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? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 OTS 6041,131 JPRS: L-1143-N 25 January 1960 PREsENT DAY SCIENCE CONCERNING TBE PSYCHIC ACTIVITIES. OF mAy. - USSR Trans 1 a tion7 Distributed by: OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMERCE WASHINGTON 25, D. C. Price: $3.00 STAT U. S. *ROT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE 205 EAST 42nd STREET, SUITE 300 -NEW YORK 17) N.Y. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 -Yr 201 STAT STAT f7 . e., 1 . - DP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 JPRS: L-11443-N CSOt 3088.4 7 TH :171.E..SOLL; PRESENT' DAY SCIENCE CONCERNING. TNE.PSYCH/C ACTIVITIES OF MAN Translation] Mif 0 Dushe; Sovromyennaya Wauka o Psikhicheikoy Deyatellnosti Choloveka, No Moscow) 1956, pp 1-168 : Ift.ble?of, Conten.ts i* ? : .? ;. Foreword , , Introduction . t ? ? _:** ? ,,f, D. A. Biryolcov Correspondt4 Member of the Academy of. Medical Sotence VSSR Page ?? Psychic actilykty, t1-1...typjsult off, processs_snof the. L. t? ? . - - ? ? -?'.? Scientific study. of higher peiveUi ..;?29 ? ?. The effect of the : eTlyi.,forawint.-1.6ift-plichie7activirtY - -49 -; s'.? ? ? :. ? - Is there a pard.hig ? ; *" ? ??? ? ? -t : . . ,4:L11!?-1 1.? ? r Zt?:: t. .;.:..q.';7:=?: ? 63:n. ? ? ?? .. . Chs.racteristics of- the psychic activity of nem . 73 .r .-:.:: .;., ? .; , .4-1 ., ..i.Y.. ,,,: .... ...t. .?; ' i :, ? :, - ,J? :..- 7..:11.7. , s.z.. :: r; , ? ? .....!?.."' '::.":::.: ;::,.::..., Instinct.. n . , ,.. ? ? ? ? On the psychics. of pan -1(.;? ,...) ? , . . ? . - Science versus ? J: -t - ? . - . . .-: ?"' . A : ? ? .? :" J ? ? , ? ? ?-?., ? . "t . ? ? '? 'h': ? ' ? ' e.; ??;.: ?-?;? .J?:_r????.` 90 144: ? ? ..,??????.. Science and rell:tiozi?.aiiil:itici*tetiblihf-J.:-.7,- ,j".?;??? ' , .143: . e., ' , . ''? ..(:-.\,,,..../ . ,;;.,????:.....r.L..-,. . ....:??,,i4 .-i-s.1..-1;???,..sf.';:::,.- ....t'nit'.1 .7:-;._., '.....!:-... ?: -,.!,.- , .-: ,, ':. .. : ? :..,..- . ,? - ; a c . ? - ...,.....:' .:*;.'-::.?? ? ??? i -,7."):.:?? ??::,..-.:.-*:??e .- .. -.....: : .. ?,:. f....::,... :.:,,..! t i: !?-1,-.4 L? L., ? ?,-:,t ? ? : . , -.....? i. ?::: --; ? :::- ! ?,..,:.. 1, Li-:::'.;, -1i,.. '.ii. ;z:- .. I .1:41",..`. if., : .? . ? ? . ... Z,..4: .4.1.': P.'''''' . -1 .. ?' '1:' It) f. et.:. ... ':1'-'y '-: ? .r,'?, l -.*;.. ? , 4...i. ?:.t.iti ".;? i' ' '''''' %c . ?..,-*. '1-?? f . ;:.' 'L". : . - ' '-. ? A ? f''? ? t? ' . . ?,. '?? ' b -.I.C4'.....'??,"ef..11. , . , a 1;14 ,. . ;1 . ., .1. ...i 1,', ..ZI : ,:, . ..... . .-;-f [..?? . '` ?''' ?.'.? '. . ? :V! Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 : .? _ ? .5 . ? r *'ot Many years religion and db6bn:tieniehale lieed ithplacable enemies. ? ?-.? Where religion spoke of the intervention of the divine forces, common sense pointed to the dependence of observed phenomena on the force of nature and on the natural course of events in the outside world. ? , ? Where religion threatened with-ptinishment in theOeher,,World;., common sense spoke of the impossihaity of the exiseiCe world and of the continuou4Ipocesc9,fvbirth,and death on earth. . ? ?: .? ???. ' This is Why even in anci9zit,timps/,,paral41 with religious . fanaticism and the perilous'inflitenc'e-of religioi6=Prejudices, scepticism and an atheisticattitude; to varioua religieus teachings grew and acquired strength. Where, then, did this unbelief originate and What did'it feed: on? The answer aes in the vary essence of human nature and in the forms of cognition of the surrounding world by man. Even as far back as during the epoch of the primary manifestations of life on the terrestrial globelprganipms rfpre,, able to survive only on condition that they "reflected" in" 'some way in their still-primitively constructed.Vr7kepv continuous effect of the external, inorganic forcos. With the passage of time, the entire development of life on earth was subordinated to the. universal law of dependence on the external environment. In their structure and functions the organisms had to reflect accurately the requirements of the inorganic world. Even :.? ? ; r , the first'ipark44of:psye'hic activity in*.pilinitive-rian4had to be inevitably subord1.nateeto?this.10f oi?PP.449ticeerf-the)orakasin and its nervous acti'itty on eXtetnal,cOnetienlinn<Otadjugt ithanbelves to.the surrounding world. This is precisely the reason why the human bidin arid the forms of its relationship with the surroundingwoild had to follorwthe naturaldausati* asdoefAions ? ? ? which existed also in the external world i? " - ? , ; ,? - ? The inorganic nature coristantly.infhienced:andesis,Cp*PaFig? to influenCe.the-Ot.ganisC Light, - 66404 -Slat and;cole,A0044cal action, ehemica.Vieaation,?payerizati.41$xe'sUbstancerkfinAhp atmosphere, eta': -contribUted to. the ergtion of the orgalgOms in their persistent struggle for 4iStend4r4evelOped within..t.1.19yr _ selves and perfected the ability to-Captuid' thole external ?enerizleb. and to adjust themselves to them accordingly in their daily befidwioi. . ? :::- ,?- ? Thus, in Spmft"Oftaiiiions,ofro',, 0.)reti.r ears, gustatory organs and' olfactory apparatus in nost,diriVViarations were I created. The qp:e'stion-arides, can a high4.7.4e16p4d Organism; at.phe. present st6tie;'*id'"reflecting"the.detilal material world: and .the,, causativ4a8.0.ciatitins of events whicI are taking plaqq,.in,itl.-,4), it can not.:?Ii.m3M-follarv,thosepausati'ye asibeihtions. already in'titifiive man this "copmo,senseappeared-lihich., represented;th414ction-of thedavi.ofthaoxternalammterial:irdild in the moni4Ildroddii'et.The appearance of unbelief,a4,athei4n:at ? . ?? all stages arhumarivilization,is'ftue in feet to con sense._ " ? ? .? I . _ Thought,'whiCh-has developed in man on the basis of associations:existing in the material world, always hada:iendency. deny anyt1444hichlies-outsidehese causative associations. I. 4 P. Pavlov said: "A true active mind., in its ,strict natural and sci9ntific CdncePtidn-ofylifa.. in ;its complete entity yitilo4 the _ ?????? minutest i7Cinaindei:, ?'sees. in, it '.only the ? deknow4;dgement of 4e - r effect 'Ot'iliethii& everything?-im?existence .-- the of causat,fen,"- ? ? .. ? t- ? .... ALL*Ore nentionod!muktjead'us,to'the',conclusion,thp4 the associations. of the :entire material world The human mind originated and developed only,this ability to.refleet ' -"- integr4piro:pei:ii?Of-the'humanjaint-is its reflection of thelcOiativ,?:',- ? . ? . ? ,,, itself theiecaiiiatb-asSodiation _ ::?? .-' all these religious prejudices and,religimwpsythoses.:?whiCh..pianptoi ? A natural question arias: likledidfthe hUmansocietylacOr ?? _ :? ???? ??, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA-RDP81 01043R00420014onm_ri ?t^ ,Ar't? ?Yhtt=r74.Tra, ".?k?:???te`l - _ ' ?{". Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 nations tooniage hutut...1) Vars; divided. kinf_Olk by mortal .hatred, and. created ..--the%biack. darknesi of, the :inquisition ?Arhio,h, ? oppressed. every" ii thought, everrmaiii-festation of ,normal onn sense" t ? the Makia t...11At1i.- 'hist .:thig-bisto` tfers a clear and. Precise:anOter . , to this seemingly Paratibkie4 , ? . ? :; the natittal fear of primitive than 4f.41*;;IllightV, forces of notuke, hi?etsity to'-a naiveand'ifahtaitiO eXplanation of the natural plibtiorieild 'surtax:lading him ?..1:.'10,liethis;-iia's etiploYed as a _. meahit?'6Vilibbidiriation and..enslaVeilifsit sif.itan the period of. the deVeiotitieieof hunian-' sbeietY,!: *4eri he d: nation, of ?priests.:t and. the wealthy *alaselfirst:tegan to i ? .? ;, then on, rel.:.;.gino, never ceased. to serve as a poweifill means of 's-pfritual subi:A.Kr:-Ation pf.,t.he?Masses,??of people, .an..influenco, so powerful that' &fen the -9,carsion. dense.: of an 'educated,. person times was paralyzed. Thus;, during the period-9f thousands of. yrs, to philosophic movementg? ethic to -ekitit 'in 'Irreconcilable mutual hatred.?-- idealism , and. materfalffun. ? -While c.the -.first ? vas'. the s.trongheld . of the . classes and. directed ou:r.ithought toward.i"non-material"ez other- world." forces which?-'were? Mt. of nature known to ? to us; -materialism, on-theKcontraty, indicated the ,path Ito the natural and. scientific interpretation of' li.the tothe.developneni.,Of world outlook'.:in whieh:,all phenomena are ,.:bound, by material daiiiiaive ..." associations. Thus, id,ealiant and religion became the enemies of the scientific ? conception :-' of th4!'..iforld-land, inhibited the:. progress of , human civilization .-- ? . r ? ? One must not imagine that religious prejudices, enfOrcea through milenniai and. religian which. had. dq.velopeti a technique pfi.,Fituals-: and rites,--can-be eliniinitted.,.?or will ;simply disappear of their own:. accord with the AevOlopment. of science and educa.tion and, witIi the, growth of the science of ?nature,?..One:must: ,not forget has very shrewdly utilized. (it has had enough time for ft) humanf, weaknesses which, in certain moments of life are very substtuiiiaI. Religion got liold! . of the .primitive,;mahl s,,conceptiep.? ;the "soul" and indiaa'ad."to bin 'the path of its Migration, to an; 'le-01er vor.d , '? ? independently of the ibod.y Religiba ahoqs much: attention , misfortrewhen'man is in,ra geave,:condition1.:loses.al3. point* Of support and. is ready to lean upon any .help, even a doubtful?pne. Religion here again appeals to the soul of man, point's the way to its sallaiiOrk which consists of,fpaiiiiive;?:subordirtation to the inju;tices of the' socin1:2Structure.,':.:%- , :). .41 ? ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release In our epoch, the . religious Acaching 91. 4 .4qn-Fiater1.4,1. "soul" which exists independently of the...b6d.Y. add :Wafer' repres*s the intermediate bridge connecting man.,and:God.;:r4rederits,....the .main* stronghold of religion and. the bailiff of al..1.'kel.iii945.preutlicea. I ? Can scienee "coexist" with the'se prejudices"? No, not. Science is strong precisely thrpuFA its "cosi.mion se#467';':.Its _very develoixtent is taking place Vocalise of man's urge toll...d'ar4.-,the - causative bonds within the world phencxaena of which40 spoke above. Briefly, the atheistic propaganda'must advanCd a convincing scientific explanation of everything known to us; and equally ' convincingly explain why; we atLU 4on'.`t lirtosf,pertain things,' and.* that .we shall 'certainly learn them' ? ? ? ?? I? . ? . . . . .? . . This is precisel,y the most effective approach in. unthasking the most inveterate 'and. dangerousrPredOe..of. norv?ricerial soul and. of its transformation and 140'1.1:U551i to'another world. ??.. ? This book which is offered to the realer is written by the corresponding, Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences, Prof. D. A.; BirYiikov who develops step by step the entire panorama of modern achievementa in the field. Of study of 'human mentality, as the highest manifestation of the, material processes 9f the brain. Only 'fifty years ago this problem represented, an exatIPIe of complete domination of idealistic conceptions and. of paseivo'side tracking 'by scientists of this "non-cognizable" world., *as suggested by religion. The teaching of 1. p..13avlov's. conditioned. reflexes. produced a breach in this ,?cen-tviiioes-,cild'..wal if4.011,.):1*.separe*.ed tan from the - true scientific .knoirlCage;9f -*?96OU11?':. tells us of all the stages of?tho developfient of-this 'grandiose: achielVement of our science), of which We are. jlistlY...proad, and not only.we, ? .? compatriots and students of I. P. Pavlov, .but the .entire 'progressive humanity. The realm of payahic phenomena. contains much that is .. mysterie-ao and is as fascinating to the large masses of pepPle as. - is incomprehensible. Hypnosis, suggestion; sleep, dreatui,- walking, lethr:Aiic '.and.-. many 'other phenomena .since time irinemerialv?sr:vied. the :Dieeple 'as Sources of superstitions dia rei,igiOUS, codes. Religiel: from arsenal .of 'mysterious" iihencriena;' is prpc.7..i:..?, of the nervou; system : which 11,-i-tip...Ur advanccd. zlr: 99f of the: need. of religious beliofs. itiat why 'the phyziogict-a. analysis .? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R00420014on1n_fl ? ? : las Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Ap.roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ; CV. of these phenOmena, the convincing-demonstraien,10f-_the_true causes of pyschic activity, and.the cerebral laws which create all above MentiOried conditione, mist become the basis j.or scientific atheistic proixtganda..' And here ip Where "commo&-ifiseof man, its natural, historically trained tendency toVard the Stift df daUsative associations .Of the , acutal world,- mUit take over. 4'1' I . ? One of the mist difficult chapters of .the physiological study of psydhic activity 4 its 'origin and .its develorcent from the . elementary raanifetatationi of a.most primitile nervous system. church and sohe leientists-conaider this, fact asAhe main obstacle to build a bridge between the psychicp?or-higher nermWactiliity of Man' and the higher nervous activity of anibals; The dhurch seeks precisely atthia point the .justification d; its idea..of,diline: Providence' whichl'having endowed man with conscience and a _ 'thinking soul', denied it to all aninals./loavina them eitpedient behavior based on sensation only. We find even now sonic representativesamong intelligent people who point out,the,extraordinary accuracy and .complexity of instincts in animals and'seek in it-proof of the great power; of "divine Providence" and. the inadequacy of science. In order to.. scatter the cloud which envelops this problem and aid in the understanding of thenatural and scientific essence of the instinct, we must elici,the true mechanisms which govern instinctive acts, shvw the ways of their development and their dependence on the peculiarities of the external conditions of life. It waS nOt bY'acCident-that 'instinct, .as a.special former the expedient adjUitment .of animals -to the external?conditiens, served' religion as p4.00f of the' existence of "divine Providence." The philosophy of stoics, the idealistic world conception of the. Platonists, etc. considered instinct as the stronghold of religious dogmatiim. *It'vni-particularly stresse&-in.tbe-Middle Ages. Suffices it to mention that Thomas Aquinas devoted a great deal of attention to the description of the instinctive behavior of animals and pointed out that mn iMpadsabIe -barrier exists' between animals and man only through the divine will. The German ibilosoliher and edudatorReynarusyrote in the foreword to bli intereeting-bdeld"On the' Techinal;Instinets.of. , Animals" id,the'l8th century: -"In the most ,important verities of the natural i'eligion-Idttempted'to show the:special designs,Of God in the animal kingdOm, fn certain varieties:of_animal,psychie , . instinct" - " - ,, ? ? Declassified in P Sanitizedo.y Ap.roved forRelease ? ? It is natural, then, that we caif-aMninate:religious superstitions by explainlIng the substance of evolution and. by eliciting the rtysiologipai,echaniams which control instinctive behavior. Biryukov, who is a specialist in the field of study of higher nervous activity, cited-e4amples and their analysis which solved the problem of the materiglistic interpretation of instincts very satisfactorily. True, there are gaps in our knowledge in such an extensive fielell'as the physiology of the higher nervous System in all its stages and forms, from a mollusk to a thinking human being However, they must not ,make US lose courage; on the contrary, they must instill in us enthusiasm and energy for further investiga- tions on a strictly materialistic basig4- - ?? ? The book of D. A. Biryukov is permeated with this enthusiamo and faith-in the pryer ef sglentific knowledge of nature, and the reader will entertain,i2o,doubt that the "unsolved problems," tool:will be solved induelti6e5rith.the same accuracy and - persuasiveness?vith whidh*he basic aspects of the teaching of.I. P. Pavlov Of the higher nervous,activity,in.animals and. man have been described. ? a The book of D. A. Biryukov is enjoying definite succesb judging 'by the letters amiby,the critical reviews. ..,Let us bore that other Soviet scientists, tog/Nth contribute io'the noble, deed of , dissehinating natural science teachings which ard'inco4atible'in' principle with superstitions and. religious prejudices. Pi Andkhi.. ?,?7* ? . - ? ? ? ? ? ? ' : 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RnPR1-ninA wrInAnrw-,4 6 ?*; ? - - ; 'ts ? f.. ..1: ? e , I ? , It... _ ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? ? ? 'introduCtiori ???"--? - : ! "..?.How many millenia has Y?hilmanity l'aCen studyfrig . the - facts. of 'psychology, the facts ? of -the Mental:activity . ? of- man: ?? liot,,ohly the special- lattr. in",Psychology are :engaged tilt 'the entire -art; the entire iitei'ature which .'?:'???depieta the:mdehanisra of -? hurian mental life.": I. P. Pavlov ? The soul, psYclie;.=:- What:faMiligrl-Well4cnovn expressions,, : seemingly clear,: indisputable,' Completely acceisible .to understanding: , However, it id qUite difficult to?-?give a-aCientific?-definition.of?the. psychic.' There ia protably'no more-cbmPliCated problem than the pr-:,-r-u of the psychic, or mental activity. Not in vain is there a pc.r saying:"The other's 5 0111 is a mystery." ? - .? ? ? . , ? ? ? ? . Th6-terms. "raentai" and--"psyCliie" 'are' similar expressions ? ?. ? ? _ ("soul" in, Greek is Psiche). ? ?, ? . If at the preseht time-we are- only at-'the dawn - of, a scientific explanation of the phenomena of psychic life, it is easy to imagine how obscure was the conception of the soul at the dawn of human history. When the semisavage man began to differentiate himself from the surrounding nature, the faith in spirits and soul made its appearance. Man observed someone's death. He .began to surmise that the soul must have left the body. r. C state of sleep or fainting also led to the supposition that the soul left the body temporarily. Certain mental illnesses created an impression that evil spirits had entered the body. The ideas of the primitive man in regard to the soul were very simple and direct. The soul seemed to be like a twin, or the ghost of the individual. The soul is born together with man, eats, hunts, etc. It lives in various organs of the body. In the latter stages of the development of human society, the more complicated social relations, work, and speech led to the development of thought and the ability-to generalize. At this stage, the surrounding 'world appeared to the human imagination as if it were peopled with numerous spirits which had lost contact with the material basis. 7 ..??; .. .4_. ,,....%. "The fOrCes Rf.:naturs,,l':- wrote, ., . :?,''.4ppe.laiied-foAlie primitive man as something alien,;.::-itysteriou0,'"6;:re ? ...elbiiik;-61! 40':''s i ..z.;..1%:'. ?-, , :...?.,??,;? .i.: ..,??.; .,-.:...,:.,? ..?_ .1., ? .. :, ... , ? . . ''.41 .1.1" ??? . , , _ Obi/ er,Viat1056 . 'af ? Yarigw3. ppt?rior.idiia of natee' tatil.i, Moon, thunder, rain, etc.) gave lien-thd. ideai that .home Of seemed: to contribute to his well being i others -en the cohttary 'brought him niiforttme.. This.: fact strengthened his conception of Ei tirorlit "beyond.11) which -consisted. of good. and eVil. 'iPirits:- ' A -Ciat Of ?iipi4'.iti iiris -emerging and ? : .. .. developing, -- the forerunner of future "religion and:, the basis 'of ...: ... idealism:, , . ; . . , ....,. ..- -... that t6e .feebreii:015 -cif:: the savage-in. his' ? .? . struggle with nature reeeivd,'3.ta reflIftien in these Inat-nary ideas. ? ? ? , And. Kiiir *ix: "In aiacieni.tiMOY..*en?people had no idea of ? the structure of the human' tiocii SEC c? explain dreams, they imagined that: their thought and sensat:ions were caused not by their body, but by a soul ah entity 4iiiN5.1..ic'eftom the body,' remaining ? in the body while it ;i1V when. the- "body. died;" it made them reflect' on .the relateon of the 'sail," -to':the 'external world. "2 ? : . :??? Later j as' the. natural sciences and. philosophy progressed, the scientists" and philosophers who had:been ocCapied. With the problem' of mental activity became divided into. tlfo;.catipii- ',One camp clained that the* soil existes1--independently of the bOdyy's spirit detashed from. matter. These. were the postulates[6f;the cep of the idealists. They assumed. that' the spirit ,Oriiii-tiat6d before nature and that *nature . itself, according to.,,their.:: point :of:view; was a- creation' of. this ? primordially:exiating- :?To':pie-recirip- pf-,tuaterialiSts belong those who Claimed: that: raatt4r. existed s,1ya, An:d.' what is called soul, ? or psychic, is:nothing $4.8(4...),A the.iFia411,Abirbsti:6-tilpt the activity of the . highly oreaated:matter: .1?i*11Ery?1.1i001$16*.q."171 , - ??4..?";*/ - '? ? - ?? ? The. latter ? point. Of . ev ' vai.'dori::q1Dotated,bY numerous facts. from the histcirY',Ofthe 'dew-lei:dent' of living beings,:frot protozoa te ? to the highest. form ?;?'-? rianiv?:?*:;?-? ?t-, ? f? ? ?? ? .? . . ? " The 'idealistic conCeptiOhs served as a basis for the origin of various religious 'beliefs , while materialism' became- the basis: for,. the, d.evelopmenti of 130..encet-,._-,It,.is erroneous to think that the incompe- tence of; -is clear in, itz.tfird. that' there- is -ng need, , therefore,' to occupy oneself with . . speaking of psychic actiiitY-1 .146 realite'af-cOurse that some .prigitiy.e beliefs ? such. as, for exiMple ?tlq..entriy of the 'sdul..into :bhe-1147-..,,..r.f ? as a dove '"so4r?.4:iii,( after' death' do* not have?-riany:'sithgx;nit-?.. ? ? ? ? ngels. Anti-During, Moscow Gospolitizdat', p. 326 ?, 2/c. Xarks and' F. Engels, Works, 3fol. 141 Moscow. Sotsekgiz; 193.1.? i?-?643 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14: IA- - 0 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 z ?-?ret;; ? at present;:it? is also ;doubt01. Crhether thqp.,are:.many who .helieve . that God created. Adam from.- clay 14,413reathed,ithe...seiii,.intO 46.4 in the form of vapor. One must not ioiget; hoikver,''thth the' clevelopment and.,eririctrae4 of,;itAfic:AcApiiledgel.the idealistic conceptions uperfected" thet*Was, af1,4 cettah.ied 'peCuliar tient .to7 science. ??- Th1is ez aiedby the fact that during the _ entire .period, of the existence' ? adeasml .itsi Adherent/. rere fighting materialism) %While the.4ate,ria.liSts....on their )34.1trel5ppifed the anti-scientific nature:of- ide,alts_.m.;,: , ? V. I. Lenin esPecially stressed the feict that the ikreconcilalSie-' contest between idealism and,,materliet14.1.14.1thiah has, ..been going on - during. the two.?.thousand. .yearti ?.ec philosophy, has not ended. It must be emPhasized that this ideological struggle became particularly acute; .iwhen,,,the:',Iferld.divided,.,itself into Alto oppositc?-?camps -- the socialist..ardother _ In the::todern idealistic,phisol_pphy?a,,large number ?ftrencI can,be discerned. which.Tarel,attertpting,,oanderi.:the cover...Of. scientific data-, to as sertLinione wtsy or,*,rairth f ;. the' existence of a soul detached from the body. lehe legitimate- contrasting of. the ideal?,and,material, aspect of certain pl.xenemena (acknowledged- also by :the materialists heparticprly.tif;the brath(i. and. thinking, becomes .absolAe.. from the point of 'Viaw of the idealists; ? asfa-..result-, material andi- ideals (matter. and. sPiiit ), which are in-reality inseparable,..becixik,ini.the:thiii144;cif ideal-sts dissociated,_ disunited,:.and leading- an ..independentreiistexice. Such is, for example, the doctrine of a -.par:ail:el existei,iee of ?body.. and.. soul -- the so;-called,psy,che-physical.,,,para1leliam..? ._,*itrariptia? philosophers of this; trendof thin)cing,pay, differ:. fromi:each other,,' the, essencel.? thowever, remains f :t49.: sage; .it consists acknowledgement of two substanges -in pan mr, This idealistic doctrine is called' dualism. Those independent .4,existence of the Act4 ustally?.., deny ;.the ,possibility ,of scientific. cognition of its manifestations, (agnostic10.), or..adnit, to a certain extent, that the methods of cognitipii are accessible to, the observer only. It is the so-called subjective metho'd." of 'itixdy of mental phenotena, .or 'the ,metho&... of self-observation..., Its adherents., aeceptt 'only the:certainty:of their ,pyn-ifeelings and. -seri-Sat-ions. Subjective psychology could not detect any,p..indaneritalirulei? ; of psychic activity,,during the ? two ?:.thousandwyears. of its.. existence,, - though ?the.',data which-.;it?had_accumulated are very.:e.,xtensive,,-; -.1. ....?. Similarly fillitless proved. to be the _ gori.tp_ rit , of :b4e. gp7called, zoo.":" ' psychology--:aridtits .: attempts to-understand :the tianifestatiOns- Of the psychic activity of animals, when it applied. to-them the resul?ts- of observations' which it had,:conducted on itself. The,,psychelogisti_-7---- - ? , .;? ?-?.:,.!.: : --- ? .,.:.c.-1 "r' ??.1.-?,-r1," 9 subjectivist 'says' in ?regard:. to vartens .,,stat es of 'Am., animal :;"The ? dog, or the cow thinks, desireafr:lenjoysf?ke,?Offended,..3/4etc.1.1-:;:ite creator of the objective methodof: istudy of psychic activityiklvy.P. proved the non-scientific nature of these :attempts.:', , .2 . . I. P. Pavlov, as well as other scientists materialists, denied. dualism in the sturiy.of PsYC4c detivity; he shared the views of "materalistic lacitiisri. contrast materialistic merasm ProCeeds ,on the basis .of the acceptance of. the . unity of man's, body and ?Ac;u1.. 'The piychic ?or mental .activity of man. is one of the functiois? of his organisn;.::a result of the physiological activity Of the 'brain... ? ? . .4 .?? ? . . . . : . ? ? . The greatest ,selAntifigt.contz:Vputi.04 P. Pavlov:is his discocery of a scientific method of the study,of psychic prOce.88P.It1 and of the basic rules of psychic activity. "He succeeded," as V. I. Lenin .Said., "to place.on-a'scientfifia ground the study of facts which characterized various ?psychic..processesti ? . . The subjective; pethod in science denies the recognition of the. ? ixistence of an external world. outside of us and independently of" our conscience, as well as all the rules which govern it. This is the main:point. ,of view -which religion,s,eizes upon. The:world is, .: beyond our cognition, assert the exponenta. of religion, therefpre ? we must not pecupy oursolves'-with.hoptsless attempts to fathom it, we. ????.: must not search for laws of nature2?whi0h . exist . objectively,? but only offer prayers and. ask for divine mercy, for a miracle and for mystery. It is obvious,?thst, the; sPhere of psychic. phenomena possesses great: importaneetp. r,eligion; Or -it is an ?abundant' groi.ind -on ,whic,h to suggest to .religiotts..4eeiple.:the MyStery.and the inabi.14.ty to apprehend the.?14.1.,tarol--ithe ecrAar4ig,?:of ; . ? ? " '1 ? I.: "' ? In describing -below. the basia'at;the teaching:of -I.".P..Pavlov,on psychic activity,' we hope to.expoie this mairt-Igend of religion. :We must emphasize that the atheistic propaganda to which this book is dedicated. is combatting religious beliefs, and. not individual believers. We Must explain to -the believers that religion chains a hunan.".being. -,?,The.wordi of K Ks:ix-that religion is opium to the.. people truly 'reflect the gist'..of7the matter..?Science, on the other hand, opens :before *Inanity :trul7 1litLesa.poiaibilitie8 ..of ? influencing'4thg ? 6.xtv7.1741 of:.cartque,:r4bgltheilorces.? of ;nature ? and. making them sezve,"man T-in?tbring1.3nis re,Iief?attllYeauty inte.,his;. ? existence. The-bisic ida?.ofreIion is, the. -erialavv.!0,0r oppression of man; it does not matter, whether it will b.e.-a,aaPB1Plas: for the sake of God in heaven, or for Hi A representative on earth. , . . . V. I. Lenitv,t--Workcsi - ..?, . r,: ? . ? ? : ?10 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 _ yrn- ? , ?,?,?r?Trk,?9.../Tkr.k.k?'4? Ikr? Idealistic views are quite widely spread sin the capitalist countries reactionaryileientists ot the capital- ist countries oee'carr$ingon a fight against _our cduntry and-the ceuntilies of iiecipleil?demoCracies. with oveiimeans at their disposal, and are trying to introduce into our dbieeide various idealistic ,?, notions. . ? ' ? The presence of c041ex an&Astill.i.lnielxed_*ebiems o wychic actiiity create k field. for the sPread of 04orstitiOns: These superstition* appear in-conneet,i4t with the phenemena which ' have not as 5iet been sufficiently olatitied by.sciet4e1 -Let us mention some of these superstitions such'as so-called..premonitions, fate, fateful dreams, mental telepathy, etc. In attempting to expllin these phenomena, one often resorts to examples and comparisons obtained from reiigious,legdnds, , Idealiatie notions of the soul:And.of psychic activity are the. foundation of all religious"creeds. .Therefore, the--task of a correct" interpretation of the phenomena of psychic activity is of the utmost importance to materialistic .science, which, s the main antagonist of religiOd: !? - ? _.).1?1;? ? ? ? k ? ? ?.. In spite: of the,destruction_of the basic roots of:religion in our country, namelyr the class.division,into,the_oppressoiisiand the'. oppresded:, the religious -survival inithe consciousness of, Certain:, ' strata of Our population is still taking place... ? , The socialist ideologyreyalentcin the Soviet soeiety, is based on the-Marxist-Leninist philosophy. The.poisibility of dem/ nation of the bourgeois.ideology%in:burAcountry_is.excliided, for-the class basis for this ideology hatsbeen:destroyed, iveverthiless, the- ' recon,:-..ruction of consciousness may lag behind the reconStiuction-Of social relations.. This explains the Trepence of some survival ,or bourgeois ideology in the,form.ofTeligiouslearnings in'iame Soviet' citizens. . ,,.? . . The -enemies of the Soviet regimedl, acting from,with61.tYfromthe camp of thd capitalist world,,Are elptching at theS?e,suryvals In' the consciousnesscand, findinw:a favoraik1T.:AroundAn morally :unstable or ignorant people, are?attampting-to-_-take advantagd.of,these.moOdS Therefore, one-of-theammediate-tasksfof the:communistarty"ii,the unremitting-fight-for the socialigtenseipusnesi!, and.,torthe - eradication of:the-dyingnbut,still clinging to life bourgeon outli466. notions/ ' '1+ " The purpose of this fight is that the members of the socialist society develop within themselvel a strict scientific -conscious ? - ? ? ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? 50 : attitude toward all complex phenomena di' natilre inrthe world, as well as in their personal psychic activity. , ?? ? . ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? 1 ?? ? ? .? ? ? 01%C , , -Yr 3/1 . - 04R49nn1Annrv ? . ? g ? . s 1. ? . ? r - ??' 12, .. ? . . ? ? 7, t ? - , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Physich Activity Thd-Result.ofthe Physiological Processes. of the Brain "Toll; ho doubt; greatly respect the hAnian,mindi - Excellent: Then you taikt remain in awe before the mass of his brain where all mental func- tions are taking place, whence the nerve threads - the organs of feeling and sensation - spread over the entire organism 'through the spinal cOlumn... Psydhology whiqh is hot bdsed oh phYsidlogy had just as little substance ai physiology Which is not aware of the existence of anatomy." V. G. Belinskiy The theory of evolution, or the developmehy of the living world which had been advanced by the English scientist Charles Darwin, is the greatest achievement of the natural science of the past century. Darwin, basing his finding on a great amount of factuea data collected during many years of observation, as well as on the experience and opinions of his predecessors, arrived at the conclusion that living nature is constantly developing and perfecting itself. In contrast to the generally accepted views, at that time, that the world is constant and immutable, Darwin advanced a scientific explanation of the origin of animals and plants in the world, and demonstrated the Gradual evolution of man himself, from?ape-resebbling ancestors to the present state of civilized man. The founders of the Marxist philosophy greatly valued the scientific significance of Darwin's discoveries. V. I. Lenin wrote: "...Darvin put an end to the view that different varieties of animals and Plants are unconnected, casual, "by God created" and immutable phenomena, and placed biology on a fully scientific basis for the first time in the history of science) by means of demonstrating the mutability and successiveness of various species." 1 Under the impact of the Darwinist ideas, the Biblical legends on the creation of man were shattered; however, old beliefs still remain in the conscienciousness of some people. The fora:most representatives of Russian biological science, 1V. I. Lenin, Works, Vol. I, p. 124 13 ? ? ? , K. AZ=Iiniryazdv) 1. 14.'Sechepairt.;?04141.aChnikov'ahdrehers? unbesiWingly:declared. themsqlve.s, in,.agr.46ent 'With the theory of.-- Darwin,;'--The?theoryof:the evolutionpfIl4inhaure'and'of the origin o' man became also the gcsn44f0,4,f6i.'the 4velbpment of the. ? scientific ideas on.psychie demonstrated that otganigas adjUkt theieives to the, . changing conditions of their, eXirpence, in order tO preteria'aild ? sustain their life. ?Thislpertains eqUallito animals-and'Plants. Among the conditions?which cause this wijustment are?climatic ? ? changed, Aifficulty,in,Obtaining food, and the presence of eheMieS'': in the food areas of given animals. .1 . ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? These ..ideas -were first advanced by ,the French:Scientist ? ?-? ? Lemack (1744-1829). . . . . , . . Lamack?demOnstrated.that be conditions of existehti cause- the appearance in-varions:Ahimald,pf vario4s distinguishing:.charac-? ',' teristics:efot example, whi1e,PA44...p2lar:be)ry which rt onlikeeps them warmi%but,also nakeszthem.indiatingAshableft* the ice and snow' surface, - the ? long*.deck-of.-6. giraffe aiive1oPedlie4ilie the animal had. - to obtain: its food by Teaching. out for h.brahches. '' , : . % ?,-- . Later inVestigations.have:shown,that such direct, correapendende : does not always take,place;?homever4 the:main, thesis of this teaching'' remaini correct.. :lhe eminent ,i,:),loglift and evolUtiotiat K. RouIler ? (1614-1854 cade?to similar conclusioni?and cited:Many'facte. in :support ... ?,.', ': ..-., .': ....i,:: *:.. -:-.. - '- , . . . 'f.e.chenc4::an&-*Pavloy., 14? ..*V'pcn6entr1411 their irt.1.4itron til:p : study Of the brain,. -indicated.that_the 'actiVity of the herfOUS 'system.' ? of an Individual % organism must :be studied, from ttie:' evolutionary .' :-?' . ' .' . ,?. . .. point of viev.: ,. . ? .- ? ? Thia tconceptiolik howeverti.::*..7,?iti ' substantial criticism ftdri ? ,' -?, some physiologist! ,,- contemporaries *of Seeheii&eahd'?VimPloV., ;many of. whom did. not.share with, them the, Darwinist idea!: It was essential to refuse the widely addepted, idea thit' the life activity of.?the organism, proceeds -independent:1Y Of- the environ-'?. ,? . ? mental influences. ...-, . , --? -. . ? .. , .'?, . '?:: . - in the development of' physiology, 'The ideas ion'tti6.activity of-the. -- organism underwent such marked, changei that it is ..riOw `cultomarY?to' speak of. a Pavlov' and. a _pre-Pavlov.. stage in the development of physiological :science... .. - .. . ? _ ? , ? The theory developed bY.,1:...T..PavloV created 'a definite 'change' ? . 14. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approvedf RI ? -Yr 03/1 . - P81-0104f1RnnA9nn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 C ? ? In observing that a? heart', :remoVed frokt. the bodi-Of the:Animal, , continued its activity for, e ? Contracted r4 dilated, the phyaioiogists, Cice.:tthe'Oncltliii'On that the healetY,is,cattable - to carry out iti-aital. fUnctiori' even' Outside the orgariikr.,_,.: '.? ? , _ Other, ,organs, too, (muscles nerves, glands) having been isolated andhaving,lost 'complete- conta.ct itith the organism, continued to carry out c?Uitomary'activit'ff6i: some ? time. ?i? ? ' These .facts 1d to?.an.erroneou:s coiClUsion that the .organism .? ? o xists as an aggregate Of organs. EqUallY irroheirasl-the?.condlusion that separate parts of the organism, or its orgaits?.haie, err entirely independent sificance. It_ was cens.idered sufficient in the study of the organism to knOir the TunCtriOns OfNiariou-s -parts of ,the _organism. Every one of its component parts was supposed to function -according .? ? to its ?oienpckrtic.9.ar_rules, independently, of the influence of the whole organism, ?r' of the erivirdrimenfal ccinditiohat-Underivhich the orgasAsm-liyLfrd..,; _Theo.& are, briefly, the basiCspciStulatesi.of(-). . analytical physiology. ?--; tc. ' Pavlov deMonstrated the_ complete unfitness Of these :ideas.. He , evaluated correctly theYcile of 'serial:ate. parterof the forganisml-and. - demonstratecl,that. a close, contact 9.1' these parts with each other, their,..intera'etion and the intere.etiOn" of lvarious - organs are:. . essential to...the-normal, i.1.*6 'adtiviity. of an -*animal., For clarification. , let/ us cite 'one. cx ' '" - " " ' s. ? ?-?.:r ? , In cases where there is a considerable loss of' blood, due to an ? injuryf of. a .large,,blood.,yessell. .grave disturbance of organic activity takes place alika ,4,94ri:fit' :thboci: 'treasure:, In response; to it there is zi,iziOtay,ittinepys' mobil i?n (iif,?Virious :organic functions 'which r'eiaszies-.* 'the" imminent' threat` Ito ? tlie::organisrili . Signals originating from stimulation of' the walls of' the emptied blood vessels), ..are.flashed ;to _the e,entral nervous system. As a result), the bloOd..:Presjii.'Ure'3:&ve'f.lielgins'?-,to However, in view of the feet that the total' van- t,ity-of b16.Od'Iti-the organism hasv,.-1-? decreased, a number of Changes 'talieti 'plaCe -tile A.Ctivitrof? various. organs .which aid.?...in_compensating the after-effects of' the loss o? blood. t, .! The cardiac aet,iy`itYris accelerated, and-respiration becomes deeper and a-more .rapid"rat6:174 eiisbres?the supply' of.-? ? , ;- oxygen needed for the activity of organs, in spite of the' reduced amount the organism.. _A coqra.otion of the spleen also takes place,r, and, the-, 1113.;* ,r9a 4:ye present in the - spleen, is .** ? There is a chan?ge blood: suIPP14. -Of-`liariOus-; organs. The ?__ blood vessels which supply blood, to organs less vitally'impbrtant* Undergo contraction and. have less. blood to carry, there:by, ensuring the flow of oxygen and. -nutritive substances to the .heart and. .he central hervoUstsysteni; The olisOrption of water and. salts frOst , adSacent tissues into the blood circulation system through minute 'blood. vessels -- the capillaries, is accelerated., -and there is an increased, activity of: the .hemopeietic. organs. This aids in the restoration of the Amount "Of lost blood.' :The activity of. organs., ? which e31Tntrinte water and, eis.Ittl from the organism (kindeys, sweat glands) is reduced: . ? ? . - , . The most remarkable result Of" this adjustment is the fact . that, even in cases of large lbilieet of blood and. considerafile otigen insufficiency, the brain and. heart are adequately supplied... This is the direCt? seqUel' of the pegulating?effect 'of the nervous. system. We cited `only one example Of vatioits changes in the activity . of the organism' -which are taking, plaCe following' the. disturbance . of its normal state, but .even this ?otight-to be' sufficizntito , understand that the functions Oft Varioues:-'argans?are closely bound and. mutlial 1 y interrelated.. ' ? ?: ' ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ' . . An organism represents a total unit which consists- of.- closely interconnected. organs. "Neither a mechanical combination of' bones,. blood, cartilages,. tissues; etc., nor a chemical ?combination of elements constitute an anini-1;" write Fif Engels.3.-:- .7 ? .*, P? .dr Gertsen. expressed. himself with complete clarity on the%wholentess of' the human organism. He wrote: .L" the 'maintaining -of unity in .; multiforniity, the unity of .the?whole ?and-its parts; when, the contact between them is disrupted, idien their 'Unity which holds_ theat-together and. preserves thenCis distubred, then-each area begins ,its process: death and, the putrefaction of the corpse -- accomplete liberation . of the component parts .n2 ? The idea of the' unity of all ?organic processes ..and.of the most important role of the brain was expressed. also 'by N. 'A. Dpbrolyubov. "There is not a siggle part in the human organism which could,. exist indeloendently:,. without a link' with ther organs; but no .other_ parts of our body is so closely Connected with a.U. the rest as the brain,. It suffices to state, ?without going- into further details, that it is the citral point of the motor and. sensory nerves. Therefore, it, is clear to what extent the brain activity is bound with the general state of the tody. "3 I.. P. Pavlov, in full, accord with abeve cited. ? . 1. F. Engels "Dialectics of' Nattire" 'Mos dbir, GospoLitizdat f, p .168; j 2. A. I. Gerteen "Selected Philos:: Worka," Vol 1, 'Moscow, Gospogtizdat, 1948, p 100. N. A. Dobrolyubov. Selected Philos. "Works," Vol 1, ?scow, 1945; p 172" 16 Declassified in in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 .81W14?????????1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ?111.11111...ill, statemerits'ef, Engels., ? dertsexi;? and Dobrolyabov,, advaneed the idea, of the unity of th& organist:: in physiology:. Ile...taught that life , activity begins EcEHt restitt of the.intetaction and. reciproC4.? effect, of various pt Of 'the . ' _ In higher animals, thia,44iciition_of:tha parts of an Organisni? or of its Organs in one 'entity is..effected--by.the regulating, activity of the central vervous..-sySteink,-., 'Pavlov indieated that the highest center of the nervous system in these ananial s become the "manager and regulator" of all r)i?gan.ic functions. This regulating role of theltidtvouli system is ,.effected by means of reflexes. ??? .;--"f. ? ? - As fitr-.back as 300 years agoi the idea of.,therreflectorS-r? function of the centraIe?nervoua system. began__to.-,find.._its way in physiology: - The word. "reflex" means reflex action. Even then an idea was formed that:the.nervoue system. reflee:ts the stimulations which enter the brain,- just' as_ the:mirror, reflegt,s, a ray, of light. A simple, , ? example will explain it. :,A-raan,t.pucheat unexpectedly a hot objeet with his 'hand.''Llhe?irritation-whiCh: originates in. the nerve centers is transmitted to the motor centers, thence to the motor nerves., which activate the muscles of the hand. The reflex of pulling te' hand. away takeit?placet.-.?-:- e.1.? Iry The ? modern 'reflex theory is based the,..worka,pf I. M. Sechenov and I. P. Pavlov: . -The ?-dc5i+rect ideas .larregard. tp.:thp _organism enabled. Pavlov. to reorganize the;-eritire.physiological science and,to.initiate a new progreisTle basis '...-Of its development,-te_which he gave the name of synthestiacp'hysiolOgY; He Considered as; one_of iti-principles the self-regulating ?actiAty of the. organism pns.ured. by the nervous system. ? " - ?:? ? ? ,:.?? .? The above cited.' example of the complex reaction organiaii`to loss Of blooti may derve' clarify.:whatiPavlov understood._ under . , ? self-regulatiodloff?the organism. Pailoaitached??to the: theory of aelf-revlation wide. biological importaifeel Tie idea of self-regulation enables him_to.,cregte"a-? - correct interpretation of the functions of the!pardie-vascular? system::: , . .. .. , . ? . , - It is cuatomary, tot. speak only of, the ,flow of-blood in blood circulation, but Pavlov demonstrated that the most impattant functiOn is :theldiatributiOn of the 'blood-4n the .organism,. ,and. the self---,. *eViinf`o-f; the =processes- of blood. pressure,: temperature,, _etc. -.' , . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? 0 0 ? .? I. P. Pavlov, fUrther c"?nceion ef self-regulation and. widened it by bit-tending it to various. funetiozutl? pigan.i?ystems. ? He accumulated a great nUmber of observation data relating' to various diges1iv orns, and _made .an eXtensive summarization of the functions of the' digestiVe canal a-s a..-IthOlei ? , He spoke 'of the. chemical, acts ? of .4.geibri: as; of one uniri id entity, in iihich various ?functions'..interacted, 'substitute& and. aided one another. -Ibis concrete syntheila (the unification of 'separate links of the, process , of digestion) .was COt1sidered by. PavloV as the most important general result of vie,,409r.atory? studiep. which -he and ??. his co-workers-bad. achieved.. .** ? ? ? ? ? . The or 'of? self-regulation ya-p..'developed by PavlOv not only ? in connection with his investigition0f-the vascular and.2digestile.. organs systems.. - He considered. aliO'ttiat'ithe glands of internal ' secretion (hormones) were "associated.; 'it-bin-the system". Pavliyir did,? eventually eXtend. the' idea .of. .self -regulation. by including' therein.. the entire .Organisii: ? ;?. ? i ??? . ? . .;. . . . . ?. "A'bf course a systeN,_" wrote Pavlov, "biit.:Ei system uniciue.,. in the diapason cif. 'our- present scientific knoyled 1) self -reguiat i:on;. .in ge,;4: highest 'the highest. 'deiree "in ;which:it. in sustains itself,-.. restores) correcti 'arid even :perfects?itself.11 . . . ? ? I ? ? One must_?nota..that Pavlev made these vide,generaliztions on.... ? the basis .:oil strictly estahashed facts. Pavlov emphitaitied.? the': fact that explanation is a cheap .thing,but that one. niyat 'take the . hat off efore ''Mister Pact?..:...,..Every one of his t1eoret.1cal.pOstu4. ? ? lates as based "of)a extensive factual material... .? ? ?- : Pavlov spoke particuUrly often of. the interactiOn.??. inter'a relation, and the reciprocical influence of functioni, witien?he .:* dwelt on the aet-ivitY of. the gentral.nervous system. Pa:vlov .said: "We. must assume that all reflexes in; each` sYstem are constantly interacting and, affecting each other. thUsl? the system is always- something whole..!!2 "..?.The large hen;.ia,pheres," he was. saying in regard to the functions ,of the brain?"tepresent a system ? all parts of -which are in interaction witti eabh?other during the ,period? of- activity: "3 ,? ?? 1 1. P: Pavlov "Complete Coll of Works" 'Vol 114..bOok 2, .1951, P-187 2-"Plivlov's Wednesdays" Vol I, Mpscoy-Leningrad, PuliliCation of the Academy of Sciences USSR, p 134 ... . , . , . . 3 I. P. Pavlov "Complete Works" Vol :all -book 2,)14oaCoirrteningrad,1 ,.,..., ?!. Publication of the Academy of Sciences USSR, p 3yo ' ' ? . ' 18 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81_n1n4qpnnAorml cit ? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Thus, we can see, that he theorY of the interaction-.and, the reciproCai`effect Of various parts of the organism, including the nervous system, was treated by I P. Pavlov in a very systematic uanner. The problem of wbbieneSs IA rither poPUlar also among the ? bourgeois scientists, especia4y in Amekta. Over there the psycho- logista,and physiologists aldo?speak ofi the organism as a whole., In particular, the Eio;?called "wholeheSS",::kis 9.,4Pecial.-trend of a "whole" study of ,the organa, i i1i-6e'pdpultir, over there. 4 Hdirever, this trend is patently idealistic; as compared- to .Pavlov's teaching of the organism as a whole. The wholist,s visualize. the ., wholeness of' the organism as something given, indivisible, and not:, subject, to. study. In contrast to 'this, the Pavlov idea of wholeness originated,' as the result of the study of' ' the interaction and ? ,. recipro'cical effeat of organs. Pavlov-frequently spoke of the , ttassociation,-ot 'organs" when:he re.ferre&-to complicated. 'forms. of interactions and. reciprocieal effect. " ? ??,: On one of the "Wednesdays" (as the weekly scientific confem rences of' the laboratory workers were called) Pavlov expressed himself 'irery_olearly on the subject of the relationship of whole and parts. ."He Said.i- "I happen to be 'reading now a book by a.,? psychologist. What nonsense! Very well -- the organism,is an entity. Don't we all know that -everything is linked together, integrated.. However, no one denies that the system of' blook circulation is one thing, digestion ? something else, muscular activity - something else again. -They-keep on harping -on the structure, fOrtetting that everything is composed of .separate parts! How is-it possible to insist On such nonsense -- don't- touch analysis?: What can you do,- fashion! They accept wholeness, accept complexi-ty, and. forget that it consists of separate parts, that our understanding of the whole is 'based., on the knowledge of, the part."1 ? Let ,us, now take up another most important problem -- the relation: ot the organism' to the environment in which: it lives. The Marxist dialectic method. enables' us ? to see an organism not in the .fram., e of stay of its 'internal associations only, but in its Uhity with external environment 'and. in the effect on the organism of' the external conditions of its .development. V. I. Lenin2, _wrote: ,."In order to really know the subject, one must embrace and study all its facets, its associations and causations'; '?:--- 1 "Pavlov's .Wednesdays" V II,p550 2 V. I. Lenin "Works" Vol 32, p 72- - ? ." 19 We shall never .achieve it..completelyy.hut .the quest for -thoroughness e. Will protect us from errors and. ?.:?? *- .? ' . ?, ? :! ? ';-."-:?". ? ? ? The problem', of the' effect df,:envirOntsentaI conditions on the ? organism -bjas Posed 'biology a. lona ;time :tier. ?HeNtiVrei., ? it was' "'' ? "' I. M. Sechertoy -who! -first spoke:ai..(4.'124ysib.lotO on the unity. of' the. .? organism anl: its. external- environxileit? tirldf the effect' of' this' unity ? ? on the functions He wrote: "The' Coiaptirati* of anilnsis further ' demonstrates that the ? progress of material brgar.iation anct of life?' does not `prO.ceed. along straight lines, ? but alOng. branched. paths, deviating in detailic: It is:precisely-he/4, 'at*the'orgahiatii-3nal ? '". crossroads that the et-riot on the organisms ot the environments in which they Lilk.; or, more...correitlY?i'th'e--c?onditions of- their,'?':'- existence manifest themselves%;rith' iSarticular- force: . Lite is '- composed. always and everywhere from the cooperation of' two factors the defirtitethough:-Changing;' organititioni?.and. the inf1uen4e- from withoixt; ;' . ? ???:?: , ? ' ????';,4- ?.... ? ???? The .aboyd Stated. deMonstrateis that Sedhendy'.f'deqs-?*tind::the teaching of' Pavlov have developed under the influene..of -the ? materialist philosophy and. the theory of Darwin. Sechenov. I Daririn--creat,ect- the :theory-Of the teflex procesees.:;whiclx-lie',at the 'bests '.0-ts cpsychic phenomena 1-(tif ? timid we, ? speak in more detaillater)', ofth? catielative- condition*ig 'di the". ? " result of the influence of :the ext6enai world, and. of -the uhiti??Of tile "' organism and the.eXternalanvironment. This has,?the;closet 're?.atiOnship .to '-'-the mriVerialist iriter-- ? ? pretation of the essence of psychic activity. ? Scientific; data. attest td? the -.fadt-that the -pSychic- faCulti45 YiSf '? man originated 4.?-the!rdsxi3.4?of .ccintiinious and: llong eYolution; hundreds of millions of years .?'' The--:?psy-chie 'activity manifeited ? 7? also in in higher animals. Eigels, pointed. out that animals are capable , of all kinds' 'of' redioning ?aCtiYity'l hilt% be emphasized that:this ? ? reasoning is ? markedly 'different! in FT 4inAl end' mad as- to the- degree--.. of' its develoixaent. .Even in' the most* intelligent- anirt' a, fiudh.'as, , dogs and monkeys for ,-eXEim-Pley:oray primitive"forms 'of psychic activity '? - are present. These reiresent- ideati whieh relate to 'Concrete ?? ? ? sensory perceptions. As will 'be ' seen ? fr,Om? fuyther ? eXPOSitioii-; ;the -thinkihg'in? -ia.eas , t ? ? 1 I. M. Sechenov "Elements of ThOUght" sin' the co11.6tioh. Nervnoy'SYSiemy; ;10.'1; Mbe&bir; -"Nagler -1952,, 1713 *)-30). _ . ? - ?., 20 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop A d for R e ease 5 - r 03/14 . CIA-RDP81-0104f1Rnn49nnlAnnn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 abstraset-?thinking is a form of,-;higher psychic-activity of, ? which only man, is capable..., lloweyer,._ it. :is ve,y important.,to;.,, emphasize the evolutional progress of the thinking function of the brain and to indicate its-?riukimentarY.Origin also-in higher, ? animals; for confirms, the OuccessSive .deyelowent. of .man from.,his animals ancestors, .and. eliminates the. id,eslistics?conceptione :that only man .can J)e,animate,d, i.e.;.'oap.s."ple;O: psychic activity,. The latter idea,i.s.. usually asserted in religious, teachings:, The , teachings _ of the. 4ivine:Origin ,the sou .is. prOfitable God.j, accOrding to the. biblical creating Adam/ . the firsthi.usair,IDeing,,breathed* in the- sot4 into:: him, a-net. this' the absolute power of God over th?01) God. is able to cognize man.' El, .8012.1j ?pay'He CN;-, COir0.04., dt., ? ? Thus, we ?seei,that the ;ideas of2..Engels.,:. the, evolution,?thebry of Darwin, the philosophy of progressive materialists, and the, work.d-Of , - v. the founders of the Russian material philosophy of Gertsen, Chernyshevskiy,, and. others.,?preated.the, basis ..or the materialistic_ study of' psychic, activity. ; , I , . ? ' - Sechenov and. Pavlov, as progressive investigators, solved. the main pr.oblem '.of \spientific. study. of,,Ipsych.i..c .a,ctiviiy, which, is. connected. Nrith.:the 4ecess#y., of understanding its develepzent ,form the,. most primitive,..2,properties,,--. s,?ii .Animals, to4.ts highest ?... manifestations in _man,. along thaepaths. othe:theOry.of_exolution and the paths of materialistic dialectics.., %Thus, ;the, first. principal task was solved, but there remained inaccessible to other task: to find.;reliable;Aethods?-of r studying, fthe psychic ,activity., We have already mentioned that the primitive man created certain primitive..ide.asaof.the sou,z,baed the observation o.varipus, - experiences of other people,-and:oniheir, evaluation..according,.to the. experiences Arhich: he himself ? had,,gone,ithrough - ; ? r Thus, for,Anstancey.yhen. a neighbor-related someAreams,.he had. experienced?onythe previcius,night, -the .,hearer tunity to.:,compar e ? them :with?thclsgs:t119::dexperienced- 'himself. , In experienoing fsargriefycher.sanalyzed., sinilar,.experiences others on the basis; of what-be himself hlicrec.thro_ Such method of study received. later, during the period of scientif:?.iclAttempts -54,AheA.nyeistig9n activity? the name of the Subjective method.. According to the stiliSective method,;yhipir.,:is .,takitng,Plep.e around. Jse, 1.whether,., it ;relates, the pheficiiiW:t?;.Cif human, or ,virj,,anii2isi. life, and. to the phy6iiOiaiena of social life, ? interpret inthe iight. oeho4 'the'Se - . ? appear to me persoha.U.y. According .to this theory, 'man..., able to. interpret the essence of the causes. arid ?conditions pf;the ?,,?.'? event on the basis of his pqrq,eption.s :and according ? to his sensations;': and impressions.' ? : ? ?? ? . . ? ? .:: ? ,, ? . ?? , ?.,- ? Such an attitude leadd toi-the nega?Oori of the role of eicternal, ? independent of the subject;- causes and.-esonilitiggs ?Connctcd with the origin of:a given ekrent, and. leads to. the negation of the ObjectiVely '? existing laws of tthe development of nature ?.tiind of human, society, which are independent of man. ? -? ? .This y'rforoundly vicious and., uits-624.titific character; of Vie ? subjecti,ve potheption or various, phanOpkei4ii.wati .exposed by tilae founders of 1aricism7Leiiinis14.s. One ca state.,ifithOut exaggeration that I. P.:- Pavlov devotifd.Vs entire life jo c ba1ting the s14"Nec;t4..r method. of study of:..psiChi?el activity. A little atfr ye ...shall describe -,the essence, and 'eiiiphasike the sig4fiCaziC.e:Os.VPavi-ov s . objective method ich he, had. deve3,..oped...for the study, cpf psychic activity.. ? I ? Here it .ii appropriate .to attenipt'io ditir l.fy one,-.! standing xhich, has come up in recent years. - ? ,.., . s ? ,-., Certain .authore.,?! in. their ..zeai.,.#1,..interiaret: the :phe7,10menE. of. psychic activity from the rimyterialistid ',Pbintlo,f,. view, , Nat to: extremeg taking the stand, of a denial of the characteristic ? ? !'? propertied Of psychics, as compared, to the physiological processee % which constitute its basis. In?*theii 'errOneous interpretation. of' certain statements of I. P. Pavlov, they insisted. on the identity . of the. psychip and- ?PhySiological phenomena. Such a position is thoroughly false both from.:the.faatial:a0df philosophical. points of view. . .., . , .. ..? . .. .. ?? - ' - ? ... . ... .....? -? ' 2.--..-.?,:: ': ...i.-..?! . ..f 6. ' :.:'-i ..? V. I. Lenin, ? in .his philosophical .? treatiterrt sof- the. in,70.1em of - ? the ideal and. material, acknowledged. the danger of, both, ' the excessive contrasting of the; ideal and. material, and. of theii? excessiye...iiientification. -..-. . ? ':?:'? ?:--;.., , ..... - z?? ? ? On his ?art, I-. P. Paylov,. thOUgh',.he-:spoke.-of:th..;1.t.flIsiOnn,? of ? the subjective land. the obj ebtive.,.: f the "'marriage. ?of: physiolOu .? and. psychology, at the same- time _ifevei.'indiCated the identitY?of the psychic dna the' physiological. On the contrary, he stressed the special -chdracteristics ,of the.: subj.ectivq, :;psychics, world of- man. Hence, the appeals-of ::some Boleti:10s to.. subititute physiology for. 0 psychology seem entirely absurd... ? .?. Psychology, 'sad as physiology, !is and will ccntinue to be 4 science which has its subject and-its. *centerit'.. 23.p. problem is. not the Declassified in in Part - Sanitized Co.y Ap?roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14- CIA RDP81 01043R00420014florn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? t - negatigrFca* t ubjective' Ian= Vxper'ienci'and.conditions.......-- an ? attempt. ratlaer?m6re. harmful than -1.1.s0ful;to materialismi.-- but the underits'Adifiithat the aulij-degilie, as,eality,-? is subordinated. to the universal law of causation, and. thilt,Sshild ,it is subjective,to 'each separate, individual it is objective ?tO *Others, and. is, therefore, subord.inatd. to the' ,Methed.,,of'objeCitive study.2which had been. develoPed. .I.,"P:'-)Pa?silovq?t?:-.Elieribeginningilof-_this century, . ? ? ? ,-. ? , ? ?1 j & - ? 1 ? ? PhysitsiOgzVtrc6"-thiiV'pOint OV:ViOr; is engaged,in...the,study off.. the material procesties ihih a:re taking place. in, the geryouti,aystem. , and...which constitute the ?barlis for psychic Processes as streilsed by V. I/ Lenizt.'-'th13kii''srenVe*, the 1..isyChie processes- such:: e.a.:thoueat:. for eXali(4afe.-, Mai be datiliidered?'?materiaI-'but 'not substantial. Thought' pas:. no" temperature'''. or veightlfi4ori-length ? it-- it ...rePrP.PentP an ideal reiled-tiens -Of 'the' objective reality in the cerebral matter. , Therefore, "thei-subSeCt of cpsychelegY,ii the study o! Ittt6 psychic content condifiened .by ISoCial% experience ,of ?man and.,by, the.; special propertiee- Of the phioIoical.PrOcCB8C5 wh?. takingz place in the brain. The physiological and. psychic processes are only various facerta'Of -the :bile and the 'same -substanCe.....,4-f,,the,,,,thinking ?? cerebral matter. In COnnecebii:',iitii.;thiii.,...!te is impertsant, t.o learn ertain facts which prove rihatLthe'IpsYchic-finictions 'Eire a...product:?,of cerel?rEP., ? - activity! ?...I , Let 'us 'conaider ?first'-thegeneraliroleThf,the brain im,peychic activity. - ' ??????-it ""?..: ? -. ) 2 /. ToWard he end' 63.,a.the.:?paat ' 'Century, _ the linvestigators succeeded. , in preserving the life of iligher animals after the surgical removal of the main part of the cerebrum -- the large hemispheres.. The results ? obtained somevhat 1.aterfby-Doctorn P. Zeleny in!. the , laboratory ot'I. ofi special' interest . ? ? , - ? ? ? - s ? ..??? Dogs, upon extirpation of the cerebral hemispheres;; remained?the - major part, of. the. 214. hours in a drowsy state. As the time of feeding approached;'rther aninialeiroke.up and commenced to wander around the? building frequently againsti the, wall,- or a _bench , placed. in the 'rOom, because-they' could?:net 'see thes.e!_objec,ts. ? ; ?? ? ? Neither have various ietind irritations produced. any reaction.,, If at tiinea -Vne''-aUceeddect 'in 'Obtaining a -reaction: to a lop.d.pund suddenly produced after a silence, or to ?Eindallmination with a strong light up out of darkness, there was still no reaction., on the',Iiiir?t:'6f the appearance of.. his master or the' worker*-vhO 'ha.d2alWays calling his; name 6out , ? 23 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release Physiologists who?resorted.,?to:a subjective ixiterpiretation of ? their obsertations came-to the 'Conclusien that the dog.'?hears but .doen' not understand) sees but dace not recognize. 1..??? ??- . , ? ? ? ? It wai...oinierired also that the 0.ntelligence of the 'aninlikle.-has . . ? .?. been redUCed? .that: there twas no landerktanding. or recognition, and no ?; . ? ? ?. proper reaction.- and acting. The 'spercegions as.: *Well :as their:, .??? . evaluation.became,--yery limited. "Generally speaking? the. retiairal' ? , ' of the large cerebral lobes brought the dog to a state of virtual "feeblemindedness," wrote die physiologist. ... These- eXperiMehts show? that the reioya..),,?of _the iiigher-'116ctidni? *,.cer6bruxa.dePriire.ii: t. the anima.1-4.1 ?izthe ;faculty- ?to : perform.. plYehic ?:?function's..!' . ? . ?? . ??? The cases.' ..o.f -malforMatiOri" (iaici,78,0e1)halir)..;aequire:i.portant scientific in:tereirti, when +he; underdeVeloPeci?? , ? nervous system and. with aliadit? entirely absent aerebra3.-hemilipheres...! . Generaily,,these:_freaki do nofi.iitiv.iy6 more thn a few months, sometimes)/ however, :these, eh:4a** remain alive for several years, ? perhpas 'because the ..malforraationis ? of the brain areless expressed. . - ? ? . ? _. , One Of:theserrarely..encountered micVacephalic 'children has been thoroughly Otudied.':by: a- group of Soviet scientipt.s. . ? . . . A little girl, named "Pita" at the admission to the clinic appeared to be -eight years of-age. ? Her. hearing, was isufficientli ' developed.;., .114041:41e very first days Pita got used her new she turned. around.,yhewtalled-, WithOtif 3initly recognizing the ? person idio-fcallek.her?-:? 'The ?seritiations. Of ,taste, ?-? pati, :cold, and heat -were marke4y?depressed.??? speech was cOmpletel,y 'Pita' ? ? could not iconounce not only words, but even isolitted syllables. Her "speech" consisted of-'-a fair ?variety f - sounds whichhoireiver; " did not pertain to any ctiestietis,'?;oif'erranda with which the people around her attempted7to'establiith-seme sort of cOntact itith her: ? ???? ? The greater 'Part of the time Pith passed ii a stateiof comblete indifference to everything around. h. She sat or.-stood .for,hours..-Ori the same spot,_ without so much as to 'change .pOsture. Ai timeit, one _ could. gather that ? she experiencod'. i;OMe enjoyment,..judging by the fact that. she laughect-when-ot4erving, .for'example,':.other.:1-? children playing or dancing, etc.' ? She contracted tuberculosis 'and?pneumonia4, became aggressive/ and mean, and. much- agitated 'even idien someone of the?attendinie ?? personnel aroached..? She ?cried in a 'shrill:- voice -and -attemPted:- to scratch those approaching hog. . , One can.aee2frowthis trier dereription that during the. ? ,.-? ??? .? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 21i? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 years of her lifeottat she remained in, arstate of complete idiocy. A post mortal' eiSmination,--.9f, ;the brain' o. this girl, who had. died from the diseases mentioned above) shnited:ta marked, retardation Of. the brain development: it did. not correiPond noi only 'tits a normal brain of; a ?Midi of ten, 'hit ,1 ti, many i!cispgcts, was even. below the develoteental,leyel of. aibrain. o a -ticji*.iln baby.. ,This profound underdevelopnent,zof?theLbrain leds ire '...see) to ,the.,colee_...loss of psychic: AinCtions .. ? ?.,?,, ; - - ??? ? ? ? . ,.- ? ? ????.i , There are case& *here. a fai1y ,rapid Atophy (destruction) of _ the higher. sections...of ,the,brain, dile to sOe,'diseases). takes place. also in adults. Ii1these patients. one, notid,es; first of ,a13., various signs of the disturbance of Vsychie activity. Ate disease starts with,* Progrpssive absentmindedness) and, with thetlods the faculty,. of intelligent aetons. The Patient performs iionie acts deprive,Vpfny 'sense whatever: ,72r. dicaMpfe, an experienced. housewife perforinsrmany ,acts connectedj-with the preparation 'Of; fOodi cleans ? vegetabla ? washes-, meat).,,. etc ._.but her, actions are deprived. , of the usual ?oFder., continuity); and. pl.irposefillness, for she is unable to cook the soup. The progressing illness- -even:EU-ally reduces the psychic .state to the .level...o.f..complete? ,Post mortem examina- tion of such patients demonstrates. a, complete,. destriicti-on of-the higher cerebral nervous centers. , - ? ,J The cited facts of observations :on people, and, .especialli, the results,. of.. numerous e)cPeriments? on ,animqls :Attest, to the, fact that the content ef.psyphie.activiLty _(?,4hinking, memory', tp.,p facalty cognition, etc):.1...depend- in -the first. place on the normal condition and functions of .the, brain.:; ? This scientific rides), corroborate4 \at the .present time, wap expressed in the form_of surmisev,by many:physicians and: Philoso- phers a long, time even .b,efore the -present era., Thtisi.iforcinstance, the (Iree,k:philosopher .Alloncon said. about 2000 yesrs,..a'go, that the?brain represent,s the ?:1,'seat .of ?the soul and. of consciousness.". The. study of various mental 'diseases. offers extensive_material which,r.confirms, the closest relationship between psychic activity and_ the normalnctioning of the, brain. ? This relationship manifests itself particularly clearly in intoad.cation,with.?certain poisons whieh..predominanyl.y affect the nervous system... To these .belong,?-in.the first plaee, alcohol, morphine, opium, -coeaine, Thus, for example, grave distzubances. of psychic activity in the form of, alcoholic ;psychoses may take place, as the result of chronic alcoholism. The most _known of these is the so-called 25 _ "delirium. trer.sens"j; 'This psychosis ..manifest itself in he fOrm?of? ???? the distrubance.:1:?f.cOnSciousness,.,a'i4te:Of'fe4r and the appearance of various ? sensory, ilalisionis, 7the. so7cailed ,Ivt) ucins.tioni., ti? patients imagine' thr4t.. vaiious irts.ects, 4ite animals' lire bustling.: and sunning around, at times they..:.iiet''Isrge ?Ftrilmis dIephentS., , .? ? tigers, ' ' ? ? ; ? ? The halluc.inating patient oftin. attenipts,to catch imaginary flies and.. cats., or tb .4.13/e,.offhis shoulder the tiny .imaginary devils. The expreseion to ?"drinli :0.1,1"*.S.rOu 'see -devils" or. "white elephants" is precisely connected 'with'ilieso.tal)ucinEitions. The expression ,H.kween snake" has the same basis. Visual hallUdinations. can 'be accompanied.. by' aurae). ones...: The patient hears non-existent . ? noises., cries, music, etc.... ' ? .? ? ??? . .??? ?. .? Upon. recovery. (within three to seven weeks), the pEitient .....,. returns to:a norial state, but. is-liable to get a relapse of' this ?,?., psychosis upon further alcoholic ziklUses... ' '.:4'. .- ....?,... . ..., ;.... prefOundt4isii4 The causative relationship and 1?Azi&es "of psychic activity the ,effect kf....poiEloris? (in this .? , be,en ''';...?- on the brain is perfectly obvious. 'The'tibuie of.narc.otid-poisOn.... .. S leads, in a. larger or smaller degree, to various path6lOgiCa.i ?'r? ?? deviations from normal mental 'activity. ? ???? :: ? ...? ? I? ? ? ? . , The normal functions of the central nervous systeililiaSi be ?? ? ?, : disturbed by causes 'other than the above mentioned. . , . One of' the most important condition -f the or ."a?wit 'of the brain'.is. t)ie, normal functioning of *the glands of internai":- ? ? .! secretion. These g..iiindit ate sl.tuat.ed in various parts of the body,. for instance .near the laryngela .cartilages (thyroid .gland), near the kidneys- (suprailenal glands); at tile base of the. skull (hypophysis) etc. :The' substance8. produCed. by these ?0.aridt a.t'e ? ? secreted into the 'blood.;.. they havebeen named :-+ hormones'.' t''They exercise the role of the most impoitant'regulators - organic processes. ? ?? Upon entering:the blood strews, 'the hormones. Ore carried to definite brain centers and:stimuicite'them;''these centers; then, form one or?another..tiiii-of pitycUtc metiviti-in pant, ? -? ???? Thus, for -instance, if. .the thykaid gland: supplies an iniuf- ? ? . ficient quantity of its hornione to the orgoinism profound disturbances%in the dev.eloptent of' the orgaricsin-iiill tak@. place. The child.uiidergoes,./.0nOr*.l...,d.plieliopment under such conditions and. becomes a..cretin.......ThebaStaigas, of cretinism are ? ? ? - ? 26 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap?roved for Release ? ???? ???-?-?-???-?-???-? pl.- ? r ??? ?? ? ????,-?.- r ? midget grofith and. marked feeblemindedness, " ? r Mare is the i possibility of ,iMproying somewhat the 'mental ? ? develowent..of a child,i'eratin .10* 40.0e :of a surgical transplantation of the thYrOid. gland. from ciii6i1keCiierSonl, which the Soviet surgeon N. A. BogOxiai sudeeeded.initebbni1511.13hing;.it definitely` confirms .the dependence of psychic actiV1:4 on the effect of hormbnes. fnstandes him been described of the-SOICalled2"bkonze disease" Litdditioriis ditieas.e7 whieh, followi,the..aiStUebance of the snprarenal function.-- In these patients a psYdhie dietiiitbdnee a ObServed; . parallel:vith. muscular weakness. anzvamoW4;bionie Obiorittibn of the skin. ? ... ? ? Of special interest are cases of complete Change-in-the Seitual behavior of animals which underwent a transplantation of sexual , glands. . The facts cited above show that'the'tattempts of :idealists to assert that the, soul, or-the psychic activity allegedly does not depend.-- on.?the lit* of _the" body, -cantradict the scientific ,data ? and are devoid-,of ,any,basiS- iThi3tsotiver. 'Nuiiiereus facts, on the contrary, prove that thinking? the product of the piVsiological properties of the brain. Modern materialistic science is taking the firm stand of materialistic menism.- . . abe, raaterialists, matter,. as the basis of everything in existence., The spirit"; Soul is theliroduet of this material . ? - ? source,. ? ? ? Idealistic ? sionism is. the direct 'opposite "of !materialistic monism, because -the idealists cider the--spirit?- as ;the;.. source. , of all phenomena.., It is conscience not matter, which is the, origin of everything,?,aecording to these false;'.iantiscientific :ideas. Idealistic monism has lc;een., 'Since 'ancient times), the 'stronghold. of all religious teachings. Starting on. the, basis of " materialistic monism',. we mustl understand that soul and,'body, psychic :activity and physiological processes of the brain are 'One arid 'inseparabIe.7. Onet:daiinot tear ? ; . S. JA-? away thought from the, ,thinking brain., Psychic and physical -- are only 'two sides, of ;the- Singland:'indii.isible -life a'ctivity .of . higher...aniMals and..,man... ,..,, 'S._ Tne,-..,dualists. deny .the -d.cpendence of ,ideal an material, they, acknowledge the materiiili-y-ofPaysiologics.l'prodedSes :in -the - _ sified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap?roved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 brain, but attempt- toassert the right.'o-f the soul, 'separated ; matter, to lead an independent existence. The founders of Marxism- Leninism fully exposed From the philosophic point of view this absurd anct eisatlally ideal:little attempt to conciliate materialism and. idealt;;;;No;verthelesti.; the d,ualistic efforts are still manifesting thei1ee3res'ins"natural*-1`Sdiehce and, particularly, in the a cielide? of ? tisYchic activity at''therrpresent time. The objective method of -investigation t5f psychic processes and, his teaching 6f -higher nervous activity, created by I. P. Pavlov, augurs the complete triupph of materialism in the study of psychic activity. ?In speaking of the objective materialistic .? method of sttidY -ptifehid: phenol:nen/a() T. .P.:.;.PavloV -pointe& follows: :"It. is' telt incenteStabIe ???Tdct4",,:-.1..t.: is', a .pb-tizettful;'?rnd t.i13 the high degree degree exped.itidifiti?metho;;Aia banOnse.:aznounof material: is constantiY being 'accumulated thankit --to' this 'method) which-not only includee*PUre iihysiOlOgidal.-analysis. but .is.-:no*.ambracingotast problems of' -nbuibpathology evertr.psychiatry, - as well; ;as; establishing , the closest contact with psychology, mental hygiene, and. pedagogy. ? ; -? ? , ? J. ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? ri,a_pn004 _ :? 28 .? ? 1. ? , : ? i , ? ? " F ? - ?? ?-? . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 :? . Scientific Investigation of the .Higher Nervous (Psychic) Activity ; -;sj? ' ?O'the,lays.gpverning complex ? ? jletVOOS 4t.iirity are developing ? aft444rely Objective basiW of ..!natural science, ankmyiterious mechanisms are gradually being I. P. Pavlov, , . ' removed or destroyed surgically, or by means pf some chemical substan- . ? ces, also 'by freezing or' burning out.- Upon the rtnimIlts., recovery, ebservatiOns were. carried oUt of the appearance ,of> functional distilibanees. The animn, ldst'Itt hearing Ta4k1ty,*Vispnl.%. and sensory properties of the- skin. However, this . proved unsuccessful, As soon ad?the loctition of the visual; :- acoustic, or tatile centers has been-aidertainedl.the further,use ? of this tethod'cOuld add nothing to-our-knowledge of the function of', the brain. ? ? , . ? . ; The possibility%of the,Udy of the large cerebral himiheres by means;otstimulation originated,yeryrecentiy- There wel.e,n6 , previous.attemptszotexperimental".8t114-of psychic phenomena,- 1.!..) of the activity oX-the,large cerebrel,hemispheres. This fielok regaine&the domain.of-various guesses, mostly of an-idealistic, tdir?ected:toward. the search=for,thc.aocation of the "soul". 2 In the seventeenth century, an important event in physiology took place. It was demonstrated for the first time that, upon stimulation of the surface of the brain with an electric current applied to certain areas, various movements were observed. in the animals. These methods of investigations, somewhat modified in their technical use, have reached our times and preserved certain value in the solution of a number of problems. However, it became clear within a short time after their appearance that these methods of stimulation did not open any worthwhile avenues of research. The reason for it was that only comparatively limited areas of the cerebral hemispheres are location sites of the motor centers. One part of the cortical surface of the cerebral hemispheres represents the area where visual, acoustic, and other centers are located. Upon the stimulation of these areas there are no visible changes in the animnl's condition observed.. Finally, the major part of the cortex pertains to the so-called mute zones where irritation, again, produces no effects which would manifest themselves externally. The method of irritation enabled the experimenters to establish the correct position of the motor centers only; for a more profound study of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres this method did. not prove suitable. Great hopes and interest were created at about that time by another method which had been developed -- the removal of parts of the brain. Various sections of the cerebral hemispheres were 29' We must also pointioutthat the method.ofireMoVal, of parts of: the braidcoused.negative sequels which-origidAted id:connection. ? . with thd.aamage?tO th6 eentral...'nevious'iyttem . " . . . , . . As one'sdientiat'sdidx:a Physl,olegist'Who is atteM16t4ng to,, study the tune:Adds ot the brain?by.meani of removing its. parts, 2. would appear 1n the some absurd-positiOn as -a man 'shooting at a watch forM'a rifle in trYing to learn the mechanism of its works.. In inflicting.rpugh.,damage tothenerVidas,systeM, he, as Pavlov.,.. ? said, Was Cadairigh veritable ruin Ofthe'nervpus activite. ? The scarificatidn Of the nervous tiesue-irhiA"f011owed.the damage completed the deep disturbances ofthe functions Of the central nervous system. To..,thii-attest.coisvulsioris' oftearappeared:in. connection with tile. kormaiion2of,sedr:dh4nges;i14::the-brain.ok the - dog after-the inflieted,Wdry.: Avail; when the. area: of dFage.watV. . small, the eOnvOlsiP4.-were'so.viaient add Trequent that the animal perished sooner Or later. . ? - -*. ' BesidesteplOal of the cerebral cortex invar,aoly leads to disturbances in Other paris of the brairt.: In evaluating:the eignip,eanae of the Methods of Stimulation and removal.of-parth of brain for:the purpose of studying,its functions, one'mUst came to the conclusion that'rieither?Of.theg justified the great:hbpes.which had, been?originally entertained., At the same time'ime ca i not, deny' the fact'ihat with the 4i4. of these methods a' number of very important data have been obtained. 'The location otthe.higher motor and sensory centers -. has been demOnstrated=forthe4irstAime; with this, however, the . . usefulneis of'bioth betbods-has been.exhausted.... ?? ? ? ? The mairCtaks of the physiology .of the brain id the study of the processes which are at the -bass of- its psychic activity. .The tigation approaches which at tliat-tiiiie,14physiolopr afforded no lobesi:04Uy. of solving this basic problem. . . 2 30 ? `.?? , ? , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy A e ease 5 - r 2014/03/14: CIA-RDIDsi-ninaflPnnitonni A (-Irmo Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Of even less value in this.respect.were various anatomical means of the study of the brain. ,There have been many attemPts of this type, but the respatS proved to be pt little value. Orie can name various acientiata ithe the.dopendence between,. the weight or volume of tio dni1.4kaftinetiong, and the relationship between.the:degree bf,a0010ment of various parts of the brain and. the faculties of' Man.-.S001114#pught_that the shape of the%craniUm_derrehpOnded to the develomentof various sections of the 'brain g he cranium, allegedly, develops certain prot& berences, or curvatures. Phrenblogy, a quack teaching, stating that' palpation of :the cranial surface and iis-irregularities enables .,one to determine the faculties and character ef,,Man, became'quiie,, popular. The phrenologists claimed to be Albe to determine the presence of mathematical, philosophical, and the protuberance of matrimonial-fidelity, as well as the;one.of_the sense of justice; they could, find, of course, one of religiosity. Much attention was devoted to the attemits.of,determining the degree of development. of cerebral funetioasfby'the distribution, " shape, and the number of perebral.convolutions. However, scientific data have proven,that these structure- characteristics (weight, volume, convolutions), are too crude, and that they could not be utilized?not-only in the evaluation of-isolated characteristica, but even of the general level of deyelopmentof the functions of the brain. This pertains to the average_indicatcrs.ina nOrMal individual. Ofcnurse?the underdevelopmentpf the brain (mentioned above) which is expressed in its unusually swill weight, corresponds also with its insufficient function, .as is observed in hereditary idiotism. (Oligophrenia). If,. however, we speak of the average normal weight of the brain,I.even,considerable variationg" of this index will tell us nothing at to the functional activity. J. .,. In regard 't? the number of convolution onthe,cerebral survace, it has been-observed, that some singing birds (inrush) have a brain muCh-richer-in%convolutions than the higher primates. This fact alone indicates that the significance of the concolutiOns is very relative. ' :? It is interesting to note that' oneAcientist has been, saying. all his life that-the average_brain of-e-yomanweighsles's.than that of a man's. Alter his death, his brain was meighed;,its weight was considerably lower than the average weight of a woman's brain.- S' ? ' We must emphasize, however, that, the study of the brain structure bears important significance as to the evaluation of its functions. There are facts indicating that the methods of study of the fine brain structure, which are being developed now, especially ? 31 of the relationship of various microscopic elements (histology of nervous tissue, and the cytoarebitectonics of the brain) have a great future..' Future histophysiblogy, i.e., the joint study.of the structure and functions bt the brain, hap indubitable perspectives. We mentioned (Wove the crude anatomical methods of investigation, particularly common in the pre-Pavlov era of physiology. The evaluation of the psychic faculties of man were made on the basis of these investigations. ,They abanadned on,dccount of. . their unscientific character; Still they are not forgotten by some and reappear 'once in a shile. Thus, for instance, certain ideologists 'of fascism were attempting to utilize them. One of the theoretical premises of fascism was the. attempt to develop the-"teaching" of theinequality of various races What is called racism. In. their aim to #ustify the aggressive colonial policy of imperialism; the racists advanced an unscientific and inhuman "theory" which boiled down to the statement that hmivinity is divided. into higher races -- masters and lower races -- slaves. Unable to justify racism scientifically, its" adherentsare attempting to find "proof" in the antiscientific rubbish of discussions .o?' the significance of the cerebral-weight, volume, ? convolution, etc. long ago relegated to the archives.- The racists find it.vonvenient not only. because it creates an illusion of a scientific foundation, but mainly because of the extreme complexity of measuring the true volume?..survace, and other indexes of cerebral _development.. -Since the: vain normally represents alelly-alke mass,:one-carc,shuffle will, in deter- mining tha-surface-Nolumeof a brains removed from the corpse. ? 7.. _ . ,We have already mentioned that, within the llmits- of the- normal average of structure and size, no' deviations (even considerable , ones) in' ..the -weight or surface structure. of.thebrain. have any significance. whatseever.inthe evaluation of the ..leVel of the perfectioniof its functions. -I. M Sechenov took a sharply negative stand in regard. to such attempts-of:connecting-cerebral functions with the variations, of: its, external, curdely'anatomical features.: Tle,stated:- "...the. character of the psychic' content is 99/100 conditioned 'by training-in the'vide sense of the word, and is only 1/100 dependent on the individuality. This does not mean, of course,,that:I wish to imply:that one'can-change a fool into a clever man; "it would, be tantamount to giving his. hearing faculty-to a:man:born without the acoustic verve. My idea is this: an intel- ligent.Negrol Laplandiano, Bashkirian, subjected to Zuropearrtraining in European-enVironmentican become a man, very little different '.. 32 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 in his psychic content from an educated. European."1 The review cited above prov8s that, the, methods of study?of,the physiological ?functions of the brain during. the -pre-Pavlov. period:. must be considered. unsatikdactor7. Pavlov was well aware of' it when he :Undertook the study of the function of. the cerebral-hemispheres . . It was . cleai. to him that the physiologists of his time did. not possess. satisfactory - ? methods of study of cerebral hemispheres.. This was particularly. - brought out by the following incident which ?occurred. in the: laboratory at that time. In disetussing with .one of his..accooiates. the results of an 'experiment- which had. been carried out on a dog, ? Ivan Petrovich completely disagreed with The talk was in regard. to the observation of the so-...called.rpsychia,". salivation originating not when the .dog.was fed',, but 'from the. appearance and ? odor of. the Sood?when the dog' ias' only shown the food. As usual, an argument ensued... 'The .objections' to Pavlov's point of -view were based on idealistic positions'. and guided..;by the subjective evaluation of the condition of the aaimal:? One :Man stated. that. the ' dog salivated .because it -was 'hungry, the other spoke of its agitation. Much later, when-reflecting, on the nature?of.the psychic activity in dogs, Pavlov said 'in recalling this argument: "An unprecedented event took place in the laboratory -- we were in sharp. disagreement with each other oin the interpretation. of thia world of ours, and we just could not arrive at some mutuialy acceptable conclusion." : He remenbered:one of his assbciatos. Said Pavlov? "There he was with his keen mind, able to 'understcuid the joys and.: triumphs of the investigating thought: kow great was my surprise, when this ? true friend, of. the ,laboratory showed real and profound indignation when he heard for the first time of oUr plans to investigate the psychic activity of a.' dog in the same laboratory and with the same methods which we had. used. up to now for, the solution of various physiological, problems:" The subject 'matter was .the ,objective study of the physiological reflex proceSses in animals. Pavlov understood. then already that "the contact of the true, experimental natural science with' the ultimate threshold. of' life will not be effected. without serious Misunderstandings and Clashes..." Never- theless, he deciced that the attetipt to analyze psychic phenomena by identifying one's own mental state' With the alleged mental. processes in, the dog, 1..e.,''subjective treatment .of phenomena, ? was absolutely useless. The problem could, be solved, by the objective method only. The mystery-.remaintd unsolved. ? There.was no clearness. -.One had to discuss conceptions, the investigation, of which seemed:. to. be A 33 beyond the .r...epif of. possibility ' Howover, the genius of' 'the scietitiht could?not reconcile...itself, to this's-tate. affairs .-?. There had :ii? be' an exit out, of' this blind alley. r: P: Pavlov wrOte- thap,he had .soon became conv.inced. that there was rio,-sense;:?and no .diaat iiiiMiledge to be derived from a psyChOlogic-ar.,:attroach to 'this probiera -- that to start gues.sing what the2dog teels,? thinks, etc: would. lead 'nowhere. . . which had influenced hini babk in his adOleseent days He-A/rote of it at ,a later dates The._., stirred..,.mind of 'Pavlov -revived with not force an imPressipn It...the main impetus which prorated. my decision, though I had not ' at the time, was .the influence of a talented - brochure by' I. .M. SechenoI, the. father of Russian 'physiology, under the title. "The?BraiirRefleXos" (1863), which had impressed me a loag.. time ago, during My adolescence.. The el?feat ofra new' thought, ' strong in it's nethiess and. faithfulness' to' acutality, is always profound, esPecially when one "id young..."1 Pavlov, already then slated:Ao colroborate experimentaLlY"the ideas' of Secheno.v? -loved in later years to '.repeat frequently Sechenovis-worde: "The entire infinite variety of the external manifestations 04,. cerebral activity is reduced in the final analysis to a single phenp- menon -- muscular motion. Whether a baby is' laughing at the Sight ?pf a toy, or .Garibaldi is smiling when he is beirg-hounded for hi. s excessive .ioVe:of his cc,i,blitty, whether a young girl trembles at tl?E first thought-Of'; love, Newton Creates 'world laws' and, is writing them down -- there is always the hisal?fact -- the muscular,motion."2 - ? ..:i Y ? ? , , . - _ ?. Pav36v-4aS the first to. adVanae the- 'suggestion 'that psychic salivation is :nothing else-but a typical reflex of' the brain'. ' ? ? ...This thoUght, peetipd:'?to'166'nfirm. SechenoOs ?wOrds v.PLet,lus *enter the world. 'OfkPhenomena, a 'result, of cerebral activity. It .is said that-this world embraces the entire psychic -suffices to us, physiologists, that ?the brain. is the--organ .Of the the -mechanism 'Which, 4once ,put into Motion. ?by whatevercauses;'leads ,in the final ragultito'thet.aggregate. of' - externai'phei-ic-.;Mena which ?characterizes ?psychic activity..." -1.1... T.:,Pavlov, !coinPlete Colleetion''of'Works"-.Vol'IIIi Book 1, ,seow- Leningrcid, *Published by the Academy of' Sciences .19515, 2 N...1.4..;.-.S81Chei-.1?V.2..'.'-fnele.,Braiii-tietlexeb?:".-In' ? t. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ^ Some are under the erroneous impression that it was. Pavlov who discovered. the very pehnoraenon of psychic salivation. '? 'The ?*- ? so-calledilDsyChic-? salivation was well. known hundreds of years .age.. Still, this -phenomenon somehow:. remained unnoticed:. Only the: gehiu.s. of Pavlov 'could. reveal the importandg,to physiology of? this '-siriple; everyday occurenee.4 ?? Only.. paylov ift;4,..0.1c to, grasp that *"any ? 2.s.' ' ? phenomenon of the .external world dquilii serve as the..0.4241aiqi-4 the salivary gland. If this ,is the .ca,se.?;then we can ol5tain the ; reflection of everything of the ou'iside world in 'the Calvary' gland. Obviously,. the entire content .of the ,so-called psychic function can be thoroughly :investigated by objectli.s. means. The ,Ciatire::SoiL.1. e.arl be squeezed into certain rules governed by such: ObjeCtiVe',giudY..7 I. P. Pavlov arrived to this conclusion. after nufaerbils -laboratory observations.:. ? !: ? ? . '? shewt,?;.to ? the d.og,'tile. dog begins to secrete saliva.; ,though it receives no. food.; ,Tfii.s.,ia:ari example of .the usual "psychic'/:saliyation. PhysiblegiCally speaking -;?? it is a reflex, no...doat,..bFt.. a. reflex. intimately .-connected kaith. "psychic'!" processes at: .the; same time. If 'saliia is the sight, smell,: and. in..hurians. even at. the rece'liectien or imagination of food, can there remain any. doubt VI-at:An theSe cases the physiological function -- salivary reflex -- is directly connected with various "pn.rchic"i state. ?: : 'A,t,ter a-persistent reflection on. this , subject, after a difficult ? mental struggle, said. Pavlov, ...he decided, ?in sfac.ine.thig .s-called" psychic- agitation, to remain in the ...r.63;e Qt.:a-puke physiologist, i.e. .an objective outside obser.ier and .ekperliienter dealing exclusively with external ..phenomena ;and their "interrelat.ions. Pavlov loved. .to ?stress::: "To a? naturalist everything is in .. .., ? :..., ... ' -? ? - the method.." - Thus) the main .event..happened;.. a correct method has. been found of studying what became knowr. ag.."pgichic actiVity",. t!,hd. Amt. Pavlov later named. "the hig,her,,neFvou,s actiVity% ? ? ??? ? The strict objectivity of raVlOvIza method of .conciitioned reflexes was inextricably connected-with the Idea that the =Vied activity of the central nervous-, system, and all. organie..f,unctionii: in general, are caused by certain changes in the external world which guiroundt the ?uhlmal,-. or by various ,propesses ?yhich rare tang place within.. the ? Organism. ,In other. words.; all.phen0fdena. in 'the .organism, the ? most cemplicated psyehici.processee.,inel4ed),,.ori51.natV. and. are effected. Under the influence of certain definite causes which are ? connected with various changes in the exteinal or 'iti-E6Prial2nediui . :?35 .??? of the an/mill.. ?).; The necessity of an objective approaCh to the study of phenomena reiraii?edialio- eta rbbjectiVe? terminology. Terms ..connected,-, with the idealistic-- coriteptidt ollpdychi_ were. rejected), and_ ? "psychic salivation!'.? wag nameki.-...aLeOnditiOned reflex...I_ Thus ? thel group of "phYcliie".3 Condit ionett?1`.efleicelf-was.constrgated. agqinst_, the. natural (iandenditioned) reflexes 112: *.;4.k ? ' ? The basic :differences betireerii -theraliere as i!felloys conclAtioned refloxes th contrast:to- the ? 3o_60allied7.uncohditioned.naturalL, reflexes);- 1%3pm:dented react?ous hih .hayelikeerr`aiquited pb.y.; -. ? the course -of developuent.-.., The C.9.14-itipned re4exes can be as experiments have shown, utuatable as...compared to- unconditional reflexes, they could. ,disappear under certain conditions and. reappear`-onee...inore: %,In-therrealizat-ion3.?of the conditioned,1. ? =.1 reflexes the. main?rol-e was:, played .by. the activity) of?-the higher sections of theLbraini and its .cortewhile =conditioned ?reflex.p4 . . - ? 1 manifested. themselves 'even. after the --resnoval.,. of?, :the large, erbral_ heraisphereg.d5a. theq-animaa.. ??? . r`' ? Placing 'lnecit, -the nmouth of;-arrjaault dog -invariable induces _ salivation".; -unconditionedJoed saliqration ??,? - However, if the dog :As . Only shown-_the meat,t, and: not ? al.leyed eat. it -- (teasing the dog), salivation takes place just -the _Thig ? a conditional food. salivation reflex. In this case the mere sight stimulatds?Isalivation...--A cOnditioned. reflex -ofthis. ikind r? ? innate, but JisvaCquired. by -the.f.-dog ithe. course .If a, puppy, :-whe-has.Lbee.p. a receivingzoiay_railk.andribread-,...since_ is shwonfsatigagelithere:xill?be no,.?eeeretien r of, saliva.r If, the ; , ? , sausage is?brought iclose. to_its snout,- 'the puppyiwill?turn a_ltray.1d.,...: even growl; its attitude as .if..-rthe.f.?sausage were a sick, ,,not, food., However, if' after showing the sausage, one succeeds in 'getting- the2puppyytb'l:eat!'it..--.4.4.--to.ollreinforce;):_as ?i-t? is said? .the .:.:?-? showing.,ef.-thetsqusage with:the;:actf..-.,of.seating -,-i and oder(tofelthe. sausage. will;invoxialay producer-in subg_equerit-test.g: a group ofpcoriditioned.:reflex in tlieif.orm omovement.s.99..f.i'P.Pellx?IPPY in the direction ef'.:.the.taausage,u:sql.lealing, saiiyatign,, etc ? " . ;31 a t LAP: - ? t. ? One:?.aaro-comPli cat e =fthe ;conditions iefithe 'exper4eptand? form, an artificial conditioned, re.tlex par,allelnwith. natura.1,-;ones..???The , ? 'feeding of the. puppy ean be accompanied by. ringing a bell. If' this act is!:-Pepeatedose7creral-times;-:itIsUfficesl,subscvently o rilltil.Ahe..?-?-1 belli?only-pwitlieutr,giving.,food9.,,and;_the, puppy-will pull..titselt,te-the mangerwhereadt!..usuallybreceivestfood).:wiUtart rli4ing, its and. salivate:-.1 Thus9..ttho3bela.-ringizig aequired...tharsignifiecu,icec:of ? a signal!: fori:thet?-.13ubgequent:f feeding) and:Jthe puppy_ equired?:;; ;-? 36 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 conditioned. reflexes (the motor and salivation reflexes) to the -.1 beLl..ringing. As a result 'Of conductdd ,by Pak?lov, conditions vere,established-1,..thich vete needed. for the- formation and preservation- ofariotii' d.ttiI reflexes. It turned 0,ut , that any, Phenomena of the .outside' waild.,?Srhati..?, are capabld? of '.! ?:., mulating the nerce cells of the brain, can ? be' used. as signals for ' the formation of conditioned. reflexes. It has been proved pos- sible to. produce a 'ctinditioned reflex not only to the action of .a . certain stimulandt souhd.)4-; but to: the elimination of the continuoualy acting. stithitlints,. (fOr fexample, in connection .. with the ?ondet 'of' darkness after continuous light; or silence after continuos'ringing off the bell);- ? , ' ?" ?: - ? Definite time ??intervaIi may. serva'al::conditional,..stimulants... This was elicited. aftLfollowir:;?? The" animal !received food everyten. minutes under-2,:strietly:itiliaritible tOnditrona.?- After; a certain. number of these' 'feedings-, --tit? was tobSerVed? that the 'dog which remained standing quietly in its stand began to turn ? around., .lick its lips, and pull to the manger; it began to salivate 1 through it received 'nth food.' :Hereas?-?a-?-conetitioned'reflex induced-by- , certain time intervali.? The time?-elethent',a1S6 -proved to be a real .:? stimulant' which;, a's Pavlov panted ,ciut,?Aiduld -sUbject,ed: to*I.* ' exact inveitigation.? ''?? ? ? ??f* . , Folloiing.:?the forthation of Conditioned--::reflexes on the.:activity ? of the digestive organs', Similar-reflexes -1;tere, established on the functions of-the kidneys, Cardiii.vaituldr?--system, the processes of , metabolism, etc.-- Thus, -it was*:piciven-that.;--by.inieans of' a conditioned .. - reflex, cine?-citiv..connect various -activities of the organism' and. -the ? ??? ? functi6na ?Of-any. organ with?the?cerebral ,gortex.- - ' ; The tact ?-that 'Pavlov investigs.ted'iConditioned ;reflexes )mostly., on the sedii;ery -gland 'iras' ;theconvenience of this procedure, as compared.-to othera. vais',?poitible to 'measure correctly'; the degree' be-ther`-refleXr -(by7the 'quantity of. the secreted...saliva"),, and. it was easy' it, evaltiate the quilitr of tthe, - saliva .(by .analyzing ? its content); besides; the function of the salivary glands is to a large extent connected.i'iritN? the "activity :ofjthe brain; and' depends. very little on the state-of theYorganism: ? ? ;r? j ? . - ? . ? ? .I.,:???.? ?:?-?????, ? ? .-:,??????;_,. ; The -metfaid of salivary' 6cinclitioned:reflexes - only, one-.of (the. methods on the basiii:of WhialV.the:,'ocesaes.:0;Jthe::cerdbral. , cortex were stiidieal .-Aither."4nvestigateirs? employed, As...a?,:conditiOned.,. reflex method, the .roire.ment's'off:theFan1101-'s !eitiemitie-i)in response - to a painful .:The resW.ts sh-owed-that Pay16?08 selection ? ? ? 37 veammosr I . 1,4 t 'Vas more Slideersiftil. Thia was;partly?due to the fact -that the motor cOnditioned reflexes are'less ? stable and. are more difficult to measure ibiantitatively:- a ? - ;' ? .1.. i ? ? ? HOWeVerfi" indotehdentiy Otthe methodifused. by- scientists to study saliVarY -Or 'motor: rdflafiked the COnaitioned.. reflex _represents a universal function 'of the-higher .sections of the brain. As we have already indicated, any. activity of thd organism' can be - included in the conditioned reflex akc ..." ? . - The conditioned -reflex function of the brain is its u.niversal function because 'it manifests itself under.ail life cea, when the ahimal'and,niein have acquired. ex;perience. So far, we have, learned only the rioitt'-'-eiementaky.types of conditioned reflexes, the examples of' iihich we indicated.- above.' ? ' Of coureeT 'the'trUe 'basis of'psychio 'activity' is _represented- not by these- airilPle reactions-:only-le but:by a great 'variety of other, 'mord ,complicated. conditioned reflexes, by.their most complexi, associations and?,cothbinations. ,,'The task of future study is to . analyze thete reflexesy-but eireri.::at-ithe present time, we are_ able to city examples of .aome' conditioned associations of' a more complex character: ?:? ; . ? We describecU above- tn example of' a ccinditioned reflex-induced . by the sitult'adeous employment of. a Conditioned and, non-conditioned stimulation.. This is the- ueual- conditioned. reflex. , 'One can make' this reflex, prodUced for instance by the flash of an' electric bulbi, a ?, very, stablene-.1- '.In `order to*: achieve thia.effect,??? we have: to-? produce';-- as* Irds...iiOinted-i:out",:previously-,`, a large. number ? of cOnditioned and.non-conditioned combinations of stimulations. In the end., the conditioned' stlintilant acquires, the) stability and for.ce almost equal to thatl'ofn'thenon-conditioned, stimulant.: We: can , case: any other.- neutrariageni, let- 'us ?saYyi_as. bell, and begin-to combine - sotuld-with:. Aftbr -the repeated. us.e. of 'the two agents.,?,.we,..shali note that-the bell?.'hab assumed. the' role 'of the_ conditioned. ?, ? stimulant.': Witli?the: use%of _the bell alone, we ?shall induce' salivation though at no time was ringing accompanied by feeding:- ?"A conditioned reflex -of a.becond order,has been formed. We can visualize the. formation-of...a% conditioned?;reflex of' the "third,' -fourth, order., -and so on-; if -wet haa. been able tof.troduce.'Ex! very stable- conditioned atimulant in-!;the -reflex_ of- the :subsequent order. A sort Ofs-zmIlti.t..., levels conditioned reflexed,will?originate, of. which- each subsequent reflex is built on.the?preceding one. -?- 4 ? .? z ?.-.: 4: ? 'The so-cilled-adsociations,- which have,been- long known 'in,-, ,? psycholdeilitit? which u to.' iib*.aniceived no explanatiOnp: are t?calosely -? ,??? -.? . . ? ? :38 ' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ?? connected with 'these tYpe of reflexes. ?The associe.tions originate when two or more 'phenomena which accompan'Y'''Ach Other in time. A-- certain contact is established between the centers which affed:t, these reactions. If one* of these phenOivna agsumes the character of a conditioned: stimulant, it beaiirto prod/m:6e a reaction also under the effect of anOther 8timular4.? I -.9s:case, this stimulant, which has never been,reinforced by -.4.uncond.?tioned stimulant-, ..enters the contact as the second. conditioned'stimulantb" If we shall call the usual conditioned. reflex a conditioned- unconditioned reaction, then in the:. case of :i113SoCiation, we must speak of. a conditioned-conditioned. rea*tion. Pavlov considered. associations as the very b-asis.of Mental. aciivity. "Wb, this, i. exactly the war our mind: works" he used'. to? say, in observing . associations in higher primates. ? The complex conditioned; stimplandi pl&iy ti very important .r.o4e in the development of-psychic activity. e generallruse separate stimulants-sin the1.aboratory:1 b.e ,elecitic light, whistle, etc. Under natural cond:iztionsy however., :the animal, frequently comes in contact with a large complex of 6onditionWitimularrts. .For .indtance, the sun -is:rising -- the light -is changing, the,telperatur.e air movement, are changing, the degree of humidity varies, the birdS, are waking. uP'. and fill the surrounding spare. with their cries. This ? sort of most Complex.. Eigg-regate of ? stimulantS" represents :the ?condi- tioned stiiinlafit for tife, 'definite. ..conditioned' reflexes '.of the aninial.. Even in-the:laboratory we ?ceme Across some complex forms -of condi- tioned._.refleies,' the; so-called. _situational reflexes which?-or.igillate in response. not to -isOlated stimulants; .but .66 complexes. of, stimu- lants, which.:reiresents the entire .iietting Of the erperiment., - .?.. ? We :8h3. take up a,..apecial group of so-called? tracer . . conditioned. reflexes. Ilp we cited. example's of -reflexes which were produced in-response to-,one or another acting stimulant., ? Investigations, have- shown) however, that .it-tis possible to form conditioned co'n;tacts --not in response to a .present, acting _stimulant but to its .traces. - In a case of this type, the 'conditioned reflex has been formed as:follows.- ? ? ? ?.? , ? The :bell rang' for 's, while,- then it stopped:. One,. two minute.s passed,. then...the animarvas fee,., it this, the trace left by the sound stiniulant, i.e., the residual, stimulation''in..the central nervous system coincided. in time with the agitation due to, feeding.. It turne& out that the conditioned. reflex Could form also. on .the. trace :of...the .preVibusly employed stimulant. It was manifested. this: During the action of the,tell,)fthe.stnitaal. remained quiet, ..and continued to-'be quiet for a minute and:a-It:41f following the .ringing . ? 39 of the belly However'. as,.the duration. of the ,interval.apprOR!P)4d- two e ,the moment,. when, :the .0?41, ;ugually receilied its food., it began to _Show anxiety; the ,saliVa..aPP.9ard, the dogPiilled? . itself to-ithe,manger Obviously)! the,..thiek.bade!?yas the 'residua; .or *trace ? stimulation.left.after the -tiie',Ittel-44, and not t1 stimu-. lating effect rof.-thes,ringing its.elfi," ? !.1.11 ?,' ? : The cerebral cortex ,possessesa?highly expressed facii.4y, to. preserve traced -of stimulations ,which receives i to eiplain- , We Shall call ;yotlr, attention :to our mentOi:y!i' .;01el:Ccrel:iralTh-Ortex, : as is wol.11,,knowni.,,,.can?.retain,:raq,ep,:of iinpreadib4,14,eeived by _ _ everyone of us even in early youth. These' traced iiiiy`be preserved. for scores of years, even during the entire life. At times, these ? traces come-back to we .,aptliklirlir,,thrOugp. siTevoy other , recollection , , . . , . . ? ..r It isoeasy, to see, from the., cited above,: that the conditioned - ,. reflexes 1/hick-are formed. irk-,the cerebral-cortex,tracei of: ... various stimUlations:Lare of,the,utmosts.impOrtance to the, processes , .? of psychic activity. _c,. r..i:,.... . z;:..: ......t, ?, '. ??;-: ? - These examples.,.indieate.ithat very complex. forms of Conditioned reflexes ar.e at the' base-, of; psychic, activity. -,, Only. pertain types of these reflexes-;.are,known at the present rtime, many of them remain, the task of future :studies.:?..... : .:.s; -?,. ,.An iliiportant ? characteristic of a conditioned' reflex' is its ?niobi- lityj -its-.changeability.F??;Vp,-,be more .precise the conditioned,,, 'reflex '5.cankbe :very :IC on 1r. or highly?Lunstable) ;.depending on . .various,.:Conditt.ons gl..epeds,on.hether the,. signal 8ignifiCan6e of , , a cond.i.tioned, preserved.- or ? If:the animal receives its food while it is invariably accompanied .1by? some. s'0.144, ..,always retain its , significance-aa signal oilifeeding; .:.The,,aoupd. will Produce, , a ?COmplex of food. reactions:vb.:U.3i generally take,Pla,.oe.only upon feeding, though in this case ? was: no foc2d.;.present Horver,:..if the circumstances ?? change and...'4hez.an1mal- stops-reccivin.g .;f9o0. with4his , ,conditioned, stimulant 'loses its1.,malue,. as :a :..signal; and. the, dOnd:itioned reflexwill--grad.uaUy weaken, and finally disappear altog6ther., '.We' ? - :witness there the faculty of the cerebral cortex to promptly remove'?by,:means.,-0.11-Ytti34M't1,9n 'unction of inhibitiprit?tmr: _ ;,' at) _? ,The conditioned. reflexes are constantly ?Chaniiiig'urider the ti " Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA RDP81 01043 04 m Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ;- - - effect of the 'environment. This is the most characteristic :.trait of the conditioned reflexes which, denionstrateS, their-biological role in the adjuatnient of an tininiar 6rginiiiin'.,12Indeed.,: the animal ? ? -? encounters most diverse ti at in the conditions 02 its natural environment. There ,are the effects' of .light and darkness, sounds and. silence, .charigea in the temperature-and...yelocity of the air, changes in.' humidity, ;variations- in ''preaiure,:-;,etC. 'These' and: 'many other phenomena may, under- certain conditons; serve the animal as signals of obtaining food or as warnings of the enemy attack. Any change in the external mediUm:Cr?in the:internal?State of the animal may become a dOxi.tiiiionescl stitaulantc Or; a :co:n.ditioned sigoal: An, ? "alternating signaLization", .as takes place :which is the more :mobile the better the; ist.Eidjusted'to -the ?,. ? environment: ? What. is 'described above retreaents:the ;nai,n thesis of Pavlov's ? teaching, as. evaluated. from the biological point of view. The ? ? ? highly important role of the cerebral cortex consists, in this respect, in its property to maintain stable associatiens-with:-:the external mediura'i'With'ite atimulant'irNhiCh.retain.their value :as.;,:- signals and in :?ita? readtion:. :V). the ,st?iyinfl ants... which ???:' have lost their-role as biolOgical signals. This ensures the animal the possibility of an unlimited adjustment to the environmental' changes. The formatiorZ'Qf temporary functional:- . associations ?cooreslionda -to the ?cogitionS:''pf; the existing situation.\ This remarkable pr4ert?y. of the tentrai...neriroua system, reinforced. through hereditary aCqUired.' faculties, is at 'the basis of developinent of the higher nervous (psychic) activity of animals-. The uncond'itioned. r?exeg repres.-e.nt reaCtions? which_ are.. effected. by animali'innnediately'f011oWing birth (sucking, swallowing, sneezing, ete.).???? these-reflexes r& ifiherited, therare very stable, and are manifested in a stereotype all representatives .of a given species. , ? ? _ ? The unconditioned. reflex is a 'comparativ.ely -inert Anactien; and. undergoes _reorganization nnderrekceitional 'conditions only,. -It , depends,. to a' great extent,. on-the stEibility Of.'?,the nervous paths ? - within 'the liMits of which theSe:,tuicOnditi'onal:'-reflexes are effected:?." In case of?,saudden.TenirOnniental.' changes,' one ? geld= ebserves- any ? ? adjustments of the unconditioned'reflexesywhich would. cc respondto the new situations. ' ? ? ? ? . It must else)* be mentioned, that'the?number? of unconditioned' ? reflexes which the animal possesses is 'quite considerable, and. they are very diverse in their complexity. :. ? ? ., ? :?. - ? 1 ? The.,'-cf conditioned.' and. uncon4tione4 ,reflexes intro.- &iced a'iliteeticifilitic Conception in the fie14?of ,sciencek,which - hitherto h,l'ialtesetiirilY occupied.' With the study of sor.calleici. instincts, of which we -shall speak, later. The aniazing 'picture of the mobility.'"of.M.i.proceases of sti- mulation and. inhibition in the cerebral COtex. began .to unfold. - gradually. The 'Observer could. study in detail the movement and. distribution of these processes in the cerebral 'cortex. The experiments carried. out by Pavlov and. his students represented. the true triuniph of' natural Science. It 'turned- out .:that ..the prodesii. o stiulat.On 4- inhibition originating in a limited- area ot-th.e..cere4tits.1 COrteXi5,:ceiPable, of diffusion ,along .its nervous cells (irradiation). As contradted. this, isv,th'er'..9"offeeritiirition.? of the .stimplating,Or Inhibiting ,process, when theliiitially-Axiadiatect; stimulation again becomes ,Concentrated in a definite' point in the ..cortex. . ).:?. : ". ? ?,. - _ Ilinnykable Vkiieriments were conducted ,in 'the Pavlov laboratory, in order to obserVes 'the movement' of the processes ,of stimulation Or - inhibition 'iri-ithe ,cerebral? cortex. The cutaneous, conditional reflexes were utili.Wed. _Ter thifE,purpose. Pressure on various ,areas Of the, - skin of ..ilogs 'served as. a Conditional. stimulant . The pressure was effected. by...lie-tins of small ?touch-devices wh-ioh.were attached to ;the skin (u.kasalkan),-=.and Was accompanied .by feeding. As a .result, conditioned ,salivation reflex Was formed in response to ?skin ? stimulation. ?;',A-'-grOiip,''of such "conditioned,reflexes was -produced 'by means.. of -plaCing a eireral!..Of !these, :devices ', in'. the skin- of the Aog I s extremities./ at some distance from one another. , ? ? ? - ? Tc4each labia of cbntact.,ot these devices, naturally, cor- responded a .d.efinite Point in the ?cerebral cortex where the cor- resp? stimulation-was ?projected. ? ? ? ,:? ? - ? ? ???? The conditioned reflexes...which had.been.produced.were 4rer.y stable,. -set'the.t.- their:. scope .(measured. by the ...quantity of. 'Saliva) was very conitant:-iiiid:er ordinary conditions. ? One of. these skin* devices was 'changed jint6i?an inhibition etimulant. It is possible iso., arrange one inhibition deVice situated..among other?_ gtimulatine.devices; An 8.-reViit inhibition' was in .the, corresponding points of :the cortex.) '',BY'? measuring 'periodically ?the scope ? of.. the , Stimulating` reflexes from ?the devices situated. around' the ?inhibition:deVic.e, one could' easily trace, the.irradiation' of inhibition, :first from -the initial, 6ifl't1iefr' gradUallyiinvolving- all" adjacent points in. the . cortex, and.. finally again concentrating itself in the, initial point'.' - ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14 : IA- - 0 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 "0.1. Harvey,- the famous English physiolbgAstr used. the quantitative indicatior fdr the, analysis of the. conditions of carAiac w.o.rX for:the. first time in the. -hisfory of . biology. The genius of . Pav,lov. soargd? - mach higher; he subordinated' the physiblogical proegpses are.* at the basis of the "psychic" states to a strict quantitative, numerical Calculition.. In, a wherkAultil recent-1y -supremely.. reigned fantasy, MYsticism, 'and ctOotic:!ideas,...the experimenter was . now able to asertain the laws- whichicoYerrk t:119,,aPtivity of the . brain. ? ? The precise quantitative calculation of phenomena, .base4. correct systematic foundation, enabled. Pavlov to elecit new qtiaii- tative regulations. in the-tunetiono the ".brain. and., particularly) in the interlocking acti-Vity' bf the cortticalrceal. ? ? , .. ? As new -facts , kept-, connection with the, sttidy of increasingly is.rger.:number pf. FinArm1ft.11. became' clear to Pavlov that the force interrelation, and. mibility,..of the basic proc.esses 7- -the stimulating and. inhibiting ones -- in the cerebral cortex can be completPi-Y-4f..C.91"P#, .This difference manifesteil elarity- in, the pathologleal,. deviations-in tie,, 60-called experimenta5. neurpses........ The. genius of Pavlov manifested itself:: new :generalization when the teaching on ..variout- types: of higher-neryous...activity appeared. classification of' '/system'. on cardiaeiiet-i:vitY:* tiiner'baCk h the-dighteentli;?.Centyi . he advanced a suggestion, based, on his observation, thatir.c.a.Vdiad ? ' nerves influence the metabolism and tne nutrition of the cardiac ?t?-: ? . .? ' ? muscle. ; . . Pavlov visualzed an aCtiiivi'it'atbil an organ as a react-ion.- rtb-akitan's. ?adcordance. With ?ttlis? conception, inhibition reduced, the activity of? the ,brain'? connected. , with excitation,,.ithue..refqing conditions for the restoration of its cap.aelt?to ' "- 1- ? ? :????, ? ? ?. ? ? ? :." ? .7, ,?. ? `... ?:; ????? ? :.? ????: ? Thd''cbn4,Cptiott of ithibiia thitreatthativestroie was ? applie'aciLti:r9kla"in' the '? l'efiCe" of'? a poimrlof_ eparture, wasL ea e ere ra 9 s. n.? r"tb% " ? subject. to exhauslion s $ife"resillt '.o.f.exceitsively 'cstreng:-..excitiv.? ? tions. ? The-iithib#iOn$rWC6Siseli tketiow.lorth4-pu.ri,oim '. ? of preventing' ftiiii, -61` -"the"-Cerebiali Cells ?:whiCh.,other wise cOuid. Clange:rciitiVtOitiaeii--.1if6 ' -these ? ? circumsterides'thede. prbee'Sies'Plii'aziessentially ' -protective. role: - ? r. ? ? :fa ? ;: "FaChalipt10111;":?btPSriv di- --- Impulses leading '6;0' the'. etOitenee. Of -aii..inhibitioicproces's as' a- ? prote6ti813..:iehania.440.' ? ? ??-. ? t ?? . . . In &CEO, 6.,S;,:the', e'vy ?aiable to develop neuroses under trying 'exPerit'erital erSnifitioni;: the. :post -aimitial neurosis' develops especially easy. Further observations demonstrated. that post -1 imirj.a13*114-Eicin, -onli-,A:rdtective Rae, but a ' therapeutiCdohe -to; talk or a -protective ? or therapeut9c inhibition. Thus another exceptionally important.' problem ? faced practical medicine 7.? the sleep therapy. At the tieif.anitleiW tie present Centiiry; I. 1%.-.1aVlovin - collai5oratiOrn6rAih:hiSt?Stuaents'''etefinitelSrl demOnstratedi that the ?? essenceofj, natural 'e19bp Veirelients of.' the4tornis of cortical inh1bitTok.'71th7- idea .'Caiii4" to the fore that the regdarysleep Is a ? form of' inhibition due to the exhaustion of Of ?cortical:. . following the' da:',ylis.:IiOrk; ? SleePiness' toWard, the evening,; according to Pavlov, represents request' of Cortex for some - ? rest". Elien. stim1a1ions of 'iiiiiinary-foreer striking the tired ? . ? cortex, acqUit4the charaeter :era strength an induced ? -/ inhibition sleep. ' Pavlov&ii_CC4ii'ed?hiritiele'Serib;,.iely''tAtiti`the".fprob4.eti.-Of the role and. signifieince: 'or later, was ? expanding hi studies df neuroses neuroses :??-- 'It:ewes-about as follows. 4541- ? .?????..i::1,4 . , . 4 44. UnSsriF,the dirt' impression' gathered, from. the observation of neuroses in, iinimi41s'; IVarilqt'i'oiiich turned, to an,analysis,of certain mental?diseasee , man it8rbeCe. "intereited in it first ,in 1918. The data 'which,he had colleated the lyttirjr of experimental neuroses enabled. him ,tecdor_reet4, in pret certaiy"fOrras of mental distur- bances. It ,beCeme clear to Atii t 'hiat the' di eturbance of' sleep. has some signifi,cance in'the?tuidelitailding of a- disease., ._ , . ? 4 In this reapect; "Particularfy instrUdtive was the case of a patient Kt who has reamined in a sleep-1ike? state, a so-ealled lethargic sleep, altrst contirtudtisly for- 20 years. Cases of A lethargic Condition -,were observed 'preVibusiy; but the _observations on K. acilir.,e'd a ,particular intei:est In viewfot the exceptional duration of this illness -Pavlov himself participated in the observation of the patient. Siring the process of recovery, the. patient woU1d.'-'wake_up 'occasibiteV,,y' to take- food.-(he?was receiving liquid food during hiee?leep through ' sound which introduced into ;. the eosephagt1.4. oialt: at, night when the ...daylight noise, slight. a1t.was ,in the hospital, woad 'completely die-down, Under these;,'Coaiti6nez?his nervOuirsydtera,'..capable to cope_ yith a minimai,amatint of stimu..leitibn only,' retained certain excitability. -61ie' 'dlightest, MOstrinsiglificant'stim.ulus ? slamming of a door, or entrance Of the ward attendant --the patient.. would. Again sink into. sleek. The.npostr3.iminal protective inhibition would. assert itself in the 'cerebrali cbrtex. This. reaction seryed as protection' to' 'th.q5atient ad: ri. his We'ak? nervous ? system from_ stimuli which assumed: the character of "super-irritations.? - aeems AO ? rit91."--Yaviov Utiedto say, ? ".thate..while Inhibition is presen In maii.?.11,herbvis -'nds to-lose. hppe Her; a' man has.: been. lying :13:14a. corpse for ...twenty years; only inhibition saved. hisl'bratildialli 'iiaierabre - ? ? ? ? 1..4 0 - ? , ' ? . ? The:r ?Slate. bf.these..o1;seracations led-Pavlov to definite con- clusions.' _Sleep, be it Pathological or normal,'? represents a defensive,- protective reaction for the benefit of the nervous system. "A periodical normal 'said_ he;?"18: unquestionably :the result Of exhaukibri.,;.; sleep. is. -a state of' inactivity, of _rest. of the . large hemispheres." The *Sligicar deduction' follbwed that it Is, possible't6.:ebiPlOy sleep as a 'tlierepeutic:,ineastre in certain _toms of mental diseases-. The '-first 'attempts brought, remarkable,. -? restate in 'ibme. cases. ? - ? ? , liarcat,icas .-weirg;uaed. abroad%to put patients to The? le-onriectiori;; .1:thetlieri the th:erapeutic-effect ' was due tO'''tlie ?to- the-teff 'eat ofsstrbng,,nistreotics. .? ? , 46* Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14: A- 0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 tt, - Only the students of Pavlov employed the therapeutic effect, _ of sleep on a correct basis. .1n using mild soporific drugs, instead of powerful narcotics, they tried-td"Vrolong natural sleep. : ? Pavlov's deductions feceived. full justification when his closest aztvioc.tatei..M. K. Petrova, began to -employ as a therapeutic measure hypnotic sleep, not connectl4d with tl e. administration of alien to the body narcotic drugs, even "i-thy were- given in small' doses: The introduction into practice of electro-sleep also repre- sents an important achievement. She corr4ctness.of Vavilovts teaching of sleep therapy baa been amply corroborated by the positive-reiats? obtained. at present in many therapeutic institutions. The :afeep treatment of certain' mental and. nervous disorders prove& to.:beivery effective. It is of definite benefit in certain cases-of?ttreatment of 'the -so-called. internal diseases (hypertonic and..ulcer d-is'eases) which develop on account of prolonged:. pathological; disturbances' of-the nervous system. However, the use of' '.sleep muat be.1 mi ted to a ' definite circle of diseases: Addening ?itbeyond. this circlo'may'? only be harmful. There are..diseases, which muet not be?treate& via'. inhibition. (sleep)., but on.the contrary. by means- of the -Stimulation of the central nervous system: ? , ?? ? ' . , The observations' of"; people placed before Pavlov the problem'. of the differences in. the higher nervous activity of humans, "as ..* compared to :that .of animals. ?-? In continuing his observations on:patients at the psychiatric . clinic which*had been ?siaecially created. at his laboratory in 1931, Pavlov came upon .a remarkable -generalization. In 1932 he drew up the first-outline of .nis teaching..of the two sinal?systems of conditioned reflexes in man. But before we ShFill come to 'this special question of the characteristics of the higher nervous . activity in man, :we must sminirrr#e What had. been said. above. I. M. Sechenov was the first naturalist-scientist who, with.. extraordinary courage (particrOarlir for his time), asserted. that ? any manifestation of mental or sensory activity is based. on the. reflexes- of the' brain. Experimental proof of this "genial 'sweep of Sechenov's thonfght," as Pavlov expressed it, came much later., but even at that time his comtemporaries fully valued the great significance of the materialistic ideas of Sechenov. The pro-. gressive elements of the community, especially the studtnts.and youth, -gathered. around. the name of' Sechenov," 'as 'if, around?- a banner which inspired. thek to. fight for materialistic science, .and against mysticism and. obscurantism. ? . _??? 116 a ? The the'LrelireSehtative'-of? clergy guessed . that t.he.esiance"..;of ,.d&ch6noVls% teaching va& being&trcctcd. as a powerful" tii?at against tie . :of the s'ouli that is, was destro*ritotlie,krery strong-liald 4dealiatic religLons interpretatioh.,.34,6iliy6blos and.iiSithie:aWtivity;?they.declared an impidd1 'The?Brain-? ? -Reflexes".. , . . . n . . ,yaluyeyl`'t.fie:tsaiist'uanister- of' internal' affair63,,stresged ; the "hdrrifuln '?in.tatirig that, to "interpret in a populazi bOokI even frid'?phyiolbeda.1 jaoilit. of.. view, the.. .7. ? r?? ,psydhid. futietions, of ,man As the ? result oft...external, influences on the riei)tes'and...ds'?..the refledtit;n1.ilif?t.tlfeisez?iinfluenCe.s: in the? ,, ? .-; ??? brain, meanl inb'sti.-ttiting he tea-Ching- of the' dixarAortality..ot.tie spirit vrit-h' A heVeteaching.iihiCh3'rebogniies.-ipnlv.inatter in man.-..? ?.- , ? .:.; ? -;?? ? The 'Kiwi rehbishi*:137rrls publidhed,- a' book -"On "the Impossibility of a purely 'Physiolcigical'ix-ranateiorP--of the -Psychic .Life. of- Man.",. - It is not difficult to see that even the title?is'Airected I. M. Sechenov. It is known, that Sechenov had. to change the original title..,of,hiS, :book at the..requeSt: Of theotsatist cenaorshiplwhich had forbidden the" title- which SeCtigiov had'. originally given to his book: "An Attempt to Introduce a Physiological Basis in the,-Paychic,; Processes". - . ? ? Thus, the.' secUlar as well 'ai-the'-clerical:)Peiers :bore: down.-..on. Sechenov- and his book it, regard..TtOilihich the':censership.;attempted to.. do a2,-.1 it Caliaa,' prevent:: its ' publicatiqn.-'-'Trife:",?the of' Sechenov,.dia. not take place', since2the iridabitable outcome 0f-34e:- trial would'haire riade'Sechehov even maFe'-?p-opular;-however, the tsarist bureaucrats succeeded in TOrVidding the .-?,ublishihg, of Sovremennik gontemporary7, a joiirnal edited by N. G. Chernyshevskiy. Permission was 'granted to publish it iii the journal,(Mediti3inskiy.a.r(."' Vestrazged:rcal,.:Heraldj. -wtt_ic'h had. a comparatively small-\circulation.- 'At this, the eleikics and -ioureauCihts entertained- hope, that) the. ,nemffit, _ title "Brain. iii,efle.xes", in vfevi'of? its-.,..raigiferie'ss, .(in, the ?18.70.1a). vcould: ? limit the. cirdle :people 'whO c?514.1-rd. bec-Vme-intereste?d. -.In this. work. Nevertheless the materialistic views of Sechenov became widely known and popular already at the time when the book was forbidden, and. the progressive readers used. the handwritten texts of the issue. ? .,._ , In spite of the persecutions and injunctions, "The Brain Reflexes" opened a new page in science -- the materialistic analysis of psychic activity. Over fifty years of indefatibable research by Pavlov and. the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA-RDP81 01043R004200140003-ri Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 legion of hie-, itUde.iits 'corroborated experimentally,the correctness of the theoretical ; premises. of Sechenov.: Pavlov area-tad' an, objective method of study Of ppyclaia phimomena which put an end. to the fruitless attempts of using *:a ), ,psYchic. resdareh: .The scientific objective ,method*Ii?petiuitted an2-elticidatiOn and ? correct description ' of the .basircgt?..111r.1.tieg. of Within a, short time, the. method 6f conditioned reflexes grew ' into a theory of 'Conditioned reflexes; thik;:b9ao4ing? of higher - nervous'-adtivity'originat'ed.:??I' was Ond ir.L.controveriiibly that, in spite of the cOmpleXity: Of the t externalma.nifestatiotia' of ? ? .. behavior, at the -babe of it ? are theonechaniaras of, conditiOned and. unconditioned reflexes, in their multiple diversity : of.. combina- tions and. interrelations. There- are :31.0:. other but reflex -reactions? - in the brain. This: conclusion', 'thu:sp?becalie.:the DiairuitaY?of materialistic. monism of Pavlov. The myth of the .allegedli 'eidating Eiuhstande self reliant- and independent .of the body, which in various hues is inVariably:the.-essencei.o.f.any?Felig1645 belief; has ' been .colAplete* discredited..y ;,? ' ??.? TheteaChing;.of_Pa?-Vlov irrefutat.41y,proveg; that the 'entire - ? . . substance of, psychic -aCtAvity can be understood by iiieans of objective methods of inveatigatiOni??,- .!-??? ? ? -;. - ? _ . Having, completed the gigantic work of subsantiating the -? raaterialist.ic'theoirof-the. so-called activity,, of the aoul, Pavlov advanced the..stildyi,of7the. nest.. most important problem-connected with the need. of 'eliciting,the;,catiaatien s(the'detekminant factor) of the, psychic 14enOriiena'.--:',..Hen..cp?. the origin of '.ideas and studies - which demenstrated ctlia....fOritationnof:nervotaa activIti.:iander the effect ? of ' ? external. etiitli, depending. On: their various , types.. ? ? - ? Thia' '.'of 'the %formation, . :i.e..; d.evelOpn.' of higher ??? nervous activity and Its Variability is in stielf ntereat;int. ' ? The. causative conditiOning,-;:,the dependence of the processes of higher,' ? ner-Votui actiViti?on eiternal conditions. leads to the idea 'of theposib1lity .of .; iriterkerking-lin.4.ese processes ,by niealis of influencing the external conditions and. circumstances. , ? 4. ?fir 48- ? ? ? - 0 The Effect of the Environment of Psychic Activity "Any more or less important change, . in the living conditions ,of any ? 'specs" 6f animals acquires the, ' charidter. of permanence, and. caused' In the individu.als , of these species a true -change in their reqni'rements. Any change in 'the requirein" ents of the an:finals dalla for'neW Measnres to satisfy these new requirements - arid. thus -leads' to the forraation". of 'new habit's." ? J. B. Lamarck (1710+-1829) Way back; during ilia initial investigations; when he studied the physiology of blood circulation, ?PavlCiV" advanced for the purpose of' experimental study the problem of the unity and bond between the organism and his environmental conditions. This problem iri theoretical aspect vete posed still 'earlier by Sechenov. ? Sechenov evaluated correctly and. profoundly the role of the environmental factors in the life activity of the organism. He pointed, out the Impossibility' of giving' a scientific definition of an- organism without the idea" ofthe medium in which' the anirvii lives. This ' theoretical premise required experimental corroboration. And. this - is what Pavlov and his Pupils- have done in their investigations in. the field of physiology of' digestion and., esPecially, in the realm of' the physiology of brain. ? The study of a- new group 'of reflexes-discovered-by -Pavlov ., enabled. him to understand. thoroughly how the 'bond. between the higher anemia and. the surrounding medium is being effected. While the interrelations of, the lower animals with the surrotuading medium can be limited to rather primitive and. constant reflexes,? the ? ? inherited unconditioned Ones the' diversity and:mobility of the reactions of higher animals to their environment requires another type of reflexes. The conditioned reflexes ensure this accomodation of animals to the changing condition in' the external mediumf. Pavlov, thus, showed the. substance of the environmental adjustment of animals which Darwin had postulated. '* Pavlov extended the method. of conditioned'reflexes, 'as a means? of. study and. explanatiOn of the-nlbst cothplex "so-called-aour.-z? or . ? ? ? psychic -- manifestation of the activities of the. organiam's to all Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release highly organized,ahimals, Thus dame to life the Comparative, or evolutional physiology of higher nervoutLaCtivity. As if mapping.out the progr*,?61. further investigations in the field of phydiology,,I. P. Pavlov /wrote at the dawn of our century: helal new anci unlimited, field of ftuitful study is opening up, the second immense part of the?physiolegy of the nervous system -- the one which established mainly the.reiatiohship, not between separate parts of an organism with which we have chiefly occupied up to the present timel, but between the organism. and the surrounding medium. "1 According to the physiological teaching of Pavlov, evolution was connedted with the fact that the nervous system of higher animals ensured their tejestment,to the conditions of the external medium on the basis of formation of temporary associations. This is the physiological essence of the evolutional process. The influence of various environmental factors on the.evolution of various organs of. the an1mn1 were effected accprdingly. The animals are capable of behavior ,adjustment and are, thus, able to distinguish various stimulants according to their biological significance. "It is perfectlyobvious," wrote Pavlov, "that the entire activity of the organism must be regulated. If the animal were not to use a biologicalterwaccurately adjusted to its environment it would sooner, or later ceased. ;to exist. If an animal, instead of heading for,food would shy away, from it, or instead of running away from fire would throw itself into the flames, etc., it would have perished in one way or another. It must react to its environment in such a manner that its reactive activity serve toinsure its existence."2 Thus, the study of the,problenkof unity of higher animal organisms and their environmentis, in essence, the study of the balanced adaptability of the higher sections of the central nervous system to the surrounding, medium, . The comparative physiology,ofthe conditioned reflex activity consists' of the study of the characteristics of the higher nervous 1 I. P. Pavlov, "Complete Works," ofAcad.Sci,USSR, 1951, p 28 2 I; P. Pavlov, "Complete ,Works," Sci USSR, 19514 pp,2223 Vol III, Book 1, Moscow, Pub. House Vol IV, Moscow, Pub. House of Acac Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel I I 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 50-Yr 20 activity in varidusanimalS4 It created certain premises in the development of the direction of the study' of higher nerrus.aCtivityl which amphasite the conditions of existence of various aniMalS, i.e.; the so-called ecological factors: Ecology, in its turn, has been . entiched by the influence of the teaching of conditionedyeflexeS11" it became posiible t?emonstrate how thhigher nervous apti4do:o ? an aninn3 is. formed under the effect of. external natural influences. .? The ecological trend' in physiology, espe.ciall? in the,Phisiolo4, of the higher nervous'. system, the unity, of the teachings of Michurin and Pavlov. At this, being a comparatively neitrend, it is not suffiCientIi appreciated by-all concerned. ?? . ? ? ? ? Even'eamb4ecologiStsmspecialists one ,can find an,incOr,ect attitude to "the ecological trend_in physiology., , ,? ? ? ,. One cant:agree with'those,who,are attempting to establish a' basical itincipal -difference in the tag* and *ethcds of investi- gation in ttbrsiology and -ecology. -Thus, for example, some pointed out that physiology, allegedly, is only engaged in ifie stud,,pf the pro- cesses in the 'organs of the animals, while econigy* represents ? the reaction of- theentire animal organism to its envirorunent,. If we. haVe? in mind the pre-Pavlov physiology in regard to .its relation to edology; presime would he true, . ? But, if. we are discussing the new,physiologicalteaching'cypate by Pavlov, especially his idea of the unity of. the organism and, its environment, then we must emphasize that it was Pavlov who first in physiology showedsthe need for ocologiq.sWlea,of animals and, for an 000logioapproach to. the studk.of the higher nervous' 8ystem, in particOAT. ? , ' ? ? The ecologic studies offer a convincing proof of 'the unity of the organism and the conditions-of its existence. However the implementation of. these studies in physiology meets with 441pmber of serious difficulties; most of them are mainly connected with 'thefaet that the investigations-must,be carried .out. under natural, normal conditions. Taking this in consideration, we, in our eCologic laboratory inveStigationsl?emPloyed such effects which would as near as possible reproduce dortainnaturgl stimulants. We tried'to Study in this manner the largest possible number of analyzers of the . animal, and just as in the study of the largest possible. number of various reflexes (motor'I'cardiac, respiratory, and the gastro- 1 Ecology.--. the Science of,the-interrelatiaabetween,the organism and its environment. 3/14, - -01043Ron49nn 51 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 intestinal tract)) we were hoping to; obtain. the _characteristics of various working mechihistha and. functions of the organism. - , ?As a method of?inveitigsitibil}which diiitikied our, expectatiOns, we used a COmparative:!study of itOrirse4ttiti? ?kindred species whiCh livediith??diverse 4onditions (hares and. " rabbits, 'wild and domestic ducks, iiartridges Eind?chicken, etc.). In other instances) we used. as objects of study sone animals *which, in their natural habitat,- showed clearly expressed. evidence of. environmental adaptation (beasts of prey,. beavers,..etc.). ? The results of observations thus conducted attest first o ll to the fact that various animals react, depending on the Peculiarities of their eivironMent, Precisely to those: stimuli which are charac- ? teristic of their natural habitat. -It has been_proved.,, that of various sound stimuli which affected the observed rate of cardiac contractions:). Only the sould?of splashing water caused. in wild., waterfowls -a Marked. acceleration of the, heart beat (from 116 per minute to '250*upon stimulation). Other squads originating, for - instance; upon-breaking of splinters, whistle, bell ringing, etc.. hardly affected'the.rate of cardiac contractions, as checked, , electrocardiographically. The' river.-,beavers.,?ithe environmental conditions of which are highly original and. typical, enabled us to collectshitherto unknown-facts of. their, respiratory and., cardio- vascular reflexes. Precise methods (electrocardiograp\hy, and pneumography) were used for the purpose of registration of cardiac and respiratory activity.. Stimulations and reactions to solind, and' smell were observed. , . It turned out -that the very presence of, illumination (-the... beavers' are' night animals) caused marked..changes in their respiratory and cardiac activity: the respiration is accelerated. and. assumes. a a superficial character, the cardiac beat is slowed down. The beaver leads a ?doubly life (aqueous and terrestrial). AccordiiiglY) :the sound. stimuli, connectedrwith.,one orz.the other medium, (water splashing, breaking_of splinters, crackling of leaves) caiiSed? marked respiratory and cardiac reflexes., 3' ? . It seems-that, in, connection with thesnight manner of life. which requires the ability?to- orientate...oneself in the darkness, the oder analyzer in 'beavers hai3 a particularly. acute sensitiyity. A particularly strong reaction in the' form: of a sudden halt in the respiratory movements were abserved,in these..animals in response ? to the smell of a castoreura spray.' A strong but artificial stimului3 like acetone 'caueed only a reduction, in the respiration intensity, without a change in its rate. 52 Very good, results were obtained in the experiments with wild., , ducks. ,. ? , Firsts their ability to differentiate olfactory sensations ' ? was tested. As .in.dicator ..of this ?differentiation, we .eMployed "the . change in their respiratory moirements regititered by mane elastic air chamber. As stimuli we used': tar,' ether,-anmionitiii, mint, acetic acid, thymol. A13..these ,reagents had. no effect on the respiratory movements., ?A constant And eaPreased reflex of accele- rated. ?respiration, was obtained with rosemary., Of couras, only. the olfactoiy atiniulus was 'changed., all othcix tonditis i'emfaining unchariged? in the experiment. Presumably, the presence of a_ selective reaction to .rosemary is. due to the fact that-tlie ; to the liediteiiranean zone for the winter' and. feed. there on grass which contains rosemary in its esterde . ?...?? . . - - ?? In testing various'n.ound stimuli we observed. &4ght oft.en,..? fading reactions aa, for example) to theitetrohOme;,?The ,orientation. . ? ? - reflexes to the sound. of splashing water Were more constant. Only . In one case, When a sotcalled Hmanak" (a *little device' for immitating the saunas- of the natural quacking, of ducks) was used, ,we, obtained in in response .very stable and ,constant Motor eaction . reflected 'itself also on. the register of respiratory movements. ? This reflex is so. stable that we candeived the 'idea of' as an .Unconditioned."reinforcementi.' for the .i..Orm4ion of :the, con-s. . . ditioned'reflei, which we successfully accomplialied; ? ? ' ? -;; , We-collected much' data,on_the-'fOrmation of :Conclitioneal reflexes in various-.fich. In, osseous (slabs) 'the. -protectiye: conditioned. reflexes light were develc_:Ped.,on six-eight . tions of the stimuli with?an electric .current,. and. . dwelling fish? (sea,: ruff) the conditioned reflex ta, liglit'dOuld. not be developed even after 345,*combinatioits.? In the gate". &crops ) which. habitates shallow 'creeks the; concliticned" protective, sound-reflex appeared- after five to eight cOmb-inationCT:in thOrn:-. ? ' skates which habitate at deep sea bottom the' same reflex' could. 'be obtained only after seyera.1 spores of combinations. The study of various- reflexes in rabbits. and. hares showed that 'particularly `clear_ and-constant respirato.iY reflexes _are formed. in 'theSe.animals only,by a definite 'group Of stimuli.: Rustle was one of ? the, sound -stimuli, the _movement of othe ,616jedt in the ' ? field of hare's vision ' was one, of the :visual ?stimulii: ' - Interesting data .:were obtained In ?the study" of stimuli In touching:, various areas of the? skin: -It tizrnia;outthat; in' rfibbi-E. the so-called tactile stimulations - either caused. 'no cbnges :On: the 53 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA RDP81 01043 04 ni A Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 pneurnogram, or 'affect'ed -it in a-'sIgnifidoirit and similar manner,. independently of the area of stimulation. A different picture was . observed. in harei!......,TheiF_ref_leXes in the form of the acceleration of respiration .".iefe -geperaily'legi:rosida, nlore strongly -than in .. ? rabbits. S.t,inil.ilationl'of the 5lddi:of -Ethe' neck *behini ? the ears , elicited. very;Constarit - ? ? We could. continuewith thedescriptionfOf similar fadts which bad' been obbervek in othernimals and under stimulations of different. Chttr'aptei-1 ? but eVen7the OitedL data 'ought to be- sufficient to show- thit. of all environmental S44mUlanti3 similar in their - physical characteristic's,' the most. obt stariding:are?those which bear. a particularly close :relationship' to the hereditary properties of a specific -t&Pe of animal, and niOner. othern. _? q/413 is presumably explained. by the fact that certain specific stimuli have been present for many' c,entilries in the, environmental comples of. a even ani.' if and; their .effect has .been. .therefore reinforced in 'the- special riei'Vot,u3-Jatinictures by means of %heredity.,, The conception 'og the ''so-aalled ad:equacy, or of the. correlation_ between the cdriditIon4' and. unconditioned -stimuli in comparative ? physiology, doe's:IAA,' ,Of?-Co4Se, e'ffect one of the general, ; principles of' Pairlo13 'teaching th4-'any change it the -external-or ;internal dedium may-act'as a 'conditioned stirnulus.*:.?However y -in, acknowledging ? .; this fact, we must mit, doubt the Possibility that;'?in\the:-unlimited number of possible stimuli, one of them may prove to be more effective, and. Others'lless 'effective. This-,will'.depend on how close a giveiaatimp...lusidr,to% the natural errvriOnment and.'manner.of life of the animer.z_.._ Only in this ' athaisi can we state that, in compare- ? tive-physiplOgiC24. investigatiala:, the most important element' is ? not so iiiitchTthe physical:6k. chemical' Piloperty,:of the stimulus, as isrits rele.P..oh, to, the, .6Pec.ific?, erriri`rbninentar conditions of a given animal; relationship determines the the finar adaptation -- effect -Whialid appears in'iregiOnse' to the 'stimulus used..? The above cited. "eXp.e.riiiental datadnfirm, this thesis , writings of, Pavlov also _ilttest_to it. In his very first of :the "Lectures "On..the Functii3b. Of -the' large Cerebral, 'Hemispheres" : he cites .an. example of' the natural and not the artificial stimuli:. He speak i "of.. the-sigits and the' _sounds of a powerful7beastiandf.their - ? - signifidaricd. as "sifOlals. to -a smell affimai. t1Theessential_feature of' the higher nervus activity "writes -Pavlov, ?" "consists 'here not of' the ?action4of numerous signal stimulants only, but also of' the essential - fact s.that. ' these 'Stiinulicharige their '-phYsiological action under.:cprtain The external mediunv-:in which the animal liVeiris ;o infiniteWoompleiCand. is in such constant - 54' Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 0 state of flux, that th?comples closed system of the organism can have a chance .of balancing it only if it, too fluctikates correSpbpAngly:"1 ? s?? ? In connection with this, the significance of the same. ktimull.L.s to the animal may manifest ittielt differently. All above cited., exampled referred to the inherited., characteris- tics _ tics of_the animal nervous system; However this selectiye? attitude to external stimuli may take place also in the citse'of an acquired. fixed life' experience . ?? ?? When a certain phenomenon has ,reniained for a 1on time within , the environmental circle of the life. of the animal, it .can very easily assUrae the role of a ConditionedAtimulua. This rule retaini its s:trenfeb4 in' man also. We observed: in the case of a .Patient; a. driver by Occupation,.. that the conditioned reflexes to a flash of a red light were formed instantly; When we employed..stimuli, we noticed .that the very sol..yid. of a human voice,' among other sounds, prayed to be most effective even in cases where' the words Used as stimuli, were entirely unfamiliar and not understood, by the subject under experimentation. ? . ? ? . Thus, the signifiCance of the environment in the formation . the f?inctiori of the organism must be evaluated not abstractly, but con,cretely arid, in connection with the relationship of., animals to the eoncrete conditions of the ex4ernal medium. , . . ? , Pavlov taught it, and. the' works of Michurip attest to it convincingly. According to Michurin: the plant, organisms possess a selective faculty of' accommodation to the. eiternal environments. This selective property represents the result of the historic adaptability of the preceding generations to the conditions of the external medium. In its unity with the external medium, the organism. manifests an active' relationship to environmental effects.. In acknowledging the correctness of this thesis in regard to plants, we consider it even more important to appreciate its signif'ican'ce When applied tO the animal organism. 1 I. P. Pavltiv "Complete WOrk*S",- Vol XV, MOscowy. Pub ?House of' Acad. Sci USSR,' p 30** 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043RM1.9nniannn,z_ 55. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP-81-0104-3&72-00140003-3 ? ??? The complex construction o; the animal organism, the. inter- connection and interaction of it4 organs controlled. by the nervous system, the multiform effects of the enVironmpat on the organism -- all this renders the problem of, the 4t err elation of the animal organism and its environment :Veil diffienit to study4 In studying the problem of the Mechanism and its environnient in the frame of evolution, we stop to think, first 131 all, of the paths which the organihm follows in adatting itself to the conditions of existence th?t1 Constitute its environment. Keeping in mind especially the higher nervous activity, we often stress the fact in accordance with various statements of Pavlov, that its evolutinaal progress is manifested in the acquisition of the property of a finer and. more accurate adaptation to the surrounding medium. This point of view is correct but it has an one sided character. The precision and finesse in the functions of various sensory organs do not yet in themsel/es clarify?theroughly the essence of the problem. Engels pointed out long ago that an eye of an eagle sees much farther than of a man, but a man sews in things much more than does an eagle. In concentrating their attention on the refinement and accuracy of the work of the analyzers, some scientists are forgetting the following -admonition of Pavlov: "The biological essence of conditioned reflexes Consists of the fact that the scanty external stimulants of unconditioned reflexes become connected, under certain conditions (coincidence in time), with the innumerable phenomena of the external medium which: serve as signals to these stimuli. Thus, all -organic-activities -- effects of the unconditioned reflexes -- enter into-finer-and more precise relationship with the external medium in its progressively larger regions (spacing of last phrase of D. Eiryukov). The stressing by Pavlov of the progressively increasing regions of adaptation is very important to the understanding of the problem of the 'evolutional progress of the animal organism. There is no -dnat that the evolution of species is connected with the direct expansion, of the area of habitation. A very legitimate question arises in connection with it -- whether this peculiarity of the evolutional process does not lead to the phenomenon that: the animal, in expanding the circle of its adaptation reactions, is' capable at.. the same time to reduce the "finesse" pf the work of separate analyzers. According to the data of the Polish scientist, Ja. Dembowski, a spider accurately reacts to tbe oscillation of the web when it corresponds to the frequency of movement of the wings of a insect which is its food -- the spider 56 achieved high skill, precisely in this respect. The results- of. our ,.investigatione brought outny,instances--of high specificity of animal reactions .to the effect .of .the.,external medium, even- in cases .of rather low-level of higher nervous , ?: activity. , .1 . 10 . ? e, . ? ? ? It follows that the degree of the general development of the higher tervous'44stem can not. be determined-solely. by the degree. of perfection ' of or.. another organ Of . sensation. - ? . ? We happepd to carry- out observations oft 'an eagle. Our attempts: to take down an electrocardiogram were connected with great diffi- culties, for the. eagle was very "aggressive"andl..besides, had., .. just been recently :caught: -Any idea eanies-to is to. bind his eyes, When this was' i done, the 'eagle! seemed . to. have :13.egpAe paralyzed, he did not move and was Amenable.. to ? any' manipulation... It is .nat , . surprising, ? if. we. recall-the andient- manner of Saigon hunt. . In, this type of :bunt one puts ?on the, head-of a' falidn, .,or the golden ? eagle a small hood which covers its eyes. It then' remained sitting quietly on the- shoulder or farm ,of its master. .Upon the appearanbe- of 'a hare, for instance, the hood was taken off.: The bird of prey .would..swoop down on its Victim. upon retrieving ths.:, hare, one would again put the, hood .on .the bird's head ). The elimination:. of. bne ,analyzer, true a, highly perfected attests to the fact of Alow.insignificant is the -role of other analyzers in, the relationship :between, the -eagle and its env.ironment: Indeed, the usual .habitat of the' eagle almost pomPletely.-eXciudes,, the effect of sounds' or odors, -but thCsharpeningH of' vision is . vitally important .to . ? ? ?,. - , In connection. with. the study: of the ' ecologic .correlatispn,of stimuli, we -:came across another important, circumstance t In a . number of cases we happened to observe the exceptional strength, the "inextinguishableness" of the conditioned reflex which has been formed in response to 'corresponding stimuli , Certain- stimuli, :lased in the 'expeiiments, invariably 'caused,-one .or another effect,:.. change in reapiratien:Or: acceleration of heartbeat without a_Subsequeni extinctionf..: - - -- ? ? ? . We shall cite a few examples. A conditioned'refleX was formed in a hare. by :means of .a conditioned stimulus _Which in this ca tie the sound.26fclucking to the natural, one, which,-accompanies tbe, , animal's sikking-.ofthe-breast. "reinforced! by a ,visual stimulation (Moireient' of an:object-in the field ..o.f,ipipt9 and tactile one Stimulation of the skin 'in :the area -pf the:neck. 57 . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release? -Yr 03/14: - 8 -0104:1Rnad.9nn .4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The conditioned reflex appeared after the third coMbination. For almost to years after formation this reflex was fully preserved, despite'the-fact-that the Conditioned refIex.was used about .2,000 tiies withoutAts'reinfordingstimail. ,.Whem, with the same reinforcement a"-conditionedteflet.iids4toduced%using a metronome, it faded out without reinforcement 'within a comparatively short time -- after ten seances. ? ? ,; - 0h4ioublyin-the first caise-acombination of two,stimulilclose to the animal, took place -'the conditioned and the unconditioned; , '843 a result, hn unusual Stability was treated'in the conditioned , ?? Z.DV We have-Already mentiOned a number-of cases Nrhere_the fading Of the reflex- ld- not:take:place. We had examples ---,the reflexes on . the heart-in.'wildwaterborn,birda:upen splashing ofwaterl%the- motor reflexed-te-the-snUndof-"manka"Jin wild ducks) theTespiratory reflexes in'hardalto the Sound oft-rustle of paper,. onto the movert ment of an object in-thd!tield of vision. _ - r\ . ? Our lahOratbi9 receivedionce a brood of baby foxes .removed. r directly '-from the lair. The use ofi:various.sounds, including that,-.r.? of a squeak' of-a' mouSe,-cauSed4dreactibmin the little -foxes? H wever, as soon as the -ba* fox hadreaten a mouse for the first tTme, a stable conditioned reflex was formed to the squeak of a mouse. These refl.-ekes also proved tote practicallyinextinguishihle. The-dianiii46 of "inextinguishap-en.conditioned reflexes lead.', to the assiimption-that the reflexes:OnispIabhing, "manok"....Beckoning,- rustle, etc. are not Of the-unconditioned reflex type,;.but-represent special conditioned reflexes. PresUmably, certain circumstances : connected with their origin, some ecologic adequacy of stimuli of a conditionedi&d.of-an-:nalinoNin to us unconditional characterimade these conditioned reflexeslreseMble unconditioned ones in their: stability. * The abo4e.described'-facts2,attnacted-the_most lively:attention, . for they toUched-upon-a very important problem.efAhe transitionxof conditioned readies-into- 'unconditioned ones andi_thusi enabled:-Us to, approach the study of the psysiologic mechanisms of the inheritance of the acquired temporary associations. ?. : The'large factual Material which we had collected in,,our;_labora- tory by meanof-'an-objective--method, -as well as the literaryldata,,,:- attest to:-Ehe-fadt:that-the'ecologic-cotrelation.;ofthe-_stimuli , represents the deterMininecondition,forAhe formation and. -the: stability or &reflwa This'hasfthe closeat,Lrelationship;to.the 58 ??????.???????????????? ??????? problem of inheritance of acquired characteristics. The Michurin biOlogy regards the?precess of adaptation as-the integral element in the inheritance of the characteristics which the organism acquired in the course of its individual development. ? Pavlov, too, was in full accoi'd with this view, and.- thought that some conditioned reflexes eventuAlly change into unaonditioned ones, thus becoming inherited reflexes. 9. ? ? The research of the two great modern naturalists; I. V. Michurin and I. P. Pavlov demon-strated the complete inconsistency of the . metaphysical Ideas of the feIlowera of Weissman ahkRbrgan, who. denied, as is well known., the potsibility of inhetiting acquired . characteristics; ? Having established the fadt of mutation of organismsin the course of evolutional development, Darwin deviated to a great extent from the.tUk COnneeted with the search of the.causes underlying this variability. Mbreover, the question of the necessity-of active interference in the- processes of the-mutability of the organism completely eseaped his field of vision, which is explained by the limitations of the bourgeois outlook which, formed the basis of Darwinis yieWs. This great teak was 'undertaken by 1. V. Michurin and I. P. Pavlov. Michurin not only conceived the idea, he actually developed the abientific ways of plant mutation. His outstanding ;Tactical achievements in this respect are widely-known. ? The teachings of Pavlov and: Michurin),kindted -in, spirit, developed along the same path; comMon'to both was the strivign for an active intervention in the life phenomena which were the object of their study. This was in accordance with the requirement of the materialistic dialectics which served as the basis oh which Michurin and Pavlov were developing their scientific theories. The Michurin teaching interpreted the causes of mutability and, thus, naturally, advanced the most important task of a directed change in the properties of an organism. . The same trait characterizes; in'the most brilliant 'manner, the physiology of Pavlov. ? ? - ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 59 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Vs I. V. Michurin improved, with great mastery the nature of plant organist I. P. .Pavlov cohstantly kept in view the task of ' improVing'the;fUnetions.of,the.animal organism. Let US cite one eXamplea 14 -developing hi,e1 teachAng Of higher nervous- activity, Pavloisr Shoved-that, in site of tbe aifferenees in the higher - nervous activity of varibus Onitt4s, 6ne'Can isolate among them several groups-more or lesssimilor as to the _properties of their nervous system. As the basis of his teaching on the varieties of nervous systems) Pavlov enumerated the following characteristics of cortical nervous processes: 1) the force of the stimulating and inhibiting processes; '2), degree. of equilibrium between the stimulating and inhibiting processes; 3) the mibility of the stimulating and. inhibiting processes. Questions arose in the study of higher nervous activity, how is the type of higher nervous activity formed. in an animal, what in the organism of the animal is dependent upon inherited characteristics of the nervous system, and what is acquired in connection with the cOnditions of development and life, and what can be changed into the desired direction. These questions were studied by Pavlov in a specially constructed genetic station in the village of Katushi, near Leningrad. Conscious of the grett value of Pavlov's research, the Soviet Government especially assigned large sums of money for the construction of this scientific combine, the greatest in the world, where, in addition to a large nurdberof laboratories, nurseries were created for the bringing up of animals form known and studied parents. The construction of this scientific little city -- "the capital of conditioned reflexes'" as Pavlov named it, was completed. in' 1935; Pavlov himself could not expand to the full extent the - investigations which he had planned, though some important experi- ments had, already been carried out, before his death. A litter of puppies taken from a female was divided into two groups. The puppies of each group were raised separately. One group was allowed to ,run around freely, to play together and to meet other animals and,humans. The puppies of the second group were raised under the conditions of strict isOlation. They were never allowed to leave their cells they saw no other dogs, etc. - ? When the animals of both groups grew up, they were subjected to tests by the method of conditioned reflexes. The qualitative differences, in the higher nervous activity of the representative of each group were markedly expressed. Puppies raised. under normal conditions did not differ from normal animals, 14hi1e the puppies raised 6o . ? t.Y.Z. a?a?A.1Z ....ay -V:, I ? ,.:aAa, ''? in siolation cells Shaved the weakness of their nervous activity. ? ' At each new stimulus:, the usual ringing of a bell, for.initance). the dog was pressing itself to the floor, trembled.; it, developed. to' ? a marked degree the so-called passive-protective reactiOn; tests proved convincingly the role of the environment in the ? ? development of higher nervous activity. In Pavlov's laboratory special observations were carried out which were directed toward the solution of the problem, whether one can strengthen a weak nervous system in an animal, whether one can reinforce its basic processes such as, for example, the processes of inhibition. These testa brought positive results. It turned out that by means of education and training, one can strengthen and reinforce the functions of the brain. On the basis of his own observations and the work of his pupils, Pavlov became convinced of the poasibility of improving the weakened functions of the organism. Pavlov spoke, in connection with this, of his dream to perfect the types of higher nervous activity to the highest possible limit. At the time of Michurin the servants of religion were indignant at his aim to change the properties of plants with the view of im- proving their quality. One of the priests demanded that MichUtin cease his fruitful experiments in the alteration of plant organisms, even requested the closing of the nursery, "this seat of depravity which corrupted the hearts of believers". One can not refuse a certain fore- sight to this servant of a cult who was able even at the start of the creative work of Michurin, to realize what a crushing blow can the teaching of Michurin inflict to the religious ideas about the "Divine Providence", which allegedly controls any and all organic changes. It is obvious that an irreparable gap in religious dogmas was created by Pavlov's teaching, in which be stated that the physiologist could actively interfere with the realm of the soul -- this domain since eons of time forbidden to man. Religion proceeds from the premise that the world itself is unchangeable and passive. Net a single hair will fall off the man's head without the will of God -- so state the theoreticians of religion. Whether one speaks of disease -- it is the punishment by ,aod, of recovery -- it has to be asked of God, same as with drought or rain, fertility of cattle, etc. -- everything is granted, sent down by God. The ideal of a religious man, of a true son of God, or, as the clerics say, "God's slave" is that of an individual absolutely devoid of will, totally Obedient to a higher completely unfathomable, and mysterious force. 61 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy A e ease ? 5 - r /03/14 . CIA-RDP81-n1nztfl Pnnitonn A (-Irmo Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 0 , r,??? ?T. t? - - - The teaching of PavlOv inflicted a crushing blow, to the- religious conceptions of the unchangeable and divine substance of the soul, and: demonstilated'ihe'possiliiity of a directed modification-of psychic' dbtivity avtile result of changes in the., environment. ; 62 Is there Psychic Life in Animals? "The facUlty of consciousness, of 4retematib actiOns developS'in ahi4la ih accordance .with the deyelsiftent of the nervous system,, and idabhes in mammalia an already' sufficiently high degree." F. Engels The presence of psychic faculties in animals seems rather in disputable to the majority of people. Can someone doubt the intelligence, ingenuity) and shrewdness of his dog cor cat? The same can be heard from the lovers of horses. All these animals, according to their masters, understand when they , are spoken to, get offended, deceived, etc. - Let us analyze these conceptions: intelligence, understanding, ingenuity) offense, deceit, etc. irrespective of whom they concern. We shall have to admit that they constitute the basic psychic processes'and states which are us, first of all, on the basis of personal experience and impressions. We should, thus, , acknowledge that there are no differences in the psychic proceeses which are taking place in amn or animal. Will this conclusion . be correct? In speaking of the theory of Darwin) we have already had an occasion' to state that everything living in the world is developing gradually and reaches progressively higher and higher steps on the evolutional ladder. This 'law embraces also those functions .f: the nervous system which are connected with the so-called psychic processes. In the chapter devoted to the question of instincts we shall ? attempt to clarify it as much as possible. Every function of the organism undergoes ,a process of evolution, which means that the psychic faculties in animals are also developing and undergoing changes. To attribute to animals, even those of a higher level of development, the faculty of carrying out psychic . functions as they are knoYn in the highest living creature -- man) is incom'ect. This would mean. to pay tribute to that imperfect stage of science 'when man, Unable to analyze the complex peculiarities of animal behavior, ynuld transfer to the animal everything he knew of psychic, as based on his observations of himself. 63 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Though this attitude which virtua.UY identifies the psychic re- actions of cat or dog with those of man ie not justified scientifical.l.y:,- It is nevertheless firtaly rooted in everyday life: The reason for- it can be found. 1,n the history of the develo.pnent of scientific- ideas on this subject. - ? ?. ;4, Way back, during the period of the origin of the first scientific 08er:rations of the phenomena of psychic activity; two contrasting approaches were traced in regard to this problem. Democritusr over 2000-years ago, attempted. to create a materialistic approach in stating that, the-soul and its activity is the result of the movement of very fine and, perfect particles of matter.. ? . ???? . ? - ? About the same time, Plato was developing 'A? diametrically opposite teaching. The soul, aecording.!to him; was an immortal,- ?? non-material substance which was different from somatic matter. The soul was-, not united wit.h..the bod.y in -one entity, and. could separate itself from?the body. . ? , ? We are speaking now of this. long past. era in.the histor Sr?of the study of psych.ic activity, in order-to. remind -you that; already"in ? ancient times, two approaches in this' field. --- the materialistic and.. idealistic .-- were-diametrically opposed to each other. According to the ideas of the ancients; there was' nothing in common between the psychic processes in animals and humans: .Aristotles, -the Greek philosopher, was 'the first to advance the teaching of three steps of- psychic activity -- vegetable, animal; and that of reasoning. -The first was referred to the world of plants, the second. -- to the animal kingdom, and the third: -- to man, the only living., creature endowed. with intelligence and a? reasoning mind. It laustiae a,oknowledged. that Aristotles tried to introduce the idea of the development and perfection of psychic activity. One- - can not help seeing in it the prototype of the historic method of study of psychic activity. -However, the- defective facets of this - teaching became visible at once. Descartes, the most eminent philosopher., and. naturalist of the 17th century, sharpened the defects of:Aristotle is teaching, and. advanced the teaching-that an animal is, only capable of reaction of a machine type,- while a ..human being is, a creature- endowed with a mind. The -teaching of the. machine characteristics of animals did, not correspond. to factp, which anybody could. see, even in;observations at home. This is the reason why the mechanistic point of view of 0 ? 614- the animal behavioi!lcist? its authority in the 'eyes of many scientists. . ? As a sort- pf.? a peculiar reaction to it, appeared. the zoo- psychological-'trend iW-liciencd. Its adherent' insisted that . animals are, like htimanEy., ezidOwed with a yea:. Here, they eatr. .? across natUral: diffic.ulties conhec.10.6411ath the .-problem of the.. f?..1,. ? means of. :etii.4riliglthel.'sbia. of an animaiic'pdpe48.11y, when one speaks ? of the sOult kittli ? wo?iiii;* or a parameciuini-"and. other- lowrorganited: _ animals andlipro'toibal , , ? , ? ? , . - *: ' ? ? ? 1, / ? The -?zboi..-tiliSich.OlOgists?replielin,tb this that the method of ".8turfY...,- which thei?'etaiploy:.--VOndifits of observing li.arious, changes in annal. ? , behavior ?tafifah4frAanifest ihemselVes.eXtirnally, -and.?-of the' -? vent interpretatfifin. of ? the caudes?ok?these Changes- On .the_b4is. comparison of tlie;Vsyehie\ characteristics of animal ?and. mAn.. ? ? ? ?ThU8,? we see here the aim to legitimize t1.e-?84ject.iVe metlibd. , as a scientific ?method 'of investigation against which) 'is indicated a?6i:,ive; robe the creator of?the --Objectivq,methOdr. of , observation, ? P. 'Pavlov; with, ail; his irreconeilalde,,and, ? ? ? determination.. ? - ? . ?-? ?? , The 06\re-cited. dits.21show that the method. of conditioned. refleiei of Pavlov., does -not opncur with any ?previpus,t,rena. F.ach of the' trends' eitherr4,,d.entified.animal with machine,, the-? contrary, identified 'animal,-with man _which did. not. correSporid.' to reality. ?presence ,of -psychic faculties. in .F111J170 whiCh reach., a certain- ?3.evel; of" devcldpmentL caused.. no ,.d.oilbts under careful. ? obserVationith-erefore? the' task of science, was toi_kind...a,laethod _of " invest'igatiOn Would- exclude the need. of em hg our own psycl4aqiipr'edsloni (I .0 , to eliminate (the subjective method.), , and which!'wOUlci? at the same time. enable us to study psychic's without denying stibjeetive states-. ? , " The Pavlov method of investigation 0?' the psychic functions of an animal by means of conditioned reflexes possessed thede-poseibiliti68.-. :?? ? ? . It would ,be erroneous to state ;that. Pavlov denies, .psychics and, fully identgies? it with the physib1ogica1:1pr9ces8es_. This point,.o'f view did exist ?-8Cience ? in ?general.: Italas tbeen:; advanced "by ? ? certain German and.:?AiteriCan scientists mho,,insisted.,that psychic '14res? doen n;t'and::cantiot animals:I.:Pavlov also thought that zoo-psychology ass "h separate science.:catinot exist. However., the reasons fbi` such a conslusion/by'PavloV were,pntirely different. ? '" from those e.dNanced by the above mentioned. scientists These__ scientists thought'that psychics, is indigenous to man only. Thus, they supported. theapprbach?-thatithere.is_ a gap between 65 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA-RDP81 01043R0042001400032.1 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ?50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - man and`animal in'-regard tO.their psychic ?faculties ?whichneannot be filled. - ..-- ..*: ?-.f. ?., . . ' 1 . PavloNt d:id...hdt donYi!-.iiii Very?definitely recognized psyghic,..' ? functions and. states i. Ire ehtiSized -thti psychics. is ?the :first _ . phenomenon-'which.ManAliraYS'end,Oxiiit s-,???':::)l'he subst.ance,o -- - f disagreement-.Tas?sothetliiii if-.`elte-ii e?ze64psychologists,,cansisleied. t, . it Perfectly' Corkeet'to ' interPr et he :behaviors of ?ainebas4?-i.forgis, fish, and. and. other animals as based. oh the presehce in them of a,mind7, joy, nobility?, and. other human qualitiebi Pavlov, in contrast to it, demande&Airlygtematib: objective analysis 'which Vould: not depend. on the internal: tates 'and.? impressions -of -man. There lies,.;_the,.Sy!?.st'ance .1 of divergeri"Ce in the aPProach tot?-psychic phenomena of Paylav.,and; .., the zoo-PsicilologiStsT Paiaov`denieSs'the right of the; exist:elice.of , zoo-psychoalogy?ai'a'scienee." We shall now turn to the basic r$ .. of the study of the animal psychic obtained, by means Of objective methods d'..e'Veiapea?by Pavlov:" ?'? -': ?? -" ? ..._ ? ...-,. ?.-, 4.1.. r"..-. -????-? '?; .,.? i:-.- _:?,..-_,,- ,..? , ? . Ott ?of the very-large :data Collected.; in: the experiments iso.,th mon,p keys, we 'shall' deacribe? onlY)Seme of theth which had_been, carried out under the personal supervision of I. P. Pavlov. . .. ??? The tests iere. Pandu:eted by meatiS of a specially .constructed box. Inside the''box' some bait Vaa placed for-the monkey, to see,_ the side 'door. was': -SlamMed. The 'upper* sliding door.-on! top, og:,:the. box, had an aperture. (Oti'the illustration is shown a triangt414r-: ,-.? , aperture, but one can Use' a tap door?wiht a round. or square: aperture.) Three' Stickl,were-placed. hear the monkey; triangulay,. round, and. a' quadrangular- stiek.-, --When the stick ?corresponding to: ;.., . the shape pf the-'aPertUre? of the top door Is intro.duced intsp the..? opening-. the side ?do-Or Opens up as .a .result of pressure an .e.??;,lelier inside-the box; -the monk.-6Y, thils,./ could: obtain its food.:. By/mansaf. this experiment, we could determine ghe ability .of the monkey to:, select, the proper stick which it needed. to get to the food., How , ? was this problem' thd Monkey?`...?--? . At first the monkey woula get hold of any stick out of those placed. before '0',....arid-ttried.--661pushfiit into the opening ,of the ,top door. "'When it'failed the ::tabnker--itould gr.ab another stick and.. repeat ,the.attempt ta, into thef.apertur.e. It lastekiiil the monkey-got hold." of the right stick which.lopened?the door... These experiments were repeated.:.during----"Subseciuentl. days. _The-mc47.,key.woUldr. spend proiressiveiys-less.'tlite in locating the right stick.. It finally ac'quire& the,: skill-to- select :at" ?nee ,the right ,stick.whiCh' opened the sid.e' door. -. ? ' ? One dan inake? the-folloiring' d.eduction' as .to what- guide& the c! F a 4 monkey in its :progressive improveMent in the selection of' the right -...._ stick: either, it. learki.ed to earlate the shape of the stick with the shape of 'the apert46; .pr the,s/visilal? tactile, :and. MU4 Maar': 1::.,;,:, 1 stimulants which- Originateathen the-mbnkpy.: grabbed.: the right ,s.,,tiekx were fixed as' a signal-Cit'CorriCe-t ,Selection..!. '',... .. ?,? _,.- ... , ..? !... -?,"!,.. ...,?.7 ,,r n ??-? ..- -1..-' '-.... ' 4: i .. , . ...: .. .. ., In the .atter %he reflex was formed, ?- . , . ' these stimulus would . be '?':') ; ? ? dO i.e , the. confie.eteeili.;-liCe?6?iteeni the:raieheiktiond- (taking ?the. sticky Fid the subsequent reinforcement" of ' thiff:?Sensatibn_iby? the , obtaining of' ? ? j .. :: ,. food) 4 In regard..2-tartlid fir'st? 'etikkibittqii,. (nib Should..expeetl.V.)#;. formation. of "a'?mai'e.:CampIaX-'-reabtibni t?In.this :case,. ?tVo:??se.xd7..e4 of.. . stimulant d would.. be,, correlatdd.4 'none .0f,thent reinfoeced. by the act of getting ,hoidl Of the One of' the shape' of the aPertUre, Ibliet-Othee?--- the' .shap.6- 9f.' the -stick. 11.1i, _ ? rrr.i. animal 'Could. not- get its, food. before this assbciatien had been. established,..This, type of reaction ,.of a..conditioned reflex nature and.''mu,L4.'.'ipp , the??-?typetof ii 'association in view of 1.-E's::spopiploii, natUrei??'' - ' . '-'?????...f. ,. ,,'? -. ." I. --.4????' . ? .1 , This ..prablem-wai Volved not zoO,?Psy.chologicall-Y-4'.i:p..., ,not by._,.... ',....t.? . .. means of' interpretations;' bat' by meati of:Eth eX-jeriiiertt* --.-TIA..stiata .._ ... . of the aperture-'in,t1167tap .dedt was 'changed::: Instead of a triangular, a top door'.with,a t.0*.'itPatitiire was 'inserted..?.'In-;spite?jog -that, .the monkey kept: oli ? taking. the '?iiiangOlar stick 'which" was ' ?goOd. .onlyt.f.or :the previous tiFY..doer, ?-? ',... ' . /...-.. , ... ? .' ' '-' '?! ,-? '--1. ? ? ?? ' ' :?-? a' ??:'?-?--? d-F1 . , ??,..? ? .,? . ,-4...., On" t he ?-$.ail,a- '..6f ithat,". we came : to.= thelcOnclus ion, that at -the ,..,b,a# e;::; of the habits?adcluii46.' by the -monkey i?zas a' conditioned. refa.ex,of4,. tlre. ....._ most elementarYlki6'.' Did.; it - exclude .the possibilitycof. the. formation _.. of associations? AdditiOnal testi.; were made: to answer this, question... : ..... We began t'cii--change: tliepektures in the box fr..pcluently for a2 period of' several mcmths. As a result of these procridures) the monkey - learn&I'tO ielecrt-laithatitl'ortor the -stick corresponding- to 'the aperture. . , . ;A: i . '.r.)':. i...? ,..,,t.L, . - - .. - - - r _. ? . ."... 7 ' :i v.. - ObylOtikir') ?tiefee-imPIex conditioned.' reflex contact s,of the type of ass'Oei-ations cbtild. beA,fdrmed in . .: . ? , , 4)--rf.. , ? ../ . . ::: , . 1.1: ' ' 7 '''. , ... f- ?...:: Further .observations established-;the .fact,that, -parallel, - with the above ,described elementary associations, the monkeys were capable ,-.:of .forming,-afso iforP-'poniprex.;types of Aasociations. ? To ..thes,e belong "Chain 'go io clatiOni:;f del:as (1'w/16V:called them,' associated , -: ? associations: ' ? '--T -- - '," .,.... .. . , . 1- Pavlov thaUght that' ?Hourmental activity is' based. mainly -on "a long chains ofstirwli; or..assaciations," In order to compare the mental activity of Eipeti'and.7Man,:zit -was 'essentia.1 to tarry...out experiments which could elicit the ability of aped, to form chain' ????, 67 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14: IA- - 0 Declassified in Part-Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 vaitsam.,???????;44., associatiohki ' '?? ? ? L I ? ;"! ? ;.! V:r? -r. The reStiltSiotuthesel.tetts vere,-fv,ery,,degini:tai , (One. of .);. the anthi-Oiaid. ':under,pbsenTa149R-..4., POr19..(1) ' learned, to open the door to its.xdontj .using-;t1;te:,prope.r.:key,.; learned, to put out a fire which blocked. its way to foo.d by pouring water over. it; expe:rimenta 41?13Ch-hac.1;..been ,9.9ndl_isted ,by.. foreign iiiiiestigatorl i were. repeatid,':x14th- posii,Uive ?r?sults.k.they corroborated.Abeett'at that Raphaell4ke,..9rap.ot-ElAer ar.ithrapoids, is able to obtairitra/bait 'Suspended .p7raxiide,.-aut of cubic boxes "wath wer.e lying around; and.?,.4,3m.bilig:c...p.).tap of .1i. , ? 1. ?? ' We shall cite an ekpbriment carried. outIV LYe.. Gi? llaitsuro,-6 an aasociate of ,Pavlov, who made?fjOiet',obseryatians wit meritor Raphael and.?its: ?": - 'On the: wide ;platform -of an ?:aviary?J, at. the Iheigh*.. of -?Ouri :meters from the ground., hangs a cluster of grapes sliikging in .:the,.siir.; Raphael sees it through the laboratory window, but the diitilcie door is closed. 'The .,monkey'-',:itina :to Lori.:th jacefliO9LiS5., finda.?the proper keSr-and. Opens:-.the-Aoor which lead.s,tq'.aLr;oom.-4.:4acent to :the summei4..4-viary'.? Here Raphael meettArNith,.anOthe;_,, box, With f4le ,.1:Thich- prevents him . fromgett ing out A9,-{-theaayiary,. ?The f MOnke 3Aii141:1S .:the faucet of. ja24ater".,:.cOntaine7,..41..aced..?.abave., tbe,,kire? puts out the fire and. gets out to ithe aviary, where it sees,411;ty? cubic boxes over the floor. The only way to get the hanging grapes is to build. a pyreold. Raphael picks - up :the largest box and. places it directly- iinderlthe- hankitg--,bait;?, Subsequently) in_t4or4er diminishing-Site.$) it,,:placee,;bc:ds; upon box),...until-,a-higttk.,41rd.i-s...,., formedrthen;i?itt.ilimbs:on top of tte Tha goaljhap:.,:12,e,en. achieNiep..), and. the'iiibilkey de.s 'the-:.?ccapre's .Nrhiq.e remaining -on top o? the py7F.1.51.;"- !;:f ? B. ? ?.? , ? allothei" "dkperlitierrt,) the monkey had. to-solve4p941F,994-e,la of how, to draw.,up to the cell the food. which had. been placed...for It outside the celr.:' fic-cOmplish-At: the;monkey:had: at ts,..g.,.pp9p5,9. 8pyi9F.E,O- pieces of bamboo cane. They were Of variousj.iameters 4t4 4.en,gths.A However) they could 'be put together in a certain combination So that with the longer:iitick thef:moneky cauldggt-,hold ?;1 ? - - ''? - "- .1.--Mudh, interest .vera-the expprimentst,with again aarail ourselves in his book: "A Hot Summer Day." Two rafts are pla:ce-d. In the lake:a't, a' _ distance of five meters from each other, and 1.5-20 meters frani-the shore. 'Orf one ,'Of 'the; rafts lies !Raphael. ,Inonkey changes its , r" . ? , I Ye. G`.,%-Batsuro. 5Pavloyts'iTeachingwof,:lligher,j14.Fryo,us Moscow, -5Velipedgii, -1955..,*; ? , ? ? ? r. ? ? 68 posture constantly, exposing, to the sun its sides, or its.cheat. From time to time the .monkey puts -its -heind in the lake az.- sprinkles itself with cold water: At other times the monkey gots. up, changes its seat for the edge of the float and. scoops up some water with a glass jar. At this' moment, the eXperimehter approaches ,the raft in a boat, places a charged "device witht'fire" on the raft and a: few tied. together bambo.o sticks on the raft (Raphael generally uses the sticks to move from one raft to the other), ? The boat then approaches' the otber raft; he a 'cont? ainer water is set up. The monkey 36 'leaking for a. while -at the 'ire, ? they at a fruit which is 'visible in the aperture of the "fire . devise". Three-dour .seconds pass. Here Raphael gets up holding' the jar in its left hand.. It approaches 'the' edge of the raft, takes. the bamboo stick in, its right hand, and. attempts to fling it over to -the other raft.. That.-.t.empt fai34 -- the glass jar is in the: way. The monkey transfers. the jar,from' the hahd to the 'foot) flings the stick over to the other raft and. Ciisses over using the stick; it fills up the jar with Water from the container, goes back to the first raft and attempts to put' mit the. fire.' Not enough water. Raphael again returns to the raft with the water container, again fills up the jar and, finally puts out the fire in the apparatus." . . The results of these interesting experiments lead, to two 'con- clusions. In the first gace, there is no doubt left of the ability- of the monkoy to evolve.lang chains ?of associations in the form of conditioned reflex conneetions which' are :replacing each other. It is not surprising that maw who had observed'these ?xperixnents were left with the impression of cariscious reasoning in 'Raphael t s_act;ions... ? ? At that, the questiorx arises: 1,'Iliy>did the monicny.which was perfect- ly able to draw water 'froth the lake, go through all these compli- cated, actions of moving from raft to raft jut to obtain water from the tank?. It secus that the animal could have acted. much more intelligently had. it drawn water..from the lake to put out the fire. This is the basic question for the comparison of the intelligence of monkeys and. that of, a human' being. At the same time) it Presents 'no difficulty to answer it in connection with the.present.state of science. We shr4.11 clarify later the conditions of the origin of thinking in man which was based on the development of the functions of the second signal system (speech and personal contact through speech). The monkeys do. not possess this highest evolutional achievement. The cited facts clearly attest to' it. The monkey is able to manipulate water and use it correctly and purposefully for putting out the fire, but is is at the sale-,time deprived of the' general (abstract) conception of water as such. 69 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The 'rater represents to the,monkey a perfeetly'concrete stilulus only...-. In. this sendey the Water in the Uink which puts out the fire, the water in the'like with -Which the aniMal'moistened its body, the water whichean fall on the e h in the fori.of.rain, etc. -- all appear iii the conscience of t &iii471.41 as abiolutely ? ??? independent entities.. In order to generalize all these facts from the field of an ic1.4. of water) millions of years of evolution ofthe.psychics of animals as well ad the appearance of Man --,the Only-representatives of the animal world who turned aut-t6 be'chpable of such generalizations. The basic conditions for this process will be described later. F. Engels created the teaching of the evolution of monkey ' into the direction of hamanization,,ae the result of working docial necessitiesi'and of the origin of speech Sounds connecte& with it. N. N. Ladygina-Kots, one of the ,pioneer of scientific study of the intellectual faculties of monkeys, carried out special experiments in order to ascertain to what extent are higher monkeys capable of the development of occupational actions. The observationswere conducted on macacas. The monkeys were subjected to motor tests of various eamplexity of opening locks which were put in the cell door: a single hook, combination of hooks, and various latches. As a stimulant to make the monkeys work, food was used which was placed in a locked cell. The combination of locks was,brought?up to high complexity, including for instance eight hooks, a self-locking latch, pin-bolt, etc. The author pays special attention to the problem of the role of occupational acts in thework processes of monkeys. In recalling the words of Marx that '.!at the end of the work process comes the result which wae'present.ideally, i.e., in the imagination of thu worker, before the start of the work," Ladygina-Kbts arrives at the conclusion that the actions carried out by the monkeys are not work acts. The actions of a monkey are ...narrow, dull, and specifically limited as to the sphere and to the range of their manifestation."). It expresses precisely the absence of the idea of the purpose of a given action which, as Marx stated, ? changes it into. a working process. 1 N. N. LadYgina-Kbts, "The Mbtor Adaptation Habits of Macacas" Moscow: 1928, p 324 70 - .? In the experiments de'scribed:ab.ove-.which Pavlov -carried. out _ on. Raphael and. Rose, were als6 included-the tasks, of :the study .o the problem 'whether monkeys are 'capable of creating Work tools. . ? ?? -.- The results have shown that monkeys do not possess this faeillty.. They proved, ti:ikt at the base Of the behavior of monkeys, isg?e -the. rules::: of conditioned reflex activity which afe; prPne,;to :acquire .a highly ..?-f?. compled .form, depending on-the increasing compleictty,of,the ?effects ? of' the external atithUli: However, the. development -0g,-, the ? higher , ? nervous EiVitein of' 'monkeys -stopped. at 'the level of-the..firAt sial ..," system, fcr the reason that monkeys' were unable to,?produce Work.. tools. The transformation of the stick which the monkey used: for.' , ? self r3,:erensel:'into a tool for tilling the soil was beyond the monkeys Its 'thinking remained ?On the level: of concrete ideas and. was derived. of the ability of. abstraction; and:: generaiization,.. There is a widespread opinion' among Many 15eoplethatAx00H44 . , understand human speech. True, many facts indicate that dogs Or' horses,, and. many other animals carry out errands ani orders expieSsed in words Or'fientencesy=just as they know their names,' ..Bowever, an: analysis oetheSe instances of-'"underatandink" of ,speech;show we ,deal here not with' the cOntent,of #te word, but.with.a.definite... combination of sounds which COmpose,the Word, and with the .intonation connected 'with "its pronunciation. If' we0,01 pick out, even_Tze,-- nonsensical but consonant caMbinationiof enunds-And pronounce,* W'ith a certain -intenation, the animal will respnnkto it with the same actions with-whiCh it had readted ta the correct'word. _here,ig. nothing more in this'"understandingrbaf speedh:than,conditions-refleXei Which , are farmed in respense-to'caMplex.sound combinations., We ..Imust,, - realize that higher animals are able' to farm verycompleX Andi.*een reflexes to the most diverse combinations of sounds,.intonat.i gesture of map) even to his facial expressions. ? .The "unde.rstEuldise of speech 'by' the animal is composed.:!0. these elements. It:is.curious, that in 'training dogs.-one, . ? , uses fofeign'wOrdS'-abcording to tradition;' the wards-,are even distorted in pronounciation. You can try and ask:the trainer,?:what is the meaning of a given pronounced word -- in a number of cases you will receive no answer. .The. trainer himself does not know what is "couche", "apporte", etc., nevertheless willlie:down,or bring down the'throvrCabjedt when-the command in 'uttered., You really cannot clainYthat the dog understand thezwords, if the trainer, him- self' does not-know-the translation into .Russian, and.conseguently. does not know what they actually mean. The above itattid refers. Tu144COCto the speech,of.parrotsv crow's, and other "speakingr nnimik-Ca; :There is. no doubt,tha ? 71 ? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release? -Yr 03/1 . - 8 -0104:1Rnn49nn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 alEt function pf`Sound. fermation-and,:irlitation:ie,N.ghly developed. in some . . . - ? of them. It --is'jiniit- as C4rtaini :howevery,?that there is, not the , least comprehension Of - the Uttered .i?in.isis and -phrases I It is ...ani.4er matter when a phrase learned, by the Pa.Vrot ban be reinforced: as a- condit-iOngi reflex.- -Folt'example; pi,*.....roff,?learned. some cussword; by caugiii the bird paiti'vhile?-lie tikikibithce the word., iie are ableto produce a- conditibried.refler.?:-As asvesultl? this ,cusswoiii ir113,. -,, ..? . become ASSOCirited.'with'.,the-Tain: stimulus. ? The parrot will `subae:-.:: ' quently "reapOnd" with-ari loath, when subjected pain.;. ,Such cases create a''sfronelifiefiipn of the "intelligence of spepah!'...,''Parrota and make soMe peopleAhink that :these birds-are eatable of ;-6al. " t a , speech. ?..-; ?,,,,.,' .. ? .r...:;4. ? .1,,.- p . , ? ? ? ? The' kbove Mientioned ixust not. lead. to the wrong cOnclusion.that various "scriunds'atere&bys-animals? aret,not connected. with some',707chig states. On the contrary, according to numerous observations', most diverse- gbunds'sserVe' as definite means of-? communication between the animaln. ? .,..., . ., . ? ,_ ,.? vA .40. ?e? I It isauffibient to :refer to ?the' signals. given .by the leader to the herd'Ori approach of danger,r?the, cries, of .the female calling its brood.;:-:and:'tlie 'cilea of the nestlings cooking for food,' to ,notice,? the d:efiniie:'connectiOn Of the uttered. sounds with the psychic state of the, ,afriiika. 6-'1f-these sounds? are some ,stimulus,they become-Wigns.ii?;of-the adaptation beharior..of?the animal a. , ' Talr`redent''Yearay--Ficientists succeeded:by,means of precise' scientific , scieritific'-'m:ethiirdia Of 'investigation;: to izs?egist,er.12.rari.o4s sounds utterekby.monkeys under irarious living conditions. These, vocal reaction's' "are3' 'COUrse, 'diverge and are related. to..the,pSychic _ states ' of? the' ? - ?.- ? . ? - However?, under no circumstances can -we call these sound.s speech, which., as 4t.,ie -streised -earlier, is-4-inlaerent only in hunans _find has originated.' ag' 'the result of the evolutional,,development of Monkeys in their socialorkiday practice. :'This ;conclusion is, the ansWer to the question :put at the beginningof this chapter. ? ?- . . Thus, we -riot deny thelpresence.of a certain level, Of psychic facultidi 'and. thinking In higher Animals. This thinking,i however,..., , is limited and. remains baSiCally-within.lthe frame of concrete, Images, of sensoryir 'thinking. An1TTIA1 g are not -capable of .making.,Com?kerigons, abstractions and generalizations. In other words, they..are uriable,to form ideas. , ? ? ? .? ..!, only to human9, b'ecaa'6:on1y-man,possesses.the'audiple.speech, and. each word -- already represents a generalization and an idea. 72 0 ? Characteristics Ofithe Psychic Activity of ?Maii?-?-? ? ?. ? "First, work and, later, articulate ; ? ? scieech were the two mbst important stimulf/Under the effect of Witich the lorain of the 'monkey' grd.w1iy ? changed intik a human brain. ..6 Work _created. the Man hImselft.?, ,? ? R. 1.??igels ? ? In his 'work rain Reflexes" *Sealieziov-Icanie Close to the: silUtifin ? of the basic'iblen vf thd origin ot..s,ykhiCs'; 'Re considered, sensations conn'6cted the' actiV#Sr; of : gat's- (vision;?? toul?) ? ? hearing, smell, etc.) as the cause' of the 'oiqgin of Tiychfc:activity:.. The psychic, act, he stated., cannot appear' in the ?conacioutiness? without a preliminary external sensory excitation. The origin ofthought follows the same rule. ' ? ? ? ? -i Psychic activity emerge as the ,result of-the effect ? of-the outside' world on our 's'ensory orgazia-.' The PercePtions-WhiCh"accoinpany it are the' only- true source of the develOPment of" the' Mind.; and ' together with it, the cognition of the 'reality which Surroundii?man.- 1. separate the mind. fromi the organs of sexiSation: means' to detaeh d phenoMenon from its -source; -sequel?from Cause: The. 'world; real ly exiata Aiesides the -man', ands?lites independent eiist-eriee; but man cannot 'perceive-At without is "crtxtris ? of -sensation; because" - the products of activity Of the sensery' Grime reptbsent- ttieotirce" ? ? of his entire psychic life," wrf?te I. M. Sechenov.1 ' ?'. : ' Having determined the basic 4,ueStliOn. of:the ourd?of -piyahic - activity, Sechenoy aid, not strip 'there and:continued:* thefurther devel- opment -of his Materialist teaching. ?-,:. ? N. ? ? ????? , We must mention in, dennddtiiin with thid 'that fels-i-ere?N-rere many:. ? among the idealist philosoPhers, yho_recoga.zed the ienitiations ' and. perceptions of man as the basis 'of hig- PsYChic 'activity. They, however, considered, these perceptions as inherent in the inner 'World of man, and. did not' relate their origin to the effect of the outside world.. If some of 'them did admit the 'alfeCt Of the 'enyiment," the'Sr thought' that there' was no direCt ? confide-61?n and. *precise' ?ietioriship 3. I. M. Sechenov "Who is to Develop and Row to ?Develop",.. In the collection Fiziologiya ?Nervnoy astem.y; - Vol i, .952; ' pp 275-276 73 ?? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ' between 'the environmental influences ...and the origin of perceptions. Feyetbach named this trend. in Philosophy and physiology "physiological idealism". Its founder yds the noted German physiologist of the 19th century, I., MullerIii iew o the., . . par'tici6lar;i444.641a6e of this problem, we shall analyze it in more,detai1.7 _ .4 ,. :c. : , ??? . ? The most important problem to the understahding of the unity of the organism anOts.enviiOninent its the one 'which concerns the qualitative significance of the envirdntental factdrs -which influence the organiam,the stimuli as they are called. it Thysiologye This litter,JAarified theme has profound. philosophical significance; - if it is not taken account, we shall:be unable to, correctly-eyalu- ate the materi4isticessence of Pavlov's teaching of the organism and itsrelation,to,the environmenta6i;;to,the psychic, activity originating in,conneetion.with The prelPaVlov physiology, based 'on mechanistic and.. idealistic positions,. ignore& the entire problem of the quality of stimuli and of the reactions4as,a whole. ThirLwas due to the fact that the,. mechanistictheoryrejects in.principle.he_eptegore of quality and operates Solely onAhe.basis of .quantitatiye ideas and,dpZinitions! The non-soientific.cnaracter of these views is obvious, for: they create an antihistorical, anti-evolutional approach to a given phenomenan,:deny the possibility_of true develoment,, and re4u9e0,... complex simple ones._ In.this.respect, it%is instructive to recall?the juxtaposition of the two:thepries_of,development: the mechanistisfand the:dialeCtic theoriesl.yhich*Vas madely,F,V., I. Lenin and which.Aemenpiratedithe insipidriandlifeless character of the mechanistic theory.1- . - In physiologx the mechanistic negation of the .category of quality manifested.itselfAnAneso-calledr"law_of2speeific energy. In substance it reduced to this: a reactionl,allegedly,independent of the Quality and. the character of the external stimulus will originate in an organ of.,sensntion?yhen4t is related to.the specifie_energy inherent-pktha.t.prgan. ,.Vblow,inc,the ezevaray of light, or surgical.oeparation%of the ;qt nerve will_alv,ays cnse. only .a visual sensation;,. ? : .-t . .; ? ??? Proceeding flyin,correctly 4scribed facts, I. Ailler? of thiS,liaV",:arrived-hoifever at.a profoundly?reactionary, idealistic conclusion the substance of which is the admission Of the complete ? . , ? 1 V. I.qpnin,IPhilosophicel_NOteboOks" GOspolitizdat, 1947,. PP 37-328- '74 0 separation betveen the organisk and the external medium. The role . of the 'external stiMulmi Is reduced :to that'of.a'cook in the rifle, to the role of an actuating mechinisMi It is of no importance : ? how and what force is applied. to press the cock -- the rifle will shoot with the,smne force, and the natilre of the shot will depend on how mudhlcud7pper there is in the charge, what kind. of:shefl. it is, etc. .4a far. as the organisii itioncerned4 it meand,tha% the reactions 'df various organs are arranged in.:advance, andthoit ? the external.iiitiuenees only actuate these."specific"_reactions. ThUsl thetereiains an'unfilled.-gap-between ;the 'organism ahil:Ubs,.: ? environment,. This notion of the relationship between the organiSM''', - and the envirot4nt'of coUrse eliminates the conAdenc&I 'which 'the materialist possess, in .tfie:poisibiliy Of a.sUreta coijoiefe cognition of thy Var.* ai:ound:U.S'[ The odoi-iliict.the.::'coloi. Of--the rose exists Only a's. Our 'perception: and is: 'Originating in our nerves, and. the pY8bleii'Of .7-their existenCe indeiendently of u- .thus,' remains unsolved. . _ , ? ,., It is nOt.:isUi?priSing.that? He*idltz ..:(the follower of MAller) began to express'openly his disbelief in the possibility of the Cogni- tion of the World.bymeans of the organs of sensation, discuss signs and symbols of the outside world, whicharei'--- allegedly, the only, ones we are ,capable of perceiving. ? _ V; I. 'Lenin, . the-Creator of 'the materialiStle theoryctif-the correct and"coMplete'reflection-in:Oni brain-Of the perceptt6iis qualitatively diverse stimuli fioin the external world ?subjected the "law of specific energy" to well deserved criticism, as an attempt to establish a basis fOr idealiSm'in'phySiolog:',-Lenin;eniphasized the point that "physiological" ideiiism-keanq of naturalists in one field. 'of natural science tumbled.:dwn1;to reactionarY:phliosophy, unable to'aieend.direCtly and-at once from metaphysical m4terialism to the dialectic.misterialism".;,.1, ? ? The idealism of this physiologist, indicated ,J consisted of the fact that, instudying the correlation between our perceptions and the activity of Organs Of sensationsheVas. - inclined to deny that our :perceptions are the iMgges.otobjective - reality. I. Ni.'Sechenov took a very definitePosition in regard;to this problem. He ' that the siiilaritieS And: differencesLwhich men find in sensations originating :from diVerise Objects, reflect the. true similarities and differences of these Objects'. He thought that the properties of *e sensatibris'Of'giih; sound, etc .-like- the' color. 1 V. I. Lenin "lidrks", Vbi 14, 13'299 ' 75' t Declassified in Part Sanitized C .y Approved for ( ease ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDPFii-ninaqpnnAonni Ant-Inn a Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 of varioui.objects,..tkm, height -of musical tones etc. fully depend on the actual excitation characteristics Which originateln bur organs ' of sensation under the effect of ,e,cten1al stimuli. , , 1! Pavlov insisted upOn the introdAstion,,q_the'idea of the role and significance of the qua1itY.of_iitimul4tOna and 'reactions,' . Starting with :initial vorklon.the 1001.0logi.of'bleod and, latefi in'the.stUdymif.:digetitiO4 and particularly during the period of investigatibh-Ofthe physiologx,of the _higher norvoUS activity, heAurned indefatigably: again and again .to the'qualitative characteriatics-ofthestimuli.4 In this respect',.the persistent' quest of PavloV;for thenliost precise materialistic approach id' highly significant, At,firEit,-folI*.ig'centuries old traditions, he searched::for,the.explanationof the observed ObjectiVe,' phenomena imtheirlquality,ppsalivation,in its dependence'on the "pleasurelsensationsr and on the "psychic states" of the. animal. HOwever, having soon become convinCed of the sterility of this approach, be turned determinately to the path of the Objective .- physiologicaLlitterpretation ofrall;.animal:reactions. , This was not accidental,-.of'course;-orkthe cOntrary, the case of Pavlov, it was organicallylumnd.with.his ideas of the unit Y of the organism and its environment. - , , Pavlov subordinated, this problem in its entirety bo experimental analysisl-bUt'its:most important component,part.remained the question, how is the!aigherLnervous activity of animals and man formed under the effect ofwariouacqua3itatively different external stimuli; At'first,IPavlov-carried_put the,studY Of higher nervous activity in-animila.nly. Jilowever,)11:sfeonstant.task in these experiments waswthef-Aim of finding ways to explain the'precesSes of psycholbgical activity, in man.. ,Accordingly,.st the first oppor- tubity, he includedgin,the._cirgel,of bis .studies the,-direet,obser-, vations of the higher nervous activity in man, 'which becarried out' in the psychiatric.tlinic ( ' %- PavlovIwibbservations,of higher-nervous activity in man broUght forward th'el.question of.the analogy and differences in the, psychics of animals and. man. In approaching it from a_straight.methodological position, Pavlov was able tofind-theright path:inthe study of this most 4iffiCuIt problem. Taking account,tbat:theenviroritent is_the.tain prerequisite(which:determiges,theoharacter of.the7reactions?of an anitali Pavlov:-arrived at.thefoli*ng,concluSion: The natural, biological or, as Pavlov called it, "the general' natural" medium is common to both, animal and man, 'At the same time, man. lives - 76(7 ? under direct influence of a social and public' medimm. which is, inherent tb-him'only, and. Which is largelyabsent,in the animal kingdom. These circumstances must serve as the key, Pavlov:thought, to determine the similarity aid differencerl of higher nervous activity in animals' and. man.' The biologidai medium influences .the eyes of Funtpn) and an with a light stimulus, the organ of hearing with a sound stimulus,' their skin with heat and cold. F rallel with these external body stimuli we can think of the diverse effects which the body and its organs have on the central hefirous system. Muscular sense, the sensation of hunger and thirst, satiety, pain sensation, etc. all originate in the internal organs, and are examples which prove the possibility of the stimulating effect of 'the organs of the body. Any one of these actions may acquire the character of a, conditioned. stimulus, as has been indicated above. Al]. conditioned eflexes which are formed after a direct effect on the ,eye, ear, skin, and other organs of sensation, Pairlov, designated as the activitY'of the first signal system. .Tai&System is, to a' certain extent, comMon to animals and man, especially in the early period of maturity of man. "To the animal," 'Pavlov wrote, "reality is signalized almost exclusively by teans.of"stimulations and their traces in the large cerebral hemi4heres, which penetrate-directly to special ,cells of the visual, aU.dial,. and other receptor& of the organism. These, signals are thesame which we receive via our receptors as.itpres- sions, perceptions-anditeges from' the external environment. ?.....,the general natural, as well at the social, with the exceytibn of .the, word, heard or read. Thls is our first signal system of realitY, , common to,us and anima1g.:11 Pavlov emphasized that the social and public environment is specific to man and differentiates 'him from animal. In accordance with the ideas .of Engels; Pavlov concluded that work, created by ' social customs, represented a new characteristic in the formation of the human society. "Work ?created man," said F. Engels. .In the practice of work contact primitive people felt the need of-saying,something to eaeh, other. The articulate speech appeared, a tongue was formed. A foundation was created for the development of thinking. 1 I. P. Pavlov "Complete :Works, liol.IIII.Moscow-Lepingrad, Published. by Aced of Sci USSR, 1949, p 568 77 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy A df e ease ? 5 - r /03/14 . CIA-RDP81-n1n4flPnn4,nn1Annrv) 6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ?-? ? . In underlining this characteristic element in the evolution of' the higher nervous system of man., Pavlov used. to say that man i. talking' Creature. ? . . . '." -? ? ' ? Word. as a? conditioned. stimulus, speedh as a conditioned refleX. activity, .and the innumerable quantities of conditioned' reflexes ? taking place on this basis specifically) according to Pavlov, the second. Signal systeir. ? ? ? ? Having' acquired. in the course of evolution the second. signal system) man mastered. also 'the higher qualities .of thinking Oonneeted. with the faculty of abstraction:and generalization.. ? ?': . ? . ? .4 Animals (espeCially the higher ones 'dog, monkey) also possesintelligenee. of which .we shall speak??lateri? However, the thinking *.'? function- of an. animal is limited. within the range of the first signal system. It means, that it consists. of. concrete,- itage-like; ,or as some say, sentiory thinking. One can speak of an id.ea of the image of a sparrow, Chicken, 6r goose in the mind. of. .a mOnkey, but the monkey is. totally incapable;?of -a generalized conception of a bird.. Thinking"in ideas requires a. geheralited abstract approach; .it can only emerge. on the basis of speech. In the idealistic teachings about the soul the problems connected., with :the origin 'of -speech. and. its relationiship to. thought , . always occupied. a very important .place. It. is not by Chante that these same problems ? attracted the' most vivid. attention -of the servanta of the churCh In contrast ? to the Marxist materialist. teaching 'of ? the origin of: speech as a social phenomenon conditioned by work practice', religion feels that the. gift of tongue has been grante& us through -Divine intervention. .? ? The idealistic notions regarding the soul and. speech concur ? ? in substance for one of the most important signs of spirituality, i.e., the presence. of the soul,: is Speech. Animals -are :speechless creatures,: for). not having received a soul,from God.) they have not obtained the gift of speech either, the clerics say. ? The teaching of the first and. second. signal systprtig of conditiOried reflex activity and. of the plose connection and. inter- relationship between the two systems, indicates instances of trails- formation' of thinking in concrete images into thinking. in. ideas and. obstractions. The data,of natural: science ?obtained by the Pavlov school, thus, corroborate .the ideas of- V. I. ..Lenin Who had. pointed, out the gradualness of the' development of ,the process of consciousness. ...,? ? Lenin wrote: "From a live observation-to abstract 2thinking-1 " 78 ri 11 and from there to practice -- this is-.the?dialectic path of knowledge of truth,. and. of knowledge of Objective reality. "1 The "Philopophidal teabhing of ;the classicists of Marxism and the physiological -studies 'of' Pavlot dedtroyed the religious and idealiStic: ideas of the -divine ?xLiWifi,of human consciousness. -1;;? ? 4 . The problem of the development of psychics in connection with the develoPment of the entire live world. was posed in Russian science a long time ago. N. Gi Chein'yshevskly pointed out the ftiet?of : relationship between the psychic phenomena in the animal .world and. the phenomenon of consciousness in man. He underlined the fact that, if this historical succession of phenomena is disrupted., the consciousness of man may appear to us as a:-sort of miracle, some-, thing isoiated, just the way it .i.s? imagined by the- idealists. s. ? t? . Later, I. M. Sechenov advanced the task of study of the histori- cal de:trelopment ofjpsychic processes in the frame of evolution of . the- entire'ariiiral world. Of the utmost importance in the fight against idealistic ideas is the Materfalistic teaching- of the causal dependence of the origin of speec1iLandt6rigues on the work practice in. human communities, as well as the 'didcovery by Pavlov of' the physiological and. material processes N:dieh are -at the base of speech. q. The ,or -thi&- d.e'rdlopient of :mental faculties. from the lowest-l'eVeI to the' highest forms of .thinking ?-?-? all this have now become open-to-seientific materialistic investigation. The idealistic teaching 'Of"-the soul has been till. recently the most inaccessible fortress* iilealism,!- and religion. The .Marxist philosophy and. the materialistic' sCienee,destroyed this fortress and scattered the Biblical myth of the soul-w-ithout ileavirig a trace. One: of the gr:eatest :achievements of Marxist philosophy is, the developsient_bY Lenin of' theitheory of cognition, which has, been. named the reflectiOn'theory. .The material processes of the outside world which exists.' independently of us are impresses (reflected) in our brain:: We- must emphasize the fact ,the Pavlov's, teaching of con- ditioned 1:eflexes in* animals; rand:- the two singall systems pf the 'airman braitil;' representthe-eorroboration by natural science of-Lenin's theory of' reflection: 'The -cerebral cortex ensures man's faculty, as Pavlov taught, to reflect -c6rrectly and precisely the 'objective reality which surrounds us. 1 V. I. Lenin'"PhilOsOphical Notebooks") 194.7, ;pp 1114.147 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003 3 79 14. Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - InstinctS "From the physiological 'point of ..vieV there is .no substantia.1,.diffe- pence. between what. is celled instinct -..and.:r,eflex. ? The cortw1e4ty of the ? acts Cannot be conside:red'audh a ? difference?". . ? ? In the behavior of animals, especially such as birds and ' insects, their amazing adaptation to environmental conditiona ? ? attnacts -our..attentio?n;. ; ? ? ..??,. ? -;.? ? ? . . ? ,?? .? The transmigrating birds Are able, :having flown thousands' _of ? kilometeLrs:. to. return to the village which ,they had.' left in jie autumn, even to-the same nest which ttlaey had. terdaken, half. a .year. previously. It is well known how easily the carrier pigeons orientate thexthelves:. The life 'of _bees..and ants in Large colonies .- has since ancient times excited, the most ,v-liv-id? interest. Indeed; b?-E)w many most diverse acts and. organizational orders *can be obserVed: - . - beehives and. ant-hillsI During the first twenty days-of its. life,, the bee Carries Out work connected. Vith the -imPlementation pf.:;various.functipits wbib correspond. to sik.. specialties:. During the first. 'five, days f011owing.. its birth, the bee works as a gleaner in the beehive: later ,-as a, ? distributor of food.. During that time the bee intensely develops special glands whiah are, adapted; te.the feeding ,of larvae whom, it starts feeding on-. the ixthciay. hile. carrying out thia.,-function,. the be simultaneously Acquires. the ability. to produee :wax, arid_ starts building.honeycombs;. For the next- 8-10 clays the. bee .carries out a few more functions ia'the 'beehive: - It acti.. as .4 guard. aadz as a receiver- of honey, and toward the 20th day-of its existenee . leaves the beehive and starts- collecting. heney. We traced the development of the function of one bee, the so-. called. worker. The interrelations between, the.Ebevrs whieh compose a beehive -are very diverse and comples Wel shall ,cite, an example of a bee-scout which, by means -of A "canoe": signalizes all -other bees that .it bad found. A source. of food,..o.ften: located within lop Meters distance, or eve:n within many kilometers.! away .frem, the be.ehive.? It is 'not sUrPrising that, the behavior of bees. sinee, leng. ago ehas been not -only a ,subjeet of study. and, obseryationibut a .s?i.bject for._ discussions ? as to their intelligence and acts. of And. was not the surprise -and., admiration of people .N65. had. 80 Declassified in Part San iti " opy Approvedor Release ? - observed. for the first time the marvelous dams built by the "river- engineers" ? the beavers with their cleverly constructed habita- tions the little houses -- wel.VtiznOdisd? The beavers build. excellent dams, measuiling two to five Meer, which bloCk the flow of water and. raise tta leVel to thitt of 4he.shoe. This pnables them to:' flood the food stores, en44es athidden approach to their habitations, and. makes it' easier to- transport food, to the little houses. At times, the beavers create large flooded. areas, by constructing a whole system of dikes and embanitments, with a, flooded area as large as two hectares'. Besides building the dikes, the beavers ensure the preservation of A constant water level through ? various-devices (drains, or a roller suPeritposed on the entire dike). If the casing of the dike is damaged in one section er the other, the beavers perform complete repair work the following night. Thus, these remarkable little, anlmal s ensure the completion of construction work and the thorough preservation of the dikes: - Many phenomena of nature, truly appearing as marvelS, were long ago noted. 'by people who observe& the life of fish, birds, and insects; these phenomena required explanation. It was natural to assume -that-the animals .were endowed with intelligence. However, there were many facts which spoke against it.. The matter did not seems much. clearer when the idea of instincts was brought forward. This idea remained vague and involved. until the materialistic bases of the so-called, mental activity had. been elucidated. The. teaching of the soul and instinct differentiated at once the conception, of- the mental activity of animals and. man. A' special disignation vas needed. to emphaSize this differnnce. The literary heritage known to us enables us to assume that, as far 'back as two :andi,a half thousand. years ago, this difference? between the mental functions of animals and. man had been alluded to. The animals were desCribed'as .possessing blind., unconscious impulses and. pro- pensities' which had 'been given the name of instincts (the wird: "instinct" means a natural impulse). There is no need td dwelling on the description of other idealistic-points 'of view, whose 'representatives attempted. to find an explanation of the instinctive activity. They were not.only based on unscientific premises but actnaJly contradicted the facts. Thus, one of the-' characteristics of instincts which made them so' enigmatic -and.-mysterious was their alleaed .high purposefulness. Howeverclsome actual facts demonttrated. that the instincts, while preseriring under.' certain conditions an =doubtful purposefulness, continued to -function after these conditions ,had. changed.; thus 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RnPR1_n1ne-:DrmAnrw- .81 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - - _ - ? - I-- becoming senseless and. absurd.. As an example), we can mention :the hatching of "eggs" by.a bird, when the reEs.1.? eggs have been removed. from the neat and. replaced by a egg-shaped. stones ::If we z?cove the eggs, of an eider and. put.,them aside, the eider would sit down on the, ,former spot, warm it -with its. body) and. "hatch", an empty spotOn'the .rock, though its eggs are lying not far away a She bees continue ,to seal;:with wax the cells of the honeycomb from?-which the honey has been .taken out. A-hatched baby chick will start pecking at ;once. owever,' it will peek not Only at food. but eat everything in sight, even sunlight spots, beads, and other non....edilAfa objects. The true pecking for food. ,d.avelops later --. . as the 'chick-- grows up and? as the reinforaing effect 'Of ?the. food. , stimulus assert s itself.. Thus,. the. purposefulness of-instincts is relative and.- appears only, at a certain stage of maturity. . , ? ? &true seientific, raaterialistic analysis of the question of' instin?cts was made 'for the first '-Einie 'to a full extent. 'by Charles Darwin.' .1 . ? ?? . ? In his first important :work. "The Origin of Species") C. Darwin clarified, numerous facts which are conneCted: with the instinctive activity of various animals, and, gave them a materialistic inter- pretation. He demonstrated that this Seemingly 'startling. purposeful- ness of instincts is a result of the enVironmental. adaptation of.. . FullinAls. Thus, Darwin raised the question of the origin of instincts. In stating thus the question, he had to follow it up by cirticising the assertion of the immutability of instincts.. He showed, in citing a number of facts, that certaizi inatincts* were Subjected, to change under changed. environmental conditions. ? These. changes of instincts becur with great ?difficUlty. 'Darwin.indicated.) for example, that wolves, foxes, jakals, and. ether 'animals-even when domesticated, still attack chigken, sheep and. pigs. Their puppies transferred. from the locality of domesticated animals, could not be broken away from the habit of attacking pigs and. sheep. Obviously, one generation was insufficient to suppress' this instinct. At the same time it is well known that our domestic dogs, as a rule, remain indifferent to other' domestic Rnirmal s and. attack them in exceptional cases only. Darwin -came back to the problem of instincts in his book . "The Manifestation of Emotions in Man and. Animals". In this he completely refUted the idealistic ,and. religious ideas of the imdepen- dence of the animal -behavior from the material condition i .of its habitat. He contraSted, this idea with: his biological teaching of evolution, vhich? bhOws. the gradual' develOpm. ent' Of psychic i as well as instinctive actions ef animal and. man. In regard to ;the. material 82 causes f the expression of perceptions which lead to various manifestations. of diverse ?sensery states in the animal (the state or four,. joy) etch)) Darwin wrote: "There is no dbubt that as long as ..... we continue regarding man and. all other animal as independent creatures, our natural aim to ittiestigate as much as possil3le the causes of expressioh Will be considerably inhibited. By;raeans of this doctrine (the teaching of divine origin -- Di.gAryukov) one can equally well ? explain. virtiiRily anything under the i3une; it Proved to be just as ? ruinous to the .science of' expression, aa' to any Other, branei. of natural ?science'.'.. Those-who will' accept the basic premise that ee the organism and habits of all animals kayo been developing di y; will see all problems relating ;to expression in a. new; and interesting?light.-"1 ? ? In studying the origin of psychic .phenomena (sens.ations), habits) in man.-and animal.;) Darwin' thils? i'ertiie& the legend ,of tii6 creation of . the world by God- and, of the immutability of, huintine andinnimn1 a whic.h ? he had. created,. HOwever, though' the' Vivis of Darwin on the nature of instinct represented undoubtedly a step forw:ard, from the biological point of view, still they -did not explain the subdt4i.ce:.oi the instincts. Darwin mill& not 6.13 it,, 'for the contempors:ry, :1.eveA. o ,the. development .of?physiblogfeal "science did not make, it Possible. This possibility presented itself only when M.''Sechenov and., parti,cu-i ? larlyr I. P.. 'Pavlov develOted the' physiological seierne .of the ? acquired reflex reactions which 'ensure the adaps tatIon of. the animal to its ,? environment. -?? ? . . . ? ? ? . , Pavlov related' instincts: to the Moat co4plex unconditioned.) inherited., reflexes, 'and, in aonriection.with'this did. not. even ,use . . the term."instinct". , We must point,out-?that; depending on the level Ca' the evatt.ional development, the mechanisms of inatincts may 'clifier to st. cnnsiderahlv, extent) and, no one Will seriously' ipientify 'the instincts of a higher primate -with the' instinct-of a taiiiworm*. HoWeVery there? is a certain community in these functions which relates primarily to their. reflex nature. Thus, instincts some as other funCti ons are determinate, i.e., are manifested. in connection with certain definite causes originating in the aid/nails. environment. This, fact, must be stressed, for there were atteirts-by sOme scientists to attribute to the . instincts the role of the inner force of the organism, of the: inner. . imperative stimulus Which is not controlled by the organism as a whole In analysing thd?instinets of higher animals, we can visualize their mechanism more .or. :les schematically as follows. 1 Charles Darwin " in Nhn and ilimals", Works) !- VO1 5, Moscow, Ed. Aced Sci USSR, 1953) pp 698-699 83 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Ap?roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA RDP81 01043R00420014florn S Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 As has been mentioned alrehdy, the basis of instinctive action is the not complex, or 'as it is calIed) the chain reflex. It means that.the-comple*.instinct is composed.) like h chain) of separate links Which represent simple reflexeis ? ? ? it! The links of the complex ituitindt;-hre closely tied together and are acting recifrocally on one anotnert. ,One link activates the next, and) as a result df such successive change,of'SeParate phases of the developing Chain reflexi some very inkrolved action of the organism is taking place. This' can be illustrated by an example of the developtent df the phenomenon of vomiting -- one of the instinctive acts. When :something harmful enters the stomach) a protective ejection takesplace? 'she discarding' of the gastric content, which prevents poisening.of the organism. This process is effected as follows.. First, the entrance to the stomach 'becomes patent, while energetic muscular 'contractions of the abdominal Wall.and of the diaphragm are simultaneously getting Into action. The contractile movements of the stomach-proper are also increased. The-exit aperture of the stomach elosei up and the gastric content is pushed upward to the entrance; The larynx 'and.tongue are raised which prevents-the possibility of the entry of the vomit material into the respiratory paths. The ever increasing contractions of the abdominal wall, and etntractions of the stomach -- the latter taking. place in an'AnUsual, reverse direction, also the onset of. oesophageal contractions, all combine in the ejection.of the-gastric content. , An analogous complex chain reflex is represented in the act of swallowing. We are effecting itsinstinctively,,not rnalizing its complexity. However, the instances of entry of food particles into the nose, or trachea, as for example in laughing while we eat, remind us of the importhnce of coordination of separate reflexes during the normal act of Swallowing. . We cited, as an example, one of the comparatively simple instinctive acts. Of course, some of the instincts, the sexual for' example, are connected. '11n' animals', especially in birds, with some pecaiiarities of habit ,and even of the external appearance (the color of plumage), characteristic vocal reactions, special games, or, on the contrary, fights, they can be much more complicated in their composi- tion; however, the substance-of the matter does not change, and we see at the basis of this instinct primarily the same complex unconditioned-reflex. 84 -4 ? On the eicample of the sexual instinct we observe with particular clearness another characteristic of this function, which is present _ in Various degrees other instincts. That is; that the instinct' ? , is a manifeathtien of the functions not of the nervous. system alone, but is closely connected with draerse chemical . organist', ? ? Thus,.for'examPle, the change in the chemical composition of the blood and:i?ther fluid in the organism in connectionNith.hunger ? ("starved blood") plays'a Very important'kole-in thomanifestation..:?,.' of the food ObtainMent instinct. 'The chafigingehemistrrot:the.blgOd is the cause of manifestation of reflexes?Whircht:effect the'adt-of respiration. ? ? s ?? The'above:pidn.tioned glanda dfinteinarseetetien and: the:-' ? hormones whiCh.,they seci-ete pIay'aneitremelY-important part in' - ? ? . enhancing ,the' nItulifpitaiOn:* of . . We know 'that cadtra1iien:4"done'"at an:early-age,-inhibits the manifestation of the seXUal instinct'. - We must mention another Point-for the 'complete physiological, characteri4ation bf instincts In' higher ? ? ' - : 1 ? Let uS.Visualizo.a. dog eatinefrot a bola placed. bespre it. -. ? The dogs seizes the piewes with certain frequency. If at this time - we shall try to distract the dog from the food container, we shall easily observe that the animal, instead Of turning around: in response to the new stiMulits, will: continue to lap its food with greater - frequency and avidity. ? The salephsioloical phenomenon-can bd?observed=in,the manifesta- tion of the defense instinct. Let us observe two 'dogs -engaged in a. fight. Olir eXperience has taught us that the best way to separate them is to pour water over them . -It means that only a.- very strong and unusual stimulus' is able to-stop their fighting. drive them apart, to separsee'them by means of. gentle pulling.will . virtlially lead to the increase of the aggressive reactions of the . animals. What do we:see from the point of view of the-physiology of-the central nervous system? The substance of this reaction was . ascertained. by A. A.; tkhtomikiy, the eminent Soviet physiologist and. academician, who named this function ofthe central nervous system-a dominant function rdominantaf. Under dominanta we understand a group of nervOns,centers 'Which entered into recipreical action. and. which determines a'dertain'tehaviorist'readtion OttheIuitnal.%.The, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 85' ? 1?? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 peculiar characteristic of the dominant group of centers is its faculty -be collect, so-to speak, 'the stimuli 'which at the moment are affecting the organism and. to become stronger at their expense. This . is precisely what?happened in ti Wo cited examples. The stimulation which originated., in connectien Vith.N1ling the dog by its, collar would under usual conditions, haVek,6aUsed. the animal to turn around in the direction of the pull, or perhaps to wiggle its tail) etc: But, since under the described.circumstances a food dominanta in one caee, or a' defense dominanta in the other has been formed in the central .netVouti system of the dog we shall find that there is no reaction'to,the new stibaulus'bUt.a definiteenhancement of the reaction to the previous stimulus. The analysis of many instincts shows that at their basis ale the reactione'of the dominanta:which may dissolve naturally, i.e., disappear upon -the satisfaction of the instinct (for example, ' satiation in the case of the foo.. instinct), or maybe "switched over" to another dominanta under the effect of new and stranger stimuli (the suppression of the food dominanta and the appearance of a defense syndrome in case of threat:to life). A damihantal-formed in the central nervous system: may acquire the role of a factor which, determines the direction of the animals reactions and with great force at that. In the male frog during the spring period appears a dominanta of,embracing which manifests itself in hugging the ft, ale. If the male frog is subjected to other stimuli, the "embracing reflex" increases, it become stronger even after the removal of the higher brain centers from the male. Wel:lave-Already indicated that 'the higher centers of the brain in the more developed animals (the cerebral ,cortex) may affect and change the-unconditioned'reflexes to a considerable degree. This is impartant to the understanding of the mechanism of instinctive ' functions-in-higher animals: In this case, the conditioned reflexes, or the' dominant nucleus, which has originated.; in the higher brain centers may exert their effect. The understanding of this very important question will enable us to learn to-what extent the tnstincts,of the animal can undergo changes. In the old physiology and psychology this problem could not appear.. .There, the general concensus of,opinion was:the acknowledge- ment-of,the immutability of instincts.' - . ? This was,, to a great.extent, due to the absence of knowledge of the nature. of instincts, as well asto the lack of understanding that 86, in higher animals the regulatory and directing functions are .. . . effected by the most develdped areas' of the central nervous:syatem -- the cortical Centers ot the'brain: . , ? , i .?:. ,. , , : . Latelyy, merimentel data havy. bee,n,obtained which attestto the fact that the instinct is not -a mysterious property. of the.organis% and yields to ObjeCtiVe'etudy as wellvas tO mutation.under the. effect of changes' in the environmental conditions of existence:cri corroborate this statementOne may.refer,to.the exietimentel.res obtained. by one of .the Soviet AnvestigatOrs; %lei Iobashevt ? ProcepdAng4frall the'tact-that theduratiw.of the, light period during the day deteritei.the 1.a-ying. chicken, Ipbachev_ decided that, 15y-Usihg artificial:-/ightt, daylight strengthhe could make two' 'days" and two -"nights". out of, 24 hours. As-a result ofthisalteration:of. the regimel.hens.whieh experienced two days. and two six-hoUr.nights.increased ? . their egg laying faculty: The resulting,egga had-petfectiy normal properties E'en 'such a stable:. instinct as the food instinct can be changed under definite external conditions. Bbre is one , experiment'. A. pike and adtucien were placed .in an aquariam) which had been previously divided by 4 glass 'partition; in, . one section.the tlike was swimming, in' the othel---the-crUcia. Stimulated 'bythe food instinct, the-pike 13 'trying to atteck,the, crucian and knocks itself repeatedly against-the glass partiton. The pike, of course, received other food to satisfy the food instinct. After repeated unsuccessful attempts to get hold. of-the crucian 'and constant collisions,-with the wall, the pike finally. lost its ? , appetite for the crucian. .Shortly after, .the partition'ves removed:, and now' thepike was swimming together,with,the crucian without attacking it. .? . . , ? . The causes which effected the change in the ,,Instincts of the above- described ,instances are different. The egg-laying faculty of the hen. Was tncteased-through the' change 'in the" principal environmental condition --the/duration and shift of:the:night and day periods. In'the case withthe-pike.we have a change in;instincts under the influence ofkthe'newly created And much stronger conditionW feflexes of-4 protective character (theAcnocking.afthe pike against the partition).- - ' One could city many_examples'which,attest to the possibility of changing the instincts. We have already mpptioned the importance of., the body chemistrylAnthis respect:4nd., eapecially, its hormonal. . functions:. The 'Soviet' scientists OnduCted remarkable_eXperiments. in "sex alteration". Everybody.knows.thai the'4IffetenceS in the.. .87 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 external sex characteristics .of?roosters. and-lien are very marked.. If the - ovary' in; ty hen : is removed.- and. rePlaced by; -the-. seminal: vesicle - of the rooster, or if the sex gland.s of the rooster are?removed. . and replaced. by the ovary 'of a hen, oho can observe how the rooster loses the Characteristics ofl.its ctb ,plumage,' and. vocal ? ., reactiont:', hov? it begins 'to hen;-(the hen, on the, ether hand., acquired., the. charaeteristics Which make it indifitin,guishailas from a rooster:" It is of partidulat interest, that? not only the external .appearante-:buta 'even dome behavior. traits. (belligerence) , are lost by the,roosterl, an& are acquired by the hen. - These facts learly attest to the possibility of changing the instinctsin animals. This conclusion is-very, important. It corresponds -to the basic teachings of.I.Darwin, Pavlov, and. ,Michurin; it refutes the idealistic and religious ideas of the immutability . of the existing World. without the intervention of God.. It .is . important to ,exphasize the fact that this conclusion equally relates , to the sphere of psychic activity. '-f ? Instincts are also Characteristic of man. Hcwever, it was precisely this-tieldi which 'harbored. many. idealistic theories and? attzribUted,to nian'a kind of "personality in depth" controlled'by his instincts. ? These ?instincts were..considered a force not subjeet to any influence whatever, acting in some fatal mariner, and. constitaing., in. the last -analysis, the -.".fate" of man, independent of him, and .predestined from above..: ! ? On.. 'false basis originated.-attempts of a theoretical , justification of sexual -looseness, and: reprehensible.,ameral_aets, attempts to justify drunkedneds, gambling, -:etc. a. , We must definitely condemn and refute these attempts which are. contradicting scientific positions. As to the matter of man and his instincts, iti solution:isperfectly-'feasible.and unevivocal.. Higher animals-and,especiallyman_differ,from other animals in that their"brain'has reached-the,,greatest:development., Its- , sectionS which'have:acquired.the-faculty tf.the distribution and direction) as.Pavlov.said,zof_alIorganicfunctions_(the cerebral cortek)ledhievd: in amn-thei-..highest.development. On,:this:basis, appeared, as explained above, the second signal system of pral ,and. speech conditioned reflexes, inherent in man only, which ensured the faculty 'ofhigher thinking, of fOrminginew conceptions such as honor, duty,- patriotist eta: ..Therein' lies the source ofamanyl-e.mmples- in history-and::in our present life,F in the?recent:experience of the Great Patriotie-Warl-when the Strongest sensations of fear,:painland physical Suffering:becamesubordineited-to the' conscious, volitienal ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? 1 direction by man. Let us recall Aleksey Marealycv, Aleksandra hittrodova, the hero flyer Gastello, Zoya 1Cosmodemiyanskaya, the komsomols.:of Krasnodon,. the immorta3. Panfilovs, and many others. We could eitY many thousand examples from the immediate actuality of our days: ,These facts leave no doubt. that the instincts -- food, defense, self-Treservationl. the fundamental problem, whether to live or not, were, decided: not the way they ,are being dicided in the world, of animals: Thanks to the 'intervention of higher social stimulating motives, :the instinct was depressed, inhibited, and. the. scene was taken.'over'by the consciousness of responsibility, humaneness ),. and, patriotism. . ? "Live not the way you want, but the way God ordered." -- taught one of the proverbs of the prerevolutionary Russia. It reflected the philosoPhy.ef doom, hopelessness., .and. of, the .impossibility of. , resisting :"fate" which is hanging oVer,man., ... ? L. , ?;...:... . . The teaching of the 'soul& .ath it roots in the:,forin .of allegedly, enslaving man is fully refuted. by modern 'scientific data. - One cannot-any longer dispute the assertion. of $0,7-iet mcholegy,..and physiology that- the instincts .of anima) s? are, subject- to .ctiOges Under the effect of -various external and...i_nternal..cenditiOns. As. far,: as man is concerned., the right to bear that name .sp that: "it wounds proud", as A. M. Gorikiy used. to say, depends to-what- extent man is able 'to .control his instinets, :hi s poyerl.,anr3.....te what., extent he dedicates himself ,to ," purposeS". ? .6 ? ? ?? ? 50-Yr 20 3/1 . - -01043Ron49nni 89 ? ? ? : ? r. ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Onvthe"-Piy'dhi'db of Man ?"."- .'"?? 1??? ? ? ? p , as!fiothing neither-word's') nor, .nor'even'acts eicpr ess ' exbress.pursolves%and our att'itude' 'to,thelliorld so clearly and. so 'cOredtly as our-senshtions: in '- these wediacern the character not of ;b. sePaiate thought)for a ? : -seParate deciiien)'butiof the 'entire essence and ordek Of-oUr. Baulk!' - ' Ushiriskiy -? . ? , At one ptibli'eqeeture devoted'to thelproblem of scientific andatheistic propaganda) I received'a'nete-: you atheiat'elaim that there is soul, Yet in the newspaper Pravda in an obituary it was iiiiid'Oelthe deceased.' "He 'wars'a man With a great soul."-- ? ? - . ? tO ragreed-'with-the aUthor of. the nete .that ha& a certain right to und&:rIine,tiie! seemirilg".contradictiOn between our special approach to the prohisha 'Of the mg-LI- and our' prdetice of -using 'this- conception) more correptly), . , " ? .: - - 4 ? ? Indeed') eicpreisibilg' such-- ? rl with -a gr eat soul", gsouuful - person". "pure" or "-lUhinoU"soulfli and inversely "a- hard?soUl") "man without a soul") etc. are very frequently used in our everyday life. In denying most definitely the existence of some mental substance separate from the body) or of a soul existing parallel to the body (which is the essence of the idealistic ideas), we acknowledge at the same time the presence and manifestation of the so-called psychic activity. Let Us try and analyse what we understand under the idea of a soul) and under the conception of the so-called psychic faculties of man. We have already mentioned that the brain is the organ of mental activity and that the Objective method of conditioned reflexes created by I. P. Pavlov is the means to study the physiological basis of this activity. Right then we stated that such a position does not exclude the possibility and the necessity of analysing that complex branch of science -- psychology. We shall adhere to the physiological plan of stating the problem and proceed with the juxtaposition of the 90 psychological and physiological conceptions. Psychology ("logos" of tha soul originated our subjectivo sensations in contact. The nUmorous trends Europe and in tho United thoorios. -- teaching, "psycho" -- soul) -- the teaching a vory long time ago. This is normal, since aro tho ffret reality with which man comes which constitute modern psychology in Western States of America can bo reduced to two basic One is behaviorism. "Behavior", an English word, moans conduct. The supporters of this trend deny any innor content of psychics. They rogard man's conduct as automatic activity which carrios out mochwlical- cy various activities dopending on oxtornal stimuli. Herbert 'foodward, a noted member of tho Amorican Psychological Association, exposed this point of view vory cicarly. Ho suggests that we do not domand of the psychologist that ho penetrates "thrnugh the skin" of tho investigated subject and that we regard psychology as a scienco of "surface behavior", for only this kind of behavior can be evaluated quantitatively. His program is ainod at the mathomatical in- terprotation of psychic pohnomona and laws. However, upon careful examination, this reasoning attests to the author's tendency of refuting the materialistic thesis that consciousness is a function of corebral matter)' Tho other trends of foreign psychological scienco are basod on Froudianism and aro only scomingly contradictory to behaviorism. Freudianism is named after its founder tho Austrian psychiatrist Froud and is, probably, the most widespread school at the present time in tho European and Anorican psychology. While behaviorism principally puts under tho vory fact of the existence of consciousnoss, tho .haractoristic tondoncy of the followors of Freud is their attempt to represent consciousnoss as a certain scroon which only temporarily and incomplotely obscuros tho real essence of human individuality, its depth, and its instinctive tendencies and aspirations. Consciousness, according to Froudianism, is subordinatod to occult and unconscious psychic forces which oxist as-some sort of destiny and prodotormine fatefully the behavior and ideology of tho 1 it."-q0c4ward "Experimental Psychology", Moscow, Ed. Foreign Lit., 1950, p 43 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 91 2/ .3 individual. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? In analyzing various and fairly numorous trends in modern T?'orn7r.,,n.rnd,rico.n psYChology, it is oaby to establish tho origin of all of thon from thew two basic?rodid bohaviorism and Froudian- ism. J..Bornal, tho progFossivo English sciontistp-in his-ovaluation of tho nodorn Europoan and American psychology, arrivos at tho following conclusion: "Modorn psychology roprosonts oither a now version of tho ancient Grook medical psychology or a more or loss aviscoratod Froudianism with, usually, a considorablo.admixturo of mysticism. Tho rob o of psychology in the capitalist world...consists of thb attompt to give a scientific justification to tho 000nonic and political institutions'. It also sorvos to discourago pooplo from tho attempt to chango those institutions and to scorn thoso attonpts as a bad ?motional adjustnont."1 "Tho final conclusion of Freudian psychology," continued formal, 'is roducod to the stat nont that man is virtually-controlled by his own subconscious instincts of his prenatal poriod..."2 At tho first look at may soon that Froudianisn and behaviorism aro opposed to each othor. Hnwovor, a more thorough study of tho substance of thoso-two thoorios brings out thoir comploto idoological kinship. It is evident, first of all, in the denial, of tho fact that consciously posed aims aro at tho basis of tho bohavior, and actions of man. 'Milo to us the ossonco of psychology consists of problems of consciousnoss which are dotorninad by tho social existence and intorrolationships of man, to all trends of bourgeois psychology . consciouSness represents a catogory which is ignored or compromisod in ovory poisiblo way.' Man is ropresontod either as a machine a robot or an automat subordinatod to extornal stimuli only, or a pitiful slava of his own desires and instincts. Wo must give thoso "teachings" their due: thoy are vory. convenient in attaching pooplo to some religion, also in justifying tho fascist idoology of "anything is pormissiblo", "anything is accossibly";- which is fashionable-in tho modorn bourgeois society. The juxtaposition of the basic thosos of Soviot psychological science with tho basos of psychology as cultivated in tho United States of America and in Europa shows their direct antithesis. 1 J. Bornal "Science in the H story of Society", Moscow, Ed. Lit., 1956, p 61, 2 Ibid., p 612 J ?92 Foreign 0 As we mentioned oarlior, tho problors of conScioutinOss aro at tho root of understanding psycho.logy. Consoiousnoss, which is tho rofloction:of tho environ-ont; isirogardod by ourisciontists not in itself but as a rosuit?of tho offoct of the 'social =Alum. . ? ? It moans that, while tho montal facultios of man always remain. dotormincd, thoy do not at tho sam6 tino.mako him a slave of his instincts. The psychics--of man is formed undor tho influence of the onvironment and tho Secial nodium,*but amn as tho iamb tino actively influoncos- this medium and Changos it. Tho /mans? oiiiorioneo of. .tho: hiStory 3f n4rilcind attests to it. Tho most convincing examples-' can be found in tho practico of socialist construction in our country. In changing tho social. relations and in actively inflUonCing natUrd, the' Soviot citizen acts not as a slavo of hi instincts, hut as a conficion- tious master pursuing a clearly defined goal. K. Marx conparect tho owistandipg skilLof tho. boo in tho construc- tion of honeycombs with that of an oven nodiocro builder-architect,' : and stressed tho advantagosof the' latter,. since. manialways has a plan. at the start of construction of what ho is.. going t'o do. Honco, Allo - infinite possibilitio6. Of perfection in:man and tho dofinito limit of possibilitios in tho animal. Tho tasks which man assumos aro'dictatod'nbt by personal noods only, but by soeial and universal., ideals as well. ':Iho'innumormblo- facts from the oxperionco of tho struggle for building Communist society, and -tho general efforts for poaco aMong nations, aro tho most shininh examples of this. ? Wo have already cited examples. which attest to tho fact that man, inspired by high idoals4 is Capable to suppross.ovgn such powerful instincts as, for oxamplo, the instinct.of:solf!,--praSorvation. , Tho Soviot people cannot accopt the viows bf sbno foroign psychologists who' assert the inevitability and,-avon, necdseity'of wars whiah allogodly moot tho nbod:of people: 'to Satisfy their'', bolligoront and nilitant instinets.? Tho Marxist-Loninist philosophy inexorably rovoals the social,"Causas of wars based on tha naturo tho capitalie; system. Tho Soviot psychological science rogardithe Prohloris of conscious- moss and sensations not in their, separation from'oach other, or in a contrasting light, but in their -unity and-yaciprociaal conditioning. The faculties of cognition; will, and eonsations-of non participate harmoniously in tho-formation of an individual. "...Without hman onetiorib" thoro novor Was,'isi-or over will bo Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP 4 93 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 a hunan quost for truth,".wroto Lonind-.; ; :,? ?. Tho montal,foculties,gre not somo:dark, mystorious forcos, but real manifostations of;humnrractionsi and:aro,dOtorninod by the condi- tions of his social onvironmont and by his intollootual and ?motional qualitios. ; Such ideas as an. imago,ef..a. man of-groat soul aro closo-and dear to us. The ideas of;..a cry.stafpuro, luminous soul aro real to us and illustrato tho truly harmonious blonding of tho intolloctual and noral in tan. The scientific task; ,Cennoctod with thiii is tho necossity ot ostablishing,tho basis' and fdims,of the nutual rolationship ot tho so- called psychic and phYsiolOgicaffuncttons. V. I. Lonin, the founder of the rodorn scientific theory of consciouiness tho thoory'rof ibfloction, corroctly interpreted the intorroiation botwbon the' material and-tho ideal, spiritual and phy- siological. HO Wa-rhed-bf two posbililo'orrors in this respect. One of thoso ho -related to theldontification of the matorial and idoal, the other el.ror could arisd'frOm tho unlimitdd contrasting of those two facets of tho ono and tho same matorial phonomonon. Psychology, as well'as physiology, as was proviously montionod, have their particular paths of dovolopnont, their specific content and mothods of stady.. As'tho sane tine they havo a- common basis in that they aro ongagod -in the study of tho samo,phonomonon tho function of the brain and nervous system Tho mostimportant subject of psychological science is the problom of the haturo and tho rolo ,of omotiOns: ,Indoaling,with the naturo of emotions we-nuit,analyso .tw9 problors front the psysiological point of view. Tho first'iolatob to the -origin of'emotions, the second -- to tho physiologicf phonomona of which ,tho subjoctivo part is perceived by us as sonsatici'ns',Of omotibn. I. M. Sochonov'iswhosd%famous book "Tho Brain' Reflexes has boon cited above, was:tho':first physiologist who siujocted tho conditions of the origin-of-omotions to,a-matorialistic analysis. - Lot us recall his basic theses. Sochonov stated that'tho infinite diversity of external manifestations. of the corobral activity is roducod in the findf_anaiysis-te muscular motion.-':-- f ? ? He advncod&Isd theoxcoptionally.,,cOuragoout for his tino suggestion:thatitho ontirq,corobral actiyityris based on reflex action. A very close analysis of various reflex actions which wore taking placo undeiAivorsoiconditions,_onablod him to-distinguish sovoral 1 V. I. Lenin, "Works", Vol 20, p 237 94 ? ISO types of rofloxos. In'sono casos tho refloxos having originated, proceeded in sucha mannor that their torminal link (rotion).bocano inhibited, in others the tornindl part of the reflex, on tho contrary, bocaro enhanced. , We shall cito sone oxamplos of%tho first .group. Wo know that at a strong unexpoctod sound oven a non-inorlious person startles, unoxpocted pain makes ono shout, getting' usoxpoctodly undo a stream of cold water causes a multiple roaction-(axclamation, arrest of- rospirations.eto;) But it th6 individual is proparod for thoso' stiruli, ho will be able to 'withstand considorablo'amount:of pain ' oui,tly and without any oxtornal manifostations, ho will quietly'roact to a strong sound, otc. A.porson,-used to cold ablutions, will 'easily tolerato the offoct of' an too Cold ,showor, otc. The inhibitiOn processes of whtch we 'spoke in connoction with . tho teaching Of conditioned reflexes, aro the basic condition which- onsuros the rotardation of tho final link of the reflex act. Tho'reflexos of the second group take 'another courso, whereby their offoct is-nOt rotarded, but ohhancod. Many dircumstancos can contributo to this. . ? L. N. Tolstoy dosertbos an intorosting case which.happonod to one officer during the war. This officer 4(1,0 quite brave during the battle when bullots,and sholls wero flying around; . However, after tho battle when, in tho ensuing silenco, a bang of a cork from.a champagno,bottlo piorced tho air, the officor toll inc. dead faint. Wo know the tonsion a nan:exporioncoi when he is -anxiously waiting..tor somoono to arrive.' Ho'looks at tho watch repeatedly ("timo,is dragging"), any stlhouatto appearing at a distando Poems to him to be tho person ho_is awaiting, etc. ,Tho functions 'of inhibition are narkodly reduced in this,cabe. ? Sechonov explained tho nature of those states. Later, Pavlov wrote on tho basis of numorous oxporimontP. ? "Our sensations 'f agreeable,.disagrocablo, lightness, hardship, joy, torture, triumph, despair, oto.' aro connoctod -either with the transfer of tho strongest instincts and thoir stimuli to the corros? pending reflex acts, or with their inhibition..."1 The dependence of tho strength of the reaction (reflex) on tho condition of the contors of tho nervous system are convincingly demonstrated in Many casos taken from life. _ 11. P. Pavlov "Complete Worker Vol III, part 2. Published by Load Set USSR, 1951, p 335 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 95 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 '8 ' ? ? ? ? ? t Lot us visualizo a vory hungry man.- Ho_is grabbing food, any kind of foods Intho caso.of prolongod hunger, tho oven usuallynon- edible objocts ara.consumod-(grass, bark offtroos,,otc.).. . . "HunEor -- is hungoW Wroto X. karx, hhowovor, tho hungor which is satisfied 'With cooked .moat, oaton knifo and for!, is a, difforent kind of.hungor,than tho.ono-whioh-forcos,ono to.swallow.raw. neat, to grab with fingors,:nailsf-and tooth."1 Now, lot us visualize? under usual, nOimal conditions. .Ono of his most important vitaloomotions is appotito. We ;lust dwoll in detail on tho physiology and psychology of'tho ?motions of alipotito. Those sensations aro knowwto ovorybody, hayo,:boon studied in detail,- and on then can bo convincingly domonstratod the unity-ofthwThy- siologycal and psychic. Tho analysis of tho origin and changes in the onotioris-of.appotito is.vory instructive, bocauso it shows'tho common trait of dovolopnont and the course of nany.othoronotional states of man. ? . Appotito is a complex emotion. It consists of amumbor of diverse sonsations. A part of them originatos in man sono timo.bcforo eating, tho other part -- during tho very act of eating. To tho first group. belong the sensations which appear in man about four to eight hours following the last intake of food, and which he begins to fool, first as a light; and'lator as over increasing sense of attraction to food, the sensation of hunger. Tho presUmption,la that these sonsations originate ot ocabunt of the emptying of tho stomach and. the incroasod peristalsis in which the empty stomach aid tho-intostitos participate. Those movements increase gradually and rosopblo convulsive spasms of tho stomach. At this. stago tho slight sondation of hunger; which is ? close to the sensation of appotito, may chango into painful sonsations of hungor.-. This-is the state in which sthic;popPle oxporionco the,son- sation of "gnawing in tho pit of the stana64;.1" others -- a dull, gnawing pain in tho region of the abdomen or C'hest. ' "Rumbling" in hunger is the xesultoof forcof41.poristalsis of tho stomach and intestines. This sound originates in tho intoitinos because, oven whdn,thcy aro empty of food,: thoro ii always a certain amount of degestivd juicos and mucus proiont.1 With the exhausting of tho store of food Ellistatccs Which had, been consumed with:tho previous meal, tho properties of tho blood and, other organic fluids .aro changing, and tho ox:Citability of tho =ryo. centers is undergoing a certain change. 11). .Pavlov used to call-tho blood which undorwont changes duo to hunger, the "hungry" blood. _ . . . . . 1. K. Marx and F. Engels "Works", Vol XII, part Ll p 182 ? 96 All those changes aro roflectod in tho activity of tho nervous system, with tho result that we porcoivo it as tho appoaranco of appotito, or tho sensation of hunger. An appetite nay appear ovon when -o.n Boos no food, does not smell it, etc. It is presumed that it is the manifestation of the food instinct which.poriodioally assor;bs itself in craving for food. L nursing baby sloops most of tho time, but awakens under tho offoct of tho fookinstinct, and having tdkon food from its mothor falls asleep again Tho satisfaction of tho. demands of the food instinct in an oldor child, or in an adult. takes difforont courpo. Thanks to tho more dovolppod psychic activity and tho prosonco of various visual, aural, olfactory, and other sonsttions, the older children possess, besides instincts, a moro conscious relation to food. A nursing infant foods on its nothorts milk, whilo older children and adolescents art) familiar with a largo.varioty of typos of food. When tho smoll of food ponotratos from tho- kitchon, tho children will unnistakoablli dotornino whether with prepared, or a fancy vanilla picWis being bakod. Likowiso, in examining tho display of food in a store window, children will not confuse tho taste of hoaring and io? cream, oranges or salami. - It follows, that in thoir choice of food they aro not guided by instinct any more. The -activity of. the oonsciousnoss connoctod with tho recollection of tnsto and snoll of food- is now playing an important role. 1hon anursing infant Starts crying under the stimulation of hunger, it will suck anything which gots into -its mouth, as long as it rosonblos its mothor's nipplo, it Worn and noist (the use of an empty rubber nippio is based on that):, Porhaps,-tho taste sonsations play SOM role,, but tho substanco of.thollipplo, odors, etc. cortainly.takos"no substahtial part in it: It is different with-an older child. Ho wilI.not oan an egg which is not fresh and has an unpleasant odorl.ovon, if he is very hungry. On the other hand, pleasant odors from tasty mats may divert his attention oven from ongroesing-ganos and make hp ask 'for food, though ho had not thought of it oarlior. In spite of tho fact the brain works as a unit, its function can be classified in accordanco with various characteristics of its separate parts, as follows: Tho posterior part of the brain stem: medulla oblongata (1), pone and cerebellum (2). In this section arc located the groups of reflex centers of the basic biological functions (nutrition, metabolism, respiration, blood circulation, and the primary "onvironnontal oritnta- ? ? /Nunbors in parenthesis rcifor-to figuro at ond of tranalation7 tion ?, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 97 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 011.11b Tho mid-.brain (3): Its basic function -- naintonanoo of corroct oriontation of tho body in spaco and tho prosorvation of the normal body posturo. Tho anterior part of the brain stoM: Thorialus opticus and tho hypothalamus area (4) tho Contral pordoiving section of tho brain atom; its functions aro connectod With,tho formation of emotions and sensations. From this scution of tho stom impUlsos aro diroctod to all othor subcortical contors, as woll,as to tYle cerebral cortex. Hero, also, arc situatod tho higher rogulating vogotativo functions -- tho contors of tho honisphoros of tho brain. Tho motor, visual, aural, to.ctilo and other centers are located hero. Tho conditionod-roflex (higher nervous) activity is offoctod in tho corobral cortex. It fellows that, in addition to tho food instinct with which it is born, a grown child manifests a high dogroo of psychic activity rolating to tho accoptanco of food. On this basis, many personal habits and proforencos to various typos of food arc developed and reinforced, as tho child grows older. An agrooablo appoaranco and odor of food is directly connoctod with its gustatory qualitios. Thom aro special taste buds on the tongue connoctod with nerves and, through those, with the central nervous system. non thoso gustatory buds are stimulated by food substancos, man is able to distinguish acid, swoct, salty, bitter, and other food qualitios. Tho namiTostation of appotito is not the result of the food instinct only; it depends also on personal proferoncos, habits, and training. Tho psychic stato of an individual plays a particularly important role in the manifestation of appetite. Under tho effect of various influences on the nervous systom the appotito may be disturbed, the secretion of digestive juices rotardod, otc. By influencing the psychics of man, one can produce marked changes in tho' manifestation of appotito. Such frequently used expressions as "to spoil the appotito", to "interrupt the appetite", "to develop an appetite", otc. correctly represent the gist of tho matter. Various_ psychic emotions liko fear, for instance, can have a narked roaction on tho activity of the digostivo organs. An interest- ing method was employed in anciont India for tho purpose of ascertain- ing the guilt of the suspoctod criminal. Ho was given pinch of rico and told to chow it and to spit it out. If tho spit out rico proved to be dry, a conslus ion was roachod that the fear of being detected had stopped his salivation, and the can was declared guilty. Of course, this method of "logal proccodings" is noro than naive, but tho story reflects the keenness of observation in people who have taken notice of tho. fact that psychic disturbances 'exert a marked 98 Declassified in Part anitized Copy Approved for Release ? effect on salivation and on tho socrotion of othor digestive juicos. Under strong excitation, many will show the sano offoct -- a drying up of the mouth. Thb' above mentioned 'roves the fact that divers?, effects on tho norvou's system while-acting negatively on the appotito, at the sane time oxort an unfavorable offoct on ho function of the digostivo organs. 'It relates particularly to childron and adolosconts,, whose psychic and nervous activity are less stable and noro subject to changes than in adults. :my.trifle which has some rolation td the consumption of food, or to tho character of tho 'food itSolf, nay affoct thwappotito'... Tho parents are thoraforo,oxli-actod to' exert 'special caro ih this rosPact in tho maintonanco of A good appotito in the child. The consumptiox . of food "on the so!', dirty tablo, 'dirty crothos or hands, unploasant appearance of tho food, bad odors, ipoaking Whileaating, etc. ' easily 11spoiluj ,"interrupt" :the tppetitd, oven in -Ono wile had a good appetite baforo seating himaolt at :tho tvor'ything"which affccts the psychics of a- child and' its mood may have a strong influonce.on the stato, of the appetito and, consequently, disturb Ile digostivo processos; Fright, or various aggravations hdvo a doprossing offoct appetite and digestion. Even thoughtful aronts frequently make mistakes in this respect. For example, the child Must be reprimanded or scolded for some transgrossion. Tho mother ,wishos that father participates in this act.. Tho ropririand is postponed till dinner tino, when the entire. family is usually prosent; Right hare dt tho dinner table the child reocivos a stern roprimand.. To the itprossion- able nature of a child this -is vcry oftom.s.sufficiont stitulub to spoil tho appetite. Having analyzed in detail tho emotions connected with'appetito; wo can soo the inseparable, integral part which the psychic states play in tho physiological processos. The oxamplos with appotito aro typical also of other human emotions. Te each of theso corrospond very complex physiological reactions at the basis of which are' forred subjective impressions. In previous chapters we 'coined sordwhat'briofly of the functions of tho higher section of the central nervous system, the so-callod cerebral eortox, citing as examples various conditioned rofloXos. Tho problons which emerge in connoctians-mith:omotions require a more detailed analysis of-the fuAction and structure of the central nervous syston as a wholo. ;-; 50-Yr2014/03/14:CIA-RnpRi_ninAQD,,,,,-,,, _ 99 Declassified in Part-Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr2014/03/14:CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 io 0 Tho Cortex and tho Subcortical Centers In the space of many millions of years of hunan evolution his norvaus system has boon constantly porfocting itself, and has finally occupied tho dominating position in rospoot to functions and has achio- vod a high complexity of structuio: Fourtoon to 15 billions of coils, according to ostimatos, constituto tho dortox of tho brain, which attests to tho exceptional conploxity of the structuro of tho nervous systom. Tho past century showed tho ronarkablo progkeds of physiology in the dovelopmont of numorouS oxporinontal methods of tho study of tho functions of tho subcortical centers of the brain. Amorig'thom wo shall mention tho methods of surgical romoval of tho cortex and of the largo homisphoros, as woll as electrical, chemical, and mechanical stimulation of various soctions of tho brain. The discouory of its electrical impulses in tho brain (eloctrooncophalography) contributed considerably to our knowledge of tho functions of subcortical centers. Tho modern technique of oxporimontation enabled researchers to plant olectrodos in tho cerebral mass, ovon within tho limits of microscopic cellular areas (rlicro-oloctrodos), and to carry out regular observations. All this loci to detailed investigation of various sections of the subcortical formations with tho view of determining tho functional consequences which originate after stimulation of various cantors. HOwovor, tho main and most convincing mass of information has been obtained in anothor way. Various disturbances of nervous functions in diseases affecting the central nervous system, especially in cases whore clearly dofinod areas of the brain had been involved (epidemic encephalitis, herd- plegia, etc.), brought out data the study of which enabled physiolo- gists to arrive to fairly substantiated conclusions on the role of the subcortical centers in the formation and course of the emotions and instincts of ran. The field of tho so-callod mirico-vogotativo reactions or the expressive motions presents groat possibilities in the study of emotions. Those include changos in facial expressions, body postures, and many vegetative roactions such as, for oxamplo, constriction or dilatation of the blood vossols, reddening of tho face or turning palo, changes in cardiac activity or in respiration, etc. Leonardo da Vinci, tho groat Italian painter and scientist, giftod with oxcoptional faculties of observation and a perfect knew- lodge of tho characteristics of tho anatomical structuro of the human body, attomptod to dotormino the constant interrelation between the vacial oxprossions and tho corresponding emotional state. 100 ' lo shall montion hero that I. M. Sochonov dovotod ono of tho last chapters of his book "Tho Physiology of tho Norvous Systom" (1866) especially to the analysis of facial expressions. According tn his gonoral thoory of the ref lox adtivity of the brain, Sochonov, after a detailed analysio of tho donnoction botwoon various ?motional statos and the changes in radial oxprossionsj artivod at tho conclu- sion that each facial oxProssion'Ooua bo rogardod as thd end of a reflex which had been complicated by psychic elements. A foW years lator camo out the above mentioned book of Charles Dnrwin "Tho Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals." DArwin colioctod in this book an b.-mons? factual material. Tho justaposi- tion of tho conclusions of Darwin and Of the theoretical views expressed earlier by I. M. Sochonov brings out clearly that Sochonov anticipated many thoughts of Darwin. Thus/ the constancy of relationship between facial, or oxprossivo notions and definite emotions can be accepted as fully substantiated. On the strongth of this, the observation of those oxploossions can bo used as one of the methods of the study of ?motions. lo have alroady indicatod that in certain disoasos of tho central nervous system fairly typical disturbances appear in tho ?motional sphoro. Lot us cite some oxamples. Numerous clinical obsormations On pationts who have recovered from encephalitis (inflammation of tho brain, mainly of his subcor- tical areas), showed the most intimate connection of tho brain stem with psychic activity. Tho pationts manifested a highly oxacorbatod sonso of tho agroablo and disagrooablo. A highly incroased excitabi- lity (cmotionalism) was observed. At this, profound disturbances of the facial vogotativo'roactions were taking place. In hemiplogia patients (one-sided pparalysis) it was found that stimulation of the affected parts of tho body caused marked,onotional reactions. Heat was perceived as a highly pleasurablo sensation, while puncture with a needle caused an extremely painful sensation. The affliction of tho central nervous system with multiple sclerosis may be likonod to an experiment whorebyf in some way or other, tho effect of tho cortex on the subcortical cantors has boon eliminated, as a result of which those centers manifest their inherent independent functions Aiithout the control of tho cortex/. In this illness a state of enhanced excitability and sensitivity is ofton-observcd. Tho patients manifest increasing gaiety which is expressed in facial mditions which boar no relationship whatsouvor to 101 Declassified in Pa -Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : 1 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 II Their physical condition. It amounts at.timos to a forced, compul- sive rotation of- laughter which is not causod by onvironnontal con- ditions, or factual intornal stinuli. Tho rosults of oxporinontal lata in animals, tftor:tho,romoval of tho higher soctions of tho brain, shwo an oxdcorbation of manifestation of cortain reactions which we can rolato. to onotions-(angorl.fright,.otc.);.thoso results correspond to tho phonomona doscribod in multiplo solorosis pationts. Very important data wore obtainod inclinical obsorvations of pationts afflictod with losions in 1307,10 highly important subcortical areas as, for oxanplo, tho'thalanus optima and tho hypothalamic riginns. ' On tho"basis of tho comparison of obsorvod disturbancowe tho onotional manifestations in those casos, a Conclusion has boon arrived at that tho thalamus is tho main, or gonoral center of sensation: ? Thus many considor the thalanus as tho contor the function of which consists of switching all external and internal stimuli into facial-vogotativo roactions of a nogativo or positive typo, and imparting a definite omotional tono, according to thadircumstancos, to tho orientation, food, sexual, dofonsivo, and othor roactions. tic arrived at the following conclusions on tho basis 'of numerous rosults obtained in tho study of the soquols of affections of tho cerebral subcortical contors. A weakening, oven complete fading away of tho expressive facial roactions. Tho manifoetati:on of affoots and emotions, aggor, fright, hunger, lave, curiosity, etc. is markodly docroasod. Tho pationts can bo characterized as "insonsible,in thqir,oxtornal boha- vinr, and resemble manokins, dolls with a voiy monotonous, inoxpros- sivo facial expression. A woakening of many instinctivo tondencios: tho sense of solf-rosorvation, the matornalnal sense, etc. Tho pationts lose interest in tbolonvironmont and in thomsolvet. Indif- ference to everything, tho lowering of purposefulness and initiative -- such is tho background of sonsations which characterizes thb emo- tional state of those patients. It is worth nontioning that, doponding on the various character and dogroos of affobtion of tho norvo contors, tho omotional.distur- bancos ray assure a rovorso trend, whon.cortain emotions and tenden- cies are contrarywiso highly onhancod (marked sensuality, suspicious- noss,-ogotism, bolligoronco, otc.). Tho citod results of clinical, observations correspond fully to 102 ? ,? ? oxporimontal data. As has boon pointed out, a par icularly rich material was obtained in oxporimohts on animals with pormanontly planted oloctrodos adjusted to various sootions of the brain. Tho first invostigatdis who hallo Usod this method alroady obsor- vod tho roaction?of'"rago and "angor" in 0.4mals_aftor an oloctric stimulation of their subcortical boAtors. "', ? Wo shall cite verbatim tho doscription &f an oxporimont7 by an American physiologist, Gerard? Tho brain storm bolow tho thalamus was soparatod in a cat, following which tho cat carried out porfoctly zoli bUt in an ontiroly automatic fashion various coordinated motions' But if the separationis tad? a tow millimetors highor and loavo tho hypothalamic rogion connoctod with the brain stem; tho bohavior of tho animal assumes an ontiroly difforont character. As soon as tho offoct of narcosis wears off, tho animal gots into a highly excitable state, trios to break away from those holding it, and, when finally at liberty, assumes an alertly cautious attitude. A light touch, liko carossing tho fur, causes an angry reaction. The cat begins to hiss and to bit, baros its claws, floxos its spino, hits with its tail in all directions, its pupils dilate, and tho fur stands up. Tho animal acts as if it faced a vicious dog. Weak whistling and hissing sounds cause tho cat to manifest signs of fear -- it runs away at once, with the hoad and tail loworod, and rows pitifully. Parallel 'with aggressive roactions, one can stimulato under such experimental conditions othor roactions in those animals, dofongivo and sexual, for example. Of particular importance aro tho results of tho latost studios which indicate tho possibility of an artificial stimulation of reactions complicated by a sensory olomont such as appotito and thirst At tho Intornational Oongross of Physiologists in Brussels. in 1956, remarkable data wore prosontod in rogard to tho possibility of an oxporimontal control of appotito and.thirst. By moans of tho method of oloctrodos plantod in .various soptions of tho brain stan and of stimulation of various contors, tho authors of thoso intorosting tests domonstratod some animals.(rans) which at tho will of tho oxporiinontors drank so much water that thoy blow up , like balloons, or ate as much food as thoy could physically swallow. 1 ..BP-P-Bh Gorord "Tho Functions of tho Human.Body", PO. of Foreign Lit., 1947, p 275-- 103 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? 50 -Yr2014/03/14, - i-olo43Rnna9nni ??? ?????? ?-?- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDp81-01043R004200140003-3 Those laboratgry oxportments fully corroborated tho above citod con-- sidorations of:tho:dopondonco of hunger and thirst on tho functional status of the norvo contors. 2 In describing v.arious data obtainod in tho tests with planted. electrodes, Iv Cited the basic resUlts which?showod tho origin?of ? nogativo ?notions (angor, ra o, foart oto). ? Vory4nportant are other oxporimontal facts'which.o.ttost to tho fact that, parallol with nagativo ?motions which arc tho:rosult.of. tho disoaso.of_tho,brain or of an oxporinont,..ono-tan also induco ? positivo onotions.*: qo Can refer to Abe oxporipontal. rosults?with plantod oloctrodos in eats which showad tho. Manifestation of a doTinito positivo,roaction.(pIoasuro) when tha'aninal was stimulatod in its, - ? hypothalamic region: . ? ? ? . ? , ?? . Tho above cited fact ifaicato that etotlon4 Statos take their , course on tho basii of complax.prgcassos in. verious aroas of the brain (cortex and the subcortical area). ? Many poriphoral organs participate in tho formation.of.onotions, orlon thon tho.vasoular, rospiratory, digestivo, and Pthar systoms. Lot Us new discuSS:_tho functions of the so-galled syspathotic . or autondmous nervous systonwhich has a close rolationship to ?notional states. The torn "sympathotic nervous systom3 originated a long time ago. Tho authors Of this dosignation.wero not tluch in tho wrong, Tor they soonod to have anticipatod thogannootlan:qT. thiq.soction of the .., central nervous with tho manifestation of sympathy, . foolings. However, since the concoption of fooling directod tho scion - tific thought toward tho roalm subjective, whilo the ain of. exporimonters drew thon to possible :cibi.ectivization -of. -.studios, other . terms Such?as,Aho vogotativo or autonomous.norvpus.system,mado appearance. Tho designation "voioative has its origin in the Latin ? . . . an word "vegotativusu.noaning plantar,. Tho scientists orrod to .,such extent that thoy tried to divide tho organic prOCossgs intomal processes -- animals (the muscule:r activity, as well?as that oT tho organs of sensation, and of the central nervous iyste0,' and vogota- tivo plantat:(tho functions of tho intornal organs,. respiration, and metabolism. Tho,unroliable basis for this assortion was the alleged idontity of Itheso-Negotative,aninals and plants, also the faulty.idoa.that motion and fooling arp.inheront to animals only. The -torn autonomous norvous system originatpa in .connection with the known facts which indicated that these forms Of*. nsiVous.regulation, 104 assi ied in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? aro not alwayesub&dlnatgd tainfluoncos arising if tho higher soctions of We central norirous sYster., It is impoSSiblo, for instance, for the -groat majority of people t& 'retard or aceolorato by th.1 efort of the will he rate of eardiac contractions, to stinu- lato gastrio notions, or to Stop tho notivo activity of tho intoe- tines. Onliiielatod individuals-1 inclUdifg the faMous Indian fakirs, could accomplish this fcmt. Thos miradlos? cah'bo reasonably explainodt Hott fiegtientlY'wo are dealihg'horo with gasos of a - pathologic ricii.siais-sytit6h With manifc4tation of hystoria, in parti- cular. -c. the tho ? a any rata-, tho'omorgonce of those tormi signifies tho aim of investigators to undorlino the characteristics of 'this branch of nervous systam. ? Modern science asSumos that tho autonomous 'branch of tho contral nervous system was formed and acquired its specific charactcristics earlier than,the crrosponding areas of tho highor sections of the brain. and of tho co7rtox,- if*particular. The autofemous,forvous system attracts out' attention in connoc- tion with the-fa.ei'that`it"participatos directly in tho formation and roalization-of?oHotional reactions. -7 Tho oxporlmenthl:rosults-dononstrato that cortain emotions (hungoi.;:f6ar),6roeffeetod through,tho.'obligatorY and active parti- cipation"of thelautonemods-nervous-systom. must also-add that,tho autonomous branch of tha:norvous systos is conditionod in its functions to a muchlargor,dpgroo-than thohigher.arcaS of the brain by various . chemical stimuli of tho organism which Originato as a result of the motabolism and the life activity of tho special organs. -- ? ? - Those chemical stimuli aro ropresonted in tho organism in various forms. This is duo to the fact that, before tha?origin of the nervous sytom, the rei4latory'activity of the organs was effected. by moans of ChOniefil-'frubstancos. The latter wore distributed in the body through tho blebd:::Basod: on there aro two approaches ,in modern physiology to tho problem of the regulatory activity of the organisrofLibeSo types of regulation, tho most differentiated, . Is the M-o-Cliaritsff:cif the nervous syitom, the other is through tho?bolld stream and was 'dgSidriaigUas the "humoral" typo of regulation ("humor? in Latin moans,fluid.;.this term often moans bend). The most impor- tant role among huipraf. regulators: is playact-by hormones -- tho products of internal sogrotign. Meitienod previously some facts which indloato'dtho offect_of th'yr.oid, adrOnal and Other hormones on tho psychics of man. . 50-Yr 2014/03/14 rIA-Rnost4 105 0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - ? ???? Tho invostigationicf.Cannon,:tho Lnorican physiologist, and othors present largeeXpOrimontal,data, which attest to the joint, participatiorlof the nervous 8ystora and tho glands of internal,' socrotion in tho fi*natiomandmanifostation of,omptions. . ??? . The administration of certain hormones to tho animal orgnai8m.. of man may croato?varioue,onotionaltatos,,. In addition to-a-Immnn oxporiments on animals, this is.corrbboratod by mumorous faots,fron. obsorvations on humans.. Sono facts indicato.the cObct of.varibus ?notional statos on the activity of tho intornal organs. Thus, IVir instance, it has boon damonstratod that under the influonco of anxiety and oxeitonnt-tho normal gastric?circulation ws;disturbod and its , ? . nornal activity was rbducod. -? iso, undor conditions of ?notional stross, them have boon wido variatiOns in tho sotrotion of tho, gastric-and panoroatic ? ? juices *obsorvod. . :.. ". - . . -, ' ? . , Widoly known arc the easily observable charigat in tho respirqi tion and .the rate of cardiac contraptions under the offoct of oro:j tional oxporioncos. -The?national folkloro.and pootry,accumulatsod nany opithots which attost to that., It will suffice tg cita oxamplos , relating to the changes in cardiac actiiiityluhdor tho influonco of,, ? ?notion. "Th ? heart sings," the heart "groans in misery," the "ho'art is tearing itself out of the chest, it "froze frbm fright" "trom- blos," "tearing itsolf,to piccos in griol,"' "full of 16vo.,," or "hatred," "warn heart," %antic) hoart," "ono heart, 'L man: Vith "n9 hoart,'! etc. . Those'poir,ectly-tfieinSoparabio connection and rociprocical rolationshi'ot bnotieihs and bodilysfunctiOns of tho organism. ? - ., - Tho Physiology and PsychOlogy of Sensations Induced by tho , Stimulation of Intornal -organs. ? - . - ?? c ? ? In discussing this subject, wo shall' touch upon tho-, problem of tho sonsitivity of tho internal organs problem long.ovorduo in practical nodicino, "but still highly contradiptory thoorotically. In interpreting tho conditions of. tho 6rigin Of various associa- tions in nah, I. E. Sochonov.mnntionod a Special grow; of sti721atien5 and sensations which outer the brain from-the intornal organs.. , ? n "To the categoryIn* the phononona of consciOusnots, no wrote, belong A/10 Vaguo and obscure sonsaiions which accompany the? procosses taking place in tho areas of tho ?host and?Abdoboh._ Vho does nqt know, for instanco, tho sensations of hunger, Satiety, and fullnoss,of tho stomach? Ln insignificant disturbance of cardiac activity is liable 106 ? 0 to load to a ?hang? in'tho man's mood; tho norvousnoss and irritabi- lity of a woman nino tines out of ton is connected with tho patholo- gical condition of tho uterus. Such facts, in which the pathology of man abounds, clearly indicate the association cf those vague sonsations with those croatod by the orgahd of Sensation. Unfortunately, all problems relating to this subject hro oktrOnoly difficult to inter- pret, thoir solution, thoreforo, is tho task of tho futuro."1 Sono time later, Pavlov advancod the problem of the study by tho physiologists of the signals coning to the brain from tho internal organs, parallel ilith tho study of the roattions to the oxtornal stimuli. Ho said that ho considered "more than probable that they exist within the tissuos, as well as within soparato organts.u2 The basic mass of observations carried out in this diroction belongs to K. Bykov and his students. Bykov, in association with Ivanova, carried out tho following oxporinonts. They poured carefully a certain quantity of water through a tubo previously planted in the stomach, and caused, as a result, an increased urination, tho extent of which could bo dotorninod precisely by moans of repeated tests. Uator was then pourod into tho stomach for only a brief period of tine -- one or two minutos -- and the stomach was emptied after that. Tho water could not be absorbgd in this test or ontor the blood stroam and stimulate the kidnoys. H wovor, tho facts dononstratod that, oven under those donditions, uPination increased to the same extent as if the water had remained in the stomach for a longer period of tine. Thus, a conditioned reflex of enhanced urination has been formod undor,tRoc6 eonditionb, with the ralotf tc605haitimitd stimuli played, in this case, by the irrigation of the internal lining of tho stomach with water. The results of these exporinonts substantiatod tho correctness of Sochonov's and Pavlov's theory that, undor certain conditions, impulses from tho internal organs lead to the higher sections of the brain. Subsequently, Bykov's associates carried out many and various experiments which fully corroborated this statement. Tho possibility of formation of conditioned rofloxos was demonstrated by stimulating the intostivos, urinary bladder, salivary gland, etc. Sochonov's conjectures that "obscuro intornal sensations" leading 1 I. If.-8Cchonov "Brain Reflexes", Publication of Lead Sci USSR, 1952, p 136 2 I. P. Pavlov "Comloto Works", Vol III, Book 2, Pub. Load Sci USSR, 1951, p 156 eclassifie in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? r.inpoi 107 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 from various intornal organs aro associated in tho sphoro of con- sciousnoss, thus, woro fully confirmod. Probably. since its oarly origin modicino advancod tho problon of tho rclationship botwoen.psychic and corporeal phonomona. Oonturios. havo gone by, the tachnique of the oxamination of pationts continuo to improvo, tho mothods of invostigatiofi of internal organs bocomo moro precis?, but tho physician remainod aloof from tho analysis of the psychic stato of tho pationt, though he was well awaro of its inDortant, Oven. loading rolo.. Tho inability of penetrating the : nsychic sphoro possibility of a-correct determination of . the character of*tho diseaso.. This, in its turn, led' to now complica- tions and to tho aggravation of tho patient's condition.. Hero, the. . inportant alomen'ts wero the lack of.attontion,. ignorance, or tho rude franknoss of the 'physician. Tho doctor-s reason for-Ms rude franknoss, directness, and tactlessness in his attitudd toward .the. patient, was froquently his fear of accopting tho.pationt's ability of a psychic influonco on tho course of his disease. In order to avoid being accusod of ignorance, mysticismr and tendency to expect miracles, the doctor would rather ignore obvious facts. Thoso misgivings were quito understandable, considoring the fact that in those times only idealistic -approach was the path to psychics, and there wore no facilities for the sciontific analysis of psychic phenomena. The sttuation has radically changed inLmodern science. The teaching of Pavlov and his school?pointod out not only the ways and mechanisms of the influence of tho cortex on the .activity of all inter- nal organs to the higher centors.of the brain. The principle of the unity of organic functions, introduced irito-physiology by Pavlov, manifestod itself tn its highest form. Tho realm of the conscious, as well as the enigmatic frequently full of mystic ideas phenomena of the subconscious which are generally perceived as moods only, became the subject of a materialistic physiological analysis. It would be incorrect to state, in regard to modern medicine in Zurope and in the United States of :.mericap. that their physicians are inclined to ignore or to underestimate the significance of the mental attitude of the patient in the evaluation of his condition. The psychic and mental represent the direct subject of thoir attention. Lately, there-has-been a special trend in medicine of these coun- tries -? the so-called psychosonaties. The .word "soma" means body, that is, Inc deals with the effect of mental conditions on body func- tions. 108 It scorns that in posing the question, our views are identical; tho ways of its solution, howovor, are different. The medics of tho bour-;oois countrios, resort at.bost to generalizations which found thoir ozprossion in tho newest theory of "stress." Stress is a concept of the reactions of tension in the organism which aro origi- nating in response to most diverse factors, starting with mental shook, porsonal effenses, and the contradictions of social interests, and including the offocts of_hungor and cold. The authors do not soon to have any real idea of the mochaniim of these influoncos and of the ways and moans ofthoir 'realization. The followers of Pavlov' are on a much firmer-ground, because tho mechanisms of temporary connections botweon the external and internal stimuli which Pavlov.interfireted, as well as the forms of interrela- tionship and interconneCtion of cortical and subcortical centers of the brain, and the laws Of the origin and course of the basic processes of stimulation and inhibition in the contral nervous system which Pavlov discovored, offer a stable foundation-for the solution of the problem of the body and soul from materialistic positions. Numerous facts obtained by Soviot and foreign scientists show that emotional reactions are not only accompanied by body changes, but that they themselves originate only in that case, when tho norvous and humoral regulatory systems of the organism ensure various changes in the functions of many organs of the body. In studying the physiology of the autonomous nervous system, the Soviet scientist; Loadenician L. Orbeli, developod the trophic adaptation theory based on data which he had obtained. Its substance can be explained by a simple example. Let us imagine an animal cat, which encountered a vicious dog. The cat's fur bristles, the cat hisses, snorts, lets out its claws, etc. It is.obvious that the animal goes through emotions of fear and rage. If we engage iri,an'oxperimental analysis of the condition of tho animal, we can establish:a consecutive succession of changes in the functions of the autonomous nervous system (its sympathetic branch, in particular) and_of-the glands of internal secretion. There is an acceleration and .deopening of respiration and blood circulation which ensures supplyrof oxygen and there is a Change in the chemistry of the blood which eupplics an increasing quantity of nutrition to increase the work capacity of the muscular system -- all these mechanisms are triggered by tho nervous system and the glands of internal secretion. 'le know fma our persor.lal_experience that the emotions of anger coincide with-the acceleration of heartbeat, deepening of-respiration, and muscular tensidn -- in anger we tighterVour fists -- in other 109.. Declassified in Part SanitizedC py Approved for ease ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDPRi-ninz.qpnrmorirm Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 words, just as our distant animal ancestors, in angor wo act as if we wore preparing for a fight. In citing thcso facts, we must clarify the inadqquacy of ono:of tho old theories (Janos and Lango), according to which omotions, as a subjoctiVe condition, originate on the-basis of alroady realized body changos wo are sad because we crYi cheerful because wo laugh. 412 facts show, thoro is no roason to support this onosidod viow. On the contrary, there are facts which show that it is.possiblp to reproducc'OXporLontally an external, bodily state of ?motion in tho absonco of tho 'usually corrosponding psychib experience. . . .Sinilarly, We know case when definite emotional states proceed without any visible oxtornal, manifestations. The entire problen is much more complox than it nay appoar at tho first glanco. The Unity of 'tho Psychic and the Physiological' The basiS' of modern ideas of the activity of the organism is tho Pavlov priilciplo of the wholoness, intorconnection, reciprocial conditioning And reciprocial offoct of the functions of body organe. In speaking of the influonco of tho psychic on-the physiological, wo must not assuno that psychic, as such, affects certain organa mechanically. To accept this point of viow would moan that we consider psychics as something bodily existing por se, i.e., to go back to an idealistic pOsition. !/o must remember that certain changes which are taking placc"in various physiological processes are subjectively perceived as psychelogical experience. The psychic states influence the physiological processos and vice versa. The unity of physiological and psychic phenomena, within the continuous interconnocting frame of tho wholeness of organic func- tions, leads at times to certain states when their inner content is very different, despite the uniformity of the external manifestations. Crying .and ioars may, for example, accompany various emotional states of sorrow or joy. Net in vain dg we speak of a state of "pleasant sadness", or of "tears of relief, joy, or tender emtion", etc. Savo refers to "mean laughter", "having, cold, deprecating smile," etc. UP spoke of exprossive, facial-somatic reactions as a Taothod of study of emotional states. . This thesis does not lose its signifi- cance; however, we must make'a.roservation that in certain cases. we do not always observe tho parallel manifestation of facial-vegeta- . . tive reactions and emotions. 110 ??; Thoro are instarcos when wo observe a divorgenco, ovon?a roverse relationship between the facial expressions, oxprossivo motions, And,. tho state of emotions. Tho above stated constitutos aft added reason for the critical ? evaluation of tho peripheral theory 0/' origin expostulatod by Janos and Lange. The complexity of the problem is rodoubled,by the fact that the bases of emotional states, including, to A groat oxtont, tho uncon- diti'3nod reflex mechanisms, at tho sane time are "ovorgroun" with conditionod roflos associations. Lot us visualizo a man who had visited a dentist. Tho characteristic sonsAtions which originato in dental manipulations, as for instanco with tho drilling apparatus, and tho considerable pain experienced in the opening of the pulp of the tooth, cause in the patient an unconditioned reflex offoct on rospira- tion, blood vossols. and hoart, contraction of tho boy muscles, vertigo at times and even a fainting spell -- all of it subjectively associated with tho sensation of pain and disagreablo ?motions. If, after a fairly long lapse of time, the man has to go to the dontist again, even for a treatment involving little pain, the more fact of sitting in the dental chair, sooing the drilling devise and the doctor arranging the instruments, may revive the greater part of the complox of proviously oxporiepced reactions (on the part of rospira-: tion, heart, etc.), and the negative subjective state will bd repro- duced with now force much before the dentist starts his manipulations. le have hero the picture of reproduced conditioned reflex enotions. Offense, insult, humiliation, experienced at a certain place, will cause conditioned reflex nagative emotions, whon we encounter stimuli reminding us of tho previous experience. A person we love creates in. us emotions of a positive nature not through his person' only, but also through many other associations connected with him. Tho meeting places where love first originated, things connected with the tastes and habits of the beloved -- all this is colored with the feelings of sympathy which converge around the source of tho positive emotions -- the person dear to us. One can also imagine circumstances, when a certain part of the emotional complex is. reproduced as a result of the recreation of-the traces of previous experiences. The question of the role of traces has already boon discussed in connection with, the analysis of the mechanism of dreams. It turns out that a similar phenomenon may be the result of certain definite emotional states originating on the basis of more recollections, which relate to some exceptional experience. The example mentionod_above in .the description of the state of 'man who 111 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81 01043R0042001400032.1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 had proviou had proviously oxporioncod. disagroatao omotions from a visit to a. dentist, in a caso in point; All thoso ?motions represent, in the .? final ouunt, conditioned roflox associations. Their origin,'howevo4 is not connoctod mith external stimuli, since we deal hero with a ro- collection, but Mith stimuli causod by 6'1-tango's in the intornarttato. of the organism. The most important inference with wo havo own:5r reason to make from the above statod, is that tho emotional oxporience can originato on the basiS of dofinito functional changos in'tho nervous and ' humoral systods only. :.:uch Of it is still obscuro. 'Jo cited oxpo--. rimontal facts'ralating to tho simplost omotioni only -- hunger, fear,- etc. No doubt, in spite oftho-importanco of. those onotionalttates, the probleta as a mholo cannot be limitod:to their analysitf only. Tho sphore of manls psychics is immeasurably widor. Sufficos to refer to the higher emotions originating.4ndor social influences, most typical to man. Examples of those omotions aro patriotism, humanity', humanohess, osthotic.onotions, etc. 'To shall remind you hero of the chapter in this book devoted to the second signal system which is spocifit to man. Its rola in the formation of psychict and , mental states is exceptionally groat. ...the most inspired feelings will romain unknown to pooplc, unless they are clearly and procisoly molded in wordsn.1 "The pupil will'porc&ivo-your soul and your thoughts not because ho knows *hat goos on in your mind, but because he sees you, hears you."2 Tho most important inference from the above stated leads us to tho conclusion that emotional states, as well as intellectual acti- vity (closely connected withtthem) represent tho result of material processes which are taking place in the nervous system of an and aro conditionod by environmental influences. We have already spoken of tho oorrelative significance of tho higher centers of the brain (cortex) and subcortical formations in the psychic activity. This problem is not an easy one. I. P. Pavlov very definitoly formulated his thesis on tho role and interrelations of the cortex and subcortical contors. Ho spoke -f:ialinin "On Communist Education", Pub. lio?.pdaya.pvargya Atha Young Guard!, 1947, p 98 2 A. S. liaharonko "Selected Podagog. Works", Uchpedgiz, 1946, p 120 112 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? of tho.stimulating "trigger" role of subcortical area in relation to the cortox. He visualized the moch4nitm of this influence in the form of mutual inductions A strongly stimulatod cortex has a noga- tivo offoct on the stimulation of the sUbcortox, i.e., has a do- ?tossing effect on its activity, and, inyorsoly, a considerable stimu- lation of tho subcortex may have a negative effect on tho okcitabi- lity of the cortex. Accordingly, tho inhibition of tho cortex "liboratos? the subcortex from the restraining effect of tho hidsor centers of tho brain, with the result that tho functions of the subcortical centers may in extreme cases be on the level of "violonco," as Pavlov manod it. "Tho higher nervous activity is composed of tho activity of the largo hemispheres and of the adjacent subcortical nodes," wrote Pavlov, "and roprosonts tho unified activity of those two most important areas of tho central nervous system. Those subcortical nodos are...contors of tho most important unconditioned reflexes or instincts of food, defense, sexual, etc., thus representing the basic aims, the most important tendencies of the animal organism."3 In sunnarizing his thoughts which Pavlov expressed in regard to the correlation of the activity of the cortex and the subcortical aroas, he emphasized tho fact that "the subcortoc is tho source of energy for the entire nervous activity, and the cortex, plays the role of the regulator of this blind force, in skillfully directing it and controlling it." In addition io this form of interrelationship of the oortox and subcortex, there are other forms of their interaction. have in mind spreading of the processes, their direct transfer from one level to another. Tho stimulation or inhibition may spread from the cortex to the subcortex and vice versa. This is the true dialectic idea of the interrelation of the processes of stimulation and inhibition betwoon the basic sectiOns of the brain. As demonstrated above-, various experiments by Pavlov and his numerous followers showed that the physiological procosses, which are at the basis of conscious activity, are taking place in the cortex of the brain. Thoso views seem to be inacceptable to some foreign scientists. 1 I. P. Pavlov, "Complete Works", Vol III, Book 2, Pub. by Lead Sci USSR, 1951, p 402-406 113 ? 50-Yr 2 3/14. - -01043Ron49nni Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Thus, for oxamplo, tho groatost Snglish physiologist, Cal. Shorrington, in his. book "Man and Naturo", publishod'in 1932, oxpross- ed doubt at tho pkomiso that the cons ciousnoss of man is connected with physiological. procossos taking placo in the certox. ? Pavlov subjoctod to vory savor() drAicism tho idoalistia posi- tion of Shorrington. Lately, we have boon witnessing a cortain rolapso of thoso ate- tompts. ..7o shall montion, for oxamplo, the assOrtions of tho ominont 0 nadian nourosurgeen, Ponfioid and his,associatol'tho noted eloctro- physiologist, JasPor, who are trying to sUbetahtiato thoir thoory that consciousnoss originates in connection with activity of the sub- cortical aroa and not in the cortex. One of the lassie roasons for this vlow is tho fact of the dis- ruption of .conscious, activity in suigical damage of the suboortical areas, but riot ih the caso .of cortex. "'Even considerable-damage to wide aroas of the cortbx did nbt disrupt the conscious activity in man. - ? Those facts aro true but thoy rocoivod incorrect intorpretation on the part of Shorrington. If 'we shall adhero te Pavlov;s point of viow and shall ronombor especially his views on the powerful restorative andcomponsatory propertios of the cortex, the fact of the unchangeability, ante correctly the restorability of consciousness despite considerable damage to cortical areas, will cause us no surprise. It is easy to understand why a damage to thosubcortical areas loads to the loss of consciousness. Lccording to Pavlov, the subcortical region represents a powerful accumulator of energy which stimulates the activity of tho cortex. It is not surprising that tho disruption of this powerful stream of stimuli originating in tho subcortex, reduces the tone of the cortex and may lead in certain cases to tho complete inhibition of its func- tions, and,subsoquently even to the loss of consciousness. Ls a contributing element is tho.fact that the restorative and compen- satory function of the subcortex is presumably devolopod less than that of tho cortex. Lately, there has been a tendency of some scientists of England and the United States of :.norica to "lowor" tho functions of con- sciousnoss down to thesubcartical area. It is connected with a thoory, which has received quite a following in recent times, of the network (roticular) formation. Essentially, it has to do with some 114 ? - c7,7, zZ4-1 PA, 6'4 subcortical formations the significanco of which had already boon troatod by Pavlov and his school. If Wo.sliail cOaso tiling to solve this problem unilaterally by ascribing-various-functions of corisciousnoss to the subcortax or cortex only, Dina follow the Pavlov pOint of view of tho harmonious unity of tho cortex and suVcortox paPpatatus, there will be no now problon. Though.,:the-tortex and subcortex may exist under conditions of.variance'inthoir.iriteractionynevortholoss, in tho final count, they alWhyi act in concord aindor normal circumstancos. "Who would spoatato phytiological, or somatic from psychic, i.o., from improssions, powerful onotions of hunger, soxual urge, anger, etc., in tho most complex field of unconditionod reflosos."1 Thus spoke Pavlov, who was, at the same time, the creator of tho teaching that tho cortex play the part of imanager'r and "didtribiator" of all body functions. ' ' Those romarks-fully reflect the'Pavlov.concoption of-the rela- tions and bonds botwoon paychid and phydiologic pherionona. One cannot completely separate two sides of a unified process of life activity ? the psychic and.phYsiological onos. No might-add that in its cortect point of view the Pavlov teaching of ?tho loading role "of the cortex does not prostpoftho, slightest possibility 'of ito:Popatation.from the. fuhations of tho. subcortex. ' Tho essence of tho problem is :that we do acsopt as corporal only the matprial substrdtp of psychic activity --?tho,corobral 4ssue. Tho processos which ato.taking place in it oan be viewod from two aspects ---.the physiolegical and psychological,?and_both:of those aspocts can be oxaminod oithor simultanoously or consecutively, . . K. D.-Ushinskiy, an oninont psychologist and pedagogue, wrote: "The history of our soniations is the most intinato'history of our soul. '2 It is obvious that tho ossenco of man:is best manifested in clearly expressed ?motions, impressions, and-tOlations to the environ- ment. A man must be judged not by' what ho says or thiriki of-hinsoW. but by what ho feels, and how.he-aCts. ' *. This correct and practical formulation of the aPproach to tho nature of the psychic characteristics of man socoivOi' its intorpre- tationd and substantiation in the light of Pavlovls teaching of the coordinatod, though_dialottically contradictory, aativity of various parts of the brain.-; 1. Y. P. Pavlov "Complate.Norksc Vb1 in, Book 2,-P 355. 2 K. D. Ushinskiy "'Iorks", Vol 9, Pub. Lead Pod. Sci RSFSR, p 118. 115 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 Yr 2014/03/14 CIA-RDP81 0104 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Scionco ) :I ? vorsus Suporstitions 0 ...whilo wo do. not know the law of naturo) rI nevortholoss exists and ,,,acte;.bosidos ust, without. our know- ledgewand it.makos us slavos of , blind nocopsity. ' But, as soon as wo havo loarnod.of this law, which acts' (as Marx ropoatod thousands of tim350 indopondently of our volition and our consciousness, wo become tho , mastors of naturo." V. I. Lenin Ond of the'porfidious mothods usedinr,tho sorvants of tho church to stupofy poo-plo consists in utilizing various phenomena which havo not as yet boon investigated sufficiontly by scioncd. T king into account that scionco is not:yot-capablo to intorprot tflo cause of thoso phcnomena, the roligionists prosont thom as miracles which arc performed by tho will of God. ..?4? ' However, tho steady progress of sgionco is Moro and moro restraining the adherents of religion from tho utilization of insuf- ficiently studied phonootia for tho pUtpbso of creation of logonds and fairy taloa-Ortho "nysteriot of nature" which allegedly 'are of divino originiandarot.thoreforo untsiPlainable'and unfathomable. The Pavlov teaching of higher nervous activity played an immense.role in this respect. Having determined physiological basos of psychic processes, Pavlov exposod'Many.superstitions Which had been most froquontly ponnectea procisoly with the pskchic activity of man. To those belonmtho socallod tolopathiC phonomona,-Or the'beliof in , , thought transmipsiWover distances, spiritism -- the lo?g6nt of the- pessibility'of 66cmoning spirits and communicating with thorii the' myth of tho resurrection Crom the dead, tho belief in prophotic dreams, tho mystery 'oft hypnosisvetc. The erroneous belief in' the transmis- sion of, thought ovorfdistaneot soemod to havo received lately some- sort of,suiriort in the Aleetro;-physielogical investigations of the brain: _As far bank 0.1 1912, Pravdich-NenInskly'in Russia, and later Bergor in GerLan'y (1925), rogittered for the'first time tho. fluctuations of tho electric potontial of man's brain. -Binoans Of - highly sonsitivo instruments ,hese currents are deflected from tho surface of tho;:cranium,andl.after multiplebagnifieation, may become as strong as,tecauto the,movementofd. small mirror or d cathode ray in a cathode tubet:.;,This circumstance 'makes it possil?lo to register." theso currents oriphotopapor. Hence', tho assertions- that, if W-ap- paratus which registers tho.biocurronts of the.brain be ma& more- 116 ? - 0 procisc and sensitive, thoro might bo a possibility to road tho thoughts in tho brain uhilo observing tho minuto fluctuations of brain curronts. Thoso assortions lack a sciontific foundation. Electric curronts of tho organism (biocurronts) can bo obtervoc1. not in the brain only, but in any organ of tho body, though they aro of different rate and form in various Ofigansi At the presont tine, the biocurrents?of the heart, nerves, and Aho skoletal musclos aro well knoWn. It has boon found that biocurrents accompany tho life ? activity of animal as ?Iell as plant organisms. Oho can deflebt tho oloctriCal dUrronts frot'a loaf of any plant and detect a diffcronce in tho potential,-if one half of tho loaf is oxposod to-tho,:tun0 whilo the other half* is darkened. The difforonco in the potential ih: this caso has its' basib ih'the difforont phydico-chcmical states of'tho two obsorvod areas of living tissue, which dopond on tho metabolic level of these two areas. Thus, tho biocurrents of tho brain do not represent anything supernatural.; and arc'- the natural%eharactoristics of its living tissue, just as are tho biocurrents of any other organ. The bidcurrents of thb brain, like other physical and 'chemical phenomena, are at tho basis of tho met comPlox'physiblogical' pro- ceases which compose .the life activityof the brain. 'Any one of its indoxos the temperature of the cerebral tissuo,' its vitamin content, and many other chemical reactions could be employed on tho same basis ? as the biocurronts in the attempt to find a method of "reading" the thoughts. Uowevor, ono can easily seethe' absurdity of tho attempt, for oxanplo; of aetormining the content-of oxygen or carbons in the brain for the purpose o?' thought "reading"... The same can be said of the biocurrents of tho brain. There'is'not.the least basis for tho "reading" or "transfers' of thoughts by means of biocurronts. Refloxion, thought ?.represent a function of the corobral tissuo which has reached a high degree of perfoction and which ip alAolutely insoparablo from the' tissue itself. Marxieb that thinking is the product of matter which' has achicvod in its'dovelOpmont a high' degree of poreection, namely the product of brain tissue.' The brain is the organ of thought; one cannot spparate thought from matter, without cobmitting a serious error: The founders of Marxism called tho naive ideas of some philoso- phers of the 19th century, who assertod that the brain produces thoUghts just as tho livor secretes bilo, crudo and vulgar materialism. If we consider this mechanistic point of viow correct, then we must further infer that thoughts repro sont something material, that they can be gathered, weighed, measured. Philosophy and physiolo& com- pletely deny' this absurdity,. Hence, it becomes perfectly clear that telepathy is the fabricatiOn of charlatans which neither .in our tine, nor in.tho future can have anY tciontific basis, 'the advance . - . - 117 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14: - - 1 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 in tho technique and precision of tho oloctrophysiological export- montation notwithhtanding. Lately, tho soancos of "divining" thoughts bocamo popular. ':!olf flossing acquired quito a ropUtation-in-this rospoct. Messing dovolopod a fine faculty of "roading" thoughts. It is not difficult to ostablish that this faculty has a porfoctly scointific foundation. Whoovor visitod the soancos of flossing is woll award that he "roads" thoughts oxclusivoly connoctod with the idoas of sono motor actions. To go to sone row of the theatre hall, tako the wallet out from somobodVs pockot and put it ih somoono olso's pocket, etc. theso are the things Messing usually guossos. Any othor thought, not connoctod.wIth tho idea of motion, Messing is unable to guess. What is tho socrot of Mossing's success? Tho so-called idoo-notor muscular motions woro known in phy- siology .a long timo ago. One of Sochonov's assistants obsorvod that a man, thinking of sone motion, reproduces it to a certain dogroo. "Whon I think, for instance, of a circle," Pavlov used to say, "my hand maims a hardly porcoptible circular movonont, which can be regis- tered by an instrument." .It has boon obsorved and scientifically provod that, in thinking of a cortain dofinito motion, i.o., whon you have a kinesthotic idea, you aro roproe.uoing it:17ithoUt being aware of you action. Doctor Sochenov conducted such exporimonts in the laboratory of V. M. Bokh- terev., Tho thought. "divining" flossing must always hold thchand of the person who is charged with carrying out SOUD particular errand of the spoctators. Messing developed a fine faculty of catching the idoomotor motions of his partner unnoticed by others. By supplo- mcnting it with observation of the partner's facial expressions, Messing is ablo to make fairly correct deductions of whore he is to go. In approaching tho row, of which the partner is thinking, Messing dotorminos, in the sem manner, near whom ho is to stop and whother to take his wallet, or eyegihssos, etc. The highly developod faculties of flossing aro beyond doubt. However, an attempt to see in it a miracle) oven to try to explain tho guossings of Messing by his ability to "road" thoughts, i.e., to consider it a transmission of thought ovor a distance is an unscientific and harmful idea. Spiritism (latin word "spiritus" -- spirit, soul) is a "teaching" which states that certain porsons.(modiums) are capable to summon (usually by light knocking) the Spirit of a deceased and ongago into 118 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy A d for R e ease ? a communication with it, by asking questions. F. Engcls in an aritolo "Natural Science in tho World of Spirits" subjected spiritism to a scathigg criticism. In doscribing 'tho'soancoS of "spirit-knocking" and "spiritlsocine, popular at that tine, Engols showed that all of these woro based on charlatanism. Very oarthy, individuals played tho part of "spirit's"; and for a'sufficiont romu- noration impersonated the role of various summoned roprosontativos of tho "other world". Engols is caus ically derisive of tho naive and irrosponsiblo. sceintists who aro roady to seriously accoPt thid fraud on the part of tho "spirits" imporsonatod by young I./mon who wore docidedly not differont, as-Engels said, from earthy wonon. In describing tho sprittualist soancos and tho summons of. "spirits," and citing oxamplod of cortain'ifidividuals, some of then noted scientists (Wallaco,- Crooks, etc.) who bocamo duos of these. fakers, :ng&Is pointed out that this trond was the result of neglect of theoretical, philosophical thinking. In the 19th century, the conviction prevailed among many sciontists that the task of a scientist is to observe facts, and nothing more. This ompirism, in its turn, led to a negative attitude toward philosophy, and dialectics in particular. IIngols pointed out that some af the most-sound empiricists became the' dupes of "the wildest of all superstitions", as he -called spiritism, Spiritism was much in vogue in Amorica and England during the and of tho past century; followers of .spiritism mppeared in Russia, too. The Physical Socioty at tho St. Petersburg Univorsity evon had to assign a committed to check on the authenticity of the spiritist phenomena. Among tho membersof this committoo was the famous chomist D. I. Mendeleyov; noted physicist N. D. Nrayovich, and others. After a year's study, the committee came -to tho conclusion that the spiritualist" phenomena are caused by unconscious movemonts or by a conscious fraud, and that the spiritist teaching is suporsittion. The conclusions of the committee woro publishod'in the newspaper Oelos /The Voice/ in 1876. The religious boliofs often use stories of resurrection from the dead. This fiction could not stand any criticism whatever. The life and doath of man is a subject which deeply and intima- tely agitates ovoryono of us. However, in Contrast to tho phenomena of life which we can analyzo on the basis of self observation, ?very- thing pertaining to death remains in the realm of conjecture and fear, 5 - r 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-0104nPnft4)nn1Annrv) 119 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 which broods stories of fairy taloa or nystorios. Thorofore, boforo wo speak of tho "resurrection of tho dead", we must define tho con- copt of doath from the scientific point of., view, which prosonts a certain difficulty. Death pf man Is usually diagnosed by external signs.. The mat stops bi-eathing, his hoat ooasos to boat; tho doctor dotorninoatho fatal exit and infditili tho family that tho pationt is doad. From tho point of viow of ovdryday evaluation, doath has arrived. But, if we shall try to analyse this condition from the scion- tific point of viow, we shall cono to tho.00nclusion that death has not as yet arrived. Tho phononona of life and death are constantly inter- mingling. A nursing baby, just born, coumoncos to dip at once, biologically speaking. This is duo to the fact that life activity itself requires tho expenditure and change in the very substance of body coils. In observing an elderly man and noticing his gray hair and falling hair, wrinkled and flabby skin, carious tocch, etc. we soo tho obvious signs of an aging organism -- in other words tho signs of doath. However, tho fading away of tho organism during its life is not oxpressod in those external signs only. Any life process is carried out on tho basis of destruction. Our organism is built of tissues and organs which consist of coils. Tho organic lifo depends on the activity of its cells. If we search for tho basis of life activity, we shall find that the coils live to tho oxtont that parallol with constructive functions, various procossos of destruction are taking place. One cannot inagino a life process in cells whoroby they would remain unchangoablo. The more tons() tho activity of a cell, the more manifest are its disintegration processes. Tho French physiologist, Claude Barnard, back in tho 19th century, expressed this thought in a rathor paradoxical statement: "Life -- is doath." Ho, thus, wanted to emphasize that the phenomena of lifo aro inexorably and inseparably connected with tho nrocossos of daath. F. Engels in his book "The Diabetics of Nature" said: "lo are begin- ning to undorstand tho unscientific character of a physiology which does not gogard death as the essential element of life, which does not understand that tho negation of life is contained in tho substance of life itself, so that lifo must always to considered in conjunction with its nocossary result, already inherent in tho embryo - death. The dialectic understanding of life is reduced to this very conception. Once it is understood, thoro can be no more talk of tho immortality of tho soul... Thus, it is sufficient to simply clarify to oneself, by moans od dialectics, tho naturo of life and doath, in order to eliminate this old superstition. To live moans to dio."1 This concoption of tho nature of life loads us to the conclusion 1' F. Engels "The Diabetics of Nature", Gospolitizdat, 1955, p 238 120 that tho nonont when tho psysicial diagnosowtho_onsot of doath Agos not yet signify, from tho physiologist's point of viow, that thoro is an absolute cdssation of life activity of tho organism." It is only tho so.callod clinical doath'that arrived; tho procoss oft dying is cortinun ing. . ? - The sciontific conception of tho nat4ro of%lofo and death attost to the fact that, Nat as life is porneated with.olonents of dying, so is tho initial state of death showing cgrtain hanifostations of as tho observations df a cadaver prove, .Unfortunatolyi.this period. is comparatively brief, it lasts not hours. not hour but a fpr minutes. Yovortholoss, evon neasUrod in minutes. this truly precious,. for during this poriod- dying reprosonts. a roVorsiblo Stato and, in a number of?Oases, lifo cat to restored. speak, of course, of accidental death, when tho organism isqlot.worn.outf, as for instanco in caso og ddath of 'a yoUng -man which cane as a result of a wound. Tho conception of clinical.doath-is ,contrastod by the concoption of tho trio death, the biological one. Now tho flashos Of ,lifo aro gone, and death conpulas an irrovorsiblo phonomonon. Thejatost achiovq- nent of Soviot.scioncobadolt possible to Prolong the state, of clini- cal death in which revival is still possiblo. Thus, under conditions of refrigerating tho corps?, there wore successful results of revival oven after 30 ninutes,' as roportod by the Soviet physiologist, 'V. A. Nogovskiy. Biological death is an obligatory continuation of the clinical death, unless some noasuros of restoration of life hem? boon takon, in casos aft accidental death.- If death has boon.caUsod by a grave illness (tuberculosis, cancer), which had dastroyod,some vital organs, the moment of clinical death coinoidos with that of tho biological death. In many instandos tho death of healthy people is accidental and arrives pronaturoly. As had already boon mentioned,. during tho poriod of clinical death one can observe a nunbor of signs of continuing lifo. Nails and hair hoop on growing. Those arc, of course external and insigni- ficant signs of thocontinuing proodss of lift; hdwovor, they gave tho physiologists a reason to seeks noans of roitoring lifo which soonod to have lasted a while. in the cadaver.. At fir's'., the' attention was concontratod on the restoration of life activity in separate organs. Experiments wore earn out, and the rosults showod_a "survivaloof some cirgans, ppon the removal of some organ from the organism, it was possiblol. ,undor conditions of indopondont-oxistonco, to-prosorve its life actiitity for a certain time, We shdil will:those experiments 121 Declassified in Part - Sanitized C pyApproved for ease 50-Yr2014/03/14:CIA-RDPR1_n1n4qPnnAonn4 A nnnn " Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 in tho future -text cenditiOnally-atrovival".experinonts. c. Ii 1895 thO flitht attompt to iovitte the hoart,wad mado. First oxporiiienti Wore 'obildUctod7-on tho hoartS of:tho simplest, so-callod cold bolldod animals. Upon tho romoVal of tho hoart, conditions approximating its patural,nutritioh.Woro croatod. A special fluid was subEitituteefor blocid; it centaihed-salts and cortain nutritious substancos.? Tho heaft-Carried.out its normal function undon thoso conditibnsi tatofon-6 huccoodod in kooping alivo hoarts of highor animals. ','Imdoctel hoart.CqUiod the pre:sporty-of complote robtoration of its' activity.' Hodrt, 'removbd from ?. cadavor,' at first remained quioscont, thou began to contract. .?This was sufficient proof that tho hoart was revived. The succoSs'of theso exnorimonts oncouragod, tho ? Russian physiologibt, A. A. Kulyabko, in 1902, to undortako a very daring, at that tino, experiment ho docidod to rovivo the human hoart. Tho heart a' child which had died' ofan infoctiotis discaso was used inthiS oxporilient. The little corpso remained on ico throughout tile night, and 1n tho-norning Kulyabko began his expori- mont. .Tho'Cliovo MontiOned:Conditions were ?Creatod, -i.e., a fluid substituting for biood'ks-passod:thretighthe Cardiac blood vessels; this fluid was carrying salts, nutritivo substances and oxygen, it had the normal body tomporaturo. Aftor some seconds had elapses, Kulyabko obiervo&'that tho "dead! hoart'showed.signs of reviving, then it bogan-te.contract. This outstanding_fact:led to many similar experiments. Their results showed that'Jtho rovival of.tho hoart, an extraordinary event in those days, boom) a common occuronco in ouf times. Thote-aro many roports in-thoscientific litoraturo of cases of heart :ieitival not only in-children but_in adults, as well. There is no doubt' loft ht the'prosent tine that a hoart removed from the corpse?ef.a previeusly hoaIthy individual.can'bo revived and roturned to its normal fUnCtioning. The Soviet sciontist S. V. Androyov succeeded in reviving a heart ifve days after the death of the individual., Tho attention of tho experimenters was concentrated on the'hoart not by accident. The hoart is one of tho main organs of our bo, which is the:roason-why the first exporimonts of revival hadr,boon triod on the heart.-J:H Vovor, tho life activity of the organism is not connec'tod-Ath!thenfunction of the hoart only. _The organiin consist i ofnanyoergans: It was Important-to extend and find, out ' whothoe'other bigans-lof thd?body-wial.prove as succossfUl under cofidi- tions df-lsoiatidn, as had-boon the oxporiments with the.heart. this roipbbt, sineb'tho-ond,of the past contury, many ,experimontS havp boon carfiednbut.uThostudies e2-Sechenov,. .Kfavkov, and these of the Amorican,invedtigator Carrell proved that ,j.sOlated organs Of the body (various' 'glancls; intestines, ovion a finger), when ronoved'fron the body Of-adorpse, wero ablounder certain conditiOni td,oeptinab their 2unctions. How to determine whether a finger i?lird ersnot? 122 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? There are criteria which make it possiblo to ostablish it. Wo havo in mind the condiiinn of the blood vossols. Thoso arc able to chango thoir lumen in.lifo. non tho bloed vessels are patont, a larger quantity of fluid will pass through, 'whilea constricted opening will limit the flow. Kravkov demonstrated that a finger, removed from a corpso, is capablo to prosorvo its vitality for many days. Tho presenco of such-functions, as the.roactAphof tho blood vossbls, sweat glands, growth of nails, etc., attoet to it. The rosulis of the above doscribod axporiments provod that not only tho heart but a groat number of othor organs aro able to continuo their vital functions when removed from the corps?. Thoso facts onablod the physiologists to,advanco the problem of tho roviyal of an ontiro organism. Indeed, if it is possiblo to revive boparato organs, starting with the heart and .onding with othOr-organs, thore is a probatility that the samo can be accomplished in regard to tho entire organism. An important problon had to' be solvod whothef the central nervous syston is capable, to rostoro its functions after clinical death. This problem was solved, mainly bY Russian physiolo- ? gists. Professor Kulyabko, havigg succeeded with tho revivification of the, heart, proceeded with an experiment of revivification of tho head of a fish. A fluid substituting for blood was passod through tho bolld vessels. As a result, it was observed that tho fish moved its oyes and fins-, closed its mouth.-- in a word, all signs indicated.; that the head was alive. These experiments, as well as the results of other similar oxporimonts, which had boon carried out with tho head of a dog, and oven with the head of a man who had just died, encouraged our compa- triots - the physiologists S. S. Bryukhonenko and S. I. Chechulin, to occupy thomselyos especially with tho problem of reviving the cen- tral nervous system. In 1928, at the Congress of Physiologists in DDSCOW, those present had an opportunity to observe remarkable experiments. Bryukhonenko and Chochulin accompanod their report with the demonstration of a dog's head separated from tho body. non a piece of cotton moistened with an acid was placed on the tongue of tho head, one could observe all signs of a negative reaction: grimaces, smacking of lips and an attempt to throw out the cotton. non a piece of saugago was placed on tho tongue, there wore signs of licking. A whiff of air, directed to tho oyes, caused winking. In recent years, the French scientist Bremor succeeded in obtaining a completely isolated brain, deprived of all connections with the central nervous system, but nourished with the blood of the sdno organism. lanuto electrophysiological investigations have shown, that the life of the brain is inseparable from the continuous pro- duction of electrical energy. The death of tho brain loads to the cessation of electric phonombna: subsequent revivification of the 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043Rnn49nn1zinnm_ 123 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 0 brain causos roappoaranco of tho biocurronts. Thus, tho oxporiments of Soviet andforoign sciontists demon- strated that tho brain cath also bo The basic problem of tho possibility of reviving tho ontiro of.ganibm, ?thus, could be solvod in a positivo we:y. If the hoart, intodtinal-sogmonts, glands, and tho central nervous system can be roviVed, thoro wore no doubts loft that a wholo organism can be brought tolife in a similar fashion. The pionoor in those experiments was F.ndroyov. During tho A. A first docados of this century he set aoubt tp rovivo an ontiro orgn- nism. Ho and, later, Bryukhononke, carded out thoii invostigationS on dogs. Tho dogs. were killed by moans of desanguination. The onset of death wasicalculatod from the moment whom the rospiration and car- diac contractions.ceased, and tho winking reactions of tho yoyelids upon touching tho cornoa disappoarod. After tho lapse of a certain period of time from the moment of clinical death, the oxporimontors started tho work on the revival of the organism. Tho attempt of revival of the wholo organism is connected basically with tho action of the heart and blood circulation. A spocial apparatus, Called "atuojector", was build which was used in pumping blood into tho 'vascular systom, stimulate the heart and respiratory sygans. Tho results of.Bryukhonenko's exporimentp were complotoly satisfactory. He succeeded in reviving dogs which had boon doad for sovon-oight minutes. During 'Torld 'War II, a group of physiologists under the leader- ship of V. A. Nogovskiy carried out numerous attempts of restoration of life of battle casualties under the battlefield conditions. Wo can stato that the results of their work were highly satis- factory. In a number of cases whore the physicians dinggosed the onset of.clinical death, the physiologists succeedod to restoro the deceased to lifo. This was done in a large number of cases. Tho following data are cited in the material collected by the Negovskiy group. Revivification was performed on 51 corpses, twelve wore restored to life. Thus, tho results wore successful in 25 percent of tho cases. ":hen we speak of restoration of life to man, 25 percent of succossful casos must be considered as a very good result. In order to illustrate the conditions nndor which they workod, we shall quote from one of their reports: "Choropanov, Valentin Dmitriyovich, infantryman of the n.. guard rifle regiment. Born in 1923. Admitted to a field hospital on 3 124 March 1944. 'Diagnosis: Shell splinter blind would of tho median third of right fomur, with tho sovoranco of the fomoral artery .and voin and injury of n.ischiadicus. ,Third dogroo shook. Brought to tho hospital two hours following injury in a critical condition. Tulso'filiform, respiration irregular, feoble, the pationt is somiconScious." Tho woUndod was givon imidodiato bur.gial aid, but it 'was' useless. Pationt diod after the operation. Tho chart history states: "oath was attributed to shock and peuto loss of bolld'on 3 March 1944, at 1441 hours. Tho woundod is in the state of clinical death. Pulse not palpable, heart stopped, no respi ration. Pupils naximally dilatod." A fow minutes following the patient's doath, one commencod tho revivification measures described above.. 'One minute later, the heart began to boat, aftor a fow.mpro minutes tho spontaneous broathing appeared. On the 22nd minuto tho patient reacted with blinking to tho eye touch. One hour later appeared tho fist signs. of roturning consciousnoss; '"At 2300 the gonoral condition of tho patient still very serious. Ho sloops, wakens oasily when addrossod to, answors questions, 'asks for water, complains that ho cannot sod. The following da t his vision became normal." Oheropanov was avontually evacuated from the hospital and regained his health. An article was printed in the central press at tho time which doscribod this caso of revival and a photograph shown of the "resurrected" made during his walk in the park. . After his recovery, ho was visited by newspaper reporters. It is interesting to cite the content of one of their interviews. "!hen the former "docoased' was asked by a.roporter: "Do you know what was tho operation they had performod on you?" Oheropanov ropliod: "Yes, they pulled lac from the other world, I was dead already." "What did you see in the other world?" "I lost consciousness before tho operation, and came to when tho operation was over. All that time I was as if under an anaesthetic. I slopt through my death." 'lc shall cite another case of "revival" already under post-war conditions. On 28 ::arch 1948 a woman, 24 years old, with a gunshot wound of tho right femur was brought to the surgical clinic of tho medical insti- tute of the city of Stalino. She was not breathing, pulse was 'not palpable, and thehoart sounds would not be hoard. According to tho statement of tho foludshor who brought tho pationt, her respiration ceased when ho was transferring from the ambulance to the stretcher. 125 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy A d for R e ease ? 5 - r 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-n1n4mPnn49nn1Annry) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Thus, about fivo-six minutes had elapsed sinco the cossation of res- piration. Thoro was no way to ascortain corroctly when the hoart had stoppod. Tho physician on duty, Oanditato of Modioal Scioncos, G. P. Utkin at once started forcing blood ilith adionalin into an artery. Simultaneously artificial rospiratiet was rosortod to. Ono minute . later, irrogular cardiac contractidni aPpearod, and two minutos later the pationt bogan to broatho. Five minutes after tho start of arterial blood pumping, the cardiac activity bocamo rhythmic. The nocossary surgical moasuros wore rosortod to. Tho patient regained consciousness ton minutes after the start df broathing; Sho was transforrod to the ward. On tho 22nd day She Was disdhargod. Hundreds of such nrovivod" porsons in tho Sovict Union are alive and happily at work. Not long ago, in ono of the Leningrad clinics, a successful at- tompt was made to rostoro to life of a person almost frozen to doath. Tho patient spent 18 hours under snwo in a forest at a temperature of 1800. Ho was brought to the clinic with feoblo signs of life. The application of the latest methods of sciontific medicino led to tho complete recovery of tho patient. Ho rogainod his conscious- ness after an eight days lapse. Tho patient was doomosbrated as completely recovered at a meeting of the surgical society. Tho examples of revival, the restoration to life of clinically dead people are a convincing proof that there is no soul existing indopondontly of the body. Not only death but the life of man are in the hands of God, according to religious toachings. Religions people ascribed to God's wrath tho appearance of fatal opidomics, Plague, cholera, and other mass epidemics wore rampant and carried off thousands of people. Tho /irogross of medicine put an end to those calamities. Plague and cholera disappeared, malaria disappeared in the majority of regions in our country, child mortality from scarlet fever, dysenthory and other widely spread diseases of recent history have been markedly reduced. The struggle for health and a happy old age is not a dream any longer, but a real task which is being fulfilled by the Soviet state and Soviet Science. 126 Sloop and lospocially, droams represent almost tho mdst froquont topic of diseustion whop tho cdnyorsation turns to tho phoncinona of psychic activity. . ? Han sleep's away 6no.third Of his life-an th6'.-avorago', approkinatdly 25.yoixrp.ITo.doatt.ddams,.often of a fantastic- cha'ractor;'bri&t 4s .a talo, and at tines, on the contrary, vory cloio to roaliti, tppoar4d to everybody. Heroin lies tho intorost in dreams, discissions of thoir.contdnt, their significancdi and . attempts to.propheCy events on tho basi.s.of the-charactor cipthd dreams which rraco thoir tho early stagos of the history of ? , . . The .scientific approach to tho raturo.of sloop and tho intor- . protation of droanti aro.d very recont. achciovoment. During the long period which pro.cedodit'a nultitudo of suporstitions-, idealistic legends of ttto mys'torious,'unknoynablo nature oVslesp, prophetic dreamt, etc.r hilmo accumulated in regard to thessubjoct-of sloop and dreams. The &ack of sciontifiC knowledge in any Tiold'is gonerally utilited by tho.rdligious teachings. Tho sane happonod in regard to dreams -- the'froci4ent subjoct of varidus'religious legends, as well as of various Superstitions. Since ancisnt timos.tloro has boon a tendency to.find an inter- protatidn of the causes aid haturo of sleep and dreams: One Would begin with very simplo things. ' Thus, for instance, the Trines of very largo blood vessels passing through the neck to the head -- the carotid arteries -- is not accidon- tal. It reflects,the attempt of the ancient timos to connect the- causes of the origin of sloop with ih'insuffiCieht-supply,of-blood to the brain. Ue must add that this point of view now lost- its value, for there are contrary facts'which show that, during sleep, the cere- bral blood vessels dilate, and that the brain receives a sufficient supple of blood. ' ? With the progress of natural 'science in the 19th century, when the scionce of chemistry nada particularly large strides, a number of attempts appeared to interpret thesleep phenomena from the chemical pocint of view. One of those, the least suBcossfull was connected with the idea that a certain substance is being accumulated in the '.brain- during the waking hours; this substance was named hypnotoxin (sloop poison). It was presumed that a cortain degree of 'accumulation of this hypnotoxin causes the onset of sleep in a man or animal. This theory of some French physiologists did not prove successful though it made quite a 127 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 bit of,beginhineof tho present conturY. Tho tests which had led to those conclusions consisted of tho following. A dog.was compelled tc.romain without sloop for a long time. It was disturbod and annoyed conitantly,,at-night tho guards wore dragging it-with thom on a Cord._ It was found that-tho spinal cord fluid which washos the noivoud syste.mand-which had been examined after a tong period of lack, Of,sleep, podsodsod soporific properties. Upon its administration to aninals,..thoy foil asloop. ,This test gave the oxporimontors,tho-idoa that 6 sPecial toxic boing hypnetoxin. The prosonco of duch dorun soomod to'opbh wide perspodtives, for is a t oxin was found ono couldk look for and discover an antitoxin. Theso' hopes, howevor, yet? not justified. In tho first placo, the vary promise on whith tho tosts had been basod) find Bono sub- stamco the action of which would: induce nbrm,..1 sleep, wa's inoorroct. As we shall- sac lator, ploop,reptosonts a &moral functionalstto of . tho central norvous:systom.,,,,It is truo, some chemicals- may aid _in the onset of sloop, but they cannot induco it. Such was 'tho case with the experiments described, above. .4 profound fatiguo which was tho result of the dog's Hinsomia'YerPatod cortain-changos in the;Ohomistry"- of tho blood and spinal fluid, -,The offeCt:of.those changed on the' ani- mals, unaccustomed to them, was ovaluatod as a sopifific action. More ilmoceparul,and more recent was the atiompt made in 1930s to connect the.onset of-:sloop with tho;fOrthation and accumulation of b. bromide in the bolld, the same bromide which in the 'form of sodium bromide is administered to patients at the physician's advico. It turned out that bromide is -produced n,the organism. ' ? The formation of': bromide in the.organism,and the knowlodgo that the actioh of bromido.aa really connectod:with.its tranquillizing effect on the:nervoUs'system-:and:prodispososthe organism to the state of sloop mndo this theory more or loss-feasible. I, . ? Wo could mention also some other thoorics on tho origin of sloop from the chemical point of view. Howvver, those, too, willhhavo to be refuted. 4- - The state of sloop 'is a functionalpropertyof thecentral nervous sustoial and the onset of sloop is the result of the activity' of the - nerve centers, and not the primary effect of some chemical substance. - . Many faatsontradict tho qhomical theory of sloop. , ,P ZveryOno knoWfv, without tho.peod.of.special alaboratory-tosts, that the states ofveleep and-wakofulness can be very transitory and of ton mutuallyfaltarnating. One can fool vory tired (fatigue _ predisposes one to sloop), and fool refreshed after a fivo minute sloop. It is difficult to assumo that within this short .poriod of timo a comnloto liquidation ,could take place of the profound chemi- cal changes montionod in connection with the various chemical thoorios. Those theerios aro also contradictoCby facts rosulting "from the comparison of the, sloop of nursing infants 'and. old pooplo.. Wo all know) that nursing infants remain in a sleepy state for almost two-throo days, while old people, have .a briefvsuporficial,- easily intorinpted sloop. Theso facts contradict the chomicalthooty of sloop, according to which the usubstancosn ptoducing sloop - increase propOrtignally te the work of the nervous system. Yet, there .is np doubt that tho norvous eyoten of an eld man is much more taxed and'carries on amuch.highei aCtibity than the one. taking place in's:3a infant whom tho load. onthe?underdovolopod brain and sonsorY.organs Is rolativoly very:insignificant. ? ? Another 11911 known fact: A tired .man all ad loop easily, but a man who is overfatigued often cannot fall asleop,at'all. As a result of oxtromo fatigue, a state Of-insomnia may sot in. ? P. K. Anokhin, the Soviet physiologist, carriodout remarkable observations on Sigtase$0 twins. .They had separate. heads and common circulation. Werc the causes of the onset of sloop connected with the changes in the chemistry of the blood, we could expect a simul- taneous onset of sloop in both twins.. This,_hOwover, was not the case. Ono could remain awake while the other wad asleep. Those interesting, facts are sufficient basis, to rofuto the theory of, the chemical natro of-sleep and earch for an explanation olsowhoro. Other approaches have boon found which led to fairly satisfac- tory solution of this problem. It cane with. the study of the physio logical processes in the central nervous system. Not all attempts wore entirely convincing. I shall cite one unsatisfactory atttemp of the Swiss physiologist, Hess, who advanced the theory of a special center os sloop- Hess thought that there must exist a center of sleep just as there are centers of cardiac activity, of respiratory activity, and many other centers in tho brain. He , based this on the fact that, in stimulating tho brain in a certain area with an eloctric current, he caused a sleepy state in aninAls. The fact is correct, and disputed. But the interpretation is wrong in the assumption of the existence of s special center of sloop. 129 128 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Tho best approach to tho solution of this problem was found along the path of Pavlov's teaching. -Imoutlining his toaching of norvous activity j we pointed out that the tiesio forms of the activity of the contral norvoixt3 systai aro ,the processes of stimula- tion and inhibition. The cleaner stticV of tho procossos of inhibition in tho brain ostablishod tho prosen60 ofivarious forms of inhibition. Ono of these forms which Pavlov separated into special groups is tho sloop inhibition form. The processes of stimulation and inhibition Undorge cortain chanzos during the activity of tho brain. One of those is connected with the movement of stimulation and inhibition along tho surfaco of tho cortex. There are circumstances when stimulation or inhibition are strictly localized in one particular area of tho brain; but more froquontly tho stimulation or inhibition, having originated locally, spreads out as if flowing olror tho corebralccortox and involving at times the entire surface of tho cortex. This phenomenon has been called the diffusion ("irradiation" the latin word) of the procosses of stimulation and inhibition over the surface of the brain. The diffused wave of inhibition can again concontrato at the initial point; this constitutes tho 'concentration phenomenon. Tho very oxtonsivo experimental data obtained by Pavlov on dogs, and, lator, on humans, enabled him in the oarly years ofthis centure (1911-1913) to advance tho theory of sleep as one of the forms of inhibition which is taking placo in the cerebral cortex. 'That prompted him to arrive at this conclusion? Iainly bocauso Pavlov and his associates noticed that all cases of inhibition which had taken placo in the experiments, led to the development of a sleepy state in dogs. The sloop of animals in Pavlov's laboratory became the curse of exporimentors. Later, when they surmised that inhibition and sloop might be of tho sane origin, sloop became thessubject of study, but it still interfered much with the carrying out of the tasks needed for the solution of other problems. The phenomena of the diffusion of inhibition over the cortex, which are tho basis of the onset of sloop, are easily observable in experiments and in observations on humans. -% When the dog falls asleop in the laboratory stand, one can already'noto tho vory stag es of the inhibitory sleep process, while the genoral condition of the dog does not yot indicate the approaching sloop. These initial signs are connected with the retarded movements of the tongue whom the dog is eating. Then comes 130 Declassified in Part Sanitized op Ap? roved for Release ? the difficulty in moving tho jaws; next stage -- difficulty in closing tho oyos, woalioning of tho musclos of the neck which' results in the loworing of the head, and finally, tho whole animal is. drooping in its ? straps. This is the stago of complete sloop. Thus, it can be deducted, that the inhibition first originatod in the centers connected with the rbongueitLevements,'sproad to the centers of the hoad, finally over tho ontiro surface of the cerebral cortox. Tho sane gradual procoss'of falling asleep We can observe alsc in a man who is forcod to remain in a seating posture while falling ? asleep. ? First, tho oyos close, then the. man experioncos difficulty to . hold his head up, he "pocks with his noso"I'and a littlo while later ' his head -"hangs down" on tho chest.. In the next stago tho ontiro torso is unablo to rotain. un upright posture and is Constantly bonding down. A man in profound sloop can easily fall off the chair ho is sitting on. One can observe interesting ,phenomena in a very young child which is falling asleep. During tho initial period, the child makes grimaces, shows sudden starts, and at times general motor unrest. This indicates that the inhibition is spreading over the oortex,'but has not as yet involved the subcortical centers. The grimaces and starting motions are duo precisely to tho continuing activity of the subcortical centers. ? During tho latter period of his work Pavlov differentiated two forms os sloe: the active and the passive sleep. lhat we described above as inhibition which originates in the-cortox as the resUlt of certain typo of stimulations (monotonousl.repeated sounds, etc.) is regarded as active sloop. The oxamplo of the.unusual length of an infant's sleep which we cited above can be regarded as a form of passive sloop. active, sloop appears as a result of a definite character of stimuli, passivp sloop appears as the result of the absence of stimuli. le shall cite tho following examples of cases of passive sloop. There are patients whoso sensory organs aro affected -for some reason or other. A man may have only one normally functioning eye, or oar, he may bo blind in one-eyel deaf in one oar, tho tactilo sensation is ? absent, his olfactory sense gone. In could observe the following phenomenon: if we approach him, close his normal eye 50-Yr2014/03/14:CIA-RIWR1_n1nivaprinAnnn4 Annn" 131 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 and block his oar, Ile will immediately fall asloop. His corebral_cortex remained without stimuli, ho lost, wha Pavlov called "tho variety?of activity in his cortox"; the absohco of this activity is the main cause of his sloopy stato. Ono of PavlovIsassociates, V. S. Galkin, carriod out tho following intoziosting oiporimorit: by means of sur- gory, animals woro doprivod of V103.on, hearing, and tactile sensation. Those aniiimls slept most of tho tithe. Thoro'is anothor possibility of inducing passive sloop experi- mentally. If the largo homisphoros aro roneved surgidally, the animal will survive, but will sloop most of tho timo, and wako ip only whon tho intostincs, or urinary bladdor are full, or tho animal is hungry.' In the latter case, tho dog will wake up, start barking, but will fall asloopaagain as soon as it has boon fed. However, it is important to provont misunderstanding in connec0 tion with .the fact of the development of passive sloop under oxperi- mental conditions, after a simultaneous soparation of the optic and aural nerves togothor with the nerves connected with tactile sonsa- tions. When those operations are performed gradually, i.e., one typo of sensation is el&minatod first, followed by the elimination of other sonsations the passive sloop will not develop: a reorganization and adaptation of the nervous system will take place. This explains why some individuals who had retained the fun4i9n of one eve or one oar, or had corplotoly lost tho functions of vision orhcarin6, aro still in full possession of their intellectual capacities. Tho caso of the remarkable Soviet woman, 01'9:a Skorokhodova, is known. Sho lost in her earlycchildhood, following some ailmont, her visionl-hoaring, and s.podel.l. Novertholoss, she learned to road at some special school /tho Braille notho.dir, graduated from tho Podago- gical Institute, wrote a book "How I perceived the external world", many good verses, and was a good konsamolsa. The examplo of Skorokhodova is not dsho only case in our country. Wo aro doaling hero with the .compensatory function of the central nervous syitom which has sharponod to an oxtraordinary degree tho remaining organs of sensation: the olfactory and tho vibration sensa- tinns, and enabled the individual to perfoct his psychic faculties and his mind .by means of the remaining 2ansory faculties. ThiS,. we can -assumo that at the gase of sleep is inhibition which originates, first, locally, and gradually involves the ontire cortical surface with more or less speed. Tho diffusion of inhibition is not limited to tho higher sections of tho brain, i.e., its cortex; it also invOivos its subcortical centers whbn tho ,sleopiis normal and deep. 132 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? 50 TO this :attest the fact that a person in deep sleep not.,only loses consciousness and sensation, but,the.capacity of motion.and other motor functions-. Parallel .with 'the phenomena of normal sleep, other:forms of sleep resedbling:states.and,eertain,forMs,q- incomplete Sleep are known. The simPlest,form of incomplete,. . sleep -- the Superficial sleep la.:the,cause ofAreamsi. ' statement can be made without hesitation. When the sleep 'is complete, 'i.e., deep; there can be,nodreamOi At.the basis qf dreams we and n mcopet..prtal slee, -aiMle, Here are some. instances4 ? 4i partial sleep can be observed in a motherwht5-'fell' aaleep .at ? the bedside .of,her? sick, chil.d.?, is able tty'"dOntiniie sleeping inl.-spite:o't fairly loud poisek, : coming from the Street, ?ok,?the..1.neXt room, but let, the. child cry, even id ' very-16i; votee,' or make a -*over:the mother. will .a.lialFpn., instantly. ).A -sleeping .to the monotonous- noise of the . . grindstones will awaken instantly when they stop. ? ,tt? Presumably-; *it these forma.-of sleep, as-?generally in all. cases of superficial sleep,.!therearer, parallelyith comiIetely _ inhibited areas, somemon-inhibitedareas,,and:a certain number of them in various transitory states form.wakefulness'to,gi?. Thus, we observe that. the brain may continue to :be,in.a.atate. of activitytosome extent even whileNeare asleep?.. What:aid the cause i which contribute to this activ#y,of the brain.dniing an incomplete sleep?., These can -be stimulations. fromivarious sources (sounds, odors, tactile .irritations, pr,interhal_sttniu- latious coming from various organs: overfilled stomach, urge to urinate; etc;:),' An important role in the,origin of dreams is. played bytkacee of stimulated. cortex.which had taken place ,not long before .theOnset of-sleep, andy,.at times, traces from im..7 pnessions and experiences which,hadhappened long ago. 14 the latter case we are-dealing.with-the-so-ealled "revival o traces". The faculties of ourmemory'mayhelp to explain, this phenomenon.: We can uswilly remember various impressions from very early age. At the same time, we do. not always remember what happen(ld to us in subsevent years and..,what undoubtedly left its impression-4n, the cortex of our brain.. Under certain.eireumstanees, as for example yhenjpeeting_,, sometne 'or engaged in conversation or, a photogr'aph,... and at times At it seems'to-uewithout any reason, we shall suddenly recall a certain event in our childhood. In 'this case, the revival of traces under wakeful conditions is taking place. 'The same, to a more marked degree, takes place..alsq,in.the areas of, . the brain which are still awake during our incomplete sleep.' 3:33 -? -Yr2014/03/14. - 1-01043RnnA9nni Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Various eXtertal and. internal. stimulations may 'create conditions, which willi-Ohiribute to-the7teVia1 of\traces during sleep., Changes ,in tVe'biboa. br the' brain: indreased influx, or outflow dif)bleod., teMpeeatura,dhanges'of the blood, and, various very important cialitative diatigagrin the composition of the.blood_-- all these can play their part ii the trektilal?of traces of-sleep. . In speaking-of trace-revivaIaslthe,basis for the origin.of dreams, we must emphasize that not all:Stimuli) whichleaveltheir traces in the cortex, are perceived by us clearly 1 ge may meet someone on the street) in' passing take a loolcat him Yithout apy noticeable'impression, especially. when'We are concentrating on?some thoughts; the"trace of the face will 'remain, however) This trace may at some later:time'come to life,' and. an individual) seemingly totally UtkndYt iO,u8, may clearly appear- in a dream. This is one of the causes of the origin of'somei"prophetic" dreams as they are erroneously evaluated. Let us say met' someone on the tramway. .He resembles your brother. The" encounterWas4R-fleeting one, the impression of face was clearlY'perceiVed.,--YOu have had no letters from your , brother for-a-long time, worried.. During your sleep, the trace of the individual's image is revived, and your brother's face appdhis-in-Your dream.byvassociation.. Next morning the-postman delivers a Atter'from!-yOuebrother-yritten of course without any connection with 'your dream. Some people' in such cases 'will be firmly convinedd thaiybili.-brother,"appeared in your dream" as,,, a premonition of-the'aril-76:1,of:the letter.. One of'the reasons 'which make up the 'content of various dreams may be the'desires,-tears,-or.suspicionsyhich composed, the experiences bf'the waking hours. :Since they were in some way or other conneGfed.with actual circumstances, they could, of course, be realiied:OCcasionally. The,dreams conriected_with,itzxe,a1sp referred-to=by*me ai "prophetic dreams", since they, in a way, "foretell" the events. A grdht-deal 'of work has been:ca/fried out field of study of dreams. There were some, experiments done;. as followst A. bottle water was applied to the heel of a sleeping man; this was accompanied by the-ringitg of an alarm clock. When the man woke upT'he!'related the?content of:-his dream. It turned out that he had dreated efiwride ina-Ptroyka" with bells, that he had enjoyed it:..veriMuch? ex"c-eptb.forithe freezing of his feet'. Here we have the simplest'cohditions for the origin of,a dream. 134 Sometimes a certain sound, like coughing behind the Wall, tan cause a very marked sensory perception: Since the-incompletely ' inhibited cortical cells experience special conditions, the reaction" will not correspond to the stimulus, there Nall he 'no pessibilitY. to differentiate the sound as coughing, and the? Man. will dream' ? that a lion was growling and that the spimal-waS tearing him with- its claws', etc.. ? ? In the Analysis of the causes leading to a dream, we are at. times deceived by the fact thatLwe are notralWays able.:to check On' the impressibility of traces in out nervous cella: ? , -% , An interesting episode wastexieriencedeby was descending the stairs in the house where he lived and noticed that a.decoratiye bell-glass on?i:the banisters was.:brokenb ? He paid no attention, tO it,.init.onceht_had.a dream it which he ? saw a new copper ball decoration on the banisters. In the morning as he was descending the stairs he was amazed to find a copper ball on the banisters; When he related the story to hia')family, they in turn Were surprised that he had not noticed, it befere, since it had Veen there over two weeks. Obviouslyl.he had seen.. the copper decoration several times, but never paid any attention to it, but the trace of the impression ramained'with him and.' in his dream he saw the stairs with the new copper ball on the banisters. Medical observations include data that the character of dreams at times' depend? on the developing. illnesa. ? Ahuaband of some woman was often telling her that'in he dreams his swallows 'vafious.objects: forks, spools.)! spoonsi etc. Being an intelligent and Sensitive person, shelpecame alarmed at ? the constancy of,thiasort of dreams and, consulted a physician. - It turned out that her huiband had a malignant tumor of .the pharynx. Another example of a similar dream. A man who-considered" himself healthy, had a dream that he had been bitten in the chest by a snake. Subsequently it was found that an, abscess had"been developing in that particular spot) which required special treatment. People with impaired cardiac activity which still did not manifest itself as a disease, often experience frightening- dreams (various nightmares). As a rule, this indicates the beginning of some ailment relating to heart., Obviously, after the. fatal exit, some members Of these dreams and are inclined to consider them i!pri)petic". Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 155 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 In, the majority .of cases one, can establish the causes of origin of some df thesAdreams; this isinot always easy .to do, however; for the psychic life of a man is complex and is often not amenable to a, thorough, analysis.' NevertheleSs,:the inatffi-ciency of our know- , ledge in this respect_does,notgiVetAny,justifigation to see in some of these. dreams somethingsupernsipital or mystic. Only idealists and religionists, to whom dreams always served as basis of, obscure superstitions) attempt to present the problem in this light. ? ? This idea Vas telped?by,the fact that dreams often e, a bright, picturesque and fantastic character, they ate detached from the reality of time and apace. an is able in his dream to "relive his entire 'life, to circle the eartht within a few minutes' time. , The teaching of Pavlov offers the possibility of. a materialistic interpretation of thesefobscure,andmysterious peculiarities of dreams. In the chapter devoted to the description of the qualitative characteristics of.the higher,nervous activity of man, we became familiar with the work-pfiLthe second signal system. . During the process.of falling asleep it is precisely the , inhibition.61 the second signal system which is ,,taking place, ,? while the first signal system is still functioning to a sufficient degree. During-.the awakenigg process) on the contrary, the second signal system is switched on somewhat later. In connection with this, all higher forms of thinking, including the faculty of logical dedactions,zare,markedly 'impaired and, to a certain-extent, lost. There lies the:explanation of the inherent characteristics of dreams -- their-unlimited element of fantasy, bright picturesque- ness, separttiovIrom the everyday images of time and space. During the waking..hours,,the,second signal system not only ensures a critical evaluation of circumstances, but also inhibits to a certain extentAhe first signal system. - ? The cortical cells !which change from a state of stimulation to complete:inhibition, are characterized by special physiological states. The most important in this respect is the disturbance of normal correlation between ,the force of stimulation and the degree of reaction- tait. ? For instance, certain unusual reactions of the cells .in the state of sleep may,take-plaCe when the cells do not?respond to a strong stimulus, whereas a weak stimulus causes ?ull reaction. It may even happen that the positive stimulus will cause no reaction, 136 Declassified in Part anitizeci Copy Approved for Release ? while the inhibitory stimuli which alwayshad-,a,deptessing and restraining effect, will now induce a reaction in full force. This is factually accomplished in the following manner: an irritation .; from a'flY 'crawling on the cheek of the sleeping_person May:create' a dream of a lion tearing the man with claw;-a sj:ight?sensation of cold, when the blanket slides off the.sleepingpersen, nay be' perceived as a sensation of falling inte-?an ice-hole..f,lbese types ? of weak stimuli bay ?produce the!stimulatien,:ef many ateasof the ' cortex which have not as yet become inhibited. , ,r - ? The elimination of the ftnetions:pf the second dignal system and the impairment of the normal reactions Of the first sigma' system during the sleep' serve ava,basi?Or..the physielogical interpretation'ot the peculiarities of dreams.- , ? " ? Finally; we must .take in ponsideration:the fact that the revival of traces which is) ws we_had already stated; oneTof.the basic causes of dreams, is effected under certain conditiOns during the state of sleep. ga.pointed.out,the backgrpund,of the inhibited Cortex, during sleep, there are only'isqlgied, unc6nnedted with one anbther areas. which are. in a state of Wa4eftIness or sleep. This situatibn creates conditions which: de net correspond to environtents and are .illogical, which.TWe enCouriter,in:dreams. Logical thinking Is the result of the correlated actiVity-of all sections of the brain. ? The inhibition pEetomena of the brain which PavlOV -investigated may manifest themselves in various forms. Inconiplete inhibition ' In the 'brain lads to dreams. -When inhibition involves only isolated areas of the. brain, it can manifest .J.fself in various ? states, as for-example in hypnosis, lethargic aleep5-lunatism. All these phenomena are fully explained by the-pavlbv's theory'. ? Hypnosis, in particular, represents a partial sleep where inhibition involves only some-of the areas of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres and 'is not spread to the centers of the subcortical region. This is the ,reason why the hypnotized. person carries out various acts at the command-of the hypnotizerl.withput actually coming out of the hypnotic state. There remains an uninhibited area in the btain on which-the hypnotizer's words exerts a certain effect.' 'The closeness of a hypnotic' and normal sleep an be seen' from the fact that the manner of failing intO_a normal or hypnotic sleep is identical. In both cases a restful posture is essential which permits the relaxation of the body muscles. In hypnotizing, one generally coreate a semidarkAtmesphere. Various monotonous stimuli'ard-tsed to produce -the hypnotic ,state. .0.fen'the subject is asked to look at some shining object (medical perstsaion . hammer, an electric lamp of low 'voltage, etc.. L Thd:hyinotiter SO-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RrlIDR1 ,137 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 t. " ? ? ? ? ? r? ? strikes the ik1n4ehtlY (passes), :quietly isstes an order to.fall aldeep'.--Obviou'ilY, all these .conditions fully correspond. to the? ciruumstances which genbially accoMpaMy the onset of normal sleep. However, it the'case-bf:JiYOnbsie.ati:indidated above, the, inhibition is concentrateCin the ebrtek oniSei'Vat- i+, 'does not, involve the entire cortical sUiface;-,a6d?leaveih areas through which the hypnotizei-will eemmuni"eate the- subjectand order-him to carry out various actions"or.suggest certain sensations. A perfectly normal and balanced,indiiidUaI?may not.:sUccuMb to hypnosis if he so wishea:Only persons unbalanced emotionally, with a weakened nervous-SYsteimi:ake odby,15Ubjects to hypnosis; In order to mkeThypnosis' mysterious,, ignorant people or charlatans keep on repeating that a hypnotizer possesses some magic force which flows from his eyes fir from the tips of his fingers in the direction 'of the 'subject. 'But there are no magic forces in, generall'including the act of hypnosis. Any physician-Posiessing-the necessary ,knowledge and technique can beCo%d'a hypnetiier.1 -Of course, a certain air of authority, an impressive, 'as is custoniary to say,-countenance,of the.doctorI. hypnotist_has its value arid may, accelerate the onset of the hypnotic sleep; however,' as stated above, the basic conditions for the development'-of hypnotic-inhibition depend on something, else. Let us outline now some sleeplike states.. To these belong A.unatism and the lethargic sleep. Lunatism, Or sleep 'walking, is manifested by getting up from bed, while asleep, 'going to another room and lying down again. Upon awakening, the individual generally doe's not ,remember what happened to him duang'the night: At times;' these individuals1.(they are called lunatics) -- LsonambuliSt27, take more extended walks in their sleep it Often coincides with a full moon (hence the appel- lation 7-aundtic). If we take in consideration that the sleepwalkers are capable, to effect complicated movements (to climb ,to the roof, to walk alorig the edge, or 'theledges of the wall, etc.) we can readily underst'and. the horror-' and. anxiety ;of' those who happen to , Observe this phenomenon. Precisely these sort of events created many legends of mystery' and. miraculousness of -this phenomenon which 'wasredily-utilized for their- own purposes by the-servants of religion. ' ' - ? Acti3-iy, we are dealing -here with one of the forms of the pathologibal impainient of sleep. While normal sleep is connected with the diffusion of 'Inhibition along the cortex and the subcortical areas of the?Wairi, in lunatism the?inhibition is taking place in the 138 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approvedf Rel ? 5 0 cortex only; the subcortical centers remain unaffected. The faculty of the complex reflexes of walking and maintaining equilibrium represents functions which are fully effected by the subcortical critters. This is the reason why a sleepwalker is able to carry out complicated acts. The phenomena observed in lethargic sleep are similar to it: We decribed earlier a case of prolonged lethargy which lasted,in the patient K. twenty years. Even stch vital functions like metabolism, respiration, and cardiac contractions are effected on such a low, level that an inexperienced eye.may not netiee them ? (respiration)'for'instance). As a result, the patient may he ? diagnosed as.dead. -Let us imagine that such supposedly dead person comes'outof his state of apthargy during his funeral; ? begins to moves in?his coffin, and raises himself. Consider the horror of the people present, provided they-know nothing of the- existence of such diseases which, by the way, are quite rare and insufficiently.studied as yet. One such case suffices to cause rumors for scores ofyears, from generation to generation, as sote?Ymiracle". ?Obviously, those interested in religious propaganda will always aim to color and twist this event and all its accompanying circumstances. The state of sleep.and hypnosis have been subjected-to thmrough study. This enabled the sceintists mot only to interpret it from the materialistic point of view but to utilize it for therapeutic purposes. Sleep and suggestion are widely used in Soviet medicine; they are now being employed in anaesthesia with particular success: In cases where we deal with the impairment.of certain functions.. . (motor paralysis, blindness, pain, etc.) which are due to the functional pathology of the central nervous system, oral suggestion and hypnosis may prove therapeutically valuable and lead to complete recovery. A patient, who has been bedridden for a long time as the result of a hysterical paralysis, may rise and walk at the command of the physician, a man suffering from hysterical blindness -- will suddenly recover his vision, etc. Naturally, many such facts served as the basis for various stories of miracles, wonder- workers, etc. It is interesting that the powerful force of therapeutie suggestion was discounmed under circumstances when the person who used it was not even aware of the reason why he was able to achieve such remarkable therapeutic results. We are speaking of the now almost forgotten Austrian physician Mesmer (18th century). Having become interested in the then popular "teaching".ofjmagnetism, Mesmer decided to use a magnet for the .treatment of his patients. -Yr 3/14. - 1-01043RnnA9nni 139 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 , ..,?????-? ? ? s??????. ? ??? a He was successful. A common magnet placed on the body of a patient effected a cure. Mesmer continued his seances of magnetic treatment;, in a nuilber of eases he obtained a remarkable therapeutic effect; blind,peeple recovered.their sight; lame people who had, come to him leaning on their crutches, threw their crutches away and went back:home in perfect condition' The fame of Mesmer's skill grew; soon he was unable to Atend to all his Patients who had been coming to him from near and far: Confident that he possesses "magnetic power", Memser grans/erred" his influence to. water in which his patient had been. immersed. He thought that special "magnetic fluids" flow from the tips of his fingers and was certain that, by toughing the water, he passed to it hiEl curative power. Thus originated the "buckets of health", the magentized Mesmer trees the touching of which cured some sick people. One did not notice failures,l-while the fame of successful cures was spreading far and wide. We are well aware, from the present scientific achievements, that there are Bo fluids, or magnetic powers, and-that the magnet placed on the patient's body had no effect whatsoever; nevertheless, we cannot deny some instances, of cure which had been achieved by Mesmer. The explanation of these cures is to be found in suggestion and hypnosis which Mesmer had unconsciously employed. It is not by accident that confidence in the doctor, in the drug, and in the therapeutic means which are used, represent oven now one of the basic conditions of recovery. There is a proverb -- "every new remedy helps". Indeed, when a new drug appears on the market and the circumstances are such that is is spoken of far and wide as a very effective preparation, one notices frequently that this new drug will bring positive results in many instances. Time passes, the new miracle prescription loses its miraculous power, and is soon forgotten. To a considerable extent, the success of these remedies is based on the inflated confidence in them; in substance, however, it is based on suggestion. We must add that suggestion will be most successful in cases where the illness is not of an organic character but of a functional one (hysteria, neuroses, etc.).. These diseases are quite frequent. This is the reason why even now, in spite of the progress of sceintific medicine, there are son many .fake healers. The possibilities of materialistic science are great and limitless. We are confident that, in turning its achievements toward peaceful development and a constructive goal, mankind will create a truly happy life for all. The 'pasic law of the Soviet stateds the care.for the well . being of man. , Therefore, sciende.4ath ift'efforts directed-toward' the strengthening df the'ecanomic and spiritual power of our-country,- is receiving the most extensive develoPient. The Soviet people are happy with the aullievements of our scientists, they appreciate and support them highly. In the reactionary bourgeois science a discovery of a "miracle" is frequently preferable to a true scientific discovery. Insofar as even in the bourgeois countries , where the influence of religion is still strong, it is almost impossible to *Imit the progrecs of science by direct measures, still one or another field of science is declared "unfathomable", inaccessible to science and the realm of the mysterious acts of the almighty Creator -- God. John Bernal, the progressive English scientist and pane figure, stressed this typical trait of modern reactionary bourgoois science. Taking advantage of the fact that many phenomena have not as yet been sufficiently explained, some bourgeois scientists concentrate their attention not on what science has already achieved but on what it "can not achieve". The insufficiency of scientific data on the structure and development of the universe gives them the right to conclude that the universe was created by the All-wise Creator. Science in not able to recreate life, ergo -- the origin of life is a miracle. "Thus," concludes Bernal, "modern science is transformed into an ally of ancient religion, and even more -- into itssubstitute."1 We have already outlined the causes which had led to the origin and spread of religion. It was shown that it is connected with the conditions of the material life of the people. The Marxist-Leninist philosophy gives a scientific substantiation of the thesis that various forms of social consciousness, one of which is religion, represent in themselves the result of conditions under which people live, that these forms are the reflexion of these conditions and of the socio-economic relations. The attempts to see the reason for the origin of religion in the allegedly existing in man necessity for it, are deeply erroneous. Some even claim that it represents an instinct, i.e., some sort of an inherent attribute of man. 1 J. Bernal "Science and Society" Mbscow, Foreign Literature Edition, 1953, p 121 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 CIA RDP81 010 141 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - ? ? ?-?- :??? '" . ? - ? -:-- ? ? ? ?.? - ? . Others feel.that the cause of,the-spread of. religious beliefs lies in the ignorance of people or in their susceptibility to the suggestions Coming from the servants of religion. Of course, both elements may plaY'a'part in the stren*thening of religious meods. However, tO reduce the qUestion?to on4y,these points incorrect for the reason that it woad, aetract attention.fromthe main point,-i.e:, the social roots bf.the origin of religion. ' ' Science and. Religion are 'incompatible . ? ' "The essential dontuast between science..and religion is obvious. While While science is based on facts, on Scientific experimentation,;en deiuCtioniconfinned: by life, religion leans on 13iblical:and other legends) on fantastic tales. The modern.stientific.achievements in the field:of natural and social sciences convincingly.refute,the, religious dOgthas.." ? . Froth. the decision of the . -CC crau of 11:Nov 1954 ? With the establishmentof a:class society. whore the majority of people are subjected to the cruelest exploitation and carry the yoke of slavery) the desire to find a.. rescue from oppression ereated. in the working masses the'belief in a beyond the-grave, the belief in miracles. This was utilized by the exploiters to strengthen their power over the workers. They.disseminatedand spread. by possible means various religious superstiticinsIlbailt magnificent : ? temples, sUbsidized the.servants of the'cults, and aided_them arrangement of luxurious and solemn religious services. All this had one goal -- to .distract the man. from earthly.cares;.to imbue_the worker with the faith in the ekistence,of a. paradise life-oihich.starts ? after death, and to convince him of thaunahakable firmness of the. power of the exploiters. . ? ? The religious doctrines and idealistic philosophy have-one goal -- to destroy in the consciousness of people the correct idea of the unity of nature in man,-to present it in the form of allegedly independent substances, the eadred; God-given soul and tho-fragilel.sinfuI body. There lies the basis of any religion of%anyidealistic teaching of whatever shade. ? The need of exploiting thd-sUbjugated masses makes it particu- larly important. to the ekploiters, to employ such. legend as:the belief in the creation of the-world by God, the myth,ofithe_soul,,and the life after death. If we pointed out that the ignorance. of the .-. masses is only one of the conditions of inculcating various religious ideas, it does not mean that we wish to'bblittle-the7? importance of the development of materialiStscience in thefight against religion.: It mus be understood that the-wery,development ? of true science canbe fully.possible!only under the 'conditions of: 141: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50 -Yr 2014/03/14: A- - 0 ? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 complete liberation and:release?from-subjugation of the masses of workers. Nevertheless, even under conditions of the regime of exploiters; the great discoveries of -Science played an prominent part in the undermining of keligiout dogmas. he .history of science and r4iigion shows the constant struggle between two opposite world'outlooks.'-r the idealistic and the materialistic. At: various stages of the development of science, the forms and contents of.idealistic concepts, as well as the methods of corn- batting.materialis% are changing. However, in solving any scientific problem, especially one like the problem of the soul, it would be incorrect to forget fer a. moment the possibility and probability of the effeet of idealistic concepts. V. I. Lenin repeatedly called attention to the fact that science and philosphy can never be impartial particularly in our time. A scientist can never limit himself to-the accumulation of facts only. The data obtained require 'analysiS,.i.e., the methods of thinking which are dictated by a certain'world outlook. This outlook, in its turn, reflects the characteristic traits of a particular social order. As an excellent example which confirms our statement we may cite the status of Darwinism in our country and in the capitalist countries like'iEngland and the United States of America. We Move mentioned already that it had been definitely accepted by a number'of,progressive-Zoviet scientists. During the Soviet era, the teaching. of Darwin underwent further development in our, country. His teaching was not only the subject of numerous scientific investigations, but also became the required part of the natural science curriculum of the Soviet youth. An entirely different picture can be seen in the USA. The attemptirof.obscuring or even persecuting one of the most important trends of materialistic natural science are not ceasing even at the present time. In the United States of America it is not denied that the main reason of Darwinism being considered harmful is its denial of the divine;originoof the while man. We know:that the Biblical myth states4that d,created Adam and Eve as white people, and as far as:the blacks people are.concerned they represent a-race of animal origin- In 1925 in bne,of the states (Tennessee) a young teacher of a. local school, Scopes, mentioned the theory of.Darwin in one of his lecturegiand-Stated. that it has been:proven fully scientific and correct. Seei)eawas subjected -for that to police persecution r;f) ?:141 After a legal process and a great deal of publicity for the purpose of anti-Darwin propaganda, Scopes was incarcerated... In the. . state of Tennessee a law .was passed forbidding the.teaching of Darwinian which denies the divine origin of man.and,spreads the idea that man originated from animal ancestors. ? Many years after this sameful incident we happened to visit Canada. During the conversation with local seienee workers we ? found out that the theory of Darwin is:not.being taught in. their - schools even at the present time. To our question. why this .is taking place, we received a very unconvincing answer that the subjects,of school instruction are only the indubitable scientific theses and ideas.. We also were teld that reading of the Bible is a required. school... subject. While in England, we decided to visit. Dawn where Darwin had lived and worked for a.longTeriod.of time. Dawn is,a small village about 30 kilometers from London. We felt sad and hurt to note that the estate-museum of the great naturalist is in an almost complete:.negleet. The museum is visited very little, and there is hardly any scientific *work being conductwd. The entire place is under the care of an old watchman. The injustice and neglect to. the memory of D rwin was particularly underlined when the watchman, 'seeing before him .a delegation of Soviet scientists, pulled out from somewhere "under cover", the carefully hidden even from .acasual visitor, volume of the "Capita" of Karl Marx with his personal ? very cordial autographed inscription to Charles Darwin. The great Marx foresawtthe immenso.materialistic significance of Darwin's ideas which imbued him with profound admira- tion for their author. Some of his compatriots in -modern England have an entirely different evaluation of Darwinism. Of course, there are in England progressive representatives of science. In this respect, a great interest represent the work of Morris Comfort published in London recently. Two of his books have been translated and pUblished in our country. In 1948 the Foreign Literature Publishing Office published. Cornfortss book "Science against Idealism", and in 1951 the same office published. his book "In the Defense of Philosophy." Both works present considerable interest. In evaluating certain philosophical scientific trends in modern England, Comfort reactionary. He stresses the fact that various forms of religious obscurantism Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Rel ? 50 -Yr 3/14. - 1-01043Rnna9nni Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 are still popular at the present time., Millions of people are still under their influences, but the redeeming feature is that a large number of people have already escaped. this influence. Comfort gives A concluSiVe Clarification of one of the most impor- tant characteristics of the preaent State :Of the campaign of idealism and religion against science% It is the fact that, under the pressi,re of new scientific discoveries, such as for example the theory of Darwin and the teaching of Pavlov, the most important tenets of religion are gradually being destroyed. Having understood and having come to the conviction that pro- hibition of materialistic teachings will not lead to their annihi- lation, some servants of the church and bourgeois scientists are more and more assuming an entirely different approach. ? This approach is the attempt to reconcile science and religion. By the means of various distortions, they are trying to reconcile various scientific facts with religious beliefs, and are attempting to utilize the achievement of modern science to prove divine presence and to strengthen religion. After analyzing various philosophic trendsin English philosophy, Comfort arrives at the conclusion that their content consists of the development of philosophy along the lines of reconciliation of science and religion, and that it represents a complete distortion and misinterpretation of the significance of scientific theory and scientific methodology. "1 Cornfort's statement again confirms the fact which had been proved by Marxism that the idealistic philosophy substantiates religious concepts by covering them up with seemingly scientific forms. In pointing out this characteristic trait of modern idealism, Lenin noted that open and crude manifestations of contuadictions between the dogmas preached by religion and the immoral acts of its servants are less dangerous, and are essay understood by the masses, than "... the refined, spiritual concept. of the God-little father dressed up in all kinds of "ideal" costumes.?2 1 M. Comfort "Science against Idealism" Moscow. For Lit. Pub., 1948, p. 319 2 V. I. Lenin ."Works", Vol 35, p 90 146 The science in the United States of America particularly abounds in this type of '"theories." The unique organizing center which united the forces of the reactionary theoreticians 'is the Vatican -- the seat of the "representative .of God on earth"?7- . the Roman Popec' The Vaticalb beihKmdst closely conneCted with the most influential capitalists of AmeriOland with the reactionary . Catholic parties of Western Europe, virtUaIly represents a miniature state with its own diplomatic corps, adbahsadors and "scientific institutions." The latter arc called upon to fabricate "theoriee the purpose of which is to correlatestientific.deta with religion, and to interpret anew the: Bible and other holy books. They .are , engaged in'amscientific" interpretation of miracles and,relagioUs prophesies.- " . ? . : - In onr philosophical literature were cited many instandes of such "scientific" revelations: TEuS, for example, in the works of; a certain Refill the miraculOu's transformation of animal anceptors. of man into the original couple of humans -- Adam and Eve -- receives a purely "Scientific" explanation. ? According to Rami, God' induced the mutation (something akin , to an explosion) of the hereditary rudiments of exceptional:force. As a result of this mutation,, the: first humans were creat4d, from the primitive anthropoid soulness apes; these two humans - Adam and Eve - were the first humans who had received a soul from God. have a typical sample of the "recontiliation?Of the Bible, and. of . science. The main clement baa' been preserved. -- the legend of the gift of soul by God, to animation of man. Since it Cannot be. taken seriously in this'age that God molded Adam from'clay, and created Eve from Adam's rib, the entire legentis eMbellished with science, even with Darwinism. So, Adam and Eve did have ancestors in the form of apelike people. But, not having been divinely animated, these ancestors. were not real humans: Therefore, from the depth of bourgeois science is pulled out one-of the theories ofethe'origin. of new cha-eacteristics of the: organism via mutation -of inherited characteristics, and the "scientific- substantiation" of the Biblical legend of the creation of man is ready. 'This, of course, is one of the numerous examples of the religious falsification of science. Taking account of the above cited, one must be especially watchful in regard to certain theories of reactionary foreign physiologists and psychologists whose task it is to undermine theloases of Pavlov's total materialistic teaching of the soul, i.e., of the higher nervous or phychic activity. The representatives of'religion are particulP.rly prone to get hold of the obscure and unclsrified problems.of.whiph ' there are still many in the field of psychic phenomena. Therefore, 1. Voprosy Filosofii groblems of Philosoph No 4, 1954, p 229, 14.7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part-Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - there is an urgent .task of development and. dissemination in every 0 possible?way'of th'e teaching of Pavlov:, ? In our country we can atill findIthe durvival of religious tendencies, among various pebplej and. itad , thus, necessary .to constantly and. actively disSentinate dcientific knowledge among the widest- layers of the population. The materialistic science- arms man with -the kr-rev/ledge of.. the laws of nature, offers him the possi- bility to systematically utilize and. employ the mand to foresee the course of events. In studying..the laws of nature and. using them skillfully, men are able .to limit the sphere of action of the elemental forces =of nature. They are able to turn in a different direction these destructive forces and. employ them fbr the benefit of mankind.. The skillful utilization of these laWs by man endures him the mastery of nature. We have already indicated. above ,the industrial-use Of latomic energy-in the USSR, as contrasted to the psychosis of atomic war in the United States of Ameriad. Religion' and. idealistic philosophy are in complete contradiction with the materialistic ideas. The religionists assert that the world and..' the entire nature are created ,and ruled. by God.. The concepts ,of the religionists are echoed. by bourgeois scientists and by the idealists of various shades and directions. Under the guise of science-they promulgate the idea that the universe is immutable, that the. laws?of nature are non-cognizable, and that the nian is only a blind tool in' the hands of the divine source. Religion and. the idealist philosophy are battling on an united- frol.t for the continuance of the slavish subordination of people to the capitalist order, and. are aiming to suppress .every thought of the poesibility? of changing or destroying this order. Lenin' wrote- in one of his letters to Maxim Gornkiy: "The idea of God alWaya? dulled' and lulled. the "social senses", substituting dying ideas for live one's, rand. was always. synonymous with the concept, of slavery (the worst, the helpless slavery). The idea of God. never "connected the individual 'withsociety", and. always, bound. the oppressed classes by means of faith in the divinity of the oppressors.!'). - r * ? - ' 'It is appropriate, in conclusion, to outline the personal attitude'of I. P. Pavlov to. religion. 1 V. I. Lenin -"Works", .Vol 35, p . ? We hear, , atrtite 'kibiuently Of statenienid by demo, people that.- I. P. Pavlov 'was allegedly a religiousman.,'pointed'out to these people that this sut.potiitiOn is ?incompatible With t1the: ..? profoundly' atheistier.substance of: his; teachingi,-the, usual ' ? ".: . ? . rejoinder is thal.,.`civ,ite frecluentlyj',prominentPacientisti? in Nariou5-.. fields. of science reniaindd idoalitj r even religious. The history of' science 'kriows ?,dtieli'Ca4cid. 'Leibnitz, for 'examPle; I . eminent mathematician, remained' an idealiA in philoSophy.`? 'English scientists, Wallace and. Crookes who had. caused such derision of the part of F., Engels for their spiritual preoccupations, had upques- tionable scientfic'merits:"' . .&??? ? ? The' eminent. English physiciet published.' a book in 1914 "What' -is- Life froni*.thes-lkiint Phys dial? translation bi?Foreign-Litera:tiiie t.Pubi"cation, Moadowy 1911704 Parallel with his aim to iittederit.?:th:e;causativereoriditioning of ? life and subdtarititata''the..clo?den4iCof the:?physical;??chemiCal 'and. biological phenOrd6na; he cotnetr? out n the conaluding chapter of book as a?-confirmed??tidealiSt2:tri-a.itempting[to.zredonoile hid ideas with the idea of the-e)Li..stencer'4 CC4 and.??dfs(thes "mortality of the soul, Shredinger iSbates.that- condaioustiedd ..i.stindepenctent of matter and, dominates it. Many such examples can be cited. Religious ; people are ,eager to refer to these facts, in their attempt to . prove that -L-P. Pavlov, -#;6, .was ?-? ' ,?? ? - ? ? ? This .is not the case- with Pavlov.-He has 'been persistently -1 - studying .fOit'a period of.-.30.'yeari the'pr.ob]em..of..jthe the.. problem. which is the crux of 'ipiverY'religiotiri-moVethent.. ??? 'Ite:exposed. , ? condocutively and ?without 'Pity the?stiseledi and iscientifica.11'y absurd: ? ? idealistie.coneepts of the soul, and, in outlining the materialistic bases of. the teaching of the soul, he could. not lielP? atheist. Speaking of-his youthful. experiences, recalled how' he , ? ... had. broken away from the views indigenouir; at: that ?ti1ne2to hisr:fatailY,1 and. how he had concentrated 14s attention, ,on the study of natural sciences, under'the'?influenee'Of the ferenieht;thinkord4of?his - ? ? time. Later Pavlov Wail- saYingf?-"I".Myself?Lim a-ratiOnalist 'and I am through with relial.o.n."' iri*.a )otter t",a, a 'toriedt.-?,?,E. if.Ondraeyei... (1928), Pavlov wrote with perfect clarity: "I am 'an-unbeliever," ? and. described the following episode. "You are asking whether there are emineri:V.scientists-believors, " he Wrote?t&-.Kondrat tyelti" "of course there are, there Were- did there' arc. I vellreinetbery'ethbarrassMent a few year's 'age- when .1' was ''Sta4dirtie near t12e:1?1"44mOtis Eng.lish? chemist . . Ramsay during the service atnlidetminiter. Abbey, on--.thez?'-otealiotr of-. the 250th anr.tiiiersary'of the Royal Sdciety`Of.landonlan&attempted.? to divert him with some easilal remarnk!", hr.es7.wa,;s in such - iious mmood..")._ 1 From the personal archives material of Prof. E. P. Mayorov 149' Declassified in Part-Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? ,NotLlongiago.yere_pUblishpd:thejpten.ographic protocols,of the fl. meetings at the psychiatr1c144p connection with:I:the discuspipt..afsome patie418,04q, ". recalled the irresistible efi!ept_whichAe*r*Of_11.....q:';Cherhysbev- skiy bad had on him..plAlteady gpnlin h1i06Uth "PaVlair reminisdaheed, his world outlook, had undergpfter44#a %,phahges,-,? Obv,ipUsly thp influence ofichernyshevskixippLyourig.pealtid:OY,-ha've the atheibtit-dUegtion.,4 1 Pacts,iire;ottentitedr?which,refer?izta,*alleged..,,religioASS of Pavlov. For instance, upoh arrival ih RYlazii.nt!'in'l3.51,Fa;4"air wont with his family to the cemetery where he partiCipakin the CfltS.rIt that duringreligidusloly.daYsAbprch r1,4'1461'.? P9r.f.PFmed,' Pavlov's homes. 'Thegist-of,the ma#,A48 atheist, was like many others_of hisApneration a,tpierantiMan,. . "ReligidnAs.thelbUsinessPeo9,./.:lot.bemb.el4te,iiitheY wish, .said,,o.nce? in..a).10sonal.4,.cogYq.x.'PaVzPq!? We Tfi't iion that his Jwife, Phyla*, w4,fanatipal1y accident, did. 'Pavlov pay on =Other, ocAasion:?1"_Here) S. V. is a, - .?? sensible ,:voraan, 'yet she understands *nothing 4.1..iregard..?*),.conditioned ' reflexes'." . , ; . ' ..-?,, Only this benevolent attitUdeAq?,the:eoictios. of' this k4n can explain the participation' Pavlov in some religiouS deidmoxii:es. His profoOnd_scienWin.at4eAsmpis.heyonAdeqt,?It is precisely_for this reapon,thatIlle always remaihed,t4h,his_sgie4ific,ditieuipiOns.? and convictions; irrPPPhei41140041#41)1d-,4t6 the:slightest', vacillatianybew:itJgO4cor4.9.4 tti,e11#erpretat4lion of psychic;actiyitty. ,-tIblvlspeakipgiof paylovIA a.Utlao1'on,lite:w0-mpst.rstreis one facet which manifested itself constantly and eiearly thrbilholit his entire,creative.lactiAtt canc,K.rightfullyicalled.the Party orientationsof. Pavlovs:m4erialismi, ? ?? d- ?. V. I. Lenin)pointed,;o4".materialisRinclUdesj.,so-tOk5eak, ? ? ? n: , the Party element,;,,since it pbliges;us,in eirerieialuation of an evont.-tc"fissUme.dirYiand_fran44,the point,o0iew 'Of a defin1te"socia1:groupl-7,? 1 117 The stlidyfoff theNentirg pael,a-scientific:: activity, bf P? deraonstrates?t114?.harbAELartyA progr9ssi41-6 elementofisocioty.41t glAp ,proper conditions fpr. to, manifestAion oft. - this trait -Appear.P4041ring the., Soviet periad, of bii life. NanY . reports and,artiales-..P;Uh'0,PYOlis,4P4ed P...49-mics,of,many-yeitis ? % - ? 1 V. I. Lenin "Works", Vol 1, pp 0-381 ? ? ? 150-. f ??1 at the conferences of the Society of Russian Physicians, his special polemic articles aimed at a number of psychologists, all this represents a true picture of the truly militant materialism of Pavlov. At one of his "Wednesdays" '-Pavlov said: "Now...from peaceful matters let us switch to, stall we say, military ones, n regard to Mr. Keller. We are at war with him. It is a serious fight with the psychologists." On another occasion Pavlov said: "I am engaged in a serious battle with Pierre Jean in his capacity as a psychologist. I shall try next time to break him to the best of my ability." We could cite many instances of this kind. Pavlov utterances of a fighting character are not accidental of course. This is the way he felt compelled to act in order to win the battle for materialism against various idealistic misleaders. In discussing the inimical dtitude of the reactionary German psychologist Keller against the materialistic teaching of conditional reflexes, Pavlov explained that by the fact that Keller lectured on psychology at the theological faculty: "There... you cannot expound our point of view," he used to say, in emphasizing the contradictions between theology and science. At one of his "Wednesdays", Pavlov spoke of the fate of Descartes and pointed out that the religionists compelled Descartes to make an admission of the existence of a soul in man. Had not Descartes done so, "...he would have been put away, burned," added Pavlov. These words indicate clearly his evaluation of the contra- dictions between the church Ri4 religion and the scientific ideas. The physiological teaching of Pavlov which had subjected to analysis the *most sacred precincts" of religion -- the human brain which the churchmen and the adherents of idealism call the "scat of the immortal soul"; rendered an invaluable service to mankind and to materialistic science. It clearly demonstrated the truth that not the fairy tales about the soul but the real life activity of highly developed matter in the form of the cerebral mass is at the basis of the psychic activity of man. Science attests to the fact that nature is not a product of divine creation but the result of the progress of matter, which is in constant evolution, and is the only true primary cause of all phenomena and laws of the universe. Pavlov's teaching expelled the idea of God from its most secluded and mysterious seat where religion and philosophers-idealists bad tried to hide it. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 151 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 14?10ftAC.W4g .1:0 act5bPow crAporo ctsc?A (11 ? gi All or TV% Scheme 61' the origin and development of man 1-Unearthed lower Primates of the Old World; 2- Propanopithic; 3-Driopithec; 4-Parapithec; 5-Marmoset; 6-Macaca; 7-Pavian; 8-Gibbon; 9-Orang-outang; 10-Gorilla; 11-Chimpanzee; 12-Australopithec; 13-Man; lb-Monkey-man; 1,5-Neanderthal; 16-Cro-magnon; i7-Eocene; 18-01irocene; 19-Myocene; 20-P1iocene; 21-Glacier; 22-Modern; 23-millions of years; 24-Epochs; 25-periods; 26-Tertiary; 27-Quaternary Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Nervous processes originating when a finger is burned) reach the brain and are transformed into impulses which cause pulling away of the dhand. Religious conception of the separation of body and soul in death (from an ancient gravure) -153. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 According to the ideas of the ancient Egyptians, god Khnum sculptured the first human beings from clay on a potter's wheel. Normal psychic activity is possible only in a normal state of the brain. In case of rmiformations connected with the under-develop- ment of the brain (microcephaly), idiotism develops. 154 -1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDrP81-01043R004200140003-3 the main :lervolls centers in the brain: yellow - the sneech; red - center of mc,tion; green - center of SKy 'clue - c.anter of vision Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? The act of eating causes salivation (unconditioned reflex) ' ???????????????????????????,. Only the sight of food causes salivation (natural condi- tioned reflex) When a bell ringing accompanied feeding, ringing acqpired the property of causing salivation (an ortificial conditioned reflex) 156_ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The most important function of the brain-inhibition has several ways of manifesting itself. One of the types of inner iwhibition is re- tardation. The dog was fed only two minutes after the bell rang. The conditioned salivation also began only after two minutes had elapsed since the start of the ringing of the bell 157_ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The conditioned reflex sleep of a dog -- the dog wakes up only to a definite musical sound (tone "fan) This sleeping dog can react (wake up) to a definite mound. The dog does not react to a sound on which no reflex bas been formed.. 158. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The Evolation of the Brain Psy2hic activity is being effected on the basis of physiological processes whin are carried out in the higher sections of the brain. The illus- :rations show that the cerebral cortex is absent in fish that its elements appear in birds. The cortical development incr':ases Intensively in higher animals and reaches its highest degree in man. 159 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14 : CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 0 The instincts represent the most complex inherited reflexes. One of the examnles is the building instinct of beavers which erect dikes and small dams in rivers. This adaptation reaction developed in water-inhabiting beavers is connected with the vitally important need of sustaIning a certain level of water near their habitat. 3.6o Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - 0 The instincts achieve at times a high degree of adaptation to the character of the stimulus. A spider will react to the vibration of the web only in accordance with the frequency of the fluttering of the wings of the insect. Life conditions of an animal determine the degree of development of his sensory organs. In high flying birds it is sharp vision. Closing of the eyes with a little cap causes immobilization of the golden eagle. 161 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The iamobilization of the golden eagle is utilized by hunters. After the removal of the little hood near a running fox, the golden eagle swoops down on the animal the moment it sees it. The higher animals possess the elementary faculties of reasoning activities. Raphael selects the proper stick to open the box with food. 162 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Higher animals easily master complicated motor habits. Ode invention of labor tools and the emergence of speech were the ?rereguisites of the humanization of the monkey. 163 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 4 Word, representing to man a real signal of actuality, easily becomes a conditioned stimulus. From its very early age, a baby forms many conditioned reflexes to various words: sit down, drink, go, no, etc. ? "1:. ? ? -? The thinking of man differs in quality from the psychic activity of even the most advanced animals. This is connected with the function of speech which is possessed by man only (the second signal system of conditioned reflexes). The use of words develops thinking in ideas and abstractions. A child seeing for the first time live creatures which resemble his toy "birdie" learns to generalize the conception 'laird" for the first time in his life. 164 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Science enables one to change at will the sexual characteristics of chic4on. 1 - normal rooster; 2 - rooster after castration; ,zastrated rooster after transplantation of ovary; L. - norma chl6c.en ,g; 5 - castrated hen; 6 - castrated hen after trans- plan:ation of the sinal vesicles. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIATRDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ,....__ .?....._ . _ _,..._:: A .....,_. Trmediately following birth, an anima3 manifests certain instinctive actions which are carried out unconsciously. The above illustration shows a sucking reflex typical to mamoalia. 3.66 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The food-obtaining instinct in chicks hatched is manifested in pecking at any visible objects: even slinligjat spots. The purposefulness of animal reactions consists of their correct adaptation to the environmental conditions. Two ants united their "efforts" to push a blade of grass, a task: too difficult for one ant. 167 _d Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 - 0 0 One of the complex forms of the instinctive activity of birds is their faculty of orientation in space. Some of them return to their old nests after flying very long distances at times. The instincts (the most complex unconditioned reflexes), as distinct from the conditioned reflexes can change only slowly. The illustra- tion shows that an eider, following its instinct, hatches an empty nest from which the egg has been removed and placed in front of the bird. 0 168 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 At an early age (A -- one and a half year, B -- two years) of a child there is a marked change in sensations and impressions as revealed in facial expressions, and corresponding to changing environmental influences. 169 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 ghis figure refers to page 97 above; anatomy of the brain] In 3timulating various brain centers with electric current by means of an electrode planted in the cranium, one can cause definite forms of expre3.3ive motions in an animal. a -- before excitation; b -- upon :x.c:Ltation; a passive defensive reaction; c -- reaction of caution, the animal walks "stealthily"; d -- active defensive reaction, fur "stands 170 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 oBlood vessels of stomach , and intestines Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Monkeys are Able to form long chains of associations. Raphael learned to draw water from lake and sprinkle itself in hot weather (1). An "apparatus with fire" is Placed in front of Raphael with fruits under- neath, and bamboo sticks are put nearby which he uses to move from one raft t.e another (2). The monkey goes over to the adjacent raft where a container with water is placed (3). Raphael draws water from the container, puts out the fire on the first raft and gets the bait (4). These experiments prove that even the higher anthropoid apes do not possess the property of forming ideas. This, for example, Raphael has a eoncrete image of water in the lake, water in the container, but could only use the water from the container to nut out the fire (according to the 7raining which he had received), but did not form the idea of using the waeer from the lake. (The experiments of E. G. Batsuro) 172 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Registration scheme of the brain adetitiiitig to the 'method of 14. I. Liianov and. V. M. Ariantyitiv. OPP& left ---- the subjeet electrodes on his head.; upper ',With 411u- mins.ted dots. Second row, -frcia left to flight: ecintibtalpiedeil :of 'tlie preliminary increase of bioCtirreMts, 'coiliatitattit sfor -the tontetUtiqe iiritching on of biocurrents skid. booiittr_. Atm:left 'to !right:: the brain biocurrents before dk lib:St-Wm; -13.6aki1ng dots during the Process of &airing a rprobleak; the liO14red. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 4 Science has obtained much proof of the possibility of controlling various life phenomena. A head of a dog separated from the body but .trith blood or its substitute fluid, heated and saturated with oxygen and passed through the head's blood vessels, such an 'isolated" bead can live for two and a half hours. Az controls, we observed the reactions of pupil dilatation, winking, respiratory mo- ti.)rz. etc. (Experiments of S: S. Bryukhonenko and S. I. Chechulin). Sleep re.sresent inhibition of the cortical cells. A monotonous, dull talk by a lecturer first creates an area of inhibition in the cortex which spread and gradually embraces the entire cortex. Parallel with it, man passes from a dozing state to the state of complete sleep. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The process of inhibition of the central nervous system represents the basis of sleep. This is especially proven by the phenomena of complete and partial sleep. The octopus in the illustration has only one extremity which is not inhibited. The Ani Trial is asleep. however, in the event of danger, the warning signal originates in this arm which is "keeping guard" . Dreams are connected with distorted images. Buzzing of an insect is perceived as the growling of a wild beast. 175 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 External stimuli, for example the cooling of the feet, cause the sensation of freezing ffin a dreasiT. An eminent French materialist Lucilio Vii11 was burned at stake in 1619 in Toulouse, France, by the decree of king's court for the propaganda of atheism. 176- 0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 The great Italian scientist Giordano Bruno was burned at stake in 1600 in Rome by the verdict of the Catholic inquisition, for the dissemination of the teaching of the multiplicity of worlds and the rotation of the earth around the sun. END # 2007 177. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3 1-1 1 FOR REASONS OF SPEED AND ECONOMY 3 1 THIS REPORT HAS BEEN REPRCDUCED LELECTRONICALLY DIRECTLY FROM OUR CONTRACTOR'S TYPESCRIPT This publication was prepared under contract to the UNITED STATS JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE, a federal government organization established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. I' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2014/03/14: CIA-RDP81-01043R004200140003-3