF) gives foundation to the hypothesis that during recent months, perhaps for the past year, a feverish search has been conducted in the Kremlin for the best form of organization for KSOM in view of the atomic and hydrogen bombs. This means that a new man maybe placed at the head of the KOSM -- a scientist-general or marshal, or simply a scientist. But now it is clear that the in over-all tasks of the KOSM remain as they were, namely: 1. TO coordinate civil defense measures in the entire USSR with the measures of the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Navy, and the General Staff. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2 12 . C - R002lon74nn1 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM 2. To draw up plans and drafts of party and governmental decrees, concerning bo tb shelters of all tnes, fire-fighting evil:rent, antiatomic equipment and means of defense for the population and the economy of the USSR, evacuation, etc. 3. To effect state supervision of the training of the population for antiair, antiatomic, and antichemical defense, as regards drawing the masses into the respective civil self-defense organizations, circles, groups, and sections (otryady). 4. To serve as the operational-organizational organ of the government for all defense questions not within the legal competence of the military ministries and the General Staff. In reality, however, the KOSM works under the operational leadership of the General Staff of the Soviet Army. We point out that ideological-political work is not in the mission of the KOSM. The KOSM is occupied only with the practical technical and organizational problems of defense. Supervision of ideological-political education belongs to the Administration of Agitation and Propaganda of the TsKKPSS [Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union] and its Military Section, the Main Political Administration of the Armed Forces (GPUVS), headed at the present time by Colonel General ZHELTOV. Structure of KOSM Given below is the organizational scheme of the KOSM in the form in which it existed in 1947-48. Attempts to introduce changes into it since 1948 were not successful, so that the scheme may, with certitude, be con- sidered valid in 1955. Chairman of KOSM Only members or candidate members of the TeKKPSS are appointed to the position of chairman of the KOSM. Until 1955, only members of the Politburo or Presidium of 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: nag flO A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM The chairman of the Mai is organizationally directly subordinate to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers USSR. Through the latter be receives the directives of the Presidium of the TsKKPSS or, what is the same thing, the Council of Ministers USSR. The basic duties of the Chairman of the KOSM are: 1. TO be well informed of the general strategic planning of the USSR over an extended period of time. 2. To be directly and officially concerned with the activities of the Ministry of Defense, the General Staff, and the Ministry of the Navy. Note: It is suggested that in the near future Marshal of the Soviet Union BIRMIZOV or General of the Army ANTOBOV will be named chair- man of the KOSM. The reason for the assumption is their participation in the reports-and-elections campaigns of DOSAF. Another reason is the absence of a scientist-marshal who answers the requirements and who can be appointed in the near future.) 3. To investigate new achievements in world military science and equip- ment, particularly the problems of atomic war and antiatomic armament. 4. To possess high organizational and administrative qualities. Judging by the experiences of prewar and postwar years, the Chairman of KOSM and his deputy have been given the legal right in all questions of civil defense to appeal directly to ministers and to party and Soviet leaders of union and autonomous republics, krays, Oblasts, cities, rayons, industrial enterprises, and institutions, assigning tasks to them and requiring from them unquestioning fulfillment of his directives, in as much as be acts in the name of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Through him is accomplished that which is considered necessary by the General Staff for the civil population and the economy of the nation as regards defense. 12 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 1 ? CIA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 KOSX 50X1-HUM Strictly, the "Committee of Defense" is a group of persons, appointed by the Council of Ministers to represent the Secretariat of the TaKPSS, the Ministry of Defense, the General Staff and the Ministry of the Navy, in coordination with Gosplan. Usually found on the KO are the Chief of the Geieral Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff, the Chief of Staff of Armored Troops, the Chief of the Antichemical Defense Section (otdel) of the Ministry of Defense, the Minister of Communications, the Minister of Armaments, the Minister of the Aviation Industry, the Chief of the WO Administration of the Soviet Army, the Deputy Minister of Defense for Intendance Service, the Chairman of DOSAF, the Chief of the Military Academy imeni Frunze, the Chief of the Medical Sanitarnoye Administration of the Soviet Army, the Minister of Railroads, the Secretary of TsKKPSS for Organizational Problems or for Cadres, the Chief of the GPUVS, the Minister of Internal Affairs, the Chairman of the Committee of State Security, the Chief of the Engineering Administration of the Soviet Army, the Chief.,of the Military Engineering Academy imeni Kuybyshev, and others. This is a kind of "Board of Governors." It is a consultative organi- zation which meets to discuss certain questions according as determined by the Chairman of KOSM. As to practical work, this it accomplishes with a vast administrative apparatus -- the effective Committee of Defense, which is located in a building between the Spasskaya Gates and the building of the Council of Ministers USSR in the Kremlin. In this building there are sections (otdely) which are occupied with the separate fields of defense. As a general rule each section is headed by a regular military man, who is not lower than major generel or engineer-lieutenant colonel in rark, and in every instance necessarily having the appropriate higher education. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr2013/ /12 . CIA- - 1 711)n9Ann1 1A Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 OSO 50 X1-HLD The Section of Communications and Warning (Otdel Svyazi i Opoveshcheniya, OSO) plays an important role in the entire system of antiair and civil defense. Subordinate to it is found everything by which communication and warning in modern war are acccoplished. Specifically and only through the OSO are the projects and plans for communications and warning on the territory of the USSR approved. Specifically and only the OSO has the right: in concordance with the General Staff, to establish new communication and. warning points. It is through the OSO that the question of what is good and what is bad is decided. For example, the air raid warning signals in cities and other population points are developed and approved by the government and General Staff on the recommendation of the OSO. Engineers working under the supervision of the OSO bear full responsibility for the reliable and accurate operation of electric sirens, pneumatic sirens, radio transmitters at PVO and local self- defense points (as regards their irreproachable hookup with the general radio broadcasting system of the country and vice versa), and loudspeakers (which are arranged so that acoustically the air raid warnings do not have dead of half-dead sectors, thit is, so that the entire population will be notified with sufficient clarity); the reliable connection and disconnection of telephone commutators, connection and disconnection of electric lighting at PVO and local self-defense points in the event of the necessity, and so forth. Note: It is the duty of the OSO to ensure all of this technically and organizationally during peacetime; but in wartime these facilities are brought into action, not by the OSO itself, but by the PVO and self- defense points, which are found subordinate to the PVO commander. OPKhO The Antichemical Defense Section (Otdel Protivo-Khimicheskoy Oborony, OPKW) is occrnifti1 with working out all technical and organizational praocoma 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/d9/l2 : CIA-RDP81-n1a4flpnn,, qnnoAnnil A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM of the chemical defense of the population and the entire country as a whole. Included, for example) are measures for the development of plans and initiation of mass production of gas masks and antichamical clothing for individual and collective use. The work is carried out in coordination with the Administration of Chemical Defeme of the Ministry of Defense. The duty of both organizations is to follow the achievements of other countries in the fields of military chemistry, and to inform the Council of Ministers USSR of them, and to take measures for the appropriate development of Soviet military chemistry, and so forth. An extrordinAry role in the activities of the OPKhO is played by the work of preparing practical measures to prevent contamination of state food supplies, population feeding points, water supply systems, and mass bomb and gas-proof shelters as, for example, the Nbscow and Leningrad subways. Special scientific-research institutes and oratories, under the general scientific supervision of the respective chairs of the Military Academy of Chemical Defense of the Soviet Army imeni Voroshilov (Moscow, Ulitsa Bauman) are working on the solutions to these problems. The problems are, firstly, the development of pro- tective measures against contamination; secondly, the creation of rapid and absolutely reliable methods of decontaminating already con- taminated centers. It goes without saying that work is being conducted on the decontamination of less significant and not as important targets, but this is a task for the population itself, which must master the elements of the self-protection regulations. Nevertheless, the OPKhO proceeds from the possitility of so much fatal, over-all contamination of an area that decontamination in a short time will be impossible. In this event, special means of evacuating people, wec,vons, and valuables are required. The planning of such facilities and their nomenclature, the degree of their mass production, and so forth is worked out in accordance with the missions of OPKhO. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM Still another task of the OPKhO is the issuance, in mass quantities, of popular booklets and instructions for the population and b-pacial anti- chemical defense units. The Section of Antifire Defense (Otdel Protivo-Pozharnoy Okbrany, OPPO) works in close contact with the Administration of Fire Defense of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but this does not mean tbrt fire- fighting teams of the MVD are in any way subordinate to the OPPO. The atm is that fire-fighting teams of the MVD first of all help to provide the population with methods of fighting fires; secondly, that there will be a clear-cut division of labor in case of air attacks; and thirdly, that the necessary fire-fighting equipment is ordered from plants manu- facturing equipment for MVD teams. The OPPO is directly responsible for working out drafts of laws, orders, and instructions for the antifire defense of the entire USSR in case of war; informing the civilian population of these laws, orders, and instructions through PVO and local self-defense organizations; supplying, even in peacetime, all establishments, enterprises, and residential buildings of no less than 80 to 100 inhabitants with the minimum fire- fighting eqpipment necessary (this job is performed in practice by super- visors of establishments and enterprises under directives from above); organizing rescue teams from the civilian population; etc. As a result, up to now each antifire objective (establishment or enterprise) has available for emergency use a fire engine, buckets, sand (usually in a garret), flexible ladders, shovels, pickaxes, tarpaulin gloves, nonflammable coats, entismoke masks with oxygen devices, fire extinguishers, etc. In studying experiences of the Soviet-German war the OPPO has developed new equipment for extinguishing incendiary bombs. Unfortunately, aside from 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ ? 2013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM the fact that this equipment has been introduced to us, nothing is known about it, but one can assume that all antifire objectives have now been equipped with it. OEGU The Section for the Evacuation of State Establishments (Otdel EVakuatsii Gosudarstvennykh Uchrezhdeniy, OEGU) was created in 1941 and is at the present time apparently one of the largest in the KOSM. The task of the OEGU is to develop, together with the General Staff and Gosplan, operating plans for the general or partial evacu- ation of the population, of establishments, enterprises, and insti- tutions, and of animal., food, and strategic reserves. The experience of World War II has shown that for the USSR this is very likely one of the most difficult problems. In 1941-42 the GKO coped with this problem, but only at the cost of unheard of suffering of the population and fan- tastic losses in the economy. Even in 1943-44 in the course of studying the experiences of the war, the formidable question arose everywhere: "Row could this happen?" That is, who is at fault that the country found itself unprepared for mass occupation in the east, both as to clear-cut plans and the practical work of providing transportation, finances, food, and new housing areas. The creation and existence of the OEGU is an answer to this question. One can assume that in the future if the special conditions of a special war do not make evacuation unnecessary, it will be carried out many times better. As far as we know, the principal mess of OEGU workers consists of students of the Military Transport Academy of the Soviet Army imeni Kaganovich (Leningrad). We should also note that after World War II a general strategic redistribution of population and vital centers began in the USSR. For example, new kolkhozes and sovkhozes s on ? ; slot of ? im,,,Inecifiari in Part - Sanitized Coov Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized CO .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDp81-01043R002300240011-4 Kazakhstan and Siberia; Central Siberia and the republics of Central Asia became industrial centers of the USSR. This means that the problems of evacuation and antiair defense are even now being resolved in a radical fashion, on a large scale. OSKhPV0 The Section for Agricultural Antiair Defense (Otdel Sel'sko- Khozyaystvennoy Prottvovozdushnoy ?barony, OSMPV0) occupies a somewhat detached position in the KOSM. It is not located in the Kremlin, but on Orlikov Pereulok, Building No 3. The task of the OSIORVO includes the supervision of a number of antiair measures, but only as regards supplying the material equipment requirements of local PVO teams. For example, the commander of PVO in area "X" finds it necessary to excavate an underground granary for a kolkhoz or sovkhoz; in such a case the chairman of the kolkhoz is obliged to Obtain the necessary money from either appropriate organs within his own ministry or from funds of his own kolkhoz, but in the latter case he must have the permission of those same organs. For another example, the chief of a rayon PM orders the chief of an MTS (Machine Tractor Station) to remove tractors from plowing and engage them in some kind of antiair defense project in another yon; then the chief of the MTS must secure a directive from the appropriate agricultural organs. All these complexities are regulated by the OSKaVO. On the other hand the PVO of rural regions possesses a nuMber of specific specialties. For example, in grain regions there exists the danger of burning unmown grain or contaminating it with war gas. At the same time the point of view is taken in the USSR that kolkhoz villages will not be subjected to serious air raids, if they contain a classified in Part - Sanitized CO .y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-Rnpp-i_rmnAor, 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM no important military objectives; consequently, antiair defense measures will be essentially different from sivolsw measures in mountains, in industrial regions, and in transportation. Hence, the situation of the OSKhPV0 is a somewhat specific one which, however, operates with the authority of a section of the KOSM. OSPVS The Section for Permanent Antiair Installations (Otdel Statsionarnykh Protivo-Vozdushnykh Sooruzheniy, OSPVS) was established in 1946 and actually began operating in 1947 on the basis of German, American, and British materials and equipment. The mission of this section is to engage in general planning, develop- ment of projects, and placing into production and activating permanent radar-warning installations. Comment: This section has been solving problems for all branches of the Armed Forces and for the USSR as a whole, because neither the Army, the Air Forces, nor the Navy, nor even the Civil Air Defense have had any independent radar experience. One can assume that at the present time the functions of the OSPVS have been somewhat narrowed: probably the operational use of installations by the Armed Forces has been withdrawn from the control of the OSPVS. Comment: The author regrets that he does not know more about this extremely important section. However, it must be i.Atmphasized that in 1946-47 the OSPVS was also interested in the construction of radio-air stations, and in any case in theories relative to such stations, namely acting on aircraft by means of special waves. This is an old Italian idea, that by means of certain waves it is possible to cause the electronic (elektrotekhnicheskaya) system of an aircraft stop working completely or Partially. Finally, the OSPVS was interested in problems of a so-called "radio machine gun." The first Soviet theory of such a "machine gun" was developed 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 1043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM and suggested by ITSKHOKI, Candidate of .Technical Sciences and Docent of the Chair of Electroradiotechnology (elektroradiotekhnika) under the Faculty of Special Aircraft Equipment of the Air Force Engineering Academy imeni Mukovskiy. We know of the authenticity of the existence and the proposal of this theory because ITSKHOKI was this authorls personal friend and colleague on a Scientific Council.. Unfortunately, I know nothing more on this subject, but urgently recommend that necessary attention be given this paragraph. OBU The Section for Bomb Shelters (Otdel Bombo-Ubezhishch, OBU) has probably existed since 1927-8. Undoubtedly it exists even now, as the book. by Engr-Lt Col LYKOV on the role of engineer work in modern war testifies. The tasks of the OBU are to plan on an all-union scale the work of constructing bask shelters of every size and purpose in addition to Army and field shelters; to effect, through city soviets and local antiair defense organs, the adaptation of cellars and any suitable areas of residential buildings to the needs of the population in time of bombard- ment (Note: Although this sounds absurd, this work continues even now; it is considered one of the antiatomic defense measures which are discussed in more detail below); and the construction of underground and reinforced- concrete shelters for party, soviet, and economic workers, and any workers of the state apparatus (apparat), as well as for local PVO and self-defense commanders (Note: This is done by the city soviets on directives of the OBU). A practical result of the activities of the OBU is the presence of bomb shelters beneath every large building in the USSR. Usually these are cellars whose walls and windows are properly reinforced. German air raids on Moscow and Leningrad showed that these shelters, in spite of their primitiveness, played a vital role in decreasing the number of casualties and in providing overnight lodging for children and old people, for sick perspins and wet nurac- 50X1-HUM Imm Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM Note: Instructions of the OBU permit the use of cellar shelters for their original purpose, but the removal of wall, ceiling, and window reinforcements is not permitted. If a large eMblem hangs on the front of a building -- the symbol of the former OSOAVIAKhINA or the present DOSAF -- this signifies that a permanent boat shelter lies beneath the building. There are so many in Moscow that one can note them on every street withnut any difficulty. OZA The Section for Antiaircraft Artillery (Otdel ZenitnoyArtiLleri, OZA) works in close contact with the Nein Artillery Administration of the Soviet Army (Nbscow, the Center, Ulitsa Solyanka, Building No 12, the building .of the former Medical Technical School) (meditsinskiy tekhnikum]. But the missions of the OZA and the GAUSA are not identical. The GAUSA is concerned primarily with Army artillery problems, the OSA with problems of organizing artillery -- "antiaircraft" -- defense of civil objectives. To be exact, the OZA decides which civil Objectives are subject to antiaircraft defense. The OZA provides the Main Artillery Administration with the authorization (prava) and practical opportunity of timely construction of underground roams (for command personnel [komandovaniye]) and sites (platformy) for gun installations, as well as communications equipment, etc. All this is done through civilian administrations. As to the GAUSA, it supplies antiaircraft defense points with artillery cadres, batteries, and ammunition, and in general assumes practical control of the antiaircraft defense. Note: The artillery antiair defense will be examined in more detail later. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 2013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 RIO 50X1 -HUM J The Editorial-Publishing Section (Redaktsionno-Izdatel'skiy Otdel, RIO) exists as a section of the Main Military Publishing House, but is concerned with the publication of literature only as required by the KOSM for PVO and civil self-defense. In particUlar the RIO publishes all popular literature designed for mass consumption. In order to have an idea of the character of these publications, an example list is given below: "The Combat Use of PVO Teams" -- a brochure. "Antiair Defense of Populated Points" -- a book. "Be Prepared for Antiair Defense" -- a brochure. "PVO of Important Points" -- a book. "Antiair and Antichemical Defense on Railroad Transportation" -- a book. "Handbook on PVO and Local Self-Defense" -- instructions for the population. "Rules for Loading, Hauling, and Unloading Under Conditions of Air Attacks on Rear Area Points" -- a brochure. "Instructions for the Seaman Antiaircraft Gunner of PVO" -- a brochure. "Handbook for Ground Firing Antiaircraft Equipment of the WO" brochure. "Tactical Use of Antiair Camouflage" -- a book. "Antiair Defense With Machine Guns and Rifles" -- a book. "How to Contend With Enemy Airborne Landings" -- a brochure. "Rules for Firing on Enemy Aircraft" -- a book. "Manual for the Antiair Defense of Cities" -- a brochure. "Atomic Weapons and Antiatomic Defense" -- a brochure. "EngineerzZonstructions of PVO in Modern War" -- a book. "Modern Foreign Jet Bombers" -- a book. ..... a 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM "Long-Range Rockets and Their Combat Use -- &brochure. "Antiair and Antichemical Defense" -- a book. "The Role of Radar in PVO" -- a book. "Sanitation-Medical Service of PVO" -- a collection of instructions. "What Is Atomic Radiation?" -- &brochure. "Atomic Energy" -- a book. From these examples it is apparent that the RIO of the KOSM covers all fields of modern antiair and civilian defense of the rear. In addition a series of mass-defense magazines are published under the supervision of the RIO, for example, the magazines Kryllya Rodiuy and Protivo-Vozdushnaya Oborona. Information Section Also under the KOSM is the Information Section (otdel informatsii, 01), whose main task. is the collection, systematization, and applied research of foreign and domestic organization in all fields of antiair and civil self- defense. This job is performed by a special group of experts -- professors, docents, doctors, candidates of science, engineers, tacticians, and strategists who are located in the building of the Scientific Technological Committee of the General Staff and work in close contact with this committee, with the Staff of the Partisan Movement, and with the Bureau of New Technology under the Ministry of the Aviation Industry. The tasks of the OI are strictly specialized. They do not exceed the limits of civilian PVO and self-defense requirements. The CT publishes lithographic bulletins and distributes them to chiefs of local PVO and self-defense teams. The OI is especially concerned with the translation of foreign literature according to specialties. OSN The Section for Supplying the Population (Otdel Snabzheniya Naseleniya, OSN) is concerned only with supply problems. At its disposal are warehouses 50X1-HUM GM MD Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM containing everything needed for the practic re za defense measures, namely: fire extinguishing equipment, special clothing, antichemical masks, first aid equipment, ordinary and special transport equipment, and so on. Warehouses exist according to regulations for strategic reserves and are located under the direct intendance control of the Deputy Minister of Defense for the Rear Services (Intendance Service), although the OSN itself is not subordinate to him in an organizational or administrative sense. ?MSS The Section for Medical-Sanitation Service (Otdel )4ediko-Sanitarnoy Sluzhby, OMSS) has the responsibility, together with the Mein Medical (Sanitarnoye) Administration of the Soviet Army and other state medical- sanitation establishments, to work out an entire complex of measures to be taken in case of air raids. In particular the OMSS is concerned with planning measures for rendering first aid to those wounded and contaminated (otraYlennyye) during air raids. For this purpose, under the general supervision of the OMSS throughout the entire USSR and the entire system of defense training of the population, classes (kruzhkovoye obucheniye) on the rules of first aid are conducted. It is of interest that no one in the USSR can obtain a "Ready for Labor and Defense" (GTO) badge or a certificate of graduation from any type of DOSAF school who has not passed the minimum medical-sanitation examination in the KOSM program. Another task with which the OMSS is concerned is supplying defense points throughout the entire USSR with the necessary quantity and quality of first aid equipment. In particular, in city buildings carrying the emblem of readiness for self-defense, the so-called "PVO First Aid Chest" is permanently located beneath this eMblam. The third task of the OMSS is concerned with planning measures for treatment at permanent facilities (stationarnoye lecheniye) of the wounded 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr2013/ /12 . CIA- - 1 711)n9Anni A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM and contaminated. This function is performed almost entirely inaepenocutu4 of the Medical Administration of the Soviet Army, because in time of war military and civilian hospitals as a rule automatically and completely fall under Army control and become filled with Army wounded; consequently, civil self-defense must rely basically on its own forces, on its own permanent treatment points. For this purpose lodgings, tents, cots, attendant and medical staffs, and medicinal and dressing materials will be needed. All this must be planned and prepared in peacetime. The OS is concerned with this task. a responsibility of the OMS [probably meant to read "OMSS"] jointly with the Medical Administration of the Army and with state establish- ments is the organization of supervision (sanitary) and laboratory control over contaminated areas, resevoirs, rations, food, etc. It is of interest that in the USSR the Red Cross Society is under the exclusive control of the KOSM, although officially the Red Cross appears to have nothing in common with the government. OMPAZ The Section for Mass Antiatomic Defense (Otdel Messovoy Protivo-Atomnoy ZaShchity, OMPAZ) was created in 1945 under State Committee Number One (Its chairman was then BULGABIN). The primary task of the OMPAZ, like all atomic organizations which feverishly sprung up after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was to study foreign experience (Of course, domestic research work took place in research establishments). For example, while working on the.Mein Staff of SVAG, this author received a most urgent directive to gather feverishly and earnestly anything that was directly or indirectly related to infor- mation on atomic energy and quickly forward it to State Committee NuMber One and to OMPAZ. In 1946 OMPAZ was included in the staff of KOSM and since that time has worked on problems of Esse antiatomic defense. Around that time special 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr DP81-01043R002300240011-4 / Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM secret chairs of antiatomic defense were organized under the Military Academy of Chemical Defense imeni Voroshilov, under the Military Engineering Academy imeni Kuybyshev, and under the Gortkiy State University. (Note: The Gorlkiy State University has been mentioned by us only on the basis of unofficial information.) This author is well acquainted with the general direction of the work of the chairs under the Academy imeni Kuybyshev. This work aimed at studying problems of construction of underground, concrete, mass, atomic shelters (Note: Upon my arrival in Great Britain I spoke of this to representatives of the Department of Scientific Intelligence of the Ministry of Defense, but they almost laughed at me, saying peremptorily that there is no defense from the atomic bomb; thus, I talk nonsense and the Academy imeni Kuybyshev is engaged in senseless pursuits.) Probably at the present time the status of mass antiatomic defense is this: in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Kazan', Gortkiy, Sverdlovsk, Kharlkov, and other large cities vast underground atomic shelters have already been or are being constructed; in Moscow and Leningrad this [construction] is carried on under the guise of subway construction; at the present time preparatory measures for constructing subways in Kiev and Khartkov aee being completed; the study of antiatomic defense measures has occupied an important place in defense work for the last two or three years; a great deal of popular literature is published in the USSR an this subject. General Doctrine of Antiatomic Defense in the USSR The statement by Stalin that "the atomic bomb is dangerous only to those with weak nerves" and that "the atomic bomb cannot decide the out- come of war is well known. In 1953 this idea was subject to doubt. In February-March 1955 the party and the government definitely accepted Stalin's formula, and at the present time the following doctrine is predominant in the USSR: antiatomic defense is possible; the Armed Forces and the entirs 50X1-HUM population must prepare theme 9 EWalderense. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM Authorities and sources: Engineer Construction in Modern War, by Engr-Lt Col L1KOV and others, 1955, Military Publishing House USSR; Atomic Weapons and Antiatomic Defense, by Engr-Lt Col. NAUMENKO, 1955, Moscow; The Atomic Nucleus, by M. I. KORSUN'SKIY, 1952, Moscow; and issues of Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota, Kryllya Rodiny, Tekhnikit-Molodezhil Pravda, Ogonek, Novyy Mir, and other publications for 1955. Basic Principles of the Soviet Doctrine of Antiatomic Defense At the present time the dominant principles of antiatomic defense for the USSR are: (1) Advance dispersion of the vital centers and population of the country; in particular, the creation of strategic emergency centers of government administration deep in the rear areas of the country. (2) Extreme concentration of efforts to quickly create melts for warning of enemy aircraft movements. (3) Extreme concentration of efforts to create a powerful system of active antiair defense over all possible lines of enemy bomber move- ment. (Note: For more detail see below.) (4) Concentrated research work on the creation of wave equipment (volnovyye sredstva) for exploding enemy atomic bombs before their approach to the USSR or equipment for acting upon the electronic systems of aircraft at great distances. (5) Supplying the Armed Forces and the population with shelters which provide some kind of protection at the moment of the explosion. (6) Training the Armed Forces and the civilian population in elementary self-defense measures against atomic radioactivity. (7) Organization on an all-union scale of active antiatomic defense teams, for example, for extinguishing fires and rescue work in destruction areas. The new doctrine of the USSR recognizes that no antiatomic defense measures can be absolutely reliable but each of the enumerated measures 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-ninafl flf1,1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 makes it possible to reduce the nutber of deaths and destruction, to 50X1-HUM gain valuable time, and to give psychological assurance to the popu- lation; therefore, it is required that they be used to the fullest extent, decisively, without delay, and at any cost. Let us turn to the study of practical measures of antiatomic defense in the USSR today, at the end of 1955. In line with this, it is significant to remember one organizational detail: it is no longer the KOSK, but the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff or, as better it is best to say frankly, the Council of Ministers -- and no longer the 'COM -- play the chief role in all operations con- cerning antiatomic defense. Timely Dispersal As a centralized state, the USSR cannot exist faronwmonth with- out centralized management. Hence, there is the natural inclination to prepare ahead of time measures for the territorial decentralization of state establishments. This means that measures have already been taken by the Kremlin to ready reserve quarters for the government as a whole and for its separate units. The problem concerning these quarters arose for the first time in 1944, in connection with the unsuccessful experiment in mass evacuation. At that time, measures were begun to construct suitable buildings -- reserve quarters -- in the cities of Kuybyshev, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk, Tashkent, and possibly in Tomsk. And if a new war should break out with the threat of atomic attack over Moscow, then, likely, the goal to destroy the soviet government would not be achieved by the West with only the destruction of Moscow. The same thing would have to be repeated in a number of other cities. But this still is not all. Each oblast or city party committee, each kray, oblast or city soviet in every corner of the USSR has the official status of a state establishment and is an integral part of the 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 %.? Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230024 011-4 centralized administration, and in administrative, econ aspects has been prepared to assume the whole goverment or a part of it in a critical situation. Moscow quarters for the Government The Kremlin, as such, has not been totally readied for antiatomic defense. It is necessary to prepare it. It is too large to conceal from the sight of enemy aircraft. The only defense of the Kremlin is purely police protection (politseyskaya oborona) carried out by the Kremlin commandant's office (komendatura) and the MVD School imeni VleIK (All-Union Central Executive Committee), now imeni Supreme Soviet. It is quite definitely known by the author of these lines that immediately after the end of the war, a large, deep, underground shelter was constructed under the western part of the Kremlin. Unofficial observers have concurred that it was intended only for the commandant's office of the Kremlin and for the command of the School imeni VTsIK. They say that the shelter can admit only one division of )WD troops. The great depth and the concrete walls of increased thickness would make the shelter reliable in the event of atomic attack. Whether this is true or not is not known to us. There is another very deep both shelter -- especially for the MVD and KGB -- under the NVD-NGB building on Ploshchad' imeni Dterzhinskiy? which was under construction about 1947 and was probably finished in 1951-1952. This shelter was intended for reliable antiatomic defense, that is, against explosive and shock waves, radioactivity and high temperatures. When I was informed of this, I expressed doubt about the possibility of reliable antiatomic defense in the event of an explosion in Moscow' itself. But the person from whom I learned of the existence of the shelter replied that in the first place there are no reasons to assume that the atomic bomb would explode directly in Moscow, and in the second place, "This is better than n ssified in Part - Sanitized Co II Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2r) ? - - 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM centralized administration, and in administrative, economic and other aspects has been prepared to assume the whole government or a part of it in a critical situation. Moscow Quarters for the Government The Kremlin, as such, has not been totally readied for antiatomic defense. It is necessary to prepare it. It is too large to conceal from the sight of enemy aircraft. The only defense of the Kremlin is purely police protection (politseyskaya oborona) carried out by the Kremlin commandant's office (komendatura) and the MVD School imeni VTsIK (All-Union Central Executive Committee), now imeni Supreme Soviet. It is quite definitely known by the author of these lines that immediately after the end of the war, a large, deep, underground shelter was constructed under the western part of the Kremlin. Unofficial observers have concurred that it VAS intended only for the commandant's office of the Kremlin and for the command of the School imeni VT8IK. They say that the shelter can admit only one division of NVD troops. The great depth and Use concrete walls of increased thickness would make the shelter reliable in the event of atomic attack. Whether this is true or not is not known to us. There is another very deep bomb shelter -- especially for the MVD and KGB -- under the MVD-MB building on Ploshchadi imeni Dzerzhinskiy, which was under construction about 1947 and was probably finished in 1951-1952. This shelter was intendedsfor reliable antiatomic defense, that is, against explosive and shock waves, radioactivity and high temperatures. When I was informed of this, I expressed doubt about the possibility of reliable antiatomic defense in the event of an explosion in Moscow itself. But the person from. whom I learned of the existence of the shelter replied that in the first place there are no reasons to assume that the atomic bomb would explode directly in Moscow, and in the second place, "This is better than nothing." 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM There is an enormous stationary government both shelter near Krasnyye Vorota, parallel to the station of the metro "krasnyye Vorota," and at a very great depth. The Supreme High Command -- IF it did not move to the East -- would be found herd during war- time. The construction of the shelter was begun in 1942 and at present, probably is the most complete in the USSR. Of course, without special work, government buildings outside of town with telephones of high frequency (VCh), radiotelephones, telegraphs, television lines, and other facilities necessary for exercising state functions, can be used. Dispersal of Industrial Centers In the course of studying the experience of World War II the government has passed a number of precautionary measures, above all, concerning the dispersal of key industrial centers. Thus, for example, the newest aviation plants have been constructed and are being constructed mainly in Central and East Siberia, in Central Asia and on the Central Volga (cities of Novosibirsk, Omsk, Irkutsk, Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Sverdlovsk, Kuybyshev, Saratov, and others). The loss of the Ukraine and Northern Caucasus was a catastrophe for the USSR. The USSR would have ceased to exist back in 1942 except for English and American material assistance. This was the case not only in the destruction of the Red Army but in the loss of the Donbass and the Shakhtinskiy area. The Kremlin studied this very serious lesson and passed far-reaching measures for completing the establishment, long ago, of priority (nachatyy) industrial centers far into the East, in zones bilieved inaccessible. For example, the Kuzbass was converted into a second Donbass USSR, the Volga (Bashkir) oil regions into a second Baku, and so forth. The Kremlin's strategic calculation is simple: if an atomic war breaks out, then ene bombers can destroy industrial centers in the 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ IA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM west of the USSR but cannot, or virtually cannot, destroy eastern industrial centers; and, consequently, the country will be able to continue the war. Establishing Strategic Rural Zones A very great lesson in the Soviet-German struggle was the loss of the Ukrainian SSR and the North Caucasus, and the granaries of the country. Back in 1941-19421 this question arose in government circles: How and why did it happen? In 1944, the task of developing measures to prevent such a catastrophe in a future war was placed be- fore the state planning committee. Thus arose the problem of assimilating virgin territories. The question did not arise after the death of Stalin as superficial "ex- perts" report in the newspapers, but during the years 1947-1949. During 1952 and 1953, preliminary work was completed and mass migration into barren Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, and Central Siberia was begun. This was especially significant since there was not enough bread in the country and the food crisis was increasingly making itself felt. It is necessary to stress that the matter of virgin territortes also solves other strategic problems: first, if it becomes necessary to move to the East, it will be easier to place considerable masses of the peasantry in the virgin-land regions; second, if atomic radioactivity and light radiation destroys or makes impossible the processing of the land (harvesting, etc.) in the Ukraine and in Northern Caucasus, then, most probably, the country would have available the grain in the East and would be able to continue the war; third, if the western territory of the USSR falls under foreign occupation, then, most likely, the Soviet government could depend upon the considerable population and the cultivated territory of the East; fourth, the transfer of the mass of the Russian and Ukrainian population to the East would sharply increase the rate and extent of Russification Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM of the eastern Moslem population, that is, strengthen the position or the Kremlin in the east and minimize the opportunities of the "bourgeois nationalists." And this is important in war as shown by the experieace of the peoples of the Northern Caucasus (genocide). Soviet Theories of Antiatomic Defense At the same time considerable research work on the study of the problem of atomic warfare has been donducted in the USSR. A survey of available official literature makes it possible to state that this study has a clearly functional, centralized, and practical nature. In recent years, Soviet theories have been definitively formulated on this score. All active and passive means of defense are founded on them. Theory No 1: There is no absolute defense against the atomic bomb and, consequently, the first goal of absolute defense is the prohibition of the use of atomic bombs as weapons. Hence the well-known line of Soviet diplomacy and "peace" congresses. Theory No 2: If the attempt to ban the atomic bomb on a world-wide scale is unsuccessful, than it is necessary to direct the conflict between the East and West along those channels which exclude the possibility of justifiable use of the A-bomb. For example, if in the East, along the 30th parallel (approximately), a chain of national-liberation movements should arise, then, first, the whole western capitalist front would become entangled in conflicts and, having squandered its military forces, would cease to operate as a monolithic anti-Soviet bloc; secon#1 moral and other reasons would not permit the western countries to use the atomic bomb against national-liberation movements; third, during this process of the disintegration of the West, the USSR, achieving its aim, would be out- side the danger of atomic attack. Hence the 'lactic: Face the East! Support all types of national-liberation movements in the East. Theory No 3: If Theories Nos 1 and 2 cannot be successfully carried out, that is, if atomic warfare between the East and West is recognized as 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM inevitable, then it is necessary for the USSInto surround the entire strategic zone with an area which could be adequate to conduct anti- air warfare (fighter planes, rockets-robots, etc.) to shoot down enemy aircraft before they reach USSR territory. Hence, the invincible determi- nation of the General Staff of the USSR to cling to every bit of occupied territory and the fanatical reluctance of the Kremlin to solve the German question. Hence also the well-known trifling with Finland and the attempt to placate the Arabian Near East. A footnote to this is that these stra- tegic purposes coincide with the general aims of world communism. Theory No 4: In atomic warfare, the side which destroys its opponent's air bases early in the day wins. Hence the very clear military and political doctrines of the USSR concerning the FIRST period of the war which can be summarized in one phrase: WE SHOULD STRIKE FIRST. (Note: One can learn about these doctrines in the literature indicated in the bibliography.) Theory No 5: just as there is no absolute defense from the atomic bomb, there is no absolute destruction of the USSR and consequently, chances for individual survival do exist, that is, if all means of antiatomic defenses are used. Special explanations are not needed for Theories 1, 2, and 3; therefore, only Theories 4 and 5 are developed here. Types of Atomic Blast The experience of the last 1-2 years leaves no doubt that the population of the USSR has been informed about the aftereffects of an atomic blast in a satisfactory and objective manner. We here in the West should reject that dangerous error -- conceivedffrom vulgar simplification -- which maintains that Kremlin leaders neither understand nor desire to inform the population of the horrors of atomic war. The Editorial and Publishing Section, and the Information Section of the KOSNL, the Ministry of Defense, and also the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Scientific and Political Know- ledge -- not to mention the lecture sections (otdel) of party committees -- 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X -HUM publish a great volume of popular and instructional literature, organize lectures, show films, and so forth, in order to ready the population. We have concrete examples of this, for example, as the rank and file members of Dosaaf -- ordinary plant workers -- speak and write on various themes concerning atomic blasts. A simple, popular expla- nation of the types of atomic blasts -- air, surface, underground, and underwater -- is given in nuMbers of popular publications. The antiatomic defense significance of this fact is seen in that the population realizes the necessity and inevitability of these or those measures of the KOSM; the population does not dispute (if it could dispute) whether or not local self-defense detachments ihould be organized; and itadh professional group understands that, whether it is at home or at work, it is threatened by danger. And this, in itself, in conformance with Soviet doctrines of totalitarianism, is a large factor in the matter of antiatomic defense. On the Aftereffects of Different Types of Blasts Practical measures of antiatomic self-defense logically follow from the types of atomic blasts. The first type is the air explosion which occurs, let us say, several hundred meters above ground. The population is informed that during an air burst, radioactive substances which fall to the ground from a smoke cloud do not cause considerable contamination of the ground below the burst. The great mass of substances from the burst is carried in the smoke cloud and is dispersed at great altitudes and in many areas. Approximately 0.02-0.05 percent of the harmful radio- active elements ihlls to the ground. Hence, the practical recommendation: one can travel through a contaminated region even within several minutes after the burst in order to perform rescue work or to continue ground military operations. As you see, it is impossible to think of anything more concrete. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA- 8 -010 . 9Annil A imrofersonswhounderstsnd the re of shock 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM The second type is the surface blast, that is, when the bomb falls to the ground and explodes on the ground. In this case, the hot pro- ducts of the blast contact the ground, melt the soil, and in condensed form fuze with it. These composite messes are scattered to great distances with enormous pressures. As a result considerable territory is contaminated. (Note: Unfortunately, Soviet sources do not give indications concerning the extent of territory.) Furthermore, the ground will, in addition, be contaminated by a stream of neutrons. Consequently, the practical conclusion: it is prohibited to approach a blast area before a given time or closer than a given distance. Also concrete enough! The third type is the underground blast, called in the USSR "diversionary atomic blast." The population is told that in this case, very high contamination of the ground occurs in the blest zone. Products of the blast are mixed with particles of the ground and quickly settle around the blast area. The degree of contamination is undoubtedly fatal for a radius of 600 meters. (Comment by the author: The radius certainly depends on the type of atomic bomb and on the depth of the under- ground blast, and also probably on the geological composition of the soil.) The fourth type is the underwater blast. In this case, all the radio- active products settle in the water. The portion of these which is blown up for a brief time together with the-ejected particles of water, soon sinks. The decontamination of the water is very high, and, mainly, per- sistent. Consequently, the practical recommendation: It is prohibited to approach before a given time and closer than a given distance. (Note: Concrete data are not given.) The fifth type is the hydrogen bomb, on which there is no information. Primary Danger The USSR is a country with highly developed theories in the fields of shock waves. Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA- 8 -oin 9Annil A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM waves probably is higher in the USSR than in any other country. Bence, it is clear, or almost clear, why so much attention is paid in the USSR -- above ail else -- to the problem of defense against shock waves of an atomic blast. Much of the popular and nonpopular materials are devoted to this theme. Since 1946 Academician Ya. B. zwrovim has been the Chief director of the group studying AboMb shock waves. From the beginning the task was given him of answering the following question: precisely what, and to what extent, can the A-bomb shock waves destroy? The purpose: to work out appropriate defense measures against the A-botb shock waves. *Ridging from indirect data, it can be suggested that each atomic blast in the USSR is accompanied by experiments on the destruction of structures by Aboa shock waves, which are considered the "primary danger." Finally, it is as clear in the USSR as in the West, that all the damaging effects of an atomic or hydrogen blast occur almost simultaneously -- almost instantaneously -- although the duration of activity is varied. But in the USSR they wish to learn about the different effects on different installations in order to know procedure in antiatomic defense. For example, if an important bridge is demolished, then, almost invariably, as long BB radioactive contamination persists on the shore, troops or the population, rescue or fire-fighting companies, and the like, can no longer go there. The shock IltNe acts momentarily. It acts only for one second at an installation which is within a radius of one kilometer; consequently, if a bridge is destroyed during this second, then in succeeding seconds and minutes, attention and means of defense can be directed to other goals, sparing them for rescue work on the shore. Of course, this very important detail is primarily common sense. Several Element Self-Defense Measures ainst the Shock Wave The Soviet government thinks that it is important for the population 50X1 -HUM to know that in the first moment of the blast the products of the fission Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM of the atom, the evaporating cloud, and also the hot air are contained in a small ball (polusfer). The temperature in it reaches millions of degrees and the pressure, billions of atmospheres. It is clear that the pressure and the heat quickly will be distributed everywhere. It is clear that the temperature will "burn" and the shock wave will demolish windows and doors. Thus, the very specific warnings to the population published openly and extensively: A peasant's shack can ignite like a shaving and if it does not ignite: it can collapse and can kill its occupants. Certain timely measures -- elementary, not reliable, but still measures -- can be taken so that this does not happen: strengthen shacks and make them less inflammable. Remember that the shock wave has the intensity of a raging boar and in addition also a high temperature. But remeMber also, that this continues over a short interval After which activities or rescue work can be conducted without additional fear. Concrete statistics sometimes found in Soviet literature include the following: the zone of great destruction from the shock wave extends for one kilometer; and in an underground blast, the depth of the crater extends to 30 meters and its diameter, from 250 to 300 meters. Defense Against Atomic Radiation Conclusions are also drawn in popular literature on antiatomic defense, about defense measures against radiation.. In order not to reveal its own experiments, the USSR uses data from America and Japanese cities. But sometimes there is indirect information on its awn experiments. It has been noted that the diameter of the ball can be estimated at 200-300 meters (depending on the caliber of the bomb) and the temperature in it reaches 8,000-12,000 degrees centigrade, that is, almost twice as great as the temperature of the sun. The "second danger" after the shock wave is the effect of atomic radiation, which at a given distla air eyesight permanently or Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50X1-HUM 2013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? 50X1-HUM temporarily, can cause serious burns, or burn clothing. This warning is given on the basis of what happened in Nagasaki: the effect is severe, almost certainly fatal at up to 1500 meters and relatively slight and curable at 4,000 meters. Hence these practical recommendations: special clothing, goggles, etc. (Note: Unfortunately, there is no further specific data.) Particular attention is paid in the USSR to the fact that at known distances, skin burns occur only on that side of the body which faces the blast. For the unschooled, this is a completely cogent argument. But the scientists are concerned with problems of creating artificial shade. For example, in past years, great attention has been paid to the study of the composition of mist, rain, and falling snow. It is suggested -- and theoretically has already been proved -- that natural or artificial mist can serve as a curtain from atomic radiation, although (the protection] would be partial. Generally, analogies to the sun are extensively employed in civilian antiatomic defense. Every opaque object which protects against direct light radiation is considered a means of defense against atomic radiation. In connection with this, a very simple example, published in the Soviet press and given below, is of interest. Radioactive contamination of an area lasts hours and sometimes days. There is danger in this. The population of the USSR is yarned about this extensively and in no uncertain terms in the popular defense press mad special lectures. In order to plan measures of active and passive defense and self- defense, these data are given to serve as an example: The stream of neutrons acts only at the moment of the blast. The gamma radiation begins from the moment of the nuclear reaction and lasts 10-15 seconds after the blast. The streams of neutrons and gamma rays are able "to penetrate" considerable layers of varied materials. Penetrating radi- ation is invisibl )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-n1a4l 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM Ftrthermore, gamma rays are active for hundreds of meters but are weakened when passing through any kind of dense material dbatacle. For example: the intensity of gamma radiation is reduced by half when it passes through a layer of lead 1.8 centimeters thick, a layer of iron 3 centimeters or concrete 10 centimeters thick, or a layer of ground (soil) 15 centimeters thick. Bence: utterly specific methods endways of building shelters against radiation. The matter of neutrons is worse. They have considerable penetrating force; however, they can be restricted. Brought to mind is the fact that the neutrons -- clashing with atomic nuclei -- lose their energy: and the rapid neutrons become slow. The latter are caught up by the nuclei of atoms of certain elements. One would think that all is well. But these "certain elements" become radioactive (iron, aluminum, silicon, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and others). The misfortune is that these "certain elements" are contained in the soil, that is, the ground itself is subjected to radioactivity and will emit beta and gamma rays. In general, the population of the USSR knows -- as pert of passive atomic self-defense -- that penetrating radiation has an injurious biological effect, although it is not necessarily immediately fatal. A radiation dose of 100-200 roentgens causes a slight degree of radiation sickness, which is not fatal. A dose of 600 roentgens is fatal. Actually, radiation can be fatal at a distance of 800-900 meters. (Note: These figures are based on the experienceotif Japanese cities.) Radioactive Contamination Finally, the population has been informed that during an atomic explosion a large amount of radioactive materials is formed which contami- nates the air, ground, homes: objects -- everything that has not been pro- tected. These materials have no particular smell or recognizable characteristics. They can be detected only with the aid of special 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM dosimeters. Hence this practical'ethatiaidd:"'9upply the entire system of antiatomic defense for the whole territory of the USSR with dosimeters. (Note: Up to 1947, plants in Kharlkov and Leningrad were engaged in the production of such instruments.) Of course, until the beginning of real danger, these instruments are under strict state control through appropriate PVO and antiatomic defense teams. Attention is drawn to the fact that during an atomic explosion radio- active materials are characterized by a rapid loss of potency. Bence, this important practical warning: Contaminated areas become accessible and safe in several hours, in extreme cases, several days. Consequently, it makes sense "to survive" this period in order to continue to live and fight. Of course the degree and duration of the radioactivity depends on the type of atomic explosion and the kind of boa (data about this are lacking). The population has also been informed about the possible preparation so-called "combat radioactive materials" or, as abbreviated, BEV. They can be prepared in the form of smoke, liquid, or powder. There can be no doubt that the USSR has all three types available. (Note: The chief center of activity for making Bay always was the Military Academy of Chemical Defense imeni Voroshilov.) It is clear that the population of the USSR, especially with this system of antiatomic training, assumes the possibility not oNAly of atomic explosion, but also the use of BRV 'against the USSR. It is clear that defense methods against BEV are worked out, but we know nothing about them. Basic Means of Antiatomic and Antiaircraft Defense For the unorganized mass of the population (this is a conditional term because, strictly speaking, there is no unorganized population in the USSR) the following are considered universal antiatomic and anti- 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 1 ? CIA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ????? 50X1 -HUM atomic and antiaircraft means at the present time -- toward the end of 1955: the metal-sheeted shelter (blindah), the slit trench (shchel'), the ditch (ovrag), and the cellar; that is, literally, everything that was generally considered usual for air raids. Reliable or not, this is the GENERAL LINE, the UNIVERSAL PLAN followed by the state. It has the character of a general defense law. In all city buildings, in all koikhozes, in all field camps [polevoy sten] -- everywhere, the number one problem of passive civil antiatomic defense is considered the preparation of covered, or, in an exceptional cases, open pits. The deeper the better -- such is the state instruction. "Of all the measures for immediate protection from the destructive action of an atomic explosion, the most important is the prompt utilization of covered positions which provide protection from the destructive action of atomic and hydrogen weapons." This was taken by from a brochure of the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Know- ledge (Atomnoye oruzhiye i protivoatomnaya zashclita, The Atomic Weapon and Antiatomic Defense, 1955, Moscow). The following category of shelters are more or less permanent under- ground structures. judging from unofficial information, at the present time the Main Engineer Administration (Glavnoye Inzhernoye UPravleniye) of the Soviet Army and the Military Engineering Academy imeni Kuybyshev has their instructors in different parts of the USSR in order to explain the necessity of building such shelters. Below are given several practical recommendations, adopted as standards in the USSR for the construction of shelters of the improved arid permanent type. Instructions for the Construction of Shelters, etc. If a person is in an open, full-profile trench, then the safe distance from an atomic explosion, for him is decreased to 0.66, for the distance from an A-bomb explosion in an open area. If he is in a trench the upper 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM part of which is covered with logs and ear cen er Zat the safe distance is reduced to half. If he is in a metal-sheeted shelter (blindazh) of the usual army type, the distance is decreased to one third. And if he is in a specially equipped shelter underground, he will not be harmed even at the epicenter of an atomic or hydrogen explosion. (Note: There are no.;;data on the nature of the shelter and its depth.) For defense against radiation penetration the recommended protection is a barrier of uniform material: 60 centimeters of concrete or one meter of earth reduces the radiation dosage up to one hundredth; 14 centimeters of earth lessens it by half; 6 centimeters of steel lessens it and reduces it to one fifth; 40 centimeters of wood decreases it to one fourth. Con- clusion: The best materials for the construction of improved and and permanent antiatomic shelters is cement and earth. The "good old gas mask" of the ordinary army type is an important indi- vidual means of protection against the danger of absorbing radioactive materials internally. In the absence of a gas mask it is recommended to use a slightly moistened (with water) piece of gauze, handkerchief, towel, etc. It must be placed over the mouth and nose. Permanent shelters prepared for antichemical purposes either now or earlier, are the best shelters against radioactive materials, and must be used for eating, rest, changing gas masks, and for billeting those not in a condition to wear gas masks. Recognized as a mass method in the struggle .against contamination of food products is the sealing of them in a thick wrapping of special paper (Note: The press has briefly made an oblique reference to the mess distri- bution of such paper). Food reserves for public consumption are ear marked for preservation in specially prepared shelters. In order to lessen fires, the following is recommended: First, coat flammable parts with a layer of clay. Second, as far as possible, get rid of wooden fences and similar structures. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Special Warnings It is highly diltinctive and important to note that, for the first time in the history of the Soviet state, the authorities warn the popu- lation: Don't wait for special signals and warnings frog the government. Already it has been made crystal clear to the entire population that atomic war, if it begins at all, will begin without warnings. It will surprise many people outside shelters and cover. What must they do? Answers and instructions on antiatomic defense are as follows: 1. The indication of an atomic explosion is an extraordinarily bright, instantaneous radiance, distinctly visible even on a bright, sunny day; this means that every person will know about the blast because of this radiance, i.e., the blast itself serves as a warning signal. 2. The population of the USSR must be trained, even in peacetime, to respond automatically so that in the event of a flash they immediately rush to the nearest shelter (if there is one), to a slit trench, to a ditch, behind a large rock, or to a cellar. There will not be time to think about which side of the body to expose to the direction of the blast. It is important, first of all, that the body be in a lying position, and, if the situation allows, it is necessary to try to get into a position with the face down, with the feet in the direction of the explosion. ? 3,. It is very important to lie motionless, not raising oneself. 4. Caere are cited the instructions to the troops of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany, which were broadcast by Radio Volga in 1954.) If the greatcoat is available, then it is necdssarY to cover one's head quickly, or if it is rolled in a shoulder ring -- it must be placed around the head. 5. (I bid.) If one has a gas mask, then it is necessary to put it on in record time. (Note: In the Soviet Army, at the present time, practical drills are being conducted for the quick donning of gas masks as well as using other primitive means of antiatomic defense while in an open field, an open trench or shelter. X1-HUM 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230024001 1-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM With regard to fire-prevention and medical-sanitation measures, as well as measures for rendering contaminated areas safe one can become acquainted with these matters in the literature indicated in the bibliography. Several General Recommendations for the Air Forces There is occurring in the aviation literature of the USSR a rather purposeful discussion on the antiatomic defense of the Air Forces. It is reported, first of all, that the mushroom-type cloud of the blast presents an operational danger for the crew flying through it. A number of psychological and disciplinary measures are being taken so that uncertainty, fear, and pessimism will not develop in aviators. For example, the tautological and in a sense Absurd idea is constantly underlined that the danger of contamination of a plane depends on the flying speed, altitude, and readiness to take off from the place of an intended explosion and bring down the enemy. For crews and ground personnel in general, as well as ground troops, transportation means are supposed to be maintained so that they can pass through contaminated areas. Crews can be transfered from contaminated areas in aircraft, by means of taxiing. "Considering the weakening effect on the construction of the air- craft, the short period of radiation activity, and speed in take-offs and landings are taken into consideration, it can be co:lauded that flights are possible from a contaminated airfiels." (Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota, NO 2, 1955) In this lies the main psychological objective, the quintessence, of the antiatomic training of military aviators of the USSR. In other issues of Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota this thought is expressed even more specifically: 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? 50X1 HUM It is necessary to fly in any conditions; in the event of an atomic alert, planes which have been designated for PVO against enemy atomic bombers are obliged to take off in the event of an atomic alert, and in no case do they change their combat mission. Instructions for the Antiatomic Defense of Airfields More specific instructions could not exist. The commission for working them out was formed in February 1946 under the chairmanship of the Deputy Chief of the Section for Special Equipment under the Mein Administration of the Air Forces USSR (zamestitel' nacharnika otdela spetsaltnykh oborudovaniy pri Glavnom Upravlenii Voyenno- Vozdushykh Sil SSR): Lt Gen Georgiy E'senofontovich VOLKOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences -- one of the best aviation engineers in the USSR. On the basis of a series of official and unofficial publications one can conclude that specific instructions for the defense of military airfields exist and are being put into practice. We do not have these instructions, but we have a series of official statements describing the situation in the following manner: 1. The best guarantee against contamination of an airfield by an atomic weapon is the absolute combat readiness of all airfield personnel, particularly flight personnel of fighter aviation who are obligated not to allow enemy planes within the threatened areas. 2. In the event of a penetration by the enemy through the PVO net and their use of an atonic both against the airfield, all personnel are obligated to be ready to.' complete their coast missions for the destruction of the enemy, -- decontamination of the airfield, and salvaging of the maximum anclunt of military equipment. 3. Insofar as personnel spend the greater part of the time near air- craft, in the command-post area, at warehouses, in repair shops, etc., it is necessary to have enough of the proper type of closed slit trenches. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr2013/ /12 . -010 0910n94nn 11 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM For the most important services there must be stibstantial covers (fundamentallnoye ukrytiye) of the permanent type, at a distance from the assumed spot of an atomic explosion so as to definitely survive. 4. At every military airfield there must be permanent under- ground shelters for billeting the command post, medical service, and communications center, and for storing food. 5. All the slit trenches and underground shelters must be placed in hollows and low places around the airfield, unless other- wise required for coast readiness conditions. 6. All permanent shelters must be equipped in accordance with instructions of the Antichemical Defense of the Soviet Army (PVKhOSA); the doors and windows must be hermetically sealed. 7. During the construction of all types of antiatomic shelters, all doors, windows, and exposed parts of wood construction and other parts which are flammable, should be coated with a layer of clay, earth, or lime, these measures being carried out by the airfield itself. 8. There is an authorized military-engineering team attached to every main airfield (Note: Administrately the team is subordinated to the Administration of the Engineer Troops (upravleniye inzhenernykh voysk) of the Soviet Army, which directs the construction of shelters in prewar - and wartime. 9. At every main airfield there is an authorized antiatomic and anti- chemical team (Note: Administratively it is subordinated to the Admini- stration of Chemical Defense (upravleniye khimicheskoy zashity) of the Soviet Army, under whose direction systematic instruction of antiatomic and antichemical defense measures is organized for all personnel in the course of normal military training. 10. Fire-fighting measures under conditions of atomic attack are taught under the direction of airfield fire-fighting teams. Declassified in Part- Sanitized CopyApprovedforRelease @50-Yr2013/ /12 . -010 50X1 -HUM 091rm94nn 11A Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM 11. Medical-sanitation service measures under conditions of atomic attack are taught under the direction of the Sanitation-Medical Section (Sanitarno-Wditsinskiy Otdel) of the airfield complex. 12. At every airfield there are authorized decontamination teams having the necessary equipment for partial as well as over-all decon- tamination of the airfield. 13. In the event of complete contamination of the airfield the decontamination team is required to decontaminate as soon as possible the compartments of those aircraft which are designated by the commander of the unit (chest'). 14. All military aircraft must be provided (even in peacetime) with special covering hoods (cheihol-khalat), which are to be placed on special frames so that there is air space between the upper part of the aircraft and the covering hoods. The purpose of the covers is to prevent the aircraft from catching fire. 15. Since dirt, grease, and a number of other things on the average engine and compartment covers raise the radioactivity, technical personnel are required to keep them always clean. 16. When it is not possible to utilize the service of a decontami- nation team, the pilot's cockpit and other contaminated areas are to be wiped with gauze soaked in special solution. 17. At all permanent airfields -- at some distance from the center of the airfield -- have permanent emplacements (transheya) for housing aircraft in order to protect them from shock wave and light radiation. This work and. work connected with the lengthening of taxiing strips is being carried out in peacetime. 18. For the above purpose at temporary airfields, natural low areas are used, or temporary artificial barriers constructed by all the personnel under the direction of a military-engineer team. 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-n1 OLVIRrin9qnn0An(11 1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ?011. 50X1-HUM 19. At a.li airfields live ammunition is kept in underground storage places, safely removed for the site of a blast. 20. Gasoline and lubricants are placed in special. excavations with a protective earth cover. (Note: For all airfields.) 23.. Telephone and. electrical wires at all airfields are covered with earth and. tamped down according to special instructions of the Administration of Commainications (upravleniye svyazi) of the Soviet Army. 22. Open water sources are converted to underground places and given a suitable cover over the top. 23. Individual measures of antiatoraic defense are carried out in such a way as to provide for the uninterrupted combat activities of fighter aircraft and ground antiaircraft facilities. 24. Personnel surprised by an atomic blast on a runway OPP) or the open parts of the airfield, are required to utilize nearby logs, gullies, or roadside ditches, or simply to lie on the ground and wait for the danger to pass. At the moment of the blast it is forbidden to run through a field or seek shelter in woods or behind or inside a hangar. 25. In the event of an advance air atomic warning, combat fighter aircraft take off and ground personnel are to go quickly to underground shelters. 26. Every soldier at the airfield is obligated always to have his combat gas mask on his person, and to be able to don it quickly. 27. At tie moment of air atomic warning, all personnel are quickly to put on -- simultaneously with gas masks -- antiatomic and antichemical defense capes, for protection from radioactive materials. Fighter pilots take off in special suits [kombinezon]. [Source refers to a cape with the word "nakidka" and parenthetically adds "khalat."] 28. In the event that special clothing is lacking, it is necessary to wrap one's neck in a towel, sheet, or other white material. Quickly cover the nose and. ? o 'Peraz soaked in s cial fluid' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50X1-HUM 2013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM (Note: The press has briefly given in indirect indication that at the present time the Medics]. Administration of the Soviet Army has been occupied with development (ratsionalizatsiya], mass production, and distribution of bandages of this type and purpose to military units. 29. The signal of an air atomic alert is given by communication and warning elements. Additional note: The journal Kryllya Rodiny has made brief state- ments to the effect that at the present time on every new military air- craft, first, the pilot's compartment is installed a small bag with the simplest decontamination equipment. First Principle of Active Defense Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bouts We have reviews above the measures of passive antiair and antiatomic defense. Now we pass on to a review of active defense, which comes within the sphere of the Ministry of Defense and, in wartime, the State Committee of Defense, GKO. The first principle of active defense automatically springs from Theory No 4 (see page 31). We endeavored to search the maximum number of official sources and it appears possible to give the following formula: The first principle of active antiatomic defense of the USSR is recognized =Only as depriving the enemy of surprise, attacking him before he takes off or, at worst, bringing him down beyond the limits of Soviet territory. In practical language this means that as soon as the government of the USSR is certain of the inevitability of war, it will hasten to direct detachments of Long-Range Aviation (Aviatsiya Dal'nego Deystviya, Mn)) with atomic and hydrogen boMbs against bases of enemy atomic bathers. Basic Weapon of the First Principle of Active Difense The role of basic weapon for such an attack:belongs to the ADD, which occupies the position of an extraordinary strategic striking force, directly 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 1 ? CIA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM subordinate to the Council of Ministers (and in wartime, to the GM)), and not connected organizationally or strategically with the Soviet Army, the Air Forces, the Ministry of Defense, or even the General Staff (although in peacetime operational direction of the ADD is carried out by the Main Staff). The Commander-in-Chief (Glavnokbmanduyushchiy) of the ADD is, as before, at Monono, but it seems there are bases in other places. At the present time the ADD can be ronghly described as follows: 1. There are atonic bombs of different calibers. 2. There is at least one type of H-bomb. 3. There are combat radioactive substances RV) suitable for various purposes. 4. There is a significant number of heavy bombers of the propeller- driven type, capable of delivering an A-bomb up to a distance of 3000 kilometers (radius of action). 5. There are two or three types of fully perfected multiengine jet bombers, which are capable of delivering A-bombs and an H-bomb over distance covering Scandanavia, England, North America (through the Far East and over the North Pole), Turkey, the Near East, and parts of the Far East theater of military operations. 6. Thanks to the immensity of the territory of the USSR and the varied climatic conditions, the ADD has available, apparently, the most trained flight personnel in the world. (Note: Systematic long-range flights began in 1946). 7. ADD aircraft have undoubtly been armed with first-class, night combat sights (Nochnyy Hoyevoy Pritsel, NBP), intended for the semiautomatic release of A-bombs, and H-bomb, or bombs of the ordinary type. Special Comment The possibility cannot be excluded that just beore the use of atomic and hydrogen [weapons] by the ADD, the Council of Ministers USSR will Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50X1 -HUM 013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM approach several NATO countries -- primarily Great Britian, with an ultimatum stating approximately the following: Striving for peace and wishing to avoid atomic war, we propose to the British people immediately to overthrow their government, and get out of NATO and the war; otherwise we will be required, as a self-defense measure, to destroy all of Great Britian by atomic and hydrogen boMbs. The Kremlin, of course, does not reckon on the capitulation of the British people, but a great moral and propaganda gain can be seen In such a declaration. Active PV0 of the USSR The system of measures which are taken by the population itself for lessening the consequences of air raids is referred to as Antiair Self-Defense. Local Antiair Defense is that system of measures which are taken by the lowest element of PVO -- for example, on the level of a plant, factory, institution, etc. The centralized efforts which are organized and carried out by the Armed Forces are known simply as the Antiair Defense of the USSR. In official circles this is referred to as the "active PVO of the USSR." The organization of the active PVO is shown in a diagram. In an over-al theoretical, political, and strategic sense it is under the direction of the Presidium of the Central Committee CPSU or, what is practically one and the same thing, the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In wartime these functions are transferred to the State Committee of Defense, GKO, which is made up from the Presidium, but with less meters. In peacetime the Presidium and the Council of Ministers direct the ADD and the Ministry of Defense -- in wartime these functions are transferred to the GKO. The general direction of the active PV0 is carried out by the Presidium of the Central Committee CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR through the Ministry of Defenecinelithese functions are transferred 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . C - Roo2lon74nnii . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 47/45,. 50X1 -HUM to GKO. The operational and administra _ve ? cc an o as well well as wartime, is carried out by the Ministry of Defense (and the General Staff). But since PVO is considered at the present time primarily as the Air Forces, in practice the Ministry of Defense, as such, does not specifically direct PVO -- this is performed by the Main Administration of the Air Forces (Glavnoye UPravleniye Voyenno-Vozdushnykh GUVVS), which is a pert of the Ministry of Defense. In connection with this, in 1951 approximately, the status of PVO of the USSR changed: At the head of the active WO of the armed forces at the present time is Special Deputy (spetsialtnyy zamestiteli) to the Commander-in-Chief GUVVS, Mar Avn SUDETS. The deputies of the afore- mentiorled are Mar Arty CHISTYAKOV and Col Gen of the Communications Troops (voyska svyazi) BORZOV. CHISTYAKOV directs conventional and unconventional artillery of the PVO, and BOROZ directs communications-and-warnings units (chasts). Mar Avn VERSHININ, in the capacity of a deputy to SUDETS, commands the fighter aviation of PVO. Conventional Artillery of the PVO Attentive study of available materials shows that the conventional anti- air defense in the USSR has not been abandoned. It exists aad is being improved. For an explanations it is necessary to look at three things: First, Soviet doctrine does not consider atomic war as sole and final; if Soviet diplomats, appealing to world public opinion, succeed in outlawing the A-bomb and H-bomb, then conventional means of war would continue to play their previous role. Secon4, Soviet doctrine does not consider that 6nemy aviation will attack only from very high altitudes, because the USSR is not England and for effective bombardment low altitudware more advantageous; this means that conventional artillery can still play some role. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 HUM Third, the USSR does not exclude the possibility of wars with such countries as Finland, Turkey, Persia, and others which have neither powerful atomic bombers, nor atomic bombs themselves. In such a war conventional artillery would be obliged to play all of its prior roles. There is also a smaller consideration. Soviet doctrine says that the final outcome of any war is decided by the ground forces, which must advance and occupy territory. But, during such movement local coat action is unavoidable and it is impossible to imagine that the enemy will drop an atomic or hydrogen bomb on every company. Quickest of all the enemy will resort to ground attack aviationland under these conditions, the convention artillery of the BV0 troops will play an important role. Finally, during the prewar period foreign reconnaissance aircraft or aircraft whose purpose is unknown may appear over Soviet territory. Naturally in such an event it is necessary to use fighters and con- ventional or unconventional antiaircraft artillery. The example of an Israeli civilian aircraft in Bulgaria is extremely indicative. For this reason heavily populated points, airfields, and troop areas continue to have conventional antiaircraft artillery. There are many articles in the military press on its tactical employment against modern high speed aviation. (For example, articles in Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota, Nos 5,316, and others for 1955.) Unconventional Artillery of the PVO But, naturally primary attention is devoted to the unconventional artillery of the active PV0, antiaircraft rockets with automatic [target] seeking heads, with radio guidance, without heads or radio guidance, ground- to-air and air-to-air rockets. Only rockets launched by ground divisions are under the jurisdiction of CHISTYAKOV. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM The author of these lines was one of the leading rocket experts, and he knows with authority that the Ministry of Armaments (USTINOV) took far-reaching measures in 1945-46 to improve German rockets, plan new rockets, and to place several of them into mass production as early as 1946-47. This applied, first of all, to the flying bombs, type V-1. Together with this the Artillery Administration of the Soviet Army set about organizing battalions (divizion) of unconventional artillery as components of artillery regiments and on points of the stationary rear- area antiair defense. For example, such a battalion was organized near the city of Narofominsk. Another battalion was organized in the city of Serpukhov. The organization of still another battalion was contemplated in the city of Baku. Judging by the plans which existed in i947-481 it is possible to say with confidence that at the present time unconventional artillery of the WO has been greatly expanded, and exists in the areas of -Moscow, Leningrad, Riga, Tallin, KalintmgradVailinsk, Kharlkov, Kiev, Baku, Noginsk, Serpukhov, Narofominsk, Petrozavodska, Sevastopol', Odessa, L'vov, Tbilisi, and other cities with stationary centers of the active PVO. Note: The absence of any literature whatever on the theme permits no further statements, with confidence. As a poorly founded hypothesis we would like to add, however, that in the field of unconventional artillery the USSR probably occupies first place in the world. Means of Communication and Warning To us only the following is well known. The problems of BORZOV and his forces aret 1. Supplying all points of the active PVO with radar equipment and personnel, telephone, radio-telephone, and radio communications, electrical and searchlight equipment and the personnel to service it. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM 2. To bring About coordinated communication among the various branches of the active PVO. Note: The complete absence of special Soviet literature does not permit the presentation of more detailed information. Fighter Aviation of PVO The fighter aviation of the Air Forces of the USSR is divided into two groups (according to purpose): tactical fighter aviation is used directly in the theater of combat action, and is therefore not considered. here; Fighter Aviation of the Antiair Defense, IAPVO, is intended for service in the active defense of the entire territory of the USSR, and is subordinate to the Chief of PVOSSSR. Being an organic unit of the Air Forces, the IAPVO has specific disposition: it is grouped in the centers of antiair defense. For example around Moscow, Leningrad, Baku, Kharlkov, Kiev, Minsk, and other cities, in- cluding those deep in the rear areas, there are corps, divisions, and regiments of fighters. The local population does not always know that this is the IMO. The basis of the disposition of IAPV0 units lies in the principle known by the title, "The Tatarchenko-Shcherbakov Network." TATARCHENKO is a professor of aviation strategy and tactics, a lieutenant general of aviation, and a teacher at the Air Force Academy in Monino. SHCHERBAKOV is a major general of aviation, a docent of the chair of strategy and tactics of combat aviation at the Higher Military Academy. (Academy of the General Staff) imeni Voroshilov. They developed the theory of antiair defense, the essence of which is included in the following. 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-ninafl flf1,1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM The territory of the USSR is divided into a number of "aerial corridors" which represent the most probable directions of movement for enemy bothers. IAPVO bases are located along these corridors in such a number that the entire corridor is covered by the long-range tactical IAPVO, so that enemy aircraft, over the entire defended route, are constantly under the attack of the IAPVO. Leaving the zone of one unit of the IAPVO the enemy immediately enters the zone of another unit of the IAPVO, and so on. This idea has been realized, in practice, in a number of the western lines of advance into Soviet terri- tory, and is schematically shown on the following page. Adjacent lines of advance have the very same system. But if the distance between them is such that the radii of action of the IAPVO do not cover the entire air space then, depending on the degree of probability of enemy move- ment along the intermediate lines of advance, these intermediate spaces are covered by thinner nets of IAPVO bases, the intensity of which increases in proportion to the proximity to the points of the probable attack. The same idea in a vertical plane has been illustrated on page 55. We will suppose that NATO bothers have taken a course frcaLnagland to Moscow. On the approaches to Berlin they will meet the IAPVO of Berlin, then the IAPVO of Kilestrin, then the IAPVO of Scheidemunde, then the IAPVO of Allenstein, then the IAPVO of Augustow area and Grodno, then the IAPVO of the area (rayon) of Vilnyus, then the IAPVO of Smolensk, and then the IAPVO of the }scow center (uzel). The plan was taken by us from memory from the work on this subject by General TATARCHENKO. From it [the work of Gen TATARCHENKO] it is obvious that as far as altitude and breadth are concerned, enemy bothers will at all times be under the influence of the weapons of the active PVO. The calculation is simple: either the enemy will be destroyed somewhere far fromNbscow, or he will be forced to change course and upset his intentions, or he will be worn down to such a degree that he will find himself unable to carry out his entire bombing plan. In any event, he will arrive in the target area 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM in such a run-down condition that the powerful PVO center of Moscow itself will destroy him without particular difficulty. It is understood that along the entire route, the IMO operates in cooperation with the artillery of the PVO. Principle Types of IAPVO Fighters The IAPVO is equipped with virttl lly only two basic types of fighters, namely: Fighter-Intercepters, comprising less than one fourth of the entire park of the IAPVO. Their mission is to take off on the first alert, rush to meet the enemy, find him, determine the exact course of his movement (and inform the command post), attack him with the purpose of disturbing his peace, formation, course, and coast mission; win time for the preparation of the maneuverable fighters (manevrennyye istrebiteli) for aerial combat; and if possible destroy the enemy or in any instance "deliver" to the fighters in a weakened state. In the case of atonic bombers, fighter-intercepters are required, under any circumstance, to strive to win time for the sounding of an atomic warning, and for antiatomic defense measures to be taken. Fighters of Aerial Combat, or maneuverable fighters, constitute the main mass of the IOW. Their mission is to take off on command, occupy their combat positions, meet the enemy, confront him with all their firepower and maneuver, destroy him at any cost, and in any instance, not to allow him a second of rest until be enters the zone of an adjacent PVO base. In the case of atomic bombers, the words "at any price" mean even ramming the enemy. Seeking the Enemy by Day Thus the first phase of fighter-intercepter operations includes finding the enemy. The regulations of the Air Forces of the USSR require "the con- duct of active and constant search for the enemy from the moment you begin to taxi your own aircraft," because, as ?Opposed to the requirements of the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 UM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr2013/09/12:CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-H last wary intercepter pilots are now required to concentrate attention on the forward hemisphere and almost exclusively on the forward hemisphere. It is supposed that the general direction of search will be given by the communication and warning system of WO, that is, the ground radar stations. In addition to this, the pilot is obliged to make use of the guidance instruments aboard the aircraft, as well as the ground orientation. The latter remark is important. In the Air Forces of the USSR the standpoint is taken that an intercepter pilot moist not be transferred too often from one pert of the country to another, in order to give him the opportunity to master the relief of the defended line of attack to the point where it is automatic (do avtomatizma). Experiences of the Soviet- German war show that this has great significance, particularly during the extreme strains on moral and physical strength resulting from persistent aerial combat, and also in the event of serious wounds and emergency landings. Spotting the enemy, the iighter-intercepter (though this refers to all fighters) is required to attack out of the sun. The purpose for this is: first, to avoid decreasing his own vision; second, to camouflage himself in the sun's rays, at the same time complicating his rapid Obser- vation by the enemy; and third, to have abetter chance of seeing the enemy aircraft. If the sun is located behind the enemy, then it is pre- ferable to attack from a considerable height above him. Seeking the Enemy in Fog The tactics of the military aviation of the USSR teach that the enemy may take advantage of clouds and fog. In such instances, by day, the inter- cepting fighters fly above and below the layer of clouds, one or two pairs of fighters being sent along either side of the layer in any case. Entrance into the cloud layer itself is not recommended at this time, because instruments 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA- 8 -01n . 9Annil A Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM aboard the aircraft do not indicate the proximity of the enemy -- at such proximity as is sufficient to begin the attack. Preference is given to locating the principal group of intercepters higher than the proposed course of the enemy. In the event of dense fog, the instructions require that the enemy be met with an open formation with considerable distance between fighters so that, first, an unexpected attack by the enemy will not catch the group in a concentrated condition, convenient for finding out the number of aircraft in the formation; and second, to expand the "conibing" of the search zone to ensure discovery of the enemy. In foggy weather, as at night, the main responsibility rests on the ground radar center. The commander, located on the ground, and having radar information on his own and enemy aircraft, must not only direct the search, but also command, since he bears personal respon- sibility for forbidding continuation of the flight of the fighters to a direct [head on?) meeting with the approaching enemy. In such a meeting the fighters would have to spend 2-6 minutes in turning, over- taking, and preparing for the attack, during which time, at today's speeds, the enemy could successfully fly to the target and drop his atomic bomb; that is/ the mission of the active antiair defense would not be fulfilled. The manual of the IAPVO USSR requires that the ground commander give the command for a turn to net the enemy at such distance that when the fighter-intercepter completes the turn and occupies a position for atta4, the enemy will be found in front of him and not far ahead. Incidentally we note a new element in the tactics of antiair defense of the USSR -- rejection of the frontal attack on a course opposit [to that of the enemy aircraft). Reason: speeds are too great, therefore there is too little time for the atta4, and the effectiveness of the 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ?50-Yr2013/09/12:CIA-RDP81-01n4Rnn9qnnoAnni4 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 HUM attack is too insignificant. At the same time, for a repeat attack, the fighter must deploy, spend several minutes, and again overtake-- The FUNDAMENTAL rule of attack for Soviet fighters in future war will be attack from the rear hemisphere. Principle of Continuity of Observation and Battle Manuals still make great demands on the commander who occupies a ground observation point at night. Ha must direct fighters to the target according to information from a radar station and control their attacks by that same information. He must remember that nothing is easier at modern speeds than to lose an enemy at night; therefore, the most important elements of his command (komandovaniye) must be, first of all, the accurate recognition of his own and enemy planes and the quick return of withdrawing fighters to the battle zone. How are these qualities of a command point achieved? The answer is twofold: First, at the present time in the Air Forces of the USSR a highly intensive, unrelenting combat-training effort for improving regulations for conducting night warfare is being conducted. The vast expanses of the country make it possible to set up "flights of enemy boMbers" on such routes as, let us say, Sevastopol'-Mbscow, Wvov-Stalingrad, and Minsk- Leningrad; night fighters, controlled from the ground by means of radar equipment, then make antiair attacks on the entire course of the "attack." An intensive study of the press of the Air Forces of the USSR leaves no doubt that, even previously, all fighter pilots, navigators, and bather pilots were given night training. The entire system of communications and warning participates in it. Second, and this is extremely important, reliability of a ground command point is achieved through echelonment of antiair defense in depth. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2 12 . C - R002lon74nn1 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM That is, the network of radar and other points of warning and communication exists not only along the border zone, but also along several lines recognized as most dangerous. Thus, for example, the following lines -- Prague- Katovitsy-Mvov-Kiev-Khartkov, Kaliningrad-Viltnyus-Orsha-Smolensk, Riga-Pskov-Luba, Kherson-Sevastopoll-Dnepropetrovsk4Char'kov-RUrsk-Orel- Serpukhov, and a number of others -- have and must have a network of interaept- warking stations which cover the entire area along these lines. This has constituted a fundamental principle of the organization of the PVO of the USSR since approximately 1935-37. Now from the special press (spetsialtnaya pressa) it obviously appears that "principle lines" have already been equipped with radar stations and other equipment. Thus, in a future war the botbardiers of NATO will have to contend with a continuity of observation of them. Leaving the zone of one station, the planes will enter the zone of successive stations which, of course, will already know of their movement from the preceding stations. This means that the ground command point of the IAPV0 will be in a position not only to direct fighters to intercept the enemy, but also to command their attacks. And if it is not successful, an adjacent station will come to its aid. In addition, the fighter-interceptors themselves, or in any case the majority of them, are now equipped with radars. Fire Weapons of IAFVO Under the present conditions of Soviet aircraft construction the division between interceptors and maneuvering fighters is more or less relative. This is acknowledged, for example, by Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota itself. But never- theless a difference exists: the NIG-15 is manufactured in several modifi- cations. One type has a high fuel capacity at the expense of somewhat less maneuverability. Others, on the other hand, have high maneuverability and less duration of flight: these also comprise the so-called "air combat fighters." (Note: A special type of maneuvering fighter will probably soon be displayed under the mark, 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 HUM But the armament of all "NIG" fighters is almost identical. They carry: one 53-millimeter cannon with 22 shells (Note: The number of NIG's with this cannon is negligible; all are primarily interceptors), and two 23-mm cannons with 60 shells; these types of NIG are surely equipped with the latest-type radars. The armament of the NIG-15 series: one 37-mm cannon with 40 shells; two 23-mm cannons with 40 shells each; and underwing mounts for firing rockets. (Note: The number of rockets depends on the type of rocket -- there are three basic types of underving rockets.) Note: There is reason to suggest that at the present time combat testing is now under way on a new type of aircraft-launched rocket [samoletnaya streikovaya raketa] with great incendiary capabilities. Note: Indirect information suggests that at the present time at least two absolutely new combat fighters, whose maximum speeds surpass the speed of sound, are now being flight-tested in the NIIVVS [Air Forces Scientific Research Institute]. The "NIG" series, designed for active antiair defense within the USSR, has a maximum speed of 1050 kilometers per hour) but in practice Air Force units fly them at speeds no greater than 980 kph. Conclusion: The effective speeds of NIGs already in existence will not surpass this figure. (Basis for this conclusion: Statistics compiled by this author on the basis of official publications of the Air Forces of the USSR for 1953-55.) Some Tactical-Technical Data on the IAPVO The theoretical (calculated) flight duration of the NIG-15 series under normal weather conditions and according to a predesignated flight plan is 2 hours 4 minutes, which allows 7-10% of the fuel supply remaining in the tanks for performing landing and taxiing maneuvers. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 13/09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X But there are scraps of information which indicate that during normal combat training the average flight duration of a fighter regiment is no more than 1 hour 40 minutes. In another regiment this figure was as low as 1 hour 30 minutes (but this was a special case which alarmed the command). The combat use of MEGs in Korea supports this information, although, in view of the narrow limits of air space over Korea, almost no North Korean fighter unit ever had the opportunity to make use of its entire flight duration capability. The theoretical (calculated) ceiling of the MIG-15 is 15,400 meters. But combat training in the mess use of MIGs has shown that on the average the IAPVO of the USSR will have an operational combat ceiling of no more than 15,000 to 16,000 meters. Moreover, in descriptions of combat exercises commanders often complain that altitudes of 15,000 meters "cause a number of difficulties," in particular) difficulties in ensuring the proper functioning of cannon armament. In addition, at the present time regulations (nastavleniya) require commanders and engineers of air units to train subordinates for combat flights at fixed altitudes. Knowing the meaning and significance of such requirements, we can expect that the :problem will be solved in two or three years. 1-HUM Ramming Thus, cannons and rockets are the basic weapons in active antiair combat. Special consideration is given to rocket weapons which have been very well developed in the USSR. But recently much attention has been directed to ramming techniques. This is done not by regulation, but by public encouragement for individual bravado, by premeditated glorification of ramming. Ramming is the assault of ones aircraft on an enemy aircraft with the intent of "ramming" it and smashing it physically. Several "acknowledged methods" employed during the last war exist in Soviet aviation. 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 %Mho. The first method consists of severing the rudder of an enemy aZOX1-HUM craft's tail asseably; the fighter comes up behind the tail of the enemy plane and attempts to strike the tail with only the propellor. The usual result is the destruction of the enemy plane and negligible damage to one's own plane. The second method consists in ramming an enemy aircraft's tail asseably with a wing; the result is the almost certain destruction of the enemy and great peril to one's own plane. The third method consists in ramming one's wing into the wind of an enemy aircraft; the result is the almost certain destruction of both planes. The fourth method consists in smashing one's fuselage into the pilot's cabin of the enemy plane. The result is the certain destruction of both planes and pilots. The fifth method is head-on collision. Ita result is the unavoidable destruction of both planes and pilots. Anumber of other methods exist. At the present time they are supple- mented by new recommendations arising from specific peculiarities of jet aviation. There is no doubt that they will be used more often than in the pest war; therefore, we must accept them as an essential element of the active antiair defense of the USSR. Reasons for More Intensive Consideration of Ramming Soviet military doctrine requires the destruction of the enemy without fail before he reaches his target. This is in realization of the TATARCHER1C0- SHCHERBAKOV theory, which explains the disposition along attack routes (dorogostoyasheye eshelonirovaniye) of the communications and warning system and the mass production of aircraft of the IAPVO even in peacetime. The problem is thus defined: atomic and hydrogen bombing is a question of life or death for the great masses; therefore it must be averted at any price under any conditions. If a fighter pilot has expended his supply of 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 13/09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM shells and rockets but failed to destroy the enemy, and if an enethy'dinvi. aircraft has succeeded in penetrating too deeply into the country's interior, the Soviet fighter pilot must resort to ramming. If he does not resort to ramming, his commander can "recommend" it to him. We already know in peacetime) an we learned during World War II, that the deed of such a pilot would be made famous, that he would quickly be acclaimed a Hero of the Soviet Union, etc. Recommended Methods of Ramming a Jet Aircraft A suitable method of ramming will depend on the nature of an air- craft's construction. The nose assembly of a NIG-15 is sufficiently strong and rigid. Gun mounts are reliable enough that they may be utilized (we will remember that the pilot will not need his cannons because he has expended his ammunition). Here are the recommended methods: approach the enemy's rear slightly above his tail so that the nose of the NIG is to the right or left of the vertical section. Then strike the enemy's tail assembly with a right or left slide. The second method is based on the fact that bombers are less durable than fighters. This means that a fighter can strike with its wing. While the cantilever part (konsol'neya chest') of the bomber is demolished, the fighter remains intact, but if not, the fighter pilot can use his parachute. The third method is recommended for use against groups of enemy bombers. The formation of the group must be disrupted so that PV0 fighters can attack it one at a time. For this purpose one IAPVO fighter is guided on a collision course with the leading enemy plane. At the right moment the pilot ejects himself from his plane and the pilotless aircraft collides with its target. Of course, other recommendations also exist, but we shall not dwell on them. Our task is to consider the very fact of the existence of ramming as an element of antiair defense of the USSR. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50X1 -HUM 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 in Part - Sanitized Cop Ap ? roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Range of Fire In conclusion let us dwell on the question of range of ai e,50X1-HUM This is a question which is given exclusive attention in the USSR, a country of classic artillery and highly developed ballistics. A rule has been established definitely in the Air Forces of the USSR: in dark night, sighting is accomplished by means of a stationary grid on the sight with a maximum diameter of the ring of rhoMbics. Every- one knows that this is a simplification, but the command of the Air Forces of the USSR conscientiously pursues it. The center of the grid is laid on the center target or on its visible point. Maintaining the central?point on the center of the target as long as possible, the pilot directs prolonged bursts of fire from every firing point and does not cease his attack until his shells and rockets are exhausted. This being the case, special attention is directed to selecting the correct range. With regard to guns and rockets now used by the IAPV0, a range of 400 meters is considered absolutely effective, 600 meters -- satisfactory, and 800 meters -- unreliable. Units of the IAPOV are con- sidered excellently prepared to fire if trained with respect to firing if they have mastered the technique of firing on "enemy" aircraft at the minimum (400 meters) range. It is necessary to state how very significant the knowledge of this fact is to NATO's strategic air command. %MOO End 50X1-HUM eclassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Ap ? roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/flcm 9 (-,1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM Basic Weaknesses of the Antiair and Antichemical Defense of the Soviet Union 1. The great expanse of territory makes the extremely difficult furnishing of the entire country with a system of antiair and antichemical defense of uniform intensity. 2. In case of a well-planned foreign onslaught, the Caucasus, the Ukraine, the Central Asian republics, and the Baltic might betray the Soviet Union; consequently, defense and antiair defense would become a difficult problem, to which the experience of the Soviet-German war well testifies. 3. The USSR has not had long, mess experience or technical education in the field of electronics; therefore, the coefficient of their effective- ness will not be high enough. 4. The disposition of the PVC, within the depths of the country (on principle lines) of necessity will weaken the PVC, of other regions, in particular, regions in the very deep rear, and also, perhaps, several sec- tors of the forward line of an air war. 5. As the experience of the last war showed, in particular the Defense of Moscow, the disappearance of such administrative centers as Moscow, Lenin- grad, Kiev, Sverdlovsk, and Kuybyshev, would be very dangerous for the Soviet system. In view of the extreme centralization of the social system, the destruction of such centers would lead to the rapid disintegration of the entire regime, to violent growth of extremist tendencies not only in non- Russian areas but even in the provinces of Russia proper. 6. The USSR, as a military power, cannot exist without the great masses of a land army. But an army of many millions has by necessity large groupings which in their turn easily give way under an atomic action. 50X1-HUM )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: nag flO A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 .?..?? 7. An atomic-hydrogen war will deman&.exiieje. forms of mechanized mobility of troops and population. But good roads are required for this Ic in every direction. The USSR does not yet have such a road e-Oki:Hum consequently, enormous difficulties will arose. 8. As we have already shown, antiatomic measures for the defense of the civilian population bear a simplified and. even primitive character; consequently, casualties will be so enormous that it will be difficult for the regime to cope with the situation. 68 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50X1-HUM IA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM COBPELIEErIASITAB.7303,117111,:iik$1_ 0.. p_5(30OxPi -HUM I.BBoAHme samemaHm EmeTpee pasBnxe HacTynaTeALHmx BHAOB BOejHOg TeXHHICH H pe Kval pocT pa3pymxTeRBHoM CHM' KopeHHmm o6pa3om MeHEDT Bee CYWeCTBOBaB- ume paHee BeeHHo-cTpaTerxmecKue KoHilenaxx,.Hanpamep,BemcoOpxTa- MIR coBepilima dm camoy6x1cTBeHHy10 owx6Eyleux 6m npoAmgaza xen- ARTLCR 33. CBOD cTapym (Dopmply:aHrAxmaHe npoxrploamT Bce cpageHm xpome noczeAHeR.HMHe AAR Hee cupaBeARiaa Apyraa,Aopmyza:nepBoe ce cpageHme OyAeT AAR Bel1KodpviTaHm4 peulaioutereHHo nepBoe,xmeH- HO B nepme macm hIAH1/1 Tpemek mxpoBoit BoHIJB sTom-rAaBHag cyTB pasymHoro cTpaTerxmecKoro oraHxpoBami Ha OyAymee. BmecTe c TemlnocKeABKy upeAnoaaraemmm HPOTHBHJAKOM 6yAeT coBeT- Cicietii BepxoBHoe KomaHAoBaHme He mogeT cede 1103B0- 111/1TB npeAam 33.6BeHxD oOmmHme BxAm Bo0pygeHxyl.H6o B C0BeTCK0g cTpaTerxx OHM, TH BUM opygm,npoAoRgamT xrpaTL,x eme Auro 6yAyT xrpavolorpomHym poEB.B CBH3H C OTKM HeAB3A He nocmeRTBca HaA 110- BePXHOCTH0R H onacHok rnynumx HARM3HRMX nepeAoBoi4 cTamek raseTm "Tame OT 9-ro Hog6pH 1955 roAa.B sToM cTarBe COOP KaK 6m Bmcme- roaeTeR sa TO,IITO,He noHxmaeT onacHocTx aTOMHOg 00MOH"H 1'13-33. sToro npoAommeT CTp0MTID BoeHHo-mopeme MOH. HopeHHoe xamexeHxe cTpaTer.imecKxx KoHxenuml COOP yge Rpm oTpa- 314.710Cb hI Ha ?pram/mai= Beek cxcTemm npoTxBoBosAymHo odopcHm.Hpx (JAH3HTenHO C OeBpansi 1955 reAa Tam xAeT HeammakHo HHTeHCKBHaR DaboTa 110 OHCTPOg moAepHymaxxx Bcex BxAoB aKTIABHOR x HaCCHBHOR camoodopoHm. AAR BemmodpxTaHxx 3TYI HOBHe coBeTcme meponpxaml npeAcTaBRR- MT orpommik npaimmecmil xHTepecIno KpakHek mepe no ABym npxmx- Ham:Bo-nepBmxlcipxTaHemil ocTpoB H3.X0AHTCR B npeAeJle ScypeKTxBHo2 AocaraemocTx CGBeTCKHX pace T x domdapAxpoBwmoB,e?AeAoBaTexmo,Bo- npoc opramiactmi nu-i noB03ZYliAerPaNAaHeKokeioodal opo- HN )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 ? C.1A-RnDQ1 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 HM CTaBIATCR peanyHot Becula onacHok caTyailaek;Bo-BTopmx,B J iae Tpemeil mapoBoA BotHm cnaceme OpiaTaHcKoro ocTpoBa OyAeT Tpe (50Ban OT BepxoBHoro momawBaHaR maccapoBaHHux yAapoB no THAaM npoTaBHaita;Ho mule yAapm moryT 6HTI, ycnemuma a 0(IneXTXBHMM1I1 B 3aBXCXM0CT1I OT COCTORHAR npoTaBoBosaymot oftpoini npoTIABHaxa. Taxam oOpasomlnoRmeHme HacToRutet padoTm ApriayeTcR camam (Dalt- Talleciorm noRoaeHaem Belot m onpaumo Bnomie.HaAo TORbK0 noxe- Aan't1TOON ee BHXMaTeRbH0 X3ygXAX KomneTeHTHme inua.na yBepeHm, gTO OHX B Het HatAyT Bce rRamme oRemeHTm coBeTcmot XDOTXBOB03- AymHot o0opoHm. 50X1 -HUM MaTepaaRom ARR padoTm noenymum:Bo-nepBmx,x3ygeHae Bcero Aoc- TynHoro OTEXilaRbH01"0 onyORamBaHHoro maTepaaRa OCCP;Bo-BTopmx, onmT InytieHmR BTopot map0B0:1 B021111 B BECMXX BOeHHNX ytipezAeHaRx OCCP,B TOM grACRe B BOeHHNX alcuemaRx,B-Tpemax,Ratnime apxviBm onamAallecime samemm aBTopa DTMX CTp0Ky 2.0coOeHHocTm BoeHHo-cdopolmot_padoTm B CCU ceroAHR HMKTO He modaT HenpaRTHym npaBAy.He RDORm ee i R.Ho acTemee ABamaTazeTae CBXAeTeABCTBYeT)gTO no oplaHlimaaaa cOopommt pa6o- TH-B00611te,HpOTHB0B03AYEH01 oftpolim-B gaCTHOCTX X B 0C0(53HHOCTX, CCCP 3aHmmaeT TenepB HecomHeHHo nepBoe mecTo B mape.B cmmue se MaCCOBOCTX BometieHaR HaceReHaRK mHoxecT- BeHHOCTX amaemmx MD RPOTHB0BO3AYMHOR OdOPOHN COBeT- CKHR 00103 BooOme He moys.eT 6MTL CPaBHeH HX C ?Arnim 3an3xHum xemo- xpaTallecicam rocyAapcTBom. 3T0 X0HATH0 U ffOrNMHO:B aeHTpazasoBamix rocvAapcTBax Bee AeRa eTcR XeHTPall1'I30BaHHO;B TOTWIXTapHba rocyAapcTBax Ha BCeM RegaT negam TOTaXIDHOCTX;MMAXTaPXCTCKHe rocyAapcTBa Bcera nonr0TOBne- HbI BORHe Rytime;B cTpaHax,mmemax rocnozeTBylomae lueoRorma AOKTPXHM,BCe HOAgXH3110 3111/1M eoiorisr H zompaHam. CCC? o6RaAaeT 3T1'IMTA KallecTBammlm B 3TOM saxmollaeTen npeamyulecT- BO opramnaumw maccoBoro o0ylieHviR npoTaBoBouywHot odopoHe eue B MXPHOe Bpei-ApeNTIVOISMHaR He odRagaeT Taxama Ka- tiecTBamala B 3TOM 3aKJX0g4R,Te2,0-?GAWCTID-;KoTopaR B onoxy , aTOM- H01 domdm a pameT . morRa Om ameTTD TaTaRBHme HOC- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RnPRi_ninAWn A 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? AeACTBXHIeCnT4 HXH. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY, 50X1 -HUM UP riV1TVT UngffeRM OEICTDNe VZOBAeTBO mTeALHme peme- IpyraR OCOOeHHOCTL nobiintkm HpUifXBOBO3VMHOX 00Cdii :HUNPUY 3a1moxiaeTcR B TOMIKTO napTmR npaBmTeALcno 3a NOTeltifiNg roA npm- Hama pemmTeAmme mepm K ycmAeHmm mAekHo-noAmTmllecitoro BocnmTaHmR Hapomix macc.TmaTeABHo X3THO 3TOT nompoTlmm HaMAXIIITO,AegCT- BXTeALHO,OH Otlen BalleH:mAegHo-noAmTlimecicaR padoTa,comacHo CO- BeTCKKM KoHuenmum,cToArD xe BaysHa/mAm Aaxe 0oRee BaysHa/ AAR npo- TmBoBo3AymHoR OOODOHM B 3noxy aTOMHOg 00MON X paKeT AaALHero Aek- CTWAR,KaK camm aTomHme OOMON 1 paiceTN.MHe XOTeROCE, Om npoomm BeeX,ETO OYZeT TEITaTio HacToRmme 3ameTicm,n0HRTL OTO X oTpemmTiDcR OT cTapomoAHoro MHeHXR,t1TO B BOgHe mmeeT CHU TOMDRO maTepmaAL- Hoe opyzme,maTepmaJaHoe npeBocxoAcTBo.3To OmAo BepHo BO BTOWD MXpOBYD BOgHY,H0 0yAeT HeBepHo B TpeTb10. 3.tITo Tame 170 B COOP ceroAHR? CoBeTcme noHRTme o HpoTmBo-Bo3AymHo1i 00opoHe,111101cymecTBeHHo OTAXIMeTCH OT Torolic xlemy mm HpXBEKAX B BeAmm0pmTaHmmlBooOme Ha 3anaAe. CCC? noHRTme HRO BicAmgaeT cAeAymmma memeHTm:I/mzeilHo-noAmTm- liecicaR BoommTaTeALHan pa0oTa cpeAm macc HaceileHmR;2/alumB HaR mecTHaR camoodopoHa macc HacezeHmR OT B03Aymmax Hue- T0B0/3eHMTHaR HPOTXBOBOUVIEHaa apTKAAepifiRIBRAmtiammaR npoTmBoca- mmemule paiceTm-po0oTm;4/npoTmBoBo3AymHaR moTpeOmTeAbHaR aBma- mmR,5/cmcTema onoBemeHmR m cBR3m,6/cpeAcTBa AaAmero B031tegeTBKR Ha zeTaTeABHme annapaTm npoTmBHmita,7/npoTmBoaTomHaR 3ammTaWnpo- TmBoxmmvplecitaR 3ammTa,9?npo0Aemm TpaHcnopTa,m IO/AoAroBpemeHHme npaBmTeALcTBeHHo-opramammoHHme meponpmRTmR. 3Ta cTpylcupa cymecTByeT B CCC? B HacToRmee BpemR X,BePORTHO, npocvmecTByeT 0e3 m3meHeHmk mHoro AeT.Ee cocTaBHme memeHm Hamm 50X1 -HUM 0yAyT noABeprHyTm maKmcmaALHo TaTenHOMY aHaAnoy. x npBa.R qem) maeiH6-noAmTgtlecm2 padoTm B 11130 CCC? ItolapmHa mapmm3ma-AeHHHx3ma-cTaAmHm3ma He HPX3HaeT BaCWHIA Kamro OH TO nepeAosaa/ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230074nn1 1-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 CTaTLYI "TagM3a .0Ha ytimT,mTo HAem H mAeoaormx bilumee BCHKXX domd H TaHKOB.B 1J0Ka3aTeRBCTBO OdEMHO EpXBOARTCH npramepu HAek HammoHamuma B DrO-BOCT0qH0 A3XX X Ha dmicHem BocToxe,mAem ca- moro xommymmaluem peBoRlommil H BoccTaHmk,mAem 3adazyzaado- trero macca, Etc- ripminimmeimHo c (DeBpansi T9 roAa 3Ta AXHX11 BommTaHma B COCP pem yomAmnacE..B HacToingee spew' neilTmoTHBom Homep oxim BO Bcex 3BeHLRX BOOPYIeHMIX CX.11 cqmTaeTca cReAymmee:3(pexTmEHmm mozeT dLITL TOALKO TO opylimelxoTopoe HaX0AXTCR B pyxax meRoBexa C CKAL- HHMX X mezeycTpemeHHumm mAellmmoNexTmBHoil mmiceT ONTL TOALKO Ta HpOTXBOBOUIVEHaR odopom,xoTopaa onmpaeTcH Ha HapoAlHa Hamm, BAaAemmym eAmilmmm X.Ree2,11Ze03I0rXe2,I1ORXTXKOR,A0lapXHOR;aTOMHble hi paxeTHme domdm moryT pa3pymmTL ropua m ydmm AmAekiHo He mo- rvT vdmm azeRlmAeozormil,1nmapliH.14 Tax Amee. 0TcmAa-npmqviHa nepBaR meAL mAekHo-nommolecull padoTm B co- eAmHeinmx um H Boodme Bcex BmAoB BoopyzeHHmx clui:AodmBancH TO- r0,11TOOK xaxAmk B3p0CJIMil geROBeKBOTAeZIDHOCTXX BCe HaceAeHme B meAom nomam H BocnpmHimm mAeoRormm K0mmvHm3ma,mAem Mapxca-3HreALca-KeHma-CTaAmHa,nomiTmxy napTmx m npaBmTemocna, npoBo3rAamaa mx coBepureHHEmm hI onpaBeAamBmmx.3To-Tolc them npm- AbTCR BCTpeTXTLCH SallaZY B cumae Tpemeri mmpoBok BOrm101 coBepmeH- HO He3aBmcmmo OT Toro,xame HOBNe BMX)! opylum dyAIrT m3odpeTeHm. 5.11Topail men mAekHo-no.amTmmecxoll padoTm B IP() nnUip nwaHm3ammoHHasi cxema ER() OCCP dyAeT paccmoTpeHa nomice.11oxa ze oTmeTmm,14Tonicm.ame Aoma,HacTEITmBammme He meHee 8n-ion qmoBex;Bce des moxamgeHma oftecTBeHHme TipelicAeHms1;mexa 3aBoAoB 1,4 (Dadpmx;)a- EyALTeTm yHmBepcmTeToB m vificTliTyT0B;TmnorpaOmm;mAxo3m;ceReHma, Bxoxlmme B coBxo3m;xeRe3HoAopozHme CTaHLIXX1-14 Tax Amee,-mmemT CTaTYT HX3OBNX 3BeHLeB U110.0cod0 Bazilme X3 HXX vxce 110.11TIXZX 3Ha- Rx-olvixelar 3a yonemym padoTy no 11110;HanpmmeplB Mome Taxme pm- 6.11emm mozHo yBKAero Ha OacaAaxripmp74p4cToBe1JHoe aoxa3aTeRL- 50X1-HUM CTBO HOArOTOBReHHOCTX Aoma K - R COOTBeTCTBXX C nRaHamm hIAmpexTioamm YnpameHmil HpoTmBo-Bo3- AywHoil 00opoHm CoBeTcxok Apmmx,YTTROOA npm MIIHmeTepcTBe GdopoHm, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 B 3THX 1{H3OBNX 3BeHLRX xIXTUTCR AoNnum TA nem'', THtleCKHe TML! B CBR314 C 3aaaliamx HPO B OVAVMeR BOkHe.HCKADIIHTeRb- HYD poRL B MTeHHH Amid"' x AomaAos IfirpaeT BOeHHO-0001JOHHaR ceic- uia OdmecTBa no pacnpocTpaHeindm n0x50x1-Hum1x Hayl- HLIX B Tiedlimx 3aBezem1x 3T0 OCYL,CTBAReTCR B nopRaKe Hopmanbmoro ytiedBoro pacrulcama cnemiarimimmx BOeHHNMH Kacpezpamx i npenazaBa- Tensimm.B npommumeimmx HHNX npunimulmix,a Taime B K0AX03aX hi COBX03aX,CYMeCTBVI0T cnegxamilme pylcoBoAATenx HO HpOTHBOBO3AyMH01t noAroTome.3aAaila xe napTidimixocomcomoimcxxx npoOcolommx smeeK 3a1CREgaeTCR B Hadinuelum 3a TOxHIMM BmnomieHmem AxpeKTTAB YITROCA x 3a opTuomaxialok tHACTOTOA Aemulk 110KRaA0B. rilammR Aeriff-moTialmamiaR npaKTmtlecKasi 3axama AeICHIR H AomaxoB 3aminnaeTca B cReAymmem:3$0exTimocm Bpaxec- MIX 00M0apAYT0B0K odpano nponopuoilaniala kerOTOBHOCTH B C e - ^ 0 Hacenemq3Hauff,ueHolo 3a6AaroBopemelmmx HpOTHBOBO3AYMHUX meponplumiR MOIHO X0OXTIDCR normoro XOTR ON qaCTINHOr0 camo- coxpaxemm;3HaluAT,cyjupda Hacezemi B HOBOM Bortme dyAeT HaX0AltabC? B pyKax camoro Hacenen4a;3Hal1HT,Bceodmme npoTHBoBouvmHme mepo- nplIRTVIR B mmpHoe Bperm BnozHe onpaumBaloTcli imepecamx camoro HacenemilnooTomy HaonwepERBaTB HOJHATHICY napTim 14 npaBliTemp- cna;3HaqviT,cymecTBy1OT pembHme BO3MOITHOCTH BRCTORTL 14 BMEHTID Juodym BORHylT0-eCTb B03MOYSHO 14 Heodxojulmo Bepim B 1106eAY. 6.11ollemy TIW CCU AOAEHa CTORTb Ha-cmepTb? B CBR316 C yrp030k aTomok BOkHM B HZekHO-HOAHTINeCKOM BocnxTa- HMI Hacezemi CCCP iTKO 0003HaTAACR HOBNk 3AemeHT.B paAxonepeAa qax rpynnm COBeTCKXX OKKYHallHOHHMX Bokcx B repMaHHH,B "TcpacHoti 3Be31ie",B "Wprinsi P0pme3B "PecTime 1o3Aymoro .I.RoTan iii B Rue Apyrmx nyommaTimil 3a iricTemze HeCK03IbK0 mecRuB B TOk HRH p1lo2 Oopme CTaBVITCH Bonpoc:noqemy MEI AOREHN OHM rOTOBN CTORTL Ha- cmepTID B cutiae Tpemet mmpoBoR BoRmilzax 150x1 ...HUM -HUIVI nimmeHeinal aTOMHNX dome r 1 OTporo roBopii,oneT lamer? 1110igUrbffe'COAMICHT,H0 OH AAR Rana- za npeAcTaB a m ero B cxema Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-ninafl rr1.1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? T14314p0BaHHOM sue: MN AOREHM CTORTb Ha-cmepTB noTomyolTo cymecTByeT peaRLHasi Ha- AexAa BNCTORMIBNEHTbOTHeReTb C HemoTopmm ymepdom,B TO Bperm icax icanmTaumm norxdHeT OKOHtlaTeRBHO H HaBcerAa AcToRT2Izomuma HO- BMX Barn; iVILI AOREHM yCTORTb HOTOMYOITO xanmTaamm sarHABaeTtymmpaeT2npx- roBopeH mcTopiriek KAcme3HoBeHm,a KommyHm3m1HaodopoT,pacipeTaeT, xpenHei,pacmApHeTcHInpeAHammeH AcTopmeR B KatlecTBe Bmcmero odmecTBa,cReAoBaTeaLHoly Hac AmeeTcH BAOXHOBRRI011taR 14AeR,paAH KO- Topok CTOHT EHTb yl'AldpaTb; MN AOREHH CTORTb Ha-cmepTL ROTOMy,x1TO BCRKaR Balla HpOTHB CCC? RBRReTCR HecnpaBeARABoll;HaodopoT,CCCP CTpelDITCR K YHOITOEeHlID KoRoHmanEHoro padcTBa manpaanmoTAtiecmoro rilTa:11o3Tomy Hama dopLda RBRReTCR cnpaBeARABoMicaeAoBaTeALHo,mopazmme npevaymecT- Ba HaXOARTCR Ha Hamek cTopoHe. nTemAa zeaaeTcH npammecitylk BNBOA:BCe HaceRemile AoAxHo dmm BometieHo B TI1RO;BC6 HacezeHAe Aommo dmTL ITTOBNM K LI:1E6MM MEM- Talummtzaxe K riddenAlBo HMR BHCOICHX HAeaROB;IITO ON 1114 cayumons doem TrRn AuxeH HaxoAATLcH Ha nocTy. r7 n 1.4AgliaRLHme KoHmengum CCC? B CBR311 C T0MHO H BoAopoAHoill domdamx. OCHOBHaR THaecTE aTOMHNX H B0A0p0AMIX domdapAmpoBolc odpymmTcH Ha Haceaemie m Ha cucTemy 1111n.B CBR314 C 3THM B (DeBpane-mapTe 1(455 roAa Bepxomme raaBHomomaHAoBaHme CCCP noAseprAo peBA3AA cymecTBoBaBmme Ao oToro AolapmHm.Huxe AamTcH rRaBHme BHBOAN H 0- B N X KoHmenuRIAeticTunmmx B macToAmee spem A nermmx B 0C- HOBV ?Dram/maw/1 BceR cmcTemm HBO: "TORIDKO BOXHICO3HaMIHR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeA CBOHM HapoAom, raydomo nolimmalomAM CBRUHIly10 OdR3aHHOCTb 3a11114TN p0AIIHNICBRTO Bp mAR B HenodeAmmocm HAeR KommymmalcnocodeH npeowlem modme TpyAHocTA.HacToktimBoe Avqemile mapKcAcTcmo-ReHAHcmoM Teoppim... ? 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 yKpenTAT m 3aKaamT Hamm aBmalmommue KaApulnoAroToBmT MX AAR BN- n0m-lel-1NR 6oeBux 3aAaxl B camoR CAOICHOR TpyAmoR BomymmoR oftTa- Hone"/cm.o0mi1mai1mu1 zypHaa BepxoBmoro KomamAoBaHma COBeTCKXX BOeHHO-B03A3rIMIX CNA "BeCTHXK BO3ATIIH0r0 .aoTa",M,W=guritiaa 7 m Amee/. "Opramm3y51 odyqemme X BocnNTamme noxImmemmux,KonamAmpu X HO- Ampa60numm mcxoART X3 TOr02t1TO AAIKE CAHAR COBPEMEHHAH TEXHJAKA CAEA HO CEBE HE EMT PEEKED CYALBY BOPialltiTo vicxoA ee pemamT amAx,cmalpHue Ayxomlcomammue cBoR Aoar nepeA collmaamcTmtlecKoR PoAmmoR"/cm.Tam xe/. "EammTaaNcTmtlecKaa nponaramAa mymmT o "BCeCKAKX" aTommoR m BoAopoAmoR Oom6.H0 mulcoBeTcKme amAm,xopomo 3HaeM,t1TO HT H ONTID He moxeT domdulmorymeR pemmTL mcxoA BoRmu.MU 3HaAX H 3Haem,u0 camum CXABHUM "opymmem" RBAReTCR cam tiezoBeKIBepammR B npaBoTy cBoero Aeaa.Mil 3Haem,IITo cymecTByeT mmoro cpeAcTB npoTmBoaTommoR odopomulKoTopue B BoRmy dyAyT HaX0AXTLCR B pacnopalicemmu BOKHOB CoBeTcKoR ApMi m rpazAamcKoR camoobopomu THAe/113 ReKum no pa- Amo rpynnu COBTCKXX oxKynammommEx BORCK B repmammx/. Tana npmmepoB MOEHO auto ON umBecTill mmoro.OHN AamT Heociu- tiaRmo tieTKym mAem o HoBeRmmx COBeTCKXX Komunilmax OTHOCHTeRIDHO HpOTLIBOB03ATIIHOR 060pOHN. 1 8.Bonpoc 0 6AXTeALHOCTX CoBepmeHmo no-HoBomy CTaBXTCR X Bonpoc o 6AKTeAlDHOCT14.Cy1ueCT- BylOT KocBemmue AOKa3aTeAbCTBal4TO B OeBpaile-mapTe 1955 roAa OH 6111A noABeprHyT ocTpomy oftyzAeHmn m HO Hemy npmHaTu cTporme peme- HMI napTmx VI npaBTATexLcna. B AmpeKTmBHoR cTaTBe "BecTHmKa Bo3Aymm0ro (111oTa" 12/micam 1955 roAa/ 3aAaqa QDopmyampyeTca AOCROBHO TaK:6AXTeAbHOCTL 03HallaeT rOTOBHOCTL Hammx ReTtimKoB-Impe614TeaeR B amOym milmyTy BHAeTeTTD HaBcTpetly Bo3Aymmo1 HpOTKBHXKy,B andym noroAylAmem VI HOIMMIHa MANX BucoTaxlmaRTK m yHDITOEHTI) ero npeueltiem OH cymeeT ocyme- CTBIATB CBOg KoBapHuR 3amHcea;npm 3TOM (=BAR OTBETCTBEHHOCED B03- RArAETCH HA AtTENOB EPOTHBOBOUYEIHOR OBOPOH101 CTPAHH:la CBAVEHIN2 ,0.11T-HE - " ' JETOMY CAMOffETY Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-ninafl 50X1 -HUM rr1.1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 f IIPOED3IDIKA;AZI nom 2ETTE11 HPOTHBOBOLUALH ?Yl UbUliU511110X1=112Di ITT_AX0,11HTLCH B HOCTOYEHOR BOEBOR rOTOBHOCTH. "AAR HeAonymemm B npeAeRm CCU oAHoro BpaxecKoro camoReTa Heo(ixoAmmo HeycTaHHo BOCHMTNBaTB VBCTBO BNCOKOk OAXTeRBHOCTX, HOTOPAR HPEAHORArAET,LETEAE BCEr0,110TOBHOCTID HAIM TIACTER H HOA- PAUEREHHR K HEMEAREHHOMY BHHORHEHMD BOEBba 3A1jAT/Tam xe/. llenocpeAcTBeHHo nocRe ARXTeRBHNX coBemamiR HO oftylimemo HOBNX cTpaTernqemix KoHuenunk Ha cTpaHmuax 0141111aRIDH11X BOeHHNX xypHa- ROB HORBXRDICB OTKpNTHe paccpueHxyl.TaKIHanplamep,"BecTim Bo3Aym- Horo ..RoTa" 14 3a anpeRB 1955 roAa cooWIR AocRoBHonlmnewammum Hamepesamcyl Hatiam BoRHy HpOTXB COOP nyTem HaHecemul yAapoB aTom MUM X BoAopoAHmmx domOamia HO EX3HeHHEM ueHTpam CCCPIIIToOm B He- CKORBKO AHeR BNBeCTX X3 CTpOR OCHOBHNe npommmeHHme 065eKTHIHapa- RX30BaTID TpaHcnopT,Aem0paRm3oBam HaceReHme.B CBR3H C 3TXMIHOBX- Axmom3r,B HOBNX cTpaTeriamecxxx KoHuenumsix np0mmoBo3AymH0il 060- DOHM OLLII npliniaT Te3HC:OAXTeRLH0CTID HBO m AZA BnpeAB o3HatiaeT cn0006Hocm RXMXT10 npoTimmica me3anHocTillonepeAnTB ero,He AaTL ceOR 3acTaTI, Bpp.cmo)uTorAa ice Oma oOmmeHa oOmuzaRBHaa npaBH- TeRIDCTBeHHaR AI/Tem/ma lAcTpealTeRBHok aulaumm HBO la domclapAxpoB- mmicam AaRmero Aeilmum:OBTIEHHE JOITHKOB HORETAM H BOEBOMY HPH- MEHEHM CAMOHETOB B OBAAKAX-BAXHAR FOCYAAPCTBEHEAR 341401/cm.BecT HXK Bo3Aylintoro ,..aoTa,12,1955 roA/. Tams Ayx CMNCR OAXTeABHOCTX B cncTeme 1130 B HacToRmee Bpe- mg.Ayx cmucR,Kmemile cmy rocyAapcTBeHHoro BoeHHoro 3aKoHa.3a- Aaga (DopmyiimpyeTcyl ceroAHR TaK:nocKoRBKy B OyAymell BoilHe nepBme Ilacm,AH14 N HeAeRm OyAyT xrpaTE pemalomym poRL,TA nocKoRBKy,cReAo- BaTeRBHolHe 0yAeT BpemeHm Hp0X3BOACTBa HyEHNX camoneToB noAroTomi HylcHmx ReTtmoB,BCH CYMMA MEPORPHRTHR AOTACHA BUM OCY- RECTBREHA E11ji B MHPHOE BPEMH,TaKlmTodm Bce Bum aBilaux mmeRmcB B HaRXWIX B Jno6oe Bpema. cTpyKTypa HBO CCCP HepexoAxm IC m3yllemo camoro HBO m ero TemitlecKmx cpeAcTB.Haq- Hem C paccmoTpeima ero 0praHm3aum0HHo1i cTpyKTypm. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230n74nni1-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Ao nTopot MI'IpOBOf Baku' lipeAceAaTenn us-- capon CCCP ouonpemeHHo YIBMICH lipeAcuaTeRem ConeTa TpyAa OdopoHm1CTO.Cnono "Wpm,'" 03HagaR0111TO OH SIBAR3TCA nepxonHum pyKonoATATeriem Beek o60poHHoM AeHT3AIDHOCTX CTPa50X1-HUMI "Cite npoTHnon03AymHoM rpaysAaHcicon camoodopoHN.Dpulimecxx TO amo HeindexH02Tale Kaic BO3HHNR MXIXICTp A reHeparimINM ETad He !weal (popmaJILHNx npan X3AaBaTID npmca311 rpaysAaHcKomy Haceaemo. Onepamme pYKOBOACTBO OCTUCTBAREOCID KO1HT3TOM 060pOHN npx ConeTe HapoAmix Kommccapon,KOCIE,noAqiimeHaim HenocpeAcTneHHo EpeAceAaTemo CHK r CTO.B 1941 roAy WHIcumx KOCHK nepemax K BHOBL co3AaHHomy TocyAapcmeHHomy KommTeTy OclopoHN/r10/ BO rnane CO OTWIXHIDIM.B 1946 roAy rHo dmn ynpa3AHeH,a MOHR BOCCTaHOB1I3H HmeHem "KommTeT Odopolim npx ConeTe MPIMICTp0B" ,HOCM.BmA oTmeHeH X CTaTyT COBIsleCTXMILCTBa EpeAceAaTeAR ConeTa MXH1'ICTp0B X FipeA- cuaTeim CTO. C 1946 no 1953 roA BO rnane KOCM CTORA 3amecTviTeith EpeAceAaTe- RR CMCCOP,MapaZ Bopommon.0 mapTa HO XIOHJD,I953 roAa.o6a3aHHocTx EpeAceAaTeml KOCM BNHOJIHRA UNHITICTp BH3TTID3HHXX ,gen H nepnug 3ame- CTIATWITD npeAcexaTerm CMCCCP mapmax Bepla.0 MASI 1953 no Oenpan 1955 roAa-31.1:?KaraHonmq,c Tenpaza no ceHTFP5pn 1955 roAa-mapmail C.K.THmomeHKo.B HacTonmee npemsilcornacHo Heo0KuplaAnHum cneAeHil- Amlnpemernimm mcnomullommm 06A3aHHOCTX npeAcuaTeila HOCM ABAH3TCH mapmaA apraReppix HeAeAHH.Ero 3amecTRTenem no rpaxAaHcicor4 npoTH- nono3AymHo1 odopoHe ABASI3TCA reHepaR-nomcomm Bkmorpaxon. raBHbie 3azaux KOCM BlimmaTeAnHoe 143Irtiemie maTepidailon,nocnymemimx Kamnamm OTtleTHO- B1160pHNX codpaHvgl H K0H0epeHumil B clacTeme Ao6ponoabHoro 06mecTna CoAellcmisi ApmmilAnmaux JloTylA0C.01AaeT OCHOBaHTDI rianoTenipo BaTID,x1TO 3a nocileAHme mecymm,moxeT ONTID 3a vicTexmlati roA,n lipeme npopicxoART AxxopuotiHme II0XCKX HaXATIMXX Topm opramagval ROOM B CBR314 C aTomHoRH nuopoAHog dom6am11.3To o3HallaeT,I1To BO mane KOCM mcmeT ONTID nocTameH HOBNR ileJI0B3K7ylleHNR reHepan MAX map- man MAX npocTo 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: ClA-RDPR11n4nr -4 r% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Ho yze TenepB RCH02qT0 =He mamme 3aAatim MOM onTAmTeg npex- 50X1 -HUM HHMHIHMeHHO: I.X00pAHH14p0BaTI, meponpmaTm rpazAaHcxok odopoHm BO Bali COOP C meponpmammm MpimicTepcna OdopoHm1MmirmepcTBa BoeHHo-Mopcxoro cpjioa w reHepanmoro MTada, 2.COCTaBARTL HRaHM H npoexTm HOCTaHOBReHHM napTylm m npaBmTenB- CTBa 0 domdoydeximax 3cex THHOBIO npoTmonolicapHmx meponpmaTmx, o npoTmoaTomHmx coopyzeHHax H cpeAcTBax 3a11114TH HaccaeHma H OKO- HOMKKH COOP,od 3Baxya1Hm,-m Tax Amee, McymegTBARTB rocyAapcTBeHHoe pyxoBoAcTso noAroToBxok HacezeHma K npoTmoBo3AywHoiii,npoTmoaTomHok m npoTmoxiimmxiecxord 3ammTelB cmmcae BOBRelleHHR mace B cooTBeTcTBymme opralmaummI1cpyxxx,rpyn- 1114 H oTpum rpazAaHcxoM camoodopoHm, 4.OilyEmTB onepammo-opraHmailmoHHum opraHom npaBmTeaBcTBa HO Bcem 060p0HHNM Bonpocam,He BXOARMIIM B mpmAxtrecum xomneTeHum BOeHHMX MI4HLICTepCTB 14 reHepaaLHoro ITada. B Ae2cTBmTeaBHocTmloAHaxo,HOOM padoTaeT noA onepaummm pyxo- BOACTBOM reBepam,Horo MTada CoBeTcxoM ApMHH. E0AtlepKileMIgTO B 3aAatly MOM He BX0AHT mAekHo-noamTymecxaa pa- doTa.rpydo rompg, MOM 3aHmmaeTca TORT)K0 npaxTmecxo-TexHolecxm- MM hI opraHmanmommmx npodaemamm odopoHN.PyloBoAcTBo mekHo-noam- TVitleCKMM BocruffaHmem npmaAaelnu Ympamemno ArmTailm H riponaraH- Am WHOC m ero BoeHHomy OTAenyl-raamomy FloamTmgemmy YmpaB- AeHND Booppiceimmx cm,r1IYBC,Bo raaBe xoToporo B HacToswee Bpem CTOHT reHepaa-noamommx XeRTOB. HocTpoeHme KOCM Hmxce AaeTca oprammanmoHHasi cxema ROOM B TOM BmAelB Kamm cy- mecTBoBaza K 1947-48 roAamdlonbuxx odHapyxmTB B HeIi nmeHeHm 3a nepmoA c 1948 roAa He yBeHgaamci, yonexom,To-ecTB c noaHog .yBepeHHocTi'm MOEHO CtIHTan cxemy AeRcTBIruenHori Ha 1955 roA. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM IlDexceAaTeln HOCM FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. Ha AUXHOCTE. npeAceAaTeAR KOCM Ha3HaeTcR TORBKO 1.1.11eH KaH- AmAaT IIKEICC.Ao 1955 roAa-ToALKo lineH HomITOmpo-lipe3kamyma EpeAceAaTeAL KOCM B 0praHm3aqm0HH0m OTHOMeHXX 110A1111HReTCH Heno- cpeAcTBeHHo HpeAceAaTeAm CoBeTa MmmicTpoB CCCP.Ilepe3 nocilmero OH noxyqaeT AxpeRTJABH Epe3uxyma IIKKHCC 14.11X,1ITO OAHO X TO Ice, CoBeTa 1.11/1HXCTp0B COOP. OcHomme TpedoBaHvIR K HpeAcuaTemo KOCM: I.BHTL B itypce oftero cTpaTermecicoro nnammpoBaHm COOP Ha npo- Tocemial ARKTenmoro nepyloAa Bpemeal, 2.1dmeTE nimmoe oaduaREHoe oTHomemie K AeaTeRLHocTil MmilmoTep- CTBa 060p0HUlreHepaRLHOr0 IliTada X MXHIICTepCTBa BOeHHO-M0pCK0r0 .1.1oTa/nplimexiaHme:mozHo npeAnoxolam,qTo B dAX3KOM 6yAymem npeAce- AaTenem ROOM 6yAeT Ha3HatieH mapmaa CoBeTcicoro Com3a Bilpm3oB reHepan apmio AHT0H0B.00HOBaHXY1 AJ151 npeAnoiloxeHmR:xapaKTep Tla- CTXR odova B orieTHo-BHOopHok KamnaHlrim AOC.g.,.Apyroe ocHoBamie: otcyTctme-_pleHoro mapmaaa,0TBeqammero TpedoBaHymmuImoryero dial) Ha3Hatielmm B OmmaRmee BpemR/, 3.Pa3OmpancR B HoBekmmx AOCTFIEeHMIX mxpoBok BOeHHOM Haym X TeXHXKX7B qaCTHOCTXIB npodzemax aTOMMIX BOVIHM X npoTylBoaTomHHx coopyxemel, 4.06.11a,AaTID BLICOKXMX opraHm3aTopcimmx aAmmilicTpaTJABHum Kaqe- CTBaM11. Cy AR no onHTy npeABoemmix H IOCJIBOHHL1X aeT,lipeAceAaTemo KOCM ero 3amecTHTensim AaHo AeraALHoe npaBo no Bcem Bonpocam rpa.vaH- CKOR 060p0HN anezupoBam npRmo K mlimicTpam,x napTmilmim COBeT- CKXM pylcoBoAmTeARm C0103HNX X aBTOHOMHNX pecnydium,KpaeB X am- cTeglropuoB ui pagoHoB,npommuleHHHx npunprimiag H 3aBeAeHHMIcTa- BR nepeA aaAamilTpe 6yR OT HXX decnpeicoczoBHoro BEHOJIHeMla CBOXX AmpeRTIAB,nocicoAbicy AeRcTByeT OH OT mmema EpeAceAaTeRR CM. Ilepe3 Hero xe ocymecTBAReTcR TO,t.1TO ctimTaeT HeocbcoAxmum reHepaRE- HEIM 111Ta6 AJIR rpaluaHolcoro HaceneHm 14 3KOHOMXKX cTpaHH B cmucne odopoHN. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50X1 -HUM 13/09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM NOCM Co6cTBeHHo "KommTeT Odopome-oTo rpynna AmAeR21m3Hatraemla Co- BeTOM MMHLICTp0B no npeAcTamemo CexpeTapmaTa lualiCC,ElimmoTepcT- Ba 06opoHHIreHepaRmoro ITTada 111 MmiumepcTBa BoeHHo-Mopcitoro 4J10- Ta,no corAacoBaHmm C rOCERaHOM.061111H0 B KO BxnAgT:Hatia.mmic reHe- paRBHoro lhadalHatiaRBHmic BoeHHo-Mopcicoro 111Ta6a,HatiaABHmx IliTada BoeHHo-Bouymmix Cmalliallanmmic Maeda ApTimilepmmIllatimmunt ETa0a BpoHe-TaHicomix B0McK,HatiaRBHHE OTAena Hpomo-XvImmtlecicog 06opowl MmaicTep6TBa 060pORM,MmHMCTp CBR3M,MXRDICTp BoopygeHmR,MxHimp ABmanmoHHoR HpommuleHHomilHatianmmit YnpameHmg HBO CoBeTcKoR Apmmx,3amecTxTeAB Micumpa Odopom no HRTeHAaHTCK02 Czyzde,HpeA- cuaTemp ZOCkt.,Hatiammit BoeHHoil AKaAemmm mmeHm ilp3TH3elHatiaABH141t CaHmTapHoro YnpaBaelm CoBeTcicok Aplamm,MmHimp IlyTeR Cooftemal CeicpeTaim IIREHCC no oprammilmomilm Bonpocam max no KaApam,Ha- 11mm-um 111YBC,MmHpicTp BHyTpeIHINX Zez,HpeAceAaTem, HommTeTa rocy- AapcTBelmoM BennacHocTx,HallaRBHmic HHEeHepHoro YnpameHmA COBeT- CKOR AVOIM,HallaALHMK BoeHHo-TidmiceHepHoR AlcaAemum mmeHm Ky2OHmeBa. 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IdlizeHepm,padoTammme noA pyxoBoAcTBom OCO,HecyT noAHym OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTID sa 6e3OTKa3H0CTL X T0I1H0CTL AeRCTBXR snexTpztlecxxx cm- peH,nHeBmaTmecxxx cmpeH,paAmonepeAarmoB B nyHmax IIBO m meBT- camoodopoHm/B cmmue OesyxoplisHeHHocTm BEAMIleHXR B odmym pa- AMOTpaHCARU?HHTO cmcTemy cTpaHm z HaodopoT/IrpomxoroBopmTexek /xoTopme paccTamsnoTcH TaxITITodm axycTmxa BosAymHok TpeBorz He mmexa MepTIMIX mam norlymbpmix TlaCTKOBITO-eCTI) IITOON BCe Haceae- Hme onommazon AOCTaTWIHO xleTxo/ldesoTxasHoro BKAIneHHR H BLIKED- geml TeRe(DOHHHX Ko TaTopoB,BjJot.eHHs H BIAKEINeHHR mexTpmtlec- xoro ocBemeHJAH X3 nyHxTa EBO H mecTHok camoodopollm B cilytme Ha- AodHocT1'r.14 Tax =lee. ElommetiaHme:odasaHHocTL OCO-odecnetamo BC e 3T0 TeXHOleCXX H op- raHmsagzoHHo eme B mmpHoe Bpemg;Ho B BoeHHoe BPM R 3TH cpeAcTBa ITHBOARTCR B AeRcTime He cammm 000,a nymTamm HBO H camoodopoHm, xoTopme HaXOARTCR B noAmpuleamm xomaHAymmero 11130. OHM OTAex Hponnio-Xmmtlecicok OdopoHml0EXOlsamamaeTcR paspadomk Bcex TexHINecxmx m opraHmsailmoHHmx Bonpocos xxmmllecxok odopoHN HaceaeHKRIBcek cTpaHm B IleROM.CMAa BxoAaT,Hanpmmep,meponpzaTmg HO paspadoTxe npoexToB m nycxy B maccoBoe npomsBoAcTBo npoTzBora 30B m npolmoxmmmliecxok oAexAm mumBmAyainHoro m KOILUKTHBH0r0 noaBsoBaHmR.PadoTa BHHOAHReTCR B xoopAmHazTAN c ynpameHmem XXMX- IleCROg odopoHm MTAHmeTepcTBa OdopoHm.OdyisaHHocm odemx opraHmsa:- Ilzk-cReAmm rap 11neTWEeHHRMYenAWTHX_R3TL7LBOeHHOR XHMHX Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50X1-HUM 50-Yr 2013/09/12: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 XH$OpMXpOBan 0 HXX COBeT MTAHNCTp0B CCUlnplimumaTE mepm K COOTBeT cTBymmemy pa3BXTXD coBeTcmg BOeHHOg XXMXX,X TaK Amee. iiciamt&TenBHym pOAB B AeRTeALHOCTX OEXO urpaeT padoTa no noAro- ToBxe npammecxxx mep npeAoTBpameHusi sapa.Tice1.9?SiLIP-MBancneinna pe3epBoB rocyAapcTBa,nyHxToB imam! 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KO B mime 1941 roAa,11 B HacToRmee Bpema RBAReTCR,MOBKAHMOMy,OA- HXM M3 cammx RynHmx B KOCM. 3magek oarY RBRReTCR pa3pa0oTxa/BmecTe c reHepaammm ETadom H rocnRaHom/ onepaTmBHmx nzaHoB Bceobmek H acTomok 3Baxyaux HaceReHmAlytipeuemeg,npunpmATM3aBeAeHmkomBoTHmx,npuoBonBcT- BeHHNX X cTpaTermemx pe3epBoB.OnmT BTopok mxpoBai Bain' noxa- 3aAITITO ARR COOP oTolnoxaRyk,oAHa X3 HamboRee mylmen.Hmx npo6- xem.B 1941-42 roAax rim c Hem cnpamicsilHo AmEKiTo HecJIblXaH- HLIX HaceneHmil OaHTacTifittecxxx noTepb B 31coHommxe.Yze B 1943-44 roAax B nOpfftl-87,1-jrar17111)1Ta BO11-111 noBcmAy Omrypmpo- Ba.g rpo3Hm1l B011p0C:ItIMIC 3T0 morzo citylumocen.To-ecTLIETo BMW- BEIMMEMNIMAUMWM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-n1 OLVIRrin9qnn0Annl 1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 BT B TOM,TITO cTpaHa oica3aAacip HenoAroTomeHHoR K maccoBok OKKy- nal= Ha BocToR,Rax B cialcAe geTxxx nAaHoBlTalt m B cmucAe npalt- Tmxiecuro odecneuema TpaHcnopTom,adHaHcammlnpo5oxi -Hualmemx mecTamm H0B0r0 pameReHmR. Coumme m cymecTBoBaHme THY RBAReTCR OTBeTOM Ha Bonpoc.Mox- HO npeAnomixTlyiTo B OyAymem,ecAm ocoOme ycAomiR 0006011 BOAHN He cAeAamT 1,13AmmHet 3BalcyallmioloHa oyAeT OCTReCTBARTbCR BO mHoro pa 3 Aytnite.Hacitompico Ham X3BeCTHO,OCHOBHaR macca padomotoB oorY COCTOXT X3 BOCIIXTaHHXKOB BOeHHO-TpaHCflOpTHOg AKaAeMXX COBeTCKOR Apmmm umeHm HaraHomma/ReHmrpaA/. OTmeTilm TaimelmTo nocAe BTopok mmpoBoil BOVIHN B COOP Hanaxon ()due cTpaTermecicoe nepepacnpeAeAeHme HacezeHmil 14lEm3Hemmx ileHTpoB.TaK,Hanpmmep,B roAux cTenRx Ha3axcTaHa m CmOmpm B0301Ka- DT HOBble KOAX03b1 X comco3m;pecny6Amicx ileHTpaiwoM A31414 UHT- panman CX014pb CTaHOBRTCR XHAyCTpliaAbHMMX otlaramm 000P.3T0 03Ha- qaeTIIITO npoOnemm 3Baxyanmm np0moB03AywHok 060poHla pemamTcR yze Tenep B ItpynHmx maculTaciaxlpairmicaAmo. OMB? OTAU CeRbCKO-X03RgCTBeHH011 EpOTXBOBOUTIIHOVI 06opomi3OCXEBO, 3aHmmaeT B KOCM HeCKOABKO o6oco6AeHHoe nonoxeme.OHo HaxouTcR He B KpemAe,a Ha OpAXKOB IlepeyAxe Aom 1123. B 3aAalay OCXEBO moAKT pyitoBoAcTBo Beek' cymmoM np0r14BoB03Aym- HNX meponplIRTIAM,Ho TOALKO B cmbicAe o6ecnegemiR HylcA MeCTHMX KO- mau HBO maTepidampuimm cpeAcTsamm.Hpmmep:KomaHAymulmM HBO o6Aa- CT1/I X Tpe6yeT Bbipmm noA3emHoe 3epHoxpaHmAule AAR KOAX03a MAX coBxo3a;B Talcom cAytme npeAceAaTeAL KOAX03a 06R3aH noutimm Heo6 xoAmmme AeHLrm AX60 143 COOTBeTCTBTOMXX opraHoB cBoero mromcTep- CTBa7A1460 1/13 00HA0B camoro K0RX03a1H0 B nocAeAHem cAytme 01111Tb- Tam OH AoAxeH mem pa3pemeHme Tex xe opraHoB.Apyrok npmmep:Ha- liaALHVIK paRoHHoil EBO nplima3mBaeT HpAanmmity ITC CHRTb Bce Topa C HaXOTH X nepeOpocKTID XX Ha Kame-To HpicAu nposi14BoBo3Aym- Ho1 odopoHm B Apyrom paRoHe;TorAa HatianbHXK MTC o6113aH noAytivaL Ampelmay OT COOTBeTCTBTO9AI"Ue7ISPCr *URCTBeHHMX opraHoB. Bee OTH CAOICHOCTX peryAmp Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDPR _nin4q t 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ?????? ? C ApyroR cTopoHm,EBO cenBcxxx pakHoB vimeeT pHA cnegmOmecxxx ocodexHocTe2.HanpmeplB mileOHmx pakoHax cymecTByeT 011aCHOCTL Bmropamm ewe He cHomeHHoro xiledaolux 3apaxemle oTpaBillimmxmx Be- mecTBampl.BmecTe C TeM,B CCCP npTAHRTa Toxixa 3peinullqTo K0AX03Hble AepeBHH,ecilm B HMX HT BaEHNX BOeHHNX ofteKToBlHe OyAyT noABep- ramcil cepLe3Hmm BOWEIHNM HazeTamlueAoBaTexLHolnpoTHBoBouym- Hme odopoHBme mepm OyAyT cymecTBeHHo OTAXtlaTLCH OT aHmorommx mep B ropoAax,B npommpleHHmx pakoHax,Ha TpaHcnopTe. A oTcmAa-Hecxo.uxo cneuxavecKoe nonozeHyle OCXEBOlxoTopoe,oA- HaxolpadoTaeT Ha npaBax oTAe.lia KOCM. 50X1 -HUM OCHBC CTavoHapHmx EpOTXBO-B03ATMIX COOpyEeHMOCHBCIONA yq- peE,AeH B 1946 roAy OaxTmecxx Haqa.71 pa6oTaTL B 1947 roAylHa Oa- 3e Hemegxmx,ameppixammx m aHrmgcxxx maTepliazoB H odopyAoBaHmsf. 3aAaga OTAeA8.-3aHHTIDCH ?On= unampoBaHmemlpa3paOomiii npoex- ToBl3anycxom B Hp0X3B0ACTB0 X BBeAeHmem B AeilicTime cTailmoHapHmx paAapHo-npeAynpeAmTeALHmx c00pyxem42.EpmmegaHme:3T0T oTAez pemaa 3aAama Aim CCCP B ueRomlAAR Bcex BmAoB BoopyzexHmx CMAITaK xax CaM0CT0HTeABH0r0 paAapHoro onmTa He ameila elite }Ed apmpullxvi B03Aym- Hme =MOM 0A0T,HM Tem Omee clIcTema rpaxAaHmil npoTyltouymHoM odopoHm.MozHo npeAnoiloxyaBluTo B HacToamee Bpema Oymulmid OCEBC HeCKOABKO cpreHm:BeposITHolonepaTimoe prcn0AL30Bame yoTaHoBoK Boopyzi;HHmmx mum' XTBSITO X3 BeAeHmsi OCEBC. EplimetiaHme:aBTop 3TXX cTpoN coEmeeTItiTo doame luagero He 3HaeT 00 3TOM tipe3BmgailH0 BeaHOM oTAeile.OAHaao Hao noAtlepxHyTB, xITO B 1946-47 roAax OCHBC imepecoBancif Tamice coopyzeHmem paAXO- B03AegCTByMMHX CTaHUM,B0 BCHKOM czyllae TeopNgmx Tama cTaHurk, XMeHHO Teopmamm B03Ze1CTBKH Ha ReTaTeALHme annapaTm rip x nomomx cnemaaLHsx BoAH.3T0-cTapasi XTaABHHCKaH mAeR13ammliammalicsi B TOM, 11T0 IIpH nomomm onpeAeileHHux BOAH MOEHO 3aCTaBXTB mempoTexHymec- Kym cracTemy ReTaTeALHoro annapaTa nepecTaTB padoTam HOAHOCTLIO MAX qaCTXt1H0. HaKoHell,OCEBC IfixTepecoBagcHJED0.0.71emamm Tax Ha3mBaem0ro "pami0- L50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 nyaem6Ta .HepBaR coBTUkaA-Teopm TaXoro unyaemeTan omaa pa3pa- OoTaHa r npeAamiceHa HaHAxAaTom TexHxtlecxxx HayK 1/111X0H141,11oueHTom Ka(DeApm meKTpopaAxoTeximm npx .saKyJIBTeTe CnelmaaLmix OdopyAoBa HIAM Cam0aeT0B,C3C0,0pAeHa ReHma H KpaCH03HaMeHHO1 BOeHHO-33031nYM H02 JAHEeHepHOM AKaAemxx 'useful EYKOBCK0r0.ZOCTOBepHOCTB CyMeCTB0- a BaHXR npeAnoxema Teoplg Ham x3BecTHa,noTomy t1T0 XXXOKX 6131R AX4HMM Apyrom x Komerok no YtieHomy CoBeTy aBTopa 3TXX cTpoK.K coxaneHxmlOoaLme HMIler0 R He 3Ha1O Ha Try TeMy,H0 HaCTORTeRLHO peKomeHAym OTHeCTXCL K HaCTORMXM 3ameTKam c E5O(1 -HUNImmalmem. OBY OTAea Bomdo-Ydelimm,OBYlcymecTBoBaalBepoRTHo,c 1927-28 roAos. 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HpaKTxtlecimm pe3yaLTaT0m AeRTeABHOCTX OBY RBAReTCR Ham/lime noA Bcemx KpynHmmx Aomamx ON: 00(500e3EXM.061111H0 3TO-X0ABaRbl,CTeHH H oma KoTopmx yKpenaeHm HaAaexamxm odpa3om.11azeTm repmaHcKok aBxalmx Ha MocKBy x Ha ReHxHrpaA noKa3aaxlxiTo OTX yclexmma,HecmoT pR Ha xx npxmxTxBHocm,xrpamT orpomHym pomp B ymeHLmeHxx tmcza zepTB,B JIe69zTM H cTapilam,boammm X maTepsim- ' Kopmxamlam. HpilmellaHme:xHcrutrKuxx OBY aonvaKamT. xanoxaaoBaHxe noaBazoB- EN50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 B mmpHoe BpemR no mx npRmomy Ha3HatieHmmlHo He pauemaeT- CR CHHMaTb yKpenReHmR CTeHIHOTOAKOB OKOH. 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TITO KacaeTcR rAYCA,To OHO odecneumBaeT nyHKTN 3eHmTH0g odopoHN KaApoBumm apTmirRepxcTamm,daTapeRmm,doenpmnacamm A BOOdMe depeT Ha cedR npaKTmtlecKoe BeAeHme 3eHHTH0R odopoHN. ripmmegaHme:o0 apTmmgepmgcKog HpOTHBOBOUTIHOg odopoHe noApodHe cmoTpem Aamme. PHO PeAaulmoHHo-A3AaTempcKmg OTAeRImm P1/10,cymecTByeT B KagecTBe ceKumm rocyAapcTBeHHoro BOeHHOr0 1/1311aTeRbCTBalHO 3aHmmaeTcR m3Aa Hmem RmTepaTypm TOALKO 110 3aAaHmRm KOCM,ARR HBO m rpag7aHcKog camoodopoHN. B MaCTHOCTH, 3 aeT BCD ntgrIYARP Hym amTepaTypy,npeAHa3Haqa- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 50X1-HUM RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 AAR maccoBoro noTpeOACFcmr:sToom aleTb UpCAUlannuanv ,JJ11 %Al 1 v OTXX 1437$9.HXVilHXZe AaeTcH npamepHNR nepeten: "Boeme npAmeHeHme Komau HBO"-Opommpal 50X1 -HUM "EpomoBouymHaR odopoHa Hacenemmx nyHKToe-IcHmral "ByAb rOTOB 1C npoTmBoBouymHoie-i odopoHe!"-Opomlopal "HBO KpynHoro HyHma"-IcHural "EpomBoBowumHaR oftpoHa 1/1 npoTTABoxmmmuecicaR sammTa Ha xeRe3- HuopozHom TpaHonopTe"-loural "CnpaBouHmic HO HBO m mecTHok camoodopoHe"-JAHoTpyKum Haceilemm, "Hparimaa norpymcm,nepeBomtm m Burpplcm B yCAOBMRX BO3ATIHINX HanmeHmk Ha THAOBHe nymum"-Opommpal "Hamyllaa mmeuopy-3eHmTtimicy HBO"-Opompa, "CnpaBoqHmit no orHemam 3eMHHM 3eHMTHNM cpeAcTBam HBO"-Opomnpal "Tammtlecme npumeHeHme npoTHBoBosAymHoil maciapomm"-KHKra, "EpoTHBo-BouymHaH 000p0Ha X3 EyAeMeTOB M BMHTOBOK"-KMAral "Halt 60p0TbCR c Bouylimmmm AecaHTamm Bpara"-Opommpal "Hpamna cTpeABOm no camoneTam npoTimmita"-Kmiral "HacTaBxeHme no HpOTHBOBO3AyEHOk odopoHe ropuoB"-Opommpal "ATomHoe ?pram ii npoTmBoaTomHaR sammTa"-Opommpal "HmiceHepHme coopyzema EBO B coBpemeHHoK Boilme"-KHKral "CoBpemeHHme sapydexHme peammBHme domdapAmpomumm"-Immra, "PaKezm AaRBHero AeRcTBmg t mx OoeBoe npmeHeHme"-Opommpa, "HpolimBoBouymHaH m npoTHBoxxmolecKasi aammTa"-mmra, "Pub DaAmonoKaHmm B HBO"-IcHmral "CamapHo-MeAmilimcicag CApiala HBO"-cOopHmic mHoTpylcilmiAl "ITO Tame aTomHaa paAmaAme-Opomlopa, "ATomHaR omprme-mmra. 163 OTXX npmmepoB Bmuo,t1To PHO KOCM noicpmBaeT Bce ociRacTm coBpemeHHoR npoTmBoBouymHoR rpamaHcicoR odopoHN Tma.Kpome Torolnoz oOmmm pymBoAcTBom PHO X3AaeTCH pRA maccom-oclopoHHmx xypHaRoB,KaKIHanpmmepocypHaAm "KpmnBR PouHm" H 3IJffl- HH mi OTAeR HHOopmaumm T7 Hpm HOW cymecTByeT Taxxe ouez maDopmaux101/1,rnaBHot1 3aAatiell KoToporo RBAReTCF cOop cmcTemaTm3aum X npmmaAHoe m3ygeHme MHO- e 040 cVL 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230074nn1 1-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 HocTpaHHoro H oTexlecTBeHHoro onmTa OpfaHinall XX E5M-HUNILCAex np0m0B03AymH01 H rpalicAaHcmg camoodopoHm.AeaaeTca OTO cnegmaim Hog rpynnog mccnepToBl-npocpeccopoB,AoneHToBlAoKTopoBlKaHANAaToB HayKlmmeHepoB,TaKTymoB H cTpaTeroB5-nomemammegca B 3AaH1AM Hayq- Ho-TemmecKoro KomxTeTa FeHepaamoro MTadalpadoTammeg B TecHom KOHTaKTe C OTHM KommTeTom,a Tame CO madam napTinaHcKoro ABme- HMI M C BlOp0 HOBO TeXHMKTA npm EMHMCTepCTBe Am/lam/to:mg Epommume HO CTX. 3aAatni ON cTporo cneHmaJmnpoBaHm.OHN He BIOCOAHT 3a npeAexm Hyu rpaxAaHcmx UBO 1/1 camoodopoHN.OX m3AaeT anTTorpa0cme dmae Tem' H pacciiiae HX HatiaaBHIIKam MeCTHMX KomaHA UBO lit camoodopo- 1111.0H ice 3aHumaeTca BNHOAHeHMeM nepeBoAoB mHocTpaHHog amepaTy- pm no CriellMaALHOCTHM. OCH OTAen CHadzema Hacezeimal0CH,3aHamaeTca TOALKO cHadzemiecKmmx Bonpocamid.B ero pacnopaxemm HaX0AHTCH cKAaAm BCer0,x1TO HTICHO ARH npammecKoro ocymecTmelnia meponpmang rpaxAaHcmg odopoHm, nmeHHo:cpeAcTBa Tymema nogapoBlonemanLHaa oAmalnpoTHBoxilmx- gemme macKplIcpeAcTBa nepBog meAnumicKog nomommlodmInime H cneum- anLHme TpaHcnopTHme cpeAcTBa,14 npotlee.CmaAm cymecTsym no npama cTpaTeriallecKmx pesepBoB M HaX0AHTCH noA HenocpeAcTBeHHmm 1/1H- TeHAaHTCKMM HaA30p0m 3amecTATena MJAHLICTDa odopoHm MO THAOBOVIIH- TmaliTcKok/ c3Iyx0e9xoTa cam OCH B oprammamoHHom M aAmmiumpa- TMBHOM OTHOMeHMK emy He noAximmeTca. ?MCC_ OTAea MeAltmo-CaHmTapHog CapEdmIOMCCInmeeT 0da3aHH0cTLm BmecTe C raaBHmm CaHmapHum Ynpamerixem CoBeTcmg Apmxx I c Apyrilmx ro- cyAapcTBeHHmmx meAnKo-caumapHumn ytipmeHnamx pa3padaTmBam Ben Kommem meponpmarag Ha carlag Bo3Ayll1Hnix qaCTHO- cni3OMCC 3aHnmaeTca naaHnpoBaHmem mep nepBog nomomm paHeHmm oTpaBaeHHmm BO Bpema BOUTIMIX HaJleTOB.AEH 3Toro noA odum pyKo BOACTBOM OMCC no Bcemy CCOP,Bo Bceg clacTeme odopoHHoro odylleHma HaceneHmalBeAeTca KpyxKoBoe odytieHne HacezeHma npamaam 0Ka3aHril Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM TaKO1 nomomm.HHTepecHo OTMeTVITbItITO }MKT? B CCCP He moyseT Huy- tHilTb 3Hatlita "rOTOB K TpyAy H Od0p0He",rT0,14AH CBHAeTeABCTBO 00 OKOMMEHH KaK0g OM TO HH ONRO MKORM AOCAtilHe cjiaB mameHa no meAmico-caimapHomy mimmilymy no nporpamme KOCM. Zpyrasi aatia OMCC 3ammo4aeTcsi B odecnegeHmm nyHmoB odopoilm no Bcemy COOP Heodxozpimmm KomitiecTBom nepemotiiimx m netiedHmx cpeAcTB B KOZINeCTBe H KallecTBelAocTaTotiHmx rium 0Ka3aH1&il nepBok nomomm.B tiacTHocTm,ropoAcKme zomalmmemmme omdaemm rOTOBHOCTH K camoodopoHelnu naomdog nepmaHeHTHo HaX0AMTCH TaK Ha3mBaemaii "AnTexma HBO". 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HHTepecHo 0TMeTPITII,x1TO B COOP odmecTBo "HpacHoro HpecTa" Haxo- AMTCH HOA MOHOHOJILHHM rOCROACTBOM HOCM,XOTR ODHLTHWILHO AeJlo H30- OpaxaeTcsi TaK,czoBHo "HpacHmg KpecT" He pimeeT Hiner? odmero c npaimeincTBom. 50X1 -HUM OMHA3 Oueri MaccoBog Hpolmo-ATomHog 3ammTmlOMRA310mil cosAaH B 1945 roAy npm TocyxapcTBeHHom RommTeTe Homep 0AmH/npeAce1IlaTeilem TorAa ONA Byliralipm/.HepBoHaakai-67gaPek OMHA3,KaK M Bcex aTommix opramaiimg,Haliammx B Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 rain - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? ma m Haracam,dmao m3pleHme mHocTpaHHoro cReAoBaTeaBcKmx ygpexcAeHlux maaH oTexiecTBeHHaR mccaeAoBaTeaBcKa padoTa/sHanpmmeplBo BpemR padom B nlaBHOM MTade CBA r aBTop 3THX cTpoK noarma cTpozakmylo AmpelamBy amxopaAmo 5oxil Taw? coal- pan pemmTeaLHo BcelqTo npRmo HAM KOCBeHHO HOXOAHT Ha unopmagmm HO aTOMHOg meprmm m HemeAaeHHo npenpoBoaAam B rocyAapcTBeHHmk KOMI4TeT Homep OAHH,B OM11113. B 1946 roAy O1EA3 db1.11 BK=11611 B COCTaB KOCM H C Tex nop padaTae Ha A npodaemamm maccoBo2 npoTmBoaTomHoR 3ammTm.HpmmepHo B TOT lice nepim ONAM opraHm3oBaHm cnemmaamme cexpeTHme KacDeApm npomo- aTomHok 3aMHTM npm BoeHHoM AKaAemmx XvimmiecKok 3a11mTm mmeHm Bopo mmoBalnpm BoeHEo-IIHIceHepHok AKaAemum mmeHm Hy2Ommesa m npm ropi, KOBCKOM rocyAapcTBeHHom YHmBepcmTeTe/npmmeliaHme:ropLuBcKmil YHH- BepcmTeT ynommHaeTcR Hamm TOALKO Ha 0CH0BaH1414 He00mgmanHmx cBe- AeHmi4/. ABTopy DTTAX crpoK xopomo H3BeOTHO odmee HanpameHme padoT Ka- cloeApil npm AKaAemmx mmeHm HygdmmeBa.OHo CBOAHEOCE K 113TleHHI0 npo- daeum coopyzeHKR HOA3eMHIDIX deToHmpoBaHHmx maccoBmx aTOMMIX ydezmm/npmmeizaHme:no npmdmTmm B BeJIHKOOpHTaHHE roBopma Od DTOM npeAcTaBmTeaRm AenapTameHTa ocl) CagHT14$141C XHTe.111114AYSeHC MI4FINCTepeTBa DippOHM,H0 OHM 11011TH nocmeRamcb HaAo mHoklcKa3aB de3aneaa5InmoHHoltiTo OT aTomHoM domdm HT HmKaKoM 3am4TmIcneAoBa- TeaLHo,amdo a roBopm raynocTmlamdo AKaAemym mmeHm HyROmmesa 3a- HmmeeTcR HeodAymaHlimmx Aeaamm/. BepoRTHo,B HacToRmee spew COCTORHHe maccoBok npoTmBoaTomHok 3amium TaKOBO:B Mome,;lemirpme,HmeBe,Na3aHm,ropipKom,CsepAaoB- cm,XapBKoBa m apyrmx KpynHmx ropoAax yxce coopylEeHm HAM coopyxca- DTCH rpaHAmo3Hme noA3emHme aTomHme ydeacmma;B Mome.14 ReHmHrpa- Ae 3T0 3aByaampoBaHo noA padoTamm HaA cTporaTeaBcTBom meTponoam- TeHOBp HacToRmee Bpem 3axamixBamTcR noAroTomeaLHme mum HO coopyzeHmm meTponoamTeHoB B ItHeBe I XapLicoBe;B odopoHHok padoTe 3a nocaeAHme ABa-Tpm roAa KpynHoe mecTo 3aHmmaeT m3ytieHme mep lipOTPIBOaTOMHOR 38.11MTIA; B cuw,,p eCS OUT:Me KOJIIItleCTBO liOfly- 3IHOH amTepaTypm Ha 3Ty-2emy-.-, Classified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2013/nwi RnY1 LJI in n Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 06111aR AOKT X0p0M0 H3BeCTHO 3ammeHme CTanima.o TomITITo naTomHasi domda onac Ha TOALKO AAR cAadoHepBHmx",qTo naTomHasi domda He moz pem eT mTID vicxoAa Bo2HH".B 1953 roAy oTa mAen 0101a HOCTa,??X1 comHeHme. B OespaRe-mapTe 1955 roAa napTvisi m npaBmTencTrto oKoHtlaTeREHo npuHRAm cTaxmcitym Oopmpimposicy,m B HacToamee Bpem B CCC? mmeeT Bceodulym miry cneAymmaR Aolappara:npoTHBoaTomHaH odopoHa BO3MOXHa; Boopyllemme CXAH BCe HaceAeHme OdR3aHE rOTOBXTIDCR K Tank odo- poHe. OCHOBaHHR X vicToximumulameHepHme coopyzeHmil B coBpememok m BokHe",miceHep-noAnomcommit KNKOB X ApyrxelI955 roA,BoeHHoe H3Aa TeALCTBO COCITTATOMHOe OpyliCHe H npoTmBoaTomHaR 3ammTelmHzemp- noAnomBHmic HaymeHm11955 roA,Moclua;"ATomHoe nApon,M.K.KopcyHTD cladi,1952 roAlMociaa;Homepa "BecTHmita Bo3AymHoro 1..noTa","Hpbumes PoAmme,"Teximm-MozoAeluelnEpaBAm","OroHmta","HoBoro Mmpa" Apyrmx nydzmicanmil 3a 1955 roA. !MEE,SE al OCHOBHNe niminvinm coseTcicok AOKTPXHN npoTIABoaTomok 3aMHTN B HacToRmee Bpem rocnoAcTBymilimmx npmHumnamm HPOTXBOaTOMHOk 3a- mmTm CCCP RBARIOTCR: 1/ 3ad3laroBpememice paccpeAoTotieHme XX8HeHHEIX neHTpoB I Hace- AeHTAR CTpaHH1B qacTirocTmlcoumme cTDaTermtlecxxx 3anacHux neH- Tp0B npaBmTeincTBeHHoro ynpameHmsi B rAydomx THAWC cTpaHm, 2/KpaMHER KoHneHTpanmyr ycAmM HaA ONcTpeRilimm c03AaHmem cpeAcTB npeAynpexAeHmsi o ABXYLeHHH BpaxecEmx CaM0AeTOB, 3/ KpaREHR KoHneHTpanm ycmamk HaA c03AaHmem momilok clacTemu aK? THBH01 np0nsoB03AywH0k odopoHm Ha Bcex BO3M0IEHba HanpameHmax AmmeHmil BpazecKmx domdapAmpowilmxoB/nprafegaHme:imApodHee cm.Awm we/ 4/ KoHneHTplipoBaHHasi mccAeAoBaTeALcKaR padoTa EC CO3AaHHI0 BOA- HOBNX cpeAcTB noApmna Bpaxcecimx aTOMHba domd A o xx npladmi- Emma K ccuomx Ke cppARBAm7BolAevicTimo HE50X1-HUM)CHCTelly zeTaTeimmix annapaToB kbAionBifime-TaccToinnui, 5/0decnexieHme Boopyzeinimx CHil H HaceAmm yKpbummm,Aammvimm Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 13/09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 XOTB Kasyn-HabyAL eammy B MOMeHT B3pbAid3' 6/06yqem4e Booppicemmx cm 14 rpay.AaHcKoro Hacenemi 3JIemexTap2 HUM mepam camo 3aMHTN OT aTOMHOg paAploaKTlimocTIA 7/0praHmeam1s BO BCeCOM3HOM macmTa6e KomaHA aKTXBHOR npoTaBoaTo Hog eamaTm,Haummep,no Tymemo nocapo it cnacaTenmum DaboTam B pago 50X1-HUMHax ppm. HOBaR AoKTpaHa COOP npmeHaeT,gTo HmKaame mepm npoTaBoaTomHog 3WAHTH He moryT (51TTB adcoAmTHo HaAexcHumalHo 'mum H3 nepeqvic- AeHHMX mep 1103B0A14T yMeHBIEHTI, xcepTBm M pymmlBmpirpam AparolleH- oe BpemRInpaAam ncymmormllecKylo yBepeuHocTL HaceAemolnooTomy TpebyeT IficnompeoBaHmg Mx Ao KolmalpemxTeAmo,bee KoAedamig,Amdog uHog. EepeMOM K H3ylleHX10 npasTmecKax mep npoTxBoaTomHog 3aMXTH B COOP ceroAHR,K maw 1955 roAa.ripm OTOM BaXHO HOMHXTB 06 oAHog opraHmeamiloHHog AeTania:Bo Bcex paboTax no npoTmBoaTomHog eamme rAaBHym po.m rpaeT Tice He KOGNI,a MXHXCTepCTBO 060p0HN X rexe- pailmimg ITablmm ETIMe CX3,33.TB npRmo COBeT MPHIWCTp0B. 3abRaroBpemexHoe paccpeAoTotieHme Has TlexTpaingeoBaHHoe rocyAapcTBolCCOP He moxeT npocymecTBo- Ban) HIA oAHoro mecsula bee ueHTpaAmeoBaHHoro ynpaBAeHm.OTclua- ecTecTBeHmoe cTpemnexple K eadAaroBpemeHHomy nparoToBnemmo mep TeppviTopxaALHog AelleHTpaAmeaum rocyAapcTBeHHmx yllpexAeHmg.3To oeHat1aeT2x1To lace TenepL Hpemirm npviHRTm mepm K noAroToBKe eanac- MAX peememmil AAR npaBaTeincTBa B gezom x AAR ero OTAeKBHMX qacTeg. Bonpoc ob 3T1'IX peemAeHmax BO3HHK BnepBue B 1944 roAyIB CBR314 c HeyAatmum onuTom maccoBog oBasyaluna.TorAa ce EAR HaqaTial mepm no coopyzemo HaAAexammx vamig,-eanacHux peexAeHilag,-B ropoAax HygdmmeBe,OBepAiloBcKe2HoBocylbupcKelTamKeHTe 'album moxeT,B Tom- cKe.H ecim OUT BonmxxyAa HOBaR BOIIHa C 011aCHOCTLIO aTOMH0r0 HaJl? T Ha Momy, To, BepoaTHol ileAL ymitiToxemm coBeTcKoro npaBaTeAL- CTBa He buna ON AocTarHyTa 3a11aAom ?Alum putiliToxeHms6x=m. Fipmumocr, ON XOBTOpleVfFri:KJ,11414 B pe Apyrmx ,ropoAoB. Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-n1n.C1Pnn9qnnoAnn44 A Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 A ??? Ho x OTO me He Bce.KaxAmg 00RaCTHO1i MAN ropoAcKok KOMXTeT napTimotaxAtati xpaeBog MAX 00.11aCTHO1 MAN ropoAcitog COBeT B ADOOM yruice COOP xmeeT oVnulaRbmig cTaTyT rocyAapcTBeHHoro ripexAeHTAR, eCTL opraffrAtiecKaR qacTL ileHTpammoBaHHog aAmmicTpaux,m B aAmm- HIACTpaTJOH0-X03RRCTBeHH0M 14 XHOM OTHOMeHXRX noAtOToBReH K nplIHR- THM Bcero npaBviTeRBcTBa HRH ero tracTx B KINITIIMZ,MAXTyaLMO. MocicoBcime pe3mAeHi1414 npamempuBa Hpeum,itax TaxoBog,coBepmeHHo He noAroTomeH K UpOTIABOaTOMHOg 3a11me.Ero Hen3R HOUOTOBHM.OH CAMMKOM doimmogItuoOm cnimaTB ero OT B3opa Bpaxecua CaMOReTOB.EAKHCTBeHHaR odopoHa lipeuna- 3T0 xliACTO noRmueRcKaR odopoHa,BbinoRHRemaR xpemReBcapg KomeHAaTy- pog mitonog MBA mmeHK Bilia/TenepL-mmeHm Bepxomoro CoBeTa/. ABTopy 3T14X cTpoic X3BeCTHO coBepmeHHo TOTIO11.1T0 Henocp6cTBeH- Ho nocRe OKOHIMHXR BOMB' noA 3anaAHog qacmm Kpemim OHRO coop EeHo EpynHoe rRydolcoe noA3emHoe yoexame.CorRacHo HeoUnKaRmimm CBeAeHFIRM,OHO OHRO npeAHa3HatieHo TORbK0 ARR icomeHAaTypH Epelom X K0MaHA0BaH14R MKORN mmem cRyall,mTo yOexime c110c06Ho npmHRTL oAHy A14B1431'fl0 BOgCK MBA.BORLMaR rilynma lit cTuu noBmmeH- Hog TORMXHI1 X3 6eToHa Kalc OyATo AeRanT ydenime yAoBReTBopmTeRL- HMM B cRyliae aTomHoro HaneTa45Ho DTO KAM Heil-Ham He X3BeCTHO. HoA 3AaH14em mu-mrB Ha momaAm vimeHm A3epxmicKoro xmeeTcR Apy- roe ?lien rRyOoKoe domcloydeEmme,-cneumaRmo ARR MBA x KrBl-KoTo- poe coopyzaRon npm6.414314TeRm0 c 1947 roAa KIBepoRTHolouRo 3a1C0H lieHo K 1950-51 roAam.HpeAnoRaraRociplmTo TO yoexime 0yAeT ilmem HaAexHym npoTxBoaTomHylo 3auTylt4meHHo HpOTXB B3p1IBMIX X yAapinix BORH,UOTXB paT,X0aKT14BHOCT14 X BHCOKXX TemnepaTyp.NorAa MH e cTazo X3BeCTHO 00 OTOM,R Bmcicasail comHemde B BO3MOEH0CTID HartOEHOg npo- THBOaTOMHOR 3aIA14TH B CRTIae B3plaa 00MON B camog Mocioe.Ho neRo- BeK,OT KoToporo R 3Ha1O 0 cynlecTBoBaHma yoe1c14uJalBo3pa314RITITo2Bo- nepBmx,HeT Him= ocHoBaHlag noRaram,IITo aTomHaR OomOa OyAeT B3opBaHa HenocpeAcTBeHHo B MOCKBe,B0-BTOIDNXIHOTO ATIMelgeM Hole- ron. Hpx6R113mTeRIDHo BopoT Ha ogetit )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RnPRi_ninewnrInorw,-,.?? 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co y Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 %of HpxORTA3aTeRyHo noA HpacHmmia BopoTamx,napaRReRLHo co cTaHuek meTpo "KpacHme BopoTelHa otien doimmok rRyOmHe mmeeTcR rpomaA- Hoe cTanmoHapHoe npaBHTencTBeHHoe 001000eRne.3Aen B BOeHHOe Bpem AORIKHO HaX0AHTTDCH BepxoBHoe rRaBHoKomaHAosamme,ECJIK OHO He Oexcazo Ha BocToK.CoopyxeHme oToro ydexilma HatiaRocb B 1942 ro- Ay I B HacToRmee BPeMR,BePORTHO,HBRReTCH camb5ox1 _HuvieHHum B CCCP. Pa3ymeeTcRI0e3 ocodoro TpyAa moryT OHM HOHORIDSOBaHN 3aro- poAHme nir.BTATeRRBcTBeHluie pe3HAeHum,mmemmme TeRe0oHm BIllpaAmo- TeR0oHNITezerpaclolTexemmoHHme Rximmoil npoxime npvicnocoORemm, TaK HeodxoAmmme ARR oTnpameHHR rocyAapcTBemmx OyincuM. PaccpeAoTogeme npommumeHHocTx B nopRAKe mutlema ?RPM BTOPOR MHPOBOR BOHN npamTempeTBo nplimmo pRA npeAynpeAmTeRbHmx meDlnpme Bcero mep no paccpeAoTc leHIIo KEDIleBla npommumeHmix neHTpoB.TaK,Hanpmep,HoBekmme ama- IIHOHHNe 3aB0AN coopyzeHm 14 npoAoRzamT coopyEancRlrRammm oOpa- 30M,B IleHTpainHorif H BOCTOIIHOM CiriOxpx,B CpeAHek A3;(114 H Ha CpeA- BoRra/ropoAa HoBocKOmpcKlOmcKITApKyTcK,ARma-ATalTamKeHT,CBepx RoBcKIKOOmmeB,CapaToB vi pyrile/. HoTepR YKpaxml 14 CeBepHoro KaBKa3a OFRa ARR CCCP KaTacTpoOloil. He OyAID aHrRo-amepimaHcKoril maTepAmbHoR nomomx,CCCP nepecTaR Om cymecTBoBam yze B 1942 roAy4i Amo Obuic3He TOABKO B paerpome XpacHoR Apmmila B noTepe XoHOacca vi MaxmicKoro parloHa.Kpemin Tien TO cammm cepLe3Hmm oOpasom vi npJAHRR Amex() HAymNe mepm RO eaBepmeHm CO3AaHDISBHO HatlaTux,npommuRema IleHTPOB AaRe- Ito Ha BocToKelB 30Hax npeAnoilaramok HeAocRraemocmhanpirimep, Ky3Oacc npeBpaTivicsi BO BTopok ZollOacc CCOPI3aBoRTicKlae/Oammp- cam/ HOTRHme pakoHm-Bo BTopok BaKy.M TaK Amee. 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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R00230024001 1-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 CosAaHme crcaTermtlecKmx CeABCK0X03e4CTBeHHUX 30H HpynHeguimm ypoKom coBeTcKo-repmaHcKog Baal dblJIa noTepR YCCP I CesepHoro HaBKa3a,xAedinix EXTHHII cTpaHH.Yze B 1941-42 roAax B npaBmTeAbcTBeHmix Kpyrax BO3HPIK Bonpoc:KaK m notlemy 3T0 morAo CATIXTECH.B 1944 roAy nepeA rocyAapcTBeHimm MaHOBHM KOMXTeTOM duAa nocTaBAeHa 3matia panadoTam mepH npu50Xi-Hum[xyl TaKok KaTacTpo(pH B 6yAyMe1i TaK BO3HXK Bonpoc 06 OCBOeHXX JIMHHLIX 3eMeAb.B03HXK He nocAe cmeplum CTaAmHalKaK EXifir noBepxHocTinle noKcnepTie B ra3eTaxla B 1947-49 roAax.H 1952-53 roAam n0Ar0T0BmTeAl4mie padom dilAm OKOHtleHM H HallaZOCb maccoBoe nepeceffeHme B nyclluna Ka3axcTaHal limprx3mx m meHTpaALHog CmOmpx.3To OHAo Tem doilee ileAecoodpa3Ho, 11T0 B cTpaHe HexBaTaAo medalnpoAoBoALcTBeHmig 1Cpm3mc AaBaA 0 cede 3HaTE, C Bo3pacTam1ueg 3fteKTHBHOCTIDM. CAeAyeT noAllepKHymltiTo Bonpoc o IleRHHHEX semmix peHaeT m Apy- ride cTpaTermtlecKme npodAemm:Bo-nepaixlecmm eme pa 3 npm4TcR de- CTL Ha BocToK,OyAeT Rene pa3mecTuTL 3Haq4TeABHHe maccH KpecTI- RHCKOr0 HaceAeHmR B pagoHax IleRXHHEIX 3emeAB;Bo-BTopHxlecAm aTom- HaH paAX0aKTXBHOCTB X cBeTommyqeHme yHmtiToRaT MAU cAeAamT HeB03 MOIHMM odpadoncy 3emeAL/cdop ypozaR,11 rip./ Ha YKpamHe m Ha CeBep HUM Has1Ca3e,T0,Bce paBHo,cTpaHa OyAeT pacnoAaram medamm BOCTO- Ka 'a cmozeT npoAoinicam BoRHy;B-TpeTipmx,ecAm 3anaAHHe TeppmToppix CCCP oKazyTcR noA mHocTpaHHog oKKynammeg,To,Bce paBHolcoBeTcKoe npaBmTeABcmo CM0EeT onmpancR Ha 3Hati4TeALH0e HaceAeHme m K3TAB- TXBIAp0BaHHHe TeppyrTopmm BocToKa;B-tieTBepTbalnepemmeHme macc pyccKoro H yKpapmcKoro HaceAeHm Ha BOCTOK pemco yBeAmmT Temn X cTeneHB pyccmcimammm B0CT0qH0r0 mycymmaHcKoro HaceAeHKRITo- ecTB yKpenmT X03XXHX EpemAR Ha BocToK, AoBeAeT BO3MONCHOCTX "Oyp- xyamix HaHHOHaRTACTOB" AO mmlimmyma.A 3T0 BaEHO B BokHe,KaK o TOM cBmAeTezi,cTByeT OMIT HapoAos CeBepHoro E6430i(TaHounil. CoBeTcKme Teopmm nponasoarma 213ammTH OAHoBpemeHHo B CCOP"BergeTcyr donmaR mccAeAoBaTeABcKaR padoTa no m3y1.leHmm odAem aTomHog BogHH.HpocmoTp AocTynHog oaimmaAB- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 1 ? CIA RDP81 01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 HoR AmTepaTypu 1103B0RReT KOHCTaTHp0BaTb,tITO m3TieHme HOCHT KpaR- He AezeycTpemAeHmik,HeHTpaAm3oBaHHuR m npmmaAHoM xapaKTep.3a nocAeAHHe roAu 0K0Ht1aTeAbH0 ccDopmmpoBaAmcL coBeTcme Teopmx Ha 3T0T CgeT.Ha HFIX 0a3mpymTcR Bce aKTHBHue m -5-6561-460 mewl odopo- Hbl. Teopm Homep oAmH:adcoAmTHoR 3aMHTH OT aTomHoR (Soma' HeT2cAeA BaTeABHooaAane2 Homep OAHH adcomoTHok odopoHu HBAReTCH 3anpeme- HHe npmmeHeHmR aTomHoR domdu B KallecTBe opyxviR.OTcmAa-m3BecTHall AM/11 noBeAeHmR coBeTcKoR AmnAomaTmll m KoHrpeccoB "mmpan. ,Teopm Homep ABa:ecAm He yAacTcH 005HBTATb aTomHym domdy BHe 3aKoHa B mmpoBom macmTadelTo HaAo HanpaBARTL KOHTAHKT mexcAy Boc- TOKOM I 3arlaAOM no Tamm KaHaAam,KoTopue PICKRINaln B03M0EH0CTb onpaBAaHHoro IpumeHeHHR A-domdu;npmmep:ecAH Ha BOCTOKe7BAORb TpmA HaToR napameAH/npmdA143mTeABH0/lB03HmKHeT Hem) TA3 HamoHaALHo- OOBOOOAHTeRMINX AmmeHHR,TolBo7nepBux,oduR 40HT 3anaAHoro Kanm- TammaoanyTammu B nporaopeximx HpacTpaHampHB CBOX Boemple cmAu2nepecTaHeT cymecTBoBam B KatiecTBe M0H0AHTH0r0 aHTHCOBeTCKO- ro 6AoKa;B0-BTopux,mopaABHue hI hIHNe nppluxHil He 1103B031HT 3anaAHum cTpaHam npmmeHHTB aTomHym domdy npoTHB HailHOHaRbH0-0CBOOOAHTeRb- HEX ABwiceHm2;B-Tpemmx,Bo BpemR noro npoucca pamoYseHmR 3anaAa COOP,A0CTHrail CBOX ueAm,dyAeT OCTaBaTbCH BH e onacHocTm aTomHoR BoRnu.OTemAa-Taiumm:211Homic BocToKy!,nozAepxxBaTB Bee mix,' HaHH- OHaABH0-0OBOdOAXTeALHNX ABHEenig Ha BocToKe! Teopm Homep Tpm:ecAm He yAacTcR ocymecTamm Teopidx Ka I 14 21 TO-eCTb ecAx ITH3HaTb Hem3dexHocm aTomHoR BORHM memy BOCTOKOM 3aHaA0M,TO CCCP HaAo oKpylicHTL cnAomHoR cTpaTerolecKoR noAocoR Ta- KoR ilimpimulKoTopaR duAa du AocTaTolmoR AAR BeAeHmR npoTmBoBo3Aym- H011 Bormu/Hciped14Te3IHlpaKeTm-podoTu,14 np./ C HeABm cOmBaTL camo- AeTu Bpara paHLMUlgem OyAyT AocTmram TeppyrTopiam0X1 -HUM OCCP.OTCM 5 Aa-HecolgyiummaR peummocTL reHepaALHoro lilTada NUE' nenARTug 3a KaxAug KycoK yze maynxpoBaHHoR TeppmTofmx,H (DaHaTivecKoe Hexer-la- m/le XpemAR pemmTB repmaHcKHR Bonpoc.0Tcm1Ia xe-143BecTHoe 3amrplua- HHe C 't'HHAHHAHen H HOHNTKH 3491ab apaOcKHR BAPIgHmR BocToK.Hpx- rqr17j73'`I P metiaHme:K Tomy axe 3TH empamemzue ?e Heim coBnaAaloT c odiAmmx mHpoBoro KommyHH3ma Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Teopm Homep tieTupe:B aTomHok Bo1HeBumrpaeT TOTOCTO B nepBue qacu m AHm YHINTOEMT aBmaIlmoHHue 6a3m npoTABHmKa.0Tc1oAa-o1.ieHL xleTime BoeHHo-uommtlecKme AOKTPIIHM COOP OTHOCKTeRBHO EEPB0r0 nepiloAa BOgHM,CMMCA KoTopux CBOAMTCR N oAHoil c1opa3e:01 AOOTH YAIL HEPEUX/npmmegaHme:c AoKumHamm mc5ox1-HumiaKommTbcR B RmTepaT3TpeaKa3mBaemok B dmozmorpaam/. TeopmR Homep IIRTI):T011H0 TaK xe,KaK HT adcoRmTHoil ealAMTE OT aTomHoR oomdu,HeT OHM He moxeT adcoRmTHoro YHINTOMHPIR CCU, cReAoBaTeRmo,cymecTBymT maHcu Ha TO MAX irHoe camocnaceHmelTo- ecm HaAo MCBOALBOBan Bce cpeAcTBa npoTTABoaTomHoti odopoHu. Teopmm 1)2 14 3 He HyzAanTcR B cnemaRbHux RORCHeHMRX,HOOTO my 3Aeci, paccmaTplaBaloTcR TOABKO TeOPMX y2n 4 m 5. BmAu aTomHoro BaCHBa OnuT nocReAHmx 1-2 JIT He ocTaBnReT COMHeHKR,11TO HaceReHme COOP mHOopmmpoBaHo o HOCReACTBKRX aTomHok BORHN A0CTaT011H0 xopo- mo m odlemmBHo.Ham Ha 3anaAe HaAo 0TKa3aTIDCR OT onacHoro 3adRylic AeHmRlymodpeTeHHoro BymprapHumm ynpomeHamm,yTBepicAammilmxIIITo npaBmTeRm KpemRR Rmdo He nommamT,Jnido He XOTRT coodmam HaceRe- HMO od pacax aTOMHOR BokHu.PeAaKIA14oHHo-H3AaTencKmil OTAeR m OopmaiwoHHEM OTAeR MGM m MumicTepcTBo 06opoHula TaKze Bcecommo OdutecTso HO PacnpocTpaHeHmio Haylmux m HORKTIVIeCKMX 3HaHliiii,He ro- BopR ye o ReKTopcKmx oTAeRax napremix KO1'L14TeTOB,M3AMOT donLmme KonmecTBa nonyimpHot 1414CTPYKT14BHOk RIATepaTypu,opraHmumT Rex- um14lnoKa3uBamT Q)mimmu,m TIC AaReeoleilL KoTopux oAHa:noAroToBvim HaceReHme. Eu pacnoRaraem KoHigeTHumm JARRIoupaummx o Tom,Hanpmmep,KaK pRAoBue tiReHu ZOC.gl-oduKHoBeHHue 3aBoAcKme padollme!,-roBopRT ui HKEYT o pa3Hux TIrnax TOMHEX B3PMB0B.3 IleRom pRAe nonyRRpHux nyd RKKauk AaeTcR npocToe,odmeAocTynHoe od5RcHeHme OTMX THHOB,MMeH-- Ho:HaA3emHoro,Ha3emHoro,no1n3emHoro m noABoAHoro B3PHBOB. HpordBoaTomHoe odopoHHoe 3HaHeH14e 3Toro )KT a ycmaTproaeTcyl B TOM,IITO HaceReHme oTAaeT cede OTtleT B He06X0AMMOCTM M Hem3dexcHo- rtn777?1'-'M CTM TaNMXTO HTaKmx-TRAlup HOCM;HacezeHme He cnoplaT/ec- Rm obl OHO m morn? cnopkITI o TOM HaAo NAM He HaAo couaBaTI, oTpR Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDID8i-nindqPnnO?VInont-In4 4 A 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? AN mecTHoR camooclopoul;KazAall npo(DeccmoHaRbHaa rpynna noHmmaeT, tiTo,rAe dhI oHa Hm xima m Hut padoTaxa,eR Toe yrpozaeT onacHoom. A 3TO,COrAaCHO COBeTCKHM AoKTpmHam TOTaAIDHOCTX,CaMO no cede HBAReTCH Kpymmim BKRUOM B Awl? HpOTHBOaTOMHOR OdOPOHN. 50X1-HUM 0 EOCAUCTBXHX Pa3HNX THEOB B3PNB0B EparmecKme MepN HpOTHBOaTOMHOR CaM0060pOHN A0rXxleCKX BNTe- KanT 143 THEOB aTOMHNX B3pMBOB. nePBNil THE-3T0 B3pNB B BouyxelcKaaem,B HeCKOALKXX COTHRX MT poB HaA 3emneM.HaceneHmm 005HCHHeTCH,x1TO npm 3TOM paAproaKTmBHue BemecTBa,oceAanutme Ha 3emilm 143 AmmoBoro odAaKa2He npmBoART K cy- ecTBeHHomy 3apaxemim MeCTHOCTX noA B3pNBOM.00HOBHaR macca np(5- Ay1CT0B B3puBh YHOCXTCH B cocTaBe AmmoBoro odAaKa 14 paccemBaeTcR Ha 3HalIXTeALMIX BNCOTaX X nAomaAsix.lia 3MJII0BmnaAaeT Bcero OKOAO 0,02-0105 npoueHTa paAmoalamBHmx BpeAHmx memeHToB.OTclua-npamm IlecKayi peK0meHAaumR:uepe3 yqacToK 3apaxemlyi mozHo npokTm ye qe- pe3 HeCK0AbK0 MHHyT moue B3pHBa)11T0(511 3a1IHMaTECH cnacaTenbHumm pacioTamm HAM npoAongam Ha3emHme doeBme onepaumm.Kas BiumTelmme ro KoaKpeTHee npmAymaTL HeRID3R! BTOpOiii T14E-3T0 B3pNB Ha3eMHNM,T0-eCTI) Kora (Sow% naAaeT Ha 3eMJEO 14 B3pmBaeTcR Ha 3emne.B 3TOM cutiae pacKaReHHme npoAyKTm B3puBa,conp14KacaRcE C noBepxHoomm 3emilm,pacnKaBARmT nolay X B KoHAeHcmpoBaHmom Blue cmeulluamTcyl c HemaTm cmemaHHile maccm pas- OpacmBamTcR Ha 3HatuaTenHme paCCTORHXR orpomHmmm AameHmamm.B pe 3YRBTaTe 3HalIXTeAbHaH TeppviTopm oKammeTcyl 3apaxceHHotA/np14me- gaHme:K coxaneHmm,coBeTcKme XCTOKHXKX He AamT yKa3aHmsi Ha Beni- timly TeppliTopmm/.Kpome TOrO,MeCTHOCTI) A0E0AHHTeALHO dyAeT 3apa- zeHa EOTOKOM HegTpoHoB.OTcmAa-npaKTmtlecKmg BilBoA:paHLme onpeAe- AeHHOr0 BpemeHm m ORmze onpeAexellHoro paccTomurizy npmdmil- EaTIDCR K mecTy B3puBa.Toxe A0CTaT011H0 KOHKpeTHO! TpeTiaR THE-3T0 n0113emHmk B3pmBlHa3mBaemmA B COOP "AmBepqmHHum aTOMHNM B3p1DIB0m".11aceReHmm roBoppaca:B 3TOM CJIyilae HadamAaeTcsi oxieHL clumoe 3apazeHme mecTHuTenocpeAcTBeHHo B 3oHe B3pNBa. r'".""7r :11110 1 ripoAyKTEI B3pmBa nepememmBammolmaccamm 3ema14 m ducTpo oceAamT BoKpyr mecTa B3pNBa.B paAmyce AO 600 meTpoB cTenen 3apaxemul Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-n1n.C1Pnn9qnnoAnn4 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 0e3yCJI0BHO cmepTeztHaz/npmAemaHme amopa:paAmyc,KoHemHooatmcmT OT TI/ma aTOMHOR dOMON 14 OT rzydim noA3emHoro555aToma TaKze, BepORTHOIOT reozormmemx CBORCTB IleTBepTLIR HOABOAHNM B3pNB.B 3TOM czymae toe paAmoammt Hue npuylau OCTalOTCSI B B0A45aCTI, KX,HOAHHBMIACE. Ha Kopomme spemz tmecTe C tubpomeHHumm maccamm toAulcHota onycKaeTcli]3apa- liceHme Bum omen cmhtHoe mlrzaBHoelcToMme no tpemeH14.0TcmAa- npaKTmmecKaz peKomeuamma:paHtme onpuezeHHoro ppemem m Ozmse onpuezeHHoro paCCT0YIHMA_HeAL3R npmdzimaTtcz/npmmemaHme:KomtpeT- Hue AaHHue He coodulamcg/. DMA Tyln-tuopoAHaz Oomda.06 3TOM HT HHICKHX cmAeHmk. ileptaz onacHo0TB. - OOOP-cTpaHa svcom.pammux Tpopmg. B pOzacTm yAap4ux B0AH.11M0= zo zuek,nomimammmx cymHocTt yAapHux BOAHIB COOPltepozTHo,tum, mem t zmOog.Apyrog cTpaHe.3To mmeeT CBOM mcToplamecKme npmmou m od5zcHeHmz.OTcmAa HCHO,MAN MOtITM zcHo,nomemy B COOP yApzzeTcA TaK mHoro_tHmmamazlpaHmue men) ocTaatHoro,tonpocy o 3ammTe OT yAapHux BOAH aTomHoro t3puta.Ha oTy Temy nyozmKyeTcz mHoro nony- AFTHHX M HenonyzzpHux maTepmazos. BepxotHum pyKotowiTezem rpynnu no ImymeHmm A-yAapHux BOAH C 1946 rue. SIBAReTCH aKaAemmK R.B.3ezuotilm.FiepeA Hem c camoro xe Hamaza Ouza nocTatzeHa 3aAalla OTBeTPITID Ha tonpoc:mTo mmeHHo m B KaKok cTenema moiseT pa3py1flp4Th A-tonHa?liezip:pa3paOoTaTI, HaAze- mmme mepu oftpoHu npoTmt A-BOAH. Cyst no KOCBeHHNM AaHRUM,MOEHO npeAnozomiTt,mTo KaxAuM aTom- Huk B3pNB B COOP conpotoluaeTca mnepmmeHTamm no pa3pymeHmm RH- zeHeplisx coopymeHmk A-tozHammlommTamummcz "neptok onacHocTte. HoHemm,t COOP CTOAL xe zcHolKaK Ha 3anue,mT0 toe nopaxammme 34eICTLI aTomHoro MAX tuopoAHoro tsputa AeRcTtymT HOIITX oAHotpe- meHHolnomTm MrHOBeHHOIXOTH ITOJIOANCHTeALHOCTID Aermtmz patzmmaa Ho B COOP xezamT MIGHT/IUD oueztHue WeKTu Ha OTAeJIMINe oOseK- Tu,4T0611 3Haml1ToAlelmy,tAmx1anpeAmecTtotaw_AoulatoaTomHoil r ,J odopoHe.Hanpmmep,eo Mlm-ukA6T UlteCeH taxcHuil MOOT, TO OTHOCKTeALHO 6e3RNAKIIH011talt AOTTrn IIDOZOAEaTIDCA paAmoaKTmtHoe sapaxe- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP8i_ni Re1:1Pnn0'2nrY) A flr14 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Hine Ha TOM Oepery,HOo BoRcKa XAX Ha9eAeHidelcnacaTeAmue H Rump- Hme KomaHAN,Bcd paBHolHe moryT Oo.ume np0RTI4 TyAa. IJApHaR BoAHa AerricTByeT KpaTKospemeHHo.Ha odsemulHaxoAnue- CR B paAllyce oAHoro KmAomeTpaoHa AeRcTByeT TOAIDKO B Tememie 0A- Ho1 ceuHAN,cAeAoBaTeALHo,ecAx 3a omy ceKyHAy OyAeT cHeceH MOCT) TO B nocAeAylomxe ceuHAu H MXHyTN mulmalude cpeAcTBa oclopoHu MOXHO flOCBATXTL Apyrval IleARmlHexceAm depeu xx AAR cnacaTeAmux padoT Ha TOM Oepery.Pa3ymeeTcRoTo omen Baximon_ramInoAHaR 3ApaBoro cmucAa. HeKoTopue nplImmTmBHNe mein' camoodopoHN OT yAqpHOR BOAHN. XAR HaceAeHm,no MHEHXD coBeTcKoro npaBxTeAbcTBa,Baxmo 3HaTL X 0 TOM)IITO B nepBm2 MOMEHT B3pNBa npoAyiam AeAeHTAR RAep,xcnapia- meecR odAamKola Tance pacKaAexamg Bo3Ayx,3aKAmmeHm B noAycOepe Hedoimmoro pa3mepa.TemnepaTypa B HeM AocTxraeT 1LMAAXOHOB rpaAy- noBla AaBAeHme-mximplapAos aTmocOep. YICHO)MTO 9TH AaBAEHXR X TemnepaTypm OmcTpo OyAyT pacnpocTpaHRT CR BO Bce CTOpOHN.HCHOIMTO TemnepaTypa OyAeT "noAmaramnla y,nap- Hasi OKHa X Asepx. OTclua-coBepmeHHo KoHKpeTHme npeAynpexAeHm HaceAeHmio,nydAmue lame oTKpuTo,mxpoKo:ecAla BN KpecTLRHKHI-Bama xaTa BOCEAaMeHXTCH) KaK)Aenica;ecAli HE BOCEAaMeHXTCH)-MOXET pyxHym H I0XO0HHTL Bac codoko, mTodm 3Toro He CATIKAOCIDIBH AOANCHN ITXHATID 3a0Aaro- , BpemeHHNe mepul-npmmxTimmelHeHaAesmelHo BCe ice mepm:yKpenviTe CBOM xaTy,nocTapaftecT) cAeAaTID ee meHee npliroAHoR AAR BocnAame- HeHMIPOMMIIIITO yAapHaR BOAHa odAaAaeT pe3Ko yBeAmmeHaimm cBOM- cTBamid dymymmeri B AodaBoK eme H BmcoKoR TemnepaTypok.Ho 110MHXTe Tame,mTo 3T0 npoAoAxaeTcR B Kopomul npomexyToK Bpeme- HM,HOCAe KoToporo MOXHO npoAomicaTip padoTan XAX BECTX cnacaTe.u- Hme pacioTm 0e3 BCHKOM A0110AHNTEALHOM 60R3HX. B KamecTBe KoHKpeTHux maDp EtHorAa B coBeTcKoil AmTepaType Ha3N- BaMT:0XABHHE pa3p3TmeEDIR OT yAapHok BOAHN-Ha yelaTgat AO oAHoro KmAomeTpa;nplii 110A3EMHOM B3puBe rAydima Bopoluo AoxoART Ao 30 meTpoB X AmameTp Bolop4KArC.100 meTpoB. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 3ammTa o B npoTymoaTomHoR odopoHHoR nonpulpHog AmTepaType Taxlice AamTcyl cBeAemul o mepax 3aMMTN OT B3pMBHOR OCBeMeHHOCTE1.11TOON ue pacxpH BTB Aamme COOCTBeHHNX onmToB,CCCP npu 3T0M onepupyeT AaHH1IM14 Amepxxx i noucxxx ropoAo3.Ho uHorAa 11p0menmv50X1 _HumeuHme cBue HMR lit COOCTBeHHNX onbiTax. CoodmaeTcRIIITo AmameTp B3pNBHOg nonyccDepu mozeT ONTb olleHeH xax 200-300 meTpoB/B 3aBMCIIM0CTM OT Kam/14a OomOH/,a TemnepaTy- pa B Het"' AocTuraeT 80000C-I20000C,To-ecTL npuOnymmTeAmo B ABa pa3a Ombme TemnepaTypH comlua. "BTopoill onacHocm" nocne yAapHoR BOAHM CIIXTaeTCR AegCTBMe aTomHo2 ocBemeHHocTx,xoTopaa Ha onpueaeHHom paccTomem mozeT AKIIIMTb MAX napaRm3oBam 3peRidelm3BaTil CMABHIlle olicorm,Bocnname- HMI) ua qezoBexe oAexAy.ilpx 3T0M ua ocHoBamix Haracaxx AeAaeTca npesunpexAeHuelliTo Ha paCCTORHMK AO 1500 meTpo3 AeRcTme RBAReT- CR TRXeRHM,H0t1TM HaBepilsixa cmeoTeAmmm,a Ha paccTomm AO 4000 MeTp0B-0TH0CNTeAbH0 CAa6b1M,M3AeTAWIM. OTcmAa-npammecxxe percomeuallux:cnenumbHaa uma,cnenmaRL- Hue OtIKKIX Tax Amee/npumegamie:x coxazemm,donee xoftxpeTaix AaH HNX HeT/. TACKAITIKTeAbH0e mumaHme yAeRsleTca B CCU Tomy OaxTyllaTo ua 143- BeCTHUX paccToaHlux ?aux Ha TeRe HORBARMTCR TOALKO Ha Toil cTopo ue Texa,xoTopoe odpameHo B cTopoHy B3pb1Ba.ZAR npummTmmoro Hace- ReHmsr 3TO-BrIOAHe ycleAuTeAmmil Ao139A.Ho M yneHme 3aHMMa10TCR npoO- Aemamm couamisi moxyccTseHumx TeHeR.Hanpmmep,3a nocReAume roAH --66ALmoe Brimmalime yAeAsleTcli 143yxleHum CBOMCTB TymaHalAosAahI Buna- Aammero cHera.11peAnoilaraeTcyl,-11 TeopeTutlecxx DTO Tice A0xa3aH0,- 11T0 ecTecTBeHHoR MAN MCUCCTBeHHOM TymaRHok 3aBecok MOICHO OTrO- poomcsi OT cseToBoro 143.71yqemia aTomuoro B3pNBa,XOTR ON qaCTINHO B006111e xe B HpOTHBOaTOMHOM rpazAaHcxok oftpoue mmpoxo non3y- MTCR aHanorlimmu c commem.Ambag HenDo3palmaR npe1paAa,3ammma1omaR OT npRmoro nonmaima cseToBoro p4sAytieHualcIn5oX1-HumopeAcTBom oclo poHm OT aTomuok OCBelOHHOCTX.B CBR3M. C 3THM npeAcTaBasieT muTepec npocTekmuil n 1 ..u1B TCKOR non AR HOM ni)ecce,- 6 OH AaeTca HI/1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043ROn7mn94nn1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 11T0 xacaeTcsi paAmoalumBmoro 3apagemi Me0TH0CTII,TO OHO npoAon- licaeml qacammlmmorAa-A H A m m.B 3T0M-BCH ero onacmoub.Haceze- mme COOP npeAynpegAemo 00 3T0M mmpoico m onpeAexemHo,B nonpulpHog odopoHHog npecce cnenmanbmNmm RemmRmm. 50X1-HUM HameTmm mepN aKTHBHOk m naccmBHog odopomm m camoodopo- HMIAMOTCR npumepmo Tame Aammie:noToic HekTpoHoB AegcTByeT TOALKO B momemT B3puBa;ramma-m3nytieme maimmaeTcyl c momenTa RAepHog pea gmx m npoAongaeTcyl noue B3puBa 10-15 ceitymA;noTom HeRTpomoB m ramma-nytiek odnaAam CBOkCTBOM "npodmBann magmTeAmme TOAMIHM pammtinmx maTepmanoB;npommicalomaa pax/tam/1n RBAReTCR HeBMAHMOk. Xpome Torolramma-nytim AeRCTByloT Ha COTHH meTpoBlmo,npoxoAR tiepea Kame-AmOo moTHme maTepmanu-nperpaAuloczadJunoTcR.Hanpla- meplramma-mmylleme oczadzsieTcyl B ABa pasa mina npoxoluenyna tie? pes 1,8 camTmmeTpa cBmulalmAx 3 camTmmeTpa ge3Ie3almAx 10 camTmme TOB deToHa,mml 15 camimeTpoB rpymTa/noxiBil/.0TcmAa-coBepulemHo KomxpeTHme meToAN TA nyTm yczpoRcTBa npoTimpaAmmommix ydegmm. Xyge odcTomT Aeno C HOTOKOM HekTpomoBsOmm odAaAam Oubwok npommicammeg cnocodmocrpm,oAmaKo m OHM moryT OMM orpammtleHm.ilpm- HmmaeTcH BO Bmmmamme TOT claKT,IITOICTaAKHBaRCL C RApamm aTOMOB BemecTBalmegTpoHm TepyrioT CBOD oHeprim,ONcTpue HegTpomu npeBpama- DTOR B meAneHmmejlocReAmme moryT 3aXBaTHBaTIDCH HApamm aTOMOB me- KoTopmx 3AeMeHTOB. Ha3aAOCL 6H,BCe xopomo.Ho OTVI "HeKoTopme memeHTN" camm CTaH0- BATCR paA4oaKTTABHNm14/gene3o,aA1ommmgligemmg,marmmg,1CaAmillHaTpmg m mnorme Apyride/.BeAa 3ammtmeTcyl B TOMIIITO OHNOTH nmeitoTopme agememTle,coAepgaTcsi B notme,To-ecTL paAmoalulamocTm noABepraeT- Ca cama nolmalicoTopasi dyAeT mcnycican deTa-m-ramma Aytim. B oftem H IleRom naceneme 000P 3HaeT,B KagecTBe naccmBnog aTom- HOg camoodopomull1To npommicalomaR paAmausi oKasigBaeT BpeAmoe dmoRo- rnecKoe Aegcmile,xoTH m me odimaTeJiLmo BeAeT K 6111CTpOR cmepTil. Ao3a paAmaum B 100-200 peHTreHoB Bil3NBaeT zericoe sadozeBanmelHe BeAylue K cmepT14,14 AIM Ana B 600 peHTreHOB 13.9)S1:11LY1cmepT14.Ha npamme mepTeamoe AerAcTme OT paAmagmm mogeT HacTynxTB Ha paccTosimmia Ao 8 Te RHOHCKHX rop n ann momnnninnumeyaRifie:OTX Ulan' OCHOBaHM Ha 011101 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043ROn7mn94nn1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 PaAmoalummoe 3apaxellmfOROFFICMLUSEONLY HaKoHeillHaceReHme mnopmxpoBaHo o TOMIIITO npm A-B3pNBe ocipa3y- eTcR 00RbM0e KORMLIeCTBO paAmoalammlba BeulecTBIKoTopme sapaYsamT Bo 3Ayx 3emAm, Aoma, npeAmeTNI Bee, TITO He 3ammueEjx,i'_i_nzaelite cTBa He mmemT HX cnellmaRLHoro 3anaxa,lam BXAMMHX npm3HaxoB.Xx MOXHO oOlaa- ppm') TORbK0 npm nomomm cnegmaRmaa 1Io3mmeTpmecialx npplOopoB.OT cmAa-npalumgemcmg BEBOA:CHaOAXTb BCM cmcTemy npolmoaTomHoll oft- poima Ha BceR TeppmTopaind CCCP AnumeTimeculmm npmbopamm/npilme- qaule:Ao 1947 roAa msroTomeHmem Tama npyrOopoB 3aHliMaRXCB 3aBO- AN B XapbK0Be ffeHXHrpaAe/.Pa3yMeeTCHIA0 B03HXKH0BeHXR peamplaok onacHocTx npallOopil HaXOARTCH B cTporom rocyAapcTBeHHom KOHTDORe qepe3 cooTBeTcTBymme KOMaHAN HBO X npoTmBoaTomHok odopolabl. 0OpamaeTcR BHmmalame m Ha To,TITo paAmoaKTmBHNe BeucTBa npm A-B3pNBe oORaAamT CBOVICTBOM ONCTpOt yTTN aKTXBHOCTX.OTCDAa-BaX Hoe npammecKoe npeAynpexAeHme:3apagemize placTmil CTaHOBRTCH AOCTyEHNMX X 0e3011aCHHMX gepe3 HeCKORbK0 qaCOBIB Kpakiamx cRylaaRx -gepe3 HeCKO3IbK0 AHeklcReAoBaTeRmo,ecTI, CMECA "BNEXTB" 3T0 Bpe- M51211T0ON npoAoxlicam El/1Tb X BoeBaTL.KoHelallo,cTenelm npoAoRxmTeR HOCTb paAmoalampHocTm 3aBMCKT OT TrrnaaTomHoro B3pL1Ba m copTa camok 6omON/AaTe7IEHNe AaHliale 00 DTOM OTCyTCTByMT/. HaCeReHXe MCP Tame malOopmxpoBaHo o B03M0EH0CTX UNTOTOBEeHXH Talc Ha3NBaemux "Ooemax paAmoalumBilba BewcTB"Immi coNpaOHHo BPB.OHm moryT (INTL npmroTowleHN B Bue ANmalzmANocTx XRX nopoma HeT HmNaKoro COMHeHXH B TOIWITO CCCP pacnoRaraeT Bcemm TpemR cop Tamm/npmmetialame:rRaBlialm qeHTpom paOoT HaA cosAaHmem BPB Bcera Ouza BoeHHasi ARaAemiu XlimmtlecKok 3amiTN mmeHm BopoloaRoBa/. HCH021.1TO HaceReHme CCCPlocoOeHHo cmcTema npoTmBoaTomHok noAro Tomtm,AonycKaeT BO3MOXHOCTb He TORbK0 aTomHoro B3pNBaIHO npmme HeHXR npoTIAB CCCP BPB.flcHollaTo pa3padamma1oTcR meToAN oftpolual OT BPB,H0 Ham Hmtlero 00 3T0M He X3BeCTHO. OCHOBH0e cpeAcTBo npoTmBoaTomHog IM0TXBOBO31!yMH02 oftpoHN ZAR macc HeoprallimoBaHHoro HacezeHmR/oTo-T5ox1 -HUIVF elniTAHN noTo BepcaRmium ITOTIATInaTOMR? M-' MTN 03AYMMIM cpeA6TBom clamTaeTpR My TITO B CCCP,CTpOrq17,Q Bpp fl-fli 1:11.1430BaHHOr0 HaceReHmsi HeT/ yHm r ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R007mn94nn11_A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? vi% B HaCTOHMee Bpemyllic Komily 1955 roAal6AmmAaa,meAll oBparinorped,To-ecTBBdyloanbmom cmlicae Bc6 CIIHTMOCb ymeepcazipmmm OT OOMMHEIX B03AyMMIX mazeToB.HaAexmo HAM HeT,H0 3T0 eCTL rEHEPAIMAR APIlia,npmmaTaa npa5ox1 _Hurpom YEABEP CAALHAR MEPA.Oma HOCHT xapaluep Bceoftero odopommoro 3altoma.Bo Bcex ropoAcKmx Aomax,Bo Bcex KOAX03aXIB0 Bcex noneBNx cTamax,- BcDAy 3aAamek momep oAmm nacciamog rpazAamcito2 npoTmBoaTommoll oftpomm ctimaeTca ripmroTomemme KpuTmx JeI,B Kpakmem cutlaeloTum- TNX sIM.IeM rzyfte-Tem xyqme:TalcoBa rocyAapcTBemmasi "143 Bcex meponpmaTmk menocpeAcTBeHmok 3aTI14TH OT nopaammero AeRcTBma aTommoro B3plama Baamellmmm RBAReTCH cBoeBpememmoe HCHORb 3oBamme yigmTmg,o6ecneximBalommx 3am4Ty OT nopaxammero AegCTBHR aTommoro m B oAopoAmoro opyame.3To B3RT0 Hamm 113 dpommpu Bcecommoro 06mecTBa HO PaCHpOCTpaHeHXD HOAMTHLIeCKHX ir HaTIHNX 3mammR/"ATommoe opyame H npormaTommasi 8amman,1955 roAlMocKBa/. CReATomayi KaTeropxyl y6eamm,-3To doaee HAN memee cTaqmomapmme noA3emmue cooppicemma.CyAR no HeoMmaxmNm AammmmlB macToRmee BpemE rxame KmaemepHoe YnpaBriemme CoBeTcicok Apmmm m BOeHHO-JAH- EeHepHaR AKaAemmyi mmemm HyTIONmeBa HMeMT CBOHX mmoTpyKTopoB B pa3mux Immix CCCP C gezmo OdSRCHHTB,Kalt HaAo cTpomTlame Oen' ma.Hmae AamTcyl mexoTopme npalumgecime peKomemAagmx,npmmITHe B GCCP B KatiecTBe cTamAapToB npm coopygemmm ydeamm yuquemmoro m cTaumomapHoro DIMMEMEME HHCTUKUHH HO coopyzemmm yOeamm m U. ECRA xleA0Belt HaX0A14TCR B 0ng:11)11'0g Tpammee nonmoro npoOmAH,To 6e3onacHoe paccTogmme OT A-B3puBa ymemBmaeTcR AJIH Hero Ao 0,66 OT paccToRmym Ae2cTBIAR A-Oomda BAORb ougmToli MeCTHOCTM.ECAK ice OH HaX0AHTCR B Tpammee,cBepxy maigNTok aepARmm m nocHnammok 3em- .116M ToRmmmord 50 camTmmeTpoB,To Aim Hero 0e3onacHoe paccToRmme - -Ft?7--; v7111f le-1I/UHT B ap- 65"),- HUW1o6Nqmoro ymembmaeTca B ABafpfmmv-Rrl 0H C meRcicoro Txna,-paccTukiike'plemalaeTcA B Tpm pa3a.A ecAm OH CHAMT B cnegmaJamo oOpy.gOBaHH0M y6eamme noA oemzek,To OH He nocTpa- )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: A A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 1irae2lHaxoAsicB Aaxe B onmIleHTpe aTomHoro XAX BoAopoAHoro B3pmBa /npmmegaHme:o xapamepe ydelaima m rzyclmHe HaxoxAeHmR HT Aammx/ OT npoHmKammeg paAmanmm peKomeHAyeTcH 3amm1UancR npm nomomm nperpaA 143 01H0p0AIMIX maTepmaRoB:60 CM OeToHa MAX I meTp rpyHTa ymemDmaeT 1flo3y paAmagmm Ao 100 pa3;I4 caHTmmeTpoB rpyHTa-B ABa pa3a0 caHTmmeTpoB CTaAX-B 5 pa3;40 CM AepeBa-B tieTmpe pa3a.BN- yEy50X1-HUMN cTailmo- BoA:Hamnytimmmm maTepmanamm coopyzeinm HapHmx npoTmBoaTomHux ybezmm RBARDTCR AemeHT m rpyHT. "ZoOpmg cTapN npoTmBora3" odbigHoro apmegcKoro Tmna RBAReTCR BaITHUM XHAMBXAyanHIDIM cpeAcTBom 3aMXTH OT nonaAaHmR paAmoammB- HNX BemecTB BO BHyTpl) tieJtoBeKa;npm OTCyTCTBTAH 11p0m0ra3a peico? MeH11JyeTCs 110711330BaTIDCR cnerKa cmolleHHog/Buog/ mapReglHocomm nAaTKom,nonoTeinlemlx TaK Aanee.Hx HaAo HamaANBaTB Ha POT m Hoc. CTanmoHapHue ydezmmalnpviroToBneHHNe ARR npoTmBoxvimmilecKmx ue- Reg Tenep mxm paHeeIRBAHmTcR HamAyummum ydexpimamm OT paAmoaKTIAB MIX BemecTB,m AOANCHM NC110A1)30BNBaTIDCR AAR npmema niammIAJIR oTANxa cmeHu npomora3oBIAR3 pa3memeHmR TeXIKTO He B COCTORHUX HO- CHM npommora3m. MACCOBHM cpeAcTBom doplAN npom 3apaxemm npoAyKToB ITXTaHXR npm3HaeTcR coAepxaHme mx B nnoTHog ynaKoBKe B cnellmaELHog Oyma- reinpmmeximme:B npecce npomeALKHyno KocBeHHoe ynompnlaHme o mac- COBOM BunycKa TaKog Oymarm/.3anacu npeAyKToB oftecTBeHHoro nI4Ta- HHS xpaHeHmm B cnellmaRLHo AAR Troro npmroToBEeHHmx y0e- M4MaX. 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Yae TenepB cAenaHo;m9TIN1 RCHHM Bcemy HaceReHmmlgTo aTom:- HaR BogHalecnm ngn -RoddhiP OyAeTHa.1aa de3 npeAynpeiAe- Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-0104r4Rnn9-4nn9Anni A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 HHR.Y.HOrXX oHa 3acTeHeT BH e ydezmm H YliTNTXR:11TO OHM AOAEHN Ae- AaT1)2 OTBeTN X XHCTpYKIIMA EpOTHBOaTOMHOg OdOpOHN TaKOBH: I.11pm3HaK0m aTomHoro B3puBa HBAReTCH gpe3Bbitiai;tHO RpKOe mrHoBeH- Hoe CHRHM,OTtleTAMBO BmAmmoe Aaxe B sapionl CORIMUHL;3HatIXT, o BumBe BCH1CXR tleROBeK y3HaeT HO 3Tomy cmaHmm,Tu-uuIL cam B3pla noczyxJAT npeAynpeAmTeAmblm cmrHaRom, 2.rpalTcAaHmH COOP AwillseH ONTI) HaTpempoBaH eme B mmpHoe Bpem AO Tamil cTeneHm aBTomaTm3ma,gToOm npm 3Tok BcnbnaKe M0MeHTaAbH0 KXHYMCSI B ciRmsaRmee ydeamme/ecna TaKoBoe mmeeTcH/IB menb,B Ka- HasKyl3a Ommuoill KameHi,B norped;BpemeHm OyAeT HaCTORLKO maim, tITO HeKorAa byAeT Aymam 0 TOM,KaKOR cTopoHok Ten's, paCHOROEXTBCR B cTopoHy BumBa,-BasHolnpeue Bcero,gToOm Tea) ONE() B Aexagem noRoxemni;ecilm ce cmTyauxia HO3BOAXT,TO Hao cTapancH 3aHRTB HO- zoxelime JIHL1OM BHX3,HOraMX B CT0p0Hy Bubma, 3.Kpa1He Baxiao zezam HeHOABXXHO,He npmno,ummaHcb, 4./3AecL npmBoAviTcH HHCTpYKIIHR BoRcKam rpynnm COBeTCKla OKKyna- IIKOHIMIX BOCK B re.pmaAmm,nel)eAaBaBwasicsa no paAgo."Boar4" B 1954 roAy/.Eenm mmHeAL HaX0AXTCH P Talcom C0CT0RHWW311TO MONCHO em BOC- IIORL30BaTIDCH,TO HaAo ONCTDO HaKpum em roRopy m.gm,ecAm oHa CBep- HyTa B Hanaegme KORM101-HaA0 110.710EXTI, ee BoKpyr rOEOBN, 5./Toxe/.EcAll vimeeTcyl npoTmBora3,To Hao HaAeTE eroc peKppAHoR ducTpoToLlIpmmegaHme:B HacTosmee Bpemsa B COBeTCK011 Apmmx npoBo- ASITCR npammecKme 3aHRTXR HO OmcTpomy meBaHmm npomo Ea3a,a paBHo H no npmmeHemo Apyrmx ITXMHTTABHIAX cpeAcTB npoTmBoaTomHoll ociopoHN npm HaxoxaeHmm B OTKpNTOM HORe7BHe TpaHmeA hI ydexmm. TITO KacaeTcH npoTTABonoysapHma H meAmKo-caHmTapHmx mepla TaKze mep HO odenpexclaBaHmm 3apageinna mecT,To C HXMX MOZHO no3HaKo- , MXTLCR B AmTepaType,yKauBaemok B 6140amorpaOmm. HeKoTopme odulme_peKomeHAanum BoeHHo-BouymHum 50X1-HUM B aBmallmoHHok HmTepaType COOP NOT AOBORBHO qeileycTpemneHHoe odcpueHme Boupoca o npoTmBoaTomHok 3ammTe BOeHHO-B031ByMHUX cm. CooOmaeTcH,npezAe wepoi9TemainBmAHoe oiniaKo B3pmBa npeAcTaB- 4 JuleT onpueneHHym ?nab40 _ AiurnpoileTammero gepe3 Hero 3Kmnalica. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R0n9mn74nn1 1-A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 EplummaeTca psi A nomxozormgecEmx w AmcgmnAmHapHmx mep itIymy, IlTodu He AaTB pa3BMTBOR y aBmaTopoB HeyBepeHHocTm,cTpaxalnec 111- mm3ma.TaE,Hanpmmep,Bce Bpemsi n0All6p1maeToR TaBTonornecEaR B M3BeCTH0M cmblcae HeaenaR mucAB:onacHocm 3apazeHma camoJIT BaBIACET OT cEopocTm noneTa,oT BHCOTH no.neTaloPtlUmocTm B3 3- Ten C mecTa npeAnozaraPmoro B3pima E odpymmTrpcsi He. npoTIABHKEa. AAR icnace 14 oofte Ha3emHoro nepcoHaaa,a Tae A.7151 cyxonyT- HNX BotAcit,npeAzaraeTcyl coAepEam TpaHcnopTHue cpeAcTBa B TaEom COCTOHHEE,MTOCIE Ha HMX MOEHO ONE0 npoe3Eam MO 3apazeHHoiii mecT- HocTmpEmnalicx moryT nepexoAmm c 3apazeHHux yllacTEoB B He3apa- xeHHme Ha camoReTaxlnyTem nepepplexEm. 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IdimpyEgmx EPOTJABaTOMHOg odopoHm aopoApomoB Ho cymecTsymT H dozee EoHigeTnue micTpyEgmm.Hompiccm51 AAA EX pa3paboTEm (tom odpa3oBaHa B cDeBpane 1946 roAa noA npeAceAaTera CTBOM 3amecTmTeRyi HatiaRLHHEa oTAerra cneqmaABHmx odopyAoBaHmk rip m raaBHOM YnpameHmm BoeHHo-Bo3Aymmix Ci COUP reHepan-RegTe- HaHTa reOprMH KCeHOOHTOBEtla BormoBalEaHAmAaTa TexHmtlecEmx Ha- yE,oAHoro E3 ATIMEX aBmanmoHHux mmiceHepoB CCCP.Tenepi, Ha ocHo- BaHmm pRAa oarnImaRBHEx hI Heo()milmaimHylx nyOnmEaug mozHo EoHEpermie mHoTpylcum riponmoaTomoniPM BOeHHUX aopoApomoB cymecTBymT m OCTUCTBARMTCH He. npaETHEe.tIm He mmeem o pa ,a11_-..,_Airl)rtriiTATMT-TTITY CB ffelnig wcymux oamoR InicTpylcull,Ho - , IcapTzu cAuToutmla r )eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release aokt 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : . Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 I.HamdonBMeM rapaHTmeM OT nopareHma aTomHmm opyx e/ HBAReTCH adcomoTHaa 00erOTOBHOCTb Bcero AMIIHOr0 cocTaBgoigo- ma,ocodemo aeTHoro cocTaBa xcTpecipiTeamoM aBmaHmx,xoTopmM oda- 3H He AOUCTXTb CaMOReTH npoTHBHmxa Ao yrpozaemmx npeAmm, 2.B caytme npopmBa npoTimmica CKBO3b cem EBO npmmeHeHmaHM aTomHoR domdm npoTTAB aopoApoma BCL AXIIHUR COCTaB 06113aH ONTb rOTOB K BKHORHeHX10 doeBmx 3a4!ati HO yHXIITOEeHMIO Bpara M HO ode3- BpexmBaHm10 aopoApoma,no cnacemo maxxcmaaBHoro mamtlecTBa doeso- ro mmymecTBa, 3.11ocxwmxy COCTaB donBmyn xlaCTb BpemeHm EpOBOAXT y c31to- Ae7TOB,B pakoHe xomaHAHoro nymaa,Ha cmaAax,B pemoHTHux macTep- xxxlm Tax Aairee,HeodxoAmmo mmem oxono 3TXX mecT xpmTue MeAX B AOCTaTOTIHNX KOAXIleCTBe X xallecTse;Aaa Hamdmee BaxHmx cayx0OJIL HU memos' WHAameHTumme yxpmula cTaHmonapHoro TxnalHa Taxom paccToaHmm OT npeAnozaraemoro mecTa B3puBa A-domdm,qTodu HaBep- Halea yumem; xaxAom BOeHHOM aopoApome AOAEHN OUTb cTaumoHapHme noA3em- Hme yOmma Aaa pa3memeHma RomaHAHoro nyHxTa,meAmilmHcxoM cnyxdul Imna CBH3X X HpXHRTMH mimm, 5.Bce meam x noA3emilme ydexmma noAnexaT pa3memeHmm B AOMXHaX X HM3XHaX Boxpyr aopoApomalecam HHoro He Tpedym yczoma doeroToB- HOCTX, 6.Bce cTaHmoHapHme ydexmma AOREHM ONTb odopyAoBaHm B COOTBeTCT- BMX C ximpyxuamm EpoTmBo-Xmmolecxa OdopoHm CoBeTcxoM Apmam /IIMOCA/;ABepm 14 oxHa AOAEHN OblTb repmemlecxxmx, 7.1rom coopyzeHam HpOTXBOaTOMBHX ydexmm Bcex TXHOB Bce ABepm,ox- Ha,oTxpmTme 3AeMeHTN AepeBaHHoR KOHCTpyKIHM X xHme oaemeHm,mory- mme BocnaameHmTBca,noAaexaT odma3mBaHmm caoem rammi HJIH rpyHTo- Bog rpanm max X3BeCTLIO,HpO4eM OTX mepm ocymecTBaamca cmaamx camoro aopoApomal 8.11px xaxAom y3aoBom aopoApome mmeeTca mTaTHaa BoeHHo-mHzeHep- Haa xomaHAa/npmmellaHme:xomaHAa aAmimmoTparimo HOATIKHReTCH yn- paBaeHmio mmiceHepHialx Bokcx coBeTcxok apmmx/,xoTopaa pyxoBoAmT e)p,r,r?7,A47iiIN coopygeHmem ydexclorB nneimeNaDe.m BOeHHoe tpem, 50i1-HUM ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2. 3R00230074nn1 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Cr17777F.1; .;;a 9.11DX Kaluom ymoBom aopupome umeeTca II npoTuBoxitnamecKasi Komaua/npvimegaHue:Komaua aAmpula5P20 -Hunt noAquHReTcyl ynpamemo xmmullecKok sauTm coBeTcKog apmmx/2noA pyKoBoAcTBom KoTopoil opramnyeTcsi cucTemaTmeme m3ymemile mep npoTuBoaTomHo npoTuBoxamumecKoR 3a111MTN Bcem AXtIHNM COCTaBOM) B nopRAKe HopmaRBHok doaBog IO.HoA pyKoBoAcTBom a3poApommx noEapHux Komau inytialoTcH mepm npomionozapHok pa00Tm B YCAOBXRX aTomHok aTaKK, II.HoA pyKoBoAcTBom CamapHo-LleAunmcKoro OTAma aopupomHoro yma meytialoTcyl mepu mexinco-caHmTapHoEl cApalm B yCAOBPIRX aTOMHOR aTaKul I2.Hpu Kaluom aopupome umeeTcsi uTaTHaR Ae3aKTKBan4oHHas1 KomaH- Aa,mmelomaR Heo0xummme cpeAcTBa AAR ofteR u nacTINHoil AeeaKTIoa- num aopupoma, I3.B cnyqae nonHoro 3apaxtemmi anoApoma 06513aHHOCTLIO Ae3amma- IIKOHH0R Komaum RBAReTCR 6mcTpoe odeeBpexuBaHue KadmH Tex camo- AeTOBOCOTOpNe 6yAyT yKa3aHm ek Komaumpom gam', I4.Bce Ooeme camoneTu AOAEHN dmm odecnetieHm/eme B milpHoe sloe- mR/ cnenuaALHmmx liemamm-xazaTamulHamaAmBaemlimu Ha cnenuaALHme KapKacm TaK,KToOm mexAy noBepxHocTLm cammeTa H tlexilom-xanaom ummcir czcA Bowxa;HaeHalleHme qemos-npuoTBpameHme Bocmame- HeHTAR CaM0E6T0B) .15.HOCKOALKy rpR3B,eamacneHHocTB H am /11m npeAmeToB Ha 001111HIAX MOTOpHNX X KablerEHNX Ilexnax nommeT paAX0aKTXBHOCTLI 0C5R3aHHO0TLI0 TexHolecKoro nepcoHama RBAReTCR couplicaHme XX B HOCTORHHOR 111ICTOTe) 16.4x OTCYTCTBXX B03M0NCHOCTX BOCUOAL30BanCR yczyramx Ae3amm- BanmoHHoR Komaum,npumeHRTL nPoTxpaHvie HXAOTCKOM KadJAHN X XHNX eapaxbilHmx qacTeM mapEeR,HamomeHHord B cnenuaALHom pacTBopliTmel I7.Ha Bcex cTanuoHapHmx aopoApomax,-Ha HeKoTopom paccTosmum OT neHTpa aopoApoma,-mmen cTanuoHapHme Tpainuem pameReinui CaM0AeTOB C neimm npuoxpaHum xx OT yAapHoR BOAHN X cBeToBoro odAymeHusipTil pacioTm 14 cBileaHHue C HXMX paboTm no yAmmeHum PYilexcHux AopoxeK ocyllre'VROALlupHoe spew', I8.11a HecTanuoHapHux aopupomax j.JI$I ToR ice nefim mcnoippsymTcR 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . ClA-RDP81-Q1o4pnn9- nn9Ann 1A 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ecTecTBeHHme yrny ReHm MeCTHOCTX nperpaAm,coopymemme Bcem RHIIHNM COCTaBOM noA pYKOBOACTBOM BOeH- HO-HHEeHepHOR KOMaHAH, I9.Boenpvinacm Ha Bcex auoApomax xpaHRTcaBnoAsemHmx xpaHlummax1B 0e3onacHom yAaReHmm OT mecTa B3pmBa, 20.BeH3o-cma3ogHme maTepmanm pa3memamTcH B cnemaJimmx KOTROBa- Hax C HaAeXCHHM 3eMARHHM noicpmTmeminpvimegaHme:AAR Bcex aspoApomoB 2I.TeRe(DoHHmexmelapvigecme npoBoAa Ha Bcex aopoApomax npsigylcsi noA 3emmo H yTpam60BmBamTcs1 HO cnemanEHmm WHCTWKIIH- RM ynpameHmsi CBR3H COBeTCK0g apmxia, 22.0TKPHTHe HCTOIIHMKX BOM nepeHocHTca B noA3emHme nomemeula ? nonygamT HaAnesamee noicpmTme cBepxy, 23.Mepm KHApiBmAyampHog npoTmBoaTomHog 3a11iHTH HPOBOARTCR C Tamm pacgeTom,gToOm odecnegmb HenpepmBHocTL doeBok padoTm CaMOReT0B- vicTpedpuezeg H Ha3eMHHX HpOTHBOBOUTIIHHX cpeAcTB, 24.A1gHmg cocTaBl3acTmrHyTmg aTOMHHM B3pNB0M Ha BIDIG HAX Ha oTicpm THX ygacTitax aop01I1p0mal06a3aH BOCHOAL30BaTbCR 6.11113nexammm Ape- HaEHMMM KOROAllaMH,BOAOCTOIIHHMIA KaHaBamilnpuopozmaimx KaHaBamm WHY1 npocTo Omupo Aela Ha semmo H xcAaTI, OKOHIMEHR 011aCHOCTHp momeHT BumBa 3anpemaeTcH 6exaTL no nom() HRH yitpmBancif sa Aepe- BOM HRH 3a aHrapom HRH BHyTpx aHrapal 25.B cnygae cBoeBpemeHHog Bo3Ay1llHo-aTomHog TpeBorx 6oeBme camo- AeTm-licTpearTeml B3AeTa1oTla Ha3emHmg RINHHg COCTaB OucTpo YX0AHT B noA3emHme yOexama, 26.KaxAmg BOHH Ha auoApome OOR3aH HOCTORHHO mmem npw cede 6oeBog npoTIABora3 P1 men HaAeBaTb ero ONcTpo, 27.0 momeHTa 065RBReHNR BO3AYMHO-aTOMHOg TpeBorx BCL AHIIHNR COCTaB O1DTCTp0 oAeBaeTloAHoBpemeHHo C npoTinora3omlnpoTiooaTomHy. ? npoTHBoxylmagecEym 3auRITHy10 HamAlcy/xazaT/13amulammym OT pao- KTHBHLIX Ben ecTB;RbTgxm-PicTpearTemi B3ReTaMT B cnemaaammx R0mOme3oHax, 28.B cxygae OTCYTCTBMe cueumaillHog oAexAm:mem HaAo aaBepHyTID B noiloTeHue HRH npocTmlim HAH,HHOg 6eAbig maTepmaz;Hoc poT OHCTPO 3aBR3HBaDTCR BaTOg HTA4R-einileHHOg cneuaALHog EmAlcocTipm /npilmegame:B npecce npocKoglum KOCBeHHble yEa3aHrim Ha To,gTo B ElacTosmee Bpema camkpaHoe yin :1 L. MHH 3aHRTO -4)50X1 -HUM Vol Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr ? IA RDP81 01043-R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 4 ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 pauoHannauleM,maccoBHm Ap0A3B0ACTB0IL "oaccunKok BOMHCKAM qaCTSIM AOBH301t 3Toro num A Ha3Hatiemiln/, 50X1 -HUM 29.CmrHan Bo3AymHo-aTomHoti TpeBorx noAaeTcn opraHamm CBH31/1ii onoBemeHxn. AOAORHATeALHOe npmmellaHme:B xypHanax "EpHimn POAHHH" illoomenBK- Hyam KOCBeHnie cBeAeHmn 0 TOM,IITO B HacTonmee Bpemn Ha KaoicAom HOBOM doeBom camoneTelBo-nepux,KaOma nyinoTa NmeeT cneuanBilym 11110TAB0aTOMHTO CAOACTyD OGABRy3B0-BTOpHXIB Kaame yoTaHaBnxBaci- CR memotleK u npocTeRmmmff AeamplBaumoKHHmil cpeAcTBamm. HepButi npimun eSTABHOR odopoHH OT UTOMHOg 14 BoAopoAHok dombH 11TaK31501 paccmoTpenx mepi nacciaHoll npoT7i13oB03y1uH02 H npomo- aTomHori oftpoHH.Tenepb nepegAdmKpaccmoTpemmo aKTI4BH ok odopomilKoTopan mcoAIAT Tice B KomneTeHun MTAHmeTepuBa 06opomil a B BoeHHoe Bpema-rocyAapcTBeHHoro 1omi4TeTa 000pomtjuo. FiepBEIR npaHlurn aKTABH02 odopoHil a3TomaTiltiecKm BuTeKaeT 143 Teopxx Homep gempe/cm.cTp.3V.MH nonHTanAcL mccneAoBaTL maKcx- manbHoe KOZAtleCTBO oaluanBmix COBeTCRAX ACTOIIHAROBOI KazeTcn BO3MOICHHM AaTB cneAylomylo OpmynmpoBicy:nepBHg npirmun aKTABHOg npoTHBoaTomHok 0c50p0Hm COOP 03HatmeT nmmeHme npoTHBHmKa npezmy- mecTBa BHe3anHocTKIHaHeceHyle emy yAapa Ao TorolKaK OH B3AeTAT, ARK,B KpaMHem czyuaelcOmm ero 3a upeAe.7'2114 coBelicKok TeppaTopx. Ha npaKTmtlecKom anme 3T0 o3Hamact1To KaK TOALKO npaBiliTenB- CTBO COOP npueT R yOexAeHmm o Hem30excH0cTm B01H1430H0 nocnemuT HanpaBTATB Ha dam aTOMMIX domdapAmpoBmplKoB CBOAX ApOTABHAROB oTionAH ABliaum AmBHero AeMcmia,AAA,c aTOMHHMA BoAopoAHummi domOama. OCHOBH0e opyAlle nepBoro nimmuna aKTABHOM o0o1J0m1 POAL ocHoBHoro opyAvia Taxoro yAapa npmaAnexvIT A1II4IJ13aH14ma1omeA nonogelme tipe3Bbit1akHoR cTpaTermiecKok yAapHog cmaHlHaxoAsimekca B HenocpucTBemlom nogumemm CoBeTa MiumicTpoB/a B BoeHHoe Bpe- MH-II0j)He CBH3aHH0R opraimagNomio cTpaTermecni HA C COBeT CICOg ApumeR,Iim c BoeHHougyrigip, TRamx,Hvi C MAHACTUCTBOM 1g .A Odopolud,HIA gaze c reHepanm1HM-ET 'et XOTH B milpHoe Bpea one.pa- ' 4 TABH0e pyKoBoA AAA cTBo ocyme Te50X1-HUm Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1 -HUM rAaBHoltomaHAymmmm 131 no-npexcHemy B %?en amn rOZOBaHOB.DlaBHail JITHafl 6aa AAA no-npexcHemy HaXOAXTCH B MOHJAHO'HOIPa3YMeeTCH,XMe1oTCH 0a3N H B Apyrux mecTax. 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B 1946 roAy/, 7.OammeTm AAA,HecomHeHHo,BoopyzeHm nepsomaccHumm HOIIHNMX BoeBumm HpwileAamm,liTEInpeAHa3HatieHHmmx AAH noAyaBTomaTmecicoro cdpacmBaHHH A-OomO ui H-OomOmla Talate d0m0 oftxmoro Ocodoe niommeqaHme He ylcmmi4eHa BO3M0ICH0CTIDIgTO HaRaHyHe aTomHoro m BoAopoAHoro npmmeHeHm AAA COBeT MMHXCTPOB COOP odpaTmTcH K HeicoTopmm cTpa- Ham HATO,B nepsylo ollepeAB-x BefuncodpilTamilc YIBTXMaTXBHOR Aema pain/lei/ npmmepHo Taxoro coAeplicaHmH:cTpemHcB K mxpyocenall indexcaTI aTOMHOR BORHN;MN npwaraem OpmTaHolcomy Hapuy HemevieHHo cBepr- r HYTID cBoe 11PaBXTellBOTBOIBNI1TX 143 HATO M 143 B0RH131,13 IIPOTXBHOM czylme ME dyAem BLIHTKAeHN B nopHAKe camoodopoHm yHINToaTATL BCM BeAmOpmainin aTOMENME X BOAOCHNMX Oom6amx. HpemALIKoHetmo,He p4cmgmlita T Ha Kam/ITT:Am= OPHTaHlleBIHO B Pr7F7MTI noAodHorei A emapauxid moxeT BI Qx nponaraHA- 50X1 -HUM Hme BmroAm. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 13/09/12 ? CIA RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 AKTXBHall HBO COOP Hp0TmB0B03AymHoR cam0000poHo4 Ha3HBaeTCH cmcTema mepinplimmma- emmx cammm HaceReHmem ARR ymeHipmeHm nocReAcTuR B03AyMMIX Haze- TOB;MeCTHOR npomoBo3AymHoR odopoHoR Ha3mBaeTcR clacTema mep, nplummaemmx HX3OBNM 3BeHom HBOIcxasem,B macmade 3aBoRa.taftm- 50X1-HUM xmlytipmeHmR111 Tax AaRee. A npocTo npomoBovymHoM odopoHoil COOP Ha3HB10TCH ueHTpaRm- 30BaHHue meponpmRTKR,opraHm3yemme m ocymecTBRRemble BoopyzeHHmmm cluamm.B oOmmmanmmx xpyrax 3T0 HammeTcR "axTmBHoR HBO COOP". 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B CBY13X C 3T14M 11pm6Rm3mTeRmo C 1951 roAa cTaTyc HBO COOP X3MeHIDICH:B0 rzaBe aKTXBHOR HBO BoopyyseHmix CLII CTOXT TenepL cneumaRLHuR 3ameculemp rRaBHoxomaHATomero rYBBC1mapmaz aBmalutm CyAeu.3amecTpuezylmm nocReAHero ABZUTCR mapmaR apTiamqimalluc- TS:MOB X reHepaR-noRmBHmx BORCK CBSI314 BOT30B.INCTAKOB pymBoATAT CTBORIDHOR X 6eCCTBOAT4 41DXXfaepHeil EBOla BOID30B-1.1aCTRMX CBSI3X ,AH onoBemeHmR.WcTpeOUTeAHolli4dt4allmeti HBO,B xatiecTBe 3amecTxTeRR CyAeg,xomaHAyeT mapmaz ammax Be mum. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : ClA-RDPR1-n1n4-Pnn 4(50X1-HUM rV)Arr1.i A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? 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Haa xe odecnetimBamTcR 3TX KatiecTBa Koma7T,Iuloro nyHKTa?0TBeT co- CTOMT 143 AByx HyHKTOB: BO-IlepBNX,B HacToRmee -RaeMSI B BBC COOP mAeT BecBma ynopHaR. 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 . CIA-RDP81-010 n9Inn74nn 11A J. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 M HM Ha JleHT, He npeicpamampi BellMeHCTBOBaHMIO npaimn BeA HN 1103B031RMT ycTpamBaTE BpaxecKmx domdapAmpowincoe Ha TaKmx paccTogHtopc, KaK cKalcem, CesacTonomocKBal JIT,B0B.5oxi -HUMpaA MmHcK-AeHmHrpaAlm Ha BCM npomiceHmx "HanaAeHme HomHme vicTpedm- TeAm,ynpamilemme C 3eI.AM npm nomomm paAmonoicaumoma cppAcTB,Be- AYT HPOTKBOBO3AYMHNe bom.BHmmaTeALHoe m3ymeHme npeccm BBOCCOP He OCTaBAfleT COMHeHMH,KaK 3T0 ONBaA0 M pamme,mTo B H0I4H0eody- meHme BOBAeMeHN B C e AeTtlYIKK-MCTPealTeAK,AeTtiMKN-MTYpMOBM- KM I/1 AeTIIMKM-00MGapAMpOBMMEM.B HMX ymacTByeT BCH cmcTema CpeACTB CBH31'I M onoBemeHmR. B0-BTOp1IX114 3T0 tlpe3BMgagH0 BaEHO'HaAeXHOCTID Ha3emHor0 KO- maluiloro nyHma AocTmraeTcH 3a C-IT OffleAOHMPOBaHMH np0TmB0B03Aym odopoHm no rAy6mHe.To-ecTE cem paAapHmx M PIHNX UHKTOB 0110- Bememi M CBR314 cymecTueT He TOALKO BAOAL ROrpaHMt1H0g II0A0CM,H0 111 BAOAL HeKoTopmx HanparineH11g,npm3HaHHmx HamOorfee onacHmmm.TaK, HanpmmeplzmHmm:Hpara-HaTospinm-EL3oB-HmeB-XapLKos;HeuircOepr- BmALHo-Opma-CmoileHemeAL-PAra-EcKoB-ffyra;XepcoH-CeBacTonomp- itHenponeTpoDcK-XapLim-HypcK-Opez-Cepnyxo13,-m pu Apyrmxl-mmemT, AOAITHN mmem,cem nepex3aTiao-onoBecTmTempHmx cTaHumk,noKpmBam- mmx BC e npocTpaticilim BAOAL ANHMg.3TO COCTaBAHeT truameHTainHym ocHou opraH113a1mm I:BO COOP npumepHo c 1935-37 roAoB.TenepL 1113 cnenmainHoM npeccm C 011eBMAHOCTLIO BmTeicaeT,milo "OCHOBHNe HanpaB- AeHme Tice odopyAosami pazmuoKailmomimmm CTaHLUIRMM M MHNMM cpu- cTamm. Taamm odpa3om,B O3rzyme2 Borime OombapAmpoimmicam HATO npueTcH mmem AeRo C HenpepmmocTbm HadnueHmsi 3a Hmmm.BukAR M3 30HN OAHOg CTaHlIMTA,CaMOAeTN dyAyT BCTYllaTb B 30HY czeATommx cTaHumk, KoTopmelpa3ymeeTcsilOyAyT Tice 3HaTID o ABoceHmin OT npeAmecTBosamm cTaimmili.3HammT,Ha3emlimM KOMaHAHNg HYHKT KOK OyAeT B COCTOYHMK He TOALKO Hanpaaum mcTpeOviTenx HaBcTpemy ITOTTABHMKY,H0 X 1W- MaHA0BaTL mx aTaKamm.A ecilm emy 3T0 He dyzeT yAaBancyl,-Ha ro- momL dyzyT npuxumm coceAHme cTaHumm.Hpome Toro,camm mcTpeCzTe- Jul-nepexBaTmmilm BCHKOM cxymae 60ALMMHCTB0 Aj hmx,Tenepio BM- nycKamTcH C OOPTOBNMN FOR OIHUIAL, UUtILT 50X1-HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ? ?? jr OrHesme cpe1.na al1B0 flpiTenepewHem CCCTOAHMM coseTcKoro camoHeTocTpoeHma AeneHme Ha nepexsaTumKos m maHespeHHux mcTpedmTeAeR ABAReTCR 60Aee MAK meHee ITCAOBHHM.3TO npm3HaeTcHlHanpmmeplcammm BecTHmKo155x1 _Huvoro zoTa.Ho Tem He meHee pa3Hima cywecTsyeT:MHP-I5 sunycKaeTca B HeCKOAL,KMX moAmarmaumHx.OAHa M3 HPIX mmeeT nosymeHHA TOTTEMBHHM 3anac 3a CtleT HeCKOABKO CHNXeHHHX maHespeHHux csoRcTs.Apyrme,Hao- dopoTImmem nosmmeHHue maHespemle csotIcTsa M meHswym npoAonmi- TeABHOCIL nmeTa:oHm m COCTaBARMT TK Ha3usaemue "mcTpeOmTeAll so3AymHoro doe/npmmetiaHme:cKopo,sepoHTHolummTcH ocoduk maHespelisn nTpedmTemi noA mapKoM HK-27/. Ho soopyxeHme scex ImpedviTeAeM Tmna "Emr" HBAReTCA HORTX OAK- HaKOBHM.OHM mmeDT:I nymity KaHxdpom 53 mu/npmmetlaHme:gmczo mmr-OB C 3T0m nylocck He3Haq1TeAb1.iu;Due OHM RBARMTCH B npHmom cmucne nepe xsaTtimKamm/ c AsaAuamm cHapHAammo4 2 nymicm 23 mm Kanmdpa,c 3ana- Com cHapuos B 60;3TX odpa3uu nr-OB 06H3aTeALH0 mmenT paAmoHoKa- umomue yoTaHosKm HamnocHeAHeMwero odpa3ua. BoopyReHme cepmgHoro MF-I5:1 nymKa 33 37 mm c 40 cHapHAamm;2 nyumm 23 mm KaHmdpa,no copoK cHapHAos Ha KaxAym;noAKpuALHue paKeT Hue zarDeTm AAA cTpeAsdu paKeTamm/npmmetlaHme:turcAo paKeT 3aBMCMT OT Txra paKeTl-mmeeTcH TM OCHOBHHX Tmna noAKpmALHux paKeT/. lipmmetraFme:AmeloTcH ocHosaHmH npeAnoHoxviTs,uTo B HacToolee spem npoxoAmT c)(,,bue mcnuTaHmH HOBIlk THE CaM0A6THOg CTpeAKOBOg paKeTm, odHaAamwe (MAIDEIHMM 3axmraTeAsHumm CB01CTBaMM. 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Z1-/60/? -J,k09? eseeiej .101. panaiddv /Woo pazipes - 'Jed Ul pawssepaa imnitl,X09 -Gumuuu udOwimv9,11 HOYSPIOPH MI OH Ole UOIGPFOVPH --"-78I M HOIOEVerIc IriTheRM,HE_OJOHN 'Meal 09HYGY0011 PC Op - imnitl.X09 .omodox 01H0h0 OstlattV091MilejO0d0I0)1?01MHOLcd0OH ki0H UOIGEMOYA GMHPIIMHH aopoocremmaYadooa aomIered m O0HheIRRII BOIOUYEIU nvidop momamIxv 4ommicYcaosmIodu nomYRdo WNHUOHOOMPIE HPCLPI pari eadah miamad xancp PhPYPS 0Ih'HIPIrMX0 ROICON MII?MMHPHOpOdI xnmpoYou ORHOhPHS M YONWO UPHE M'XPIOODTU XHHHICOndll PH wpipyou maaop XMHHOHM1I1f011 HIPhAQ0 RIGIOPh XMHHOMIIPMHP HOdOHOYCHM M HOd MnPWOX IO IaRpadi UMHOYHPIOPH mwada OOMBOIOPH E4N01 0 OIOONg .ummalcKdooa OJOH h0MAU HIOpPd NOHSPMIOCGQ mmmahouono MI0OHYRCII'MIOOHIOPh H?JOIO -0HVAdI rEd ureamirEcemoRpo, aodIaw 000gI .exTrudou nioona,oIh?oI PH HOdMVHPWOM HpOlfPX IMPXHUGHOdli 0I0'Oh 4mmahic xmaaog XEMHPOMUO a'oJoI oayog.aodIall 00091-000gI GUIRSO OH XOYOIOU TIOHOOp NM5100h cuovim Iancp COO oaLivH Namndo 0Ih'IOPH1dISP51011 a0-ain MMHPHOCHVOUOM Noa000pn mdu MXHOIOdrOU 4oaaop-ompahR Ina) 01-I'HOCI 00T7gI IamicapI000 morroIou MmIphopd/NmxoahmIadoeI .uoomuraImayondu aoa cireaoccirouom MI0OHEOHCOU 'nom OH Awl MH FlIhOU HIOPh UPHHYGI -MpedIOM EP10MOdO10d0EIGO PHO MH mIhou'Neado21 YPH H0d0I0OCTU XMH RicreOil 14I0OHHOhMHPCILIO /01.MalcISIOX4OMH= MSC IapYgdaaiYou eadoy a ao-jm ummamaludu 0.10g0Op IMUOVUMHPHOYHPWON RJOROdI NMIREPHEMEC 6NPhicY0 IIMQ000 YMQ OIC OH/LgHMW MI00111 MIPTindI POPh OJOHY0 oir @E'er govrmemmo 'ed(Dmri PIC iNUOU WOJ/cft ErlicHMW miodoo POPh OJOHY0 Immedu am woyan PXYOU OJOHHYGIMp - adIom cuoomqyasmicuoYodu ITHYOCIO 101130I0Jr011 T40E1002-0HOOhic TIOHH1f1I4d0H apoonodu oIll'ummanao amphaadpo iolAaIoaMico OH .Tivircedeuo xmmxpirM M X11HhOrP0011 BI'1H0HIC011FI H1?1 oJaholdu POPUPC %0I-L rexpp a UMHOY -HPIOO woIph.R 0614I/cHMII frPOPh IGUYEPI000 AIRCIMdPW RNOHHOheMPH aempdpe oil m XISMHOYOic X1qHC1001)00WIP mmurecidom a aIprou mdu odommmdao pipuou cuoomqvaImmtoYodu AremIphopd/upxoehmIadoeI ammwer GMH03IIMHX0I-O3iMIXPI OMICLOIOXGH ininH-1.X09 171- 1-0017Z00?Z001?1701-0-1-8dC1I-V10 Z1-/60/? -1A-09 ? eseeiej -104 P8AalddV MOO pazq!ueS u! 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TpeTx.. meToA ?3T0 yap KpuRom no KpERy BpazecKoro camoReTa;pe- eyRBTaT:nolum BepHaR rmdenb ocioux camoReToB; TIeTBepTlig MeT0A-3TO HaHeceHme yAapa BbIllyMeHHHM maccm HO HMAOT? ciwn Ka6mHe BpaxecKoro camoReTa.PeuRBTaT:BepHaR rm6ein (Awn( CaM0AeTOB H AeTtIKKOB. ERMA meToA ?9T0 npRmog TapaH Ha BcTpexmom Itypce.PesyRBTaT:Heme 6ezHaR rm6eRB odomx. CymecTByeT pRA Apyria npmemoB.B HacToRmee Bpemil OHM AOHOAHRDT? CR HOBHMX peicomeHAaummmloOycRawimBaemilmm cnemm(pmeclomm ?codex- HOCTRMYI peaKTTABHog aBmailmm.BeeycRoBHoloHm 6yAyT npmmeHRTLcR tia- Me21.1eM B mmHymylo BogHy,nooTomy Hao Ha MIX OCTaHOBIATLCR,KaK Ha cymecTBeHHom memeHTe aKTHBHOR Hp0TIABOB03AyMHOg oftpoHs MCP. 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CIA- -010 . 9f1nn9z.nn 1A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50X1-HUM 3aAaqa OopmpimpyeTcR TaK:aTomHaR H BoxkopuHaR OomOapAmpoBKa eCTL Bonpoc EM3HM M cmepTx orpomHNx macc,nonomy mx npuoTBpawe- Hme AOEXHO OHTI) AOCTMFHyTOg AMOO g aeHoll,npm JuolOux ycRo- Bmsix.Eum Revam-mcTpeOmTem) m3pacxoAoBax 3anacH cHapuoB m pa- KeT,Ho He yAaRocip yHMIITOBTITI, Bpara;ecat BpaxecKomy camoReTy yAa- ROCTD 3akTm CEMMKOM rRycloKo B THE cTpam,-coBeTcKmg AeTtIMp-MCTpe- OMTen, AoRzeH npumeHmTB TapaH.A ecRw He npmmeHmTlemy mozeT "peKo- meHAoBaTB" OTO Komamxp Yze B mmpHoe BpemR M3BeCTH0I-M 143BeCTH0 TaKze no onmTy BTOpOg mmpoBa BOgH111-14TO noABmr TaKoro ReTtimica OyAeT npocRaBReH,qTo emy HemeAReHHo OyAeT npmcBoeHo 3BaHme repos CoBeTcKoro Comalm TaK Amee. 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TpeTTM npmem peKomeuyeTcR npmmeHRTio npoTmB rpynnu OomdapAmpommoB npoTmBHmKa.HaAo pa3pymmTB cTpoR rpynnu,qTo0H impearTeRm EBO Aocimm ee nooxiHme.ARR 3TOTO OAKH 113 impearre ReM HAEBO Ha BcTpeqHom Kypce HanpasimeTcR npamo Ha CaM0AeT Buy- wero ReTqmKalHa Hew3limoe CTOAKHOBeHMe,M Ha H3BeCTHOM paccToR- HMI cam HaxwmaeT Ha EHOHKM KaTanyiwmpoBaHma M BEcTpeimaeTcR M3 vicTpeOmTeRR.EocReAHmtl 0.e,p,niugTa,HaReTaeT Ha BeAywm2 camoReT M UJILAocTmrai,TcR. 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043Rnn9fInn9Ann11_A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 -64- 50X1 -HUM HOHet1HOICTUCTBTOT m A yine pUILUMCHAULIAMOU MN ha MAX He (Arra- HimmBaemcsl.Hama 3aAma-odpaTATE, BHmmaHme Ha camia (MKT cymecT- BOBaHMH Tapalla B KamecTBe oRemeHTa npomoBosAywHoR odopoHm COUP. 0 ZPICTallIIHRX BeAeHmR orHR 3ammueHme OCTaHOBIWCH Ha Bonpoce o AnTaHLIHRX BeAeHmR B03- Ayinforo orHR.D.To-BonpoclKoTopomy B CCOP,KaK B cTpaHe KRaccmuem apTicuRepmid m BYCOKO pa3BmT0M daimmoTmullyAeRReTca MCKAHAMTeAbH0 BlimmaHme. 0KOHtiaTeRbH0 mramo B BOeHHO-B03AyMMIX mum CCC? npaBmo: B TeMHTO HOqb npmmeRmBaHme ocymecTBRRTL npwriomomm HenoAmoicHok ceTKm npmmeRalnpm mammmanLHom AxameTpe Kozbua pomdmKoB.Bce 3Ha1O tITO 3T0 eCTL ympouteHme,Ho KomaHAoBaHme BBC COOP mAeT Ha Hero CO3HaTeRbHO. 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CIIMMOTCH B OrHeBOM OTHOMeHMM OTAMqH0 110Ar0T0BAeHHN- mx,eum omaAeBamT Teximok BeAeHmR orHR no camoReTam "ITOTIOHM- Ka" C MMHMMaRbilloa /400 meTpoB/ ArAcTaHuM. li3JIMMHe roBopmm,cKom, Bamoe 3HameH14e mmeeT 3HaHme 3T0r0 OaK- Ta KomaHAoBaHmem cTpaTermuecKok aBmaumm HATO. o H e U - 50X1 -HUM Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 50 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 MIIIIIIIIINNAINELUMasigitimenimaNzw 0OHORHNE CEABOOTH AFT0TIAB0B03A:rMH0tH npoTmBoxmmmtlecKoil tt.t orrly;IP U0BeTnknrn LnYna ___50X1-HUM I.TIpe3mepHaR EpOTREdHHOCTb Teppmacp.ig AeweT Becbma TfAllOM odecnelleHme Bceg CTpaHH pasH0m1Hoii no IITITeliCTAB:i0CT4 CICT:14 Ep0THB0B0311y1nH0E II npoTuBoxymmecl,cgOcopRL 2.aBKa3lYicpamHalcpuHea3maTcKme pecnybnazm m 4146a.1 -.4!..a. B cJly- ae xopomo npoAymaHHoro BHemHero HaTAcica ..JryT N3HeH14II COBeTCK0 My Com3y,cfreAoBaTeHLHo2o6opoHa A npoTuBgB(.:InymHaR o0:1-)Ha moral OH CTaTb TpyAH0pa3pemmm0g npoonemom,o CBJATeAbCTByeT ?ENT coBeTcm-repmaHcKoM BOMHY. 3.00CP He mmeeT eme AAJATenbHoro u C C 0 B 0 r 0 OEETa M TeXHHTIPCKOR KyABlypm b OGAaCTA ocuiloaTaumm mempoHmtleciou coopyEeHmk,nooTomy KcyarPDKI:IPtIT mx &!eNT4BHOCTIA He clyAeT AOCTaT011H0 BECOKAM. 4. 3meAoHmpoBaHme LBO BrAyOb cTpaHN/Ha CCIOFHLTX Hanpamemmilx/ Hem3delm0 oczadmT EBO Apyrmx pailoHoB,B uacTllocTmlpamoHoB otieHb rAydoxoro Tuzala Taluse,mozeT OuTb,HexoTopux yqacTKoB mepe-oBoh MEM BOUTIIHOk BORHE. 5.KaK noKa3aH onmT nocHeAHek BORHEIB macTHo-Tm nepmoA 000polim MocioulAim coBeTcKoro cTpoH cammm GlIaCHNM hilAAPTCR mctieBHoBeHme TaKmx um141414cTpaTmBriNx ueHTpoB,KaK Y.ocloalAemi4Hrpu,,3:14eB,CBepAEo BCK H HylialmeB.BBmAy KpailHeR neHTpumeaamm 0r5mecTBeHH0r0 upoH, yHmtiTozeHme TaKmx IleHTpoB npmBeAeT K ducTpc'T pacnuy Bcero pexm malK dypHomy pacueTy oiccTpemmoTcKmx Teuenmag He TORTDKO B Hepyc CKHX pamoHax,Ho H B npoBI4Huslx COOCTBeHHO PCCCHH. 6.CCOP,KaK BoeHHaH cmalHe MOFeT 3yMeCTBOBaTT) de3 00ALY1X mace Ha3emHoR apmmm.Ho mHorommimmolnim aplam Hem30exH0 AlTeT Oclumme rpynnmpomu,KoTopme,B CBOD ollepeAlHerKo noA11:a73TcH aTGMHOMy B03- AelICTBHM. 7.AT0MH0-BOA0p0AHaR TWRHa OyAeT TpedoBaTB 14,111-MX (Dopm mexaHrir m poBaHHog E0ABWICH0CTH BOCK H HacereHmH.Ho A.mq OTOr0 TpedymTcH xopomme Aoporm BO Bcex HanpameHmEx.CCOP He mmeeT eme Tang Ao- pOICHOg CeTH,CAeA0BaTeAbHO,BO3HMKHyT orpomme TpyAHocTm. ,2.HaK ME Tice noica3mmlnpoTmBoaTommle meponpmill.ig AAR obopom! rpazAaHolcoro HacerfeHms4 HOCRT ynp0m:e.HHK2 H Aaxe EpAM;,THBHUM xaTaK TepluleAoBaTeRbHo,xcepTBN OyAyT HaCT0RbK0 MHOrOliNCReHHEMM,LITO BAaCTRM OyAeT TpyAHo CEpaBHMCR C cmTyaqmeg. .fas. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 X1 -HUM ? ? -- 71' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 rt e n (lurch die F.rlinung der Lehrlihgsentgelte ausgeglichen. (Vgl. _ Verordnung ilber die Erhbhung der Lehrlingsentgelte vom 28. Mai 1 Personen, die sich in einem kurzfristigen Ausbildungsverhaltnis befinclen (Anlernling.e), erhalten wie Lehrlinge einen Zuschlag von 15,? DM brutto monatlich zu ihrem Entgelt oder ihrer sonstigen Vergt.itung als Ausgleich. Berechnzing des Zuschlages bei Neuaufnahme (Begriindung) oder Losung (Beencligung) eines Arbeitsrechtsverhaltnisses. Nach der 'Verordnun;-_,,, ist der Zuschlag bei Begriinclung oder Be- exiigung eines Arbeitsre.chtsverhiiltnisses (Wechsel der Arbeits- sielic) warencl des laufenden Monats wie bei Teilbeschaftigung zu zahlen. Arbeiter und Angestellte, die wiihrend des laufenden Mo- re.ls ausscheiclen oder neu eingestellt werden, haben naturgemaB nur Anspruch auf Zahlung entsprechend der geleisteten Arocitszeit. _ Z-nm, im August. 1953 schcidet em n Arbeiter aus dem Betrieb aus. Auf---::/: Grind der geleinteten Arbeitszcit hat er noch filr 11 Arbeitstage An- Snruch auf Zuschlag. flei voller monatlicher Arbeitszeit wilren 22,? DM Zuschlag, zu zah!en. Wegen des Ausscheidens aus dem Betrieb sind jedoch nur dieser SUMITIC, ni-imlich 9.31 DM, Restzuschlag zu zahlen. Die Ret,.r,clung in der Verorclnung sichert Arbeitern und Angestellten auch .fLir den Monat. in welchem sic einen Betriebswechsel vor- nehmen, den vollen Zuschlag. Gleichzeitig werden Doppelbezahlun- gen ausgeschaltet. - - - 3. Perechnung des Zuschlages fur arbeitende Alters- und Invalidenrentner Md3gebend fur die Berechnung des Zuschlages an arbeitende Rentner claf.1 sic Anspruch auf Zuschlag wic alle Arbeiter und Angestellten haben. Die Rente dart bei ihrem Bruttoverdienst nicht angcrechnet ve&clen. Der Zuschlag wird also zunachst wic bei anderen Arbeitern uid Angestellten nach der Zuschlagstabelle ermittelt. 1,a fientner nun von der Sozialversicherung bereits einen Zuschlag zu i'n-vr Rent.? erhallen, sind diese 9,--DM von dem aus der Zuschlags- i belle Zuschlag abzusetzen. Zion Beispici: ner Durchsehnittsverdic.mst eines Vol lrentners betrugt monatlich 2 I7.:10 DM, woair 29,? DM als Zuschlag vorgesehen sind. Vom Betrieb s yet also nur noeh 20,? DM zu zahlen. 1.. ;,a13 auch Meinungen, f?r arbeitende Bentner'keinen Zuschlag durch dee Sozia!versicherung zu zahlen, daftir aber von der Arbeitsstelle eel; i vollen Zuschla;, zu )._;*ev.-eihren. Danach Nitte. die Masse der nicht Arbeit stehenclen lientner nachweisen mdssen, da 13 sic in kemem ilsrechtsverhaltnis stehen. Ein zweifellos unverstandliches Ver- n! Deingegentlber sind the Rentner cler Sozialvers:cherung in den Irrieben bekannt, da sic von der Beitragspflicht zur Sozialversiche- ruc.?.; befreit said Den Bets;eben 1st dahcr zu empfehlen, fur die be- 1:4--;i'onden Rt;ntner eine namenthche Liste zur Errechnung des Zu- scnges- aufzustellen. ? - ? *2.. =:?= - _ - Rentnerbei_denen der DurchschhittsVerclier?st monatlich Ober 500.? DM brutte=11est' -bleiben be der befrieblichen Zuschlagszahlung unbeiuck- :sihtigt. - e?-? _ - ? - _ _ ?___ _ ,Verrneiching-:vdn Doi-) peizahlungen.-des- Zuschlages bei 'riickwirkencler _ ? Rentengetodhrung._ ,? ? ? ,. 2 _., ._ ., -,--- ------,- _-_ _.. , ...., - ? ?, , ?. ? '-_- Werden Alters:- bzw.-.Invalidenrenten pen' geWillirt, so kann es ? vbr-:... :.:----e?-?---__-,_, :::, = - kommen; dafi der ,Zuschlag Zur Rente ..vOli,-,der:SozialA:ersicherung Liber---,.- ? .Monate rtickwirkend gezahlt wird. - - _ _ ..?.. , W.ahrend dieser Zeit hat der Antragsteller jedoch den- Zus-Chlag _vb11. vdm ,Betrieb- erhalten.Alit cidi- ruckwirkenden ,Rentei-i--__ _ zahlung erhiilt er nun einen-- weiteren_ Zuschlag .iii Ifohe--.Von -9;--?-?DM.:--_---,'.: ,. -------. ' ee-Er- hat daher monatlich 9,? DM zuviel- erhalfen. :?._-? .. ,? _ --? - ? . ..., , :. Alters-- mid, Invalidenrentner sind Vom-,- Zeitplinkt --ihres ,,Renten-!-_,---'-:.'. - -- , _ ...:. .. anspruches an von 'der Beitragspflicht: -AirSozialVersicherung.'befreit? _ ?_ _ . _ _ _ .. . ' - Die z-uviel gezahlten Sozialverslcherungsbeitriip,e 1.Verden '-dc,.mnach. -Z.u.Z_ .e - ?. - _ , , ruckerstattet. 'Dabei ,sind die tiberschilssigen=-Lohnzuschthge_evom::Be-:: - --itieb anzurechnen. -ZuViel_ gezahlte Zuschli.igsbetriiger? die den zu er- . -- 'stattenden Beitragsanteil iThersteiesene_ sind --je-dOehyriichte zurtIck-zu7 fordern. (Fur den Ehegatten,zuschlag gilt this '-gleiche.)- ----,4 ---e?--- ' -1- -? _ ----e - .= ,-- ='-- -., -_ e--- _? , ,, .. _,_, 1 ?I . t? ? . ? 1 ?? .. . 4. Pliii4ung den-,Zzischliige- .und - perii,cksie htigung - bei Unterhaltsver7, ___-,:- --;?--- 'v.-- - ; ., ... . a _ r ..C- :- , - ?. .._-' .. , ? ?,_ _ - , . , - ;-. _?-,. _1" .,. - --k' .:?' i ''-?-_ --"'',-,. -- , ,_ nfliChtlingen: 7'dec'Verordnung' 'yam' 9. Juni= 195:---- uber 'die' Pfincltui;.,, '---von At bei tsein- -, ?. _,-.- --.: ? Die an Arbelter, und A ngestell Le ---.alse-Ausgleich fur- -?Mehraufwen-, _-_,-;? !_,-- . _cluncr&i.Und zur Lohnerhbhung gezahlten:eZuschliige'sowlem=die''Sdricler7:.--- _ :n Ehegatten--und Itinclerztischl-ige sind unpairldbarer Link im Sin - - :--. e ___--e?::- ---, ?',--e-?,-,-- Rolm-nen.- Die - g-enarin ten e Zuschlaigef,sind . bei- ,cler, _Neu feStsetzung von. '-= ?---- '----' -e- -?-'''' '''''' UnterhlltsverpfliehtuAgeh -nleht -heranzuziehen. 'Bestehen-de Tinter- _ re --, -- , -haltsverpflichtun-gen: e.rhohc-21i?sich nicht-attf_GrUlld der -Abscha ffung der - - . - de-r,I--Terstellung eines ?-einheitlichen _ =??niveaus.--=-Arbeiter und g, ,Anestenteeche-z. B.--ihren Unterhaltsberechtigten ? ,_?_ _ "Angeherigen.? im Fiulcr, cier I iii fsbedurf tigkei t .1.1nterhalt- gekvahren, ,? hancn--ciie--ZuSchlagsbetrade:"entsprechend der Rentenzuschlagsvr d ero- . _ ,n-u-ng-- nicht -zUez..ahleri-,-da cl_ieSe aufi An trag den, unterstiitzten Personen ? durch die staatliclien Organa gewahrt werden. ? - III. Anderung des Zuschlages Der Zuschlag f?r Ausgleich und Erhohung ist seinem Wesen nach eine Sozialle:stung des Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Staates, die nicht unmittelbar von der 1-lohe der Arbeitsleistung des einzelnen, sondem von seiner sozialen Lag,e abiLLingig ]st, sov,,eit these durch den monatlichen Bruttoverclienst bestimmt wird. In der Verordnung ist deshalb eincleutig fe.stglelegt. ClaG der Zuschlag im Verlaufe des Kalenclerjahres nicht geiindert werden soil. Im Prinzip ist clemnach jeden Mona', der Teileiche Zuschlag zu zahlen, der auf Grund des Durchschnittsverchenstes errechnet worden ist. Das gilt auch clann, wenn sich die Lohn- unci Gehaltsgruppe eines Arbeiters oder Angestellten verandert, In der Rege.I wird es sich ciribfi urn IThhcr- stufungen handeln, so daf3 filr die Arbciter und AnE,Iesteliten durch die Weiterzahlung des alten Zuschlages Vorteile entstehen, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 29 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 - - _ Die gleichbleibe.nde Zusehlagszahlung gev,Tiihrleistet, daf3 der Anreiz zur Qualifizierung und Leistungssteigerung nicht gernintlert wird. Se hebt den sozialen Charakter der getroffenen Regelung hervor. Aus den gleichen Or-Linden milssen die betrieblichen Gewerkschaftsorgane auch clarauf achten, dat3 dei ? Zuschlag nicht etwa dazu benutzt wird, Lohn- oder Norrnen- bze,v, Akkordkorrekturen vorzunehmen. Die gleichbleibe-nde Zahlung soil den Betriehen auf3erdem die Arheit erleichtern helfen und ve.rhindern, daf3 der Zuschlag jeden Monat neu und - zeitraubend bercchnet werden mu B . IV. Gewahrung des Zuschlage.s hei Arbeitsunfuhigkeit, Urlauh, Lehrgangen unci hezahlter Freistellung von der Arbeit Urn die Lohnberechnung nicht weiter 111 komplizieren; ist es notwendig den Zuschlag in der ilegel fiir den ganzen Monat zu zahlen. -Das ist auch okonomisch und von der sozialen Seite her in all den Fallen gerechtfertigt, wo der Arbeiter auf Grund gesetzlicher,Bestirnmungen von der Arbeit freigestellt ist, z. B. bei Umzug, ,Tociesaillen in der -Familie -usw. -Selbst- verstlindlich gilt das auch f?r alle Freistellungen,-die wegen der Wahrneh-_ mung staatspolitischee bzw. gesellschaftlicher Interesseri,gev,,Lihft werclen. In der Verorcinung ist cleshalb Testgelegt, dal?) dereZuschlag invofler Tine und ohne jegliche Abzuge weiterzuzahlen ist, so, als oh der Betreffencle uber cite voile monatlichc Arbeitszeit thtig gewesen-v,7iire: I-Tiervon sind solche Fulle ausgenornmen, in &non der Werkthtige auf seinen Wunsch von der Arbeit freigcstellt wird, ohne dal3 der 13etrieb rechtlich clazu vol.= pflichtet ist. Es bestcht dann nur Anspruch auf Zuschlag entsprechend der geleisteten Arbeitszeit. ,-? Ericichterungen bei Arbeitsunfiihigkeit Bei Arbeitsunflihigkeit im Sinne der Vorschriften der Soziniversicherung oder hei Quarantine ist der Zuschlag ebenfalls ohne jede Einschriinkung weitetzuzahlen, ci. h. auch unabhiingig von der Dauer der Arbeitsunfahig- keit. Das ist von grailer snzialer Bedeutung Tiir die Beschaftigten mit niedrigem Einkommen. Sc erhal ten wiihrend der Arbeit.sunEihiekbit nicht nur den Nk!hsten Ausgleiehsbetrag von 14,? DM, sondem auch den vollen Bctrag fur die Lohnerhohong. The Bestimmungen der Verordnung erleichtern (loch die 1...,a;r_1,e soleher Kranken, fur die \\.egen der Mille ihres Einkommens em n Zuschlag tinter 14,? DIVE festgelegt ist oder die keinen Anspruch aut. Zuschlag haben. Bei Arbeits-tmMhigkeit ist. nach Wegfell cies Lohnause,leiches auch an solche Arbeiter Und Angestellien der hochste hikusgleichsbetrag von 14,? DM zu zahletl. 13e,einnt- oder endet die Arbeitsunfiihigkelt I.vi_ihrend des lriofenden Mona Es. Sc) ist der Betrag von 14,? DM nor dann zu zahlen, wenn der Arbee,s1ohn fdr don betreffenden Monat zuzi.ig,lich Th..ankene,eld nicht mehr als CO,? DM brutto betriist. Liegt (las monatliche Et kommen fiber diesem Bet rag, so ist der Zusehlag wieder nach den allgemeinen Bestimmungen zu zahlen. 13eispiel: En leitender Ange.steiller pit einem Durchschnittsverdienst voh 900,? DM ist 7 Monate arbeitsunfahig. Nachdem sem Anspruch auf Lohnausgleich 30 sio ' _ ,_ _ . - __-::::-?- - Del_ Irsill'nczo-Will,ifton -1-leininrheitf.,rn. die ohne_ Anrechnung der - _ ,benot,g1,-. n Arbeitz,ziet -nech Stuckpre.st n et-W.011M werclen, ist c1.0_-antr41:r.t. geletele--eV 1.,eits7e1t rfaill cler;-_-durrhschnittlielien.--' 1.\.ol.merfullung der 13-etree:Jair'oeiter-:init. ?-?gleichdr--Ttiligkeit zu errechnen -, . _ _ .._._ _ _ -. _. _. _- - ac) Agindes-fzuschlag fiir Tcilbei-schiiftigte. , _ . ?? . Oft --a rbeiten': Teti besehlif Lete's_titir stoncien jode1e?-tageWeise2._ In der Verordnung ist clesholb festgelegt?clal3 nn Teilbeschaftigte -- e.rieAlincleStzuschlag VOli'5,;-=_DMegezEihl.t-WerC1C11-muf3. - ? . _ ,- Die A Oshil fsverkiio Teri n wird im Monat ---chirehNchreitt1ich_24 Stunden ncler,3-volle Arbeitstageiebesch;:iftip,t.-, _ Der:- -fun: !e -cTi? e tirelc D r eh- h ni v .c'rci1cnst V.'tirde_-.bei: I/611=e- bescf tigting 270,?_ DM 'ausmachen; Zuschlzig zahlen, wnren_Von ?cliesem -_vollen, Zuschlag ,in I lohe on e ewziren for, die steindenwCise beSehaftigte Aushil f:wcr- = _1,12 DM-zu:zahlen: --Datlurch \viire sic gegeni.lber einer -nicht arbeitencien EhefraU, f?r die DM Ausgleich gezehlt wird, benachteilif_4t. 1)ef,halb -worde der 11,1inelestiuseh1ag Jur Teilbeschalligte dem Ehegatten:-' zuschlag gleichgesetzt. ,? - b) Rereehnting des Zuschlagcs fiir htgendlicha. ?- e- In 40 des Gesetzes der_ Arbeit vom 19. April 1950 ist frs1e5,elegt,-,_ (IA Jugendliche his zu 16 Jahren ?,,?ochentlich nicht mehr ils 42 Stunden beschUtigt werden \VOhrend die ,J?ugendliehen in Westcicwtsehland oft nor _einen Rroch-7 teil de.s Lohnes.. ilterer Arbiter erhal ten, ist dos Prinzip ?gleicher Lohn g:eiche Arbeit" in tier Dcutschen Demokratischen Republik schon sett langem verwerklicht. Dec Arbeitslohn der Jug,endlichen his zu 16 Jnliren bezieht spell _ doch wegen des besonderen Schutz's ihrcv Arbeitskraft auf eine verkurzte Arbeits/eit von 42 Stunden wOcnonllich. 13ei gleichem Stundenverdienst haben sic deshalb emen medr.qcren Monotsver- dienst als erwochsene Arbeiter. Die in der Zuschlaestabelle onga- fuhrten Zusehlage beziehen filch demgcgentiber auf Durchschnitts- verdicinste, die bei vol:cr mon:1111c her Ai beiteit erreicht werden (195 oy.w. 2U8 Stunci,en) Der Arbeitslohn dieser Jugendlichen 'ober au!' die -,:vdehentliche A rbeit;,zeit von 42 Stunden berechnet. Btiebe des unberLickslchtii41., clonn -vkLirden clue Jugendliehen emen 11C,heren Zuschlag bekommen ols Arbeitcr mit drier Arheitszeit von 45 bzw. 48 Stunden. nu dos nicht. verirotbor 1st, wird der Zuschlag wie oni eibeschilfW,ten ent,prechcnd der geleisteten A rbeitszei berechnet. Bei ,fogendlichen im Alter von 16 his 18 Jahren sind die aus ihrer veildirzten Arbeitszeit ref;Litticrenden It,ohnuntorschiene unerhobl:ch Sic crhaiten den vollen Zuschliig nach der Zuschtrigcaubnlie. Zuschlag fur Lahrlinge wad An/erniinge. Ju.Tt?endliclic, die skh in einem Lehrverh51tnis brilinden, wet-den die Yiehraufv:endungcn "Del der Alichulfung der Lebensrnittel- 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 A en- -? - -26 Bc-.1 Teilbeschaftigten im Gehalt, Monatslohn oder im reinen Zeitlohn ist das ohne 1.veiteres rnoglich, sofcrn der Bruttaver- dienst des Betreffenden keine anderen Lohnbestandteile als den tariflichen Grundlohn enthalt. F?r Teilbeschaftigte, deren Bruttoverdienst schwankend ist oder steigerungsfahige Lohnbestandteile enthalt, wie Mehr- leistungslohn und Erschwerniszuschlage, ist der Durchschnitts- verclienst der letzten 3 Monate wie folgt zu ermitteln.: Gesamtverdienst der letzten 3 Monate Anzahl der in den letzten 3 Monaten. geleistieten Arbeitsstunden z. B. 360,? DM Gesamtverdienst 180 St-unden Arbeitszcit 'tre DM Stundcnverdienst 2,? DM X 195 Stunden = 390,? DM (bzw, 208 Stunden) errechneter Durehschnittsverdienst Der Durchschnittsverdienst der letzten 3 Monate ist auch far die Teilbeschaftigten nach ? 26 Abs. 4 der Verordnung zur Wah- rung der Rechte der Werktatigen. vom 20. Mai 1952 zu ermitteln, ab) Die Pestlegung des Zuschlages. Nachdem der Durchschnittsverdienst fur Teilbeschaftigte er- mittelt ist, wird zunachst die Zuschlagsraihe nach der Zuschlags- tabelle ermittelt, Zum Beispiel: Fur cinen Teilbeschaftigten ist errechnet worden, daB er bei Vollbeschaftigung omen clurchschnittlichen Monatsverc.iienst von 390,? DM. hatte. Nach der Zuschlagstabelle waren dafi.ir 17,? DM als Zuschlag festzulegen. Davon ist jedoch nur der Anteil zu zahlen, der dern Verhaltnis der geleisteten Arbeits- zeit zur monatlichen Arbeitszeit bei Vollbeschaftigung ent- sprich Urn zu hoben Aufwancl zu vermeiden, kann das Verhaltnis tiber- schiltgig errnittelt werdcn. Zum Beispiel: lm Durchschn1tt hat cin Tellbeschaftigter in den letzten 3 Mo- naten 8 voile Tage monatlich gearbeitet, dementsprechend sind auch nU r 8/'20 des in der Zuschlagstabelle abgelesenen Betrages als Zuschlag zu zahlen. Der errechnete Durchschnittsverdienst des Betreffenden wiirde sich bei VollbeSchiatig,ung auf 390,? DM belaufen, wottir laut Zuschlagstabelle 17,? DM Zuschlag vprgesehen sind:-Davon sind 81:20 (17:26 0,65 x 8) = 5,20 DM zu zahlen, 0 erlosehen it. erhiilt er nunmehr fur den vollen .Mnrat einen Zusehlag - Von 14,? Di\A. Endet seine Arbeitsunfahigkeit zu_ Anrang eines Monats, z. B. am 3. oder 4., so ist ihm nach den aligemeinen BeStimmungen dieser Verordnung fLir den laufenden Monat kein ZunchIng inehr_zu zahlen. - Die Krankengeldzahlung des FDGB oder eine Unt4ersittitzung dureh den Betrieb bzw. eine zusatzliche Krankengeldversicherung werden nicht _ gerechnet. Das gilt auch dann, Wenn der Kranke stational' behandelt wird =?' (Krankenhaus, Sanatorium, Genesungsheim usw.). - Die Zusehlage fair Arbeiterund Angestellte sowie fLir ihre Ehegatten ohne eigenes Einkommen und ihre Kinder sind wahrend der Krankheit grtmd- satzlich vom Betrieb zu zahlen. Das gilt auch, wenn zum Krankengeld ?- kern Lohnausgleich mehr gezahlt wird. Nur wenn das_Arbeitsrechtsver- haltnis wahrend der Arbeitsunfahigkeit gelost vird, iibernimmt die Sozial- versieherung die Zahlung der Zuschlage fur den Arbeiter oder Angestellten und seine Famine, V. Auszahlung der Zuschrage /..Trennung des Zuschlages V0111. Lohn, Der Zuschlag [Or Ausgleich sowie zur Erhohung der unteren Einkoinmen gilt- nicht als Bestandteil des Arbeitslohnes. Er tinterliegt cice,.halb auch nicht der Lohnsteuer- und der Beitragspflicht zur Sozieisicherung,. Er mut?, getrennt vom Lohn bzw. Gehalt ausgewiesen werden. Es ist anzurtrebe.n, die Zuschlage f?r Arbeiter und Angestellte SOWle f?r deren nicht arbeitende Ehegatten und Kinder gleichzeitig auszu- zahlen. Dabei ist jeder emzelne Zuschlag nach 1\115glichkeit g,esondert auszuweisen. Falls dadurch der Aufwand in den Buchungsstellen zu groB wird, konnen die einzelnen Betrage: 1. Zuschlag f?r Arbeiter und Angestellte, 2. Zuschlag filr7 dcren Kinder, 3. Zuschlag fur den nicht arbeitenden Ehegatten ohne eigenes Ein- kommen auch als Gesamtsumme auf dem Lohnzettel alS3gewiesen warden. 2, Auszahlzingstermin. In der Lohnzuschlagsverordnung warden die Betriebsleiter und Be- triebsinhaber oder deren Beauftragte verpflichtet, den Tag der monnt- lichen Auszahlung des Zuschlages mit den betrieblichen Gewerk- schattsleitungen zu vereinbaren. Soweit as sich urn kleinere Betriebe ohne eigene BGL handelt, ist der Auszahlungstermin mit dem geweric- schaftlichen Vertraue.nsmann irn Betrieb festzulegen, bei Klemst- betrieben ohne eigene Gewerksehafts.gruppe ist diese Vercinbarung mit der zustandigen Orts- oder Dorfgewerkschaltsleitung zu treffen. Diese Regelung soil as ermoglichen, -Libor den Auszahlungstermin tinter Berticksiebtigung der betrieblichen,Bedingungen zu entscheiden. Es ist Jedoch anzustreben, die Auszahlung der Zuschlage mit der Auszahlung des Lohnes bzw. des Gehaltes zusammenzulegen. Urn zu vermeiden, daB infolge der Vorauszahlu.reer des Zuschlages fur den Monat Juni 158 der Zeitratim b:s zur nachsten Zuschiags,zahlung ' _ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 zu grof3 wird, sind von den Betrieben in eige.ner Verantwortung gemein- sam mit den Gewerkscha.ftslc:itungen die Pluszahlungstermine ftir die Monate Juli und August so festzuleg,en, cla3 zwischen der Auszahlung der Zuschliigc in den erten drei Monaten kein liingerer Zeitraum als 5 Wochen. entsteht. Die betrieblichen Gewerkschaftsleitungen in den privaten Betrieben und Einrichtungen sowie die Orts- bzw. Dorigewerkschaftsleitungen haben das Becht, zU kontrollieren, wie aile in der Verordnung festgelegten Mafinahmen eingehalten i.verden. Das, gilt besonders ftir the Berechnung des DurchschnitL,lohnes, die Fesistellung des Zuschlagsanspruchs und die Hohe des zu zahlenoen Zuschlages. B. ERLAUTERUNGEN zur Zuschlagsverordnung Landwirischaft I. Entlohnung der Arbeiter uric! Angestellten mit und ohne Naturalversorgung In den volkseigenen und ihnen gleichgestellten Betrieben der Land- und Forstwirtschaft war die Lohnerhohung vorn 1. April 1957 em n sichtbarer Beweis daftir, claB die Partei der Arbeiterklasse und die'Regierun,g unseres Arbeiter-und-Bauern-Slaates mit I-Tilfe der gewerkschaften den Lebens- standard der Werktiltigen auf dem Lande standig veruessern. Durch die umfassencle Lohnerhohung hat sich z. B. der Durchsel-mitts- verdienst eines Landarbeiters der Lohngruppe, V in einem volkseigenen Cut von 276,? DM auf 300,? DM monatlich erhiiht. Bei einer Lanclarbei- terin, die nach der Lohngruppe III entlohnt wird, stieg der Durchschnitts- verclienst von 200,? DM mit 225,? DM im Monat. .Zus'citzlich zu diesem Geldlohn erhalten die weitaus mcisten Arbeiter und Angestellten in den voll:seigenen landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben Natura- lien zu Erfassungspreisen. Die-se Lebensmittel werden demnach von 13eschaftigten mit Naturalversorgung billiger gekauft als von Arbeitern und An.gestellten. die keine Naturalien zu Erfassungspre;se.n be.ziehen und deshalb L,ebensmittelkarten erhielte.n. Daraus ergibt sich em n Differenzbetrag zwischen Erfassungs- und. Ver- braucherpreisen zugunsten der Arbeiter und Angestellten mit Natural- versorgung. Urn diesen Vorteil auszugleichen, erhielten deshalb die Arbeiter und Angestellten ohne Naturalversorgung den Differenzbetrag zusiitzlich zu ihrem Lohn ausgezahlt Durchschnitt 0,09 DM pro Stunde). Der Differcnzbetrag zwischen Erfassungs- und Verbraucherpreisen wurcie aber in den einzelnen Betrieben unterschiedlich berechnet, so daf3 auch unterschiedliche Betrtige ausgezahlt warden snd. Im Interesse der Ein- heitlichkeit uncl zur Entlastun-g der betrieblichen Lohnrechnungsstellen ist deshalb der Zuschlag lift den Ausgleich des Preisvorteiles der Natural- versorgten in die bisherigen Lohn- und GehaltstariCe eingearbeitet worcien. Ab 1. Juni 1958 sinci dcmnach die Arbeiter und Angestellten in den yolks- eigenen landwirtschaftliehen I3etrieben nach unterschiedlichen Lohn- bzw. Gehaltstabellen zu entlohnen. Nach der Verordnung sincl alle Arbeiter, Angestellten und Lehrlinge mit Naturalversorgung nach wie vor entsprechencl den gultigen Lohn- bzw. 32 ? Beispiel: Auf Grund der durchschnittlichen Normerftill Lin derr----zum- Vergleich heranp,ezogenen Arbeiter und -der -Lohngruppe des Neti:c._ eingestellten,:mul3 Err ihn -em:monatlicher DurchschnittsvOrdienst - von 420,? _DM angenommen. \\Talon. c) Festlegung des Zuschlages. Dementsprechend ist zuntichst filr-den Zeitraum von,3,NIonaten ein Zuschla,g von monatlich 13,-- DM zu yahlen1 Nach Ablauf dieser Zeit ist der tatsiichliche DurchschnittSverdienst,,,,i exakt zu errechnen und der Zuschlagszahlung zugrunde zujegen. Erreicht danach der neueingestellte Arbeiter nicht die angenornme- nen 420,? DM, sondem nur 392,? DM, clann?ist der Zuschlag.,von--. 13,? DIVE auf 16,? DM zu erhohen. Ftir (*Hese 3 Monate v:enig gezahlte Betrag von nachzuzahlen._- Zuviel,gezahlte-:, Betrtige sind nicht zurtickzufordern. flier ist cler Zuschlag-lediglich - zu korrigieren. _ , - ? Sinngemtif3 ist Ewell zu verfahren, wenn ,ein Arbeiter oder 'Ange-, stellter am 31. Mai 1958 noch nicht langer als 8 Wochen im I3etrieb tatig ist. Nachdem der Durchschnittsverdienst air jeden Arbeiter oder Ange7 stellten festliegt, ist die Mlle seines Zuschlages nach der Zuschlae,?sL tabelle zu ermitteln. In dieser Hohe wird der Zuschlag monatlich - unablitingig von Schwankungen des Verdienstes und cler Arbeits- zeit bis zum Ende des Planjahres gezahlt. Zur Erleichterung wird empfohlen, den nach dem Durchschnitts- verdienst der letzten 12 Monate festg,elegten Zuschlag auf die Jahres- lohn- bzw. Gehaltskarte aufzutragen, damit nicht jeden Monat die Zuschlagstabelle zur Hand genommen. werden braucht. 2. Berechnwng bei teilweiser Gewtihrung des Zuschlages. a) Rerechnung des Zuschlages bei Teilbeschaftigung. Als Teilbeschdftigte g(Aten Arbeiter und Angbstellte, die arbeits- vertraglich vereinbart haben, cla13 sic Halbtagsarbeit verrichten oder nur stunden- bzw. tagewcise arbeiten. Nicht als Teilbeschtiltigte gelten &gegen: Arbeiter und Angestellie, die laut Anordnung yam 1. ,Tuli 1954 tiber die Verkurzung der tiiglichen Arbeitszeit unter besonders schweren unci gesundheitsgefiThrdenden Bedingungen bzw. au! Grund von Ar- beit:Sschutzvereinbarungen eine kurzere Arbeitszeit haben. aa) Berechnwqg des Durchschnittsverdienstes. F?r Teilbeschaftigte liann der Durchschnitisverdienst n-us dem Brutto-verdienst der letzten 3 abgerechneten Monate ermittelt werden.. Urn Vorteile gegentiber VollbeschVtigten zu vermeiden, ist dabei der Duichschnittsverclienst so :zu berecnnen. als oh sic ',Aber die voile monatliche Arbeitszeit tatig gewesen waren. 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Bergmanns-Tnvali(lenrentner, VdN-Altersrentner, VdN-Invalidenrentner mit ciner Erwerbsminderung ab 66% Prozent unci einer Verdienstminderung urn mindestens 33 Prozent. Diese Rentner sind den Betrieben nomentlich bekannt, so daf3 die Auf- stellung der Liste nicht schwierig ist. II. Berechnung des Zuschlages 1. Berechnung des Zuschlages fiir Vollbeschtiftigte. a) Berechnung des Durchschnittsverdienstes bei 1,ringerer Betriebs-4 24 zugeh?rigkeit: Aus der Zuschlagstabelle wird ersichtlich, welcher Zuschlag bei einem bestimmten Durchschnittsverdienst zu zahlen ist, 'Bevor der Zuschlag mei') der Zuschlagstabelle festgelegt werden. kann, ist ftir jeden Arbeiter uncl Angestellten der monatliche Durchschnittsverdienst aus den letzten 12 abgerechneten Monaten zu ermitteln. Dabei sind nach ? 20 Abs. 4 der Verordnung zur Wah- rung der Rechte der Werktatigen vom 20. Mai 1952 einmalig ge- wlihrte Pramien, Vergtitungen ftir Einzelleistungen und Uberstun- den sowie Trennungsgelder, Fahr- und Wegegelder nicht zu berlick- sichtigen. Durch die Festlegung des Zuschlages nach dem Durch- schnittsverclienst der letzten 12 Monate werden Lohnschwankungen ausp,eglichen, die be.sonders bci Leistungslohnern und in Wirtschafts-? zwcigen mit Saisoncharakter auftreten, b) Berechnung des Durchschnittsverdienstes bei einer Beschriftigung von weniger at,s 12 111onaten. Bei Arbeitcrn und Angestellten, die am 31. Mai 1958 noch nicht 12 Monate im. Betrieb beschiiftigt sind, kann der Durchschnitts- erdienst naturgerniiB erst vom Zeitpunkt der Arbeitsaufnahme an berechnet werclen. Wenn ein Arbeiter z. B. im 1\lonat Januar 1958 eingestellt worden 1st. mul3 der Durchschnittsverdicnst von diesem Zeitpunkt an fir die 5 Monate bis zur Abschaffung der Lebensmittelkarten berechnet verden. Bei Neueinstellunge.n kann em n reprtisentativer Durchschnittslohn erst demi ermittelt ?verden, wenn eine genbgend lange Beschafti- w.mg vorliee,t. Deshalb ist in der Verordnung bestimmt, daB zunachst en voraussichthcher Durchschnittsverdienst festzulegen ist. Bei Ar- behe.rn und Angesteilten mit fcsten Lohnen und Gehaltern ist das ohne ?veiteres (lurch Vergleich mit den entsprechenden Tariflahrien inoelich. Um den zu erwartenden Durchschnittsverdienst insbeson- derC bei LeistungslOhnern nut cmiger Sicherneit festztisetzen: ist es zweckmill;le, sich an dcsr durchschnittlichen realene:NosthierfUllung der Arbeetet mit Welcher. Arbeit zu 'oricntiereme ?-e - ? , _ Gehaltssatzen 'der A-nlage 1 'der ? Direktive- zum Betriebskolleklivvertrag bzw, nach den -,Tabiellen der, Vereinbarung Ober die Durchfuhrung von lohnpolite,ehen MaBnahnien-vern 12. April 11i57 entlohnen. _ In diesern- Zusarnmenhang,Wird darauf dat3 die in den An- lagen der T, DTI] cktive ---,Zumeenetriebskol4..k1i?l. vie rag 1955 an feefuhrten _ Naturalsiitzerrstreng einzuhalten suid unci die3 ce, n.cht statthaft ist, Natu- ralien teilweiSe in"Geld'abzUgelten. Alie Arbeiter,'Angestellteh unci Lehrlinge oh n e Naturrilversorgimg sind nach der vorliegenden yerorchiung nach neuen Lohn- bzw. Gehaitssatzen zu entlohnen.-- ' Der ehemalige Zuschlag, der- als Ausgleich ftir d.e PreisvergOnstigung der Naturalversorgten g-ezahlt wdrde, ist also zum liestnndteil dr!' Tariflehnes der Beschziftigten ohne,Nalurnh'ers'iargime, gcAkorden und (thief nicht mehr gesondert vOm:-I-php gezahlt werden. Auf Wunsch .1 ri t,...? ????:? 1.4 0.4 r--) c, t 14: r,-71 17,0 1..4 CLI t n. .f.1 ,..4E-1 .E ..?.i r...:1 n i el .2..A! 1 (..) 0 ? - 4 ? C9 ., cs^: 1 CO 0.-4 r? ,-- '.- r- "."; ,-.1 ??--, rA ' ...4 r. ...., 6',1, , t..1 r0 ,Cf? r:i 14-1 '14 1???-? r-? c) rio -..? Cx -1 a r',4 0 i?-? -91. ,.. C3 .r..: ir...:;" "- ..7.7. ri...1 ?E; ,...., ,.... vo > ee: z ?,--' i'.: ._. r, ....* rr - ?-'' r-t t ? .4 ? ?-? ? > b_...1 = '....> I ???-? .' V-, /...., ??-? - C.) CI) C;) C.) C.) C.) ?,. '..'.., :A. ^ 1".: r-??? I ,-, ..... ????. ? 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Die Liste ist nach folgendem Muster auszufertigene Antrag auf Zahlung des Ehegatlenzusehlages lob versichere, dal?) mein(e) Ehefrau/Elhernann kein eigenes Einkornmen hat u-nd in der De.utsehen Demokratischen Republik bzw. im Demokrati- schen Sektor von Groll-Berlin wohnt. lob versichere ferner; dat3 ich keinen Antrag bed einer anderen Auszah- lungsstelle gestellt habe. Tch verpflichte mich, jede c.iniretoncic.1 Verbnderung (z. B. Aufnahme eines Aripeitsrechtsvernditnisse.s des Ehegatten, Beginn der Rentenzahlung fur den Ehegutten, Wohrisitzveraricierung) dem Betrieb unverziiglich, spite- 4es innerhalb eines 1\lonats zu rnelden. L fel . Name des 1.',.7r,-11 no rt des I)atum-der Untersehrift des Ni-. ege t ten Enegatton Antrae/stellung A n tra gste Hers 43 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 VI. Zuni Beginn und zur Dauer der Zahlung Ftir den Beginn der Zahlung .1st die Antragstellung entscheidend. Wird z. B. der Antrag am Letzten de M?rt s.etit, O ttgt? Zahlung-- noch f?r chosen. Monat. Beispiel: Scheidet eine Ehefrau wegen Arbeitsunfiihigkeit am 15. Juni aus dem Arbeitsrech:sverhaltnis aus, so kann der in Arbeit stehencle Ehemann den An.trag aut. Zahlung des Ehegattenzuschthiges noch bis zum 30. Juni stellen. Der Zuschlag wird in voller Lir den Monat Juni ausgezahlt. Wird ein Ehegattenzuschlag gezahlt und geht der Eheg,atte im Laufe des Nonats z. 13. ein Arbeitsrechtsverhaltnis em, so entfallen die Voraus- setzungen fur die Weiterz,thlung des Ehegattc,hzuschlages. Trotzdem wird der Ehegattenzuschla,.!. in solchen Fallen noch Lir den vollen Monat gezahlt. 'VII. Zur Auszahlung des Ehegattenzuschlages Von der guten organisatorischen Vorbereitung.und der reibungslosen Ab- wicklung der Auszahlung der Zuschlage hlingt in _entscheidendem MaBe das Vertrauen unseler BUrger zu den durch das Gesetz eingefuhrten groB- zugigen Verbesserungen der Lebensiage der Bevolkerung ab. Die Ausznhlung des Ehegattenzuschlages erfolgt von der gleichen Auszah- lungsstelle, die auch den Zustlilag zum Lohn bzw. zur Rente zahlt. Jrn Interesse der Empainger des ,Ehegattenzuschlages muf3 gewahrleistet werclen, daB die Auszahlung dieses Zuschlages ftir den Monat Juni nach Inkrafttreten der Verorcinung kurzfristig erfolgt. Es ist zweckmaBig, die Aus,zahlung des Ehegattenzuschlages z-usammen mit cle.r Ausnblung des Zuschlages zum Lohn vorztin.ehme.n. Alle weiteren Zahlungen sollen dann monatlich zusammen mit der Lohnzahluhg erfolgen. Bestehen mehrere Arbeitsrechtsverhaltnisse (z. B. zA.vei Halbtag,sbeschafti- gungen), so ist der Ehegattenzuschlag n_ur, von einer AuszahlungssAelle, und zwar in \Toiler 1I6he zu zahlen. Beim Wechsel der Auszahlung,sstelle (z. 13. Aufnahme. eines Arbeitsrechts- verhiiltnisses in einem neuen Betrieb, Weehsel der UniversitLit), hat die zuletzt zusUinclige Auszahlungsstelle zu bescheinigen, ftir weichen Monat die letzte Zahlung erfolgte. Der Anspruchsberechtigte ist gleichzeitig dar- aut.' hinzuweisen, driB diese Bescheinigung der neuen Auszahlungsstelle zu tibergeben ist, damit eine Weiterzahlung des Ehegattenzuschlages erfolgen Bei der Auszahlung des Ehegattenzuschlages ? das solite erstmalig auch bereits bei der Antragstellung erfolgen sind die Anspruchsberechtigten von Zeit zu Zeit clarauf aufmerksam zu machen, daB aile Veranderungen, die die Gewahrung des Ehegattenzuschlages bertihren (z. B. Bezug einer Rente, AtiEnahme eines Arbeitsrechtsverhaltnisses), unverziiglich zu mel- den sind. Es empfle,hlt sich. (lurch die Auszahlungsstellen ab und zu Kontrollen tiber die RechtmLiBigkeit des Bezuges des Enegattenzuschlages durchzufuhren. 44 _ ? 4.? , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release _ tO r' tf2 - c re-4 n-? ?-? tIVF-1 LrD C C C.) t c"; cc C.;!? f.-e) cs1 C.N1 C 1 .1 1 1 1 CD "CC:- - -.-b..' e - .= Ci - C-1 C?I C) Cl CI - t.r)- 50-Yr r?-? +.4 f-? CZI 7.," ? C.) Cr; E-4 - t 0 ? C.1 -14 CZ) C,1 , CO IC) CD c 1 - .. c 1. ' 0') - t .r) _ ., - .. ,_ - co CO C0 ;C) - -''$' csi cr; - ,. co c.) C-I !,--a CfD ce) CO CD c.0 r-i v-.4 r--4 v....1 ' ?--1 - C?i ?-.41 Cs]..= r-1 - 10 - In - IC) C!. CO - IC) U.-. .11 CoIf .D.. ,-- arD - CD CO. --, In, -V irD C?''c C.'S C I ?---4 L.-- CO CZ) CO C') ? ,-4 LO CD .--4 .--.4 .--i ..--i r i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 6' c...6' c--;?, c,-3' c.: c-, C.,-i. co I - .--4 c-t - 4 - .- c:. C.I CO VJ't LCD Lr) LO L - CO v--4 t--1 rd z MTS Wolferstedt VEB Ernst CO ci) rf, ..? I,. Cl.) 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Urn in den Familien, in denen nur em n Ehepartner Ober eigenes Einkommen verfligt, Nachtelle zu vermeiden, erhalten Arbeiter und Angestellte mit einem monatlichen D-urchschnittsverdienst bis zu 800,? DM einen wei- teren Zuschlag zum Lohn in Halle von 5,? DM Lir ihren Ehegatten ohne eigenes Einkommen. Der Ehegattenzuschlag wird auch an MitgliedEr sozia- listischer Genossenschaften sowie an Studierende gez-ahlt, sofern die dazu festgelegten Voraussetzungen erfUllt sind. Wie sich die umfassenden sozialen MaBnahmen zur Sicherung und Ver- besserung der Lebenslage der Arbeiterfamilien insgesamt auswirken, zeigen die folgenden Beispiele fidr die typische FamiliengroBe (zwei Er- wachsene, em n Kind) in Tabelle Nr. 1 und fur die durchschnittliche Ein- kommenshdhe (350,? bis 450,? DM brutto monatlich) in TabeIle Nr. 2. Die Unterschiede in den bisherigen uric' dadurch auch in den neuen Aus- gaben f?r Fleisch, Wurst, Fette, Mulch, Zucker und Eier zwischen den einzelnen Haushalten ergeben sich a) aus den unterschiedlichen Lebensmittelkarten, die die einzelnen Haus- halte erhielten, b) aus den unterschiedlichen Merigen, die die einzelnen Haushalte in der 1-10 kauften, c) rills dem unterschiedlichen Gesamtverbrauch in den einzeinen Haus- halten, d) aus den unterschiedlichen Qualitliten, die die einzelnen Haushalte kaufen. 12 ' c-Zr' e E. ERLAUTERUNGEN zur Verordnung fiber die Zahlung eines staatlichen kinclerzuschlages-: I. Zum Personenkreis Irn Zusammenhang mit der Abschaffung der Lebensmittelkarten -unci-dere' lierstellung eines einheillichen Preismveaus ist eine AusgleichszahlUng, fur Familien mit Kindern erforderlich. = Die Einfiihrung eines Kinclerzuschl ages fur die Kinder der Arbeiter. LindAngestellten und anderer Schich ten der Bevolkerung stollen -einbegrblilf zLigige. Maf3nahme unseres Arbeiter-uncl-Bauern-Staate.s,"irlar.-.Sie:List ein ' Ausciruck der Sorge des sozialistischen Staates urn die , Kinder n. _ - Der Kinderzuschlag ist ein erster Schritt zur Einathrung eines stantliehen? Kindergeldes, das eine noch weitergehende Verbesserung bringerieW:rd. Bei der Festlegung des berechtigten Personenkreises \vurde im Prinzip clavon ausgegangen, claf3 fur Kinder, fur die bisher Lebensmittelkarten- ausgegeben wurden, auch der Kinderzuschlag zu zahlen ist. Nada der Vcr-.: oicinting haben alle Arbeiter und Angestellten in cler (gesamlen Vokswirt.- schaft f?r ihre Kinder Anspruch auf die Zahlung des Kincierzus.chlag,es. Den Kinderzuschlag erhalten auch westcleutsche und Westberliner 13Cirger, die in Detrieben unci Einrichtungen der Deutschsn Dcmokratischen Repu- blik und des Demokratischen Sektors von Grof3-Berlin arbeiten. Diese Regelung lliBt cleutlich das dem Sozi2.1ismus eigene Prinzip erkennen dal?) diejenigen, die am Aufbau des Sozialisrnus teilnehrnen, auch an den Erfol- gen dieses Aufbaues teilhaben sollen. Es konnte die Frage entstehen, vie es sich mit der Auszahlunq des Kinder- zuschlages verhalt, wenn beide Elternteile die Voraussetzungen fur den Anspruch erfullen. Die Verordnung, legt dazu fest, daf3 der Kinderzuschlag nur von ein em Berechtigten bezogen werclen daft Es wird dabei den Eltern Liberlassen zu entscheiden, welcher Elternteil den Anspruch geltend macnt (vgi. die Ausfiihrungen zur Antragstellung). Leben dagegen die Eltern getrennt, so erfolgt die Zahlung an den Ellern- teil, zu dessen Haushalt etas Kind gehtirt. Bei der Fassung clieses Para- graphen 1st nur an soiche Fan-linen gedacht woraen, die nicht aus bcruf- lichen Grtinden getrennt leben. Sofern es sich urn berufliche C_;etincle han- dert, bleibt es den Elternteilen Lioerlassen zu entscheiden, l'v'01" die Zahlung des Kinderzuschlages beantragt. Der Regelung des Anspruchs auf don Kinderzuschlag liegt this Prinzip zugrunde, (tali die -Unterhaltsverpflichteten der Kinder den Kincierzuschlag erhalten sollen. Eine Ausnahme wird gemacht, wenn zwar die Eltern bzw. eio Elternteil leben, aber dos Kind zum Haushalt einer andercoi Person, z "13. ZLIM halt der Grof3eltern gehort. Die Auszahlungsstelle.n sind in ciiesem Falle berechtigt, den Kinderzuschlag, auch an andere Personen als di Eltero auszuz-ahlen. Selbstverstancilich miissen dann cliese Pers.ogr.n. den Antrag auf Auszahlung, des Kinderzuschlages mittels der Attozsah1ungskoarboost211en (vgl. ?Die Antragstellung"). Die genannte?Regelung soil sichern, da13 der .Rinderzuschlarf in die Ethnde der Personen gelanz,,t, be enen die :15"zston lilt- den Unterhalt - !, 45 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/12 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300240011-4 ??.) 0,4 ?e)i - ? _ de-r Veratinst-igu-n-g- durch-den . _ kernmt. Von diesen Gesichtspunkten sollen sich auch die Auszahlungsstellen leitcn dcrartigelle zu entsche.den haben. Der- Kinderzuschlag wird nicht gezahlt air Kinder, die sich in Dauer- 1-? .men_e.iiiifha.lten-.;:Fur (hese Kinder entstehen den Eltern aus der Ab- sehaffung'.dcr'Leoensmittelkarten keine Mehraufwendungeen, da die Mehr- l.(41.t.?n;- din den He.rnen ozw. Einrichtungcn anfalien, unmittelbar vom Stbatshaushalt getragen werden. ?eeee des Kindes anfallen. Damit soli zurefleich gewiihrle'stet werden, dal?, clas ? Zur Hobe cies sIciailichen 1