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Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Chemical Properties of ;Hydrogen At room temperature hydrogen `diuplays'little activity` if it is in the molecular state; but in the nascent state its ac~ tivity is considerably increased. At h~:gh,temperatures. the activity of molecular hydrogen in- creases,- Hydrogen has the property off' being absorbed by metals? The amount of hydrogen absorbed depends to a large extent upon the specific surface of the metal. The largest amount of hydrogen is berg absorbed by palladium which not only adsorbs but also dis? solves hydragen~ The solubility of hydrogen is connected with its property of permeating through red hot irony platinum and even mare readily through palladium, which it permeates readily even at 210 degrees. Hydrogen permeates through rubber but ,nat. through glasso Hydrogen combines. very: readily metalloids. Tt comp banes most readily with fluorine, Even liquid hydrogen and solid fluorine eombane explasiv~ly, Wath chlorine the reaction takes place explosively only under the action of light of'short'wave length or at a high temperature, A mixture of two volumes of hydrogen .and, one volume of oxygen is known as detonating gas. The reaction begins to an appreciable extent at 180 degrees and is rapidly accelerated on further heating,.. The. reaction velocity.can be greatly influenced by the catalytic action of the containier material and the amount o~ water vapor present in the gases. Under the acta.on of a flame'. Spark or high temperature, detonating gas explodes; however, dry 37 ~,~~. ~~s:~~~: Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 increase even up to 150 atmospheres does not cause explosion, but the presence of a catalyst, far example platinum black, may be the cause of an explasion. Other catalysts promote explosion anl~ on detonating gas. does not exp~.ode even at 960 degrees. Slotir pressure heatingo Corz'esponds to a content (by volume} of 5 percent H2 and 9~ percent Mixtures at other proportions are explosion hazards.. ~Che lower limit of explosibility of ahydrogen-oxygen mixture The upper limit corresponds to 9l~.3 percent H~ and ~.'~ percent Mixtures of hydrogen with air also constitute explosion hazards. The lower of explosibility corresponds 'to the proportions of 5 percent H2 and 9a percent air, the upper limit to ?3.a~ percent H2 and 26,E percent air. Hydrogen can combine with various organic substances in the presence of catalysts -a nickel, platinum, palladium, In this manner liquid vegetable oils can be converted into solids. This process is called hydrogenation. On reactions wherein hydrogen combines with carbon monoxide are based the production of methyl alcohol (methanol} and of liquid fuel. 2, processes Taking Place at the Electrodes in Electrolysis ..d.,..Y._......_...~~.4..~.._...,~ ....,......~,....~.....~._...~. of Water Pure distilled water has,an electroconductivity of from Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 t convenient for use in electrolysis. But water, acidi - water is no ' d' solved salts or hydroxides of alkali met~.l.s, fled or a. ? f electrical currents and when insoluble elec- ~.s a good conductor o for exam le electrodes made of platinum, there is trodes are used, p a decom osition o~ the waterwith evolution of oxygen on. observed P the anode and of hydrogen on the cathode. On .electrolysis of water,.. ac~,.dified, for instance sul- ution of h drogen on the cathode is the result of fur~.c acid, evol y a~ rocess that is, of direct discharge of hydrogen ions a prym ry p ~ in accordance. with .the reaction; insofar as no other positive ions are present ~.n the solution? volution of oxygen on the anode can be the result of two E el . r~imary discharge of 504" ions according to processes, nam y. p and a secondary reaction of the S0~ radical with water,~to give oxygen and sulfuric acid: SO + H~0 ~ H2S0~ ~' 1 0 4 ~ 2 On it can be the result of a primary discharge of hydroxyl ions wa,th formation of water and evolution of oxygen, according to the reaction: Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 with water to give .caustic soda and hydrogen, in accordance with the discharge of the Na+ ion and the reaction of the neutral sodium ion for examplei caustic soda, on the other hand, evolution of hydro- gen at the cathode could be, in principle, the effect either of a On electrolysis of water containing in solution an alkali, e~uat~.anS ; NaOH ~ 1 H or of pra.mary discharge of hydrogen ions formed. on dissociation of Anodic evolution of oxygen from an alkaline electrolyte is only possible as a result of the primary process of discharge of OH'? ions, since in the alkaline solution there are absent any other ~reva.ously it was believed that in electrolysis of an alkaline electrolyte the cathoda.c evolution of hydrogen is a secondary process, that is, primarily the Na+ ion. is dischargedm However this does not correspond to actual facts, and cannot be attained if the electrolysis of water is conducted in accordance with the practice of using as a cathode not mercury but a solid metal, Hydrogen is generated at the cathode, from an acidic as well as from an alkaline solution, as a_result of a primary processr the equation of Nernst 'to effect f rare xn order Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 to male possible separatian from the neutral solution of ions of Na+9 the normal potential of which zs equal to -2'71 volts, it is necessary that the more electronegative potential of Na+ ions. separation approximates the value of the potential of H~ ions separation. Theoretically this can be attained if the concen- tration of sodium ions in the solution is increased to such an extent that the value of the potential of Na? ions separation is equal, to W0.~.1,~ volts, Qn using x to denote the concentration of Nay ions in the equation of Nernst we have wherefram -O.l~.l~ = -2071 * 0,08 lg x The figure thus obtained indicates a fatally unreal cone centration. Even on taking into account that evolution of hydro- gen from the. alkaline solution occurs at a more negative potential and in addition that a certain overvoltage exists, still computa- tion shows that in such a ,.case separation of sodium does not take place, and only discharge of hydrogen ions occurs. Anodic evolution of oxygen from an acid solution was also considered as being a secondary process. However, this assumption also apparently does not`correspard to the actual facts, In spite. of the law concentration of DH" ions in acid solution, under cans ditions of not too high a current density, OH` ions are discharged first. This follows from measurements of decomposition voltages of various acids and bases. It was found that decomposition volt- age of normal soluti.ans `of various acids and bases on smooth Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 odes has a value of about 1.7 volts. platinum electr nts are given in Table 21. Results of the measureme Table 21 s of acids and bases on smooth m osition voltage of normal solution Deco p platirnam electrodes lts on vo ' Substance in soluta~ ~~ 14h7 Caustic potash Sulfuric acid 1.?~ 1.69 , hydroxide id Nitric ac Phosphoric acid Dichloro-~acetic Decomposition voltage; Substance in solution 1.70 Methylammonium hydroxide 0 12~N) 1.? ~ acid 1,66 ( . Malonic acid 1.69 Chloric acid 1.6~ Tartaric acid 1.62 Caust~.c soda 1469 Dimethylammonium 0 ~N) 1.68 hydroxide ( ? Tetramethylammoniwn h droxide (0?~-2~Nj 1.71 y decom osit~-on voltages of acids and. Close coincidence of p he ' t does not depend on the .nature of t bases, and the fact that ~. to belief that in all instances the same acrd and base9 lead ne would expect ace on the electrodes. Otherwise o process takes pl e of the .acid, or base, would depend upon that decomposition voltag 'on o r base cation.. The.only process on the nature of the acid.ani n to~the different acids and .bases is the anode which can be commo ions with ~epa,ration of oxygen. the discharge. of OH Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Decomposition voltage of normal solutions of hydrogen halide acids was found to be less than 1.7 volts, namely: hydrochloric acid 1.31 volts; hydrobromic acid 0,91 volts; hydriodic acid 0.~2 volts? However in this instance there is liberated on the anode not oxygen but halogeno Hence decomposition of water does not take placer if electrolysis is conducted using hydrochloric ,acid diluted to a concentration of if 32 N, the decomposition potential increases to 1,h9 volts and evolution of oxygen begins at the anode, 1t is apparent that the potential of Cl? ion discharge in a normal solution of hydrochloric acid is lower than that of OH" ian d~.scharge; because of this, electrolysis of water does not take places In more dilute solutions of-hydroch:loric acid reverse cor-~ relation of discharge potentials, of ions OH'? and C1", obtains, The chlorine ion is discharged at a higher potential, and de- composition voltage of the dilute acid, to give chlorine end hydrogen, should be higher than 1,6q volts; hence, as soon as the voltage reaches this value there occurs evolution of oxygen an the anodes Thus on electrolysis of acidic, or alkaline, electrolyte with platinum electrodes at not toa high current density; evop lution of hydrogen on the cathode and of oxygen on the anode constitute primary processes. Electrolysis of water takes place according to the Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 From this it is readily apparent that while two moles of water are being decomposed, on the anode there takes place simulw taneously the formation of one mole of water. As a res~rlt of this, on prolonged electrolysis the electrolyte in the vicinity of the anode is depleted of acid or alkali, while near the cathode the amount of acid or alkali increases. Tn an alkaline solution de- crease of alkali near the anode also promotes current transfer by alkali metal cations from anode to cathode. Due to difference in concentrations there arises concentration, which could be of considerable magnitude at large differences of cony centration. However the diffusion process has the opposite effect -a that of equalizing the concentrations. Therefore a stable condition is reached after which the difference in con- centrations does not increase. According to Faraday's law 2C~o8 ampere hours liberate at 0 degree and ?60 millimeters pressure, 11.2 liters af' hydrogen and 5.6 liters of oxygen. Qne cubic meter of hydrogen and 0,5 cubic meters of oxygen require, in theory, the expenditure of 2383,8 ampere hours, 3. Theoretical Voltage. of Water Decomposit.~on Tf electrolysis of water is conducted under reversible conditions, then the work e~cpended must be numerically equal to Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 the work performed'by the reversibly operating galvanic hydrogen- o en cell, in .which the same reaction takes place in the opposite xyg direction. Tf ~'1 is the. work expended on .decomposition of water,. and A the works yielded by the galvanic cell, it follows that under 2 reversible conditions wherein ffi nF x E~ Q~) n -number of reacting or obtained chemical equivalents F -Faraday's number E~, -voltage of reversible decomposition of water E2 - electromotive force of reversib7~y operating hydrogen-oxygen cell., nFxEl = nFxE since nF in bath members of the equation relates 'to the same reactions which merely .proceeds in opposite directions, we have br E~ = E~ (o) Therefore for a reversible decomposition of water there is required Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 a voltage equal to the electromotive force of the reversibly operating hydrogen-oxygen galvanic cell. irreversible processes, for example overvoltage at the electro des This is the least voltage determined solely by the decompo~ ~itio n wark,. without taking into account any losses, that is, From equations (3) and (1~) it follows that n~' the value of maximum work A cf the reaction 2H2 ~ 0~ ~ 2H2O is given by the isotherm equation wherein OH2' 002' OH O p the initial concentrations of the reactin h dro en 2 g y g On substituting in equation (~7) the value of A from equation (8) we since Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 - are the equilibrium concentrations en and o en, We can write equation (q) in the of water, hydrag ~'g following farms F ~ n CL H x C x CH U ~~). 1 ,42 2 ~ 2 Bearin in mind that the volumes at which the reaction takes place g 'n such a manner that C , H2O ~ cH2O, that can always be selected i 1 entration of the water .found is equal to the ~s, the conc value, we have Replacing molar concentrations by partial pressures which are tional to them introducing the numerical values of R, F and propor s ~.,, ; and con~rerting to decimal logarithms, we have If the process takes place; at atmospheric pressure, that is~ if the partial. pressures of hydrogen and oxygen PH~ mosphere, equation (l3) assumes the form either on the basis of Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 on the basis of values of partial equilibrium pressures.. equation (7)~ of hydro den .and oxygen. partial equilibrium pressures can be compul~ed from values of degree of dissociation of water vapor, moles of oxygen. Tn total foaled ~ -moles of hydrogen and ~ _~ f the degree. of dissociation of water is q(,, then for each. x here remains ld t1~ moles of undi.ssacia,ted wa~~er, there are mole t we have 1 ~ ~ molesp . 2 ' e ratio of artia.l pressures of gases to .the total S~.nce th p ' he same as the ratio of their molar concentrations to pressure x.s t the total molar concentration, we have pl s D 2 ~ ~ 0~- ,~.,,, ~ and P ~" 2 (1 ~ -.~-~ 1 + ~,, 2 where F is the total pressure of the mixture at equilibrium. t low tem eratures the degree of dissociation of water is A p o. mall therefore. the value Very s 9 ~i can be disregaz?ded9 and then ire have 2 Let us calculate the theoretical voltage of water decompos~.tion for ~~ ' ons in racta.ce, that is at 80 ..`degrees (T ~ 3~3 orda.nax,~ cond~ta~ A . degrees) and pressure of one atmosphere? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Dependence of true heat capacities on the temperature;. cp, x2 ~ b. ~o + o ?ooa9 T in the case of our reaction at a constant pressti~xe has the foam; the values of the equilibrium constant, using an equation which small. value, but for these conditions it can be calculated from of water cannot be determined experimentally because of its very Tl~e val~.e of the equilibrium constant at constant pressure we can find by means of isochore equation of Van t~Hoff, For this let us use the following experimental data; thermal effect of the reaction at 2~ degrees (T ~ 29~ degrees) and constant pressure Qp is equal to 11,670 calorieso OOlq T + 0.00000222 T2 Let us findthe general expression far Qp (T) as a function of T from the equati?n; b m 50 + o, oolo T Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 is the algebraic sum of stoichiametric co- efficients of our reaction, we have 2(6.,0 + 0.0009} + ~6.~ + a.ooloT} -~ .~ 8 - 0 00197 + 0.0000022272 2 ~ 8. l ) 3 11~. 8~6 + 1,88 T ~ oaoo33 72 - 0.00000 11,.8 73 Substituting the value Qp(T} in equation X17) and integrating, 7 - 0.0000001618 T2 + c Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 .-. 1,88 + 0moo667 ~ O.oooool~~4T2 Substituting into equation X18) values of Qp X298 degrees} and ~ Op, and integrating we have "1'_ + 1 88 + 0.0066 T - Oe000001~1~~72 ~' ~p(~) 11~=670 ? ~~~~ w 11,670 ~. 1.88 x 298 - 000066 2982 + 0.0~ 00001~11~. X 2983 + 2 3 ~ 188 7 + 0.0066 72 _ 0,00000~.1~~ 73 ~~ we 1nK ~ - lll~., S ~b + 1. 88 In T + 0.03 3 T - 0.00000071 T2 RT~ R R R Substituting the values of R and converting to dec~.mal logarithms, we have lgK ~ - 11~ 8~6 + 1 88 lg ~~ .~ 0 7 - 0.0000007. ~ 37 1.956 4. ~7 3 l~. ~7 3 25116, ~. ~ o e 9166 x lg xi ~~ 0.0007 2a.6 7 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 such use of the experimental data the mean.value;C = + 1.71.x. was equation (19~ the experimentally determinedvalue of lg ~. B3'' The integration constant C can be formed by substituting in found. Using this value of C and substituting T ~ 353 degrees we lgxs~6b,78o~ Let us now determine 3lg~,algK_lg~.*1g2 lg K ~ 25116,E ~ o.946b x lg 353. * 0,0007216 x 353 2 - 0,00oooolbl8 x 353 + 1071 In view of the small value of c~?at 80 degrees, we can take as .the total pressure of the gaseous mixture the water vapor pressure which at 8o degrees is equal to 0.l~.82 atmospheres. 3 lg at= ? bb,78o5 - i~b83o + 0.3010 3 lg ~~ - bb,1b25 lg cK.~ - 22.0511 ~ 23 ~ 9.59 ~. ~ 8.828 x 10.23 wherefram ffi p 7114 + 2mla.ll7 + 0?15.7 ?0.02093 ~ 1.71 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 and finally 0.00005 x 353 lg l 001.82 x 8.82 x 10-23j~a.5 x oAli.82 x 8.82 x l0?23) ( ( w 0.01765 lg 1 A [ 2(1g001~,82 + lg 8,82 x 10"23) + ~ (18005 + lg 001,82 + lg 8082 x 10?23) )~ 0, 017 65 ~o. oo _ r 2 (~ 0 6830 + , 9459 } + Ci, 6990 + ~, 6830 + + 2309~.59)]~ ffi 0001765 (o.oU p 68.5857) 000176 x 670~.1~.3 ~ 1,18 volts0 Calculation of theoretical potential on electrolysis at normal pressure (l atmosphere) can be simplit"aged ~.f there is known the equilibrium constant far the required temperature. Tn such case one may start directly from the isotherm equation; Far 80 degrees we have found the value lg K ~ - 66078050 phere .that was adapted. by us, ~to, the actual; pressure of 0.l~.82 at- par~sian of water:. vapor from the conventional :pressure of l atmos- of one atmosphere, while water vapor has a presence of only 00.$2 atmospheres0 Hence i~ is necessary ~o introduce into the obtained value of maximum work a connection, that ie~ 'add the .work of ex- But at 80 degrees only hydrogen and o~~ygen can have a pressure. P A ~ ~ 20303 x1,986 x 3~3(.~6607805) ~ 107,800 calaries0 Substituting the numerical values of R, T. and lgxp, we have the maximum work of the reaction mospheres~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 For two rr~oles of water this work is equal to A~=2RTxln 1 ....~...~= wherefrom Al P ~ 10$,$75_ -- --- ~ 1Q1.8 volts nF x 0.238 Maximum work Ap can be calculated also directly from equation X20), since on the basis of equation X19) ~. ~~.14,8564Z~88Tx23031gT-0,0033 T2 + p ~ 0~0000007~ T3 -2.303 C x RT Taking the value C ~ 1~71~., we have for 80 degrees Ap ~ 107,821 calories Ap ~ 107,821 ~ 1075 ~ 108,8q~ calories E-l.l8volts 5im~.lar computations for an electrolyte temperature of l7 degrees give a theoretical decomposition voltage of 1.23 volts, The theoretical voltage thus decreases with increasing temperature, and the temperature coefficient of electromotive. force of hydrogen-oxygen circuit, within this temperature range is equal to Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 2x2~303x1?986x353x1n 1 0,1;.8 2 0.. 2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 When the temperature coefficient of the electromotive force is known, the theoretical potential can be calculated on the basis. of thermal effect values of the reaction, by using Gibbs-Helmholtz equation Balance of Cell Voltage Tn practice, of course, electrolysis cannot b~ effected in reverse since it is not possible to operate at vanishingly .small c~~rrent densities so as to avoid paver losses by overcoming of a number of harmful resistances, .like overvaltage of gases on electrodes electrolyte resistance, diaphragm resistance, resistance of electrodes' of contacts and the like. Hence the cell voltage always exceedsi to a larger or smaller extent, the theoretical voltage. ~. the cell voltage V, that is, the difference of potentials between the electrodes, is thus equal to the arithmetical sum. of the voltage decrease within the individual areas of the cello where- ~ a and E k are reversible potentials of anode and cathode the sum of which is equal to the theoretical decomposition voltage~a and ~k -- respectively, overvoltage of oxygen on the anode and of hydrogen on the cathode4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 !~. Balance of Voltage Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 - voltage loss in the ,electrolyte. voltage loss in the diaphragm voltage loss in conductors of the first kind - in electrodes voltage loss in contacts concentration polarization Depending upon operational conditions and design of the cell, harmful resistances can be very substantial, as a result of which, the actual cell voltage may exceed the theoretical lad ? 2 times, Most important are losses due to overcoming avervoltage at the electrodes and resistance of the electrolyte? Losses e3 and ?!~, if the cell is properly designed and ade.~ qua~tely maintained, can be very small, Just as small are the values e2 and e5 which ordinarily have no substantial a ~' pr c u~cal sxgnifi? cancer As is known avervaltage of gases is not a constant quantity and depends upon many factors; current densit nature y, of the. electrode surfaces, temperature of the electrolyte material. a of the electrodes,, duration of electrolysis. In the last 20 .ear y s theoretical. electrochemistry,has attained signal successes in the domain of the stud~r of gas overvoltages, nonetheless it has not suaGeeded_fully to establish the theory of dependence, of over? voltage am the above listed factr~rs, ~herofore in estimatin th g e Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 magnitudes of hydrogen and oxygen o uervoltage, it is necessary to resort to experimental data, But experimental data also are of overvoltage, because experimental conditions cannot be readily --- - ---_ relative value and provide but an approximate estimai;e of the duplicated, densities and temperatures on different materials, in the electrolys3:s of a 16 percent solution of .caustic soda, are shown in Tables 22 and Values of hydrogen and oxygen overvoltage at various current' 23. Table 22 Hydrogen overvoltage in a 16 percent solution of caustic soda; in volts Material 06 0.08 0,095 0.01 0,03 0,~~.5 0.055 containing O,ll 0.1.6 0..1.0 0.21, 0,02.. 0,06 0.0$ 0?~.0 Platinized platinum Galvanic nickel, Sulfur Iron, nickel coated 0.25 0.39 0.19 o.5d 0.2~. OQ26 0.30 Iran, .cobalt coated .? .. O,L~2 0,x.7 `..0.20. Oo30 0,36. 0.12 blasted Oo 21 Os31 0,36 0,~~0 o.ll 0,1.5 0.18 0.23 A Nickel, rolled 0.37 a,1~7 0.51 0.55. 0.3 0.39. 0,13 O,1~7 .. Iron, sand .blasted 0.26. 0,3~ 0,39 0.45 0.12 0.18 0,22 0.27 0/3~.~ Nickel steel, sand at 18 degrees at 8o degrees loo 500 lo0a 20ao loa 5oa ~loo0 2000 3500 Current density amp,~m2 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Table 23 Oxygen overvoltage in a In percent solution of caustic. ----s o-da-;-~.~-wits-- Material Galvanic nickel Current density amp.~m2 Current density amp.~,~2 at 18 degrees at 80 degrees 100 X00 1000 2000 100 X00 1000 2000 3500 Nickel steep d blasted 0.3~ 0?40 0,14 0?1~.$ Om25 0?275 OW29 031 0.3~ san Nickel' rolled o~~~ 0.77 oo8z o.8~ 0.31 Oo36 0~~~0 0?~3 Iron, cobalt coated oe31 0.35 0.37 ~.3~ 023 0.2~ 0.27 0.29 ?~ As can be seen from the table overvoltage of both gases, in accordance with the general rule, increases with increasing current .density, lnerease of temperature considerably decreases overvoltage. The overvoltage is affected not only by the material of the eleco trodes but also by the condition of their surface, On rough sur~ .faces, the overvoltage is lower than on smooth and shiny surfaces., Apparently this is connected ,with the fact that the actual working surface of rough electrodes, is considerably greater than their geometrical surface, as a 'xesult ;"ofwhich, an rough surfaces the. less' than on smooth `ones., Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 and the economic factors, one uses. for the cathode soft iron' in values on different materials, metal corrosion in the electrolyte In construction, on taking into consideration the. overvoltage of sand-blast machines; as the anode there is used soft iron gah mast instances treated with sand, to rougheM et surface, -means vanically coated with a mat Layer of nickel9 Voltage Loss in the Electrolyte xri modern practice of water electrolysis there are used as electrolytes excJ.usively, solutions of caustic soda or caustic potash, ss.nce acidic electrolytes cause strong corrosion afthe equipment? The choice of one or the other of these alkalies is determined by working conditions and cast of the alk:alio Usually9 if electrolysis is conducted at less elevated ternperat;ures, caustic potash is used, because under these conditions it has a higher electrical conductivity than caustic sadaa At higher temperatures this advantage of the potassium salt becomes less pronounced. Since caustic potash causes strong corrosion of the equi.pment~ es- pecially at an elevated temperature, and its cost is higher than than of caustic soda it is more exped~.ent to use caustic soda for electrolysis at a., high temperature, Loss of voltage in overcor~ing resistance of the electrolyte can be calcu,~~.ted according to the law of Ohm? Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 squaxe centimeters Actually9 however, voltage decrease in the electrolyte is always somewhat greater than that computed on the basis of Qhm~s law/ This deviation becomes the more pronounced with increasing current density at equal distance bet~reen the electrodesm This is due to the fact that in electrolysis the electro- lyte is filled with ascending gas bubbles which decrease the ac- tive cross section of the electrolyte. Therefore calc~:~,ation of the actual voltage decrease requires the taking into account of the degree of so-called gas saturation of the electrolyte The gas saturation of sn electrolyte is ea~pressed as the ratio (in percent) of gas bubbles volume to the total volume of the electrolyte Cliquid + gas}~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 specific resist~.nce of electrolyte current intensity distance between electrodes in cross section of the electrolyte in Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Table 2~~ Specific resas~ance of aqueous solui~ions of caustic Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ,,~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ' +, s.. ,~ ,, ,,t }f ;,, Gas saturation depends on current density, temperature of ~ ,; i r electrolyte' size of gas bubbles, cell design, and is de- the ~ ~~ +.Arm;ned experimentally. ~ r -figure-77~~ewe the-r~la~-iv? ; nrreas~ o~ electrolyte re- ~ w, ~? ~C ~ ~. sistance a.t various degrees. of gas ~a~r~:t~:on. As can be seen v 7. Y the di.a ramw this factor is of substantial importa7icem Thus ~ - ,M from ~_ `~ _~. ,..,., c,~+,~,a~.;~n r,~ ~~ percent the resistance i5 increased. to a value equal twice that of the electrolyte free of gas bubbles.. 4 5 Voltage Lass in the electrolyte, as is apparent from equation (22), is proportional to its specific resistance. Con- sequently. it is very important to use ari electrolyte of least re$1sta.nceQ Coe ic~.en~ o~'"~resis ante increase Figure 7'lo Effect of gas saturation on electrolyte resistance 1 -measured resistance; 2 -calculated resistance Table 21~ shows the values of specific resistance of caustic alkali solutions at various concentrations and different tem- peratures. This table shows that with increasing temperature the value of minimum specific resistance is shifted toward the more concentrated Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-0003980001 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 of electrical current, .that is, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 solutions. Consequently, selection of concentration of the solution having least resistance must be made in accordance with the prop -po~e~pe~-a-tuz e ?f ~;~~,.+~~~-~r-r-e~-e-e~t-~.-e-p~s-~ duction of hydrogen and. oxygen at 60-6~ degrees, there are used 25-2g percent solutions of caustic potash or 16-1~ percent so- lutions of caustic sodao Power and Material Balance Power Expenditure and Yield on Electrical Current Basis P~~Zagnitude of electrical pawe~? is proportional to voltage and amount of electricity Tt follows that the theoretical expenditure of electrical power per cubic meter of hydrogen and 0. K cubic meters of oxygen at 0 degrees and 760 millimeters of mercury pressure, is 1.23 2 x 96,00 x 1000 = 2.95 Kilowatt-hour. 22.E x 3,600 x 1000 wherein 1.23 is the theoretical reversible voltage of water de- The actual power expenditure. is considerably greater than the theoretical, which is primarily due to the higher voltage of the cell and also to the somewhat greater expenditure of electricity in com- parison. with the theory. The ratao.(in percent) of the theoretical f substance, forinstance of 1 moles of, oxygen, to the amount ps required according to Faradays law for Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 The yield an the basis of electrical current of an electro- chemical process characterizes the process from the sta ndpoint of efficacious utilization of electricity and. the talon 'n g ~. to account of electricity losses in el.ectrachemical and chemical side-reactions within the cell+ We have seen previously that the basic electrochemical pro- cess -- discharge of H+ and OHS- ions, is not accom anied b p y any side reactions; therefore yield on the current bas's ' i in this in- stance depends solely on efficiency of separation of the ases and g absence of leaks of electricity, Sn modern designs and installations these losses are ne li- g Bible (not in excess of 1 percent) and only in cells of the old types (filter press, bipolar) lasses due to electrical leaks were substantial and reached 10 percent, Thus, in practice, power expenditure is given by the equation In view of the high yields, on the basis of electrical. cur- rent, which render the value of A appraximal equal to one power. expenditure may be considered, for every practical pur ose a p , s being dependent only on the cell voltage. We have ahead sta Y ted thai; expenditure of over ' p ce11 voltage exceeds the theoretical: by 1,~-2 times, and the a dual ~ygen at 0 degrees and. 760 milla met;er f in Kilowatt-hours per one cubic meter of hydrogen and 0~~ cubic meters of o . s o mercury; fluctuates wi~thi~n the range of ~.. to 6 5 Kilowatt-haurs~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Foundation of one cubic meter of hydrogen and 0.~ cubic s of .o en under normal conditions, uses_up, in theory, 805. meter xyg Actually, expenditure of water in ~~.e e -1 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 hawever somewhat greater because hydrogen and oxygen withdrawn from. the cell carry with them water vapors. Tf the temperature in the cell is t, the pressure of moist gases P atmospheres, and the pressure of water vapor above the electrolyte of a given concentration at t is equal to p atmos~ pheres, the amount of water vapor carried away by the gases can be calculated as follows; The voll~ne, in liters, of l male of hydrogen and 0.5 mole of oxygen, under the given conditions~is, v ~ (22.4 + 11.2) X273 ~ t) 760 273 (~' ? p) The weight of l liter of water vapor, in grams, under the same conditions is, or, the amount of water vapor, in grams, which is carried out of the cell by the gases per one cubic meter of hydrogen at no anal conditions Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ~~~?~ ~ 11.?} l8 x p x 1000 22.?~ x 22.l~ (P - p} P ? p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Thus the amount of water vapor removed with the gases will be greater with higher cell. temperature, which determines the volume V of .the gases evolved, and also the pressure of saturated water vapor over the electrolyte. The amount of water vapor re- moved, will be smaller with increasing pressure of the gases in the cell and with increasing concentration of the electrolyte, factors determining the boiling temperature of the electrolyte and depression of water vapor pressure, Boiling temperature curves of solutions of caustic soda and caustic potash of various concentration are shown in figure 7~0 caustic?soda ands- potash .upon' concentration; , Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 the water expended in the decomposition Ta compensate r va or it is necessary to intro ved. with .the gases as Ovate p m o and re inuousl additional: amounts uce into the ce , e-~~~-s-e-r--~oxt ~ d t o to the ce1.1 must be previously puz'~-died of water. ~'ater added ~.n o t s l ? xed 3.m urines and dissolved mineral sa remove mechanscally adm~. p d either by distillation or by elects- This is usually eff ecte ~, ~ ater is considered suitable for use tin osmotic pur~.f 1Gation. w cific resistance is not less than 60 electrolysis 1f its spe sidue content not more than 7 milli- thousandohms and the .dry re grams per liter. Heat Balance of theme ' rin the balance of voltage and power eX? On conside g 60-~0 percent of the electrical penditure, we have seen that only cell is expended for decomposition of water. energy supplied to the consumed in overcoming internal reM The remainder of this energy, ? utes a loss and is given off in form of heat s~.stances, const~.t amount of heat evolved, ~, increases with within the cell. The e and with increasing current intensity; increasing cell voltag . cause excessive overheating of the cell. it can be so great as to 's available to auxiliary cooling by pro- To avoid this, recourse i ? water cooling jacket, or more commonly, viding the cell a 'Z Thus excess heat is dissipated and with a water cooling coy. re is regulated to maintain it at the electrolyses temperatu conditions the heatregimen of a cell. desired level. Under ,.such,..,, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 wherein - heat consumed in heating the feed water to electrolysis temperature - heat consumed in evaporation. of water - heat removed with the hydrogen and oxygen heat lost to the .surrounding medium 1.23 x nF;x 0x.238 calories (27~ ;reversible theoretical vo~.tage of water decomposition, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 At constant temperature of electrolysis, and of the surrounding medium, q~, q3, q~ and q5 are constants and con- sequently q~ which determines expenditure of cooling water depends upon the amount of heat Q, generated in the cell, Tt would appear that ~ should be equivalent to the difference between the amount of electrical energy, actually expended in the cell, and that theoretically required for the decomposition of water, Energy expended is equal to W~ V x nF x 0 238 calories (26) where V is cellvoltage. Energy theoretically required for decomposition of water is equal to the .maximum work of the hydrogen-oxygen galvanic celh, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 or the electramotive foxce of the hydrogen-oxygen cell. nF(V) - 1.23 0.238 calories (28) However, this correlation is but a specific instance, which holds where maximum work performed by the system, is nu- merically equal to the total change of the internal energy of the system, that a.s, to the, thermal effect of the reaction, In other wards, when in the equation of dependence of maximum work. and thermal effect A..q+q (~9) q is equal. to zero In our case, at 2~ degrees and 1 atmosphere, the thermal effect of the reaction A 1.,23 x nP' x 0,23$ ~ 1.23 x 2.x 96,000 x a.238~ ;6,;60 calories. amounts to ? 68 330 calorie,s~ Whereas maximum work is Hence Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Hence, Q must be equal to Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 also enere.tes the amount of heat q = 11,770, calories per l but g mole of watero Consequently in the reverse process -- electrolysis water --~ there will be expended nat only the electrical energy of Wl but also absorbed the. heat q, Therefore the amount of heat liberated in the cell V x nF x Oe238 _ (1,23 x nF x 0.238 + q) y y V x nF x Oa238 - 68,330 calories Expressing, for convenience of calculation, the subtrahend in units of the same dimensions as the minuend, we have ~ = V x nF x 0238 ~ 1~G8 x nF x 0.238 = nF x 0?238 (~ - 1.~~8) Substituting the amount of electricity nF by current intensit and multiplying by 3600 (number of seconds in an hour} Y, we have the hourly amount of liberated heat (in calories hour) ~ x 3boo x 0.238 (~ - 1?~8) ~ z x 0,8;6(v - 1,~8) (30} 1,000 we see that the amount of heat generated depends only on current intensity and cell voltage and increases in proportion, to their increase. ~,~hus the conclusion can be arrived at, that should it be ossible to conduct decomposition of water at reverse potential p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-0003980001 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 d o erate endothermacally and in order to maintain 1.~3 the cell woul p ' it would be necessary to supply-external. the the rural e qu.~.llbri um . 0 calories (q) for..each mole. of water .heat ~n the amount of 11,77 decomposed, rind les of Design .and Operation of Cells for water P _~?- he roblem of any efficiently run production, besides '~ P conditions and obtaining a high quality providing best working ' 'n minimum production expenses, that is, least product, ~.s attalna. g of roducts obtained, Production costs in the present case cost p ' of ex enditures for electrical power, labor consist essentially P a es re airs and amortization of the equipment. It is necessary wg , P for such a regimen of the technological process at which to str~,ve ure of electric power, which constitutes the primary factor, expendit determines the cost of electrolysis, is at a man~.mum? The which lar e volumetric output, they must be cheap and cells must have g maintained, Fulfi 1lrr~rst of these conditions constitutes be read~~.~' ver cam 1ex technolog~.ca1 problem, which as far from being com- a y P a d if we bear in rnirld that utila~ataon of power stall pl~,tely solve , fluctuates at only about 5~ percent. From the foregoing at fa L1ows that power expenditure must be affected by overvoltage at electrodes, gas saturation very of electrolyte and its resastance? Decrease of overvoltage can be ' c eosin electrolysis temperature, by selection of ach~.eved by ~.n r g the~~electrodes, and by decreasing current density. suitable material. ,for Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 vet increase of temperature, under conditions of electrolysis Howe , atmos heric ressure, is limited,. as is apparent from the at .normal p P diagram shown in figure 78, by the boiling temperature of the trot to and increased corrosion of iron parts of the cell. elec. y Selection of electrode material is also limited by economic factors, 'n tactics the cells are constructed solely of steel and iron and i p coated within individual areas with nickel. ~1'he most expedient measure, .therefore, is decreasing current densit at the electrodes, which in practice is attained by various Y constructive embodiments and electrode processing methods, intended to provide increased surfa.ces~ ~~hus, .for example, the electrodes are subjected to sand blasting; the cathodes are coated with molten oxides of iron which on reduction form a layer of spongy iron, or, final/ the electrodes are galvanically coated with iron or nickel Y~ containing sulfur, and with metallic alloys? Gas saturation can be decreased by increasing the distance between the electrodes and decreasing current densitya But both these measures cannot be considered efficacious since the first by increasing ohmic resistance of the electrolyte correspondingly increases power expenditure, while the second decreases output of the cell, One strives to decrease gas satura~ri.on by a choice of an of fec~~ive form of the electrodes and by an increase of electro- lyte circulation velocity, so as to remove rapidly the gas bubbles from the path of-the current. It has also been proposed to add cer- tain ingredients to the electrolyte, for instance to add finely powdered graphite, in the presence of which small gas bubbles com- bins into larger ones and are more rapidly removed from the electrolyteo Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 sis under increased pressure also decreases gas saturation, Electroly m' c resa.sta.nce of the electrolyte is achieved, Decreased oh a. choice of a solution concentration havj-ng maximum con- bes~des the ' ased electrolysis temperature by lessening the ductiva.ty and a.ncre t een electrodes But since shorter distance between distance be w ' ceases as saturation, perforated or reticulate elec- electrodes inc g sed in these cases so us to render them permeable ~ trodes are u .gases. 2? Electrode types The great variety of electrode des~.gns for use in ~~en cells w} have been proposed and are used in electrolysis hydrab , racta.ce is due prec:t.sely to efforts aimed at attainment of minimum p ex enditure with concomitant increase of the output of the cell. power p us review the most important designs which have found utilization Let in practice. Simple plate Electrodes An electrode of most primitive design consists of a smooth Iran sheet from l.~ to 2 millimeter thick with twa iron rods d on which are used to suspend the electrode in the cell and welde , e current, Such a construction being mast simple is of to conduct th ' from the standpoint of measures tending to decrease poor efficiency v to e Gas saturation, on use of such electrodes, will be very of g . substantial? it wi71 be the more pronounced the greater the current he hei ht of the electrode. Therefore such electrades density and t g are of small height which must not exceed one half of their length accent density at the electrades must also be low (from 200 to 300 C ampere per square meter).. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 The electrode (figure 79) consists of two flat parallel sheets, provided for added strength with embossed r'b ~. s e The sheets are 2 mill~.meters thick, the distance bei~ween t he sheets is b millimeters, Tine size of the sheets is 100 , 0 x 1000 m~.ll~.- metcrse An iron rod is riveted to the sheets for sus en ' p there, Current is supplied through a capper bus bare Considerable height of the electrode unavoidably increases gas saturation especially in the upper part of the cell, were it eat for the fact that the des~,gn of the electrode promotes. circulation of the electrolyte along the workin surfac g e of the e~.ectrode. The working faces of the electrode are on]. its outer y surfaces; the inner surfaces are inactive, and the electrol to be- Y tween the sheets remains free of gas bubbles, The d e nsity of the electrolyte at the outer surfaces of the electrode becomes lower 3 due to the presence of gas bubbles, than that of the e lectralyte between the sheets. Hence electrolyte between the .sheets flow downward, forcing the electrolyte at the outer surf aces to rise. upward and carry the gas bubbles out of the path of the .current. Thus the design of the double electrode promotes decreased gas saturation. This however is still ins uff~.cxent for achieving a considerable voltage reducing effect within the electrolytic bath and for that reason electrodes of this t e a yp re used with low current densities (about 100 am eyes er p p square meter)e Figure 79. Double plane electrode, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 In electrodes of this type an attempt. is made to the working surface of the electrode thereby decreasing decrease rent densit + Zaininary electrode (figure $0) the effective cur y ? f vertically disposed parallel narrow iron strips 1. consa.sts o are dis osed at an equal distance from one anather~ mhe p 'ch is attained by means of iron rings 2 located between there, why. the stri s are held together as`a unit with halts 3? The A.ll p ode is suspended on iron rods I~ which serve also to con- electr ;l the current. ~ Some e7 ectrodes of this type consist of a duc, ~ lar e number (up to 360) strips. An electrode 1100 milli- very g meters long and 96~ millimeters high, consisting of 360 strips, 22 millimeters wide a,nd 0.~ millimeters thick has an effective surface of 18.32 square meters, that is exceeds nine times the surf ace of an electrode of identical lengths and height, but shaped in the farm of a flat sheet. Current density on such an electrode varies over its surface. It reaches highest value at the end surf aces of the stri~s and decreases with increasing distance from end toward p the middle portion of the strips Therefore the mean density of current on the electrode decreases not nine times in .comparison with the plate electrodes but somewhat less, but is still con- lower. Use of laminary electrodes apparently also siderably decreases somewhat gas saturation of the electrolyte in the ath of the current and by so doing also promotes voltage decrease p in the cell. In view of their extensive surface area larr~inary electrodes ermit application of a considerably higher density p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 of current, up to 1,00 amperesper one square meter of geometric o'ection, that is, about five times .more than that of a simple pr J plane electrode Figure 80~ Laminary electrodes l - iron slats; 2 -iron rings; 3 -bolts; ~. - iron rods, and as current conductorso Welded to both sides of the bars are iron strips disposed at a certain angle with respect to the ver- cross section terminated at their upper end by circular cross section rods, These bars are used as supports of the electrode is eliminated, The electrode consists of two iron bars of square lower. xn the louvered electrode (figure 8l} this disadvantage the upper paxtion of the cell is considerably greater than in the Louvered Electrodes In all of the hitherto described electrodes the. as saturation increases with decreasing distance from the sur- g .face of the electrolyte, and the resistance of the electrode in ~~ ti cal axis of the barsp The straps. are positioned one underneath the other in close proximity, so that they are separated from one another by narrow slanted slits,. Gas bubbles on detaching them- selves from the strip rise upwards and impinging upon .the next-above strip, slide along its inclined surf ace into the inner space. of the electrode within which they then rise to the surface of the electra- lyte. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Figure 82. Perforated electrode. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 .Thus, in theory, no gas bubbles.enterthe tween consecutive electrodes -- anode and cathode, and are sa pletely removed from the path of the currents In the path of the current between strips there are present but a few bubbles, and their number is practically the same at the lower and at the upper portion of the electrodes This arrangement unquestionably greatly decreases the harmful effect of gas saturation. In addition there takes place circulation of the electrolyte, upwards inside the .electrode and downwards between two consecutive. electrodes,-which further facilitates rapid elimination of gas from the electrolytes Finally, the increase ~_n comparison with a plane surface of the electrode induces decreased current density, All this makes it possible when the number of strips is extensive to utilize with such electrodes current den- shies up to 2500 amperes per square meter of geometrics.l pro- jection of the electrode. A shortcoming of the louvered elec- trade as well as of the laminary electrode is complexity of con- structions Perforated Electrodes The desire to simplify and to render less costly manufacture of electrodes while retaining at the same time the advantages of electrodes of extensive surface and permeable to gases, has led to the construction of perforated electrodes. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Such an electrode (figure 82) consists of two iron Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 sheets welded to two iron bars which serve to suspend the electrode and to conduct the current. The iron sheets are 3 millimeters thick. and are perforated with a great number of circular apertures.. Although it would appear that perforation would de- crease the surface of the electrode, it is possible by adequate selection of apertures diameter and distances between them to at- tain an increase of the working surface, since in the punching out of the holes a new lateral surface is formed, ~ Furthermore perfor- anion makes possible utilization of 'the back side of the sheets which increases the overall working area of the electrode in com- parison with a plane one, On a perforated electrode a consider- able portion of the gas passes into the inner space of the elec- trode and there talces place intensified circulation of the electro- lyte This decreases gas saturation in the zone between adjacent electrodes and permits to place them more closely together, thereby decreasing the resistance of the electrolytem Removal of gases into the internal space, utiliza~ Lion of the reverse side, induced circulation and especially close proximity of the electrodes make it possible to use current den- sities up to 200 amperes per square meter of electrode projectiono In addition an advantageous feature of perforated electrodes is their greatly simplified manufacture in comparison with laminary and louvered electrodes, In other designs the same principles are utilized and. they differ only in cotastructional features.. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Separation of the Gases .Y.,.....,..d...... --- -~...~....... By means of electrolysis completely pure gases can be produced. This requires only a careful separation of hydrogen and oxygen, thereby precluding contamination of one gas by the other as a result of mechanic mixture or of di.ffusa.on. Separation of the gases is importa?lt not only because it is necessary to produce therr>. in a pure state., but also because a question of safety is involved namely avoidance of detan.a~ting gas farmat7.on, The s~.mplest method of gas separation consists in the use of wide, deeply immersed belts as is shown in figure 83. Elec- trodes 1 arad 2 are located inside the iron bells ~ and ~. which are deeply immersed in the electrolyte. To prevent evolution of gases on the external surfaces of the bells, the electrodes are provided with insulators ~~ The generated gases rise vertically, enter the bells and are removed separately through suitable gas outlet pipes, Such a scheme though dependable and simple is not expedient for large industrial cellsa Wide bells make it necessary to space the electrodes wide apart and in addition by shielding a large portion of the electrodes lengthen the path of the current. This causes great losses of voltage in overcoming resistance of the electrolyte figure 83o Separation of gases by means of bells; l and 2 a electrodes; 3 and L~ -iron bells; ~ -insulators Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 For this reason in the large modern cells there is used for separation of the gases, only a diaphragm, that is a porous partition, readily permeable to ions but impermeable to small gas bubbles. The electrodes, as this is shown in figure 8Z~, are still placed inside of bells l and 2; the lower part of the bells is immersed in the electrolyte but the height of the bells is con- siderably smaller. At the lower end of one of the bells, and in some cases of every bell, there is provided a bag-like porous diaphragm 3 which completely surrounds the electrodes In such an arrangement the electrodes can be placed considera'aly closer together, and still the gases practically da not mix if the diaphragm is in good working condition, It is merely necessary to make certain that the electrolyte level in the cel_1 does not drop below the rim of the bell and the diaphragm does not pro- Crude above the electrolytes Otherwise the gases diffuse readily through the diaphragms Figure 8~.~ Separation of gases by means of diaphragm. ., r. ~...... r....,....... 1 and 2 -bells; 3 m poroas diaphragms Diaphragms used for the separation of gases must meet the following prerequisites; (1) Possess low electrical resistance (2) Be sufficiently dense to preclude passage of gas bubbles through the diaphragm (3) Be sufficiently strong mechanically (~.) Be chemi- ally resistant toward the electrolyte. Asbestos diaphragms; The above listed conditions are ~,.,, IWaY ~~, ~?zgYk ,~P n w~~ 1tu?' rt'r'r~s q^r P'W~'~`udrq Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 he li:t'e of ar asbestos diaphragm is usually of several T ~~ ~ation 3-~ or more) if the diaphragm is not subjected in yearn dur ( of its use to drastic mechanical action, which may take the course exam le as a result of hydrogen and oxygen pressure fluc- pldce fol p tuations. Metal diaphragms; Much less frequently porous metal ms are used, xn practice diaphragms of thin nickel foil d~.aphrag nte,ininJ a large number of small apertures (800-1100 apertures co 6 centimeter square) are being utilized Such a diaphragm is per b electroplating methods? Nickel is deposited by electro- made y rt'n on a co per matrix the surface of which is covered with plC~ a. g p minute recesses. The matrix is coated with an in- sulatin varnish which fills the recesses. When the varnish has g dried it is scraped off the surface but is re~ta.ined in 'the recesses. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 . asbestos fabric, which is used almost exclusively mo s~ fully met by In the r~,nufacture of strong asbestos fabric there in modern cells. ~ali resistant long fiber asbestose The best grade is used puxe, alk d rocessed ~+crude" asbestos with fibers from is considered to be han p 'meters long. From the long fibers can be made a strong l~ to ~~ m~.lla- hich the asbestos fabric is kToven. The fabric must yarn, out of w ven must appear opaque when viewed against the light be closely wo , ess su:ffi_oient tensile strength? Tn most cases single ar~d pops ave fabric from l.~ to ~ millimeters thick is adequate? plain we beau r dut~ there is used double twill weave fabric from Fox more ~ Y ~ ' lliraeters thicken Sometimes for increased mechanical ~ to 3,, m.1 weft thresds are reinforced with nickel wire 0.16 strength the v millimeters in diameter. Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 'x is then nickel-plated. zn the course of this operation the matri 'ckel is deposited upon the entire surf ace of the matrix ex- the n~. t the Dints retaining tY~e varnish caatirlg, The nickel cept a p d surface is then slightly oxidized and on the o~.dized sur- plate e the diaphragm foil is then produced, and can be readily re- fac ved therefrom? Nickel diaphragms are stronger than asbestos mo dia hragms but by the action of the electrolyte ;hey also are p ected and require periodic overhauling which is adversely off effected by fastening patches aver the damaged areas. metal diaphragms on breaking down may cause short cir- ultin of the electrodes, and are in this respect less satin- c g cto than those made of asbestos. For this reason it is f a ry dangerous to place the electrodes very close togetherq Cooling, Washing and Rego-ati~ne Pressure of the Gase s The gases leave the cell at a temperature of 60 ded rees-80 degrees, and carry with them, as wa.s pointed out pre g viously considerable amounts of water vapor. Moreover together with the water vapors there are being entrained particles of the electrolyte in the f orrr~ of m~,nute droplets and of alkaline mist. Since removal, with the gases, of large armu.nts of va or would cause ~.ncreased expenditure of distilled water, while p removal. of electrolyte -~ incz?eased expenditure of caustic, an effort is made to cool the gases ~.mmediately upon egress from the cell On cooling the greatest part of the vapor condenses and flaws ba.clt into the cell. To attain this, cooling with water is resorted to of the covers or of the bells under which the gases Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 collect, gas outlet pipes are made sufficiently long, and finally the gas is made to bubble through a layer of cold feed water, In the 1G.tter treatment, purification of the gases tapes place simul- taneously from a considerable portion of the alkali contained therein and equalization o~f pressures within the hydrogen and the oxygen c~m- partments of the cell? Differences of gas pressure in the cel..1. can arise as a result of various conditions; for example, different resistances in the pipe manifolds, formation of liquid seals in the pipes, unequal rate of gas removal, and so forth, At tree same time maintenance of a caristant pressure of the gases is of great importance, since ex~ cessive pressure increase of one gas within the bell, may cause lowering of the electrolyte level below the rim of the bell, ex~ posing the diaphragm, or even project the electrolyte aver the .rim of the cell, Exposure of the diaphragm, as pointed out previously, will cause mixing of the gases, with possible formation of an ex- plosive mixture, pn the other hand, frequent and drastic fluc- tuation of gas pressure by subjecting the diaphragm to excessive mechanical action will result in its rapid deterioration. Hence regulation of the gas pressure is most important, It can be effected for each individual cell, or more commonly, fora given group of cells Figure 85 shows diagramn~atica.lly a hydraulic gas pressure regulator in which scrubbing of gases also takes place. The regulator consists of two vessels l and 2 connected at their hydrogen flaw through connecting pipes into the vessels of the bottom by a ,junction pipe and filled with water, Qxygen and Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 h a layer of water, pass into e ulator and after bubbling throug r g ~ es the pressure of for ipes ? If in the collector pa-p the colleC p on the s a change, this has no effect up one of the gases undergoe es within the bells of the cell. pressure of the gas draulic regulator of gas pressure? ~; pure 8~. Hy 1 and 2 ~ connected vessels ressure of the hydrogen increases9 If far exsnlple the p asel 2, through the junction pipes grater will be expelled from ve ssels there will be established, a Into vessel le xn the ve d which w~-11 caunterbale~nCe the pressure difference in level ese con- h drogen and axygeno But under th di~'ference between y in vessel 1, through a layer of ditions the oxygen ~~- bubble bile h drogen in vessel 2, through 11 uid having the height K, w Y q ressure e h ~, d ~ k, it is obvious that the p a layer hs f the remain the same for both gases I w-l, the bells well . een the vessels is of sufficiently large betty water from one vessel into the other can diameters the flow of tus.tion 'dl that no appreciable pressure floc take place so rape Y will occur within the bellsm ~., ~Jater Feed of the Cells asitian of the water, the level of Because of the decomp nd e cell drops continuously and may desce the electrolyte in th l t y e ,t if the cell is not being adequa L _, .... ~~o r,F~rmi_ ssible lzm~. ~ Fresh feed water. xn small installations tine ~~ ~,~-, supplied with rs h s ou ' +e~,v.ttently at intervals of several. water can be added ~.n ~ b the ' ~e of the cell Volume not filled y depending upon the s~ Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ctrol e. Small periodic changes of alkali concentration in the ele ~ electrolyte are of no importance since the resistance of the electro- lyte is altered but littlea This method, however, becomes impracticable in large instal- lations. In these, addition of water is made automatically. This is done by providing the cells with float controlled level regu? lators. A common water supply pipe is installed alongside the cells fram which individual conn.ection.s lead to each. cell Water flows into the cell from a pressure tank. Depending upon the position of the electrolyte level., the float opens or closes the water intake pipe? Far simplicity of operation, a single float actuated regulator is provided far an entire group of cell s Tn such a case the float is contained in a separate vessel con netted with the cells .by means of a system of pipes. Into ~h~3 vessel flows the water from the pressure tank; the water level in the vessel is maintained by the regulator at the same height as that of the electrolyte in the cells. This simplification is inconvenient in this respect that it may cause forcing of the electrolyte into tha feed system and its passage into other cells. To avoid this it is expedient to install the feed pipes above the cells and to provide inlet pipes extending downward into each cell almost to its bottom. Feed and automatic regulation of the electrolyte level in the cells which are hermetically closed by means of a cover, can be readily attained by using a pressure regulator the design of which is shown diagrammatically in figure 86. Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Feed Water Figure 86~ Diagram of regulation of the electrolyte level __.. in the cells 1 and 2 - gas bubblers Feed water in the necessary amount is periodically charged' or continuously introduced, into the pressure regulator from which it passes through the pipes into the cel]-, The gas bubblers 1 and 2, are positioned in the regulator at a height approximately equal to that at which it is desired to maintain the electrolyte level in the Bello The level of the electrolyte in the cell w~.ll be below that of the bubblers by a height difference equal to ~ h. The value of L~ h depends an the density of the electrolyte and the location of the feed pipe outlet and does not depend on the water level and gas pressure in the regulataro xndee d~ let us consider the pressure in the pipes to the left and to the right of the section f, assuming that the pressure Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 of the gases in the regulator is equal to atmospheric Pressure of the gases in the cell, with a scrubbing height h and a density of the feed water r~' is Then the pressure at section f from the left hand side' ~ is the density of the electrolyte, will be p ~ ~, atma sphere ~ h ~' ~ h' 1 ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ } f and the pressure from the right hand side; p o , ~ l atmosphere ~ h~ ~ hl ~' ~ 33 ~ f At the state of equilibrium when the liquid does nat flow in either direction, we have that is, the level of the electrolyte in the cell wall tend to be equal. with. that of the bubbler with decreasing difference between Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 'n the regulator and that of the electrolyte, density of solutyon ~. asin height h ~ that is the distance of the and also decre g 1 he cell from the level of the bubblers. feed outlet zn t d ~ are equal, the level of the electrolyte When ~ an t exceed that level since wall be that of the bubblers, but canno ? A drop of the electrolyte level be- canriat be greater than ~ . 'cannot occur, because disruption of the state low the height hl ' be immediately compensated by inflow of water of eq~.librium w~.ll which will take place until the water level from the regula,tar, 'n the regulator drops below that of the bubblers a ndustrial Cells for the Electr 1ys~ o, B? l Industrial Cell Types and Their Classification 1? -._.w? the ractice of electrolytic production of hydrogen In p are being utilized, cells of widely different and oxygen there 'n s ite of thea.r apparent dissimilarities can be designs, which ~, p ted into several groups on the basis of design characN segrega teristics common to all members of each group. Cells of all types can be divided into two basic groups bi olar. The common feature of all cells in each monapolar and p ' he s stem of connecting the cell electrodes to the group ~,s t y electrical circuit. afar cells (figure 87) have a number of parallel Monap es 1 One half of these electrodes is connected in electrod to the ositive terminal of electrical circu~.t. These parallel p 'cute the anodes. The other half is connected in electrodes canstl Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 the same manner with the negative terminals these electrodes serve as cathodes xn such a connection system, each electrode considered separately has but one polarity, that is, constitutes either an anode or a cathode. Figure 87, Diagram of a monopolar cells Z ~ electrodes; Current intens~.ty in the cell is proportional to current density and the surface of all the electrodes of the same polarity9 while the cell voltage is deter~~.ned by the difference of potential of one pair of electrodes ( cathode and anode) , Therefore the characteristic electrical feature of monopolar cells is the fact that current intensity in such cells is always many hundred and even thousand times greater than the voltage Bipolar cells figure 88), the same as monopolar, have a number of parallel electrodes 1, which are, however, connected to the circuit in series Current is conveyed on1.y to the terminal electrodes, ~ the anode 2 and the cathode 3. Fxom the anode the current flows to the electrolyte, is transferred by the ions to the intermediate electrode 1, imparting to it a negative charge passes through it and from its opposite side enters again the electrolyte, imparting to this opposite side of the electrode a positive charge. Thus the current flows through the entire cell anal reaches cathode 3. The terminal electrodes 2 and 3 are thus monopolar, while all the intermediate electrodes are bipolar, that is, one side of each of them operates as a cathode and the other as an anode Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 bipolar trodes? 2 - anode; 3 - cathode; ~ - sectionb elec ~ Figure $~? Diagram of bipalar cell: in a bipolar cell depends only on current Current lnter~slty the surface of one morLOpolar electrode (anode or density and t de end upon the number of bipolar electrodes. cathode) and does no p the other hand depends an the difference of Voltage of the cell on tween consecutive electrodes and is directly propor~ potential be ber of aiz~s of cathodes and anodes. 2f the tonal to the num p . _ ntial between anode and catl~.ode is equal to 2 d.~.ffer~;ncc of pote -caa.e of the cell shown in figure 8a is equal volts then the vol ~; -ta 2 x 6 ~ 12 volts ? ? cells the characteristic electrical feature is In b;~polay ' valta~e is several times ten, or even several the fact that thea.r a r over that of monapolar cells, ,chile current ~~,:~mes one hund_eds considerably smallor. Thus the electrical ~.ntens~.ty is usuall,~ ' olar cells exceeds that of monopolar cel7.s by a capacity of bap several. tames ten factor. ar and bipalar cells can be divided into bar cell-s Monopol ~n~ s cells, Monopolar cells are almost exclusively and f~.lter ~,~es of the bar type. essential portion of box cells 9.s a container of any The holdin the electrolyte, rota which are immersed sua.table shape, g The container can be open at the top (in which the electrodes. e is in contact with the atmosphere) or closed case the electrolyt s are mare complex in construction and of by a cover.. Clawed cell Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 mare costly production than the open ones, but in them losses of gas are smaller, the electrolyte is protected from impurities (car- bonization by carbon dioxide of the air), and it is possible to pro- duce in them the gas~;s under higher pressure, The conta~.r~er9 or bax, 2 of monopolar. cells (figure 8?) is made of iron and must meet only the prerequisites of mechanical and chemical durability, Monopolar electrodes of ane of either signs may be in contact with the bax, but the box should not be in contact with both the cathodes s,nd the anodes? The bax of a bipolar cea.l (figure 88) must be ~r~~de nonce conducting for the electrical currents The electroces must part~.tion the space within the box into a number of sections ~.~ inslz.lated from one another, and which can be connected only through narrow gas channels and channels fax the introduction of feed water into the sections. Construction of such boxes is costly and comW plicated, The essential parts of a filter-press bipolar cell (figure 8q) are the steel frames 1, rectangular or circular in crosses sectiona and the bipolar electrodes 20 The electrodes are located between the frame; and are separated from them by insulating and sealing gaskets 3, Frames and electrodes tightly drawn to- gether by means o:F bolts and forma single cell unit composing any given number of electrodesv Further classification of monopolar cela.s can be made by type of electrodes, thus subdividing them into cells with simple plane electrodes and cells complex electrodeso The latter group cornpases most monopolar box cells, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 i ure 89. Diagram of filter press cell: 1 ~- steel F ~,,.~...,.~.~ fraanes; 2 -bipolar electrodes; 3 ~ sealing gaskets ~. ~ola.r filter press cells can be further. subdivided into B~ . cells without external circulation. Final~.y cells of all types can be divided in~tra cel~,s operating at normal atmospheric pressure, or at a pressure a roa:imately equal thereto, and cells operating at high pressures. pp 2. Monopolar Cel:Ls with S:t.mple ~Electrs Cell with 'lane wElectr `maternal appearance of a cell with plane electrodes and its internal configuration are shown ~.n figure 90. In an Iran ba~x eleetrades 1 are disposed in parallel relation made from :Lane smooth, sheet iron having a thickness of 2 to 3 m~.lli~ p s me; ters. The anodes are ccaated electrol'yt~.cally with a layer of nickel 'to pral;ect the ~.ron :from anodic o:cidatian and ~to deco^ease o en overvoltage, which is less an nickel than on iron, '.Che xYg electrodes are sus~aended from iron rods 2 connecting them to 'the collecting bells 3 w}~ich in their turn are supported by lugs on the rim of the box. Rods 2 also serve to conduct the current and are insulated froze the bellso Figure 90. Cell with plane eleetrades; 1 -electrodes; 2 .. 3.ron rods; 3 -~ bells; ~ -asbestos diaphraglr~s; 5~ pipe, 6 - manifold pipe lines, Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 The manner of suspending the electrodes and insulating them from the beJ1s is shown more in detail in figure 9ld Ta the bell 1 there is welded a spacer tube 2, inside of this extends sus- pension support 3, enclosed in insulator tune ?~. Bottom and top of the suspension support are covered bar insulating collars ,~ and 6, The electrode is fastened by means of nuts 7 between which is held the current conveying bus bar $~ Fie 9l? Suspensi.on of plane electrode: 1 ? bell; -~ iron spacing tube; 3 ? support; ~ ? isolator. tube; ~ and 6 - isolation bushings; 7 a nut; 8 ? bus bar? To effect separata.on of gases the cathodes are sur- rounded by asbestos diaphragms ~. (figure 9Q7 fastened to the bottom rim of the hydrogen bells and depending therefrom in the foz~rl of open-bottom bags? Bells 3 are immersed into the electrolyte; gas pressure within them must be such as to maintain the elecj:roM lyte within the bell at 5-7 centimeters above the lower insula~ Lion collarv Hydrogen and oxygen rising vertically called under the corresponding bells and pass through the outlets into col- lecting pipes ~ and frorn these into the manifold pipes 6. The Latter are of zigzag shape to promote cooling of gases and con- densation of water Due to the sloping angle of these pipes, the condensed water together with the entrained alkali flows back into the cell The manifold gas pipes are provided with glass sections with rubber connections, located between each pair of cells by the provision of which electrical leaks are obviatede From the manifold pipes the gases pass into scrubbers Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 a er of water they are freed of alkali.. .here on bubbling through a 1 y e an 18-20 percent solution of caustic As the electrolyt e uently a solution of caustic potash. soda is used and much Jess fr q 11 ermits contact of electrolyte ppen construction of .the Ce p al ult of which there takes place a gradu the atmosphere as a res atmos heric carbon dioxide and a carbonisation of the alkali. by p ,? ~t of the electrolyte ? Therefore at decrease of the conduct. y kali bout once every two-three years, the al periodic intervals, a ed and in~ ? ~ ~ aced at which time the cell is also clean is being reel ~ spected` thy; diaphragm is, on the average, ~ -7 years? Life of . '~ d a~t a temperature of 60 degrees ? In ce11s Electralys~.s ~.s conduce ds a cooling coil is provided on the desa.gned for heavy amperage loo bottom far temperature regulation. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ? ter into the cell is done either manually Feeda,ng of era from a small. pressure tank provided with.a can or automatically The feed tank is connected through pipes scant leVe1 regulator. so that in these also the water level is .~ th the gas scrubbers, scant thereby ensuring a constant gas pressure maintaa.ned con , within the bel~..s. . of a breakdown, or of insufficient feed In the event he electrolyte level can be readily, and of water, lower:>^ng o.~ t ~ ? rl detected because the gases begin to escape suf fzc~ently ea y rorn the cell? This takes place when the the atmosphere, f w collar ~ and the gases are afforded a electrolyte drops belo ? e 2 by the leaky connections provided an free outlet, through p~.p ~ this method of attacking the electrodes. purpose in Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 s are built for different loads (from 166 up to cell accordance with which dimensions and number of 10400 ampere, } in va Cells of 10000 amperes have ~.1 electrodes; are electrodes ry ion ? 2.00 millimeters wide, and 1270 millimeters 12a~0 mill~.meters ~, rent density is maintained low -- about 3~0 amperes per Cur vet the voltage of the cell even at this current square meter, howe ' ual to 2.2~ volts, while an increase of the load up density is eq to 1,000 amperes rises to 2?~ volts? is ram of figure q2 shows dependence of ce11 voltage D ~ ad Paper expenda.ture with a voltage of 2.2~ volts on ampere la 1. ~.lowatt-hours per cubic meter of hydrogen at 0 am0 Llnt a t0 ~ ~ G tees and 7 60 millimeters of mercury.. Pus`a.ty of the gases deg hydrogen 99?~ percent and oxygen 99?0~~ Voltage ,.n Load in thousand of amperes. ~'a,~pry!ure 92. Dependence of voltage on load in cell with Figure 93 shows the general appearance of the instal- ' the zi za shape of the manifold pipes which is characteristic latzon, g g of these installations can be seen. Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Fi re 93e Overall view of installation plane electrode cells. Open_Cell with Double Plate Electrodes Figure 91~ shows the longitudinal and transversal vertu sections of the cell This is also an apen ce11, a charac~ t~.ral 'stir feature of which is the simplicity of canstruction? tera. Each of the electrodes 1, consists of two plane iron ].000 ~ 1000 millimeters in size and 2 m3.llimeters thick sheets9 l.el to each other and disposed at a distsnce of 6 milli tiaral_ ,. To the electrode is riveted an iron rod 2 by means of meters. ' h the electrode is suspended from the gas bell? Each bell wh~c ' is of a narrow Iran box having a small cupola ~~ through 3 cons:~s sses the electrode rod, 1.nsulated from the cupola and pa stened b a nuts De11s 3 are supported by lugs resting on the fa y 'ron casing of the cell. To the edge of each bell is attached a dia hragm of asbestos fabric, surrounding the electrode. The p electrodes are located at a distance from one another, amounting to 0 millimeters at their cen~~ers. In order to retain the plane 5 form of the electrodes? in view of their relatively small thickness the sheets are provided with several embossed ribs 6, which impart rigid~.ty to the sheets o The anodes are nickel coated, Current is supp~?:Led to the electrodes by means of a nickel plated capper bus bar 7 and is carried off by a similar bar then electrode at the opposite side. The bar is riveted from ono is of the electrode and. passes through the bell 3@ It to the shoe Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 is insulated from tie bell and the electrolyte by an eternit bush- ing and cement lining which seal the paint of passage of the bar through the bell and preclude leakage of gas. Hydrogen collecting in bells !~, passes through open- ing $' in the upper part of the cupola, and collects in a single overall collecting bell ~~ which covers all of the cupolas of hydrogen be11s 4? From the collecting bells the gas passes rota the collecting manifold pipes. Tn the same manner by means of a collecting bell 10~ is effected the removal of oxygen. Figure q~.. diagram of cell with double plane elec- trodes: 1 -electrode; 2 p iron rod; ~ ~ gas bell; ~. - cupola of bell; ~ - cell casing; 6 - ernbassed ribs; 7 -copper bad; $ - aperture in bell cupola; 9 d collecting bell far hydrogen; 10 -collecting bell far o:~ygen. As the electrolyte a solution of caustic soda or potash of suitable concentration is usedm The level of electro- lyte is maintained above the surface of the electrode bells. Above the surface of the electrolyte are only the cupolas ~o Gas collecting bells 9 and 10 have their lower edge immersed in the electrolyte thereby forming a seal for the gases. The large area of elE:ctroly~te in contact with the atmosphere causes, after 2-2.~ years, carbonization of almost one ha:~f of the total amou~it of alkali in. the electrolyte. Carbonized electrolyte is removed from the cells and is regenerated ~causticized) by treatment with limy. Temperature of electrolyte is maintained at 6Q to 70 de? grew . Temperature regulation in high-load cells is attained by Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 flowing water over the external, surfaces of the cell casing. For this purpose there is installed along the upper edge of the cell wall a perforated water pipes The water flows from the cell wall an the floor and is then discarded to the sews r Feed water is supplied to the cells from a common tan's supplying a group of cells and provided with a constant level device? Electrolyte level is maintained by a float ac~ tuated regulator, each ce11 being so equipped Cells with double plane electrodes are built for loads of 6000 to 11.000 amperes. The 11000 amperes cell has 11 cathodes and 10 anodes. The length of the cell is 1080 miL1i- meters, its width 860 m3.11ameters, and its height 1220 milla? meters. Use of double electrodes increases electrolyte carcu~ lotion, decreasinb gas saturation; therefore, in spate of the plane form of the electrodes and almost double height of the electrodes, as compared with 'the plane electrodes described above the voltage of the cell with double plane electrodes is somewhat lowero Figure 95 shaves the dependence of cell voltage on current density. The cells are usually operated at current densities of 100-600 amperes .per square meter, which results in voltage fluctuation from 2.1 to 2.3 voltsm Closed Ce11 with Double Electrodes Electrodes of this cell consist of two parallel. plane iron sheets welded to two iron current conveyers, The distance Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Voltage in volts Figure 9Sm Dependence of voltage upon curxent density' in position by means of ebonite nuts. These bolts are about 12 millimeters long, located between the electrodes they hold the diaphragm in fixed position half way between the electrodes. The body of the cell is made of welded iron sheets 3 millimeters thick' Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 betYaeen the sheets of the electrode is about 50 rnilla.meters; that betTaeen the working surfaces of anode and cathode about 12 milli- meterso The upper part of each sheet is provided with several apertures to permit circulation of the electrolyte. Anodes are nickel plated while the cathodes are sand blasted The electrodes are fastened to the cast iron or steel cover provided with partitions forming a single overall bell for hydrogen and several bells for the oxygen, ~p;~y~en is removed through outlet pipes from each of the bells To the oxygen bells is attached a diaphragm of asbestos cloth, In view of the short distance between electrodes ~~12 millimeters) to avoid adherence of the diaphragm to one of the electrodes small ebonite bolts are inserted through the cloth in several places and are maintained Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 flanged at the topo 2'he cell cover is bolted on to this flange; seal is provided by a, rubber gaskete Normal current density of the cell is 600 amperes per square meter' but due to the decreased distance between electrodes' amounting to 12 millimeters, and the efficient circulat~.on of elec- trolyte, attained by the same principle as in the cell having double plane electrodes, the voltage is of only about 2005 volts Low cell voltage makes it possible to dispense with auxiliary cooling? Spontaneous dissipation of heat through the cell walls holds the temperature within the limits of I~0 to 50 degrees, Caustic soda or caustic potash are used as the electralyte~ The cells are fed with distilled water, manually, Small load cells are built for 1240 and Z~00 amperes having three and five electrodes, respectively, but, of courses the passiba.lity of constructing larger capacity cells is not ex- cluded? 3. Monopolar Cells w-th Complex Electrodes Cell with Louvered Electrodes The primary and essential purpose of the design of cells with louvered electrodes is to achieve separation of gases without the use of a diaphragmm Arrangement of a cell without diaphragm is shown in figure 96. Louvered electrodes 1, the construction principle of which has been described on page 209 [of original document] ter- rni.nate at the tap by wide slats 2. The electrodes are suspended Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 f rorn the cell. cover 1~, and held by through Insulation bushings 3, is divided in longitudinal direction by iron nuts. The covex 'nto a number of compartments which serve as gas paxtit~-ons ~, 1 fastened to the cover are located in the bells. The electrodes iron casing of the cell b. ' re 6o cell with louvered electrodes: 1 ~? 9 ~~ ~ - cell cover; ectrodes? 2 -slats; 3 -isolation 1~ louvered el ~ ' ions ? 6 -iron cell casing; ? -outlet pipes; ? iron party-t , rol e is maintained at such a level that The elect yt ' erred into it to a depth sufficient to f orrn the gas bell, are Zmm The ases axe removed through exit pipes ~ a hydraul~.c sealo g nd Into a common main. Gas bubbles on de- and collectors 8 a 9 themselves from the slats of the electrode rise ver- taching Merin the slat disposed above slide along its t~:cally and encoun g 'nner s ace of the electrode without penetrating surf ace into the ~. P between the electrodes. The saturation of the into the space of the electrode with gas causes intensified cir- inner space f electrolyte which promotes the suckingbin of gas culat~on o e inner space of the electrode, The gas emulsion bubbles ~.nto th es the interior of the bells; at the electrolyte an rising reach es se crate from the liquid which descends aga~.n surf ace the gas P into the interelectrode space, On using louvered electrodes it is passible under ? ons to separate tyre gases without resorting to a certaa.n condxti 't is readily apparent that completeness of dis.phragm. However i Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 ss o eration of such a device will depend gas separation arld f a,ultle p t u on the maintenance of a constant gas pressure to a great eaten p uctuatian of the pressure the liquid within within the bells. On fl ? and rise, d.istur'bing the circulation and ex- the bell. s wall fall 1 the inner space of the electrodes rota the the gases fror~ Good separation is attained only in area between the ele 'mited loads, that is precisely in those instances small ce11s, at 11 ensure constant pressure of the gases. Tn large when it is easy to ' stallat1.ons fluctuation of pressure always takes industrial xn r. the reason of d~,~'ferent resistances of gas pipe place, ~.f only f o ? ~ ~ atian oaf lz.quid seals in the pipe l~.nes, unequal gas l~.nea~ form d the like, as a result of which. operation without a removal a an diaphragm is found to be unsatisfactory. herefore in later desa.gned cells lou~rered electrodes T ' d bu.t only for the purpose of decreasing gas sa.tura.tion are ' crease the surface areas; to obta~.n separation of the and to ~.n 'nodes are surrounded by a diaphragm of asbestos fabric gases the cat suspended from the rz.m of the gas bells. Electrodes used in these cells consist of a large number of vertically disposed thin and narrow non strips, fastened together by means of bolts. A cell of this type is shoran in figure 97 ~ The iron asin is closed with a co'~er ~., sealed either by means of a c g3 1 or a flange c~,osuree The coyer is provided with hydraultic sea artitions forming the .bells to which are suspended asbestos p Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 diaphragms closed at the bottamti For the circulation of the elec- trolyte, small round openings are provided at the lower end of the di aphragm. Figure 97 ? Cell ,nth laminar electrodes ; 1 -~ larrunar electrodes (ca.thodes}; 2 -clamping bolts; 3 -iron cell casing; - cell cover; ,~ - rods for suspension of cathodes (current conductors}; 6 -anodes; 7 -lugs for fastening of anodes; 8 - negative current bar; 9 -gas outlet pipes; 10 -connecting channel for hydrogen. lnsic'ae the diaphragm bag are located the lantinaz^ cathode 1, suspended from the cell cover by meaxls of rods ~' which serve as current conductors. Anodes 6 located outside of 'the diaphragms are fastened by means of bolts and lugs 7 to the cell Correspondingly the current conducting positive bus bar. is fastened to the cel]_ casing, while the negative one 8, to the cathodic conductor 5, With this system of electrode attachment the cover has fewer current conductors far th.e electrodes which simplifies assembling work, Moreover the cover ha.s fewer seal.ings, and finally a more even distribution of current to the electrodes is obtained 'I'he cell cover has only two gas outlets g; the right-hand outlet for ohygen, which collects between the hydrogen bells, and the J.eft~?hand outlet for the removal of hydrogen; to make this possible all the hyt~rbgen bells are connected inside the cell b3T channels l4. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 tral to there is used a solution of caustic As the elec y e to the closed construction of .the cell, soda ar caustic potash. ~ t in contact with the atmosphere and is not the electrolyte r.s no surf ace of the electrodes makes it possible carbonized. Increased current densities, Tr1e cells are built for to operate at high 0 am eyes. Average voltage of the cell at a loads up to 1800 p oad is 2.1,9 voltsm Fur'ity of the gases: hydrogen 10000 amperes 1 .~-99.9 percent and oxygen 990 Percent. 99 n be installed in series of 2~Ow3~0 cells Ce],1 s ca d of voltage from X00 to 700 volts. To save floor a curren~~ fee a.ce the cells can beinsta.lled in se~reral tiers. sp somewhat different construction of a cell of the A~ is shown in figure 98. This cell operates at very same type current density, and accordingly the electrodes are ha. gh ? ~ e r closely together and provision is made for inM pos~.tianed v ~ c~.rculatian? The cell casing 1 is hermetically tensive electrolyte r 2 bolted to the casing flanges. Welded to the closed by cove 1e a: Ten bell 3. To the flanged ram of the bell cover r.s s, sing ~~ a rectangular Iran frame ~. having welded on sections ~s fastened e iron, forming an inversed trough, To the angle iron ~ o.f. angl ,stened bl small bolts diaphragm bags 6, open at the ledge are fa ~ de of asbestos fabric, which surround the anodes 7. bottom? acid ma Anodes and cathodes are assembled of iron strips 11~ 2 millimeters wide and are 0.25 millimeters thick in why. ch are ~ bode and 0.63 ~-1lameters in the anode, Round the cat es are embossed on the straps, their height being 1 pratuberanc ? ~ 'n the cathode and 1..~9 millimeters in the anode, which m~.11.a.meter ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 mainta~.n the strips at an equal distance from one anothere The cathode cansi.sts of 600 strips and. the anode of 220, After being assembled the anodes are nickel plated. The strips are welded at one end to the current conductor plates 8, The entire electrode is also held. together by two bolts passing through suitable apertures in the strips. The electrodes are suspended from the ceJ.l cover by means of iron rods which are welded to the current conducting p~l:tes 8. Location of the rods which serve also to conduct the current is such that the rods supporting the anode are within the bell while those of the cathode are outside of its Figure 98~ Cell slat electrodes far high current density operation;. 1 -cell casing; 2 -iron cell cover- 3 -common oxygen bell; !~ -iron frarne; 5 -sections of angle iron 6 -diaphragm bags; 7 -anodes; 8 -current distributing plates; 9 -gas scrubbers and coolers; 10 -empty diaphragm bag; ll -iron electrode strips? The anodes, as was mentioned, one Located within the diaphragm bags, hence the oxygen passes inside the bell. The rising hydrogen is led by the angle iron trough into the space bet~reen the bell and the cell casing. The gases then pass into scrubbers and coolers 9. Here the gases are cooled, are freed of alkali and then pass into the manifold pipe lines. dater which condenses in the scrubber^s flogs off through syphon tunes ex-~ tending to the bottom of the bell and is returned to the cell into the cathodic ar the anodic section respectively. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 'rculs.tion of electrolyte is Produced in the Forced cl m t dia hragm bag 10, which hangs parallel cell by the use of an e p Y p fram the. edge of the bell. `Z~he electrolyte to the electrodes en flows through the bag to the bottom of separated from the oryg , 'n fram the space between the electrodes the the cell, d~,splaci g li hter electrolyte containing gas bubblesm g trol to used is a solution of caustic potash? The elec y ? d in the electrolyte to a depth suff~.dent to The bell ~.s ~.mmerse n adequate hydraulic seal. Distilled feed ensure formation of a a cell through an inlet pipe welded to the cell water flaws into the f the electrolyte level below the normal limit casing. o he noise caused by the gas escaping thraugh the is detected by t the scrubbers 9. Electrolysis is conducted at syphon tubes ~.nto 55_C~ degrees. c~,eristic features of this cell (figure 99) are Ohara the electrodes and the method of gas removal fram the design of odes l are made of a double iron screen welded the cell. E1,ectr s urrent conducting plate 2. At the bottom the screens are to the c small channel iron bar, and have to increase their welded to s ' several spacers 3~ Dimensions of the electrodes are: riga.d~.ty, ' ' meters width ].000 ma.llimeters, thickness ~0 height 1300 ma.lla. ~ ? sh of the anodes is nickel p],ated. The millimeters. The iron me rted b ten current conductors from the gas elec~~rodes are suppo Y ire electrically a:nsulated from the bell s collecting bells and Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Cell with screen electrades~ 1 -screen ~. gul_~? nt distributing plate; 3 a screen spacers; electrodes; 2 - curre collecting bells= ~ -outlet pipes for ~ -lugs supporting gas . - collecting pipes for the gases, 7 - Ver- oxygen and hydrogen, 6 .n i es; g _ bell pockets; 9 - bell t,ical extensions of collects g p p ? as i es; 11 a rubber sections for in- run strip; 10 - ma~.fold g p p sulatiorl of cells from pipe lines? bells are supported by lugs ~. resting Gas collecting ' n ce11 casing. The cell casing has two on the rim of the fro ? es far the removal, of hydrogen and oxygen? welded in outlet p~.p ~ s hese outlet pipes are welded p1Pe Inside the cell/. t? t hese ex~ rtical extensions 7? The number of t 6, provided with ve ? i e is equal to the number of tensions in the oxygen collecting p P o en collecting pipe it is equal to the the anodes, in the hydr g Each bell has a poc~iEt 8~ into which pro number of cathodesw ' n of the gas collecting pipe. The hydrogen jests the extens~.o ort the diaphragm which is open at the collecting bells supp is fastened to t~~le bell by bolts and bottom? The diaphragm 0 gen collecting bells have no diaphragm shaped strips 9~ ~ hotter than the hydrogen bells. The bottom acid are somewhat s ell, extends below the upper rim of the strip edge of the oxygen b e escape of a portion of the or~rgen into the 9? This prevents th space between two adjacent bells. collecting within the bells pass through the Gases et i es 7 into gas collecting pipes 6 and then pockets, and out/ p p 'nle~ ipe enter the mani~'old gas pipelines 10, through an ~. p e cell casing. To avoid leakage of current, tie supported by th Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 cells are insulated from the pipeline by rubber inserts 11. The are maintained at a distance of 65 millimeters from each other at their center, which with a 50 Millimeter thickness of the electrode corresponds to a distance of 1~ millimeters between cathode and anode surfaces, The cell operates at a current density of x.50 amperes per square ~ ter and at a temperature of b5 degrees; the voltage under these con- ditions is of 2,Q~-2,1 volts The load of the cell. is ~Q00 amperes, ~.Chis load can be increased, of course, if the number of electrodes is increased wash periodically the diaphragm. iron deposit, increases its resistance and makes it necessary to of the diaphragm, reslr~.ting in obstruction of the por. es by the mation of a spongy iron deposit on the cathadesb Meta11~_zation anodes, a progressive meta,lli~ation of the diaphragm and for- on an iron screen results in a gradual dissolution of the iron not as good. The difficulty of producing a good deposit of nickel having double plane electrodes, the circulation of electrolyte is has an extensive electrode surface; but in comparison with a cell of gas removal it is most readily assembled a.nd dismantled acid In camparisori with other cells of the open type the cell possesses the advantage that due to the original method Tn the USaR cells have been designed of several types for different loads Cell V-3 with double perforated electrodes is intended for use at large hydrogen producing installations and is accordingly designed fora load of 1L~000 amperes. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 The arrangment of the cell is shown in figure 100. The cell casing 1 is of welded sheet iron 5 millimeters thick and it is provided at the top with an angle iron flange. The cell is closed hermetically by a bolted cover, sealed by means of an asbestos-rubber cement gasket coated with asphalt. Fastened to the cell cover are 21 electrodes; 10 anodes and 11 cathodes, The anodes are Located inside the gas collecting bells l~~ welded 'Lo the cover, and are surrounded by an asbestos. diaphragm which is attached to the bottom rim of the bells by means of strips and bolts. O~~ygen passes from t~~.e bells into callecting pipe 2, the hydrogen from the space between. the bells into the parallel pipe 3~ The hat and moist gases carrying droplets of electrolyte9 pass for cooling and scrubbing into small columns 1~, whic~i are identical in construction for both the hydrogen and the ox~rgen~ The gas scrubbing columns are supportecl directly on the cell and consist of an iron cylinder l~0 m~.llim.eters in diameter and 1000 millimeters high, Inside the column is a cooling coil 5, a g~~s bubbler 6, and a screen "l, for breaking up the foam From collecting pipe lines 2 and 3 the gases having a temperature of about 70 degrees enter into their respective scrubber sunder the bubbler)e The gases then pass through a layer of water (or more accurately a weak alkaline solution) filling the scrubber; thus they are washed free of droplets of entrained alkali and cooled to 3Q degrees. The cooled gases pass through screen 7 and into the corresponding manifold pipe lines 8. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Fi rure 100. Cell V~-3: 1 -cell casing; 2 -- cal- g i e for oxygen; 3 ~- hydrogen pipe; ~. -column for gas p p - coolie coil; 6 -gas bubbler; ~r -foam breaking scrubbing; ~ g ~ .. as pipe manifolds; 9 - cooling tails; la .. water screen, g ~? cooling water pipes; 12 -sewer discharge; 13 and , ll 1~~ -cooling water valves; 15 -gas collecting bells. To maa_ntain the temperature within the cell at the level of 7a degrees the cell is equipped two cooling normal thraufh which circulates cooling water which flaws from 9, g 0 throe h two parallel pipes first into the coils of the 1 g s and then through pipes 11 into the cooling coils of the scrubber from the coils the water is discharged, through a funnel cell, sewer i e 12~ Caoli_ng water system is prava.ded with valves Into p p 1 b means of which cooling of the cel~_ can be cut out and 13 and 1 !. y only the scrubbers cooled? The gas scrubbers, as described on page 211 [of on inaJ. document) serve also concurrently for automatically g su 1 ing the cells with distilled feed water, for maintaining pP y the electrolyte level at the proper height, and far equal.iLing h drogen and oxygen pressures wa.thin the bells. The cell can y o erate with gas pressure fluctuations in the manifold collectors p a0 millimeters of water colw~n height. Under such cone up to ~ ditions inside the cell the pressure of hydrogen. and o ~~ gee 9 constant value equal approximately to boa-bra remains at a millimeters of water. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 the electrodes of cell V-3 (f~-gure lOl), DeS:~gn of from the designs of previously d1scussed elec- ~?f fers somEwhat lectrodes, anodes and cathodes, consist of two erodes. The e n sheets 2 millimeters thick, measuring 1000 x perforated iro : ed at a distance of 30 millimeters from 1000 millimeters, dispos sheets of the electrode are welded to three iron each other, The l T.nto the tap pare of the current conductors current conductors er ins 2 by means of which the electrodes are are scre~4red Copp p and the current is led in. At the point of fastened to the cover ent conductors through -the civet, seals and an- passage of curt ductars from tY~e cover., are provided by asbestos- sulata..on of con hers and vulcanized fiber bushings ~., fitted rubber cement was 3 over the lead in pinso 101 Electrodes of cell V-3: 1 -iron current Fl gore ~. Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012J03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 -asbestos-rubber cement gaskets; `s a anent from the description of monopolar cells, As ~- pp eeded in their operation does not exceed 3~-1~0 the amount of power n Conse uently at large hydrogen producing installations Kilowatts. q 'n o eratiorl several hundred individual units, which re- there are z p ar e area of buildings, large expenditures far leads' quire a 1 g ' on of long pipe lanes and .finally complicates servicing installati ' in small installations with m~nppolar cells there arise On e quzpp g ' ection of direct current sources since they d7.fficulties Unth sel of hi h intensity and relatively low voltage. In require curl, ent g ,. ' mechanical converters of such characteristics as seallat~.on of ~nes themselves require much space. The use costly, and the ~rnachi Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2012/03/20 :CIA-RDP82-000398000100240001-4 of mercury rectifiers is here not expedient because of their poor efficiency in low voltage operations, Therefore in spite of the very simple construction, ready assemblage and maintenance of the monopolar ce11s, in recent years the bipalar cells are being utilized increasingly more of tens ~, Bipolar Cells Box Cell. The main dii'ficulty in the construction of a bipolar box cell is the arrangement of the box which must not be a con- ductor of electricity, Sn the cell of figure 142, the box con- sists of separate frames 1 and 2 bent to a rectangular Upshapee The channels of frames 1 face inwardly those of frames 2 toward the exterior of the baxm `rl~.c~ ~fr