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December 9, 2016
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March 12, 2001
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September 15, 1967
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Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP81 R00560R.000100010007-4,. , a~,a .ea J G's cannot be per extraterrestrial control K he laws o: :.ys os are. valid. William Markowitz he possibility that life exists on other ,lanets .?/ithi,: the solar system and other stellar systems is a question `ound interest. "onceivably, in- nt ':ie may exist on some of these p'. ar-its, and in some cases the inhabi- tants may be more advanced techni- ciliy than we are. We assume, for ,;.::poses of discussion, that such tech- :ict,i'y advanced beings exist. n recent years a large number of riving objects of uncertain origin have 'c.:cn reported. Some persons ;relieve t these unidentified flying objects r:i's) are controlled by extrater- r_:cl beings who :ere passengers in ih._ spacecraft, or who may be control- .n,; .:iem by radio from the moon or from another planet. Others doubt this. In a recent letter to Science, J. Allen. i-iymck urges the scientific investigation of a residue of puzzling UFO cases by physical and social scientists (1). says there are a number of mis- conceptions concerning UFO reports; two o'f -the misconceptions that he cites (with his comments) are as follov;s: UFO's are never reported by scientifi- cally trained people. This is unequivocally false. Some of the very best, most coherent reports have come from scientifically trained people. It is true that scientists are reluctant to make a public report. They also usually request anonymity which is always granted. UFO's are never seen at close range and are always reported vaguely. When we speak of the body of puzzling reports, we exclude all those which fit the above description. I have in my files several hundred reports which are fine brain teasers and could easily be made the subject of profitable discussion among physical and social scientists alike. of C-clcsti;tl !ncch:uiics tut' Ar special relativity. Soi:.- -- :i:?_su lay's arc as follows: ca:al I) Every action must have and opposite react;On. 2) "very particle in the attracts every other particc force proportions-, to t:'.c. the masses and ,:,versely The ::c? of the distance. 3) Energy, mass, anu none,-. conserved. 4) No material body c.., it,";; speed as great as c, th SP--c. (45) The maxin;uro. tier i phi cr..: tannica that there were no reports of be obtained fram. a bcdy at rest is UFO's by trained observers (2). He E = me"-. wrote: if anyone wishes to rejec*. U.S. air force investigators long recognize.: that most ori"inr.tors of UFO reports arc sincere, intdrested in the welfare and se- curity of their country and honestly puz- zled by the sightings they report. Their frequent readiness to ascribe a UFO to extraterrestrial sources, their emotional attachment to this explanation and their reluctance to take into account the failure of continuous and extensive surveillance by trained observers to produce-such sight- ings is surprising. It appears unreasonable that spacecraft should announce them- sclve, to casual observers while craftily avoiding detection by :!':tined observers. I have been intcrestcd in the slight of spacecraft from t'.ie standpoint of celestial mechanics and physics for a number of years and have published method of interstellar navigation (3). With the publication of the appeal by Nvr.c k I decided to make a new study of the ayn :mic:. cif light and coni- pare t _is wish published reports and with t:ne reports which Hyrick had. Aristotle wrote onn, natural phcnorn- ena utidcr tic .. ..ding "Physics" and continued with another section called "Metaphysics" or "beyond physics." I use a similar :Q )roach here. First. I consider the physics of UFO's when the laws c,physics are obeyed. After that I consider the cts,; when the laws of physics are not obeyed. The specific question to be studied is whether UFO's are under extraterrestrial control. I have no quarrel. yw, sec, what the consequences a.- K ..'vs .,;ccpted. impossible. `-Fs i t:o: ::). mathematics .and; do provide !imiati:}r.: done. Hoi~c',.r. says :h:.s :;111 t11U1.'? not we cc- nur?ne.' Leger, drill i, sc: 2) It 1n"y ..... regular pot: g, r, or"y as prove:; to he itr : ca b; is t,:cidcntally, he s:,c.,,.:. of 17 sites, w i.. -...., cnc po:,;:i,._. 2000-kilogrccl bu c: fiver fro: : _ ., _...... top of a : Ounta-.i 4) It is tnlnoss-,.,e lift himself by main in the air. It It is impossible ... This letter is surprising because. The laws of physics to which I re- er etual motion Hynek, who has been a consultant to fer are those taught in any accredited The author is r:of. by extraterrestrial beings is contrary t o the laws of physics. 2) The data published do not justify the holding of investigations. SCIENCE, VO!.. 157 Aj3roved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP81 R00560R000100010007-4 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP81 R0Q5,60R000100010007-4 ,:u, t..,i, :%ii Puree Ilas been able tit tut- t:abet 11'1)11, Iltc 11It0n, Irottl a I?c.l51 pressures to declare that UFO'a planet of our solar systcl ;, or from any :.1a under extratcrrer,.rlal control, but other stellar system-until I and shown not pressures for the repetition of in- such a visitor. vcs il;ncions. However, if the U.S. Pat- ent 0'.. :o can take a position on the feasibility of constructing perpetual mo- tion machines, then the Air Force shcl.:'r_; be able to take a position on elos.::g oat its investigations of UFO's. We have been reminded (1) that 21st-century science will look back on This is true. We, ourselves, look back on eras when many people be- havcd in the existence of centaurs, mer- maids, and fire-breathing dragons. I am :tfr:,i.I that 21st-century science will ::1)p?ate with wonder the fact that, in an age of science such as ours, the U.S., Air Force was required to spon- sor repeated studies of UFO's. have not quarrel with, anyone who '.vise:es to believe that UFO's are under extracerrestrial control. As for me, I hail not believe that we have ever ,teen visit. -d by any extraterrestrial visi- Rcfere,:ces and I. J. A. Llynek, Science 154, 329 (1966.) 2. "Unidentified flying object;." in Encyclopaedia Britannica (Benton, Chicago, rev. ed.. 1964), vol. 227 p. 696; Eucvclopae is Britannica (Benton, Chicago, rev. ed. 1967), vol. 22, p. 499. 3. W. Markowitz, in Air, Space. anti Instru- ments, S. Lees, Ed. (McGraw-I-Jill, New York 1963). pp. 201-06; the method is based on the fact that the observed time of minimum of an eclipsing binary depends upon the position of an observer in space relative to the sun. 4. Electrons given an energy of I X 105 ev in an electron synchrotron should have a, speed of 62c, according to Newtonian mechanics. However, from measurements of the syn- chrotron diameter and the frequency of the alternating ? field it is readily determined that the speed is nearly Ic,'The speed, according to relativity theory, is 0.999 999 87c (c = 3 X 01 meters per second). 5. His last name was Gauss. 6. The energy required is 3.1 X 107 joules. combustion of 0.5 kilogram of gasoline, pro- duces energy of 2.4 X 101 joules (I joule e 0.74 foot-pound or 9.5 X 10-t BTU). 7. General lnforuaa:ion Concerning Patents (Government 'Printing office. Washington,. i D.C., 1966), p. 3; see'also U.S. Patent Office mirncograplied statement POL-49 (6-11-47). 8. Rra/I.'o , of .S'pac'e 1:, ?"f,.t i t , to:.h tuterptan,aury .. Ea. (MeC? ,:v-IIiII. New York, 1957); c1ue~_, are L. R. Shepherd and A. \'. "The atomic rocket," and L. i. Sttep:.-re:. "Interstellar flight." 9. T.::formation about the Apollo :y supplied by N:-.SA. 10. Pierce, Proc. I.R.E. pit. ... Engrs.) 47, 1053 (1959). 11. Letter from J. A. Hynck, 25 Js:n, _9c?. 12. F. D. Drake, ir. J,tterst,Da; Cs,.:,' ' icaCn G. W. Cameron, Ed. Scr.;:..-,.. York, 1963), p. 176. f .)c of extr::terrestrtal life and probic:u; travel are also discussed in variot:s c,'. 13. B. h1. Oliver, in Interstellar Con)ntur:.: ^:;r;., A. G. W. Cameron, Ed. York, 1963), pp. 294-305. 14.. G. G. Simpson, Science 143, '769 15. J. A. Flynck, Saturday Everi,i,' Post 17 (17 Dec., 1966). . 16. Some darly sightings. none at :-ose are reported' by J. A. Hynck, I. Opt. Sc.,- Amer. 43, 311 (1953). 17. D. H. Menzel and L. G. Boyd, 'Tint Ward of Flying Saucers (Doualeday, New York. 1963). 18. W. T. Powers, Science 156, 11 ;1967). 19. J. Vallee, Anatomy' of it Piu?noutonni. t,_ecc Books, New York, 1965). 20. and J. Vallec. Cira!ler g.,- .'., 5e,:: nest (RcgncrY. Chicago, 1966). 21. S. Newcomb, Funalame'ntal Ce; n.; t:.,,ts a' A.crronoiny (Government - Printing O.... Washington, D.C., 1895), p. 115. 22. Myrick, in the Satu?dar Evening 5), describes the near-hysteria sv ich accon,- panics the chase of UFO's. be farmed,. and that oysters. and fish can be .-:rjed (not as an improvement over cat;::-, in their wild state. :Mcte that materials such as shells, pearls, wool, hides, ar._; _,. izer are not inciaded in 1 s _.. y. K. O. Emery and C. O'D. Iselin The production figures (Table 1) are uneven in quality. Some figures, such as those for fishing, herding, any' During recent years many claims food resources was used to compare ing are reasonably well know:: j have been made about the importance the present stages of technology in the have been reprocduced in many publica- of the ocean to man's future well- ocean and on the land. For plants, tions. Others, such as for gathering being. Some, of these claims appear to the primitive stage is that of gathering and hunting on land, must be based its to be reasonable, whereas others wild plants (on land-berries, nuts, Ilpon judgment guided by scanty meas- have :in Alice-in-Wonderland quality, mushrooms, herbs); the next stage is urenlents. The data for the United As a basis for judgment in this mat- farming (whereby seed are planted and States arc far better than those for ter, we have compiled a table that the plants are tended and then har- the whole world, so they are presented shows our estimate of the tonnage vested). For animals, the primitive stage separately. Tonnages are expressed in :Ind dollar value of food derived from . is that of hunting wild animals for wet weight or live weight as usaaily the ocean as compared with that dc- food (on land-deer, rabbits, quail); reported, and dollar values are for _h- rived front the land during 1964, the the next stage is herding (whereby level of the fisherman, faralcr, or hunt- lalesl. year for which statistics are rca- selected breeding, culling of young, and Cr; values at the retailer level wo-id sonahly complete. The difference in controlled slaughter are practiced (llong be much higher. the furor u' productivity of the ocean with the nondestructive taking of by- Data for the gathering of seaw c? if Ili land is so };teat as to Sill! },csI products Such as eggs, milk, and wool). lhilt ail eno1,11io s effort will be re- This terminology, gathering and farm- (1were ), u but t the the qa? by tluantity :: B l?c iof_,. i,d. and d value of tuft.: gaited before the production of the ing of plants, and hunting and herding plants gathered,from land is sa been; can be comparable with that of of animals, is also applied to the ocean the lane(' in a strict sense. For example, we con- The authors are members or ,,i; ??;x Woods Hole Oceancgrcchic snrc ;. `,6 rot A sort of genetic classification of cider that only algae or bacteria can Hole, Massachusetts. - " 15 SEPTEMBER 1967 Approved For Release 2001/04/02 : CIA-RDP81 R00560R0001000100074