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Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 tIESTRICTED N POSSIBILITIES IN hE DOMAIN OF GREEN MANURE UTILIZATION 11_l addition to producing forage grasses (mostly clover and alfalfa), the ability of legumes to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere must also be utilized by growing them as green man- uses. As such lupine is of the greatest importance for a good growth of it can accumulate, by the time it is plowed under in preparation for autumn grain sowing, about 160 ralograims of nitrogen per hectare, that is, not less than are contained in 30 - 35 tons of man,.ire. It was estimated that in the European; portion of the USSR alone, (in the fon--chernozen area) green manure can be utilized yearly on an area of 2,5 million hectares A wide field for utilization of green manures is also available an Siberia, where fallow precedes sprang wheat, a nd hence a green cover crop can be plowed under later than it. is done in prepara. tion for au tame sowing. Within the sub-tropics, growing of legumes as green manure is also achieving great importance. Soring of legumes as green manure results in more rapid. effect than the sowing of clover and alfalfa (see above). These rn2 sure s must now be given especially great consideration in the ref abilitataon of a. ricua_ture in regions devastated by the war so as to raise soil fertility in spite of manure shortage, The use of green manures was previously restricted mainly to sandy soils, but now it should find the widest application, since it substitutes for manure ? shortage in any soil even in the cherno z,em belt, if used from autumn on in preparation for spring grain) But in this we encounter the obstacle of seed shortage In coinbatng this evil, selection of the plant acquires s Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 great significance, arid preference must be given to legumes producing sr sesince they require less seed per hec- tare and provide better opportunity for sowing the nitrogen- gathering plants in adndxture with other crops, thereby ob- viating the necessity of allocating a separate field to there in the spring (they are sowed together with a grain crop)6 Unfortunately, >>p to now, we have grown mostly- narrow- leaf lupine, which produces large seeds, This makes it neces- sary to raise the a 'ount of aced used to 160- 200 kilograms per hectare, 1rGrhich is expended to obtain only one mows ng of green plants, so that the expenditure must be repeated each year, Joreover, north oi' L oscow, where the seeds of this lupine do not ripen, there arises the necessity of meeting further costs and providing organizati onal measures in connection with she transportation of seeds, Therefore it is also necessary, without giving up development of seed production of the annual lupine, to utilize the perennial lupine having small seeds in the pro ciuct'L"n of wiiicji the ratio between the amount of seed and that of green plant ? teriai obtainable therefrom is 35 to 45 times more advantageous tlian in the case of the annual lupine. In the case of the former, one hectare requires about six times less seed (30 kilo;rams per hectare), whale the period of hay f1o~Tin gs is about 6 to t3 times longer (sometimes even 10 times) 0 In addition perennial lupine can yield in one summer from two G (near eningrad) to three (near Chern?gov) hay harvests, so that the above-referred to ratio in the case of perennial lupine is found to be about 100 times more advantageous than that attained in the case of the annual lupine. ESTB1CTEiJ Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 aES1RiCTE% Naturally the first year of growth of perennial lupine, the same a in the case of clover, is not a period. of utilization s . ? ~ S the spring g it develops only a leaf cluster, while the bloom, ,.~~vTi. in the r very early oney appears only on the second year, but despite ~. this rabl~;~~ of seed su~> ~~c~~ be solved more read, i~ a is , ?F the p ,.,....,....., in1ess : ~, .-'y } ' 1s the oerennia:i lupine, s~.nce its _.~ ._ r u ior1 f'ac or is much higher than that of the annual lupine o sat ---_*------ --~ ~ ding to data of the Volokamsk Experimental Station, lupine, .-~ccor when ~en sower in v~ride rows and hoed, can be planted at a rate of 4 k' 17 nos of seed per hectare and will yield a crop of centners, ioe, the propagation factor may reach values 4 to 9 o.C b he order o? 100 (and even 200) , oreove r, its first year vTrth can be greatly reduced :in its vegettve plod, since of ro it i_s possible, even near Leningrad, to sow this lupine not only in the Spring but also in Julys Furthermore, since its seeds can be harvested before winter grain, it is entirely feasable, for instance in southern Belorussia, to sow seeds harvested durum the same year. in so doing not a single summer is wasted in px'e- same ye raration for a lupine hay stand of the following year, and expan- si.on of acreage cropped to lupine can be accelerated. Also in the case of this lupine, it is possible to combine seed ha west as fertilizerby reaping with hla ,crial utilia~tic;n as _~. wry.t sickles the tall flower-bearing stems, extending; high above the leaves within that portion of the field where seed is harvested, this is done in July in the; North and June in the South), after which the plants are mowed grid transferred to the field which is to be fertilizedo Since perennial lupine yielas matured seeds as for earth as rkkangel'sk,,2seed production is possible every- 1 ES TRIO TEO rh!i ~, 4'G3hwr&'xln hzijA .m Sr, ~at~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 where A ~~S7RIGTEQ In adda_tion to being a source of seed and of ,,teen plant material, perennial lupine. can constitute an important soil' ink provem.ent agent in poor northern areas, Not only a 7 - S year j:per. iod of growi-ng lupine as a green fallow crop, but even one of 3 years dur~ab n, substantially increase land fertility, Thus, at tii.e Sudogodak Experinnental. Field, a sector that had previously been abandoned because of low fertii.ity, was made to produce for lupine crops for use as Teri::i.l zer and therea.ft;er ;gave a 222 centner yteid of potatoes, In tlt.s instance no additional fertilizers vrere used. If, however, around phosphate rock and ;potassium salt are applied, then by means ofjerennial lupine, reclamation can be attained not only of fare areas of podsoli zed soils (heather barrens J but also o poor sand-~ soils, of which we have such vast areas, fro the Usand seas' which covers an ex- tensive region in the north ( do;Vn to the famous Aleshkin sands in the soutl-i, By 5tabilizin the l.atterl with lupine, about 200, 000 hectares of vineyards could be established, and their fertility sustained by inter-row cultivation of the same lupine fimila.rly to what is done abroad where they grow pines in conjunction with lupine on poor sandy soils, While we are short of perennial lupine seed, its main u.tilizatioshoul..d be restricted. to cultivatior on adjacent plots outside the rotation system, as a source of seed and green plant material as fertilizer for the nearby fields, But when more seed becomes available, growing of lupine as part of the rotation system can be adopted, with one-time utilization by plowing under Lst tIICT Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 the lupine fallow during the blooming pe: iod as a fertilizer for winter rye, the lupine being so'rn i.r the spring of the fore- going' season under the oats preceding the fallowp This procedure was successfully t sited at the Sudogodsk Ezperimental Field CIvanova Oblast 1), In the Northeast, according to results ob-- S tamed at the olikamsk Experimental station, it is not always results Thus, in experiments conducted over a three-year period successful, but west of the Moscow I.eridi,an it produces very good by agronomist Kondratov in Smolensk Oblast ', yields of ~r on perennial lupine i~rere higher than with Zia tons of manure, and approximated those attained with 36 tons a In addition a sub- stantial after effect vras observed on potatoe .hicb followed the n rC These are the average figures for the k:bree Near period Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Winter Rye Potatoes (Aftereffect) (contners/hectare ) (cent ners/hec tare ) Control' b Perennial Lupine ~'anure (36 tone) ;inure (iE tons) l5o0 176.8 15.9 16S.3 12.3 151,6 Even more beneficial results were ol:~tanecl at the Ural Zonal 'Station (Molotov Oblast t ) where the effect of lupine was considerable even on the third crop (in centners per hectare); Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Cont:CUi o '-) ti. n J I-, i~;,.lle rleX ppresent i ' irltefSiVe production Uf t , problem at lupine seed, To yi'er.~ L.b I i:.A~IE p1"OpCi ~~,h'a,, aG-'d pe7,~~; ~.l pio bs in Jl.z:land is uS b 19/ in the North ctrl. i ec~c,c~. on ,~ra~ , .a~ ~1{~ ~r t~y- 1~ , i { C, -.+ 1 ) CGJu`~~ in ~4lltY~;lS'b (~_V ano~~ f) ~ xiU scow ~ 7 1rrryC~ .i)aJ~.lll(?(,~ t'Ca.b b7.1C1'~: or September in the l:ubal' region a ,. new crop of seed (100 -- fold or higher or soVring t, . 5 ki1o;rams in ride roars) in early sun~a1Lcr of 1945, and by ~ ?u" i 1 second hio som.' ..rid fruit fUr'run t:i.~r! crpeC'Le(l in n 1) S ;Men aH y as 19/,.6 the original supply oC seed "bi'~e Ull.~b.l.. ~. the nox~~i:1 could ire increa;ccl 10,000 t7.f1 S (or by ;hipped frCJSIl one m:l.:l.l.ion ta.ncj, ,~ro ^C 'b0 provide seed in :L LI'~.b 17rior7.yr rs .. ft r areas dCj 7rived of livestock durirac; the war ;7e:: iod, C.I.ia tbre e- t , replace in obher areas as vreil., t r~urifg o fallow, by lupine, and to use the n raurC for f'er b:Liizr~ta.oli of potatoes and of other crops, (Actually this plan wa;s somewhat disrupted by the ex- tremely ~ dry ing in the south during the autuirn of weather prevailing ?~ M 1944. The lupine ixzate, and ?~c~rn~.rAatio1~ of the ovred ci~a not ~e~"m Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 lupine 'occured to an appreciable extent only in the spring of 175. Hence no early seed crop was obtained during that year, In addition to further steps in this direction one must, of course, develop by all means the production of perennial lupine seed locally in the northern areas, As an example of successfu solution of this problem, there can be cited the case of the Semenovskiy Rayon of Gor 'kiy Oblast 1.) It mush be pointed out that introduction o?' lupine culti- vation on fallow fields throughout the entire Non-Chernozer a area may also solve another very important problem; it greatly facilitates the labor-consun irrg operation of manuring. The fact is that if lupine (in con junction with phosphates and potassium salts) here to fully replace manure, on more distant fields of the holdings, the manure would need to be used only on . nearby fields (primarily for vegetables, but also for cereal grains), and if the average distance over which manure must be carted be decreased only one half, it becomes readily apparent what fuel cost savings would be attained in the performance of this laborious orperatican, ..of course lup:Lrre fallow is suitable primarily for sufficiently humid areas, but the turning under of mowed lupine grown on an i outside area will not produce the same drying_out effect obtained from growing the lupine on the field where it is plowed under. (According to data of the Sudogodsk Experirrrenta S ]. ~tation, it is necessary to replow the land after turning under the lupine fallow crop to prevent weed growth in the autumn sawn crop.) In the future rich sources of perennjal lupine seed? may be found among timbering areas where pines are grown on sand Experience in the west has demonstrated quite clearl r that Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 dESTRICThU inter-row growing of lupine for 5 - 6 years without any addi- tional care is a good method of promoting tree growth (thus a 20 year-old pine tree attains the size of a 30 year-old one groom without the use of lupine), while the annual seed harvest derived from such inter--rows of lupine on young plantations is an addi- tional source of income for the forestry enterprise, as well as an important source of supply of lupine seed for agriculture. Besides the perennial lupine there are, of course, other nitrogen collecting plants having small seeds, but none of them can be utilized as widely in the northern half' of our plain 0 Serradilla, for example 'if~en planted in rows, requires as little as 30 kilograms of seed (if the seed is scattered 45 - 50 kilo- ;rams are needed) . It can be sown with grain crops and yields in the au.tunn a good mowing of green plant growth suitable for use as feed and as fertilizer. chile this can be successfully :practiced in the Gherrigov region and in Belorussia, even in the vicinity of lVioscovr the autumn season is too short to permit u.tili- zation of serradilla after the grain crop with which it had 'been sown has been harvested. However, serradilla should be given due cons:i.deration within a very area, and it affords substantial advantages in rapid growth. Thus, wi erz sovn with cereal crops, it can be mowed in the autumn (and the remainder plowed under as fertilizer), while clover and perennial lupine can be mowed only in the year. According to computations of Ye,.. ; K. Alekseyev, within Poles?ye and southern Belorussia there are approximately ley nalJ.ion hectares where 'serradila:a could be utilized (incJ.udin; ~ESraecr~~ Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ft,~ Y?N 'k lM1. U TEn sowing in conjunction with grains). Still larger areas within which growing of serradilla, in one manner or another, is possible are located between Belorussia and the southern portion of Gor!kiy Oblast ? . There is no point of estimating their size, however, at present, since there a. ~ is a huge discrepanc between the required amount of seed and the quantity available. It is. important to in- crease this quantity, but here we can see the difference between annual plants, the growing of which as green manure conflicts with growing for seed production, and the perennial l.upinek which is adapted to give a seed harvest and still yield a crop of green plant growth for use as fertilizer. Among the other small-seed annual legumes suitable for sowing with grain crops the following may be of interest: hop- like alfalfa frequently grown in Germany; crimson clover which is found growing in 'rance and Switzerland, and the annual variety of sweet clover developed in the United States. These plants have been tried in this country to a lesser extent than lupine and serradilla. We should obtain, however, more seed than has been possible hitherto, in order to test them on a large scale. The fact that we are stressing the great importance of perennial lupine and serradilla does not mean that annual lupine is not worthy of our attention. It still retains its signifi- cance and possesses' certain advantageous features which are lack- ing in perennial lupine, Thus annual lupine can be sown on har- vested rye fields in southern Belorussia and in he Sherrigov area, it is also of interest as a seedcrop legume, especially the "sweet~i lupine which yields valuable nutritive feed. At the same time root residues remaining after the lupine seed crop has been harvested 1fl Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 e rmist point out that it is entirely` inadequate for such a large country as ours, to have available but one\ western lo- cated source of lupine and serradilia seeds We must create new sources in the central portion and in the eastern part of the country. As such, we believe to be suitable primarily for such a, purpose the huge area of sandy soils extending southward from Murom along the right bank of the Oka and the Tsna to Mor.,shansk and Tambov. Here can be found conditions suitable for the pro- duction of seeds of not only the blue (narrow lean) lupine, but also of yellow lupine; from here seed could be supplied to the northern areas where the seeds do not mature and also the e treme southt where seed is needed for winter sowing of lupine to be used as fertilizer, but where it is not war thwh],le to tie up. valuable land for seed production. Then it is possible that large amounts of lupine seed would become readily available where their production on a large scale is found advantageous by farming communities. An example of such advantageous production may be found in Earring areas in sandy soil regions, provided it is based on the tb.ree pillars of lupine, potatoes and hogs 1 had occasion to observe abroad in 192n/ fare ng prac- tices in sandy soil areas, where hogs were fed on a large scale exclusively on potatoes and lupine; but in those days lupine seed had to be steamed and soaked to remove its bitter taste, while now with trswee't14 lupine, available and serving as a valuable source of proteins in feeding young pigs this tedious operation ~ ~beera elirr .nated. At the ,same time Lhese two plants (lupine has and pota, o) form a very. good combination 1n rotation, since Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 si.dered as sonic sort oi' oddity, which has to be disposed of else- where; it must acquire a local importance as a product; then. it will be always possible to increase its production for sowing purposes, accepting it within certain lints in lieu of rye. Un- fortunately outside of Belorussia this has not taken place up to now. For example, the Sudogodsk Station could not promote or- dinary lupine grown for seed in local farming cou nunities of Ivanov Oblast '; only the sweet lupine attracted. the interest of collective farm members. lupine harvested for seed leaves in the soil no less nitrogen than lupine turned under in bloom (this was ascertained by prior experi- ments of Kudrin), and, if farming practices also utilize lupine straw, the total amount of nitrogen put to use excluding the seed, is greater than that obtained on plowing tinder the lupine while in blossom, Incidentally, tests at the Sudogorsk Experimental Field have shown that the'straw of sweet lupine, when cut--up and treated with boiling water, is readily eaten by livestock. Since in the vicinity of Tambov and Yoronezh, rye can follow early potatoes, it is conceivable that on humous, riverside sands the following intensive four-course system is possible: lupine to yield a seed crop, potatoes, rye and serradiLLa (to be mowed after the rye harvest), and spring grain. But individual cases may ~,/ vary What is important is that lupine seed must cease being con- Let us consider other entirely novel possibilities of green manure utilization in Central Asia, where conditions have undergone drastic changes during the war. On the one hand cotton growing has been deprived of nitrogen fertilizers\ which played the prin- cipal part in the cotton yield increases, so that yields dropped ESTfflff' Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 sharply reverting to 1930 levels; on the other hand, in 1943 there became apparent unprecedented possibilities for a wide utilization. of green manures due to substantial alterations the rotation system. Up to then, farming was surfeited with o.f cotton, ' growing of grains on irrigated areas was not permitted at all. Hence farrns were deprived of straw, and without straw no means were availab7.e for absorbing liquid excretions of cattle, which contain all the nitrogen of the digested portion of al- falfa hay. Therefore there was little manure and it was poor in nitrogen. Hence the huge demand for mineral nitrogen and its shortage in cotton growing during the war. In addition, under the then-prevailing rotation system in irrigated areas, no use could be made of autumn sown nitrogen collecting crops. The system of sowing cotton in succession to cotton for six consecutive years precluded utilization of this procedure, since cotton occupied the land until December, when it is too late to sow winter peas, while attempts to sow peas between rows before cotton harvest time were not successful. But since 1943, of the 900,000 hectares of irrigated land in Uzbekistan previously cropped exclusively to cotton, 300,000 hectares were allocated to grain crops and sugar beets, thus making possible the modest utilization of autumn--sown nitrogen collecting crops. Since not only grains but sugar beets as well are harvested much earlier than cotton. (Partial harvesting of the beet crop must begin on August 15, since at that time the sugar content of beets planted in March reaches 17 percent, and it is mulch more advantageous to put the in operation earlier than to process later on in 9arch beets of 10 - 12 percent sugar? content because beets in Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ~ESTA1~ the south stand storage less well than in the Ukraine. But the most extensive field for utilization of autumn-- sown nitrogen collecting crops develops on the area vacated by grain crops. In the case of winter grains it is possible to visual- ize the attainment of a three--stage sowing and to effect autumn planting of legumes as the third sowing of the season. Since har- vesting of winter barley begins around Samarkand about June 1st and in Tadzhikistan and Turkmeniya in the middle of May, it is possible t.o have another harvest of a food crop (potatoes, early varieties of dzhugora, etc , ) and still make passible a sowing of winter peas in September or October depending on the latitude. The winter-grain crop can also be sowed together with Persian c1o-- ver and use its summer mowing either as hay or green fodder, (whicii would yield additional amounts of milk, which is so badly needed in Central Asian towns) and carry the second stand through the winter to be plowed under in the spring as a green manure for cotton. Finally, there are data (Ge1ltser) showing that certain varieties of peas, if irrigated after grain harvest, continue to ..L grow and yield again a stand of green plants; thj.s it is possible to sow in early June peas as a seed crop, leaving the harvest residues to serve as a fertilizer for cotton through subsequent plowing under in October - November or in the spring, L Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Concerning the effectiveness of green manures under Central Asian conditions, we can cite the results obtained by Academician Ye. K. Alekseyev near Samarka>7d in 1942. He at- tamed a doubled yield of beets (384 centners as compared with 182 centners of control) through having peas plowed under as a fertilizer. In Kazakhstan there were obLai.rmed increases in the flSTRCTEk)' Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 13- Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 flESTRtCI E yield of beets amounting to 140 160 centners due to after harvest green manures (Zubrilin), (lie do not make reference here to ;previous experiments in which the green manure crop was sown in the spring in lieu of cotton; at present only after-harvest growing and concurrent growing of nitrogen fixing crops are of interest,) Analogous effect must be produced on cotton by green manure. The question of the special importance of wide utilization of autumn-sown nitrogen fixing crops in Central Asia during the war was raised by me in the sprang of 1943 so as to allow time for obtaining seeds from the United States. We were unable to secure these seeds by the autumn of 1943, but in 19/4 a shipment of 4 thousand tons of winter peas and other nitrogen fixing plants was received, which were used for propagation. if by so doing, the supply of these seeds is raised to 30 ?- 45 thousand tons, this amount, would be sufficient to cover an area of 200 - 300 thousand hectares, which would constitute an important factor in raising cotton yields in Uzbekistan. While my suggestion, made in 1943, relative to the sowing of nitrogen gathering crops following the harvesting of grains and beets was limited, in spite of the importance of this m.eas- ureb to only one out of six fields of cotton, encountered in the usual rotation systems, as early as 1944 1 raised another question, namely; would it be possible not to limit this procedure to a single application, but to find means for utilizing it repeatedly'? In this connection there appeared the possibility of a' wining even a 100 percent saturation of the cotton-growing area with nitrogen fixing crops without decreasing the planting of cotton. Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Es?cP1CiE reason for bringing up this question is to be found .fhe in certain data relative to cottof growing in Eg;jpt. Experience gained in Egypt nnot, of course, be. applied directly to the . ca entire cotton belt, but on due consideration there might be certain problems which should be studied by derived therefrom our own researchers, The basic problem which interested me is the foLLowing; In some portions of Eg rpt, especially in the delta of the Nile, ~~ there is practiced the repeated sowing of cotton on the same areas, cannot be designated as a single crop method because and yet this in between the consecutive cotton crops the land is cropped to 4~andria clover which produces several. mowings during the ~~le,~ uvinter period; the last of which is not utilized as hay, but is plowed under as green manure . The acreage under this clover in Eg~. )t is about 520 thousand hectares, while cotton occupies 770 thousand hectares, i.e, practically all the cotton is planted in succession to clover. In pa b there is also cultivated on the same dual rotation system, another pair of crops, there, rarely corn and ,^rheat, but from our standpoint what is import-- rn ant is the fact that as a ?ule cotton is sown over plowed-,under clover, which is its main source of nitrogen. Could we not adopt some similar method in our country'? Would it not be possible to obtain at least one legume crop between two sowings of cotton? Flitherto it apl,)eared tl:Lat this could not be done, since experiments in which winter peas were grown with cotton did not yield satisfactory results ? however, we should not give up and consider the problem as being settled; we must test different nitrogen fixing plants, different methods, Es*ctuciE9i Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 and times of sowing. That a transition is attainable by such means is apparent from the publications of V. C. Petrov (see Sov]oye wproizvodstvo, 1944, No 7) concerning the planting of winter Mith. cotton, which previously also did not produce good results, but now, according to data presented in the above- referred-to publication, the problem could be solved satisfactory ily, if the proper variety (one of the Cxraecum species) were to be u~~ red, and the he time of sowing changed. The wheat is sower bet'Neen cotton rows fairly early - in August, k, This leadsnto believe that~mong the numerous varieties constituting the genus of legumes, there con be found annual species adapted for sowing in conjunction with cotton. l~hereas Alexandrian clover may be suitable only in Tadzhikistan and hrkmeniya, in TJzbekistan we must consider, for instance, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum raecum ) which is grown successfully as a feed crop in Azerbajdzb,n, where it is called "sharnbola". The i growing of this crop is centered in the Nakhichevan' Kray, where it occupies a fairly prominent position among field crops. The literature contains but little information on the technical as-. pects of growing this plant, but we do find the following character-. istic statement in the article by Surpukhova (V, iJ. Serpuitova. Fenugreek (Shambola ) ", hasteniyevodstrov SSSR, 1933, Vir Press. Volume I'I, Pages 457 -476): " , . , due to its very short vegeta- tive period it can be utilized in intensified rotation systems as a forage and green-manure after-harvest crop, and is a good crop for planting immediately before valuable industrial crops (cotton, tobacco). In France shaanbola is occasionally groom as an after-harvest, auturnn-sour crop.' Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Obviously, it is of into rest to test this plant in Cen- tral Asia by growing it together witii cotton as well as an after-- harvest crop. `g'len there is of possible interest the crimson clover sown :in South Europe in admixture with winter rye to yield the ver,,r earliest Feed crop in the spring. Persian clover must be tested not just as "a clover't but in all its different varieties found in ;Iran ai?.d.. i ghan Ls tan; there shou;Ld also be tested other annual varieties of legumes available at botanical gardens (here and abroad) or growing wild. In.troductior:~ of n:i.tro;en fixing plants of this type is a very important measure of substituting for shortages in nitro- ,den fertilizers and manure, and this means is free of certain shortcomings inherent in manure, vich are. especially prominent in Central Asia. It provides for imparting to the soil all of the fertilizer nitrogen without any losses, and in addition ob- viates transportation. It i.s manure growing on the very field which requires fertilizer; and it does not need bedding to pro- duce the fertilizer. If a legume could be found which could be grown with cotton Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ~,y _Y, CT. Petrov 's method, then this procedure could be carried out s;ystematically, ensuring good yields of cotton even when iitincral nitrogen fertilizers are temporarily not available. :Let us assume (to simplify the presentation) that fenugreek is sucl.~. a nitrogen fixing plant; then the hypothetic rotation system assumes the fo1iowinr; form, (1) barley and alfalfa; (2) alfalfa (3) alfalfa; (4) and (5) cotton plus fenugreek; (6) cotton 4 winter grain; (7) winter grain -' summer after-harvest crops fenugreek; (8) and (q) cotton. fenugreek. Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 :Et may be assumed that five sowings of funugreek and three years of alfalfa, even on taking into account only its root residues, should supply a sufficient amount of nitrogen to five cotton crops. One r~'ay o even further in this assump- tion and suppose teat the nomination of cotton - fenug::reek can be repeated vrithout harm no':, only for two consecutive years, but even longer. This would make it possible to increase the percentage of acreage under cotton without decrEasin its yields; but to do so, c>pe must have at hand such a nitrogen .Cherie ler;urne (vfi.ether it be fenugreek, crimson clover, or Alexandrian clover) which could be successfulsorn in the autumf cn the cctton_ fieids and which would accumulate bycrin up to 100 rial? kilagp.... of ni tz?a erg i.n the ~reezr~ plant mate The more successfully this problem is solved the better wil:i. we be insured a airist decreases of cotton crop yields at tunes when there is a shortage of m;_neral feat:i.iizers. But not only ~vhcn there is a si' of mineral fertilizers but later on as well, when there would be plenty of mineral fertilizers we must still retain tl:re ~fro~~ri n~ af' riitro~en f~ x:~n~~ winter crops, the more so, since they can be used not only as green manures but also as cattle fodder durii the wintery especially for driiry cattle, the number of which in Central Asia must be in- creased, and which are in such a need of protein feed. In en- oral, by means of winter crops (grain, feed and nitrogen fixing) we can utilize additional sunJ..igh't energy, which in Central Asia is fairlr well supplied, not only during autumn, but also in the spring (prior to sowing of cotton), but which can be utilized only by those plants which have developed during the autumn season Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 cj: their assirnllative parts . Hence;, we should not.. in. general a]-law during the _winter. (Naturally in our fields to reli n unso order to obt e response to the propounded questicobtain a def.~n' ~.t ~ addibiona.l experimental dy is necessary. But a satisfactory 'study b at the same time, work in this solution v~rou].d be most clesira, ]~e , ,tiv~e that it should attract attention direction is so re~lnera of Central Asian researchers . ) casus conditions for winter legume crops In tree Tranacan are more ropitious . 7~,iitr~in the humid ~:xoWm as fertiliZexs aic even p occur during wintex?, whereas they are cormnon subtropics no frosts inUzbe~~istan. 1, or ear p . , casionallyin J., m ]-e even though at Sul>hurni it so W5 oc-- the sr7or melts se rapidly that it does nJanuary r harm to the roses in bloom.. Also within there areas precipa.tation high to make irrigation unnecessary. Up to OW is sufficiently the south was confined primarily to the use of ~^een ma,r,,u~^es in t tea and citrons fruit plantations but at present attenta.ofl has been ca:tJ.ed to it in connection with extensive corn fields which remain bare from Sep ten~ber or October until early in It~ay (lcul-zhinskiy), although tr~~e,x tr could produce during this period from 50 to 100 tons of green plant material per hectare, especially abed wbh ground phosphate rock and potassium if they are are salts, \th good yields, it is entirely possible to use a por- tion Lion of the plant material as cattle feed and obtain a good yield the. ren~ainder. It is also passible to of earn by plowing under valuable food crap by harvesting the produce in the spring a green pads of early peas and ploWLflg under the remaining vines or using them as ? a feed. In addition to winter peas consider anon shou seed legumes requiring ng less seed ~.d be given to small hES1 ~JJ 1 :9} - Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 as the annual clovers : crimson, Persian and in sovra.rag such Alexandriana (Under these conditions it is entirely possible bavex~ef ex?ro~ to Egyptian rotation system to utxl.ize the a gathering crops during the winter and corn emplaying n~traen in the surr>rne x .) The acid soil of the Transcancasue, unlike the carbonate soils of Central Asia, make possible culti~~~atic~n of and lupine ne while the perennial lupine his here erosion preventive cover crop on steep also its uses as an slopes between the terraces of tea and citrous fruit planta- tiaras. In addition to the production of green plant material as. feed and ferta.a_izer, winter crops of nitrogen gathering plants ~.+re a Very important mean. of prey: ntinf; soil erosion in areas scancasus) where the annual precipitabin reaches (in the I'a. an 2000 mni1iimeters . _g.rowing areas can supply their owra needs for seed, oxn~, merits'or lupine, serradilla and pea seed for but the require citrous fruit plantations must be met by im- sowing on tea and ie north so as to avoid tying up valuable land portation from ti V~i ,~,.11Ci.1 Ctrl ,,. )used or the r)rodu.ction of southern crops, )C r-,ough Legume seed reserves can be increased to Even ~ ; ~ s ainifg them from abroad to meet future years start vr:a.?t}, by obt ~ st forthwith resort to a number of coordinated req.uix cements ire mu measures for developnrent of new areas for the production of the . seed of valuable nitro~.ger1 .fiDin, plants which will assist us V~l.ucl uuture in the north, in sustaining grain and in expanding agza.c he Central areas, and, within the subtropics, potato production in ? ~ ensuring good ' elds of such important industrial and food crops ~ t SifT -20- Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ,sir ::R~M1 ~ ?r t as cotton, tea and ci:trous fruits In the subtropics the mild climate is favorable to the growing of nitrogen fixing legumes in conjunction with other crops; in Siberia, on the other hand, there exist conditions favoring ~vLc1e uti.]..azation of green manures, namely; avail- ability of fallow preceding spring wheat. `t'here are also encountered. difficulties in transportation of manure frequent- ly caused by the remote location of fields from the homestead and by the hilly nature of the terrain, especially in Eastern Siberia. Insofar as selection of green manure crops is con- cerned the conditions which hinder wider utilization of annual lupine in the northern portion of European USSR and induce its replacement by the perennial lupine are the very conditions v'rhich prevail on a wader scale in Siberia e They include, among others, the possibility of growing the seed locally and greater ease of seed transportation. Of course, in Altay and inusinsk krays the annual lupine can also be grown for seed production but there is also the fact that 30 kilograms of seed are suffi- cient in lieu of 180 - 200 ki.:Logratris to effect the sowing may be the determining factor. h many instances sweet clover will be found to be useful, since, while unsuited on acid ,soils, it is better adapted than lupine for solonetz 50?14 and weakly alkaline soils and may be thus used \ ?th spring-sown grains and. plovred under the next year as a fallow crop (the fear that sweet clover will become a weed is unfounded; all that is nec~ essary is to prevent seed formation). Thus, under most diverse climatic and soil cond.t:7_ons there is a possibility of utilizing green manures as a means fix, - ; s' .j;. .. 2l w Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ~41 lEO of making it possible to introduce rapidly into the agricultural cycle a huge amount of nitrogen, thereby enhancing yield in- creases of grain and a number of industrial crops while awaiting restoration and expansion of clover rov+ Lng areas and rehabili- tation of animal husbandry. But it must be borne in mind that under clover reaches 25 percent of the otal even when acreage cultivated area within the podsolic belt there still would be no sense in giving up using green manures for autumn-sown grains, for they make it possible to use manure obtained from clover feed as a fertilizer for potatoes, sugar beets, hemp, tobacco and other valuable crops. Among sources of nitrogen we must also ni ntion the nec- essity of making wider use of city" refuse nitrogen and of peat nitrogen. The total nitrogen content of human excreta for an anticipated 230 million population of our union may be assumed to equal 1100 thousand tons o Triis would constitute a very size- able item exceeding several times the output of our pre-war nitrogen industry, if these residues were not so difficult to collect, In cities they flow into sewers, in rural areas they are scattered to a considerable extent haphazardly. It is very difficult to say what portion of them could be utilized in the future m It is clear, however, that with a general shortage of fertilizers, one may not ignore the vast possibilities afforded by this source of nitrogen, especially utilized in conjunction with peat. Expansion of the method for producing peat--fecal composts in inhabited locations deprived of sewers is import- ant not only from the standpoint of nitrogen conservation but Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 aEST atciE0 tinre11 ~ Ihere peat is not. available, from a sanitary one. as combined with earth to make cnmpos?t~? excrements should be As ~. of cad. matter utilization for agricultura (As a. goad example a.~ fe them solving the problem of removing, needs, while at the same time n cite the f ol:tang in?tance, taking from populated areas we ca Central Asia. The .1.nca? ~Uel~.~ctive place in one small to1!~~of . ~, when cen the maintenance of city toilets, farmer. s have undertaken and trans-w' th refuse, they dig a` new one nearby the pit IS x.i.~~_ed ~ fer to it the s ,with earth, uperstructure? The old pit is filled bed for several months after which ..This compost is left und!StUr essare carted to the fields.) the contents, now comp~.etelV odorl ,A method to be preferred over ..that of making a compost. a procedure which results not only producing a bul~~ y mate ~. in sterilization of the excreta but also in the production of a in nitrogen and containing an appreM' valuable car~centrate rich ' ~ s = it consists in chlorination of fEcad. ciable amount of phosphor s an a plate drier (S. p. Gusev, (D. material followed by is method is applicable only in those sert~ a~ n) ? However, th . casts are not included entirely in the instancES where fuel price of the poudrette but are in part defrayed by the city refuse sterilization ,and disposal). (as an item elating to conditions under; which poudrette produc- There exists hotivevex of solar heat, This can be done tioz:, can be effected by means for example in ntralAsis, where,, as a ruse, ta~1ns do not have a Ce ? ' sewers, while clL ons render certain the lack of at1c cond~.ta nation from the sun tbrotia,ghout the ra:i.ns and strong therma]. Erna Production of ammonium sulfate may be six-month summer period. , considered -poss. fluid material from public toilets were ' ? possible if Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 ?&ESI' aICT E to be collected as a shallow layer in flat reservoirs, pro- vided with a black colored bottom., into which there also would be discharged acid wastes (for instaxlce, su1:L'uric acid from scouring shops of cotton processing plants or bisulfate), and the concentrated solution then passed into tanks shielded from the sun to permit armnonium sulfate to crystallize. In the same manner solar heat could be used in the production of poudrettes from ordinary mixtures of excreta when these are first subjected to a chlorination process. Thus several results would be at- tained simultaneously; - conservation of ammonia, sterilization, and elimination of objectionable odors. But where chemical means are not available the Central Asian sun makes it possible to use a number of procedures for partial or complete utiliza- tion of fecal mass with better results than those attainable anywhere else. (These include in the first place separate collection of liquid and solid excrements so that only the forum are discharged into a pit while the latter are permitted to dry unadmixed with any other material. A more complete utilization of both is possible by substituting for pats above- ground devices providing for continuous addition to the excreta of loose soil which is very well adapted for fine comminution, thus making possible a considerable decrease in the amount of inert material to be added. (B. Ya. Gurov), ,a L Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Insofar as peat is concerned,, in additioir to its use as bed rig to increase the quality of manure, while also increasing its bulk, it is also of importance in ttie pr?e rat, ion of flC?. . , composts containing :r'ious substances other than feces, hike manure liquor, bird-droppings , weeds, slops (iii' not completely utilized in feed) with addition of ashes, especially if acidic peat, pond silt, paid so forth are being useda In preparing peat. fece,J fertilizers, the nitrogen cone- tamed in the peat is :i.nclun.ed? At tunes peat as such is used as fe:rti..lizer, But its should be mentionl drat peat nitrogen cannot be 51rriply nlech :nica.Jly added to the nitrogen of :fecal masses, since peat nitrogen is much less readily mineralized, Hence, it is harday ~Yorth~rhile to compute the amount of pti at nitrogen that can roe cas silrtiiLa1 Clod, ai., though it can be assumed, a1)%2O1L.!-ll!d Ie Ly, L./naL } V1i.e com .. ned 4t5e of peat and feca.J., 1nater~ - a.],s we can prOV?CiC easil, an additional amount o:I' about 500 t~lousar)d tons of readily utilizable n~ i;rogen~ To sum. up, brie conclusion rrmi,7J' be made that 're k ave aVai1a- bite trerrne radous poterztialitios for t ndertclkinr a radical chan&e of bLe nitrogen balance of our ar;r :ic X7.1 ur_.. 4~.s well as for an :i1rficd_i.aL.c; i l t"ie nitrogen deficit T,rt~ich has become ex ceednly groat under wartime conditions, CUIJCLUS1:ONS As i. L~PParellt f'r TTl all of what has been stated solution of the nitro:c.n problem comprises a combined use of Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 T8ICTEU 1 ,t'!') r(tF..' )j: : (1) jrlcr"eas:7nthe alroun~ oi' minraIL fertilizers made To 1...Lf ' O ..~ustrial Crops and . ( 2) utilizing, r to the ii L:rc) "G.n .i. i):I r11. ,r() by e:(pending Cultivation of 3,CCUriIUM- )1;::.111_.: 1 b;, betLer ; an 7c;~ I'it nt cf manure I n/' 7IIJ trier local resources j.~ll,ii U ~ r"I~.t,..l,~ r~;,nC~~ I.i .L i .~ ~J.}Orly ib:.1.e ca,ttJ.e a~ncJ. ialanure, A further shift toward manure utili~ nation is :f'QUnd in beet ; This shit is even more pronounced in i~1or. therrn :a.~ ricu1Lure w}1C1e grains alternate with clover and poi;atoes, here a. stron,, trend exists toward a"'super-manure" economy however, gut if tea a. definite siiau_lari ty. shouic~ st LL be supplied frith mineral fertilizers) a I.anta.tions in the Soup and dair,r farming in the North are contr a, s;, tiie,, are both di_:Fferen.t from the steppe agriculture of tie Ea 3L includinf; the irrigated parts of Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya, an.c1 pastern Siber:i a., where even Tianure is as yet inadequately uti- lized as fertilizer4 within the treeless steppe areas, one oi' the for such utilization is the consumption of manure as a fuel_ (' ki.zy a}:"), while in. tAie wooded, hilly regions of ;'astern Siberia another obstacle is the difficulty of conveying manure to the tiled plots scattered in the taiga which suggests utilization y of green m~anuro. ~ftrti!s sometimes such extremes as continental Siberia and the humid subtropics can sometimes display in certain respects Detween tliF; above-referred to. contrasting type, there is present, of course, a whole gamut of transitions in the establish- merit of a ?'ert,ilizini system, which is due to the wide variety of conditions that o>cist within our vast fatherland. When we are s ~, ;,~..z._7 ....r~,~, o1, :' r?. conte~rapl,a,tled average yield of a crop, or of ~. average balance of removal and returrr of soil nutrients, we must remember that these averages are obtained on the basis of most widely ranging cornpanents;. Declassified and Approved For Release 2012/03/08 : CIA-RDP82-00039R000100200009-0 oortant role has come to be by alfal:f'a which in turn makes