(SANITIZED)SOVIET PROPAGANDA (SANITIZED)

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CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5
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RIPPUB
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C
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347
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January 4, 2017
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April 1, 2014
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2
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Publication Date: 
November 10, 1959
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REPORT
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 -4:-. 50X1 -HUM .e7 INFORMATION REPORT INFORMATION REPOR1 CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY This material contains information affecting the National Defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, U.S.0 Secs. 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. 50X1 -HUM COUNTRY SUBJECT Soviet Propaganda DATE OF INFO. PLACE & DATE ACQ REPORT DATE DISTR. 10 November 1959 50X1 -HUM 50X1 -HUM NO. PAGES REFERENCES RD 50X1 -HUM SOURCE EVALUATIONS ARE DEFINITIVE. A ? 50X1 -HUM a. Nigher Idncation in the UNSR, Soviet Booklet No. 51, Professor y. Telyutin, 60 pages, London, .Thne 1959. b. Co-Operatives in the Soviet Union, Soviet News Booklet lio. 36, Israel k. Triathlon, Y) pages, London, kovvmsber 1958. c. Social S_,.1.mir1ithe USSR Soviet Booklet Na. 50, A. lochkurov, 39 pages, London, WIT 1959. d.. OnthOvercomirs_Cul. the Individual and Its Conaequence, Soviet News Booklet No. 20, Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the 'Soviet Union, 32 pages, 30 Jim 1956. e. If the Alms Race Were Stopped, Soviet News Booklet No. 32, Professor I. Rubinstein, ifoficejlcon. 1 33. pages, London, July 1958. f. The USSR - 100 Questions Answered, Soviet Booklet No. 401 5th edition, 198 Pages, London, November 1958. Soviet Planet Into Space, Soviet Booklet No. 48, 42 pages, London, 1959. h. The Land of Soviets - A Soviet Famaily Budffet, ii. Tatarakaya, A. Ouryanov, IPoreign Languages Publishing Rouse, 36 pages, Moscow 1957. 1. New Steps for Peace by Socialist Countries - Meeting of the Political. Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty Organization 24 Nay 1958, ' Soviet Thews Booklet No. 31, 36 pages, London, Nay 1958. j. Bringing Sestet Schools Still Closer to Life, Soviet Booklet No. 10i., 24 Mos, London, December 1958. ST ARMY X NAVY X I AIR # I X I FBI I I AEC I I USIA I X I ICA 1 (Note: Washington distribution Indicated by ??X"; Field distribution by *?*".) 11,11- tNA ATION Rf POP T 50X1-HUM' INFORMATION REPORT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rele 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 C-0-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L - 2 - / k. Great Plan of the Soviet Union - Target Figures for the Economic Deve.lopinent of the USSR from 1959 to 1965, Soviet Booklet No. 491 62 pages, London, May 1959. 50X1 -HUM 50X1 -HUM The attached documents -ars UNCLASSIFIED when detached from this cover sheet. .4,1s4e:?t: C-O-N-F-I-D-E-N-T-I-A-L Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 On Overcoming the STAT Cult of the Individual and Its Consequences Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 30th June 1956 SOVIET NEWS BOOKLET No. 20 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ON OVERCOMING THE CULT OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union June 30, 1956 1THE central committee of the Communist Party ? of the Soviet Union notes with satisfaction that the decisions of the historic 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. have been welcomed entirely and -supported whole- heartedly by our party as a whole, by the entire Soviet people, by the fraternal communist and workers' parties. by working people of the great community of socialist nations, and by millions of people in the capitalist and colonial countries. And this is quite understandable, for the 20th Party Congress, marking as it did a new stage in the creative development of Marxism-Leninism. gave a thorough-going analysis of the present inter- national situation both at home and in the world, equipped the Communist Party and the Soviet people as a whole with a magnificent plan for the continued effort for building communism, and opened up new prospects for united action of all working-class parties in averting the danger of war, and on behalf of the interests of labour. 3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Soviet people, carrying out the decisions of the 20th Congress, are gaining more and more outstanding achieve- ments in every aspect of the country's political, economic and cultural life under the leadership of the Communist Party. The Soviet people have rallied still more closely behind the Com- munist Party and are showing a wealth of constructive initiative in their efforts to accomplish the tasks set before them by the 20th Congress. The pcnod which has passed since the congress was held has shown also the great and vital importance of its decisions for the international communist and labour movement, for the struggle of all progressive forces to strengthen world peace. The important theoretical theses the congress laid down on the peaceful co-existence of states with different social systems, on the possibility of preventing wars in modern times, on the multiplicity of forms of the transition of nations to socialism are having a favourable effect on the international situation, promoting the relaxation of tension, greater unity of action of all the forces working for peace and democracy, and the strengthening of the positions of the world socialist system. While the Soviet people and the working people of the people's democracies and of the world as a whole have met the historic decisions of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. with great enthusiasm and with a new upsurge of constructive initiative and revolutionary energy, they have caused alarm and irritation in the camp of the enemies of the working class. Reactionary circles in the United States and in some other capitalist powers obviously feel uneasy about the great pro- grammc to strengthen peace which the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. has charted. Their uneasiness increases as this programme is being put into operation, vigorously and consistently. Why arc the enemies of communism and socialism making most of their attacks on the shortcomings about which the 4 central committee of our party told the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. ? The reason they are doing so is to divert the attention of the working class and its parties from the main issues which were raised at the 20th Party Congress and which were meant to clear the way to further progress being made in the cause of peace, socialism and working-class unity. The decisions of the 20th Party Congress and the foreign and home policy of the Soviet government have created con- fusion in imperialist quarters in the United States and some other countries. The bold and consistent foreign policy of the U.S.S.R., directed towards ensuring peace and co-operation between nations regardless of their social systems, is winning support from the great masses of the people in all countries of the world, extending the front of peaceloving nations and causing a profound crisis in the cold war policy, a policy of building up military blocs and stockpiling arms. It is no accident that it is the imperialist elements in the United States that have been making the greatest fuss over the efforts made in the U.S.S.R. to combat the cult of the individual. The existence of negative factors arising from the cult of the individual was profitable for them in order to fight socialism with these facts at their disposal. Now that our party is boldly overcoming the consequences of the cult of the individual, the imperialists see in it a factor making for our country's faster progress towards communism, and weakening the positions of capitalism. The ideologists of capitalism, in an effort to undermine the great power of attraction of the decisions of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. and their influence on the broadest masses of the people, are resorting to all manner of tricks and ruses to distract the attention of the working people from the pro- gressive and inspiring ideas the socialist world puts forward before humanity. 5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 The bourgeois press has lately launched a largescale cam- paign of anti-Soviet slander, which the reactionary circles are trying to justify by some of the facts connected with the cult of the individual of I. V. Stalin denounced by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The sponsors of this campaign are exerting every effort to "trouble the waters," to conceal the fact that what is meant is a stage the Soviet Union has passed through in its development; they are out to suppress and misrepresent the fact that in the years that have passed since Stalin's death the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet government have been acting with exceptional perseverance and resolution to remove the after-effects of the cult of the individual, and have been making steady progress in solving new problems for the sake of strengthening peace, and building communism, in the interest of the people at large. Bourgeois ideologists, in launching their campaign of slander, are trying to cast a slur once more, and again to no avail, on the great ideas of Marxism-Leninism, to shake the trust the working people have in the world's first socialist country? the U.S.S.R.?and to sow confusion in the ranks of the inter- national communist and labour movement. Historical experience indicates that the opponents of inter- national proletarian unity have in the past attempted more than once to take advantage of what they believed to be opportune moments for undermining the international unity of the com- munist and workers' parties, for dividing the international labour movement, for weakening the forces of socialism But each time the communist and workers' parties have discerned the intrigues of the enemies of socialism, have rallied their ranks still more closely, demonstrating their unshakable political unity, and their unbreakable loyalty to the ideas of Marxism-Leninism. The fraternal communist and workers' parties have detected 6 this move of the enemies of socialism in good time, too, and arc giving it a fitting rebuff. It would be incorrect, on the other hand, to shut one's eyes to the fact that some of our friends abroad are still not quite clear on the cult of the individual and its consequences and arc sometimes giving incorrect interpretations to some of the points connected with the cult of the individual. The party bases its criticism of the cult of the individual on the principles of Marxism-Leninism. For over three years our party has been waging a constant fight against the cult of the person of J. V. Stalin, and persistently overcoming its harmful consequences. It is only natural that this question should have entered as an important item into the deliberations of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. and its decisions. The Congress recognised that the central committee had taken perfectly correct and timely action against the cult of the individual which, as long as it was widespread, belittled the role of the party and the masses, whittled down the role of collective leadership in the party and often led to serious omissions in its work, and to gross violations of socialist law. The congress instructed the central committee to carry out consistently the measures for removing wholly and entirely the cult of the individual, foreign to Marxism-Leninism, for removing its consequences in every aspect of party, govern- mental and ideological activity, and for strict enforcement of the standards of party life and of the principles of collective party leadership elaborated by the great Lenin. In combating the cult of the individual the party guides itself by the well-known theses of Marxism-Leninism on the role of the masses, of parties and individuals in history, and on the impermissibility of a cult of the person of a political leader, however great his merits may be Karl Marx, the founder of scientific communism, emphasising his revulsion for " any cult of the individual," declared that he and Friedrich 7 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA RDP81 n1n4:1Rnnannnrignrit-in c Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ontei the 2eirr=eintt sf ,...mmmunsns "ca condition 7urcr, ezr?.7e1curg g? ee DDT?=mrwcaping of ...intheinfres wernfd eethalxvrr. ant cif Ir.." iK.crf Afe71 and ffte_frirk"?rqf. V? eL , F EZ-.11, Pages Inuldhrig op oar Calmnum= Farr" V. L Lenin was _rr=saczialife the a='t-Ita..?_,= wocepoori of the " hetes" and the"atair," &cxing the counter- of ne?fthmf &ner o the =ism a t.:x people. " The ? -of of r-grfrq-v.:" said V. L Lenin, "creates laIrrethinvs' irrrq-Tr EtCy fe?z& t!=za a fore= of the greatest =xus- (Preece, Va. r2ziazthe arsdca of czic?atthg the colt of the person of I. V. the commir.ee of the CPS.U. acted as the assca=pdets thaz the cult of the individual contradicted theesven= of the soth.list syvent and was becoming a brake ors the way of i..ro-A,e of Soviet democracy and of the ad-ra=e of Savi= society towards communism. The Mtn' Col,--ers of the party, on the central committee's inimnve. fotand it necessary to speak openly and boldly about the grave oamequeoces of the cult of the individual, of the resiocs mistskes nude in the latter period of Stalin's life, and to appeal to the party as a whole to put an end, through corn- bi=d efforts, to everything that the cult of the individual had 'rvotight in its train. In doing so the central committee realised that the frank admission of the errors made would give rise to certain negative features and excesses which the enemies could use. The bold and ruthless self-criticism in matters arising from the cult of the individual has been fresh, ample evidence of the strength and vitality of our party and of the Soviet socialist system. It can be said with confidence that none of the ruling parties in capitalist countries would ever have ventured to do anything like this. Quite the reverse, they would have tried to pass over in silence and to hide from the people facts as unpleasant as these. But the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, reared as it is on the revolutionary prin- ciples of Marxism-Leninism, has spoken the whole truth, however bitter it might have been. The party took this step on its own initiative, guiding itself by considerations of principle. It believed that even if its action against the Stalin cult caused some momentary difficulties, it would be of enormous value in the long run from the point of view of the basic interests and ultimate goals of the working class. Sure guarantees are thereby created against things like the cult of the individual reappearing in our party or in our country ever again, and also for the leadership of the party and the country being effected collectively, through enforcing the Marxist-Leninist policy, in conditions of full-scale party democracy, with the active and constructive participation of millions of working people and with the utmost development of Soviet democracy. By taking a determined stand against the cult of the individual and its consequences, and by oponly criticising the errors it caused, the party has once more demonstrated its loyalty to the immortal principles of Marxism-Leninism, its loyalty to the interests of the people, its concern for providing the best possible conditions for the development of party and Soviet democracy in the interest of the successful building of communism in this country. The central committee of the C.P.S.U. places on record the fact that the discussions on the cult of the individual and its consequences by party organisa- tions and at general meetings of working people have been marked by a great measure of activity, shown both by the party membership and by non-party people, and that the C.P.S.0 central committee's line has been welcomed and supported wholly and entirely both by the party and by the people. The facts of the violations of socialist law and other errors connected with the cult of the individual of J. V. Stalin, 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 which thc party has made public, naturally create a feeling of bitterness and deep regret. But the Soviet people realise that the condemnation of the cult of the individual was indispen- sable for the building of communism in which they are all play- ing their full part. The Soviet people have seen the party taking persistent practical steps for the past few years to remove the after-effects of the cult of the individual in every field of party, governmental, economic and cultural development Thanks to this effort, the party, which no longer has its internal forces bound by anything, has drawn still closer to the people and has today developed its creative activity more than ever before. 10 110W, indeed, could it happen that the cult of the 2. person of Stalin, with all the attendant adverse con- sequences, could have appeared and gained currency in con- ditions of the Soviet system ? This question should be examined against the background of the objective, concrete historical conditions under which socialism was built in the U.S.S.R. and also some subjective factors arising from Stalin's personal qualities. The October Socialist Revolution has gone down in history as a classic example of a revolutionary transformation of capitalist society under the leadership of the working class. The example of the heroic struggle of the Bolshevik Party, of the world's first socialist state, the U.S.S.R., is something from which the communist parties of other lands, indeed all progres- sive and democratic forces, arc learning how to solve the fundamental social problems generated by modem social development. Throughout the nearly forty years that have gone into building socialist society, the working people of this country have accumulated a wealth of experience, which is being studied and assimilated by the working people of other socialist nations, creatively and in keeping with their specific conditions. This was the first experience history has ever known of building a socialist society which was taking shape through the quest for and practical proving of many truths which until then were known to socialists only in general outline, theoretically. For over a quarter of a century the Soviet Union was the only country blazing the path to socialism for mankind. It was like a besieged fortress in capitalist encirclement. The enemies of the Soviet Union both in the 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @P-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA RDP8i_oind'IPnnzinnnnarmi-v-, c Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 West and in the East, continued to plot new "crusades" against the U.S.S.R. after the failure of the fourteen-power intervention of 1918-20. Thc enemies sent large numbers of spies and wreckers into the U.S.S.R., trying by every means at their disposal to destroy the world's first socialist state. The threat of renewed imperialist aggression against the U.S.S.R increased particularly after fascism's advent to power in Germany in 1933, which proclaimed its purpose to be that of destroying communism, that of destroying the Soviet Union, the world's first state of working people. Everyone remembers the establishment of what was called the "anti-Comintern pact" and the " Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis," which were actively supported by the forces of international reaction as a whole. With a threat of a new war growing more and more evident, and with the western powers cold-shouldering the measures the Soviet Union more than once proposed to put fascism in a straitjacket and organise collective security, the Soviet Union had to exert every effort for strengthening its defences and countering the intrigues of the hostile capitalist encirclement. The party had to teach the people as a whole to be always vigilant and prepared to face enemies from without. The intrigues of international reaction were all the more dangerous since there was a bitter class struggle going on within the country for a long time to see "who beats whom?" After Lenin's death, hostile trends began gaining currency in the party: Trotskyitcs, right-wing opportunists and bourgeois nationalists whose stand was one of opposition to Lenin's theory about the possibility of the victory of socialism in one country, a stand which would in fact have led to the restor- ation of capitalism in the U.S.S.R. The party launched a ruthless struggle against those enemies of Leninism. In carrying out Lenin's behests, the Communist Party steered a course towards the country's socialist industrialisation, collec- tivising agriculture and making a cultural revolution. The 12 Soviet people and the Communist Party have had to o% cream unimaginable difficulties and obstacles in solving these supreme problems of building a socialist society in a single country Our country had to overcome its age-old backwardness and reshape the national economy as a whole along new, socialist lines, within the historically shortest period of time, and with- out any economic assistance whatsoever from outside. This complicated international and internal situation called for iron discipline, tireless enhancement of vigilance, stringent centralisation of leadership, which could not but have had an adverse effect on the development of some democratic forms. In the bitter struggle against the whole world of imperialism our country had to accept some limitations to democracy, which were justified logically by our people's struggle for socialism in conditions of capitalist encirclement. But even at that time the party and the people regarded these limitations as temporary and due to be removed as the strength of the Soviet state grew and the forces of democracy and peace developed throughout the world. The people made these temporary sacrifices conscientiously, seeing the Soviet social system make progress day by day. All these difficulties on the way to socialism have been over- come by the Soviet people under the leadership of the Com- munist Party and its central committee, which consistently pursued Lenin's general line. The victory of socialism in this country, faced as it as with hostile encirclement and the ever present threat of attack from without, was a historic exploit of the Soviet people. Through carrying out its first five-year plans, the economically backward country made a giant leap ahead in its economic and cultural development, thanks to the strenuous and heroic efforts of the people and the party. With the progress achieved in 13 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 socialist construction the living standards of the working people were raised and unemployment abolished once and for all. A thorough cultural revolution took place. Within a short space of time the Soviet people produced great numbers of technicians who rose to the level of world technological progress and brought Soviet science and technology to one of the leading places in the world. It was the great party of communists that was the inspiring and organising force behind these victories. By the example of the U.S.S.R. the working people of the whole world have seen for themselves that the workers and peasants, once they have taken power into their own hands, can build and develop successfully, without any capitalists and landowners, their own socialist state, repre- senting and defending the interests of the people at large. All this has played a great and inspiring role in increasing the influence of the communist and workers' parties in all the countries of the world. J. V. Stalin, who held the post of general secretary of the party's central committee for a long period, worked actively in common with other leaders of the party to put into effect Lenin's behests. Ile was faithful to Marxism- Leninism, and as a theorist and an organiser of high calibre he led the party's fight against the Trotskyites, right-wing opportunists, and bourgeois nationalists, against the intrigues of capitalists from without. It was in this political and ideological fight that Stalin earned great authority and popularity. But there was a mistaken practice of associating all our great victories with his name. The achievements gained by the Communist Party and by the Soviet Union, the eulogies of Stalin made him dizzy That being the situation, the cult of the person of Stalin was being gradually built up. Some of J. V. Stalin's individual qualities, which were regarded as negative yet by V. I. Lenin, contributed in great measure to building up the cult of the individual. Towards 14 the end of 1922 Lenin said in a letter to the coming party congress: " Comrade Stalin, after taking over the post of general secretary, accumulated in his hands immeasurable power, and I am not certain whether he will be always able to use this power with the required care." In addition to this letter, writing early in January 1923, V. I. Lenin reverted to some of Stalin's individual qualities, intolerable in a leader. "Stalin is excessively rude," Lenin wrote, "and this defect, which can be freely tolerated in our midst and in contacts among us, communists, becomes a defect which cannot be tolerated in one holding the post of general secretary. I therefore propose to the comrades to consider the method by which to remove Stalin from his post, and to select another man for it who, above all, would differ from Stalin in only one quality, namely, greater tolerance, greater loyalty, greater politeness and a more considerate attitude towards the comrades, a less capricious temper, etc" These letters of Lenin's were brought to the knowledge of the delegations to the 13th Party Congress which met soon after Lenin died. After discussing these documents it was recognised as desirable to leave Stalin in the position of general secretary on the understanding, however, that he would heed the critical remarks of V. 1. Lenin and draw all the proper conclusions from them. Having retained the post of general secretary of the central committee, Stalin did take into account the critical remarks of Vladimir Ilyieh during the period immediately following his death. Later on, however, Stalin, having overestimated his own merits beyond all measure, came to believe in his own infallibility. He began transferring some of the limitations on party and Soviet democracy, unavoidable in conditions of a bitter struggle against the class enemy and its agents, and subsequently during the war against the Nazi invaders, into 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the standards of party and governmental life, grossly flouting the Leninist principles of leadership. Plenary meetings of the central committee and congresses of the party were held irregularly and later were not held at all for many years. Stalin, in fact, was above criticism. Great harm to the cause of socialist construction, and the development of democracy inside the party and the state was caused by Stalin's erroneous formula alleging that, with the advance of the Soviet Union to socialism, the class struggle would grow increasingly sharp. This formula, which is true only for certain stages of the transition period, when the ques- tion of "who will win ? " was being decided, when a persistent class struggle for the construction of the foundations of socialism was proceeding, was advanced to the foreground in 1937, at a time when socialism had already triumphed in our country, when the exploiting classes and their economic base had been eliminated. In practice, this erroneous theoretical formula was used to justify gross violations of socialist law and mass repressions. It is precisely in these conditions that, among other things, a special status was created for the state security organs, which enjoyed tremendous trust because they had rendered undoubted services to the people and the country in defending the gains of the revolution. For a long time the state security organs justified this trust and their special status evoked no danger. The situation changed after Stalin's personal control over them had been gradually superseded for control by the party and the government, and the usual exercise of the stan- dards of justice was not infrequently replaced by his individual decisions. The situation became still more aggravated when the criminal gang of the agent of international imperialism. Beria, got to the head of the state security organs. Serious violations of Soviet law and mass repressions then occurred. As a result of the machinations of our enemies, many honest 16 communists and non-party people had been slandered and suffered, although completely innocent. The 20th Party Congress and the entire policy of the central committee after Stalin's death are vivid evidence of the fact that inside the central committee of the party there was a Leninist core of leaders who correctly understood the pressing needs in the spheres both of home and foreign policy One cannot say that no counter-measures were taken against the negative phenomena that were associated with the cult of the individual and impeded the advance of socialism. Moreover. there were definite periods during the war, for example, when Stalin's individual actions were sharply restricted, when the negative consequences of lawlessness, arbitrariness, etc., were substantially reduced. It is known that precisely during the war members of the central committee as well as outstanding Soviet military leaders took control of definite sections of activity in the rear and at the front, independently took decisions, and by their organisa- tional, political, economic and military work, together with local party and government organisations, secured the victory of the Soviet people in the war. After the victory, the negative consequences of the cult of the individual again became strongly manifest. Immediately after Stalin's death the Leninist core of the central committee took the path of vigorous struggle against the cult of the individual and its grave consequences. The question may arise: Why then had these people not come out openly against Stalin and removed him from leader- ship? In the prevailing conditions this could not be done The facts unquestionably show that Stalin was guilty of many unlawful acts that were committed particularly in the last period of his life. However, one must not forget at the same time that the Soviet people knew Stalin as a man always 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 acting in the defence of the U.S.S.R. against the machinations of the enemies, and working for the cause of socialism. In this work he at times applied unseemly methods, and violated the Leninist principles and standards of party life. Herein was the tragedy of Stalin. And all this together made difficult the struggle against the lawless actions that were then being committed, because the successes in building socialism and strengthening the U.S.S.R. were, in the atmosphere of the cult of the individual, ascribed to Stalin. Any opposition to him under these circumstances would not have been understood by the people, and it was not at all a matter of lack of personal courage. It is clear that any- one who in these circumstances would have come out against Stalin would have got no support from the people. What is more, such opposition would have been evaluated, in those circumstances, as being against the cause of building socialism, as an extremely dangerous threat to the unity of the party and the whole state in conditions of capitalist encirclement. Moreover, the achievements of the working people of the Soviet Union under the leadership of the Communist Party instilled legitimate pride in the heart of every Soviet man and created an atmosphere in which individual errors and shortcomings seemed less important against the background of nEthe tremendous achievements, and the negative consequences 4`.0 ? of these errors were rapidly compensated by the immensely growing vital forces of the party and Soviet society. It should also be borne in mind that many facts about wrong actions of Stalin, particularly in the sphere of violating Soviet law, became known only lately, already after Stalin's death, chiefly in connection with the exposure of Beria's gang and the establishment of party control over the security organs. Such arc the chief conditions and reasons that resulted in the cult of J. V. Stalin's personality coming into being 18 and spreading. All this, of course, explains, but by no mean justifies, the cult of J. V. Stalin's personality and its consequences, which have been so sharply and justly con- demned by our party. 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 " THE cult of the individual, unquestionably, did grave ? harm to the causc of the Communist Party, to Soviet society. But it would be a great mistake to draw conclusions about some changes having taken place in the social system of the U.S.S.R. from the fact that in the past there was the cult of tho individual, or to see a source of this cult in the nature of the Soviet social system. Both conclusions arc utterly wrong, as this is not in accordance with reality and is contrary to the facts. Notwithstanding all the evil done to the party and the people by the cult of Stalin's personality, he could not, and did not change the nature of our social system. No cult of the individual could change the nature of the socialist state, which is based on social ownership of the means of produc- tion, the alliance of the working class and the peasantry, and friendship between the peoples, although this cult did cause serious harm to the development of socialist democracy and the promotion of the creative initiative of millions of people. To think that one personality, even such a great one as Stalin, could change our social and political system is to lapse into profound contradiction with the facts, with Marxism, with truth, is to lapse into idealism. This would mean ascribing to an individual such excessive, supernatural powers as the ability to change a system of society and, moreover, such a social system in which the many-million strong masses of the working people arc the decisive force. As is known, the nature of a social and political system is determined by its mode of production, by who owns the means 20 of production in society, by which class wields political pouer The whole world knows that in our country, as a result of the October Revolution and the triumph of socialism, a socialist mode of production has been established, that it is now already almost 40 years that power has belonged to the working class and the peasantry. Thanks to this the social system is growing stronger from year to year, and its pro- ductive forces are growing. Even our ill-wishers cannot fail to recognise this fact. The cult of the individual, as is known, resulted in some serious errors being made in the direction of various branches of activity of the party and the Soviet state, both in the domestic life of the Soviet Union and in its foreign policy Among other things, one can point out serious errors com- mitted by Stalin in the direction of agriculture, in organising the country's preparedness to rebuff the fascist invaders, and gross arbitrariness that led to the conflict in the relations with Yugoslavia in the postwar period. These errors harmed the development of individual aspects of the life of the Soviet state, and especially, in the last years of J. V. Stalin's life, impaired the development of Soviet society, but, naturally, did not divert it from the correct road of advancement to communism. Our enemies allege that the cult of Stalin's personality was engendered not by definite historical conditions that have now lapsed into the past, but by the Soviet system itself, by, in their opinion, its undemocratic nature, etc. Such slanderous assertions are refuted by the entire history of the develop- ment of the Soviet state. The Soviets as a new democratic form of state power came into being as a result of the revolu- tionary creative activity of the broadest masses of the people who rose in struggle for freedom. They have been and remain organs of genuine people's power. It is precisely the Soviet system that has made it possible to tap the tremendous 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 creative energy of the people. It brought into motion inexhaustible forces inherent in the masses of the people, drew millions of people into conscientious administration of the state, into active, creative participation in the construction of socialism. In a brief historical period, the Soviet state emerged victorious from the severest trials, stood the test in the fire of the Second World War. When the last exploiting classes were eliminated in our country, when socialism became the dominant system in the entire national economy, and the international position of our country altered fundamentally, the bounds of Soviet democracy expanded immeasurably and are continuing to expand. In con- trast to any bourgeois democracy, Soviet democracy not only proclaims but materially ensures all members of society without exception the right to work, education, rest and recreation, to participation in state affairs, freedom of speech, press and conscience, a real possibility for the free development of personal abilities, and all other democratic rights and free- doms. The essence of democracy lies not in formal signs but in whether the political power serves and reflects the will and fundamental interests of the majority of the people, the interests of the working folk. The entire domestic and foreign policy of the Soviet state shows that our system is a genuinely democratic, genuinely people's system. The supreme aim and daily concern of the Soviet state is the utmost advancement of the living standards of the population, the ensuring of a peaceful existence for its people. Evidence of the further development of Soviet democracy is the measures that are being carried out by the party and the government for broadening the rights and competence of the Union republics, the strict observance of the law, reconstruc- tion of the planning system with a view to unleashing local activising the work of the local Soviets, developing criticism and self-criticism. 22 Notwithstanding the cult of the individual and in spite of it, the mighty initiative of the masses of the people, led by the Communist Party, initiative brought into being by our system, pursued its great historical task, overcoming all obstacles on the road to the construction of socialism. And herein lies the highest expression of the democracy of the Soviet socialist system. The outstanding victories of socialism in our country did not come by themselves. They were achieved by the tremendous organisational and educational work of the party and its local organisations, by the fact that the party always educated its cadres and all communists in the spirit of loyalty to Marxism-Leninism, in the spirit of devotion to the cause of communism. Soviet society is strong by the consciousness of the masses of the people. Its historical destinies have been and are determined by the constructive labour of our heroic working class, glorious collective farm peasantry, and people's intelligentsia. Eliminating the consequences of the cult of the individual, re-establishing the Bolshevik standards of party life, developing socialist democracy, our party has further strengthened its ties with the broad masses of the people and has rallied them still closer under the great banner of Lenin. The fact that the party itself has boldly and openly raised the question of eliminating the cult of the individual, of the impermissible errors committed by Stalin, is convincing proof that the party firmly guards Leninism, the cause of socialism and communism, the observance of socialist law, the interests of the peoples and the rights of all Soviet citizens. This is the best proof of the strength and viability of the Soviet socialist system. At the same time it shows a determination finally to overcome the consequences of the cult of the individual and to prevent the recurrence of such errors in the future. The condemnation of the cult of J. V. Stalin and its conso 23 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .4% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 quenccs has evoked endorsement and a broad response in all fraternal communist and workers' parties. Noting the tremendous significance of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. for the entire international communist and labour movement, the communists in the foreign countries regard the struggle against the cult of the inaividual and its consequences as a struggle for the purity of the principles of Marxism-Leninism, for a creative approach to the current problems of the inter- national labour movement, for the consolidation and further development of the principles of proletarian internationalism. Statements by a number of fraternal communist parties express endorsement and support for the measures taken by our party against the cult of the individual and its conse- quences. Summarising the conclusions to be drawn from the discussion of the decisions of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. by the political bureau of the central committee of the Communist Party of China, the party's newspaper farminglipao, in an editorial "On the historical experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat," wrote: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Lenin's behests, seriously regards some grave errors committed by Stalin in the direction of socialist construction, and their consequences. The graveness of these consequences raised before the Communist Party of the Soviet Union the necessity, simultaneously with recognising Stalin's great services, of laying bare most sharply the essence of the errors committed by Stalin, and calling upon the entire party to take care to prevent a repetition of this, and to root out vigorously the unhealthy consequences of these errors. We, Chinese communists, profoundly believe that after the sharp criticism that was displayed at the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U., all the active factors that were strongly restrained in the past because of certain political errors, will surely come into motion every- where, that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the 24 Soviet people will be still more united and rallied than before. in the struggle for the construction of a great communist society, unprecedented in the history of mankind, for lasting world peace." "The merit of the leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union," a statement of the political bureau of the French Communist Party says, "is the fact that they have undertaken to correct the errors and shortcomings associated with the cult of the individual, which testifies to the strength and unity of the great party of Lenin and the trust it enjoys among the Soviet people and to its prestige in the international movement." The general secretary of the national committee of the United States Communist Party, Comrade Eugene Dennis, noting the great significance of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U., says in his well-known article: "The 20th Con- gress strengthened world peace and social progress. It marked a new stage in the advancement of socialism and in the struggle for peaceful co-existence that began in Lenin's day. continued in the following years, and is becoming ever more effective and successful." At the same time it should be noted that in discussing the question of the cult of the individual, the causes of the cult of the individual and its consequences for our social system arc not always correctly interpreted. Thus, for example, Comrade Togliatti's comprehensive and interesting inters tew given to the magazine Nuovi Argo:livid, along with man) quite important and correct conclusions, contains also wrong propositions. Particularly, one cannot agree with Comrade Togliatti's putting the question of whether Soviet society has not arrived at "certain forms of degeneration." There is no grounds for putting such a question. It is all the more incomprehensible in that in another part of his interview Com- rade Togliatti quite correctly says: "It is necessary to draw the conclusion that the essence of the socialist system was not 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? .4% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4:911. lost. Just as not a single one of the previous gains was lost, and above all the support of the system by the masses of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia who make up So?iet society was not lost. This very support shows that notwith- standing everything, this society has preserved its basic demo- cratic nature." Indeed, without the support of the broadest masses of the people for the Soviet government and the policy of the Communist Party, our country could not have built up in an unprecedentedly brief period a mighty socialist industry and effected the collectivisation of agriculture, it could not have won the Second World War, on the outcome of which the destinies of all mankind depended. As a result of the utter rout of Ilitlerism, Italian fascism and Japanese militarism, the forces of the communist movement have broadly developed, the communist parties of Italy, France and other capitalist countries have grown and become mass parties, the people's democratic system has been established in a number of European and Asian countries, the world system of socialism has arisen and become consolidated, the national-liberation movement which has brought about the disintegration of the colonial system of imperialism has scored unprecedented successes. 26 UNANIMO approving the decisions of the 20th 4 USLY . Congress of the C.P.S.U., which condemn the cult of the individual, the communists and all Soviet people see in them evidence of the growing power of our party, of the strength of its Leninist principles, unity and solidarity. "The party of the revolutionary proletariat," V. I. Lenin pointed out, "is sufficiently strong to openly criticise itself, to call a mistake a mistake, and a weakness a weakness" (Works. VOL 21, Page 150). Guided by this Leninist principle, our party will con- tinue, in future too, boldly to disclose, openly to criticise, and resolutely to eliminate mistakes and blunders in its work. The central committee of the C.P.S.U. considers that the work accomplished by the party so far in overcoming the cult of the individual and its consequences has already yielded positive results. On the basis of the decisions of the 20th Congress of the party, the central committee of the C.P.S.U. calls upon all party organisations: Consistently to adhere in all their work to the most important principles of the teaching of Marxism-Lensm about the people being the makers of history, the creators of all the material and spiritual riches of mankind, on the decisive role of the Marxist party in the revolutionary struggle for the trans- formation of society, for the victory of communism ; Persistently to continue the work, conducted in recent years by the central committee of the party, for the strictest obsemi- lion by all party organisations, from top to bottom, of the Leninist principles of party leadership, and primarily of the 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 * Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 supreme principle of collective leadership, the observation of the norms of party life, as fixed by tho rules of the party, of developing criticism and self-criticism; Fully to restore the principles of Soviet socialist democracy as laid down in the Constitution of the Soviet Union finally to correct the violations of revolutionary socialist laws ; To mobilise our cadres, all communists and the broadest masses of the working people, in the struggle for the practical realisation of the targets of the Sixth Five-Year Plan, giving the utmost stimulation to the creative initiative and energy of the masses, the true makers of history, in achieving this end. The 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. pointed out that the most important feature of our epoch is the conversion of socialism into a world system. The most difficult period in the development and consolidation of socialism now lies behind us. Our socialist country has ceased to be a lonely island in an ocean of capitalist states. Today more than one- third of humanity is building a new life under the banner of socialism. The ideas of socialism are winning the support of many, many millions of people in the capitalist countries. The influence of the ideas of socialism is tremendous among the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America, who are fighting against all forms of colonialism. The decisions of the 20th Congress of the C.P.S.U. are regarded by all supporters of peace and socialism, by all demo- cratic and progressive circles, as an inspiring programme of struggle for the consolidation of peace throughout the world, for the interests of the working class, for the triumph of the cause of socialism. Under present conditions, the communist parties and the whole international labour movement are faced with broad, inspiring prospects?to secure, hand in hand with all the peace- 28 ful forces, the prevention of a new world war, to curb the monopolies and ensure lasting peace and the security of the peoples, to put an end to the armaments race and remove from the working peoples the heavy burden of taxes bred by it, to fight for the preservation of the democratic rights and liberties which facilitate the working peoples' struggle for a better life and a bright future. This is what the millions of ordinary people in every country of the world are vitally interested in. The successful solution of these problems is to a tremendous degree facilitated by the peaceful policy and the ever new successes of the Soviet Union, the Chinese People's Republic and all the other countries advancing on the road of socialism. In the new historical conditions, such international organisa- tions of the working class as the Comintern and the Comm- form have ceased their activities. But this in no way means international solidarity has lost its significance and that there is no longer any need for contacts among the fraternal revolu- tionary parties adhering to the positions of Marxism-Leninism At the present time, when the forces of socialism and the in- fluence of socialist ideas have immeasurably grown throughout the world, when different means of achieving socialism in the various countries are being revealed, the Marxist working-class parties must naturally preserve and consolidate their ideological unity and fraternal international solidarity in the fight against the threat of a new war, in the fight against the anti-national forces of monopoly capital striving to suppress all the revolu- tionary and progressive movements. The communist parties are welded together by the great objective of freeing the working class from the yoke of capital, they arc united by their fidelity to the scientific ideology of Marxism-Leninism, to the spirit of proletarian internationalism, by the utmost devotion to the interests of the people. In their activity under modern conditions, all the communist 29 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 parties base themselves on the national peculiarities and con- ditions of every country, giving the fullest expression to the national interests of their peoples. At the same time, recog- nising that the struggle for the interests of the working class, for peace and the national independence of their countries is the cause of the entire international proletariat, they are con- solidating their ranks and strengthening their contacts and co-operation among themselves. The ideological consolidation and fraternal solidarity of the Marxist parties of the working class in different countries are the more necessary since the capitalist monopolies arc creating their own aggressive inter- national coalitions and blocs, such as N.A.T.O., S.E.A.T.O., and the Baghdad pact, which are directed against the peace- loving peoples, against the national-liberation movement. against the working class and the vital interests of the working peoples. While the Soviet Union is continuing to do very much to bring about a relaxation in international tension?and this is now recognised everywhere?American monopoly capital continues to assign large sums of money for increas- ing the subversive activities in the socialist countries. When the cold war was at its height, the United States Congress, as is well known, officially appropriated (apart from the funds used unofficially) 100 million dollars for the purposes of con- ducting subversive activities in the people's democracies and the Soviet Union. Now that the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries are doing everything possible to case inter- national tension, the cold war adherents are seeking once more to galvanise the cold war which has been condemned by the peoples of the entire world. This is shown by the decision of the United States Senate to appropriate an additional 25 million dollars for subversive activity, under the cynical pre- text of "stimulating freedom" behind the "iron curtain." We must soberly appraise this fact and draw the necessary 30 conclusions from it. It is clear, for instance, that the anti- popular riots in Poznan have been paid for from this source But the agents-provocateur and subversive elements who were paid out of the overseas funds had enough " go " in them only for a few hours. The working people of Poznan resisted the hostile actions and provocations. The plans of the dark knights of the "cloak and dagger" have fallen through, their dastardly provocation against the people's power in Poland has failed All future attempts at subversive actions in the people's democracies arc similarly doomed to failure, even though such actions are generously paid for out of funds assigned by the American monopolies. This money may be said to be spent in vain. All this shows that we must not allow ourselves to be in- different about the new designs of the imperialist agencies, seeking to penetrate into the socialist countries in order to do harm and disrupt the achievements of the working people. The forces of imperialist reaction are seeking to divert the working people from the true road of struggle for their interests, to poison their minds with disbelief in the success of the cause of peace and socialism. In spite of all the designs of the ideologists of the capitalist monopolies, the working class, headed by its tried communist vanguard, will follow its own road, which has already led to the historic conquests of socialism, and will lead to new victories in the cause of peace, democracy and socialism. There can be no doubt that the communist and workers' parties of all countries will raise still higher the glorious Marxist banner of proletarian internationalism. The Soviet people arc naturally proud of the fact that our homeland was the first to pave the road to socialism. Now that socialism has become a world system, now that fraternal co-operation and mutual aid have been established among the 31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 socialist countries, new favourable conditions have been created for the flourishing of socialist democracy, for the further consolidation of the material and industrial basis of com- munism, for a steady rise in the living standards of the working people, for an all-sided development of the personality of the new man, the builder of communist society. Let the bourgeois ideologists invent fables abcut a " crisis " of com- munism, about " dismay " in the ranks of the communist parties. It is not the first time that we have heard incantations from enemies. All their predictions have always burst like bubbles. These sorry soothsayers have appeared and disappeared, while the communist movement, the immortal and inspiring ideas of Marxism-Leninism, have advanced from victory to victory. So it will be in the future, too. No malicious, slanderous outburst of our enemies can stop the invincible, historic march of mankind towards communism. Published by Soviet News, 3 Rosary Gardens, London, S.W.7, and printed by Farleigh Press Ltd. (T.U. all depts.), Beechwood Rise, Watford, Herts. 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X_ ? ? X 11, ? X ? %%Alit a X % XXXXXXR ? sxmismasokxmors m Rum* 111 MMMIIIIMMISNMIEXIIMM X ???????? ? 111???????????????????????????? 1511?1111??????????????????111111???? allanallamamenViallearianallaVallotmallaxameallallailailaaallatalail ?????^???^?????????????^?ataas ????11?1?111?111111????????^11111???^??? ?X?111?1?11?111?11???^???1111????????? li????^?11111111?11?1111?????????????? MM1111?11?1111111111?1111???????311?11111???? 11???????????????????????????? ???????????10110111101?10?111?10011IMINIIIIM STAT ??? ????1?-? ? ????? ?? ?? ? ?? ??? ??? ??? ? ??? ??? ? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ? 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? U.S ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ??? ? ? SOCIAL SECURITY in the U.S.S.R. by A. Kochkurov Soviet Booklet No. SO STAT ? ? ? ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 SOCIAL SECURITY in the U. S. S. R. ????=1. by A. Kochkurov SOVIET BOOKLET No. 50 LONDON, MAY, 1959 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 N? % CONTENTS Page EIGHTEEN MILLION PENSIONERS ... 5 A FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION OF THE SOCIAL SYSTEM 12 WHEN OLD AGE ARRIVES . . . 15 IF ONE BECOMES DISABLED 18 FOR FAMILIES WHO HAVE LOST THEIR BREADWINNERS 26 RECOVERING ONE'S ABILITY TO WORK 30 MOTHERHOOD-A STATE OF HONOUR 31 HOMES FOR OLD PEOPLE ... 33 THE EQUAL OF ALL OTHERS 35 FOR THE WELL-BEING OF TILE PEOPLE 37 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 18 MILLION PENSIONERS IF YOU GO into any house in the Soviet Union, whether -'-that of a factory worker or an office employee, you're almost bound to find a pensioner there. Of the U.S.S.R.'s total population of 200 million, over 18 million, or about 10 per cent, receive pensions. In other words, one out of every ten or eleven Soviet citizens is a pensioner. Never before in the history of Russia has such a large part of the population been provided for by state pensions. Let's look at Proletarskaya Street in the city of Kalinin, for instance. Here, at No. 118 live the Nikonorovs. Both husband and wife used to work as weavers. Now they have both retired on pensions, receiving a total of 998 roubles a month. If you were to list the pensioners who live on Proletarskaya Street according to the size of their pension, the Nikonorovs would be somewhere in the middle. In other words, their pension is an average one. State pensions are only a part of the existing far-reaching system of social insurance and social maintenance which exists in the Soviet Union. Article 120 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics says: "Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to maintenance in old age and also in case of sickness or disability. "This right is ensured by the extensive development of social insurance of industrial, office and professional workers at state expense, free medical service for the working people, and the provision of a wide network of health resorts for the use of the working people." Social insurance is one of the main ways of ensuring the right of citizens to material security in old age, during illneu or in case of disablement. 5 npriassifipd in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 In the Soviet Union there are also other forms of providing social security for the working people. These include: social maintenance, the insurance of members of small producers' co-operatives and co-operatives of invalids, and social mutual aid for collective farmers. Let us consider each of these forms separately. Social Insurance This is a system of material security provided at state expense for workers when they become old or temporarily disabled or ill, and also for families that have lost their bread- winners. Under this system workers also obtain various ser- vices and treatment to prevent disease or restore health. Various cultural and welfare facilities are also provided. The social insurance system of the U.S.S.R. embraces all industrial and office workers of state, co-operative and social enterprises, institutions and organisations. The administration of this system is in the hands of the trade unions, the general management being conducted by the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and, in the pro- vinces, by the respective republican, territorial, or regional committees of the trade unions and the republican, territorial and regional trades councils. "rylzw thiAt enterprises and in institutions it is the local corn- _ _.:nintees and the social insurance commissions they organise. as well as their insurance delegates, who manage social insurance questions. The social insurance commissions supervise the distribution of accommodation for sanatoriums and rest homes, the pay- ment of temporary disability and maternity leave benefits, the fulfilment of plans for housing construction and the work of medical, prophylactic-and children's institutions. The membership of these commissions, which are elected at trade union meetings, consists of industrial workers, engi- neers, technicians, and doctors. Thus social insurance in the U.S.S.R. is directly governed by the social organisations of the working people. 6 With the tremendous development of the Soviet national economy, social insurance has become a very important method for improving people's well-being. Every worker who has fallen ill or been maimed has the right to receive aid during his temporary disability. He receives such aid from the very first day of his illness until his recovery or until the day when a special medical com- mission declares him an invalid. In this case he will receive the right to a corresponding pension. Temporary disability grants are given to workers, no matter where they were employed, if they are ill or receiving treat- ment at a sanatorium or resort, if they have to take care of some sick member of the family or have been released from work as a result of quarantine. In all such cases workers are released from work on decision of a doctor. The amount of the temporary disability grant is based on the individual earnings of the sick person. Account is also taken of the length of time he has worked at one and the same enterprise or institution prior to his having fallen ill: up to 3 years .. from 3 to 5 years from 5 to 8 years from 8 to 12 years over 12 years .. 50 per cent of his earnings 60 ? ., 70 ? 80 ., IP PP to OP 90 ,. " ?. OP OP Those workers who are not members of a trade union receive half the amount indicated above during temporary disability (except if their condition is due to some injury incurred during work or as a result of some occupational disease). If temporary disability is due to injury incurred at work or the result of some occupational disease the sick benefit is 100 per cent of wages, regardless of length of employment and trade union membership. In any case, sick benefit cannot be less than 300 roubles a month in towns and workers' settlements or less than 270 roubles in rural districts. The Soviet State assumes all the expenses involved in medical treatment. Millions of people receive treatment and 7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 spend their vacation at sanatoriums and rest homes every year at the expense of the social insurance fund. All working people enjoy the services of a wide network of free medical institutions. Many enterprises and institutions have their own polyclinics and dispensaries, staffed with experienced specialists. Some enterprises even provide medical services for their workers right in the shops. For instance, at the "Azovstahl' (Azov Steel) Metallurgical Works in the city of Zhdanov there is a doctor for every shop, who attends to working and living conditions, and draws up an all-round plan of preven- tive measures to meet the particular needs of the shop. All the factory's shops are supplied with shower-rooms, laundries, drying rooms for working clothes, and hygienic rooms, while in the hot shops there are special water-screens for cooling the air, powerful ventilation systems and soda- water supply. The medical posts in the shops are supplied with first-aid outfits, stretchers, and dressings. These shop medical posts function day and night. The U.S.S.R. annual State Budget makes generous provis- ion for social insurance. In 1959 the budget provides for a total expenditure of 707.200 million roubles. The biggest allocation-308,700 million roubles, or 43 per cent?is to develop the national economy; 232,000 million roubles, or 33 per cent, are allocated for social and cultural measures (215.000 million roubles were spent in 1958). This includes allocations for education, the training of workers and cultural measures, the development of science, public health and physical culture and, finally, social insurance and social maintenance. Expenditure on social insurance and social maintenance amounts to 93,700 million roubles. Most of this comes from the social insurance fund provided by the obligatory pay- ments made by industrial establishments, institutions and other enterprises. No deductions whatsoever are made from workers' earnings. Thus what workers receive in the form of social 8 insurance constitutes a substantial addition to their wages. Simple arithmetic tells us that 93,700 million roubles is equal to about 13 per cent of total budget expenditure, and that it is only slightly less than the expenditure on defence (96,100 million roubles). But there is something else to be pointed out in this con- nection. Whereas the funds directed towards social insurance and maintenance in 1959 are 5,500 million roubles more than in 1958, the allocations for defence are less than in 1958. By contrast, certain Western countries are spending a major portion of their budgets on armaments. President Eisenhower. for instance, has recently stated that the "national security programme" accounts for about 60 per cent of the entire federal budget for the coming fiscal year. Co-operative Insurance This form of insurance covers members of industrial co- operatives and co-operatives of invalids. Its funds are derived from obligatory insurance payments made by the co-opera- tives, no deductions whatever being made from the earnings of the members. Co-operative insurance is similar to State social insurance, although it has some specific features. The members of pro- ducer co-operatives receive sick benefit during temporary disability and all forms of pension security, such as are pro- vided for by the Law on State Pensions. But it is the co-opera- tive organs which provide this co-operative insurance, and which decide the amount of benefits and pensions to be paid. Social Maintenance This is a system of state and social measures for the material security of citizens in old age, during convalescence, illness, in case of the loss of the breadwinner, and in other cases provided for by the law. Social maintenance organs determine and pay pensions to workers and servicemen, and to their families. These organs 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 are also responsible for providing security to scientific workers, single mothers and mothers of large families, to secure work for invalids, organise their training and the teach- ing of new trades, supply them with artificial limbs and render other services to pensioners. The social maintenance organs manage homes for the aged and invalids, homes for crippled children, and so on. Social maintenance, like social insurance, is financed by the State budget. Part of the expenses are covered by funds from the social insurance funds and part by direct allocations from the local, republican and All-Union budgets. In distinction to social insurance, which is handled by the trade unions and co-operatives, the social maintenance system is run by state organs. Every Union and autonomous republic has its Ministry of Social Maintenance. In the territories and regions all the work is managed by the departments of social maintenance of the respective territorial or regional executive committees of the Soviets (Councils) of working People's Deputies. There are similar social maintenance departments under the executive committees of the local Soviets. These handle the granting of pensions, finding employment for disabled rsons wishing to work, providing artificial limbs to those in .'ne.ed of them, and so on. Social Mutual Aid This form of security embraces members of collective farms. It is run by the social mutual aid societies, the money coming from the collective farm funds. These societies are organised on a voluntary basis by decis- ion of a general meeting of collective farm members. Their functions are restricted to their own particular farms. In the Russian Federation alone there arc over 24.000 mutual aid societies which have a membership of over 5 million collective farmers. Their budgets amount to tens of millions of roubles. 10 This money is used to repair homes for the disabled and the homes of families of men who died in the Services, to purchase cattle and fodder for those who need it, and to organise sanatorium and other treatment at resorts for collective farmers when ill. In the countryside such mutual aid societies have assumed care of 23,000 orphaned children, and they also maintain sixty-nine homes for aged and disabled collective farmers. As the collective farms improve their economy they are able to render ever greater material aid to needy members. For instance, the Proletarian Will collective farm in Stavropol Territory passed a decision at a general meeting of its farmers to the effect that those of its farmers who have worked with the farm not less than twenty years will be paid a pension of 120 work-days* a year, the women when they reach the age of 55, and the men when they reach the age of 60. At this farm the value of a work-day is very high. In 1956. for example, 120 work-days meant about 2,000 roubles in cash, 350 kilogrammest of grain, 180 kilogrammes of pota- toes, 180 kilogrammes of vegetables, 16 kilogrammes of vegetable oil, and other products. This mutual aid society not only provides for its aged col- lective farmers, but also takes care of its disabled. At present it maintains forty-eight disabled collective farmers. Each of them receives 29 kilogrammes of wheat every month as well as 10 kilogrammes of potatoes, milk, and vegetable oil. Furthermore, each person taken care of by this mutual aid society was provided with from 600 to 1,500 roubles a year for personal expenses. Not every collective farm provides pensions and benefits on this scale, although many of them do. Each collective farm determines the conditions and system of granting pensions as well as the amount, depending on its financial condition. All payments for pensions to collective farmers are made from ? Work-day?the unit for figuring the amount and quality of work done at a collective farm. t 1 kilogramme = 2.2 lb. 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the indivisible funds of the farm, i.e. from the collective assets and revenue. ? * Thus social insurance, social maintenance, co-operative insurance and social mutual aid differ one from another as regards the people they provide for, the system of financing, and also the forms of maintenance provided. However, they all form part of the general system of material maintenance for Soviet citizens in old age, in case of illness and in case of disability. A FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION OF THE SOCIAL SYSTEM m. I. KALININ) a former Soviet President,* said in his day that the question of social security, the real security of the working people, was a fundamental question of the social system. As the Soviet State developed its economic might it per- sistently developed and perfected its social security system. Allocations for such purposes increased from year to year, the extent and forms of social security became greater, and the size of benefits, pensions and other money grants grew. In 1955 the State paid out 30,100 million roubles in pensions; in 1957, after the new pension law was passed, it paid out almost 58,000 million roubles; and in 1958, 64,000 million roubles. How are these funds, which have been allocated from the U.S.S.R. budget for this purpose, used? Let us take the Russian Federative Republic as an example. In 1956 22,900 million roubles were spent for social security in the Russian Federation; in 1957?over 36,500 mil- lion roubles; and in 1958-40,800 million roubles. What was this money spent on? Pensions constitute the main form of social security. Over 36.700 million roubles were spent on pensions and cash grants. "*".'";;Wa-,t? .1,1:0'.1 ? Igat-a.1 ? The skiers in the above picture are all blind, and live, with other blind people, in the house behind them, near Moscow. Pozhorina and Maria Mikheyeva, two workers retiring from the Skorok hod shoe factory, are here receiving their pension books from Vera Ossipova, of the factory's Social Security Committee. maw., Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 A foreman, a fitter, and two blacksmiths of the Gorky car works, all of them with twenty-five years service, work out what their pension will be on retirement. Z. S. Dusaev, a retired teacher, receives his pension from A. V. Sorokina, a posigirl of Kazan. An equally important form of State aid to the disabled is the restoration of their ability to work. The making of artifi- cial limbs, treatment to restore the health of individuals, specialised industrial enterprises, professional schools, techni- cal schools and courses?all of these are widely developed in the republic. The Russian Federation has seventy-four enterprises making artificial limbs and appliances of various kinds. These are given to the people free of charge. 133 million roubles were spent for this purpose in 1958. The Russian Federation has forty-one boarding industrial schools and nine technical schools to train disabled workers and teach them new skills and trades. All the students in these schools are suported completely by the State. In 1958, 61 million roubles were spent on such study courses. Doctors play an important part in the work of social main- tenance organs. They have a responsible task?to organise medical examinations by experts in order to decide just what labour an incapacitated worker can perform. Not only does the size of the pension paid depend upon the proper determination of the degree of a worker's disability, but also on finding work which he is capable of doing without impairing his health. These medical check-ups are made by Medical Labour Expert Commissions consisting of doctors who are experts in this work. There are 2,405 such commissions in the Russian Federation, their maintenance amounting to over 48 million roubles. These Commissions are controlled by the social maintenance organs. Old people and invalids who are all alone or who, for one reason or another, are unable to live with their families, are taken complete care of by the State. The Russian Federation. for example, has 609 Homes for the Aged and Disabled, for the maintenance of which 60 million roubles were allocated in 1958. Of the remaining funds, 3,200 million roubles were used as grants to single mothers and mothers of large families and 44.6 million roubles for health centres. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004nonrAnnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? J Special Features of Pension Security ? - ? In the U.S.S.R. those who have the right to a state pension are: factory and office workers, workers on State farms, regular servicemen, students in higher, specialised secondary schools, and other schools, in schools and courses for the training of workers, citizens who have become disabled during the fulfilment of state and social duties, and, finally, members of families that have lost their breadwinners. Pensions are granted for old-age, disability, and in case of the loss of the breadwinner. All workers, without any exception whatsoever, have the right to pension security. It does not depend on the nature of their work, whether permanent, temporary, or seasonal. Nor does the place of work, that is, whether it is a state or co-operative institution, a social organisation, or the personal household of individual citizens* play any role. The method of payment for the work done, that is whether the work is paid for according to time, whether it is piece- work, and the like, is also not taken into consideration. And, finally, a person has the right to a pension regardless of his race, nationality, or sex. Pension security is based on the principle: "To each according to his work." When the size of pension is deter- mined, the amount and quality of the work done by the pensioner when he was working are taken into consideration. This is reflected, in particular, in the fact that when pensions are granted, special benefits are sometimes awarded; higher pensions are given to those engaged in work underground, in hot shops, or under conditions that are harmful or difficult. Provision is also made for corresponding additions to pensions for long, uninterrupted service and also for the pay- ment of pensions even when the length of service is less than normally required. The amount of pension is dependent on wages and consti- tutes from SO per cent to 100 per cent of the average monthly ? Where people are employed by a personal household, the householder pays the contributions. 14 earnings. The lower the earnings, the higher the percentage on which the pension is figured. The average earnings may be calculated not only on the basis of the last year's work, but also on the basis of five successive years of the ten years prior to one's application for a pension. This is of special benefit to the worker who, just before retiring on a pension, may have earned less than when he was younger. Pensions are supervised on a wide democratic basis. They are supervised by the trade unions which take part in the work of the commissions awarding pensions and in the Medical-Labour Expert commissions, and see to it that the funds are spent correctly. Workers as a whole are encouraged to take an interest in social security questions, as shown, for example, by the country-wide discussion of the draft Law on State Pensions. WHEN OLD AGE ARRIVES . . . A-osT Soviur PENSIONERS are labour veterans. That can iVireadily be seen by glancing at the figures for the Russian Federation. In 1946, 2,200 million roubles were paid out in pensions to retired workers. In 1957 they received 19,200 million roubles, which is more than half of the total social security expenditure in this republic. Men who have reached the age of 60 and who have worked at least twenty-five years, and women who are 55 years of age and have worked at least twenty years have the right to an old-age pension. It is interesting to note, in this connection, that in Britain the corresponding ages are 65 years for men and 60 for women; in the U.S.A. it is 65 and 62; in the German Federal Republic 65 for both men and women; in Sweden-67; and in Canada. Ireland and Norway-70 years. Old-age pensions in the U.S.S.R. are granted for the rest of a pensioner's life, regardless cf his ability to work. The maxi- mum pension is 1,200 roubles a month and the minimum 300 roubles (225 in rural areas). 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Fri ' Ivan Dybin, who lives at No. 3 Bogoslovsky Lane, Flat 3, Moscow, worked for many years as an electrician for a public trust in the Sovietsky district of the capital. In 1956 when he was 63 years old, he decided to retire on a pension. His earnings during the past few years were not very high: 600-700 roubles a month. Yet he was assigned a pension of 1,200 roubles a month. It probably seems strange that, as a pensioner, he should receive more than he earned in the last few years of his work- ing life. But, as already mentioned above, a pension may be figured on the basis of any five successive years of the last ten years of a worker's employment, prior to his applying for a pension. And so Dybin's pension was calculated on the basis of his average monthly earnings during the years when his wages were especially high. Ivan Dybin is no exception. Take Vladimir Privezentsev, another pensioner who lives in Sovietsky District, Moscow. Now 61 years old, he spent thirty years working on various construction projects. For the last ten years before his retire- ment Privezentsev worked as at fitter. His average monthly earnings, 2,013 roubles, served as the basis for calculating his pension, which amounts to 1,006 roubles. But Privezentsev was also entitled to an additional 10 per ..er-'-Z-7 cent for his continuous long service record, which meant - unother 100 roubles a month. Furthermore, his wife, Antonina Privezentseva, did not work but was dependent on him, for which another 10 per cent was added to the pension. Thus Vladimir Privezentsev was given the maximum pension of 1,200 roubles a month. Needless to say, not every pensioner in the Soviet Union receives such a high pension. But what should be particularly stressed is that the Soviet State provides enough to retiring workers to enable them to maintain the material and cultural standard which they had enjoyed before retiring, and to enjoy a secure old age without any worries. For those who work under difficult conditions the length of service required to receive a pension has been reduced by 16 five years. Even greater benefits are granted to those engaged in work underground or in hot shops, as well as to those who work under harmful conditions. In such cases a man is en- titled to a pension if he has reached the age of 50 and has worked twenty years, and a woman if she is 45 years old and has a service record of fifteen years. The pensions of such workers are S per cent higher than usual. In order to be eligible for such privileges it is sufficient to have spent half of the necessary period in these special categories of work, regardless of where the last place ol work may have been. Konstantin Ivanov worked as a founder at a Moscow enter- prise ever since 1936. As this was considered harmful work Ivanov, upon reaching the age of 50 in 1958, was granted an old-age pension of 1,200 roubles (his average monthly earn- ings had been 2,500 roubles). Apart from the above categories of pensions for workers from the age of 45-50, there are pensions for prolonged, meri- torious service which are granted at an even earlier age Such pensions are awarded regardless of age, working ability, and earnings and irrespective of whether or not the pensioner is still working. They are granted to doctors, pharmacists, teachers. agronomists, zootechnicians, pilots of the civil air fleet, and several other categories of specialised work, including circus and stage stunt performers, ballet dancers, animal trainers, wind instrumentalists and solo singers. The following is the present scale of old age pensions in roubles per month: Average earnings Pension percentage Pension not fess that: up to 350 100 300 350-500 85 350 500-600 75 425 600-800 65 450 800-1,000 55 520 over 1,000 50 550 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Average Pension earnings percentage For those employed under- 100 ground, in hot shops or 90 under harmful conditions, for 80 earnings as above 70 60 55 The minimum old age pension is 300 roubles per month. The maximum old age pension is 1,200 roubles per month. Working pensioners receive an old age pension of 150 roubles per month provided their earnings (not counting the pension) do not exceed 1,000 roubles. Working pensioners eligible for old age pensions on favourable terms, such as persons employed on underground work, on work with harmful conditions of labour, or in hot shops, receive 50 per cent of the full pension irrespective of their income. People with insufficient service are ineligible for an old age pension if they continue working. The law also provides other pension benefits. Women who have given birth to five or more children and have raised them to the age of eight have the right to a pension when they are 50 years old if they have a service record of at least fifteen years. Working people may receive old-age pensions even if their service record is not complete. Such people who have reached pensionable age and have worked at least five years, three of which were immediately prior to their application for a vnsion, are eligible for a pension. In such cases the amount of the pension is proportional to the length of their service, but not less than a fourth of the full pension. IF ONE BECOMES DISABLED IN OLD RUSSIA thousands of beggars and homeless cripples ',flooded the towns, villages and roads in search of their daily bread. Many perished. The State showed practically no concern whatever for the disabled, leaving all that to social, philanthropic societies Pension not less than 300 350 450 480 560 600 18 which depended on the rare and incidental contributions of eminent rich people. True, crippled servicz men of the lower ranks were given state pensions if they had no one to support them, but the amount of these pensions was a paltry dole-3 roubles a month?which meant semi-starvation. The fate of those who were injured by an accident at work was especially bitter. Such cripples were callously discharged from their jobs. There was always someone to take their place from amongst the crowds of people waiting outside the factory gates, ready to accept any work for any wages. Here is an item taken from the newspaper Pravda on November 17, 1912. "Locomotive driver Loginov, who worked on locomotives for about twenty years, was sacked in the summer after a medical examination, because of deafness. Loginov appealed to be given other work. His request was refused and he was told there was no other work for him. . . . ". . . Loginov has many children. Some of them attend the railway school, but in view of Loginov's discharge from work they are now deprived of the means to continue their studies. "Loginov was discharged without being given a pension. Work, work, and then end it all near some fence, to die of starvation. . . ." On November 27, 1912, Pravda reported another case. under the heading "No longer needed." "On November 15, Iv. Avilov, a turner at the main loco- motive shops of the Nikolai railway terminus, fell behind his lathe during a fit. That very same day he was summoned to the office and told that he was completely discharged from his work, and even had to sign a paper that he had been advised to that effect. "Avilov had worked in the shops for thirteen years. He was discharged without being given any pension, aid, etc., for he was no longer needed. They had squeezed all his strength and health out of him and when his exhausting labour and terrible working conditions had worn him out 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ii Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 completely he was thrown out. He was no longer needed." This discharge of incapacitated and aged workers without pensions or other form of aid was common practice in tsarist times. It would be interesting to pay a visit today to that very same building mentioned in Pravda of 1912. Today it is the premises of Locomotive Depot No. 8 of the October Railway. About a thousand people are employed there. Of this number 114 are pensioners, seventy-two receiving old- age pensions, forty disability pensions, and two are war disabled from the Patriotic War. Who are these pensioners? One of them, Mikhail Klochkov, was formerly a locomotive engineer on a passenger train. The Medical Labour Expert Commission declared him as a disabled worker in group III and he was transferred to lighter work, taking care of cold locomotives. His earnings remained the same as before, for his pension and new wages amounted to what he had received as a locomotive driver on a passenger train. Or take the case of Yevgeni Filimonov, a mechanic at depot No. 8. In 1947, as a result of an accident, he was injured and declared a group I disabled worker. As such he received a pension amounting to 100 per cent of his wages. In the meantime he was given medical treatment and when the had recovered sufficiently to return to work he was given an easier job. His wages are less but he received a pension of 500 roubles a month because of the injury he had received, so that his income is the same as before. The Soviet State is very attentive to the needs of the disabled, who are provided with pensions, helped to recover their ability to work, and, it goes without saying, receive medical care. Workers are entitled to a disability pension in case of permanent or prolonged loss of the capacity to work. In such cases they are granted pensions irrespective of when they became disabled?before starting work, during their working life, or after retirement. A person may become disabled as a result of some injury S. 20 TA.:? , ????,..-?????-i 1-? "A long and happy retire- ni en t" friends wish to P. T. Alexandrov, a weaving in- structor of Trck hgornaya textile in ills. "Zff, weary Nikolai Prok- *- horov operates `07- a drill in the factory run by the Moscow Society of the Blind. irp ' t tAApek , ? a----;) :#,??;? -tits. ?4's h r ? ) t "?. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 A weekend call by former workmates of Dniepropetrovsk steel works finds Yakor Kollin' en- joying his garden al ter forty-five years at work. Below, retired theatre people in the lounge of their itt Leningrad home One of the homes at Voronezh for old age pensioners and war invalids. Three hundred receive constant care and attention and full maintenance here. Below is shown a corner of the Reading Room in this building. c;;:kt Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Keeping age and illness at bay! Shipyard workers of "Krasnoye Sormovo". Gorky, have an overnight sanatorium for those requiring medical care without being hospitalised. Above, I. A. Chicherov, a moulder, tackles sanatorium manager M. A. Temilov at chess. N. A. Kamensky, being congratulated, below, on his fiftieth anniversary at the Krasni Proletari engineering works. But he doesn't want to retire yet?he says his father worked sixty years at the same works. received at work, or because of some occupational disease or following some general ailment. In the first two cases a pension is granted irrespective of the service record. The pension awarded to those in Group I or II who have become disabled following some general ailment is proportionate to the service record, but cannot be less than one-fourth of the full pension. In the last case the worker is entitled to a pension if he had a qualifying service record, according to the following table. Age from 20 to 23 Length of Service (in years) Men 1Voinen 1 OP 23 to 26 3 2 PP 26 to 31 PP 31 to 36 5 7 3 5 It 36 to 41 10 7 41 to 46 12 9 Pl 46 to 51 14 11 PP 51 to 56 16 13 of 56 to 61 18 14 61 and older 20 15 Factory, office or other workers disabled by a general disease before reaching the age of 20 are eligible for a pension: (a) if disability ensued in the period of work or after stopping work?irrespective of the length of service; (b) if disability ensued before starting work, providing not less than a year has been spent in work. For workers employed underground, working under harm- ful conditions or in hot shops, the qualifying service period for disability pension as a result of general ailment is less. Since the degree of disability varies for different people disabled workers are classified in three groups. The Medical Labour Expert Commission determines the group to which a disabled worker belongs. The size of a disability pension depends on the earnings, the group and the cause of the disability, as well as on the trade working conditions. 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Pensions for people injured at work or suffering an occu- pational disease are as follows: for group I: minimum-360 roubles a month; maximum-1,200 roubles; for group II: minimum-285 roubles; maximum-900 roubles; and for group III: 210 and 450 roubles respectively. For workers who have become disabled as a result of some ailment the following pensions have been established: group I?from 300 to 900 roubles a month; group II?from 230 to 600 roubles a month; and group III?from 160 to 400 roubles a month. On what basis are disability pensions calculated? On the basis of the worker's earnings. Disability pensions resulting from an injury incurred during work or from an occupational disease are granted as follows: for group I-100 per cent of earnings up to 500 roubles a month plus 10 per cent of the rest of the earnings; for group II-90 per cent of earnings up to 450 roubles a month and 10 per cent of the rest of monthly earnings; for group III-65 per cent of earnings up to 400 roubles a month and 10 per cent of the rest of monthly earnings. For workers engaged in underground work, hot shops and in work under harmful and difficult conditions the size of the pension is greater. The following increases in disability pensions may be granted (within limits of the maximum pensions): (a) to invalids of the first and second categories (in consequence of a general disease) for continuous service: from 10 to 15 years, 10 per cent of the pension; over 15 years, 15 per cent of the pension; (b) to non-working invalids of the first and second cate- gories (irrespective of the cause of the disability) who have dependents incapable of work: for one dependent incapable of work, 10 per cent of the pension; for two or more dependents incapable of work. 15 per cent of the pension; (c) to invalids of the first category (irrespective of the cause of the disability). 15 per cent of the pension as a nursing allowance. 22 The increases to invalids of the first category in consequence of a general disease may not total above 30 per cent of the pension. If a disabled worker has reached the age of 60 (for men) or 55 (for women) the pension is awarded for life. Other disabled workers are granted pensions for the whole period of their disability, which is laid down by the Medical Labour Expert Commissions. Many disabled workers wish to continue their work and do so. In such cases those in groups I and II receive their pensions in full just the same, irrespective of their earnings or other form of income. Those in group III are in a somewhat less privileged position. They receive a pension which, together with their earnings, does not exceed the total pay received before the pension was granted. But in all cases they receive at least 50 per cent of the full pension of their category. Soviet laws pay special attention to those injured at work through the fault of the management. A worker has the right to demand compensation for his injury from the management. On decision of the court the injured person receives supple- mentary pension from his enterprise making the total pension equal to what he earned before the injury. Here is an example. Montashin, a worker at a plant in the city of Ulyanovsk, was injured in an accident at work. He was completely disabled. The doctors proclaimed him a group I invalid. Before the accident he had earned 1.064 roubles a month. He still receives that amount now: 695 roubles in the form of a pension paid by his district social maintenance department, and 369 roubles a month from his plant. Privates and non-commissioned officers, whether they worked or not before being called to the army, are also entitled to a pension in case of disability. Neither the duration of their service in the army, their preceding work, nor their age are of any significance here. Servicemen who receive disability pensions are classified according to two categories. The first of these categories 23 'Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 _ - oz?lintmil ??"1. tutlitmx tl?ati';%? ? .7tttsirLitIca.ue. ill-3 At jir1;.t._ _ ; ?,4r ' !??? gjprfingr...; 1101tf.s ? inTri MIV.zut11111i2M ; ; th trt, --tryn-tr- thr, 0.4'..r..A?4,544-1fikrikt-gisi:s44trAtz=f,-.-- erk n 114:' WWI* r!'111.11e A11771:114. ariCta-kiX1M151:' cri?friSlirli-40' 10- arriTj hoqe wfief4r6414?tittliti-#2g1w-: ro u nd 4-- kelt arc.. entititt;:tnrar.a'avnumntrr,-,i-Prtsri-nr IN; 0 n world 11---ittrzi %BCC 317.:ICEZIME, in the_-_anny;-zas well -as;:rtsocer" =Km tcconz=mnathi's foilowinz.-zn-,mttay;iucualzt;-au-wor=c- as a IrTir'10/ a n occupatzonab az: gene= -.-trci--frq".- t tr penstortiozdepatecnms-ms...-nrann: ?7i'L What abeut: pUvattth zsuaz.Us: ? (HA-4"-r xrilr"714,110 did not: wosk_-before-tney- NYCM r=naans have. boat. tuetnii: - I)I5ubi,k LvicA4111411--o1. iOtt,it.fk:f 110.tii21.-a-,iltutttik-Amijkx."44?.Ittiggottaxml===_PPLT 110 I knii,a1c6., v.; oue-,11., the Twn-atan: a-mmlims? isn '8', rott Wu:4, f,ur uithtnbz. i?Iti 44g=titattltx.: -foxizstscC110 0!tit. of. KII=Xthit? Of N t i,Qt, 1A0 ?oi ;Q ?-?:"1 17N:1M= 7-T. The Soviet State renders every kind of assistance to pen- sioned invalids who wish to continue working. The Medical Labour Expert Commissions advise disabled people as to what kind of work they can do and under what conditions. so that they will not impair their health. Guided by the recommendations of the Medical Labour Expert Commission the soCial maintenance departments allocate these disabled pensioners to some enterprise or industrial co-operative. The managements of these enterprises are obliged by law not only to accept such invalids for work but to provide them with all the necessary conditions (special equipment, tools, working schedule, and so on), recommended by the medical commission. The social maintenance departments as well as the medical experts regularly check up on the working conditions of disabled workers,, follow up their state of health, and see to it that they receive the necessary treatment. The factory trade union committees, through special social insurance commit- tees and pension groups, also check up on their working conditions. The Krasnoye Sormovo plant in Gorky, which is one of the largest plants in the country, employs a number of disabled men who work successfully on an equal footing with the rest of the workers. The plant's management does everything it can to provide these invalids with good working conditions. Most of them are qualified workers whose experience and skills are constantly increasing. In the first six months of 1958 fifteen of them were granted higher wages. In the same six-month period, thirty disabled workers were taught new specialities. By improving their skills they also began to earn more. Another form of help to disabled workers is free instruction and the teaching of new trades in special technical schools and technical boarding schools. Professional and technical schools train agronomists and zootechnicians, dressmakers and tailors, shoemakers, book- keepers, cinema operators, draughtsmen, designers, mechanics 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 consists of those who were disabled by a wound, shock or injury sustained while defending the U.S.S.R. or performing other military duties, or in consequence of some disease contracted at the front. The second category consists of those whose disability is due to the same causes but is not connected with the fulfil- ment of military duties or life at the front. In the first case the size of the pension depends upon the earnings of the disabled servicemen before engaging in military service: for those in group I?from 385 to 1,200 roubles a month; for group II?from 285 to 900 roubles a month; and for group III?from 210 to 450 roubles a month. In the second case the respective pensions are: group I? from 330 to 900 roubles; group II?from 230 to 600 roubles; group III?from 160 to 400 roubles. Those who, before serving in the army, had worked under- ground, in hot shops, or under harmful or difficult conditions are entitled to more favourable pensions. Non-working invalids in groups I and II who are serving in the army, as well as those who have become invalids following an injury incurred during work or as a result of an occupational or general disease, are given additions to their pension for dependents incapable of working. What about privates and non-commissioned officers who did not work before they were called up? What pensions have been established for them? Disabled servicemen in group I (of the first category) receive 385 roubles a month and those in the second category 330 roubles; for group II the corresponding amounts are 285 and 230 roubles; and for group III, 210 and 160 roubles. Pensioners in all of these groups are also entitled to additional amounts for dependents incapable of working (10 per cent of the pension for one dependent incapable of working, 15 per cent for two or more dependents incapable of working). Another 10 per cent increase to the pension is paid to non-commissioned officers in the army and navy. 24 The Soviet State renders every kind of assistance to pen- sioned invalids who wish to continue working. The Medical Labour Expert Commissions advise disabled people as to what kind of work they can do and under what conditions. so that they will not impair their health. Guided by the recommendations of the Medical Labour Expert Commission the soCial maintenance departments allocate these disabled pensioners to some enterprise or industrial co-operative. The managements of these enterprises are obliged by law not only to accept such invalids for work but to provide them with all the necessary conditions (special equipment, tools, working schedule, and so on), recommended by the medical commission. The social maintenance departments as well as the medical experts regularly check up on the working conditions of disabled workers,, follow up their state of health, and see to it that they receive the necessary treatment. The factory trade union committees, through special social insurance commit- tees and pension groups, also check up on their working conditions. The Krasnoye Sormovo plant in Gorky, which is one of the largest plants in the country, employs a number of disabled men who work successfully on an equal footing with the rest of the workers. The plant's management does everything it can to provide these invalids with good working conditions. Most of them are qualified workers whose experience and skills are constantly increasing. In the first six months of 1958 fifteen of them were granted higher wages. In the same six-month period, thirty disabled workers were taught new specialities. By improving their skills they also began to earn more. Another form of help to disabled workers is free instruction and the teaching of new trades in special technical schools and technical boarding schools. Professional and technical schools train agronomists and zootechnicians, dressmakers and tailors, shoemakers, book- keepers. cinema operators, draughtsmen, designers, mechanics 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 for the repair of sewing and knitting machines, technologists, rate-setters, landscape gardeners and other trades. There is an agricultural school in Kungur which trains agronomists and zootechnicians. It has its own 130-acre farm, a herd of cattle, a large poultry farm, and also its own orchards, vegetable gardens, and a large number of modem agricultural machines. The State has assumed all the expenses connected with teaching, feeding and maintaining its 200 disabled pupils. Furthermore, these disabled pupils receive part of their pensions. Those with families receive their pensions in full. This technical school helps to supplement the ranks of agricultural specialists every year. FOR FAMILIES WHO HAVE LOST THEIR BREADWINNERS TIN ADDITION TO OLD AGE and disability pensions, the U.S.S.R. "provides special pensions for families that have lost their breadwinner. All members of the family of the deceased worker, office employee or pensioner, who were his dependents and who are unable to work, have the right to such a pension. These include his children, brothers, sisters and grandchildren under sixteen years of age and students up to the age of eighteen. Should they become invalids at this age the pensions are payable to the children of the deceased for life, and to his brothers, sisters and grandchildren in the event that they do not have parents who are able to work. The parents of the deceased breadwinner are paid a pension if they themselves are invalids or aged (that is, if the father is 60 years old and the mother 55 years). In this case it is of no significance when the parents of the deceased became invalids or reached the indicated age, before or after the death of their breadwinner. The wife or husband of the deceased is eligible for a pension if he (or she) reached advanced age and became an 26 invalid before, or not later than five years after, the death of the breadwinner. If there are no adult children capable of working the bereaved spouse is awarded a pension regard- less of when advanced age is reached or invalidity ensues. The husband or wife continues to receive his or her pension even if they marry again. A parent or spouse of the deceased who is not working, but is engaged in caring for the under-eight-years-old child- ren, brothers, sisters or grandchildren of the deceased, receives a pension regardless of his ability to work and his age. In case of the death of one parent, children who have been dependent on both parents are still entitled to a pension even if the other parent works. The grandparents of a deceased person are given a pension if they have no one else who is bound by law to support them. If the deceased was an adopted child, his foster parents have the same rights to a pension as his parents would have had, and adopted children are equal to the deceased person's own children in the eyes of the law. In the case of the death of the breadwinner the following pensions are granted: To the families of factory and office workers regardless of when the breadwinner died, that is, whether during the period when he was working or after he had stopped working; To the families of servicemen if the breadwinner died when in the army or not later than three months after his demobi- lisation, or if he died after this period as a result of a wound, shock, injury or illness incurred during his military service; To the families of pensioners if the breadwinner died during the period when he was receiving a pension or not later than five years after he had ceased to receive a pension. Pensions awarded because of the absence of the bread- winner, the reason for such absence not being known, are granted regardless of when the absence of the breadwinner was established. If a factory or office worker dies as a result of an injury incurred during work or some occupational disease, his family is granted a pension irrespective of the length of service of 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the breadwinner. If the death results from a general disease, the pension is granted the family provided that at the time of his death the breadwinner had a service record which would have entitled him to an invalid pension. Families of servicemen are given pensions in all cases, regardless of the length of military service or the previous work of the service- man. What are the amounts of pensions granted in case of the loss of the breadwinner? This is determined by the number of members in the family who are unable to work, by the cause of the death (an industrial accident, an occupational disease, or general disease), and by the conditions under which the deceased worked (whether underground, in a hot shop, or under harm- ful or difficult conditions). The following pensions, which are the highest, are granted to families of workers and office employees who died as a result of an industrial accident, after some occupational disease, irrespective of the service record of the breadwinner, and also to families of those who worked underground, in hot shops or under harmful or difficult conditions: for three or more members of the family who are unable to work? from 300 to 1,200 roubles a month; for two members of the family?from 230 to 900 roubles; for one member-160 to 450 roubles. Similar pensions are granted to families of privates in the army who, before their service, had been employed as factory 7-y...or office workers. But this refers only to those who died after .''having been wounded, sustained shock or been crippled in defending the U.S.S.R. or performing other military duties, or as a result of some disease contracted at the front. In the case of the death of the serviceman not being attributed to the exercise of his military duties or service at the front, his family is granted a pension equivalent to that given to families of factory and office workers whose breadwinners died as a result of general illness. The families of deceased privates who had not worked before their military service are granted pensions on the 28 ?I?V A.-, . - - - 1.141, irr? Above, the house at Kashtak for retired metalworkers of the Chelyabinsk Region Olde Tyme Dancing! Retired veterans of the Likachev motor works in Aloscow show their paces. Across the hall hung a banner?"llonour and Renown to the Veterans of Labour". ????????:?????"..._ WO- 41 neclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ?+:70 Of course one doesn't need four to qualify for Children's Allow- ances! Sho p- assis tan I Vera Bosova and her chauffeur husband have the active in- terest of the local Social Security Committee in caring for Faith, !lope, Love, and Rose. Below, a meeting of the Pensionc Committee of the Sverdlov district. Itfoscow. Left to right: Medical Workers' U ionn representative. Chairman of the Comnzittee, a pen- sions inspector. and the assistant head of the dis- trict's finance de- partment. following scale: for three and more members of the family who are unable to work, 255 or 300 roubles a month; for two members-195 or 230 roubles; for one dependent mem- ber-136 or 160 roubles. The lower figure is granted to families living permanently in rural localities and connected with agriculture. In all cases the families of non-commissioned officers who had been serving a limited term in the army are given an additional 10 per cent. When the size of the pension to families that have lost their breadwinners as a result of general disease is being determined, the service record of the deceased person, necessary for the granting of a disability pension, and also the working conditions (underground, in hot shops, or under harmful or difficult conditions) are taken into consideration. These factors determine the size of the pension granted: for three and more members of the family, who are unable to work?from 300 to 900 roubles a month; for two such members?from 230 to 600 roubles a month; and for one dependent member of the family?from 160 to 400 roubles a month. Certain additions and supplements are granted within these limits. For instance, higher pensions are granted to complete orphans and to children of a deceased unmarried mother. If the deceased had the necessary uninterrupted service record, his family receives an additional 10-15 per cent. However, if the deceased breadwinner did not have a service record sufficient for the granting of a complete pension, the members of the family can receive part of the pension if the breadwinner died during the period when he was still working. The care shown by the state for families that have lost their breadwinner is not restricted to the payment of pensions. The social security organs and the trade unions, working in close co-operation, organise other forms of aid. They include, for instance, finding work for the members of the families of the deceased and giving them an industrial training; providing them with accommodation in a sana- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 torium, rest home, or Young Pioneers' camp; giving them financial aid and loans to enable them to build their own homes and purchase clothing and cattle; helping them organise vegetable gardens and orchards; providing them with fuel and with fodder for their livestock, etc. At enterprises this work is done either by the guardian councils or the social insurance committee organised by the trade unions, and, in the countryside, by the social mutual aid societies of the collective farmers. RECOVERING ONE'S ABILITY TO WORK IT IS A GRIEVOUS BLOW for a person to lose his hands or feet. his it possible for such a person to return to work? Yes, it is! It's not only possible but even necessary, for a return to normal working activity not only helps to restore morale but is equivalent to the rebirth of the person. Work is not such a serious problem for someone who has become disabled as a result of some occupational or general disease. He worked and will continue to work, although under new, and easier conditions, such as are recommended by the Medical Labour Expert Commission. However, for the person who has lost his hands or feet, the situation is different. His return to work depends upon the use of artificial limbs. The Soviet State has assumed this burden. Working people in need of artificial limbs and orthopaedic appliances are given them free of charge. Invalids without legs are also given motorised wheel-chairs without having to pay for them. An order for the necessary appliance can be given to the nearest plant or shop. For those invalids who find it difficult to move about themselves, there are travelling orthopaedic workshops. Such mobile workshops also serve outlying districts. Science is of great help in designing artificial limbs and helping the disabled to recover their ability to work, as well 30 as ascertaining what they can do. In the Russian Federation alone there are four scientific research institutions which devise methods for determining the extent of disability, design new, more functional artificial orthopaedic appliances, improve existing designs, and study and assess the experience of organising work for disabled persons. These institutes have combined staffs of over 1,900 scientific and technical workers, ninety of whom have doctor's and master's degrees. Soviet scientists and inventors have created the most diverse improved appliances for invalids, in particular artificial limbs for people who have lost both hands, and appliances which they call active artificial hands. Artificial limbs to replace a hand or foot can greatly facilitate one's return to work. But what a person wants more than anything else is to return to his former trade or profes- sion. He who was once a turner or fitter would like to work at that trade again. What is to be done in this case? Here, too, the scientific institutes have come to the aid of man. They have designed various functional appliances which enable disabled people to engage in skilled work. MOTHERHOOD-A STATE OF HONOUR T !IL CONSTITUTION of the U.S.S.R. gives women the right to equal pay for equal work, and equal rights with men as regards participation in all spheres of economic, government, cultural, and political life. This equality of women exists not only in law but also in reality. The State manifests special concern for the health of women, the upbringing of the children, and mothers of large families. Of great significance for working women is the law on increasing the length of paid maternity leaves from 77 to 112 days, and payment during maternity leaves, ranging from 60 to 100 per cent of their wages. 31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 According to the law a woman cannot be refused work because of the fact that she is an expectant mother. Expectant mothers cannot be empfoyed on night work, nor can they be asked to do overtime work after the third month of pregnancy. Women also have at their service whatever special medical and prophylactic aid may be required during their pregnancy. Upon the recommendation of the doctor the plant manage- ment must transfer expectant mothers to lighter work, while continuing to pay them their former wages. The Law on State Pensions also reflects the concern of the State for women. As has already been said, working women have the right to receive a pension five years before men. Even during the difficult years of the Great Patriotic War, when all the means and efforts of the Soviet people were directed towards the defence of the country, the State found it possible to render aid to unmarried mothers and mothers of large families. In July 1944, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. passed a decree "On Increasing State Aid to Expectant Mothers, Mothers of Large families and to Unmarried Mothers, on Improving the Care of Mother and Child, on the Establishment of the Title of Honour 'Mother Heroine' and the institution of the order 'Glory of Mother- hood' and the 'Medal of Motherhood'." According to this decree women who have two children receive a one-time State grant upon the birth of a third child. Should they bear other children, they are given both one-time grants and also monthly financial aid the size of which increases according to the number of children. Un- married mothers are ensured a monthly grant when their first child is born. The State spends huge sums of money on aid to unmarried mothers and mothers of large families. In 1956 alone it paid out 5,100 million roubles for such aid. Allocations to improve women's working and living condi- tions constantly increase. The network of canteens, and laundries, dress-makers, tailors, and shoe-repairers, personal 32 service shops, the production of semi-finished products and all kinds of machines to lighten housework?all of these are constantly being extended both in town and countryside. These measures help to free women from many household duties and cares, and enable them to take a more active part in the public life of the country and to devote more attention to the upbringing of their children. HOMES FOR OLD PEOPLE IN rim PAsr the fate of many lonely old people and invalids, Lin tsarist Russia, who had no means of subsistence, was indeed bitter. They were forced to lead a pauper's life. con- stantly wandering from place to place in search of a piece of bread. It was only some especially "fortunate" homeless old people and invalids who found shelter or a nook in some wretched poorhouse. How different has become the situation in Soviet times! By the beginning of 1958 the U.S.S.R. had 1,055 Homes for the Aged and Disabled, which provided real homes for 135,000 people. Who has the right to live in a Home for the Aged and Disabled? All citizens not less than 16 years old who are group I and U invalids and who have no relatives bound by law to support them and give them the necessary care. In addition to Homes of a general type, there are special boarding homes for tubercular people, chronic psychopaths, and invalid children. Those who live in Homes for the Aged and Disabled are supported completely by the state, which provides clothing. footwear, three or four meals a day, necessary treatment. care, and recreation facilities. These Homes have their own auxiliary plots of land, which produce a regular suply of fresh vegetables, fruit, meat and dairy products. Many Homes of the general type, besides having their own plots, also have workshops for tailoring and dress-making, manufacturing cardboard articles, footwear, lace and such 33 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 like. Peoplo work in these shops and on the plots only with the permission of the doctor and under his supervision. For performing this work inmates receive half of the value of the articles produced; the other half goes to improve the cultural and other needs of the inmates as a whole. Although the people who live in these Homes are sup- ported entirely by the State, they still retain, in some measure, their right to pensions. For instance, disabled servicemen receive 25 per cent of their pension; others receive 10 per cent but not less than 50 roubles a month. If a pensioner who lives in the Home has dependents who are unable to work, the latter arc also paid from 25 to 70 per cent of the pension. As a rule these Homes exist in every region and even in the most remote and northerly parts of the country. The Yakutsk Autonomous Republic has nine such Homes, among them the Aldan Home, which was built in 1956. There are 150 people living here, Yakuts, Russians, Chinese, Koreans, Tatars, and others. The people live here as one harmonious family. Their rooms are light and well-kept. Each Home has a large dining- room, reception room, library, hairdressers and other facili- ties and services. To make time pass more interestingly the healthier people. if the doctor agrees, may work in the carpentry shop where they can make tables, chairs, bed-side tables and so on. The Kharbet Home for Disabled in the Armenian Republic has won fame throughout the country. It occupies three white- stone buildings surrounded by greenery and flowers. The 200 inmates are mainly disabled workers and ex-servicemen who have no family or relatives. The Home is exceedingly cosy: there are flowers on the tables, snow-white embroidered curtains on the windows, a bedside table next to every bed, beautiful bedspreads, soft comfortable beds, and convenient wardrobes. There is a special medical room for those in need of treatment. The people living here also work on the auxiliary plot of land, make shoes and clothes, or grow flowers, depending upon their physical ability and health. 34 1 THE EQUAL OF ALL OTHERS p-r. HE Soy= Sr.vrE devotes special attention and renders great help to the deaf, dumb or blind. They are given the opportunity of receiving an education the same as anyone else. and learn a specific trade or occupation. All work with them is conducted through the Society of the Blind and the Society of Deaf-Mutes. In the Russian Federation the Society of the Blind has 260 educational and industrial training enterprises, seventy club- houses, 1,008 recreation rooms, thirty-five regional libraries, and over 700 travelling libraries and branches at public libraries. The publication of literature in Braille is expanding continuously. The blind are taught to read and write according to the Braille system at schools for young workers and in elementary schools for adults. Thousands of blind people attend second- ary, technical and higher educational institutions and have become teachers and scientists. The state has established a six-hour working day for the blind. They are also given special benefits when retiring on an old-age pension. Those blind people who receive a dis- ability pension may receive an old-age pension instead if they have reached the age of 50 and have worked at least fifteen years. For women it is on reaching the age of 40 and having worked at least ten years. Enterprises employing the blind are exempt from taxes on their turnover. This enables them to accumulate more funds which are used for the building of hostels, houses, clubs, new enterprises, for cultural and educational work and also to render more material and medical aid to their workers. In 1956 alone as many as 14,000 blind people were sent to sanatoriums and rest homes, and 7 million roubles were given to them in the form of one-time grants. The All-Russian Society of Deaf-Mutes conducts its work on a large scale. This society has fifty-eight educational and industrial training enterprises where 4,000 deaf-mutes work 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 and study. It. also has three factory and workshop schools and a trade school. The members of the society take part in various cultural activities. The society has about 500 clubs and recreation rooms, and 300 libraries. About 15,000 people take part in its numerous sports clubs. In August 1957 international contests of deaf-mutes were held in Milan. At that time Soviet athletes won 31 medals-13 gold, 11 silver. and 7 bronze?and took first place among the representatives of twenty-six countries. Such are the talented, gifted people among the blind and the deaf-mutes. Many people have heard of the sports pistol designed by Margolin, a blind Soviet designer. Soviet marksmen were victorious when shooting with it at international champion- ships held in China, Rumania, Venezuela, and elsewhere. The 1956 world champion, Kalinichenko, used a Margolin pistol. The name of the blind architect, Alexander Zotov, is widely known in Central Asia. During the war the Begovat metallurgical works an- nounced a competition for the best housing design. There was one entry which specially attracted the jury's at- tention. The building was very simple and comfortable, its construction requiring less funds than the usual type and being easy to build. The project was unanimously awarded the first prize. Imagine the amazement of the members of the jury when they learned that the design had been submitted by Zotov the blind architect! Today Alexander Zotov is a member of the staff of one of the designing organisations of Uzbekistan. His designs form the basis for the construction of the district centre of Kara- Uzyak in Kara Kalpakia, for the reconstruction of the city of Ferghana, and for the nearby town of MargeIan. 36 FOR THE WELL-BEING OF THE PEOPLE IIE WELL-BE1NG of the workers has always occupied thc I attention of the Soviet Government and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R., the first state of workers and peasants on this planet of ours, has been in existence for forty-one years Throughout this period, under the most difficult conditions. in the midst of dealing with intricate problems of state and economic construction, the Soviet Government has always shown concern for the welfare of the people. ? From a wooden plough to artificial Earth satellites and atomic power stations?such are the visible landmarks in the sweeping development of the Soviet State. And the constant improvement in the well-being of the people has kept pace with the rapid growth of the socialist economy. Unemployment disappeared in the Soviet Union long ago. The number of workers employed in the Soviet national economy has increased more than four-fold as compared with 1913. Real earnings, if we bear in mind pensions, money grants, free tuition and free medical service, are almost double what they were in 1940, the year before the war. During the past three years the Soviet Government and the Communist Party have introduced such important measures as raising the wages of the lower-paid workers, reducing the length of the working day on the eve of holidays and free days (usually Sundays), the transition to a shorter working day for factory and office workers in the coal industry, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil, gas, chemical, and cement; the lengthening of maternity leave, and the new Law on State Pensions. Much has already been done, but the immediate future holds forth promise of even greater things. The 1959-1965 Seven-Year Plan for the development of the Soviet national economy provides for a further powerful growth in all branches of the economy and a corresponding considerable rise in the people's living standards. 37 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The national income, which, in the U.S.S.R., is distributed in the interests of all members of society, will increase by 62-65 per cent by 1965. This will permit an average increase of 40 per cent per worker in real income. Wages of lower and medium-paid workers will be raised. In particular, the minimum wage will be increased from 270- 350 roubles a month to 500-600 roubles a month. The Soviet State annually spends tremendous amounts of money on free education and courses to improve the workers' skills, on free medical service, sanatoriums and resorts, pen- sions and other forms of aid to factory and office workers in the form of social insurance. The Seven-Year Plan provides for a further increase in ex- penditure for these purposes. In 1965 it will amount to 360,000 million roubles, as compared with 215,000 million roubles in 1958. Pensions will also be increased. The minimum old-age pen- sions, for instance, will be raised from 300 to 400 roubles a month in 1963 (for those in rural areas it will be raised to 340 roubles), and to 450-500 roubles a month in 1966 (again with a corresponding increase in rural areas). Disability pen- sions and pensions granted in case of the loss of the bread- winner will also be increased. One of the fust decrees passed by the Soviet State was the decree establishing an eight-hour working day. Today a seven- hour and even a six-hour working day has been established in a number of branches of industry. By 1960 all factory and office workers will have been trans- ferred to a seven-hour working day, while workers in the leading trades in the coal and mining industry, those engaged in work underground, will enjoy a six-hour working day. This is to be followed by a transition to a 40-hour working week, which, according to plan, is to be completed in 1962. A gradual switch-over to a 30-35-hour working week will be effected in the U.S.S.R. by 1964. The Soviet Union will then have the shortest working day and the shortest working week in the world. The planned tremendous increase in industrial output, 38 about 80 per cent, will be achieved, to a great extent, by intro- ducing new machinery, and by mechanising and automating production. This in turn, will contribute to a further improve- ment in the working conditions of the people. Measures are also being considered to improve industrial health and safety at enterprises and building projects, and to introduce, on a wide scale, the most up-to-date scientific and technical methods to make working conditions healthier. The coming seven-year period will see a further improve- ment in public health measures: 25,400 million roubles is being allocated to construct public health institutions, social security, physical culture and sport, and to develop medical services. That is 80 per cent more than was spent during the previous seven years, 1952-1958. The new construction projects will make it possible to double the number of beds in hospitals and to increase the number of places in hospitals more than 21 times as com- pared with the increase during the previous seven-year period. The necessary funds will also be provided by the State, trade unions, and collective farms for the wide-scale construc- tion of boarding homes for the aged both in town and country- side. The Seven-Year Plan, as drawn up by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, takes into consideration all the most im- portant aspects of the working, cultural and social life of the Soviet working people. It is a programme for a new, power- ful advance in the Soviet economy, and a further improve- ment in the people's standard of living. Published by Soviet Booklets, 3 Rosary Gardens. London, S.W.7. and printed tt3, Farlcigh Press Ltd (T U all Jepts.). Ikcchwood Rise. Watford. lien% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? Social Services ? Pensions ... All important new developments in Soviet social security find a place in the pages of SOVIET WEEKLY Thursdays 3d 3/3 3 months 616 6 months 131- per year from all newsagents or post free direct from: 3 ROSARY GARDENS, LONDON, S.W.7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 v syVie Wirn Ve/sV Vai OTHER BOOKLETS ON THE SOVIET UNION include the following: TARGETS OF THE SEVEN-YEAR PLAN 6d. SEVEN-YEAR PLAN REPORT 9d. SOVIET SPUTNIKS (4th Edition) Is. 6d. SOVIET PLANET INTO SPACE Is. SOVIET HEALTH SERVICE 6d. CO-OPERATIVES IN THE U.S.S.R. 6d. SOVIET TRADE UNIONS 6d. DEMOCRACY IN THE U.S.S.R. 6d. BRINGING SCHOOLS CLOSER TO LIFE 4d. FOOTBALL IN THE U.S.S.R. Is. SOVIET SPORTS HANDBOOK is. MOSCOW ART THEATRE 2s. 100 QUESTIONS ANSWERED (5th Edition) Is. 6d. SOVIET UNION IN FACTS AND FIGURES Paper 5s. Clothboard 7s. 6d. PLANNING IN THE U.S.S.R. 6d. IMPROVEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT 4d. ATOMS FOR PEACE 6d. IF THE ARMS RACE WERE STOPPED 3d. SOVIET PEOPLE SAY "NO" TO ATOM WAR 6d. THE NATIONS CAN LIVE IN PEACE 4d. SOVIET PROPOSALS ON GERMANY AND BERLIN 6d. From Booksellers, or direct from Soviet Booklets 3 ROSARY GARDENS, LONDON, S.JV.7 :C.C.C.C.WW:41.MMO:46,NOL-10:44.14444. It 0 ftw - -.0...... ::1,4...?,m,............. 4 - - ? - . e. ? 4 .?3\ , ...k. ?...???-?, . _ ...0 ,...0._ ? . - ?,c).,...? ..--;,-4 41 0.? .. , -... ? ? .7-6.-- e.e. ,. ..-- ? - 12. 'kw Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 HEAD OF THE CLASS "When the first earth satellite was shot into outer space in October, 1957, ushering in a new age of man's relation to the universe, the world rubbed its eyes, and then painfully opened them. This step into space had not been taken by Germans or Americans or French or British, but by Russians. The dark, unlettered-people of tsarist times, liberated and enlightened, had stepped to the head of the class. Behind their spectacular advance was a generation of assiduous study and research in mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, history, economics, political science, sociology, language, mechanics, electronics, atomics?taught in the universities and colleges, in the institutes and special schools, in the pioneer houses and in the elementary classes, by competent well-trained teachers to tens of millions of healthy, bright-eyed, eager pupils." (Scott Nearing: Soviet Education: California, 1959.) EDUCATION?A TOP PRIORITY "It is doubtful that any society has ever poured such a high proportion of its energies and resources into educational activities, in the broadest sense of the term, as the Soviet Union is doing today. Soviet leaders, from the beginning, have treated organised education with greater seriousness than political leaders in any other country. And this seriousness is widely shared by Soviet students and teachers, at every level of the school system." (George L. Kline, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University, in an article, June 16, 1958, follow- ing his visits to Soviet schools in 1956 and 19574 Higher Education in the U.S.S.R. by Professor V. Yelyutin, D.Sc. Minister of Higher Education of the_U.S.S.R. Soviet Booklet No. 51 London, June, 1959 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Prof. Vyacheslav Petrovich Yelyntin Doctor of Technical Sciences. Graduated from the Moscow Steel Institute in 1930. Director of the Moscow Steel Institute 1945-51. Deputy Minister of Higher Education x951-54. Minister of Higher Education of the U.S.S.R. 1954-. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 CONTENTS Foreword.. ? ? Higher Education Before the Revolution First Russian University ? ? Education for Privileged Few .. Valuable Traditions .. Progress of Soviet Higher Education Universal Education .. ? ? Democratic Educational System Training Specialists National Republics New Intelligentsia ? ? Some General Information Universities ? ? Engineering Institutes .. Education of Agricultural Specialists Education of Economists Law Schools ? ? Teachers' Training Medical Colleges Training in the Arts .. Some Questions of Planning .. Administration and Organisation Academic Councils The Departments ? ? ? ? Enrolment and Provisions for Students Methods of Education and Training .. Examinations .. Practical Training Employment Facilities for College Graduates Workers at College Faculty Members Scientific Research International Contacts .. Conclusion ? ? . . ? ? . . Page ? ? 5 7 8 9 fo II 12 ? 13 ^ 17 18 19 20 22 24 25 26 ? 26 27 26 ? 29 ? 29 30 31 33 36 37 38 42 43 45 48 50 52 FOREWORD Today there is world-wide recognition of the great strides made by Soviet industry and science. No one doubts any longer that Soviet engineers and technicians, in fact her specialists in every field, occupy a leading place in the world. The three sputniks, the space-rocket, the atomic-powered ice-breaker, and other outstanding Soviet achievements have contributed, in a somewhat dramatic form, to throw into relief the great progress made by the Soviet Union. It has not been lost on commentators in other countries that much of this advance is due to the Soviet educational system and to the great care lavished by the Soviet Govern- ment and people on the training of specialists of all kinds. This is not fortuitous, for a basic aim of the Soviet socialist system has been scientific, technical and cultural progress and the utmost development of all the creative genius and talents of man. For this reason the Soviet State, the Communist Party, and the Soviet people as a whole have devoted special attention to the training of highly skilled specialists for all branches of industry, agriculture, science, education, medicine and the arts. In line with the tasks involved in its economic and cultural development, the Soviet Union plans to expand and improve still more the training of specialists. From 1959 to 1965, some 2,300,000 will graduate from the colleges and universities as against 1,700,000 between 1952 and x958-4o per cent more. The number of engineers to be trained for industry, building, transport and communications 5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 will be go per cent greater, and that of agricultural specialists 50 per cent greater, than in the previous seven-year period. The increase will be greater in the case of engineers specialising in chemical technology, automation, computing techniques, electronics and other new fields. It is also planned to improve the existing higher education system by linking it more closely with production and by enrolling in higher educational establishments more young people having some experience of fife and a record of practical work. The role and importance of evening and correspondence schools in the college educational system will grow immensely. In this booklet Professor V. Yelyutin, Minister of Higher Education of the U.S.S.R., describes the great progress in the field of higher education made in the Soviet Union since the Revolution in 1917, and outlines the further important per- spectives for the coming period. 6 HIGHER EDUCATION BEFORE THE REVOLUTION HIGHER EDUCATION commenced in Russia when the Slav- Greco-Latin Academy was founded in Moscow at the end of the i7th century. Although the academy was a religious school, it exerted a favourable influence on the subsequent development of science and education in Russia. It provided the possibility of accumulating a definite store of experience for advancing higher education, since, along with theological subjects, the students were instructed in grammar, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, geography and other subjects. Later, in the early alth century, a number of secular schools were opened by order of Tsar Peter I for training navigators and engineers; to a certain degree they became the embryo of higher engineering education in the U.S.S.R. The development of agricultural production, the birth and growth of industry created a pressing need to develop higher education, to open higher schools and research institutions. An Academy of Sciences was founded in St. Petersburg, in 1725, and a university was opened under its auspices in 1726; the latter, however, was short-lived and ceased to exist after 1765. This university is nevertheless worth mentioning because it was the first to adopt the new system of education which combined the reading of lectures with extensive laboratory practice, the purpose being education as well as scientific research. In 1755, a firm foundation was at last laid for university education, when Moscow University was opened on the initiative and with the direct co-operation of the most out- standing Russian thinker and scholar of the time, Mikhail Lomonosov. 7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 It Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 FIRST RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY TIIE wilvERsrrv began its work in the premises of a former drugstore in Red Square (where the Historical Museum now stands), with a faculty of no more than a few professors and lecturers, and less than a hundrcd students. Still, it was a real university with the latest equipment, a curriculum covering all the necessary subjects, and lecturers who were capable of ensuring standards of education on a level with the achievements of science at that time. And most im- portant, it was the first Russian university. Industrial progress in Russia created the need for a national higher school for training engineers, especially mining and metal engineers. And the St. Petersburg (now Leningrad) Mining Institute, founded in 1773, furnished the basis for the progress of technical education in Russia. Other institutes and universities were added later. Thus, the Konstantinovskoye School for Land Surveyors was opened in 1779; it provided the basis for the Moscow Land Surveying Institute which was opened in 1835. An academy for training army surgeons was founded in St. Petersburg (it was formerly called academy of medicine and surgery) in 1798. The Derpt (now Tartu) University, and the Forestry Insti- tute of St. Petersburg were opened in 1802, the University of Kazan (where Lenin studied) in 1804, and Kharkov Uni- versity in 1805. Among the many establishments for education opened in the first half of the 19th century were the Railway Engineer- ing Institute and Technological Institute (1828) in St. Peters- burg, and the Moscow Higher Technical School (1830). Kiev University, which was opened in 1834, was destined to play an important cultural and educational role in the Ukraine. 8 EDUCATION FOR PRIVILEGED FEW TUE FOUNDING of higher educational establishments and the further development of existing ones continued during the second half of the 19th century. However, the economic conditions and political atmosphere in tsarist Russia were extremely unfavourable for the develop- ment of higher education. Pre-revolutionary Russia lagged far behind the economic and cultural development of the advanced countries of the West. The reactionary autocratic regime acted as a brake on Russia's economic and cultural progress, stifling scientific thought and the initiative of her progressive representatives. A college education was one of the privileges of the proper- tied classes before the Revolution. For sons and daughters of the working people the way to college was well-nigh blocked. In 1914, for example, of the total number of students of the eight Russian universities 38.3 per cent were children of aristocrats and officials, 43.2 per cent, children of clergymen and rich families, 14 per cent, children of kulaks (capitalist farmers), and only 4.5 per cent, children of workers, peasants and working intellectuals. Before the Revolution college education was denied also to the national minorities. There was no provision for higher education in the territories of the present Byelorussian, Lithuanian, Moldavian, Azerbaijan, Armenian, Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen, Tajik and Kirghiz republics of the Soviet Union, whereas today these Union Republics have i5i higher educational establishments with about 380,000 students. For a long time colleges were completely closed to women. Only at the end of the i9th and beginning of the 2oth centuries did the tsarist government grant permission for the introduc- tion of higher courses for a limited number of women, on a restricted curriculum. 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 VALUABLE TRADITIONS AND NOW, let US SUM up. In 280 years pre-revolutionary Russia acquired 105 uni- versities, colleges and technical institutes, attended by 127,000 students. These establishments were located in 21 cities, con- centrated mainly in Central Russia; there was not a single college in the border regions, especially in the cast and in places with a non-Russian population. And yet, despite all that, higher education in pre-revolu- tionary Russia built up its own system of training specialists, founded and developed a national school of science, educated many specialists, and produced a number of world-famous scholars. It is enough to mention the work of Lomonosov, Lobachevsky's discovery and elaboration of non-Euclidean geometry, Mendeleyev's discovery of the periodic law of chemical elements, Stoletov's definition of the photo-electric effect, Zhukovsky's works in aeromechanics, and Timiryazev's works in botany. The crowning achievement was Mendeleycv's periodic system of elements which blazed a reliable road into the future of science and engineering. This discovery furnished the theoretical basis for the use of atomic energy, the basis for modern technical progress, for the development of new and highly promising trends in science and engineering. In the process of this work Russian higher education accu- mulated a rich store of experience in tuition. It evolved systems of education which received international recognition and were widely adopted. An instance of this was the Moscow Higher Technical College. This college utilised the summarised experience of different Russian colleges of technology, as a basis to develop a new trend in college education. Its underlying idea was the estab- lishment of close organic ties between theoretical education and practical training in production. I0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release This system was widely adopted in the technical colleges of ? Europe and America after the world industrial exhibitions of 1872 (in Vienna) and 1876 (in Philadelphia). The Soviet people are proud of the past achievements of Russian higher education and strive to develop and extend the valuable traditions of their precedcssors. PROGRESS OF SOVIET HIGHER EDUCATION A POWERFUL impetus to the progress of higher education, science and public enlightenment, was supplied by the October Socialist Revolution. "Knowledge for the people" became the motto in Soviet Russia. Speaking at the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in ig18, Lenin said: "In the past, the whole of human intellect, all its genius, laboured in order to give all the benefits of engineering and culture to some, and to deprive others of the most essential, of education and development. Now, however, all the wonders of engineering, all the achievements of culture will become available to the people as a whole, and henceforth human intellect and genius will never be used as a means of violence, a means of exploitation. This we know?and is it not worth while to work for this great historic task? Is it not worth devoting all our strength to it? And the working people will accomplish this colossal historic work, for latent within them arc great forces of revolution, regeneration and renewal." The achievements of culture, of human thought should become the general possession of the whole people?that is the fundamental principle underlying the activities of the state to advance public education, college education, science and culture. II 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R0040000Annn9_ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Science serves progress only when combined with demo- cracy. To make education and science in the Soviet Union democratic the state created favourable conditions for pro- viding the vast majority of people with knowledge. In practice this meant the opening a of huge number of special secondary schools and higher educational establish- ments (institutes and universities) and the founding of many research institutes. UNIVERSAL EDUCATION A RADICAL change has taken place in the geographical dis- tribution of colleges and scientific institutions throughout the country. The regular secondary school equips its pupils with poly- technical knowledge. Along with a grounding in the sciences the pupils acquire skill in one field or another. After finishing secondary school the young boy or girl may enter a college, or go to work in industry, or agriculture. With two years' experience in production applicants who pass the college entrance examinations are given priority when applications for admission are considered. Before going to work, the secondary school graduate may learn a trade by attending special short-term courses main- tained in the factories, or a technical school. This training is given at the expense of the enterprise concerned, and the students are paid a small wage throughout the duration of this training. Opportunities for a secondary schooling in native language arc available to all citizens, since numerous national schools exist in all the republics of the Soviet Union. The development of education in the U.S.S.R. may be illus- trated by the following statistical data: 12 Thal Including Secondary school Schools school attend- attendance for YEARS ance (5-so grada) in mations ofpeopk adults 1914-1 9.7 o.6 957-50 30.6 13.5 1.9 Steps have now been taken for educational reform. In particular arrangements have been made for combining education in the higher school grades directly with work in production. This brings secondary education increasingly closer to life, to practice. The younger generation is receiving knowledge which will be necessary for its future work. This knowledge is at the same time adequate to qualify school graduates for entering a college or university. Consequently, the college or university has a huge field from which it can draw its new enrolments. DEMOCRATIC EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IMMEDIATELY AFTER the establishment of Soviet government, steps were taken to develop college education and ensure the most consistent implementation of the principle of demo- cracy in the universities and institutes. This afforded the opportunity for an education to the most capable citizens, without any discrimination based on property, social standing, nationality, sex, religion, or world outlook. The reorganisation of higher education on these lines was decreed by the Council of People's Commissars on August 2, 19'8. This decree opened the doors of the higher institutes of learning to the working people and their children, abolish- ing all restrictions which kept them out of college, and announced that all citizens could qualify for admission. Not only were tuition fees abolished in the colleges, but state stipends were instituted for the students. Faculty mein53 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 bers and students were called upon to co-operate in the management of the colleges and universities. On September 2, 1921 the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, headed by Lenin, endorsed the new charter of higher education, the first statutes of Soviet colleges. Despite the heavy burdens resulting from civil war and foreign intervention, the first benefits of the Soviet policy in the realm of higher education were soon apparent. Already by the autumn of 1919 college enrolment had grown to 221,000, as compared with 536,900 at the beginning of 1918. Free admission of students from the ranks of the workers and peasants and the institution of state stipends for them were not enough, important though they were, to enable workers and peasants to take advantage of their new oppor- tunities. Special arrangements had to be made to enable them to acquire secondary education. This problem was solved through the setting up of workers' faculties, which were college preparatory schools for adult workers and peasants. These schools made a most valuable contribution to the training of intellectuals from the midst of the people, to the rearing of a Soviet intelligentsia. With the progress of Soviet secondary education, the need for the workers' faculties gradually diminished, and they were finally closed. College education advanced in the Soviet Union very rapidly. By 1921-223 Soviet Russia already had 279 higher educational establishments, which means that their number had grown in the first few post-revolutionary years by 150 per cent, as compared with pre-revolutionary Russia. TRAINING SPECIALISTS ONE os' the main tasks confronting higher education under the early five-year plans was the training of Soviet technical specialists. 14 It was in that period that new institutes were opened in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Kharkov, Tbilisi, Yerevan, Baku, Minsk and many other cities of the constituent republics of the U.S.S.R. The existing higher educational establishments were expanded, new college buildings and dormitories put up, new laboratories equipped and the college faculties re- ceived additional personnel. As a result, college attendance was brought up to 504,400 at the end of the first five-year plan period. As many as 198,700 college-trained specialists, including 76,600 engineers, were educated during the first five-year period, and in the second five-year plan period the Soviet Union advanced to one of the leading places in the world in turning out college- trained specialists. And SO, immediately before the war of 5941-45 Soviet higher education was in a position to train specialists for all fields of economic and cultural endeavour. The progress of college education was retarded slightly by the war, but even in the most difficult period of the war the colleges were continuing without interruption the education of specialists as well as scientific research. Three hundred and two thousand specialists were educated by the colleges during the war. Tremendous damage was caused to higher education in the Soviet Union by those enemies of civilisation, science and enlightenment?the fascist invaders. For example, they were responsible for destroying 334 college buildings. Steps to restore these colleges were taken by the Communist Party and the Soviet Government when the war was still in progress. In the post-war years Soviet higher education has not only recovered from the ravages caused by the fascist vandals; it has made greater progress, training greater numbers of specialists equipped with a more thorough grounding in the specific fields of knowledge. College attendance grew from 81i,000 in 5940 to 5,247,000 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 in 1950, an increase of more than 50 per cent, and to 2,001,000 111 1958, an increase of 150 per cent over the 1940 figure. As compared with 1914 (when pre-revolutionary Russia had the highest college attendance in her history), the college attendance in 1957-58 had grown 16.6 times over. Along with the general increase in college attendance, there has been an especially great increase in the number of students majoring in the most essential professions and fields. ? Attendance in the technical colleges which educate en- gineers for industry, construction, transport and communica- tions has grown from 25 per cent of the total college attend- ance in 1940 to 38.1 per cent of the total in 1958. The corresponding share of students of the agricultural and forestry colleges had grown in relation to the total attend- ance from 6.4 per cent in 1940 to 10.8 per cent in 1958. Attendance in the economics and law colleges in 1958 was four times that of 1940; attendance in the teachers' training colleges and in the respective university faculties in 1958 was Ti4vindouble that of 1940, and in the medical and physical culture 'colleges, 50 per cent more. Especially high was the rate of progress in the fifth five- year plan period, when the number of graduating specialists in the engineering colleges had grown by 93 per cent, and in the agricultural and forestry colleges by 102 per cent, as compared with the fourth five-year period, the general increase in the college attendance in the fifth five-year period amounting to 72 per cent. Considerable changes in the distribution of the higher educational establishments, improvements in their organisa- tion and in the educational system in order to bring it up to the level of the new requirements and urgent state tasks have been made since the war. One of the reading rooms of the tiloscow Power Institute Professor Tayana Birich and fifth-year students of illituk Medical Institute examine an X-ray photograph Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .1 lesson in Bengalese for fist-year students in the Oriental Languages Depart- ment of Leningrad University A group of young Kirghiz scientists and re- search workers of the Kirghiz Academy of Sciences Third-year student Irma Artemseva and other students of English at the Moscow Motor and Highway Institute, are enjoying Jerome K. Jerome's "Three Alen in a Boat" Irma Ushaeva, in the Zoology Room of Leningrad University. is a Khalil: and studies in the Department of the Peoples of the North Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? Moscow State Untrerrity, seen from the neer. Below ar ...ve straw if its xftel,r? a their mtcrostopes In the Petrography Lahonttog stactr- twiny NATIONAL REPUBLICS STEPS TAKEN 10 promote the development of the productive forces in the east of the U.S.S.R., greater industrial and agri- cultural progress, and the development of culture in these regions, created a demand for the faster expansion of the existing colleges there and the opening of new ones. The number of higher educational establishments has been growing steadily in the Urals, in West and East Siberia, in the Far East and in the Central Asia republics. They now have 200 such establishments as compared with four before the Revolution. The college attendance in the eastern part of the U.S.S.R. in 1958 was Go per cent more than in 1950, and 270 per cent more than in 1940. The higher educational establishments in the Soviet East have 25 per cent of the total college attend- ance of the U.S.S.R. Universities have been opened in the Tajik, Turkmen and Kirghiz Union republics, in the Yakut, Kabardino-Balkar, Bashkir, and Mordovian autonomous republics, and in Vladi- vostok; 25 higher schools of technology, seven agricultural colleges, six medical and many other higher schools have been founded in the Soviet East. One of the most remarkable results of the cultural revolution in the U.S.S.R. is the development of college education in the national republics. Higher educational establishments existed in pre-revolu- tionary Russia only in 21 cities situated mainly in the central part of the country. They now exist in 220 cities of the Soviet Union, among them many cities in the national republics. Furthermore, there are extension colleges, branches of colleges and consultation centres for college correspondence students in more than 500 inhabited places. There is not a single republic in the U.S.S.R. without its own university and other institutions for higher education. There are at present 140 colleges in the Ukraine (there were only 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ;47 f. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 7 baorc ritvant4401, fr..",:ir.7,77--rint,n 15 tn korimijan, ;owl ..f.vi 1lie &vie- 12A-6- ,,3:ffics (LiNiatila, Latvia a nil i&rEF -v=2" ".d,13 no k tell la MP I ago fir th,ii (Am =raw hare thetc own engineers, writers and oilier intrilooz.,--A. The progress or crAle ... fr.i-Am6mr- is ??=n-,s: i1/4-,--14,3 the Ukrainian Soviet SseM..= -fithitts- lad ...71=ed terribly from the Gernun awl-53 the Ukraine's college attendarce to= 3311,sor? lia order to appreciatepc?'-iem2==sam'-ret.?rrain- ian, S.S.R. in the sphere of 1er=---,=, to know that the total attendancentie--.1=-32:ry Russia was 127,000. NEW INTELLIGENTSIA TEM PROGRESS of college edrr--r '-ri? ii passible ttr train in a comparatively bicE- pimo" c:rous intellectuals who are deeply devri The decisive role played by cr1=Ecta the crea- ticm of the Soviet intelligentsia rm,ybc:eger-2 br act that before the Patriotic War Soviet .0-rn -40.=? etba' cating specialists at the rate of too,000-i tope? a as 0:1=fared with the annual average of 8,000-xo,ceo 'b&-re Revolution. College Attendance and Gradtires /AA id oudents, feaiscwrfersg oudenis In- elitTfelf(s ttiousands) 1914 1930 1940 1.:?-?3 1274 Piwi$1W iv-Mewing ? . 10.7 287-9 4.3.9 811.7 1:001.0 126.0 Cc T938, sr er=pcxed x'a 1914 T6.6 times CAW times Over 290 '-`7 18 The progress of higher education in the republics may be illustrated by the following figures. YEAR 1914 1938 RSFSR 72 441 UATaine 27 138 Nwnber of colkges in the republics Byelo- Kazakh- Llehki- russia stem start 24 27 31 Tajtki- start 7 The number of college students for every 1,000 inhabitants was more than to in 1958. The progress made by higher education in the U.S.S.R. in the past 40 years is truly immeasurable, and is now in a position to meet the country's full demand for specialists. The U.S.S.R. now has skilled specialists and executives who are capable of solving the most complex problems in industry, science, engineering and management, of achieving the highest results in industry, transport, construction and agriculture with the least expenditure of labour, funds and materials. As many as 3,800,000 college-trained specialists, including one million engineers, have been educated in the Soviet period. SOME GENERAL INFORMATION Most. nisrrrirrEs of higher learning in the Soviet Union are maintained at state expense and financed from the state budget.* A college education may be acquired by attending a college in daytime, or an evening college (for students who work during the day), or by taking a college correspondence course. In the latter case the necessary lessons arc mailed to the students and they attend the institute twice a year for examinations. All these facilities may be available at one and the same *With the exception of a few colleges which belong to the co-operative societies and mass organisations. 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ?IN? institute. Diplomas issued to the graduates in all these cases are equally valid. Colleges are subordinated to different ministries and departments. All the universities and most of the technical schools are subordinated to the Ministry of Higher Education; the agricultural institutes arc subordinated to the Ministry of Agriculture; the medical institutes to the Ministries of Public Health of the Union Republics; the teachers' training institutes to the Ministries of Public Education of the Union republics, and so on. But in order to ensure a uniform system of instruction, scientific research and methods of education in all the colleges (irrespective of jurisdiction) they receive their guidance from the Ministry of Education of the U.S.S.R. The colleges may be divided for the sake of convenience into three main groups: universities, polytechnical institutes and specialised institutes. UNIVERSITIES Ix ACCORDANCE with their historic traditions, the universities have been developed as major scientific and educational centres. They conduct extensive scientific research and train highly skilled specialists for the scientific institutions, for the national economy, cultural and educational institutions, for secondary and higher education and for the state apparatus. University education has made great progress under the Soviets. Tsarist Russia had 13 universities with an attendance of no more than 43,000; the U.S.S.R. today has 39 universities with an attendance exceeding 200,000. The universities turn out versatile specialists with a thorough grounding in physics, chemistry, mathematics, mechanics, biology, geology, geography, philology, history, philosophy, economics and law. The number and nature of the faculties vary in different 20 universities. Here is some detailed information about two universities. Moscow University, the oldest in the country, was founded in 5755. In 1957-58, Moscow University was attended by 21,200 students: 14,600 attended the university in day- time, about 3,000 in the evening, and 3,600 were taking correspondence courses. There are fikculties of history, philology, journalism, philosophy, economics, law, physics, mechanics and mathematics, chemistry, biology and soil science, geology and geography. The faculty is composed of 1,800 lecturers who include more than Ioo members and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences, 390 professors with D.Sc. degrees and more than i,000 lecturers with M.Sc. degrees. The university has fine lecture halls and well-equipped laboratories. The new buildings on the Lenin Hills occupy a territory of over 400 acres. They have a floor space of about 5 million square feet and 25,000 rooms, including 5,714 in the student hostels. Sixty nationalities of the Soviet Union and 40 nationalities of other countries arc represented by students at this university. One thousand two hundred students from 40 foreign countries attend the university. Important scientific investigations are conducted here by the university's scientists. Moscow State University maintains extensive scientific contacts with universities in other countries. The works of its scientists may be found in the libraries of many uni- versities and scientific institutions of the world. It has a regular exchange of scientific works with 277 institutions, and periodically also with 138 institutions of 54 countries. The university has numerous laboratories with first-class equipment, a students' club and a library with more than 5 million books, magazines, and newspaper files in both Russian and foreign languages. 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Central Asian University has its seat in Tashkent, the capital of the Uzbek Republic. Founded only 38 years ago it has educated about 25,000 specialists. With faculties of history, philology, oriental studies, law, physics and mathe- matics, chemistry, biology and soil science, geology and geography, it has an attendance of 5,000 and a staff of 429 lecturers, including 33 professors. This university has trained many eminent statesmen, scientists, writers and other dis- tinguished people. At the Central Asian University, Uzbeks are instructed in their native language. The universities play an important part in training and retraining teachers and scientific workers. There are extensive facilities for post-graduate studies and research. Some of the universities (Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Ural, Central Asian and Kazan Universities) have in the last few years rendered a valuable service in training highly qualified lecturers for the advanced training institutes of social science teachers, and of instructors in philology, mathematics and physics. Scientific research conducted at the universities is of great theoretical and practical value. Progress made in natural and exact sciences (physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and geology) serves as the foundation and pivot of technical progress in all branches of production. The scientists and lecturers of the universities number in their midst recognised authorities in all these fields of knowledge. ENGINEERING INSTITUTES ENGINEERS ARE trained in the Soviet Union in almost 200 special fields. They arc educated by various technological institutes which may be divided for convenience into two groups: polytcchnical and specialised. Polytechnical institutes occupy an important place among 22 the engineering colleges. As a rule they have many faculties educating engineers in a great many specialities. The Leningrad Polytechnical Institute, for example, has nine faculties including metallurgy, mechanics and machinery, electromechanics, electrical engineering, physics and mech- anics, hydrotechnical and radio engineering. Each faculty covers allied fields. For example, the radio engineering faculty trains specialists in radiophysics, industrial electronics, dielectrics and semi-conductors; the metallurgical faculty educates specialists in the production of iron and steel, and non-ferrous metals, metallography, foundry production, treatment of metals under pressure, and so on. Altogether the institute trains its students in 42 specialities; it has ro,000 day students and more than 800 evening students. There is a staff of 360 professors and lecturers. The institute has more than 200 laboratories equipped with the latest instruments, making possible not only normal laboratory practice, but also extensive research which is conducted by the faculty members and students. Other polytechnical institutes are organised along the same lines. There is the Ural Polytechnical Institute with 13 faculties educating students in 36 special fields, the Kharkov Polytechnical Institute with 15 faculties educating students in 38 special fields, and the Kaunas Polytechnical Institute with seven faculties, educating students in a3 special fields. The specialised institutes educate specialists for a definite industry. This category includes the metallurgical, mining, civil engineering, chemical technology, transport engineering and other institutes. They offer courses in a more limited number of fields and have a smaller number of faculties than the polytcchnical institutes. For example, the Dniepropetrovsk Mining Institute edu- cates engineers for the coal industry. With geological prospect- ing, mining, mining machinery and mine construction facul- 23 neclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 tics, this institute educates students in zo special fields, and has an enrolment of 3,900. The Novosibirsk Civil Engineering Institute has five facul- ties and trains civil engineers in seven special fields. I have already mentioned that the technical and poly- technical institutes are divided into two groups for the sake of convenience. There are certain technical institutes which occupy a place between these two groups.. The Moscow Power Engineering Institute, for example, although nominally a college for training specialists for a specific industry, has ro faculties offering courses in 26 specific lines. The Moscow Higher Technical School is also organised approximately along the lines of the polytechnical institutes. The number of technical colleges, the nature of their specialisation and organisation reflect the present standards, requirements and prospects of economic development in the U.S.S.R. Old Russia had 16 technical colleges (in 1914), whereas the Soviet Union now has 200. Eighty-four thousand specialists received their diplomas in these colleges in 1957, and 94,000 in 1958. The industrial development of a constantly greater number of formerly underdeveloped or completely undeveloped districts has brought about a re-distribution of the technical colleges. There were technical colleges in only nine cities of pre-revolutionary Russia; today they exist in more than 6o cities; they are located not only in big centres, but also in the new industrial districts, much closer to production. EDUCATION OF AGRICULTURAL SPECIALISTS AolueuvruaAL SPECIALISTS are educated at agricultural col- leges. The reorganisation of agriculture along socialist lines has 24 resulted in the development of highly mechanised, large-scale co-operative (collective) farming and state farming. This was naturally bound to and did create a high demand for agricultural specialists. Accordingly, the network of agri- cultural colleges was expanded. Pre-revolutionary Russia had no more than 15 agricultural colleges with an attendance of 5,000, whereas the Soviet Union has 99 agricultural institutes with 223,000 students. The agricultural colleges educate specialists in agronomy, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine and in the mech- anisation of agriculture. Thus, at the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy of Moscow specialists are educated at the faculties of agronomy, pomology and gardening, agrochemistry, animal husbandry and economics. Thanks to the more or less even territorial distribution of the agricultural institutes it has been possible to adapt their plans and programmes to the most urgent local requirements (in the district where the specific institute is located, and, practically in the place where the specialists educated in the district will be working). The faculty members of the agricultural colleges arc confronted at present with the important task of strengthen- ing contact between education and production, of tying it up with the concrete features and urgent requirements of agri- culture in the respective zone. EDUCATION OF ECONOMISTS THE NATURE and standards of education in the higher schools of economics arc determined by the requirements of the socialist economic system. Management of socialist enter- prices requires deep knowledge of economics and the ability to apply it in practice. Specialists for economy, trade and finance are educated by the economics' institutes and also by special faculties in 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the universities and the economic engineering faculties of the higher technical schools. Economists are educated in the following fields: political economy, economics of industry, transport and agriculture, finances, planning and production accounting. These special- ists are educated at present in 30 institutes of economics, x4 universities and 61 industrial and agricultural institutes. LAW SCHOOLS MEASURES TAKEN by the Soviet state for strengthening socialist law and improving the state apparatus dictate the need for special attention to the education of expert lawyers. These specialists are educated by the law institutes and law faculties of the universities. While receiving instruction in jurisprudence, economics, political subjects and philosophy, the future lawyers become skilled in analysing social phenomena and are given the opportunity of undergoing practice in the legal services and government offices. The law schools and law faculties of the universities have an enrolment of 36,000, including 24,000 working students who are taking college correspondence courses. TEACHERS' TRAINING ILLITERACY HAS been banished into the realm of history in the U.S.S.R. Universal seven-year schooling has been intro- duced in the countryside, and secondary education in major cities. Polytechnical education is intended to bring students closer to life, to acquaint them with the production processes in industry and agriculture. There were practically no teachers' training colleges in tsarist Russia apart from two small private colleges. In the U.S.S.R., however, these institutes comprise one of the largest groups of Soviet colleges. 26 The Soviet Union has 212 teachers' training institutes with an attendance of 515,000. Their responsible and honourable mission is to train teachers for the fifth to tenth grades of the secondary schools and for instruction in general subjects at the specialised secondary schools. The teachers' training institutes arc quite evenly distributed throughout the country, through all the republics. This, together with the specialists educated by the universities, makes it possible to meet the demand for teachers in all the secondary schools and the great demand for teachers in the schools where classes are conducted in the non-Russian languages of the peoples of the Soviet Union. MEDICAL COLLEGES To Gm a good idea of progress made in this field it is enough to say that tsarist Russia had no more than eight medical colleges in 194; concentrated in Central Russia, they issued 1,000-1,500 diplomas a year. One of the first acts of the Soviet Government was to provide a great number of medical specialists in order to ensure medical service to all the many millions of people of the Soviet republics. In 1922 the country already had 26 medi- cal institutes. Today, numbering 79, they have an attendance of more than 6o,000. A radical change has taken place, too, in the geographical distribution of the medical colleges: in the outlying border regions where not a single doctor, to say nothing of medical schools, was found in the past, medical institutes arc now turning out highly skilled specialists. These institutes (with a six-year course) train specialists in internal medicine, pediatry, sanitation, stomatology and pharmacy. The continuous progress of medicine has made it necessary to open refresher courses and advanced training institutes (mainly at the medical institutes). 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 r Diplomas are issued by the medical institutes at the rate of 18,00o-2o,000 a year. (The population is provided with medi- cal service free of charge.) Specialists for physical culture and sports (who include medical specialists as well as instructors) are educated at 18 special institutes which have an attendance of 14,500. TRAINING IN THE ARTS IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY Russia training in the arts was limited to seven colleges. Their number has grown seven-fold under the Soviets, and the U.S.S.R. now has 22 conservatoires of music, 12 dramatic and scenic-design institutes, a cinematography institute, an architectural institute, several academies of arts, art institutes, several institutes of applied and decorative arts, as well as industrial art schools and a literary institute. Faculty members of the art schools include many outstand- ing Soviet art workers. The wide and versatile network of Soviet higher educa- tional institutions provides every possibility for meeting the great demand for specialists in every sphere of economic and cultural endeavour. Soviet colleges are constantly improving their educational methods and work as well as scientific re- search, which is conducted in numerous fields. A good general theoretical background is especially impor- tant at present when science and engineering are advancing with seven-league strides. It provides the basis for special training, for the extensive use of specialists in different fields of economic endeavour and for the best solution of scientific and technical problems arising today. Special attention is devoted to general improvements in the system of education in order to meet the general require- ments of the state and to give young people the opportunity of acquiring an education according to their choice. Soviet education is so organised as to ensure the closest links between theory and practice in each field. 28 SOME QUESTIONS OF PLANNING EDUCATION OF specialists is based in the Soviet Union on the estimates of future requirements in the respective branches of the national economy and cultural services. Estimates of these requirements for six to ten years ahead arc prepared by all the enterprises, instittitions and organisations, taking into account the long-range plans for the corresponding economic and cultural spheres. When the time for the distribution of the graduating students arrives, the institutes have at their disposal complete lists of available vacancies and requirements in the given year. Knowing the required number of specialists each year (for six to ten years ahead), it is possible to determine the enrol- ment for each speciality in order to meet the future require- ments of the national economy. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the population, industry and agriculture pro- vides the basis for a correct decision as to the geographical distribution of the colleges. Consequently, education of specialists on a planned basis makes it possible to change the number and ratio of specific groups of specialists. The existing correlation in percentages between specific groups of specialists (college attendance) is as follows: The humanities, including the teachers' training group ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .. 42.6 Engineering.. ? ? .. 38.1 Agricultural ? ? .. 10.8 Medical ? ? ? ? . ? .. 8.5 Naturally, this correlation changes with the progress of all the spheres of the national economy and culture. ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANISATION ONE-MAN MANAGEMENT is combined with collective manage- ment of the colleges. 29 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Every college is headed by a director (a rector at the uni- versity), who has several assistants responsible for educa- tional, scientific and executive activities. There is an academic council functioning under the director (or rector) who presides at this council. It is composed of the director's assistants responsible for educational and scientific work, faculty deans, professors who head the respective departments and some of the lecturers. Mass organisations at the colleges (e.g. trade union, Communist Party, Young Communist League) each have a representative on the council. ACADEMIC COUNCILS MESE COUNCILS have extensive rights and prerogatives. Their activities are planned by themselves. Chief attention is devoted to questions relating to educational work and methods, to the work of the departments, faculties and the institute as a whole. Questions relating to scientific research are also dealt with by the councils. They adjudge the scientific title of associate professor to instructors and discuss candidates recommended for docentships, or professorships. The councils of the bigger colleges have the right to receive disscrtations for M.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees, to adjudge M.Sc. degrees and to make recommendations for the conferment of D.Sc. degrees. The academic councils deal not only with current affairs, but also with important fundamental questions relating to the future development of the specific educational establishment. They discuss term and annual plans for the departments, faculties and other divisions, and for the institution as a whole, as well as reports on work already accomplished. The director (rector) endorses the plan for scientific re- search which covers general theoretical problems and urgent problems relating to technical progress in industry and other 30 branches of the national economy, and to the introduction of the results of scientific research into production. Plans for scientific research also include the compilation of textbooks, manuals, and courses of lectures. College scientists compile each year more than 300 new textbooks and aids in various subjects. The colleges publish scientific papers prepared by faculty members, lecture series, guides and manuals for laboratory practice, collections of problems, guides on method, treatises, popularisations and so on. The faculties and departments are the colleges' basic organisations. The faculties are responsible for the education of students in one or more allied specialities. Each faculty is headed by a dean appointed from among the professors who represent the leading specialities of the faculty. The dean is directly responsible for the educational and scientific work of the departments, for the fulfillment of the educational plans and programmes. He directly sees to the organising of education and arrangements for the students' practical training, he approves the schedules, and is also responsible for the maintenance of discipline. The bigger colleges have faculty councils presided over by the deans. The functions of the faculty councils arc approx- imately the same as those of college councils. The bigger faculty councils have the right to receive dissertations. THE DEPARTMENTS THE PRIMARY educational and scientific unit of the college is the department which is responsible for guiding the educa- tional work, and questions concerning methods and scientific research in one or several allied subjects. The department is headed by a professor who directs the work of the laboratories, reads lectures in the main subjects, directs the work of the professors, docents and lecturers, checks 31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 "4. up on the quality of their lectures, practical and other work. The head of the department directs all the work of the students, post-graduate studies and advanced training of the teaching staff of the department. As a rule, the staff of a department includes professors ' if several courses of lectures are read, docents, lecturers and ? 411 3 assistants. There is ordinarily a group of laboratory workers attached to a department. The head of the department and professors are elected through a contest among professors or scientists with D.Sc. degrees. Docents are also selected through a contest of docents or persons with M.Sc. degrees. Lecturers are selected by the Councils of the faculties or the institute. Each department has its own plan for the academic year subject to approval by the director of the college. It covers the educational programme, scientific research and methods. The plan contains provisions also for the compilation of new textbooks and manuals, to assist student scientific circles and societies, and direct post-graduate work. Special attention is given to advanced training and refresher courses for the teach- ing staff. ? Meetings of the department held once or twice a month Aiscuss the progress of the studies in specific groups, hear re- . .? "Ports on scientific problems and methods, discuss the results of scientific research conducted by the staff members, manu- scripts of textbooks and manuals, theses of future lectures on the most important and complex problems covered by a definite course of lectures, and questions relating to the future work of the laboratories. Other questions discussed include plans for dissertations, reports on post-graduate research and scientific papers. Reports on scientific problems are made at these meetings by outstanding people in industry: chief engineers and tech- nologists employed in factories, or mines, directors of factory 32 Above--a welcome meal for Moscow University students in one of the dining halls The students on the right are from the foscow Textile Institute, and are bang shown how the loops are formed on a knit .goods machine 44t r f 4v!' A DarF niti7Pd (*CM ADDroved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 411. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Maths for motor- car makers: Fitter V. Gruhin (left) from the Gorky si fotor Irorks, studies at the Polytechnical Institute. His tutor is Vladimir Lipkin, ALSc. Future road- builders in their third year at the Motor and High- way Institute test the action of heat on bitumen First-year students of therapeutics in the lecture theatre of the Moscow Afedical Institute Leningrad University students. 77ie one on the right is studying journalism in the Philology Department. He already has a world-wide reputation?for he is Boris SpassAy, International Grandmaster and junior world champion of chess Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 V4v, arlk "Nt 5te I ta. I??? RELAXATION: Soot: students of the Bauman Tec/uncal College enjoy they sports day at Ouch there are entrants for most sports and athlettc events Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 One of the events at the Bauman Technical College sports in Moscow is wrestling. Here we see Anatoli -L.. .4 .411 Teplov and Leonid Maslov in a bout Students of the Aloscow Motor and Highway Institute keeping close to their main subject? the highway?in a training sprint Students outside Riga University in the Latvian S.S.R. . Fourth-year students at the Moscow Steel Institute are here having a practical lesson in the assembly of a vacuum furnace Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co. A. .roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? Three nurses who are determined to become surgeons: Dwya Abratanova, Volvo illikityuk, and Valya Volchkora A three-student room in the students' hostel, liapsukas State University, Vilnius, Lithuania. In the photograph is fifth-year medical student Ona liaraljauskaite Te. TX. ; 4-Yr. laboratories, agronomists employed at state farms, collective farms, and experimental stations, and so on. Reports are also delivered at these meccings (and lectures are delivered from time to time before student audiences) by rank-and-file innovators in industry and leading agricultura- lists on their methods of work and achievements in production. Professors and lecturers in their turn render dircct assist- ance to the factories, co-operate in the scientific work done by their laboratories and assist (and sometimes assume full responsibility for it) the development of new technological processes, new designs for machines and instruments, and so on. One of the basic trends in the work of the colleges is repre- sented by the co-operation of their faculty members in solving the most important scientific problems relating to intensifica- tion of production on the basis of the latest achievements of science and engineering, to ways of cutting production and construction costs, and the overall development of definite economic regions where specific colleges are situated. Because of this, direct scientific and technical co-operation is maintained constantly between the college departments and the enterprises in the respective industries. This co- operation has grown considerably since the war. Organisations of students, professors, lecturers and all staff members exist in every college. ENROLMENT AND PROVISIONS FOR STUDENTS NEW REGULATIONS for admission to Soviet higher educational establishments, introduced in April 1959, continue the trend towards priority for those with a background of practical work. Recent years have shown a marked change in this direction. In 1957, for instance, about two-thirds of the student body (in day, evening and correspondence higher schools) were 33 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 people who had worked in industry or other flagric- last year the figute had grown to three-quarters- And from now On even more emphasis will be placed on good references from trade union and Soviet Party, Young Communist League or other organisations to which they belong, when applications are being consid=ttl from would-be full-time students. School leavers will also have to present recammendarinni from their schools. For those wishing to study journalism, law, literature, philosophy and political economy, two years' practical work is a must. Written entrance exams will be presented under a code name, and the papers will be marked by a commission of not less than two examiners. Those who wish to enter the fields of tr-whing, medicine and international relations will receive priority if they have had working experience, and for the first time it will be possible to combine part-time medical studies in some fields with work in the health services. Persons with a specialised secondary education employed in medical institutions can now be enrolled in evening depart- ments of medical institutes or may study pharmacy and certain medical subjects in either correspondence or evening institutes. Second World War ex-servicemen and women, who have completed their secondary education with excellent marks, will be admitted to day, evening and correspondence institutes without entrance exams, and will receive priority in enrol- ment. Next In priority will be ex-servicemen and women who have headed their classes In technical schools, are working in their speciality and whose entrance exam marks are satisfactory; those without a war service record who receive the highest 34 marks in competitive exams; demobbed soldiers and persons who have passed the leaving exams in evening schools. Secondary school leavers with the highest marks and those who have finished specialised educational establishments with honours and are working in production are required to pass entrance exams, but they will be given preference in enrolment in the event of marks and other conditions being equal. The regulations insist that, while up to four college places in five may be allocated in accordance with these priorities, the remainder must be allocated by competitive exam. To this exam school leavers would be admitted on equal terms with any other applicants. The question may be asked: what becomes of the youths and girls who fail at the college entrance examinations? They go to work in industry, agriculture, or offices. While working they have every opportunity of continuing their education by attending an evening college, or taking a college correspondence course. They may also prepare for and enter the competitive ex- aminations a year or two later; or, after attending an evening college, or taking a college correspondence course for two- three years, secure a transfer to a day college. What provisions arc there for students in the U.S.S.R.? To begin with, there is a system of state stipends. More than 8o per cent of the college students are paid state stipcnds which cover the required minimum standard of living. The charge for accommodation in student hostels is very small (the subsidies necessary for covering the cost of all the services in the dormitories are provided by the state). Special funds are allocated by the state for assistance to students, whenever the need for it arises; allowances to students in such cases are paid by order of the rector (of the university), or director (of the institute). Thousands of college students are accommodated at sana- 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 3/4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 toria, rest homes or tourist camps during the summer and winter holidays. Many of the colleges maintain their own holi- day homes, sanatoria and summer camps. Extensive assistance is rendered to the students by the trade unions and health departments. At least ro per cent of the places in holiday homes and sanatoria maintained by the trade unions and Ministries of Public Health of the republics arc reserved for students during the holidays. METHODS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE METHOD of instruction employed in Soviet colleges varies, but its basic purpose is the fullest possible development of the individual inclinations and abilities of the students, and the combination of theoretical education with practical training. Theoretical education is conducted through lectures, laboratory exercises and practical training, seminar dis- cussions, and so on. How much time is spent on each of these forms depends mainly on the nature of the subject. The time allocated in Moscow University for physics, for example, is 5,146 hours, which includes 2, 1 1 13 hours for lectures, 1,688 hours for labora- tory exercises and 1,348 hours for practical training and seminars. Attendance at lectures and practical exercises is obligatory. The academic year is divided into two terms: the autumnal term which lasts from September 1 until January 23, and the spring term which begins on February 7 and ends on June 30. Each term concludes with examinations (in no more than five subjects) for which three to four weeks are allocated. Under the guidance of their lecturers the students study no more than 36 hours a week in the first three years, and 28-30 hours a week in the fourth and fifth years. There arc holidays twice a year, winter holidays beginning 36 on January 24 and lasting to February 6, and summer holi- days from July i to August 31. The schedule is subject to approval by the director (or rector). The order and inter-connection of the subjects arc defined in the plan for the given speciality. This plan covers 40-50 subjects and is composed of the following series: socio-economic, genual science and special subjects. A general engineering series of subjects, which occupy a most important place in the educational programmes for engineers, may be designated in the technical colleges. A greater number of hours are devoted to general science and general engineering subjects in colleges educating specialists for jobs requiring a wider range of knowledge. The allocation of time in the technical colleges is as follows: up to 40 per cent for general science; general engineering subjects 25-40 per cent; special subjects 20-25 per cent; socio-economic subjects 8 per cent; and athletics up to 3 per cent. Some technical colleges (such as construction engineering institutes, for example) spend about 40 per cent of the time on special subjects. EXAMINATIONS STtroEtsrrs ARE required to take written examinations. In some subjects preliminary practical exams are taken. Students who fail at the preliminaries are not allowed to take the term examinations. The marks are "Excellent", "Good", "Satisfactory" and "Unsatisfactory". Only professors and docents have the right to act as ex- aminers, while ordinary lecturers and assistants may super- vise the preliminary examinations. Every student receives a special examination card listing his subjects and marks. 37 npriassifipci in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 As already noted above, the educational system is made up of lectures, practical (seminars in the humanities) and laboratory exercises, consultations, annual assignments and homework, preparation of graduation theses or projects, and state examinations. There are regular lectures, many of them illustrated by experiments and visual aids, including educational films. Books and life, theory and practice are organically bound up in Soviet higher education. As a rule, the lectures are combined with practical exercises, seminars, or laboratory practice. PRACTICAL TRAINING PaAmicAt. 'TRAINING in production is part and parcel of the educational system. It covers practical work at the college as well as direct practice in production. First- and second-year students are required to undergo practical training in the workshops and experimental stations maintained by the institutes, while practical training in pro- duction is obligatory at the end of the third and fourth years, and directly before work begins on the graduation theses. Practical exercises are required in mathematics, theoretical mechanics, theory of mechanisms and machines, strength of materials, and other subjects. In the presence of the lecturer the student carries out one or another demonstration based on the lecture. After that he continues to work independently on textbooks and other materials. Seminars are arranged mainly in the humanities. Special attention is devoted to laboratory practice which reinforces the theoretical knowledge acquired by the students, acquaints them with laboratory equipment and develops a taste for experimenting. The student is given the opportunity not only to perform experiments the results of which are known to the lecturer in 38 advance, but also to do independent work, to draw up the plan for the experiment, conduct observations, sum up their results and draw the necessary conclusions. Much is being done to improve laboratory work, to acquaint the students with the latest instruments and methods of re- search, to get them accustomed to observe the greatest accuracy when they are conducting experiments. Practically every college gives students the opportunity of co-operating in scientific research conducted under the respective department. The best works are awarded special medals and prizes; they are published in the collections of scientific papers issued by the institute and may be used as a basis for graduation works and dissertations. Some of the programmes require the presentation of esti- mates and charts, or annual projects. These estimates represent the first experience in the independent application of the theoretical knowledge acquired by the students. After completing their studies in one or another subject and presentation of the required estimates and charts, the students proceed to work on their annual projects. Their volume, subjects and nature are defined by the departments, depending upon the subject. The student prepares his annual project independently, the lecturer's role being reduced only to that of consultant and examiner. Moreover, consultations must not interfere with the student's independent work; he must not be given any ready solutions for his problems, he must not be allowed to copy existing projects and every encouragement must be given to the student's initiative. The students defend their projects at a public hearing. Annual theses arc presented in the main subjects by students of the humanities. During the term, or during the 39 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 9V% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 academic year, the student works on his theses, selecting one of thc subjects announced by the department. Lectures on optional subjects may be attended by students at their choice. Practical work and laboratory exercises prepare the students for their future training in production, which they do under the guidance of a professor, or lecturer. The students go together with the head of the department to the place where they are to do their practical training, the given enterprise appointing the most skilled specialists to assist them. Arrangements for practical training are usually made at the best modern industrial enterprises, at collective farms, or state farms, offices, and other economic, cultural, educa- tional and medical establishments. Things arc organised so that the student can perform independently, in consecutive order, various jobs ranging from less to more skilled, up to the duties of a technician and then of foreman and superintendent. Students arc acquainted not only with production processes and technology, but also with industrial organisation and maintenance. Final production practice is arranged directly before work begins on the graduation projects. Twenty to twenty-five weeks is allocated for the preparation of the graduation thesis. There is a wide range and variety of subjects to choose from for the graduation projects at a technical college. As a rule, the student is required to prepare the design of a locomotive, diesel engine, motor car, airplane, factory, shop, mine, electric power plant, and so on, depending upon the nature of his chosen profession. The project embraces 10-15 standard sheets of drawings with a corresponding memorandum and calculations totalling about I oo-x 20 pages. Graduation theses required in some of the colleges are brief 40 works summing up the results of independent experiments and research. Technical colleges, however, prefer graduation projects which give students the possibility of improving and com- pleting their training for a chosen profession. Graduation projects arc primarily of educational value, but their subjects arc connected with concrete tasks in indus- try, transport, construction, communications, and so on, and they therefore cover urgent problems confronting concrete enterprises, or even entire industries. Numerous cases have been known in the last decade of projects prepared by students having been used for the con- struction of machines, automatic transfer lines, for building workshops and factories. Both graduation projects and graduation theses arc pre- sented by students before the examination commissions. Both at the institutes and at the universities students of the humanities arc required to take state examinations. The president of the examination commission is, as a rule, an authority in the specific field, but not associated with work at the given institute. After presenting his graduation project, or passing state examinations (in the humanities), the student receives a diploma qualifying him for work in his chosen field. The role of Soviet education is to assist in the building of a communist society, in shaping the materialist world outlook of the students, equipping them with a good grounding in the different fields of knowledge and preparing them for socially useful work. Graduates of Soviet higher educational establishments are expected to understand the fundamental laws governing the development of nature and society and to apply them creatively in practice. They arc largely helped to acquire this understanding 41 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 through the thorough grounding they are given in social and economic studies. All students, irrespective of the subjects they are studying, are required to take courses in the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, political economy and philosophy. Technical colleges allocate about 8 per cent of their time to these subjects, and still more time is allocated to these subjects in colleges specialising in the humanities. EMPLOYMENT FACILITIES FOR COLLEGE GRADUATES IT um already been mentioned that colleges train specialists in the U.S.S.R. in accordance with the requirements of its national economic and cultural plans. Young specialists therefore have no need to worry about finding employment. They know that the rapidly developing economy and culture of their country provide unlimited possibilities for them to make use of their energy and knowledge. The question of appointments is usually considered a few months before the students receive their diplomas. The director receives lists of vacancies in advance and he presides at the state commission where the students are invited to choose their place of work, in the presence of representatives of the respective enterprises or institutions where their services are wanted. In most cases the question is settled without any difficulties. Sometimes a husband and wife may have graduated from different institutes. In such cases appointments are found for both of them in the same city, or rural district. Sometimes the climate is found medically unsuitable in a district to which a graduate's appointment would take him. Problems such as these are settled by the director offering alternative employment; and if that offers no way out, the graduate can make his own arrangements. 42 Such cases, of course, are exceptions. Before starting work, all graduates are given a month's holiday and paid their final stipend. Specialists whose appoint- ments entail taking up a different place of residence arc paid by the management of the factory (or institution) travelling expenses (for himself and his family) and the cost of trans- porting baggage. WORKERS AT COLLEGE THERE ARE some people who for one reason or another are unable to attend college in the daytime. As a rule, these arc family people who do not wish to give up their job. It would be unfair if such people had no chance to acquire a college education. Forty-three per cent of the students in the U.S.S.R. attend college in the evening, or take college correspondence courses. There is a whole system of evening colleges and special insti- tutes and faculties offering college correspondence courses. The U.S.S.R. Law Correspondence Institute, for example, has 12,820 students; it offers a five-year course in law based on the same standards of education and according the same privileges as the law faculties of the universities. This institute has branches in different parts of the country. Its students are government and local council employees, people's assessors and other people requiring a legal education. Another college of this kind is the U.S.S.R. Polytcchnical Institute (with 32,700 students) which offers correspondence courses in chemical engineering, mining, metallurgy, and so on. It has branches and consultation centres in 31 cities, some of them remotely situated, such as Magadan. Then there is the U.S.S.R. Institute of Economics (with 9,434 students) which offers correspondence courses in indus- trial or agricultural management, statistics and so on. This school, too, has branches in many cities. 43 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ?111, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Correspondence courses are offered also by the faculties and departments of thc regular institutes and universities. Many colleges provide facilities for all forms of education; daytime attendance, evening courses (attended by working students who live in the city where the institute has its seat) and correspondence courses, which may be taken by people who reside in different parts of the country and report only for the examinations. To enable worker-students to take advantage of these opportunities for a college education, the state gives them a number of privileges. Just as in the day colleges, no charges are made for tuition or for any other service extended to those taking college correspondence courses. All expenses are borne by the state. Libraries supply all the necessary textbooks free of charge. And no charge is made for examinations. Correspondence students who make good progress in their subjects arc legally entitled to extra time off work with full pay (of no less than one month) for taking their examinations. Graduating students receive a special leave of four months (receiving a state stipend for the duration of this leave) for preparing and presenting their graduation theses. Furthermore, travelling expenses required for reaching the place where examinations are held are paid by the enterprise or institution where these students are employed. The effectiveness of this state aid may be judged by the fact that correspondence courses were completed and gradua- tion projects or theses presented in 1957 by 3,400 lawyers, 5,700 economists, 5,800 engineers and thousands of other young specialists. Facilities for a college education through attending even- ing school or through correspondence courses will be still greater in the coming period. 44 FACULTY MEMBERS CONSIDERABLE ATrEwrioN has always been paid in the Soviet Union to the training of college professors and lecturers. This training is accomplished mainly through the post- graduate courses at universities, institutes and research institutions. The best college graduates (or college-trained specialists with some experience in production) are given the opportunity for post-graduate studies (with a three-year course). After completing this course, post-graduates present their theses for an M.Sc. degree. Faculty members have also been trained under the re- spective departments from amongst the most capable assist- ants who received their M.Sc. degrees after presenting dissertations. A uniform system of post-graduate training was adopted in 1934. The two scientific degrees conferred arc the M.Sc. and D.Sc. The first qualifies its holder for lecturing hi a college as an assistant, or docent, and the second for a profes- sorship. A college-trained specialist desiring to qualify for an M.Sc. degree must take examinations in three or four subjects in accordance with the special programmes adopted in the respective college or scientific institute. Next, he must, independently or under the guidance of a professor, conduct scientific research which would lead to new discoveries, and after these results are published defend his scientific paper at a public hearing before an academic council (of a college or scientific institution) which has the right to confer an M.Sc. degree. An entirely independent scientific work with new results and treatment of a major scientific problem with scientific generalisations, is required for a D.Sc. degree. After the results of his work are published, the author defends it at 45 npriassified in Part - Sanitized COPY Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 awl a public hearing before an academic council which has the right to confer D.Sc. degrees. The decision of the council is based on a vote taken by secret ballot. The decision to confer an M.Sc. or D.Sc. degree is subject to confirmation by the Supreme Qualification Commission of the Ministry of Higher Education of the U.S.S.R. Statistical records of the Supreme Qualification Com- mission covering a period of 20 years (1937-57), show that too,000 dissertations were submitted in the period in question for an M.Sc. degree and more than 12,000 for a D.Sc. degree. The colleges train scientists and lecturers not only for their own faculties, but also for various research institutions, for the institutes of the Academies of Sciences, and so on. More than 12,000 young people are taking post-graduate courses in colleges at present. Young scientists graduate at the rate of 3,500 annually. How well the facilities for post-graduate studies and research have been extended may be judged by the fact that the number of scientific workers has grown to more than double the 1950 figure. About 240,000 people are employed as scientific workers or faculty members today; they include more than 50,000 i'cientists with D.Sc. degrees and about 100,000 with M.Sc. degrees. More than 120,000 lecturers are employed in the colleges and institutes. They include more than 5,500 scientists with D.Sc. degrees and more than 45,000 with M.Sc. degrees. There are highly authoritative scientists in every field of knowledge capable of solving the most difficult problems advanced by science and technology today and of ensuring the training of specialists with standards of knowledge on a level with the latest achievements of science and engineering. The Soviet Government does everything to encourage the training of scientific workers; it is enough to mention that high 46 stipends arc paid to post-graduate students, and that lecturers or research workers who are doing post-graduate scientific work in preparation for M.Sc. or D.Sc. degrees are given a paid leave lasting up to three months. Scientific degrees entitle specialists employed in research institutions, colleges, or industry, to higher salaries. Plans for training scientific workers are drawn up in accord- ance with the requirements of the leading branches of indus- try and culture, and, especially, in such branches of knowledge as physics, mathematics, biochemistry, biophysics, aero- dynamics, computing machines, radio engineering, elec- tronics, semiconductors, and other new divisions of science and technology. Those with at least two years' practical experience in their particular field and with abilities and a leaning for scientific research are admitted to post-graduate studies. In exceptional cases opportunities for post-graduate studies in some theoretical subjects are given to young people directly after graduation. Facilities for post-graduate studies arc available in the scientific institutions and colleges which have the necessary scientific personnel for giving guidance to post-graduate students and the necessary equipment for experimental work. The themes of the dissertations must be connected with the solution of the most urgent scientific and practical problems. All this helps to provide additional personnel for university and college faculties. There is, however, still much to be done in this respect. The point is that in the last few years college education has been developing much faster than the training of faculty members, with the result that 5,000-6,000 more professors are required in order to raise the standards of education and to widen the scale of scientific research in the colleges. 47 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .1% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PERHAPS THE main feature distinguishing higher education from all other forms of education lies in its historic links with the development of science. College instructors have always been and are bound to be direct contributors to scientific progress, scientists who can acquaint students not only with the results achieved by other scientists in a given field of knowledge, but also with the results of their own investigations. Because of this one can expect college-trained specialists to be up to the level achieved by modern science and en- gineering. Scientific research is conducted in Soviet colleges on a large scale. Faculty members have been responsible for some of the most important discoveries in science. It is enough to mention Mendeleycv's contributions to chemistry, or Zhukovslcy's work in aerodynamics. It was as college faculty members that their most important scientific work was accomplished. Faculty members in Soviet colleges are developing the finest traditions of the great Russian scientists. WNew branches of knowledge developed of late are being nergetically cultivated in college; this applies to nuclear - physics, atomic crystallo-physics, chemistry of chain reactions, biogcochemistry, machine mathematics, electronics, the theory and so on. of semiconductors, automatic engineering, remote control, That does not mean, of course, that colleges are trying to monopolise science. There is a vast number of scientific insti- tutions in the U.S.S.R. It is enough to refer to the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. with its more than 3,00o research institutes, special institutes conducting research in specific and so on. branches of production, agricultural research institutes, 48 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? A student and instructor in Mos- cow University's laboratory of photogrammehy. This stereo- loParlintug naaliklera photographsinP ah pis s' ltd from .1 meeting of the council of the oudents' scientific society, at Lam State University ft, ? CS t.3 ???.1 fe'r e`rtti ? ? - 1 sfae?. .1 ?"-?? - 4grire C. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 St Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 EXAMS: No time to lose when exams draw near! Volodra Mtronor, of Mos- cow University, Is catching up at meal-times. Below, two third-year students remember that holidays follow exams? aid prepare for both together! Tutor and research worker watch the tapping of molten metal at the Iron and Steel Institute, Stalinsk, Siberia Professor Pout/as Brazdvunas and students in the semi- conductors laboratom of liapstikas State University, Vilnius. Lithuania Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Education TRAINING of SPECIALISTS (in thousands, gradua- ting from Universities 23 and institutes) HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE SOVIET SEVEN-TEAR PLAN The diagram on the left shows the achievements in higher education durmg the previous planning period compared with the training programme now embarked upon. Students at the Iron and Steel Institute, Stalinsk, working with electronic micro- scopes Together with these institutions, colleges conduct extensive research in various fields of knowledge. Numerous examples could be cited to show the great scope of scientific work accomplished by college professors. Soviet scientists have done much for the conquest of the most power- ful forces of nature; they stand in the forefront of the develop- ment of world science and engineering in some of the leading and most important fields. Great headway has been made in the U.S.S.R. in the peace- ful uses of atomic energy. Its plan for the construction of atomic power plants is being successfully carried out. Steps arc being taken to acquire greater control of atomic and nuclear energy. The U.S.S.R. has built the world's most powerful accelerator of charged particles, the proton synchro- tron; it is building the world's first solar electric power plant and is completing the world's first atom-powered icebreaker. Extensive use has been made of tracer atoms as an impor- tant means of investigation and control of production processes in chemistry, mining, agriculture, in medical theory and practice for the purpose of combating diseases. Soviet scientists, engineers and designers have remarkable achievements to their credit in rocketry. The TU-1o4, TU-114 and TU-i i4A are among the latest achievements in fast aircraft. Last, but not least, the whole world knows about the Soviet sputniks and the Soviet cosmic rocket which has become the first man-made planet of the solar system. This is a most outstanding contribution to the scientific and engineering progress of all mankind which has long cherished the dream of conquering outer space. The sputniks and the first artificial planet of the solar system represent one of the results of the Russian system of education ?this is the general conclusion of world public opinion. Direct participation of faculty members in scientific re- search enables them to bring standards of education up Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 to the requirements of modern science and engineering, to keep well abreast of the latest developments in science and ensure the constant training of new scientific personnel. Everything is done to persuade the senior students (the best and most talented, of course) to co-operate in scientific research. Just as an athletic coach selects the most promising athletes to train for competitions, so a professor selects future scientists from amongst the most talented and successful students, cultivating in them a taste for scientific research and helping them to scale, step by step, the difficult and thorny path of science. INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS CoNrAcTs wrru progressive scientific trends and scientists in other countries have always been maintained by Soviet higher educational establishments. They are expressed in the ex- -.'.:.-ch-sange of books, textbooks and other materials; exchanging gentific experience and methods of education by corn- ,- nussioning lectures to colleges in other countries for a long period of time, and through exchanges of visits and of students. More than a hundred Soviet colleges, including universities, polytechnical, engineering, mining and agricultural institutes, are exchanging scientific works, textbooks, manuals and visual aids, collections of minerals, seeds and other materials. A voluminous correspondence is maintained on scientific and pedagogical questions. The scientific library of Moscow State University exchanges books with more than 270 cultural institutions in 54 countries. A regular correspondence is maintained between the botanical garden of the University and more than roo insti- tutions in 25 countries. Professors and other faculty members of Soviet colleges have attended international congresses in philosophy, history, theoretical and applied chemistry, conferences on the peaceful 5o uses of atomic energy and have visited many countries as members of Soviet cultural and scientific delegations. Soviet scientists have read complete courses of lectures, as wdl as separate lectures in mathematics, physics, history, economics, jurisprudence and other subjects in China, Britain, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Den- mark, Finland, Switzerland, India, Turkey and other countries. And Soviet students have heard in their colleges lectures by scientists from China, Britain, Germany, France, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, Sweden, Den- mark and India. Foreign scientists have paid visits to Moscow, Leningrad and other Soviet cities. The universities of Moscow, Lenin- grad, Kazan, Tomsk, Tartu and Kiev have now invited eminent foreign scientists to lecture to their students. More than 13,000 students and post-graduates from 40 countries are attending colleges in the Soviet Union at present. As a rule, they study together with the Soviet students, in the Russian language, which they manage to learn quite quickly. The foreign students arc also paid stipends. After graduating they return to their own countries. Foreign students are admitted to Soviet colleges in accord- ance with special agreements between the Government of the Soviet Union and the governments of the respective countries. In some cases they are sent to Soviet colleges under a reciprocal arrangement, in other cases this arrangement is extended as a privilege to students from the under-developed countries, the Soviet Government allocating special stipends for these students. Soviet students and post-graduates arc also given oppor- tunities for studying in foreign colleges. Soviet colleges are now helping to provide equipment for a number of colleges in India, Burma and Afghanistan. 51 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 1 I 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .k ,- An important example of the kind of reciprocal arrange- ment the Soviet Union is developing is the programme of cultural, educational, scientific and technical exchanges recently agreed upon between the United Kingdom and the U.S.S.R. Under this agreement 12 professors from each side will visit corresponding universities in the next 12 months to deliver lectures and meet students; there will be a similar exchange of four professors, instructors or lecturers from technical institutes of higher education in each country; an exchange of delegations between the universities of London and Lenin- grad to discuss university administration, teaching and re- search; an exchange of 20 post-graduate students from each side during the 1959-60 academic year; an exchange of 25 students at teachers' training colleges to improve their know- ledge of the English and Russian languages and to become acquainted with the life and culture of their respective countries; a further exchange of Russian-language teachers from Britain and English-language teachers from the U.S.S.R.; _and the continuation and expansion of exchanges of educa- tional materials. ,This agreement shows the possibilities which exist for still further co-operation and contact between the higher educa- tional institutions of different countries. By lending a hand to such developments Soviet colleges are making a valuable contribution to the building of improved relations between peoples, thus assisting to safeguard world peace. CONCLUSION TECHNICAL AND cultural progress creates a demand for in- creasingly skilled young specialists. In order to meet this demand, the standards of education and training have also been raised in Soviet colleges. Much has been done in the last few years to equip the young specialists with a wider store of 52 _ r knowledge so that their education could be up to the require- ments of scientific and technical progress. A thorough grounding in the sciences can be acquired by the young specialists only by taking a direct part in scientific research at college. That is why every encourage- ment is given to scientific research in the U.S.S.R. It is our opinion that only a scientist who makes his own contribution to the progress of science has the moral right to lecture at a university or institute. I should not like to create among my foreign readers the impression that all the problems of higher education have already been settled in the U.S.S.R. The coming seven years will see still greater progress made in socialist culture and education and in the cultural development of the people. Exceptional importance is there- fore attached to questions connected with the communist education of the people, especially of the growing generation. Great as it is, the progress made in the U.S.S.R. in public education, in the education of specialists for all branches of the national economy and culture, is inadequate to keep pace with communist construction, and the system of education still has serious shortcomings to overcome. The main shortcoming is expressed in a certain aloofness from life, in the inadequate practical training of the school graduates. The reorganisation of education taking place at present is intended to make our secondary and special schools and colleges a more effective factor in the constructive work of the Soviet people. The main purpose is to bring about constant improvements in the educational process in the universities and institutes, to raise the professional standards of the young specialists. Our specialists must assimilate the experience of world science and engineering. Practical training must be improved. What we want is to bring college education closer to practice, to life, and we are 53 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 persistently seeking better forms of organisation, ways of improving scientific research in the colleges. All these questions are at present receiving special attention from our state and from the public as a whole. The countrywide discussion of these problems has shown that the programme for the development of education drawn up by the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. and the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. is of exceptional value for the successful solution of the problems connected with the building of corrununist society. This programme has found its expression in the special law adopted for the purpose of strengthening the ties between education and life, for the purpose of furthering the progress of public education in the U.S.S.R. This law was passed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. by unanimous vote (in December 1958). The main tasks of the colleges are: Education of highly skilled specialists brought up in the spirit of Marxist-Leninist teachings and equipped with the knowledge of the latest achievements of science and engineering at home and abroad and with practical skill, and capable not only of making the most rational use of modern technique, but also of creating the tech- nique of the future; Promotion of scientific research which could assist in the building of communism; Training of scientists and teachers; Advanced training of specialists employed in various branches of the national economy, culture and education; Dissemination of scientific and political knowledge among the working people. In order to further the progress of college education, the existing system of day and evening colleges and college corre- spondence courses will be supplemented by a fourth type of school, the factory college. 54 Education in the new institutes will take the following two forms: First, theoretical studies at the college, and practical training in the factory, which thus becomes as it were a branch of the institute. Second, a factory, or big shop, is to be turned over entirely to the institute, for combining study with pro- ductive work. The second type will be most suitable for the agricultural institutes which will, in fact, be converted into important state farm colleges. Concrete forms of education will vary in all these four types of college, depending upon their nature. What they will all have in common is the closest possible combination of theoretical training with direct work in the factories, in agri- culture, in scientific research institutions; cultural institutions, and so on. Work in colleges will be reorganised so as to ensure the education of a new type of specialist who will be able to rise to the future requirements of science, engineering and pro- duction. The modern specialist must possess a high level of practical skill combined with deep theoretical knowledge in his specific field; he must be thoroughly acquainted with practice in his field of production. And the system of college education is being reorganised at present to meet these requirements. What arc the concrete forms proposed for the development of higher education in the U.S.S.R.? To begin with, attendance of. evening colleges and studies by correspondence will be greatly encouraged, for these forms afford the greatest possibilities for combining theoretical and practical training. Nine hundred and fifty thousand out of a total of 2,150,000 students are attending evening college or taking college cone- 55 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release spondence courses. The number of these students will be growing steadily in the years to come. In view of the fact that these groups are composed of worker students with experience and skill in their specific fields, chief attention will be devoted to equipping them with the most thorough theoretical background. Consequently, in reorganising education in evening colleges and correspondence courses chief stress will be laid on im- provements in the methods of teaching in order to raise theoretical standards and make it easier for students to assimilate the required knowledge. In their last years students will be released from work and given the opportunity to concentrate their attention entirely on their studies, research and designing. Steps have been taken to promote the widest possible use of films, radio and television, to provide all worker students with the necessary textbooks, manuals and guides, and records of lectures. In addition to the existing publishing and printing facilities at the disposal of the colleges we are planning to set up a big publishing house in order to meet the full demand for textbooks and other literature required by the colleges in -----20? millions of copies. .. The faculties of the evening colleges and correspondence courses will be reinforced with the most authoritative profes- sors and lecturers and provided with greater facilities; evening colleges and faculties, as well as the correspondence extensions will be able to use the premises and facilities of the day colleges and of the leading industrial and agricultural enterprises. Speaking of education through college correspondence courscs, I should like to note a very important new function of the colleges which this very system will be called upon to perform: advanced training of working specialists. Colleges will thus be solving not only the problem of training new specialists for the national economy and culture, but also the problem of advanced training and refresher courses for the 56 ..% 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 older specialists and for the workers and other employees. Colleges will provide an opportunity to study specific sub- jects, or all the subjects in a given field included in the college programmes, to all citizens who desire to do so, and who possess the necessary preliminary education. Faculties for advanced training will be instituted in a num- ber of colleges. An important role will also be played by the college corre- spondence courses and evening schools of the universities in the education of specialists in the humanities. Education there will be for practical workers whose occupa- tion requires a knowledge of the humanities, and for those who wish to improve their general scientific and cultural background. This form of education will afford the opportunity of study- ing specific subjects, or a course of inter-connected subjects (history, or jurisprudence, for example), and to take examina- tions in these subjects, or to take a complete course. Such students may terminate their studies at any stage. With their greater facilities, the evening colleges and college correspondence courses will be able to provide all citizens with the opportunity of a college or university education, or of studying and graduating from another college. This form of education has a great future. Greater progress and a higher productivity of labour will lead to the gradual reduction of the working day. The seven-year plan, as a matter of fact, contains concrete provisions for a reduction of the working day and working week, namely, for a 35-hour week with two free days. This will allow more leisure for studying. I have already mentioned that the combination of work and study is the essence of the current reorganisation of the higher school. Naturally, the concrete forms of this combina- tion will vary, depending upon different circumstances. In some fields, where it is necessary to equip the students with knowledge of difficult theoretical subjects to begin with 57 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 =di to ear &...= fix =cm11.7' e laboratory practice, first, second and even t..6-year students will devote themselves ez.4.-dy to their /*?-cges It is proposal to follow this up by a keg pcied cf practice; regular work for a year /Erectly in Eicteea, Etherawrier, designing offices, or research institu- does,. lkst of the day colleges (engineering, agriailtnral, and so cc), wall combrn* e themetical stoles from the very begin- work in production which, as a rule, will correspond to the .ear=e tithe college. It is aho proposed that young people who have had no pracdetbl ccp=icace before catering college should study during the E= two years in all evening college, or through college correspord=ce courses- After these two years, the students rzay,B-they wish to, remain in the evening college, or continue tath.' studEes throazh correspondence courses, or transfer to a ea7 college. In agicultura colleges, and in other colleges connected s7h br=thes of prcxhiction which depend upon the seasons, thesccore,Ha Cl theoretical and practical training will also ..?...cad up= these stasons. For example, students at agri- ittmal colleges could study in the winter and do their practical =mining on farms in the summer. Educational plans will be drawn up so as to enable the worker student to devote his attention in the period when he is occupied in production to subjects which could be studied independently, leaving the more difficult subjects for the third and subsequ= years. We are proposing to make arrangements so as to enable students of the humanities (law, economics, etc.) without precious practical ccperience to combine work with studies during the fiat year or first and second years. In dealing with applicants, medical colleges will give priority to trained nurses and other people with experience in medical and prophylactic services. Theoretical studies will be corn- 58 or bined from the very outset with practice in medical and health services. Those with a secondary medical schooling and with practical experience in this field will be able to attend a medical college without giving up their work. It is impossible to raise a specialist's skill without raising his standards of theoretical knowledge. It is therefore natural that in the process of reorganising higher education special attention should be paid to the improvement of the theoretical background of the specialists. A college-trained specialist must possess a deep knowledge of theory. National economic progress creates a constantly greater demand for advanced methods of work, and new technological processes. This cannot be achieved without advanced theoretical thought. Improved theoretical training of specialists remains one of our main tasks. Our professors and other faculty members will be able to ensure the highest level of theoretical education by studying and summing up the achievements of science and engineering at home and abroad, by furthering scientific research and enlisting the students' co-operation in this work. Special attention will be paid by Soviet colleges to equipping specialists with higher standards of knowledge in mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics, electrical engineering, instru- ment building and in other branches of knowledge which arc connected directly with the development of science and engineering, so that our country can continue to occupy a leading place in all these fields. College-trained specialists in these fields must be thoroughly versed in the latest achievements of science; they must be able to understand the future prospects of scientific thought and to acquire command of modern methods of experimenting. These specialists arc indispensable to scientific institutions and to modern industrial and other enterprises. Life itself dictates the need for the wider usc of such 59 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 J. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 specialists in factory and shop laboratories, designing offices, experimental farms and other establishments. Practice has shown that any research institution and design- ing office must have on its staff specialists with a good general grounding in theory as well as designing engineers and tech- nologists. Only this combination can ensure the successful solution of fundamentally new problems. All that I have said shows the steady progress of higher ing. education and the growing opportunities for a college train- In the coining seven years ('959-65), graduating college.. trained specialists will increase by almost 50 per cent over the earlier seven years, from 1,700,000 to 2,300,000, and graduat- ing engineers for industry, transport and construction will be almost doubled. It is enough to mention that diplomas will be issued to engineers in the coming seven years at the rate of more than 100,000 a year. It is evident that higher education in the U.S.S.R. has entered a new stage of development, meeting the fundamental interests of the people. ..At the same time, the workers employed in the higher Licational services of the Soviet Union are carefully studying _.;,the, experience of college education in other countries, and we are always prepared to utilise the achievements of our foreign colleagues. 6o Other Thies include: Great Plan of the Soviet Union: Target Figures and Resolution of the new Seven-Year Plan Proposals to Reform Soviet Education Bringing Soviet Schools Still Closer to Life Soviet Sputniks (I, II and HI) Soviet Planet Into Space (Cosmic Rocket) Soviet Union in Facts and Figures Soviet Union in Facts and Figures?Library Edition The U.S.S.R?A Hundred Questions Answered Social Security in the U.S.S.R. 9d. 3d. 4d. Is. 6d. is. Od. Ss. Od. 7s. 6d. is. 6d. 6d. From Bookshops and Newsagents, or direct from: SOVIET BOOKLETS, 3 Rosary Gardens, London, S.W.7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 SOVIET WEEKLY Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Published by Soviet Booklets. 3 Rotary Gardens, London, S.W.7 and ;dried by Farleigh Press Ltd. (1. U. all depts.). Beechwood Rite, Watford, Herts. IMPRESSIVE, WIDESPREAD, RAPID "An educational development so impressive, so widespread and so rapid must have required a tremendous effort. It could have come about only if the leaders of the new Russia had realised from the beginning the importance of education for the realisation of their national aims and if they had been supported in this regard by the people throughout the length and breadth of the Soviet Union. . . ." (Education in the Soviet Union: A Report of a Study Tour. A Joint Report Submitted to the Educational Interchange Council and Representative Executive Committees. Pub- lished by the Educational Interchange Council (Inc.), London, 1956.) ASTONISHED?AND SOBERED "We were simply not prepared for the degree to which the U.S.S.R. as a nation is committed to education as a means of national advancement. . . . Our major reaction therefore is one of astonishment?and I choose the word carefully?at the extent to which this seems to have been accomplished. . . . Ten American educators came away sobered by what they saw. . . ." (Dr. Lawrence G. Derthick, Commissioner of Education in the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, speaking at the National Press Club in Washington, June 13, 1958, following a visit of ten United States educationists to the Soviet Union in May, 1958.) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 eIU it,dlanzna and liarhrTla :larking on their graduation project at the tooki Institute 01 I I nter I rati,part ppont (.otyr Baru Koznet.as on a tait- :Ante r ?,,orooknee ',one at II oi I Ta rrtal f here Tonkin:: a ?Iii,11 "1 rhr"ncal ? ":?? of the 1 Econom Deve:opment of the U SS R from 19S9 to 1965 Abridged Version With Map and Thirty Diagrams Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 TARGET FIGURES for the ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965 RESOLUTION of the , 21st CONGRESS of the ,COMMUNIST PARTY of the SOVIET UNION February 5th, 1959 Soviet Booklet No. 49 London, May, 1959 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .%\ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 CONTENTS Page Target Figures for the Economic Development of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965 .. .. ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 1. Some Results of Economic and Cultural Developments in the U.S.S.R. .. ? ? ? ? .. .. .. 8 2. Basic Tasks in the Development of the National Economy of the U.S.S.R. for 1959-1965 .. .. 12 Development of Socialist Industry ? ? 13 Development of Socialist Agriculture 18 Development of Transport and Communications .. . ? 21 Capital Investments in Economy and Capital Construction 21 3. Distribution of the Productive Forces and the Economic Development of the Union Republics .. .. 25 4. Increase in the Well-Being of the Soviet People .. .. 31 5. Questions of Communist Upbringing, Public Education, the Development of Science and Culture .. .. .. .. 36 6. International Significance of the Seven-Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the U.S.S.R. .. 38 7. The Communist Party?the Leading and Organising Force of the Soviet People in the Struggle for the Victory of Communism ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? . 40 Resolution of the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on N. S. Khrushchov's Report on the Target Figures for the Economic Development of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965 .. .. ? ? .. ? ? ? ? .. .. 43 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 TARGET FIGURES FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE USSR FROM 1959 TO 1965 (The Seven-Year Plan was approved unanimously by the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on February 5, 1959. Published below is an abridged version of this document.) RALLIED around their Communist .Party, the Soviet people have reached summits that are so high, and have ac- complished transformations that are so stupendous, that our country is now able to enter a new and most important period of its development?the period of the comprehensive building of communist society. The key tasks of this period will be the establishment of the material and technical basis for communism, the further consolidation of our country's economic and defensive might and, at the same time, the ever fuller satisfaction of the growing material and spiritual re- quirements of the Soviet people. This will be the decisive ? phase in the com- petition with the capitalist world, when the historic task of overtaking and sur- passing the most highly developed capitalist countries in output per head of the population must be accomplished in practice. The Communist Party and all the Soviet people are fully convinced that this goal will be successfully achieved. In order to accomplish in the shortest Possible space of time the historic tasks confronting our country, the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. and the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers instruc- ted the State Planning Committee of the U.SS.R. to work out, on the basis of the decisions of the Twentieth Party Con- gress and subsequent decisions of the Party and government, a draft of the target figures for the country's economic development from 1959 to 1965 in line with the programme for the development 5 of the Soviet Union's productive force' which the Communist Party has mapped out for the next fifteen years and which was presented at the Anniversary Session of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet on No- vember 6th, 1957. A wide discussion of the thesis of N. S. Khrushchov's report to the Twenty- First Congress of the C.P.S.U.: "Target Figures tor the Economic Development of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965" took place prior to the Congress. In the course of the country-wide discussion before the Congress over 968,000 meetings were held at industrial establishments and construction sites, at collective farms and state farms, in scientific and educational institutions, units of the Army and Navy and in governmental offices. These meet- ings were attended by more than 70 million people, with 4,672,000 indi- viduals making proposals, suggesting amendments and speaking at these meet- ings. Meetings of working people, Party conferences and Congresses unanimously approved the draft target figures. The target figures for the economic de- velopment of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965, on instructions of the Central Com- mittee of the C.P.S.U. and the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers were elaborated by industrial establishments, economic councils, the State Planning Committees and the Council of Ministers of the Union Republics, ministries, depart- ments, the Academy of Sciences, and other scientific institutions and the U.SS.R. State Planning Committee, with the active participation of Party, trade Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 utacc 1124. 13=1 ?12===441. ivoz. Irra, A 1====tig= *sot Si.AW4f Pe" C7:; 14e, 1"?r?"1111; iz ICe==aVV"..13:s 0,Sge L`z $.0.T.ra ?raJta 1=1= ler ice -krs- A%Jushol: ,TAut lisitemmeouzzi jpessiti=. sre- ci ^v-1 1-v?:= xszst=vi 0,400C, ortire Apaolcd -I= re ra,7L e -rca=zgo-K.: tat: ??=sratt lysing. ggessfg_ ,3W,==7=1:,--1711s4 13 =JL---'1;= Valiec34_1666Sem. 1= Ise ct===r- sa=1:zsZ lecawsise cooweeititacz ,ersocalootiolinewasceretznimii=- 1=====t z..=- ex= ,=-?"-^-7. szI 21 ! as snal., IZIC:==b e ====. 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Mat,: in=cr; tar .-'&?-?=z1 orzyszoes...:.- -ruztiz GROWTH OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE USSR (1913 shown as I) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1. Some Results of Economic the USSR. li A S a result of the industrialisation of the country, of the collectivisation of agriculture, of the liquidation of the ex- ploiting classes, and of the cultural revolution, socialism has triumphed in the Soviet Union and the gradual transi- tion to communism is being successfully carried out. The world's first socialist state was built in exceptionally grim conditions. International imperialism tried more than once, by force of arms, to prevent the building of socialism in the U.S.S.R. Of the forty-one years of Soviet government, the Soviet people have been able to de- vote only slightly more than half to peaceful pursuits, because some twenty years have been lost owing to wars and the subsequent periods spent in restor- ing a ravaged economy. The great vitality of the Soviet system has been manifested in a striking way in the fact that the Soviet people have built up a powerful and prosperous socialist eco- nomy, surmounting all the difficulties and obstacles In their path. The Soviet Union now possesses a powerful industry, transport and highly mechanised socialist agriculture?all of them developed in an all-round way. The country's social wealth and its national income are growing year by year. Since the birth of Soviet government, the national income, the growth of which ex- presses the general advance of. the economy and of the people's standard of living, has increased fifteen-fold on a per capita basis. The material and cul- tural standards of the working people of town and countryside are steadily rising. The most important result?the out- come of the Soviet people's heroic struggle and labour?is that they have built up a new society, a society of socialism, and a new political system corresponding to it?the Soviet socialist state. With the establishment ami development of socialist society nod the Soviet state system, there have arisen new and hitherto unknown laws of social development and new stan- dards in the relationships between human beings. and Cultural Developments in 8 The supreme goal of socialism, its mighty motive force, is the steady sails- faction of the rising requirements of the whole of society and the growth of the material well-being of the working people. Socialist society has no place for such things as business competition, anarchy of production, unemployment and eco- nomic crisis. In socialist society other economic laws have come into being and are operating. They are: the balanced and proportionate development of the national economy, and the uninterrupted and rapid growth of production, knowing no slumps or crises. This makes it pos- sible to plan the economy, to determine the trend of its development, the con- tinual increase of eolumes of output and the rational distribution of productive forces, and to carry out wide-scale specialisation and co-operation along socialist lines. Socialism has engendered not only new economic laws, but also new social re- lationships. On the basis of socialist public ownership there have arisen mutual assistance %thl co-operation in the common labour of the free and equal members of society, who are deeply inter- ested in economic and cultural develop- ment and who realise that this depends entirely on the results of their labour In the conditions of socialism, of the Soviet state system, there have appeared and developed new social relationships, characteristic of genuine democracy. The unbreakable alliance between the work- ing class and the peasantry?that bedrock foundation of the Soviet state?has be- come still firmer, and the fraternal friendship of the free and independent peoples of the Soviet Union has grown stronger. In the years of Soviet power, the work- ing people of the U.S.S.R. have made good Russia's century-long lag in industry and have built up a mighty industry -en- suring the economic and political inde- pendence of the Soviet state. Today, as regards industrial output, the U.S.S.R holds first place in Europe and second place in the world. In 1958 y..e produced about 55 million tons (these are metric tons. One metric ton=2,204.6 lb.) of steel and extracted 113 million tons of oil. This means that today more steel and more oil are being produced in a month than in the whole of 1913. The output of electricity in 1958 reached 233,000 million kilowatt- hours. We are now generating as much electricity every three days as tsarist Russia did in the space of a whole year. Today the U.S.S.R. is second in the world for the volume of chemical output. The successes achieved in the advance- ment of the engineering industry are par- ticularly great. Whereas in 1913 the country produced turbines whose total capacity amounted to 6,000 kilowatts, in 1958 the total capacity of the turbines produced was some 6.6 million kilowatts. In 1913 the country produced only 1,500 metal-cutting machine-tools, but in 1958 at has turned out more than 138,000. At the present time industry in the U.SS R is producing 220,000 tractors a year, more than 10,000 excavators, and more than half a million motor vehicles. The whole of the U.S.S.R.'s heavy in- dustry is developing at an accelerated pace: in 1958 output of the means of pro- duction was more than five times as great as in 1940. The high rate of development in heavy industry and the growth of agricultural production have laid a firm foundation for bringing about the advance of all branches of the light and food industries. In 1958 the output of consumer goods was nearly fourteen times greater than in 1913. This includes a more than forty- five-fold increase in articles intended for cultural and household purposes. Even though during the Great Patriotic War some branches of the light and food in- dustries were thrown back many years as regards their production levels, 170 per cent more consumer goods art now being produced than in 1940. Socialist industry has won great suc- cesses because its development is based on the latest scientific and technical achievements, on the increasing creative initiative and selfless endeavour of the factory workers, scientists, engineers and technicians. A most important factor speeding up 9 ELECTRIC POWER OUTPUT in the USSR In thousand million kilowatt-hours 500-520 economic development was the reorgani- sation of the management of industry and construction. The short space of time in which the economic councils have been working has revealed the tremen- dous advantages of the new form of in- dustrial management. The rate of growth of industrial output has increased; in- ternal production reserves are being used to better advantage; the working class and the engineering and technical person- nel are displaying more initiative and activity. Great successes have been achieved in the further strengthening of the collective farm system and in the development of agricultural production since the plenary meeting of the C.P.S.U. Central Com- mittee held in September 1953. The major economic task of bringing into cultivation 36 million hectares* of virgin and long-fallow land was carried out in a short space of time. In this way there was created a big granary in the East and also the conditions for the zonal specialisation of agricultural production in the country. The total area under ? One hectare=2.47 acres, npria. ssifipn in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 crops in the Soviet Union has exceeded 195 million hectares. In 1958, as compared with 1953, the output of meat (taking into account the increase in the herd) rose 40 per cent; the production of milk rose 60 per cent; eggs 50 per cent and wool 40 per cent; the last figure including a more than two-fold increase in fine and semi-fine wool. In the last five years, ending with 1958, the average annual rate of growth in the gross output of agriculture was over 8 per cent for the U.S.S.R., as com- pared with less than 2 per cent for the United States. The successes achieved in agricultural development arc the result of the all- round organisational activity of the Party and the Government to strengthen the collective farm system and develop the state farms, and of the implementa- tion of the major organisational, political and economic measures taken, especially in order to increase the material incen- tives for the collective farm peasantry and all the workers in the countryside to bring about the growth of commonly- owned production. In the period from 1954 to 1958 in- clusive, agriculture received 664,000 tractors (or more than 1 million in terms of 15 h.p. units), 361,000 grain combine harvesters, 571,000 lorries and much other machinery. Agriculture now em- ploys some 500,000 specialists with a higher or specialised secondary educa- tion. The collective farms have become big, economically sturdy establishments. For products sold to the state and the co- operative societies, the collective farms and their members received over 100,000 million roubles more in cash in 1958 than in 1952. Major measures in the development of socialist agriculture have been: the reorganisation of the machine and tractor stations, the change in the practical pro- duction and technical servicing of the collective farms, and the introduction of a new system of procurement and new procurement prices for agricultural pro- ducts. In the years of Soviet government large-scale construction has been carried out in all spheres of the economy and 10 culture. Between 1946 and 1958 alone, some 12,000 big state industrial enter- prises and a large number of medium and small enterprises have been built and put into operation. Housing construction has assumed particularly great proportions. In the last five years alone, 223 million square metres of new housing have been erected in cities, towns and factory housing estates. This is far in excess of the total amount of urban housing in tsarist Russia in 1913. In the last five years the collective farmers and members of the rural intelligentsia have built more than 3 million houses in rural localities. The cultural and general educational standards of the population are steadily rising. More than 50 million people are now engaged in some form of study. At the present time the U.S.S.R. has 766 higher educational establishments and HOUSING in the Soviet Union In million square metres 285 HMI 111111111111 1952-1931 1939-1965 3,344 specialised secondary schools and other specialised secondary educational institutions, with a total of more than 4 million students. The number of specialists, with a higher or secondary specialised education, employed in eco- nomy is about 7.5 million. The higher educational establishments in the U.S.S.R. 650-660 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release EDUCATION The growth In the number of pupils attending General and Secondary Schools (In millions) now graduate nearly three times as many technical engineers as similar establish- ments in the United states. An extensive network of scientific establishments with the most up-to-date equipment has been set up in the U.S.S.R. At the close of 1958 there were more than 280,000 scientific workers, that is twenty-eight times more than before the Revolution. The close pooling, in production, of the efforts of scientists, engineers and de- signers to usc atomic energy has made possible a general risc in scientific levels and has brought the U.S.S.R. to the fore in this leading field of natural science and technique. A powerful atomic in- dustry has been built up in the U.S.S.R. Soviet scientists are making successful headway in the peaceful use of thermo- nuclear energy. The serial production of international ballistic rockets has been organised. The launching of the first Soviet artificial Earth satellite has opened up a new era in human history, that of the conquest of outer space. The second and third Earth satellites and a space rocket which became the first artificial planet of the solar system have been launched, and preparations are being made for travel to celestial bodies. The material well-being of the Soviet people is steadily improving. Real wages and salaries?taking into consideration pensions, grants, free tuition and free health services?in comparison with 1940 almost doubled in 1958, while the real incomes of the peasants more than doubled, for each person employed. In accordance with the decisions of the Twentieth Party Congress, there have been carried out such significant measures as the raising of wages and salaries of lower-paid factory and ollice workers, the reduction of the working day on Saturdays and the eves of holi- days, the transfer of workers in several branches of heavy industry to a shorter working day, as well as several measures to improve the system of grants to work- ing people under the social insurance scheme. Maternity leave has been ex- tended and a new law on state pensions has been passed considerably improving pensions for factory and office workers. Every year the Soviet state earmarks tremendous sums for social insurance payments, for grants, pensions, scholar- ships for students, for free tuition and health services, for paid holidays, and so on. In 1958 alone total appropriations for these purposes topped 215 000 minion roubles, against the 1953 figure of 134,500 million roubles. In 1958 the people received, from the state, pensions totalling the sum of 64,000 million roubles, which is nearly Education TRAINING of SPECIALISTS (in thousands, gradua- ting from Universities and institutes) 2500 11 1952-1958 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1959 1965 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 State Expenditure on SOCIAL SERVICES In thousand million roubles 1940 1955 1958 1965 two-and-a-half times as much as in 1953. As a result of the consistent carrying out of a Leninist national policy and of fraternal mutual assistance, the former economically and culturally backward national Republics have built up a power- ful modern industry, a large-scale, mechanised system of farming and a large network of educational establish- ments and scientific and cultural institu- tions, and have produced a vast army of skilled personnel. In Soviet times the output of large-scale industry has in- creased fifty times over in the Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan. thirty times in the Transcaucasian Republics, and nine and a half times in the Baltic Republics, (the last figure is in comparison with 1940). In recent years the Party and the Government have taken steps to grant the Union Republics considerably wider powers to develop their economy and culture. This is making it possible to employ our country's natural resources and manpower more efficiently and to develop the economy and culture of each Republic more rapidly. The Soviet Union has surpassed Britain, West Germany and France in the actual volume of production of pig iron, steel, coal, electricity, cement, com- mercial timber, sawn timber, cotton fabrics and certain other industrial items. We have considerably shortened the gap between our country and the United States in the output of iron and steel, iron ore, several types of machines, in- struments and cotton fabrics. In several important industrial and agricultural items, such as coal, woollen fabrics, tim- ber and sawn timber, butter, wheat, sugar beet and potatoes, the U.S.S.R. has sur- passed the level of the United States. In the last eight years the USS.R. has overtaken the United States in the actual annual increment of many items, notably, steel, pig iron, iron ore, oil, coal, cement. sulphuric acid, cotton and woollen fabrics and leather footwear. The Soviet Union, which has blazed the trail into socialism for mankind, has now reached such a level of development of Us productive forces that it can now turn to the solution of new great tasks in building com- munism. 2. Basic Tasks in the Development of the National Economy of the USSR for 1959-1965. 'THE chief task of the Seven-Year Plan By completing this plan, a decisive .1. for the development of the national step will be taken towards the creation economy of the U.S.S.R., 1959-1965, is a of the material-technical base of corn- further mighty upsurge of all branches of munism and the accomplishment of the the economy on the basis of the priority main economic task of the U.S.S.R.: to expansion of heavy industry, and a sub- overtake and surpass, in the shortest stantial improvement of the country's historical time, the most highly developed economic potential so as to ensure a capitalist countries in output per head of continuous rise in people's living sten- population. dards. The Communist Party regards it as a 12. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release major task to ensure, in this seven-year period, a further substantial increase in the real incomes of the population in town and country, and a considerable rise in the wages of lower- and medium-paid groups of factory and office workers. The target figures for 1959-1965 envisage a large expansion in the production and consumption of foodstuffs and manufac- tured goods. Housing construction will take place on a large scale. The Twenty-First Congress of the C.PS.U. regards as the main tasks of the Seven-Year Plan: A high rate and the necessary pro- portions In the development of the national economy. A substantial increase in the output of ferrous and non-ferrous metals to satisfy more fully the growing needs of the national economy. A more rapid development of the chemical industry and especially of the production of artificial and synthetic fibres, plastics and other synthetic materials. The chemical industry will become a major source of raw materials for the production of con- sumer goods. A change in the pattern of fuel pro- duction by priority development of the extraction and production of the most economical fuels, namely, oil and gas. A rapid development of electrifica- tion of all branches of the national economy by building, chiefly, large- scale thermal electric power plants, Further development of machine building, particularly heavy machinery, the production of electric machines and apparatus, instruments and automation devices, as an Important condition for the further rise of labour productivity. The technical reconstruction of the railways on the basis of electrification and wide use of diesel locomotives. A further advance of all branches of agriculture, ensuring the satisfaction of the country's constantly rising needs for foodstuffs and agricultural raw materials. A rapid development of housing con- struction so as to accomplish success- fully the task set by the Party and the Government to eliminate the shortage of housing for working people. An important task of the forthcoming seven-year period is that of intensively exploiting the rich natural resources of our country, improving the distribution of the productive forces on its territory, bringing industry still closer to the sources of raw materials and fuel. Special attention should be devoted to the further development of the natural resources of the eastern parts of the U.S.S.R. The forthcoming seven-year period will be marked by technological progress in all branches of the national economy. This is to be achieved primarily by the development of the Soviet engineering industry, particularly the machine-tool manufacturing,, instrument-making, radio- electronic and electrical engineering in- dustries; the production of new and more efficient types of equipment for the metallurgical, chemical, oil and gas in- dustries; the development of the produc- tion of polymer materials; still wider use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, and so on. The accomplishment of the tasks posed by the Party and the Government for the next seven years will be of immense political and economic significance for the further strengthening of our country's might. 13 DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIST INDUSTRY The Communist Party of the Soviet Union attaches major significance to the development of industry, particularly heavy industry, which is the bedrock foundation of our socialist economy, of the country's might, a decisive factor for developing the productive forces and raising the productivity of labour in all branches of the national economy. Gross industrial output in 1965 is to increase, as compared with 1958, by approximately 80 per cent, including production of the means of production? by 85 per cent to 88 per cent, and pro- duction of consumer goods?by 62 per cent to 65 per cent. The average annual increase of gross output in 1959-65 for industry as a whole will approximate to 8.6 per cent. The average annual increase of industrial output in the forthcoming seven-year period will amount to about 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 OUTPUT of IRON and STEEL in the USSR ? In million tons for the organisation in the U.S.S.R. of a large-scale diamond extraction industry. The output of Soviet diamonds will in- crease approximately fifteen to sixteen times in 1965, as compared with 1958. Over-all output of chemicals will in- crease nearly three-fold. The production of synthetic materials is to be widely 14 developed, the output of artificial fibres 42 Gailwill increase by 300 per cent, including the most valuable synthetic fibres twelve to thirteen times and plastics and syn- thetic resins by more than 600 per cent. Large-scale production of new types of synthetic materials will make it possible to expand sharply the output of high- quality and cheap consumer goods, as well as to raise the technical level and 4 2 make more efficient all branches of the national economy. The seven-year period should see the construction or the com- luuss pletion of more than 140 new large-scale Setif(' A.ITAL 1940 1358 1965 135,000 million roubles, as against 90,000 million roubles in the preceding seven- year period. The development of the major branches of industry is to be determined as follows: A. HEAVY INDUSTRY In 1965, 65-70 million tons of pig iron, or 64-77 per cent more than in 1958; steel, 86-91 million tons, or 57-66 per cent more; rolled metal, 65-70 million tons, or 53-63 per cent more: com- modity iron ore, 150-160 million tons (230-245 million tons of crude ore) shall be produced. Compared with 1958, a 180 per cent to 200 per cent increase in the output of aluminium, 90 per cent increase in the output of refined copper, and a substan- tial increase in the output of nickel, magnesium, titanium, germanium, silicon is envisaged. The output of other non- ferrous and, especially, rare metals will likewise increase. The discovery of diamond fields has created a dependable raw material base 1958 Development of the SOVIET CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Total output will Increase almost three times. Artificial Fibre output will grow nearly four times. Plastics and Tars will Increase more than seven times COAL MINING in the Soviet Union In millions of tons 600-612 '?? -1 -165.9 million cubic metres, as against 30,000 million cubic metres in 1958. In the coal industry production should be brought up in 1965 to 600-612 million tons. The seven-year period will be a decisive stage in implementing Lenin's idea concerning the all-round electrifica- tion of the country. In 1965 electric power output in the country will rise to 500,000-520,000 million kw. hours, i.e. 110 per cent to 120 per cent, and the fixed capacity of electric power plants shall increase more than 100 per cent. Besides putting into operation large chemical enterprises and renovations to more than 130 enterprises. For a further improvement in the structure of the country's fuel pattern, priority development of oil and gas in- dustries will be ensured. It is planned to bring up the extraction of oil in 1965 to 230-240 million tons, a more than two- fold increase over 1958, the extraction and production of gas in 1965 to 150,000 OIL EXTRACTION in the Soviet Union In millions of tons MACHINE BUILDING and METAL DRESSING 450 INDUSTRIES RiseTin output (1913=1) 1141 I11 1913 1940 1958 1915 thermal electric power plants, it is en- visaged to complete the construction of the Stalingrad, Bratsk, Kremenchug, and a number of other hydro-electric stations, to put into operation a number of atomic electric power stations with various types of reactors. The high rate of development of the engineering industry, as is envisaged by the Seven-Year Plan, will ensure thc supply of new equipment to industrial establishments and a radical improvement in the technology of production, which will be a decisive factor for the growth of labour productivity, will ease working flarlaccifiPri in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 conditions and enable a further reduction in the working day. Transition to inte- grated mechanisation and automatic con- trol of production, with the use of elec- tronic devices, represents the most out- standing feature of contemporary tech- nical progress and must become the main trend in the designing of new machines. It is planned to manufacture the latest equipment for all branches of the economy, to design and manufacture Metal cutting machine-tools including special, specialised and aggregate machine-tools Forging and pressing machines Automatic and semi-automatic machine lines Precision instruments including computers and mathe- matical 'machines Turbines Generators for turbines Electric motors of alternating current Rolling mill equipment Chemical equipment Technological equipment for the textile industry Technological equipment for the food and flour milling industries Motor vehicles Trunk-line, electric and diesel loco- motives Technological equipment for the cement industry Technological equipment for foundry production A substantial growth in the output of the timber, paper and wood-working In- dustry is envisaged. The production of paper and cardboard, prefabricated houses, furniture, etc., will increase con- siderably. 16 machines on the 'basis of utilising the latest achievements and discoveries in science and technology, particularly radio - electronics, super - conductivity, super-sound, radio-isotopes, semi-con- ductors, nuclear energy, and so on. The output of the engineering and metal- working industries will nearly double in seven years. Production of major types of machines and instruments will be as follows: 1965 thousands 190-200 thousands 38 thousands 362 complete sets 280-300 million roubles 18,500-19,200 million roubles 2,000-2,100 million kw, 18.7-20.4 million kw. 17.5-18.4 million kw. 32-34 thousand tons 200-220 million roubles 3,500-3,700 million roubles 2,500 million roubles 3,8004,100 thousands 750-856 units 2,550-2,700 thousand tons 180-220 million roubles 360410 Increase compared with 1958 Percentage 40-50 100 50 approx. 210-230 150-160 350-370 180-210 240-250 120-130 130-160 220-240 120 110-130 50-70 140-160 150-210 130-160 B. PRODUCTION OF CONSUMER GOODS The light and food industries are grow- ing continuously and the production of consumer goods is expanding in our country on the basis of the high level of development reached in heavy indus- try and agriculture. The gross output of light industry will increase in seven years approximately by 50 per cent. Production of cotton fabrics in 1965 will reach 7,700-8.000 million metres, woollens-500 million metres. linen fabrics-635 million metres, silk fabrics ?1,485 million metres, leather footwear 515 million pairs, etc. In 1959-1965 it is planned to build approximately 156 new, large light- industry establishments and to complete the construction of 114 enterprises which were staned prior to 1959. Together with the building of new enterprises, a sub- stantial number of existing factories will be reconstructed. Gross output of the food Industry is to increase by 70 per cent in the seven-year period. About 250 new meat processing enterprises, over 1.000 milk processing factories, over 200 canneries and other factories will be put into operation. The capacities of sugar refineries will be in- creased by more than twice over. The output of household goods and also of machines and appliances which GROWTH of RETAIL TRADE In the USSR IMO? WO 430 lighten women's work in the home will be doubled, reaching 88.000 million roubles in 1965. There will be a sub- stantial increase in the output of furni- ture, sewing machines. refrigerators. washing-machines. dish-washers, wireless sets, radiugrams and television sets, clocks and watches, bic)cles, motorcycles and motor-scooters. cameras, and electric household appliances, C. INTEGRATED MECIIANISATION AND AUTOMATION OF PRODUC- TION Specialisation and Co-ordination In Industry Integrated mechanisation and the auto- mation of production processes constitute the chief and decisive method for en- suring further technical progress in economy and, on this basis. a new in- crease in labour productivity, the lower- ing of costs and an improvement in the quality of output. Apart from carrying out the over-all programme of automation in all fields of industry, it is planned to set up more than fifty experimental model enterprises where the latest models of integrated automation will be put into effect. Large undertakings in specialisation and co-ordination in industry arc envi- saged. These include: the further integrated development of the economic areas through the most rational use of natural resources, bear- ing in mind the need to specialise and improve co-ordination and to eliminate wasteful methods of transportation; the far better use of the productive capacity at existing enterprises; the carrying out of specialisation not only in industry but also in other spheres of economy?in transport, building, repair and other jobs Productivity of labour in industry, which is the decisive factor to increase output and raise the living standards of the working people, will considerably increase on the basis of measures to bo carried out in the next seven years in the integrated mechanisation and automation of production processes and the develop- ment of specialisation and co-ordination in industry. Productivity of labour, per employee, in industry will increase by 17- im,,,inecifiori P ri? Sanitized CODV Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP8101043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 RISE in the PRODUCTIVITY of LABOUR in SOVIET INDUSTRY (1940=100) TOTAL AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT in the U.S.S.R. (1958=100) , 1958 1965 from 45 per cent to 50 per cent over 1959-65, while, taking into account the reduction of working hours, the output per hour will increase still more. Alongside the planned volume of gross output and the growth of labour produc- tivity, it is envisaged that over 1959- 1965 production costs will be reduced, in comparable prices, by no less than 11.5 per cent. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIST AGRICULTURE The task, in the coming seven years. is to make agricultural production grow to an extent where it will make possible the satisfaction of the demands for staple foods and a big increase in the resources of agricultural raw materials, in order to provide the population with a wide range of high-quality foodstuffs in abundance and to meet all the other requirements of the state for agricultural products. The targets for 1959-1965 envisage: a further expansion of grain pro- duction, so as to ensure by the end of the seven-year period a grain harvest of 10,000 to 11,000 million poods (164- 180 million tons) a year; an increase in the production of the main industrial crops in 1965 as follows: raw cotton, to 5,700,000 to 6,100,000 tons, or 30 per cent to 40 per cent more than in 1958; sugar beet, to 76 to 84 million tons, or 40 per cent to 55 per cent more; oil-bearing seeds, to approximately 5,500,000 tons, or 10 per cent more; flax fibre, to 580,000 tons, or 31 per cent more than in 1958; an Increase in 1965 of the gross potato crop to approximately 147 million tons, as against 86 million tons In 1958; Increased output of vegetables to satisfy fully the needs of the popula- tion; an increase in the production of hard and soft fruit during the seven years, by no less than 100 per cent; grapes by no less than 300 per cent; an increase in the output of the chief animal products in 1965, as compared with 1958: meat (slaughter weight), to at least 16 million tons, or double; milk, to 100 to 105 million tons or a 70 per cent to 80 per cent increase; wool, to approximately 548.000 tons, or 70 per cent snore; and eggs to 37,000 million, or 60 per cent more. Gross farm output as a whole will be up by 70 per cent in 1965, as com- pared with 1958. The utmost expansion of the output of grain as the basis of all agricultural production will be the chief line in the development of crop production for the forthcoming period, too. High stable yields of all agricultural crops must be obtained and gross harvests must be raised to the planned levels by using a scientifically substantiated farm- ing system, applicable to the conditions of the given economic zones of the country and of each farm, by the further specialisation and improvement in the distribution of agricultural production, and the wide application of the achieve- ments of science and advanced experi- ence. . In animal husbandry the chief task in the forthcoming seven years is to increase the output of meat, milk, eggs and wool. While the average annual increase in meat production in 1952-58 amounted to approximately 500,000 tons (slaughter weight), in 1959-65 it must exceed 1,100,000 tons; milk, respectively, 3,100,000 tons and 5,900,000 to 6,600,000 tons; wool, 18,000 tons and 33,000 tons. Milk yields must rise to no less than 2,600 kilograms per cow on the collective farms. At the same time it is necessary to ensure a sharp increase in the number of all kinds of livestock and poultry. The chief requisite for the successful accomplishment of the programme for developing animal husbandry is the creation of a solid fodder supply base. The planned increase in grain production will make it possible to allocate 85 to 90 million tons of concentrated fodder for livestock in 1965. Maize must play a decisive part in increasing fodder pro- duction. The production of concentrated SOVIET MEAT PRODUCTION In millions of tons ?1955 1951 --- fodder must must be increased to 18-20 million tons as against 3,900,000 tons in 1957. The purchases of the basic agricultural products shall be increased in 1965 as follows: nprlassifiPti in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1965 (thousand tons) Raw cotton Sugar beet Oil-bearing seeds Potatoes Flax fibre Livestock and poultry (live weight) Milk Wool Eggs (million) 5.700-6.100 81.000 3.920 11,720 530 11.050 40,610 540 10,000 MILK OUTPUT in the SOVIET UNION (in million tons) 1965 per cent of 1958 130-140 159 136 174 137 196 184 172 221 100-105 ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION in SOVIET AGRICULTURE?a four-fold increase is planned. The output of agricultural products in state farms will be greatly increased in the forthcoming seven years. It Is planned to produce for agricul- ture In seven years over 1 million tractors, about 400,000 grain harvester. combines and large quantities of other machinery and equipment. It is envisaged to complete in the main the electrification of all collective farms in the country by the end of the seven- year period, while the electrification of state farms and repair and technical ser- vice stations will be completed much sooner. Consumption of electric power in agriculture will increase approximately by 300 per cent in seven years. In the seven-year period labour pro- ductivity in the collective farms should approximately double, and in the state farms should increase by 60 per cent to 65 per cent. DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS The coming seven-year period will see the radical technical reconditioning of the main types of transport, especially rail and air transport. Goods traffic on the railways will in- crease in the seven-year period to 1,800,000-1.850,000 million ton-kilometres or by 39 per cent to 43 per cent. In 1965 between 85 per cent and 87 per cent of the entire freight carriage on the railways will be hauled by electric and diesel loco- motives, against 26 per cent in 1958. The length of track to be switched to electric and diesel traction will reach approxi- mately 100.000 km. The construction of the biggest South-Siberian and Middle- Siberian trunk-lines will be completed and several new railway lines will be laid in the districts of Kazakhstan, the Urals and the Volga area. The cargo carriage of sea transport will roughly double. Freight carried by river transport will increase approximately 60 per cent in the seven-year period. The Volga-Baltic waterway will go into operation. With the rapid development of the oil industry, the length of trunk pipe-lines will almost treble while the volume of transport by pipe-line will increase approximately by 450 per cent. Goods carried by motor tntosport will increase roughly by 90 per cent. It is planned to build 180 per cent more motor roads of state-wide importance, over 1959-65, than in the past seven-year period. Duo to the introduction of fast and large turbo-jet and turbo-prop airlines, air transport will become one of the main forms of passenger transport. Passenger traffic by air will increase approximately by 500 per cent. The network of inter-city cable lines will double, while the length of radio- relay communication lines will increase approximately by 740 per cent. CAPITAL INVESTMENTS IN ECONOMY AND CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION The coming seven-year period will see construction get under way on an un- precedentedly sweeping scale all over the country, especially in the Eastern regions. In 1959.65 the volume of state capital investments will increase to 1,940,000-1,970,000 million roubles, or by 80 per cent as compared with the previous seven-year period. It will almost equal the total volume of capital Investments In economy during the entire period that Soviet power has been in existence. As regards certain branches, especially the processing industry, the Seven-Year Plan proceeds from the premise that the radical reconstruction, extension and the technical reconditioning of existing estab- lishments on the basis of integrated mcchanisation, automation and new tech- nological processes, providing for the sweeping renewal and modernisation of equipment, should be the main trend during the coming period. While the total volume of state capital investments in economy in general will increase 80 per cent over 1959-65, capital investments in industry will roughly double compared with investments made in the past seven-year period. Some 100,000 million roubles will be earmarked for the construction of iron and steel establishments, which is 140 per cent more than the capital invested in this industry in 1952-58. ITheq-laccifipri in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOVIET TRANSPORT GAS EXTRACTION in the USSR In thousand million cubic metres Goods corned by motor transport will increase Transpott by pipe-line will (FOAM Cergo corneae al sea Irawspori welt increase Cargo carriage ol river /ransom, will increase 1940 1957 1951 1965 GROWTH in the TRANSPORT of GOODS BY RAIL (In thousand million ton-kilometres) Growth of network of ELECTRIC RAILWAYS in the USSR 1340 1151 1365 22 The chemical industry will be given 100,000 to 105,000 million roubles for its development. About half of all the allocations for the development of the chemical industry will go to construct enterprises for manufacturing plastics, artificial and synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber and alcohol. Capital investments in the oil and gas industry will amount to 170,000 to 173,000 million roubles, an increase of 130 per cent to 140 per cent. For the development of the coal indus- try, 75,000 to 78,000 million roubles will be earmarked. Capital investments in the construction of electric power plants, electric grids and heating systems will be fixed at 125,000 to 129,000 million roubles, an increase of approximately 70 per cent, priority to be given to the construction of thermal electric power plants. In the timber, paper and woodworking industries a total of 58,000 to 60,000 million roubles will be invested, an in- crease of more than 100 per cent. In 1959-65 80,000 to 85,000 million roubles will be allocated for the develop- ment of the light and food industries, an approximately two-fold increase over the preceding seven-year period. The construction of housing and public building will be given 375,000 to 380.000 million roubles. More than 80,000 million roubles will be allocated for building schools, hospitals, child welfare estab- lishments and other cultural and public health services. Some 150,000 million roubles will be invested by the state in agriculture, Total capital investments in agriculture by the state and by the collective farms will amount to about 500,000 million roubles in 1959-65 and will nearly double the actual investments made in 1952-58. For the development of railway nuns- port 110,000 to 115,000 million roubles will be allocated, or 85 to 94 per cent more than has been spent in the preced- ing seven years. Capital investments for electrifying the railways will increase 170 per cent. The projected sweeping programme of capital construction will be carried out with the utmost saving of state funds. It is planned to ensure the further extensive application of mass production methods to building, to convert building work into a mechanised process of assembling and erecting buildings and structures from precast blocks, parts and elements. Capital investments amounting to 110,000 to 112,000 million roubles are being allocated for the development of tho building industry and the building materials industry, an increase of 79 per cent to 82 per cent over the preceding seven-year period. The building materials industry will be further developed. It is planned to expand the production of building materials on a scale sufficient to make it possible to satisfy fully the needs of state capital construction and also individual house building in cities and the repair of buildings, and to satisfy to a greater extent the main needs of collective-farm and private housing construction in the countryside. Produc- tion of cement in 1965 will be increased up to 75 to 81 million tons, i.e. 120 per cent to 140 per cent more compared with the output in 1958; precast reinforced concrete elements and parts up to 42- 45 million cu. m., or approximately 150 per cent more; slate to 6,000 million npriaccifipri in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 CAPITAL INVESTMENTS in the NATIONAL ECONOMY of the USSR In thousand million roubles 19401970 1928-1932 1951-1955 1959-1965 24 standard pieces, or 150 per cent more. The experience of the foremost build- ing organisations shom that the USS.R. has tremendous possibilities of reducing building times in all branches of the economy. In 1958, for example, large blast furnaces were built in six to eight months. Big successes have been regis- tered lately in reducing the times required for housing construction. With the increase in the volume of capital construction ever greater signifi- cance is acquired by the saving of material and financial resources used in construction, the reduction of building costs and the profitable running of all building organisations and enterpnscs. With the present scale of construction, a reduction in the estimated cost of build- ing and assembly work by 1 per cent alone means a saving of over 1,000 million roubles a year. Labour productivity in construction is scheduled to increase 60 per cent to 65 per cent in 1959.65 on the basis of the further industrialisation of construction, the completion of the integrated mechani- sation of the large-scale labour-consum- ing jobs, the improvement of the organi- sation of building work and the wide application of the best experience of innovators. 3. Distribution of the Productive Forces and the Economic Development of the Union Republics. TN working out plans for the national leconomic development of the U.S.S.R.. the Communist Party is guided by the Leninist national policy and proceeds from the need to distribute the productive forces properly in the country's territory with the object of achieving the greatest economic effect and ensuring the economic advance of all the Union Republics. The Seven-Year Plan for the national economic development of the U.S.S.R. in 1959-65 takes into account the interests of a further advance in the economy and culture of all the Union Republics. It is envisaged to make use of the natural resources which are richest in content and most advantageous as regards conditions of exploitation, particularly in the eastern areas of the country, to make fullest use of labour resources in accor- dance with the experience gained in pro- duction, and the available production facilities in various areas and in all the republics; further to bring industry closer to the sources of raw materials and fuel, to develop specialisation and co-ordina- tion in industry to the utmost, to improve economic ties between areas and to make rational use of all forms of transport. The main changes in the distribution of the productive forces in the forthcom- ing seven-year period are envisaged first of all in the direction of a big develop- ment of the eastern areas. Over 40 per cent of all the capital investments in 25 1959-65 will go for the development of the eastern areas, including the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, Kazakhstan and Central Asia The share of those areas in the country's entire output of major items will rise and reach in 1965: in the production of pig iron approximately 44 per cent. steel 48 per cent, rolled metal 49 per cent, coal approximately 51) per cent, oil 30 per cent, electric power 46 per cent and sawn timber over 45 per cent. Provision is made for putting into operation the country's third iron and steel centre, which will include a produc- tive capacity of approximately 9,000,000 tons of pig iron. The coal industry in Siberia and Kazakhstan will be developed at a faster rate than in other areas. These areas will contribute in seven years about 60 per cent of the total increase of coal produc- tion in the entire country. A large power industry will also be built up in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Production of electric power here will rise 230 per cent to 250 per cent in seven years and these areas will account for nearly 35 per cent of total expansion in the output of electric power production. The big growth of power potential and cheap electricity in the eastern areas will create favourable conditions for the develop- ment of industncs consuming much power, the non-ferrous metals industry in the first place. im,,,inecifiori in P ri? Sanitized CODV Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Changes arc planned in the distribution of the oil and gas industry which will enjoy priority development in the European part of the USS.R. and Central Asia on the basis of the rich oil and gas deposits discovered in these areas. Construction of oil refineries in almost all the main oil-consuming areas, and the building of a large network of oil and gas pipe-lines will be an essential clement in the distribution of the oil and gas industry in the seven-year period. Total output of industry in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic will rise approximately 80 per cent. Agriculture is set the task of substan- tially increasing grain production in the seven years. For other crops production in 1965 will increase by the following approximate percentages: sugar beet 100 per cent to 120 per cent, flax fibre 40 per cent, meat 120 per cent, milk, eggs and wool 60 per cent to 70 per cent. Capital investments of 954,000-974,000 million roubles will be allocated for the development of the Republic's economy. In the European part of the R.S.F.S.R. a rapid growth of the oil and gas indus- try is planned in the Volga area and the North Caucasus, which will make it pos- sible to replace power coal by more economical types of fuel: oil and gas. Provision is made for the building of large trunk gas pipe-lines from. the North Caucasus to Leningrad. On the basis of oil and gas it is planned to expand existing chemical plants and to build a large number of new ones in the Euro- pean part of the Republic, particularly plants for the production of chemical fibres, mineral fertilisers and. others. Of great significance is the planned develop- ment of the iron ore deposits of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. Districts of the Urals will retain a leading place in the Republic for the output of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and heavy engineering. The further growth of the metallurgical, oil, chemical, timber and engineering industries and in- creased productive capacity in power are planned here in the seven-year period. Productive capacity will be enlarged at the Magnitogorsk, Orsk-Khalilovo and Nizhni-Tagil iron and steel works and also at the Chelyabinsk and other iron and steel works. In the Urals, Chelya- binsk Region alone will produce in 1965 SOVIET TOTAL GRAIN HARVEST (larger figures are in thousand million poods?1 Food =36 lb.) more pig iron than is produced in France today. Large chemical works, using casing head gases for the manufacture of new types of synthetic rubber and products of organic synthesis, are to be built in Bashkiria. In districts of Siberia the huge natural resources will be very much developed. It is planned to build two large iron and steel works which will constitute the foundation for the third iron and steel centre of the U.S.S.R. Largo thermal-electric stations work- ing on cheap coal will be built. The world's biggest hydro-clectric station, Bratsk, with a capacity of over 3,500.000 kw., will go into operation and Lonstruc- tion will begin of the Krasnoyarsk hydro- electric station with a capacity exceeding 4 million kw. The timber and wood- working industry should develop at a rapid pace. One of the world's biggest diamond mining centres is being built up in the Yakut A.S.S.R. The huge funds invested in Siberia's economy will make possible the fuller use of the natural resources available here for developing the economy of the entire Soviet Union. Total industrial output in the Ukrainian SS.R. will rise by approxi- mately 77 per cent in the seven years. Further development is contemplated of such major branches of industry as iron and steel, coal, chemical, power, oil and gas, engineering and sugar. Capital investments of 214,000 million to 219,000 million roubles arc earmarked for developing the Ukraine's economy, of which over 50 per cent will go to the key heavy industries. A number of large industrial establishments will be built in the western regions. The output of consumer goods will go up substantially. Large textile mills will be built and the production of furniture will be doubled. The output of sugar will grow to 4,900,000 to 5,300,000 in 1965. In agriculture the main task is to expand further the output of industrial crops by raising yields, and to develop fruit and grape growing. Compared with 1958 meat output in 1965 increases 90 per cent; milk, 90 per cent to 100 per 27 cent; eggs, 80 per cent; wool, 60 per cent. As a result of the fulfilment of its planned targets the Ukrainian S.S.R. will greatly exceed the most developed capitalist countries for per capita output of a number of main industrial items. Thus, in 1965 the Ukrainian Republic will exceed the 1957 per capita output of pig iron in the United States by approxi- mately 70 per cent, Western Germany by 90 per cent and France and Britain by 150 per cent; in the production of steel the level of the United States will be topped approximately by 20 per cent, Western Germany 40 per cent, Britain 60 per cent, France 120 per cent. In the Byelorussian SSA. it is planned to set up oil refining and chemical in- dustries, to develop the engineering, light and food industries and expand consider- ably fuel and power. Tho capital invest- ments for 1959-1965 will more than double the capital investments in the preceding seven years. SOVIET SUGAR OUTPUT In thousands of tons 9250-10000 1913 1940 narlaccifiPri in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1958 1965 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 GROWTH OF SOVIET COTTON PRODUCTION (Annual average In million tons) 1957-1940 1949-1953 1958 19 65 Total output of industry in the republic will increase 80 per cent in seven years. The production of electric power will go up 160 per cent, the output of tractors will grow substantially, the production of lorries will increase 40 per cent to 50 per cent, chemical fibres 230 per cent to 250 per cent, cement 220 per cent to 230 per cent, cotton fabrics eighteen times, and granulated sugar 450 per cent to 510 per cent. Agriculture will continue to specialise in intensive dairy and meat farming, the breeding of water fowl, the production of potatoes, flax fibre and sugar beet. The Uzbek SS.R. will remain the main cotton producer of the country. Capital investment of 35,000 to 36,000 million roubles arc earmarked for developing the republic's economy, or approximately 140 per cent more than in 1952-58. Irrigation construction will be conducted on a large scale. Total indus- trial output will rise about 80 per cent in seven fears. The gas deposits discovered in the Bukhara district will make it possible to build up a large gas industry which will provide gas not only to a large part of Central Asia but also to major industrial centres in the Urals. The Angrcn district electric station working on cheap local coal will go over to full capacity. The chemical and non-ferrous metals industries will be developed on a large scale The production of copper, lead and zinc is being organised. The output 28 of cement will grow approximately four- fold. In agriculture the production of raw cotton in 1965 will increase 20 per cent to 30 per cent compared with 1958, silk cocoons approximately 30 per cent, vege- tables 150 per cent, meat 90 per cent, milk 40 per cent to 50 per cent, wool 20 per cent, and karakul skins 40 per cent. The area under orchards and vine- yards is to be extended. In the Kazakh SS.R. it is planned to develop further non-ferrous metals, power, engineering, chemical, oil, coal, cement, food and light industries and to build up the iron and steel industry on a large scale. Total capital investments in the Repub- lic's economy will amount to 116,000 to 119,000 million roubles, or approximately 130 per cent more than in the preceding seven-year period. Total industrial output in 1965 will rise approximately by 170 per cent above 1958. The Karaganda works and the Ycrmakov ferro-alloys plant will be the major construction projects of the iron and steel industry. The Sokolovka-Sarbai mining and concentration works with an annual capacity of 19 million tons of iron ore, the biggest in the country, will be put into operation in Kustanai Region during 1959-65. The production of pig iron is being organised in Kazakhstan for the first time. The production of artificial fibres will grow approximately ten times; the output of mineral fertilisers will increase sub- stantially, and the production of synthetic rubber, automobile tyres and caustic soda will be organised. The textile, shoe and leather, meat- packing and sugar industries will see the biggest development among branches of the light and food industries. In agriculture a further increase in grain production is envisaged. The northern districts of the Republic should specialise in meat and dairy farming, the breeding of fine wool-bearing and semi- fine wool-bearing sheep; the areas of desert and semi-desert steppes should specialise in raising livestock for meat, the breeding of sheep yielding semi-fine wool, meat and fats and of Karakul sheep. In the Georgian Republic the chemical industry, engineering, the growing of tea and citrus fruit, horticulture and seri- culture, viticulture and wine making, and also other branches of the food industry will be further developed. Total capital investments in the eco- nomy will amount to 16.800 million roubles. Total industrial output will rise nearly 75 per cent in seven years. The electrical equipment and instru- ment-making industries will account for the biggest development in engineering; the manufacture of electric locomotives is being organised on a large scale. The output of the chemical industry will grow approximately six-fold; the produc- tion of mineral fertilisers will increase by 120 per cent; the manufacture of new chemical products will be organised. Fifteen tea factories will be built; the production of tea will increase by 60 per cent. In the Azerbaijan S.S.R. the major eco- nomic tasks are to develop oil, gas. chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, engineering and textiles. In agri- culture to develop cotton growing, animal husbandry, horticulture and viticulture. Capital investments in the Republic's economy in 1959-65 are envisaged at ap- proximately 29.000 million roubles. 60 per cent more than in the preceding seven years. Total industrial production will increase approximately 90 per cent in seven years. Oil production will grow by 33 per cent, gas 160 per cent, the manufacture of oil equipment by 120 per cent and electric motors by 140 per cent. The pro- duction of electric power is being nearly doubled and the output of the chemical industry is going up substantially. The production of cotton goods will increase by 63 per cent, woollen fabrics by 230 per cent and grape wine by 88 per cent. In the Lithuanian SS.R. it is planned to industrialise the republic's economy further, to develop the engineering, light, food and fish Industries and to build up a chemical industry. About 12,500 million roubles of capital investments are assigned for the eco- nomic development of the republic, i.e., twice as much as in the preceding seven years. Total industrial output will grow approximately 80 per cent. The republic's agriculture will special- ise along the lines of breeding pedigree dairy livestock, and pigs for the produc- tion of pork and bacon. in combination with the growing of potatoes and other vegetables, sugar beet and flax Grain growing will also be further developed. In the Moldavian SS.R. there is planned the further development of the .engincering, building Materials. and food industries, the power industry, and agri- culture, particularly viniculture, fruit- growing, vegetable growing and beet cul- tivation. The gross output of industry is to in. crease approximately 2.2 times. Capital investments in the republic's economy arc to comprise approximately 8,800 million roubles. It is planned to build and put into operation more than 100 vineries, 5 sugar factories. 3 meat combines, 6 canned food factories, engineering factories, a factory producing technological equip- ment for the food industry, and a cement factory. The collective and state farms of the republic arc to lay out vineyards over an area of about 180,000 hectares, and orchards for hard and soft-fruits over an area of 116.000 hectares. In the Latvian S.S.R. the most import- ant tasks are the development of the elec- trical. and radio-engineering Industries, instrument making, transport machine- building, and the fishing industry. 29 r. " ' D r+ _ a r-iifi7pd rn Aooroved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Capital investments in the republic's national economy during 1959-65 will amount to about 10,800 million roubles, or twice as much as in the preceding seven years. The republic's gross industrial output will increase more than 60 per cent, with output of the engineering and metal- working industries being more than doubled. It is planned to build and recon- struct a number of factories in thc chemical, electrical engineering and machine building industries. A big in- crease is envisaged in the fishing fleet and the Riga fishing port is to be enlarged. The republic's agriculture will be specialising in dairy cattle-breeding, pork and bacon pig-breeding and in pedigree livestock raising. In the Kirghiz S.S.R. non-ferrous metals, oil, gas, coal, and the light and food industries will be further developed. Capital investments in the republic's economy will amount to 10,500 million roubles, or 130 per cent more than in the preceding seven years. Total indus- trial output in the republic will increase by 120 per cent. The supply of electric power to the SOVIET WOOL OUTPUT In thousands of tons 548 1953 1958 1965 30 economy will be sharply increased. The republic will continue to occupy a lead- ing place in the Soviet Union for the production of mercury and antimony The output of oil will be trebled and gas extraction will be organised on a large scale. Enterprises of the engineer- ing, building materials, light and food industries will be constructed. The republic's agriculture will special- ise in the production of cotton, sugar beet and meat, and the breeding of fine wool and semi-fine wool sheep. In the Tajik SS.R. it is planned to develop further cotton growing, the light and food industries, the building materials industry, horticulture and viti- culture; power facilities are being ex- tended. The chemical and cement indus- tries are being built up. It is planned to invest 8,600 million roubles in the republic's economy, 160 per cent more than in 1952-58. Total in- dustrial output will rise by more than 80 per cent. In agriculture the production of raw cotton, primarily of fine staple varieties, is to increase in 1965 by 30 per cent compared with 1958, silk cocoons by ap- proximately 50 per cent; meat 100 per cent, milk 130 per cent and wool 40 per cent. In the Armenian SS.R. it is envisaged to develop further the chemical industry on the basis of utilising natural gas, to develop precision machinery and instru- ment making and also the food and light industries, and to expand power facili- ties. Capital investments will amount to 12,000 million roubles in seven years. 120 per cent more than in 1952-58 Total industrial output will grow by ap- proximately 120 per cent. In agriculture the production of grapes is to increase by approximately 180 per cent in 1965 compared with 1958, fruit, 170 per cent, tobacco by 20 per cent, silk cocoons 60 per cent, meat 70 per cent and milk 60 per cent. The production of high quality wines and cognacs will be in- creased considerably. In the Turkmen S.S.R. the oil, gas, chemical, light and food industries will be further developed. About 15,700 million roubles are to be allocated for developing the Republic's economy, 140 per cent more than in 1952-58. The Republic's total industrial output will be nearly doubled. The pro- duction of oil will increase by 80 per cent and gas by 370 per cent. The pro- duction of fertilisers is being organised. The output of cotton and silk fabrics and leather footwear will rise sharply. The Republic's agriculture will con- tinue to specialise in the production of cotton, particularly fine-staple varieties. In the Estonian SS.R. the task is to develop the shale, chemical, electric power, machine-building, textile and fish 4. Increase in the Well-Being industries, and increase the output of ea butter and mt. Capital investments in the Republic's economy arc envisaged at over 8,000 million roubles. or 80 per cent more than in 1952-58. Total industrial output will rise approximately 80 per cent. The out- put of electric power will go up more than 400 per cent. The fishing fleet will be '.greatly de- veloped and a fishing port in Tallinn will be built to serve it. Agriculture will continue to specialise in pedigree dairy farming, the breeding of pigs for meat and bacon. if the Soviet People. TILE law of development of Soviet society is a continuous improvement in the people's living standards on the basis of the development of social pro- duction and the raising of labour pro- ductivity. Under socialism production develops in the interests of the whole of society, with a view to satisfying the growing material and cultural needs of all members of society, and the growth of production leads to a steady improve- ment in well-being of the entire people. The decisive superiority of the socialist system over the capitalist one is that under socialism there takes place an ac- celerated development of the productive forces of society and the ensuring, as distinct from capitalism, of a just dis- tribution of the products of social labour between all workers in the socialist society. Functioning in the Soviet Union is the socialist principle of distribution according to labour, in keeping with its quantity and quality, which gives to the worker a personal material incentive in the results of his labour and is an im- portant stimulus in increasing the pro- ductivity of labour and the growth of production. At the present stage of development, when through the efforts of the Soviet people a mighty industry and large-scale agricultural production have been estab- lished, there arc all the conditions for our working class, collective-farm peasantry, intelligentsia, for all the Soviet people to live still better in the near future, to meet more fully their 31 growing material and spiritual require- ments. Nourishment for the population will be substantially improved, particularly by such products as milk, butter, meat, sugar, vegetables and fruit. In the U.S.S.R. increased food production leads to a continuous growth of consumption, where an improved dict is achieved for the entire population, for all the nationalities of the Soviet Union without exception. There will be a plentiful supply for the Soviet people of high-quality and beauti- fully designed clothing and footwear. The people's housing conditions will be fundamentally improved by the imple- mentation of a wide-scale housing pro- gramme in towns, workers' settlements and country districts. The production of furniture and other household goods will be considerably expanded. Great atten- tion is to be paid to expanding produc- tion and improving the quality of pro- ducts and goods for children. Provision is made for increased wages and, in particular, a substantial increase for low- and medium-paid sections of workers and office employees. In the coming seven-year period the state will allocate large sums for the payment of pensions and grants, for organising the upbringing of children, for expanding and improving public catering and reduc- ing prices in this field. The target figures for the development of the national economy, which envisage a steady rise in the material well-being norlaecifiprl in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 MAJOR SOVIET CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS in 1959-65 ON THE BASIS OF THE SEVEN-YEAR PLAN TARGET FIGURES racnoyitrA NEW COAL FIELDS tufaHYDRoPowER, STATIoms Z ENairteERING 0?? GUILSING MATERIALS 41Z0 TIMBER. TODD IHDusygy LIGHT INDUSTRY NEW RAILWAYS ELECTRIC RAILWAYS MEW WATERWAYS GAS PlPel.witS npriassifipci in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .1 GROWTH in the NATIONAL INCOME of the USSR 3677.3643 (1913=100) 2208 1913 'Ai IL' IMO 1958 1965 and the cultural level of the people of the U.S.S.R., serve as a fresh and vivid expression of the ceaseless concern of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government for the welfare of the Soviet people. The national income, a truly people's income in the U.S.S.R., is used for a steady rise in people's living standards and for expanding socialist production. The national income will increase by 62 to 65 per cent in 1965 as compared to 1958, and with its increase a further rise in public consumption will be effected. The consumption fund will go up by 60 to 63 per cent in the seven-year period. In the seven-year period the number of factory and office workers in all branches of the national economy is to increase approximately by 12 million people, or by 22 per cent. The aggregate number of factory and office workers in the national economy will reach 66.5 million people by the end of the seven-year period. The real Income of factory and office workers per worker will rise on an average by 40 per cent as a result of the increase in wages, pensions and grants 34 alongside the further price reductions in public catering. On the basis of an increase in agri- cultural production and higher labour productivity the real incomes of the col- lective farmers too will increase by not less than 40 per cent, mostly due to the growth of common husbandry of the col- lective farms. The overhauling of wages of factory and office workers in all branches of the national economy, started in recent years, should be completed in the coming seven- year period together with a general in- crease in wages for factory and office workers. The wages of low-paid workers in the course of the seven-year period will be raised from 270-350 roubles to 500-600 roubles a month. A further improvement of working conditions, industrial hygiene and safe!) engineering at enterprises and construc- tion projects will be ensured in 1959- 1965. The widespread introduction of new techniques, mechanisa,i( .1 and auto- mation in production will t : ,Jamentally FACTORY and OFFICE WORKERS engaged in the National Economy of the USSR (millions) 6615 1913 1948 1958 1985 ? change working conditions for factory and office workers. Larger funds will be allocated for free education and advanced training, free medical aid, sanatoria and rest homes. state social insurance benefits for factory and office workers, state grants to un- married mothers and mothers of large families, state pensions, the upkeep of homes for the aged, holiday pay for factory and office workers, and for other payments and grants to working people. State expenditure for the above-men- tioned purposes in 1965 will amount to approximately 360,000 million roubles as compared to 215,000 million roubles in 1958. The pension system will be further im- proved. In connection with the increase in the minimum wage it is planned to effect, in 1966, a new rise in minimum pensions to about 450-500 roubles a month for old-age pensioners in towns, and correspondingly boost the minimum in rural localities, and also to increase minimum pensions for the disabled and in case of the loss of a breadwinner. In keeping with the decisions of the Twentieth C.P.S.U. Congress it is in- tended to complete, in 1960, the transfer of factory and office workers to a seven- hour working day, and of workers of leading trades in the coal and mining industries occupied in underground work to a six-hour working day, and also to complete in 1962 the transfer or factory and office workers with a seven- hour working day to a forty-hour work- ing week. Starting from 1964 there will be a gradual transfer to a thirty-five or thirty-hour working week, i.e. for workers engaged in underground work, and on work involving harmful labour conditions to a thirty-hour working week (five working days of six hours each with two full days off) and a thirty-five-hour working week (five working days of seven hours each with two full days oil) for the rest of the workers. All these measures are to be completed by 1966-68 The transfer to a thirty- to thirty-five-hour working week, with the present one full day off, means introducing correspond- ingly a five- or six-hour working day. Since for the majority of factory and office workers it is more convenient to have six- or seven-hour working days with two full days off each week instead of a five- or six-hour working day in a six-day working week, it is intended to introduce a five-day working week, I.e. establish two full days off each week. It is intended to make this change- over to a shorter working day and fewer working days in a week without reducing wages. As a result of this, the U.S.S.R. will have the shortest working day and the shortest working week in the world. As industrial and agricultural produc- tion and the income of the population grow, the volume of retail trade turn- over through state and co-operative trading organisations will rise in the seven-year period approximately 62 per cent (in comparable prices). Tho sales of livestock products to the population in the seven-year period will increase 120 per cent, vegetable oils 90 per cent, fruit including citrus 200 per cent. Sugar production will rise sharply; by the end of the seven-year period per capita output of sugar in the Soviet Union will reach 41 to 44 kilograms a year as against 26 kilograms in 1958. There will be a substantial increase in sales to (ho population of important manufactured goods, such as fabrics, clothing, underwear and footwear. There will be bigger sales to the popu- lation of cultural and welfare and house- hold commodities, particularly those making the work of housewives easier: washing machines, vacuum cleaners, elec- tric floor-polishers, electric irons and re- frigerators. In comparison with the pre- vious seven-year period sales of refrigera- tors to the population will rise by 480 per cent, washing machines and accessories 810 per cent, sewing machines 110 per cent, television sets 360 per cent, radio receivers and radiolas 80 per cent, motor- cycles and motor scooters 170 per cent. To meet the demand for individual housing and also for the construction of farm buildings at the collective farms it is intended to launch large-scale trade in building materials. The sales to the population of standard-type houses will rise by nearly ten times. It is planned to build in 1959-65 in towns and workers' settlements, at state 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 farms, repair and technical service stations, and in timber settlements a total of 650 to 60 million square metres of housing, or nearly 15 million flats, which is 130 per cent more than the number completed in the previous seven-year period. Close to 7 million dwellings will be put up in rural areas by the collective farmers and rural intelligentsia them- selves. Housing facilities in towns and workers' settlements by the end of the seven-year period will increase by 60 per cent. Economical and well-appointed flats to be occupied by one family each will be built in urban and rural districts. It is intended to make a big improve- ment in communal and shopping facili- ties in the 1959-65 period. The output of public catering establishments will be more than doubled. It is proposed to expand considerably the system of catering establishments and improve their work, and also to reduce prices at catering establishments. This will help in particular the budgets of working men's families and make work easier for millions of women. There will also be a reduction of prices on some other commodities. A further improvement in safeguard- ing the people's health is envisaged. Capital investments earmarked for the construction of public health institutions, social maintenance, physical culture and sport and also for the medical industry, will amount to over 25,000 million roubles. This will enable, through new construction, accommodation in hospitals to be doubled in 1959-65 and the accom- modation in nurseries to be increased by more than 150 per cent in comparison with the increase in the previous seven- year period. The medical industry will be consider- ably developed, particularly the produc- tion of anti-biotics and other modern effective curative means. With the purpose of creating more favourable conditions for aged citizens, it is planned to organise large-scale con- struction of homes for the aged both in town and country. S. Questions of Communist Upbringing, Public Education, the Development of Science and Culture. OR the transition to communism what is needed is not only a powerful material and technical base, but also a highly conscious attitude on the part of all citizens of socialist society. The realisation of the sweeping plan of communist construction calls for a decisive improvement in all the work of educating Soviet people, raising their communist consciousness and activity, forming a new man in the spirit of collec- tivism and diligence, with an under- standing of his social duty, in the spirit of socialist internationalism and patriot- ism, in the spirit of the observance of the lofty moral principles of the new society. Special attention must be paid to bring- ing up the rising generation in the spirit of communism, to bringing education closer to life, to combining instruction with productive work, to mastering the scientific knowledge accumulated by man- kind, to overcoming the survivals of capitalism in the consciousness of people. It is planned, in the years 1959-65, considerably to develop general second- _r- 36 ary-school education in town and country, to extend evening and corres- pondence higher and specialised second- my education, and to increase the net- work of evening schools for working youth in town and country. The number of pupils in the primary and secondary schools in 1965 will be increased to 38-40 million as against 30 million in 1958. The system of boarding schools will be greatly developed, as they arc one of the most important forms for bringing up the younger generation. In 1965 the num- ber of pupils in these schools will be no less than 2,500,000. The number of children in kinder- gartens will increase from 2,280,000 in 1958 to 4,200,000. The measures outlined by the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. for a radical improvement in the entire system of public education mark a new stage in the development of the Soviet school. Educa- tion is faced with the cardinal task of preparing the rising generation for life, for useful labour, and of inculcating in KINDERGARTENS in the Soviet Union number of children 4200 attending, in thousands 1958 1965 our youth a deep respect for the principles of socialist society. It is planned to carry out the following measures in the period 1959-65: To effect a transition from seven- year to eight-year universal, compul- sory education. To reorganise the network of ten- year schools (their upper forms) Into various types of urban and rural secondary labour schools, the pupils of which, by combining study with work at factories, on collective farms and in special workshops, receive both a complete secondary general and poly- technical education and a special train- ing for a mass trade, depending on the local needs in personnel. Considerably to extend the network of city and village schools which pro- vide their pupils with a secondary school education while they continue to In connection with the tasks for de- veloping the national economy and cul- ture, it is planned further to extend and improve the training of specialists with a higher and secondary specialised educa- tion. During the years 1959-65 the higher educational institutions will graduate 2,300,000 specialists, as against 1.700,000 in the period of 1952-58, that is, 40 per cent more. The number of engineers trained for industry, construction, trans- port and communications will increase by 90 per cent, and that of agricultural specialists by 50 per cent as compared with the preceding seven-year period. The greatest increase in the number of engi- neers graduated will take place in the fields of chemical technology, automa- tion, computing engineering, radio-elec- tronics, and other branches of new technique. Over 4 million people will be admitted to the secondary specialised schools in the period 1959-65. including those who study while working. During the coming seven-year period the necessary conditions will be created for an even more rapid development of all branches of science, for the making of important theoretical studies and new important scientific discoveries. It is with this aim in view that a broad programme of scientific research is planned, and the concentration of scientific forces and means on the most important investiga- tions, such as are of theoretical and practical significance. The state allocates huge sums of money for the construction of new scientific institutions, and the equipment of institutes and laboratories with the most modern instruments. Soviet scientists who have penetrated the secret of the atom and thermonuclear reactions, and who have created artificial Earth satellites and a man-made planet of the solar system will enrich our science with even greater discoveries and achieve- ments. The physical sciences occupy the lead- ing place in natural science, as the ad- vance of associated sciences and of national economy depends on their suc- cessful development. The efforts of Soviet physicists will be concentrated on the solution of problems of cosmic rays, nuclear reactions, and semi-conductors. In the field of the chemical sciences, a most important task is the utmost exten- sion of theoretical studies which con- tribute to the development of new, im- proved technological processes and the creation of synthetic materials possessing properties that satisfy the demands of modern technique. The development of biology is a neces- sary theoretical prerequisite for the advance of medicine as well as for the agricultural sciences. The importance of the group of biological sciences will rise especially as the achievements of physics and chemistry are used in biology. In this connection such branches of science as biochemistry, agrochcmistry, bio- physics, microbiology, virusology, selee- 37 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 if Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 tion, and genetics will play an important part. In the field of the technical sciences the chief goal of investigation is to ensure major qualitative advances in the effec- tive use of implements of labour, raw and other materials, fuel and electric energy, in raising labour productivity, reducing production costs and in improv- ing the quality of output while simul- taneously increasing efficiency and labour safety. The network of scientific institutions will be considerably extended, particul- arly in the eastern parts of the country, and the training of scientific personnel will be increased, especially in the most important fields of science. The cinema, press, radio and television will be greatly developed in the seven- year period. It is planned to bring the total num- ber of cinema projectors up to 118,00?- 120,000 by the end of 1965. This will make it possible to provide every state and collective farm with a cinema pro- jector. It is planned to increase considerably the number of public libraries and clubs. The further development of physical cul- ture, sports and tourism will be ensured. Approximately 100 new TV centres and TV stations will be built. The number of radio-reception points will increase by almost 30 million in 1965, which will include 12f million TV sets. In 1965 the number of books published will increase to 1,600 million copies, the number of magazines printed will be more than doubled and the annual circulation of newspapers will rise over 50 per cent 6. International Signfficance of the Seven-Year Plan for Development of the National Economy of the USSR. THE experience of the construction I of socialism and communism in our country has international significance. V. I. Lenin foresaw that the Soviet Union would influence the entire course of world development primarily by its eco- nomic construction. The realisation of the Seven-Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy (1959-65) will be a new highly important stage in the peaceful economic competition of tho two systems? socialist and capitalist. This plan is an expression of the Soviet Union's con- sistent policy of peace, of the Leninist principle of peaceful co-existence as opposed to the aggressive policy of the imperialist countries. As a result of the fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan, the Soviet Union's "per capita" industrial output will be higher than the present output in the most developed capitalist countries of Europe?Britain and West Germany? and will advance to first place in Europe. If the pace of industrial growth in the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. is considered, the Soviet Union will, for the gross out- put of some most important items, sur- pass, and for other items approach the 38 the present level of industrial output in the United States. By that time, our gross and per capita output of the most im- portant agricultural products will exceed the present level in the United States. The superiority of the U.S.S.R. in the rate of growth of production will create a real basis for overtaking and surpass- ing the United States within approxi- mately five years following 1965, in the level of per capita output. Thus, by this time, or perhaps even earlier, the Soviet Union will have moved to first place in the world both in gross and in per capita output, which will ensure its people the highest living standards in the world. It will be an epoch-making victory for socialism in peaceful competi- tion with capitalism. Tho international significance of the Seven-Year Plan lies in the fact that its fulfilment means a further consolidation of the might of the world system of socialism. The fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan will bring about a considerable increase in the share of the Soviet Union and the entire system of socialism in world in- dustrial output. Whereas in 1917 the share of the Soviet country in world in- dustrial output was less than 3 per cent. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release and in 1937. about 10 per cent, in 1958 the Soviet Union's share in world output has reached almost 20 per cent. As to the socialist countries, they account for about a third of the world's population and over a third of the entire industrial output of the world. The socialist coun- tries account for almost half of the world's grain output and 43 per cent of cotton. Estimates show that as a result of the fulfilment and overfulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the USS.11, as well as of the high rate of economic development of the People's Democracies, the world socialist system will turn out more than half of the entire industrial production of the world. [Diagram on back cover.- -Ed.l the foreign trade of the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. can, and is prepared to, develop economic contacts and trade with all countries. The Seven-Year Plan for the Develop- ment of the National Economy of the USS.R., the successes of the construc- tion of socialism in the U.S.S.R. and all socialist countries lay bare the inven- tions of our enemies to the effect that socialist revolution brings with it the destruction of civilisation. As a matter of fact, only under socialism begins a rapid, really mass movement forward in all spheres of public and private life, a rapid growth of material production, an im- provement in the well-being of the work- ing people, an unheard-of flowering of science and culture. Only the socialist revolution enabled the Soviet Union to turn from a backward, semi-literate country into an advanced, industrial power setting before itself a perfectly practicable task of advancing, within a historically short period of time, to first place in the world in guaranteeing the material and cultural well-being of its citizens. The successes of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, far from threat- ening anyone, are a guarantee of the pre- servation of peace and the security of the peoples. In the present international situation, poisoned as it is by imperialist provoca- tions, the arms drive and the threats of the most terrible, destructive war, the Seven-Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the Soviet Union is a powerful means of preserving and strengthening peace. Peace is indispensable for the fulfil- ment and overfulfilment of the colossal tasks set in the new stage of communist construction. The Seven-Year Plan is further proof that in the Soviet Union and in the entire world socialist system there are no, nor can there be any, social forces interested in expansionism, in in- ternational tension, in predatory aggres- sive wars. The Seven-Year Plan is a concrete offer of the Soviet Union to the capitalist world to compete in peaceful economic pursuits, for the Soviet Union is against a competition in the arms race. Thus absolute superiority of the world system of socialism over the capitalist system in the production of material values, the decisive sphere of human activity, will be ensured. The Seven-Year Plan for the Develop- ment of the National Economy of the U.S.S.R. opens up new, truly remarkable prospects for the development of the economic, scientific and technical co- operation of socialist states, which will help to bring out more fully all the ad- vantages inherent in the world system of socialism and will speed up economic progress in every socialist country. Tho Soviet Union is constantly ex- tending its international economic con- tacts. Whereas in 1946 the Soviet Union traded with forty countries, at the present time trade is conducted with more than seventy countries. In 1965, the Soviet Union's trade turn- over with socialist countries will register a more than 50 per cent increase over 1958. The Soviet Union's economic ties with economically under-developed coun- tries are growing: in 1957 the Soviet Union's trade with them was more than five times the 1953 level. The Soviet Union expects that its economic contacts with these countries will steadily con- tinue to grow. The economic programme of peaceful construction in the U.S.S.R. for 1959-65 opens up broad prospects for developing 39 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004nonnAnnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The realisation of the Seven-Year Plan will bring about the further con- solidation of the economic and de- fensive power, of the unity and soli- darity of the world socialist system, will greatly strengthen the positions of peace-loving forces throughout the world, put up new insurmountable obstacles In the path of the war- mongers and will be a new proof of the correctness of the Marxist-Leninist tenet of the Twentieth Congress of the C.PS.U. that war can be averted In the present epoch. The economic and political results of the competition between the two systems and the prospects of their further de- velopment convincingly testify that the onward march of socialism is irresistible, that its victory in peaceful competition with capitalism is inevitable. 7. The Communist Party?the Leading and Organising Force of the Soviet People in the Struggle for the Victory of Communism. TuB great successes in the develop- ment of socialist industry, agriculture, science and culture, in increasing the well-being of the working people, arc the result of the tireless creative work of the Soviet people and the enormous political and organisational work of the Communist Party. As a result of steadily implementing the epoch-making decisions of the Twen- tieth Congress of the CPS.U., the lead- ing role of the Party in the struggle for the fulfilment of plans for communist construction and in the state, social, eco- nomic and cultural life of the country has grown still more, and the unity and cohesion of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union have become stronger. The Party and the people have come closer, the Party's contacts with the people have extended and strengthened immeasur- ably. and the Party has acquired rich ex- perience in its political and organisa- tional activities among all sections of the working people. In solving problems of communist construction, our Party and its Central Committee constantly seek the advice of the workers, collective farmers and in- telligentsia. rely on their experience and knowledge, and take notice of their sug- gestions and critical remarks. Such measures as the nation-wide discussion of draft bilk on important pmblems of state, economic and cultural development, the convening of conferences of workers in various branches of the national economy, science and culture, and appeals to the working people on vital 40 problems of the country's life, have be- come part and parcel of the Party's work and have strengthened still more its ties with the people. Implementing the decisions of the Twentieth Congress of the GPS.U. and relying on the great power of the people, the Party has carried out in recent years radical measures for improving the management of the national economy. Chief among these measures are: re- organisation of the management of in- dustry and construction, the organisation of Economic Councils in the economic administrative areas, the extension of the rights of the Union Republics, local organs and enterprises, the reorganisation and strengthening of planning bodies, the drawing up of long-range national economic plans, the re-organisation of the machine-and-tractor stations and the im- plementation of measures for the further development of the collective farm system, the change in the system of pro- curement and the fixing of uniform prices for farm produce, the extension of the rights and the re-organisation of the work of the trade unions, and so on. All this signifies the triumph of the Leninist principles of democratic central- ism, ensuring the proper combination of centralised management of communist construction with the maximum develop- ment of the creative activity and initia- tive of the working people. Creatively developing Marxism-Lenin- ism. the Party wages a resolute struggle against those who cling to old outmoded forma and methods of work, who are in- fected with conservatism and who resist the implementation of the Party's Leninist general line. The June plenum of the Central Committee of the C.PS.U. exposed and defeated the anti-Party group of Malcnkov, Kaganovich, Molo- tov, Bulganin, and Shcpilov, which had fought against the Party's Leninist general line, against the political line adopted at the Twentieth C.P.S.U. Con- gress, against the leading role of the Party, and had taken the path of fac- tional, splitting activities. The anti-Party group came out against such urgent and vitally important measures as the de- velopment of virgin and long-fallow lands, the reorganisation of national eco- nomic planning, especially in agricultural production, the reorganisation of the management of industry and construction, against the Party's measures aimed at further raising the working people's well- being, and also against the Party's foreign policy which is aimed at relaxing inter- national tension, consolidating peace, de- veloping co-operation and strengthening friendship between the peoples. Having cast the anti-Party group aside from its path, our Party has consolidated still more the Leninist unity of its ranks and rallied them still closer under the great banner of Marxism-Leninism. The further strengthening of our state, the intensification of its economic, organisational, cultural and educational activities are important prerequisites for the successful fulfilment of the Seven- Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy. In recent years the Party and the Government have put through a number of important measures ensuring the further development of Soviet democracy and the strengthening of socialists law. Only a socialist, a really popular, de- mocracy is capable of bringing out the talents of the working people and pro- viding an outlet for the inexhaustible re- serves of the people's creative energy. As our society advances towards com- munism, the activities of the Soviets of Working People's Deputies in guiding economic and cultural construction ac- quire ever greater scope. The Supreme Soviets and the Councils of Ministers of the Union and Autonomous Republics the territorial, regional, city, district, village and rural Soviets should deal daily with important problems concerning the work of industrial enterprises and con- struction projects, and of collective and State farms in fulfilling the targets of the Seven-Year Plan, they must ensure the fullest use of all possibilities and local resources for boosting production, they must raise the well-being and culture of the people by the fulfilment of construc- tion plans for housing, cultural and pub- lic services; they must develop and sup- port the creative initiative of the people. An important part in mobilising the working people for the successful carry- ing out of the plan for the development of the Soviet Union's national economy in 1959-65 belongs to the trade unions, they being the organisation with the largest membership, uniting in their ranks over 50 million workers and office em- ployees. The struggle for the implementation of the great programme of communist con- struction outlined in the Seven-Year Plan represents the most vital, the most important task of trade union organisa- tions. They arc called upon to mobilise the working class and all working people for the fulfilment and overfulfilment of the state plan at each enterprise, to de- velop still further socialist emulation. which is a tried and tested method of communist construction in our country. It is necessary to develop such forms of attracting the masses to industrial management as permanent production conferences, meetings of workers, mana- gerial personnel and trade union func- tionaries. The trade unions must continue to improve their work in the field of hous- ing and everyday services for workers and office employees, to improve their supervision over labour protection in in- dustry, the fulfilment of housing construc- tion plans, the distribution of housing, the work of shops and catering establish- ments and medical and public services. The Leninist Young Communist League, which has a membership of 18 million young people, has always been the Party's true assistant in carrying out plans of communist construction. In , recent years the Y.C.L. and the entire 41 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Soviet youth have played an outstanding role in the solution of such tasks of great importance to the state as developing the virgin and long-fallow lands, con- structing important enterprises in the country's East, and accelerating the construction of enterprises in the iron and steel, coal, and chemical industries. This is a manifestation of the militant spirit, ideological firmness and com- munist consciousness of Soviet youth who wholeheartedly respond to the Party's appeals. The Party and the people highly value the heroic labour of the young men and women of our country. At this new stage in the development of our country, the Y.C.L. and the entire Soviet youth are confronted with still more majestic tasks. The great pro- 42 gramme of building communism opens up enormous vistas for the greater creative initiative of young men and women. Communism presupposes the all-round spiritual and physical development of man. Consequently, special attention should be paid to the formation of a communist outlook in young people, to the rearing of active, conscious builders of communist society. As a result of the triumph of socialism the Soviet Union has entered a new his- torical stage of gradual transition from socialism to communism. Outlining great plans for building com- munism, the Party is confident that this time, too, they will be successfully carried out. RESOLUTION of the 21st CONGRESS of the COMMUNIST PARTY of the SOVIET UNION Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Resolution of the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union On N. S. Khrushchov's Report on the Target Figures for the Economic Development of the USSR from 1959 to 1965 THE 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has been convened at an exceedingly important moment in history when, as a result of deep-going transformations in all spheres of social life and on the basis of the triumph of socialism, the Soviet Union has embarked upon a new period in its development?the period of the com- prehensive building of communist society. The great goal of building communism, for which many generations of people have striven, is now being reached in practice by the Soviet people under the leadership of the Communist Party. The programme for building com- munism in the Soviet Union?the pro- gramme for a new and mighty advance in the economy, culture and the material wellbeing of the people?is on a vast scale unparalleled in history. The Seven- Year Plan for the development of the national economy of the U.S.S.R. is a concrete embodiment of the Leninist general line of the party at the present stage. The congress expresses its profound satisfaction at the course and results of the pre-congress discussion on tbe theses of the report by Comrade N. S. Kbrush- chov on the target figures for the econo- mic development of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965. This discussion developed into a mighty demonstration of the creative initiative and activity of the Soviet people and of their solidarity with their tried and tested leader?the Com- munist Party. All the Soviet people have unanimously approved the target figures for the development of the national ceonomy, have welcomed the Seven-Year Plan as their own vital concern and have expressed their complete readiness to ful- fil and overfulfil its targets. The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. resolves: To approve the theses and report by Comrade N. S. Khrushchov on the tar- get figures for the economic develop- ment of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965; To endorse the target figures for the economic development of the U.S.S.R. from 1959 to 1965, with the amend- ments and addenda introduced on the basis of the discussion at the congress and during the pre-congress discussion on the theses; To instruct the central committee of the C.P.S.U. and the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers to introduce into the annual plans for the development of the national economy of the U.S.S.R., drawn up on the basis of the target figures endorsed by the congress, the necessary amendments dictated by the course of the U.S.S.R.'s economic development. The period that has gone by since the 20th Congress of the party has been one of the most important in the history of the Communist Party and the Soviet state. In carrying out the decisions of that congress and of subsequent plenary meetings of the central committee of the C.P.S.U.. the Soviet people have achieved outstanding successes in their advance along the road to communism. That period has shown the tremendous impor- tance which the decisions of the 20th Party Congress have had for communist construction in the USS.R. and for the whole international communist and work- ing-class movement, and for strengthening world peace. The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. wholly and completely approves the 45 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1.1??????11101600i1.??.e...... work of the central committee and the important measures it has taken in home and foreign policy. The party's major decisions on reorganising the management of industry and construction, on accele- rating the development of the chemical industry, on reorganising the machine and tractor stations and further develop- ing the collective-farm system, on increas- ing the output of agricultural produce, on establishing closer ties between the school and life and further developing the system of public education arc of im- Mense importance for developing the economy, promoting the advance of cul- ture, improving the wellbeing of the people, and for the building of com- munism. The might of the Soviet state and its International prestige have increased still further as a result of the Leninist line of the central committee and the Soviet government and of the selfless work of the Soviet people. The entire activity of the central com- mittee of the party has been based on the creative application of Marxist- Leninist theory in solving the tasks of communist construction and has been built up on the. basis of a profound study of the experience of the masses of the people and constant and close ties with the life of the people, on an ability to find the main link in the chain of historical development, to open up pros- pects, to mobilise the masses of the people and boldly and resolutely to do away with everything obsolete that hinders the forward movement. The congress approves the decisions of the June (1957) plenary meeting of the central committee which, unanimously supported by the whole party and the entire people, exposed and ideologically routed the anti-party group of Malenkov, Kaganovich, Molotov, Bulganin and Shepilov. Resorting to the basest methods of factional struggle, this group tried to shatter the party's unity and to divert the party and the country from the Leninist path. It opposed all the most important measures taken in accor- dance with the decisions of the 20th Con- gress of the C.P.S.U., measures which made it possible to achieve big successes in developing industry and agriculture and improving the wellbeing of the 46 people, and in foreign policy?to ease international tension and strengthen the cause of peace. The central com- mittee acted correctly when it emphati- cally condemned and cast aside the des- picable group of factionalists and split- ters. Exposing and ideologically defeat- ing the anti-party group, the party rallied still more closely round the central com- mittee under the banner of Marxism- Leninism. The Communist Party has always triumphed, and will continue to triumph, thanks to its loyalty to Marxism- Leninism, the unity and solidarity of its ranks and its unbreakable ties with the people. In the Leninist party the Soviet people sec their tried and tested leader and teacher, and in its wise leadership they see the guarantee of the further successes of communism. It is with profound satisfaction and revolutionary pride that the 21st Con- gress of the Communist Party sums up the great gains of the Soviet people. The chief result of the heroic struggle and labour of the Soviet people is the new society they have established?socialism, with its corresponding political system? the Soviet socialist state. Our country has become a great socialist power with a highly developed economy and advanced science and cul- ture. For volume of industrial out- put the U.S.S.R. now holds first place in Europe and second place in the world. In 1958 total industrial output was 36 times greater than in 1913, while the out- put of means of production?the basis of the whole of the national economy?has increased 83 times over, and the output of the engineering and metal-working industries, 240 times over. In 1958 our country produced nearly 55 million tons of steel, extracted 113 million tons of oil, mined 496 million tons of coal and generated 233,000 million kilowatt-hours of electric power. Substantial successes have been achieved in developing the light and food industries. As compared with 1913, output of consumer goods had increased nearly 14-fold in 1958, while over 45 times more articles were pro- duced for household and cultural pur- poses. Today 170 per cent, more con- sumer goods are being produced than in 1940. The tremendous scale of industrial out- put and the unparalleled rate of indus- trial development have been attained thanks to the advantages of the socialist system of economy, combined with the utilisation of the latest achievements of science and engineering and the country- wide socialist emulation movement. On this basis labour productivity is rising continuously in all branches of the national economy. In 1958 labour pro- ductivity in industry was 10 times greater than in 1913 and 2.6 times greater than in 1940, although the length of the work- ing day had been reduced. Side by side with the rapid growth of socialist industry, agriculture is also developing successfully. The party has fearlessly and sharply criticised mistakes and shortcomings in the guidance of agriculture in past years, has discarded everything that was blocking the develop- ment of collective and state farm pro- duction and has outlined a programme for bringing about a rapid advance in agriculture. The measures to further the development of agriculture drawn up and carried out by the party and the Soviet people have brought our country remark- able fruits. In 1958 the country procured 3,500 million poods' of grain, i.e., 1,600 million poods more than in 1953. The development of tens of millions of hec- tares of new land has given the country thousands of millions of poods of addl.- tional grain. In the past five years grain production has increased by 39 per cent as compared with the previous annual volume. Considerable successes have been achieved in the production of other crops, particularly sugar beet and cotton, and in developing socialised animal husbandry. The Soviet state has a powerful indus- try, developed in an all-round way, and a highly mechanised agriculture. The country's social wealth and the standard of living and cultural level of the people are rising continuously on the basis of the general advance of the socialist economy. In Soviet years the national income has increased 15 times over per head of the population. As compared with 1940, the real incomes of the workers had almost doubled in 1958, while the real incomes of the farmers ' About 561 million tons. 62 poods = one ton per working person had more than doubled. In pursuance of the decisions of the 20th Congress of the CP-S.U. such im- portant measures were carried out as raising the wages of the lower-paid cate- gories of factory and other workers, shortening the working day on Satur- days and on the eve of holidays, intro- ducing a shorter working day for the factory and other workers of a number of branches of heavy industry, establish- ing a six-hour and four-hour working day for juveniles, and increasing social insurance benefits for the people; ma- ternity leave has been extended and pensions for factory workers and other employees have been increased. The Soviet state is allocating increasing sums of money to satisfy the material and cultural requirements of the people. The Communist Party has educated millions of new people?socially con- scious builders of communism. This is a most remarkable achievement of the socialist system. In the Soviet Union the culture of all the nations and nationalities is really flourishing and unlimited opportunities have been created for the all-round and free development of science, engineer- ing, literature and the arts. The launch- ing of the world's first earth satellites and of the first artificial planet, which is revolving round the Sun, is a strik- ing expression of the high industrial and technical level of our country and of the creative genius of the Soviet people. With its magnificent victories in scientific and engineering thought, the Soviet Union has opened a new era in the cog- nition of the world. The far-reaching importance of these victories is that they have demonstrated the mighty creative forces of socialism, which work in the interests of mankind and of its progress and prosperity. All Soviet people take great patriotic pride in their country, which is advancing at the head of world scientific and technical progress and boldly paving the way into the future. The historic gains of the Soviet people in the economy and culture and the measures of the party and the govern- ment that have been carried out in re- cent years have led to a further consoli- 47 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00400006onn7_ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 111 dation of the Soviet system and of its firm foundation?the alliance between the working class and the peasantry. The friendship and political unity of all the fraternal peoples of the Soviet Union have become stronger than ever before. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is setting the whole world an example of a communist community of free and equal peoples. The Soviet Union. which has blazed the trail of socialism for mankind, has reached a level in productive forces, socialist production relations and cultu- ral development that enables the build- ing of a communist society to be started on a broad front. II The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. considers that in the coming seven years the principal tasks of the party are the following; In the economic field?all-round de- velopment of the productive forces in our country and, on the basis of priority expansion of heavy industry, the achievement of a level of production in all branches of the economy which will enable a decisive step to be taken to- wards the establishment of the material and technical basis of communism and the Soviet Union's triumph in the peace- ful economic competition with the capi- talist countries to be ensured. The increase in the country's economic potential, further technical progress in all spheres of the economy and the con- tinuous growth of the productivity of social labour must secure a substantial rise in the standard of living. In the political field?further consoli- dation of the Soviet socialist system, the unity and solidarity of the Soviet people, development of Soviet democracy and of the activity and initiative of the broad masses of the people in the building of communism, extension of the functions of public bodies in matters of state im- portance, enhancement of the organisa- tional and educational role of the party and the socialist state, and the all-out strengthening of the alliance between the workers and the peasants and of the friendship of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. In the ideological field?intensification of the ideological and educational work of the party, the raising of the level of communist consciousness of the working people, and particularly of the rising generation. instilling in them a commun- ist approach to work and developing the spirit of Soviet patnotism and interna- tionalism, eliminating survivals of capi- talism from the minds of people and combating bourgeois ideology. In International relations?consistent pursuance of a foreign policy aimed at preserving and consolidating world peace and international security on the basis of Lenin's principle of the peaceful co- existence of countries with different social systems; implemenuition of a policy aimed at putting an end to the cold war and easing international ten- sion; all-out strengthening of the world socialist system and the community of fraternal peoples. The fundamental problem of the com- ing seven years is to make the most of the time factor in socialism's peaceful economic competition with capitalism. Fast rates and the necessary proportions must be ensured in the development of the national economy. Attaching primary importance to the development of industry, and heavy in- dustry in particular. the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union considers it necessary to make provision in the Seven-Year Plan for in- creasing total industrial output by about 80 per cent.: in Group A (output of means of production) by 85-88 per cent, and in Group B (output of consumer goods) by 62-65 per cent. In industry as a whole the average annual increment in gross output is to amount to about 8.6 per ccnt, in the 1959-65 period: in Group A to 9.3 per cent, and in Group B to about 7.3 per cent. The congress considers it necessary that : Provision be made in the Seven-Year Plan for a considerable increase in the output of ferrous and non-ferrous metals to meet the requirements of the national economy more fully. The tar- get for 1965 is to raise the output of pig iron to 65-70 million tons, steel to 86-91 million tons, rolled metal to 65-70 million tons, and marketable iron ore to 150-160 million tons; to increase the out- put of aluminium by 180-200 per cent 48 refined copper by 90 per cent., and step up substantially the production of other non-ferrous metals, and particularly 'are metals; An accelerated expansion of the chemical industry, particularly in the output of artificial and synthetic fibres, plastics, other synthetic materials and mineral fertilisers. By the end of the seven years, the output of artificial fibres must be increased fourfold, that of plastics and synthetic resins more than sevenfold, and mineral fertilisers about threefold; A change in the structure of the fuel pattern through priority development of the output of the cheapest kinds of fuel oil and gas. In 1965, the output of oil must reach 230-240 million tons, gas 150,000 million cubic metres,* and coal 600-612 million tons: Rapid electrification of all branches of the national economy by building mainly big thermal power stations. In 1965, the output of electric power must be brought up to 500,000-520,000 million kilowatt- hours; High rates of development for the en- gineering and instrument-making indus- tries in order to equip factories with new and highly productive equipment, ma- chines and instruments and to achieve comprehensive mechanisation and auto- mation in industry. In the coming seven years the output of the engineering and metal-working industries must be approxi- mately doubled. The congress considers that on the basis of a high level of development in heavy industry and the further advance of agriculture provision must be made for a substantial growth in the output of consumer goods so that within seven years there is an ample supply of fabrics, clothing, footwear and other goods to satisfy all the requirements of the popu- lation. In pursuance of this task, the fol- lowing increases over the 1958 level must be achieved in 1965: total output of the light industry by approximately 50 per cent., including the output of cotton tex- tiles by 33-38 per cent., woollen fabrics by 65 per cent., silks by 76 per cent., and leather footwear by 45 per cent; total output of the food industry by ? 5,295,000 million cubic feet. about 70 per cent., including meat by 110 per cent., butter 58 per cent.. milk 120 per cent., sugar 76-90 per cent., and fish 60 percent _ . Special attention must be paid to ex- tending the variety and improving the quality of manufactured goods and foodstuffs and to increasing the output of household utensils and appliances. Party organisations must ensure the rhythmic work of all enterprises so that the state plans arc fulfilled and over- fulfilled with regard to all quantitative and qualitative indices from day to day and from month to month. The inner potentialities and the possibilities of the enterprises for stepping up production with the existing capacities must be more fully brought to light, and the technology and organisation of produc- tion, and also the utilisation of equip- ment and raw and other materials must be improved. In agriculture, the chief task is to obtain a level making it possible to satisfy to the full the food requirements of the population and the raw material requirements of industry and to meet all the state's other demands for agricultural produce. This problem must be solved primarily by consider- ably raising the yield of all farm crops, increasing the number of livestock and further promoting the productivity of socialised animal husbandry. With a total increase of 70 per cent. in gross agricultural production in the next seven years, the output of staple products must be raised as follows : grain to 10,000-11,000 million poods, sugar beet to 76-84 million tons, cotton to 5,700,000-6,100,000 tons, meat (slaugh- ter-weight) to 16 million tons, milk to 100-105 million tons, potatoes to 147 million tons, and other vegetables to a quantity that will fully meet the require- ments of the population. The main line in crop farming will continue to be the utmost expansion of grain growing as the basis of all agricul- tural production. The collective and state farms now have the prerequisites for increasing the yield by an average of three to four centners of grain per hcctaret throughout the country within the next few years. In livestock breed. t 2.39-3.18 cwt. per acre 49 npriassifipci in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ing the main task is to raise the pro- duction of meat, wool and eggs by sharply increasing the number of live- stock, raising the productivity of all branches of animal husbandry and developing poultry and rabbit-breeding on collective and state farms. Fodder resources must be increased even more persistently than before, mainly by culti- vating maize, potatoes and sugar beet and growing protein feeds such as clover, lucerne, vetch and oats, peas, lupin, etc., depending on the features of this or that zone. The output of soya beans must be increased. It is important that the annual plans for the purchase of all kinds of agricul- tural produce should be successfully fulfilled or overfulfilled. The congress expresses its confidence that the movement started in the coun- try for fulfilling ahead of schedule the tasks envisaged by the target figures in agricultural production, particularly the output of meat and other livestock pro- ducts, will enable the country not only to fulfil but also to overfulfil the Seven- Year Plan as regards both the time- table and the volume. Every encour- agement must be given to the initiative of the republics, territories and regions which have worked out concrete measures to increase agricultural output in the next few years and have given pledges to double or treble the output of meat already in 1959. The fulfil- ment of the pledges given by republics, territories, regions, districts and collec- tive and state farms will be a worthy contribution in response to the call of leading collective and state farms to overtake the United States in per capita output of meat and other agricultural products within a short space of time. The contribution of each republic, terri- tory, region and district, and of every collective and state farm must be evalu- ated on the basis of the output of live- stock products per 100 hectares of farm- land. In order to cope with the big tasks facing agriculture in the coming seven years, party, government and agricultu- nil. bodies must do their utmost to con- solidate the socialist assets of the collec- tive farms, carry out sweeping measures to promote the mechanisation and elec- SO trification of agricultural production, im? prove labour organisation and, on this basis, secure a considerable growth in labour productivity and reduction in the cost of agricultural produce. The role of the state farms, as the leading social- ist enterprises in agriculture, must be en- hanced still further. Side by side with measures aimed at further extending agricultural output it is necessary to start the construction of enterprises for processing farm produce by the collective and state farms and the consumer co-operatives, to extend housing development and the construc- tion of cultural and public facilities in the countryside and to organise commu- nal services and amenities in the villages. With the incomes of the collective farms growing, the practice of several collec- tive farms pooling resources to build power stations, roads, building materials enterprises, big and well-equipped inter- collective farm canning factories, baker- ies and other enterprises should become widespread. The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. considers that in future as well the ques- tions connected with developing all branches of agricultural production must have the full attention of party, govern- ment and agricultural bodies, of all col- lective farmers and state-farm workers. All means of transport must be de- veloped in order to achieve high rates of economic growth in the country. In the course of the next seven years fundamental technical reconstruction must be carried out in the basic branches of transport, especially railway trans- port, where it is necessary to replace steam engines with modem, economical locomotives--electric and diesel locomo- tives. At the same time, everything must be done to increase carriage by sea. river, air and motor transport and to extend the network of pipelines, with emphasis on the- most economically profitable means of transport for the given district and type of freight Tele- phone communications and the network of radio and television stations must be developed. The congress considers that the de,isi?e condition for the successful fulfilmci, of the Seven-Year Plan and the creation a the material and technical foundation of ommunism is the broad application of new techniques, comprehensive mechanis- ition and automation of production processes and specialisation and co-ordi- nation in all branches of the national economy. The task in the coming seven )ears is to eliminate ardous manual work through the comprehensive mechanisation of production processes in industry, agri- culture, construction and transport. In- asmuch as the measures aimed at the mechanisation and broader automation of production are not only of economic but also of great social importance, the congress instructs the central committee of the party and the local party organis- ations to exercise day-to-day control over the implementation of all measures re- lated to comprehensive mechanisation and automation of production. The further over-all development of the economic regions must be persistently promoted through the most effective use of natural resources, with provision being made for expedient specialisation by enterprises, an improvement in co-ordina- tion between enterprises and economic regions and the elimination of un- economic transporting. In order to achieve high rates in ex- tended socialist reproduction, the con- gress considers it necessary to implement important measures in the sphere of capi- tal construction in the coming seven years. The volume of capital investments by the state will go up by 80 per cent. in the next seven years and will amount to approximately 1,940,000-1,970,000 mil- lion roubles, which is nearly equivalent to the capital investments made in the national economy in all the years of Soviet power. In order to make most effective use of capital investments, large funds should be earmarked for the re- construction, expansion and technical re- equipment of operating establishments and the renewal and modernisation of equipment, which will make it possible to fulfil the task of increasing output and raising labour productivity with smaller outlays and to do this more rapidly than by building new industrial plants. The 21st Congress notes that for the timely execution of projected capital con- struction it is necessary to maintain a policy of the comprehensive industrialis- ation of building, of turning the building industry into a mechanised conveyor pro- cess for the assembling of buildings and structures from large prefabricated panels and blocks. It is necessary to develop the building materials industry. particularly the cement industry, at accelerated rates and to extend the pro- duction of reinforced concrete sections. A bolder approach should be encouraged in merging building organisations. Dr signing must be improved, capital invest- ments must be concentrated on key projects and on projects that are nearly completed, building times must be short- ened and the cost of building and assem- bly must be lowered and the quality of building improved. In view of the unprecedented scale of construction in the coming seven years and the need to achieve the maximum economy in social labour and time, special attention should be paid to the correct distribution of the productive forces. Attention should be devoted to the further development of the economy of the country's eastern areas, which possess tremendous natural resources. In solving problems connected with the further increase of production capacities, preference should be given to districts where the invested funds will yield the best economic effect. It is essential that party organisations should work for the strictest consideration of the interests of the state, and the slightest signs of a narrow, local approach should be nipped in the bud. The Soviet Union is a multinational socialist state, oased on the friendship of equal peoples united by the single desire and aspiration tu advance steadfastly along the path of communist construc- tion. Our plans give vivid expression to the Leninist national policy, which fur- nishes extensive possibilities for the all- round development of the economy and culture of all peoples. The Seven-Year Plan makes provision for the large-scale expansion of the economies of all the Union republics. In each republic emphasis is to be laid on branches of economy for which it pos- sesses the most favourable natural and economic conditions, so as to make more effective use of the resources of each republic and ensure the proper harmony of interests of the individual republics 51 Dar+ r Aooroved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 and the Soviet Union as a whole. The congress considers that one of the main tasks of the Seven-Year Plan is to achieve a considerable rise in the pro- ductivity of social labour, this being the chief source of extended socialist repro- duction and accumulation?the basis for the further improvement of the people's living standards. In the course of the seven years, labour productivity is to rise by 45-50 per cent, in industry, 60-65 per cent, in building, 34-37 per cent. in railway transport, 60-65 per cent. on state farms, and about 100 per cent. on collec- tive farms. It is necessary to reduce expenditures in production so as to achieve a reduc- tion In the cost of production in industry of not less than 11.5 per cent, in the seven years, and in building and assembly of not less than 6 per cent. All party, economic, trade-union and Young Communist League organisations must intensify the drive for fulfilling and overfulfilling the targets of the Seven- Year Plan, for higher labour productivity, lower production costs and stringent economy. It is necessary to launch a countryside drive against all aspects of mismanagement, extravagance and negli- gence as regards public property, to make greater ?demands on managers for im- proving all qualitative indices in running establishments and building projects and, above all, for reducing costs of produc- tion and improving the quality of output. The self-supporting operation of estab- lishments in industry, transport and 3gricultute must be strengthened in every Way. ? The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. considers that under present conditions. when tremendous successes have been achieved in the development of industry and -agriculture, there exist all the conditions necessary to provide still better living standards for the Soviet people in the immediate future and to meet their material and spiritual needs to a- still fuller extent. For this purpose, the Seven-Year Plan should provide for the following: A 62-65 per cent. increase if. the national income, which will ensure a considerable extension of consump- tion; A 60-63 per cent. rise in the volume 52 of consumption in the next seven years; An average increase of 40 per cent. during the seven years in the real incomes of industrial and office workers and also a rise of not less than 40 per cent. in the real incomes of collective farmers; The abolition of taxes levied on the population; Measures to put the wages system in order and in the course of the next seven years to raise the wages of factory and other workers in the lower income brackets from 270-350 roubles to 500-600 roubles a month; An increase in the minimum old-age pension from the present 300 roubles per month to 400 roubles in the towns, and from 255 roubles a month to 340 roubles for pensioners permanently residing in rural localities and con- nected with agriculture, and also a rise in the minimum disability pensions and pensions paid to families which have lost their breadwinner; A considerable improvement in the trade and utility services for the population, the extension of the net- work of public catering establishments, and a reduction in prices at public catering establishments; An increase in the number of board- ing schools, nurseries, kindergartens and homes for the aged; All-out promotion of building and public utility construction so as to build houses with a total floor space of 650-660 million square metres', or nearly 15 million flats, in towns and workers' settlements in the next seven years, and to build about seven million houses with the resources of the col- lective farmers and rural professional workers; The introduction of measures to shorten the working day and the working week. The transfer of factory and other workers in a seven-hour working day, and of workers in lead- ing trades in the coal and mining industries occupied in- underground work to a six-hour day must be com- pleted in 1960. The transfer of factory and other workers with a seven-hour working day to a 40-hour working week must .be completed in 1962. The gradual transfer of workers engaged in underground work and in work with harmful working conditions to a 30' hour working week, and the rest of the workers to a 35-hour working week with two days off per week and a 6-7- hour working day is to be started in 1964; An increase of approximately 62 per cent. in the volume of retail sales by state and co-operative trade establishments. Provision must be made for considerably extending the sale to the population of livestock products, vegetable oils, sugar, fruit (including citrus fruit), and staple manufactured goods such as fabrics, clothes, underwear and footwear, as well as general merchandise, especi- ally items that lighten the work of the housewife, Implementation of all these measures will signify a further major gain by the people of our country and will be a striking expression of the Communist Party's and the Soviet government's Soviet people. The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. constant care for the welfare of the considers that the carrying out of the great plan of communist construction demands from party, government, trade- union and Young Communist League organisations a further improvement in all their work of educating the Soviet people, increasing their social conscious- ness and activity, and shaping the new man in a spirit of collectivism and industriousness and awareness of his social duty, in a spirit of socialist inter- nationalism and patriotism and steadfast observance of the high principles of communist morality. The communist education of the work- ing people, the elimination of the survivals of capitalism in the minds of the people must be placed in the centre of attention and activity of party. govern- ment, trade union, Young Communist League and other public organisations. It is necessary to continue an uncom- promising struggle against bourgeois ideology. Propaganda and zgitation. the press, the cinema, radio and television. and cultural and educational establish- ments must play an important role in the party's ideological work. Special attention should be paid to the communist education of the rising generation. Party and government organisations must ensure unswerving implementation of all measures con- nected with the reorganisation of the secondary and higher school so that the Soviet school, closely linking study with production and with the practice of com- munist construction produces socially conscious citizens ith an all-sided education, specialists with a secondary school or higher school education. In the present period of the building of communist society, science is acquiring increasing importance. Noting the tre- mendous achievements of Soviet science in all fields of knowledge, particularly in the field of nuclear physics and atomic power engineering, jet aircraft and rocketry, the congress considers that in the next seven years it is necessary to attain a still faster development in all branches of science and the implementa- tion of major theoretical researches ensuring further scientific and technical progress. For this purpose it is necessary to provide for a broad programme of scientific research, concentrating scientific forces and means on major fields that ,are important scientifically and practically. The link between scientific institutions and practice must be constantly strengthened. the latest achievements of science and engineering must be broadly and rapidly introduced, and experimental and design- ing work must be carried on more daringly. The social sciences, especially econo- mics, have the task of creatively general- ising the experience of our economic and cultural development and examining the new problems being posed by life. It is necessary to make a profound study of the laws governing the transition to com- munism, to analyse comprehensively the most important processes taking place in the capitalist world, to expose bourgeois ideology and uphold the purity of Marxist-Leninist theory. The coming seven years must he marked by a further development of socialist culture. Workers in literature. the theatre, the cinema. music, sculpture and painting arc called upon to raise still higher the ideological and artistic level 53 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11 of their art, to continue being the party's and the country's active assistants in pro- moting the communist education of the working people, in propagating com- munist morals, in developing the multi- national socialist culture. Ill Iii determining the tasks of the present stage of communist construction, the 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. proceeds from the fact that the Soviet Union has entered a new period of historical development. The victory of socialism in our country is complete and final. The time has gone by when the Soviet Union was the only socialist state in a hostile capitalist encirclement. Now there are two world social systems: capitalism. which is breathing its last, and socialism. which is brimming over with a growing vital force and enjoys the support of the working people of all countries. Nothing in the world could restore capitalism in our country, could overcome the socialist camp. Under the leadership of the party. the Soviet people have achieved triumphs of socialism in all spheres of economic and social-political life which make possible the practical accomplishment of the task of building the material and technical basis of communism and of a balanced and gradual transition to communism. Communism can be achieved on the sole condition that we surpass the production level of the developed capitalist countries and attain a higher productivity of labour than exists under capitalism. Comprehensive communist construc- tion must, along with material plenty, provide for a genuine blossoming of spiritual culture and an ever-fuller satis- faction of the requirements of all people, must provide for the further development of socialist democracy and for the upbringing of socially-aware working people of communist society. With the growth of the productive forces, socialist social relations, based on principles of comradely co-operation. friendship and mutual assistance, must also be further enhanced. In step with technical progress in all branches of the economy and the closer merging of schooling and production there will take 54 place an eradication of the essential dis- tinctions between mental and physical work and d rise in the cultural and tech- nical level of all working people. Reduc- tion of the working day and the further improvement of working conditions on the basis of the comprehensive mechanisation and automation of pro- duction must facilitate the transformation of work into a vital urge and necessity of the harmoniously developed man. As a result of the measures taken in recent years to advance agriculture and the growth of the socialised assets of the collective farms, the collective farm system is gaining new strength and its advantages and ample possibilities are unfolding ever-more fully. All this shows that the collective farm-co- operative form of relations of produc- tion promotes the development of the productive forces of agriculture, and will do so for a long time to come. In the process of communist construc- tion the socialised nature of collective farm production will be extended, there will be an approximation of collective farm-co-operative property and public property, an elimination of the distinc- tions between them. The indivisible funds of the collective farms will expand and strengthen, and inter-collective farm production contacts will become broader. The merger of the collective farm-co- operative and public forms of property will occur in the future not through the gradual effacement of collective farm-co- operative property, but by way of raising its level of socialisation to that of public property with the assistance and support of the socialist state. In the present-day conditions of com- munist construction the distribution of material wealth is based on this guiding principle: From each according to his ability, to each according to his work. Distribution according to work stimu- lates the material interest of people in the results of production and promotes the growth of labour productivity, the greater proficiency of the working people, and the improvement of produc- tion techniques; it also plays a big educational role, accustoms people to socialist discipline and makes work universal and obligatory. Equalitarian distribution would lead to the consump- tion of accumulated means and impair communist construction. With the development of socialist society and the growth of the social awareness of the masses of the people, the labour enthusiasm of the Soviet people is rising ceaselessly, and so is their concern for the wellbeing of society. The urge for personal enrich- ment is losing ground and moral incentives to work for the good of society are steadily taking precedence. The transition to distribution accord- ing to needs is to take place gradually, as the productive forces develop, when there will be an abundance of all the necessary consumer goods and all people will work voluntarily according to their ability, regardless of the measure of material benefits they receive frGm it, conscious of the fact that their work is needed by society. Even now in Soviet society a sub- stantial and ever-growing portiOn of material and cultural benefits is being distributed free of charge in the form of pensions, grants for students, allow- ances to mothers of many children and funds for the building and maintenance of schools, hospitals, kindergartens, nurseries and boarding schools, and also of clubs, libraries and other cultural facilities. This portion of The socialised consumption fund will progressively grow, which is an important premise for the gradual transition to the communist principle of distribution. The congress takes note that in present-day conditions the main empha- sis in the development of the socialist state is to be laid on the all-round development of democracy, on drawing all citizens into taking part in the man- agement of economic and cultural affairs and conducting public affairs. It is necessary to enhance the role of the Soviets as mass organisations of the working people. Many of the functions now performed by state agencies should gradually pass to public organisations. Questions related to cultural services, public health, physical culture and sport should be handled with the active and broad participation of public organisa- tions. In the matter of enforcing the rules of socialist human relations an increasingly important role is to be played by the People's Militia, COUrtS of honour and similar volunteer public bodies, which, hand in hand with the state institutions, must perform the functions of preserving public order, protecting the rights of citizens and preventing acts harmful to society. The transfer of some functions from state agencies to public organisations will not weaken the role of the socialist state in the building of communism, but will rather extend and reinforce the political groundwork of socialist society and ensure the further development of socialist democracy. The Soviet state will be able to concentrate even more on developing the economy, which is the material basis of our system. The socialist state is called upon to perform extremely important tasks in the defence of peace, and the defence of the country from the threat of armed imperialist attack. As long as there exists an aggressive imperialist camp, the Soviet state is obliged to strengthen and improve its glorious armed forces?the army ansl navy?which stand guard over the socialist gains and the peaceful endeavours of the Soviet people. It is necessary to strengthen the organs of state security, which are aimed lirst and foremost against agents sent in by the imperialist states. The functions of defending the socialist country, now performed by the state, will not wither away until after the danger of an imperialist attack has been completely eliminated. IV The congress is confident that the accomplishment of the Seven-Year Plan will add still more to the strength of the position of the Soviet Union and the world socialist camp as a mighty fortress of peace and progress, and will lead to a further growth of the forces of peace and to a weakening of the forces of war. The successes of the Seven-Year Plan will be a major triumph of the all- conquering teaching of M a rx is m- Lcninism, a token of the superiority of socialism over capitalism. They will attract millions of new followers to socialism. The Seven-Year Plan ushers in a new stage in the economic competition be- tween socialism and capitalism. The mammoth labour effort of the Soviet 55 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 people, who are following the path indi- cated by. Lenin, has elevated our country to so great a height that it can now successfully compete with the United States in the economic sphere and can win this competition and leave that lead- ing capitalist power well behind. In this, the high rates of growth of production in our country will be of decisive importance. With the accomplishment of the Seven. Year Plan the industrial output per head of the population in the Soviet Union will be greater than that in the most developed capitalist countries of Europe?Britain and Western Germany?and will rank first in Europe. In the physical output of some key items of production the Soviet Union will surpass, and in others approach, the present level of industrial output in the United States. By that time the production of key agricultural products, physically and per capita, will exceed the present level of the United States. After that it will take about another five years to catch up and out- strip the United States in industrial out- put per head of the population. The Soviet Union, therefore, will by that time, or sooner, take first place in the world both for physical volume of pro- duction and for production per head of the population. That will be a world- historic victory of socialism in its peace- ful competition with capitalism. A different course of development is typical for the capitalist countries. The .general crisis of capitalism continues to deepen owing to the growth of the forces of socialism, the disintegration of the colonial system and the exacerbation of internal social antagonisms. The in- stability of the capitalist economy is growing, and it is going through one production slump after another. Neither the armaments race nor any other meas- ures taken by the capitalist states will eradicate the cause of crises. The contra- dictions of capitalism continue to accumulate, setting the stage for new upheavals. Economic competition between the world socialist system and the world capitalist system is unfolding on the world arena. The economy of all the countries of. the world socialist system is 56 developing at rapid rates. High rates of production growth are a general objec- ti,ve law of socialism, now confirmed by the experience of all the countries of the socialist camp. In consequence of socialist industrialisation and the tran- sition of the peasantry to the co-oper- ative mode of production, some people's democracies have already entered the period of completing the building of socialism. As a result of fulfilling and over- fulfilling the Seven-Year Plan and also as a result of the high rates of economic development in the people's democracies, the world socialist system will, economists estimate, produce more than half the world's industrial output. This will establish the superiority of the world socialist system over the world capitalist system in material production?that deci- sive sphere of human activity. The distinctive feature of the economic development of the socialist countries lies in the fact that as they stride for- ward their mutual relations grow stronger and the world socialist system becomes ever more united. A diametrically oppo- site tendency obtains in the capitalist world, where the growth of production in one country or another serves to aggra- vate contradictions between capitalist states, to heighten competition and incite conflicts between them. With the further growth and consoli- dation of the world socialist system all the socialist countries will develop successfully. Countries that were economi- cally backward in the past are benefiting by the experience of the other socialist countries, by co-operation and mutual assistance, and are rapidly developing their economies and culture. In this way. the general line of econOmic and cul- tural development in., all the socialist countries is levelling out. The pre- requisites for their transition from the first phase of communism to its second phase will be built up at accelerated rates. ,1 The time is near when these countries will, like the Soviet Union, tackle the ' building of communist society. The Soviet Union coniiders it to be its' prime task to continue promoting the greater unity of the socialist countries. the development of close economic and cultural links between them, and the still greater solidarity of the fraternal family of free nations on the basis of the great ideas of Marxism-Leninism, the principles of proletarian internationalism. The congress considers that the accom- plishment of the Seven-Year Plan and also of the plans of the other socialist countries will create even more favour- able conditions for solving the principal problem of our time?the preservation of universal peace. The conclusion drawn by the 20th Party Congress to the effect that war is not fatally inevitable has proved-to be perfectly justified. There now exist tremendous forces capable of defending peace and of delivering a crushing blow to any imperialist aggres- sor who tries to start a war. Aggression by imperialist states against the socialist camp can have only one outcome?the downfall of capitalism. Fresh successes of the socialist coun- tries will induce an expansion and strengthening of the peace forces through- out the world. The countries working for enduring peace will be joined by more and more countries. The idea that war is intolerable will take ever-firmer root in the conscience of the nations. Backed by the might of the socialist camp, the peaceful nations will then be able to compel the bellicose imperialist groups to abandon their plans of starting new wars. In this way, even before the complete victory of socialism in the world, with capitalism still existing in a part of the world, there will take shape a realistic possibility of excluding world war from human society. However, at present the possibility that the imperialists might start a war exists. and the threat of war must not be under- estimated. For this reason. the socialist countries and all the forces of peace must exercise the utmost vigilance and must extend their struggle for safeguarding peace. The aggressive policy of American imperialism, which reflects the ambition of the United States capitalist mono- polies to gain world domination, remains the main source of the war danger. The rulers of the United States, and those of Western Germany, Britain, France and the other member-countries of the aggressive North Atlantic bloc, are continuing 'to stockpile atomic weapons, are rejecting every peaceful settlement of international problems, and are continuously provoking armed conflicts in various regions of the world. In this, the part of the main shock force of the North Atlantic Alliance is handed to Western Germany, which is becoming the principal nuclear and rocket base of that alliance. Militarism and revenge-seeking have reared their heads in Western Germany and are threatening the peaceful nations. Imperialist aggression, as recent experi- ence shows, threatens peoples in different regions of the world. The imperialists are provoking armed conflicts in the Middle East and the Pacific basin, are engaged in military operations against the peoples of Africa who are fighting for their freedom, and are continuously threatening armed intervention in the domestic affairs of the Latin American countries. All this makes particularly insistent the struggle of the peaceful peoples for collective security and for the rejection of war as a means of settling international disputes. The aggressive policy of the western powers is opposed by the peaceful policy of the Soviet Union and all the socialist countries, a policy which is supported by the peaceful nations. Thanks to the firm stand of the countries of the socialist camp and the peaceful countries of the East it has been possible in recent years to nip in the bud hotbeds of war in the Middle East and. the Far East, and to frustrate other imperialist schemes. The 21st Congress unanimously approves the peaceful Leninist foreign policy of the Soviet government, which is erecting insuperable obstacles to imperial- ist aggression. Timely and correct are the recent measures of the Soviet Union as regards a peaceful solution of the German problem, agreement on the dis- continuance of tests of nuclear weapons and their complete prohibition, on dis- armament, ending the cold war, and arranging a conference of beads of government. The congress authorises the central committee of the party and the Soviet government to continue to work con- sistently for the implementation of these 57 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 and other proposals designed to safeguard peace and international security. By the efforts of all peaceloving nations the international atmosphere, must be cleared of all inflammatory calls for armed attack. Efforts must be made to enhance mutual confidence and co-opera- tion among states, regardless of their social systems. An important part in relieving international tension and pro- moting mutual confidence must be played by the extensive development of world trade, cultural exchanges and other forms of international contacts. Better relations between the Soviet Union and the United States?the two great powers bearing special responsibility for the destiny of world peace?could be decisive in effect- ing an improvement in the international situation. ? Guided by Lenin's principle of peace- ful co-existence, the Soviet Union will work persistently for all-round co-oper- ation among all countries. The growing might of the Soviet Union, like that of the entire socialist camp, and the fresh achievements of Soviet science and tech- nology are placed in their entirety in the service of peace and international security. The congress considers the accomplish- ment of the Seven-Year Plan to be fresh evidence of the fulfilment by the work- ing people of the Soviet Union of their international duty to the international working-class and communist movement. to all progressive mankind. The new successes in the building of communist society will serve as powerful moral sup- port to all the forces fighting for peace, democracy and social progress. This support is of special importance at this time, when in the capitalist countries signs are appearing of a new offensive of reaction and fascism. The going over of the reactionary bour- geoisie to open dictatorship is a sign of its weakness, of its inability to main- tain its domination by parliamentary methods. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that in conditions of unbridled dictatorship reaction has great opportunities of redoubling repressions and terror, suppressing the opposition, of acting upon the masses of people in the spirit that suits its ends, poisoning them 58 with the venom of chauvinism, and un- tying its own hands for military gambles. The peoples must be vigilant, constantly ready to rebuff the onslaught of reaction and the threat of a revival of fascism. It must not be forgotten that fascism may reappear in new, and not only in its old, forms, which have been discredited in the eyes of the peoples. The unity of the democratic forces, and of the work- ing class in the first place, is the most reliable barrier to the fascist threat. The successful, advance of the Soviet Union to communism, the victories of all the socialist countries, and the consistent struggle for peace create favourable pros- pects for achieving working-class unity of action both on the international and the national scale. In the process of the class struggle the broad masses of social' democratic workers and their organisa- tions in the capitalist countries will be- come increasingly aware of the new possibilities that present themselves to the international working class in con- nection with the successes of socialism, and it is to be hoped that they will fall in step with the other sections of the working class and the broad democratic movement with the purpose of barring the road to fascism and war. The congress notes with satisfaction that the ineeiings of representatives of Communist and Workers' Parties in November 1957 demonstrated the com- plete unity of viewpoints of the fraternal parties. The Declaration of the confer- ence was unanimously approved by all the Communist and Workers' Parties and has become a fighting programme of action for the world communist move- ment. The conclusions of the Declara- tion were proved completely right by the course of events. Since the Novem- ber meetings the solidarity in the ranks of the Communist Parties and the entire international communist movement has been cemented on the basis of Marxism- Leninism. The revisionist programme of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia has been unanimously condemned by all the Marxist-Leninist parties. The theory and practice of the Yugoslav leadership arc a deviation from the positions of the working class, the principles of inter- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release national proletarian solidarity. The views and policy of the leaders of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia are jeopardising the gains of the people's revolution and socialism in Yugoslavia. The Soviet communists and the whole Soviet people have friendly feelings for the fraternal peoples of Yugoslavia, for the Yugoslav communists. The Soviet Union will continue to work for co- operation with Yugoslavia on all ques- tions of the struggle against imperialism and for peace on which our positions will coincide. While continuing to expose revisionism as the main threat within the commu- matism and sectarianism must go on unabated, for they impede the creative application of Marxist-Leninist theory and lead away from the masses of the people. The congress considers it essential to strengthen in every way the might of the socialist camp and to consolidate further the unity of the international communist movement in accordance with the prin- ciples of the Moscow Declaration. The fraternal co-operation of the Communist and Workers' Parties must be developed and extended on the basis of the complete independence of each party, on the basis of proletarian inter- nationalism, voluntary co-operation and mutual assistance. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, reared by V. -I. Lenin in the spirit of proletarian internationalism, considers itself one of the component detachments of the inter- national working-class and communist movement. Together with the other Communist Parties, the CP.S.U. bears responsibility for the destiny of the socialist camp, the destiny of the world communist movement. It will continue to follow faithfully the great interna- tional teaching of Marx, Engels and Lenin, to combat revisionists of all shades, uphold the purity of Marxism- nist movement, the struggle against dog- Leninism, and work for the new suc- cesses of the world communist and working-class movement. V The historic victories of socialism in our country that have created the condi- tions for the transition to a new stage of communist construction are the result of tireless creative work on the part of the Soviet people and of the tremendous political and organisational work of the Communist Party. The party, basing itself on the collective wisdom of the working class and of the entire people, ou their wealth of experience, is elabo- rating and implementing the plans for communist construction. Our party has come to its 21st Congress more united and monolithic than ever before and is capable of successfully carrying out gigantic new tasks. The boundless love and trust dis- played by the people for their own party is clearly manifested by the growth in the membership of the CP.S.U., with reinforcements being drawn from the finest people among the working class, the collective-farm peasantry and the Soviet intelligentsia. In the time that has passed since the 20th Congress, the party has consistently followed the line of expanding inner-party democracy and criticism and self-criticism and of in- creasing the activity of the party mem- bership. The central committee and local party organisations have been con- ducting a determined struggle for the restoration and further development of the Leninist standards of party life and principles of collective leadership. The entire experience gained in the struggle for the victory of socialism and communism shows that in the course of the building of communist society the role of the party, as the tried and tested vanguard of the people and the highest form of social organisation, is growing to a still greater extent. The fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan will require a still higher level of party ideological, political and organi- sational work and the active mobilisation of the creative forces of the Soviet people. It is essential that the targets of the plan be made clear to all working people, that the efforts of every collec- tive be organised and directed towards their fulfilment, that shortcomings be resolutely eradicated and that difficulties met with in work be overcome. The success of the plan will be deter- mined directly at the factories and con- struction sites, on the collective and state farms and in the research institutions. 59 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 In view of this the role of local and lower party organisations will be still more greatly increased, since these are called upon to mobilise and organise the masses of the people for the fulfilment of concrete tasks in production. It is the duty of party organisations to ensure that at every factory, on every collective and state farm and in every institution an atmosphere of creative work and productioh enthusiasm prevails. It must be remembered that victories will not come of themselves, they must be won and consolidated. Party organisations, lecturers and propagandists, while calling for the fulfilment of the plans of communist construction, must explain clearly and simply what communism is and what great benefits it will bring the people, and must in every way support and develop communist forms of work. The organisational and educational work" of the party, all methods of ideological work, must be devoted to the successful fulfilment of the targets for communist construction. It is essential to ensure that every worker makes better use of his machine, machine tool, installation, tractor , or harvester combine and em- ploys progressive methods of work. The congress is of the opinion that a priority role in the fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan belongs to party and government cadres. The placing and training of cadres must be improved, we must promote to responsible positions people who are well-trained and of high principle, who have a feeling for what is new, who will give all their strength and knowledge for the benefit of the people, who will introduce Bolshevik ardour into the work and be implacable in respect, of shortcomings. It is essential to promote young cadres more boldly and to give them an opportunity to.display their ability in practical work. Party organisations must strengthen backward factories, collective and state farms and districts by allotting them qualified cadres, selecting good organ- isers and specialists who will be able to make use of hidden potentialities, Organise people and bring lagging elements up to scratch. It is the duty of all party organisations to train our cadres and all communists to be exacting towards themselves, to be 60 conscious of their responsibility for the tasks entrusted to them, to train them in the spirit of loyal service to the people and to the cause of communism. We should systematically, raise the level of theoretical knowledge and Marxist- Leninist training of our cadres. Of great significance in improving the oiganisational work of the party and mobilising the masses of the people 1.. carry out the tasks of communist con- struction is the consistent application of inner-party democracy and the develop- ment of criticism and self-criticism as a powerful means to overcome shortcom- ings and achieve a further advance. At the present stage of social develop- ment the role of the Soviets of Working People's Deputies is growing to a still greater extent. Republican, territorial, regional, city, district and village Soviets must tackle from day to day the most important problems of work at factories, building sites and collective and state farms for the fulfilment of the Seven- Year Plan targets, and must pay heed to raising the living and cultural level of the working people. The work of Soviet bodies will be the more fruitful the greater the extent to which they rely on the activity of the masses of the people, achieve a further extension of socialist democracy and check with determination elements of red tape and bureaucracy. It is necessary to make certain amend- ments and addenda to the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. Important changes in the political and economic life of the Soviet Union have taken place since the constitution was -adopted; the inter- national situation has also changed. All these changes should be reflected and given legal force in the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The trade union organisations will have to carry out 'considerable work in mobilising the masses of the people to struggle for the successful fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan. The trade unions arc called upon to develop the activity of the working class and all working people, to bring about a still greater development of socialist emulation for the fulfilment and overfulfilment of state targets at every factory, and to support the initiative of inventors and ration- alisers, the leading people in production, and to popularise their experience. The trade unions must increase their control over the application of safety measures in production, fulfilment of housing plans, the distribution of housing, and the work of trade and catering establish- ments and of medical and communal services for the working people. A most important task of the trade unions is that of developing educational work among the people and improving the work of cultural and educational institutions. The programme of communist con- struction drawn up by our party for the coming seven years opens up wide vistas for activity and the growth of creative initiative on the part of the rising generation and its vanguard, the Lenin Young Communist League. The Young Communists are called upon to continue setting an example of selfless work to the rung people. Every Young Communist organisation must become a militant, vitalising collective that maintains close ties with the young people. The Young Communist League will have to take an active part in industrial building, housing construction and the erection of public buildings, in the struggle for the further development of socialist agriculture and for exploiting the natural resources of the newly developed districts of the country Party and Young Communist League organisations must pay special attention to creating a communist world outlook among the youth, to training active, conscientious builders of communist society, whose love for their country is boundlebs and who live and work in the communist manner. The chief task of the Communist Party and the Soviet people today is to ensure hit unconditional fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan for the development of the national economy. The fulfilment of the targets set by the party and the government for the next seven years will have tremendous importance in further strengthening the might of our country. The fulfilment of the Seven-Year Plan for the development of the national economy of the U.S.S.R., the main line in which is the peaceful development o the economy and raising the hying standards of the people, will at the sam time further strengthen the country's defence capacity, increase its prepared- ness to give a crushing rebuff to any attacks made ,by imperialist aggressors against the great gains of socialism. The successes of peaceful economic construc- tion in the U.S.S.R. and all the socialist countries will be a new expression of the advantages of socialism over capitalism and will to a still greater extent increase the power of attraction of the great ideas of Marxism-Leninism. ? ? ? The Soviet people, in the course of socialist construction, have performed great feats of labour that have been recognised by the whole world. The 21st Congress of the Communist Party expresses its firm conviction that the entry of our society into the period of the extensive construction of commun- ism will give rise to a mighty wave of labour enthusiasm, to new forms of countrywide emulation for the fulfilment and overfulfilment of the Seven-Yea' Plan and will be marked by outstandina victories. The magnificent plan for communist construction elaborated by the party opens up before the soviet people wide and bright prospects for the advance to communism. Our cherished goal is close. We have to go through the decisive stage in the peaceful economic competition with capitalism and in the shortest time win that competition. We have everything necessary to win that position. And when we have solved those problems and have cleared the way forward it will be easier for us to advance. For the sake of the great aim of the construction of communism we can and must work well. In paving the road to communism the Soviet people are maintaining close unity with the peoples of all the coun- tries of the socialist camp. Day by day the mighty camp of socialism is growing stronger. The ideas of communism have become The leading force of our time. The 21st Congress of the Communist Party calls upon all the working people of our great country to struggle actively f for the fulfilment and overfultilment of the Seven-Year Plan. The congress is e fully confident that the workers and col- 61 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 lective farmers and Soviet intelligentsia will do everything to strengthen further the might of our socialist country and to implement the communist ideals inscribed on the victorious banner of Marxism-Leninism. 62 The heroic Soviet people, led by the Communist Party, are marching confid- ently forward, building the finest and most just society on earth?communist society. (February 5, 1959) Two other booklets on the Seven-Year Plan TARGETS OF THE SEVEN-YEAR PLAN Theses of N. S. Khrushchov's Report to the Special Twenty-First Congress of the C.P.S.U. Soviet Booklet No. 43 * 6d. SEVEN-YEAR PLAN TARGET FIGURES Report and Reply to Discussion by N. S. Khrushchov at the Special Twenty-First Congress of the C.P.S.U. Soviet Booklet No. 47 9d. * Available from newsagents, or post free from SOVIET BOOKLETS 3 ROSARY GARDENS, LONDON, S.W.7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 For news of the progress of the Plan read SOVIET WEEKLY Illustrated Thursday 3d. Authentic, well-written articles on Soviet scientific achieve- ments, on industry, agriculture, sport, international relations, and other aspects of Soviet life and work, ?can be found within its well-illuitrated pages. Subscription rates: 3s. 3t1., 3 months; 6s. 6d.. 6 months; 13s, Od., 12 months, post free from newsagents, or post free from ? "SOVIET WEEKLY", 3 ROSARY 'GARDENS, LONDON, S.W3 PubbIsbol by Soviet Booklets, 3 Rosary Gardens, London, S.W.7, and printed by Farleigh Press Ltd tT.U. all depts.), Beechwood Rise. Watford, Herta. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Share of the USSR and other Socialist Countries in World Industrial Output * Full Text of the Theses of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the USSR Council of Ministers on the question of STRENGTHENING THE TIES OF THE SCHOOL WITH LIFE, AND FURTHER DEVELOPING THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 1917 1937 1958 1965 Soviet Booklet No. 44 December 1958 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 o Strengthening the Ties of the School with Life, and Further Developing the System of Public Education Theses of the Centra/ Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the USSR Council of Ministers I. The Soviet Union is now in the midst of a great advance. The country's economy is developing rapidly, science and culture are making unprecedented progress and the standard of living of the working people is steadily rising. The Soviet people?real masters of life and makers of history?have won out- standing victories in all spheres of economic and cultural development? victories of which they are justly proud, victories which inspire the hearts of millions of friends of peace and socialism in all parts of the world with joy and hope and which fill the enemies of the working class with fear and despondency. The Soviet people have achieved great successes as a result of the wise home and foreign policy of the Communist Party and the Soviet state. In the years that have gone by since the historic 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Soviet society has taken another big step forward in the gradual transition from socialism to communism. These years have been marked by a tremendous acceleration of the rate of communist construction, and by wide- scale encouragement of the working people's initiative in the political life of the country and in economic and cultural endeavour. Consistently apply- ing the great behests of Lenin, the party has rallied the masses of the people still closer around itself. The Soviet Union is now faced with the need to carry out new and far- reaching tasks. The 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. will discuss and approve the target figures for the development of the national economy from 1959 to 1965. The Seven-Year Plan will be a great programme of communist con- struction and its fulfilment will make the Soviet Union still stronger and richer and will be of decisive significance for victory in the peaceful competition between the socialist and capitalist systems. The Soviet people arc fully con- fident that they will carry out the plans that have been outlined. 2. The decisive part in carrying out these creative plans will be played by Soviet men and women. Their loyalty to the cause of communism, their will to work, their ability to translate into reality the great outlines drawn by the Communist Party are the foundation for our victories. In the Soviet Union the well-spring of the people's talents is inexhaustible. Ever new millions of builders of communism are joining the ranks of the conscious and energetic workers of Soviet society. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin taught us that for the Communist Party and the Soviet state the upbringing and education of the younger generation and the training of highly qualified personnel for all branches of the economy, science and culture must always be the object of special concern. The Soviet school system has pre- pared millions of educated and cultured citizens, playing an active part in socia- list construction. It has created remark- able forces of outstanding scientists, engineers and designers, whose search- ings and whose creative work are em- bodied in such historic scientific and technical victories as the artificial earth satellites, atomic power stations, the atomic icebreaker and high-speed jet 3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 airliners. But Soviet people must not rest on their oars. Life itself is setting the school new tasks. Our systems of general and higher education arc lagging behind the demands made by the build- ing of communism and suffer from serious shortcomings. The most serious of these is that instruction is to some ex- tent divorced from life. This shortcom- ing in the educational system is all the more intolerable at the present stage in building communism. "Every boy and every girl," said Comrade Khrushchov, speaking at the 13th Congress of the Young Communist League, "should know that in studying at school they must prepare themselves for work, for creating values that arc useful to man, to society. Everyone, regardless of the position occupied by his parents, must have only one road? to study and, having acquired know- ledge, to work." It is necessary to reorganise the edu- cational system so that the secondary and higher educational establishments play a more active part in all the creative endeavours of the Soviet people. The paths to be followed in this reorganisa- tion are outlined in the memorandum of Comrade N. S. Khrushchov, first secre- tary of the central committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, on "Strengthening the Tics of the School with Life, and Further Develop- ing the System of Public Education" The proposals made in that memo- randum have been approved by the presidium of the central committee of the C.P.S.U. and arc warmly supported by the Soviet public, which regards the reorganisation of the school system as an urgent task. These proposals arc aimed at raising to a still higher level the communist education of the younger generation and the training of personnel for all branches of the economy, science and culture. THE SCHOOL AND THE BUILDINQ OF COMMUNISM 3. The Communist transformation of society is inseparably bound up with the education of the new man, in whom spiritual wealth, high ethical standards and perfect physical fitness must be harmoniously combined. The man of the communist future will be free from the mean characteristics bred by a system of exploitation: the selfishness of private ownership, the desire to live at the expense of other people's labour, philistinism, individualism, etc. One of the principal evils of the old society was the great gulf between manual and mental labour. The separa- tion of manual work from mental work took place with the appearance of pri- vate ownership of the means of produc- tion and the division of society into hostile, antagonistic classes. The growth of the contradictions of capitalism has increased still more the contrast between mental and manual labour Marxist teaching has exploded the bour- geois legend that there must inevitably exist for ever, on the one hand, a drab 4 mass of people, doomed to a subordinate position and arduous physical toil, and, on the other hand, a small group of people, allegedly predestined by nature to think, to rule and to develop science, literature and the arts. The experience of the Soviet Union, the experience of the Chinese people and of the peoples of the other socialist countries has shown in a conclusive way that the working men and women, on ridding themselves of the fetters of exploitation, irrespective of racial, national or other distinctions, administer the state, not worse, but better than the exploiters, and are developing the economy, science, liter- ature and the arts at an unprecendented pace. 4. The divorce of mental labour from manual labour and the conversion of mental endeavour into a monoply of the ruling classes have done tremendous harm to the intellectual development of mankind. For centuries culture was for- bidden fruit for the millions of ordinary people. For centuries the old society organised the school system in such a way that it was, in fact, out of reach of the masses of working people and served the interests of the exploiters. The development of all aspects, not only of production, but also of the spiritual activity of the broadest masses of work- ing people is being accelerated on a gigantic scale in socialist society, where the essential distinctions between manual and mental work arc gradually being obliterated and their unity is being established. The socialist state is organ- ising its school system so that it will serve the people, give knowledge to the working people and promote the devel- opment of all the people's talents. The Soviet school is bringing up the rising generation in the spirit of the most pro- gressive ideas -the ideas of communism and is shaping in the minds of the oung people a materialist world out- look, the basis of genuinely scientific cognition of the world. Socialism has opened up boundless scope for the growth of the material and spiritual wealth of society, for the all-round development of the personality In socialist society all the achievements of world culture become the possession of the masses. 5. Thanks to the establishment of the socialist system, work in our country has been transformed from the heavy burden it is under capitalism into a matter of honour and civic duty for everyone. Socialist society, of course, applies the principle. " From each according to his ability, to each according to his work " But this principle is not eternal. In communist society another principle will prevail ? " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." This naturally does not mean that under communism there will be a lordly life in which lazi- ness and idleness reign supreme. In the communist future people will lead inter- esting, creative, industrious and cultured lives. Work will become the prime vital necessity of man At the same time people will have much more time to devote to science, literature, music, painting, sports and other things they like Marx wrote that in communist 5 society " the development of the pro- ductive forces will advance so rapidly that although production will be designed to provide riches for all, nevertheless the free time of all will increase." What Marx foretold with such great foresight is coming true. The productive forces of Soviet society have developed to such an extent as to place on the agenda the question of shortening work- ing time and increasing free time. The transition to a seven-hour working day. and in some branches of industry to a six-hour day, is gradually being carried out in the U.S.S.R Together with the further development of the productive forces and the increase in the social wealth of the Soviet Union, the free time of the working people will steadily in- crease This means that all Soviet men and women will have ever greater oppor- tunities for combining work with study, [cm broadening their horizon and satisfy- ing their intellectual requirements, which arc increasing all the more rapidly the nearer we draw to communism Proceeding from the Leninist premise that communism means, in the first place, a higher productivity of labour than under capitalism, the working people, both in industry and agriculture, must introduce the most efficient methods and the latest achievements of science and technology. Accelerated development of mechanisation and automation and the application of chemical processes in pro- duction, the introduction of electronics and computers on a wide scale, the maximum development of electrification and other highly efficient methods arc radically changing the nature of work The labour of workers and collective farmers is drawing ever nearer in essence to the work of technicians, engineers, agronomists and other agricultural specialists. What is now being required of the workers is the ability to operate improved machine tools and the finest precision instruments and devices for measurement and control, and an under- standing of intricate technical calcula- tions and blueprints. The immediate and long-term prospects for the Soviet Union's technical and economic develop- ment are thus making ever greater Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 demands on all the working people of our society. An all-round education is becoming a vital necessity for them It is a very great nustakc to assert that with the automation of production manual labour will disappear in com- munist society. It goes without saying that gigantic technical progress will immeasurably lighten manual labour, and many trades that exhaust people arc disappearing and will disappear in the future. Yet the harmonious develop- ment of man is inconceivable without manual work?creative and joyous? which strengthens the organism and stimulates its vital functions. "Just as in nature itself the head and the arms belong to one and the same organism, so is mental and manual labour also combined in the process of work," wrote Karl Marx. The new generations of builders of communist society, par- ticipating in socially useful activities, must join in manual work within their powers and in the most vaned forms. 6. The idea of combining instruction with productive work has attracted the best minds of mankind for a long time. Already the utopian socialists Campan- ella, Fourier and Owen, and the great Russian revolutionary democrat Cherny- shcvsky, in describing the society of the future, said that under socialism instruc- tion would be closely linked with pro- ductive work The great thinkers Marx, Engels and Lenin placed the idea of combining instruction with productive work on the realistic foundation of the proletarian struggle for socialism and communism and organically linked it with the polytechniad training of the youth in socialist society Marx wrote that in bringing up children it was necessary, from a certain age, to com- bine productive work with instruction and gymnastics. This " will be not only a method of increasing social production, but also the only method of bringing up people of all-round development." Engels stressed that "in socialist society work and education will be combined and in this way the rising generation will be assured an all-round technical educa- tion as well as a practical foundation for scientific upbringing." Already before 6 the October Rcvoluton Lenin planned the bringing up of children and the youth in socialist society on the basis of combining instruction with productive work. 7. The experience of the Soviet school confirms the scientific foresight of Marx, Engels and Lenin. In his historic speech at the Third Congress of the Young Communist League, Lenin explained that the younger generation must learn to build communism, closely linking up each step in their training, upbringing and education with the struggle of the working people against the old, exploit- ing society. The young people must not confine themselves to the schools but must combine all their learning and education with the labour of the workers and peasants. "Only in labour together with the workers and peasants is it possible to become a real communist," Lenin pointed out. Giving concrete ex- pression to this proposition, he said that the young people must link up their studies with work, with the struggle to reconstruct industry and agriculture on the basis of electrification, with the struggle for culture and the education of the people. The principle of combin- ing instruction with productive work has been formulated in major documents of the Communist Party. 8. A genuine cultural revolution has been accomplished in the U.S.S.R. The Soviet school system has played a deci- sive part in this revolution and has facilitated the advance of the culture of all the peoples in our multi-national homeland The Soviet Union today has no backward national "borderlands," as was the case in tsarist Russia. All the peoples in the Soviet Union have schools where their children arc taught in their native language. The well-springs of education and culture are freely available to all, illiteracy has been eradicated, universal seven-year education has been accomplished and secondary and higher education have been extensively developed. More than 50 million people arc now studying in the U.S.S.R. Whereas in Russia before the Revo- lution, a total of 9,650,000 pupils were attending elementary and secondary schools in 1914, in the 1957-58 school year which has ended there were 28,700,000 pupils in our general educa- tional schools and, if schools for adults are included, the figure was 30,600,000. During this penod the number of pupils in the senior forms of secondary schools increased nearly 40 times over. In 1958 alone 1,600,000 boys and girls completed their studies at secondary schools pro- viding a general education and at schools for young workers and peasants. Particularly great succcssses in public education have been achieved in Union republics whose population was almost completely illiterate in the past. For example, more than 1,340,000 pupils are now attending schools in the Uzbek Republic, whereas in 1914 there were only a little more than 17,000 school children on the territory of what is now Uzbekistan More than four million students are now studying at higher educational establishments and specialised secondary schools, as against 182,000 in 1913 The universities and colleges of the U.S.S.R. have nearly four times as many students as such big European capitalist countries as Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy combined, whose population is nearly 200 million. i.e., almost as large as that of the U.S.S.R. About 7,500,000 people with a higher or specialised secondary education are now working in our country's national economy, while in 1913 there were fewer than 200,000 specialists of this kind. The Soviet Union has advanced to one of the first places in the world in the development of science and tech- nology and has surpassed all countries in the scale and quality of the training of specialists. When the first Soviet arti- ficial earth satellite was hurled into the boundless expanses of outer space, many sober-minded and thinking people in the capitalist world recognised that the exten- sive development and high level achieved by secondary and higher education in the U.S.S.R. was the primary reason which bad determined that brilliant vic- tory of Sovct science and technology. The American press wrote with alarm about how much time and attention is being given to the study of mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology in the Soviet secondary school as compared with United States schools. The United States of America, whose leading circles used to pride themselves on being, so they claimed, in the lead, now declare that the United States must overtake the Soviet Union in the training of specialists. This is an achievement of which we can- not fail to be proud. A splendid generation of young people who arc devoting all their knowledge, energies, abilities and talents to building communism, has been brought up in Soviet society. The high moral qualities of the Soviet youth have been manifested in a striking way at the labour fronts in building socialism during the first live-year plans, in the Great Patriotic War, in the heroic feats performed in cultivating virgin and long-fallow lands, in the construction of big power stations, mines and blast furnaces, in the con- struction of new industrial centres in the East and North of our country, and in many other feats of labour in our day. 9. The progressive development of the productive forces in the proems of build- ing communist society, the perfecting of socialist relations in society and the further development of Soviet democracy arc creating favourable conditions for posing new tasks of the communist up- bringing and education of our young people and for successfully carrying them out. It was pointed out at the 20th Con- gress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that a big shortcoming of our school system is that instruction is to some extent divorced from life and that when they leave school, young people are not sufficiently prepared for practical work. "To strengthen their tics with life the schools must not only introduce new subjects which teach the pupils the fun- damentals of technology and production, but must also systematically accustom the pupils to working in factories, collec- tive and state farms, experimental plots and school workshops," it was stated in 7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the report of the central committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to the congress. "The secondary school curriculum should be revised to include greater production specalisation, so that boys and girls who complete their studies at a ten-year school have a good general education, opening the way to a higher education, and are, at the same time, prepared for practical activity, since the greater part of those leaving school will immediately begin working in various branches of the national economy" Since the congress a certain amount of work has been done to bring the school closer to life. The first experiences in combining instruction with productive work, already accumulated in a number of schools in the R.S.F.S.R , the Ukraine and other Union republics, are undoubt- edly valuable and promising. A remark- able example of initiative in forming teams of pupils on collective farms has, for instance, originated in the Stavropol Territory. These teams arc made up of pupils of the 8th and 9th forms. The collective farms allocate definite areas of land to the teams. The pupils do a whole range of jobs in agriculture which are within their powers and fit in with the school curriculum. These jobs arc not done to the detriment of the curriculum. In the winter and sprang definite hours are assigned to work and in the summer the pupils arc mainly engaged in working on the collective farm The boys and girls are brought up to work, are be- coming accustomed to discipline and arc preparing to be good agriculturists. A profound study of the experience accumulated by a number of schools which arc combining instruction with production and work will help to reorg- anise the educational system Yet in the overwhelming majority of secondary and higher educational estab- THE SECOND to. The educational system now exist- ing in the U.S.S.R was created more than 20 years ago. In the 'thirties, in the period of socialist reconstruction of the economy, the school was set the task of lishmcnts the situation has remained practically unchanged and the ties of the schools with life, as in the past, are completely inadequate. That is why the central committee of the party and the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers consider it necessary to examine in all its scope the question of practical measures to streng- then the ties of the schools with life and further to develop education in the country. "The system of bringing up our ris- ing generation in the schools must be reorganised drastically," it is stated in Comrade Khrushchov's memorandum on strengthening the ties of the school with life. " The most important thing here is to issue a slogan, and make this slogan sacred for all children entering school. namely, that all children must prepare for useful work, for taking part in building communist society. And any work at a factory, a collective farm, an industrial establishment, a state farm, a machine and tractor station, a repair and service station, or in an office?any honest, useful work for society?is sacred work and necessary for every person who fives in and enjoys the benefits of society. Every person living in com- munist society must contribute by his work to the construction and further development of this society. The main task of our schools must become that of preparing our younger generation for life, for useful work, and of inculcating in our youth a deep respect for the principles of socialist society." The Soviet school is called upon to prepare people with an all-round educa- tion who have a good knowledge of the fundamentals of science and, at the same time, are capable of systematic manual work, and to foster in the young people a desire to be useful to society and to take an active part in the production of the values which society needs. ARY SCHOOL preparing well-educated people, with a good knowledge of the fundamentals of science, for the higher educational estab- lishments. The school concentrated its main attention on giving the pupils the 8 general educational grounding necessary for entering a university or institute. This led to one-sidedness and a certain abstract quality in the teaching provided for the young people, to the divorcement of the school from life, which made for serious shortcomings in educational work as well The school limited itself primarily to verbal methods of instruction and did not pay the necessary attention to accus- toming the children and young people to take part in socially useful work within their powers. As a result of this, many boys and girls who have completed their studies at secondary schools consider that the only road in life suitable for them is to continue their education in a higher educational establishment or, if the worst comes to the worst, in a specialised secondary educational establishment , they go unwillingly to work in factories, mills, collective farms and state farms, while some of them consider it degrading to do manual work Yet the continuous expansion of secondary education naturally leads to a situation in which the overwhelming majority of the young people who leave school must go straight to productive work At the same time, technical progress demands the replenish- ment of industry and agriculture with young people who have a sufficiently high general educational grounding. In present conditions the higher educa- tional establishments annually enrol about 450,000 people, including those who study at evening classes or through corre- spondence courses. Between 1954 and 1957 more than two and a half million people from among those who completed their studies at secondary schools did not enter higher educational establishments or specialised secondary schools. In view of the fact that the curriculums of the secondary schools arc divorced from life, many young people have no work skills and arc not familiar with production, which creates serious difficulties in placing them in jobs and gives rise to dissatisfac- tion among a considerable section of the young people and their parents. All this has created an imperative need 9 for reorganising the work of the schools. 11. The initial starting point for a proper solution to the problem of re- organising the school system is first of all the premise that from a certain age all young people should join in socially use- ful work and that their instniction in the fundamentals of science should be linked with productive work in industry or agriculture. From this there follows the need for properly correlating, in the secondary school, the general, poly- technical and vocational education, based on a rational combination of work and instruction, with rest and leisure and the normal physical development of children and young people. Thus, the key principle in teaching the fundamentals of science at school? the principle which determines the con- tcnt, organisation and methods of instruction- must become the close link- ing of instruction with life, with produc- tion, with the practical work of building communism Instruction must psycholo- gically prepare the children from their very first years. so that they will in the future take part in socially useful activities, in work The education and upbringing of the younger generation on the basis of link- ing up instruction with life and with won( that is within their powers, must be organised in such n way that the age of the school children is taken into account It is desirable for all young people to be drawn into socially useful work from the age of 15 or 16 It is therefore necessary to divide secondary education into two stages. 12. The first stage of secondary education must be the compulsory eight- year school, set up in place of the seven- year school that exists at present. The compulsory eight-year school will be considerable step forward in developing education, as compared with the seven- year school The young people who com- plete their studies at an eight-year school will have a greater general knowledge and. both psychologically and practically, will be better prepared for taking part in socially useful activities. Such a school Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 will solve the problems of communist education and of labour and polytechnical instruction more successfully; it will pro- vide the pupils with a wider range of knowledge, and will make it possible to eliminate the overloading of the pupils with studies that has existed in the seven- year school, and to organise in a snore thorough way the physical training of children and the development of good artistic taste. The specific features of woman's work should be taken into account in the work training given to girl pupils in the eight-year school. In the process of instruction and upbringing the school is called upon to familiarise the pupils with the varied forms of work in our society and to help them to discover their particular bent and make a conscious choice of their future occupation. The eight-year school will be an incomplete secondary labour polytech- nical school providing a general educa- tion. Primary schools consisting of the first four forms should be preserved in small communities. When they have been through the fourth form at these schools the pupils will enter the fifth form at the nearest school. On leaving the eight-year school, all young people must join in socially useful work at industrial establishments, collec- tive farms, etc. This will create more equal conditions for all citizens as regards work and education, and it will be a good means of bringing up young people in the spirit of the heroic traditions of the working class and the collective-farm peasantry. 13. Young people will receive a complete secondary education during the second stage of instruction. A secondary education can be completed on the basis of combining studies with productive work in the following ways. The first and main way is for young people, who upon finishing at the eight- year school go to work, first of all to receive initial vocational training and then, while working in production, to study at schools for young workers and peasants. These schools should give their pupils a 10 complete secondary education and help to increase their vocational skill. The second way is for young people who have completed their studies at the eight-year school, to be taught at a secondary labour polytechnical school providing a general education together with production training (of the type of factory or agricultural vocational schools) which, on the basis of nearby industrial establishments, collective farms, state farms, repair and service stations, etc., will combine instruction with productive work and give the pupils a complete secondary education and vocational train- ing for work in a branch of the economy or culture. The third way is to teach a section of the young people in specialised secon- dary schools which will function with the eight-year school as a basis, and at which the pupils will obtain a complete secondary education, a speciality and the status of specialists with medium quali- fications. The new system of education will en- able every boy and girl to prepare for life better, to have a definite trade and to choose the way of obtaining a complete secondary education that suits them best. 14. The purpose of the secondary schools for young ikorkers and peasants is to enable young men and women working in production or in offices to obtain a complete secondary education. These can be shift, evening, seasonal (in rural localities) or correspondence schools. It is necessary to create condi- tions which will ensure that the working youth are brought into these schools, that they study in a normal way, and that there is a decided improvement in the quality of the instruction given. For those who study successfully while work- ing, it is desirable to institute a shorter working day or to release them from work for two or three days a week. The pupils of these schools must be given the opportunity, not only to re- ceive a complete secondary education, but also to improve and deepen their vocational training. The period of study at schools for young workers and peasants should be three years. It is necessary to provide encouragement in every way for the working youth to obtain a secondary education and to en- courage the passing of secondary school examinations without compulsory attend- ance at classes. In raising the trade rating of young workers and collective farmers and in giving them promotion at work, it is desirable to take into account successful studies at school and a favourable assessment of social and production activities. In view of the fact that a certain num- ber of the working youth do not have a seven-year education, schools for young workers and peasants can con- tinue for a certain time to have all forms, beginning with the third. In case of necessity these schools can also arrange classes for adults. Youths and girls who complete their studies at schools for young workers and peasants will receive a certificate of secondary education and will have the right to enter a higher educational establishment IS. Secondary labour poly technical schools providing a general education together with production training (of the type of factory or agricultural voca- ional schools) are to be set up in towns and rural localities and will have a three-year period of study They will combine general polytechnical and voca- tional education. In production training the correlation of theory and practice and the periods of instruction and work will be fixed in accordance with the nature of the special training being given to the pupils and with the local con- ditions. In schools in the countryside the school year should be arranged so that the seasonal nature of agricultural work is taken into account. Production training and socially use- ful work can be carried on in the train- ing and production shops of industrial establishments, in teams of pupils on collective and state farms, on training and experimental farms, and at the training and production workshops of a school or group of schools. Those who complete their studies at secondary labour polytechnical schools will receive a certificate of secondary education and a diploma giving them a rating in the trade they have chosen, and they will have the right to enter a higher educational establishment. Secon- dary schools can be set up either separ- ately from an eight-year school or to- gether with it. 16. A new type of institution for the education and upbringing of children has been established and is being ever moro extensively developed in the Soviet Union?the boarding school, where the best conditions arc provided for the education and communist upbringing of the younger generation In accordance with the reorganisation of the system of secondary education, the boarding schools may be either eight-year or 11- year schools, depending on local con- ditions. They should follow the curri- culums and syllabuses of the eight-year and secondary labour polytechnical schools giving production training. The boarding schools arc to set examples of a really efficient combination of educa- tional instruction and productive labour. 17. Besides the aforementioned schools for the second stage of secondary educa- tion, it is desirable to retain schools for children showing superior abilities in music, choreography and the fine arts. When necessary, these schools are to provide facilities for children living out of town and children from large families to attend them as boarders. The parents' contribution to the upkeep of their chil- dren should be fixed on the same prin- ciples as at boarding schools. The schools for children and young people with superior abilities in the arts will give their pupils a general secondary education, work training, and special training in some field of art. On completing their studies at these schools pupils can go direct to appro- priate higher educational establishments. The schools and public education authorities must pay more attention to developing the abilities and inclinations 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 of all children, both in the arts and in mathematics, physics, biology and other sciences. Circles, studios and special lecture bureaus should be organised on a wide scale at higher educational estab- lishments and schools; societies of young mathematicians, physicists, chemists. naturalists and engineers should be formed; gifted young people should be discovered and their talents should be carefully fostered. Thought should be given to the question of establishing special schools for young people with a particular inclination and aptitude for mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. It goes without saying that such schools, when organised, may admit youths and girls who have been recommended by their school's teaching board and who have passed a special examination. 18. The schools for the second stage in secondary education should provide a higher level of general and polytech- meal education than is now established for the 10-year schools. Special atten- tion should be paid to teaching physics, mathematics, chemistry, draughtsman- ship and biology The study of foreign languages must be fundamentally im- proved at all schools throughout the country; the network of schools in which a number of subjects arc taught in foreign languages should be expanded. The reorganisation of the schools should by no means result in a reduction or weakening of education in the humanities, which is of great importance for the formation of the pupils' com- munist world outlook It is necessary to do away with the underestimation of physical training and aesthetic education for school children The various forms of independent youth activity in the technical field, in the arts, natural sciences, physical culture, sport and tourism, should be developed still more widely. The reorganisation of school educa- tion will call for a change, not only in the content, but also in the methods of teaching, with a view to the maxi- mum development of the independence and initiative of the pupils. Visual 12 methods of instruction should be applied more extensively; the cinema, television, etc., should be widely used; ab- stract teaching of the fundamentals of science and production must be done away with. It is particularly important to promote on a wide scale in the schools technical inventions and work by the pupils to make new instruments, models and technical devices; experi- mental agricultural work should also be encouraged. 19. Instruction in the native language has been effected in Soviet schools. This is one of the important gains of the Leninist national policy At the same time, the Russian language, which is a mighty medium for intercourse between nations, for strengthening the friendship between the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and for giving them access to the wealth of Russian and world culture, is being seriously studied in the schools of the Union and autonomous republics. One cannot, however, ignore the fact that children are greatly overloaded in studying languages at the schools of the Union and autonomous republics. Indeed, at the national schools children study three languages?their native tongue, Russian and one foreign language Consideration should be given to the question of allowing parents to have the right to decide to which school (as regards the language in which instruc- tion is given) they will send their children. If a child attends a school in which instruction is given in the language of one of the Union or auto- nomous republics, he may study Russian as an optional subject. And, conversely, if a child attends a Russian school he may study the language of one of the Union or autonomous republics as an optional subject It goes without saying that this can only be done when there is the necessary number of children for making up classes in which instruction is given in this or that language. Giving parents the right to decide which language their child will study compulsorily is the most democratic way of approaching the question; it will eliminate any bureaucratic approach to IJ this important matter and will make it possible to eliminate the excessive over- burdening of school children in studying languages. Permission should be given not to include a foreign language among the compulsory subjects at those schools which do not have the proper condi- tions for this. 20. A big improvement is needed in the way in which the upbringing of children in the schools is organised. The upbringing must inculcate in the school children a love of knowledge and of work, and respect for people who work; it must shape the communist world out- look of the pupils and must rear them in the spirit of communist morality and of boundless loyalty to the country and the people, and in the spirit of prole- tarian internationalism. It is necessary to intensify the work of the teachers, parents and public organi- sations in cultivating in the pupils habits of good bchavour at school, at home, in the street and in other public places, and with this in view educational propaganda among the broad sections of the popula- tion should be considerably improved, and the responsibility of parents and all adults to society for the upbringing of children should be heightened. In this matter the schools and the families must be given every assistance by the party, trade union, Young Communist League and other public organisations. The Soviet schools are called upon to pro- mote actively a higher cultural standard for the entire people. The public education and public health authorities must strictly super- vise the correct sequence of the pupils' work and recreation, must not allow them to be overburdened with studies. social activities and work training, and must take the necessary measures for the further improvement of the health of school children. 21. The reorganisation of the system of public education poses in a new way the question of the work of the Young Pioneer p.nd Young Communist League organisations in the schools. The eight- year schools will be attended by children of Young Pioneer age. This will enhance the role of the Young Pioneer organisa- 13 tions in these schools. In the schools for the second stage there may be either a Y.C.L. organisation of the school itself, or a joint Y.C.L. organisation of the school and the corresponding production establishment All this will call for substantial changes in the work of the Young Pioneer and Y.0 L. organisations of the schools and in the guidance given them by Y.C.L. and party bodies. 22. An end must be put to the big shortcomings an implementing universal compulsory education of children It is desirable to establish by law in all the Union republics compulsory eight-year education, providing for the strict respon- sibility of the parents, or persons taking their place, for the education of the children. The local government bodies must be made responsible for ensuring that all children and young people from the age of seven to 16 attend the eight- year schools. The Central Statistical Board of the U.S.S.R and its local bodies are in duty bound to keep a better record of children and young people of school age. With a view to implementing com- pulsory eight-year education it is neces- sary to ensure the building of a sufficient number of schools and accommodation for boarders at schools, both with budget funds and with funds from the collective farms and co-operative organisations; to bring about a considerable increase in the number of "after-school-hours groups" in the schools for children whose parents arc ssorking , to arrange for hot meals for the pupils at school, and to establish a general education fund for material assistance to children in need (free meals and free footwear, clothing, textbooks. etc ), both from budget resources and from the resources of the collective farms, co-operative organisations and the trade unions. 23. The reorganisation of upbringing and education in the Soviet schools makes new and greater demands of the teachers the foremen, and instructors in vocational subjects. In Soviet times the number of teachers in the country has increased from 280,000 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 in 1914 to nearly tv.o million at the present time. This is an immense cultural force, which Lenin spoke of with respect as the army of socialist education. Many teachers who have a good mastery of educational science are working in the schools of the U.S.S.R. At the same time the education and upbonging of children is at times entrusted to persons who are not sufficiently trained for this or who, owing to the way they do their work and their moral characteristics, are unsuited to the requirements of teaching. There are not enough qualified instruc- tors in polytechnical subjects (machine operation, the fundamentals of agricul- ture, practical instruction at workshops). The teachers' qualifications are being improved in a one-sided way, primarily with regard to methods of teaching. Teachers arc not sufficiently acquainted with the latest achievements of science, culture and technology There is an excessive regimentation of the work of teachers and teaching staffs as regards the choice of forms and methods of educa- tion and upbringing. In a number of places insufficient concern is shown for the material standards of teachers. Measures should be taken to improve the working and living conditions of teachers and to raise their ideological and theoretical level and professional quali- fications. With a view to improving the qualita- tive composition of teaching staffs and instituting a proper procedure in the appointment and transfer of teaching staff, teachers who do not have the neces- sary education should pass qualification tests. 24. The science of education has a great part to play in reorganising the schools. Yet up to the present it has failed to tackle many fundamental prob- lems of upbringing and education that are posed by life itself It is the duty of the science of education to take a leading part in the reoeganisation of the public education system. Elaboration of the scientific fundamentals of the content of school education (curriculums, syllabuses, textbooks), and improvement in the methods of education and communist 14 upbringing of the young people must become an important feature of the activity of pedagogical scientific institu- tions. With a view to raising the level of teaching, it is necessary to develop educational research in the Union repub- lics on a still wider scale, to strengthen the bonds between teachers' training institutes and to increase the mutual exchange of the results of their research The Academy of Educational Sciences of the R.S.F.S.R must pay more attention to working out the theory of Soviet educa- tional science, to questions of poly- technical and vocational training in the schools, and to making valuable exper- ience generally known. 25. The reorganisation of the system of public education must be carried through in a planned and organised manner, taking every account of distinc- tive local features and preventing by every means any worsening of the school service for the population. Attention should be paid to the need for further increasing the number of girls of the indigenous nationalities in the upper forms of the schools in the Union and autonomous republics of the East. A plan for changing over to the new system of school education should be drawn up in each Union republic. applicable to the specific economic and cultural development of the republic. The change-over of the schools from seven-year to eight-year compulsory education and the organisation of the various second-stage schools should begin as from the school year of 1959-60 and be completed within four or five years. Pupils now in the 8th. 9th and 10th forms shall be allowed to complete their secondary school studies under the exist- ing curriculums and syllabuses, but their work training should be improved. The plans for reorganising the second- ary schools must make provision for supplying the higher educational estab- lishments with a sufficient number of pupils leaving secondary schools, since the national economy cannot have any interruption in the reinforcements of young specialists with the highest quali- fications. With this in view, each Union republic, when necessary, should retain for the transitional period (about four to five years) a certain number of the present secondary schools. The reorganisation of the schools will require extensive work by the central committees of the Communist Parties, the Councils of Ministers and the Ministries of Education of the Union republics, and by the local party and government bodies, in order to improve the material facilities of the schools, to abolish the practice of having more than one shift in schools, to organise production training. to place young people leaving school in jobs without delay and to draw up syllabuses for textbooks, and prepare methodological aids. VOCATIONAL 26. In connection with the reorganis- ation of general education, vocational training for young people assumes parti- cularly great importance. Its task is to train in a planned and organised way- - for all branches of the national economy ?cultured, technically-skilled and quali- fied industrial workers and workers in agriculture. Inadequate vocational training of a section of the workers is already hold- ing up the growth of production in some cases. Further technical progress will demand still higher qualifications of the entire basic mass of the workers. Vocational training should develop in close contact with the new plans that have been drawn up by the Communist Party to promote the advance of the national economy of the U S.S.R 27. The present Labour Reserves factory, trade, railway, mining and build- ing schools and the vocational and fac- tory schools of the economic councils and departments are lagging behind the increased requirements of industrial and agricultural production. They should be reorganised into day and evening special- ised urban vocational schools, with a course of training lasting from one to Each Union republic should bc given the right to decide independently, taking Into consideration the local conditions, questions concerning the time classes begin and end, holidays, and the organi- sation of the pupils' work in industrial and agricultural production. The further advancement of the educa- tion of the working people of all the nationalities of the Soviet Union is regarded by the Communist Party as an important task. The party and the state should take the maximum care to ensure that all men and women workers and collective farmers have a secondary education, regarding this as a pre- requisite for the continuous rise of the productivity of labour, and, consequently, as a major prerequisite for successfully building communism EDUCATION three years, and agricultural vocational schools with a course lasting from one to two years. The length of the course in these schools is to be fixed in accord- ance with the complexity of the trade they teach. The urban vocational schools are to specialise in particular branches of pro- duction and arc to train qualified work- ers for industrial, building, transport and communications enterprises, for public utilities, and for trading, cultural and public service establishments. The rural vocational schools should train qualified argicultural mechanics and builders, and other responsible workers necessary for the farms. Special attention should be paid to drawing girls into the vocational schools. and not only for public services, retail trade and other specialities, but also for occupations in industrial production (instrument-making, radio electronics, electrical engineering, textiles, clothing and knitwear, etc). On the basis of a knowledge of the fundamentals of science, the polytech- meal training and work skills acquired by the pupils at the eight-year schools, the vocational schools should give their 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 students additional knowledge in general educational subjects. The number of vocational schools should increase in accordance with the need of the national economy for these schools. Some of the existing Labour Reserves schools should be retained for a period of from three to five years, so that the young people who will complete their studies at 10-year general educa- tional schools during these years may have the opportunity to enter technical schools; and young people who, for some reason, do not complete their studies at the schools, will be able to enter trade, building, railway and mining schools, factory trade schools and agri- cultural mechanisation schools. 28. The vocational schools should have the instructional workshops neces- sary for mastering the fundamentals of vocational skills, and laboratories fitted out with the appropriate production training equipment and staffed by quali- fied production training foremen and engineering instructors entirely engaged in the teaching and training of the The educational process at these schools is to be based on the active and systematic participation of young people in productive labour and is to be sub- ordinated to the task of training workers of particular trades. The organic linking of production training with broad tech- nical education and the combination of training in workshops and at enterprises will make it possible in these schools to train technically-educated workers with a wide range of knowledge and high qualifications. The vocational schools are to carry out their work of education and training in close contact with enterprises, construction projects, state farms and col- lective farms, which are in duty bound to provide work places for the production practice of the pupils and to take care to provide conditions enabling the young people to study successfully and master new techniques, advanced technology and highly productive methods of work The economic councils must give every 16 assistance to improve the vocational training of the youth. An all-important task of the vocational schools is the communist education of the pupils, developing them ideologically. and inculcating in them a communist attitude towards work. The Y.0 L. is to play a big part in the communist educa- tion of the pupils of vocational schools 29. In order that the vocational schools may gradually begin partially to pay their way, measures should be worked out and consistently implemented to extend and increase the incomes which the schools derive from their pro- duction activity. In view of the improvement in the material security of the working people. it is desirable, in order to increase the pupils' incentives to obtain a better mastery of their trade, to change the existing conditions concerning material provision for the pupils, by introducing apprenticeship wages instead of free clothing and meals. Full state maintenance should be re- tained for pupils who are orphans and pupils who come from children's homes or large families. The collective farms should be recom- mended to consider the question of allo- cating appropriate funds for the training of young people from collective farms at vocational schools. 30. The reorganisation of the system of vocational education presents new and higher demands with regard to the level of technical, ideological, political and teachers' training for the foremen responsible for production training and teachers in the vocational schools. The development of the network of these schools will call for more foremen and teachers. It is therefore necessary to pay more attention to training them at specialised secondary schools and higher educational establishments. The quality of textbooks and visual aids should be improved and more should be produced; the production of technical education films and popular science films should be extended, and wide use should be made of radio and television in vocational training 31. The U.S.S.R State Planning Com- nuttce, the U.S.S.R. Council of Minis- ters' Central Board of Labour Reserves, the Councils of Ministers of the Union republics and the Ministries of Educa- tion should draw up long-term plans for the vocational training and employment of young people leavin the eight-ear general educational schools, the secon- dary schools giving training in produc- tion and the vocational schools; they should make provision for reserved places to be established at enterprises so that the young people can be given jobs, and they should also provide for the SPECIALISED SECON 33. Persons with a specialised secon- dary education have an important place in industnal and agricultural produc- tion and at cultural, educational and public health institutions. Technicians play a decisive part as organisers of production. It is they?the technicians ?who directly organise production, and special attention should therefore be paid to their training. The interests of modern production, which is based on the latest achieve- ments of science and technology, re- quire of those trained at specialised secondary schools a good knowledge of practical work as well as a high level of theoretical training Yet the quality of training at these schools still fails to meet the requirements of life The students of specialised secondary schools and other specialised schools do not play a sufficient part in productive labour and do not acquire adequate pro- duction skill for practical work The system of specialised secondary educa- tion must be improved. 34. The system of specialised secon- dary education should be based both on the eight-year polytechnical schools and on the complete secondary schools The training of specialists at special- ised secondary schools should be more dosely linked uith socially useful strict observance of labour protection and safety regulations. 32. 11.-sides the development of voca- tional schools, it is necessary to =prose the training of new cadres of workers, either individually or in teams, and through the system of short courses at enterprises. Here production training should be carried out on the basis of plans and programnus uniform for each trade and concretely developed on the spot in relation to the specific features of the particular enterprise. When necessary, theoretical training should be given at the nearest vocational schools. DARY EDUCATION labour Depending on the branch of the national economy for which special- ists are being trained and on the work- ing conditions at the enterprises, con- struction projects and other organisa- tions, the length of the particular periods of full-time and spare-time training may vary Study at specialised secondary schools must give the pupils, in addition to a general education, (he necessary knowledge in their speciality, working skills, and a definite trade with an appropriate qualification rating. The quality of instruction at specialised secondary schools should be improved, as should the composition of their teach- ing staffs, and the teachers' qualifications should be systematically raised 35. The specialised secondary schools should be brought closer to production and should be developed, taking into consideration the requirements of the economic areas as regards personnel, and giving preference to evening arid corre- spondence education The economic councils. Ministries and departments should co-operate more widely in train- ing specialists with a secondary educa- tion, and the Union republics should make a more thorough study of (he need for such personnel and should plan their training better. It is recommended that shops be organised at specialised secondary schools for the manufacture of industrial 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 products by using the labour of the pupils. Agricultural specialised secondary schools should be organised at big farms, and all the main work must be done by the pupils themselves. In admitting students, evening and correspondence schools should give preference to persons working in trades allied to specialities they have chosen. It is advisable to organise correspond- ence education at the main, large, special- ised secondary schools which have qualified teaching staffs and the neces- sary instructional and material facilities. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS 36. The 20th Congress of the Com- munist Party of the Soviet Union has set the system of higher education, as its main task, the further improvement of the quality of the training provided for specialists on the basis of the close link- ing of instruction with practical work, with production. The new tasks of build- ing communism demand that the exist- ing serious shortcomings in the work of higher educational establishments be eliminated. Today many young people graduating from colleges have a poor knowledge of practical work and are not sufficiently trained to decide questions of modern production independently. Quite a lot of time elapses before such a specialist finds his place in the work team. The higher educational establish- ments must be brought closer to life, to production, and must have real links with it. At the same time it is also necessary to raise the theoretical level of the training provided for specialists, in keeping with the latest achievements of science. In the present conditions of building communism the higher educational establishments arc to train men and women with an all-round education, who have a thorough knowledge of their own particular field of science and technology and are active and conscious builders of communism. Special attention should be paid to a further improvement in the quality of the training given to specialists for industry and agriculture. The reorganisation of the system of higher education, the aim of which is to ensure better practical and theoretical training for specialists, should help to bring about a considerable improvement in the study of the social sciences and 18 should further the communist education of young people and the active par- ticipation of all teachers in the training of students. Taking into consideration the fact that about half of all the country's scientific personnel arc concentrated at higher educational establishments, it is neces- sary to bring about a substantial im- provement in the part played by those establishments in scientific research and to get all teachers to take an active part in this work. Higher educational institutions should primarily admit young people who have a certain record of practical work. Better conditions should be created for young workers and collective farmers to pre- pare for entering higher educational establishments. The concrete forms by which instruc- tion at higher educational establishments is combined with practice, with work, should be determined in accordance with the specialities of the particular estab- lishment, the composition of its students, and certain, specific national and local features. 37. In developing our system of higher education it is necessary to pro- ceed, in the first place, along the lines of evening and correspondence education. The system of evening and correspon- dence higher education should be extended in every way and the quality of the instruction given should be raised to a new level. The network of corres- pondence and evening colleges must be improved and reinforced, and it should be organised in such a way that evening and correspondence education, too, is based on the main large colleges having qualified professors and instructors and adequate material and technical facilities. It is desirable to transfer the instruction and consultation centres and branches of higher educational establishments to large industrial and agricultural enter- prises, which will enable the economic, party, trade union and Y.0 L. organisa- tions to supervise and help the students in their studies. Evening and corres- pondence colleges, departments and divisions, and instruction and consulta- tion centres should be staffed by very highly qualified professors and in- structors, in numbers ensuring that studies proceed in a normal way in this system. With the further advance of science and technology, there arises the need for college-trained specialists to acquire new knowledge In this connection the higher educational establishments must ensure that specialists employed in various fields of the national economy, culture and education improve their qualifica- tions in their spare time. It is necessary to improve the supply of textbooks, teaching aids, printed lectures and other literature for corres- pondence students, by providing the necessary printing and publishing facili- ties for this purpose. The book-selling organisations must establish a procedure by which a student can always acquire the literature he needs for his studies. Examinations and tests of spare-time students must be held at vanous times throughout the year The collective farms should be recom- mended to extend to those of their members who are correspondence students successfully pursuing their studies, the privileges enjoyed by corre- spondence students working at industrial enterprises. The college correspondence system must be developed in such a way that people engaged in useful work in society should be able in their spare time, if they so desire, to receive a higher education or to improve their qualifica- tions and study art, painting, music, the humanities, and so on. 38. In training engineers, there can 19 be various forms by which study is combined with work in production. At most technical colleges it is more advisable to combine study with work in production under the system of even- ing or correspondence education in the first two years. In a number of specialities, where the students first study a cycle of complex theoretical subjects and also do extensive laboratory work, it is more expedient that they should study full time for the first two or three years. After that, a year's work practice should be provided for them in staff jobs directly in pro- duction, in laboratories, or in designing bureaus. In improving the system of higher education, great attention should be paid to the training of engineers for the new branches of technology and for the fur- ther development of research and design- ing work. With the rapid development of science and technology, an acute need is arising for specialists of a new type who combine engineering knowledge with a profound theoretical training. The next few years are to sec the development on a wide scale of the train- ing of engineers in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. in automation and tele- mechanics, electronics, electrical engineer- ing and instrument making, radio electro- nics and communications, and chemical technology. The higher educational estab- lishments are to train engineers capable, not only of fully applying modern tech- niques, but also of creating the techniques of the future. In addition to a high standard of tech- nical training, our engineers must have a good knowledge of economics and of the organisation of production The production work of the students must be organised in such a way that it will help them to obtain a better mastery of their future profession. A procedure should be established at the enterprises which will enable the students to make a consistent study of the technological pro- cess of production. During their study in their spare time the students will master Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 subjects which they can tackle themselves. When perons having a sufficient work record in their chosen speciality are admitted to higher educational establish- ments, it is possible to arrange for full- time study for them At higher educa- tional establishments training engineers for branches of production that arc of a seasonal character, instruction must be so organised that studies at higher educa- tional establishments alternate with work in production, on a seasonal basis. Factory colleges at large enterprises are a good form of combining study with pro- ductive work. In particular, factory colleges can be organised on the basis of existing factory branches of the main large colleges. It is also possible to organise at higher educational establish- ments industrial enterprises and shops turning out goods, using the labour power of the students. 39. At agricultural colleges study and productive labour should be combined. taking into account the seasonal nature of production. The studies should be conducted at higher educational estab- lishments organised on the basis of big state farms possessing extensive model instructional husbandnes, good labora- tories, and all the prerequisites for practical work. The students themselves must look after the animals, repair the machines, operate thcm, and sow, culti- vate and harvest the crops. All agricul- tural specialists must receive a good training in the economics and organisa- tion of socialist agricultural production. There must be a certain amount of specialisation in the training of agricul- tural specialists in accordance with the various zones of the country The agricultural colleges must become scientific centres and must help the collec- tive and state farms to improve yields per hectare, the productivity of livestock, and the mechanisation and organisation of agricultural production. and to organise experimental work. The amalgamation of research institutes and experimental stations with agricultural colleges should he carried out on a wide scale. The colleges must carry out extensive measures an order to improve the qualifications of agricultural specialists through refresher departments and other forms in which this can be done. 40. The interests of Soviet science, technology and culture require the fur- ther development of university education. The universities train specialists for scientific research institutions and teachers for the secondary schools. In training mathematicians, physicists. biologists, philologists, specialists in mechanics, chemistry and other fields of science at universities, it is necessary to enhance the practical training of the students by longer periods of work in factory laboratories, designing bureaus. experimental agricultural stations or other scientific research establishments. University students who are going to work in the schools should be given better methodological training and practical teaching work, for which the services of the best secondary school teachers should he enlisted. In the next few years it is necessary at the universities to increase considerably the training of mathematicians, especially in the field of computing mathematics ? biologists, and, primarily, biophysicists, biochemists, physiologists and geneticists , physicists, particularly in nuclear physics and radio-physics ? and chemists special- ising in the field of chemical catalysis and high polymer substances. Computing laboratories equipped with electronic machines should be set up at the univer- sities university nuclear laboratories should be supplied with modern acceler- ators. radio-chemical and radio-biological laboratories should be established, etc. In the process of improving university education increased attention must be paid in eery way to the humanities, the importance of which is growing con- stantly. In training economists. jurists. historians, philosophers and certain other specialists in the humanities, a system of instruction should be introduced under which students who have no work record must in the first year or two study in their 20 spare time, while working in the national economy. 41. The reorganisation of the system of secondary education calls for a funda- mental improvement in the training of teachers at teachers' training institutes and universities. These higher educa- tional establishments must train teachers for the secondary schools who have a profound knowledge of their subject, possess adequate teaching experience, have a good knowledge of life, and can bring up the pupils in the spirit of boundless loyalty to the cause of com- munism. Teachers for primary schools should be trained at special departments in teachers' training institutes with a view to having all schools completely staffed with college-trained teachers in the future It is necessary to organise the training of teachers in special subjects (agronomy. animal husbandry, technology. etc.), both at teachers' training institutes and at specialised higher educational establish- ments, depending on the specific con- ditions. In the period from 1959 to 1965 a certain number of qualified engineers and agronomists should be sent to teach in the general schools, vocational schools and specialised secondary schools, pro- viding proper conditions for their training for teaching. The present system of instruction at teaching institutes should be supplemented by more extensive produc- tion work and practical work in teaching. At teachers' training institutes it is necessary to raise the scientific and theoretical level of teaching, extensively develop scientific research, set up scien- tific laboratories and increase the insti- tutes' ties with the schools and with pro- duction and scientific organisations. 42. Serious attention should be paid to raising the quality of the training for doctors. Persons who have chosen this profession have to meet a number of big demands of a special character. Even before entering a medical college every young person must show an interest in the medical profession and must have some practical experience of work at medical establishments. The rc ?rc 21 medical institutes should, in the main, select young people who have done prac- tical work as junior service personnel at medical or prophylactic institutions. The students' training must be accom- panied by continued practical work at medical and prophylactic or health and hygiene institutions. For persons having a secondary medical education and a two- year record of work in their speciality. instruction in the first two years may be organised in their spare time. In order to raise the quality of the training for doctors, it is necessary to improve the organisation of research work at medical colleges in the main fields of medical science. 43. The reorganisation of the system of public education will make it possible to pursue the only correct method of admitting students to colleges on the principle of selecting the most industrious. capable and best trained people The higher educational institutions should admit young people on a competitive basis, giving preference to those who have a record of practical work. In the selec- tion on a competitive basis it as neces- sary to consider not only the total marks received in the examinations, but, first and foremost, the ratings in subjects related to the applicant's future speciality and the recommendations of public organisations. so as to ensure that the best people are selected?people who will be able in a short time to apply effec- tively in production the knowledge they will have received. In order to achieve greater objectivity in the selection of young people for college entry, it is advisable in some cases to hold written examinations, with the candidate using a pseudonym. The heads of higher educational institu- tions. and the party, trade union and Y.C.L. organisations must carry on active work at factories, collective farms and state farms to ensure a higher intake of workers and collective farmers at the colleges. In admitting students to higher educational institutions it is necessary to consider their inclination and love for their chosen speciality, as well as the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 specific features of male and female labour. 44. A decisive prerequisite for im- proving both the practical and theoretical training of young specialists is to im- prove the composition of science teachers at higher educational establishments. Con- ditions should be provided for training highly-qualified scientific workers and teachers, able to ensure the further development of science, technology and culture, from among capable young people who are college trained and have practical experience of work. The most highly qualified engineers and technicians of enterprises, construction projects, designing bureaus and research institutes, agronomists and doctors, capable of teaching by using advanced methods of production and the latest achievements of science and technology, should be widely enlisted for teaching at higher educational establishments. Con- ditions should be worked out, enabling them to combine teaching with their basic work in production, and the terms of their remuneration at the colleges should also be determined. It is the duty of every teacher of a higher educational institution constantly to improve his scientific qualications, to take an active part in research work, and to give scientific assistance to production. It is considered expedient to establish a system under which teachers of higher educational establishments in a number of fields arc sent to do practical work in appropriate branches of the national economy for a certain period, depending on the nature of their scientific and teaching work The present system by which scientific and teaching personnel qualify should be improved, ensuring that higher demands arc made with regard to scientific works and that scientific degrees are conferred only on those who by their creative work make a definite contribution to science and practice. Professors and lecturers at higher educational establishments must in the main be elected under the competitive system, which should be substantially improved; the people who arc most capable scientifically and from the point of view of teaching must be chosen for the colleges. 45. The role of the higher educational institutions in the development of science, technology and culture is grow- ing constantly. Colleges should carry on research at a high theoretical level and of major importance for the development of the national economy, science and culture. The professors and lecturers must be more closely associated with production, must take part in working out major problems of technological progress, must more actively apply the latest achievements of science and technology in production, must systematically draw general con- clusions from the advanced experience of enterprises and popularise those con- clusions, and must carry out more profound research in the social sciences. The fact that the guidance of industry and construction has been brought nearer to the enterprises helps the colleges to tackle the most important research problems. The economic councils and the agricultural management bodies must assist the colleges in applying the results or scientific investigations and in organis- ing production experiments. It is considered advisable to merge sc me research institutes with correspond- ing higher educational establishments. Scientific work should be co-ordinated between higher educational establish- ments, the Academy of Sciences of the U S.S.R. and the Academies of Sciences of the Union republics, and the industrial zicademies, research institutes and large factory laboratories. 46. The educational importance of the higher educational institutions is great The colleges must turn out people who have mastered their speciality well, who are active and passionate champions of Lenin's ideas and the policy of the Com- munist Party, who are bold and enthu- siastic, arc profoundly convinced of the triumph of our cause. In fostering these qualities, a big part is played by studying the social sciences. Knowledge of the fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism is necessary for specialists in all fields. One must study Lenin and be able to apply his tremen- dous theoretical heritage in life, to build up life along communist lines. Marxism- Leninism must be taught in a creative, militant way. Our youth must be brought up in the spirit of irreconcil- ability to bourgeois ideology and any manifestations of revisionism. Instruction in the social sciences must be conducted so that it is inseparably linked with the study of the natural sciences, and it must help to develop in the students a scientific method of cognition. The high requirements with regard to teaching Marxist-Leninist theory in the colleges make it the duty of every teacher con- stantly and persistently to deepen his knowledge and closely link his work with practice, with current tasks. It is the job of all the professors and lecturers and of party, trade union and Y.C.L. organisations to attend to the up- bringing of the young people at higher educational institutions. It is their duty to inculcate in the students a Marxist- Leninist world outlook, a love for work, communist morality, and the habit of social activity. The colleges must imbue the students with a responsible attitude to their studies, with a creative approach to mastering the sciences, with independence in their work. They must eliminate the overloading of students with compulsory studies and must draw the senior students into scientific research work. 47. Extensive work should be carried out to bring order into the system of higher educational institutions in the country, with a view to bringing the col- leges closer to production. The number of colleges should be increased in the new industrial centres, especially in Siberia, the Far East and the Central Asian republics. The unjustified con- centration of higher educational estab- lishments in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and some other cities must be eliminated 48. The reorganisation of the higher education system along the lines of corn- 23 billing study with work in production must be planned and organised so as to increase year by year the output of spe- cialists needed for the national economy, science and culture. It is considered desir- able to carry out the reorganisation of the work of a substantial section of the higher educational institutions gradually, over a period of three to five years, be- ginning with 1959. The heads of economic councils, enterprises, and scientific research and other organisations must place at the disposal of the colleges paid staff jobs as workers and technicians which will be filled by students, must organise production train- ing for the students, and must provide them with living accommodation, work- ing clothes, etc. All the measures for reorganising the system of higher education arc designed to help the country's colleges to carry out still better the important state tasks confronting them. ? ? ? The reorganisation of the secondary and higher educational establishments affects the interests of millions of men and women, of the entire Soviet people. A correct solution of this problem will bc of immense significance for the further material and spiritual development of Soviet society, especially in the light of the great plans that will be discussed and adopted by the 21st Congress of the C.P.S.U. Bringing the school closer to life will create the conditions that arc really necessary for the better education of the rising generation who will live and work under communism. There is not a single family in our country which is not keenly interested in the question of reorganising the schools. Therefore the central com- mittee of the C.P.S.U. and the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers consider it neces- sary to put the present theses before the whole country for discussion. This will make it possible, when finally determin- ing the concrete ways of reorganising the system of public education, to make fuller use of the practical experience of the foremost schools and colleges which have already achieved certain successes in the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ?ft. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 labour upbringing of the young people, and of the suggestions of broad sections of the Soviet public. It goes without saying that in doing this, the specific national features of each Union republic must be taken into account. The proposed reorganisation will en- hance the role of the schools in educat- ing and bringing up the young people, will substantially raise the general educational level and work qualifications of the young people, will better ensure the training of highly qualified personnel for all branches of the national economy, science and culture, and will to a still greater extent facilitate the growth of the might of the Soviet Union, which is advancing with a firm step along the road of building communism. (The above Theses were published in the Soviet Union on November 16, 1958.) Published by &Islet Booklets. 3 Rosary Gardens. London S W 7. and printed by March Publicity Press Ltd ii t.) all departments), London. S F I Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 TATARSKAYA, A. GIIRYANOV A SOVIET FAMILY BUDGET FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE Moscow 1057 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 II TATAPORAR, A. TYPIJIII0B BIOJVHET PAB0111311 MUM TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN BY GEORGE II HANNA Printed in the Union ol Soviet Socialist Republics 1 I CONTENTS Page 1. A Life of Honest Toil 5 2. how Anastasia Grigoryevna Became a Good I I ousekeeper 12 3. Invisible Income 16 4. Our Great Advantage 23 5. Comparisons 28 6. For All Soviet Families 32 2 826 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 A LIFE OF IIONESI"rOIL Father and daughter always set off to work together. In this respect, Anastasia Grigoryovna, usually a good- tempered, easily persuaded woman, was implacable. "Who over hoard of a girl going out alone at night. Do what you like about it, Dad, either you change with some- body or talk to the people in Lusya's shop, only see that you both work in the same shift." After work Semyon Alexeyovich would always wait for his daughter at the gates. They would exchange a few words about their job and then walk home in silence. Lusya, a tall girl with high cheekbones, as liko her mother as two peas in a pod, would walk on ahead, her father keeping a little behind her. Semyon Aloxoyovich was a quick and efficient worker but was lost for words, was oven bashful, when amongst his fellow-workers. At home, too, ho was inclined to be taciturn, unlike his talkative wife. Tim children respected their father who had made a name for himself as a first- rate tradesman and they loved him for his kindness and just severity. Now that Lusya, the eldest, was independent, she showed, as is often the case with the younger genera- tion, an attitude of solicitude and patronage towards her father. As they walked home through the empty streets of a town, long wrapt in slumber, the girl was worried by her own thoughts. "Dad is beginning to weaken. Ilo goes to work smartly enough, but on the way home...." She slackened her pace. "And will he ever admit he's tiredl?" 6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 During that, summer Lusya had often noticed that her father's face was drawn with pain and by tacit consent they stopped for a rest. "You ought to go to the doctor, Dad. What a man you are, to be sure! Why, I can seo that you're not, well." Semyon Alexoyovich would only wave her aside. "There's nothing wrong with me, I tell you, just some- thing gets hold of my leg and arm so that it hurts to move them. It's my ago, girlie...." Their conversation usually ended on that note. "Yes, I can see myself that Dad's tired out; he's not at all well," Anastasia Grigoryevna, his wife, would say in his absence. "What can we do? How can we make ends meet if he leaves his job? Nina has another three years before she finishes college. Alya's thinking about, college, too, to say nothing of tho youngsters. It'll be a long time before they bring anything in." Still they tried to fathom it out. Anastasia Grigoryevna earned 360 rubles a month as cloak-room attondant in tho offices of tho Automobile Plant. Lusya, forewoman of one of the sections of tho press shop, made a thousand rubles a month on the average. If Somyon Alexoyevich wont on pension that, would bring in another 210 rubles a month, about fifteen hundred alto- gether. But how could a family of seven live on that, mon- oy?... And then there was the question of whether fa- ther would agree to leave the plant. Tho Automobile Plant in tho town of Gorky had long boon a second home to Semyon Alexoyevich. Not for noth- ing would Anastasia Grigoryevna say to him angrily: "Where are you off to so early in the morning? It's a good Iwo hours Moro your shift begins, you'd better sit quietly at home and rest." How could he sit still? That, restlessness had come to him many years before when Semyon Andrianov had been demobilized from the Red Army and had entered tho plant's training shops to learn a trade he had never even heard of before?furnace hand in tho heat-treatment shop. At, first it, had seemed he would nevor get used to working in front of the blazing furnace amid smoke and noise. He soon 6 got used to it, however. In three years he was made under- foreman and a few years later becamo shop foreman, one of the officers of tho plant's army. Years of practical expe- rience and tho love he felt for his work and his shop mado up for his lack of education. When Semyon Alexeyovich came to tho plant ho was a carefree young fellow with a shock of black curls. At first lie earned from 80 to 100 rubles a month. Today his hair is grey, ho has three grown-up daughters, a son, his favourite, in tho sixth form at school and the only man in the family besides his father?and wo must not forget the youngest, six-year-old Natasha, still too young for school. Thoughts, memories flash across his mind ono after tho other. Was life really over for him, was it limo to mako way for the younger generation of stronger and better edu- cated young men? Thero was no denying it, when his old friend Ivan Iva- novich Raikov, secretary of the Communist Party organ- ization of their shop, first, broached the question of pension, it cut him to tho quick. It was on the day tho now decree was published in tho papers. "I've been wanting to talk to you about it for a long time, only I know you wouldn't, listen," he said. "I know you've got, a big family, fivo children. It would havo been hard on them if they had lost tho biggest income in tho family. But now things are different,. It's time you took a rest, old chap. If you get better and want, to come back there'll always be a place for you at tho plant." Tho shop gave its veterans of labour a real festive fare- well. Many were the words of gratitude said to these old pioneers of tho Soviet, automobile industry and each of them was handed a gift from tho shop's workers. Tho bitter- ness of parting was tempered by great human solicitude for a peaceful and comfortable old ago... * * * We got, acquainted with Semyon Alexoyevich Andria- nov's family at, tho beginning of 1957. Tho preceding year had brought, many changes in the budget of every work- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ing-class family and there had boon changes in the Andri- anovs' too. We were sitting in their largo and comfortable apart- ment. It was obvious that thoro was no lack of ithome- loving feminine hands in the house. Table-cloths, runners, cushion-covers, all beautifully embroidered, lent a special sort of cosiness to the room. A year before the couple had celebrated their silver wedding?twenty-five years they had lived together. As they glanced back it seemed but yesterday that bright- eyed Anastasia, full of laughter, nimble and over ready to do things, had captured the heart of Somyon Andrianov. Mon he came back from the army his hands itched for the soil, ho had been pining for the farm for three years but she would have none of it. "If you go to work in the town I'll marry you. If not? you can look for another." And Somyon took heed?he know that nowhere in the world would he find anybody better than his Anastasia. How could he let such a girl slip through his fingers? To- day, a quarter of a century later, he admits: "She's the mainstay of the whole family?I'm nothing!" We had a real heart-to-heart talk with them. Anastasia Grigoryovna did most of the talking. Her husband glanced at her with a somewhat condescending smile on his lips. "I don't quite know how to explain it, but somehow things have been much easier with us this last year. You can imagino it?we were worried about Dad's health but now he's on pension. And he's getting better, he goes to the clinic for treatments." Semyon Alexoyovich hold out to us a little grey booklet; not much to look at but it summed up his 25 years of hon- est labour. According to the now old-age pensions law, the worker Andrianov received a pension of 55 per cent of his average monthly earnings. To this was added 10 per cont for unbroken service at one enterprise and 15 per cent for his dependents. The total came to 1,200 rubles a month. "Of course, we've never tried to work out our income," continued Anastasia Grigoryovna, "but you can tot it up The family gathers for supper if you're interested. Our eldest girl, Lusya, earns about a thousand rubles a month. Our second girl, Nina, is at col- lege and since January last year she has been getting an augmonted sti pond for good progress ?320 rubles a month. Even Alya makes her contribution, it's not a very big one, but it helps." Alya was sitting there with us, the very imago of her fa- ther, with tho same big, thoughtful oyes. She smiled shyly. "You can leave mo out, mother." In the spring of last year Alya had finished secondary school. Her ambition had been to enter the Department of Biology of Gorky University but she failed in the com- petitive examination. She got poor marks in her favourite subject, chemistry, and oceans of tears were shed. Her elder sisters were as much upset as Alya herself. "What is the girl to do now? She's only just turned sev- enteen, she's too young to work. Let her stay home for a year and then try the examination again," was the deci- sion of the feminine half of the family. But on this occasion her father displayed absolute firmness. 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 "She must learn a trade. If chemistry and biology aro her real vocation she won't lose her taste for them." And so Alya is attendingtho Automobile Plant's Techni- cal School and studying electricity. She does well at her studies and brings a stipend of 235 rubles a month home to her mother. is Together wo totted up the family's income. In the course di a year they had earned, together, 38,180 rubles. Anastasia Grigoryovna clapped her hands. "Now just fancy how much money has passed through my hands." But this was not all. During the year the Andrianov family had income from other sources: the girls earned a few hundred rubles unloading cabbage for the factory dining-room and both father and mother had earned bon- uses. This added another 2,800 rubles. "Do you have any other sort of income?" we asked, interested. Ho told us that during the war the plant had given the Andrianovs an allotment of land. It was not very big but they had kept it and still planted potatoes on it. They gathered between eleven and thirteen sacks of potatoes every year which was enough for the family table and for next year's seed. The market price of potatoes that year was one ruble a kilogram,* eleven sacks at 50 kilograms each meant 550 rubles. This sum we also added to the fami- ly income. Then wo summed up the situation. In 1956 the Andrianov family had a total income of 41,530 rubles. Semyon Aloxoyovich had earned 17,500 rubles of this sum?his wages for nine months, including progressive pay for work above quota, and his pension for the other three months. Anastasia Grigoryovna had contributed 4,320 rubles, Lu- sya 12,000, Nina 3,420 and Alyn 940 rubles; bonuses, income from the allotment and for unloading cabbage brought a further 3,350 rubles. Why, then, did Anastasia Grigoryovna say with such confidence: * 1 kg.-2.2 lbs. Alyn Andrianova is studying for her exams "This year we have begun to live much better." To find the answer to this we must return to 1955. That year Semyon Alexoyevich, Anastasia Grigoryovna and Lusya earned the same amounts. Nina was then in her sec- ond year at college. She had always been a joy to her par- ents, her school report cards had rarely had a mark lower than "good." When she entered college there was oven more reason for keeping up her record. If she were marked "fair" in any subject at the end-of-term examinations it would mean that she would lose her scholarship stipend for the next term and Nina knew well enough that although the sum was not a largo one, it, meant quite a lot to the family. Whether Nina relied too much on her knowledge or whether, as sometimes happens, she lost her head when she was answering the professor, we do not know, the fatal word "fair" appeared in her record book. It was very hard for her to go home and say, "Mum, you mustn't count, on my stipend any more!" Nevertheless she had to say it. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060007-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 At the college they knew that Nina Andrianova was one of a big family and that every ruble counted with them, but still the authorities could not make any exceptions to the rule. In 1955 Alya was in tho last form at school and so she did not. bring any money into the house. Other extras were also less, they aincunted to only 1,550 rubles. Tho Andrianov budget for 1956 was 3,580 rubles more than in 1955. Was this, however, the only reason for the Andrianovs' finding life easier in 1956 than in the previous year? HOW ANASTASIA GRIGORYETNA BECAME A GOOD IIOUSEICEEPER "You'll excuse my plain speaking," said Anastasia Grigoryovna, "but there's something I want to tell you. It happened the summer before last. 1 don't remember how we came to talk about it,: maybe one of the girls wanted to go to an evening party; all her friends had new frocks while she had only one best. frock for all occasions, or, perhaps, it was something elso?only I remember that the girls said that wo don't know how to live: 'Look,' they said, 'other people get something new every month and all our money goes on food and nothing else.' I was so upset that I oven cried. It was true, we seemed to have plenty of money but, we could never buy more than necessities. In 1956, however, the girls have had nino new dresses made. Everybody got a now coat except Nina and Dad. And be- sides that wo got, 24 pairs of boots and shoes (including a pair of sandals for Natasha that cost 17 rubles and a pair of fur-lined winter boots for Lusya that cost 340 rubles). We made presents of watches to the two elder girls?a Zvozda for Lusya and a Zarya for Nina." "To toll you the truth," Anastasia Grigoryevna con- tinued thoughtfully, "I don't know how we managed to get so rich in one year." Perhaps tho daughters' recriminations had made her economize on food to save money for clothes? Anastasia Grigoryevna very energetically rejected that idea. 12 "Oh, no," she said, and the children lent their support, "we have boon eating better, we've had more variety." Then what was the reason? It may be readily understood that bettor living in the family was not only duo to the differenco in income.Where, then, did they manago to save money enough for clothes and footwear and for better food? In 1955 part of the fam- ily's food had to be bought at higher prices on the collec- tive-farm markets as there was a shortage in the govern- ment food shops. In 1956 Anastasia Grigoryovna was able to buy meat in a shop at 12 or 14 rubles a kilogram whereas in the previous year she had had to pay 20 to 24 rubles a kilogram on the market. Butter cost 14 rubles a kilogram more on the market than in the government shops, milk, which cost 2 rubles 90 kopeks a litre* (government price) in winter cost from four and a half to five rubles on the market. In the summer of 1956 milk cost a rublo and a half a litre on the market. According to our calculations the family lost about. 3,500 rubles a year by buying food on the market, at high- er prices. Today Anastasia Grigoryevna spends 1,645 rubles a month on food. The family's monthly consumption is: broad-120 kg., meat and fish-38 kg., cereals, macaroni, etc.-18 kg., fats?about 10 kg. (of them vegetable oil-3 kg.), milk- 90 litres, potatoes and other vegetables-100 kg., sugar- 18 kg., etc. This includes food eaten in canteens and din- ing-rooms where they lunch. From this it, follows that in 1956 the Andrianov family spent 19,740 rubles on food for the whole year. As we have already seen, the amount spent in 1955 was greater by 3,500 rubles, that is, 23,200 rubles. Expenditure on food in 1955 amounted to 61 per cent of their total income of 37,950 rubles. In 1956 the Andri a- novs spent 47.5 per cent of a total income of 41,530 ru- bles on food, quite a big difference-13.6 per cent. There was another important change in the family budg- * I litre?about 2 pints. 13 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Another dream comes true?they've bought, a new radio set et which must be taken into consideration: the family had to pay 450 rubles college fees for Nina and school fees for Alya in the 1955-56 school year. The sum is not a big ono but it was just. enough for Anastasia Grigoryevna to buy a pair of fur-lined winter boots for her eldest daughter and a pair of felt boots with rubber overshoes and ma- terial for a summer dress for the youngest,. Thus we see that the new decree abolishing school and c9llego fees also affected the Andrianovs' budget. Now, by a joint effort, we have discovered why the 14 Natasha Andrianova (right.) shows her friends the family album "poor housekeeper" Anastasia Grigoryevna turned into a "good and efficient housekeeper" in 1956 and her son and daughters got, new clothes. Tho family was now able to spend 52.5 per cent of their income, or 21,790 rubles, for other things than food. Part of the money went for rent and municipal services (beating, lighting, water), transport, taxes, amusements, books, etc. Almost 12,000 rubles was left for clothing and foot- wear and other needs. "Wo never seem to have enough shoes," complained Anastasia Grigoryovna. "Not, a month passes but. I must 15 414 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 take them Lobo repaired. It isn't that they don't take caro of them, either. I suppose the quality isn't too good. Es- pecially the children's shoes. They ought to have steel tips on the toes and heels." Anastasia Grigoryovna also complained of the quality of socks and stockings manufactured in Gorky, and of the poor dyes used for cheap summer materials. We could not but agree with her. A thrifty housewife reckons on every article lasting a definite time and on account of the poor quality of some locally made goods she had been forced to spend extra money.... INVISIBLE INCOME On one of the days when we visited the Andrianovs it, happened that the grown-ups wore all out. Lusya and Anastasia Grigoryovna wore at work, Semyon Alexervich had gone shopping while Alya and Nina were, as usual, at their respective studies. Tho door was opened by Natasha. "Daddy said ploaso wait for him. Take off your coats and come in. I'll be mother." It was obvious that, little Natasha was fond of playing hostess. "Volodya," sho called out to her brother. "We've got guests." Volodya was busy, he was tidying up the apartment. Ho made the beds with amazing care, several times stand- ing back to make sure the bedspreads were on straight, and that the lace covers on the pillows vore4n their prop- er places. Tho boy was a bit ashamed of being caught at, this "unmasculino" job but kept on with it all the same. "Soo what a helper ho's getting to be." Natasha praised her brother patronizingly, apparently repeating her moth- er's words. "Ho always tidies up when Mummy isn't at home. (Anastasia Grigoryovna worked every other day.) And the girls wax the floors and help Mummy wash clothes, and they can cook, too." Our little hostess showed us her toys and books, boasted 16 Volodya (right) is a good chess-player. Who'll win this time: he or his friend Gana Meshkov? of Volodya's new skis and then, not knowing what to do to amuse us, got out the fat family album. She had a string of commentaries for every photograph, some of which were corrected by her brother. "This is our Lusya in Leningrad. And that's Nina on a ship when she wont somewhere." "That was when she had a holiday at a floating sana- torium," Volodya put in. "This is Alya at a Young Pioneer camp. Look how she squeezed into the corner and shut her oyes as though she were afraid of being photographed. And that's Volodya in a Young Pioneer camp, too." Volodya could not keep quiet any longer. "That was two years ago," ho said. "I went to the Automobile Plant's 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 camp four years running but last year I spent my holidays at my aunt's in tho country. I liked it, there, I could swim and ride horses as much as I wanted. My uncle, Dad's brother, ho's stableman at, a kolkhoz. It was wonderful there, you know," and, recalling a pleasant summer with obvious relish, added, "wo'vo got, over so many relatives there. They visit us in winter and we go to them in summer. Twice Mum wont from the plant for the harvesting and Dad has only just come back from there?hestayed with his brothers for a fortnight. Mum says ho still has a farm- er's soul. Ile loves reading Nekrasov, about the country. And ho doesn't, take offence...." Semyon Alexeyovich, returning from his shopping expe- dition, unknowingly interrupted an interesting talk. "So you see, I've turned into a housewife, go round the shops and to tho market. I try to help my wife. She's been working for us all her life. Every year I had a holi- day, sometimes I wont to Zelyony Gorod, sometimes to Krasniyo Bald, but, in all her life she went once to her sis- ter in Leningrad. She always said that, her work was easier and it would be better if she stayed home during her holi- days and stitched something for the kids. A few years ago we bought, a sewing-machine. She's awfully fond of that work, if she had her way she would bo sowing all day long." Anastasia Grigoryevna herself had once told us that she liked sowing and showed us some of tho things shehad made. "You can add that to our income," she said jokingly. "it's all extra money that stays in tho house." Irrepressible Natasha, tho know-all, could not, resist the temptation to boast. "Mummy made this dress for mo herself. At first Nina wore it, and now I've got it. And she made a new dress for herself and a shirt for Daddy and a smock for Alya?she goes to the school workshops and without a smock would make her dress dirty." "Yeu'ro tho only one that, doesn't help," said Semyon Aloxoyovich, fondly patting his daughter's fat rosy cheek. "Why should I? When I grow up I'm going to be a doc- tor. Mummy wanted Lusya and Nina to train for doctors but, it didn't work out. Now I'm her only hope." Anastasia Grigoryovna is a Jack-of-all-trades. Just a tow moro stitches and the dress will he ready Mother's "hope" ran away to play, Volodya went to school and we returned to the subject we had been discuss- ing with Volodya when Semyon Alexoyovich's arrival in- terrupted us?the Andrianovs' native village, Prokoshovo. Anastasia Grigoryevna's parents and Semyon Alexe- yovich's brothers and sisters were still living there. Each of the latter now had his own family and his own home. They worked in the Udarnik Collective Farm. Their in- come for workdays on the farm had formerly been barely enough to manage on, there was never anything left over. "From time to time we had to help our relatives," said Semyon Alexoyevich. "If Anastasia managed to save any- thing we sent it off to the village." Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 "This year things have been much better," he continued. "I was there a short while ago and saw it for myself. Even though last summer wasn't a good one, wind and rain all the time, they got a good harvest, especially vegetables. They've built new cowsheds, pigsties and sheep-pens and they have enough fodder for the winter. My niece Olga, my sister's daughter, works in the piggery. Sho told me herself that, she earns an average of 1,200 rubles a month with bonuses." We were unable to visit the Udarnik Collective Farm but we telephoned to Pavel Stepanovich Tsaryov, Secre- tary of the District Committee of the Communist Party, and this is what he told us: "For a number of years the Udarnik Farm had been one of the most backward. It was only in 1954, when the collec- tive farmers elected Nikolai Grigoryevich Nosov, a farm- er from their own village, chairman of the farm, that matters began to improve. Tho greatest, progress was made in dairy farming: the cattle were better housed (the new buildings that Semyon Alexoyevich had told us about) and better looked after so that the milk yield was much higher than before. In 1956 each cow gave 466 litres more than the year before and the farmers expect to maintain this level through the present winter and by the summer of 1957 raise the average milk yield per head to 3,000 litres. This is the figure recorded in their socialist, emulation contract.... Tho farm's milkmaids last year received from 1,000 to 1,500 kilograms of milk extra pay and each of them was given a calf. In terms of money a milkmaid earns between 800 and 900 rubles a month."Somyon Alexe- yevich was elated at the progress made by his native vil- lage, asentimentwi thwhich woworo in complete agreement. "Life is improving month by month, both in the towns and in the countryside," ho said. "It's a pity years fly so quickly. Now's the time to keep on living...." Alya returned from her technical school: in the work- shops where she was gaining practical experience those under 18 worked only 6 hours a day so that, 17-year-old Alp came home early. Alya had her dinner and sat, down LO her books while we continued OUT talk with her parents. 20 Semyon Alexeyevich attends the district clinic regularly When the litticgirl had shown us the family album we had unconsciously touched on those invisible sources of income that, every working-class family has but which we do not notice since we have got so used to them. In the Andrianovs' album we had seen dozens of snaps of the members of the family taken during holidays. Work- ers during their annual paid holidays and school children and students during the summer vacation are given oppor- tunities to visit sanatoriums, holiday homes and camps, the state bearing half the cost. This, however, is not, all. During the past few months Semyon Alexoyovich had been attending the local clinic and had been receiving a course of treatment,. It seemed quite natural to him that he did not, have to pay for it,. It also happened that other 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 members of the family received free medical attention on a number of occasions throughout the year. Tho winter before little Natasha had been taken ill. When her mother measured her temperature she found it, was just over 102?F. They sent, for the doctor, Nina Alex- androvna Petrova, who knew the family well as she had treated all the children, one after the other, until they reached adolescence. Nina Alexandrovna was an excellent children's specialist, a doctor of great experience, known to all the workers at the Automobile Plant; during the win- ter she treated the children at the clinic or visited them at home and in summer made the rounds of the Young Pio- neer camps and kindergartens. Natasha was very fond of the kindly lady in the white smock who always carried a lot of pretty tubes and things in her bag. Natasha had measles in a rather bad form and for a fortnight Nina Alexandrovna visited her little patient every other day until all danger of complications was past. It must be admitted that Natasha's memories of another lady in a while smock were not so pleasant?she came sev- eral times, on Nina Alexandrovna's instructions, it seemed, and gave Natasha injections. But even that was more frightening than painful. Natasha's illness did not mean any great additional expense to the family with the exception of extra dainties for the sick child; the visits of the doctor and nurse did not cost them anything. Three of the Andrianov children were attending schools of various types?one an institute of higher learning, the second was getting secondary professional education and the boy was attending an ordinary secondary school. This was also taken as a matter of course. Nobody was surprised that oven little six-year-old Natasha was already dreaming of becoming a doctor. Of course, little girl, your dreams will come true if you don't, change your mind as the years go by, just as the dreams of your elder sisters are coming true.Lusya has become a technologist,in anoth- er two years Nina will be granted her diploma as a tex- tile engineer; when Alya graduates her technical school she will be able to take her entrance examinations to the 22 Paculty of Biology at Gorky University, and, as she will be working, will not have to take the competitive exami- nation but will be enrolled as a student if she gets "pass" marks. We included the scholarship stipends of the two daugh- ters in the Andrianov family budget but (lid not, say how much their tuition actually costs the state. When we applied to the Gorky Statistical Board for information they gave us the following interesting figures. Tho state expends about 3,100 rubles a year on a family of seven people to ensure them, through the trade unions, an annual rest in sanatoriums, holiday homes and camps. In the city of Gorky an annual average of 198 rubles per head of the population is spent on medical services? the Andrianov family, therefore, accounts for 1,380 rubles. Lastly, the tuition of the three Andrianov children costs the state an annual 16,030 rubles: Nina's higher education costs 9,000 rubles, Alya's technical education- 6,148 rubles and Volodya's secondary education-882 rubles a year. In this sum we have included the stipends paid to the two girls by the state. Now let us tot up these "invisible sources of income." 3,100 rubles for holiday rest, 1,386 rubles for medical services and 11,670 rubles for tuition. Thus the Andrianov family has a further 16,156 rubles on the income side of the budget, that is, more than a third of the family's total income. Such are the services, now so usual that they are not noticed, that. Soviet power has been affording the people for many years. OUR GREAT ADVANTAGE Soviet, people, who have in the past experienced tre- mendous difficulties and privations, feel that they aro the masters of their fate, and they know the joys of creating that which is wonderful and now. They give all their abili- 23 narlaccifiPri in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ty, knowledge and experience to the country that so gener- ously rewards them by its solicitude for man, by raising living standards, making work less laborious and making life more carefree. When wo speak of the greater well-being of the people we sometimes forget one important item?the constant improvement in labour conditions and the organization of production. This is worthy of more thought. Can a man be satisfied with life if he comes home from work tired and exhausted to the very limit so that he has only one thing in mind?physical repose? Of course he cannot! Neither a comfortable home nor a substantial income can ever be a sufficient reward. In our country, therefore, in addition to the efforts being made to ensure a comfortable home life for the workers, there is also a constant improvement in their labour conditions, a lightening of their toil. This is one of the greatest advantages of our social system. During ono of our talks with Semyon Alexoyovich we became particularly aware of what Soviet people think of this. Usually he is taciturn and reticent but when we asked him to show us over the plant, especially the shop in which ho had worked for 25 years, he was a changed man. Heat-Treatment Shop No. 1. was such a huge building that the eye could not take it, in all at once. No less than an hour was required to go round the shop, from section to section. At the plant the shop was known as the "mirror of the work of the forgo."As an old worker Semyon Alexe- yevich felt himself the master hero. He know by heart all the items treated in the shop?and they were not few, over 800 altogether. Ho know where to send every item, which items had priority and which could be dealt with later. He know the character and habits of every fur- nace and every press. All of them had been installed in his presence, all of them had been improved and modern- ized, as they grew old they had been replaced by new ones. And how many of those who were now regular skilled work- ers at the plant had been trained by Semyon Alexeye- vichl His old friends who had worked side by side with him were still there?foremen Derevyankin and Laptev, senior foreman Sukhanov. I; 24 Andrianov is an avid soccer fan. Today the teams of Syria and Rumania are playing Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Every year brings many changes to the shop. In 1956 the output plan was 15 per cent higher than the previous years. And how many now features had been introduced! The removal of the dross, once a slow, laborious and dan- gerous job (dangerous because the dross was removed by dipping the treated metal in sulphuric acid baths), is now done in the chambers of automatic sand-blast, machines. Until quite recently considerable time and effort was ex- pended on carrying items to be tempered on hot trays to the various furnaces. This process has now been mecha- nized. Now types of furnaces aro still being installed;? when Semyon Alexeyovich first started work there were only three furnaces?today there are more than thirty. We left the shop when the shifts were changing and as we passed the press shop we suggested waiting for Lusya. "Oh, I forgot to tell you," said Semyon Alexoyevich, "she isn't working there any more." And he smiled his gentle, modest smile. "She's been wanting to continue her studies for a long time and thought of entering the evening institute. Wo held a family council and then I wont to the Communist Party Committee for advice. We decided that while she is attending the institute she can work as a technician in the3plant's Co-ordination Bureau. They work in one shift and it will be easier for her to attend the institute. Today they finish at three so there will be an hour to wait." "How will that affect the family budget? Will there be any changes on account of Lusya's new job?" was the far from modest question we could not help asking. "Yes, she'll get a hundred and fifty rubles less. But that doesn't matter, we won't starve...." On Saturdays (somebody at, the plant very aptly called it "little Sunday") many of the working people walked home so that the buses and trolley-buses, usually packed tight during "peak" hours, were half empty. Next day, Sunday, we again visited the Andrianovs but Semyon Alexeyovich was not at home. He had always been a strong supporter of the plant's football and hockey 1,eams and had gone to the football ground with his son. 46 They know just where to put the now wardrobe in the bedroom The elder girls were also out: Lusya had gone to buy a new alarm-clock (the old one had refused to work any longer) and Alya and Nina had gone to the pictures. Little Na- tasha was there with her mother. "We're baking cakes," she informed us immediately. "Today Uncle Pavel and Aunt Nastya Morozkin aro coming." "They're old friends of ours, we were neighbours in our old house," Anastasia Grigoryovna explained. "It isn't more than two years since we moved hero. That's why we 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ?CA D R _n Pfl?Awrr'-'. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 haven't yet, got all tho furnituro we would like, you see we didn't want to bring old things into such a lovely flat." It really was a lovely flat and looked very comfortable oven if there was not quite enough furniture. Tho builders had paid great attention to interior decoration, the soft colours of the walls, the snow-white doors and windows and the parquet, floor were all in good taste. "Please don't be offended at not finding Semyon at home," said Anastasia Grigoryovna as we were leaving. "He'd much rather miss his dinner than a football match. And the girls never miss a picture show on Sundays. It's better for mo, too. When they get together in the evening they tell me all the news so that I keep up with the times...." COMPARISONS Even today one can still hoar old people, those who have soon a lot in their time, making such remarks as: "There was a time when broad cost two or three kopeks a pound." We browsod for a long time in tho records of tho Nizhny- Novgorod Gubornia Council, turned up tho reports of the rural councils and found lists of food-stuff prices. At, first, glanco tho prices of food-stuffs were astoundingly low: expressed in kilograms fresh butter cost a ruble forty kopoks, potatoes two kopeks, meat thirty-three kopeks, and so on. This led us to wondering how a working-class family, like tho Andrianovs, lived before the Revolution, in 1913, one of the cheapest and most favourable years, for example. We discovered that the food on which Anastasia Grigor- yovna spoilt 1,645 rublcs a month would have cost, her 76 rubles 25 kopeks in 1913. But did a working-class family of seven have that amount to spend? By rummaging through the reports of factory inspec- tors, tho reports of the Municipal Council, workers' pay- books and the lodgers of tho Nizhny-Novgorod employ- ers we discovered that a qualified worker in the engineer- 28 ing industry earned an average of 25 rubles 65 kopeks a month in 1913. Young pooplo with somo professional skill earned 10 rubles 50 kopeks, a furnaco hand- 16 rubles, door porter-8 rubles and so on. Let us assume that the chief bread-winner of a family like the Andrianovs had the highest skill and earned the maximum 30 to 35 rubles a month. His wife, who works in tho cloak-room, would have earned 8 rubles; tho elder daughter, at. the highest wages paid to women, would have got 12 rubles and the younger one 10 rubles. Even at that, the income of a family with four people working would not have exceeded 60 rubles a month. Tho Andrianov family expend 50-60 per cent of their income on food. Con- sequently such a family would have spent no moro than 30 to 35 rubles a month in 1913. Clearly this would not have been enough to buy more than half the food they buy today. Tho books of factory provision stores show that workers ate mostly black bread; rico and buckwheat were bought only for the chief holidays, otherwise they ate lentils and, occasionally, millet. Animal fats wore used very sparing- ly, hemp and linseed oil being, as a rule, used for cooking. In working-class families only the children could get milk. For all other expenses (excluding food) somo 20-25 ru- bles were left from the monthly income. This money was spent on rent, rates, fuel, clothing and footwear. According to the same data the cost of rent and fuel averaged 14-16 rubles a month and rates came to 2 rubles 40 kopeks. Now let us see what tho family could have obtained in 1913 for the few rubles left over. Top-boots cost 8 rubles a pair, shoes from 4 to 9 rubles, factory-made cloth trousers 6 rubles, homespun trousers 2 rubles, a winter overcoat 20 rubles, a mackintosh 35 rubles. This list of prices could be continued indefinitely. But those quoted are sufficient to show that a working- class family could not acquire top-boots, nor cloth trousers, to say nothing of a mackintosh, even if there were four well- paid workers in the family. And this does not take into consideration any unexpected expenses that may occur dur- ing the year, such as a wedding, sickness or a long journey. 29 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004nnnnAnnn9 g Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 List of Focd Products Used by a Working-Class Family of Seven People with 1950 and 1913 Prices Item Quan- tity 1956 1913 Price Total Price Total 11. K. R. K. R. K. R. K. 1. Bread, black 50 kg. 1.24 62.00 0.06 3.00 9 . white 70 kg. 1.90 133.00 0.13 9.10 3. Meat 30 kg. 12.00 360.00 0.40 12.00 4. Cereals (rice; buck- wheat, millet) 12 kg. 5.30 63.60 0.12 1.44 5. Macaroni, etc. 6 kg. 4.00 24.00 0.20 1.20 6. Butter 10 kg. 27.00 270.00 1.40 14.00 7. Vegetable oil 3 1. 16.00 48.00 0.40 1.20 8. Milk 90 I. 1.80 162.00 0.11 9.90 0. Cream and curds 3 kg. 12.00 36.00 0.30 0.90 10. Eggs 30 8.00 24.00 0.024 0.75 11. Fresh fish 8 kg. 8.00 64.00 0.40 3.20 12. Potatoes 70 kg. 1.00 70.00 0.024 1.75 13. Other vegetables 30 kg. 1.00 30.00 0.08 2.40 14. Sugar 18 kg. 10.70 192.60 0.30 5.40 15. Tea 0.2 kg. 68.00 13.60 3.80 0.76 16. Spices - - 10.00 - 1.00 17. Fruit, cakes and sweets - - 82.20 - 8.25 Total - 1,645 - 76.25 rubles rubles The language of figures is dry but it is more eloquent than words. Amongst the old records still preserved in Gorky there are some that give a truly horrible picture of old Nizhny-Novgorod. Here are some of them. In 1913 out of every thousand inhabitants 40 died; only two of every ? The average prices of the more popular varieties in govern- ment shops and the open market in 1956. JO Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ten children born lived to the ago of three years; naturally it was the strongest and most healthy that survived, but could they keep healthy for long? Hero are some figures taken from the report of an army official in the Nizhny-Novgorod Gubernia whose duty it, was to attest recruits called up for service in the army. Out of the 20,000 youths called up for service in 1913 only 4,500 were found physically fit. What was it but under- nourishment, poor living conditions and exhausting work for 14-16 hours a day that made these youngsters prema- turely old and decrepit? 'When we spoke of the Andrianov family we did not introduce the figures of state expenditure on medical serv- ices casually. The people of Gorky have a largo number of hospitals, outpatient clinics and medical centres at their disposal. They are manned by a whole army of qual- ified medical workers-3,000 doctors and 6,000 nurses and doctors' assistants. And it, is only a matter of forty years since the time when it, would have been difficult to find 20 doctors in Nizhny-Novgorod. The following fact tells what doctors' fees meant to working-class families. In 1913 some 260 women left a private maternity home before giving birth. We tried to find out the reason for this. We were told that the daily cost of maintenance in the home was so high that women who had come there a few days before time were forced to leave. And here is another fact: more than half the chil- dren born that year came into the world either in factory workshops during working hours, in the street or in the gloomy, damp rooms of the workers' barracks. Tho most terrible thing of all, however, was old age, because, as a rule, in old age people of small means were faced with almshouses or "widows' houses." These were government institutions and the suni of 77 rubles per head per annum was granted for the maintenance of the aged. In Gorky today 76,641 people receive old-age pensions; according to city statistics the average pension amounts to 482 rubles a month. Our Soviet vocabulary no longer contains the expres- sion "a rainy day," a day when illness, old ago or some other 31 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 cause prevents a person from earning his living. Soviet workers are not threatened with unemployment and do not fear old age. Nobody may call an old man or woman an "extra mouth," the bitterest experience for one who has spent his whole life at work. It, is difficult for the young people in theSovietUlliOn today to estimate the value of all these good things for which their fathers and grandfathers spilled their blood forty years ago. How could young Volodya know that his father had throughout his childhood had just, as many pairs of shoes as he had worn in one year? How should Lusya know that her mother put, on her first, silk dress when more than one wrinkle marred her face?... FOR ALL SOVIET FAMILIES Wherever a man may be in the Soviet Union, be it a big city, a provincial town or a remote village, everywhere lie feels that great changes for the better are taking place. Although we still have our shortcomings everybody can say proudly that life is becoming easier and better. We did not set out to toll our readers what the ordinary man has gained by Soviet power or how life in all its aspects has changed during the past forty years. The au- thors had a much moro modest aim in view: to show what one single year?the first year of the Sixth Five-Year Plan?has brought the Andrianov family. Tho head of the family, Semyon Alexoyevich Andrianov, retired on a pension at the ago of fifty; he was able to do this because the new pensions law, passed in 1956, gave him, for 25 years uninterrupted work at, the Automobile Plant in Gorky, a pension that is almost as much as his average earnings. As we have seen, two daughters add to the family in- come?Nina, who studies at, a college, and Alya, who at- tends a technical school. By a government decision they are paid a scholarship stipend all the year round irrespective of progress made in each term (in 155 the stipend depend- ed on progress made). Like all other school pupils and The mail-carrier comes on Me same day of every month with Andrianov's pension college students, beginning with the 1956-57 sellool year they do not pay tuition fees. One of the main reasons for the well-being of the family, however, is a law of Soviet reality that has never been written down or published: year by year the quantity of food products and manufactured goods is increasing, quality is improving and prices are falling. In tolling the story of the Andrianov family we only touched on those Communist Party and Soviet Govern- ment measures that directly affect that family. And how many changes came last year (1956) that did not affect them but, made the lives of millions of other people much easier! Let us recall a few of them. A lad of 16 has just, finished training at a vocational school; he has learned a trade and has begun work at a '?' Dmr+ Anoroved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 factory. The young fellow, however, still has a lot to learn, lie has still to become an educated and cultured man as well as a skilled worker. Ho needs more time for rest and for interesting recreation. In view of this the govern- ment has instituted a six-hour working day for all young workers under the ago of eighteen but they are paid as much as an adult worker who works for eight hours a day. Incidentally, Alya Andrianova, who is not yet eighteen, is now getting practical training at the Automobile Plant's workshops and works not 8 hours but 6 hours a day. We still remember the gratitude of Soviet women when the law was passed increasing leave of absence from work for expectant mothers from 77 calendar days to 112 days. A working woman may now devote herself wholly to her baby for the first two months after confinement. lithe con- finement was a difficult one, with complications, she is given a further two weeks for convalescence, altogether 70 days after confinement in addition to 56 days before confinement, and all on full pay. Under the new law this additional leave of absence costs the state a further 800 to 900 million rubles for every million expectant mothers, and a similar sum must be spent as wages for those who take their places while they are absent from work. Mothers of nursing infants may, furthermore, obtain a further three months leave of absence without, pay. If the mother wishes to remain at home to look after her baby she may do soup to one year, her job will be kept for her and her years of service at the factory or office will be considered unbroken. This is impor- tant since the years she has worked prior to motherhood count towards the 25 years unbroken service necessary for a full pension. A great deal is also being done to ensure that young mothers have their proper rest. By the end of this year 18 now sanatoriums and holiday homes for expectant moth- ersand mothers with nursing infants will be functioning. Those who come within the low income bracket will be maintained at these institutions free of charge, the facto- ry or office where the woman is working paying for her Three years ago the Andrianovs had their house-wartaing party here out of the funds allotted for the improvement of living conditions At many of the bigger factories there are nursing rooms and personal hygiene monis for women workers. And now a few words about workers' holidays. From 1st N ovember, 1956, the food rations supplied to the more than 3,000 sanatoriums and holiday homes in the U.S.S.R. were increased. In 1956 trade- union organizations sent over 3,200,000 people to sanatoriums, holiday homes, and on organized tours; 20 per cent, of the sanatorium passes and 10 per cent of those to holiday homes were issued for a nominal charge which in no case exceeded 30 per cent, of its cost In one little booklet it is difficult to cover all the changes that took place last year We must, however, say a few words about the "Iong-day groups" that have been or- ganized in a number of schools in this school year. Children in these groups are those whose parents are both at work; npelassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 they are under the guidance of experienced pedagogues and the strict regime essential to their health and normal development is maintained. They are given hot meals, have playtime and engage in sport. The opening of the first. boarding schools was a big event in the lives of many Soviet children. At, present. there are 300 such schools in which several thousand children are being maintained and educated at the cost. of the state. This, of course, is invaluable help to the family. Amongst other 1956 measures improving the living con- ditions of Soviet. people are: the reduction in the price of theatre tickets, a higher minimum taxable income, the new Rules of the Agricultural Artel, increased control of the fulfilment of collective agreements at the factories and assistance for city workers who have laid out their own orchards in the suburbs of big cities. Many thousands of Soviet people moved to now homes in 1956. In Moscow alone 1,373,000 square metres (about 14 million square feet) of now apartments went into exploi- tation. Thousands of families moved to new apartments in Gorky, Stalingrad, Kharkov, Omsk, Irkutsk, Kiev, Kremenchug, Vladimir, and hundreds of other Soviet cities. In that same year many new well-planned town- ships and factory housing estates appeared on the map. Tho December Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union found it necessary to allocate additional funds for housing construc- tion. A provisional estimate shows that in 1957 32,800,000 square metres (about 340,000,000 square feet) of dwelling- house accommodation will be built which is 30 per cent more than in 1956. For all Soviet people 1956 was a year of great improve- ments, a year of outstanding solicitude for the well-being of the working man, a year of great progress in all fields ';' Dmr+ - nf7d Cony Anoroved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ., Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 THE U.S.S.R A Hundred Questions Answered FIFTH REVISED EDITION Soviet Booklet No. 40. London, November, 1958 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 FOREWORD THE many delegations, business representatives and tourists from foreign countries who have visited the Soviet Union have repeatedly expressed a desire for the publication of a booklet which will tell readers in their countries about life in the Soviet Union. It was these people's view that such a booklet should explain the structure of the Soviet State, its economy and culture, its home and foreign policy. Indeed, the form of the publication was suggested: a concise work in the shape of brief answers to questions. In response to that wish this booklet on the Soviet Union has been prepared in the form of answers to a hundred questions, those most frequently asked by visitors from abroad. THE QUESTIONS Page Page I. STATE AND SOCIAL SYSTEM Page 1. What is the U.S.S.R.? - 7 2. Who governs the Soviet Union? - - - 15. What are the Soviet laws regarding marriage and the family? - - - 30 16. How is freedom of cons- cience exercised in the 8 U.S.S.R.? - - - 3. What are the functions of the Council of Minis- ters of the U.S.S.R.? - 11 4. What are the rights of the Union Republics? - 5. What are Autonomous Soviet Republics. Auto- nomous Regions and National Areas? - - 31 17. How is justice adminis- tered? - - - - 34 18. Who may become a 12 judge? - - - 19. Is there a legal profession in the U.S.S.R.? - - 36 35 14 20. What arc the powers of the Procurator - General of the U.S.S.R.? - - 6. How has the national question been solved in the U.S.S.R.? - - 16 7. How are Soviets elected? 19 8. What jurisdiction have local Soviets? - 21 9. Do classes exist in the U.S.S.R.? - 10. What forms of property are there in the U.S.S.R.? 11. How is the right to own and inherit personal pro- perty protected? - - 12. What does the equality of all Soviet citizens mean? - - -, - 13. What role do women play in the life of the Soviet Union? - - 14. What are the rights and duties of Soviet citizens? 28 Pioneers? - A2 37 II. PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS 21. What is the role of the Communist Party in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 38 22. Why is there only one 22 political party in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 24 23. What is Communism? - 24. What is the cult of the individual? How is the 25 C.P.S.U. overcoming its consequences? - - 25. What is the role of criti- 26 cism and self-criticism in Soviet society? - - 26. What is the Young Com- 26 munist League? - - 27. Who arc the Young - - 40 41 44 45 47 49 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Page Page 28. How do the Soviet trade unions function? - - 29. What scientific and cul- tural associations are there in the U.S.S.R.? - 30. What peace and inter- national organisations are there in the U.S.S.R.? - 41. How are collective agree- 49 ments concluded? - - 42. Do disputes between workers and management 51 occur in the U.S.S.R.? - 43. What systems of payment exist at Soviet enter- 53 prises? - - - - 44. Who. receives service bonuses? - 80 45. What is socialist cmula- 55 lion? - - - 46. How is invention en- couraged? What are the 57 rights of inventors? - HI. NATIONAL ECONOMY 31. What is the basic econo- mic law of Socialism? - 32. How is the U.S.S.R. national economy planned? - - 33. What are the tasks of the long-range Seven-Year Plan (1959-1965)? - - 60 34. How is the national in- come distributed? - - 35. How has the U.S.S.R. become an advanced in- dustrial power? - - 36. How has the national economy of the non- Russian Union Republics developed? - - - 37. Why has the management of industry and construc- tion been reorganised and how? - - - - 76 77 78 38. Who manages Soviet in- dustrial enterprises? - 39. How do Soviet workers take part in the manage- ment of enterprises? - 40. What are the working conditions at Soviet en- terprises? - - - 80 83 47. How is the training of skilled workers organised? - - - 85 48. What does automation 61 mean to Soviet workers? 49. Why is there no, and can be no, unemployment in 62 the U.S.S.R.? 50. What are collective farms? - - - 65 51. What is a state farm? - 52. How has the steep ad- vance of agriculture in 1953-1958 been carried 68 out? - - - - 53. Why have the machine 70 and tractor stations been reorganised? - - - 86 88 Page Page - 56. Who fixes prices in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 102 57. What banks are there? Where do people keep their savings? - - 103 58. What taxes do the people pay? - - - - 104 59. How is the U.S.S.R. state budget made up? - 105 IV. EDUCATION, SCIENCE, CULTURE 60. What is the system of public education in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 107 61. How is higher education organised? - - - 109 62. Can a Soviet worker become an engineer by studying in his spare time? - - - - 63. How is science advancing in the U.S.S.R.? - - 64. What scientific institu- tions are there in the 89 U.S.S.R.? - - - 111 70. Do Soviet scientists, writers, artists and mu- sicians enjoy creative freedom? - - - 135 71. What newspapers and magazines are published? 137 72. What publishing houses are there? Do they pub- lish many books? - - 139 73. Which foreign authors are most popular in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 140 74. What theatres arc there? What do they produce? - 142 75. What orchestras, dance companies, choirs are there? - - - - 145 76. What films are most popular? - - - 146 77. How do musicians, dancers, artists get their training? - - - 148 78. How popular are ama- 112 tcur art, music, drama, dancing etc.? - - 150 116 93 65. What is the Soviet Union's contribution to the International Geo- physical Year? - - 119 95 66. What is the significance of the Soviet sputniks? - 122 67. How is engineering de- 98 vcloping in the U.S.S.R.? 125 54. How is domestic trade 72 organised in the U.S.S.R.? - - - 100 55. What co-operatives are 74 there in the Soviet Union 101 68. How is atomic energy being used for peaceful purposes? - - - 129 69. What is the cultural life of the Union Republics? 133 79. How arc radio and tele- vision organised in the U.S S.R.? - - - 152 80. What libraries are there? 154 81. What museums are there? 156 82. How has sport developed in the U.S.S.R.? - - 158 V. PEOPLE'S WELFARE 83. How does the Soviet people's living standard rise? - - - - 160 84. What, apart from his wages, does the worker get from the state? - - 162 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Faze Pa.le 31. How do Saran catizers exerse their rie.t to rest and leisure' - - - 163 74 How does rhe medical serrce work ? - 165 741 Heol, n social assurance VL FOREIGN POLICY OF THE SOVIET UNION 94. What are the principies of Soviet foreign portcy? ISO 95. What is the world 6rgamsed't - - - 167 socialist system? - - 133 13 What eor.cern does the Serret State show for ino0..ers? - 10 Who gets a state pension in the U.S-S.R. and how much? - - - - 170 90 How is housing construc- tion developing in the U.S.S.R., and what rent is paid? - - -172 91, How is tovm-planning de- veloping in the Soviet Union? - - - - 174 92. What government decorations are there? - 176 93. What are Lenin Prizes far outstanding works in science, engineering, literature and art? - - 177 168 96. Is the peaceful co- existence of the SOCi2ESt and capitalist systems possible? - - - 184 97. How is Soviet foreign trade organised and con- ducted? - - - 189 98. How does the U.S.S.R. co-operate with econo- mically underdeveloped Countries? - - - 191 99. What are the Inter- national Lenin Peace Prizes? - - - - 195 100. What are the U.S.S.R.'s cultural relations with foreign countries? - - 196 I. STATE AND SOCIAL SYSTEM What is the U.S.S.R.? I THE Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) is a federal socialist state of workers and peasants. The U.S.S.R. is made up of fifteen Union Soviet Socialist Republics, which have joined together on the basis of voluntary union and equality: the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (R.S.F.S.R. or Russian Federation), the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Uzbek, Kazakh, Georgian, Azerbaijan, Lithuanian, Moldavian, Latvian, Kirghiz, Tajik, Armenian, Turkmen and Estonian Soviet Socialist Republics. All these Republics have arisen on the territory of the former Russian Empire as a result of the victory of the Socialist Revolution in October 1917 (with the exception of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia which voluntarily joined the Soviet Union in 1940). This great Revolution abolished capitalist and landlord rule in Russia and, for the first time in history, transferred power into the hands of the working people. The U.S.S.R. is a great world power, possessing a mighty industry and a highly developed agriculture. Its territory occupies the eastern part of Europe and the northern and central parts of Asia, making up about a sixth of the inhabited land surface of the earth, or more?than 22 million square kilometres (8,500,000 square miles). The area of the U.S.S.R. is three times the area of the U.S.A. (excluding Alaska) and four times that of the countries of Western Europe put together. The population of the U.S.S.R. in 1956 was 200,200,000. The Soviet Union is a country of beautiful and varied natural scenery, rich in minerals, ores of all kinds, coal, peat and oil, with fertile soil and great water power resources. The seas, lakes and rivers teem with fish. The forests are full of valuable kinds of trees and fur-bearing animals. Soviet power has put an end to the economic and technical backwardness which was inherited from tsarist Russia. Indus- trialisation of the country and collectivisation of its agriculture, carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party, have resulted in the Soviet Union becoming a country with an advanced industry and collective farm system, an economically independent country. 7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ii Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Soviet Union is a land of socialism. In it there is no private ownership of the instruments and means of production. The factories and mills operate without capitalists, and the men and women who cultivate the fields have no landlords. The basis of Soviet economy, the foundation upon which the entire life of the country is built, is the socialist system of economy, and public, socialist, ownership of the instruments and means of production. The national economy is developing according to a unified state plan. There are no economic crises, unemployment or impoverishment of the people. In Soviet society there is no exploitation of man by man and no national oppression. Here, for the first time in history, the moral and political unity of all members of society has been realised. The working people themselves?the workers, peasants and intellectuals?govern their country and administer the entire national economy. Distribution of what is produced (i.e. the material wealth) in the U.S.S.R. is carried out in accordance with the principle: From each according to his ability, to each according to his work. This means that every working man and woman receives material wealth according to the quantity and quality of the work performed. This is socialism, or the first (lower) phase of communist society. Today the Soviet Union is passing through the period of gradual transition from socialism to communism. The Soviet people's goal is the building of communist society. 2 Who governs the Soviet Union? LL power in the U.S.S.R. belongs to the working people of town and countryside, as represented by the Soviets of Working People's Deputies, which are the political founda- tion of the country. The deputies to these Soviets are workers, peasants, or intel- lectuals, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Every deputy is accountable to his electors. With the excep- tion of those who, after the elections, take office in the executive 8 branch of the Government, the overwhelming majority of the _ deputies continue to work at their regular jobs. It is through them that the Soviets maintain the closest contact with the electors. The highest organ of state power in the Soviet Union is the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., which is elected by a country- wide poll for a term of four years. In the last elections, held in March 1958, 133,796,091 voters went to the polls; they elected 1,376 deputies, 831 of whom are workers or peasants. The rest are intellectuals, such as scientists, engineers, writers, doctors or teachers, leaders of state, public or economic organisations or members of the armed forces. Three hundred and sixty-five are women. The deputies include representatives of many nationalities: thirty-eight nationalities are represented in the Soviet of the Union and fifty- eight in the Soviet of Nationalities. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consists of two Chambers ?the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities. One deputy to the Soviet of the Union is elected from every 300,000 of the population. The Soviet of the Union represents the common interests of all Soviet citizens, irrespective of nationality. The Soviet of Nationalities is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R., voting by Union Republics, Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Regions and National Areas, on the basis of twenty-five deputies from each Union Republic, eleven deputies from each Autonomous Republic, five deputies from each Autonomos Region and one deputy from each National Area. In this way the Soviet of Nationalities reflects the specific interests of all the nations, national groups and nationalities in- habiting the Soviet Union. The Supreme Soviet embodies the supreme power possessed by the Soviet people. It acts as the representative of the entire people, the whole country?the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. To the Supreme Soviet belongs the legislative power of the Soviet Union. The laws it enacts have the same force within the territory of every Union Republic, and their carrying out is binding upon all state organs, public organisations, institutions and citizens of the U.S.S.R. These laws express the interests and will of the working people of the country. 9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The USS.R. Supreme Soviet considers and approves the national economic plans and approves the State Budget of the USS.R.; decides questions of war and peace; has control oYet the observance of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R., ensures the conformity of the Constitutions of the Union Republics with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R., and amends the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.; decides questions of admission of new Republics into the U.S.S.R. The junsdiction of the Supreme Soviet includes the represent- ing of the U.S.S.R. in international relations, the conclusion, ratification and denunciation of treaties with other states; the organisation of the defence of the U.S.S.R.; the direction of all the armed forces of the U.S.S.R.; questions of foreign trade and state security. At a joint sitting of its two Chambers, the Supreme Soviet elects its Presidium, forms the Government of the U.S.S.R., elects the U.S.S.R Supreme Court and appoints the Procurator. General of the U.S.S.R. The Supreme Soviet exercises guidance and control over all higher state organs of the U.S.S.R. Its two Chambers, the Soviet of the Union and Soviet of Nationalities, have equal rights. Each may initiate legislation. A law is considered adopted if passed by both Chambers by a simple majority vote. As the highest organ of state power of the U.S.S.R., the Supreme Soviet functions both directly and through other bodies formed by, and accountable to it. The major body is its Presidium. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is the highest standing organ of state power in the U.S.S.R. While the Supreme Soviet conducts its work at regular sessions, held twice a year, or at special sessions, its Presidium is a standing body, The Presidium convenes the sessions of, and orders ne??. elections to, the Supreme Soviet. It ratifies international treaties of the U.S.S.R., proclaims a state of war in the event of military attack on the U.S.S.R., and orders general or partial mobilisation It appoints the high command of the armed forces and pleni- potentiary representatives of the U.S.S.R. to foreign states It institutes and confers titles of honour, orders and medals. In intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet the Presidium issues decrees which are binding on the Union Re- publics. But these decrees must be based on and be within the 10 scope of All-Union laws. Decrees appointing or removing U.S.S.R. Ministers or relating to other questions coming within the powers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are submitted to the earliest session for consideration and approval and they arc considered and approved by the next session of the Supreme Soviet. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is elected at a joint sitting of the two Chambers of the Supreme Soviet. It consists of a president, fifteen vice-presidents (one for each Union Republic), a secretary and fifteen members. The highest organ of power in a Union Republic is the Supreme Soviet of the Republic (see answer No. 4). The Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic elects its Presidium?the standing organ of state power in the territory of that particular Republic. What are the functions of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.? 3 HE Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. is the highest executive and administrative organ of state power in the U.S.S.R.?the Government of the U.S.S.R. The Council of Ministers is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of the two Chamber 4 and consists of a chairman, first vice-chairman, vice-chairmen. Ministers, the chairman of the State Planning Committee, the chairman of the Control Commission, the chairmen of the State Committees on labour and wages, aviation techniques, defence techniques, radio electronics, shipbuilding, construc- tion, chemical industry, foreign economic relations, the chair- man of the State Security Committee, the chairman of the Board of the State Bank of the U.S.S.R., and the head of the Central Statistical Administration, all functioning under the Council. As the Soviet Union is a voluntary federation of equal Soviet Socialist Republics, Article 70 of the U.S.S.R. Constitution pro- vides that the chairman of the Councils of Ministers of the Union Republics are ex-officio members of the U.S.S.R. Gov- ernment. Thus, the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers is made up of the officials enumerated and also the fifteen chairmen of the Councils of Ministers of the Union Republics. 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Ctumcil uiMinisters ,of the UScR ants cm the hams of thr iU.SR. Constantana. ihas responsaile and am-is/musk to the 3.3iK. Supreme Soviet in all of is aunixim, and an the intervuls butweenat:batons of the Supreme Soviet, to its .Presttlium. The Council of Minim= issues decisions and cram on the basis of the lawb iii operation, and sees that they are carried Into itfiect. It eo-ctrritames and directs the work of the and the Stun. Committees, that is, the organs tin charge of the various bruntbrb of stale administration. h adopts the ritasures n=r=1,-y to =cry out the national economic plan and the State budget. It as charged vith maintenance of public order., pro- 'tett= of the =masts of the state and safegmrcling the rights of citizens. it exercises general guidance in the sphere of rela- tions with foreign mates. The Goversimmits of the Union and Autonomists Republics are formed on the same basis as the All-Union Government The rompoattion and powers of the Republican Counrilc of Alinisters urr ?defined by the Constitutions of the respective Republics. 4 J la ere the rights of the Union RepEbllcs? EAC of the fifteen Union Republics, which have freel) sained the Soviet Union, is a sovereign Soviet Socialist State of wcutx:rs and peasants, and accordingly has is own Conso- imam. uhtcb red= the specfic features of the particular re- economic and cultural. h also has its own State Arms, State Flag and National Antimm. 3ts own organs of state power and state administration. -and its padicial orpns. AM instionions and orgamsations of the republic and its - tirdneational =tab ,hrtraits conduct their work in the languages 'the people of - it Republic. '.:The Supreme r of the Republic exercises supreme state power on the 1.=-? of the Republic. It enacts laws which laws. have binding in the Republic along with all-Union h cLts the Pr:- of the Supreme Soviet?the highest organ of laze pow: - -1 the mtervals between its sessions?and it appal= the Gave - -nent--the Council of Ministers?which 12 plans and directs the Republic's economic and cultural develop- ment and guides all executive and administrative activity there. The Supreme Soviet also elects the Republic's Supreme Court ?the highest judicial organ. The competence of the Republican authorities embraces the major questions of state activity. The Union Republic manages independently its revenues under the Republic's budget, which is approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic. The bulk of industrial enterprises in the Republic arc under the authority of the Republic. The rights of the Union Republics in the spheres of education, public health and cultural develop- ment are practically unrestricted. Finally, each Union Republic has the right to enter into direct relations with foreign states, conclude agreements with them and exchange diplomats and consular representatives. The Ukrainian and Byelorussian Union Republics are foundation members of the United Nations. All Union Republics, irrespective of the size of their population or territory or level of economic and cultural development enjoy in equal measure all the rights of independent states, including the right to secede from the Soviet Union, reserved to them by the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. All participate on an equal basis in governing the Soviet Union as a whole. The chairmen of the Presidiums of the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics as a rule are vice- chairmen of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, and the chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republics are ex officio members of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers. Likewise, the chairmen of the Supreme Courts of the Union Republics are ex officio members of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Court. The only limitation on the sovereignty of the Union Republics is the clearly defined restriction with respect to questions of state activity which they have themselves voluntarily delegated to the all-Union state organs. However, in deciding these questions, too, the interests of every Union Republic are safeguarded by its representation in the highest organs of state of the Soviet Union and by special rights vested in them, namely, that Union Republics have the right to demand the convocation of an extraordinary session of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet or the holding of an all-Union referendum on questions they deem necessary. 13 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Actually, the Union Republics have not found it necessary even once to have recourse to this extraordinary proceeding, since in their close co-operation as socialist states with equal rights each is freely developing to the full extent of its pos- sibilities, enjoying fraternal support from the other Union Republics. As the Union Republics progress economically and culturally the prerogatives of the central, all-Union organs diminish and the functions of the Republican authorities become broader. In recent years especially much has been done in this respect; effective measures have been taken to do away with excessive centralisation and substantially to extend the rights of the Republics' organs with respect to economic and cultural development. The sovereign rights of the Union Republics are safeguarded and protected by the U.S.S.R. Constitution and by the tradi- tions and activity of the Soviet people. ? 5 Inat are Autonomous Soviet Republics, Autonomous Regions and National Areas? THE Union Republics, besides being inhabited by the nation that has given the Republic its name, are inhabited also by other peoples. The latter, constituting a minority of the Republic's population, are distinguished by specific national features. Where these peoples form a compact mass, they may form Autonomous Soviet Republics, Autonomous Regions or National Areas, if they so desire. . The Autonomous Republic is a Soviet Socialist State of workers and peasants, forming a constituent part of a partcular Union Republic, and through it, of the Soviet Union. The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic includes oer within its boundaries the Tatar, Bashkir, Daghestan, Buryat, Kabardine-Balkarian, Kalmyck, Checheno-Ingush, Karelian, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North Ossetian, Udmurt, Chuvash and Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Abkha- zian and Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics. The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Nakhi- chevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. 14 The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. What rights does an Autonomous Republic possess? An Autonomous Republic exercises state power on the basis of autonomy on its territory. This means that the people who form the Republic enjoy the right to self-government with regard to their domestic affairs. All state organs and institutions of an Autonomous Republic use the language of that Republic's people. Each Autonomous Republic has its own Constitution, which takes account of its specific national features and is drawn up in conformity with the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and the Constitution of the Union Republic of which it forms a part. The Autonomous Republic enacts its own laws, the obser- vance of which is obligatory on its territory. All-Union laws and the laws of the Union Republic of which the Autonomous Republic is a constituent part are also effective on the territory of the Autonomous Republic. The frontiers of the Autonomous Republics are fixed by the highest state power in the Union Republic in question. Autonomous Republics have their own higher legislative organs (Supreme Soviets) and higher executive and administrative organs (Councils of Ministers). They are ensured equal partici- pation in the highest organs of power of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic of which they form a part. Each of them elects deputies directly to the Soviet of Nationalities of the U.S.S R. Supreme Soviet, and takes part in the election of deputies from the Union Republic to the Soviet of Nationalities. One of the forms of national state structure of the Soviet peoples is the Autonomous Region. It differs from the ordinary regions in national composition. Autonomous Regions enjoy rights additional to those of the ordinary administrative regions. They decide what language is to be used in conducting the business of the state apparatus and instruction in schools, and they elect deputies directly to the Soviet of Nationalities of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. The Soviet of Working Pc.ople's Deputies of the Autonomous Region adopts Statutes of the Autonomous Region which take into account the region's specific national features. These statutes are approved by the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic of which the region forms a part. 15 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Nationalities which are small in number are organised in National Areas. There are ten of these in the U.S.S.R. and they are component parts of one or another region or territory of the RS.F.S.R.?mostly in the far north. National Areas have their own organs of power, Soviets of Working People's Deputies of the National Areas, which, like the schools, conduct their work in the languages of the local population and send their deputies directly to the Soviet of Nationalities of the U.S.S.R. All these various forms of state structure?Union Republic, Autonomous Republic, Autonomous Region, National Area? make it possible to look after the needs and requirements of the different peoples inhabiting the vast multi-national socialist state which is the U.S.S.R. They play an important part in the economic and cultural advancement of the Soviet peoples. 6 1 How has the national question been solved in the U.S.S.R.? LONG before the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had worked out its basic demands on the national question, and on the establishment of Soviet power it started out undeviatingly to put them into effect. Underlying the demands are the Leninist principles of equality and friendship of the peoples and proletarian internationalism Marxism-Leninism is based on the proposition that no nation can be free if it oppresses other peoples, and that is why Lenin considered it necessary "to link up the revolutionary struggle for socialism with a revolutionary programme on the national question". In the "Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia", published on November 3rd [16], 1917 are proclaimed the cardinal principles of the Soviet State's national policy; equality and sovereignty of the peoples of Russia; the right of the peoples of Russia to free self-determination, including secession and formation of independent states; abolition of all national and national-religious privileges and restrictions whatsoever; and free development of the national minorities and ethnographic groups inhabiting the territory of Russia. 16 Guided by these principles, the Soviet Government has solved in practice the national question in Russia, one of the most complex social questions, establishing among the numerous peoples living in the country friendly and fraternal relations such as had never existed before. The peoples inhabiting former tsarist Russia were afforded the opportunity of making use freely and without hindrance of the right of self-determination and to set up independent states. Poland and Finland, for instance, seceded from Russia and set up bourgeois states. The other peoples voluntarily joined the workers' and peasants' state. Peoples that had never before enjoyed statehood won it and peoples who had lost it regained it. In the "Declaration of Rights Of the Toiling and Exploited People" adopted in January 1913 by the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets we read that "the Russian Soviet Republic is constituted on the basis of a free union of free nations, as a federation of Soviet national Republics." The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) was formed in December, 1922, and today it has as constituent members fifteen Union Republics enjoying equal rights, eighteen Autono- mous Republics, ten Autonomous Regions and ten National Areas, all united by a common desire to build Communist society and permeated by the common proletarian ideology of friendship and fraternity of the peoples. In tsarist Russia the non-Russian nationalities suffered brutal national oppression. They were officially called "aliens", which underscored their dependent and inferior status. The ruling class preached the reactionary ideology of bour- geois nationalism and chauvinism, kindled national strife and tried to set the workers of one nation against those of another in order to control them more easily. In opposition to the reactionary ideology of bourgeois nation- alism and chauvinism, the country's working class preached the ideology of internationalism and friendship of the peoples. The Communist Party has untiringly united the working people of all nationalities in the country around the Russian proletariat. Even before the victory of the October Revolution Lenin wrote; "As against the old world, the world of national oppres- sion, national strife or national isolation, the workers arc offering 17 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 a new world of unity of the toilers of all nations, a world in which there is no place for any privilege or for the slightest oppression of man by man." After the victory of the October Revolution it was precisely this "new world of unity of the toilers", of which Lenin dreamed, that was set up in the U.S.S.R., a model of national peace and co-operation of free peoples. All nations and nationalities inhabiting the U.S.S.R. have, since the establishment of Soviet power, made vast progress in government, and in economic and cultural development. Equality of the nations under the law has been reinforced by equality in fact. With the aid of the Russian and other peoples a number of peoples of the Soviet Union have eliminated their former back- wardness, making a leap from patriarchal, feudal forms of economy to socialism, skipping the capitalist stage. Large centres of modern industry have emerged in the national republics, regions and districts, including centres of the iron and steel, engineering, electric power, chemical, light and food industries. As a result of the victory of the collective farm system agri- culture in those areas has passed from the use of the primitive farm implements to modern tractors, combines and other machines (see answer No. 36). Many higher educational establishments have been opened in the Union Republics, also Academies of Sciences, and a native intelligentsia has developed, devoted to the cause of the people and the international unity of the peoples. In Soviet years forty-eight nationalities and national groups have created a written language and literature for the first time in their history (see answer No. 69). The victory of socialism in the U.S.S.R. lifted the formerly oppressed peoples to the status of truly equal peoples and transformed the old, bourgeois nations into new, socialist. nations. To illustrate, while before the Revolution in the whole of the Turkestan territory there were altogether some 50,000 industrial workers, today in Uzbekistan alone more than 300.000 persons arc employed in its industrial enterprises. The Republic now has its own heavy industry, making steel, building machines and producing oil. 18 Before the October Revolution there were approximately 160 schools on the territory of Uzbekistan with an enrolment of 17,000 children, and one specialised secondary school, staffed by some 700 teachers in all. The native populations of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan were practically 100 per cent illiterate (literates made up altogether 0.2 per cent). Today Uzbekistan alone has more than 5,400 schools staffed by 71,000 teachers giving instruction to 1,300.000 pupils. Before the Revolution there was not a single educational establishment in all of Turkestan; today Uzbekistan alone has thirty-one higher schools and 100 specialised secondary schools with an aggre- gate enrolment of more than 130,000 young boys and girls. Equally striking changes have taken place in the other Repub- lics of the Soviet East. The solution of the national question in the U.S.S.R. and the achievements of the peoples of the Soviet East have sub- stantiated a cardinal thesis of Lenihism that colonial, dependent and under-developed countries can, if they cast off the yoke of imperialism, wipe out their backwardness and take up the path of building socialism. The experience gained in building socialism in the U.S.S.R. is being widely used in the other countries of the socialist camp and elsewhere all over the world. The solution of the national question in the U.S.S.R. and the triumph of the ideology of friendship and equality of the Soviet peoples have acquired international importance and arc an in- spiring example for all nations and nationalities the world over. How are Soviets elected? II 7 DEPUTIES to all Soviets?from the rural Soviet to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.?arc elected by the voters on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Elections in the U.S.S.R. are universal. All citizens who have reached the age of eighteen take part in them, irrespective of sex, social origin, property status, past activities, race or nation- ality. Soviet citizens have the right to take part in all elections, whether they arc "resident" or "non-resident" in the area covered, whether they profess any religion or none. 19 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 le% Ho' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Members of the armed forces enjoy the same electoral rights as other citizens. Persons who have been convicted by a court of law and whose sentences include deprivation of electoral rights have no right to vote or be elected during the period fixed in the court sentence.' Apart from this, only the insane have no right to vote or be elected. Elections of deputies are equal, for each citizen has one vote and all citizens take part in the elections on an equal footing. Elections are direct. Deputies to all Soviets, including the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., are elected not through dele- gates but by the voters themselves. Any citizen who has reached the age of twenty-three is eligible for election as deputy to the Supreme. Soviet of the U.S.S.R. Any citizen who has reached the age of twenty-one can be elected deputy to the Supreme Soviet of a Union or Autonomous Republic. Any citizen who has reached the age of eighteen can be a deputy to a local Soviet. Elections arc conducted by secret ballot. The voter himself fills in the ballot paper in a special booth, in which no one else may be present, and he drops the ballot paper into the box himself. The complete secrecy of voting guarantees the people free expression of their will. Candidates can be nominated by public organisations or by working people at general meetings of workers at their enter- prises and institutions, of peasants in their villages and collective farms, of servicemen in their units. At the election meetings, Communists and non-Party people nominate joint candidates and then jointly campaign for them This election bloc of Communists and non-Party people follows from the fact that in the U.S.S.R. the Communists and the non- Party people have common interests. Both have the same aim? to ensure a high living standard for all working people, to live in peace and friendship with all peoples, and to build Com- munism in the U.S.S.R The electorate takes part in the organisation of elections and the supervision of the way in which they are conducted. For this purpose electoral commissions are formed of representa- tives of public organisations of the working people. I In the new draft Fundamentals of the Criminal Code the power of courts to deprive citizens of electoral rights is abolished. 20 Soviet elections are truly elections by the people. Thus, in February 1946, out of 101,000,000 electors 99.7 per cent cast their vote in the elections to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. In March 1950, out of 111,000,000 electors, 99.98 per cent voted, and in March 1954, 120,727,826 went to the polls, also 99.98 per cent of the electors. In March 1958, 133,796,091 (or 99.97 per cent) voted. In the U.S.S.R. the deputy is a servant of the people. Any deputy who does not justify the confidence placed in him by the electors may be recalled by them at any time. What Jurisdiction have local Soviets? THE local Soviets of Working People's Deputies in terri- tories, regions, districts, cities, villages and settlements are the organs of state power in their respective territories. Under the Constitution they are elected for a term of two years by secret ballot by all men and women who have reached the age of eighteen by election day. With respect to social composition, the local Soviets reflect the class structure of socialist society, being composed of workers, peasants and members of the intelligentsia. A good example is offered by the composition of the Moscow City Soviet elected in March 1957. Among its 853 deputies are 377 women; 346 are factory workers, 156 are engineers, scientists or journalists, 88 are heads of industrial enterprises or institu- tions, 26 are teachers, 30 are doctors, 159 are officials of Party, trade unions, youth or other public organisations. The local Soviets direct local economic and cultural affairs, safeguard public order and see that the laws are observed and the rights of citizens are protected. All local Soviets have their own budgets. In 1957 the rights of the local Soviets were further extended in connection with the reorganisation of economic management in the country. Under the jurisdiction of the local Soviets are thousands of industrial enterprises which earlier had been directed by all- Union or Republican Ministries, mainly factories manufacturing The local Soviets' administrative organs arc their executive consumer goods. 18 21 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ito committees; they are elected at a session of the particular Soviet and are accountable to it. The executive committees have departments to direct the different spheres of economy and culture: local industry, trade, management of residential buildings and housing construction, public education, public health and social maintenance. Execu- tive committees of rural Soviets carry out agricultural inspections. All Soviets except rural and settlement Soviets have planning commissions, whose functions include current and long-range planning of economic and cultural development on the territory served by them. The executive-committee departments as a rule have small staffs, as the Soviets count on the participation of the voters in their activity. Millions of men and women in town and country participate in the work of the local Soviets' standing commis- sions, which are appointed by the Soviets from among the deputies. The local Soviets and the deputies regularly report to their electors on their activity in directing economic and cultural development, and take note of the critical remarks and sugges- tions of the people. 9 I Do classes exist in the U.S.S.R.? yES, they do. But they are new classes?the working class and the collective-farm peasantry, and the intelligentsia (which has nothing in common with that which existed in old Russia). What is the ratio of these classes to the country's total popula- tion (200.200,000 in April 1956)? At the beginning of 1956 wage and salaried workers and their families numbered roughly 117 million; collective farmers, and handicraftsmen united in producers' co-operatives and their families numbered about 11082 million, and peasants farming individually and handicraftsmen working on their own without hired help numbered, together with their families, approximately 1 million. Wage and salaried workers made up (in 19s5) 58 3 per cent; collective farmers and handicraftsmen united in producers' co-operatives 41.2 per cent, 22 and peasants farming individually and handicraftsmen working on their own 0.5 per cent. These figures alone are enough to show that in the U.S.S.R. there are no exploiters, no classes that live by exploiting the labour of others. Exploiting classes were eliminated in the U.S.S.R. long ago. Soviet society consists of two friendly classes--the workers and the peasants?and the intelligentsia which comes from the workers and peasants. The working class of the U.S.S.R. is an entirely new working class, one that is free from exploitation, a working class that has become master of its country's material and spiritual wealth. The Soviet worker is a person of great public interests, versatile knowledge and a constructive attitude to his work. Manr workers regularly contribute articles for the press, write books and pamphlets on their experience at work, or lecture on it in colleges and specialised secondary schools, and so on. Being the advanced class in society, the working class exercises state leadership of society in alliance with the peasantry. The Soviet peasants are similarly free from exploitation. Previously the peasants worked individually on their small hold- ings, with backward technical equipment; or they worked for landlords and rich peasants, suffering hunger and want. Today, Soviet peasants have voluntarily united their farms into agricultural collectives (artels) and are developing them on the basis of collective labour and modern technical equipment. Consequently, the Soviet peasantrY is an entirely new class, the like of which mankind has never before known. The intellectuals?man and women engaged in mental labour ?faithfully serve the Soviet people. They stem from the workers and peasants, and are bound up with the people by their very roots. The Soviet intelligentsia is devoting its strength and knowledge to the common cause of the working people, the building of communist society. 23 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 10 I {nal forms of public property are there in t U.S.S.R.? IN the Soviet Union there is no private ownership of the means of production. In the U.S.S.R. public socialist ownership of the means of production is the invariable rule. This means that Soviet society, which is made up of working people of town and countryside, itself owns the means of production. Article 4 of the U.S.S.R. Constitution reads as follows: "The economic foundation of the U.S.S.R. is the socialist system of economy and the socialist ownership of the instru- ments and means of production, firmly established as a result of the liquidation of the capitalist system of economy, the abolition of private ownership of the instruments and means of production, and the elimination of the exploitation of man by man." Public socialist ownership is the basis of the Soviet system, the source of a prosperous and cultured life for all the working people. Socialist property in the U.S.S.R. exists in two forms: state property (belonging to the whole people) and collective-farm and co-operative property (property of peasant collective farms, property of co-operative societies). The land, Its mineral wealth, waters, forests, mills, factories. mines, rail, water and air transport, banks, communication facilities, large state-organised agricultural enterprises (state (arms, repair and technical service stations, and the like), and also municipal enterprises and the bulk of the dwelling houses in the cities and industrial localities, are state property, that is they belong to the whole people. The common enterprises of collective farms and co-operative organisations, with their livestock and implements, the products of collective farms and co-operative organisations, as well as pro- perty their buildings, constitute co-operative or collective-farm pro- Thus, under socialism the means of production in the towns and in the countryside are public property. While the means of production arc public property, citizens' incomes and savings from work, their dwelling houses and 24 subsidiary home undertakings, articles of domestic economy and use, and articles of personal use and convenience (see answer No. 11) are their personal property. The personal property of citizens is also protected by law. How is the right to own and inherit personal property protected? 11 RTICLE 10 of the U.S.S.R. Constitution declares: "The personal property right of citizens in their incomes and savings from work, in their dwelling houses and sub- sidiary home enterprises, in articles of domestic economy and use and articles of personal use and convenience, as well as the right of citizens to inherit personal property, is protected by law." Every Soviet citizen is free to dispose of his savings as it seems best to him. He or she may use them to build a home or a cottage in the country, to buy a car or anything else desired. It all depends on one's earnings and savings, which arc not restricted. A worker who wishes to build his own house is given a plot of land by the state, free of charge. On application, endorsed by both the trade union and the management of his place of work, the State Bank grants a loan of 5,000 to 10,000 roubles, repayable over five to ten years on easy tcrms. Interest is charged at the low rate of 2 per cent per annum. In addition, the state provides building materials and free technical advice. It is, however, against Soviet law to derive unearned income from one's savings or other personal property. Speculation or usury is a criminal offence punishable by law. A citizen of the U.S.S.R. has the right to bequeath his personal property, i.e. savings from work, house, personal effects, copy- rights and patents. 25 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 12 S- , (.A _i?T7. _ .....-...-i.=.-_-:-.,,?_-_,- .....=-----___...,?-- ___-:- ..J.-?7:2::rtrjlgag- ::-C.I..."? _,,:v.".......i.......?_,,,,..7..----..---a'a. I!?k S_%.1k.tr.1.. --.L..r......-. mA,1,5:0 -? ...r.....;,- ,,-...... -=-- ___...-- ""?'-., ___r_____ 47-7.,..'4732=aym : oi 21;u:. ..,.: ? ..7- , ,;P77,-. n.=:::-..--.7i-1.-= L_N 1.:1...? .:',..1t .1r- ., :.-: 42.1- 4-"=",- --.: 7:-...._._.?=7:? L. velet=c `,)1 ktk.L',1,44?43tro- , :I 1 14,A.340.4= s,', ,,h-:_.,f ? 4 k`;i!t1 S.' A'N''' ' 04" .7-?fneir of 4---,----r_ .1-,.....-.2?. - , ----.....?z__=- - .zm===== s'i 61 re -?? 7, i.., 41, -.71,1- ^,---...!---- za---- ,... `...,* -i=r4=ZR 144,f, All ?Oiee-TM' ' .a.Sri..-'7;----."-----..-- 74...--"---- ?"r--.`.?```a"- ( sJ tlii.,, I 1 s ,,i_440,44"- it ,fnr ,,, 1 I ?,, , , ?Ic? the, 1:-S \ i': - ,-;- .:---- ' if1 qi'lk% 2.1.,.:f. (.4(X)NVI----s.a........ser....."---- 1!111.1tt, y,ty.- son or trade, complete equality with men in the family, in rearing the children, and in the right to inherit property. There is no sphere of economic or cultural, political or other public activity, where women may not display their knowledge. bents or talent. In pre-revolutionary Russia the overwhelming majority of women working for hire were employed as domestic servants 50 per cent), or farm-hands working for rich peasants or landed roprietors (25 per cent). In the Soviet Union women make up practically half of all wage and salaried workers; 45 per cent of those employed in gdustry, approximately 70 per cent of those employed in the educational system, 85 per cent in the public health service, and 49 per cent of those working in administrative bodies or public organisations. The Soviet people rate highly the work of their mothers, wives and sisters, as can be seen from the fact that more than a million working women have been awarded orders or medals, and almost 3,000 have won the title of Hero of Socialist Labour. Since Soviet power opened wide the doors to schools and higher educational establishments for all people several genera- tions of talented women engineers, technicians and agricultural -specialists have developed. More than 10,000 women have degrees or titles, with more than 1,000 employed on the staff of Moscow University as teachers or scientific workers, among them twenty-nine professors and 500 doccnts and Candidates of Science. Soviet women of various nationalities prominent in the arts? ballet and drama, music and folk dancing, circus and music hall ?are known throughout the U.S.S.R. and abroad as well. The Soviet people are justly proud of many women architects, sculptors and painters, and there are also many famous women prose writers and poets. The Soviet Government draws women citizens widely into the work of state administration. More than half a million women workers, peasants and members of the professions, arc deputies to local Soviets, and more than 2,000 are deputies to Supreme Soviets of the Union or Autonomous Republics. The number of women deputies to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet keeps growing from one election to the next. The Fifth Supreme Soviet elected on March 16th, 1958, has 366 women 27 "I IV, 1) %?`...-k. S., 11 : i41 11(111?Jt .-,t4 ? t t I.' I I ;1-.> . ot? a.? ? ,? , r.r: ? 1?. - , - Thear,L? rumor- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 12 What does the equality of all Soviet citizens mean? SOVIET society does not recognise any difference in rights as between men and women, "residents" and "non-residents", educated and uneducated, religious and those without religion. In Soviet society all citizens enjoy equal rights. Position in society is determined not by property status, sex, or national origin, but by work and ability. Every Soviet citizen is guaranteed the right to work, rest and leisure, education, material security in old age and in sickness or disablement. All citizens are guaranteed political freedoms: freedom of speech, of the press, of meeting and demonstration, of uniting in public organisations. They are also secured free- dom of conscience A Soviet citizen of any nationality is eligible for election to any organ of state power, or for appointment to any governing post, All citizens receive equal pay for equal work. They are free to take up any trade, to enter any educational establishment, to engage in any scientific, literary, political or other public activity. Women in the U.S.S.R. are accorded equal rights with men in all spheres of economic, government, cultural, political and other public activity. 13 What role do women play in the life of the Soviet Union? THE U.S.S.R. Constitution, the country's fundamental law, defines women's place in the life of the Soviet people, their .., role in building and developing the socialist state. Article 122 of the Constitution has secured them equal rights ith men in all spheres of economic, government, cultural, political and other public activity. The age-old aspirations of women have come true in the U.S.S.R.: equal right to work and equal pay for equal work, state protection of the interests of mother and child (see answer No. 88), unlimited opportunity to acquire an education, profes- 26 sion or trade, complete equality with men in the family, in rearing the children, and in the right to inherit property. There is no sphere of economic or cultural, political or other public activity, where women may not display their knowledge, bents or talent. In pre-revolutionary Russia the overwhelming majority of women working for hire were employed as domestic servants (50 per cent), or farm-hands working for rich peasants or landed proprietors (25 per cent). In the Soviet Union women make up practically half of all wage and salaried workers; 45 per cent of those employed in industry, approximately 70 per cent of those employed in the educational system, 85 per cent in the public health service, and 49 per cent of those working in administrative bodies or public organisations. The Soviet people rate highly the work of their mothers, wives and sisters, as can be seen from the fact that more than a million working women have been awarded orders or medals, and almost 3,000 have won the title of Hero of Socialist Labour. Since Soviet power opened wide the doors to schools and higher educational establishments for all people several genera- tions of talented women engineers, technicians and agricultural specialists have developed. More than 10,000 women have degrees or titles, with more than 1,000 employed on the staff of Moscow University as teachers or scientific workers, among them twenty-nine professors and 500 docents and Candidates of Science. Soviet women of various nationalities prominent in the arts? ballet and drama, music and folk dancing, circus and music hall ?are known throughout the U.S.S.R. and abroad as well. The Soviet people are justly proud of many women architects, sculptors and painters, and there are also many famous women prose writers and poets. The Soviet Government draws women citizens widely into the work of state administration. More than half a million women workers, peasants and members of the professions, are deputies to local Soviets, and more than 2,000 are deputies to Supreme Soviets of the Union or Autonomous Republics. The number of women deputies to the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet keeps growing from one election to the next. The Fifth Supreme Soviet elected on March 16th, 1958, has 366 women 27 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 deputies, or 26.4 per cent of the total. Four women are members of the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. Participation by women in governing the state and in other public activity is not confined to those elected by the people as their deputies. A great many women have been elected people's judges or people's assessors, and there is no trade union committee any- where in the Soviet Union in which women are not widely represented. A woman Minister can be found in every Union and Autonomous Republic, and a woman factory director, school principal, or collective-farm chairman is a common phenomenon. The socialist system has at the same time raised high the dignity of mothers (see answer No. 88). Motherhood is recognised in the U.S.S.R. as an important social function of women, and care of mother and child is a major duty of the state. Soviet times have witnessed the establishment of 7,000 women's medical consultation centres and 200,000 beds in maternity homes. 14 , What are the rights and duties of Soviet citizens? HE Constitution of the U.S.S.R. has secured to Soviet citizens extensive rights in all spheres of political, economic and cultural activity. These liberties testify to the true democracy of the Soviet system, to the harmony of personal and public interests. Soviet citizens' fundamental rights are: the right to work, that is, the right to guaranteed employment and payment for their work in accordance with its quantity and quality; the right to rest and leisure; the right to maintenance in old age and in sickness or disablement; the right to education; personal property rights to their incomes and savings from work, to their dwelling houses and subsidiary husbandries and the right to inherit personal property. . Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have also been secured the following freedoms: the freedom of conscience, that is, the freedom of professing or not professing a religion and likewise the freedom of religious worship or anti-religious propaganda; freedom of 28 speech and of the press, freedom of assembly, including the hold- ing of mass meetings, street processions and demonstrations. Citizens are also guaranteed the right to form and belong to public organisations. The most active and politically conscious citizens in the ranks of the working class, working peasants and working intelligentsia voluntarily belong to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which is the vanguard of the working people in their struggle to build communist society (see answer No. 21). The Soviet State guarantees the citizens of the U.S.S.R. in- violability of the person and of the home, and the privacy of correspondence. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to elect and be eligible for election to the representative bodies of the state. A cardinal feature of Soviet democracy is that the rights and freedoms are secured to all citizens of the U.S.S.R., irrespective of sex, nationality or race, social status, origin or office. The rights and freedoms are not merely proclaimed in the Constitution; they are actually guaranteed and the means pro- vided for exercising them. Thus, the right to work is ensured by the socialist organisation of the national economy, the steady growth of the productive forces of Soviet society, the elimination of the possibility of economic crises and the abolition of unemployment. Freedom of the press is ensured by placing at the disposal of the working people and their organisations printing presses and stocks, of paper for the publication of books, magazines and newspapers, and the possibility for every citizen to write to newspapers and criticise any state official, and so on. Along with securing citizens of the U.S.S.R. democratic rights and freedoms, the Constitution also imposes on them certain duties, among which are: the duty to abide by the Constitution of the U.S.S.R., to observe the laws, to maintain labour discipline, honestly to perform public duties, to respect the rules of socialist behaviour and to safeguard and fortify public socialist property. Military service in the armed forces of the U.S.S.R. is an honourable duty of the citizens of the U.S.S.R., and to defend the country is the sacred duty of every citizen. The duties as well as the rights apply equally to all citizens. 29 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 What are the Soviet laws regarding marriage and the family? THERE is complete equality between husband and wife in the Soviet family, which is built on a foundation of mutual respect, friendship and affection. The Soviet State safeguards and protects the stability of the home. Both parties are guaranteed full equality in their rights and duties under the law, which allows no impairment of the woman's rights, and holds both parties equally responsible for the upbringing of their children. Property accumulated after marriage belongs to both parties in equal measure. Each of the parties is responsible for the maintenance of the other in case of disability. Soviet laws provide penalties for undermining the home by irresponsible conduct and for failure to support one's children. A marriage in the Soviet Union is contracted by registration at the Civil Registry Bureau of the local Soviet of Working People's Deputies. The fact of marriage is recorded in the pass- ports of both parties. With the aim of strengthening family life, and protecting the interests of mother and child, Soviet law allows termination of the married state only through court proceedings and only on serious grounds. Divorce proceedings are held in private at the request of either party. If the court finds it proper to grant a divorce, it specifies in the judgment which parent is to keep the children, divides the property between the husband and wife, and permits the parties to resume their original surnames if they so desire. Re-marriage without the dissolution of a previous marriage, bigamy and polygamy are prohibited by law. 30 flow is freedom of conscience exercised in the 16 U.S.S.R.? IN the Soviet Union, in conformity with Article 124 of the Constitution, the Church is separated from the state, and the school from the Church. The Church has no right to interfere in the political activities of the state. Neither does the state interfere in the internal affairs of the Church. No Church receives any money from the state. All Church organisations and the clergy are supported by voluntary contributions from members of the Church. All churches and religions enjoy equal rights. There is no state religion in the U.S.S.R. All believers may freely attend church, mosque, synagogue, or other house of worship, in accordance with their religion to worship and perform religious rites. Any believer may invite a clergyman to his home to perform religious rites. The right of Soviet citizens to profess any religion or none, to freely express atheistic views and conduct anti-religious propa- ganda, without, however, offending the feelings of believers, is guaranteed by law. The Soviet State makes no distinction between citizens because of religion. In official documents (passports, marriage certificates, birth certificates etc.) the citizen's religion is not indicated. Officials' have no right to enquire into the religion of citizens applying for work or admission to an educational establishment. Religion is the private, personal affair of the citizens, a matter of their conscience, the freedom of which is strictly protected by Soviet law. Religious intolerance, even the slightest, is not permitted in the Soviet Union. Believers who wish to perform religious rites collectively may set up religious congregations on a voluntary basis. Such congregations may be formed if as few as twenty members are ready to join them. The state grants these congregations the free use of buildings to hold services and perform other religious rites. Congregations may also build new houses of worship. Central or local authorities assign premises for religious schools and provide paper and printshops for the publication of religious books and church magazines. The denomination having the largest number of adherents in the U.S.S.R. is the Russian Orthodox Church. It is headed by 31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 A/exey, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, who uns elected at a Church Council held in 1945. The Patriarch took his monastic vows more than half a century ago, in 1902. He has an advisory body?the Holy Synod. The religion having the second largest number of adherents in the USSR. is the Moslem Faith (Islam). The Moslems residing on the territory of the U.SS.R. have four ecclesiastical centres (Religious Boards): in Baku, capital of the Azerbaijan S.S.R.; in Tashkent, capital of the Uzbek S.S.R.; in Ufa, capital of the Bashkir ASS.R.; and in the city of Bilinaksk, in the Daghestan ASS.R. The overwhelming majority of the Moslems in the U.SS.R. are Sunnites, but there are a good many Shi-ites in the Azerbaijan Republic, the Central Asian Republics and in n number of other districts of the Soviet Union. In contrast to pre-revolutionary times, there is no strife today between the Sunnites and Shi-ites in the US.S.R. At the Congress of the Peoples for Peace held in Vienna in 1952 Sheikh UI-Islam Akhund Aga All Zade, the representative of the Moslems of the Soviet Union, said in his speech: "By the will of Allah, it has been the good fortune of myself and my contemporaries to live to the day when I could see with my own eyes how the peoples of the multi-national Soviet Union ?and the Moslems among this friendly family?have gained their happiness on earth. . . . In the Soviet Union all peoples enjoy equal rights and have their independent states?the Soviet Republics; the native language is used in all institutions, all peoples are prosperous and among them fraternal friendship has been established; they have become cultured and they have mastered science and art. Moslems have full religious liberty and Islam enjoys the same rights as all other religions." Other large denominations are: The Buddhis:s, headed by the well-known Buddhist spiritual leader, the Bandido Hambo Lama Lobsan Nima Darmayev. He is chairman of the Central Ecclesiastical Board of the Buddhists in the U.S.S.R. and maintains his residence in the city of Ivolginsk, in the Buryat A.S.S.R. The Roman Catholic Church, mainly to be' found in the svestem part of the U.S.S.R. in the Latvian and Lithuanian Republics. The Staroobriatsi (Old Believers). The Orthodox Church of Georgia. 32 The Armenian (Gregorian) Church. The Evangelical Christian Baptist Church. The Lutheran Church. The Jewish Religion. Besides the larger religious denominations enumerated above, there are in the U.S.S.R. also other denominations with much smaller numbers of adherents. These are the Seventh-Day Adventists, Reformati, Molokani, Karaites, Dukhobors, Metho- dists And so on. All of these religious associations, regardless of the number of their adherents, enjoy the same rights as the larger denomina- tions. Only fanatical sects, which make mutilation the basis of their creed (such as the Skoptsy, who castrate their followers), are not allowed in the U.S.S.R. To consider problems relating to the internal affairs of the Church, central ecclesiastical bodies convene congresses or con- ferences, which are attended by the clergy and representatives of the laity. Religious denominations have their own academies, seminaries and other schools for training clergymen. Ecclesiastical centres freely maintain intercourse with their co-religionists abroad, and some of them, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Armenian Church, for instance, have their own cparchics or representatives in foreign lands. The clergy enjoy all political rights equally with all other citizpns of the U.S.S.R. They may vote in all elections to organs of state power and they are eligible for election to them. Leaders of all religious denominations, the rank-and-file clergy and the believers are actively participating in the peace movement in the U.S.S.R. Nikolai, Metropolitan of Krutitsy and Kolomna (Russian Orthodox Church), Archbishop Turs, head of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of the Latvian S.S.R., with head- quarters in Riga, are members of the U.S.S.R. Peace Committee. The late Mufti Ishan Babakhan Ibn Abdul Mcdjid-Khan, the head of the Moslems of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, was also a member of the committee. In the activities of religious denominations questions arise that require solution by government bodies, and this has been taken into account by the Soviet Government. For this purpose there have been set up a Council for Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church and a Council for Affairs of Religious Cults. These Councils assist ecclesiastical bodies to solve problems requiring consultation with state authorities and institutions; they also 11 33 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 supervise the proper application of the laws covering freedom of conscience and freedom of religious worship, and they draft bills and regulations on questions raised by religious bodies 17 How is justice administered? THE function of Soviet courts of justice is to safeguard the labour and property rights and interests of Soviet citizens and to protect the rights and lawful interests of state institutions, enterprises, co-operative and other public organisations. All courts, from the People's Court, which is the lowest, to the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., which is the highest, are elective The Jurisdiction of each court is strictly defined. The bulk of criminal and civil cases are tried by the People's Courts (each composed of a Judge and two People's Assessors), which are found in every town and district. The territorial, regional, city and area courts hear cases involving crimes against the state and disputes between state and public organisations, and consider appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of the People's Courts. Supervision of the judicial activities of all courts in a particular Union Republic is exercised by the Supreme Court of the Union Republic, and the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. exercises supervision to ensure compliance with federal laws by the courts and hears disputes in which the interests of Union Republics are involved In all courts, cases are tried with the participation of People's Assessors The powers of these People's Assessors, who are elected on the same basis as People's Judges, are the same as those of the Judges, and this equal authority constitutes the most important principle of the entire Soviet judicial system. The Soviet Constitution provides for the complete indepen- dence of Judges. No government body or official may influence in any way the outcome of a trial. The court's judgment or decision must be in strict conformity with the law and based on the evidence in the case. It must be stated, however, that for a certain period these 34 clear and strict requirements of the law were distorted. The vigorous measures taken by the Communist Party and the Soviet Government have resulted in rectification of the injustice done in the cases in which wrong verdicts were rendered, and provision has been made to preclude the possibility of similar deviations from the law in future. All citizens are equal before the law. There are no special courts in the U.S.S.R. for any category of the population. The People's Court is the same for all citiiens. Judicial proceedings are conducted in the language of the Union or Autonomous Republic, Autonomous Region or National Area, persons unfamiliar with that language being pro- vided with an interpreter. All citizens have the right to use their own language in court. One of the most important principles of .the Soviet court is that cases are heard in public. The only exceptions are cases involving state or military secrets, or at the request of the litigants where their intimate relations are concerned. The Soviet court performs a great educational function. The laws of the U.S.S.R. reject punishment as an aim in itself or as a revenge, as a method of humiliating the human dignity of the convict. While punishing criminals, the Soviet court at the same time makes provisions for their correction and re-education. Of major importance for this is that convicts serving sentences are given work paid at regular rates and living conditions not incompatible with human dignity. The Soviet State creates conditions of life and work for con- victs which enable them to atone for their guilt by honest labour and conduct, and regain their status as decent Soviet citizens. Who may become a Judge? 118 ANY Soviet citizen of either sex may become a judge in the U.S.S.R., provided he or she has leached the age of twenty-three and wins the confidence of the voters. People's Judges and People's Assessors are elected by the citizens of the particular district in which the court sits on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage, by secret ballot for a term of three years. One Judge and from fifty to seventy Assessors are elected in 02 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 each election district. The overwhelming majority of the Judges possess a higher or secondary legal education. Judges and Assessors of the higher courts?the territorial and regional courts?as well as members of the Supreme Courts of the Republics and members of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. are elected by the respective Soviets of Working People's Deputies and Supreme Soviets for a term of five years. 19 I Is there a legal profession in the U.S.S.R? Y ES, there is. There are associations (collegiums) of lawyers in all big cities, district centres and in many industrial settlements. Any citizen may practise law who has had a legal education and legal experience. Questions of admission to the legal pro- fession are decided by the associations themselves, which are independent m all their activity. The legal profession in the Soviet Union renders legal aid to citizens and organisations, including state enterprises and collec- tive farms. Lawyers appear in court as counsel for defendants in criminal cases and as representatives of litigants (plaintiffs or defendants) in civil cases. Fees for legal services are low. The defendant may choose lawyer himself, or may ask a lawyers' collegium to appoint one. If a defendant cannot afford to pay the lawyer's fee, the court provides legal assistance in all cases handled by the Pro- curator's Office, or where the accused is physically unable to defend himself (deaf mutes, the blind, and so on), and also where the accused is a minor. The right to legal defence entitles the defendant in a criminal case (and the litigants in a civil suit), or the lawyer, to ask the court to subpoena any number of witnesses, to order any written or material evidence to be produced in court and to have the neces_ 'try documents made exhibits in the case, and also demand expert testimony or recommittal of the case for further investi- gation. 36 What are the powers of the Procurator-General of the U.S:S.R.? 120 THE Procurator-General of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for a term of seven years. He has supreme supervisory power to ensure the proper application and strict observance of the law by all government institutions, officials and private citizens of the U.S.S.R. He is vested with the right to protest against any action, order or instruction of any official, Ministers of the U.S.S.R. included, if it is in contravention of the law. The Procurator-General appoints the Procurators of the Union and Autonomous Republics, territories and regions; they are responsible only to the Procurator-General of the U.S.S.R. and function independently of any local organs. The Procurator- General of the U.S.S.R. approves the appointment by the Pro- curators of the Union Republics, of area, district and city Procurators. The Procurator-General of the U.S.S.R., the Procurators of the Republics, territories and regions, and the city and district .Procurators prosecute for the state in court proceedings. Any citizen of the U.S.S.R. may file a complaint with the Procurator-General against any institution or official violating the law, or a petition seeking protection for his legal rights and interests. Article 127 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. reads: "Citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed inviolability of the person. No person may be placed under arrest except by decision of a court or with the sanction of a Procurator." The Procurator's Office enforces the observance of this Article, and those violating it, no matter what office they may hold, are called to strict account. In the performance of its duties the Soviet procuratorate receives great help from the community. Like the Soviet court, the procuratoratc has close ties with the working people who regard it as the defender of the Soviet social and state system. 37 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 21 IL PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS Ffiert is the role of the Conunsurist Party in the U.S.S.R 'THE Cot=iinist Party of the Soviet Union is the guiding an 6r=ing form of the Soviet State, the leading force Cf Syviet SOthdry. BY the Sal of the people this role of the Party is embodied = the I: c KR_ Constitution.. Article 126 of the Constitution says r''...e Co,.......nast Party of the Soviet Union is the vanguard a le:e zructing pee* in their struggle to build communist sothery 1.-41 is the 1...rling core of all organisations of the work- Ems peat,*? bath public and state. How does the Party guide the Soviet State and the people? I: det-nes the political line to be followed in respect of c=ox qmstiorts of foreign and home policy. It thoroughly 1.:fikes the state of the national economy?industry.-, transport a..nd agimhm-e?slablems of the development of science and cul- =r& studies em experience of the foremost people, and brings sbartoo=2:s to the surface, and on the basis of these studies the Party gives guidance on particular questions of communist ....===nion.. la &-leaMs the activity of the Soviet State the Party does am mph.= the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet In its work it does not tale the plam of either the Soviets, which are the organs of care power. or other oripmsauons of the working people, such as the trade =ions, peasants' co-operatives (collective farms). t"..x YC-L. and so on. These organisauons are non-Party orean- maracas, =lag teas of millions of working people of Soviet sociery?worts, peasants and professional people. The Party ..s forward its line in the mass organisations through the Comma:aim wecting m them. Party members working in the Soviers, wade moos, peasant and producers' co-operatives. mai:Liss-rim factories. cultural and scientific organisations explain to the working people the Party's line, its counsel and proposals and they inur..m- dx, people to carry out the Party's proposals. Explanation and persuasion is the principal method used by the Party to guide ail organisations of the working people which make up the system of the Soviet State. 38 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release The Communist Party has guided Soviet society successfully, leading the country along the path of progress year after year. It adheres to the Leninist principle of collective leadership of the country, which means that all of the Party's decisions on the affairs of the Soviet State are decided by Party leaders not individually, but collectively after thorough discussion by Party congresses, meetings of the Central Committee, or the Presidium of the Central Committee. Collective leadership ensures correct decisions on problems of policy, economy and culture. The Party policy is carried out not only by the Communists but also by the non-Party masses and their organisations. This is due to the fact that the policy of the Communist Party is in accord with the vital interests of the people and of the whole of society. The people and the Communist Party have one and the same goal: to build Communist society and to live in peace and friendship with the peoples all over the world. That is why all members of Soviet society support and follow the policy of the Party, regarding it as their own. The strength of the Party consists, firstly, in that it is armed with advanced Marxist-Leninist theory. This revolutionary, scientifically-grounded theory enables the Communist Party to learn to know the laws of development of society, to foresee the course of events, and to direct them in the interests of the working people, to outline and carry through the correct policy. Knowledge of the economic laws of develop- ment of society, for instance, helps the Party constantly to develop the national economy, to enhance the material welfare of the people and to hurdle all barriers to the goal?the building of the classless Communist society. The strength of the Communist Party lies, secondly, in the unity and solidarity of its ranks, its millions of like-minded people. Lenin, founder of the Party, said that every member of the Party was responsible for the Party, and the Party was responsible for every member. A characteristic feature in the life and activity of the Party is the unity of its ranks and views (world outlook). Finally, the strength of the Communist Party lies in its inseparable ties with the people. It is a truly people's Party, for it is made up of society's best people?foremost workers, pea- sants and professionals?and serves the people only. 39 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn4nnnnAnnno 111 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Party is guided by the Marxist-Leninist teaching that the people are the makers of history. It therefore constantly strengthens its ties with the working people, listens to what they have to say, understands their needs, and not only teaches them, but also learns from them. That is why the Communist Party enjoys the utmost confidence of the people. Its inseparable ties with the people are the major source of the strength of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 22 Why is there only one political party in the U.S.S.R? THE Communist Party is the only political party in the U.S.S.R. This sterns from the country's historical development, from the fact that in Russia triumphed the ideology of the workmg class expressed in the programme and policy of the Communist Party. The working people of the U.S.S.R. need no other party as there are no antagonistic classes in the country, society being made up of workers and peasants, who are bound together by the same aims and actions; by ties of profound friendship and indestructible union; the people's intelligentsia is closely joined with them. Before the establishment of Soviet power Russia had several political parties, as the country then had antagonistic classes: capitalists and proletarians, landlords and peasants. Besides these classes there was also a rural bourgeoisie (kulaks) and an urban pet:y-bourgeoisie. Each class had its own party, which expressed and defended its interests. The party of Russia's working class is the Communist Party, founded by Lenin. It defends the interests not only of the workers but of all working people. It led the peoples of Russia to victory in the Great October Socialist Revolution. The class structure of Soviet society differs fundamentally from the class structure of pre-revolutionary Russia. There have been no capitalists, landlords, kulaks, or urban petty-bourgeoisie in the Soviet Union for a long time. The class of imperialist big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were eliminated during the 40 t'At revolution and civil war, and the urban bourgeois classes ceased to exist following the complete victory of the socialist system in the whole of the national economy. With the elimina- tion of the ,exploiting classes their political parties also dis- appeared. Today there are only two friendly classes in the U.S.S.R.? the workers and peasants?and the people's intelligentsia. The political, economic and spiritual interests of the workers, pea- sants and intelligentsia are identical. Their ultimate goal is also the same?to build up communist society in the U.S.S.R. The interests of all the working people are expressed and defended by one party: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The people have long recognised it as their leader and teacher, for they have become convinced from their experience over many years that the Communist Party, had no aim other than working for the happiness of all working people, and has no other aim today. There is therefore no social ground in the U.S.S.R. for other political parties. What is communism? 123 WHAT is communism, and in what way does it differ from socialism? The teaching of the founders of scientific communism, Marx and Engels, a teaching developed comprehensively by Lenin, propounds that socialism and communism are the two phases, two stages of development of one and the same social system, communist society. Socialism is the first (lower) stage, and communism is the second (higher) stage of communist society. The Soviet people have built up socialism and are now build- ing communist society. While socialism and communism have much in common, there is, nevertheless, a difference between them. The following features are common to both socialism and communism: Under both socialism and communism the economic founda- tion of society is the public ownership of the instruments and means of production and an integrated system of economy. 41 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Neither under socialism nor communism is there social oppression. There are no exploiting classes, no exploitation of man by man, and no national oppression. Under both socialism and communism the national economy is developed according to plan, and there are neither economic crises, nor unemployment and poverty among the masses. Under both socialism and communism everyone is equally bound to work according to his ability. Under communism, just as under socialism, the basic economic law is the maximum satisfaction of the constantly using material and cultural requirements of the whole of society through the continuous expansion and improvement of production on the basis of higher techniques. What then, is the difference between communism and social- ism? Socialist society affords full play for the development of the productive forces. The level reached by socialist production makes it possible for society to give effect to the principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his work." This means that the products are distributed in accor- dance with the quantity and quality of the work performed. In communist society the productive forces will reach anin- comparably higher level of development than under socialism The national economy will develop on the foundation of very high techniques, the production processes will be mechanised and automatised in an all-round way, and people will extensively utilise every source of energy. 1-) The productive forces of society will reach so high a level of development that they will ensure an abundance of all consumer goods and all material and cultural wealth. This abundance of products will make it possible to meet fully the needs of all members of communist society. Social life under communism, therefore, will be guided by the principle: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs. Through lack of knowledge, or sometimes because of hostility towards communism, it has been argued that under communism there will be a levelling of the tastes and needs of all people. But tastes and needs of people are not and cannot be the same or alike in quality or quantity, either under socialism or communism. 41 _ 17. Under communism there will be an all-round and full satis- faction of every demand of the people. Under socialism there are still the working classes?the workers and peasants?and the intelligentsia, among whom there still remains a difference. Under communism there will be no class differences, and the entire people will become working folk of a united, classless communist society. Under socialism there still exists a distinction between town and country. Under communism there will be no essential dis- tinction between town and county, that is, between industry and agriculture. Under socialism there are two forms of public property, namely, state property (belonging to the whole people) and collective farm and co-operative property (property of collective farms and of co-operative societies). Under communism there will be a single form of property?property belonging to the whole people. Under socialism there still exists an essential distinction be- tween mental and manual labour. This distinction consists in that in contemporary socialist society there is still a gap between the cultural and technical standards of people engaged in physical labour and those en- gaged in mental labour. Although among the workers and peasants there are a good many who have risen to the level of engineers or technicians, the cultural and technical level of most workers and peasants, people engaged in physical labour, is still behind the cultural and technical level of the intelligentsia. The very fact that in socialist society the intelligentsia remains a special social stratum is proof that under socialism there still exists an essential distinction between mental and manual labour. Under communism this distinction will disappear, for the cul- tural and technical standard of all working people will reach the standard of engineers and technicians. Under socialism there still exist the survivals of capitalism in the minds of people. Under communism all survivals of capital- ism will disappear. Under communism work will no longer be merely a means of livelihood, but man's primary need in life. These are the main features of communism. 43 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 ? CIA-RDP81 0104-iRnnannnnAnnno g Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 241 What is the cult of the individual? How is the C.P.S.U. overcoming its consequences? THE cult of the individual is the exaggerated adulation of individuals, attributing to them supernatural qualities, deifying and worshipping them. It is an idealistic notion attributing to outstanding individuals a decisive influence on the course of history. This phenomenon has nothing in common with the ideology of Soviet society which is based on the Marxist-Leninist teach- ing that the working people are the motive force of social pro- gress, the real makers of history. Any leader may lose the ability of giving correct leadership if he places himself above the people, or divorces himself from them. The cult of the individual is thoroughly alien to the nature of the Soviet system, a system which arose, grew in strength and developed as a result of the consciousness, labour and will of the popular masses headed by their collective leader and organiser?the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The cult of the individual is an intolerable phenomenon in the Communist Party and socialist society. The harm resulting from it lies in the fact that its dissemina- tion diminishes the role of the Party and the people, and the role of collective leadership in the Party, and leads to serious defects in work and gross violations of socialist .law. Yet this --ugly phenomenon was observed in the Soviet Union over a num- Wei of years, it was connected with the cult of J. V. Stalin which spread among the members of the C.P.S.U. and among the Soviet people at large as well. The Stalin cult manifested itself in attributing to him personal- ly the major 2chievements of the people and the Party in build- ing socialism Lnsf in defending the country against aggressors. Principled critk.isra of the mistakes connected with the Stalin cult of the individual was made and measures for over-coming the consequences of the cult were taken by the Twentieth Con- gress of the C.P.S.U, held in 1956. The Party launched its critic- ism of Stalin's mistakes firstly in order to overcome their con- sequences. and secondly to prevent a repetition of the mistakes. While giving due credit to Stalin for his work in the building of socialism and in the struggle against the anti-Party groups, 44 the Congress pointed out that in his latter years Stalin had made a number of mistakes, violating the standards of Party and state activity. The criticism by the Party and its big effort in eliminating the consequences of the cult of the individual have contributed to the improvement of all the Communist Party's activities and to the consistent adherence to the Leninist principles of col- lective leadership and standards of Party activity, to strict ob- servance of revolutionary law, to the further development of inner-Party and Soviet democracy, to an upswing in ideological work and a growth of the initiative and activity of the working people. The C.P.S.U. and the Soviet people give Stalin his due as a devoted Marxist-Leninist and staunch revolutionary. While criticising the wrong aspects of his activity the Party has fought and continues to fight those who, under the guise of criticising the cult of the individual, are incorrectly picturing and distorting the whole historical period during which Stalin headed the Central Committee of the Party. The Party and the Soviet people know well that such "critic- ism" and talk of "Stalinism" is nothing but a cover for depart- ing from the principles of Marxism-Lcninism. That is why the Communists have combated and will continue to combat all deviations from Marxism-Leninism, all attempts to distort its essence, and will fight against all those who would belittle and compromise the leaders of the Communist and Workers' Parties who are devoted to the Marxist-Leninist cause, to the principles of proletarian internationalism. What is the role of criticism and self-c-iticism 1 25 in Soviet society? IN the Soviet socialist state, in which the workers, peasants and intellectuals are themselves masters of their country, all working people are equally interested in having all their insti- tutions and organisations, their industrial enterprises and col- lective farms, work well, so that day by day, they provide more material and cultural values for the people. That is why, at their meetings and conferences, at sessions of the Soviets and in the newspapers, the Soviet people, both Communists and non-Party people, expose in a forthright way 45 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 defects in the work of state institutions or public enterprises, and criticise poor leaders. They also view their own work critically. This critical attitude towards the activity of government officials, Deputies to the Soviets and towards the work of fellow. workers, Soviet people call criticism. A critical attitude towards their own work and honest public admission of shortcomings in their own work, is called self-criticism. Criticism and self-criticism have always been and are now methods applied by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in its daily work. And, since in the U.S.S.R. communists and non- Party people have the same tasks, and one and the same goal ?the building of communist society?these methods used by the Party in its work have become the daily working methods of all Soviet people. Criticism and self-criticism have become a great force in the development of Soviet society. Forthright criticism of defects in work prompts Soviet people not to be satisfied with their successes, not to become set, but always to go forward, to develop their socialist economy. Criticism and self-criticism help to enlist millions of working people to take part in the solution of important problems of state, develop their activity and inculcate in them the feeling that they are the masters of the country. By availing themselves of this opportunity to criticise openly defects in work, the working people take an active part in guiding the country and its economy. Criticism, by the broad masses, of inferior work of state, DO economic and public organisations is a vivid illustration of the genuine democracy of the Soviet socialist system. The spirit of criticism and self-criticism pervades the entire work of the Communist Party, the Soviets and all organisations of the working people of the U.S.S.R. 46 What is the Young Communist League? HE Lenin Young Communist League of the Soviet Union, Tor Komsomol, as it is known for short, has been in existence since October 29th, 1918. On that day the first congress of Russia's Young Communist League opened in Moscow. It added "Lenin" to its name in 1924 after the death of the founder of the Soviet State. In the forty years it has existed, the Komsomol has grown from a small group of young revolutionaries, 22,000 in all, into a mass organisation of foremost Soviet youth. Today it counts 18,500,000 youngsters in its ranks. Although a non-Party organisation, the Komsomol maintains close ties with the Communist Party, working under the latter's It admits to membership youths and girls who accept its rules leadership. and programme, and express a desire to work in one of its organisations. Applicants must be not less than fifteen years old and membership terminates at the age of twenty-eight. Komsomol organisations are set up in factories, on state and collective farms, in institutions, schools and higher educational establishments. Its primary organisations today number nearly All leading bodies?from the primary organisation committee half a million. to the Central Committee arc elected by secret ballot at meet- The main task set itself by the Komsomol is to educate Soviet ings, conferences or congresses. youth in the spirit of devoted service to their country. It takes an active part in the country's political life, in building Com- munist society, inculcates love for work among the youth, sees to it that the youth regularly improve their working skill, master knowledge and the achievements of advanced science and engineering and know how to apply it in practice in all spheres of the national economy and culture. Over 120,000 Komsomol members are Deputies to Soviets. Seven thousand are Heroes of the Soviet Union. Very often Komsomol organisations in ? itiate valuable under- takings that are of importance to the entire country. During the First Five-Year Plan, the Komsomol was one of the chief initiators of socialist emulation among the working people (sec answer No. 45). 126 47 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 A good many towns and industrial settlements, factories and mines built by the youth have been named in honour of the Komsomol; among the towns are Komsomolsk-on-the-Amur, Komsomolsk-on-the-Volga, Komsomolsk-on-the Pechora, and Komsomolsk in Kazakhstan. Late in 1956 the youth undertook to build thirty-five new coal- mines in the Donbas, and 30,000 youths and girls participated in this work. Formerly it took from two to three years to build a mine of this kind; this time the young people built all thirty- five in one year. The Komsomol played an exceptional part in putting virgin land under crops. In two years more than 350.000 young people settled on the new lands. In the spring of 1958 roughly 100,000 Komsomol meetings were held throughout the country at which the young people discussed the further development of the collective farm system and re-organisation of the machine and tractor stations. A good many suggestions were made at the meetings and they were taken into account by the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet in enacting the law (see answer No. 53). Representing as it does the interests of the youth, the Kom- somol deservedly enjoys great prestige. It has been given the right to take up direct with the government or individual Ministeries questions of work, education, cultural services and problems of every-day life of interest to young people. The Komsomol organisations have their own clubs and libraries, publishing houses, newspapers and a great number of juvenile and children's magazines. .The Komsomol helps and directs the work of the Lenin Young Pioneer Organisation (see answer No. 27). Soviet yot,?,1 take an active part in the work of the World Federation i Democratic Youth, in the Olympic and -World Student Gan, in International festivals. They carry out an extensive exct ,e of delegations with foreign counu-ies and take a most active ?-? Ili the ;:.ople's struggle for peace. 48 IT Who are the Young Pioneers? OUNG Pioneers is the name given to schoolchildren who belong to the Lenin Young Pioneers, a mass children's Y organisation with a membership of 19 million boys and girls between nine and fourteen years of age. The main function of the Young Pioneers' organisation is to help the school and teachers. By their study and conduct Young Pioneers serve as an exampie for other schoolchildren to follow. All kinds of clubs flourish in Young Pioneer organisations: young technicians, iadio amateurs, aircraft modellers, young naturalists, book friends and amateur art circles are just a few. All over the country are to be found Palaces and Houses of Young Pioneers, Young Pioneer parks and sports grounds. In summer-time, millions of Young Pioneers go out to camps, make special, tours, or go on excursions to see the country. Through all of its varied and absorbing work, the Young Pioneer organisation inculcates in the children a conscious attitude towards study, discipline and labour, physical endurance, honesty and truthfulness, a sense of comradeship, respect for elders, and accustoms them to socially useful activities. 1 28 27 How do the Soviet trade unions function? HE Soviet trade unions have a membership of close to 50 Tmillion workers. They are organised along industrial lines: all workers in an enterprise or institution belong to the same union. (Membership is, of course, voluntary.) Every Soviet citizen working in a factory or institution, or studying in a higher educational establishment, specialised secondary school or trade school has the right to join a trade The union statutes provide that every member is entitled to union. vote in elections and is eligible to election to any union body. He has the right to criticise activities of trade union bodies or their officials at meetings and in the press, and to address requests to, or lodge complaints with any leading body, to apply to the union for protection and support of his rights if the management violates the collective agreement or laws in force, covering work. social insurance, cultural or every-day services. , 49 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ir All trade union bodies, from the lowest to the highest, are elected by the members of the union and are accountable to them. Trade union funds come from membership dues, which run from 50 kopeks to one per cent of the wages monthly, depending on the amount earned. All the activity of Soviet trade unions is based on broad democracy and the initiative of the masses on experience gained and approved by the masses. The history of the trade union movement in the U.S.S.R. is a history of drawing ever wider sections of workers into the country's economic and political activities. The trade unions regularly concern themselves with raising the workers' living and cultural standards and educating them in the spirit of communism. In every stage of development of the Soviet Union the trade unions have played an important part in building up the economy and in drawing workers into managing industry and deciding urgent economic and political questions. The role and scope of activity of the trade unions in the socialist state becomes broader all the time. In the Soviet Union the functions of the trade unions are not restricted to defending the economic interests of the working people. Lenin called the trade unions a school of administration, of management, a school of communism, and it is on this classical definition that the Soviet trade unions base their activity. Among the principal functions of the Soviet trade unions are the following: participation in drafting long-range plans of nation-economic development; participation in drafting legisla- tion pertaining to Industry, labour and culture; supervision to ensure observance of labour protection laws and industrial safety rules; participation m planning wages and seeing to it that they are p-operly calculated; administration of the state social insurance f art 3s organisation of socialist emulation and con- clusion of collective acreements with the management (sec answer No 4.1). and settlement of work disputes (see answer No. 42). Union comrlittees at factories organise socialist emulation. help the worke-, to train for higher qualifications, take part in arranging courst, schools and study circles, pass on the ex- perience of the fc -most workers, and popularise new and better production metho _n3 technical innovations. The unions alsc ?tier for the workers material needs and cultural interests. maintain many Palaces of Culture, clubs. libraries and stadiums. They see to it that programmes for hous- ing, cultural and other services are carried out as scheduled, take part in the distribution of fiats in houses belonging to industrial establishments, and provide accommodation at health and holiday The central trade union body for the entire country is the resorts. All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (A.U.C.C.T.U.), which is elected at the All-Union Congress of Trade Unions. The central body for each trade union is the central committee, which is elected at the Congress of the particular union. Trade councils direct the activity of the trade union organisa- tions in the localities (the administrative economic areas). 1 What scientific and cultural associations are there 29 in the U.S.S.R.? IN affording the working people unlimited opportunities to acquire an education, Soviet power has made science and culture available to all the people, and that is why the once backward country, three-quarters of whose population were illiterate, is now occupying a leading place in world science and Contributing to this development, among other things, has culture. been the activity of various societies in which scientific and cultural workers are united. The Constitution of the U.S.S.R. (Article 126) secures to Soviet citizens the right to unite in public organisations and societies, and on this basis many associations of scientific and cultural workers have been organised in the U.S.S.R. The more important The Writers' Union of ti,e U.S.S.R., founded in 1932, today are named below: has a membership of roughly 4,500. It helps to create emulation among writers, growth of artistic skill, all-round development of the forms, styles and genres of the multi-national Soviet litera- ture and gives assistance to budding writers. The highest leading body of tae union is the U.S.S.R. Writers' Congress, and the executive body is the Board, elected by the Congress. Serving under the Board are the following commis- sions:. on the literatures of the peoples of the U.S.S.R., on literary 51 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 criticism, on work with young writers and on children's literature. The union has its own newspaper, magazines and a publishing house, the Soviet Writer Publishing House. The union maintains the Gorky Literary Institute and the Higher Literary Courses. It also has an office for the protection of authors' rights and a Literary Foundation, the function of which is to help improve the general amenities of writers. The other associations of people engaged in creative activity function similarly, each in its own field, and have a similar structure. The U.S.S.R. Journalists' Union (recently established) caters for jou, nalists working on magazines and in publishing houses. The U.S.S.R. Artists' Union, founded in 1939, has a member- ship of 7,800. The U.S.S.R. Architects' Union, founded in 1932, has over 7,400 members. The U.S.S.R. Composers' Union, also founded in 1932, has a membership of 1,240. The recently established Union of Cinema Workers has 1,450 members; it is made up of directors, operators, actors and actresses. Each Union Republic has its own writers' union, composers' union, and so on, and they are affiliated to the appropriate U.S.S.R. organisations on a federative basis. The Union Republics also have theatrical societies, to which the actors, stage directors and other art workers belong. The largest is the All-Russian Theatrical Society, which has sixty-odd branches in regional towns and Autonomous Republics of the R.S.F.S.R. There are many sezntific societies in the country helping the development of different branches of science and the putting into practice of the more important scientific achievements. Among them are the U.S.S R. Geographical Society, one of the world's oldest geographical societies, established in 1845; the U.S.S.R. Mineralogical Society, founded in 1817, and the U.S.S.R. Astronomical and Geodetic Society. There are also twenty-four country-wide medical societies, such as the Society of Anatomists, Histologists and Embryologists, the Pediatrists' Society, the Society of Neurosurgeons, and so on, each representing a particular field of medicine. The twenty-five U.S.S.R engineering and technical societies, organised along ir Justripl and technological lines, occupy 52 themselves with raising and solving new scientific and technical problems and maintaining close contact between science and industry. These unions and societies have their own publishing houses, newspapers and magazines. What peace and international organisations are 30 there in the U.S.S.R? THERE are many public organisations in the U.S.S.R. set up for the purpose of developing and strengthening economic and cultural relations and friendship and co- operation between the Soviet people and the peoples of other countries. The principal organisations are the following: The U.S.S.R. United Nations Association is working to make the United Nations a real instrument of peace, an organisation of international co-operation. It is affiliated to the World Federa- tion of United Nations Associations. The Soviet Peace Committee, founded in 1949, heads the peace movement in the U.S.S.R. and maintains contact with peace organisations elsewhere in the world. The Soviet Peace Com- mittee represents the peoples of the U.S.S.R. in the World Peace Council, taking an active part in the latter's work. It publishes the Russian edition of the magazine Peace. The Union of Soviet Societies for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries is doing mu :h to acquaint the Soviet public 'with the life and culture of other peoples and to acquaint the public abroad with the life and culture of the Soviet people. The Union has affiliated to it fifty-odd societies for friendship and cultural relations with foreign countries. The Union's ties with many people prominent in the field of culture and with scientific and cultural societies in different countries help to promote international co-operation, better understanding and to strengthen world peace. The Soviet Women's Committee is a public organisation serving as a medium for contact between Soviet women and women in other countries. On the invitation of the Committee women's delegations limn Greece and Indonesia, Poland and Italy, the Germar Federal 53 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Republic. Great Britain, Yugoslavia, Burma and many other countries have visited the Soviet Union. With the active assistance of the committee delegations of Soviet women have visited countries abroad. Being a national section of the Women's International Dmnoaatic Federation. the Committee takes an active part in the work of the Federation. The Committee publishes Soviet Woman, a monthly magazine, which comes out in nine languages. The Committee of Youth Organisations of the U.S.S.R. helps to promote friendship and co-operation between the Soviet youth and the youth of other countries, to extend relations between Soviet youth organisations and international, regional and national youth organisations of other countries; it ensures participation by Soviet youth in international undertakings and the preparation and bolding of international youth and student affairs in the U.SS.R. Among other things, the Committee took a very active part in organising the Sixth World Youth and Student Festival in Moscow in 1957. The Committee of Youth Ornications of the U.S.S.R. is a member of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, is affiliated to the International Union of Students, and maintains relations with youth organisations in seventy-odd countries. The Soviet Asia and Africa Solidarity Committee is a public organisation whose function is to extend in every way friendly ties between the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and The peoples of Asia and Afrim. Represented on the Committee are public organisations of the U.S.S.R.. of the Kazakh, Kir_hi7, Tajik, Turkmen. Uzbek, Armenian, Georgian and AzerbairIjan Union Republics. The' Sonia War Veterans' Organisation plays a big part In mei:tribe?ling ties with international and national organisations. winch are combating the danger of another war. The Soviet Veterans' Organisation is affiliated to the International Federa- tion of Resistance Movements and takes an active part in the work of the Federation. 54 DI. NATIONAL ECONOMY What is the basic ecOnomic law of socialism? 31 THE basic law of socialism is an objective law of social development. It defines the essence of the socialist mode of production and all the principal aspects of economic development under socialism. The aim of production under socialism is not profit, but to provide man and his needs. Maximum satisfaction of the con- stantly rising material and cultural requirements of the whole of society and of every member of society is the aim of socialist production; continuous expansion and perfection of socialist production on the basis of higher techniques is the means for the achievement of the aim. Being an objective law, the basic economic law can arise only on the basis of certain economic conditions. As a result of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia the mills, factories, the land, the banks and transport facilities became the collective property of the people. Thus, for the first time in history, the working people had the opportunity of employing the means of production to satisfy their growing requirements. The basic economic law' of socialism became operative from that moment. The operation of the basic economic law of socialism is reflected, firstly, in the development of the productive forces of society, in their flourishing. Between 1913 and 1955, in spite of the immense damage caused to the national economy by two world wars, the civil war and foreign intervention in 1918-1922, per capita industrial output rose 19.4 times over. (By way of comparison, United States industrial production in the same period went up 2.3 times, in Britain 1.6 times and in France 1.8 times). Since 1930 the U.S.S.R. has known no unemployment. By the close of 1957 the number of workers had reached 52 million, an increase of nearly 40 million over 1913. The operation of the basic economic law of socialism is reflected, secondly, in the steady advance of the material welfare and cultural standards of the people of the Soviet Union. The working people in the U.S.S.R. receive about three-quarters of the national income for the zatisfaction of their personal material 55 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 and cultural requirements, and their income is going up year by year (see answer No. 34). In the two post-war five-year plan periods (1946-1956) the new homes built for the working people in towns and industrial settlements totalled over 254.5 million square metres of living floor space* (i.e. 2,636 million square feet), and 5 million houses were built in rural areas. In 1957 more than 48 million square metres (i.e. 516 million square feet) of living floor space were turned over for occupancy in towns, and in the countryside 770,000 houses were built by collective farmers and rural intelligentsia. Every able-bodied person in the Soviet Union is ensured work and the opportunity of acquiring a higher qualification free of charge. Children and adults studying in the U.S.S.R. in 1955- 1956 numbered more than 50 million, with the cost of instruction met by the state. In 1957, the state spent more than 201,000 million roubles for social and cultural purposes (health services, education, social security, physical culture, and so on). Socialism gives the working people a life of prosperity and culture. It has emancipated the individual, allowing full play for individual and collective creative effort. The material and cultural requirements of the people in the U.S.S.R. are con- stantly rising, and this, in its turn, is a permanently operating and powerful factor m the development of production, because production is being set new tasks and demands all the time. Socialist production is constantly growing and expanding on the basis of machines that are being more and more improved upon.. An essential condition for continuous expansion of socialist production is the priority development of production of the means of production. ? Figures for domestic floor space in the U.S.S.R. do not include kitchens, bathrooms, lavatories, halls and passages. 56 How is the U.S.S.R. national economy planned? 132 AN essential condition for planning the national economy is public ownership of the means of production and of the natural resources. Public ownership provides the state and its economic and planning bodies the needed material means for solving economic tasks which make up the basis for the plan. National economic planning began in the U.S.S.R. imme- diately after the victory of the October Revolution, but it was only at the end of the period of civil war and intervention that economic planning could be widely developed. At first, plans were compiled for individual branches of the economy or areas covering brief periods. The first long-range plan of development of the U.S.S.R. economy as a whole was drawn up in 1920; it was the G.O.E.L.R.O. Plan (State Plan for the Electrification of Russia), covering ten to fifteen years, envisaging the rehabilitation of the national economy and the establishment of socialism's indus- trial base, with wide electrification of industry to servo as the foundation. That plan was fulfilled ahead of schedule?in ten years. Starting with 1928, the U.S.S.R. began to compile five-year plans of national economic development. Before World War 11 three five-year plans had been worked out of which two were fulfilled or overfulfilled; fulfilment of the third was interrupted as a result of fascist Germany's attack on the Soviet Union. The war years showed the decisive advantages planned econ- omy had for the mobilisation of the country's forces to deal a crushing rebuff to the enemy. The fourth and fifth five-year plans, compiled after the war, were successfully fulfilled, with the result that the prc-war economic level was considerably exceeded. Today the U.S.S.R. is drawing up a seven-year plan to cover the 1959-1965 period (see answer No. 33). Besides the long-range plans, annual, quarterly and monthly plans are compiled, concretising the principal tasks of the long- range plans and ways of carrying them out in practice. The concrete forms of planned guidance of the national ? 57 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 economy depend on the maturity of the socialist economy and of pl7rining itself. on 'the number and size of enterprises to be covered by planning. and the scope and nature of the plan's When industries consisted of a few enterprises and the econ- omy of individual areas was not mature or comprehensive enough. the best way of planning the industries was through the Union Ministries, whose plans were combined by the U.S.S.R. State Planning Committee into a consolidated national economic plan. This system, however, had a number of inconveniences, which were especially felt when the number of enterprises in the indi- vidual industries had increased sharply and when a sufficient number of more comprehensively developed areas had emerged. Under these conditions the planning centre naturally was shifted from the Union Ministries to enterprises in the districts and Union Republics. Since the reorganisation of the management of industry and construction (see answer No. 37). the establishment of economic councils in economic administrative areas, and the great exten- non of the rights of the Union Republics, the present system of planning has ensured the best combination of centralised planning and economic initiative of the local planning bodies and enterprises. Compilation of a long-range national economic plan begins simultaneously in the central planning body and locally. The State Planning Committee of the U.SS.R. Council of Ministers (Gosplan), taking the level of development reached and the principal national economic tasks for the planned period as a basis, works out the more general targets for the develop- ment of the main branches of the national economy, the financial resources and their utilisation and the programme of capital investment, and determines the national economic requirements and the resources to meet them. Simultaneously the enterprises and the economic councils work out draft plans for their territories; the drafts are sent to the state planning committees of the Union Republics which consolidate them and send them on to the Gosplan. The latter appraises them from the point of view of practicality and the extent to which the available resources are used, and 58 . whether the drafts are in line with the tasks of 'the national economic plan as a whole. Representatives of the enterprises, of economic councils and the republics widely participate in this work; they may defend their projects and at the same time they can get a concrete idea of the place their plans occupy in the country's consolidated plan. Local initiative, coupled with central guidance, makes for practical and efficient planning. Only the countrywide working out of the plan makes it possible to bring out all development possibilities and potentials and make maximum use of them. At the same time it is only centralised planning that ensures a balanced development of the economy and casting the plan to solve the -problems that are most important in the particular period. The consolidated long-range plan contains the tasks for developing the branches of industry, agriculture and transport, and for distributing production over the country. An important section of the plan is the capital construction programme, which ensures the carrying out of production tasks through the required increase in production capacities. Under- lying the production and construction plans arc targets for higher labour productivity and lower production costs. Occupying an important place in the plan are the provisions for raising the material and cultural standards of the people, namely?, the targets for increased retail sales, higher incomes, housing and other construction, education, social security, and so on. The financing of all measures under the plan is worked out in the financial plan's indices. Not all parts of the national economy are planned directly by the state. Collective farms draw up their plans of development indepen- dently. Neither are the personal and auxiliary husbandries of the working people or prices of goods sold on collective farm markets planned. However, the state influences these spheres economically in the needed direction and the state plan includes provision for such influence: the amount of purchases of farm produce and the prices paid for them, lowering prices for the state trading system to influence the price movement on collective farm markets, and so on. A limited range of basic planned tasks for economic councils 59 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 and republics are approved by way of centralised planning .11 carrying but these tasks, those implementing the plan have the opportunity of manoeuvering with the resources and attain (lit objectives set most economically and rapidly. Local bodies enjoy the greatest independence in compilini annual and quarterly plans, as the basic ratios of development are already determined by the long-range plan. The principal task of the central planning body now is then. fore scientific long-range planning of national economic develop. ment; and operative planning and check-up of plan fulfilment have become in the main the function of the local economic and planning bodies. 33 I What are the tasks of the long-range Seven-Year 1'1an-1959-196S? the U.S.S.R. ment of long-range planning of the socialist economy of THE Seven-Year Plan of national economic development covering the years 1959-1965 is a new stage in the develop. The period to be covered by the plan?seven years?has been picked so that the considerable programme of industrial con- struction outlined for the immediate period ahead could be completed in the main, that most of the enterprises under con- struction might be put into operation and yield a substantial increase in the chief items of industrial production. _ The combination in a single plan period of large capital ,nvestmcnts and the economic results therefrom (in the form of Wroducts from the new enterprises) has great advantages. Besides pros iding for the completion of most of the con- struction work.. ?he 1959-1965 plan envisages at the same time the neccssar. c,,)-otei construction to ensure an even rise in output in the r. ,., 1?, to follow. The Seven-) a., is a continuation of the earlier Fl%e- Year Plans and , :1 - ..me time a part of the general long- range programme country's economic developme it designed to reach a pr !,.i.i-i output level for the main items of production, surpassirs ,, United States. The Seven-Year Plan iN I') Solve a number of major problem re? faced in the development of principal industries, the elimination of shortages of a number of industrial products, and better geographical distribution of industry in the country. The plan envisages important tasks for the development of the iron and steel industry, the power industry, the fuel industry (especially oil and gas) and the building materials industry. A major task of the Seven-Year Plan will be the development of the chemical industry, which today does not meet all the requirements of the national economy. By 1965 output of the more important branches of the chemical industry is to double or triple, and output of synthetic fibres and plastics is to go up 4.5 to eight-fold. Along with the further development of heavy industry a more rapid expansion is outlined for light industry. For instance, the output of woollens and silks is to be almost doubled and the production of footwear is to go up 60 per cent. In addition to the manufacturing and construction programme, the 1959-1965 Plan sets large tasks for the development of agriculture, transport facilities, a considerable programme of housing construction and a number of important undertakings for the greater well-being and higher cultural standards of the Soviet people. Actively participating in compiling the Seven-Year Plan arc enterprises, the economic councils of economic administrative areas and the planning organs of the Union Republics. On the basis of their draft plans, made more precise and revised so as to have them correspond to the basic tasks of the national economic plan, Gosplan is working out a consolidated long-range plan of development of the national economy, which, following approval by the Supreme Soviet, will become a state law. How is the national income distributed? I 34 IN the Soviet Union the national income belongs to the working people. One part (about a quarter) goes for the further expansion of socialist production and for other public needs, and the re- mainder (approximately three-quarters) is used for the satisfac- tion of the working people's material and cultural requirements. Mat makes up the three-quarters of the national income 61 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 which goes to satisfy the personal needs of the people? This figure includes wages and salaries and the income received by collective farmers. It includes the money spent by the Govern- ment on pensions and other forms of social maintenance, social insurance, on free education and medical services and on other cultural services and amenities. Thus, in 1950, cash payments and various benefits received by the population from the state amounted to 122,000 million roubles, or almost three times the 1940 figure. In 1955 they amounted to 154,000 million roubles, or 3.6 times as much as in 1940 and in 1957 to 201,000 million roubles, the sharp rise being due to the large increase in pensions under the new law. The expansion of socialist production (building new enter- prises, equipping enterprises with new machinery, etc.) is in the interests of the working people themselves, since increasing output means a higher material and cultural standard for them all. The advantages of the socialist system of economy (develop- ment according to plan, no economic crises, unemployment or impoverishment of the people) make for an unprecedented rate of increase in the national income. In 1957 the national income was up more than twenty-fold compared with 1913 and in 1960 it will be twenty-seven times as high as before the Revolution, with the income of the population growing in the same pro- portion. _3.35 How has the U.S.S.R. become an advanced industrial power? HEN the Socialist Revolution took place in Russia the country was backward and in a state of ruin. Yet Marxist-Leninist teaching says that socialism can be build only on the basis of a developed large-scale machine industry, which provides the foundation for equipping the national economy with advanced technique. ? Only if this was done could the young socialist system show its superiority over capitalism: a higher productivity of labour, a rapid rate of industrial expansion and the possibility of a steady rise in the well-being of all members of society. 62 The U.S.S.R. thus had the choice of either giving up the building of socialism or doing away with Russia's age-old backwardness in the shortest possible time, rapidly developing heavy industry and, on that basis, all of the national economy. Overcoming the greatest difficulties, the Soviet people have successfully solved the problem of industrialising the country, the problem of building up the material and technical found- ation for socialism. In forty years the U.S.S.R. became a great industrial power with an all-round developed and economically independent national economy, and with a progressive science capable of solving the most diffkult scientific and engineering problems. The country's economic advance has been brought about by socialist industrialisation, which has provided the best solution of this problem in an unprecedentedly brief time. When industrialisation of the U.S.S.R. began, its industrial level was extremely low and it did not have enough means, qualified personnel or experience in socialist construction, and. moreover, it had to combat the resistance of the enemies of socialism within the country and without. What has made possible the decisive progress was the super- iority of the socialist economic system, and above all, the fact that industrialisation was carried out in the interests of the people, who therefore threw themselves heart and soul into the Job. With ownership of the basic means of production passing over to the state it became possible, in a centralised way, to manage the material resources available and to start industnal- isation first with developing heavy industry, that is. the iron and steel, engineering, fuel, and ore-mining industries. An acute problem faced in industrialisation, especially at first, was the shortage of finance, the problem of capital invest- ments. The problem was solved by exercising strict cconomy and by the centralised use of accumulation to develop heavy industry. Investments in heavy industry came largely from the accumu- lation of light industries, agriculture, trade, and so on. Soyiet heavy industry was developed without outside assistance, en- tirely by means of domestic resources. Today Soviet heavy industry is developing mainly by using its own accumulation, which makes it possible to allocate con 63 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 siderably more resources to develop agriculture, the light and food industries and housing construction. Capital investments in 1957 alone equalled the total for both the First and Second Five-Year Plans. A serious obstacle to the development of industry during the early Five-Year Plans was the shortage of technical persoGnel and skilled workers and the inadequate development of science. A country-wide cultural revolution was required to solve these problems. Today the U.S.S.R. has the largest number of qualified engineering and technical personnel. A special feature of socialist development is that obstacles have been tackled consciously; it has been a country-wide con- structive process with all the people united in the struggle for objectives that are important for all the people. There is no ?record in history of a single case of capitalism being able to utilise such factors to solve its economic problems. Adhering as they did to the principles of private initiative and ? unplanned development it took the United States, Germany and Britain from 80 to 150 years to increase industrial output thirty times. The U.S.S.R. accomplished this in less than forty years, of which but little over half were years of peaceful development. The U.S.S.R. built up a strong and technically advanced heavy industry under the first two Five-Year Plans. A number of industries (the automobile, machine-tool and instrument-making industries and most branches of the chemical industry) had to be developed from scratch. By 1937 more than 80 per cent of the country's industrial output had come from plants built or completely reconstructed under the Five-Year Plans, and when the Second World War broke out the Soviet Union had become a power of great economic potential, capable of smashing the Hitler war machine both economically and militarily. Under the post-war Five-Year Plans the country's industrial power kept increasing and the industrial structure and technical equipment of the national economy were further improved. While during the First Five-Year Plan period coal output increased on the average by 7,200,000 tons a year, and in the Second Five-Year Plan period by 12,700,000 tons, the annual increase in the Fourth Five-Year Plan period was 22,400,000 tons, and in the Fifth 26,000,000 tons; in 1957 the increase was 33,000,000 tons. 64 The annual increase in the production of cement went up from 407,000 tons in the First Five-Year Plan period to 4,000,000 tons in 1957, and in oil production from 2,400,000 tons to 14,200,000. Industrial output in 1957 exceeded the 1913 output 33 times over, with output of the means of production up 74 times, of electric power 110 times; coal output went up 16-fold and steel I2-fold, and output of the engineering and metal working industries increased more than 200 times. In 1913 Russia accounted for 2.5 per cent of the world's industrial production, while today industrial output of the U.S.S.R. is approximately 20 per cent of world production. For output volume the U.S.S.R. has moved up to second on the list, being behind only the United States. The high level of industrialisation reached by the U.S.S.R. provides a solid foundation for the socialist system, and is a reliable guarantee of the country's defensive capacity and a material base for further economic progress and greater well- being for the Soviet people. How has the national economy of the non-Russian Union Republics developed? 36 FROM the earliest years of Soviet power the Soviet State and people have given special attention to the development of the non-Russian Union Republics of tho U.S.S.R. This was required for eliminating in the shortest possible time the backwardness those republics received as a legacy from the past to enable their people to catch up with the Central part of Russia economically and culturally. What had to be done to solve the national question (see answer No. 6) in such a multi-national state as the Soviet Union was precisely to do away with the economic and cultural inequality of the peoples. This task has been successfully carried out. Today each Union Republic has its own up-to-date and diversified industry, large-scale mechanised agriculture and a developed culture. Let us cite a few examples. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic is second among the Soviet Republics for territory (over 1,100,000 square miles) and third for population. 65 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Before the Revolution Kazakhstan was a region of stock- breeding nomads, scarce mining enterprises run by foreign con- cessionaires and a few small primitive factories?a region with a poverty-ridden and illiterate population. In those days it accounted for less than half of one per cent of the country's industrial output. In Soviet times, rich deposits of various minerals have been found in the Republic, and some 3,000 industrial enterprises have been built. Today Kazakhstan produces ferrous and non-ferrous metals. coal, oil, chemicals, machinery, industrial equipment, footwear, fabrics, meat products, tinned goods and other commodities. The Republic's largest coalfields, the Karaganda Basin, is the third largest supplier of coal in the U.S.S.R. In 1957 the Kara- ganda coal miners produced more coal than all of tsarist Russia did in 1913. Kazakhstan comes third for industrial output in the country Kazakhstan's industrial development is continuing. Among the many enterprises under construction at the present time are the huge Karaganda steel mills and the Sokolovsk-Sarbai concentra- tion mills. The Republic's agriculture is also progressing steadily. While it remans an important animal husbandry centre, as a result of the subjugation in recent years of more than 50 million acres of virgin land in the Republic, Kazakhstan has become the country's second-ranking cereal supplier, next to the R.SF.S.R In 1956 it accounted for 30 per cent of the grain delivered to the state granaries. In Uzbekistan, too, a diversified industry has been developed since the establishment of Soviet power. This Republic has been and remains the country's chief cotton producer, today producing 51 times as much as it did before the Revolution. Cotton-growing, the leading branch of Uzbekistan's agriculture, has had a considerable effect on the development of the Republic's industry, too. The output of technical equipment used for raising and pro- cessing cotton occupies a leading place in its engineering industry Uzbekistan today is the main producer of machinery for cul- tivating and harvesting cotton, and at the same time it turns out roughly three-quarters of all spinning machines made in the Soviet Union. It is also an important centre of the textile industry, and 66 coal, oil, iron and steel and chemical industries have been developed following the discovery of mineral deposits, all prospected since -the Revolution. Electric power has been considerably developed in the Re- public, which today produces almost 1,300 times more electricity than in 1913. Kirghizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenia, the Trans-Caucasian and Baltic Republics, and other Union Republics possess today a highly developed industry and up-to-date mechanised agriculture. Compared with 1913, gross output of large-scale industry in 1957 was up as follows: in the Kazakh Republic 97-fold, in the Kirghiz Republic 717 times and in the Taiik Republic 1,049 times. Industry in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, which joincil the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1940, has also reached a high level of development. To illustrate, Lithuania has become richer by many new industries, among them the machine-tool and turbine manufacturing industries; the Republic's total volume of industrial output has increased seven-fold. The industrialisation of the Union Republics and their rapid economic expansion have resulted in a steep rise in employment and in the material and cultural standards of the working people. In each Republic the working class and native intelligentsia have grown in numbers. On the eve of the Revolution Turkmenia, for example, had altogether 300 Turkmen factory and office workers, while in 1957 it had more than 85,000. Forty years ago Turkmen were engaged in primitive crop growing and livestock breeding; today they produce oil and coal, work in the chemical industry, at electric stations, and light and food industry plants. Economic development in the non-Russian Union Republics is proceeding at a steadily rising rate. The long-range plans, based on accurate calculations and practical possibilities, envisage a further advance in all branches of the national economy, a growth of the productive forces in each Republic and in the Soviet Union as a whole. C2 67 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 37 Why has the management of industry and con- struction been reorganised and how? IN the middle of 1957, the management of plants and con- struction jobs was reorganised all over the country by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. The reorganisation plan, which was put forward on the initiative of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U., was submitted to a country-wide discussion. Millions of people discussed the draft law at hundreds of thousands of meetings and in tens of thousands of letters which they addressed to editorial offices of newspapers. In the discussions and letters they presented concrete sugges- tions for improving the draft. What is the purport of the reorganisation and what are its advantages as compared with the old system of management? In the past the basic organisational form of management of industry and construction was the Ministries or independent offices for the individual branches of the economy. That structure served well in the period when the Soviet people launched the country's industrialisation. The principle of manage- ment by industry made it possible to concentrate the effort on the key branches of heavy industry and to train the necessary engineering and technical personnel and industrial executives. However, as Soviet economy expanded and more and more branches of industry and construction jobs appeared, it became necessary to set up new Ministries and departments, and that led to the management staffs swelling all the time and growing more complicated. Many departmental barriers appeared between branches of industry and between enterprises, and under those conditions, with the vast scale of production (there were more than 200,000 industrial enterprises and more than 100,000 construction works), concrete and operative direclion from one centre became difficult. A situation had been created when the principle of direction by a branch of industry began to check the growth of the country's productive forces and hamper the work of industry It became necessary to work out more flexible methods of managing industry and construction, to shift the centre of economic management to the localities, to bring management closer to the factories and construction jobs. 68 It was therefore decided to switch over to the principle of territorial management; 104 economic administrative areas were established, each with its Economic Council, which is directly subordinate to the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic. All enterprises and construction works of Union-Republic importance in the particular economic area arc directed by the Economic Council, and those of local importance by the local Soviets. The reorganisation has resulted in the elimination of 141 All. Union and Republican Ministries; their enterprises have been placed under the authority of the Economic Councils or local Soviets. The industrial enterprises turned over to the Economic Councils account for roughly three-quarters of the country's total industrial output. What has been the practical result of the reorganisation? With centralised direction retained by the state, the reorganisa- tion has made it possible considerably to enlarge the rights and responsibility of the Republican and local organs in economic development and to release local initiative, and it has made for broader and more active participation by the people in the management of industry. The territorial principle has made it possible to remove depart- mental barriers and to make more efficient use of the vast potentials and possibilities offered by planned socialist economy. Direction of enterprises has become more energetic and opera- tive. All enterprises in the area now have one director?the Economic Council or local Soviet, instead of the many Ministries as in the recent past. This has made it possible to take quick decisions on urgent questions of production right on the spot. The reorganisation has created favourable possibilities for the overall development of the economic areas and more deliberate and effective co-operation and specialisation of plants. And this has made for a considerable increase in the volume of output, together with better quality and lower production costs. The technical councils set up under the Economic Councils have opened up wider possibilities for drawing the working people into the management of industry and construction. The technical councils, made up of representatives of research organisations, worker-inventors, executives, trade union and Party officials, take up problems of the general industrial develop- ment of a particular area, greater labour productivity, higher 69 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 technical level of plants, better organisation of production, and so on. Proposals and recommendations submitted by the technical councils make it possible to solve the complex problems of the development of industry and construction most efficiently. Testifying to the substantial results already produced by the reorganisation of economic management is Soviet industry's record for 1957 and the first half of 1958. The 1957 plan for gross industrial output was overfulfilled by all Economic Councils, and overfulfilment continued in 1958. In 1957 Soviet industry produced goods exceeding the state plan by 100,000 million roubles. The country's industry has begun to work considerably better, increasing output from month to month. The reorganisation has thus ensured a fresh advance of socialist industry, greater material resources for the country and a higher national income and, consequently, a further rise in the material welfare of the people. 381 Who manages Soviet industrial enterprises? THERE arc two kinds of industrial enterprises in the U.S.S.R.?state enterprises, belonging to the whole people, and co-operative enterprises, belonging to the workers of the particular enterprise, the members of the particular pro- ducers' co-operative. State industrial enterprises?the bulk of the country's enter- prises?are managed by a director appointed by an appropriate Ministry, by the Economic Council of the particular area; or local Soviet. Co-operative industrial enterprises are managed by a board of management and its chairman, who are elected by the members at a general meeting. The director of a state industrial dnterprise has charge of the material and financial resources and personnel of the enter- prise, and bears full responsibility to the state for the enterprisp's work, for fulfilment of state plans on schedule and targets for quantity and variety, and for the cost of production. He is also answerable for the strict observance of labour laws. The directors of Soviet enterprises are, as a rule, former workers or peasants, or the children of workers and peasants; 70 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release they possess vast experience, and most of them have completed a course in economics or engineering in a college or specialised secondary school. Thus, the director of a Soviet enterprise and the people work- ing under him, are representatives of the same class; they arc all working people and their interests fully coincide. Defining the relations between the management of a state industrial enterprise and the workers employed in it is the collec- tive agreement, concluded annually between the management and the trade union organisation (see answer No. 41). The collective agreement covers all aspects of the enterprise's work, including production and payment of factory workers, engineers and office workers, rate-fixing and working conditions, and cultural and everyday services. The socialist system ensures broad and active participation by the workers of every enterprise in the management of production. They do this through the trade unions, which in a socialist society are a school in which millions learn to manage the economy, and through the standing production conferences, where every worker may submit proposals for further improving techniques and production technology, may criticise the activity of any executive, from foreman to director. The administration of every Soviet industrial enterprise has to report to the production conferences, or their committees, how the proposals submitted by workers and specialists have been carried out. The enterprise's communist and trade union organisations in their daily work help the management, at the same time exercising public supervision over the activity of the administration. They regularly hear and discuss reports and communications by directors, deputy directors and shop superintendents, and make proposals and recomendations for improving the work of the enterprise. 71 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 39 1 HOW do Soviet workers take part in the manage- ment of enterprises? ANUMBER of measures have been taken in recent years to further develop Soviet democracy and improve the organisation of industrial management (see answer No 37) One feature is the greater role given the trade unions (see answer No. 28). There are many ways in which members of Soviet trade unions. workers in industry, transport, construction, and on state farms, machine and tractor stations and repair and technical service stations, participate in the management of production. The most common ways are participation in making up their enterprise's annual and long-range plans; participation in the factory scientific and technical councils, the function of which is to work out measures for technical progress and for economis- ing raw and auxiliary materials, and to give practical assistance to innovators in their work; also participation in production conferences, which make it possible to combine the principles of one-man management with control from below. In the summer of 1958 the Presidium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet approved a special statute covering the rights of factory trade union committees; the statute underscores that the com- mittee represents the workers on all questions of work, living conditions and culture and is vested with legal rights for this purpose. It takes part in drafting production and capital construction plans, and proposals for housing repairs and cultural and service establishments. The factory committee hears reports by the manager on the fulfilment of the production plan, of undertakings under the collective agreement, of measures for improving working and living conditions. It also takes part in settling questions relating to rate-fixing and payment for work, in seeing to the observance by the administration of labour laws, rules and standards, of safety measures and industrial hygiene. The Statute prohibits dismissal of factory or office workers without the consent of the trade union committee. Recently the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and the All- 72 Union Central Council of Trade Unions have jointly approved a statute providing for setting up standing production conferences, which are one of the principal forms of .drawing workers into managing industry. The conferences settle the most complex and varied production problems, and inculcate in every participant a sense of personal responsibility for the implementation of the state plan and the technical progress of their enterprise. Production conferences are made up of production and office workers, representatives of the trade union factory and shop committees, of the administration, of the Party and Komsomol organisations, of the primary organisation of the scientific technical society and of the inventors' and innovators' society. The production conference directs all of its activity to ensuring successful work by the enterprise and to spreading the experience of innovators and outstanding workers in production, and so on. The production conference examines problems of the organisa- tion of production, work, pay and rate-fixing. It discusses plans for organisational and technical measures for the introduction of new techniques, and the mechanisation of production; it also considers plans for industrial and housing construction and the building of cultural and service establish- ments. Coming within its scope of activity are questions of improving working conditions, industrial safety, training of personnel and the proper employment of workers. The production conference works under the direction of the trade union committee and is a broadly representative body. It discusses all questions collectively and decisions are taken by a majority vote. The enterprise's administration sees to the implementation of the decisions and proposals adopted at the conference, and at the following meeting reports on how they have been carried out. 73 im,,,Inecifiari in Part SgnitiZed Coov Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 40 I What are the working conditions at Soriet enterprises? WORKING hours at Soviet enterprises, holidays and leaves arc fixed by labour legislation, which is based on the principles underlying the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. Until 1956 eight hours constituted the maximum working day and for trades involving hard working conditions the working day was seven, six or even four hours. In 1956 the working day was cut by two hours on Saturdays and days before holidays. And beginning with 1957 the country is gradually going over to a seven-hour working day, and for workers of the leading trades of some branches of industry to a six-hour working day, without a reduction in wages. Overtime is prohibited, and is permitted only in exceptional cases (combating natural calamities, putting things in order following accidents, and so on). All workers receive annual paid holidays ranging from two week to two months, depending on the conditions of work and the nature of the industry. Besides these general rules which apply to all working people. there is Soviet legislation specifically covering the working con- ditions of juveniles and women. Soviet laws prohibit child labour. Juveniles between the ages of sixteen and eighteen may not be employed at jobs requiring physical strain or on night shifts. In 1956 the working day for juveniles was cut to six hours, leaving their wages the same as before. The employment of women on work requiring physical strain, or which is harm- ful to women, is also prohibited. Pregnant women are transferred to lighter jobs for which they are paid their regular average pay, and in addition to their normal paid holiday they receive maternity leave of 112 days, or more if the confinement does not proceed normally. In addition to their regular lunch time, nursing mothers are allowed time off?half an hour every three- and-a-half hours?to feed the baby. These leaves are paid for by the place of employment. The extensive mechanisation of production processes and automation which the Soviet State has been carrying out has had 74 npriassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release a decisive effect on improving conditions of work and health in industry. Today, the arduous and labour-consuming operations in coal, iron and steel, oil, transport, building and other industries are completely mechanised. The Soviet Union also has automatic transfer machines, auto- matic shops, and automatic plants, where everything is done by machines with people merely watching the operations. Provision has been made for overall mechanisation and auto- matisation of the main and auxiliary operations in all branches of industry, and the further mechanisation of agricultural pro- duction. The U.S.S.R. has a well-organised system of labour protection. safety technique and industrial hygiene in mills, mines and trans- port. Working clothes and footwear are issued free. Workers engaged in hazardous occupations (chemical plants. non-ferrous metal works, printing works, and so on) receive special foods (milk, butter, sour cream, etc.) at their place of work, the cost being met by the state. The Soviet State spends immense sums of money on labour protection and safety measures. During the Fifth Five-Year Plan period, from 1951 to 1955, the amount came to about 10,000 million roubles, or more than eight times as much as was spent during the first two Five-Year Plan periods (1928-1937). Huge sums have been allocated to increase the mechanisation of arduous processes and improve working conditions. State control of observance of the regulations and standards covering labour protection, safety technique and industrial hygiene has been entrusted to the trade unions. Several million workers are members of the trade union labour protection com- missions and social insurance councils. They keep a check on the proper expenditure of the money allotted by the state for these purposes and on the enforcement of the measures cover- ing labour protection and safety technique stipulated in the col- lective agreement (see answer No. 41). 75 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 411 How are collective agreements concluded? COLLECTIVE agreements are negotiated each year by and between the management and trade union committees of Soviet enterprises, the latter acting on behalf of the workers, engineers, technicians and office employees. The agreements stipulate each side's undertakings with respect to fulfilment and overfulfilment of state plans and the establish- ment of working and living conditions that best help to raise production and improve output quality, and to ensure higher material and cultural standards for the workers. The agreements specify exactly what and when the management and trade union committee are to do towards improving production technology, introducing new machinery, increasing workers' skill, improving labour protection and safety technique, building houses for the workers, organising healthy recreation, adding to the facilities of children's institutions and service establishments, and so on. The workers take an active part in drafting collective agree- ments; at the thousands of shop, shift and general meetings and conferences they submit proposals and discuss individual items and the draft as a whole. After the collective agreement has been signed it is put out in booklet form?or as a poster?and is widely distributed among the workers of the particular enterprise. Every three months the factory director and the chairman of the trade union committee report to the workers at the general factory meeting on how the agreement is being carried out. At the end of the year the trade union committees enlist large numbers of workers to check up on how the provisions have been carried out and to collect proposals for the draft agreement for the following ?t.ar 76 Do disputes between workers and management occur in the U.S.S.R.? 142 IN socialist society there are no class conflicts, nor can there be, between workers and managements, as there arc between employers and workers under the capitalist system, since there are no exploiters and exploited in a socialist country. Nevertheless, labour disputes may arise in Soviet enterprises between individual workers and the managemeq involving the wage rate, the conditions or organisation of work, and so on. Under the statute covering disputes, approved by the Presi- dium of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet early in 1957, labour dis- putes arc examined by labour disputes commissions, which are set up at enterprises, offices and institutions and are composed of an equal number of representatives of the trade union com- mittee and the management. Any worker or other employee with a grievance, whether it concerns the wage rate paid him, transfer to another job, or dismissal, or any similar matter, files his complaint with the commission, which must examine the complaint and hand down a decision within five days. If the commission fails to reach agreement, or the worker is not satisfied with the decision, he may apply within ten days to the factory (or office) trade union committee, which has the power to reverse the commission's decision. The trade union committee must examine the worker's complaint within seven or eight days. If the worker does not agree with the decision of the trade union committee he may start a suit in the People's Court. The management also has the right to appeal against the de- cision of the committee, but only where it believes that the de- cision is contrary to the law. Should the management fail to carry out a decision in a labour dispute, the trade union committee issues the worker with a certificate which has the force of a writ of execution. The certificate is turned over to a bailiff, who enforces execution of the decision. 77 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 What systems of payment exist at Soviet enterprises? THE following systems of payment for work operate in the U.S.S.R.; piece rate, progressive piece rate, time-work and time-work plus bonus. The principal system in operation in Soviet industry is the straight piece-rate system, which best conforms to the socialist principle of payment for work in accordance with its quantity and quality. Piece rates are based on the established technical standards of expenditure of labour in the production process (time per unit of product), a record of which is kept on a strictly scientific basis. The standards are usually fixed for one year, during which time they are not changed. Revisions are made in connection with the introduction of new machinery, improvements in tech- nological processes and the mastering by the bulk of the workers of advanced methods of work. . New standards are set up with the active participation of the workers. The Soviet worker's higher output comes not from physical over-exertion but from better organisation of work and further mechanisation, which lightens his labour. That is why revision of technical standards does not, and cannot, result in lower earnings. There are rates and wage scales for each branch of industry, drawn up with the participation of the trade unions and approved by the Government. The rates and scales vary for the different categories, according to the skill and effort required to perform a given operation, and the complexity and character of the work. Skilled or difficult work is rated higher than unskilled or less difficult work. The piece rate per unit of product is fixed on the basis of these scales and standards. The rates for piece workers are 10-15 per cent higher than for time workers. The worker is paid for every piece produced by him that passes inspection The piece worker's earnings are not limited. Soviet industry sometimes makes use also of the progressive piece-rate system, which is a combination of the piece-rate and bonus systems. Under this system, workers exceeding quotas 78 -7 are paid at progressively rising rates for the portion turned out over and above the standard quota. The higher the per cent of overfulfilment the higher the rate. The progressive piece-rate system is usually applied to particularly important production sectors of industry and also where it is especially necessary to stimulate initiative and invention. Under the time-work system, workers arc paid according to the wage and salary scale established for each industry and for each trade. The time-work system is used only where piece work is impossible or impracticable. In many cases, the time- work. plus bonus system is used as an incentive to overfulfilling production plans, improving quality of output, and economising materials. In such cases a bonus is given ranging from 10 to 15 per cent of the monthly scale or salary. Directors of enterprises, engineers, technicians and office workers receive fixed monthly salaries, the amount depending on the conditions and volume of work, the importance of the enterprise, the complexity of the technology, the qualifications and length of service of the particular individual. Engineers, technicians and office employees of industrial enter- prises receive bonuses for fulfilment or overfulfilment of the production plan by the enterprise. Workers in industry also receive cash bonuses for good work The bonuses are paid from what is known as the enterprise fund. Many enterprises also have a fund which they get for achievements in country-wide socialist emulation (see answer No. 45). Approximately two-thirds of the money is distributed as bonuses to individual workers, office employees, engineers and technicians, and the rest goes to improve cultural and other services for the workers. The systems of remuneration apply to all workers alike, irrespective of sex, age or race. The principle applied in the U.S.S.R. is "equal pay for equal work", and any violation of this principle is punishable. The central committees of trade unions and the factory trade union committee have the right to check all wage calculations and payments. 79 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 44 I Who receives service bonuses? THE Soviet State provides every possible . incentive for long and conscientious service. One such incentive is the service bonus, paid annually or monthly. The amount of the bonus varies in the different fields. In the coal-mining industry, for example, such bonuses are paid to all personnel, including those working underground and nose at enterprises serving the mines. Miners who have worked in a mine for two years get a bonus of 10 per cent of their annual wage. Those who have worked for five years get a 20 per cent bonus, and miners with a service record of fifteen and more years get 30 per cent. This bonus is paid in December each year. Service bonuses are also paid to iron and steel, chemical, gas and oil workers, geologists, airmdn, timbermen, engine and train crews, and many other categories of workers. The salaries of college instructors, doctors and schoolteachers and of certain other classes of workers also depend on the length of their service. To illustrate, scientific workers receive increases in their monthly salaries starting with the sixth year of work. The amount of the increase varies in different fields of work. 45 I What is socialist emulation? SOCIALIST emulation in the U.S.S.R. is a manifestation of a new attitude towards work which arose with the consolida- tion of the socialist system; it is a mass patriotic movernent of the Soviet people in which tens of millions of working people in town and country are taking part. It came from below, on the initiative of the working people themselves, and its object is higher labour productivity, more iocial wealth, to make society as rich as possible so as to secure the fullest possible satisfaction of the material and cultural requirements of the members of socialist society. When Soviet power became firmly established in Russia, the workers and peasants became the masters of production. The fruits of their labour no longer belong to individuals or 80 groups but to society as a whole, to the state, and society distributes them among all working people in accordance with the quantity and quality of their work. Society has made its main goal a steadily higher standard of living for the people, with more and more material wealth being allocated for the personal consumption of the working people. Consequently, in the Soviet Union, work for society, for the people, is at the same time work for oneself, and conversely. work for oneself is at the same time work for society. A new feeling has appeared among Soviet people, the feeling of being collective owners of industry, and it has made for a new attitude towards work. In the U.S.S.R., work is regarded as an important duty to the people and the state, a public duty, and Soviet people therefore try to put into their work their creative energy, to do more and better. This is the source of the spirit of emulation, of the striving for highe- labour productivity which has swept the country. Socialist emulation has nothing in common with competition; it is based on entirely different principles. Competition is a fierce struggle bringing defeat, want and death to some, and victory, dominion and prosperity to others. The principle of socialist emulation may be expressed as follows: "Some work well, others better, and still others lag behind, so let us catch up with the best and help those lagging and we will have a general advance." This principle conforms to the nature of socialist society, in which the relations between people are relations of comradely co-operation, and mutual assistance of workers free from ex- ploitation. Those taking part in emulation who have achieved high production results are called foremost workers, production in- novators. These are men and women workers, office employees, engineers and technicians, field-crop cultivators, vegetable growers and animal husbandry people, tractor drivers and combine operators, people who are technically competent and cultured and have mastered technique well. Knowing their machines perfectly they revise designed capacities and old technical standards, improve technology, and develop new and more progressive working methods, all of 81 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 which has an important effect on economic development and helps to fulfil and overfulfil state plans. The introduction and wide application of the experience of production innovators is accomplished in various ways. Widespread use is being made, for instance, of what are known as schools for progressive working methods. In these schools innovators show at the bench how one should work more productively and how to obtain the best results. In- novators also tell of their work at factory production conferences and at Ministries, at meetings of Economic Councils and at conferences in research institutes. Posters and booklets are published on innovators' work, with many foremost workers themselves writing books about their experience. Enterprises send groups of their workers to similar plants, to study the advanced experience in the other places, the employing enterprises paying the costs. Socialist emulation in the U.S.S.R. is of diverse forms. One is emulation by individual workers for higher labour produc- tivity, better quality and lower production costs, for maximum economy of material resources and the most efficient operation of machines. Collective farmers and state farm workers emulate one another for high yields of cereal and industrial crops, for improved animal husbandry, for greater productivity of agriculture. The emulation of individual workers leads to the signing of emulation pacts between whole groups: team with team, shop with shop, factory with factory, collective farm with collective farm and state farm with state farm. Do material incentives play a part in this emulation? Of course. In their effort for higher labour productivity, a voluntary task, assumed on their own initiative, Soviet people do not merely feel moral satisfaction; they also improve their material position. Higher output means higher earnings. At the same time steadily rising labour productivity and de- clining production costs enable the Soviet Government to cut retail prices, raise pay, spend more money for social and cultural needs and amenities, build more houses from year to year, and produce more goods to meet the growing demand (see answer No. 83). Soviet society encourages labour by the Soviet people in every way. People who have distinguished themselves in their work larc surrounded with honour and attention. The press writes 82 about foremost production workers and front-ranking enterprises, they are publicised by the cinema and radio and appear on tele- vision. The names of those who have distinguished themselves most are placed on Honour Boards and they get Certificates of Honour, money prizes or valuable gifts. Outstanding services bring people orders or medals, and the best of the best have the title of Hero of Socialist Labour conferred upon them (see answer No. 92). In the U.S.S.R. it is not social origin or the amount of money one has that brings one distinction, but work for the good of the people. How is invention encouraged? What are the rights of inventors? 46 THE vast scale of invention by workers in the U.S.S.R. graphically reflects the Soviet working people's desire to see industry developed as rapidly as possible. In 1957 the number of innovators who put forward suggestions for improving production processes and inventors who sub- mitted inventions exceeded 1 million. In the rubber works of Moscow, for example, one out of three workers is an innovator and in the Ural machinery works, one out of four. The movement of inventors and innovators is supported by public organisations, among them the trade unions. Factory trade union committees have special invention and innovation com- mittees to give assistance to innovators and inventors of the particular plant. Every enterprise has an innovation and invention bureau whose function is to examine proposals submitted and to put them through if they are worth while. As a rule, working in such bureaux are experienced engineers and designers who render technical assistance. It goes without saying that inventors are fotind not only at plants but also in research organisations where they are afforded every opportunity to use laboratory facilities. Under existing regulations, where the management of an enterprise, trust, Ministry or the appropriate department of an Economic Council receives an application covering an invention 83 nn,r?Inecifiari in Part - Sanitized CODV Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ;4% ? which comes within the scope of their activity, the application has to be considered by the enterprise within ten days, by the trust within twenty, by the Ministry (or Economic Council) with- in two months, and the result of the examination must be reported to the author of the application. The author may apply directly to the State Committee on Inventions and Discoveries. If the invention is found to be worth while the appropriate institution gives the author the opportunity of developing the invention, and the author may be released from his regular job, receiving wages based on his average earnings. The rights of inventors and innovators arc protected by Soviet law. An inventor has the choice of taking out either a certificate of authorship or a patent, depending on the value of his in- vention. Anyone appropriating another's invention, or divulging the essence of the invention before formal registration of its author- ship, to the detriment of the inventor's interests, is liable to criminal prosecution and the payment of damages. Officials who unwarrantably hold up the examination of the invention or payment of rewards are called to account; they may be removed from their posts and prosecuted. Inventors and innovators receive remuneration, the amount depending on the value of the proposal. The maximum reward is 200,000 roubles.. In 1957 the Committee on Inventions and Discoveries of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions jointly drew up a new statute covering inventions, discoveries and proposals to improve efficiency. It provides for rewarding, besides the author, also the workers, engineers and technicians who help to put the new invention or innovation proposal into practice. The draft statute provides for giving inventors and innovators extra holidays, passes to sanatoria, and so on. It also envisages conferring on inventors the title of "Honoured Inventor of the U.S.S.R." and awarding them a gold medal, and on innovators the title of "Hohoured Innovator of the U.S.S.R." and awarding them a silver medal. The new draft is being discussed by' enterprises, institutions, construction works and research institutes. 84 How is the training of skilled workers' organised? - APLANNED system has been set up for training workers for industry, transport and other branches of the national economy, at state expense. As far back as 1920, enterprises all over the country began to open factory apprenticeship schools, the number of which increased as industry expanded. Between 1929 and 1937 some 2 million young workers were trained by them. While keeping the factory apprenticeship schools in a number of enterprises, the Soviet Government in 1940 Fet up an extensive system of labour reserves, and the trade schools and factory apprenticeship schools were merged into the system. In 1954 technical schols began to function. The course of study in the trade schools which prepare workers of the more difficult trades, is from two to four years; in the factory apprenticeship schools, which turn out workers for the mass trade, it is from six to ten months; and in the technical schools, which prepare workers for the higher skilled trades and junior technical personnel, it is from one or two years. The explanation for the relatively brief course of study in the technical schools is that boys and girls admitted to these schools must have completed a secondary education (the ten forms of a general education school). The other Labour Reserves schools admit young people with less than a ten-year education. Tuition in these schools is free; technical school students receive a stipend, and those of the trade schools and factory apprenticeship schools are fully maintained by the state. The latter are provided with accommodation and receive their board, clothing and textbooks free. In addition to this centralised system, qualified workers of a particular trade are trained directly by many industrial enter- prises. All factories and mills maintain apprenticeship courses in which young workers are taught, singly or in groups, and also advanced training courses. In 1953 the Labour Reserves system was charged with training skilled workers to repair farm machines, and tractor drivers and combine operators who are at the same time mechanics. The State Labour Reserves system has played an extremely I 47 85 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4 important role in training skilled workers for the national economy. Between 1941 and 1955 they turned out close to 8 million workers, and in the 1956-57 school year 1,365,000 boys ship schools. and girls studied in the system's schools and factory apprentice- In 1958 the technical schools alone were able to turn out 94,000 Young workers, mainly metal workers for the ?country's machine. tool engineering plants. In 1957, 361,000 youths and girls from among the graduates of technical, trade, railway, factory apprenticeship schools, building trades and mining schools were sent to work in in- dustry, on construction jobs or transport. Farm-machine opera- tors' schools trained 325,000 persons, and all received work on collective farms, state farms or machine and tractor stations. 48What does automation mean to Soviet workers? I UTOMATION is one of the general directions of technical progress in the Soviet Union. It is not only a technical problem, but a social and economic problem as well; its solution means continued improvement of the material well- being of the working people. Industrial development in the Soviet Union has reached a level which ensures extensive, and, eventually complete automation Mechanisation is widely practised in all branches of industry In the coal industry, for example, the main processes of mining and loading the coal on to railway trains is already fully mechanised. Machines and other equipment have substantially lightened the labour of coal miners, steel workers, oil workers, and so on. Many production sectors are already automatised. In the engineering industry there are hundreds of automatic transfer machines, and there are also automatic shops and fac- tories. The principal power systems and the larger sub-stations are automatically operated. Automatic control has also been introduced in steel smelting; many rolling mills, oil wells and other means of production are operated automatically. The U.S.S.R. has also developed a unique system of self- regulated automatic control of production processes. Undergoing 86 tests in the Soviet transport system are automatic locomotive engineers which drive trains and automatic bus drivers which can drive buses on schedule more reliably than people do. Output of automation equipment in the next seven years (1956-65) will be up five-fold compared with 1958, instruments six-fold and electronic computing machines fifteen times over. This development will make for an immense rise in labour productivity, amounting to hundreds per cent. It will ensure a vast decline in production costs and overheads, and conse- quently will mean an abundance of products and a considerable rise in living standards. The growing automation enables the Soviet Government as a whole and each enterprise individually to increase accumulation and therefore spend more and more money to improve living conditions, build more housing, develop and improve cultural services, and so on. Making work easier and cutting down the expenditure of labour, automation also does away with the use of physical labour in hazardous occupations or on arduous jobs. Moreover, it considerably raises the cultural and technical standards of the workers, as automation requires greater techni- cal knowledge and the mastering of a higher and more difficult speciality, for the worker's labour is connected with radio electronics, telcmechanics, and so on. Under conditions of automation, the labour of Soviet workers is such as to bring it close in character to the work of engineers and technicians, and that means higher earnings. Automation also opens up wide possibilities for further cutting the working day. The gradual shift-over of factory and office workers to a six- or seven-hour working day now being put through in the U.S.S.R. (it is to be completed in 1960) is based on the extensive introduction of automation. But does not automation threaten the worker with the loss of his job? It is nearly thirty years since unemployment has been abolished in the Soviet Union, and the national economy, de- veloping as it does at a high rate under a unified national eco- nomic plan, needs a great many more _workers of the most diverse trades from year to year. Under these conditions auto- mation does not compete with the workers and does not force them out of industry. 87 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Obviously when new automatic machine tools and automatic transfer machines are set up in factories, a certain number of workers are no longer needed on their particular jobs. However, they do not remain without work; they get new Jobs, as a rule in the same enterprise. Under the law they may not be paid lower wages. Workers are also offered the opportunity of taking courses, at state expense, to learn a higher-skilled trade to enable them to operate automatic machines. While learning the new trade they receive pay based on their average wages. ' Should a worker not get a job in the particular enterprise he will get one in another; the trade union and the factory Manage- ment see to that. Under socialism, technical progress brings workers benefits and not misfortune; the machine is their friend, not a competi- (or. That is why wide sections of the working people in the U.S.S.R. are champions of automation and the army of inven- tors and innovators, many milions strong, is growing from year to year (see answer No. 46). .49 I Why is there no, and can be no, unemployment in the U.S:S.R.? RTICLE 118 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. reads: "Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to work, that is, the right to guaranteed employment and payment for their work in accordance with its quantity and quality. "The right to work is ensured by the socialist organisation of the national economy, the steady growth of the productive forces of Soviet society, the elimination of the possibility of economic crises, and the abolition of unemployment." The socialist system of the national economy, based as it is on the public ownership of the instruments and means of pro- duction (the land, its mineral wealth, mills, factories, mines, transport, and so on), has made it possible to organise the de- velopment of the national economy according to a unified state plan (see answer No. 32). The plan envisages the uninterrupted growth of the country's productive forces, continuous expansion of production and steady advance in living standards, 88 The vast construction in all spheres of the national economy and the continuous growth of the people's purchasing power preclude the possibility of economic crises, ensuring the popula- tion full employment, and requiring additional manpower besides. Under these conditions there can, of course, be no un- employment in the U.S.S.R. The state spends substantial funds to train more and more qualified workers to meet the needs of the national economy, which keep growing from year to year The number of wage and salaried workers is increasing all the time. Thus, at the end of 1950 the national economy of the U.S.S.R. counted 8,300,000 more workers than at the end of 1940. Another 8,000,000 were added during the Fifth Five-Year Plan period (1951-1955) bringing up the total by the close of 1955 to 47,900,000, exclusive of members of producers' co-operatives. who numbered 1,800,000 in 1955. By the end of 1957 the number of workers reached 52,100,000, an increase of 2,100,000 over the previous year. Everyone has work in the Soviet Union and is sure of the morrow. What are collective farms? COLLECTIVE farms, or kolkhozes (abbreviated from the Russian kollektivnoye khozyaistvo) are large socialist farming enterprises, in which Soviet peasants have Joined of their own free will to make farming more productive by pooling their means of production and working together in an organised way, thus ensuring themselves a prosperous and cul- tured life. In collective farms the peasants work collectively and the prin- cipal means of production?farm implements (except minor ones), draught animals and productive livestock and farm build- ings are owned in common. Crops, farm buildings, machinery and other implements. draught animals and productive livestock and the entire output of the collective farm constitute the co-operative, collective farm property, that is the common property of the members of the collective farm. The land cultivated by the collective farm is state property, that is, belongs to the whole people, but the farm 89 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11" Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 is given the title deeds to the land by the state for free use in perpetuity. The foundation of the collective farm structure, the principles on which the farm's activity is organised and managed, and also the rights and duties of its members are defined by the Rules of the Agricultural Artel, which are adopted by thp general membership meeting and have the force of law. The farm's affairs are directed by the general meeting of its members. It elects a board of management, made up of live to nine persons and headed by the chairman, for a term of two years. The board manages production and is accountable to the general meeting for the state of the farm's affairs. The general meeting also elects an auditing commission, which checks up on the economic and financial activity of the board. The general meeting considers and decides all major questions of running the common husbandry, approves the annual and seasonal production and financial plans and estimates, examines the annual and quarterly reports on the work of the farm, de- cides the amounts of the common funds, such as the seed and fodder stocks, indivisible funds, and so on, the amount of pro- duce and cash to be distributed among the members, and it admits new members. Able-bodied members are divided into brigades, which con- stitute the chief form of organising the work. Field brigades are assigned plots of land and the necessary implements, draught animals and farm buildings. Animal husbandry brigades are assigned productive livestock, the necessary equipment and live- stock premises. A collective farmer's income is derived from his or her work in the common husbandry. The standard unit for calculating the work performed by the farm member, and the consequent re- muneration, is the work-day unit. Daily standards have been established for each operation, and collective farmers are credited with from one-half to two-and-a- half work-day units for fulfilment of a daily standard, depending on how difficult or complex the task and on the skill required. A certain part of the crop and animal husbandry produce the collective farm sells to the state in fulfilment of its obligation to the state; next it lays in its planned store of seeds, fodder and other stocks required for carrying on the farming, and sets aside the produce to be sold at the collective farm market. 90 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release Out of the money realised from the sale of produce to the state and on the market it pays off loans and taxes and fixes the amount to go to the common assets. The rest of the crops, animal husbandry products and cash are distributed among the farm's members in accordance with the work-day units credited to them. The cash and products are clear income for the collective farmers, for no taxes have to be paid on them. Besides the common husbandry each collective farmer has a plot of household land ranging in size from a half to a whole acre, exclusive of the area on which the house stands. This land is used by the collective farm family to grow vegetables and for planting an orchard. A collective farmer may have as his personal property a co??. a calf, several pigs, goats and sheep, and an unrestricted num- ber of rabbits and poultry. The size of the household plot and the number of personal livestock are fixed by decision of the general membership meet- ing of the collective farmers in accordance with the number of able-bodied members of a collective farm family taking part in the common husbandry. The personal husbandry on the collective farmer's household plot is subsidiary in character, the main source of a collective farmer's income being the common husbandry. The country now has 78,000 collective farms, which unite some 20,000,000 peasant households, practically the entire peasantry. As a rule, a collective farm has under cultivation roughly 5,000 acres, but in grain-growing districts many have 25.000 to 37,000 acres or more. Besides growing crops, collective farms engage in dairy farm- ing, sheep breeding, hog breeding and poultry farming, they also grow vegetables, fruit and berries. Every collective farm has subsidiary enterprises, such as blacksmith, metal and carpenter shops, brick and tile works, flour mills or other enterprises for processing farm produce. A collective farm's original capital, the so-called indivisible funds, came from small cash payments made by members and the pooling of the means and implements turned over by each member on joining the collective farm: a plough, a harrow, a horse and seeds. 91 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 the indivisible funds are increased by adding to it a certain amount of the collective farm's income for the year, the amount being fixed by the general membership meeting. Today the amount is no less than 15 and no more than 35 per cent of the cash income, depending on the farm's economic strength. The money set aside for the indivisible fund is used for capital outlays to enlarge the common husbandry?to put new land under cultivation, put up farm buildings and cultural establishments, to buy machinery and other equipment or breed stock. The money set aside for the indivisible fund has served as the basis for the rapid development and improvement of collective. farm production. In 1932, that is, in the early years of collectivisation the indivisible funds of the country's collective farms were valued at 4,700 million roubles, and by the beginning of 1958 they had exceeded 100,000 million roubles, an increase of more than twenty-fold. Of even greater importance is the qualitative change in the indivisible funds which has taken place since the collective farms have been first organised. By the beginning of 1958 the collective farms owned 330,000 motor lorries, 162,000 mechanical engines and a large number of electric motors. The value of tractors, farm machiner), motor lorries and other equipment on collective farms was 24,000 million roubles. Today collective farms arc developed and economically sound socialist enterprises, and as a result the old forms of service they received from the state machine and tractor stations (M.T.S.) proved antiquated. The old forms were becoming a brake on the development of the productive forces in agriculture. Consequently, the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet early in 1958 passed a Law on the Further Development of the Collective Farm System and the Reorganisation of the M.T.S. Under this law the machinery in the possession of the stations is being sold to the collective farms, and the M.T.S. have been reorganised practically everywhere into repair and technical service stations. Before it was taken up by the Supreme Soviet the bill was submitted to countrywide discussion and it was supported universally by the people in town and country. The shift from service by machine and tractor stations to the 92 purchase by collective farms of tractors and other machines is an important stage in the development of socialist agriculture and the consolidation and further development of the collectixe farm system. In the hands of the collective farms are now concentrated the machinery and the land, which though it belongs to thz. state is secured to them for use in perpetuity. This makes for more efficient use of both the land and machinery and will lead to a still more rapid advance of the country's agriculture. What is a state farm? 51 ASTATE farm, or Sovkhoz (abbreviated from the Russian sovietskoye khozyaistvo?Soviet farm), is a large-scale state establishment, the highest form of organisation of socialist agricultural production in the Soviet Union. State farms operate on land which belong to the whole people, and their means of production and produce are state property. Guidance of the activity of the state farms, including approval of their plans, has been entrusted to the public Ministries of State Farms. By the beginning of 1958 the country had 5.8(X) state farms. including grain-growing, beet-growing, cotton-growing, fruit- growing, vegetable-growing, dairy or meat and dairy farms, hog- raising, sheep-breeding, poultry-raising, and so on However, state farms are not narrowly specialised but diversi- fied enterprises. Thus, animal husbandry occupies an important place on state grain-growing farms, and crop cultivation on animal husbandry farms. Proper proportions between the various branches coupled with high mechanisation and scientific methods of farming serve as the main foundation for high productivity and marketability of state farms and their profitability. The average number of tractors per state farm is fifty-four. of grain combines fifteen and of motor lorries sixteen In 1957 the state farms had almost twice as many tractors as they had in 1933. They have close to 156,000 electric motors with an aggre- gate capacity of some 700,000 kw. Ninety-three per cent of the state facms Nisi: eleLtriots with 93 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 98 per cent of total power capacity furnished by mechanical engines. The average area of a state farm is over 40,000 acres. and the area under crops, 15,000. The average number of workers per farm is 376. State farm workers' wages arc paid by the state. Production and office workers on state farms have a trade union of their own and they enjoy the social benefits and privileges enjoyed by members of other unions. Any state farm worker can, if he so desires, get a small plot of land on which to build a home for himself and the needed outbuildings, also to plant an orchard, grow vegetables and other crops. The farm provides lorries to transport building materials, and the state gives the home-builder a long-term loan. Those who have no houses of their own receive living quarters from the farm. State farms are divided into several sections, each headed by a manager who is appointed by the director; most of the managers arc agricultural specialists. Each section has assigned to it the needed number of tractors, horses, machines, buildings and other means of production. The first state farms were set up in the U.S.S.R. in the year after the Great October Socialist Revolution, at first by assigning for the purpose confiscated landlord estates. Later much more land from the state reserves, in particular virgin land, went to enlarge old and establish new state farms. A good illustration is the 425 new state farms set up between 1954 and 1956 on virgin and long-fallow lands. The area under crops on state farms today is nearly triple that of 1940 and amounts to 75 million acres. Since 1940 the area under grain crops has gone up from 18 million acres to 53 million. Animal husbandry sections of state farms have roughly 4 million head of cattle, more than 6 million pigs, close to 12 million sheep and more than 13 million head of poultry. State farms play an important part in the advance of agricul- ture, especially in the output of produce for the market, furnish- ing the state nearly a third of the country's marketable grain. Gross output of state farms in 1956 was up 170 per cent compared with 1940; in the last three years it has almost doubled and marketable grain increased 4.2-fold. State farms have been from their very inception not merely producers of grain, meat, milk and other produce; they have 94 also been a school of new techniques, of proper organisation of work and of the introduction of scientific methods in farming. They became models of large-scale socialist production, show- ing the peasantry the advantages of large-scale collective farming. The state farms have thus played a big part in the consolidation of the collective farm system. Lenin, the founder of the Soviet State, held that the main function of the state farms was to be model state farming enterprises yielding more produce with minimum expenditure of money and labour. The state farms are carrying out this task creditably. Holy has the steep advance of agriculture in 1953-1958 been carried out? 152 THE Second World War delayed the development of agri- culture in the U.S.S.R. and caused it great damage. The Hitlerite invaders ruined and plundered 98,000 collective farms, some 2,000 state farms and almost 3,000 machine and tractor stations. More than 64 million head of productive live- stock and 110 million head of poultry were seized and slaughtered or sent to Germany. Nevertheless, the difficulties caused by the war and aggravated by the drought in 1946 were quickly overcome. Already in the third year after the war, the pre-war level of grain production was reached, and in the sixth year the pre-war level of produc- tion of oil-bearing plants, potatoes, and fodder crops. For volume of wheat grown the U.S.S.R. moved up to top place in the world. The following years saw a further rise in agricultural output. However, serious shortcomings were found in certain branches of agriculture in some parts of the country and output failed to meet the growing demand. Though there had been a big in- crease in agricultural output the demand still exceeded the supply. In September 1953 a plenary meeting of the Central Com- mittee of the C.P.S.U. worked out a comprehensive programme for a steep advance of the country's agriculture, and it is being successfully carried out. One of the important measures was to put under cultivation 95 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 immense tracts of unused land in the eastern part of the country. In the last four years more than 90,000,000 acres in Kazakhstan. Trans-Urals, Siberia and the Volga area have been subjugated. In addition to the subjugation of virgin land a whole series of important measures have been carried out in recent years to snsure an upswing in agricultural production. In the past four years 908,000 tractors (in terms of 15 h.p. units) and millions of other farm machines have been sent to the countryside. Today agriculture has around 1,700,000 tractors, 660.000 motor lorries and more than 450,000 grain combines Much help was given agriculture by supplying it skilled personnel. While in 1953, 83,000 specialists possessing a higher or specialised secondary education worked on collective farms and in machine and tractor stations, by the end of 1957 the number had gone up to 277,000. In the past four years the state has invested in agriculture 75,400 million roubles, or 10,000 million roubles more than in the preceding nineteen years.- Another measure was to raise considerably the prices paid by the Government for the chief agricultural produce purchased by the state and to reduce the agricultural tax. From Janu- ary 1st, 1958, the personal husbandries of collective farmers. factory and office workers have been completely exempted from obligatory deliveries of produce to the state. A new planning system has been introduced, under which collective farmers themselves decide which crops are Most profi- table for them to grow, and which livestock to raise. Collective farms have been granted the right to revise the Rules of the Agricultural Artel taking into account local con- ditions. These measures have released the collective farmers' initiative Special attention has been given to the proper distribution of branches of agriculture and to specialisation of farming in con- formity with the natural and economic conditions of each dis- trict. As a result of all this, Soviet agriculture has overcome the lag of individual branches and is now advancing steeply. Gross cereal harvests in the past four years have increased 27 per cent as compared with the previous four years, and the harvests of industrial and other valuable crops on old cultivated land have also gone up. 96 For example, the sugar beet crop in 1957 was up 70 per cent compared with 1953, flax nearly 200 per cent, raw cotton 13 per cent, potatoes 20 per cent, and vegetables 27 per cent. The impressive rate of development of the field husbandry has created the necessary conditions for an upswing in animal hus- bandry. The extension of the area under maize was of decisive import- ance in establishing a stable fodder supply. In 1957 the area sown to maize for corn, green fodder and silage was more than 43,000,000 acres, practically seven times the area in 1953. That year collective farms and state farms silaged some 90,000,000 tons, including 42,000,000 tons of maize; in 1953 the total silage was 27,700,000 tons. Putting the fodder supply on a firm basis has considerably im- proved the situation in animal husbandry. Meat production (taking into account the increase in the herd) went up 38 per cent in the last four years; milk production for the country as a whole went up 50 per cent, and collective and state farms increased their production by more than 100 per cent. The plan provided for raising the average milk yield per cow by 600 kilograms between 1954 and 1960, but the task was carried out in three years. The average yield per cow on collec- tive farms in 1957 was 786 kilograms more than in 1955. Hundreds of collective farms and state farms annually pro- duce 10 tons of meat or more and 40 tons of milk or more for every 250 acres of farm land. The progress made in crop-growing and animal husbandry development has made it possible to recommend Soviet agricul- ture the task of bringing the annual grain crop in the next few years up to over 180,000,000 tons, meat to 20,000,000 and milk to 70,000,000 tons and the task is being carried out successfully. The reorganisation of the machine and tractor stations and sale of the machinery to the collective farms (see answer No. 53) now under way will also help the further steep advance of agri- culture. This measure has opened up still greater prospects for an upswing in crop growing and animal husbandry, through highly-efficient use of the machines. 97 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 53 Why hare the machine and tractor stations .been reorganised? 0 N March 31st, 1958, the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet passed a law on the further development of the collective farm system and the reorganisation of the machine and tractor stations, under which the system of technical service rendered the collective farms has been changed. Tractors, combines and other machines belonging to machine and tractor stations have been sold to the collective farms, which pay cash or undertake to pay in instalments over two or three years, depending on the economic position of the particular col- lective farm. Collective farms also buy newly manufactured machines. Machine and tractor stations have been reorganised into repair and technical service stations, whose function is to repair farm machinery, sell machines and spare parts, fuel, fertiliser and other commodities needed for production purposes, and to arrange to rent-out road-building, reclamation and certain other types of machinery. By the beginning of spring in 1958 two-thirds of the country's collective farms had already bought the machinery, and tens of thousands of tractor drivers, combine operators and other skilled workers, and thousands of agronomists and zootechni- cians who were previously working in machine and tractor stations joined collective farms and became members. Before the reorganisation, the machine and tractor stations served the collective farms under contracts to cultivate the fields and harvest the crops. This system originated thirty years ago when large masses of the Soviet peasantry began to form col- lective farms. The new collective farm system required a new material and technical base, and so the Soviet Government built factories to manufacture tractors, combines and other modern farm machinery. However, the young collective farms could not afford to buy the machines, and, besides, there were no people in the villages who could operate them. The country-side needed substantial help from the state, and the most expedient form of such help was the machine and tractor stations (M.T.S.). The first M.T.S. was set up up 1928; it 98 was followed by others, and before long a dense network of them covered the country. During the time the M.T.S. existed the government spent more than 300,000 million roubles on their organisation, maintenance, and development. The machine and tractor stations were a vehicle of technical progrets in the countryside, helping the peasants to learn to run large collective farms, and training an army of qualified tractor drivers, combine operators, motor lorry drivers, fitters and turners. The M.T.S. were a force without which it would have been impossible to strengthen the collective farms, to achieve a rapid advance of agriculture and a higher standard for the peasantry. Recent years witnessed a complete change in the situation in the Soviet country-side. The collective farms grew stronger, small farms amalgamated to form bigger ones; the peasants gained a wealth of experience in running collective farms, and the number of machine operators and other farm specialists multiplied. And finally the financial position of the collective farms be- came considerably stronger. Between 1949 and 1957 the average annual money income per collective farm increased more than ten-fold?from 111,000 roubles to 1,247,000. Today the country has thousands of collective farms with annual money incomes of 10 to 20 million roubles or more. Under these conditions, the question arose whether it was not time to change the system of the material and technical service of the collective farms. It was the collective farmers and M.T.S. workers who raised the question, and the Communist Party and the Soviet Government supported them, and their proposal was embodied in a state law. The measures outlined under this law are a component part of the effort to improve the management and guidance of the national economy so as to permit the country's productive forces to develop more fully all the time and the standard of living to rise ever higher. D2 99 npelassified in Part - Sanitized COPY Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 54 I How is domestic trade organised in the U.S.S.R.? THE sale of goods in town and country is carried on by state and co-operative organisations, the two principal forms of Soviet trade. The state organisations account for 65 per cent of the retail trade, and the co-operative for 28; the other 7 per cent are accounted for by the collective farm markets. The goods sold by the state and co-operative trading organi- sations are supplied to them by industry or are produced, con- tracted for or purchased by them (farm produce, mushrooms, wild berries, game, and so on). The quantities to be supplied and time of delivery are de- termined by the national economic plan. The state fixes the wholesale and retail prices, which are uniform for the state and co-operative trading organisations. Farm produce is also sold at collective farm markets, to which collective farms, collective farmers and individual peasants bring their surplus products for sale. The price of produce sold in these markets is governed by supply and demand. More shops, stalls, public dining rooms, restaurants, snack bars and other retail trade establishments are opened up every year. In 1957 there were 620,000 of them, or roughly 120,000 more than in the pre-War year 1940. The number of public catering establishments has grown par- ticularly rapidly; in the last thirty years the number of dining rooms, restaurants and snack bars has increased forty-two-fold, now exceeding 126,000. The number of warehouses and cold storage plants has also grown. More than 3 million persons are employed in trade. There are special educational establishments to train workers for this job, including institutions, specialised secondary schools and trade schools. As a result of the balanced expansion of production and steady rise in the income of the population, the volume of sales keeps going up from year to year. In the last four years it increased by 52.2 per cent, reaching 616,500 million roubles in 1957. 100 Compared with 1940, state and co-operative retail sales in 1957 were up 250 per cent for meat and meat products, 260 per cent for butter, milk and other dairy products, 220 per cent for sugar and 180 per cent for fabrics, with the rise in the sale of woollens being 300 per cent, and silks 800 per cent. Sales of clocks and watches, bicycles, radios, TV sets, domestic refrigera- tors, washing machines and vacuum cleaners increased many times over. What Co-operatives are there in the Soviet Union? BESIDES the agricultural co-operatives (collective farms) the Soviet Union has consumers' and producers' co-opera- tives. The consumer's co-operatives are mass public organisations in the country-side with more than 34 million members. There are more than 20,000 of these co-operatives. Their highest organ is the general membership meeting, and in the intervals between meetings?the elected board of management. The co-operatives are organised in unions for each district, region, territory and republic, and their boards, too, arc elected by the membership. The highest guiding body of the Soviet consumers' co-opera- tives is the delegate congress, which elects the Council of Centrosoyuz (Central Union of Co-operative Societies of the U.S.S.R.), the board of directors of Centrosoyuz and the audit- ing commission, all for a term of four years. The consumers' co-operatives trade in the rural localities, where they have 315,000 retail trading and public catering estab- lishments. Their volume of sales is growing steadily and rapidly as a result of the rising income of the collective farm peasantry, especially in recent years. In 1957 retail sales were up 17.2 per cent over 1956 and were 190 per cent greater than in 1940. The co-operatives sell produce for collective farms and indi- vidual collective farmers on a commission basis in towns, for which purpose they have opened up special stores. The produce is sold at prices lower than those prevailing on collective farm markets. In 1957 total sales by these stores came to 7,700 million roubles, an increase of 26 per cent over 1956. 101 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 These co-operatives are the chief procurers of a number of farm products and raw materials. They also operate small enter- prises processing certain food products and manufacturing certain consumer goods (bakeries, sausage factories, vegetable, fruit and berry canneries, and so on). The annual output of these enterprises exceeds 11,000 million roubles.. Centrosoyuz is affiliated to the International Co-operative Alliance, of which it is the largest single constitutent organisa- tion. The producers' co-operatives unite handicraft workers making various articles of consumption and repairing household articles, furniture, clothing, shoes and rendering certain other services, such as painting and decorating and cleaning flats, and so on. These co-operatives have tens of thousands of small plants and workshops, barber shops, photo studios and so on. The management boards of the co-operatives and of the unions of producers' co-operatives are elected by the member- ship. There are several other kind of small co-operatives, among them co-operatives of workers' and office employees for build- ing houses for themselves in towns and summer cottages in the suburbs. The Soviet co-operative organisations are given every support by the state. 56 Who fixes prices in the U.S.S.R.? pRICES are fixed by the state planning authorities, subject to approval by the Government. The prices of some goods are fixed by the local organs?the Councils of Ministers of the Republics. For the more important articles other than food, state prices are uniform in all parts of the country. For the more important food products, prices vary according to zone. For these pur- poses the country has been divided into a number of zones, and in setting the special prices for the various zones, account is taken of carriage and other overheads. Since most manufactures and foodstuffs are concentrated in. the hands of the state, and their distribution is handled by the 102 state and co-operative trading systems, there is nothing to hinder the establishment of uniform prices. Soviet economy is free from fluctuating or rocketing prices due to spetulation. The prices of goods produced by the co-operatives are fixed by them at approximately the same level as state prices. Retail prices in collective farm markets are influenced by supply and demand. But, with state and co-operative shops nearby selling products at uniform state prices, the collective farmers have to sell at the same or lower prices. In this way the Soviet State uses economic means to control the prices in the collective farm markets. What banks are there? Where do people keep their savings? ALL banks in the U.S.S.R. belong to the state. There are no private banks. In the hands of the Soviet State, finance and credit repre- sent an important instrument for advancing the national eco- nomy and culture. Through the banks, the state also exercises financial control over the work of individual enterprises, insti- tutions and the economy as a whole. The chief Soviet bank is the State Bank of the U.S.S.R. All state institutions, co-operatives, public organisations, factories and offices keep current accounts in the State Bank, through which their mutual accounts are settled. The State Bank also handles the state budget revenues, including the profit tax and income tax. The State Bank grants short-term credits to enterprises and institutions, and finances organisations, funds for which are provided by the state budget. The bank has branches in all Republics, territories, regions, cities and district centres. Foreign trade transactions are financed by a special bank, the Foreign Trade Bank of the U.S.S.R. (see answer No. 97). The U.S.S.R. also has four special long-term credit banks: the Industrial Bank, the Trade Bank, the Central Agricultural Bank, and the Central Bank for Municipal Economy and Hous- ing Construction. 103 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 These banks finance capital construction and handle clearing operations in their respective branches of national economy. The people keep the money they save from their earnings in state savings banks. Savings banks are to be found in all towns, large villages, district centres and industrial settlements. The number of depositors increases every year, and by the beginning of 1958 it reached 40 million, a fact which bears witness to the growing well-being of the people. It is estimated that in 1957 savings bank deposits will amount to approximately 90,000 million roubles compared with 7,300 million before the war. In 1957 they went up by 16,800 million roubles. 581 What taxes do the people pay? P EOPLE in the Soviet Union pay small taxes, which make up an insignificant portion of their income. Factory or office workers, art workers, artisans and other citizens who have independent sources of income pay income tax. The tax is progressive, rising in proportion as the earnings rise. Workers whose earnings do not exceed 370 roubles a month. and pensioners, regardless of the amount of their pensions, are exempt from paying taxes. Other workers pay income tax monthly out of their earnings for the preceding month. The rate is as follows: Monthly Earnings 400 roubles .. 500 roubles 600 roubles 1,000 roubles 1,500 roubles etc. etc. The maximum tax does not exceed 13 per cent of the income. Workers with four or more dependents are allowed a deduc- tion of 30 per cent of the amount of the tax. Single men and childless married people who are working pay a special bachelors' and childless people's tax. Men between ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? Tax 18 roubles 26 roubles 36 roubles 82 roubles 147 roubles 104 neclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 7 the ages of twenty and .fifty and women between twenty and forty-five pay tax at 6 per cent of all income above 450 roubles a month. Income taxes paid by the population are a minor item in the state budgetary -revenue. Under the 1958 budget they will con- stitute only 7.8 per cent of total revenue. How is the U.S.S.R. State Budget made up? I 59 THE state budget of the U.S.S.R. has important distinctive features. It is a budget of a socialist country, in which public ownership of the means of production predominates, and the national income belong to all of society. Through the Soviet budget a small part of the national income is switched to the development of the productive forces of society and the improvement of living standards. The state budget of the Soviet Union is thus a major means of the marshalling and balanced employment of the state's financial resources for enlarging socialist production and raising general living standards for all members of society?workers, peasants and intelligentsia. The state budget is also the country's chief financial plan, as it is closely linked with the national economy as a whole and serves the latter's requirements. The chief revenue items are the receipts from the socialist enterprises and organisations, and the budget resources arc used ' to finance the socialist enterprises in conformity with the national economic plan. Revenue and expenditure items are approved annually by the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, which also discusses and approves the Government's report on the fulfilment of the budget for the pre- ceding year. The 1958 budget, as passed by the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet, provides for a revenue of 643.000 million roubles, and an ex- penditure of 627,800 million roubles, that is an excess of revenue over expenditure of 15,200 million roubles. The Soviet budget has been yielding a surplus year after year, and the fact that it has no deficit shows that U.S.S.R. finances rest on a healthy foundation. They are not squeezed out through 105 @_51-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 taxation; their source is income from a steady expanding socialist economy. The chief revenue items are the accumulations of state indus- trial, transport and trading enterprises?in the form of turnover and profit taxes, and income tax paid by co-operative organisations (collective farms and producers' co-operatives). In 1958 the socialist economy accounted for almost 89 per cent of total budgetary revenue against 85 per cent in 1957. Taxes paid by the population play a minor part in the budget; in 1958 they will come to 7.8 per cent. The Soviet budget is the budget of a peace-loving power. This is clearly shown by the items of the expenditure side. Out of the total 1958 appropriation of 627,800 rilion roubles, more than 257,000 million was allocated to t'.ie national eco- nomy and close to 213,000 million roubles '.or social and cul- tural services. Thus, two-thirds of the budgetary a-,propriations go to de- velop the national economy and for sr ..1a1 and cultural purposes. Of the 213,000 million roubles Pr.soted for social and cultural purposes (nearly 25,000 million snore than in 1957) more than 84,000 million were earmart-.4 for public education and science, more than 40,000 ino'..:on for health and physical culture, and mnrs':;,vu0 million for social maintenance and social insurance (against 71,400 million in 1957). Defence expenditure is reduced from year to year, the 1958 allotment being 15.4 per cent of total budgetary appropriations, against 16 per cent in 1957 and 19.9 per cent in 1955. In this distribution of state funds we see clearly the endeavour of the Soviet state to satisfy the rising material and cultural, needs of the people and further to develop the peace-time economy. 106 IV. EDUCATION, SCIENCE, CULTURE What is ,the system of public education in the U.S.S.R.? 60 IN the U.S.S.R. all children attend school. The Soviet Union has built up its system of public education on principles that were set forth in a government decree in 1918. Briefly, these principles were: free general and polytcchnical education for children up to the age of seventeen irrespective of sex or nationality; instruction in the native language; the pro- motion of vocational training. Full observance of the principle of a system of uniform schools closely bound up with socially productive labour excluded the rise of private schools. The curriculum of the Soviet school combines general and polytechnical instruction and moral, physical and aesthetic education. Included in the public education system arc pre-school estab- lishments, many types of general schools, specialised secondary schools, institutions of higher learning (see answer No. 61) and also various cultural and educational establishments. The pre-school establishments (kindergartens, playgrounds, children's homes) carry out the social education of children between the ages of three and seven. Next comes the general school, where children are educated from the age of seven to seventeen. This is divided into the seven- year and secondary (ten- or eleven-year) schools. There are also music, ballet and other schools, as well as special schools for mentally deficient children, the blind, and the deaf and dumb. There are special seven-year and secondary schools for young workers and farmers who for some reason did not obtain a secondary education at the proper time. Vocational schools train skilled workers -or specialists with intermediate qualifications. They arc divided into trade, railway, arts and crafts, and mining schools. Technical schools train highly-skilled workers and junior technical personnel. Secondary technical, medical, teacher train- ing, music, theatrical and other schools graduate young specialists with intermediate qualifications. 107 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Boarding schools were establisned in the U.S.S.R. in the autumn of 1956, chiefly for orphans, children of unmarried mothers or mothers with large families, and children whose families cannot give them the proper upbringing. Orphans and the children of parents with low earnings are maintained at the boarding schools completely at state expense The boarding schools follow the curriculum of the secondary school. Education and upbringing are based on the principle of combining instruction with productive work. Such, in general outline, is the system of public education in the U.S.S.R. The Soviet system inherited a small and underdeveloped net- work of schools. In the 1914-15 academic year 9,700,000 children and adoles- cents in Russia attended school. In 1956-57 enrolment in the general schools of the Soviet Union (not counting the schools for young workers and farmers and the schools for adults) was 28,200,000. If we include all the types of schools, we find that more than 50,000,000 persons in the U.S.S.R. are studying. During the Soviet period, more than 100,000 schools have been built, nearly 30,000 of them since the end of the Second World War. They have spacious classrooms, laboratories, auditoriums, gymnasiums, rooms for extra-curricular activities, libraries, lunch rooms, and so on. Altogether, there are 213,000 schools in the Soviet Union. More than 200 million text-books are published annually. This is enough to supply each pupil with text-books in all the subjects he studies. Teachers for the elementary forms (the first to the fourth) are prepared at teachers' training schools, and those for, the fifth to the tenth forms at teachers' training colleges and universities. In the 1956-57 academic year there were 1,811,000 teachers in the Soviet Union. Under the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1951-55) universal secondary (ten-year) education was introduced in the big cities and industrial centres. Now it is being put into effect in the other towns and in the rural areas. In the 1956-57 academic year the secondary schools graduated .""r4.06-,000 boys and girls. nother important measure being carried out in the Soviet 108 Union is the introduction of polytechnical training in the secon- dary schools. This will familiarise the pupils, in theory and in practice, with modern industrial and agricultural production and prepare them for future socially-useful activity. How is higher education organised? 161 THERE are several main types of higher education in the U.S.S.R.; university, technical, agricultural, medical, , economic, teachers-training, artistic, architectural, musical and theatrical. The higher educational establishments in all the Union and Autonomous Republics, territories and regions are attended by young men and women of all nationalities. Today the Soviet Union has thirty-nine universities with a total enrolment of about 200,000. . The universities have a five-year course of study. They graduate qualified philologists, historians, biologists, geologists, physicists, and so on, who have the right to teach in the secondary school. The universities carry out extensive research activities, for which they possess the necessary laboratories and up-to-date equipment and apparatus. Inasmuch as scientific and technical progress depends largely on the level of knowledge of the engineering personnel, the Soviet Union has always devoted great attention to its technical colleges. There are more than 200 of them: polytechnical, indus- trial, power engineering, electrical engineering, radio engineering, physical engineering, machine-building, civil engineering. machine-tool building, and so on and so forth. Their course of study is five or five-and-a-half years, and they have a total student body of 645,000. Like the universities,, the technical colleges do extensive research. In 1957, for instance, they conducted investigations in the field of radio-electronics, heat-resistant alloys, gas turbine design, the use of isotopes in science and engineering, and so on. In 1956 the U.S.S.R. had 721,000 engineers with diploma, or 431,000 more than in 1940. The specialised secondary and higher schools graduated more than 770,000 young men and women in 1957. A higher agricultural education is given at academies, colleges and the agronomy faculties existing at some universities. Train- 109 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Boarding schools were establisned in the U.S.S.R. in the autumn of 1956, chiefly for orphans, children of unmarried mothers or mothers with large families, and children whose families cannot give them the proper upbringing. Orphans and the children of parents with low earnings are maintained at the boarding schools completely at state expense. The boarding schools follow the curriculum of the secondary school. Education and upbringing are based on the principle of combining instruction with productive work. Such, in general outline, is the system of public education in the U.S.S.R. The Soviet system inherited a small and underdeveloped net- work of schools. In the 1914-15 academic year 9,700,000 children and adoles- cents in Russia attended school. In 1956-57 enrolment in the general schools of the Soviet Union (not counting the schools for young workers and farmers and the schools for adults) was 28200,000. If we include all the types of schools, we find that more than 50,000,000 persons in the U.S.S.R. are studying. During the Soviet period, more than 100,000 schools have been built, nearly 30,000 of them since the end of the Second World War. They have spacious classrooms, laboratories, auditoriums, gymnasiums, rooms for extra-curricular activities, libraries, lunch rooms, and so on. Altogether, there are 213,000 schools in the Soviet Union. More than 200 million text-books are published annually. This is enough to supply each pupil with text-books in all the subjects he studies. Teachers for the elementary forms (the first to the fourth) are prepared at teachers' training schools, and those for the fifth to the tenth forms at teachers' training colleges and universities. In the 1956-57 academic year there were 1,811,000 teachers in the Soviet Union. Under the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1951-55) universal secondary (ten-year) education was introduced in the big cities and industrial centres. Now it is being put into effect in the other towns and in the rural areas. In the 1956-57 academic year the secondary schools graduated 1,500,000 boys and girls. Another important measure being carried out in the Soviet 108 Union is the introduction of polytechnical training in the secon- dary schools. This will familiarise the pupils, in theory and in practice, with modern industrial and agricultural production and prepare them for future socially-useful activity. How is higher education organised? 161 THERE are several main types of higher education in the U.S.S.R.; university, technical, agricultural, medical, , economic, teachers-training, artistic, architectural, musical and theatrical. The higher educational establishments in all the Union and Autonomous Republics, territories and regions are attended by young men and women of all nationalities. Today the Soviet Union has thirty-nine universities with a total enrolment of about 200,000. The universities have a five-year course of study. They graduate qualified philologists, historians, biologists, geologists, physicists, and so on, who have the right to teach in the secondary school. The universities carry out extensive research activities, for which they possess the necessary laboratories and up-to-date equipment and apparatus. Inasmuch as scientific and technical progress depends largely on the level of knowledge of the engineering personnel, the Soviet Union has always devoted great attention to its technical colleges. There are more than 200 of them: polytechnical, indus- trial, power engineering, electrical engineering, radio engineering, physical engineering, machine-building, civil engineering, machine-tool building, and so on and so forth. Their course of study is five or five-and-a-half years, and they have a total student body of 645,000. Like the universities,, the technical colleges do extensive research. In 1957, for instance, they conducted investigations in the field of radio-electronics, heat-resistant alloys, gas turbine design, the use of isotopes in 'science and engineering, and so on. In 1956 the U.S.S.R. had 721,000 engineers with diploma, or 431,000 more than in 1940. The specialised secondary and higher schools graduated more than 770,000 young men and women in 1957. A higher agricultural education is given at academies, colleges and the agronomy faculties existing at some universities. Train- 109 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ing is offered in many fields: soil science and agro-chemistry, fruit and vegetable cultivation and viniculture, plant protection, sericulture, animal husbandry, land use, mechanisation, land reclamation, forestry, the economics and organisation of agricul- ture, and so on. In 1954 the colleges and universities gave training in 500 specialities, but now the number has been reduced to 274 with the aim of giving students a more thorough general scientific and general engineering education . The curricula encourages diverse forms of independent work by the students. This gives the instructors more time for a fuller elucidation of the more complex and important scientific prob- lems, as well as an opportunity to acquaint students with the latest achievements in domestic and foreign science and engin- eering. Enrolment in institutions of higher learning is open to citizens between the ages of seventeen and thirty-five who have completed a secondary education and passed the entrance examinations. Tuition in all the colleges and universities of the Soviet Union has been free of charge since 1956. All students who make good progress receive a state allowance that assures them a subsistence minimum. New regulations introduced in 1957 stipulate that young men and women who have Worked for a period of at least two years after completing secondary school shall be given preference in admittance to higher schools. This is promoting the influx into the colleges and universities of young people with a certain amount of practical experience on the job. Six out of every ten persons entering higher schools in the 1957-58 academic year had worked at least one or two years. The Soviet Union's 767 colleges and universities have an aggre- gate student body of more than 2 million. Of these, upwards of 800,000 study by correspondence or in evening departments, in their spare time. They enjoy a number of privileges, sual as, for instance, an additional paid holiday during the examination periods. 116 '?".% Can a Soviet worker become an engineer by studying in his spare time? 162 yEs, he can. Many secondary technical schools and colleges provide evening or correspondence courses. There are also corres- pondence colleges, for instance, the U.S.S.R. Polytechnical Correspondence Institute, with a student body of more than 20,000. Most of the evening courses are attached to big factories. The students attend lectures and do their laboratory assignments after working hours. Correspondence students receive assignments by mail. Twice a year they are summoned to the college to take examinations. That is how, by studying in the evenings or by correspondence, a worker can obtain a higher education in his spare time. This education is free. Soviet labour legislation stipulates a number of privileges for evening correspondence students. Among them are additional holidays for consultations, examinations and preparation of their graduation theses. On completing their studies, evening and correspondence stu- dents receive diplomas on the same basis as regular students. Under the Fifth Five-Year Plan (1951-55), the higher educa- tional establishment graduated 247,000 correspondence students. In 1955 more than 175,000 students were admitted to the cor- respondence departments of colleges and universities and the correspondence colleges. More than 3,500,000 persons studied in their spare time in 1957 at evening or correspondence courses provided by special- ised secondary and higher schools, in general schools for young workers and farmers, and schools for adults. Ill Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 63 1 How is science adrancing in the U.S.S.R.? ? SOVIET people hold the view that science is born of practice and that the ultimate aim of scientific cognition of the world is to gain active mastery over the laws governing the develop- ment of nature and society in order to place them at the service of society and social production. In the second half of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the present century a number of scientific discoveries of first-rate importance were made in Russia. Even with the limited material and technical facilities they had in old, pre-revolutionary Russia the country's scientists did some magnificent work, the crowning point of which was Mendeleyev's Periodic Table of the Elements, the foundation of all modern natural science. In the sphere of the social sciences, Lenin provided a develop- ment of Marxism, that most progressive scientific theory which discovered the materialist laws of social development. The Revolution of 1917 put the ideas and conclusions of this theory into practice. A new social system, Socialism, emerged victorious. Subsequently, socialist production, the object of which is to satisfy the requirements of the entire population, had to be founded, and actually is founded, on the latest scientific and technological achievements. Socialism implies the organisation of the life of society on a planned, scientific basis. By its very nature it is a social system containing unprecedented potentialities for scientific progress. In the early Soviet period, when the country was working to restore the economy that had been wrecked by the war and foreign intervention, science took an active part in the solution of many practical problems. The first research institute founded by the Soviet Government was the Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad. Its purpose was to promote the introduction of achievements of modern physics into technology. Scientists were active in developing ex- peditionary work to study Russia's great mineral riches, which had been explored only to an insignificant degree in Pre- revolutionary times. They also played an important role in distributing the country's productive forces rationally and promoting the specialisation of 112 economic districts in conformity with their particular natural factors. Scientific personnel was likewise drawn into the training of highly-qualified specialists in all branches of learning, something to which ? great attention has always been paid in the Soviet Union. The system of planning takes into account both short-term and long-range economic requirements. Alongside the develop- ment of the applied sciences it therefore provided for a great advance in the theoretical departments of the natural sciences as a major motive force in scientific progress as a whole. This long-range policy fully justified itself. Fundamental discoveries have been made in the U.S.S.R. in studying the behaviour of matter at temperatures approaching absolute zero (by P. L. Kapitsa and his associates). Recently this research received theoretical interpretation in a new theory of super-fluidity and super-conductivity propounded by N. N. Bogolyubov. ' In 1934 P. A. Cherenkov, working under the guidance of S. I. Vavilov, discovered a new phenomenon which has been named the Vavilov-Cherenkov Effect. Subsequent studies have shown the practical importance of this phenomenon in making extremely sensitive instruments with which to investigate the properties of atomic nuclei. V. I. Veksler has worked out a new principle for accelerating charged particles which has made it possible to produce energies more than a thousand times greater than those known before. This principle has been incorporated in powerful accelerators built in the U.S.S.R. N. N. Semyonov evolved the theory of branching chain re- actions, on which the processes of combustion, explosion and other types of oxidation are based. Proceeding from this theory the Soviet scientists Y. B. Zeldovich and Y. V. Khariton made the first calculations that were correct in principle of nuclear chain reactions in the fission of uranium. This directly preceded the experimental construction of the first nuclear teactors. In the Soviet period N. D. Zelinsky and his followers have conducted fundamental investigations in the transformation of hydrocarbons, which served as the basis for the development of modern methods of chemical refining of oil. A. E. Arbuzov, A. N. Nesmeyanov, K. A. Andrianov and 113 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 others laid the foundation of the chemistry of organic com- pounds. Further work has led to the development of a number of extra-powerful insecticides, drugs, high-temperature-resisting oils, rubber, insulating resins, and so on. V. 1. Vernadsky and A. P. Vinogradov founded a new science, biogeochemistry, which deals with the natural laws governing the accumulation and dispersion in the earth's crust of elements connected with the activity of living organisms. The development of theoretical geology enabled I. M. Gubkin to predict the existence of many new oil-bearing regions, includ- ing the vast fields in Bashkiria and Tataria that have come to be known as the Second Baku. Extensive work by geological prospecting parties provided the basis for broad generalisations expressed in the compilation of unique geological and tectonic maps embracing the territory of the U.S.S.R. and neighbouring countries. In biology, Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of higher nervous activity. Ivan Michurin evolved new forms of plant life and in Soviet tinies made broad generalisations which are of importance for biology as a whole. The Soviet Union's planned system of economic and scientific development provides excellent conditions for an all-round approach to the solution of major problems of science and engineering. An example was the collaboration of scientists of many specialities to create the powerful inter-continental rockets with which the Soviet sputniks were subsequently launched. Work along a similarly broad line is being conducted on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The Soviet Union is now able to increase its appropriations for science from year to year according to plan. Appropriations for science under the U.S.S.R. budget were 11,700 million roubles in 1957 and 15,000 million in 1958. Scientists themselves take part in deciding how these sums are spent. Fundamental research is a priority. Proceeding from the practical requirements of the national economy, the U.S.S.R. has planned a greater development of the whole complex of sciences making up the foundations of modern knowledge?its physico-mathematical, chemical and biological groups. In each of these groups Soviet economy sees immense potentialities for developing the techniques of the future. 114 In the physical sciences, for example, Soviet researchers are combining work on the design and construction of atomic electrical stations and atomic power installations with experi- ments aimed at producing controlled thermo-nuclear reactions. Solution of this problem would free man for ever from all worry about sources of energy. Extension of the sphere of application of semi-conductor instruments demands broader experimental and theoretical investigations. Also. requiring considerable theoretical development are the new researches being conducted in radio and electrical engineer- ing (for example, work connected with the building of a single high-voltage system for the whole Soviet Union, employing long-distance transmission lines) and in the design of new electronic computing machines. Chemistry is called upon to play an important part in the Soviet Union's further economic progress. In this case, too, science will be a reliable compass for the national economy. Soviet scientists are working on ways of extracting the most valuable chemical products from fuel before it is burned. An example of the comprehensive technological approach in processing minerals is the production of aluminium from nepheline (this was first done in the U.S.S.R.; up to now all over the world, aluminium has been obtained from bauxite). The alkalis in nepheline (soda and potash) are extracted at the same time as the aluminium, and the waste-products are made into high-grade cement. Mendeleyev's dream of underground gasification of coal and the turning of oil into a universal chemical raw material is coming true. The growing importance of chemistry is understood in the U.S.S.R. not only as the use of more substances and materials in industry but also as a fundamental change in production technique. Broadest use of plastics and of what is called "powder metal- lurgy" will help to eliminate inefficient intermediate processing. Ready-made articles are more and more being shaped directly from atoms and molecules. In the biological sciences, along with further work on methods of scientific farming and livestock raising, an important place is occupied by the study of problems of human longevity and 115 ?$- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 3, the search for radical cures for the most widespread diseases (malignant tumours, cardio-vascular disorders, and others) and the elaboration of a complex of measures for prolonging human life. In the Soviet Union's new stage of economic development science is being advanced according to plan, as before, and its latest achievements are, in turn, being made part of long- range plans. 64 I What scientific institutions are there in the U.S.S.R.? RUSSIA has given the world many outstanding scientists who have made great discoveries. Lomonosov, Popov, Stoletov, Mendeleyev, Sechenov and Pavlov are names known to the whole civilised world. In tsarist times, however, scientists and scientific institutions did not possess either the necessary facilities or support. The electric arc light invented by Yablochkov, for example, failed to find recognition in Russia and was first used in Paris. The inventor died in poverty. The Soviet system created exceptionally favourable conditions for the advance of science and placed science at the service of the people. As early as April 1918, when the young Soviet Republic was living through the difficult period of civil war and economic chaos, Lenin wrote his famous "Draft Plan for Scientific and Technical Work" which outlined the broad development of science in close contact with the needs of industry. Science in the U.S.S.R. is called on to promote the maximum development of productive forces and best use of natural resources with the help of the most up-to-date techniques. The object is to satisfy the constantly growing material and cultural requirements of Soviet society. Science in the Soviet Union has achieved an unparalleled - development in a short span of years. In 1913 tsarist Russia had only slightly more than 10,000 research workers. In 1939 the Soviet Union had about 60,000. By 1956 there were 240,000. There were close to 2,800 scientific institutions in the Soviet Union in 1957.. Today, when we observe, on the one hand, a great differenti- :n:-c ? 116 anon and specialisation of separate departments of knowledge and, on the other, the rise of numerous fields taking in several of these departments, a thorough study of problems is impossible unless they are approached from all angles. All-round investigation of major scientific and technical problems by the joint efforts of large groups of research workers has become common in the U.S.S.R. The Soviet Union's scientific institutions work in close co- operation with industrial and agricultural establishmentt and help them to improve production. . For example, the Paton Institute of Electric Welding of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences has close ties with more than 700 factories which apply the new welding method it has evolved. The centre of scientific thought in the Soviet Union is the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (founded in 1724), which embraces more than 100 research institutes. The Academy has eight departments (physics and mathematics, chemistry, geology and geography, biology, technical sciences, history and philos- ophy, economics and law, and literature and language). The Academy's twelve branches, situated in the Moldavian Republics, the Karelo-Finnish, Tatar, Bashkir, Yakut and Daghestan Autonomous Republics, Primorye Territory, Siberia, Sakhalin, the Urals and the Kola Peninsula, have thirty-four research institutes, about eighty independent departments and laboratories, eight botanical gardens, and other auxiliary establishments. These branches have grown into major scientific centres. In May 1957 the Soviet Government adopted a decision to set up a Siberian Department of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. This large new scientific centre is to guide the work of all the Academy branches situated in Siberia and the Soviet Far East, and organise more effective assistance by science to the rapidly growing industry and agriculture of that rich territory. A town consisting of twelve research institutes, a university, residential area, cultural establishments, public service estab- lishments, and so on is now being built for it near the city of Novosibirsk. By March 1958 the Siberian Department included eight Academicians and twenty-seven Corresponding Members of the Academy. 117 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 In recent years Soviet scientists have made big progress in nuclear research. This is thanks largely to the work of such relatively new establishments as the Atomic Energy Institute headed by Academician I. V. Kurchatov and the Institute of Physical Problems headed by Academician P. L. Kapitsa. In the laboratories of these institutes scientists are working on problems of controlled thermonuclear reactions, are studying the behaviour of plasma at temperatures of more than 1 million degrees, are perfecting methods of obtaining liquid helium, and so on. Thirteen of the fifteen Union Republics have their own Academies of Science which are doing fruitful work. They com- prise 262 research institutions. (The Union Republics that do not have Academies are Moldavia, where there is a big branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy, and the Russian Federation, on the territory of which are situated the U.S.S.R. Academy, several of its branches, and the Siberian Department). The Soviet Union has a number of specialised academies. The Academy of Medical Sciences (founded in 1944) consists of three departments: medicine and biology: clinical medicine: hygiene, microbiology and epidemiology. In 1957 it had 96 Members and 136 Corresponding Members. The Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences of the U.S.S.R. (founded in 1929) has six departments: farming; livestock raising; mechanisation and electrification of agriculture; hydro- engineering and reclamation; forestry and afforestation; and land reclamation; and the economics and organisation of agri- cultural production. The Academy has thirty-five zesearch insti- tutes under its jurisdiction. The Academy of Arts of the U.S.S.R. is successor to the Art Academy established in St. Petersburg in 1757. final shape in 1956. The U.S.S.R. Academy of Construction and Architecture took There are a number of specialised scientific academies in the Union Republics. One is the Academy of Educational Sciences of the Russian Federation founded in 1943. This research organ- isation uniting outstanding scientists and scholars promotes the development of the educational system, spreads educational knowledge, and studies problems of education. In addition, extensive scientific work is carried out in univer sities and other higher educational establishments. 118 What is the Soviet Union's contribution to the 65 International Geophysical Year? THE thousands of scientists in sixty-four countries who arc combining their efforts in the research programme of the International Geophysical Year, which began on July 1st, 1957, are conductinig investigations along twelve main lines. In numbers of observation stations and scale of expeditionary work the Soviet Union is one of the largest participants in the 1.G.Y. A great many scientific institutions and organisations arc working on the I.G.Y. programme. Of the 496 stations and observatories in the U.S.S.R. which are doing research under the programme 200 were organised or completely re-equipped in connection with the I.G.Y. There are also hundreds of stations for observing the Northern Lights and phosphorescent clouds. The Soviet Union organised a large Antarctic expedition and set aside twelve big oceano- graphic ships for research in all the oceans of the world along routes agreed upon with the other countries. Among the many other investigations is a large-scale study of the zone between the continent and the ocean in the region of the Kuril-Kamchatka ridge. Under the I.G.Y. programme Soviet scientists have organised joint expeditionary work with scientists from Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic and the United Arab Republic A number of studies are being carried out jointly with other countries. In Antarctica, for instance, the Soviet Union and the United States have exchanged meteoroligists. An outstanding achievement of Soviet scientists was the launching of the first man-made earth satellites, in conformity with the I.G.Y. programme (see answer No. 66). Speaking about preliminary scientific results, mention should first be made of the geophysical investigations carried out with the help of the sputniks and rockets. These investigations arc of great interest to scientists in all countries. Since 1949 the Soviet Union has regularly sent up geophysical and meteorological rockets to altitudes ranging from several dozen miles to 125-130 miles. During the I.G.Y. it plans to launch 125 rockets of different types and purposes; part of this programme has by now been fulfilled. 119 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 .or Carrying out the I.G.Y. progranune, Soviet scientists sent up a powerful new one-stage rocket carrying a total of 1 to 10 mit of scientific apparatus to a height of nearly 300 miles on February 21st, 1958. Both as regards the altitude reached. and the scope of the research programme conducted, this rocket substantially surpassed previous experiments in the U.S.S.R. and Other countries in studying the upper atmosphere with rockets. The Soviet Union made a notable contribution to science When it launched Sputnik III on May 15th, 1958. While Sputnik I was hailed the world over as the first step into space, and Sputnik II was particularly interesting because of the test animal it carried, the main feature of Sputnik III is its great weight, 1 ton 6 cwt. and extensive scientific apparatus, weighing over 19 cwt. Sputnik III is a unique space laboratory carrying out a broad complex of inter-connected investigations of the upper layers of the atmosphere along all points of the I.G.Y. pro- gramme. To carry out I.G.Y. research in Antarctica the Soviet Union sent a big expedition there equipped with the latest scientific instruments, aircraft, helicopters, cross-country vehicles, tractors, lorries and other equipment. This winter Soviet Antarctic explorers will cross three poles? the South Pole itself, the magnetic pole, and "the pole of inaccessibility". In 1956 three ships delivered some 8,000 tons of cargo to the bottom of the world to set up the Mirny observatory. The 180 Soviet research workers encountered harsh conditions on the ice-covered continent. Between February 1956 and January 1957, 262 stormy days, twenty-three of them with hurri- canes, were registered at Mirny. But neither the snowstorms. the rarefied air, temperatures as low as 75 and 80 degrees ( below zero, nor the other difficulties prevented the Soviet scie., tists from doing extensive research. They photographed an area of over 23,000 sq. miles from the air, sent up more than 2,000 radiosondes, obtained the first data about temperatures and pressures at medium altitudes in tha 1 district by launching rockets, organised stations at high altitude far from the coast, in the district of the south magnetic pole the pole of inaccessibility, and other parts of Antarctica where man had never set foot before. They are conducting extensive geophysical, meteorological, 120 oceanographic and other research. After the latest investigations many scientists now believe that Antarctica is a gtoup of islands under an ice cap. Measurements of the ice made by Soviet, British and American scientists have established that its average thickness is not a mile, as previously assumed, but more than one and a half miles. Hence, the total volume of ice in Antarctica is correspondingly greater. This is important from both the theoretical and prac- tical points of view. The ice continent has become a continent of friendship. The scientific expeditions from different countries have established close contacts there. They carry on, a broad exchange of scien- tific and general information and are always ready to come to one another's help. The Soviet oceanographic expeditions have established that the warm Kuroshio current has shifted 200-250 miles to the north. A record ocean depth of 36,000 feet was registered in the vicinity of the Marian Islands. The Soviet ship Zarya, the world's only non-magnetic vessel. especially built without the use of iron so that precise magnetic observations could be made from it, has already finished work in the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ahead lie thousands of miles through the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Big achievements have been recorded by the scientists studying Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamirs, by the research workers on the stations drifting in the area of the North Pole, and at the permanent Arctic stations equipped with the latest instruments for photographing the northern lights, probing the ionosphere. measuring cosmic radiation, and other work. It will be possible to sum up the I.G.Y. work of scientists from the Soviet Union and the other countries only after the unique data collected all over the world has been systematised and generalised. World centres have been set up in the Soviet Union and the United States, which all the I.G.Y. countries are obliged to supply with data on all points of their investigations. Each of the centres will have a complete set of the data; in case of need they will give each other any observation data that arc lacking. Information from Soviet and other scientific institutions has begun coming in to the Soviet centre. 121 I: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release The Fifth Assembly of the Special (International) I.G.Y. Committee was held in Moscow in July-August 1958. The Assembly, which was attended by some 300 delegates and guests from different countries, paid special attention to concrete forms of co-operation between the scientific institutions of various nations in working up the valuable 1.G.Y materials, to the work of the world centres, and the role of international scientific associations in co-ordinating the processing of I.G.Y. data. The Assembly also dealt with a number of problems pertain- ing to subsequent co-operation. A characteristic feature of the International Geophysical Year is that this major scientific undertaking has not only brought closer together scientists of different specialities who previously were little connected with one another, but has been a striking example of broad international co-operation which strengthens cultural ties between nations and promotes world peace. 66 I What is the signficance of the Soriet Sputniks? THEartificial satellite of the earth on October 4th, 1957, marked successful launching by the Soviet Union of the first the beginning of man's conquest of space. The sputniks have opened up the broadest of prospects for conducting impor- tant scientific observations at high altitudes over various regions of the globe over a long period. Although the significance of satellites for scientific investiga- tion was known long ago, until recently launching them Nvas a problem that nobody could solve. The main difficulty Jay in building a rocket capable of imparting a space velocity of about 26,000 feet per second to a satellite. It was only after the 'U.S.S.R. had developed the inter- continental ballistic rocket that the launching of earth satelliks became possible. The weights of the first three sputniks-184.3 lb., nearly half a ton, and 1 ton 6 cwt.?are landmarks in the advances mad,- by Soviet science and engineering in little more than half a year Each of the sputniks was a new stage. The instruments inside Sputnik I furnished basic information 122 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 about the satellite's orbit, about radio communications with it and about its temperature regimens. In addition to data about the upper layers of the atmosphere, the equipment of Sputnik II gave us the first idea about the behaviour of a living organism during a flight through space. Finally, Sputnik III carries instruments for solving a greater number of problems than ever before attempted in similar con- ditions (the total weight of its apparatus is over 19 cwt.). It is a unique space laboratory investigating the upper atmosphere according to all the points of the I.G.Y. programme: the state of the ionosphere and its chemical structure; measure- ment of the pressure and density of the upper layers of the atmosphere; study of the nature of the corpuscular radiation of the sun; study of the primary composition and variations of cosmic rays study of the electrostatic fields in the upper layers of the atmosphere; study of the earth's magnetic field at high altitudes; study of micro-particles. Sputnik HI, launched on May 15th, 1958, is equipped with improved radio and radio-telemetering apparatus guaranteeing precise measurement of its movement along the orbit, uninter- rupted registration of the scientific observations, and the con- tinuous "memorising" and periodic transmission of information to earth while passing over special relaying stations. Automatic functioning of the sputnik's apparatus is assured by a programme device. Semi-conductors were widely employed in the apparatus; several thousands of them were used. The apparatus is supplied with power by electro-chemical sources of current and semi-conductor silicon solar batteries which conve0 the energy of the sun's rays into electricity. The Soviet I.G.Y. Committee has passed on all the data neces- sary for observing Sputnik III to the I.G.Y. committees of other nations .? Scientists in all countries are thus able to carry out observations of the sputnik's flight. A feature of the Soviet sputniks is their substantial and steadily increasing payload, thanks to which they can be equipped '.th a large number of scientific instruments. Soviet engineering has now reached a level at which launch an artificial satellite and send it out beyond fly:. carol gravitational field, to the moon, for instance. But ,or space rocket to have any scientific importance it would ha'.. to be richly equipped with apparatus with which to obtain new 123 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release data about physical phenomena in space and the conditions of space flight. Hence, the key to the problem of establishing permanent space laboratories and travelling to distant planets lies in buRd ing satellites of great weight. This is the line Soviet scientists are following. The size of Sputnik III and its high degree of automation bring Soviet science and engineering close to the creation of space ships. The Soviet people's achievements in building and launching the sputniks are not just an accident or a stroke of luck. They are logically and naturally connected with the general progress made by the Soviet Union The ground for them was prepared by the entire previous and engineering. development of socialist society and its economy, culture, science It is worthwhile recalling that 1957?the year when the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet system was celebrated ?was marked by such events as the launching of the world's first atomic ice- breaker, the construction of a uniquely powerful proton synchro? tron for conducting nuclear research, the commissioning of huge ing attainments. jet airliners, and many other outstanding scientific and engineer- At the bottom of these successes lies the socialist system, which creates the most favourable conditions for an uninter- rupted advance in the culture of the entire people, the growth and engineering thought. of scientific personnel, and the development of free scientific The sputniks convincingly illustrate the level Soviet science and engineering have reached. They are the synthesis of a planned economy and a highly-developed industry ; they ar, a result of Soviet achievements in physics, chemistry, matheman.s. mechanics and electronics; they are a product of the joint aid co-ordinated efforts of Soviet scientists, engineers and work( rs trained in a socialist country The striking fact that the world's first socialist country w c the country to blaze a trail into space is a logical reflection ( ' the new stage in the development of human society. The sputniks have emphasised the strength of the socialic power, its scientific and technical potentialities, and its increase( role as an advanced industrial country. 124 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 However, the latest scientific and engineering achievements and the resultant further changes in the correlation of forces in the world arena in favour of the socialist camp have not altered, nor could they have altered, the Soviet Union's foreign policy of peaceful co-existence with all states and co-operation and friendship with all nations. For the foreign policy of the Soviet Union is determined by the social nature of the socialist system ?a system for whose fullest development peace is essential. That is why the launching of the Soviet sputniks is a great factor for peace, and not war. It helps to consolidate the forces for peace the world over. The Soviet sputniks are therefore not only a tool with which to probe the secrets of space but are, at the same time, a symbol of peace and co-operation among nations to give man still greater power over the forces of nature for the welfare of the whole of humanity. How is engineering developing in the U.S.S.R.? I 67 EVER since the U.S.S.R. launched the first artificial earth satellites (see answer No. 66) people all over the world have been taking a greater and greater interest in Soviet engi- neering achievements. Regular flights by the first turbo-jet airliners in serial produc- tion; the construction of big atomic electric stations; the development of the intercontinental ballistic rocket; the launch- ing of the first atomic-powered icebreaker?all these and other attainments are the fruit of the powerful socialist industrtes that have been built up in the Soviet period and are continuing to advance at an unprecedented speed. Here we chall deal briefly with the main trends in the develop- ment of engineering in the USS.R. Way back in the period of the Civil war and econorrix dans. when the Soviet Republic was in its infancy, Lenin initiated a programme for transforming the national economy on the basis of electrification. Knownas the GOELRO Plan, it was drafted and appro,:e4 r...' 1920. Fulfilment of the GOELRO Plan and subsequent deFeiop- meat gave the U.S.S.R. large hydro-electric and other rxrar..- capacities. 125 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Power production has increased by more than 100 times since 1913. More than 100 big hydro-electric stations, including the largest in the world, with a capacity exceeding two million kw, have been built in the forty years of the Soviet system. A hydro-electric station with a capacity of more than three million kw. is under construction. The share of hydro-electric stations in the country's power output has increased from 2 per cent to approximately 17 per cent. The construction of hydro-electric stations in the USSR. follows three main principles: utilisation of the water power along the entire course of rivers; simultaneous development of waterways and irrigation systems; the creation of vast reservoirs to store up colossal masses of spring thaw waters. Characteristic of thermal power production in the USS.R. is the combined output of electric energy and heat, that is, the development of heat and power stations. This reduces fuel expenditure, improves urban sanitary conditions, and relieves urban transport. A feature of Soviet thermal power stations is that the capacity of the turbines is steadily being increased. Soviet engineering mills put out turbines with capacities of 100,000, 150,000 and 200,000 kw. A 300,000-kw. turbine is now being built and preparations are under way for the construction of still bigger ones. Steam pressure and temperature are also steadily being in- creased, which makes operation of the power stations substan- tially more economical. Many thermal power stations in the U.S.S.R. use local peat, shale, brown coal or gas. The target has been set of increasing the share of oil and gas in the country's fuel consumption from 20 per cent to 63 per cent within the next few years. Gas output is to be increased to between 9,477,000 million and 11,232,000 million cubic feet annually. Big new oil and gas pipe- lines are being built. A method of all-round power-chemical Utilisation of solid fuel has been worked out (the gas obtained is used as fuel, the liquid products are used as chemical raw materials, and the solid waste is turned into building materials). (For the use of nuclear energy in power production in the USS.R.?see answer No.68 ) A The regional power systems of the Soviet Union are now being linked up by long-distance transmission lines as part of a scheme 126 to create a unified high-voltage network. Work is now nearing completion on a unified power system for the European part of the U.S.S.R.; the Georgian, Azerbaijan and Armenian power systems are being linked up; a unified Central Siberian grid is being set up. Thanks to exceptionally rapid electrification the amount of electric energy available per worker in industry is nineteen times greater than in 1913. Electrification has been an important factor in the fast rise of labour productivity. The increase in productivity is due to consistent mechanisation of labour, to the introduction of greater numbers of machines and their more efficient use. An example is the thorough mechanisation of farm labour with the object of creating an abundance of foodstuffs. The Soviet Union's socialist agriculture now has about 1,700,000 tractors (in terms of 15-h.p. units), more than 450,000 grain combine harvesters, about one million tractor-drawn seeders, and hundreds of thousands of other complex machines. To all practical purposes the ploughing, sowing and harvesting of grain crops has been completely mechanised. However, it is not a question of merely providing the country with more and more machines. The U.S.S.R. is introducing over- all mechanisation by eliminating manual labour in auxiliary operations as well as the main ones. In the coal industry, for instance, the pits are getting coal combines, conveyors and mechanical sets. The combine performs all the main operations simultaneously, including loading: the conveyor transports the coal, and the mechanical sets move along the face working with the aid of a special machine as needed. The former tubmen, horse drivers and pick men have become engine drivers, mechanics and motormen, and pits have become highly mechanised enterprises of an industrial type. In the building trades, over-all mechanisation had spread to include 85 per cent of the work by the end of 1957. The highest stage of mechanisation is automation, the main line along which engineering is developing in the U.S.S.R. There is not a factory in the Soviet Union today that does not have automatic machinery. The engineering and food industries, iron and steel plants and shoe factories, and the chemical, textile and other industries are getting automatic machines in ever-increasing quantities. 127 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? I, More than 90 per cent of the country's pig iron is smelted in furnaces equipped with automatic control and regulation devices. Most of the open-hearth furnaces are being equipped with automatic heat regimen regulators. Plate-rolling, tube- rolling and blooming mills are being equipped with automatic controls. A feature of the present stage is the transition to over-all automation. Automatic transfer lines, shops and entire factories are being introduced in the engineering industry. All the district hydro-electric stations have been equipped with automatic con- trol devices. Over-all automation is spreading to the manufac- ture of synthetic rubber, alcohol, oil products, building materials, foodstuffs, and so on. The scale on which automation and mechanisation are being introduced into the national economy may be judged from the fact that the output of the engineering and metal-working industries has increased by more than 200 times since 1913. In this same period labour productivity in Soviet industries has grown approximately 9.5 times, despite the reduction of the working day. (Incidentally, productivity in the United States has increased only 6.6 times in the last 100 years.) The growth in power output and the steadily rising level of mechanisation and automation have led to a greater accent on chemistry in all branches of the national economy. New automatic techniques, the development of nuclear power production, and the big dimensions of modern machines demand many new materials with high physical and chemical properties. Modern chemistry is creating artificial materials for various specific needs. Manufacture of synthetic resins, plastics and synthetic materials is being expanded. . The Soviet Union's chemical industry is working on the important national-economic problem of reducing, and then altogether eliminating, the use of edible raw materials for indus- trial purposes. The chemical production of synthetic alcohol from oil is being developed on a large scale. Much attention is being paid to developing the manufacture of synthetic acids to replace lubri- cants of vegetable origin. The manufacture of mineral fertilisers and weed and pct killers, which substantially raise crop yields, has been widel developed in the Soviet Union. Mineral fertiliser output ha, grown from 80,000 tons in 1913 to 11,200,000 tons in 1957. 128 -7 Also being expanded is the manufacture of chemical fibres, leather substitutes and household items. Chemical processes are penetrating into all branches of the national economy; they are helping to reduce production costs and improve quality. The role of chemistry will continue to grow at an increasing rate. How is atomic energy being used for peaceful purposes? 168 ATOMIC energy is used in the Soviet Union for diverse peaceful purposes. A Central Administration for the Utilisation of Atomic Energy has been set up under the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers. This body is engaged, on the one hand, in solving problems relating to the wide use of atomic energy in the national economy, and, on the other, in promoting co-operation between the Soviet Union and other countries in peaceful uses of atomic energy. The experience gained in operating the world's first industrial atomic power station (inaugurated in the Soviet Union on June 27th, 1954) and subsequent research have been utilised in the building of large atomic electric plants. The first part of a new plant, with 100,000 kw. capacity, was opened in 1958. When completed the full capacity will be 600,000 kw. The Soviet Union's big atomic power stations (with capacities of up to 400,000 kw. each) are being equipped with reactors of various types. The first type is analogous to the one initially put into opera- tion and is designed for the use of turbines with a capacity of 100,000 kw. with steam at a pressure of 90 atmospheres at 5000 C. The second type are thermal neutron reactors with water under pressure?that is, ordinary water is used as the moderator and coolant. In the third type (also thermal neutron) heavy water is used as the moderator and carbon dioxide circulating under pressure in a closed circuit as the coolant. In addition to the big stations of these three types, four smaller experimental installations are being tested. In general, the construction of big and small atomic power stations is in the experimental stage. In the course of the operation of these 129 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 chosen stations the most efficient types of atomic reactors will h Broader use of atomic energy in the national economy and in science and engineering is closely connected with the develop ment of atomic engines of various types, the establislunent cl methods of directly converting atomic power into electric energy, and the application of radioactive substances. The icebreaker Lenin, the first atornic ship, was launched in the USS.R. in 1957. It is a 16,000-ton vessel with a length ei 452 feet, beam of 91 feet, and engin of 44,000 h.p. develop a speed of 18 knots in clear water. The Lenin can plough through ice for twelve months without having to make port. The Central Administration for the Utilisation of Atomic Energy is working on atomic engines for other sea-going vessels, ground transport, aircraft, and so on. Radio-isotopes are widely used in Soviet science, engineering. industry, agriculture and medicine as a source of penetrating ? radiation and as tracer atoms. The penetrating property of radio-active radiation is employed ,,,, to control and regulate diverse industrial pr es ocess, for instance, 4.z,. to check the quality of metal articles. Gamma defectoscopes k. designed in the USS.R. can detect inner flaws in steel goods up to nearly 12 inches thick. The absorption and dispersion of rays while passing through ; stibstances is also used to check the thickness of sheets and ribbons in the rolling process and the thickness of coatings, to measure the density of substances and the level of liquids and dry substances in closed vessels, in the pouring of molten metal, in counting articles moving along conveyors, in measuring the thickness of the walls of pipes, and so on. In many fields the action of nuclear radiation on substances is employed. In the chemical industry, for instance, radiation is used to activate a number of bnportant reactions (in parti- cular, in obtaining polymers, the big molecules which are the basis of plastics). The structural features of deep oil-bearing and other strita are studied with the help of radiation. In the canning industry radiation treatment is employed to sterilise food products. Among the medical uses of radiation id the USS.R. a /nal r place is occupied by treatment of skin and internal tumours. Soviet scientists have developed irradiation apparatus chargt I 130 f with radio-active cobalt which has a number of advantages over installations using natural radium. Cobalt ray machines are in use in medical centres in many towns of the U.S.S.R. Also widely employed are thin cobalt needles which are introduced into the tumour, as well as applicators for treating surface tumours. Internal organs are also treated by introducing therapeutic doses of artificial radio-active substances into the body. Radio-isotopes are employed in the U.S.S.R. not only as a source of powerful radiations but as indicators. Tracer atoms are widely used in chemical investigations. They help engineers to study machine friction and wear without taking the machines apart, and to improve blast furnace and steelmaking processes. Tracer atoms have found application in all fields of biology. In particular, they have enabled Soviet biologists to develop a new field, functional biochemistry of the nervous system. With the help-of tracer atoms research workers can observe the rate of metabolism in different parts of the nervous system and obtain data on the distribution of germ cells and the drugs that act against them. Successful efforts are being made to use radio-isotopes for the early diagnosis of cancer. Radio-isotopes are also employed at fisheries to study migra- tion and propagation. Equally broad use is made of radio-isotopes in the study of important processes taking place in plants. With the help of tracer atoms scientists have elucidated the most efficient methods of applying fertiliser. Tracer atoms are also employed to observe the movement of salts in the soil in connection with fertilisation and drainage. The development of diverse peaceful uses of atomic energy contributes to a steady improvement of techniques in many industries. For example, the construction of atomic power installations has required new chemically pure materials capable of with- standing extremely high temperatures and radio-active radiation. Improved automatic devices have had to be developed to control reactors and other atomic apparatus. Atomic power production has called into being a new industry of dosimetric and radiometric apparatus to discover and register radiation. A number of effective steps have been taken by the state radiation. 12 the health of people who may be subjected to ionising F2 131 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ts: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Only 2 small part of the work done in the USSR. on pin, : ,deseription would occupy far too numb space.. ita nses of nuclear energy has been inenticaled h=e; a fal r Still '$aide-t use of atomic energy in the smIice of IMM i bound up Iiith the development of nuclear research. The Soviet Union has never made a secret of its achieverneXt , in the peaceful use of atomic energy- The work of Scniet scia lists is widely publicis' ed in the press. A Journal Azornir &an= '1 Soviet Union. devoted to peaceful uses of atomic eneiri, is published in the il, The Soviet Union took an active pan in the International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy held in Geneva c, r in August 1955. Soviet scientist' s submitted 1,02 papers on the ' work being conducted in the U.S.S.R.- Travelling exhibitions on thesubjett have been on display h Geneva, India, Czechoslovakia' , &wed= and other countzies. A at special pavOion showithe peaceful uses of atomic energY in = F-xhibition in Mosc.citv. the Soliet Union has been opened at the USSR. Industrial The Soviet Union is extending scientific and techntl co- operation in thiS field mith other countries. With the aid of the T Soviet Union a number of other countries are setting up exe-''' f' mental centres for research in nuclear physics and the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. ,s.4 s. Such work is being done in China, Poland, Czechosi"valia' the German Democratic Republic, Rumania, Bulcana and Hungary An agreeement has been concluded to supply Yugoslavia uith a research reactor. The U.S.S.R. is also giving Egypt scieitifie 1. and technical assistance in establishing a nuclear physics la Kora- ' tory in Cairo and in the peaceful uses of atomic energY- operation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy is the - in Of great importance in the development of internationa; ,co -t. Nuclear Research Institute founded in the town of Dubna vicar Moscow) with the participation of a number of countries. The LISS-R- has placed unique installations for nuc .ar research at the disposal of the Institute. Vigorously advocating the prohibition of atomic and them 0- nuclear weapons, the USSj. is promoting international ,. ? operation in the use of the powerful energy of the aton lc nucleus for the benefit of mankind. 132 What is the cultural life of the Union Republics? 69 THE old regime overthrown by the October Socialist Revo- lution in 1917 barred the working people from acquiring knowledge; it isolated the people from spiritual riches and doomed the entire population of Russia's border regions to ignorance. The Soviet social system has quickly and completely overcome the cultural backwardness born of centuries of social oppression and national enslavement. In a brief span of years all the country's nationalities, including those that were most backward culturally, have made outstanding progress. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, where the overwhelm- ing majority of the population was illiterate under tsarism, has long since become a region of full literacy, with a numerous and highly-gifted intelligentsia. Supporters of the old regime claimed that the Kazakh people were "organically incapable of attaining modern civilisalion, like all the other peoples of the East". Today the Kazakh people have many scientists of whom the whole of Soviet science is proud, many writers whose books arc translated into the languages of all the other peoples of the U.S.S.R. and into foreign languages, and many singers, dancers and musicians who have won renown both at home and abroad. Here are a few figures: the Kazakh Republic has more than 9,000 elementary and secondary schools, 135 specialised secon- dary and higher schools, and un Academy of Sciences with twenty research institutes. It has nineteen permanent theatres and nine concert organisations, a film studio, and hundreds of Palaces of Culture and other recreation centres. Similar big changes have taken place in Tajikistan. A region with an ancient culture, it had descended to complete illiteracy in the centuries preceding the establishment of the Soviet system. Today Socialist Tajikistan has 40,000 spi-cialists with a secon- dary or higher education. Universal seven-year education has been put into effect everywhere, including the remotest mountain villages. Ten-year schooling has been introduced in the towns and in many district centres and collective farms. The Republic's ten institutions of higher learning have a student body of 16,000, chiefly the sons and daughters of 133 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 e workers and peasants who before the Revolution were oppressed by feudal lords. Scientific thought is developing intensively in Tajikistan. Its centre is the Tajik Academy of Sciences, where hundreds of research workers are engaged on major economic and cultural problems. Three research institutes in Taaistan are engaged on problems of agriculture alone. The great socialist transformations that have taken place in all the Union Republics in the Soviet years have been marked by striking cultural progress. From the very beginning the Russian people gave the formerly oppressed nations tremendous assistance. Russian scientists and other specialists generously shared their knowledge and solici- tously trained the first school teachers, engineers and scientists in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, ICirghizia and other Union Repub- lics. Before long, yesterday's pupils became equal associates and, in some cases, mentors of their former teachers. The cultural advance in Russia's border regions to which the Sovietnisystem gave freedom and independence was not simply a case of bringing civilisation within the reach of the masses. It was more than that. It was the development of new cultures, national in form and socialist in content, the creation of new spiritual values. The work of many scientists, writers and artists of the Repub- lics of the Soviet East has won wide recognition in the world. Noteworthy cultural progress has also been made by the Union Republics in the western regions of the U.S.S.R. Although Latvia, for instance, joined the close-knit family of Soviet nations comparatively recently, in 1940, she has registered considerable cultural advances. Suffice it to say that the number of research institutes in Latvia has grown from 36 in 1940 to 66 today; seven times as many college-trained specialists are being produced today as in 1940; school enrolment has increased nearly eightfold. Before 1940, 10 per cent of the Latvian popula- tion was unable to read or write. Since joining the Soviet Union illiteracy has been wiped out. 134 Do Soviet scientists, writers, artists and musicians enjoy creative freedom? yES, they do. The Soviet social system ensures all citizens, irrespective of their material position, race, nationality, sex or religious convictions the opportunity freely to develop and apply their gifts and energies in any field of endeavour, including the scientific and artistic. In the Soviet Union all the material riches and political power, and the newly-created material and cultural benefits belong to the working people, to the workers, peasants, and intellectuals. They themselves create and distribute them in the interests of the whole of society. The country's economy, science, education and art, and the people's cultural level are advancing all the time. While receiving material assistance from society, workers in Soviet science, art and literature are completely free to choose the sphere in which they will apply their talents. In training scientific workers the Soviet higher schools strive, as President A. Nesmeyanov of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences has noted, to give the student greater independence in his studies and to make the curricula more flexible and individual. This will lead to the graduate scientist being all the more independent in his work. It goes without saying that in the present age, when the inter- connection of the sciences has become greater than ever before, research has to be conducted according to a definite plan, all the more since the majority of the investigations require sub- stantial outlays from society. Scientific work, like all other forms of activity in Soviet society, is based on an indivisible combination of the require- ments of society and the creative interests of the individual scientist. The scientist is not compelled by anyone to engage in research that does not attract him. And if a scientist feels drawn to an interesting subject or hypothesis, it will be included in the research programme and funds will be allocated for it no matter how remote the possibility of its yielding practical results A diversity of creative individualities is characteristic of all spheres of intellectual life in the U.S.S.R. Dmitri Shostakovich, the distinguished modern composer, has said that "Soviet art opens up the road to an all-round development of various 135 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ji Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 arUtie: ? i??imj1jj1 eannims, Erandi i=ge dam- o,-amle &rJljlanatitatir_ iiiihndve and 7.-^actatiliiflth.. icage adms 2..nd Fzet Saniet =mina-am or wri-ter vandas r;:ar ffte wela..--e of the ger.cie im ciant,rma-rsi? /Aida ifs' tterutr,- 'xialwE and i---icrat..ky Oro mare %IT. as it it iitrgtvale ro) carta, rate..-xeL-y of ..31:1maxittkr wiinD rfnu: of Lecraiit 1/Inr74tnaw. ?car. al- ai:a octufane eb ztmfla"::..0 1Dmabii Ii:fainfsta,tw %Ile:. Aran Kfialthatarfterri, ecurgrcidatriE. or ffne guntr:mm, S-7x2.. .13 %.tin3Cal/1' eoff .3imfren Plerror.ot The IcanteL-ircran1.11fcCiatbli2E. Cif S.7' isiet ecnzp: (me critcrastar Em7e e- offt5cimamds of r=E,..e r=ta off adritt'r'e 2.:ILA the aza., and ear-.5 Ens Ea on Toile. aim' omm =ern-me styre-.1-.. oza f.eitr-e-treved incil- Friatztoff a-dadite watt gmelipzif. f.-teSam of =eithe catms-vm,my mod c-eLtize Th sz-nr.. e -c:_ft.-ent er-m-ne amd elea-ema ErIpatbeses with cue .azawdaer-Tbel lexcC21 C:Eziry' W274 tas==c- in tfre ;mit za0 fro= ;Acrt.-- of cm.r-a otisEzEL.-Imf. Every eoff=tinaa2=!= gir=in s SaNriet ILr6z3 tae creaLz-itt 'male ocinfros. as a pma=fr.1 faimer pramess. The Coe:raxt Party off tht. sof aTtim L4m,:--ra_ at and dr=titas ferze e:e cecgre? =--efitazdti- proczoces tEe ir.catErtIcrie mod Q-MZIA:t of an atezze. of sr?0 ee coy. ii:cranttes road of de:dint:3m= of salitax. z.,-t and 1_ --& tf:e of the peagk; it helps recs.:: to deleltp thei- one of Ito ways beinz -cfetr crizic:ira ; it fem.= t!:e names 1E42 am:be&tasr and au indiarible irzirEmg_for 1:=1=fica_ The Patty's azithatze of sederigt ct.tracc hiejy- -.. ti - and is alien to any b.=: of :. 1.11' !zZ ath-Zall ,i-emikca. It is one of the nzaila sources of th.e rev;oes cretairre nurezub and of tIne Sairiet Union's _wientili: and artism: Fre edcm of ataire .-roork in the USSR. rta,...ncs freedom ?0 t=le the reef& andproneszs. This service is the ezezice of t-e -.4-15tct=zh adt=e_ Conam=ii. t Patty spinit to which the Soviet Union's creat, e Sonia variety reitcts art and literature that follow anwr- I tris. ineke ecnnity between races and nationalities, Prra` 1 136 misanthropic views, or advocate war. It does not recognise pseudo-sciences that poison human minds. The socialist system provides all gifted people with real oppor- tunities to develop their abilities to the utmost in science, litera- ture, art or the practical fields of human endeavour. All it demands of them is that their creative work should promote the further flowering of the life of the people, that they should work for the joy and welfare of the millions of ordinary people. Soviet science, literature and art are carrying out this noble mission with credit. What newspapers and magazines are published? 71 ABOUT 8,000 newspapers in eighty-one languages arc pub- lished in the U.S.S.R. They include twenty-five central, 163 Republican, 320 territorial, regional and area papers. 107 papers of Autonomous Republics, and 4,689 city and district papers. Newspapers are put out at many industrial establish- ments, institutions and schools. There are sixteen newspapers dealing with engineering,, industry and construction, and ninety devoted to transport. In recent years collective farms have begun publishing news- papers. There are now about 2,000 of these. Total newspaper circulation is 57,500,000, which is seventeen times more than the circulation of the newspapers published in Russia before the Revolution. Particularly popular are the central newspapers, which are put out in Moscow: Pravda, organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; Izvestia, organ of the Soviets of Working People's Deputies of the U.S.S.R.; True!, newspaper of the Central Council of Trade Unions; Krasnaya Zvezda, organ of the Ministry of Defence of the U.S.S.R.; Komsonzolskaya Pravda, newspaper of the Central Committee of the Young Communist League; Literaturnaya Gazeta, organ of the Soviet Writers' Union, and several others. More than 3,000 magazines and other periodicals in fifty-five languages with a total annual circulation of 533 million were published in the U.S.S.R. in 1957. Magazines are published not only in the languages of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. but also 137 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 iv English, LF.tenith, Atithie, Chinese,, Genian, Inpanest, Se (Cteratran and Indian Itinguagms (Qrdu and lEfintii) The Stwiet Union's analazines cover m great ?luirie:y oflL rib- with spial petrffications tor ipranfinmy er.arm7x_. 'irinich of -the irrational -economy and fidid of =au= mend mlenct The tete 136 pattual and sonio-meantunic itriagaz:ines:; I!! .-deeimg with Itumiture and atrt; 1120 dnvaled :to enthnenJj industry, -transport and eommunientions; smaintrd-twDonmgtimItme.; voity?steviiii dealing Av.tria the andural sciences; xmvm:tt3' mg in the .beedro s=lices. end maediriine, and so on. Tilt:'t: ere no priinne.13 (owned inewspapens or imprT-rm-e, is the They are ptiblibb?%1 by gmblin cergunlinnions (.r..c Com- vide LthiOa, youth, Solias, Aetitm' ;iewirrns dnr.. Saar newspapers are jciintly by Itlinigniim mud the =nal =mu:titters of The 11017Tspoadinz trade Imians. For Vci.Ludalar)a Gicrsa is issued jointly by the Miriiittifees F +1-,- tionof The Union aripUblecs and the Central Cruirr-firs? of the Ain=ofVicCtehttr6 an the Enexn=ntry and S=cindary Schools. A tom ,MOCItttiOD of newspap-x, anavin. 3e-krI pnblinag house Avorkeni,, the Union of Soviet Immmarists, has 11,---1 for-rd The Smitet press gh.ts a full picture of The life of the Sosiet people.. their heroic labour ia hating ociminnthatc, J their clikturcel progress. Jr devotes izinc33 spa-cc to morld mffifux, popu- larising 13 ideas of peaceand friendsit3. znamg the peop*iz of all races and =ions. The newspapers crhireet stithom fear ex faro= inc=cetent eitoiniveslabo violate the latAs of sojjso6ety as demed by the Constitution. The Soviet press is a people's press_ It is of the people by the people and for the people.. raelaspams cam. articles, des/latches and letters si. In by workers, collective farmers, engineers, economic man2gers and government and Party Cmikial. s_ Central and local papers wine:times give over entire pages to letters from readers_ During the c:ountrywide discussion of the further develop:- cnt of the collec&e-farm system and reorganisation of the machine and tractor stations, for invance, the newspapers published n-,re than l001.00 articles and letters contributed by readers. 138 What publishing houses are there? Do they publish many books? 172 THERE are more than 260 publishing houses in the U.S.S.R. Most of them deal with a specific range of subjects: fiction and poetry, books on agriculture, geography, medical books, textbooks, books on science and engineering etc Large publishing houses are run by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union and the Republican writers' unions, and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. The Molodaya Gvardia Publishing House, run by the Young Communist League, puts out books for young people. Books for children of various ages are issued by the State Publishing House of Children's Literature. These two. publishing houses alone put out approximately 1,200 titles in a total printing of 140 million annually. There are publishing houses in each Republic and in most of the regions. Apart from the big central and local publishing houses there are many publishing organisations attached to colleges and universities, scientific institutions and societies. Their total output runs into thousands of titles annually. In the forty years of the Soviet system 1,327,000 books have been published in a total printing of 19,300 million, in 122 lan- guages of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and other countries. In 1957 alone 58,800 books and pamphlets were put out in a total of 1,047 million copies. As compared with 1913 the number of titles published has nuirly doubled and the printings have increased 10i times. In pre-revolutionary Russia an average of 62 books was published per 100 persons. Today the average is 550 books per 100 persons. Political, social and economic literature holds a prominent place in book publishing. Between 1917 and 1958 works by Marx and Engels were published 1,955 times in a total printing of 72 million in forty-eight languages of peoples of the U.S.S R. and twenty-one foreign languages. In this same period Lenin's works were put out in eighty-eight languages, including sixty-two lan- guages of peoples of the U.S.S.R. The total printing was 300 million. There were 2,357 editions of Lenin's works in Russian, 4,199 in other languages of the U.S.S.R., and 990 in foreign languages. 139 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Works of classical fiction as well as the best books by con- temporary Soviet authors are issued in enormous editions. In the Soviet period 79 million copies of works by Pushkin have been printed in eighty-one languages of the U.S.S.R. and foreign countries. Gogol's works have appeared in 31 million copies in forty-nine languages. Printings of Leo Tolstoy's works have totalled 69 million in seventy-six languages. Gorky's works have appeared in 85 million copies in seventy-three languages. The works of the well-known Soviet writer Mikhail Sholokhov have been put out in 21 million copies in fifty-five languages. Besides books printed in the languages of all nations, national groups and nationalities inhabiting the U.S.S.R., books are also published in English, French, German, Spanish and other foreign languages. A total of 14,583 books by 1,731 foreign authors had been published in the U.S.S.R. in the Soviet period, according to 1956 statistics. In 1957 works by 388 foreign authors and editions of the folk- lore of forty-seven countries were published. The Soviet Union holds first place in the world in the publication of translated literature. According to U.N.E.S.C.O. figures, the U.S.S.R. puts out five times as many translated editions as the United States. (For figures on the publication of works by foreign authors?see answer No. 73.) 73 1 Which foreign authors are most popular in the U.S.S.R. SOVIET people sincerely appreciate and respect the cultural achievements of other nations, large or small. The Soviet Government spares no effort to make the best productions of the human mind available to all the people Works by Democritus, Aristotle, Voltaire, Diderot, Helvetius. Holbach, Spinoza, Feuerbach, Darwin, Newton, Einstein and many others are published in the U.S.S.R. in editions running into tens of thousands. Foreign works of fiction, which help the reader to gain a better understanding of the history, life and customs of other nations, are highly popular in the U.S.S R. and are published on a, large scale. In 1957 alone their total printing was 78 million During the Soviet period (between 1918 and 1957) 16,685 books 140 by 1,942 foreign authors were put out in a total of 535,500,000 copies in seventy-six languages of the U.S.S.R. The total print of works by the main French authors between 1918 and 1957 were: Victor Hugo. 13,300,000 copies in forty- five languages of the U.S.S.R.; Balzac, 11 million; Guy de Maupassant, 8,500,000; Zola, 10,500,000; Jules Verne, 14,800,000; Romain Rolland, 6 million; Stendhal, 4,900.000; Flaubert, 3,500.000; Anatole France, 3,400,000. The print figures for works by English authors have been: Dickens, 8,900,000; H. G. Wells, 6.900.000; Kipling, 4,400,000; Swift, 3,700,000; Defoe, 3,500,000; Shakespeare, 3 million copies in twenty-seven languages. Soviet publishing houses issue American literary productions in large editions. Jack London's works have been published in thirty-two languages of the U.S.S.R. in editions totalling 19,200,000 copies and Mark Twain's works in twenty-five lan- guages, with a total of 9,800,000 copies. The works of Theodore Dreiser have come out, in 8,700,000 copies in twelve languages; 0. Henry and Upton Sinclair in 4 million copies each. German writers are also published in big editions: Heine, a total of 2,500,000 copies; Goethe, 1,900,000; Feuchtwanger, 2,500,000; Schiller, 1,600,000. Here are some other outstanding authors of different countries whose books have been published in editions totalling hundreds of thousands, and even millions, of copies: Shaw, Byron, Burns, Scott, Galsworthy, Cronin, Priestley, OVasey, Merimdc, Rabelais, Aragon, Georges Sand, J. Fenimore Cooper, Scion- Thompson, Longfellow, Hemingway, Bret Harte, Washington Irving, Walt Whitman, Steinbeck, Bredel, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Anna Seghers, Cervantes, Blasco Ibanez, Amado, Neruda, Guillen, Ibsen, Boccaccio, Giovagnoli, Moravia, Amicis, Stefan Zweig, Charles de Coster, Multatuli. Soviet readers take a keen interest in the literature of the Eastern countries. In forty years more than 1,000 books by 168 Eastern authors have been published in a total of 47 million copies in thirty-two languages of the U.S.S.R. Books by Lu Hsun have appeared in 2 million copies in eighteen languages; San Shan-fei, 1,700,000; Chu Pao-hua, 1,200,000; Rabindranath Tagore, 2,400,000; M. R. Anand, 1 million. Writings by Kuo Mo-jo, K. Chandra, C. A. Abbas, P. Chandra, Omar Khayyam, Firdousi, Kobayashi, Sepuko, Takakura, Li Ji Yen and others have gone through editions of hundreds of thousands of copies. 141 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004600060002-5 I g Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Recent years have seen a particular increase in the publication of works of Eastern fiction. In 1957 there appeared 177 books by Eastern writers, in a total of nearly 10 million copies, includ- ing twenty books by authors of Arab countries in 1,500,000 copies, forty-six books by Indian authors in a total print of 2,700,000, and sixty-six by Chinese writers in 4,100,000 copies. Works by writers of Burma, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and other Eastern countries are also published extensively. 74 What theatres are there? lVhat do they produce! THERE are more than 500 professional theatres and opera houses in the Soviet Union. All have permanent com- panies; as a rule, they have their own buildings. In addi- tion there are touring companies which perform in district centres and small industrial towns, and at railway stations and construction projects. Like Soviet socialist culture as a whole, the Soviet theatre has assimilated the best and most progressive traditions of the Soviet and other peoples. Fidelity to principle and the depiction of real people are distinguishing features of the theatre. It adheres to the principles of socialist realism, the fundamental method of all Soviet art. The traditional centres of Russian stage art are Moscow and Leningrad. Among their most famous theatres are the Bo!shot Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Moscow Art Theatre and the Maly Theatre in Moscow and the Pushkin Theatre and the Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre in Leningrad. Theatres in the capitals of the Union Republics and many regional centres have also won renown and widespread popu- larity. Widely known beyond their own towns and Republics are such theatres in the Russian Federation as the Volkov Theatre of Yaroslavl and the Kachalov Theatre of Kazan; in the Ukraine, the Shevchenko Opera and Ballet Theatre and the Ivan Frank? Theatre, both of Kiev; in Byelorussia, the Opera House and the Yanka Kupala Theatre, both of Minsk; in Georgia, the Rusthaveli Theatre of Tbilisi; in Latvia, the Academic Theatre of Drama in Riga; in Estonia, the Kingisepp Theatre of 142 Tallinn; in Uzbekistan, the Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre and the Khamza Theatre, both of Tashkent, and so on. One of the historical gains of the Soviet system is the bringing of culture within the reach of all the peoples inhabiting the U.S.S.R. In particular, dramatic art is developing among peoples to whom it was completely unknown before 1917, for instance, the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Tajiks and Turkmcnians of Central Asia, who never had any professional theatre. Before the Revolution the inhabitants of the present-day Kazakh Republic, whose area is equal to nearly one-third of Europe, were familiar only with folk bards. Today the Kazaktis have their own opera and ballet theatre, a republican theatre of drama, a children's theatre, and fifteen drama theatres in regional and district centres. They have symphony orchestras and smaller bands, song and dance companies, circus troupes and other permanent concert groups. The same holds true for all the other Union Republics and also for the Autonomous Republics. Stage performances are given in forty languages in the U.S.S.R. The repertoires are broad and varied. Works by Soviet drama- tists and composers cover diverse themes, subjects and genres, from the heroic and the epic to the comic, from psychological drama to fairy-talcs. The heroic and epic theme is most richly represented in opera. Glorious pages from Russian history and the people's heroic struggle for freedom and happiness are described in Prokoficv's opera War and Peace, after the novel by Tolstoy; Dankevich's Bogdan Klunehzitsky, about the reunion of the Ukraine and Russia 300 years ago; Khrennikov's Mother, after the novel by Gorky; Kabalevsky's Nikita Vershinin, about Siberian partisans during the Civil War; Molchanov's Dawn, about sailors who fought in the Revolution of 1917. Soviet ballet is also varied in theme. It includes interpretations of well-known literary works, such as Asaficv's Fountain of Bakhchisarai, after the poem by Pushkin; Gliere's The Bronze Horseman, based on Pushkin's poem of the same name; or Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet and Machavariani's Othello, after Shakespeare; fairy-tales, such as Prokofiev's Cinderella and Stone Flower or F. Yarullin's Shurale, based on Tatar legends; and works on contemporary subjects, such as Gliere's Red Poppy, devoted to China's struggle for independence, Khacha- 143 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Recent years have seen a particular increase in the publication of works of Eastern fiction. In 1957 there appeared 177 books by Eastern writers, in a total of nearly 10 million copies, includ- ing twenty books by authors of Arab countries in 1,500,000 copies, forty-six books by Indian authors in a total print of 2,700,000, and sixty-six by Chinese writers in 4,100,000 copies. Works by writers of Burma, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and other Eastern countries are also published extensively. I74 What theatres are there? What do they produce! THERE are more than 500 professional theatres and opera houses in the Soviet Union. All have permanent com- panies; as a rule, they have their own buildings. In addi- tion there are touring companies which perform in district centres and small industrial towns, and at railway stations and construction projects. Like Soviet socialist culture as a whole, the Soviet theatre has assimilated the best and most progressive traditions of the Soviet and other peoples. Fidelity to principle and the depiction of real people are dtinguishing features of the theatre. It adheres to the principles of socialist realism, the fundamental method of all Soviet art. The traditional centres of Russian stage art are Moscow and Leningrad. Among their most famous theatres are the Bolshoi Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Moscow Art Theatre and the Maly Theatre in Moscow and the Pushkin Theatre and the Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre in Leningrad. Theatres in the capitals of the Union Republics and many regional centres have also won renown and widespread popu- larity. Widely known beyond their own towns and Republics are such theatres in the Russian Federation as the Volkov Theatre of Yaroslavl and the Kachalov Theatre of Kazan ; in the Ukraine, the Shevchenko Opera and Ballet Theatre and the Ivan Franko Theatre, both of Kiev; in Byelorussia, the Opera House and the Yanka Kupala Theatre, both of Minsk; in Georgia, the Rusthaveli Theatre of Tbilisi; in Latvia, the Academic Theatre of Drama in Riga; in Estonia, the Kingisepp Theatre of 142 Tallinn; in Uzbekistan, the Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre and the Ithamza Theatre, both of Tashkent, and so on. One of the historical gains of the Soviet system is the bringing of culture within the reach of all the peoples inhabiting the USSR. In particular, dramatic art is developing among peoples to whom it was completely unknown before 1917, for instance, the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Tajiks and Turkmcnians of Central Asia, who never had any professional theatre. Before the Revolution the inhabitants of the present-day Kazakh Republic, whose area is equal to nearly one-third of Europe, were familiar only with folk bards. Today the Kazaklis have their own opera and ballet theatre, a republican theatre of drama, a children's theatre, and fifteen drama theatres in regional and district centres. They have symphony orchestras and smaller bands, song and dance companies, circus troupes and other permanent concert groups. The same holds true for all the other Union Republics and also for the Autonomous Republics. Stage performances are given in forty languages in the U.S.S.R. The repertoires are broad and varied. Works by Soviet drama- tists and composers cover diverse themes, subjects and genres, from the heroic and the epic to the comic, from psychological drama to fairy-tales. The heroic and epic theme is most richly represented in opera. Glorious pages from Russian history and the people's heroic struggle for freedom and happiness are described in Prokofiev's opera War and Peace, after the novel by Tolstoy; Dankevich's Bogdan Khmelnitsky, about the reunion of the Ukraine and Russia 300 years ago; Khrennikov's A! other, after the novel by Gorky; Kabalevsky's Nikita Vershinin, about Siberian partisans during the Civil War; Molchanov's Dawn, about sailors who fought in the Revolution of 1917. Soviet ballet is also varied in theme. It includes interpretations of well-known literary wzoks, such as Asafiev's Fountain of Bakhchisarai, after the poem by Pushkin; Glierc's The Bronze Horseman, based on Pushkin's poem of the same name; or Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet and Machavariani's Othello, after Shakespeare; fairy-tales, such as Prokofiev's Cinderella and Stone Flower or F. Yarullin's Shurale, based on Tatar legends; and works on contemporary subjects, such as Gare's Red Poppy, devoted to China's struggle for independence, Khacha- 143 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ttuian's Gayane, Spadavekkia's Shore of Happiness and .1 Juzeliunos' By the Seaside. An important place in the opera and ballet repertoire is occupied by Russian and world classics: Glinka's Ivan Susanin and Ruslan and Ludmila, Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin, Queen of Spades, Swan Lake and Sleeping Beauty, Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov, Rimsky-Korsakov's Sadko, Borodin's Prince Igor, operas by Rossini, Verdi, Gounod and Bizet, and ballets by Adam, Mina's and Pugni. The repertoire of the drama theatres includes such gems of Russian and world drama as Griboyedov's Wit Works Woe, Alexander Ostrovsky's Storm and Bride Without Dowry, Chek- hov's Three Sisters, Cherry Orchard and Uncle Vanya, Gorky's The Lower Depths and Yegor Bulychev and others, Shakespeare's Othello and King Lear, Lope de Vega's Dog in the Manger, and Shaw's Pygmalion. Soviet audiences are drawn to these plays by their truthful character delineation and lofty humanism. Soviet dramatists have brought a new hero to the stage?the fighter for social progress and against the exploitation of man by man, the fighter for justice and peace on earth. It is charac- ters of this type that the Soviet theatre-goer has seen and come to love in Trenev's Lyubov Yarovaya, V. Ivanov's Arnzoured Train 14-69, Bil-Belotserkovsky's Storm, and Vishnevsky's Opti- mistic Tragedy, which deal with the time of the Revolution and the establishment of the Soviet system. This tradition was carried on by such plays as L. Leonov's Invasion, Korneichuk's Front, and Movzon's Konstantin Zaslo- nov, describing the heroism of Soviet men and women in the Second World War. The workaday life of the Soviet people is the subject of plays like Kron's Deep Reconnaissance, Katayev's Time, Forward! Komeichuk's Makar Dubrava and Wings, Happiness, after the novel by Pavlenko, Dovzhenko's Life in Flower, Pistolenko's The Love of Anna Beryozko and a great many others. Soviet theatres also present satires, for instance, Mayakovsky's The Bed Bug and The Bathhouse, which scourge bureaucrats, and such gay comedies as Dyakonov's Marriage With a Dowry, about life in a collective farm village, Volodin's Factory Girl, about young workers, and The Wheel of Happiness, by the Tur brothers. Plays by contemporary foreign authors have won a firm place in the Soviet repertoire. 144 The Soviet theatre is expanding and developing. It spreads the progressive culture of all times and nations and advocates inter- nationalism, socialist progress and peace. What orchestras, dance companies, choirs:are there? IN each Union and Autonomous Republic and in the territorial and regional centres there arc philharmonic societies that maintain orchestras, song and dance companies, variety troupes and other entertainment companies. The USS.R. Ministry of Culture alone (not counting the radio broadcasting networks, which have a large number of concert groups) has thirty-six symphony orchestras, fifty-two variety orchestras and folk instrument ensembles, forty-eight choirs and fifty-five song and dance companies. Wide popularity is enjoyed by the State Symphony Orchestra of the U.S.S.R. and the symphony orchestras of the Moscow Regional, Leningrad and Sverdlovsk philharmonic societies. They are led by such distinguished conductors as K. Ivanov, E. Mravinsky, A. Gauk, N. Rakhlin, S. Samosud, K. Kondrashin and M. Paverman. The Russian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Georgian, Estonian and other peoples inhabiting the U.S.S.R. have long been known for the high level of their choral and dance art. In Soviet times these centuries-old traditions have received substantial development. Basing themselves on national motifs, Soviet composers, choir- masters and choreographers have created a folk song and dance art that has become world famous. The State Folk Dance Company of the U.S.S.R. under Igor Moiseyev, the Pyatnitsky Russian Folk Choir, the Bcryozka (Silver Birch) Dance Company of Moscow, the Red Banner Song and Dance Company of the Soviet Army, the folk dance com- panies of the Ukraine and Georgia, and the Omsk Folk Choir have all enjoyed triumphal success in their appearances abroad. The Turkmenian dance company, the Uzbek folk instruments ensemble, the song and dance company of Yakutia and others in the non-Russian republics, where before tin Revolution there were no professional music groups at all, likewise win acclaim. 145 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ? 1, People in the Soviet Union love the circus. There are sixty- nine permanent circuses in which the most diverse types of circus skill are represented. The high level of professional skill, based not on outward effect but on agility, boldness, grace and beauty, has made the Soviet circus famous in many countries. Well known abroad, as well as at home, are the Russian circus artists V. Durov, animal trainer, Oleg Popov, clown, P. Cherncga and S. Razumov, trapeze artists, and V. Filatov, bear trainer, the group of Ossetian horsemen under Ali-Bek Kantemirov, the Gincik group of Lithuanian equilibrists, V. Herts, the Latvian strong man and juggler, A. Yusupov, Uzbek comic, and the Oskal-Ool group of jugglers of the Tuva Autonomous Region. Variety entertainment is widely developed in the Soviet Union. Gay songs, clever parodies that are sometimes bitingly satirical, eccentric dancing and comic acts draw hundreds of thousands of spectators. All variety artists in the Soviet Union have regular work, per- forming at parks and public gardens in summer and at Palaces of Culture, concert halls of philharmonic societies and recreation centres in winter. Some groups belong to permanent companies and have their own theatre premises, like the Moscow Variety Theatre and the Miniature Theatre of Leningrad under Arkadi Raikin. 76 What films are most popular? THE cinema is the most widespread and popular form of art among the Soviet people, part and parcel of their living. The number of cinema units has increased from 1,414 (133 of them in the rural localities) in pre-revolutionary times to 65,000 (50,000 of them in the rural areas) today. Nine million people view feature films daily. Films are produced in the U.S.S.R. by thirty-four studios, located in Moscow, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Tbilisi, Riga, Vilnius, Kishinev and other capitals of Union Republics, and in a number of other large cities. More and more motion pictures are being produced all the time to meet the steadily growing demands of the Soviet popula- tion. While in 1955 the country's studios made eighty-two full- 146 length films, in 1957 the number was 143. Besides this, up to 500 popular science films, newsreels and documentaries are released annually. A large number of foreign films are shown in the Soviet Union. In 1957 alone Soviet cinema-goers saw seventy full-length motion pictures from twenty-three countries, among them China, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Japan and Mexico. What films are the most popular? Briefly, pictures about men and women who work to make life better for their .people, who are engaged on constructive jobs, and who feel that working for the good of their country, in the name of progress and peace, is the highest purpose of life. To this category of pictures belong classics of world film art like Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, Afother, the picture Vsevolod Pudovkin made from Maxim Gorky's novel of that name, and Alexander Dovzhcnko's Land. Made at the dawn of Soviet cinematography, they are still being shown both at home and abroad. ? Also famous outside the Soviet Union are Chapaycv and Shchors, films about two great army leaders of the Civil War. The lofty humanity that permeates these pictures from beginning to end has assured them their success. The same criterion is applicable to a number of pictures about the immortal deeds of the Soviet people during the Second World War, among them She Defends Her Country, The Russian People, The Rainbow and The Young Guard. The most popular of the films dealing with the country's glorious history and its outstanding personages are Alexander Nevsky, Suvorov, Georgi Saakadze, Academician Ivan Pavlov, Mussorgsky, Allisher Navoi, Taros Shevchenko and Yakov Sverdlov. The Soviet people particularly love films about Lenin. Lenin in October, Lenin in 1918, The Man With the Gun, and Stories about Lenin portray with historical fidelity and great artistic skill the splendid qualities of that great leader of the Revolution, the founder of the Soviet Socialist State. Screen adaptations of famous works of literature hold a fairly large place among films produced in the Soviet Union. Among the best have been screen -versions of Ostrovsky's plays The Storm and Guilty Though Guiltless, Othello, Don Quixote, Dostoevsky's novel The Idiot, Road to Cigvary, a trilogy by the outstanding Soviet novelist Alexei Tolstoy from which two 147 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 6% Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 pictures, The Sisters and The Year 1918, have been made, and Mikhail Sholokhov's And Quiet Flows the Don. Adults as well as children have delighted in the fairy tale films Sadko, Snow Queen and Ilya Muromets. But history and its great figures, and fairy tale characters are secondary to the main theme of Soviet cinema art?Soviet man and his deeds, concerns and joys. Here we find the story of mem- bers of a wintering party in the Arctic in the picture Seven Bold Men, and the young people who built a new town in Komsomolsk. Then there are the miners, so energetic about their work and so slow to arrange their personal affairs, in A Big Life, and the enthusiastic, gay lovers of music and singing in the comedies Volga-Volga, Bright Path, Tale of Siberia and Carnival Night. The problems CL Soviet morals and ethics and woman's position in society are treated in The Large Family, Lesson of Life, The Runiyantsev Case, The Cranes Are Flying and many other motion pictures. The practice of producing pictures jointly with foreign film- makers is becoming more and more common in the Soviet Union. Pictures like the Soviet-Albanian Skanderbeg, Great Warrior of Albania, the Soviet-Bulgarian Heroes of Shipka, the Soviet-Indian Travels Beyond Three Seas, and the Soviet-Korean Brothers help Soviet audiences gain a better understanding of the history, way of life and customs of other nations and contribute to friendship and world peace. How do musicians, dancers, artists, get their training? THE system of art education in the Soviet Union is designed in such a way as to discover children possessing ability in some field of art and give them the opportunity to develop their talent. Children are taught singing, drawing and modelling at kindergarten and later at elementary schoo). Often singing in the school choir or participation in an exhibition of children's drawings shows that the child has a gift for music or painting. Conservatoires and art institutes maintain schools for children who show special talent. There, in addition to music or art train- ing, the child obtains a regular ten-year secondary school educa- 148 don, enabling him to enter any higher educational establishment upon finishing the school if he does not wish to continue his education at a conservatoire or art institute. These schools pro- vide board and lodging for out-of-town pupils. Similar to these music or art schools arc schools of choreo- graphy which are, as a rule, attached to theatres of opera and ballet. Here, too, the child is given a complete secondary educa- tion in addition to his dance training. Graduates become members of the ballet companies of the theatres. Although there are music and art schools in many cities there are not enough of them to accommodate all who wish to enter. The majority of those wanting to study music, art or dancing attend lessons at children's music or art schools after their regular school hours. There are over 700 music and art schools of this type in the Soviet Union, attended by more than 100,000 children. At these schools the children get adequate training for admission to the special music or art schools, of which there are about 200. Art and music schools admit children from the age of fourteen who have completed seven years at a general secondary school and have passed the entrance examinations in music or art. The term of study is four to five years. Graduates become members or directors of choirs, musicians. painters or sculptors, workers in the applied arts, or teachers of drawing or singing at secondary schools. The more gifted graduates usually go on to study at conservatoires, or art and architectural institutes. The Soviet Union has twenty-two conservatoires. The oldest are those of Moscow and Leningrad, founded in the middle of the last century. Many have been established in recent years, in Alma-Ata, capital of Kazakhstan. Sverdlovsk, in the Urals, and Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan, and elsewhere. The youngest is the Novosibirsk Conservatoire, opened in the autumn of 1956. Departments in the conservatoires include piano, vocal music, conducting, composition, symphony orchestra, and musicology. Many conservatoires have evening departments at which gifted people may obtain a higher education in music without giving up their main work. There arc twelve colleges teaching art and architecture. They train architects, painters of stage-settings, artists in easel or monumental painting, sculptors, graphic artists, book de- signers, poster artists and specialists in applied and decorative 149 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 art. Graduates of these colleges have the right to teach in art schools. There are twelve theatrical institutes in the Soviet Union, as well as a cinematography institute training film actors, film directors, script-writers, cameramen and stage designers. Instruction in all these colleges is in the native language, and tuition in both secondary and higher education is free. All students making normal progress receive allowances from the state. Many actors, musicians and artists obtain their start as mem- bers of amateur talent groups (see answer No. 78). An example is People's Artist of the U.S.S.R. Nikolai Bogolyubov of the Moscow Art Theatre, who began acting with an amateur group. Another is People's Artist of the U.S.S.R. Sergei Lemeshev, a star tenor at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. 781 How popular are amateur art, music, drama, dancing etc.? AMATEUR dramatics, music, choral singing, dancing, painting, sculpturing and decorative and applied art really began to develop on a broad scale only after the Revolu- tion. Material well-being and confidence in the future have led to an unprecedented thirst for culture and a desire to engage in art activities. The Soviet Union has 300,000 amateur drama, choral and dance groups, orchestras and studios of the fine arts with a total membership of more than three million factory and office workers, collective farmers, and members of their families. These groups are found at all recreation centres and Palaces of Culture. In 1914 Russia had 222 clubs for workers, known as Folk Houses. Today the trade unions alone maintain about 130,000 Palaces of Culture and other recreation centres. In the towns amateur talent groups are financed by the trade unions, which provide them, free of charge, with premises, pro- perties, costumes, musical instruments and instructors. In the rural localities money to finance amateur talent comes from the collective farms. In 1957 the trade unions spent 2,000 million roubles on cul- 150 tural undertakings and the development of physical culture. A considerable part of this sum went to promote amateur talent activities. Soviet men and women of the arts, including the most promi- nent, consider it their duty to help develop and improve amateur talent activities among the people. Almost every professional theatre acts as patron for some recreation centre and its amateur talent groups. The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, for example, helps with amateur activities at the club of the Moscow brake works and the rural amateur talent groups in Talovaya District, Voronezh Region. Famous Bolshoi Theatre stars like Sergei Lemeshev and Maxim Mikhailov, both People's Artists of the U.S.S.R.. have made trips to the Talovaya collective farms many times to give help and advice to amateur choirs and singers. Another important Moscow theatre, the Art Theatre, has close ties with workers at the Krasny Proletari machine tool factory in Moscow. A council made up of Art Theatre actors and direc- tors gives regular assistance to the amateur talent groups at the factory club. Members of the groups often attend Art Theatre performances and rehearsals. There are hundreds of similar examples. Constant assistance from the state and help from leading people in the arts have had such a favourable influence on the development of popular talent that many amateur groups have achieved a level of performance in no way inferior to that of professional theatres and companies, and individual amateur performers are in some cases as good as professionals. There are amateur groups which stage entire operas and ballets, plays by Chekhov, Gorky, Shakespeare and Mohere, and the finest Soviet plays; amateur orchestras perform Tchai- kovsky, Beethoven, Rachmaninov and Chopin. In 1957 alone amateur talent groups in the Soviet Union gave about 600,000 performances and concerts attended by almost 127 million people. Many prominent Soviet stage artists such as the outstanding Ukrainian singer Mikhail Grishko, a People's Artist of the U.S.S.R., People's Artist of the Russian Federation Irma Maslennikova, soloist with the Bolshoi Theatre, and the popular film stars Marina Ladynina, Boris Andreyev and Nikolai Kryuchkov, among others, began their careers on the stages of factory and village clubs. 151 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Amateur talent activities among children are also highly developed in the Soviet Union. There are thousands of amateur talent groups at schools and Houses of Young Pioneers where children have an opportunity to develop their natural gifts for music, dancing, acting or painting. Taking part in amateur talent activities gives interest and meaning to the leisure of Soviet people. Such activities enable millions of people in town and countryside to enjoy real art. 79 1 How are radio and television organised in the U.S.S.R.? THE Soviet Union has a highly-developed radio industry. a large network of radio broadcasting stations, and all the radio engineering facilities essential for economic, scientific and cultural progress, and for defence needs. As regards the power of its radio broadcasting stations, the Soviet Union now holds first place in Europe and second in the world. Radio broadcasting in the U.S.S.R. does not pursue any com- mercial aims. It is an important factor in the cultural and political education of the people, and also contributes to tech- nical progress and development in all branches of industry. In the socialist state radio is the property of the people and serves the people. That is why so much attention is paid in the Soviet Union to the expansion of radio relay systems in urban and rural localities. ? By 1957 there was one radio receiver for every four urban dwellers and every nine or ten rural inhabitants. In addition to radio sets Soviet citizens have the benefit of the radio relay service maintained in towns and rural areas. Under this system broadcasts may be heard by plugging in a loudspeaker. The radio relay service takes in practically every house in the towns and the villages. The low cost, simplicity and universality of the radio relay service have led to its becoming as common- place as electric lighting. Loudspeaker outlets are installed in streets, public places, hostels and flats. There are now many districts in the U.S.S.R. where all the houses are wired for radio. An example is the North Kazakhstan 152 region, where radio has been brought to all the collective farms, state farms and villages. The radio relay service by no means excludes radio sets. Many citizens have both. Besides the central radio broadcasting station in Moscow there are stations in the capitals of the Union Republics and in the administrative centres of the territories and regions. Programmes are also broadcast regularly by tens of thousands of small stations at factories and offices, schools, colleges, collective farms and state farms. The central radio station in Moscow broadcasts three pro- grammes simultaneously for home listeners over different wave- lengths twenty-four hours a day. The programmes include home and world news and commentaries, talks about industry and agriculture, classical and modern literature, music and drama. Hundreds of concerts of all kinds are presented. Broadcasts arc conducted in fifty-seven languages of the U.S.S.R. A distinguishing feature of Soviet radio broadcasting is its close ties with the people. Radio Moscow receives more than 300,000 letters annually from Soviet listeners. Question and answer programmes, request concerts and other broadcasts arc arranged in response to letters. People of different trades and professions, from factory workers and collective farmers to Party and Government leaders, from schoolchildren to Academicians, frequently appear before the microphone. Radio Moscow daily presents a broad variety of programmes in thirty-eight languages for Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America. The subjects include the life of the peoples of the U.S.S.R., science, engineering, culture, sports, music, and com- mentaries on world affairs. The Soviet radio speaks persistently for world peace, for the peaceful co-existence of states with different social systems; it exposes the forces that want to instigate another war. That is why the programmes meet with such a wide response from listeners abroad. Radio Moscow gets some 70,000 letters from 120 countries every year. Television has made rapid progress in the Soviet Union in recent years. The number of TV stations has increased from only three five years ago to forty-one today, and upwards of thirty more are to go into operation by the end of 1958 TV is becoming a regular part of Soviet life. You will now 153 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release . 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 find sets in the homes of Lithuanian farmers and Karaganda coal miners, Baku oil workers and factory workers in the small town of ICarpinsk in the North Urals. Much attention is being paid to the installation of relay lines for an exchange of programmes between studios in the capitals of the Union Republics and other large towns, and also for assuring good reception in towns that do not have their own studios. Moscow TV programmes are now viewed in Kalinin, Vladi- mir, Kaluga, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo and Kostroma. In a few years from now they will be relayed and cabled much longer distances, to Kiev, Kharkov, Dniepropetrovsk and Orel, among other cities. Muscovites, in turn, will be able to view programmes from those cities. The first experimental colour TV station will soon start work- ing. The colour system to be used will enable programmes to be received on ordinary black-and-white sets, and black-and- white programmes to be received on colour sets. There are now about 2 million TV sets in the big cities of the U.S.S.R. By 1965 there are to be more than 300 TV studios and enough sets in use to bring programmes to some 100 million persons. 801 What libraries are there? THERE are more than 390,000 libraries of all kinds in the U.S.S.R., 120,000 of which are in rural localities. The total number of volumes on their shelves is approximately 1,500 million, of which 335 million are in the rural libraries. The number of library books per 100 inhabitants has increased from six in 1914 to 332 today. The Lenin State Library in Moscow, with about 20 million volumes and bound sets of newspapers and magazines, and the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library in Leningrad, with about 12 million volumes, are among the biggest in the world. More than 1,600,000 persons annually use the Lenin Library. These and other big libraries (in Tashkent, Tbilisi, Yerevan and elsewhere) have rich collections of manuscripts and other written records of different ages and peoples. 154 Tens of thousands of Muscovites avail themselves of the facilities of the U.S.S.R. State Library of Foreign Literature, the country's main depository of foreign publications. Its sub- scribers include 1,200 libraries and institutions in nearly 250 towns of the Soviet Union and in twelve other countries. A new building with a depository for 4 million volumes is to be erected for the U.S.S.R. State Library of Foreign Literature under the current Five-Year Plan. The building will have exhibi- tion halls, twelve reading rooms with a total of 850 places, a number of smaller reading rooms for one, two and three persons, a lecture hall seating 500 and a conference hall seating 100. The library will have its own printshop, bookbindery, book hygiene department and microphotography d.epartment. More than forty big libraries by law receive a free copy of every book, magazine and newspaper printed in the U.S.S.R. To give people living in the smaller towns and rural areas access to the cultural treasures assembled in the major libraries there is an inter-library subscription service through which local libraries may borrow rare books from the large libraries. City and district libraries are maintained and stocked on funds provided by the state budget. They include children's libraries, with pre-school departments, and specialised scientific and tech- nical libraries. Besides these, there are many libraries maintained by the trade unions at recreation centres and at factories and offices. The number of collective farm libraries is steadily growing. Tremendous progress has been made in expanding and en- larging the network of libraries. For instance, the trade union library at the motor works in Gorky has more than 155,000 volumes and thousands of subscribers, whereas before the Revolution all the libraries of the whole region in which the city of Gorky is situated had only 103,000 books altogether. All the libraries in the Soviet Union are free. 155 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 81 I What museums are there? THERE are 849 museums in the U.S.S.R. devoted to art, history, literature, science, regional history, the theatre, engineering, famous persons, and so on. The most famous art museums, known the world over, are the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow and the Hermitage in Lenin- grad. The Tretyakov Gallery, founded in 1856 by Pavel Tretyakov, a distinguished patron of the arts and well-known figure in the field of culture, has the world's largest collection of Russian painting, sculpture and drawing. The collections in the Hermitage trace the culture of many countries and peoples over the centuries (the most ancient items relate to the Stone Age). Many of the exhibits were supplied by the archaeological expeditions which the museum arranges regu- larly. The Hermitage paintings include works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt and many other great masters. Another prominent museum is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, whose collections include art memorials of the world of antiquity, the ancient East, and Western Europe. This museum grew out of a small art gallery founded at Moscow University in the middle of last century. The Historical Museum in Moscow presents the history of Russia from ancient times. It has rich archaeological collections, clothing and fabrics, furniture, household articles, ornaments, weapons, documents and books. Rare collections of decorative and applied art and old weapons'are on display in the Armoury in the Moscow Kremlin. Branches of the Historical Museum are St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square, the Novo-Devichy Nunnery in Moscow, and monuments of old Russian architecture in the village of Kolomenskoye, situated not far from Moscow Many country estates of the Russian tsars and nobles have been turned into museums. Among them are Petrodvorets, near Leningrad, with its famous fountains, and the estates of Ostan- kino, Kuskovo and Arkhangelskoye, all of them near Moscow. where the architecture, sculptures, canvases and applied art make magnificent displays. The Museum of the Revolution, founded in Moscow in 1924, has large collections reflecting the main stages in the revolu- 156 tionary struggle against tsarism waged by the peoples of Russia under the leadership of the Communist Party, the October Socialist Revolution, and the Soviet Union's political, economic and cultural achievements. Many museums have been set up in places associated with the life and work of famous people. Thousands of people daily visit the Lenin Museum in Moscow in which documents and relics reflecting the life and work of the founder of the Soviet State are collected. The museum has branches in a number of cities. Lenin'c flat in the Kremlin, and the estate at Gorki, near Moscow, where he died have also been turned into museums. There are also memorial museums dedicated to other distin- guished Soviet leaders. Leo Tolstoy's estate in Yasnaya Polyana and his house in Moscow, Tchaikovsky's house in Klin, Chekhov's house in Yalta, Pushkin's flat in Leningrad, and the flats of Dostoyevsky, Maya- kovsky, Stanislavsky, Scriabin and others are also museums now. One of the country's oldest institutions for the dissemination of scientific knowledge is the Polytechnical Museum, founded in 1872 by the Society of Lovers of Natural Sciences, Anthro- pology and Ethnography at Moscow University. It is a huge museum which arranges excursions, lectures, expositions, and so on. Soviet museums have their exhibits arranged in chronological order, which makes it easy to examine them. Qualified guides and consultants are available. Admission to museums is for a nominal fee or free of charge. They attract many visitors. The Tretyakov Gallery, for instance, is annually visited by more than one million persons. Museums have their own archives, photography laboratories, libraries, and restoration and other workshops. They conduct extensive research, publish studies and guide-books, and arrange archxological and other expeditions. 157 flpelassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 ii Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 821 How has sport dereloped in the U.S.S.R.? ILLIONS of people go in for physical culture and sport in the U.S.S.R. These include factory and office workers, collective farmers, students, scientists and writers. There are about 200,000 sports groups with 19 million members who are active in one or several of the more than forty sports culti- vated in the U.S.S.R. The state annually spends large sums to develop the health services and physical culture (the 1958 appropriations are 40,100 million roubles). Sports facilities at the disposal of the population include more than 1,500 large stadiums, upwards of 7,000 gyms, 5,000 sports grounds, 25,000 football pitches, about 200,000 volleyball and basketball courts, thousands of ski lodges, hundreds of rowing centres, swimming pools, and so on. All these are well attended. There is a public governing body in each sport. Sporting activities as a whole are co-ordinated and guided by the Physical Culture and Sports Committee of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers. The physical culture groups belong to sports societies, the oldest and most popular of which are Dynamo and Spartak. There is a trade uniim sports society in each Union Republic: Trud in the Russian Federation, Vanguard in the Ukraine, Enbek in Kazakhstan etc. College and university students are members of the Burevestnik (Stormy Petrel) society. Railwaymen, Soviet Army men and rural sportsmen also have societies of their own. There are some 50,000 qualified instructors and coaches who have been trained in the thirty-two secondary and fifteen higher schools of physical culture and sports and the 106 physical education departments at teachers' training colleges. In addition. there is a large number of amateur instructors who have gone through a short-term course of studies and train beginners. Three research institutes in the Soviet Union specialise in problems of physical training and sports. Physical education is based on the set of norms fixed for the Ready for Labour and Defence Badge and the U.S.S.R. sporting classification system. After a sportsman fulfils the requirements for the Ready for Labour and Defence Badge, First and Second Degree, he can qualify for one of the three sporting categories 158 if he improves his prowess. Next come the ratings of Master of Sport and Honoured Master of Sport. Outstanding coaches arc given the title of Honoured Coach of the USS.R. In the past four years Soviet sportsmen have set up 1,230 new U.S.S.R. records, 405 of them world records. They hold seventy-four of the 170 registered world records. Soviet sportsmen have won world championships in wrestling. gymnastics, shooting, modern pentathlon, speed skating, volley- ball, women's fencing and weight-lifting. They are European champions in boxing, track and field, basketball, ice hockey and several other sports. When Soviet sportsmen made their debut in the Olympic Games at Helsinki in 1952 they chalked up the same number of points as the United States team. At the Melbourne Olympics of 1956 they captured the largest number of gold, silver and bronze medals and outstripped the teams of the other countries. The attention being given to promoting sports in the Union Republics is bearing rich fruit. For instance, at the Melbourne Olympics sportsmen from the Ukraine registered more points than the teams of such countries as Britain, France, Italy and Japan. The sportsmen of Georgia and Armenia proved stronger than the teams of Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Argentina and other countries. Soviet sportsmen have established ties with organisations in fifty-seven countries. Hundreds of foreign sportsmen visit the U.S.S.R. every year, and in turn hundreds of Soviet sportsmen make foreign tours, competing in all the major contests. The Soviet Union is a member of thirty-one international sports federations. 159 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cosy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 V. PEOPLE'S WELFARE 83 I How does the Soviet people's living standard rise? UNDER the Soviet socialist sysiem the national income belongs to those who produce it?the working people-- and is distributed so as to improve the well-being of society as a whole and each of its members. Compared with pre-revolutionary Russia, the national income in 1957 was more than twenty times higher, and more than thirteen times higher per head of population. This growth in the country's social wealth has enabled the Soviet Government to carry out measures resulting in a considerable rise in the material welfare and cultural standard of the Soviet people. The first index of the rising material security of the Soviet people is the absence of unemployment and the steady increase in the number of people employed in the national economy. The number of workers and office employees working in the national economy in 1957 averaged 52,600,000, or four times as many as in 1913. Another index of the living standard is the length of the working day. Before the October Revolution, the working day in the coal, iron and steel, papermaking, food and other in- dustries, as a rule was more than ten hours, not counting over- time; in 1957 the working day in industry was less than eight hours, on the average. Since the latter part of 1956, by decision of the Twentieth Congress of the C.P.S.U., the working day for all workers and office employees is being gradually reduced to seven or six hours, depending on the nature of the industry, and in a number of industries, to a five-day week (with an eight-hour day and two days off), without a reduction in wages. The task is to he completed in 1960. A major index of the steadily rising standard of living is the higher real income of the population. Compared with pre revolutionary times (1913) the real income of workers and office employees in 1957 was roughly five times higher, and the real income of peasants, six times. How did this substantial rise come about/ First, money wages have gone up during this period much more than has the price of goods and services. 160 Second, rent and communal services, which before :Ile non took more than a 20 per cent slice out of the Nwl and sometimes even more than a third, are more than cent lower. Third, in addition to wages, working people in the t ?, It receive considerable sums or free services from the state in Oa shape of social insurance benefits, pensions, stipends, paid high days, free tuition, free medical service, and so on State allotments to meet social and cultural needs are a con stant factor of higher income for the population. In 1957, for instance, the state spent more than 201,000 million roubles to satisfy the everyday social and cultural requirements of the people, or an average of 2,300 roubles extra income for every worker, office employee and working peasant for the year In 1958 the extra income will be still higher, as the state budget appropriation for these purposes is more than 212.000 million roubles. Since the Second World War, due to measures carried out by the communist Party and the Soviet Government, living stan dards have not only been brought up to the pre-war loci, but have been considerably exceeded. It is the result of the expansion of social production and higher national income, and it has enabled the Government repeatedly to cut retail prices, to pay the peasants higher pro- curement prices for the main farm products sold by the collec- tive farms to the state, to raise money wages of a number of categories of workers, to reduce or repeal certain taxes and lift the minimum tax-exemption wage, and to repeal obligator) deliveries of produce to the state from the personal husbandries of collective farmers, workers and office employees In 1956 a new state pensions law was passed, as a result of which more than 17,000,000 people are now getting higher pensions. Monthly pensions have gone up 80 per cent on the average, and for a number of categories of workers. 100 per cent or more. Tuition fees for students in senior forms of secondary schools and higher educational establishments have been abolished, and a number of other measures have been carried out All of this has resulted in a substantial rise of people s red income. Thus, between 1950 and 1957 real wages and salaries went up more than 50 per cent, and compared with the pre war year 1940, almost 100 per cent. 161 narlaccifiprl in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release This, in its turn, meant a higher purchasing power, whkh is reflected in the enormous increase in retail trade. In the last four years (1953-7) the volume of retail trade went up more than 52 per cent, and, compared with pre-war, more than 150 per cent. The sale of chief food products, clothing, shoes, fabrics and household articles has increased several times over. Owing to the vast scale of housing construction the housing conditions of the working people have improved considerably. Compared with pre-revolutionary times, urban housing has nearly quadrupled in Soviet times. The housing construction plan for the five-year period of 1956-60 envisages building almost twice as many flats as there had been in all towns in Russia before the Revolution. The seven-year plan of development (1959-65) outlines a new advance of the Soviet economy and a new rise in living stan- dards. This will be reflected in a further increase in employment, higher cash and real incomes, a greater trade turnover, a sharp improvement in housing conditions, and a further rise in cultural standards. 84 I What, apart from his wages, does the Soria worker get from the State? ASOVIET worker's income is not confined to the wages he gets. He receives from the state a number of additional cash allowances and other benefits, which swell every include: family's real income by more than a third. These additions Allowances and benefits from state social insurance funds. Pensions under social security legislation; Pay for holidays, which all workers receive; Free or reduced-rate accommodation at health and holidcentres; ay Accommodation of workers' children at nurseries and kinder gartens, children's sanatoria and other health resorts (see answ, Money grants to mothers of large families and unmarried mothers (see answer No. 88); 162 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Free tuition in all educational establishments, including insti- tutions of higher learning, and advanced training courses for workers; Allowances paid to students at specialised secondary schools and higher educational establishments; Free medical service; Premiums and bonuses of many kinds. All of these, paid for by the state, are forms of extra income for the working people, and they are increasing from year to year. In 1940 they came to 42,000 million roubles, in 1950 to 122,000 million roubles, in 1957 to more than 201,000 million roubles and in 1958 they are to reach 212,000 million roubles. These figures do not include the huge amounts spent by the state each year on housing construction. How do Soriet citizens exercise their right to 85 rest and leisure? THE right to rest and leisure is guaranteed by the U.S.S.R Constitution to al' working people. This right is reinforced by a system of social and econ- omic guarantees, namely, an extensively developed system of social insurance of wage and salaried workers at state expense; free medical service to all Soviet citizens; a wide network of health resorts; and a working day that is growing shorter. An important requisite for making the right to rest and leisure a reality is a short working day. In 1956 the working day in industry was 7,6 hours on the average. For young people between the ages of sixteen and eighteen a six-hour working day was established and they arc paid the same wages workers of the same categories receive for a full working day. Today the average working day in the U.S.S.R. has been lowered again, as since the latter part of 1956, by decision of the Twentieth Congress of the C.P.S.U.. all workers and office employees are gradually being put on a seven-hour day, and workers of the leading trades employed underground in the coal and ore-mining industries on a six-hour day. F2 163 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/04/01: CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 1 Those put on the shorter working day in 1956-57 were miners working underground in the Donets and Lvov-Volhynia coal basins in the Ukraine and in many enterprises of other industries in the country. The switch-over to the shorter working day in the coal and shale, iron and steel, coke-chemical, cement and several other industries is to be completed in 1958. By the end of 1958, 8 million workers and office employees will have been transferred to a seven- or six-hour day, and before the end of 1959 it is planned to transfer all workers employed in heavy industry to a seven- or six-hour day. By 1960 no wage and salaried workers will do more than forty hours a week. This will be without reduction in pay, as was provided for by the Twentieth C.P.S.U. Congress. In fact, owing to the extensive introduction of new machinery and progressive technology, mechanisation of production processes and auto- mation, and improvement of the organisation of work, the trend to higher wages will continue even under the shorter working day. The right of Soviet working people to rest and leisure is ensured also by granting all workers and office employees annual holidays with full pay. The minimum holiday period is two weeks, but many workers receive a month's holiday. These include workers under eighteen, miners, workers em- ployed in iron and steel, textiles, chemicals and a number of other industries, railwaymen, workers employed on waterways and motor transport. Workers of research, educational and other cultural insti- tutions get a holiday of from one to two months. Many workers and office employees in branches of the national economy where special conditions obtain, or because of the nature of their jobs, receive extra paid holidays of from six to thirty-six working days a year. This applies, among others, to people engaged in hazardous occupations or those working in the Far North or similar areas, crews of ships plying in the Arctic, and workers in a number of other trades. Workers studying after working hours receive extra leave. All health resorts in the U.S.S.R. belong to the state and arc at the disposal of the working people for health or rest cures. Every year millions of workers spend their holidays at sanatOria or holiday homes in the Crimea, the Caucasus, or resorts in other areas. Nearly 4,000 sanatoria and holiday homes are functioning in 164 the U.S.S.R. and accommodation at them is distributed by the trade unions and health-service boards. The cost of accommodation does not exceed the average monthly wage of a skilled worker. Many working people receive their accommodation at a 70 per cent discount or free, the difference coming out of social insurance funds, which enter- prises and institutions have to provide. Health or rest cures at special sanatoria (for those suffering from tuberculosis, and so on) are provided free, at state expense. How does the medical service work? 186 EDICAL service of every kind is free of charge for every citizen of the U.S.S.R. One of the principles on which the Soviet health service is based is to have medical insti- tutions within close reach of the population. There are 160,000 medical institutions, therapeutic and pre- ventive, in towns and villages fully maintained by the state. Any citizen may obtain medical consultation and treatment at his district dispensary or clinic, which have all facilities for diagnos- ing and treating diseases. Where necessary, dispensaries send a specialist to the patient's home. Clinics have emergency service departments which send a doctor to the patient's home immediately. Towns and industrial settlements also have first aid stations to take care of accident cases, calamities, and so on. Medical service by air has been considerably developed in the U.S.S.R. Factories have their own clinics and big factories have medical centres. The latter include a number of institutions (a clinic, a hospital and shop medical stations). There were approximately 1,000 of them in 1957, besides tens of thousands of first aid stations headed by a doctor or feldshcr at mills, factories, mines, and so on. The country has an extensive network of hospitals, with more being opened all the time. Compared with 1913 the number of hospital beds has increased nearly seven-fold, leaching 1,432,000 in 1957, with another 80,000 to be added in 1958. Hospitals now under construction will have 360,000 beds. The Soviet State gives much attention to mother and child care (see answer No. 88). Pre-revolutionary Russia had practically 165 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 no mother-and-child care service by the state. In 1913 Russia's hospitals had altogether 7,000 beds for maternity cases, nine women's consultation centres, nineteen nurseries with accommodation for 550 infants in all. In 1957 maternity homes and maternity wards in hospitals had accommodation for 140,000 women, and there were 14.200 women's and children's consultation centres, children's hospitals with accommodation for 183,000 and nurseries accommodating 856,000. The year 1958 will see room for another 82,000 in nurseries, and 1960 another 400,000. The number of people working in the health service in 1957 was more than 2,800,000, of whom 346,000 were doctors and over 1 million trained medical personnel. While in 1913 the country had, on the average, one doctor for every 6,879 of population, in 1957 it had, according to data published by the Secretariat of the United Nations, one doctor for every 600 of population. There are 79 colleges and 603 secondary schools train- ing medical personnel. The number of doctors graduated by them annually is around 25,000, or more than Russia had altogether in 1913. With the Soviet health service based on the principle of prevention, medical examinations of the population are carried out regularly. The country has 350 hygienic education centres, 5,230 health and epidemiological stations, and 16,400 special dispensaries and offices. Books, booklets and magazines are issued in large editions to popularise medical knowledge and special films are nroduced for the same purpose. Medical research is conducted by 350 research institutes, laboratories and higher educational establishments, and this activity is co-ordinated by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences. The Soviet State annually allocates huge amounts of money for the protection of the people's health. Against 91 kopeks per person spent by tsarist Russia in 1913 on the health service, the U.S.S.R. in 1956 spent 177 roubles 40 kopeks. The budgetary appropriation for 1947 was 18,900 million roubles, and for 1958 it was 40,100 million. As a result of the steadily rising material and cultural stand- ards of the people, of improved working and living conditions 166 and the progress of the health service, there has been a sharp decline in the sickness and death rate and an increase in the life-span. It is a long time since the country last had cases of such dangerous epidemic diseases as the plague, cholera, smallpox and relapsing fever, and there has been a sharp drop also in malaria, typhoid fever and other infectious diseases. In 1934, for instance, there were 9 million cases of malaria, while in 1956 there were only 15,000. Compared with 1913 the general death rate declined by 75 per cent. and children's mortality rate by 84 per cent. According to data published by the United Nations Secretariat the U.S.S.R. in 1956 had a death rate of 8 per 1,000 of population (the United States had 9.4 and Britain 11.5). The average life-span, which was thirty-two years in 1896-97 and forty-four in 1926-27, reached sixty-seven in 1955-56. The annual net increase in population in the U.S.S.R. exceeds 3 million and is one of the highest in the world. Holy is social insurance organised? 87 SOCIAL insurance is financed completely by the state. The state social insurance fund is made up of a fixed percentage of the wage bill paid regularly by all enterprises and institu- tions for this purpose. The workers make no payment into this fund. The state social insurance budget increases in proportion to the growth of the socialist economy. In the first Five-Year Plan period (1928-29 to 1932-33), the social insurance funds amounted to 10,400 million roubles. In the second Five-Year Plan period (1933-37) they reached 32,500 million roubles. In the first post-war Five-Year Plan period (1946-50) they amounted to 80,100 million roubles. Expenditure on social insurance and social maintenance in 1956 was 71,000 million roubles, and the appropriation for 1958 is 88,200 million. Benefits paid out of the social insurance fund include temporary disability benefits paid to industrial, office and other workers, and maternity grants. 167 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 ??? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Social insurance funds go to pay the cost of construction and maintenance of trade union health and holiday resorts, for accommodation of workers in them, and for the upkeep of workers' children at summer camps and children's sanatoria. The cost of dietetic meals served in special dining rooms and of accommodation and treatment at overnight sanatoria or one- day rest homes maintained by the factories also comes out of these funds. During illness, a worker receives sick benefit from the first day of his disability until his doctor permits him to go back to work. A worker is also paid out of this fund if he or she has to stay at home to take care of a sick member of the family. Tho benefits paid range from 50 per cent to 90 per cent of the worker's earnings, depending on the length of service at the enterprise. Maternity leave benefits are paid to women who have worked at a given enterprise or institution not less than three months and those who have worked more than two years receive 100 per cent of their earnings. At the birth of a child a lump sum is paid as a special allow- ance for feeding the baby and for the purchase of a layette. The trade unions have complete charge of these state social insurance funds. State old-age and disability pensions, and pensions to families which have lost their breadwinner are paid out of annual allotments under the state budget of the U.S.S.R. and funds under the state social insurance budget. Workers do not contri- bute to this fund (see answer No. 89). 88 What concern does the Soviet State show for mothers? IN the Soviet Union mothers are surrounded with universal honour and respect. Special laws regulate conditions of work for pregnant women. They receive maternity leave with full pay for 112 days, fifty-six days before and fifty-six days after confinement. This leave is extended if their health requires it. An extensive network of free maternity homes and children's consultation centres has been set up in both the towns and villages throughout the country. Some 6,000 maternity homes and a large number of maternity wards in hospitals are maintained by the state. Maternity homes are also maintained by collective farms. Ninety-five per cent of all confinements in the Soviet Union take place in maternity homes or hospitals, where the women receive expert medical and other care free of charge. Childbirth in maternity homes and hospitals has largely been made painless. Death in childbirth is disappearing in both urban and rural communities in the Soviet Union. Expectant mothers arc registered at special state consultation centres, which keep them and, subsequently, their infants also, under constant medical observation. The state system of mother and child care provides many privileges and advantages for mothers. Mothers with large families receive state allowances. Upon the birth of her third child a woman receives a lump sum of 200 roubles and on the birth of her fourth child 650 roubles and a monthly allowance of 40 roubles. On the birth of her fifth child, 850 and 60 roubles respectively; her sixth child, 1,000 roubles and 70 roubles; the seventh and eighth child, 1,250 and 100 roubles; the ninth and tenth child, 1,750 and 125 roubles. Mothers of ten children receive on the birth of each additional child a sum of 2,500 roubles and 150 roubles monthly. In 1956 a total of 5,100 million roubles was paid out by the state in such allowances. State allowances are paid also to unmarried mothers. Appropriations made for allowances to mothers of large families and unmarried mothers and on the birth of a child totalled 9,000 million roubles in 1957, or 700 million roubles more than in 1956. Soviet scientists arc constantly seeking new and better ways of caring for mothers and children. More than twenty special scientific research institutes are working in this field. To enable women to work in industry and agriculture, to study and to take part in public activity a network of nurseries and kindergartens has been set up and it is being expanded all the time. Children under three arc cared for at nurseries and those between three and seven in kindergartens, usually during the day while their mothers are at work. In both nurseries and kinder- gartens experienced nurses with teachers' training take care of the children, and doctors take care of their health and 169 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 gittysimd IL-Nelerpmera. Tbe fDadpzvieis in strim 2=-6- Ian= %lath an imr1 zypes of ansthauticais ire 1.7w. be punt arf lhe =pens: b-inr, ha= "by riaz at inie-v=cr period IS-55 e numb= of "rttrru'"ri'"C Jrcid lunf=313=2s by :::-./nThly? 20 pm =a. and Irrai?i" ?=it 'firvs-Ycza Thin 419554104 auirsefies glum& =n ma= 1.--niTim-NiP-9-1T, Cm= an 2...453 and ?tantle-,gan.ms -* czni max"- al 25 MrsiM21' SIP Enra they ..4rei di= thiildrtin SDsitrw..re% Aid ir dity n, they .1111! aim 72ilimtra of el= -amahurv for al= 'thffirIT'Xfs 11.1-YrinPPIr Atid13' an the arum as dm= aumat. 89 Fan ze23 versimi a rile U.S-S-E- zazd 3ipw . ? mina.- Tvv-Arr- ittid i$,:i-i ...-1,-, . ? it.f=ts e iii,r se=adtarr atad s;ethelise....1 F.----1-m., and imiitimg qrthzi --Pirrinr 511._,-I.0 or rom-sm, lad "Te?Tn- 5=16 of ihrar. fnmili'% Xurr. ????Thmilifti ID z Mgt! ;r?TIth'Irt All Nat= Ica s:riliri-i -war.t....-rs. ace -Trir-1--9 an ma oirl-na: per-azon_ an= ,on.,--=-..lanl fire .n.*..m of -maw atm rxtecznyve yeza-s ofs..,--mr.:e. liznE -women an reas-m4 f&v-dive'a..tier meern3- 37--ers The IMIISIZIll =MUM i 10D. Kt, 75_, id. 55. 50 mm zarinfo3 -wafn low Nc7-r... 300 per zima acid film: -1.-rrint L0110 r-m1-; aanairal or =re 50 pm- .=:? 1.11ore UT on.latiom hIgVe 111=ri 'fte..3 for aman.1: 1nivicatin. mapjoaz..3 3m9-Trirr,nm!, htalars wartjnt an aim S1LS These me a an am =dim iim m.n:i anrzarlimg fifr aftw riximiry ye.=s ier and vmmma anTearallIID Pa-Ty-five 'atm- sir= ImEs Tor pension Ina titS Ma1r.?=3 35 2.1.SD 911, 70. fa mud 55' per =at of tar anzaraar The Ifirn- DB-IL= :Tizaimral is sm an 300 roublm amoak:_. mifl mapadmaim an L20% me =Duni being tar of tar vn,_= of a S1U1 370 There are also supplementary payments (within the limits of the maximum amount): 10 per cent of the amount of the pension for those who have worked steadily for more than 15 years; 10 per cent extra for non-working pensioners who have dependent on them a non-able-bodied member of the family, and 15 per cent extra for two or more non-able-bodied -dependents. Wage and salaried workers are entitled to a disability pension in case of permanent disablement or incapacity for a long period where the disability started during or after work. These pensions are granted irrespective of the length of service where the disability is due to injury or occupational disease, and after a certain period of service where the disability is due to general sickness. The disabled are divided into three groups, depending on the degree of their incapacity to work, and the greater the degree of incapacity the greater the pension. Here, too, the scale has been fixed on the basis of a percentage of the monthly earnings. And the cause of disablement is also taken into account. The government provides more for the maintenance of those whose disability is due to an injury at work or to occupational disease. This type of pension also has supplements. For instance, first category disabled (irrespective of cause of disability) will receive an additional 15 per cent of the amount of the pension to pay for their care. The principle underlying the fixing of the pension on the loss of a breadwinner is similar to that applying to the other two. It is fixed at a certain percentage of the earnings, taking into account the number of dependents, the cause of the bread- winner's death, and the more favourable conditions applying to those who worked underground, at unhealthy trades, and so on. All these pensions are based on average monthly earnings, the basis being the last twelve months of work. If the applicant for a pension so desires any five years in a row out of the last ten years may be taken as a basis. Pensions are paid out of funds appropriated for the purpose under the State Budget of the U.S.S.R., including the state social insurance funds, without any deductions from workers' wages. Pensions are not taxable. 02 171 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 4790 .1t1441.14' AfiVelOiling ak If-44.4,1?. ? pod., own "walla paid' Linton Ate!, :UMW =*etTyttunr. j.4/4411,- ,4.414'.1.VAt .1.4131.1411A& 4.0.111.11U111.11: Ale./ fistutfe-AV1UULW1,1n ..ixoymn=- )5.; ue_ raibutg 2tnt -Ino= ;in4;40.4. ..4.4.ttLAcz? OJAI; ? 'A Ili sl 1111111DAted SULTS =DU -71-11Mt AAI.AAzd.. A' `AAA'. 14, LW IJct7 thr Aiettatung Lo_ Im?tr- ,./c.tti4uu.kw 441r- g?Lit II t .utrunt-, i.fae =mem ,..uutistug xvostruclion -wept!, o:'..:.. stluniVAtIALAA" st* -t'ldU au 11!-: UM*: ZS IL': SOVI: ^41:1 10JACAI,ex- ida111)::, }J.1.-titte Pjgi am-rions ii CA. 4.1/4Aw,41 fr....oL&t.r..uotot., .athnn v bastefe: .anC 41.11'.1 stoak$P_ Jazy? -towns -anaustni. saittlil A.C-14It' 4ArP.. Ainat-4-: teczni 141271111DgCni. (AuiLlUarr tol_aa1, /1-WANOZ1),..*: +W. Urnrinr lartyysikai -1 4jY K,,'TVi 4;aati.kLithtea), J. flIt tWrAteli, zucovroser. Sovr: .?nower ==f2=mcf? cocoa tett nunkn Tef?trkritta notIrrinr?--maci =I) -nor utuufi, a.! o'it ort-royoutuo.ner-, w .%er tint tint' run=r=i imarr:intoroy=ot of noti-TIV. i-wwituint 11 matte att. vtroPitor Torch AVOTh.e Mre-c -mar .700 tijwir., anti muustruij Ertlit7P-111 2:12L1 tens of thousands or viite?, were LiestrnyeC =vow somt 2 -million -Deoptir? Natnat. 00 _over wet; haus !"prtultop macs error Smite SC= =pa= -roz- lava= ii vv.-% Onei time len year, .2.17.e- To- rra' cy lot Lase's- aggressor! housmp =Dam ir town, anr viii -na rezzcer. o4t, niillun squart =sm. a- 50-re- _cret-rnorr- -Than -term- Ii'.Nerthtes4 Tenomet! short -bccauso of to: non:cc..- .dented it tru: um= -parultalion (3- -minion In 195f. agar:is 2f/.301.1,1)01, u 1926, Ttur -risz ?dm. to rtft. connnuou ant powertui expellant n; intiustr. Anothel Luzto* it nu .housitv cnortarte ws,, reguizri /AWL natura, inemtct. it -norusIarton -and -.final \ Inc W2 C01* ecouence. whict. Wu] -nn: Peen .t411)\ overcome f'7.2 In 1957 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Government worked out a new housing construction programme designed to eliminate the housing shortage completely within the next ten or twelve years, and the programme is being successfully carried out. The scale and rate of housing con- struction is increasing year by year. As against seven flats per 1,000 of population built in 1954, 10.2 flats were built in 1957. In the latter year alone consider- ably more flats were built than during the whole of the Second Five-Year Plan period (1933-37)?more than 4S million square metres of housing in towns and industrial settlements and 770,000 individual homes built by peasants and professional people working in the countryside. In 1958 housing construction increased in scale, and it will keep on increasing from year to year, making use of the latest achievements of building construction technology and science. Almost all money for housing construction comes from the state treasury. Budgetary appropriations for this purpose are regularly going up, reaching 36,800 million roubles in 1958. against 29,000 million in 1957 and 25,000 million in 1956. These immense investments in housing construction do not yield the state any income. Rent for flats is fixed at a uniform rate, set in 1926. Even in those years rent was low, and today with earnings considerably higher it takes an insignificant portion of the working people's budget. As a rule, rent does not exceed 3 to 5 per cent of a worker's earnings. Ninety-eight per cent of the rent received goes for current repairs and maintenance of the buildings, and 2 per cent for insurance. The rent does not yield enough to pay for capital repairs of the buildings, and this expense also is paid by the state. for which purpose the budget provides large allocations. Flats in houses built on state money are assigned in the first place to people whose housing conditions are bad, families with many children, newly-weds, and so on. Flats arc distributed by the local Soviets with participation of the trade unions and other public organisations. Among the 287,300 persons who received flats in new build- ings in Moscow in 1957, 52 per cent were workers and their families, 37 per cent scientists, specialists, office employees and their families, and the rest families of disabled, families of deceased war veterans, pensioners, and so on 173 npriassifipci in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/04/01 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004000060002-5 The Soviet State assists those who wish to build their on homes, granting them long-term loans. In 1958 the total amount of such loans considerably exceeded 3,000 million roubles. How is town-planning developing in the Soviet Union? ACHARACTER ISTIC feature of life in the Soviet Union is the rapid growth of the urban population, a result of the vast scale of industrial construction. Living in towns now are roughly 90 million people (approximately 45 per cent of the population), against a population of barely above 25 million as late as thirty years ago. This, naturally, compelled an expansion of old towns and the rapid construction of new. Large industrial and cultural centres appeared in every part of the country, particularly in the East and North, frequently in places where people had seldom set foot. Between 1926 and 1956 the number of towns increased by 860, and 1,200 new industrial settle ,:ents appeared during the same period. Most of the new towns sprang up in connection with the con- struction of industrial enterprises. Magnitogorsk, an important town with a population of close to 300,000 today, arose and developed in an uninhabited steppe in the Southern Urals around the big iron and steel works built in 1929-32. It has a dozen or so industrial enterprises, two higher educational establish- ments (a mining and metallurgical and a teachers' training institute), scores of schools, clubs and libraries, a theatre, a museum, a circus, a recreation park and many other public buildings and other structures. Another large city is Komsomolsk-on-Amur, built twenty-five years ago in the remote taiga in the Far East. Other new towns that might be mentioned are Kirovsk on Kola Peninsula, where apatites, a valuable mineral, is mined; Sumgait in Transcaucasia with its tubing mill and aluminium plant; Karaganda in Kazakstan, a coal-mining centre; Stalinsk in Western Siberia. a steel and coal-mining town, and Norilsk in the Far North with its non-ferrous metals industry. 174 ?Ax A good many towns came into being in connection with the construction of hydro-electric stations, which is proceeding ?on a large scale. Among these towns are Zaporozhye and Novaya Kakh